WorldWideScience

Sample records for classes of materials

  1. A new class of spontaneously polarized materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Field, David; Plekan, Oksana; Cassidy, Andrew;

    2011-01-01

    Very large electric fields form spontaneously within films of seemingly prosaic chemicals such as nitrous oxide or propane.We describe how the discovery of this unexpected phenomenon took place and how we attempt to understand the nature of the new class of spontaneously polarized materials...

  2. Colorful titanium oxides: a new class of photonic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenzhen; Xin, Yanmei; Zhang, Zhonghai

    2015-12-21

    In this communication, a new class of photonic materials, namely, two-dimensional titanium oxide-based photonic crystals, are proposed and were fabricated with an electrochemical anodization method. The high structural periodicity of the nanostructures, and the feasible variability of the chemical compositions help to realize tunable photonic bandgaps for selective light absorption in broad wavelength regions.

  3. Colorful titanium oxides: a new class of photonic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenzhen; Xin, Yanmei; Zhang, Zhonghai

    2015-11-01

    In this communication, a new class of photonic materials, namely, two-dimensional titanium oxide-based photonic crystals, are proposed and were fabricated with an electrochemical anodization method. The high structural periodicity of the nanostructures, and the feasible variability of the chemical compositions help to realize tunable photonic bandgaps for selective light absorption in broad wavelength regions.In this communication, a new class of photonic materials, namely, two-dimensional titanium oxide-based photonic crystals, are proposed and were fabricated with an electrochemical anodization method. The high structural periodicity of the nanostructures, and the feasible variability of the chemical compositions help to realize tunable photonic bandgaps for selective light absorption in broad wavelength regions. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05374a

  4. 49 CFR 176.144 - Segregation of Class 1 (explosive) materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Segregation of Class 1 (explosive) materials. 176... VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Segregation § 176.144 Segregation of Class...) Segregation on deck: When Class 1 (explosive) materials in different compatibility groups are carried on...

  5. 49 CFR 176.140 - Segregation from other classes of hazardous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Segregation from other classes of hazardous... CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Segregation § 176.140 Segregation from other classes of hazardous materials. (a) Class 1 (explosive) materials must be...

  6. Metal-metalloporphyrin frameworks: a resurging class of functional materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wen-Yang; Chrzanowski, Matthew; Ma, Shengqian

    2014-08-21

    This review presents comprehensively recent progress in metal-metalloporphyrin frameworks (MMPFs) with an emphasis on versatile functionalities. Following a brief introduction of basic concepts and the potential virtues of MMPFs, we give a snapshot of the historical perspective of MMPFs since 1991. We then summarize four effective strategies implemented frequently to construct prototypal MMPFs. MMPFs represent a resurging class of promising functional materials, highlighted with diverse applications including guest-molecule adsorption and separation, catalysis, nano-thin films and light-harvesting. PMID:24676096

  7. 49 CFR 176.174 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in shipborne barges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in... REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Cargo Transport Units and Shipborne Barges § 176.174 Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in shipborne barges....

  8. 49 CFR 176.170 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in... REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Cargo Transport Units and Shipborne Barges § 176.170 Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers....

  9. 49 CFR 176.166 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on....166 Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger vessels. (a) Only the following Class 1 (explosive) materials may be transported as cargo on passenger vessels: (1) Division 1.4...

  10. 49 CFR 176.168 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in vehicle spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in... REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Cargo Transport Units and Shipborne Barges § 176.168 Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in vehicle spaces. (a)...

  11. Class Dismissed? Historical Materialism and the Politics of "Difference"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scatamburlo-D'Annibale, Valerie; McLaren, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Perhaps one of the most taken-for-granted features of contemporary social theory is the ritual and increasingly generic critique of Marxism in terms of its alleged failure to address forms of oppression other than that of "class." Marxism is considered to be theoretically bankrupt and intellectually passe, and class analysis is often savagely…

  12. MATERIALS FOR LITERARY ENJOYMENT CLASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Prasasti

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available As the introductory class of literature at the Faculty of Letters, Literary Enjoyment serves as a campaign to motivate students to appreciate and enjoy works of literature. Materials, which generally hinder the students' ability to enjoy literary works, should be carefully considered. Ideally, language and content should be easily digested but a compromise can be made between language and content.

  13. Metallic Functionally Graded Materials: A Specific Class of Advanced Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jerzy J.Sobczak; Ludmil Drenchev

    2013-01-01

    Functionally graded materials,including their characterization,properties and production methods are a new rapidly developing field of materials science.The aims of this review are to systematize the basic production techniques for manufacturing functionally graded materials.Attention is paid to the principles for obtaining graded structure mainly in the metal based functionally graded materials.Several unpublished results obtained by the authors have been discussed briefly.Experimental methods and theoretical analysis for qualitative and quantitative estimation of graded properties have also been presented.The article can be useful for people who work in the field of functionally graded structures and materials,and who need a compact informative review of recent experimental and theoretical activity in this area.

  14. Mechanoresponsive Luminescent Molecular Assemblies: An Emerging Class of Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagara, Yoshimitsu; Yamane, Shogo; Mitani, Masato; Weder, Christoph; Kato, Takashi

    2016-02-10

    The possibility to change the molecular assembled structures of organic and organometallic materials through mechanical stimulation is emerging as a general and powerful concept for the design of functional materials. In particular, the photophysical properties such as photoluminescence color, quantum yield, and emission lifetime of organic and organometallic fluorophores can significantly depend on the molecular packing, enabling the development of molecular materials with mechanoresponsive luminescence characteristics. Indeed, an increasing number of studies have shown in recent years that mechanical force can be utilized to change the molecular arrangement, and thereby the optical response, of luminescent molecular assemblies of π-conjugated organic or organometallic molecules. Here, the development of such mechanoresponsive luminescent (MRL) molecular assemblies consisting of organic or organometallic molecules is reviewed and emerging trends in this research field are summarized. After a brief introduction of mechanoresponsive luminescence observed in molecular assemblies, the concept of "luminescent molecular domino" is introduced, before molecular materials that show turn-on/off of photoluminescence in response to mechanical stimulation are reviewed. Mechanically stimulated multicolor changes and water-soluble MRL materials are also highlighted and approaches that combine the concept of MRL molecular assemblies with other materials types are presented in the last part of this progress report.

  15. Materials Development in Three Italian CALL Projects: Seeking an Optimal Mix between In-Class and Out-of-Class Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Mike; Kennedy, Claire

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the design and development of CALL materials with the aim of achieving an optimal mix between in-class and out-of-class learning in the context of teaching Italian at an Australian university. The authors discuss three projects in relation to the following themes: (a) conceptions of the in-class/out-of-class relationship, (b)…

  16. The Effectiveness of Using Student-Generated Materials in Class

    OpenAIRE

    Casey, BEAN

    2015-01-01

    Peer teaching and student-generated materials are two techniques that fall under the umbrella of “collaborative learning.” These activities offer a host of benefits for students that can help them become better second language speakers and moreautonomous learners. This paper will detail the “Worksheet Project,” an activity that integrates both peer teaching and student-generated materials. It will also discuss student reactions to the Worksheet Project, and offer analysis on how to improve fu...

  17. A class of fascinating optoelectronic materials: Triarylboron compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Triarylboron compounds are significant optoelectronic materials due to their excellent emissive and electron-transport properties,and could be applied in organic light-emitting diodes as emissive and/or electron-transport layers.Triarylboron compounds have vacant pπ orbital and have received increasing interest as fluoride ion and cyanide ion sensors utilizing specific Lewis acid-base interaction.This review summarizes their structural characteristics,optical properties and applications in chemosensors for anions and optoelectronic devices developed in recent years and discusses the problems and prospects.

  18. Providing Internet Material in University English Classes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田巧智

    2004-01-01

    More and more language teachers are finding that the World Wide Web is a treasure chest of authentic language materials and are actively integrating on-line real data and other resources into their classes. This paper mainly focuses on benefits as well as activities of selecting and using Internet material in English classes. It is a good way of motivating students to use English outside the classroom and to make English a part of their daily lives.

  19. Bulk metallic glasses: A new class of engineering materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Joysurya Basu; S Ranganathan

    2003-06-01

    Bulk glass-forming alloys have emerged over the past fifteen years with attractive properties and technological promise. A number of alloy systems based on lanthanum, magnesium, zirconium, palladium, iron, cobalt and nickel have been discovered. Glass-forming ability depends on various factors like enthalpy of mixing, atomic size and multicomponent alloying. A number of processes is available to synthesise bulk metallic glasses. The crystallisation behaviour and mechanical properties of these alloys pose interesting scientific questions. Upon crystallisation many of these glasses transform to bulk nanocrystals and nanoquasicrystals. A detailed study of the structure and the crystallisation behaviour of glasses has enabled the elucidation of the possible atomic configuration in liquid alloys. Their crystallisation behaviour can be exploited to synthesise novel nanocomposite microstructures and their mechanical properties can be enhanced. A broad overview of the present status of the science and technology of bulk metallic glasses and their potential technological uses is presented.

  20. Immunity induced by a broad class of inorganic crystalline materials is directly controlled by their chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.R. Williams (Gareth); K. Fierens (Kaat); S.G. Preston (Stephen); A.C. Lunn; O. Rysnik (Oliwia); S. de Prijck (Sofie); M. Kool (Mirjam); H.C. Buckley (Hannah); B.N.M. Lambrecht (Bart); D. O'Hare (Dermot); J.M. Austyn (Jonathan)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThere is currently no paradigm in immunology that enables an accurate prediction of how the immune system will respond to any given agent. Here we show that the immunological responses induced by members of a broad class of inorganic crystalline materials are controlled purely by their p

  1. Electrically based non-destructive microstructural characterization of all classes of materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerhardt, R.A.

    2000-07-01

    This paper gives a short summary of the background, theory and methodology needed to utilize electrical measurements as a non-destructive method for microstructural characterization. Examples are given for all classes of materials. Details are given for how to detect: (1) pore volume in thermal barrier coatings, (2) formation of surface layers due to moisture adsorption in a wide variety of materials, (3) orientation of fibers and whiskers in ceramic matrix and polymer matrix composites, (4) crack detection in metals and (5) stacking faults in semiconductors. Many other examples are mentioned. It needs to be emphasized that electrical measurements alone are not sufficient to identify the microstructural features of interest but must always be accompanied by complementary techniques. Proper data collection and data interpretation of properties of a specific set of materials can lead to in-line process monitoring, quality control monitoring, mechanical damage monitoring and environmental degradation monitoring of those materials.

  2. On a possible methodology for identifying the initiation of damage of a class of polymeric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagappan, P.; Kannan, K.; Rajagopal, K. R.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we provide a possible methodology for identifying the initiation of damage in a class of polymeric solids. Unlike most approaches to damage that introduce a damage parameter, which might be a scalar, vector or tensor, that depends on the stress or strain (that requires knowledge of an appropriate reference configuration in which the body was stress free and/or without any strain), we exploit knowledge of the fact that damage is invariably a consequence of the inhomogeneity of the body that makes the body locally `weak' and the fact that the material properties of a body invariably depend on the density, among other variables that can be defined in the current configuration, of the body. This allows us to use density, for a class of polymeric materials, as a means to identify incipient damage in the body. The calculations that are carried out for the biaxial stretch of an inhomogeneous multi-network polymeric solid bears out the appropriateness of the thesis that the density of the body can be used to forecast the occurrence of damage, with the predictions of the theory agreeing well with experimental results. The study also suggests a meaningful damage criterion for the class of bodies being considered.

  3. Regulation of synaptic vesicle docking by different classes of macromolecules in active zone material.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph A Szule

    Full Text Available The docking of synaptic vesicles at active zones on the presynaptic plasma membrane of axon terminals is essential for their fusion with the membrane and exocytosis of their neurotransmitter to mediate synaptic impulse transmission. Dense networks of macromolecules, called active zone material, (AZM are attached to the presynaptic membrane next to docked vesicles. Electron tomography has shown that some AZM macromolecules are connected to docked vesicles, leading to the suggestion that AZM is somehow involved in the docking process. We used electron tomography on the simply arranged active zones at frog neuromuscular junctions to characterize the connections of AZM to docked synaptic vesicles and to search for the establishment of such connections during vesicle docking. We show that each docked vesicle is connected to 10-15 AZM macromolecules, which fall into four classes based on several criteria including their position relative to the presynaptic membrane. In activated axon terminals fixed during replacement of docked vesicles by previously undocked vesicles, undocked vesicles near vacated docking sites on the presynaptic membrane have connections to the same classes of AZM macromolecules that are connected to docked vesicles in resting terminals. The number of classes and the total number of macromolecules to which the undocked vesicles are connected are inversely proportional to the vesicles' distance from the presynaptic membrane. We conclude that vesicle movement toward and maintenance at docking sites on the presynaptic membrane are directed by an orderly succession of stable interactions between the vesicles and distinct classes of AZM macromolecules positioned at different distances from the membrane. Establishing the number, arrangement and sequence of association of AZM macromolecules involved in vesicle docking provides an anatomical basis for testing and extending concepts of docking mechanisms provided by biochemistry.

  4. A new class of low compressibility materials: Clathrates of silicon and related materials

    OpenAIRE

    San Miguel, Alfonso; Mélinon, Patrice; Blase, Xavier; Tournus, Florent; Connétable, Damien; Reny, Édouard; Yamanaka, Shoji; Itié, Jean-Paul; Cros, Christian; Pouchard, Michel

    2002-01-01

    We discuss the high pressure properties of different silicon clathrate structures that we have investigated by means of X-ray diffraction and ab initio calculations. Compressibility transition pressures or phase transformations are interpreted as a function of the nature of the guest atom intercalation, The compressibility of the clathrate structure is in all cases close to that of silicon diamond whereas transition pressures or the high pressure phases are extremely depending on the nature o...

  5. 49 CFR 177.838 - Class 4 (flammable solid) materials, Class 5 (oxidizing) materials, and Division 4.2 (pyroforic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., see the List of CFR Sections Affected which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume... (oxidizing) materials, and Division 4.2 (pyroforic liquid) materials. 177.838 Section 177.838 Transportation... § 177.838 Class 4 (flammable solid) materials, Class 5 (oxidizing) materials, and Division...

  6. 49 CFR 177.842 - Class 7 (radioactive) material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class 7 (radioactive) material. 177.842 Section 177.842 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS... HIGHWAY Loading and Unloading § 177.842 Class 7 (radioactive) material. (a) The number of packages...

  7. Optimization of a class of latent thermal energy storage systems with multiple phase-change materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aceves, S.M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Nakamura, H. [Daido Inst. of Tech., Nagoya (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Reistad, G.M. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Martinez-Frias, J. [Centro de Ingenieria y Desarollo Industrial, Queretaro (Mexico)

    1998-02-01

    This paper presents an analysis of a class of latent thermal energy storage (LTES) system. The analysis is based on a simplified model that allows the system performance to be evaluated in terms of a small set of parameters, while still retaining the main thermodynamic aspects associated with their operation. This analysis therefore permits the broad-based application potential of these systems to be viewed. The paper also discusses the applicability of the model to practical systems. This paper analyzes LTES with multiple energy storage cells and multiple phase-change materials (PCMs). The most general case of infinite energy storage cells and PCMs is solved, for the charge process only, as well as for the overall charge-discharge process. The results yield the optimum phase change temperature, expressed as a continuous function of position along the LTES. The method is equally applicable to the case of a finite number of storage cells. An example of the application of the method to this case is also included. The results show the optimum phase change temperatures for each of the problems being considered, along with the corresponding optimum exergetic efficiencies. The solutions to the optimization problems are surprisingly simple to express, considering the difficulty of the problems, and indicate the potential advantages of using LTES with multiple PCMs.

  8. Oxyhalides: A new class of high-T C multiferroic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li; Fernández-Díaz, Maria Teresa; Tjeng, Liu Hao; Komarek, Alexander C

    2016-05-01

    Magnetoelectric multiferroics have attracted enormous attention in the past years because of their high potential for applications in electronic devices, which arises from the intrinsic coupling between magnetic and ferroelectric ordering parameters. The initial finding in TbMnO3 has triggered the search for other multiferroics with higher ordering temperatures and strong magnetoelectric coupling for applications. To date, spin-driven multiferroicity is found mainly in oxides, as well as in a few halogenides. We report multiferroic properties for synthetic melanothallite Cu2OCl2, which is the first discovery of multiferroicity in a transition metal oxyhalide. Measurements of pyrocurrent and the dielectric constant in Cu2OCl2 reveal ferroelectricity below the Néel temperature of ~70 K. Thus, melanothallite belongs to a new class of multiferroic materials with an exceptionally high critical temperature. Powder neutron diffraction measurements reveal an incommensurate magnetic structure below T N, and all magnetic reflections can be indexed with a propagation vector [0.827(7), 0, 0], thus discarding the claimed pyrochlore-like "all-in-all-out" spin structure for Cu2OCl2, and indicating that this transition metal oxyhalide is, indeed, a spin-induced multiferroic material. PMID:27386552

  9. Novel class of eco-flame retardants based on the renewable raw materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakharov, A. M.; Sakharov, P. A.; Lomakin, S. M.; Zaikov, G. E.

    2012-07-01

    The present study is focused on development of environmentally friendly intumescent/char forming coatings for wood and polymeric materials. For this purpose we have developed the method of oxidation of raw materials: polysaccharides, seeds and lignin by oxygen in the presence of catalyst. The main products of oxidation of such substrates are the salts of polyoxy- and polyphenoxy acids. The efficiency of fireproofing action of novel surface protecting intumescent coating for wood and polymeric materials based on modified renewable raw materials was studied. Flammability tests of wood and polymers samples treated by oxidized raw materials confirm their high-performance fire protection.

  10. Electronic properties of SnTe-class topological crystalline insulator materials

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jianfeng; Wang, Na; Huang, Huaqing; Duan, Wenhui

    2016-01-01

    The rise of topological insulators in recent years has broken new ground both in the conceptual cognition of condensed matter physics and the promising revolution of the electronic devices. It also stimulates the explorations of more topological states of matter. Topological crystalline insulator is a new topological phase, which combines the electronic topology and crystal symmetry together. In this article, we review the recent progress in the studies of SnTe-class topological crystalline i...

  11. A New Class of High Z Nanocrystalline and Textured Oxide-Based Thermoelectric Material Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop high figure of merit (ZT) oxide-based thermoelectric materials. This will be accomplished by engineering a novel microstructure that will lead...

  12. Metal azides under pressure: An emerging class of high energy density materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Vaitheeswaran; K Ramesh Babu

    2012-11-01

    Metal azides are well-known for their explosive properties such as detonation or deflagration. As chemically pure sources of nitrogen, alkali metal azides under high pressure have the ability to form polymeric nitrogen, an ultimate green high energy density material with energy density three times greater than that of known high energetic materials. With this motive, in this present work, we try to address the high-pressure behaviour of LiN3 and KN3 by means of density functional calculations. All the calculations are performed with the inclusion of van derWaals interactions at semi empirical level, as these materials are typical molecular solids. We found that both LiN3 and KN3 are structurally stable up to the studied pressure range of 60 GPa and 16 GPa, respectively. At ambient conditions both the materials are insulators with a gap of 3.48 eV (LiN3) and 4.08 eV (KN3) and as pressure increases the band gap decreases and show semiconducting nature at high pressures.We also found that the compressibility of both the crystals is anisotropic which is in good agreement with experiment. Our theoretical study proved that the materials under study may have the ability to form polymeric nitrogen because of the decrease in interazide ion distance and possible overlapping of N atomic orbitals.

  13. New Class of High-Energy Transients from Crashes of Supernova Ejecta with Massive Circumstellar Material Shells

    OpenAIRE

    Murase, Kohta; Thompson, Todd A.; Lacki, Brian C.; Beacom, John F.

    2010-01-01

    A new class of core-collapse supernovae (SNe) has been discovered in recent years by optical/infrared surveys; these SNe suggest the presence of one or more extremely dense (~10^5-10^11 cm^-3) shells of circumstellar material (CSM) on 10^2-10^4 AU scales. We consider the collisions of the SN ejecta with these massive CSM shells as potential cosmic-ray (CR) accelerators. If ~10% of the SN energy goes into CRs, multi-TeV neutrinos and/or GeV-TeV gamma rays almost simultaneous with the optical/i...

  14. Impact of Adaptive Materials on Teachers and their Students with Visual Impairments in Secondary Science and Mathematics Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Audrey C.; Stefanich, Greg P.; Boody, Robert M.; Peiffer, Belinda

    2011-04-01

    Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, important in today's world, are underrepresented by students with disabilities. Students with visual impairments, although cognitively similar to sighted peers, face challenges as STEM subjects are often taught using visuals. They need alternative forms of access such as enlarged or audio-converted text, tactile graphics, and involvement in hands-on science. This project focused on increasing teacher awareness of and providing funds for the purchase of supplemental adaptive resources, supplies, and equipment. We examined attitude and instructional changes across the year of the programme in 15 science and mathematics teachers educating students with visual impairments. Positive changes were noted from pretest to posttest in student and teacher perspectives, and in teacher attitudes towards students with disabilities in STEM classes. Teachers also provided insights into their challenges and successes through a reflective narrative. Several adolescent students resisted accommodations to avoid appearing conspicuous to peers. Teachers implemented three strategies to address this: providing the adaptations to all students in the class; convincing the student of the need for adaptation; and involving the class in understanding and accepting the student's impairment. A variety of teacher-created adaptations for various science and mathematics labs are reported. Another finding was many adaptations provided for the student with visual impairment benefitted the entire class. This study supports the claim that given knowledgeable, supportive teachers, and with appropriate accommodations such as tactile or auditory materials, students with visual impairments can be as successful and engaged as other students in science and mathematics.

  15. Studies on two classes of positive electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, James Douglas [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2008-12-01

    The development of advanced lithium-ion batteries is key to the success of many technologies, and in particular, hybrid electric vehicles. In addition to finding materials with higher energy and power densities, improvements in other factors such as cost, toxicity, lifetime, and safety are also required. Lithium transition metal oxide and LiFePO4/C composite materials offer several distinct advantages in achieving many of these goals and are the focus of this report. Two series of layered lithium transition metal oxides, namely LiNi1/3Co1/3-yMyMn1/3O2 (M=Al, Co, Fe, Ti) and LiNi0.4Co0.2-yMyMn0.4O2 (M = Al, Co, Fe), have been synthesized. The effect of substitution on the crystal structure is related to shifts in transport properties and ultimately to the electrochemical performance. Partial aluminum substitution creates a high-rate positive electrode material capable of delivering twice the discharge capacity of unsubstituted materials. Iron substituted materials suffer from limited electrochemical performance and poor cycling stability due to the degradation of the layered structure. Titanium substitution creates a very high rate positive electrode material due to a decrease in the anti-site defect concentration. LiFePO4 is a very promising electrode material but suffers from poor electronic and ionic conductivity. To overcome this, two new techniques have been developed to synthesize high performance LiFePO4/C composite materials. The use of graphitization catalysts in conjunction with pyromellitic acid leads to a highly graphitic carbon coating on the surface of LiFePO4 particles. Under the proper conditions, the room temperature electronic conductivity can be improved by nearly five orders of magnitude over untreated materials. Using Raman spectroscopy, the improvement in conductivity and rate performance of

  16. STUDIES ON TWO CLASSES OF POSITIVE ELECTRODE MATERIALS FOR LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, James D.

    2008-12-18

    The development of advanced lithium-ion batteries is key to the success of many technologies, and in particular, hybrid electric vehicles. In addition to finding materials with higher energy and power densities, improvements in other factors such as cost, toxicity, lifetime, and safety are also required. Lithium transition metal oxide and LiFePO{sub 4}/C composite materials offer several distinct advantages in achieving many of these goals and are the focus of this report. Two series of layered lithium transition metal oxides, namely LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3-y}M{sub y}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} (M=Al, Co, Fe, Ti) and LiNi{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.2-y}M{sub y}Mn{sub 0.4}O{sub 2} (M = Al, Co, Fe), have been synthesized. The effect of substitution on the crystal structure is related to shifts in transport properties and ultimately to the electrochemical performance. Partial aluminum substitution creates a high-rate positive electrode material capable of delivering twice the discharge capacity of unsubstituted materials. Iron substituted materials suffer from limited electrochemical performance and poor cycling stability due to the degradation of the layered structure. Titanium substitution creates a very high rate positive electrode material due to a decrease in the anti-site defect concentration. LiFePO{sub 4} is a very promising electrode material but suffers from poor electronic and ionic conductivity. To overcome this, two new techniques have been developed to synthesize high performance LiFePO{sub 4}/C composite materials. The use of graphitization catalysts in conjunction with pyromellitic acid leads to a highly graphitic carbon coating on the surface of LiFePO{sub 4} particles. Under the proper conditions, the room temperature electronic conductivity can be improved by nearly five orders of magnitude over untreated materials. Using Raman spectroscopy, the improvement in conductivity and rate performance of such materials has been related to the underlying structure of the

  17. Sulfurized carbon: a class of cathode materials for high performance lithium/sulfur batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng S. Zhang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Liquid electrolyte lithium/sulfur (Li/S batteries cannot come into practical applications because of many problems such as low energy efficiency, short cycle life, and fast self-discharge. All these problems are related to the dissolution of lithium polysulfide, a series of sulfur reduction intermediates, in the liquid electrolyte, and resulting parasitic reactions with the Li anode. Covalently binding sulfur onto carbon surface is a solution to completely eliminate the dissolution of lithium polysulfide and make the Li/S battery viable for practical applications. This can be achieved by replacing elemental sulfur with sulfurized carbon as the cathode material. This article reviews the current efforts on this subject and discusses the syntheses, electrochemical properties, and prospects of the sulfurized carbon as a cathode material in the rechargeable Li/S batteries.

  18. Hydrogen-Bonded Organic Frameworks (HOFs): A New Class of Porous Crystalline Proton-Conducting Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Avishek; Illathvalappil, Rajith; Anothumakkool, Bihag; Sen, Arunabha; Samanta, Partha; Desai, Aamod V; Kurungot, Sreekumar; Ghosh, Sujit K

    2016-08-26

    Two porous hydrogen-bonded organic frameworks (HOFs) based on arene sulfonates and guanidinium ions are reported. As a result of the presence of ionic backbones appended with protonic source, the compounds exhibit ultra-high proton conduction values (σ) 0.75× 10(-2)  S cm(-1) and 1.8×10(-2)  S cm(-1) under humidified conditions. Also, they have very low activation energy values and the highest proton conductivity at ambient conditions (low humidity and at moderate temperature) among porous crystalline materials, such as metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and covalent organic frameworks (COFs). These values are not only comparable to the conventionally used proton exchange membranes, such as Nafion used in fuel cell technologies, but is also the highest value reported in organic-based porous architectures. Notably, this report inaugurates the usage of crystalline hydrogen-bonded porous organic frameworks as solid-state proton conducting materials. PMID:27464784

  19. Existence result for a class of generalized standard materials with thermomechanical coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Paoli, Laetitia

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the study of a three-dimensional model of thermomechanical coupling for viscous solids exhibiting hysteresis effects. This model is written in accordance with the formalism of generalized standard materials and it is composed of the momentum equilibrium equation combined with the flow rule, which describes some stress-strain dependance, coupled to the heat-transfer equation. More precisely, the coupling terms are linear with respect to the temperature and the displacement and non linear with respect to the internal variable. The main mathematical difficulty lies in the fact that the natural framework for the right-hand side of the heat equation is the space of L1 functions. A local existence result for this thermodynamically consistent problem is obtained by using a fixed-point argument. Then the solutions are proved to be physically admissible and global existence is discussed under some additional assumptions on the data.

  20. Physisorption of Nucleic Acid Bases on Boron Nitride Nanotubes: A new class of Hybrid Nano-Bio Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Saikat; Scheicher, Ralph H; Pandey, Ravindra; Karna, Shashi P

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the adsorption of the nucleic acid bases, adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), thymine (T) and uracil (U) on the outer wall of a high curvature semiconducting single-walled boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) by first principles density functional theory calculations. The calculated binding energy shows the order: G>A~C~T~U implying that the interaction strength of the (high-curvature) BNNT with the nucleobases, G being an exception, is nearly the same. A higher binding energy for the G-BNNT conjugate appears to result from a stronger hybridization of the molecular orbitals of G and BNNT, since the charge transfer involved in the physisorption process is insignificant. A smaller energy gap predicted for the G-BNNT conjugate relative to that of the pristine BNNT may be useful in application of this class of biofunctional materials to the design of the next generation sensing devices.

  1. Physisorption of Nucleic Acid Bases on Boron Nitride Nanotubes: A new class of Hybrid Nano-Bio Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Saikat; Gowtham, S.; Scheicher, Ralph; Pandey, Ravindra; Karna, Shashi

    2010-03-01

    We investigate the adsorption of the nucleic acid bases, adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), thymine (T) and uracil (U) on the outer wall of a high curvature semiconducting single-walled boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) by first principles density functional theory calculations. The calculated binding energy shows the order: G>A C T U implying that the interaction strength of the (high-curvature) BNNT with the nucleobases, G being an exception, is nearly the same. A higher binding energy for the G-BNNT conjugate appears to result from a stronger hybridization of the molecular orbitals of G and BNNT, since the charge transfer involved in the physisorption process is insignificant. A smaller energy gap predicted for the G-BNNT conjugate relative to that of the pristine BNNT may be useful in application of this class of biofunctional materials to the design of the next generation sensing devices.

  2. Photonic metamaterials: a new class of materials for manipulating light waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanobu Iwanaga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A decade of research on metamaterials (MMs has yielded great progress in artificial electromagnetic materials in a wide frequency range from microwave to optical frequencies. This review outlines the achievements in photonic MMs that can efficiently manipulate light waves from near-ultraviolet to near-infrared in subwavelength dimensions. One of the key concepts of MMs is effective refractive index, realizing values that have not been obtained in ordinary solid materials. In addition to the high and low refractive indices, negative refractive indices have been reported in some photonic MMs. In anisotropic photonic MMs of high-contrast refractive indices, the polarization and phase of plane light waves were efficiently transformed in a well-designed manner, enabling remarkable miniaturization of linear optical devices such as polarizers, wave plates and circular dichroic devices. Another feature of photonic MMs is the possibility of unusual light propagation, paving the way for a new subfield of transfer optics. MM lenses having super-resolution and cloaking effects were introduced by exploiting novel light-propagating modes. Here, we present a new approach to describing photonic MMs definitely by resolving the electromagnetic eigenmodes. Two representative photonic MMs are addressed: the so-called fishnet MM slabs, which are known to have effective negative refractive index, and a three-dimensional MM based on a multilayer of a metal and an insulator. In these photonic MMs, we elucidate the underlying eigenmodes that induce unusual light propagations. Based on the progress of photonic MMs, the future potential and direction are discussed.

  3. 49 CFR 172.316 - Packagings containing materials classed as ORM-D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... classed as ORM-D. (a) Each non-bulk packaging containing a material classed as ORM-D must be marked on at... the packaging for transportation that the material is properly described, classed, packaged, marked... of the material. The ORM designation must be placed within a rectangle that is approximately 6.3...

  4. 49 CFR 177.839 - Class 8 (corrosive) materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class 8 (corrosive) materials. 177.839 Section 177.839 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS... HIGHWAY Loading and Unloading § 177.839 Class 8 (corrosive) materials. (See also § 177.834(a) through...

  5. Fullerene-ionic-liquid conjugates: a new class of hybrid materials with unprecedented properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campisciano, Vincenzo; La Parola, Valeria; Liotta, Leonarda F; Giacalone, Francesco; Gruttadauria, Michelangelo

    2015-02-16

    A modular approach has been followed for the synthesis of a series of fullerene-ionic-liquid (IL) hybrids in which the number of IL moieties (two or twelve), anion, and cation have been varied. The combination of C60 and IL give rise to new unique properties in the conjugates such as solubility in water, which was higher than 800 mg mL(-1) in several cases. In addition, one of the C60 -IL hybrids has been employed for the immobilization of palladium nanoparticles through ion exchange followed by reduction with sodium borohydride. Surprisingly, during the reduction several carbon nanostructures were formed that comprised nano-onions and nanocages with few-layer graphene sidewalls, which have been characterized by means of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDAX), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Finally, the material thus obtained was successfully applied as catalyst in Suzuki and Mizoroki-Heck reactions in a concentration of just 0.2 mol %. In the former process it was recyclable for five runs with no loss in activity. PMID:25589382

  6. Class Vectors: Embedding representation of Document Classes

    OpenAIRE

    Sachan, Devendra Singh; Kumar, Shailesh

    2015-01-01

    Distributed representations of words and paragraphs as semantic embeddings in high dimensional data are used across a number of Natural Language Understanding tasks such as retrieval, translation, and classification. In this work, we propose "Class Vectors" - a framework for learning a vector per class in the same embedding space as the word and paragraph embeddings. Similarity between these class vectors and word vectors are used as features to classify a document to a class. In experiment o...

  7. Hydrophobic dipeptide crystals: a promising Ag-free class of ultramicroporous materials showing argon/oxygen adsorption selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, R; Mendes, A; Gales, L

    2014-09-28

    The adsorption isotherms of nitrogen, oxygen and argon in four VA-class hydrophobic dipeptides are presented. Isotherms were determined at 5, 20 and 35 °C, for a pressure range of 0-6 bar. Under these conditions, adsorption is still in the Henry region. For all materials and temperatures, the sequence of preferential adsorption is Ar > O2 > N2, a highly abnormal result. At 5 °C, the dipeptide with the smallest pores, VI, has Ar/O2 adsorption equilibrium selectivities up to 1.30, the highest ever measured in Ag-free adsorbents. Gas uptakes, at 1 bar and 20 °C, are ∼0.05 mol kg(-1), very low relative values that are partially explained by the low porosity of the solids (materials for the process of O2 generation by pressure swing adsorption (PSA) is discussed. The results indicate some of the structural and chemical properties that prospective Ag-free adsorbents should have in order to have Ar/O2 selectivity, hydrophobic pores, less than 0.5 nm-wide, and porosity of, at least, 20%.

  8. Conceptual design of a 1013 -W pulsed-power accelerator for megajoule-class dynamic-material-physics experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stygar, W. A.; Reisman, D. B.; Stoltzfus, B. S.; Austin, K. N.; Ao, T.; Benage, J. F.; Breden, E. W.; Cooper, R. A.; Cuneo, M. E.; Davis, J.-P.; Ennis, J. B.; Gard, P. D.; Greiser, G. W.; Gruner, F. R.; Haill, T. A.; Hutsel, B. T.; Jones, P. A.; LeChien, K. R.; Leckbee, J. J.; Lewis, S. A.; Lucero, D. J.; McKee, G. R.; Moore, J. K.; Mulville, T. D.; Muron, D. J.; Root, S.; Savage, M. E.; Sceiford, M. E.; Spielman, R. B.; Waisman, E. M.; Wisher, M. L.

    2016-07-01

    We have developed a conceptual design of a next-generation pulsed-power accelerator that is optimized for megajoule-class dynamic-material-physics experiments. Sufficient electrical energy is delivered by the accelerator to a physics load to achieve—within centimeter-scale samples—material pressures as high as 1 TPa. The accelerator design is based on an architecture that is founded on three concepts: single-stage electrical-pulse compression, impedance matching, and transit-time-isolated drive circuits. The prime power source of the accelerator consists of 600 independent impedance-matched Marx generators. Each Marx comprises eight 5.8-GW bricks connected electrically in series, and generates a 100-ns 46-GW electrical-power pulse. A 450-ns-long water-insulated coaxial-transmission-line impedance transformer transports the power generated by each Marx to a system of twelve 2.5-m-radius water-insulated conical transmission lines. The conical lines are connected electrically in parallel at a 66-cm radius by a water-insulated 45-post sextuple-post-hole convolute. The convolute sums the electrical currents at the outputs of the conical lines, and delivers the combined current to a single solid-dielectric-insulated radial transmission line. The radial line in turn transmits the combined current to the load. Since much of the accelerator is water insulated, we refer to it as Neptune. Neptune is 40 m in diameter, stores 4.8 MJ of electrical energy in its Marx capacitors, and generates 28 TW of peak electrical power. Since the Marxes are transit-time isolated from each other for 900 ns, they can be triggered at different times to construct-over an interval as long as 1 μ s -the specific load-current time history required for a given experiment. Neptune delivers 1 MJ and 20 MA in a 380-ns current pulse to an 18 -m Ω load; hence Neptune is a megajoule-class 20-MA arbitrary waveform generator. Neptune will allow the international scientific community to conduct dynamic

  9. The Paradox of Paperless Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackie, Paula

    1998-01-01

    Describes paperless classes developed at Carleton College that augment traditional classes by giving students and faculty the ability to share digital course-related materials via the campus computer network. Presents a case study of a managerial economics course, and includes problems with various aspects of the course and solutions. (LRW)

  10. 49 CFR 173.476 - Approval of special form Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... triplicate, by mail or other delivery service to the Associate Administrator. Alternatively, the request with... both physical and chemical states; (2) A detailed statement of the capsule design and dimensions... Certificate, evidence of a quality assurance program based on international, national or other standards,...

  11. Development of E-Assessment Materials for Fifth Grade Middle School Classes

    OpenAIRE

    Arı, Asım; Tahirova, Esra Eren Şefika Sümeyye Çam Gyuldzhan G

    2014-01-01

    Developments in information and communication technologies affect education with regard to gain the necessary skills for individuals living in technological environment, train manpower having the quality that technological environment requires and benefit from the opportunities of technology. Using more technology in education is thought to increase educational opportunities and quality, contribute to learning by doing and living addressing more senses in teaching-learning process by some res...

  12. Two-dimensional B-C-O alloys: a promising class of 2D materials for electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Si; Zhao, Jijun

    2016-04-01

    Graphene, a superior 2D material with high carrier mobility, has limited application in electronic devices due to zero band gap. In this regard, boron and nitrogen atoms have been integrated into the graphene lattice to fabricate 2D semiconducting heterostructures. It is an intriguing question whether oxygen can, as a replacement of nitrogen, enter the sp2 honeycomb lattice and form stable B-C-O monolayer structures. Here we explore the atomic structures, energetic and thermodynamic stability, and electronic properties of various 2D B-C-O alloys using first-principles calculations. Our results show that oxygen can be stably incorporated into the graphene lattice by bonding with boron. The B and O species favor forming alternate patterns into the chain- or ring-like structures embedded in the pristine graphene regions. These B-C-O hybrid sheets can be either metals or semiconductors depending on the B : O ratio. The semiconducting (B2O)nCm and (B6O3)nCm phases exist under the B- and O-rich conditions, and possess a tunable band gap of 1.0-3.8 eV and high carrier mobility, retaining ~1000 cm2 V-1 s-1 even for half coverage of B and O atoms. These B-C-O alloys form a new class of 2D materials that are promising candidates for high-speed electronic devices.Graphene, a superior 2D material with high carrier mobility, has limited application in electronic devices due to zero band gap. In this regard, boron and nitrogen atoms have been integrated into the graphene lattice to fabricate 2D semiconducting heterostructures. It is an intriguing question whether oxygen can, as a replacement of nitrogen, enter the sp2 honeycomb lattice and form stable B-C-O monolayer structures. Here we explore the atomic structures, energetic and thermodynamic stability, and electronic properties of various 2D B-C-O alloys using first-principles calculations. Our results show that oxygen can be stably incorporated into the graphene lattice by bonding with boron. The B and O species favor

  13. Student versus Faculty Perceptions of Missing Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleigh, Merry J.; Ritzer, Darren R.; Casey, Michael B.

    2002-01-01

    Examines and compares student and faculty attitudes towards students missing classes and class attendance. Surveys undergraduate students (n=231) in lower and upper level psychology courses and psychology faculty. Reports that students found more reasons acceptable for missing classes and that the amount of in-class material on the examinations…

  14. Semisimple Classes of Semirings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    U. Hebisch; H.J. Weinert

    2002-01-01

    A famous result of Sands states that a class S of associative rings is semisimple if and only if S is regular, coinductive, and extensionally closed. Here,we investigate semisimple classes in a Kurosh-Amitsur radical theory for semirings. We show that such a class S is regular, K-coinductive, and K-extensionally closed. But a characterization of semisimple classes of semirings needs a fourth condition, namely that S is inverse semi-isomorphically closed. We also obtain other characterizations and results for semisimple classes and for subdirect products of semirings.

  15. Universality classes of inflation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, Diederik

    2014-01-01

    We investigate all single-field, slow-roll inflationary models whose slow-roll parameters scale as 1/N in the limit of a large number of e-folds N. We proof that all such models belong to two universality classes, characterised by a single parameter. One class contains small field models like hillto

  16. Semantic Analysis of Virtual Classes and Nested Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    1999-01-01

    Virtual classes and nested classes are distinguishing features of BETA. Nested classes originated from Simula, but until recently they have not been part of main stream object- oriented languages. C++ has a restricted form of nested classes and they were included in Java 1.1. Virtual classes is the...... classes and parameterized classes have been made. Although virtual classes and nested classes have been used in BETA for more than a decade, their implementation has not been published. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of virtual classes and nested classes by presenting the...

  17. Design and fabrication of a new class of nano hybrid materials based on reactive polymeric molecular cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, De Suo; Liu, Xiang Yang; Li, Jing Liang; Xu, Hong Yao; Lin, Hong; Chen, Yu Yue

    2013-09-10

    This paper describes a strategy of fabricating a new class of nano hybrid particles in terms of the "nanocages" of reactive molecular matrices/networks. The concept is to design molecular matrices functionalized with particular reactive groups, which can on-site synthesize and fix nanoparticles at the designated positions of the molecular networks. The cages of the molecular networks impose the confinement and protection to the nanoparticles so that the size and the stability of nano hybrid particles can be better controlled. To this end, polyamide network polymers (PNP) were synthesized and adopted as the reactive molecular cages for the control of silver nanoparticles formation. It follows that the silver nano hybrid particles fabricated by this method have an average diameter of 4.34 nm much smaller than any other or similar methods ie by a hyperbranched polyamide polymer (HB-PA). As per our design, the size of the silver nano hybrid particles can also be tuned by controlling the molar ratio between silver ions and the functional groups in the polymeric matrices. The silver nano hybrid particles reveal the substantially enhanced stability in aqueous solutions, which gives rise to the long stable performance of localized surface plasmon resonance. As the nano hybrid particles display long eminent nanoeffects, they exert broad implications for a wide range of applications such as biomedicine, catalysis, and optoelectronics. PMID:23980927

  18. 49 CFR 175.703 - Other special requirements for the acceptance and carriage of packages containing Class 7 materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other special requirements for the acceptance and... Classification of Material § 175.703 Other special requirements for the acceptance and carriage of packages... §§ 173.457 and 173.459 of this subchapter. (c) No person shall offer or accept for transportation,...

  19. Class notes from the first international training course on the physical protection of nuclear facilities and materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrington, P.B. (ed.)

    1979-05-01

    The International Training Course on Physical Protection of Nuclear Facilities and Materials was intended for representatives from the developing countries who are responsible for preparing regulations and designing and assessing physical protection systems. The first part of the course consists of lectures on the objectives, organizational characteristics, and licensing and regulations requirements of a state system of physical protection. Since the participants may have little experience in nuclear energy, background information is provided on the topics of nuclear materials, radiation hazards, reactor systems, and reactor operations. Transportation of nuclear materials is addressed and emphasis is placed on regulations. Included in these discussions are presentations by guest speakers from countries outside the United States of America who present their countries' threat to nuclear facilities. Effectiveness evaluation methodology is introduced to the participants by means of instructions which teach them how to use logic trees and the EASI (Estimate of Adversary Sequence Interruption) program. The following elements of a physical protection system are discussed: barriers, protective force, intrusion detection systems, communications, and entry-control systems. Total systems concepts of physical protection system design are emphasized throughout the course. Costs, manpower/technology trade-offs, and other practical considerations are discussed. Approximately one-third of the course is devoted to practical exercises during which the attendees participatein problem solving. A hypothetical nuclear facility is introduced, and the attendees participate in the conceptual design of a physical protection system for the facility.

  20. Class notes from the first international training course on the physical protection of nuclear facilities and materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Training Course on Physical Protection of Nuclear Facilities and Materials was intended for representatives from the developing countries who are responsible for preparing regulations and designing and assessing physical protection systems. The first part of the course consists of lectures on the objectives, organizational characteristics, and licensing and regulations requirements of a state system of physical protection. Since the participants may have little experience in nuclear energy, background information is provided on the topics of nuclear materials, radiation hazards, reactor systems, and reactor operations. Transportation of nuclear materials is addressed and emphasis is placed on regulations. Included in these discussions are presentations by guest speakers from countries outside the United States of America who present their countries' threat to nuclear facilities. Effectiveness evaluation methodology is introduced to the participants by means of instructions which teach them how to use logic trees and the EASI (Estimate of Adversary Sequence Interruption) program. The following elements of a physical protection system are discussed: barriers, protective force, intrusion detection systems, communications, and entry-control systems. Total systems concepts of physical protection system design are emphasized throughout the course. Costs, manpower/technology trade-offs, and other practical considerations are discussed. Approximately one-third of the course is devoted to practical exercises during which the attendees participatein problem solving. A hypothetical nuclear facility is introduced, and the attendees participate in the conceptual design of a physical protection system for the facility

  1. 49 CFR 173.428 - Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.428 Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging. A packaging which previously contained Class 7...

  2. Residues of Chern classes

    OpenAIRE

    Suwa, Tatsuo; 諏訪, 立雄

    2003-01-01

    If we have a finite number of sections of a complex vector bundle E over a manifold M, certain Chern classes of E are localized at the singular set S, i.e., the set of points where the sections fail to be linearly independent. When S is compact, the localizations define the residues at each connected component of S by the Alexander duality. If M itself is compact, the sum of the residues is equal to the Poincaré dual of the corresponding Chern class. This type of theory is also developed for ...

  3. Residues of Chern classes

    OpenAIRE

    Suwa, Tatsuo

    2003-01-01

    If we have a finite number of sections of a complex vector bundle $E$ over a manifold $M$ , certain Chern classes of $E$ are localized at the singular set $S$ , i.e., the set of points where the sections fail to be linearly independent. When $S$ is compact, the localizations define the residues at each connected component of $S$ by the Alexander duality. If $M$ itself is compact, the sum of the residues is equal to the Poincaré dual of the corresponding Chern class. This type of theory is als...

  4. Social Class Dialogues and the Fostering of Class Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Meredith

    2015-01-01

    How do critical pedagogies promote undergraduate students' awareness of social class, social class identity, and social class inequalities in education? How do undergraduate students experience class consciousness-raising in the intergroup dialogue classroom? This qualitative study explores undergraduate students' class consciousness-raising in an…

  5. Student Reactions to Materials Relating to the Social Sciences in a Third Semester College Spanish Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfield, Charles W.

    The problem of evaluating instructional materials in foreign language courses in terms of educational relevance is examined in this survey of a third-semester, college, Spanish class. Students were given reading materials in the social sciences in lieu of the more traditional literary selections and asked to evaluate them through an attitudinal…

  6. IRIDIUM LINER FOR NASA 5 LBF CLASS MATERIAL TEST CHAMBER IRIDIUM LINER FOR ATLANTIC RESEARCH CORPORA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    IRIDIUM LINER FOR NASA 5 LBF CLASS MATERIAL TEST CHAMBER IRIDIUM LINER FOR ATLANTIC RESEARCH CORPORATION 5 LBF CLASS ROCKET CHAMBER 25 LBF CLASS 75 HFC 25 TAC CERAMIC COMPOSITE ROCKET CHAMBER FROM REFRACTURY COMPOSITES INC. PURCHASE ORDER C-551941-

  7. A preliminary investigation into the new class of lithium intercalating LiNiSiO4 cathode material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakash, N.; Kalaiselvi, N.; Periasamy, P.

    2008-01-01

    A unique attempt to exploit silicate chemistry for a possible enhancement of the electrochemical properties of a lithium ion system via exploration of the novel category lithium intercalating LiNiSiO4 cathode has been made through the present study. A novel citric acid assisted modified sol-gel method (CAM sol-gel) has been adopted to synthesize the title compound with a formation temperature positioned well below 500 °C, as derived from thermal studies. A powder x-ray diffraction (PXRD) pattern evidenced the absence of undesirable peaks and confirmed the formation of a hexagonal lattice structure with enhanced crystallinity and phase purity, and the presence of uniformly distributed particles of ~200 nm size with well defined grain boundaries is obvious from the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of LiNiSiO4 material. Further, magic angle spinning (MAS) 7Li nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) results from LiNiSiO4 confirmed the presence of a layered type of crystal arrangement. A cyclic voltammetry (CV) study performed on a LiNiSiO4 cathode revealed an excellent reversibility without any change in the peak position upon extended cycling, thus substantiating the structural stability upon progressive cycling.

  8. New class of photocatalytic materials and a novel principle for efficient water splitting under infrared and visible light: MgB2 as unexpected example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravets, V G; Grigorenko, A N

    2015-11-30

    Water splitting is unanimously recognized as environment friendly, potentially low cost and renewable energy solution based on the future hydrogen economy. Especially appealing is photocatalytic water splitting whereby a suitably chosen catalyst dramatically improves efficiency of the hydrogen production driven by direct sunlight and allows it to happen even at zero driving potential. Here, we suggest a new class of stable photocatalysts and the corresponding principle for catalytic water splitting in which infrared and visible light play the main role in producing the photocurrent and hydrogen. The new class of catalysts - ionic or covalent binary metals with layered graphite-like structures - effectively absorb visible and infrared light facilitating the reaction of water splitting, suppress the inverse reaction of ion recombination by separating ions due to internal electric fields existing near alternating layers, provide the sites for ion trapping of both polarities, and finally deliver the electrons and holes required to generate hydrogen and oxygen gases. As an example, we demonstrate conversion efficiency of ~27% at bias voltage Vbias = 0.5V for magnesium diboride working as a catalyst for photoinduced water splitting. We discuss its advantages over some existing materials and propose the underlying mechanism of photocatalytic water splitting by binary layered metals. PMID:26698811

  9. Metal free earth abundant elemental red phosphorus: a new class of visible light photocatalyst and photoelectrode materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Sajid Ali; Ansari, Mohammad Shahnawaze; Cho, Moo Hwan

    2016-02-01

    Developing a high-performance photocatalyst and a photoelectrode with enhanced visible light harvesting properties is essential for practical visible light photocatalytic applications. Noble metal-free, highly visible light-active, elemental red phosphorus (RP) was prepared by a facile mechanical ball milling method, which is a reproducible, low cost and controllable synthesis process. The synthesis used inexpensive and abundant raw materials because most RP hybrids are based on expensive noble-metals. The novel milled RP showed significantly enhanced photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical performances with a lower charge transfer resistance compared to commercial RP under wide visible photoirradiation, making it a feasible alternative for photocatalytic applications. PMID:26765211

  10. The Class of '34

    OpenAIRE

    Cairney, Richard

    1995-01-01

    The Great Depression raged, governments were beleaguered, the unemployment rate stood at 30%, scurvy stalked the poor and no one was immune to contagious diseases such as scarlet fever, polio and measles when the University of Alberta School of Medicine's Class of '34 graduated. For four alumni who recently gathered in Edmonton—Drs. Morley Hodgson, Melvin Gaudin, John McLurg and Edmund Cairns—their 60th-anniversary reunion was a time to recall the changes they have witnessed in medicine, incl...

  11. 49 CFR 177.835 - Class 1 materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: (i) Substances, explosive, n.o.s., Division 1.1A (explosive) material (Initiating explosive), (ii... material loaded on the motor vehicle; and (ii) A separation of 61 cm (24 inches) is maintained between each... with a method approved by the Department. One method approved by the Department requires that— (i)...

  12. A robust, melting class bulk superhydrophobic material with heat-healing and self-cleaning properties

    OpenAIRE

    Ramakrishna, S; Santhosh Kumar, K. S.; Dona Mathew; Reghunadhan Nair, C. P.

    2015-01-01

    Superhydrophobic (SH) materials are essential for a myriad of applications such as anti-icing and self-cleaning due to their extreme water repellency. A single, robust material simultaneously possessing melt-coatability, bulk water repellency, self-cleanability, self-healability, self-refreshability, and adhesiveness has been remaining an elusive goal. We demonstrate a unique class of melt-processable, bulk SH coating by grafting long alkyl chains on silica nanoparticle surface by a facile on...

  13. Use of a Concentration Game for Environmental Chemistry Class Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowosielski, Danica A.

    2007-01-01

    The concentration game can be used as a complete class or a portion of it to help reinforce the material being presented or for review sessions. An environmental chemistry class review is presented with the use of the concentration game.

  14. Computational Nano-materials Design for Spinodal Nanotechnology as a New Class of Bottom-up Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama-Yoshida, Hiroshi; Fukushima, Tetsuya; Sato, Kazunori

    Based on the spinodal nano-decomposition (SND) of dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS), we generalized the SND to the application of catalysis and photovoltaic solar-cells, where nano-scale particle formation in catalysis and and nano-scale separation of electrons and holes are essential in order to enhance the efficiency. First, we summarize the shape control (Konbu- & Dairiseki-Phases) and dimensionality dependence of crystal growth condition on SND in DMS. Second, we discuss the application of SND for the formation of nano-particles and the self-regeneration in three-way catalysis for automotive emission control by Perovskite La(Fe,Pd or Rh)O3. Third, we propose (i) self-regeneration mechanism and (ii) self-organized nano-structures by SND in chalcopyrite Cu(In,Ga)Se2, Kesterite Cu2ZnSnSe4, and Perovskite CsSnI3 for the low-cost, environment-friendly and high-efficiency photovoltaic solar cells using first-principles calculations.

  15. Teachers' professional growth during the development and class enactment of context-based chemistry student learning material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenders, Fer

    2010-01-01

    In 2002, a committee installed by the Ministry of Education concluded that four main problems regarding the high school chemistry curriculum necessitate a major curriculum renewal. A year later the following three recommendations for such a new curriculum were formulated: (a) the chemistry content s

  16. Raradox of class description

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕光

    2004-01-01

    We have a more active class atmophere, but more passive self-study situations. We are too talktive when we should bury ourselves in books, but too less efficient when we spend too much time. We complain teachers

  17. Using Moodle in Ehisical Education classes: a virtual didactic material for teaching athletics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Ginciene

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Noting the impact of technology in our society, we realize the necessity to create a didactic material based on the Information and Communication Technologies to support the work of the physical education teacher in the teaching of athletics, in particular, the 100 meters dash. For no other reason, the aim of this study was to organize a virtual didactic material, searching virtual games, videos, websites, blogs and social networks related to the 100 meters dash, organizing a database and suggesting activities aiming to the use of this didactic material for the teaching of this event in physical education classes.

  18. New class of neutron detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czirr, J.B.

    1997-09-01

    An optimized neutron scattering instrument design must include all significant components, including the detector. For example, useful beam intensity is limited by detector dead time; detector pixel size determines the optimum beam diameter, sample size, and sample to detector distance; and detector efficiency vs. wavelength determines the available energy range. As an example of the next generation of detectors that could affect overall instrumentation design, we will describe a new scintillator material that is potentially superior to currently available scintillators. We have grown and tested several small, single crystal scintillators based upon the general class of cerium-activated lithium lanthanide borates. The outstanding characteristic of these materials is the high scintillation efficiency-as much as five times that of Li-glass scintillators. This increase in light output permits the practical use of the exothermic B (n, alpha) reaction for low energy neutron detection. This reaction provides a four-fold increase in capture cross section relative to the Li (n, alpha) reaction, and the intriguing possibility of demanding a charged-particle/gamma ray coincidence to reduce background detection rates. These new materials will be useful in the thermal and epithermal energy ran at reactors and pulsed neutron sources.

  19. Application of the Materials-by-Design Methodology to Redesign a New Grade of the High-Strength Low-Alloy Class of Steels with Improved Mechanical Properties and Processability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grujicic, M.; Snipes, J. S.; Ramaswami, S.

    2016-01-01

    An alternative to the traditional trial-and-error empirical approach for the development of new materials is the so-called materials-by-design approach. Within the latter approach, a material is treated as a complex system and its design and optimization is carried out by employing computer-aided engineering analyses, predictive tools, and available material databases. In the present work, the materials-by-design approach is utilized to redesign a grade of high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) class of steels with improved mechanical properties (primarily strength and fracture toughness), processability (e.g., castability, hot formability, and weldability), and corrosion resistance. Toward that end, a number of material thermodynamics, kinetics of phase transformations, and physics of deformation and fracture computational models and databases have been developed/assembled and utilized within a multi-disciplinary, two-level material-by-design optimization scheme. To validate the models, their prediction is compared against the experimental results for the related steel HSLA100. Then the optimization procedure is employed to determine the optimal chemical composition and the tempering schedule for a newly designed grade of the HSLA class of steels with enhanced mechanical properties, processability, and corrosion resistance.

  20. Material Deprivation, Social Class and Life Course in the Balkans, Eastern Europe and Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexi Gugushvili

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper employs the factor analysis technique and data from the UNDP/UNICEF Social Inclusion Survey to construct a material deprivation index for fi ve transitional societies in the Balkans (FYR Macedonia and Serbia, Eastern Europe (Moldova and Ukraine and Central Asia (Kazakhstan. The distribution of deprivation between these societies can be largely explained by their level of economic development, but within-county variance is not limited to monetary dimension. Controlling for settlement type, human capital and employment status in multivariate settings, the paper tests the hypothesis of the continuous importance of occupational social class and the emerging role of diff erent life phases in individuals’ welfare outcomes. The results reveal that all specifi ed social classes and most of the defi ned life phases have diverse and statistically signifi cant eff ects on the constructed deprivation index and the likelihood of being under 70 per cent of the median deprivation threshold. Belonging to non-skilled manual, farmers and skilled manual social class as well as being a child or lone parent were revealed to have the highest risk of material deprivation. These fi ndings are in line with the conclusions made for the Western welfare democracies on the complementary nature of social class and life course dimensions in explaining social hardship.

  1. Management of Classes with Breaches of Discipline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海军

    2009-01-01

    As an only child is pampered and spoiled by parents, the contemporary student easily breaches class discipline. Class management appears more concerned than ever because breaches of class discipline have great impact on teaching. The author clarifies the necessity to study the management of classes with breaches of class discipline, numerates the phenomena of breaches of class discipline, precisely analyzes the causes from teachers and students and especially submits several measures to effectively prevent breaches of class discipline.

  2. A Touch of...Class!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netten, Joan W., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    A collection of ideas for class activities in elementary and secondary language classes includes a vocabulary review exercise and games of memory, counting, vocabulary, flashcard tic-tac-toe, dice, trashcans, questioning, and spelling. Some are designed specifically for French. (MSE)

  3. A Survey of English Reading Outside Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng; Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The aims of middle school English teaching areto cultivate students to acquire reading competence,which enable them to gain the information.Reading is the required method to collect information and material.This paper reports a survey on reading outside class among senior school students,by the way of questionnaires and interview,including the interests,focus,assignment of reading time,selection of reading materials,reading motives and other aspects..

  4. A Survey of English Reading Outside Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The aims of middle school English teaching are to cultivate students to acquire reading competence,which enable them to gain the information.Reading is the required method to collect information and material.This paper reports a survey on reading outside class among senior school students,by the way of questionnaires and interview,including the interests,focus,assignment of reading time,selection of reading materials,reading motives and other aspects..

  5. Compressive strength of two newly developed glass-ionomer materials for use with the Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) approach in class II cavities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenraads, H.; Kroon, G. Van der; Frencken, J.E.F.M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The null-hypotheses tested were that no difference in compressive strength of ART class II cavities exists between those restored with (1) glass-carbomer and a commonly used glass-ionomer; (2) KMEM and the commonly used glass-ionomer and; (3) glass-carbomer and KMEM. METHODS: 100 molar t

  6. 700℃等级超超临界汽轮机用材探讨%Discussion on the Materials of 700℃Class Ultra-super Critical Steam Turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭建强

    2014-01-01

    By combining domestic and international advanced research data of materials for ultra -super critical steam turbine , this paper provides the candidate materials as well as research and development focus of material tech -nology in China for 700℃class steam turbine .%综合国内外先进超超临界汽轮机材料方面的研究资料,给出我国700℃等级汽轮机用候选材料及材料技术的研发重点。

  7. A new class of photo-catalytic materials and a novel principle for efficient water splitting under infrared and visible light - MgB2 as unexpected example

    CERN Document Server

    Kravets, V G

    2015-01-01

    Water splitting is unanimously recognized as environment friendly, potentially low cost and renewable energy solution based on the future hydrogen economy. Especially appealing is photo-catalytic water splitting whereby a suitably chosen catalyst dramatically improves efficiency of the hydrogen production driven by direct sunlight and allows it to happen even at zero driving potential. Here, we suggest a new class of stable photo-catalysts and the corresponding principle for catalytic water splitting in which infrared and visible light play the main role in producing the photocurrent and hydrogen. The new class of catalysts based on ionic binary metals with layered graphite-like structures which effectively absorb visible and infrared light facilitating the reaction of water splitting, suppress the inverse reaction of ion recombination by separating ions due to internal electric fields existing near alternating layers, provide the sites for ion trapping of both polarities, and finally deliver the electrons an...

  8. Class in Metropolitan India: The Rise of the Middle Classes

    OpenAIRE

    Mooij, Jos; Lama-Rewal, S.T.

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIt is almost a cliché to say that India’s appearance and image (internationally as well as self-image) have changed dramatically in the last fifteen years. Instead of being associated with rural poverty, India is now associated with high rates of economic growth, a booming Information Technology (IT) sector and, particularly, an increasingly expanding middle class that consumes and behaves like elites and middle classes elsewhere in the world. Considering that cities concentrate m...

  9. A new class of sonic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munteanu, Ligia; Chiroiu, Veturia; Donescu, Ştefania; Brişan, Cornel

    2014-03-01

    Transformation acoustics opens a new avenue towards the architecture, modeling and simulation of a new class of sonic composites with scatterers made of various materials and having various shapes embedded in an epoxy matrix. The design of acoustic scatterers is based on the property of Helmholtz equations to be invariant under a coordinate transformation, i.e., a specific spatial compression is equivalent to a new material in a new space. In this paper, the noise suppression for a wide full band-gap of frequencies is discussed for spherical shell scatterers made of auxetic materials (materials with negative Poisson's ratio). The original domain consists of spheres made from conventional foams with positive Poisson's ratio. The spatial compression is controlled by the coordinate transformation, and leads to an equivalent domain filled with an auxetic material. The coordinate transformation is strongly supported by the manufacturing of auxetics which is based on the pore size reduction through radial compression molds.

  10. Lateral cephalometric diagnosis of asymmetry in Angle Class II subdivision compared to Class I and II

    OpenAIRE

    Aparecida Fernanda Meloti; Renata de Cássia Gonçalves; Ertty Silva; Lídia Parsekian Martins; Ary dos Santos-Pinto

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Lateral cephalometric radiographs are traditionally required for orthodontic treatment, yet rarely used to assess asymmetries. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to use lateral cephalometric radiographs to identify existing skeletal and dentoalveolar morphological alterations in Class II subdivision and to compare them with the existing morphology in Class I and II relationship. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ninety initial lateral cephalometric radiographs of male...

  11. A library of function classes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have written a library of function classes in C++, which is distributed as part of the CLHEP foundation class libraries for High Energy Physics. The main goals of the library are to provide objects having all the mathematical behavior of functions, and to provide a mechanism for parameterizing these functions. Our functions support all the normal function operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, composition, et. cetera. The library allows programmers to compose complicated one-or multi-dimensional functions with great economy and natural semantics

  12. On uniqueness of characteristic classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feliu, Elisenda

    2011-01-01

    We give an axiomatic characterization of maps from algebraic K-theory. The results apply to a large class of maps from algebraic K-theory to any suitable cohomology theory or to algebraic K-theory. In particular, we obtain comparison theorems for the Chern character and Chern classes and for the...... Adams operations and ¿-operations on higher algebraic K-theory. We show that the Adams operations and ¿-operations defined by Grayson agree with the ones defined by Gillet and Soulé....

  13. A Class of Graceful Trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟凡洪; 苏耕; 杨继

    2000-01-01

    The present paper shows the coordinates of a tree and its vertices, defines a kind of Trees with Odd-Number Radiant Type (TONRT), deals with the gracefulness of TONRT by using the edge-moving theorem, and uses graceful TONRT to construct another class of graceful trees.

  14. Art of Class Teaching Encourage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jiao-fei

    2013-01-01

    Teaching encourage can lead to student’s learning motivation and interesting. It improves the effect of classroom teach⁃ing. Methods of class teaching inspiration are: Target encourage, expectation encourage, emotional encourage, positive encourage, attribution encourage, competition encourage, caress encourage, democracy encourage, praise encourage, time encourage, check en⁃courage, questions encourage, examination encourage, score encourage, example encourage and understanding encourage.

  15. 医用耗材二级库管理模式的探讨%Discussion About the Management Modes of Medical Material in Second-class Warehouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方定

    2013-01-01

    根据科室特点建立不同的二级库房管理模式,能更加贴近科室的实际使用情况,同时完整的信息和资源共享使医用耗材管理更加科学,为医院精细化管理提供精确数据。%Build dif erent management modes of second-class warehouse by the characteristic of dif erent departments to fit the actuallsituation. At the same time, complete information and the share of resource make the administration of medicallmateriallmore scientific and provide accurate data for fine management of the hospital.

  16. Symmetry-protected ideal Weyl semimetal in HgTe-class materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Jiawei; Jian, Shao-Kai; Yao, Hong; Zhang, Haijun; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; Xing, Dingyu

    2016-01-01

    Ideal Weyl semimetals with all Weyl nodes exactly at the Fermi level and no coexisting trivial Fermi surfaces in the bulk, similar to graphene, could feature deep physics such as exotic transport phenomena induced by the chiral anomaly. Here, we show that HgTe and half-Heusler compounds, under a broad range of in-plane compressive strain, could be materials in nature realizing ideal Weyl semimetals with four pairs of Weyl nodes and topological surface Fermi arcs. Generically, we find that the HgTe-class materials with nontrivial band inversion and noncentrosymmetry provide a promising arena to realize ideal Weyl semimetals. Such ideal Weyl semimetals could further provide a unique platform to study emergent phenomena such as the interplay between ideal Weyl fermions and superconductivity in the half-Heusler compound LaPtBi. PMID:27033588

  17. 49 CFR 172.310 - Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... marked on the outside of the packaging with the international vehicle registration code of the country of origin of the design. The international vehicle registration code for packages designed by a United...) package design must have the outside of the outermost receptacle, which is resistant to the effects...

  18. Multimedia Material to Help Photosynthesis Teaching in Regular and Distance Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.R.T. Costa

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The  difficulties  related  to  the  understanding of biochemistry  concepts  and  processes  observed during  regular  classes using  only schemes  and  static  pictures  have  raised  the  interest of professors towards  multimedia material.   In  the  few last  decades  we could  notice the  development of many computational tools that are helping this  process.  This  work presents a software  elaborated to show the  phases  of Photosynthesis (both  light-dependent  and  independent  processes.   FLASH  software was used to  make  regular  classes more attractive with schemes,  interactivity and  animations to  be projected.   An intuitive navigation system  was elaborated using ActionScript programming, so that students can  use the  same class material  for reviewing the major  topics.   The  students will benefit from characteristics like text boxes, summarizing  the  concepts  displayed  on each screen,  the  guided study  mode that suggests to the student the next  navigation step and the automatic navigation that gives a general look about the theme,  yet keeping the freedom for choosing any available  topic.

  19. TEACHING "CORROSION AND CORROSION-RESISTANT MATERIALS" CLASS AS A MUST COURSE IN MATERIAL AND MATERIAL PROCESSING TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM

    OpenAIRE

    GERENGİ, Hüsnü; KURTAY, Mine

    2013-01-01

    Corrosion has become a main problem due to the rise in the use of metal with the developing technology. Corrosion is the degradation of metal or metal alloys as a result of chemical or electrochemical reactions. Corrosion education is a matter of concern for all material types. The aim of this study is to demonstrate and discuss the importance of “Corrosion and Corrosion Materials Technology Course” indicating the importance of corrosion science and taught in all programs under the Department...

  20. 49 CFR 177.837 - Class 3 materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... through an open filling hole, one end of a bond wire shall be connected to the stationary system piping or... flexible or swivel joints, but are required for nonmetallic flexible connections in the stationary system.... Contact of the closed connection must be made before flow starts and must not be broken until after...

  1. 49 CFR 174.101 - Loading Class 1 (explosive) materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... internal combustion engine in its operation. (m) (n) A container car or freight container on a flatcar or a... (8.1 miles) per hour. Its efficiency shall be determined by actual test, using dummy loads equal in... under impact from each end of at least 13 km (8.1 miles) per hour. Its efficiency shall be determined...

  2. 49 CFR 177.840 - Class 2 (gases) materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 31, 2003, a pressure relief device, when installed, must be in communication with the vapor space of... the power unit attached unless the vehicle is chocked or equivalent means are provided to prevent... on a cargo tank motor vehicle, other than an engine fuel line valve, must be closed...

  3. 49 CFR 172.403 - Class 7 (radioactive) material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for the package design issued by the Competent Authority for import and export shipments. For... definition for “transport index,” taken by the person initially offering the packages contained within the... Register citations affecting § 172.403, see the List of CFR Sections Affected which appears in the...

  4. Stochastic prediction of drought class transitions

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo, Ana A.; L. S. Pereira

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims at the stochastic characterization of droughts applying Markov chains modeling to drought class transitions derived from SPI time series. Several sites in Southern Portugal having updated data on precipitation available were considered. The drought class probabilities, the expected residence time in each class of severity, the expected time for the transition between drought classes and the drought severity class predictions 1, 2, or 3 months ahead have been obt...

  5. 49 CFR 173.116 - Class 2-Assignment of hazard zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class 2-Assignment of hazard zone. 173.116 Section... for Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.116 Class 2—Assignment of hazard zone. (a) The hazard zone of a Class 2, Division 2.3 material is assigned in column 7 of the § 172.101...

  6. Geopolymeric materials prepared using Class F fly ash and elevated temperature curing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Bakharev [Monash University, Clayton, Vic. (Australia). Department of Civil Engineering

    2005-06-01

    This paper reports the results of the study of the influence of elevated temperature curing on phase composition, microstructure and strength development in geopolymer materials prepared using Class F fly ash and sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide solutions. In particular, the effect of storage at room temperature before the application of heat on strength development and phase composition was studied. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and SEM were utilised in this study. Long precuring at room temperature before application of heat was beneficial for strength development in all studied materials, as strength comparable to 1 month of curing at elevated temperature can develop in this case only after 24 h of heat curing. The main product of reaction in the geopolymeric materials was amorphous alkali aluminosilicate gel. However, in the case of sodium hydroxide activator in addition to it, traces of chabazite, Linde Type A, Na-P1 (gismondine) zeolites and hydroxysodalite were also present. The type of zeolite present and composition of aluminosilicate gel were dependent on the curing history.

  7. The Materiality of Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Estrid

    The field of educational research lacks a methodology for the study of learning that does not begin with humans, their aims, and their interests. The Materiality of Learning seeks to overcome this human-centered mentality by developing a novel spatial approach to the materiality of learning....... Drawing on science and technology studies (STS), Estrid Sørensen compares an Internet-based 3D virtual environment project in a fourth-grade class with the class's work with traditional learning materials, including blackboards, textbooks, notebooks, pencils, and rulers. Taking into account pupils......' and teachers' physical bodies, Professor Sørensen analyzes the multiple forms of technology, knowledge, and presence that are enacted with the materials. Featuring detailed ethnographic descriptions and useful end-of-chapter summaries, this book is an important reference for professionals and graduate...

  8. 1,2,3-Triazolo[4,5,-e]furazano[3,4,-b]pyrazine 6-oxide--a fused heterocycle with a roving hydrogen forms a new class of insensitive energetic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thottempudi, Venugopal; Yin, Ping; Zhang, Jiaheng; Parrish, Damon A; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

    2014-01-01

    The straightforward synthesis and energetic properties of a new class of energetic materials, 1,2,3-triazolo- [4,5-e]furazano[3,4-b]pyrazine 6-oxide and its energetic salts are described. They were characterized by IR and multinuclear NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction are given. The X-ray structures show that in the title compound, the hydrogen atom is bonded to the nitrogen in the pyrazine ring; however, in the salts, the negative charge is associated with the triazole nitrogen. Heats of formation for all compounds were calculated with the G2 method and then combined with experimentally determined densities to obtain detonation pressures (P) and velocities (D) by using EXPLO5 program. These new materials exhibit good densities and thermal stabilities, high heats of formation, acceptable detonation properties, and are insensitive to impact.

  9. Activating Students' Motivation in Speaking in English for Tourism Class by Using Authentic Materials and Tasks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯志燕

    2008-01-01

    The author analyzes the existing problems in English for Tourism class and possible reasons why students are not highly motivated in oral communication practice:unconsciousness of the ongoing changing tourism industry, failure in their past learning, fear of losing faces,lack of words, structures and cultural background etc.Aiming to change the present situation and stimulate students'motivation in speaking, she offers some possible ways tO the problems based on her perspectives:(1)choose authenfic materials relevant to student's future career,(2)adapt a more current coulee book which is more authentically tourist-based in content.(3)adapt authentic video and TV tourist based materials related to the experience of tourism.(4)adapt authentic materials to make it more accessible and comprehemible by adaing some proper authendc materiaIs from difierent sources and tasks.(5)organize tearm activities based on authentic situations without changing the dialogue format in order to maintain redundancy of communication but in a real life focus.

  10. Content Characteristics and Material-Selection of English Newspapers Reading Class%英语报刊阅读课的内容特点与选材实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭艳英; 高玮

    2011-01-01

    英语报刊阅读是一种提升英语综合能力的有效方式,阅读的材料在语言、修辞、篇章等几个方面都有一定的特点,根据这些特点,结合学生的兴趣,在开设英语报刊阅读课程时要选择有利的时机和有意义的材料。%English newspapers reading is an effective way of improving English comprehensive abilities.Reading materials have certain characteristics in language,rhetoric,discourse and other aspects;according to these characteristics and combining with the interest of students,the setup of English newspapers reading class should choose favorable timing and meaningful materials.

  11. The Use of Virtual Media Laboratory to Increase Students’ Motivation on Direct Current Circuits Materials at Class X of MAN I Pekanbaru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emhadelima Emhadelima

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to determine whether there is a significance effect on the use of Practicum methods by using Crocodile Program combined with lectures, question and answer activities give significant effect on  students’ activities in learning electricity simple lesson and to identify whether the use of the simulation lab provides better results than the traditional lab on learning outcomes. 36 natural science students was involved in the study. The data was analyzed by using t-test. The finding showed that the use of Practicum methods by using Crocodile Program combined with lectures; question and answer activities give significant effect on students’ activities in learning electricity simple lesson. The finding also showed that the use of the simulation lab can provide better results than the traditional lab on learning outcomes. It occurred when there is an adequate software capability and students can operate the software properly. Without taking into account about the cost of procurement of computers and software programs Crocodile, lab simulations are very low cost because it does not need to purchase laboratory equipment, supplies and other consumables. It is expected that Crocodile Program not only as a practical method to implement but also as a medium to explain the concepts of electronic circuits. Key words: Virtual Media, Circuits Materials.Copyright © 2015 by Al-Ta'lim All right reserved

  12. Ecologia: Spanish Ecology Packet Resource Units and Materials for Intermediate and Advanced Spanish Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Mozelle Sawyer; Arribas, E. Jaime

    This Spanish ecology packet contains resource units and materials for intermediate and advanced Spanish classes. It is designed to be used for individual and small-group instruction in the senior high school to supplement the Spanish language curriculum. Included are articles, pictures, and cartoons from Spanish-language newspapers and magazines…

  13. Diffusion of Responsibility in College Classes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李珍珍

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion of responsibility takes place in college classes nowadays.The author points out diffusion of responsibility in college classes,analyses psychological reasons of diffusion of responsibility,and gives strategies on avoiding the diffusion of responsibility.The paper aims at doing some contribution to improving teaching quality of college class.

  14. Application of Class Activities in English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琦

    2015-01-01

    Beginning with the analysis of present English teaching,the article puts forward some questions occurring in English classes.Then it talks about the necessity of implementing class activities.Finally it further elaborates how to carry out class activities through three specific examples.

  15. Social class differences in self, attribution, and attention: socially expansive individualism of middle-class Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Nicholas A; Kitayama, Shinobu; Nisbett, Richard E

    2009-07-01

    Although U.S. culture strongly sanctions the ideal of independence, the specific ways in which independence is realized may be variable depending, among other factors, on social class. Characterized by relative scarcity of social and material resources, working-class (WC) Americans were expected to strongly value self-reliance. In contrast, with choices among abundant resources, middle-class (MC) Americans were expected to value personal control and social expansiveness. In support of this analysis, relative to their WC counterparts, MC Americans reported more support from friends and greater likelihood of giving and receiving advice but less self-reliance (Study 1). Furthermore, we found evidence that this social difference has cognitive consequences: College students with MC backgrounds were more likely than their WC counterparts were to endorse situational attributions for others' behavior (Studies 2a and 2b) as well as to show holistic visual attention (Study 3). PMID:19398590

  16. A robust, melting class bulk superhydrophobic material with heat-healing and self-cleaning properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishna, S.; Santhosh Kumar, K. S.; Mathew, Dona; Reghunadhan Nair, C. P.

    2015-12-01

    Superhydrophobic (SH) materials are essential for a myriad of applications such as anti-icing and self-cleaning due to their extreme water repellency. A single, robust material simultaneously possessing melt-coatability, bulk water repellency, self-cleanability, self-healability, self-refreshability, and adhesiveness has been remaining an elusive goal. We demonstrate a unique class of melt-processable, bulk SH coating by grafting long alkyl chains on silica nanoparticle surface by a facile one-step method. The well-defined nanomaterial shows SH property in the bulk and is found to heal macro-cracks on gentle heating. It retains wettability characteristics even after abrading with a sand paper. The surface regenerates SH features (due to reversible self-assembly of nano structures) quickly at ambient temperature even after cyclic water impalement, boiling water treatment and multiple finger rubbing tests. It exhibits self-cleaning properties on both fresh and cut surfaces. This kind of coating, hitherto undisclosed, is expected to be a breakthrough in the field of melt-processable SH coatings.

  17. The Social Psychology of Class and Classism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Bernice

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, one is born into a family that can be identified as working class, middle class, or affluent--divisions that denote status and power, as defined by access to resources. This article explores the relationships between social class membership and a wide array of personal and social daily life experiences. It concludes with a…

  18. Algebraic Structures using Natural Class of Intervals

    CERN Document Server

    Kandasamy, W B Vasantha

    2011-01-01

    This book has eleven chapters. Chapter one describes all types of natural class of intervals and the arithmetic operations on them. Chapter two introduces the semigroup of natural class of intervals using R or Zn and study the properties associated with them. Chapter three studies the notion of rings constructed using the natural class of intervals. Matrix theory using the special class of intervals is analyzed in chapter four of this book. Chapter five deals with polynomials using interval coefficients. New types of rings of natural intervals are introduced and studied in chapter six. The notion of vector space using natural class of intervals is built in chapter seven. In chapter eight fuzzy natural class of intervals are introduced and algebraic structures on them is built and described. Algebraic structures using natural class of neutrosophic intervals are developed in chapter nine.Chapter ten suggests some possible applications. The final chapter proposes over 200 problems of which some are at research l...

  19. The Character Strengths of Class Clowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willibald F. Ruch

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Class clowns traditionally were studied as a type concept and identified via sociometric procedures. In the present study a variable-centered approach was favored and class clown behaviors were studied in the context of character strengths, orientations to happiness and satisfaction with life. A sample of 672 Swiss children and adolescents filled in an 18 item self-report instrument depicting class clown behaviors. A hierarchical model of class clown behaviors was developed distinguishing a general factor and the four positively correlated dimensions of identified as a class clown, comic talent, disruptive rule-breaker, and subversive joker. Analysis of the general factor showed that class clowns were primarily male, and tended to be seen as class clowns by the teacher. Analyses of the 24 character strengths of the VIA-Youth (Park & Peterson, 2006 showed that class clowns were high in humor and leadership, and low in strengths like prudence, self-regulation, modesty, honesty, fairness, perseverance, and love of learning. An inspection of signature strengths revealed that 75% of class clowns had humor as a signature strength. Furthermore, generally class clown behaviors were shown by students indulging in a life of pleasure, but low life of engagement. The four dimensions yielded different character strengths profiles. While all dimensions of class clowns behaviors were low in temperance strengths, the factors identified as the class clown and comic talent were correlated with leadership strengths and the two negative factors (disruptive rule-breaker, subversive joker were low in other directed strengths. The disruptive rule breaking class clown was additionally low in intellectual strengths. While humor predicted life satisfaction, class clowning tended to go along with diminished satisfaction with life. It is concluded that different types of class clowns need to be kept apart and need different attention by teachers.

  20. The character strengths of class clowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruch, Willibald; Platt, Tracey; Hofmann, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Class clowns traditionally were studied as a type concept and identified via sociometric procedures. In the present study a variable-centered approach was favored and class clown behaviors were studied in the context of character strengths, orientations to happiness and satisfaction with life. A sample of 672 Swiss children and adolescents filled in an 18 item self-report instrument depicting class clown behaviors. A hierarchical model of class clown behaviors was developed distinguishing a general factor and the four positively correlated dimensions of "identified as a class clown," "comic talent," "disruptive rule-breaker," and "subversive joker." Analysis of the general factor showed that class clowns were primarily male, and tended to be seen as class clowns by the teacher. Analyses of the 24 character strengths of the VIA-Youth (Park and Peterson, 2006) showed that class clowns were high in humor and leadership, and low in strengths like prudence, self-regulation, modesty, honesty, fairness, perseverance, and love of learning. An inspection of signature strengths revealed that 75% of class clowns had humor as a signature strength. Furthermore, class clown behaviors were generally shown by students indulging in a life of pleasure, but low life of engagement. The four dimensions yielded different character strengths profiles. While all dimensions of class clowns behaviors were low in temperance strengths, the factors "identified as the class clown" and "comic talent" were correlated with leadership strengths and the two negative factors ("disruptive rule-breaker," "subversive joker") were low in other directed strengths. The disruptive rule breaking class clown was additionally low in intellectual strengths. While humor predicted life satisfaction, class clowning tended to go along with diminished satisfaction with life. It is concluded that different types of class clowns need to be kept apart and need different attention by teachers.

  1. Flexible Use of Teaching Materials, Excellent Interpret the Class%灵活运用教材,演绎课堂精彩

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳静

    2016-01-01

    思想品德课教材是品德教师进行教学的依据和根本。一堂思想品德课的成功与否的关键就在于教师对教材的挖掘和处理是否得当。教师只有吃透教材,在实际的教学实践中使“教材为我所用”,而不可千人一面,照本宣科,导致“我为教材所缚”,本文就灵活使用教材方面谈几点建议。%Text book is the basis for Ideology and morality course teaching. The key of a successful Ideological and moral lesson lies in the teacher's proper mining and processing of text book. The teachers should master the materials thoroughly, and utilize text book fully in real teaching rather than echo what the books say or limited by text book. This paper provides several suggestions on how to use text book flexibly.

  2. Lateral cephalometric diagnosis of asymmetry in Angle Class II subdivision compared to Class I and II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecida Fernanda Meloti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Lateral cephalometric radiographs are traditionally required for orthodontic treatment, yet rarely used to assess asymmetries. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to use lateral cephalometric radiographs to identify existing skeletal and dentoalveolar morphological alterations in Class II subdivision and to compare them with the existing morphology in Class I and II relationship. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ninety initial lateral cephalometric radiographs of male and female Brazilian children aged between 12 to 15 years old were randomly and proportionally divided into three groups: Group 1 (Class I, Group 2 (Class II and Group 3 (Class II subdivision. Analysis of lateral cephalometric radiographs included angular measurements, horizontal linear measurements and two indexes of asymmetry that were prepared for this study. RESULTS: In accordance with an Index of Dental Asymmetry (IDA, greater mandibular dental asymmetry was identified in Group 3. An Index of Mandibular Asymmetry (IMA revealed less skeletal and dental mandibular asymmetry in Group 2, greater skeletal mandibular asymmetry in Group 1, and greater mandibular dental asymmetry in Group 3. CONCLUSION: Both IDA and IMA revealed greater mandibular dental asymmetry for Group 3 in comparison to Groups 1 and 2. These results are in accordance with those found by other diagnostic methods, showing that lateral cephalometric radiography is an acceptable method to identify existing skeletal and dentoalveolar morphological alterations in malocclusions.

  3. Long-term effects of class size

    OpenAIRE

    Fredriksson, Peter; Öckert, Björn; Oosterbeek, Hessel

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates the long-term effects of class size in primary school. We use rich data from Sweden and exploit variation in class size created by a maximum class size rule. Smaller classes in the last three years of primary school (age 10 to 13) are beneficial for cognitive and non-cognitive ability at age 13, and improve achievement at age 16. Most importantly, we find that smaller classes have positive effects on completed education, wages, and earnings at age 27 to 42. The estimated ...

  4. 一类高聚物电子封装材料的分层失效问题%Delamination in a class of generalized plastic IC packaging materials due to thermal load and moisture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志刚; 树学峰

    2012-01-01

    对一类具有径向摄动的广义neo-Hookean特征的高聚物电子封装材料在回流焊过程中,由于湿热的联合作用而导致的“爆米花”式的分层失效行为进行了理论研究。给出了此类各向同性不可压材料在包含单一球形孔穴的条件下孔穴的增长和湿热应力之间的解析关系;讨论了孔穴失稳的临界相当应力对初始孔穴率以及径向摄动参数的依赖关系。计算结果表明,当高聚物电子封装材料具有某种缺陷存在时,其孔穴失稳的临界相当应力将会降低,即更易发生“爆米花”式的分层失效。%A representative material cell containing a single microvoid was used to investigate void growth under combined vapor pressure and thermal stress. The plastic IC packaging material was assumed to be a class of generalized neo-Hookean materials. Using the theory of cavity formation and unstable void growth in the incompressible hyper-elastic materials, we gained an analytical relation between the applied traction (moisture-in- duced vapor pressure and thermal stress) and void volume fraction in forementioned materials. The dependence of critical equivalence stress under void instability on initial void rates and radial perturbation parameter was also discussed. Results showed that some perturbation parameters significantly lower the critical stress levels, popcorn failure was more likely to take place.

  5. Directed Nowhere Dense Classes of Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Kreutzer, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    We introduce the concept of shallow directed minors and based on this a new classification of classes of directed graphs which is diametric to existing directed graph decompositions and width measures proposed in the literature. We then study in depth one type of classes of directed graphs which we call nowhere crownful. The classes are very general as they include, on one hand, all classes of directed graphs whose underlying undirected class is nowhere dense, such as planar, bounded-genus, and $H$-minor-free graphs; and on the other hand, also contain classes of high edge density whose underlying class is not nowhere dense. Yet we are able to show that problems such as directed dominating set and many others become fixed-parameter tractable on nowhere crownful classes of directed graphs. This is of particular interest as these problems are not tractable on any existing digraph measure for sparse classes. The algorithmic results are established via proving a structural equivalence of nowhere crownful classes ...

  6. 自由基聚合物——一类新颖的高性能二次电池材料%Radical Polymer —A New Class of High Performance Electrode Materials for Rechargeable Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵瑞瑞; 朱利敏; 杨汉西

    2011-01-01

    Radical polymers are aliphatic or nonconjugated polymers bearing organic redox radicals as pendant groups on their structural unit. These radical sites populated in large densities allow the electrochemical redox reaction taking place through the polymer layer by redox gradient-driven electron transport and behave as electroactive centers. Since radical polymer can be designed with a large population of redox radicals and electron exchange between the radical sites are usually very fast, they are considered as a new class of charge storage and transport materials with the possibility to provide high electrical storage capacity and high charge-discharge rate capability. Particularly, these polymers are completely organic with the advantage of being fully substainable, they are ideal for the displacement of inorganic materials in diverse applications such as electrochemical supercapacitors,photovoltaic cells and rechargeable batteries. This paper is intended to review the structural characteristics,electrochemical reaction mechanisms and current development status of the radical polymers as electode-active materials, with focus on the technological challenges and ongoing research strategies of these novel electrode materials as used for construction of high capacity and high rate rechargeable batteries. Also, the problems in the development of radical polymer electrodes are discussed.%自由基聚合物是一种新近发展迅速的电荷储存与传输材料,在电化学超级电容器、光电转换器件、二次电池等方面具有诱人的应用前景.本文着重介绍这类新颖电极材料的结构特征、电化学反应机制,以及国内外的研究发展现状;分析了采用自由基聚合物构建新型二次电池的技术途径和发展趋势.

  7. Optimization of class 2 tensegrity towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Milenko; Skelton, Robert E.

    2004-07-01

    This paper concerns the optimal mass-to-stiffness ratio design of class-2 tensegrity towers. For different loading scenarios, the procedure seeks the topology and geometry of the structure that yields an optimal design satisfying common constraints. The domain of feasible tensegrity geometries is defined by imposing tensegrity equilibrium conditions on both unloaded and loaded structure. Remaining constraints include strength constraints for all elements of the structure and buckling constraints for bars. The symmetry of the design is imposed by restricting the domain of geometric variables and element parameters. The static response of the structure is computed by using a nonlinear large displacement model. The problem is cast in the form of a nonlinear program. The influence of material parameters on the optimal shape of the structure is investigated.

  8. The bovine class II major histocompatibility complex: Serological definition and further characterization of class II haplotypes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nilsson, Ph.R.

    1994-01-01

    In this thesis an analysis of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II in cattle is reported, with emphasis on the development of class II serology. First, the production of class II alloantisera, and the serological definition of bovine MHC class II polymorphism is described. Subsequentl

  9. What are lay theories of social class?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnum, Michael E W

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have documented the effects of social class on psychological and behavioral variables. However, lay beliefs about how social class affects these dimensions have not been systematically tested. Studies 1 and 2 assessed lay beliefs about the association between social class and 8 variables (including psychological and behavioral tendencies and cognitive ability). Study 3 assessed lay beliefs about the Big five personality traits and social class, and study 4 reframed the 8 variables from study 1 in opposite terms and yielded similar results. Study 5 contained the variables framed as in both studies 1 and 4, and replicated those results suggesting that framing effects were not responsible for the effects observed. Interestingly, for the most part lay beliefs about social class did not differ as a function of participants' own social class. In general people held relatively accurate and consistent stereotypes about the relationship between social class and well-being, health, intelligence, and neuroticism. In contrast lay beliefs regarding social class and reasoning styles, as well as relational, social, and emotional tendencies were less consistent and coherent. This work suggests that on the whole people's beliefs about social class are not particularly accurate, and further that in some domains there are contradictory stereotypes about the consequences of social class. PMID:23875029

  10. What are lay theories of social class?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E W Varnum

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have documented the effects of social class on psychological and behavioral variables. However, lay beliefs about how social class affects these dimensions have not been systematically tested. Studies 1 and 2 assessed lay beliefs about the association between social class and 8 variables (including psychological and behavioral tendencies and cognitive ability. Study 3 assessed lay beliefs about the Big five personality traits and social class, and study 4 reframed the 8 variables from study 1 in opposite terms and yielded similar results. Study 5 contained the variables framed as in both studies 1 and 4, and replicated those results suggesting that framing effects were not responsible for the effects observed. Interestingly, for the most part lay beliefs about social class did not differ as a function of participants' own social class. In general people held relatively accurate and consistent stereotypes about the relationship between social class and well-being, health, intelligence, and neuroticism. In contrast lay beliefs regarding social class and reasoning styles, as well as relational, social, and emotional tendencies were less consistent and coherent. This work suggests that on the whole people's beliefs about social class are not particularly accurate, and further that in some domains there are contradictory stereotypes about the consequences of social class.

  11. Science and Religion in a High School Physics Class: Revisiting the Source Materials of "The Interaction of Scientific and Religious Discourses"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2010-01-01

    In and with this text, I introduce the Forum that centers around a series of essays written by a high school student and an interview with his teacher all collected as part of a larger study about students' discourses with respect to (nature of) science, learning, and knowing. I provide a brief review of the original findings, which had been…

  12. A new Class of Extremal Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigmund, Ole

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents a new class of two-phase isotropic composites with extremal bulk modulus. The new class consists of micro geometrics for which exact solutions can be proven and their bulk moduli are shown to coincide with the Hashin-Shtrikman bounds. The results hold for two and three dimensions...... and for both well- and non-well-ordered isotropic constituent phases. The new class of composites constitutes an alternative to the three previously known extremal composite classes: finite rank laminates, composite sphere assemblages and Vigdergauz microstructures. An isotropic honeycomb-like hexagonal...... microstructure belonging to the new class of composites has maximum bulk modulus and lower shear modulus than any previously known composite. Inspiration for the new composite class comes from a numerical topology design procedure which solves the inverse homogenization problem of distributing two isotropic...

  13. The Use of Virtual Media Laboratory to Increase Students’ Motivation on Direct Current Circuits Materials at Class X of MAN I Pekanbaru

    OpenAIRE

    Emhadelima Emhadelima

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to determine whether there is a significance effect on the use of Practicum methods by using Crocodile Program combined with lectures, question and answer activities give significant effect on  students’ activities in learning electricity simple lesson and to identify whether the use of the simulation lab provides better results than the traditional lab on learning outcomes. 36 natural science students was involved in the study. The data was analyzed by using t-tes...

  14. A New Class of Octahedral Molecular Sieve Materials for the Selective Removal and Sequestration of {sup 90}Sr{sup 2+}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NYMAN,MAY D.; NENOFF,TINA M.; TRIPATHI,AKHILESH; PARISE,JOHN B.; MAXWELL,ROBERT S.; HARRISON,WILLIAM T.A.

    2000-07-14

    The structure of Na{sub 16}Nb{sub 12.8}Ti{sub 3.2}O{sub 44.8}(OH){sub 3.2} {center_dot} 8H{sub 2}O, a member of a new family of Sandia Octahedral Molecular Sieves (SOMS) having a Nb/Na/M{sup IV} (M= Ti, Zr) oxide framework and exchangeable Na and water in open channels, was determined from Synchrotron X-ray data. The SOMS phases are isostructural with variable M{sup IV}:Nb(1:50--1:4) ratios. The SOMS are extremely selective for sorption of divalent cations, particularly Sr{sup 2+}. The ion-exchanged SOMS undergo direct thermal conversion to a perovskite-type phase, indicating this is a promising new method for removal and sequestration of radioactive Sr-90 from mixed nuclear wastes.

  15. 77 FR 56174 - Proposed Establishment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Camp Guernsey, WY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Camp Guernsey, WY AGENCY... action proposes to establish Class D airspace and Class E airspace at Camp Guernsey Airport, Camp... holidays. An informal docket may also be examined during normal business hours at the Northwest...

  16. Class comparison of middle class attributes in China and South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Kyung Yun

    2012-01-01

    Using urban household income and expenditure survey of China and South Korea, the paper examines traditional beliefs on the middle class in regards to economic growth. First belief is that the consumption of the middle class is an important source of domestic demands for goods and services. Second, unlike extravagant upper class, the thrifty middle class saves more for a stable life thereby providing sources for investment in the economy. Third, the middle class values and invests in human ca...

  17. Long-term effects of class size

    OpenAIRE

    Fredriksson, Peter; Öckert, Björn; Oosterbeek, Hessel

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates the long-term effects of class size in primary school. We use rich administrative data from Sweden and exploit variation in class size created by a maximum class size rule. Smaller classes in the last three years of primary school (age 10 to 13) are not only beneficial for cognitive test scores at age 13 but also for non-cognitive scores at that age, for cognitive test scores at ages 16 and 18, and for completed education and wages at age 27 to 42. The estimated effect on...

  18. Long-Term Effects of Class Size

    OpenAIRE

    Fredriksson, Peter; Öckert, Björn; Oosterbeek, Hessel

    2011-01-01

    This paper evaluates the long-term effects of class size in primary school. We use rich administrative data from Sweden and exploit variation in class size created by a maximum class size rule. Smaller classes in the last three years of primary school (age 10 to 13) are not only beneficial for cognitive test scores at age 13 but also for non-cognitive scores at that age, for cognitive test scores at ages 16 and 18, and for completed education and wages at age 27 to 42. The estimated effect on...

  19. Long-term effects of class size

    OpenAIRE

    Fredriksson, Peter; Öckert, Björn; Oosterbeek, Hessel

    2011-01-01

    This paper evaluates the long-term effects of class size in primary school. We use rich administrative data from Sweden and exploit variation in class size created by a maximum class size rule. Smaller classes in the last three years of primary school (age 10 to 13) are not only beneficial for cognitive test scores at age 13 but also for non-cognitive scores at that age, for cognitive test scores at ages 16 and 18, and for completed education and wages at age 27 to 42. The estimated effect on...

  20. Class B0631+519: Last of the Class Lenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    York, Tom; Jackson, N.; Browne, I.W.A.; Koopmans, L.V.E.; McKean, J.P.; Norbury, M.A.; Biggs, A.D.; Blandford, R.D.; de Bruyn, A.G.; Fassnacht, C.D.; Myers, S.T.; Pearson, T.J.; Phillips, P.M.; Readhead, A.C.S.; Rusin, D.; Wilkinson, P.N.; /Jodrell Bank /Kapteyn Astron. Inst., Groningen /UC, Davis /JIVE, Dwingeloo /KIPAC, Menlo Park /NFRA,

    2005-05-31

    We report the discovery of the new gravitational lens system CLASS B0631+519. Imaging with the VLA, MERLIN and the VLBA reveals a doubly-imaged flat-spectrum radio core, a doubly-imaged steep-spectrum radio lobe and possible quadruply-imaged emission from a second lobe. The maximum separation between the lensed images is 1.16 arcsec. High resolution mapping with the VLBA at 5 GHz resolves the most magnified image of the radio core into a number of sub-components spread across approximately 20 mas. No emission from the lensing galaxy or an odd image is detected down to 0.31 mJy (5{sigma}) at 8.4 GHz. Optical and near-infrared imaging with the ACS and NICMOS cameras on the HST show that there are two galaxies along the line of sight to the lensed source, as previously discovered by optical spectroscopy. We find that the foreground galaxy at z=0.0896 is a small irregular, and that the other, at z=0.6196 is a massive elliptical which appears to contribute the majority of the lensing effect. The host galaxy of the lensed source is detected in the HST near-infrared imaging as a set of arcs, which form a nearly complete Einstein ring. Mass modeling using non-parametric techniques can reproduce the near-infrared observations and indicates that the small irregular galaxy has a (localized) effect on the flux density distribution in the Einstein ring at the 5-10% level.

  1. The Power of In-Class Debates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ruth R.

    2009-01-01

    The students in three sections of a class rated their knowledge and identified their view before and after each of five in-class debates. The degree of self-reported knowledge was significantly different after four of the five debates. Between 31% and 58% of participants changed their views after participating in or observing each debate. Some…

  2. Operationalizing Max Weber's probability concept of class situation: the concept of social class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ken

    2007-03-01

    In this essay I take seriously Max Weber's astonishingly neglected claim that class situation may be defined, not in categorial terms, but probabilistically. I then apply this idea to another equally neglected claim made by Weber that the boundaries of social classes may be determined by the degree of social mobility within such classes. Taking these two ideas together I develop the idea of a non-categorial boundary 'surface' between classes and of a social class 'corridor' made up of all those people who are still to be found within the boundaries of the social class into which they were born. I call social mobility within a social class 'intra-class social mobility' and social mobility between classes 'inter-class social mobility'. I also claim that this distinction resolves the dispute between those sociologists who claim that late industrial societies are still highly class bound and those who think that this is no longer the case. Both schools are right I think, but one is referring to a high degree of intra-class social mobility and the other to an equally high degree of inter-class mobility. Finally I claim that this essay provides sociology with only one example among many other possible applications of how probability theory might usefully be used to overcome boundary problems generally in sociology.

  3. A conceptualisation of whole-class scaffolding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J.; van Eerde, H.A.A.; Bakker, A.

    2013-01-01

    The concept of scaffolding refers to temporary and adaptive support, originally in dyadic adult– child interaction. It has become widely used, also in whole-class settings, but often in loose ways. The aim of this paper is to theoretically and empirically ground a conceptualisation of whole-class sc

  4. Python Classes for Numerical Solution of PDE's

    CERN Document Server

    Mushtaq, Asif; Olaussen, Kåre

    2015-01-01

    We announce some Python classes for numerical solution of partial differential equations, or boundary value problems of ordinary differential equations. These classes are built on routines in \\texttt{numpy} and \\texttt{scipy.sparse.linalg} (or \\texttt{scipy.linalg} for smaller problems).

  5. MFV-Class:a multi-faceted visualization tool of object classes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志猛; 潘云鹤; 庄越挺

    2004-01-01

    Classes are key software components in an object-oriented software system. In many industrial OO software systems,there are some classes that have complicated structure and relationships. So in the processes of software maintenance,testing,software reengineering,software reuse and software restructure,it is a challenge for software engineers to understand these classes thoroughly. This paper proposes a class comprehension model based on constructivist learning theory,and implements a software visualization tool(MFV-Class)to help in the comprehension of a class. The tool provides multiple views of class to uncover manifold facets of class contents. It enables visualizing three object-oriented metrics of classes to help users focus on the understanding process. A case study was conducted to evaluate our approach and the toolkit.

  6. [Latest advances of SLA class I genes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xuan; Li, Hua; Li, Xue-Wei; Yu, Hui; Zuo, Qi-Zhen

    2007-11-01

    The Swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) class I genes encode multi-glycoproteins on cell surface, which present endogenous antigenic peptides to T cells and thus initiate specific immune responses. In this article, latest advances on molecular structure, expression in tissues, regulation of expression, genotyping, polymorphism, and evolution of SLA class I genes were introduced, in which genotyping and polymorphism were emphasized. Molecular typing methods of SLA class I genes include serological method, DNA sequencing, PCR-SSP, PCR-SSOP and MS, of which PCR-SSP is frequently used in genotyping of SLA class I genes as a simple and rapid method. Future directions for the study and application of SLA class I genes on gene functions, peptide vaccine, xenotransplantation were also discussed.

  7. Classes, Collection, and Principles of Psychological Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markman, Ellen M.

    This paper discusses research on how concepts differ in their internal organization and how these differences interact with and affect cognitive processing in children. Two types of natural concepts are focused on: classes (nouns with class-inclusion organization, such as "trees,""students,""soldiers" and collections (nouns with part-whole…

  8. Price Responsiveness of Wheat Class Demands

    OpenAIRE

    Gallagher, Paul; Wilson, William W.; Riepe, Jean

    1988-01-01

    This paper identifies the price responsiveness and preferences for wheat classes using a "Case" Function specification. Results indicate there have been numerous changes in market shares of wheat classes from the different exporters in specific markets. In general, quality differentials are important in some international markets, whereas others are very price responsive.

  9. Motivation in Physical Education classes of senior high school grades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Cristina Chicati

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation was to make a diagnosis and analyze students’ motivation in Physical Education classes of the senior high school of the public school system in the city of Maringá, state of Paraná, Brazil. This descriptive research comprised a population of 12,889 students, males and females, with 15-to-17-year average age, enrolled in the three grades of senior high school. The sample comprised 240 students randomly selected from four schools: 60 students per school, 20 from each grade, 10 males and 10 females. A questionnaire constituted by 16 mixed questions was applied to the students. The data were analyzed through frequency and percentage calculus. The results demonstrated that Physical Education classes are not so highly motivated, once the students have been given the same contents since the first grades, prevailing sports. Command and open teaching have been the most frequently used methodology, despite most of the students answering that they do what they want to in class. Evaluation comprises attendance and theoretical/practical classes. The students demonstrated a strong interest in classes, but those who are not so much interested answered that the classes were demotivating, besides backing appropriate materials and space. Thus it may be concluded that students motivation in Physical Education classes in the senior high school grades is not so clear.

  10. Brushed behind the Bike Shed: Working-Class Lesbians' Experiences of School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Yvette

    2007-01-01

    This article aims to address concerns about schools as locations where students grapple, materially and subjectively, with class-based notions of femininity, the promotion of heterosexuality and the support of hetero-normative, middle-class families against, and in contrast with, their own working-class families, identities and experiences. Two…

  11. 49 CFR 173.469 - Tests for special form Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the test material, such as the use of non-radioactive contents, must be taken into account in... (radioactive) material contained in a sealed capsule need not be subjected to— (1) The impact test and the percussion test of this section provided that the mass of the special form radioactive material is less...

  12. Stiefel-Whitney classes of curve covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selander, Björn

    2016-10-01

    Let D be a Dedekind scheme with the characteristic of all residue fields not equal to 2. To every tame cover Cto D with only odd ramification we associate a second Stiefel-Whitney class in the second cohomology with mod 2 coefficients of a certain tame orbicurve [D] associated to D. This class is then related to the pull-back of the second Stiefel-Whitney class of the push-forward of the line bundle of half of the ramification divisor. This shows (indirectly) that our Stiefel-Whitney class is the pull-back of a sum of cohomology classes considered by Esnault, Kahn and Viehweg in `Coverings with odd ramification and Stiefel-Whitney classes'. Perhaps more importantly, in the case of a proper and smooth curve over an algebraically closed field, our Stiefel-Whitney class is shown to be the pull-back of an invariant considered by Serre in `Revêtements à ramification impaire et thêta-caractéristiques', and in this case our arguments give a new proof of the main result of that article.

  13. Perspective through the 1st class innovation award-innovation in the key materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Directed by Prof.Litong Zhang (Member of CAS)from Northwestern Polytechnical University, the project on the topic of ceramic matrix composite, which sustains high temperature, resists oxidization, and has a long lifetime,achieved the 1st class National Technology Innovation Award in 2004.

  14. Generation of proper classes of short exact sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Pancar

    1997-01-01

    The generation of proper classes of short exact sequences of modules by subclasses is considered. The class generated by two proper classes is studied by means of some operations between these classes. These operations are investigated in details for classes of short quasi-splitting, torsion-splitting and pure exact sequences of abelian groups.

  15. Automatic Identification Systems the Effects of Class B on the Use of Class A Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Andy

    2006-05-01

    The standards for CSTDMA Class B AIS will shortly be published by the International Electrotechnical Commission and equipment will become available during 2006. The perceived benefits that Class B brings to leisure craft users and its relatively low cost will make it attractive in the market place. A rapid take-up of Class B use can therefore be expected. This paper considers the impact that increased use of Class B will have on users of Class A AIS that are compulsorily fitted to larger vessels to meet the requirements of the International Maritime Organization Safety of Life at Sea convention. The CSTDMA Class B system has been designed to prevent overloading of the AIS VHF data link. This is briefly reviewed but there are a number of other aspects that need to be considered. These include: the increased garbling of Class B messages compared to those of Class A; the problems accruing from the low update rate of Class B information; the increase in display information that will need to be managed; and the possible increase in inappropriate manoeuvres of leisure craft caused by misplaced reliance on AIS. As a result of the investigation the paper highlights the fact that Class B users must not assume that their own presence, in the form of Class B transmissions, will be particularly visible on the bridge of many SOLAS vessels. This will continue to be the case for many years into the future, until such vessels are mandated to carry radar with AIS target overlay capability.

  16. Stability of latent class segments over time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, Simone

    2011-01-01

    a stated preference choice experiment for environmental food claims remain stable over time. Following a cross-sectional design, two different consumer samples from an online panel provider participated in two identical choice experiments within eighteen months. On the aggregated level, a heteroskedastic...... in significant differences in the size of two out of seven classes. These differences can largely be accounted for by the changes on the aggregated level. The relative size of latent classes is correlated at 0.52, suggesting a fair robustness. An ex-post characterisation of latent classes by behavioural...

  17. Two classes of gamma-ray bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, J I

    1995-01-01

    Data from the 3B Catalogue suggest that short and long GRB are the results of different classes of events, rather than different parameter values within a single class: Short bursts have harder spectra in the BATSE bands, but chiefly long bursts are detected at photon energies over 1 MeV, implying that their hard photons are radiated by a process not found in short bursts. The values of \\langle V/V_{max} \\rangle for short and long bursts differ by 4.3 \\sigma, implying different spatial distributions. Only the soft gamma-ray radiation mechanisms are the same in both classes.

  18. The State of the Australian Middle Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive Hamilton

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a widespread view that the middle class in Australia is doing it tough, that they arefinding it increasingly difficult to maintain a decent standard of living and are suffering frommortgage stress. Indeed, some media reports have announced the end of the middle classdream.This paper tests a number of these popular views against the statistical data. It asks whetherthe typical Australian family can be said to be struggling? Are mortgages creating severeproblems for middle-class families? Is the middle class shrinking? Are families copingfinancially only because wives are going out to work?

  19. ON A CLASS OF RIEMANN SURFACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arturo Fernández; Javier Pérez

    2006-01-01

    It is considered the class of Riemann surfaces with dimT1 = 0, where T1 is a subclass of exact harmonic forms which is one of the factors in the orthogonal decomposition of the space ΩH of harmonic forms of the surface, namelyΩH = *Ω0H +T1 + *T0H + T0H + T2.The surfaces in the class OHD and the class of planar surfaces satisfy dimT1 = 0. A.Pfluger posed the question whether there might exist other surfaces outside those two classes. Here it is shown that in the case of finite genus g, we should look for a surface S with dimT1 = 0 among the surfaces of the form Sg\\K , where Sg is a closed surface of genus g and K a compact set of positive harmonic measure with perfect components and very irregular boundary.

  20. Social Class (In)Visibility and the Professional Experiences of Middle-Class Novice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David; Jones, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses upon the classed and early professional experiences of middle-class novice teachers in England experiencing and contemplating working in schools serving socio-economically disadvantaged communities. Through an examination of the visibility and invisibility of social class in education set within an increasingly unequal and…

  1. Hierarchies of television tastes and class distinctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Jontes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on data from the empirical research project Media consumption, social class and cultural stratification carried out with the help of a questionnaire administered to 820 residents of Ljubljana and Maribor, the paper examines the relationship between social class, education and television tastes. Contrary to some of the recent literature which emphasises a weak or non-existent connection between class positions and patterns of television consumption, the author uses the Slovenian sample to show that class and education differentiate television preferences significantly although only in some segments of the television repertoire. In the conclusion of the paper, the importance of studying television preferences in connection with other fields of cultural consumption is stressed.

  2. A new class of variational equation problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Applying an analysis method to a group of multivariable equations, a new class of variational equations are proved. This method is more concise and more direct than the others. This result can be applied to some stochastic control models.

  3. WIDTHS AND AVERAGE WIDTHS OF SOBOLEV CLASSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永平; 许贵桥

    2003-01-01

    This paper concerns the problem of the Kolmogorov n-width, the linear n-width, the Gel'fand n-width and the Bernstein n-width of Sobolev classes of the periodicmultivariate functions in the space Lp(Td) and the average Bernstein σ-width, averageKolmogorov σ-widths, the average linear σ-widths of Sobolev classes of the multivariatequantities.

  4. Evolution of major histocompatibility complex class I and class II genes in the brown bear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuduk Katarzyna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Major histocompatibility complex (MHC proteins constitute an essential component of the vertebrate immune response, and are coded by the most polymorphic of the vertebrate genes. Here, we investigated sequence variation and evolution of MHC class I and class II DRB, DQA and DQB genes in the brown bear Ursus arctos to characterise the level of polymorphism, estimate the strength of positive selection acting on them, and assess the extent of gene orthology and trans-species polymorphism in Ursidae. Results We found 37 MHC class I, 16 MHC class II DRB, four DQB and two DQA alleles. We confirmed the expression of several loci: three MHC class I, two DRB, two DQB and one DQA. MHC class I also contained two clusters of non-expressed sequences. MHC class I and DRB allele frequencies differed between northern and southern populations of the Scandinavian brown bear. The rate of nonsynonymous substitutions (dN exceeded the rate of synonymous substitutions (dS at putative antigen binding sites of DRB and DQB loci and, marginally significantly, at MHC class I loci. Models of codon evolution supported positive selection at DRB and MHC class I loci. Both MHC class I and MHC class II sequences showed orthology to gene clusters found in the giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca. Conclusions Historical positive selection has acted on MHC class I, class II DRB and DQB, but not on the DQA locus. The signal of historical positive selection on the DRB locus was particularly strong, which may be a general feature of caniforms. The presence of MHC class I pseudogenes may indicate faster gene turnover in this class through the birth-and-death process. South–north population structure at MHC loci probably reflects origin of the populations from separate glacial refugia.

  5. Prediction of class membership of biodiesels using chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Zylia; Milina, Rumyana; Simeonova, Pavlina A; Tsakovski, Stefan L; Simeonov, Vasil D

    2015-01-01

    Recently, serious scientific and technological attention is paid to creation of alternative energy sources, including biofuels. The assessment of the quality of the biofuels produced and of the raw materials needed for the production technology is an important scientific challenge. One of the major sources for biodiesel production is plant oils material (sunflower, rapeseed, palm, soya etc.). Since plants are complex system from the biota it is not easy to find specific chemical components responsible for their ability to serve as biodiesels. The characterization and classification of plant sources as biofuel material could be reliably estimated only by the use of multivariate statistical approaches (chemometrics). The chemometric expertise makes it possible not only to classify different biofuel sources into similarity classes but also to predict the membership of unknown by origin chemically analyzed samples to already existing classes. The present study deals with the prediction of the class membership of several unknown by origin samples, which are included in a large data set with FAME profiles of biodiesel plant sources. Using a data set from chromatographic analysis of fatty acid methyl esters profiles (FAME) of different plant biodiesel sources and applying the chemometric technique know as partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS - DA) a pattern recognition procedure is developed to: I. Model classes of similarity of biodiesel plant sources using their FAME profiles not taking into account the samples with unknown origin; II. Classify correctly the samples with unknown origin to the previously defined classes of biodiesel sources (palm oil, soybean oil, peanut oil, rapeseed oil, sunflower oil and maize oil). The prediction is successfully achieved for all samples with previously unknown origin. This pattern recognition approach is applied for the first time in the field of biodiesel classification and modeling tasks. PMID:25438133

  6. Discussion on the Use of Learning Material in the Elementary School Mathematics Class Teaching%浅谈学具在小学数学课堂教学中的使用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何国英

    2014-01-01

    在小学数学课堂教学中,教师应适当地设计一些适合学生思维特点的学具,这样可以给学生一个动手操作的机会,也能够激发学生的学习兴趣。%Teachers should design some appropriate learning materials for students in the elementary school mathematics class teaching, so it can give students a chance to work , also can stimulate students’interest in learning.

  7. A Simple Class of Measures of Skewness

    OpenAIRE

    ALTINAY, Galip

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a simple class of measures for detecting skewness in samples is introduced. The new class of measures is based on a new definition of skewness that takes midrange into consideration. The proposed coefficients of skewness can be computed easily with only three of the summary statistics, i.e., the minimum value, the maximum value and the median (or the mode, or the mean). Another advantage of the new statistics is that they are bounded by -1 and +1, hence, the coefficients of ske...

  8. Pyroxenes: a new class of multiferroics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyroxenes with the general formula AMSi2O6 (A = mono- or divalent metal, M = di- or trivalent metal) are shown to be a new class of multiferroic materials. In particular, we have found so far that NaFeSi2O6 becomes ferroelectric in a magnetically ordered state below ∼6 K. Similarly, magnetically driven ferroelectricity is also detected in the Li homologues, LiFeSi2O6 (TC∼18 K) and LiCrSi2O6 (TC∼11 K). In all these monoclinic systems the electric polarization can be strongly modified by magnetic fields. Measurements of magnetic susceptibility, pyroelectric current and dielectric constants (and their dependence on magnetic field) are performed using a natural crystal of aegirine (NaFeSi2O6) and synthetic crystals of LiFeSi2O6 and LiCrSi2O6 grown from melt solution. For NaFeSi2O6 a temperature versus magnetic field phase diagram is proposed. Exchange constants are computed on the basis of ab initio band structure calculations. The possibility of a spiral magnetic structure caused by frustration to be the reason for the origin of the multiferroic behaviour is discussed. We propose that other pyroxenes may also be multiferroic, and that the versatility of this family offers an exceptional opportunity to study general conditions for and mechanisms of magnetically driven ferroelectricity. (fast track communication)

  9. Early failure of Class II resin composite versus Class II amalgam restorations placed by dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, J D; Sullivan, Diane J

    2012-03-01

    Using the information from remake request slips in a dental school's predoctoral clinic, we examined the short-term survival of Class II resin composite restorations versus Class II dental amalgam restorations. In the student clinic, resin composite is used in approximately 58 percent of Class II restorations placed, and dental amalgam is used in the remaining 42 percent. In the period examined, Class II resin composite restorations were ten times more likely to be replaced at no cost to the patient than Class II dental amalgam restorations. A total of eighty-four resin composite restorations and six amalgam restorations were replaced due to an identified failure.

  10. Teachers’ perspectives on flipping the language class: More than creating materials

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Mitchell Joseph; Calzas Hernández, María; Jara Maroto, Concepción; Díaz Garrido, Ana Isabel; Fernández Chaves, Ismael; López Lago, Miguel Ángel; Marcos Miguel, Nausica; Rivas Reyes, Mirian

    2015-01-01

    Higher education in the 21st century is distinguished by accelerating technological adoption, offering key challenges and new opportunities (NMC, 2015). This phenomenon has significant impact on teaching and learning, including the emergence of new trends such as the flipped classroom methodology. University leadership encourages the adoption of this methodology in both content classes as well as in language instruction. Creating a flipped classroom learning design implies that a teacher e...

  11. Sartorial symbols of social class elicit class-consistent behavioral and physiological responses: a dyadic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michael W; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2014-12-01

    Social rank in human and nonhuman animals is signaled by a variety of behaviors and phenotypes. In this research, we examined whether a sartorial manipulation of social class would engender class-consistent behavior and physiology during dyadic interactions. Male participants donned clothing that signaled either upper-class (business-suit) or lower-class (sweatpants) rank prior to engaging in a modified negotiation task with another participant unaware of the clothing manipulation. Wearing upper-class, compared to lower-class, clothing induced dominance--measured in terms of negotiation profits and concessions, and testosterone levels--in participants. Upper-class clothing also elicited increased vigilance in perceivers of these symbols: Relative to perceiving lower-class symbols, perceiving upper-class symbols increased vagal withdrawal, reduced perceptions of social power, and catalyzed physiological contagion such that perceivers' sympathetic nervous system activation followed that of the upper-class target. Discussion focuses on the dyadic process of social class signaling within social interactions. PMID:25222264

  12. Classes and Theories of Trees Associated with a Class Of Linear Orders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goranko, Valentin; Kellerman, Ruaan

    2011-01-01

    these classes of trees and between their corresponding first-order theories. We then obtain some general results about the axiomatization of the first-order theories of some of these classes of trees in terms of the first-order theory of the generating class C, and indicate the problems obstructing such general...... results for the other classes. These problems arise from the possible existence of nondefinable paths in trees, that need not satisfy the first-order theory of C, so we have started analysing first order definable and undefinable paths in trees....

  13. Class and ideological orientations revisited: an exploration of class-based mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Mattias; Berglund, Tomas; Oskarson, Maria

    2013-12-01

    Studies of the relationship between class position and political outlooks still only have a limited understanding of the class-related mechanisms that matter for ideological orientations. This article presents a comprehensive analysis of the mechanisms that link class position and left/right and authoritarian/libertarian orientations. Besides main factors such as income, career prospects, job security, education, class origin and class identification, the significance of work-related factors such as work autonomy, working in a team, a physically demanding job and a mentally demanding job is studied. The findings are based on a survey specifically designed for this purpose and collected in Sweden in 2008/2009. A great deal of the association between class position and left/right orientations is explained by socio-economic conditions; different classes sympathize with policies that will benefit them economically. Another important factor is class identification. Work-related factors also have relevance, but the effect of class position on left/right orientations works mainly through the remuneration system. Class position is also related to authoritarian/libertarian orientations. However, this relationship is less explained by socio-economic position per se, but is rather an effect of the educational system and its allocation of the workforce into different class positions. It also turns out that work-related factors do not explain the class effects; however, a physically demanding job shows a unique effect. Overall, our findings suggest that besides factors such as class position, income, education and class identification, we need to consider work-related aspects to derive a more complete understanding of the distribution of ideological orientations in Western societies. PMID:24320072

  14. Students' different understandings of class diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boustedt, Jonas

    2012-03-01

    The software industry needs well-trained software designers and one important aspect of software design is the ability to model software designs visually and understand what visual models represent. However, previous research indicates that software design is a difficult task to many students. This article reports empirical findings from a phenomenographic investigation on how students understand class diagrams, Unified Modeling Language (UML) symbols, and relations to object-oriented (OO) concepts. The informants were 20 Computer Science students from four different universities in Sweden. The results show qualitatively different ways to understand and describe UML class diagrams and the "diamond symbols" representing aggregation and composition. The purpose of class diagrams was understood in a varied way, from describing it as a documentation to a more advanced view related to communication. The descriptions of class diagrams varied from seeing them as a specification of classes to a more advanced view, where they were described to show hierarchic structures of classes and relations. The diamond symbols were seen as "relations" and a more advanced way was seeing the white and the black diamonds as different symbols for aggregation and composition. As a consequence of the results, it is recommended that UML should be adopted in courses. It is briefly indicated how the phenomenographic results in combination with variation theory can be used by teachers to enhance students' possibilities to reach advanced understanding of phenomena related to UML class diagrams. Moreover, it is recommended that teachers should put more effort in assessing skills in proper usage of the basic symbols and models and students should be provided with opportunities to practise collaborative design, e.g. using whiteboards.

  15. Group cohesion in exercise classes: An examination of gender and type of exercise class differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selçuk Akpınar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Group cohesion has been attributed to the higher levels of attendance and performance and lower levels of drop-outs in exercise classes. Cohesion can be affected by different type of exercise classes and gender. Therefore, the main purpose of the study was to compare the group cohesion levels of martial arts participants (aikido, taekwondo, karate, and kendo with aerobic-like participants (aerobics, aero-steps, phys-gym, and high-low aerobics. This causal comparative study also aimed at examining gender differences in group cohesion in exercise classes. There were 140 participants (Mage=28.1 SD= 8.01 and female= 138 male= 2 in aerobic-like classes and 137 participants (Mage= 22.2 SD= 3.8 and female= 48 male= 89 in martial arts classes. Results revealed no gender differences between the groups on the perceptions of cohesion. On the other hand, except for individual attractions to the group-task dimension, participants of martial art classes had higher levels of group cohesion than the participants of aerobic-like classes. Consequently, it was concluded that different types of exercise classes may have different levels of cohesion and those differences were discussed within the context of exercise classes

  16. Group cohesion in exercise classes: An examination of gender and type of exercise class differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülya Aşçı

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Group cohesion has been attributed to the higher levels of attendance and performance and lower levels of drop-outs in exercise classes. Cohesion can be affected by different type of exercise classes and gender. Therefore, the main purpose of the study was to compare the group cohesion levels of martial arts participants (aikido, taekwondo, karate, and kendo with aerobic-like participants (aerobics, aero-steps, phys-gym, and high-low aerobics. This causal comparative study also aimed at examining sex differences in group cohesion in exercise classes. There were 140 participants (Mage=28.1 SD= 8.01 and female= 138 male= 2 in aerobic-like classes and 137 participants (Mage= 22.2 SD= 3.8 and female= 48 male= 89 in martial arts classes. Results revealed no sex differences between the groups on the perceptions of cohesion. On the other hand, except for individual attractions to the group-task dimension, participants of martial art classes had higher levels of group cohesion than the participants of aerobic-like classes. Consequently, it was concluded that different types of exercise classes may have different levels of cohesion and those differences were discussed within the context of exercise classes.

  17. Dosing method of physical activity in aerobics classes for students

    OpenAIRE

    Beliak Yu. I.; Zinchenko N.M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose : reasons for the method of dosing of physical activity in aerobics classes for students. The basis of the method is the evaluation of the metabolic cost of funds used in them. Material : experiment involved the assessment of the pulse response of students to load complexes classical and step aerobics (n = 47, age 20-23 years). In complexes used various factors regulating the intensity: perform combinations of basic steps, involvement of movements with his hands, holding in hands dumb...

  18. Chemical Compatibility of Polymeric Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solen, Kenneth A.; Kuchar, Marvin C.

    1990-01-01

    Presents some principles for specifying general classes of polymers for predicting relative chemical attack from acids, bases, oxidants, and certain common antagonists. Also discusses predicting relative solvent effects. Suggests uses of this information in two or three lectures in a chemical engineering materials course. (YP)

  19. Postura de cabeça nas deformidades dentofaciais classe II e classe III Head posture in the presence of class II and class III dentofacial deformities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Ralin de Carvalho Deda

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: este estudo investiga se existe diferença entre grupos com diferentes deformidades dentofaciais (padrão classe II e classe III e o grupo sem a deformidade em relação à postura de cabeça. MÉTODO: participaram deste estudo, voluntariamente, 25 pacientes (entre 16 e 40 anos. Dez pacientes com diagnóstico de deformidade dentofacial classe II e 15 pacientes com o diagnóstico de classe III esquelética e 15 voluntários sadios, com equivalência em sexo e idade ao grupo de deformidade, formando o grupo controle. Primeiramente foi realizada a inspeção da postura de cabeça. Logo em seguida foi realizada a avaliação postural de cabeça por meio da fotografia postural (fotogrametria. RESULTADOS: não houve diferença significante (p>0,05 entre os grupos em relação à avaliação postural utilizando-se a fotogrametria. Já em relação à avaliação postural pela inspeção clínica, observou-se uma postura anterior de cabeça nos indivíduos com a deformidade dentofacial padrão classe II, comparados ao padrão classe III (p = 0,001 e ao grupo controle (p = 0,001. Foi visto também que o grupo deformidade classe II apresentou um percentual inferior de indivíduos com posição neutra de cabeça comparado ao grupo deformidade classe III (p = 0,008 e ao grupo controle (p = 0,001. CONCLUSÃO: indivíduos com deformidade dentofacial classe II podem apresentar uma anteriorização de cabeça. Não há influência da deformidade no aumento ou na redução do ângulo cabeça-pescoço, analisado por meio da fotogrametria.PURPOSE: this study investigates whether there is a difference in head posture between groups with different dentofacial deformities (class II and class III and a group with no deformity. METHOD: 25 volunteers aged from 16 to 40 year old took part in the study. Ten patients had a diagnosis of class II dentofacial deformity, 15 had a diagnosis of class III skeletal deformity, and 15 healthy volunteers matched for sex and

  20. APPLICATION OF TWO OPERATORS TRANSFORM FROM CLASS A OPERATOR TO THE CLASS OF HYPONORMAL OPERATOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Changsen; Ding Yanfeng

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we give an operator transform (∧T)(*) from class A operator to the class of hyponormal operators. It is different from the operator transform (∧T) defined by M.Chō and T. Yamazaki. Then, we show that σ(T) = σ(∧T)(*)) and σa(T)\\{0} = σa(∧T)(*))\\{0},in case T belongs to class A. Next, we obtain some relations between (∧T) and (∧T)(*).

  1. Fibonacci family of dynamical universality classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkov, Vladislav; Schadschneider, Andreas; Schmidt, Johannes; Schütz, Gunter M

    2015-10-13

    Universality is a well-established central concept of equilibrium physics. However, in systems far away from equilibrium, a deeper understanding of its underlying principles is still lacking. Up to now, a few classes have been identified. Besides the diffusive universality class with dynamical exponent [Formula: see text], another prominent example is the superdiffusive Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) class with [Formula: see text]. It appears, e.g., in low-dimensional dynamical phenomena far from thermal equilibrium that exhibit some conservation law. Here we show that both classes are only part of an infinite discrete family of nonequilibrium universality classes. Remarkably, their dynamical exponents [Formula: see text] are given by ratios of neighboring Fibonacci numbers, starting with either [Formula: see text] (if a KPZ mode exist) or [Formula: see text] (if a diffusive mode is present). If neither a diffusive nor a KPZ mode is present, all dynamical modes have the Golden Mean [Formula: see text] as dynamical exponent. The universal scaling functions of these Fibonacci modes are asymmetric Lévy distributions that are completely fixed by the macroscopic current density relation and compressibility matrix of the system and hence accessible to experimental measurement. PMID:26424449

  2. A GENERALIZED CLASS OF PSNR SAMPLING SCHEME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Shukla

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present days of advanced electronic technologies in the field of communicationlike mobile phones, e-mail, internet etc. (and so forth the incentive based mail surveys are beingpopular due to their cost effectiveness and rapid approach to individuals. But, a majordisadvantage appears as mail surveys are affected by a huge amount of non-response of units inthe sample. The post-stratified non-response (PSNR scheme is used, in the stratified samplingset-up, when (i frames of stratum are unknown and (ii strata contain some non-responding units.This paper presents a general class of PSNR type sampling scheme by introducing three groupsof earmarked strata based on response pattern along-with two parameters pf the class. TheBayesian approach regarding utilization of prior knowledge (or guess of response pattern isintroduced in the proposed class for estimating the population mean. Several properties of theclass are derived and the results are numerically supported.

  3. A new class of dynamic quantum metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Quach, James Q; Martin, Andrew M; Greentree, Andrew D; Hollenberg, Lloyd C L

    2010-01-01

    Controllable quantum systems are heralding a quantum technology revolution. By coupling controllable quantum systems into larger structures we introduce the concept of a quantum metamaterial. Conventional metamaterials represent one the most important frontiers in optical design, with applications in diverse fields ranging from medicine to aerospace. Up until now however, metamaterials have themselves been classical structures and interact only with the classical properties of light. Here we describe a class of dynamic metamaterials, based on the quantum properties of coupled atom-cavity arrays, which are intrinsically lossless, reconfigurable, and operate fundamentally at the quantum level. We show how this new class of metamaterial could be used to create a reconfigurable quantum superlens possessing a negative index gradient for single photon imaging. With the inherent features of quantum superposition and entanglement of metamaterial properties, this new class of dynamic quantum metamaterial, opens a new ...

  4. Transportation of Hazardous Evidentiary Material.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, Douglas.

    2005-06-01

    This document describes the specimen and transportation containers currently available for use with hazardous and infectious materials. A detailed comparison of advantages, disadvantages, and costs of the different technologies is included. Short- and long-term recommendations are also provided.3 DraftDraftDraftExecutive SummaryThe Federal Bureau of Investigation's Hazardous Materials Response Unit currently has hazardous material transport containers for shipping 1-quart paint cans and small amounts of contaminated forensic evidence, but the containers may not be able to maintain their integrity under accident conditions or for some types of hazardous materials. This report provides guidance and recommendations on the availability of packages for the safe and secure transport of evidence consisting of or contaminated with hazardous chemicals or infectious materials. Only non-bulk containers were considered because these are appropriate for transport on small aircraft. This report will addresses packaging and transportation concerns for Hazardous Classes 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, and 9 materials. If the evidence is known or suspected of belonging to one of these Hazardous Classes, it must be packaged in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR Part 173. The anthrax scare of several years ago, and less well publicized incidents involving unknown and uncharacterized substances, has required that suspicious substances be sent to appropriate analytical laboratories for analysis and characterization. Transportation of potentially hazardous or infectious material to an appropriate analytical laboratory requires transport containers that maintain both the biological and chemical integrity of the substance in question. As a rule, only relatively small quantities will be available for analysis. Appropriate transportation packaging is needed that will maintain the integrity of the substance, will not allow biological alteration, will not react chemically with the substance being

  5. Negotiations of Acknowledgement among Middle Class Residents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nina Blom

    2013-01-01

    The article presents an analysis of communication processes between residents, between residents and people in the broader societal context as well as of media coverage of a fireworks disaster in a Danish suburb. It demonstrates how residents (all members of the Danish middle class) were able......, ethnicity, class or other social categories normally recognized as influential in case of disastrous events. Since the population in the area was very homogenous, the axis of differentiation was instead linked to the social category of affectedness, and a hierarchy of affectedness was identified within...

  6. Deployment of a class 2 tensegrity boom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinaud, Jean-Paul; Solari, Soren; Skelton, Robert E.

    2004-07-01

    Tensegrity structures are special truss structures composed of bars in compression and cables in tension. Most tensegrity structures under investigation, to date, have been of Class 1, where bars do not touch. In this article, however, we demonstrate the hardware implementation of a 2 stage symmetric Class 2 tensegrity structure, where bars do connect to each other at a pivot. The open loop control law for tendon lengths to accomplish the desired geometric reconfiguration are computed analytically. The velocity of the structure's height is chosen and reconfiguration is accomplished in a quasi-static manner, ignoring dynamic effects. The main goal of this research was to design, build, and test the capabilities of the Class 2 structure for deployment concepts and to further explore the possibilities of multiple stage structures using the same design and components.

  7. Understanding the Quality of Out-of-Class English Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chun; Zhu, Weimin; Gong, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Out-of-class learning constitutes an important context for human development, and active engagement in out-of-class activities is associated with successful language development. However, not all out-of-class experiences are equally beneficial to learning, and it is of paramount importance to understand what quality out-of-class English language…

  8. Characteristic classes of quantum principal bundles

    CERN Document Server

    Durdevic, M

    1995-01-01

    A noncommutative-geometric generalization of classical Weil theory of characteristic classes is presented, in the conceptual framework of quantum principal bundles. A particular care is given to the case when the bundle does not admit regular connections. A cohomological description of the domain of the Weil homomorphism is given. Relations between universal characteristic classes for the regular and the general case are analyzed. In analogy with classical geometry, a natural spectral sequence is introduced and investigated. The appropriate counterpart of the Chern character is constructed, for structures admitting regular connections. Illustrative examples and constructions are presented.

  9. The MHC class I genes of zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirscherl, Hayley; McConnell, Sean C; Yoder, Jeffrey A; de Jong, Jill L O

    2014-09-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules play a central role in the immune response and in the recognition of non-self. Found in all jawed vertebrate species, including zebrafish and other teleosts, MHC genes are considered the most polymorphic of all genes. In this review we focus on the multi-faceted diversity of zebrafish MHC class I genes, which are classified into three sequence lineages: U, Z, and L. We examine the polygenic, polymorphic, and haplotypic diversity of the zebrafish MHC class I genes, discussing known and postulated functional differences between the different class I lineages. In addition, we provide the first comprehensive nomenclature for the L lineage genes in zebrafish, encompassing at least 15 genes, and characterize their sequence properties. Finally, we discuss how recent findings have shed new light on the remarkably diverse MHC loci of this species.

  10. A Small Special Needs Class or a Smaller Class at the Beginning of the Educational Path?

    OpenAIRE

    Valli, Raine; Jokinen, Katja

    2016-01-01

    This article is based on the case study which focuses on the small class (in this article used to describe a small special needs class) operation of one medium-sized Finnish town. In the study an attempt was made to clarify what kind of alternative the small class is to the first grade of general education at the beginning of the child's educational path, what kind of experiences the teachers had of the pupils of the small class, of multi-vocational cooperation and of pupils' i...

  11. GOALS OF PARTICIPATION IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION CLASSES

    OpenAIRE

    Rahim Ramzaninezhad; Farhad Rahmaninia; Mehr Ali Hemmatinezhad; Nooshin Benar; Misagh Hoseini Keshtan

    2011-01-01

    The importance of physical education in school life and for health points to the need to the better understands goal's participation of students in school education classes. This study was an attempt to investigate students' goals for participates in physical education (PE) classes. 455 random out of 72673 students of junior and senior high schools with the age range of 11 to 19 years (M=14.67). A 28-items survey was administrated to assess (a) demographics and (b) Purposes for Engaging in Ph...

  12. Evolution of Class III treatment in orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngan, Peter; Moon, Won

    2015-07-01

    Angle, Tweed, and Moyers classified Class III malocclusions into 3 types: pseudo, dentoalveolar, and skeletal. Clinicians have been trying to identify the best timing to intercept a Class III malocclusion that develops as early as the deciduous dentition. With microimplants as skeletal anchorage, orthopedic growth modification became more effective, and it also increased the scope of camouflage orthodontic treatment for patients who were not eligible for orthognathic surgery. However, orthodontic treatment combined with orthognathic surgery remains the only option for patients with a severe skeletal Class III malocclusion or a craniofacial anomaly. Distraction osteogenesis can now be performed intraorally at an earlier age. The surgery-first approach can minimize the length of time that the malocclusion needs to worsen before orthognathic surgery. Finally, the use of computed tomography scans for 3-dimensional diagnosis and treatment planning together with advances in imaging technology can improve the accuracy of surgical movements and the esthetic outcomes for these patients.

  13. Learnable Classes of Categorial Grammars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Makoto

    Learnability theory is an attempt to illuminate the concept of learnability using a mathematical model of learning. Two models of learning of categorial grammars are examined here: the standard model, in which sentences presented to the learner are flat strings of words, and one in which sentences are presented in the form of functor-argument…

  14. Weak equivalence classes of complex vector bundles

    OpenAIRE

    Hông-Vân Lê

    2006-01-01

    For any complex vector bundle Ek of rank k over a manifold Mm with Chern classes ci Î H2i(Mm, Z) and any non-negative integers l1, . . ., lk we show the existence of a positive number p(m, k) and the existence of a complex vector bundle Êk over Mm whose Chern classes are p(m, k) × li × ci Î H2i(Mm, Z). We also discuss a version of this statement for holomorphic vector bundles over projective algebraic manifolds.

  15. A new class of non-leaves

    CERN Document Server

    Souza, Fábio S

    2011-01-01

    We give examples of open smooth manifolds that cannot be leaves of any Riemannian foliation of arbitrary codimension on a compact manifold. We also present a new class of non-leaves of C^0 codimension one foliations, simply connected manifolds of dimension at least 5 that are non-periodic in homotopy, namely in their 2-dimensional homotopy groups.

  16. APPLICATION OF INCREASED BREAKDOWN VOLTAGE SWITCH TO CLASS-E AMPLIFIER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa SÖNMEZ

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Class-E amplifier consist of a switching device (BJT or FET and a rezonant circuit. The power of amplifier depends on current and supply voltage of the transistor. The breakdown voltage of the transistor is increased to the maximum level in order to increase the power of the amplifier. Because of increasing the current increases the reverse induction, the reverse voltage creates a problem for the transistor. In this work, the increased breakdown voltage transistor Configuration is applied to class-E power amplifiers. Therefore, the reverse voltage problem is solved and supply voltage.

  17. System Model Semantics of Class Diagrams

    OpenAIRE

    Cengarle, Maria Victoria; Grönninger, Hans; Rumpe, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Defining semantics for UML is a difficult task. Disagreements in the meaning of UML constructs as well as the size of UML are major obstacles. In this report, we describe our approach to define the semantics for UML. Semantics is defined denotationally as a mapping into our semantics domain called the system model [4, 5, 6]. We demonstrate our approach by defining the semantics for a comprehensive version of class diagrams. The semantics definition is detailed for UML/P class diagrams, a vari...

  18. Designing a new class of distributed systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mikkilineni, Rao

    2011-01-01

    Designing a New Class of Distributed Systems closely examines the Distributed Intelligent Managed Element (DIME) Computing Model, a new model for distributed systems, and provides a guide to implementing Distributed Managed Workflows with High Reliability, Availability, Performance and Security. The book also explores the viability of self-optimizing, self-monitoring autonomous DIME-based computing systems. Designing a New Class of Distributed Systems is designed for practitioners as a reference guide for innovative distributed systems design. Researchers working in a related field will also f

  19. On identifiability of certain latent class models.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.N. van Wieringen

    2005-01-01

    Blischke [1962. Moment estimators for the parameters of a mixture of two binomial distributions. Ann. Math. Statist. 33, 444-454] studies a mixture of two binomials, a latent class model. In this article we generalize this model to a mixture of two products of binomials. We show when this generalize

  20. Negotiations of Acknowledgement among Middle Class Residents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nina Blom

    2013-01-01

    The article presents an analysis of communication processes between residents, between residents and people in the broader societal context as well as of media coverage of a fireworks disaster in a Danish suburb. It demonstrates how residents (all members of the Danish middle class) were able to...

  1. Generalised soliton solutions of the Weyl class

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carot, J. (Aberdeen Univ. (UK)); Verdaguer, E. (Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain))

    1989-06-01

    The whole family of generalised soliton solutions of the Weyl class for Einstein's equations in vacuum is considered. A classification scheme for the distinct types of metrics belonging to this family is given and emphasis is placed on the asymptotically flat solutions. The physical interpretation of the occurring parameters is also briefly considered. (author).

  2. Utilization of Social Media in Marketing Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to highlight how instructors may integrate the different social media into various marketing classes. The paper will address the major social networks, and then follow with discussions of microblogging, media sites, and social gaming. Given that there is a great deal of research highlighting the effectiveness of utilizing…

  3. Social Class Experiences of Working-Class Students: Transitioning out of College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treager Huber, Carey

    2010-01-01

    Issues surrounding social class are often overlooked and rarely discussed in higher education; however, they affect students and institutions in critical ways. Although research has demonstrated that social class is a predictor of access to college, retention, academic performance, overall undergraduate and graduate experience, and college…

  4. The Promise of Single-Sex Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotsky, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Despite the enthusiasm and the absence of definitive research on the pros and cons of single-sex classes, a 2011 article in Science, titled "The Pseudoscience of Single-Sex Schooling," by a new organization called American Council for CoEducational Schooling (ACCES) came out with the astonishing conclusion that single-sex education is ineffective…

  5. Finite mutation classes of coloured quivers

    CERN Document Server

    Torkildsen, Hermund André

    2010-01-01

    We consider the general notion of coloured quiver mutation and show that the mutation class of a coloured quiver $Q$, arising from an $m$-cluster tilting object associated with $H$, is finite if and only if $H$ is of finite or tame representation type, or it has at most 2 simples. This generalizes a result known for 1-cluster categories.

  6. Observers for a Class of Chaotic Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Ping

    2006-01-01

    The design of observers for a class of practical physical chaotic systems is discussed.By using only one state variable and its time derivatives,a control law is constructed to achieve the synchronization between the investigated chaotic systems and their observers,and the results are proved theoretically.Several observers of chaotic systems are designed by using this method.

  7. Efficient Tracking of Large Classes of Experts

    CERN Document Server

    Gyorgy, András; Lugosi, Gábor

    2011-01-01

    In the framework for prediction of individual sequences, sequential prediction methods are to be constructed that perform nearly as well as the best expert from a given class. We consider prediction strategies that compete with the class of switching strategies that can segment a given sequence into several blocks, and follow the advice of a different "base" expert in each block. As usual, the performance of the algorithm is measured by the regret defined as the excess loss relative to the best switching strategy selected in hindsight for the particular sequence to be predicted. In this paper we construct prediction strategies of low computational cost for the case where the set of base experts is large. In particular we derive a family of efficient tracking algorithms that, for any prediction algorithm $\\A$ designed for the base class, can be implemented with time and space complexity $O(n^{\\gamma} \\log n)$ times larger than that of $\\A$, where $n$ is the time horizon and $\\gamma \\ge 0$ is a parameter of the...

  8. Economies of Scale and Large Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Making classes larger saves money--and public universities across the country have found it a useful strategy to balance their budgets after decades of state funding cuts and increases to infrastructure costs. Where this author teaches, in the College of Social and Behavioral Sciences at California State University, Northridge (CSUN),…

  9. Class, Mothering and the Values of Food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aamann, Iben Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    The data analysed in this empirical paper stems from ethnographic fieldwork among new school parents at three Danish primary schools. I draw on empirically grounded theories on the cultural and subjective dimensions of class, inspired by the “English School” of poststructuralist informed, feminist...

  10. Class in Metropolitan India: The Rise of the Middle Classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E. Mooij (Jos); S.T. Lama-Rewal

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIt is almost a cliché to say that India’s appearance and image (internationally as well as self-image) have changed dramatically in the last fifteen years. Instead of being associated with rural poverty, India is now associated with high rates of economic growth, a booming Information Te

  11. 49 CFR 173.427 - Transport requirements for low specific activity (LSA) Class 7 (radioactive) materials and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... this section must be packaged in accordance with 10 CFR part 71. (e) Tables 5 and 6 are as follows... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transport requirements for low specific activity... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.427 Transport requirements for low...

  12. Class Size, Class Composition, and the Distribution of Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosworth, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Using richly detailed data on fourth- and fifth-grade students in the North Carolina public school system, I find evidence that students are assigned to classrooms in a non-random manner based on observable characteristics for a substantial portion of classrooms. Moreover, I find that this non-random assignment is statistically related to class…

  13. The Class of 2011 Student Survey Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of Colleges and Employers (NJ3), 2011

    2011-01-01

    Based on responses from 20,000 college seniors nationwide, "The Class of 2011 Student Survey Report" gives you hard numbers "plus" the analysis you need to develop your college recruiting strategy and build your brand among college students. Align your recruiting strategies tactics with students' wants, needs, attitudes, and behaviors--you'll get…

  14. 76 FR 68058 - Classes of Poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... ``old guineas'' but the Agency did not receive any comments in response. Also, as proposed at 68 FR... reasonably smooth-textured skin. (iv) Mature or old (hen or tom) turkey. A ``mature turkey'' or ``old turkey... definitions and standards for the official U.S. classes of poultry (68 FR 55902). Before publishing the...

  15. Application of Body Language in Primary Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宁宁

    2011-01-01

    Body language is an essential medium for people to communicate in their daily life. The use of body language has positive effects on teachers' teaching and on students' learning as well, so we strongly advocate teachers to integrate body language into primary class skilfully.

  16. 25 CFR 522.12 - Revocation of class III gaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Revocation of class III gaming. 522.12 Section 522.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.12 Revocation of class...

  17. Contrasting evolutionary histories of MHC class I and class II loci in grouse—Effects of selection and gene conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minias, Piotr; Bateson, Zachary W; Whittingham, Linda A; Johnson, Jeff A.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Dunn, Peter O

    2016-01-01

    Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) encode receptor molecules that are responsible for recognition of intracellular and extracellular pathogens (class I and class II genes, respectively) in vertebrates. Given the different roles of class I and II MHC genes, one might expect the strength of selection to differ between these two classes. Different selective pressures may also promote different rates of gene conversion at each class. Despite these predictions, surprisingly few studies have looked at differences between class I and II genes in terms of both selection and gene conversion. Here, we investigated the molecular evolution of MHC class I and II genes in five closely related species of prairie grouse (Centrocercus and Tympanuchus) that possess one class I and two class II loci. We found striking differences in the strength of balancing selection acting on MHC class I versus class II genes. More than half of the putative antigen-binding sites (ABS) of class II were under positive or episodic diversifying selection, compared with only 10% at class I. We also found that gene conversion had a stronger role in shaping the evolution of MHC class II than class I. Overall, the combination of strong positive (balancing) selection and frequent gene conversion has maintained higher diversity of MHC class II than class I in prairie grouse. This is one of the first studies clearly demonstrating that macroevolutionary mechanisms can act differently on genes involved in the immune response against intracellular and extracellular pathogens.

  18. Laptop Use during Class: A Review of Canadian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cismaru, Romulus; Cismaru, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    Laptop use in class is a characteristic of universities that is changing rapidly. Although much of the attention and research regarding this issue has focused on the debate of whether to impose mandatory laptop programs, the reality of wireless campuses allows students to use their laptops in class for class related and non-class related…

  19. 75 FR 51171 - Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Kaneohe, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-19

    ... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389... Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Kaneohe, HI AGENCY: Federal...

  20. Small-Space Analogues of Valiant's Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Meena; Rao, B. V. Raghavendra

    In the uniform circuit model of computation, the width of a boolean circuit exactly characterises the “space” complexity of the computed function. Looking for a similar relationship in Valiant’s algebraic model of computation, we propose width of an arithmetic circuit as a possible measure of space. We introduce the class VL as an algebraic variant of deterministic log-space L. In the uniform setting, we show that our definition coincides with that of VPSPACE at polynomial width.

  1. A Maximal Tractable Class of Soft Constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, D; Jeavons, P; Krokhin, A; 10.1613/jair.1400

    2011-01-01

    Many researchers in artificial intelligence are beginning to explore the use of soft constraints to express a set of (possibly conflicting) problem requirements. A soft constraint is a function defined on a collection of variables which associates some measure of desirability with each possible combination of values for those variables. However, the crucial question of the computational complexity of finding the optimal solution to a collection of soft constraints has so far received very little attention. In this paper we identify a class of soft binary constraints for which the problem of finding the optimal solution is tractable. In other words, we show that for any given set of such constraints, there exists a polynomial time algorithm to determine the assignment having the best overall combined measure of desirability. This tractable class includes many commonly-occurring soft constraints, such as 'as near as possible' or 'as soon as possible after', as well as crisp constraints such as 'greater than'. F...

  2. Singularity Classes of Special 2-Flags

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Mormul

    2009-01-01

    In the paper we discuss certain classes of vector distributions in the tangent bundles to manifolds, obtained by series of applications of the so-called generalized Cartan prolongations (gCp). The classical Cartan prolongations deal with rank-2 distributions and are responsible for the appearance of the Goursat distributions. Similarly, the so-called special multi-flags are generated in the result of successive applications of gCp's. Singularities of such distributions turn out to be very ric...

  3. 49 CFR 176.104 - Loading and unloading Class 1 (explosive) materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... prepared as prescribed in 29 CFR 1918.51(c)(1). (g) Packages of Division 1.1 and 1.2 materials that are not... feet) long, and 10 cm (3.9 inches) thick, and be made of woven hemp, sisal, or similar fiber, or...

  4. The Effect of Mixed-Age Classes in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Elly-Ann; Lindahl, Erica

    2011-01-01

    Mixed-aged (MA) classes are a common phenomenon around the world. In Sweden, these types of classes increased rapidly during the 1980s and 1990s, despite the fact that existing empirical support for MA classes is weak. In this paper, the effect of attending an MA class during grades 4-6 on students' cognitive skills is estimated. Using a unique…

  5. Demographic Characteristics of World Class Jamaican Sprinters

    OpenAIRE

    Rachael Irving; Vilma Charlton; Errol Morrison; Aldeam Facey; Oral Buchanan

    2013-01-01

    The dominance of Jamaican sprinters in international meets remains largely unexplained. Proposed explanations include demographics and favorable physiological characteristics. The aim of this study was to analyze the demographic characteristics of world class Jamaican sprinters. Questionnaires administered to 120 members of the Jamaican national team and 125 controls elicited information on place of birth, language, ethnicity, and distance and method of travel to school. Athletes were divided...

  6. On some classes of bipartite unitary operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, Julien; Nechita, Ion; Pellegrini, Clément

    2016-08-01

    We investigate unitary operators acting on a tensor product space, with the property that the quantum channels they generate, via the Stinespring dilation theorem, are of a particular type, independently of the state of the ancilla system in the Stinespring relation. The types of quantum channels we consider are those of interest in quantum information theory: unitary conjugations, constant channels, unital channels, mixed unitary channels, positive partial transpose channels, and entanglement breaking channels. For some of the classes of bipartite unitary operators corresponding to the above types of channels, we provide explicit characterizations, necessary and/or sufficient conditions for membership, and we compute the dimension of the corresponding algebraic variety. Inclusions between these classes are considered, and we show that for small dimensions, many of these sets are identical.

  7. Using authentic materials in the foreign language classrooms: Teachers’ perspectives in EFL classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Akbari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The idea of using authentic material in language teaching is supported among references and many professionals in the field of language pedagogy. Authentic material provides the learners with many significant advantages and promotes them with high motivation and interest in language learning and lead to improving communicative competence (Guariento & Morley, 2001; Wilcox et al., 1999. This paper attempted to investigate Iranian EFL teachers’ attitudes and beliefs regarding the use of authentic materials at high school level in Iran according to communicative language principles, focusing on both reading and listening skills. Fifty-seven (57 female and male English teachers, who teach in high schools and took apart in teacher training course (TTC with CLT framework, completed a survey questionnaire for the purpose of this study. The questionnaires were analyzed in terms of frequency and percentage by means of the statistical package SPSS. The results indicate that English teachers have a positive attitude toward presenting authentic materials in the classroom. Recommendations for future research are provided.

  8. Structure and properties of layered inorganic materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Duan

    2010-01-01

    @@ Inorganic layered materials are a class of advanced functional materials that have attracted considerable attention by virtue of their practical applications in a wide variety of fields. Sys-tematic studies of structure, design, synthesis, and fabrication processing may extend the range of practical utility of inor-ganic layered functional materials, in areas such as food industry,chemical industry, energy engineering, environmental engineer-ing, drug and gene delivery, electronics technology, and materials protection.

  9. Polarity for a Class of Levy Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Polar set of Markov processes is an important concept in probabilistic potential theory, but it is not easy to judge the polarity of the sets. In this paper, we give some results which can be easily used to examine the polarity of the sets when Xt belongs to a special class of Levy processes. We also give a result about polar functions of symmetric stable processes.

  10. Lattices of Schunck Classes of Finite Universal Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenbin Guo; K.P. Shum

    2003-01-01

    We prove that the set of all Schunck classes of Mal'cev algebras satisfying the maximum condition for subalgebras is a distributive lattice and its sublattice consisting of all Schunck classes of finite algebras is algebraic. This generalizes many results in the literature on Schunck classes. We also obtain some equivalent conditions for a class of algebras to be a Schunck class and investigate the structure of the class (algebras A |τ(A) = {A}), where τ is a subsystem functor.2000 Mathematics Subject Classification: 08A05, 08B05

  11. Perception of classroom climate in gym classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasta Zabukovec

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available This presentation is a part of larger study among Slovene primary and secondary students and their sports' teachers, related to their attitude to gym classes. In this part the results of perception of classroom climate among students will be presented. In the research, 1152 students were participated; they were from fifth and seventh grade from primary school and first and third grade form secondary school. The questionnaire Classroom climate in sport classes was applied (actual and preferred form, which included seven dimensions: satisfaction, competitiveness, methods, students' activity, difficulty, adequateness and personal relationship. Results confirmed the changes in perception of classroom climate; they decreased form fifth grade of primary school to third grade of secondary school. The changes were more extensive in primary school, from primary to secondary school and became stable in secondary school. The differences in perception of classroom climate between boys and girls were confirmed, too.

  12. Stochastic blockmodels with growing number of classes

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, David S; Airoldi, Edoardo M

    2010-01-01

    We present asymptotic and finite-sample results on the use of single-membership stochastic blockmodels for the analysis of network data. We show that the fraction of misclassified network nodes converges in probability to zero under maximum likelihood fitting when the number of classes is allowed to grow as the root of the network size and the average network degree grows at least poly-logarithmically in this size. We also establish finite-sample confidence bounds on maximum-likelihood blockmodel parameter estimates from data comprising independent Bernoulli random variates; these results hold uniformly over class assignment. We provide simulations verifying the conditions sufficient for our results, and conclude by fitting a logit parameterization of a stochastic blockmodel with covariates to a network data example comprising a collection of Facebook profiles, resulting in block estimates that reveal residual structure.

  13. Material models of dark energy.

    OpenAIRE

    Pearson, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    A new class of “dark energy” models is reviewed and developed, in which the relativistic theory of solids is used to construct material models of dark energy. These are models which include the effects of a continuous medium with well defined physical properties at the level of linearized perturbations. The formalism is constructed for a medium with arbitrary symmetry, and then specialised to isotropic media (which will be the case of interest for the majority of cosmological applications). T...

  14. Dimensions of a class of high-dimensional homogeneous Moran sets and Moran classes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A class of high-dimensional homogeneous Moran sets and Moran classes are introduced and some dimensional properties are studied. The Hausdorff dimension, modified lower box-counting dimension, lower and upper box-counting dimension, and packing dimension of high-dimensional homogeneous and partial homogeneous Cantor sets are determined. Moreover, a kind of fractal E is obtained, which is not regular but with the property Dimw(Ed)=dDimw(E), where w denotes any of the dimensions mentioned above.

  15. Social class, social mobility and risk of psychiatric disorder--a population-based longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Tiikkaja

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study explored how adult social class and social mobility between parental and own adult social class is related to psychiatric disorder. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, over 1 million employed Swedes born in 1949-1959 were included. Information on parental class (1960 and own mid-life social class (1980 and 1990 was retrieved from the censuses and categorised as High Non-manual, Low Non-manual, High Manual, Low Manual and Self-employed. After identifying adult class, individuals were followed for psychiatric disorder by first admission of schizophrenia, alcoholism and drug dependency, affective psychosis and neurosis or personality disorder (N=24,659 from the Swedish Patient Register. We used Poisson regression analysis to estimate first admission rates of psychiatric disorder per 100,000 person-years and relative risks (RR by adult social class (treated as a time-varying covariate. The RRs of psychiatric disorder among the Non-manual and Manual classes were also estimated by magnitude of social mobility. RESULTS: The rate of psychiatric disorder was significantly higher among individuals belonging to the Low manual class as compared with the High Non-manual class. Compared to High Non-manual class, the risk for psychiatric disorder ranged from 2.07 (Low Manual class to 1.38 (Low Non-manual class. Parental class had a minor impact on these estimates. Among the Non-manual and Manual classes, downward mobility was associated with increased risk and upward mobility with decreased risk of psychiatric disorder. In addition, downward mobility was inversely associated with the magnitude of social mobility, independent of parental class. CONCLUSIONS: Independently of parental social class, the risk of psychiatric disorder increases with increased downward social mobility and decreases with increased upward mobility.

  16. Social Class, Social Mobility and Risk of Psychiatric Disorder - A Population-Based Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiikkaja, Sanna; Sandin, Sven; Malki, Ninoa; Modin, Bitte; Sparén, Pär; Hultman, Christina M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study explored how adult social class and social mobility between parental and own adult social class is related to psychiatric disorder. Material and Methods In this prospective cohort study, over 1 million employed Swedes born in 1949-1959 were included. Information on parental class (1960) and own mid-life social class (1980 and 1990) was retrieved from the censuses and categorised as High Non-manual, Low Non-manual, High Manual, Low Manual and Self-employed. After identifying adult class, individuals were followed for psychiatric disorder by first admission of schizophrenia, alcoholism and drug dependency, affective psychosis and neurosis or personality disorder (N=24 659) from the Swedish Patient Register. We used Poisson regression analysis to estimate first admission rates of psychiatric disorder per 100 000 person-years and relative risks (RR) by adult social class (treated as a time-varying covariate). The RRs of psychiatric disorder among the Non-manual and Manual classes were also estimated by magnitude of social mobility. Results The rate of psychiatric disorder was significantly higher among individuals belonging to the Low manual class as compared with the High Non-manual class. Compared to High Non-manual class, the risk for psychiatric disorder ranged from 2.07 (Low Manual class) to 1.38 (Low Non-manual class). Parental class had a minor impact on these estimates. Among the Non-manual and Manual classes, downward mobility was associated with increased risk and upward mobility with decreased risk of psychiatric disorder. In addition, downward mobility was inversely associated with the magnitude of social mobility, independent of parental class. Conclusions Independently of parental social class, the risk of psychiatric disorder increases with increased downward social mobility and decreases with increased upward mobility. PMID:24260104

  17. Rational design of class I MHC ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rognan, D.; Scapozza, L.; Folkers, G.; Daser, Angelika

    1995-04-01

    From the knowledge of the three-dimensional structure of a class I MHC protein, several non natural peptides were designed in order to either optimize the interactions of one secondary anchor amino acid with its HLA binding pocket or to substitute the non interacting part with spacer residues. All peptides were synthesized and tested for binding to the class I MHC protein in an in vitro reconstitution assay. As predicted, the non natural peptides present an enhanced binding to the HLA-B27 molecule with respect to their natural parent peptides. This study constitutes the first step towards the rational design of non peptidic MHC ligands that should be very promising tools for the selective immunotherapy of autoimmune diseases.

  18. Liquidity constraints of the middle class

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, J.R.; Hercowitz, Zvi

    2009-01-01

    Consumption of households with liquid financial assets responds much more to transitory income shocks than the permanent-income hypothesis predicts. That is, middle class households act as if they face liquidity constraints. This paper addresses this puzzling observation with a model of impatient households that face a large recurring expenditure. In spite of impatience, they save as this expenditure draws near. We call such saving made in preparation for a foreseeable event "term saving". Un...

  19. Another Class of Perfect Nonlinear Polynomial Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menglong Su

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Perfect nonlinear (PN functions have been an interesting subject of study for a long time and have applications in coding theory, cryptography, combinatorial designs, and so on. In this paper, the planarity of the trinomials xpk+1+ux2+vx2pk over GF(p2k are presented. This class of PN functions are all EA-equivalent to x2.

  20. Working Class Mothers and School Life: Exploring the Role of Emotional Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Val

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the emotional resources generated by working class mothers to support their children at school. Analysis of material from qualitative interview research with a range working class mothers will focus on specific accounts of children's school lives to reveal how situated meanings can clash with institutional expectations. By…

  1. A class of Sudan-decodable codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Refslund

    2000-01-01

    In this article, Sudan's algorithm is modified into an efficient method to list-decode a class of codes which can be seen as a generalization of Reed-Solomon codes. The algorithm is specialized into a very efficient method for unique decoding. The code construction can be generalized based...... on algebraic-geometry codes and the decoding algorithms are generalized accordingly. Comparisons with Reed-Solomon and Hermitian codes are made....

  2. A study of long term ageing effects in A533B Class 1 and A508 Class 3 steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of long term thermal ageing treatments on notched impact fracture properties has been studied in two commercially produced PWR pressure vessel steels, A533B Class 1 and A508 Class 3. Heat treatments of up to 10,000h duration at temperatures between 300 and 6000C have been investigated. Additionally the effects of specimen size, specimen orientation, specimen position from within the plate and the effect of a prior post weld heat treatment on subsequent fracture behaviour following thermal ageing have been evaluated for the A533B Class 1 material. The susceptibility of both materials to temper embrittlement effects is relatively low, the maximum increase in transition temperature following thermal ageing treatments in the temperature range 300 to 5000C being about 40 to 450C. Thermal ageing at 6000C for times in excess of 100h produces microstructural changes resulting in larger increases in transition temperature. For the A533B material, specimen position and orientation are found to have a large influence on impact behaviour but do not affect the susceptibility to temper embrittlement. Post weld heat treatment has little or no influence on impact fracture behaviour before further isothermal ageing treatments nor on susceptibility to temper embrittlement. (author)

  3. SMA Observations of Class 0 Protostars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xuepeng; Arce, Héctor G.; Zhang, Qizhou;

    2013-01-01

    We present high angular resolution 1.3 mm and 850 μm dust continuum data obtained with the Submillimeter Array toward 33 Class 0 protostars in nearby clouds (distance <500 pc), which represents so far the largest survey toward protostellar binary/multiple systems. The median angular resolution in...... the survey is 2.''5, while the median linear resolution is approximately 600 AU. Compact dust continuum emission is observed from all sources in the sample. Twenty-one sources in the sample show signatures of binarity/multiplicity, with separations ranging from 50 AU to 5000 AU. The numbers of singles......, binaries, triples, and quadruples in the sample are 12, 14, 5, and 2, respectively. The derived multiplicity frequency (MF) and companion star fraction (CSF) for Class 0 protostars are 0.64 ± 0.08 and 0.91 ± 0.05, respectively, with no correction for completeness. The derived MF and CSF in this survey are...

  4. Material deprivation or minimal education? Social class and crime in an egalitarian welfare state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savolainen, Jukka; Paananen, Reija; Merikukka, Marko; Aaltonen, Mikko; Gissler, Mika

    2013-09-01

    Research on social class and crime is dominated by perspectives that assume socioeconomic disadvantage to exert causal influence on offending. As an alternative approach, the present study examined hypotheses derived from a social selection perspective which treats intergenerational continuity in antisocial propensity as the primary source of socioeconomic differences in criminal activity. Under this theory, individual characteristics of the parents influence their personal socioeconomic attainment as well as the behavioral traits they pass on to their children. Consistent with both of these perspectives, longitudinal data tracking Finnish males born in 1987 (n=21,513) showed strong negative associations between family socioeconomic status (SES) and offspring rates of criminal offending. In critical support for the selection perspective: (1) these association were linear rather than discrete, (2) parents' educational attainment accounted for most of the association between the occupational measure of family SES and crime, and (3) measures of offspring criminal propensity mediated a substantial share of these effects. Adolescent educational marginalization emerged as the key factor linking childhood socioeconomic status to the risk of criminal offending in emerging adulthood. We discuss the implications of this finding for social influence and social selection models of explanation. PMID:24796557

  5. CONSTRUCTION OF A NEW CLASS OF ORTHOGONAL ARRAYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shanqi PANG

    2007-01-01

    By using the generalized Hadamard product, difference matrix and projection matrices, we present a class of orthogonal projection matrices and related orthogonal arrays of strength two. A new class of orthogonal arrays are constructed.

  6. The Complexity of Identifying Large Equivalence Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyum, Sven; Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg; Miltersen, Peter Bro;

    1999-01-01

    We prove that at least 3k−4/k(2k−3)(n/2) – O(k)equivalence tests and no more than 2/k (n/2) + O(n) equivalence tests are needed in the worst case to identify the equivalence classes with at least k members in set of n elements. The upper bound is an improvement by a factor 2 compared to known res...

  7. Qualitative Analysis of Animation versus Reading for Pre-Class Preparation in a "Flipped" Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persky, Adam M.

    2015-01-01

    The "flipped" classroom model, including such approaches as team-based learning (TBL), stresses pre-class preparation. For three years in a pharmacokinetics course within a pharmacy curriculum, students had the choice of using reading material or a fully animated module to prepare for class. Qualitative methods were used to analyze…

  8. Automatic segmentation of eight tissue classes in neonatal brain MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petronella Anbeek

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Volumetric measurements of neonatal brain tissues may be used as a biomarker for later neurodevelopmental outcome. We propose an automatic method for probabilistic brain segmentation in neonatal MRIs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In an IRB-approved study axial T1- and T2-weighted MR images were acquired at term-equivalent age for a preterm cohort of 108 neonates. A method for automatic probabilistic segmentation of the images into eight cerebral tissue classes was developed: cortical and central grey matter, unmyelinated and myelinated white matter, cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles and in the extra cerebral space, brainstem and cerebellum. Segmentation is based on supervised pixel classification using intensity values and spatial positions of the image voxels. The method was trained and evaluated using leave-one-out experiments on seven images, for which an expert had set a reference standard manually. Subsequently, the method was applied to the remaining 101 scans, and the resulting segmentations were evaluated visually by three experts. Finally, volumes of the eight segmented tissue classes were determined for each patient. RESULTS: The Dice similarity coefficients of the segmented tissue classes, except myelinated white matter, ranged from 0.75 to 0.92. Myelinated white matter was difficult to segment and the achieved Dice coefficient was 0.47. Visual analysis of the results demonstrated accurate segmentations of the eight tissue classes. The probabilistic segmentation method produced volumes that compared favorably with the reference standard. CONCLUSION: The proposed method provides accurate segmentation of neonatal brain MR images into all given tissue classes, except myelinated white matter. This is the one of the first methods that distinguishes cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles from cerebrospinal fluid in the extracerebral space. This method might be helpful in predicting neurodevelopmental outcome and useful for evaluating

  9. Automatic Segmentation of Eight Tissue Classes in Neonatal Brain MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbeek, Petronella; Išgum, Ivana; van Kooij, Britt J. M.; Mol, Christian P.; Kersbergen, Karina J.; Groenendaal, Floris; Viergever, Max A.; de Vries, Linda S.; Benders, Manon J. N. L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Volumetric measurements of neonatal brain tissues may be used as a biomarker for later neurodevelopmental outcome. We propose an automatic method for probabilistic brain segmentation in neonatal MRIs. Materials and Methods In an IRB-approved study axial T1- and T2-weighted MR images were acquired at term-equivalent age for a preterm cohort of 108 neonates. A method for automatic probabilistic segmentation of the images into eight cerebral tissue classes was developed: cortical and central grey matter, unmyelinated and myelinated white matter, cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles and in the extra cerebral space, brainstem and cerebellum. Segmentation is based on supervised pixel classification using intensity values and spatial positions of the image voxels. The method was trained and evaluated using leave-one-out experiments on seven images, for which an expert had set a reference standard manually. Subsequently, the method was applied to the remaining 101 scans, and the resulting segmentations were evaluated visually by three experts. Finally, volumes of the eight segmented tissue classes were determined for each patient. Results The Dice similarity coefficients of the segmented tissue classes, except myelinated white matter, ranged from 0.75 to 0.92. Myelinated white matter was difficult to segment and the achieved Dice coefficient was 0.47. Visual analysis of the results demonstrated accurate segmentations of the eight tissue classes. The probabilistic segmentation method produced volumes that compared favorably with the reference standard. Conclusion The proposed method provides accurate segmentation of neonatal brain MR images into all given tissue classes, except myelinated white matter. This is the one of the first methods that distinguishes cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles from cerebrospinal fluid in the extracerebral space. This method might be helpful in predicting neurodevelopmental outcome and useful for evaluating neuroprotective clinical

  10. Materials and mechanisms of hole superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, J.E., E-mail: jhirsch@ucsd.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0319 (United States)

    2012-01-15

    We study the applicability of the model of hole superconductivity to materials. Both conventional and unconventional materials are considered. Many different classes of materials are discussed. The theory is found suitable to describe all of them. No other theory of superconductivity can describe all these classes of materials. The theory of hole superconductivity proposes that there is a single mechanism of superconductivity that applies to all superconducting materials. This paper discusses several material families where superconductivity occurs and how they can be understood within this theory. Materials discussed include the elements, transition metal alloys, high T{sub c} cuprates both hole-doped and electron-doped, MgB{sub 2}, iron pnictides and iron chalcogenides, doped semiconductors, and elements under high pressure.

  11. GOALS OF PARTICIPATION IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION CLASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Ramzaninezhad

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The importance of physical education in school life and for health points to the need to the better understands goal's participation of students in school education classes. This study was an attempt to investigate students' goals for participates in physical education (PE classes. 455 random out of 72673 students of junior and senior high schools with the age range of 11 to 19 years (M=14.67. A 28-items survey was administrated to assess (a demographics and (b Purposes for Engaging in Physical Activity (PEPAS, on a 5-point Likert scale [23]. A panel of experts (n=10 reviewed the translated from of survey and provided feedback and comments on content validity of the instrument, and 50 student participated in pilot study. The analysis of the result indicated that the Individual development (the physiological efficiency and Psychic equilibrium was rated the highest goal of participating in physical activity followed by the social interaction (the group interaction and cultural involvement and the environmental coping (the spatial orientation and object manipulation. One-way Tukeys' post hoc comparison revealed significant difference between groups of subject differentiated on the basis gender age, Junior/senior high school, physical activity out of school, school team member ships, and physical activity on summer & holidays as Independent factors. The multivariate effect of these factors on some of the student's purpose was significant. The unvaried analyses showed that these factors had a significant effect on some of goals. These findings indicate the importance of ranking of students' purposes for engaging in PE classes. It is also necessary that these goals to be considered by the parents & teachers point of view.

  12. Betweenness Centrality in Some Classes of Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Raghavan Unnithan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are several centrality measures that have been introduced and studied for real-world networks. They account for the different vertex characteristics that permit them to be ranked in order of importance in the network. Betweenness centrality is a measure of the influence of a vertex over the flow of information between every pair of vertices under the assumption that information primarily flows over the shortest paths between them. In this paper we present betweenness centrality of some important classes of graphs.

  13. Random Series of Trace Class Operators

    CERN Document Server

    Pisier, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    In this lecture, we present some results on Gaussian (or Rademacher) random series of trace class operators, mainly due jointly with F. Lust-Piquard. We will emphasize the probabilistic reformulation of these results, as well as the open problems suggested by them. We start by a brief survey of what is known about the problem of characterizing a.s. convergent (Gaussian or Rademacher) series of random vectors in a Banach space. The main result presented here is that for certain pairs of Banach spaces $E,F$ that include Hilbert spaces (and type 2 spaces with the analytic UMD property), we have

  14. On a Class of Generalized Sampling Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Wang

    2014-01-01

    In this note, we discuss a class of so-called generalized sampling functions. These functions are defined to be the inverse Fourier transform of a family of piece-wise constant functions that are either square integrable or Lebegue integrable on the real number line. They are in fact the generalization of the classic sinc function. Two approaches of constructing the generalized sampling functions are reviewed. Their properties such as cardinality, orthogonality, and decaying properties are discussed. The interactions of those functions and Hilbert transformer are also discussed.

  15. A class of amplitude modulating and invisible inhomogeneous media

    CERN Document Server

    Vial, Benjamin; Horsley, Simon A R; Philbin, Thomas G; Hao, Yang

    2016-01-01

    We propose a general method to arbitrarily manipulate the amplitude of an electromagnetic wave propagating in a two-dimensional medium, without introducing any scattering. This leads to a whole class of isotropic spatially varying permittivity and permeability profiles that are invisible while shaping the field magnitude. In addition, we propose a metamaterial structure working in the infrared that demonstrates deep sub-wavelength control of the electric field amplitude and strong reduction of the scattering. This work offers an alternative strategy to achieve invisibility with isotropic materials and paves the way for tailoring the propagation of light at the nanoscale.

  16. Adolescent Students’ Intercultural Awareness When Using Culture-Based Materials in the English Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castañeda Usaquén Mireya Esther

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on a qualitative and interpretative case study conducted at a high school located in the southeast of Bogotá. The case is comprised of a group of fifty-one eighth graders who had had little contact with English. It aimed at exploring how these adolescents made sense of the culture-based materials implemented in the English lessons, and at describing their perceptions about foreign cultures. Video and audio recordings, surveys, field notes and students' artifacts were used to collect data. In this article, teachers can find some materials and reflections upon cultures as well as some ideas on how they can be adapted to their own needs and/or teaching contexts.

    En este artículo se reporta un estudio de caso de tipo cualitativo e interpretativo que se realizó en un colegio público del suroriente de Bogotá, con un grupo de cincuenta y un estudiantes del grado octavo, quienes tenían poco contacto con el idioma inglés. El objetivo fue explorar cómo estos adolescentes entendían los materiales con contenido cultural usados en las clases de inglés y describir sus percepciones de las culturas extranjeras presentadas en los materiales. Se recolectó información mediante grabaciones de video y audio, encuestas, diario de campo y material elaborado por los estudiantes. En este artículo, los profesores pueden encontrar materiales y reflexiones sobre culturas y adaptarlos a sus necesidades o contextos.

  17. A Comparative Evaluation of Microleakage in Class V Composite Restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha Gopal Sooraparaju

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare and evaluate the microleakage in class V lesions restored with composite resin with and without liner and injectable nanohybrid composite resin. Materials and Methodology. 60 class V cavities were prepared in 30 freshly extracted teeth. After etching and application of bonding agents these cavities were divided into three groups: Group A (n=20—restored with composite resin, Group B (n=20—flowable composite resin liner + composite resin, and Group C (n=20—restored with injectable composite resin. After curing all the specimens were subjected to thermocycling and cyclic loading. Specimens were stained with 0.5% basic fuchsin and evaluated for dye penetration. Results. Results are subjected to Kruskal Wallis and Wilcoxon test. Conclusion. Within the limitations of this study, none of the three materials were free from microleakage. All the three materials showed more microleakage at gingival margins compared to occlusal margins. Among all the groups G-ænial Flo showed the least microleakage at the gingival wall.

  18. DYNAMICS IN A CLASS OF NEURON MODELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the dynamics in a class of discrete-time neuron mod-els. The neuron model we discussed, defined by such periodic input-output mapping as a sinusoidal function, has a remarkably larger memory capacity than the conven-tional association system with the monotonous function. Our results show that the orbit of the model takes a conventional bifurcation route, from stable equilibrium, to periodicity, even to chaotic region. And the theoretical analysis is verified by numerical simula...

  19. DYNAMICS IN A CLASS OF NEURON MODELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Junping; Ruan Jiong

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the dynamics in a class of discrete-time neuron mo-dels. The neuron model we discussed, defined by such periodic input-output mapping as a sinusoidal function, has a remarkably larger memory capacity than the conven-tional association system with the monotonous function. Our results show that the orbit of the model takes a conventional bifurcation route, from stable equilibrium, to periodicity, even to chaotic region. And the theoretical analysis is verified by numerical simulations.

  20. A escolarização das classes abastadas The schooling of the affluent classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio David Cattani

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Após indicar a inadequação do termo elite ou burguesia para designar os detentores de grandes fortunas, este artigo sustenta que as classes dominantes se constroem continuamente e se mobilizam de todas as formas para assegurar sua reprodução ampliada, sua existência cotidiana com vistas à preservação e à transmissão das posições dominantes para seus descendentes. A formação ideológica na família e o período de formação nas instituições escolares são parte importantes do processo de construção de classe. O artigo considera que os estudos sobre a escolarização das classes dedicam-se, de modo geral, à formação universal, com ênfase nos problemas que acometem a população menos privilegiada. Os estudos sobre a formação da classe dominante são recentes e apresentam resultados inusitados tais como a relação instrumental com a educação o que distinguiria o caso brasileiro das estratégias das classes abastadas dos países economicamente mais avançados. Entretanto, como as classes dominantes são heterogêneas elas podem se valer de outras estratégias de escolarização para garantir suas posições e a reprodução de classe.After pointing out the inadequacy of the terms elite or bourgeoisie to label those in possession of great wealth, this article maintains that the dominant classes are constantly constructing and mobilizing themselves in every way to assure their extended reproduction and their everyday coexistence with the aim of preserving and transmitting dominant positions to their descendents. Ideological development within the family and the school years are important elements in the process of class construction. Studies on schooling of class generally address universal education, stressing the problems that afflict the underprivileged population. The education of the dominant class is not often explored as a topic and the few studies available present original results, such as the instrumental

  1. On the Structure of Valiant's Complexity Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Bürgisser

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available In Valiant developed an algebraic analogue of the theory of NP-completeness for computations of polynomials over a field. We further develop this theory in the spirit of structural complexity and obtain analogues of well-known results by Baker, Gill, and Solovay, Ladner, and Schöning. We show that if Valiant's hypothesis is true, then there is a p-definable family, which is neither p-computable nor VNP-complete. More generally, we define the posets of p-degrees and c-degrees of p-definable families and prove that any countable poset can be embedded in either of them, provided Valiant's hypothesis is true. Moreover, we establish the existence of minimal pairs for VPin VNP. Over finite fields, we give a specific example of a family of polynomials which is neither VNP-complete nor p-computable, provided the polynomial hierarchy does not collapse. We define relativized complexity classes VP h and VNP h and construct complete families in these classes. Moreover, we prove that there is a p-family h satisfying VP h = VNP h.

  2. Evolução dos preparos das cavidades de classe II Developments in preparation of class II cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Miyuki ONO

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A evolução dos preparos de classe II com a introdução de novos materiais e a conscientização da importância da preservação de estrutura dental sadia são abordadas nos preparos do tipo Almqvist, Roggenkamp e túnel, em que se observa a necessidade de menor desgaste da estrutura dentária, com aumento da resistência à fratura, melhor estética e melhor retençãoDevelopments in preparation of class II cavities with the introduction of new materials and awareness of the importance of preservation of a sound dental structure are broached in preparations of the type Almqvist, Roggenkamp and tunnel, where the need for less wear of the dental structure was observed with an increase in fracture strength, better aesthetics, and better retention

  3. Reliability and agreement in student ratings of the class environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Peter M; Christ, Theodore J

    2016-09-01

    The current study estimated the reliability and agreement of student ratings of the classroom environment obtained using the Responsive Environmental Assessment for Classroom Teaching (REACT; Christ, Nelson, & Demers, 2012; Nelson, Demers, & Christ, 2014). Coefficient alpha, class-level reliability, and class agreement indices were evaluated as each index provides important information for different interpretations and uses of student rating scale data. Data for 84 classes across 29 teachers in a suburban middle school were sampled to derive reliability and agreement indices for the REACT subscales across 4 class sizes: 25, 20, 15, and 10. All participating teachers were White and a larger number of 6th-grade classes were included (42%) relative to 7th- (33%) or 8th- (23%) grade classes. Teachers were responsible for a variety of content areas, including language arts (26%), science (26%), math (20%), social studies (19%), communications (6%), and Spanish (3%). Coefficient alpha estimates were generally high across all subscales and class sizes (α = .70-.95); class-mean estimates were greatly impacted by the number of students sampled from each class, with class-level reliability values generally falling below .70 when class size was reduced from 25 to 20. Further, within-class student agreement varied widely across the REACT subscales (mean agreement = .41-.80). Although coefficient alpha and test-retest reliability are commonly reported in research with student rating scales, class-level reliability and agreement are not. The observed differences across coefficient alpha, class-level reliability, and agreement indices provide evidence for evaluating students' ratings of the class environment according to their intended use (e.g., differentiating between classes, class-level instructional decisions). (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. Indiscernibles, EM-Types, and Ramsey Classes of Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Scow, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    The author has previously shown that for a certain class of structures $\\mathcal {I}$ , $\\mathcal {I}$ -indexed indiscernible sets have the modeling property just in case the age of $\\mathcal {I}$ is a Ramsey class. We expand this known class of structures from ordered structures in a finite relational language to ordered, locally finite structures which isolate quantifier-free types by way of quantifier-free formulas. This result is applied to give new proofs that certain classes of...

  5. 7 CFR 201.69 - Classes of certified seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classes of certified seed. 201.69 Section 201.69..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Certified Seed § 201.69 Classes of certified seed. (a) Classes of certified seed are as...

  6. The Cultures of Social Class and Religious Educational Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpin, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    Although social class impacts the assumptions, values, and normative practices of Religious Education, the lack of public discourse on class diminishes awareness of and critical reflection on this impact. This article describes social class as a largely unarticulated and embodied performance of identity inflected through hierarchical practices of…

  7. Comparison of interradicular distances and cortical bone thickness in Thai patients with Class I and Class II skeletal patterns using cone-beam computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khumsarn, Nattida; Patanaporn, Virush; Jotikasthira, Dhirawat

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluated and compared interradicular distances and cortical bone thickness in Thai patients with Class I and Class II skeletal patterns, using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Methods Pretreatment CBCT images of 24 Thai orthodontic patients with Class I and Class II skeletal patterns were included in the study. Three measurements were chosen for investigation: the mesiodistal distance between the roots, the width of the buccolingual alveolar process, and buccal cortical bone thickness. All distances were recorded at five different levels from the cementoenamel junction (CEJ). Descriptive statistical analysis and t-tests were performed, with the significance level for all tests set at p<0.05. Results Patients with a Class II skeletal pattern showed significantly greater maxillary mesiodistal distances (between the first and second premolars) and widths of the buccolingual alveolar process (between the first and second molars) than Class I skeletal pattern patients at 10 mm above the CEJ. The maxillary buccal cortical bone thicknesses between the second premolar and first molar at 8 mm above the CEJ in Class II patients were likewise significantly greater than in Class I patients. Patients with a Class I skeletal pattern showed significantly wider mandibular buccolingual alveolar processes than did Class II patients (between the first and second molars) at 4, 6, and 8 mm below the CEJ. Conclusion In both the maxilla and mandible, the mesiodistal distances, the width of the buccolingual alveolar process, and buccal cortical bone thickness tended to increase from the CEJ to the apex in both Class I and Class II skeletal patterns. PMID:27358819

  8. James Clerk Maxwell's class of 1856/57

    CERN Document Server

    Reid, John S

    2015-01-01

    James Clerk Maxwell is known for his outstanding contributions to fundamental physics. These include providing the equations that govern electric and magnetic fields, establishing the basis of modern colourimetry, finding important relationships in thermodynamics, molecular science, mechanics, optics and astronomy. In his first Professorial chair in 1856 at the Marischal College and University of Aberdeen he undertook a substantial amount of teaching that laid the foundation for his later pedagogic output. This paper examines whom he taught, where his first students came from and what they did in later life, drawing material from a privately published memoir. Thumbnail portraits are included for 70% of his class. The analysis complements the usual emphasis on educational method and content. The data provide an interesting sociological survey of what Scottish University education was achieving in the middle of the 19th century and is presented as raw material for a wider enquiry.

  9. The Role of Field Classes in Education of Prospective Teachers in Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fleszar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Field classes are indispensable in education of biology and environment protection students, as they allow a future teacher to carry out teaching material bringing together theory and practice through activity. In the framework of Biology Didactics classes the biology students of the Faculty of Natural Sciences at the University of Szczecin participate actively in the works on didactic nature trail in the Arkoñski Woods prepared by Dr. Ewa Fleszar. During the work on didactic natural path the students make themselves acquainted with: field class objectives; field class tasks; field class programmes, e.g. concerning phenology; flora and fauna species. Writing synopsis of field classes for selected lesson units at different teaching levels they acquire sound knowledge based on the ecological contents. Contacts with nature as well as gaining the experience during field classes allow them to obtain competences for working in the field and to understand the objectives of carrying out such classes. Field classes have an effect on developing interests of participants in the subject, and affect the improvement of teaching performance. Visit to the field forms ecological awareness, which leads to obtaining an ecological culture.

  10. 39 CFR 775.5 - Classes of actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 CFR 1508.27. (b) Actions requiring an environmental assessment. Classes of actions that will... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classes of actions. 775.5 Section 775.5 Postal... PROCEDURES § 775.5 Classes of actions. (a) Actions which normally require an environment impact...

  11. The Material Roots of Western Racism

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, Alan

    1998-01-01

    This article assesses the US discussion on the material roots of racism in which writers such as Malcolm X have been heavily criticised by ‘marxists’ for substituting race for class in the analysis of society. The article argues that such criticism departs from the classical Marxist tradition in a manner characteristic of the dominant countries of the world in subordinating issues of political rights to the economic class struggle. This in turn arises from a failure to recognise the rela...

  12. Mutation classes of certain quivers with potentials as derived equivalence classes

    CERN Document Server

    Ladkani, Sefi

    2011-01-01

    We characterize the marked bordered unpunctured oriented surfaces with the property that all the Jacobian algebras of the quivers with potentials arising from their triangulations are derived equivalent. These are either surfaces of genus g with b boundary components and one marked point on each component, or the disc with 4 or 5 points on its boundary. We show that for each such marked surface, all the quivers in the mutation class have the same number of arrows, and the corresponding Jacobian algebras constitute a complete derived equivalence class of finite-dimensional algebras whose members are connected by sequences of Brenner-Butler tilts. In addition, we provide explicit quivers for each of these classes. We consider also 10 of the 11 exceptional finite mutation classes of quivers not arising from triangulations of marked surfaces excluding the one of the quiver X_7, and show that all the finite-dimensional Jacobian algebras in such class (for suitable choice of potentials) are derived equivalent only ...

  13. Sensitivity Analysis of Gas Production from Class 2 and Class 3 Hydrate Deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reagan, Matthew; Moridis, George; Zhang, Keni

    2008-05-01

    Gas hydrates are solid crystalline compounds in which gas molecules are lodged within the lattices of an ice-like crystalline solid. The vast quantities of hydrocarbon gases trapped in hydrate formations in the permafrost and in deep ocean sediments may constitute a new and promising energy source. Class 2 hydrate deposits are characterized by a Hydrate-Bearing Layer (HBL) that is underlain by a saturated zone of mobile water. Class 3 hydrate deposits are characterized by an isolated Hydrate-Bearing Layer (HBL) that is not in contact with any hydrate-free zone of mobile fluids. Both classes of deposits have been shown to be good candidates for exploitation in earlier studies of gas production via vertical well designs - in this study we extend the analysis to include systems with varying porosity, anisotropy, well spacing, and the presence of permeable boundaries. For Class 2 deposits, the results show that production rate and efficiency depend strongly on formation porosity, have a mild dependence on formation anisotropy, and that tighter well spacing produces gas at higher rates over shorter time periods. For Class 3 deposits, production rates and efficiency also depend significantly on formation porosity, are impacted negatively by anisotropy, and production rates may be larger, over longer times, for well configurations that use a greater well spacing. Finally, we performed preliminary calculations to assess a worst-case scenario for permeable system boundaries, and found that the efficiency of depressurization-based production strategies are compromised by migration of fluids from outside the system.

  14. Conformal classes of Brans-Dicke gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Quirós, I

    1999-01-01

    A classification of Brans-Dicke theories of gravitation, based on the behaviour of the dimensionless gravitational coupling constant, is given. It is noted that the discussion takes place in the current literature, about which of the two distinguished conformal frames in which scalar-tensor theories of gravity can be formulated: the Jordan frame and the Einstein frame, is the physical one, may, in most cases, be meaningless for both frames may belong to the same conformal class. It is also noted that the Jordan frame formulation of Brans-Dicke gravity with ordinary matter nonminimally coupled is scale-invariant, unlike the situation with the Jordan frame formulation of Brans-Dicke gravity with matter minimally coupled (the original formulation of Brans-Dicke theory), where the presence of nonzero mass ordinary matter breaks the scale-invariance of the theory.

  15. Team Learning in Large Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Information and suggestions are provided on the use of team learning in large college classes. Introductory material discusses the negative cycle of student-teacher interaction that may be provoked by large classes, and the use of permanent, heterogeneous, six- or seven-member student learning groups as the central focus of class activity as a…

  16. Parts of speech as psycholinguistic classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpatov Vladimir Mikhailovich

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Parts of speech are called the most important, from a particular point of view, word classes. In the European tradition parts of speech have been recovered by ancient grammarians, their classification reflect the essential properties of the Greek and Latin languages and, presumably, were based on psycholinguistic representations of the speakers of these languages, in which the parts of speech have maximum expressiveness in morphology, syntax and lexis. Parts of speech were distinguished primarily on morphological characteristics, sometimes based on syntactic and semantic features. This classification has been preserved with some modifications to the present day, but since the beginning of the XX century there has been attempts to clarify the conventional approach, which could also be different. In other traditions, as well, there were comparable with European basic parts of speech units of classes, but there could be certain differences. The traditional notion of parts of speech may have a different value depending on the structure of the language. Modern typology explores the boundaries of this importance. Apparently, the traditional division of parts of speech hide some intuitive ideas. The human memory words as you can assume, are stored in the form of some groups that have common properties. Stored in the memory word groups can not be completely common in their properties, but for various languages typical is the use of some obvious properties, allowing them to be identified. These identities for many languages are the morphological and/or syntactic properties of groups of words. All these features may act in different ways depending on the structure of the language.

  17. Inflection Classes, Gender, and the Principle of Contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstairs-McCarthy, Andrew

    1994-01-01

    Clark's 1987 Principle of Contrast seems inconsistent with the synonymy exhibited by inflectional affixes in languages with inflection classes. But if inflection class membership identifies the inflection class of the lexemes to which it attaches, then inflection affixation complies with this principle. Grammatical implications are suggested. (76…

  18. Changes in Pedagogy: A Qualitative Result of Teaching Heterogeneous Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, Julia Johnson; McDermott, Peter; Martin, Glen

    1998-01-01

    Examined the effect of eliminating tracking and instead teaching heterogeneous classes using cooperative learning. Observations of high school classes, interviews with students and teachers, and specimen data found several changes in pedagogy and attitudes, including more student-centered, interactive classes; greater higher-order questioning and…

  19. Classes of exact Einstein Maxwell solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komathiraj, K.; Maharaj, S. D.

    2007-12-01

    We find new classes of exact solutions to the Einstein Maxwell system of equations for a charged sphere with a particular choice of the electric field intensity and one of the gravitational potentials. The condition of pressure isotropy is reduced to a linear, second order differential equation which can be solved in general. Consequently we can find exact solutions to the Einstein Maxwell field equations corresponding to a static spherically symmetric gravitational potential in terms of hypergeometric functions. It is possible to find exact solutions which can be written explicitly in terms of elementary functions, namely polynomials and product of polynomials and algebraic functions. Uncharged solutions are regainable with our choice of electric field intensity; in particular we generate the Einstein universe for particular parameter values.

  20. Polynomial Operators on Classes of Regular Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klíma, Ondřej; Polák, Libor

    We assign to each positive variety mathcal V and each natural number k the class of all (positive) Boolean combinations of the restricted polynomials, i.e. the languages of the form L_0a_1 L_1a_2dots a_ell L_ell, text{ where } ell≤ k, a 1,...,a ℓ are letters and L 0,...,L ℓ are languages from the variety mathcal V. For this polynomial operator we give a certain algebraic counterpart which works with identities satisfied by syntactic (ordered) monoids of languages considered. We also characterize the property that a variety of languages is generated by a finite number of languages. We apply our constructions to particular examples of varieties of languages which are crucial for a certain famous open problem concerning concatenation hierarchies.

  1. 49 CFR 213.307 - Class of track: operating speed limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... hazardous material, as defined at 49 CFR 171.8, except as provided in Column 9A of the Hazardous Materials Table (49 CFR 172.101) for movement in the same train as a passenger-carrying vehicle or in Column 9B of... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class of track: operating speed limits....

  2. Latent Trajectory Classes of Depressive and Anxiety Disorders from Adolescence to Adulthood: Descriptions of Classes and Associations with Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Olino, Thomas M.; Klein, Daniel N.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.; Rohde, Paul; John R. Seeley

    2009-01-01

    The study used person-oriented analyses to identify subgroups of individuals who exhibit different patterns of depressive and anxiety disorders over the course of adolescence and young adulthood. Using latent class growth analysis, six trajectory classes were identified. Two classes were mainly characterized by depressive disorders; one was mainly characterized by anxiety disorders; two were characterized by temporally different patterns of comorbidity; and one class was characterized by the ...

  3. A General Class of Metamaterial Transformation Slabs

    CERN Document Server

    Gallina, Ilaria; Galdi, Vincenzo; Alu', Andrea; Engheta, Nader

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we apply transformation-based optics to the derivation of a general class of transparent metamaterial slabs. By means of analytical and numerical full-wave studies, we explore their image displacement/formation capabilities, and establish intriguing connections with configurations already known in the literature. Starting from these revisitations, we develop a number of nontrivial extensions, and illustrate their possible applications to the design of perfect radomes, anti-cloaking devices, and super-resolving lenses based on double-positive (possibly nonmagnetic) media. These designs show that such anomalous features may be achieved without necessarily relying on negative-index or strongly resonant metamaterials, suggesting more practical venues for the realization of these devices.

  4. Anticancer properties of distinct antimalarial drug classes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Hooft van Huijsduijnen

    Full Text Available We have tested five distinct classes of established and experimental antimalarial drugs for their anticancer potential, using a panel of 91 human cancer lines. Three classes of drugs: artemisinins, synthetic peroxides and DHFR (dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors effected potent inhibition of proliferation with IC50s in the nM- low µM range, whereas a DHODH (dihydroorotate dehydrogenase and a putative kinase inhibitor displayed no activity. Furthermore, significant synergies were identified with erlotinib, imatinib, cisplatin, dasatinib and vincristine. Cluster analysis of the antimalarials based on their differential inhibition of the various cancer lines clearly segregated the synthetic peroxides OZ277 and OZ439 from the artemisinin cluster that included artesunate, dihydroartemisinin and artemisone, and from the DHFR inhibitors pyrimethamine and P218 (a parasite DHFR inhibitor, emphasizing their shared mode of action. In order to further understand the basis of the selectivity of these compounds against different cancers, microarray-based gene expression data for 85 of the used cell lines were generated. For each compound, distinct sets of genes were identified whose expression significantly correlated with compound sensitivity. Several of the antimalarials tested in this study have well-established and excellent safety profiles with a plasma exposure, when conservatively used in malaria, that is well above the IC50s that we identified in this study. Given their unique mode of action and potential for unique synergies with established anticancer drugs, our results provide a strong basis to further explore the potential application of these compounds in cancer in pre-clinical or and clinical settings.

  5. Is the class of all fuzzy rings a fuzzy HSP-class?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nistala V. E. S. Murthy

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to generalize, the notion of fuzzy subring of a crisp ring to that of a fuzzy ring and the notion of crisp homomorphism between crisp rings with fuzzy direct image and fuzzy inverse image to that of a fuzzy homomorphism between fuzzy rings with truth values in different complete lattices, with fuzzy direct and inverse images, in such a way that the class of all fuzzy rings is in fact a fuzzy HSP-Class. In the process several elementary but important properties that naturally extended, are recorded including Correspondence and Isomorphism Theorems.

  6. Peptides: A new class of anticancer drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Smolarczyk

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Peptides are a novel class of anticancer agents embracing two distinct categories: natural antibacterial peptides, which are preferentially bound by cancer cells, and chemically synthesized peptides, which bind specifically to precise molecular targets located on the surface of tumor cells. Antibacterial peptides bind to both cell and mitochondrial membranes. Some of these peptides attach to the cell membrane, resulting in its disorganization. Other antibacterial peptides penetrate cancer cells without causing cell membrane damage, but they disrupt mitochondrial membranes. Thanks to phage and aptamer libraries, it has become possible to obtain synthetic peptides blocking or activating some target proteins found in cancer cells as well as in cells forming the tumor environment. These synthetic peptides can feature anti-angiogenic properties, block enzymes indispensable for sustained tumor growth, and reduce tumor ability to metastasize. In this review the properties of peptides belonging to both categories are discussed and attempts of their application for therapeutic purposes are outlined.

  7. Effect of Problem Based Learning Scenario on Knowledge of Third Class Students About Childhood Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Nazan Karaoğlu; Sevgi Pekcan; Burak Cem Soner; Muzaffer Şeker; Rahmi Örs

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: It is stated that students cannot carry their knowledge on basic medical sciences that they gained with classical education to clinical classes and clinical practice and problem based learning (PBL) can compensate this drawback. It was aimed to evaluate the effect of PBL scenario written on this topic on level of knowledge about childhood poisoning of third class students who completed the most of theoretical pharmacology education.Materials and Method: A questionnaire form prep...

  8. Loneliness and Ethnic Composition of the School Class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Katrine Rich; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab; Rubin, Marc;

    2016-01-01

    of school classes for loneliness in adolescence. The present research aimed to address this gap by exploring the association between loneliness and three dimensions of the ethnic composition in the school class: (1) membership of ethnic majority in the school class, (2) the size of own ethnic group...... in the school class, and (3) the ethnic diversity of the school class. We used data from the Danish 2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey: a nationally representative sample of 4383 (51.2 % girls) 11-15-year-olds. Multilevel logistic regression analyses revealed that adolescents who did...

  9. PART 2 of 5: SOCIOLOGY IN NURSING. Social class and its influence on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, David

    The article discusses how the distribution of health mirrors that of wealth. Poor health correlates with poor material circumstances but health inequalities persist across all classes. Health inequalities are more often seen in cultures where there is a more pronounced material divide. PMID:26591485

  10. Classes of hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic turbulent decay

    CERN Document Server

    Brandenburg, Axel

    2016-01-01

    We perform numerical simulations of decaying hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. We classify our time-dependent solutions by their evolutionary tracks in parametric plots between instantaneous scaling exponents. We find distinct classes of solutions evolving along specific trajectories toward points on a line of self-similar solutions. These trajectories are determined by the underlying physics governing individual cases, and not by the initial conditions, as is widely assumed. In the helical case, even for a scale-invariant initial spectrum (inversely proportional to wavenumber k), the solution evolves along the same trajectory as for a Batchelor spectrum (proportional to k^4). All of our self-similar solutions have an intrinsic subinertial range close to k^4$.

  11. A CLASS OF GENERALIZED MULTIPROCESSOR SCHEDULING PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiaoguang

    2000-01-01

    The paper discusses a class of generalized multiprocessor scheduling problems which is to arrange some independent jobs on almost identical processors. Different from the classical multiprocessor scheduling, each job may only be processed by some processors,not all. In this paper, we first prove that the problems of minimization makespan and minimization total weighted completion time can be solved by the polynomial algorithms if all processing time are unit time. Then for arbitrary processing time, we try to analyze the worst performance of list schedule (LS) method and longest processing time(LPT) method when there are only two machines involved. We show that the bounds for LS and LPT are exactly two.

  12. The roles of social class of origin, achieved social class and intergenerational social mobility in explaining social-class inequalities in alcoholism among young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmingsson, T; Lundberg, I; Diderichsen, Finn

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of intergenerational health-related mobility in explaining social-class inequalities in alcoholism among young men. Data on social class of origin and on risk factors in childhood and adolescence, e.g. risk use of alcohol, were collected for 49...... differences in alcoholism between social classes. Factors established in adolescence were important with regard to differences in alcoholism between social classes among young adults. But such adverse conditions did not seem to be well reflected by social class of origin.......,323 men, born 1949-51, at enlistment for compulsory military training in 1969/70. Information on achieved socioeconomic class was obtained from Sweden's 1975 census. Data on alcoholism diagnoses were collected from the national in-patient care register 1976-83. Risk indicators for alcoholism established...

  13. The effects of mixed-age classes in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Elly-Ann; Lindahl, Erica

    2008-01-01

    Mixed-aged classes (MA-classes) are a common phenomenon around the world. In Sweden, these types of classes increased rapidly during the 1980:s and 1990:s. But the scientific evidence of the benefits of MA-classes is not convincing. In this paper, we estimate the effect of attending an MA-class during grades 4–6 on students’ cognitive skills. Using a unique survey with information on students, parents and teachers, we are able to control for many factors that could otherwise bias the results....

  14. Improved prediction of MHC class I and class II epitopes using a novel Gibbs sampling approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten; Lundegaard, Claus; Worning, Peder;

    2004-01-01

    binding peptides and to guiding the process of rational vaccine design. Results: We apply the motif sampler method to the complex problem of MHC class II binding. The input to the method is amino acid peptide sequences extracted from the public databases of SYFPEITHI and MHCPEP and known to bind......Prediction of which peptides will bind a specific major histocompatibility complex (MHC) constitutes an important step in identifying potential T-cell epitopes suitable as vaccine candidates. MHC class II binding peptides have a broad length distribution complicating such predictions. Thus...

  15. Class Attendance in College: A Meta-Analytic Review of the Relationship of Class Attendance with Grades and Student Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crede, Marcus; Roch, Sylvia G.; Kieszczynka, Urszula M.

    2010-01-01

    A meta-analysis of the relationship between class attendance in college and college grades reveals that attendance has strong relationships with both class grades (k = 69, N = 21,195, p = 0.44) and GPA (k = 33, N = 9,243, p = 0.41). These relationships make class attendance a better predictor of college grades than any other known predictor of…

  16. Explicit classes of permutation polynomials of F33m

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Permutation polynomials have been an interesting subject of study for a long time and have applications in many areas of mathematics and engineering. However, only a small number of specific classes of permutation polynomials are known so far. In this paper, six classes of linearized permutation polynomials and six classes of nonlinearized permutation polynomials over F33m are presented. These polynomials have simple shapes, and they are related to planar functions.

  17. Explicit classes of permutation polynomials of F33m

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING CunSheng; XIANG Qing; YUAN Jin; YUAN PingZhi

    2009-01-01

    Permutation polynomials have been an interesting subject of study for a long time and have applications in many areas of mathematics and engineering. However, only a small number of specific classes of permutation polynomials are known so far. In this paper, six classes of linearized permutation polynomials and six classes of nonlinearized permutation polynomials over F33 are pre-sented. These polynomials have simple shapes, and they are related to planar functions.

  18. On a Class of Semicommutative Modules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nazim Agayev; Tahire Özen; Abdullah Harmanci

    2009-04-01

    Let be a ring with identity, a right -module and $S=\\mathrm{End}_R(M)$. In this note, we introduce -semicommutative, -Baer, $S-q.$-Baer and $S-p.q.$-Baer modules. We study the relations between these classes of modules. Also we prove if is an -semicommutative module, then is an $S-p.q.$-Baer module if and only if $M[x]$ is an $S[x]-p.q.$-Baer module, is an -Baer module if and only if $M[x]$ is an $S[x]$-Baer module, is an $S-q.$-Baer module if and only if $M[x]$ is an $S[x]-q.$-Baer module.

  19. The Average Widths of Sobolev-Wiener Classes and Besov-Wiener Classes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui Qiao XU; Yong Ping LIU

    2004-01-01

    This paper concerns the problem of average σ-width of Sobolev Wiener classes Wrpq(Rd),Wrpq(M, Rd), and Besov-Wiener classes Srpqθb(Rd), SrpqθB( Rd), Srpqθb(M, Rd), SrpqθB( Rd) in the metric Lq(Rd) for 1 ≤ q ≤ p ≤∞. The weak asymptotic results concerning the average linear widths, the average Bernstein widths and the infinite-dimensional Gel'fand widths are obtained, respectively.

  20. SUBGROUPS OF CLASS GROUPS OF ALGEBRAIC QUADRATIC FUNCTION FIELDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鲲鹏; 张贤科

    2003-01-01

    Ideal class groups H(K) of algebraic quadratic function fields K are studied. Necessaryand sufficient condition is given for the class group H(K) to contain a cyclic subgroup of anyorder n, which holds true for both real and imaginary fields K. Then several series of functionfields K, including real, inertia imaginary, and ramified imaginary quadratic function fields, aregiven, for which the class groups H(K) are proved to contain cyclic subgroups of order n.

  1. 既有建筑拆除物碎砖类骨料再生混凝土的可行性研究%Feasibility Study of the Exiting Building Demolition Material the Brickbat Class Aggregate of Recycled Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童滋捷; 宗兰; 张士萍

    2012-01-01

    By using the exiting buildings to remove material broken bricks as aggregate , this article describes the background and purpose of preparation of recycled concrete. And, it has done a feasibility study about preparation of recycled concrete contents , steps, technologies routes and so on .%文章介绍了利用既有建筑拆除物碎砖作为骨料,制备再生混凝土的研究背景及目的,并对既有建筑拆除物中的碎砖作为骨料.制备再生混凝土的研究内容、步骤、技术路线等方面做了可行性研究。

  2. Zintl phase compounds AM2Sb2 (A=Ca, Sr, Ba, Eu, Yb;M=Zn, Cd) and their substitution variants:a class of potential thermoelectric materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭凯; 操齐高; 赵景泰

    2013-01-01

    Zintl phase compounds AM2Sb2 (A=Ca, Sr, Ba, Eu, Yb;M=Zn, Cd) is a new class of promising thermoelectrics owing to their intrinsic features in electronic and crystal structure, such as a small or even disappeared band-gap, large density-of-states at the Fermi level, covalently bonded network of M-Sb, as well as the layered stacking by cations A2+and anionic slabs (M2Sb2)2-. In addi-tion, the rich solid-state chemistry of Zintl phase allows structural modification and chemical substitution to adjust the fundamental transport parameters (carrier concentration, mobility, effective mass, electronic and lattice thermal conductivity) for improving the thermoelectric performance. In the present review, the recent advances in synthesis and thermoelectric characterization of title com-pounds AM2Sb2 were presented, and the effects of alloying or substitution for sites A, M and Sb on the electrical and thermal trans-port were emphasized. The structural disorder yielded by the incorporation of multiple ions significantly increased the thermoelectric figure of merit mainly resulted from the reduction of thermal conductivity without disrupting the carrier transport region in substance. Therefore, alloying or substitution has been a feasible and common route utilized to enhance thermoelectric properties in these Zintl phase compounds, especially for YbZn0.4Cd1.6Sb2 (ZT700 K=1.26), EuZn1.8Cd0.2Sb2 (ZT650 K=1.06), and YbCd1.85Mn0.15Sb2 (ZT650 K=1.14).

  3. Class Size: Can School Districts Capitalize on the Benefits of Smaller Classes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertling, Elizabeth; Leonard, Courtney; Lumsden, Linda; Smith, Stuart C.

    2000-01-01

    This report is intended to help policymakers understand the benefits of class-size reduction (CSR). It assesses the costs of CSR, considers some research-based alternatives, and explores strategies that will help educators realize the benefits of CSR when it is implemented. It examines how CSR enhances student achievement, such as when the…

  4. Joining of dissimilar materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Michael C; Lau, Grace Y; Jacobson, Craig P

    2012-10-16

    A method of joining dissimilar materials having different ductility, involves two principal steps: Decoration of the more ductile material's surface with particles of a less ductile material to produce a composite; and, sinter-bonding the composite produced to a joining member of a less ductile material. The joining method is suitable for joining dissimilar materials that are chemically inert towards each other (e.g., metal and ceramic), while resulting in a strong bond with a sharp interface between the two materials. The joining materials may differ greatly in form or particle size. The method is applicable to various types of materials including ceramic, metal, glass, glass-ceramic, polymer, cermet, semiconductor, etc., and the materials can be in various geometrical forms, such as powders, fibers, or bulk bodies (foil, wire, plate, etc.). Composites and devices with a decorated/sintered interface are also provided.

  5. Can Technology Improve Large Class Learning? The Case of an Upper-Division Business Core Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Denise

    2013-01-01

    Larger classes are often associated with lower student achievement. The author tested the hypothesis that the introduction of personal response systems significantly improves scores in a 250-seat classroom, through the channels of improved attendance and engagement. She focused on how continuous participation with the technology could change…

  6. Methods of materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Jesper; Matthiesen, Noomi

    2016-01-01

    that researchers should start paying attention to the material world (consisting of both human bodies and material objects) and what it means for how people live their lives. It is argued that this can be done by incorporating the concept of material presence to capture embodied and material layers of existence......, and the method of participant observation is suggested as a viable approach to achieve this end. An empirical example of how authority is produced in a parent-teacher conference, not only through language but also through material objects and embodied being, is then presented. The article concludes by suggesting...... practical guidelines for incorporating attention to materiality in qualitative research....

  7. Material models of dark energy

    CERN Document Server

    Pearson, Jonathan A

    2014-01-01

    We review and develop a new class of "dark energy" models, in which the relativistic theory of solids is used to construct material models of dark energy. These are models which include the effects of a continuous medium with well defined physical properties at the level of linearized perturbations. The formalism is constructed for a medium with arbitrary symmetry, and then specialised to isotropic media (which will be the case of interest for the majority of cosmological applications). We develop the theory of relativistic isotropic viscoelastic media whilst keeping in mind that we ultimately want to observationally constrain the allowed properties of the material model. We do this by obtaining the viscoelastic equations of state for perturbations (the entropy and anisotropic stress), as well as identifying the consistent corner of the theory which has constant equation of state parameter $\\dot{w}=0$. We also connect to the non-relativistic theory of solids, by identifying the two quadratic invariants that a...

  8. Classes of source pairs in interference and diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Castaneda, R

    2003-01-01

    A description of interference and diffraction based on the concept of class of source pairs is presented. It is the set of pairs of sources whose contributions to the interference or diffraction patterns exhibit the same phase difference. Each class of source pairs provides a specific cosine-like modulation on the intensity distribution of pattern, in such a way that the set provides an expansion of the intensity distribution of the pattern in an orthogonal basis. From this point of view, the classes of source pairs are the effective elementary sources for those intensity distributions. The characteristics of the classes of source pairs can be accurately determined by Fourier transforming the intensity distribution of the patterns. The central value of this Fourier spectrum is related to the number of individual sources. The remaining values will provide two crucial descriptors of the classes: their positions on the Fourier transform domain will be corresponding to the separation vector of the class of pairs ...

  9. New class of biological detectors for WIMPs

    CERN Document Server

    Drukier, A K; Chonofsky, M; Church, G M; Fagaly, R L; Freese, K; Lopez, A; Sano, T; Savage, C; Wong, W P

    2014-01-01

    Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) may constitute a large fraction of the matter in the Universe. There are excess events in the data of DAMA/LIBRA, CoGeNT, CRESST-II, and recently CDMS-Si, which could be consistent with WIMP masses of approximately 10 GeV/c2. However, for MDM > 10 GeV/c2 null results of the CDMS-Ge, XENON, and LUX detectors may be in tension with the potential detections for certain dark matter scenarios and assuming a certain light response. We propose the use of a new class of biological dark matter (DM) detectors to further examine this light dark matter hypothesis, taking advantage of new signatures with low atomic number targets, Two types of biological DM detectors are discussed here: DNA-based detectors and enzymatic reactions (ER) based detectors. In the case of DNA-based detectors, we discuss a new implementation. In the case of ER detectors, there are four crucial phases of the detection process: a) change of state due to energy deposited by a particle; b) amplification d...

  10. The bioenergetics of World Class Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeukendrup, A E; Craig, N P; Hawley, J A

    2000-12-01

    Professional cycle racing is one of the most demanding of all sports combining extremes of exercise duration, intensity and frequency. Riders are required to perform on a variety of surfaces (track, road, cross-country, mountain), terrains (level, uphill and downhill) and race situations (criterions, sprints, time trials, mass-start road races) in events ranging in duration from 10 s to 3 wk stage races covering 200 m to 4,000 km. Furthermore, professional road cyclists typically have approximately 100 race d/yr. Because of the diversity of cycle races, there are vastly different physiological demands associated with the various events. Until recently there was little information on the demands of professional cycling during training or competition. However, with the advent of reliable, valid bicycle crank dynanometers, it is now possible to quantify real-time power output, cadence and speed during a variety of track and road cycling races. This article provides novel data on the physiological demands of professional and world-class amateur cyclists and characterises some of the physiological attributes necessary for success in cycling at the élite level. PMID:11235007

  11. Ecdysteroids: A novel class of anabolic agents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, M K; Botrè, F; Naß, A; Hengevoss, J; Diel, P; Wolber, G

    2015-06-01

    Increasing numbers of dietary supplements with ecdysteroids are marketed as "natural anabolic agents". Results of recent studies suggested that their anabolic effect is mediated by estrogen receptor (ER) binding. Within this study the anabolic potency of ecdysterone was compared to well characterized anabolic substances. Effects on the fiber sizes of the soleus muscle in rats as well the diameter of C2C12 derived myotubes were used as biological readouts. Ecdysterone exhibited a strong hypertrophic effect on the fiber size of rat soleus muscle that was found even stronger compared to the test compounds metandienone (dianabol), estradienedione (trenbolox), and SARM S 1, all administered in the same dose (5 mg/kg body weight, for 21 days). In C2C12 myotubes ecdysterone (1 µM) induced a significant increase of the diameter comparable to dihydrotestosterone (1 µM) and IGF 1 (1.3 nM). Molecular docking experiments supported the ERβ mediated action of ecdysterone. To clarify its status in sports, ecdysterone should be considered to be included in the class "S1.2 Other Anabolic Agents" of the list of prohibited substances of the World Anti-Doping Agency.

  12. 78 FR 5754 - Proposed Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Reading, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a Regulatory Evaluation... continues to read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3... Class E Airspace; Reading, PA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice...

  13. Some remarks on certain classes of semilattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Ramana Murty

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the concept of a ∗-semilattice is introduced as a generalization to distributive ∗-lattice first introduced by Speed [1]. It is shown that almost all the results of Speed can be extended to a more eneral class of distributive ∗-semilattices. In pseudocomplemented semilattices and distributive semilattices the set of annihilators of an element is an ideal in the sense of Grätzer [2]. But it is not so in general and thus we are led to the definition of a weakly distributive semilattice. In §2 we actually obtain the interesting corollary that a modular ∗-semilattice is weakly distributive if and only if its dense filter is neutral. In §3 the concept of a sectionally pseudocomplemented semilattice is introduced in a natural way. It is proved that given a sectionally pseudocomplemented semilattice there is a smallest quotient of it which is a sectionally Boolean algebra. Further as a corollary to one of the theorems it is obtained that a sectionally pseudocomplemented semilattice with a dense element becomes a ∗-semilattice. Finally a necessary and sufficient condition for a ∗-semilattice to be a pseudocomplemented semilattice is obtained.

  14. Alteration and long-term behaviour of different types of innovative materials for long-lived radionuclides confinement; Alteration et comportement a long terme de differentes classes de materiaux innovants pour le confinement des radionucleides a vie longue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leturcq, G

    1998-09-29

    The present work is an experimental study on alteration mechanisms of synthetic and natural materials: aluminosilicate glasses, glass ceramics and Ti, Zr or P based ceramics. It is a part of CEA's study program on the immobilization of long- lived radionuclides and deals with chemical processes which control dissolution of amorphous and crystallized solids. The different aluminosilicate glasses studied are altered according to a process of hydrolysis of the bonds between the glass network formers; the activation energy of this reaction is about 60 kJ/mol. Alteration rates of all the glasses decrease by four orders of magnitude when the reaction progress increases. Kinetic laws based on the deviation from the thermodynamic equilibrium between leachate and the fresh solid cannot explain these great decreases. Alteration layers in the reactional interface seem to control the alteration kinetics by providing a passivation process. The chemical durability of the glass ceramics (zirconolite and titanite) improves by a factor of ten in regard to the primary glasses which were obtained by thermal treatment. Zirconium-titanate ceramics are altered only slightly by water. The altered mass corresponds to a few atomic layers only. Steady stases are quickly observed. On the basis of thermodynamic calculations, they are not correlated with saturation between the leachate and primary zirconium-titanate phases. Alteration here also ceases due to the development of a passivating layer. Models aiming at studying the chemical durability of zirconium-titanate ceramics under conditions more representative of a clayey site of geological storage were carried out. The results of the interactions of these ceramics with clays, at 708 deg.C, show clearly that there is no modification of the process of alteration, compared to the simpler pure water systems. Thus, perovskite and zirconolite do not deteriorate under these conditions. (author)

  15. On a new class of hyperbolic functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stakhov, Alexey; Rozin, Boris

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the results of some new research on a new class of hyperbolic functions that unite the characteristics of the classical hyperbolic functions and the recurring Fibonacci and Lucas series. The hyperbolic Fibonacci and Lucas functions, which are the being extension of Binet's formulas for the Fibonacci and Lucas numbers in continuous domain, transform the Fibonacci numbers theory into 'continuous' theory because every identity for the hyperbolic Fibonacci and Lucas functions has its discrete analogy in the framework of the Fibonacci and Lucas numbers. Taking into consideration a great role played by the hyperbolic functions in geometry and physics, ('Lobatchevski's hyperbolic geometry', 'Four-dimensional Minkowski's world', etc.), it is possible to expect that the new theory of the hyperbolic functions will bring to new results and interpretations on mathematics, biology, physics, and cosmology. In particular, the result is vital for understanding the relation between transfinitness i.e. fractal geometry and the hyperbolic symmetrical character of the disintegration of the neural vacuum, as pointed out by El Naschie [Chaos Solitons and Fractals 17 (2003) 631].

  16. WORKING WITH ALKALINE MATERIALS TO ACHIEVE A CLASS B, CLASS A, AND/OR A BIOSOLIDS THAT DOES NOT ATTRACT VECTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This workshop presentation begins with a discussion of the use of lime and other alkaline materials from the very earliest times to the present for killing bacteria, viruses and parasites and for controlling odors in wastewaters and sludge. It answers the question "How did EPA ar...

  17. Machinability of advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Davim, J Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Machinability of Advanced Materials addresses the level of difficulty involved in machining a material, or multiple materials, with the appropriate tooling and cutting parameters.  A variety of factors determine a material's machinability, including tool life rate, cutting forces and power consumption, surface integrity, limiting rate of metal removal, and chip shape. These topics, among others, and multiple examples comprise this research resource for engineering students, academics, and practitioners.

  18. Canister filling materials -- Design requirements and evaluation of candidate materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SKB has been evaluating a copper/steel canister for use in the disposal of spent nuclear reactor fuel. Once the canister is breached by corrosion, it is possible that the void volume inside the canister might fill with water. Water inside the canister would moderate the energy of the neutrons emitted by spontaneous fission in the fuel. It the space in the canister between and around the fuel pins is occupied by canister filling materials, the potential for criticality is avoided. The authors have developed a set of design requirements for canister filling material for the case where it is to be used alone, with no credit for burnup of the fuel or other measures, such as the use of neutron absorbers. Requirements were divided into three classes: essential requirements, desirable features, and undesirable features. The essential requirements are that the material fill at least 60% of the original void space, that the solubility of the filling material be less than 100 mg/l in pure water or expected repository waters at 50 C, and that the material not compact under its own weight by more than 10%. In this paper they review the reasons for these requirements, the desirable and undesirable features, and evaluate 11 candidate materials with respect to the design requirements and features. The candidate materials are glass beads, lead shot, copper spheres, sand, olivine, hematite, magnetite, crushed rock, bentonite, other clays, and concrete. Emphasis is placed on the determination of whether further work is needed to eliminate uncertainties in the evaluation of the ability of a particular filling material to be successfully used under actual conditions, and on the ability to predict the long-term performance of the material under the repository conditions

  19. Materials Analysis and Modeling of Underfill Materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyatt, Nicholas B [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chambers, Robert S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The thermal-mechanical properties of three potential underfill candidate materials for PBGA applications are characterized and reported. Two of the materials are a formulations developed at Sandia for underfill applications while the third is a commercial product that utilizes a snap-cure chemistry to drastically reduce cure time. Viscoelastic models were calibrated and fit using the property data collected for one of the Sandia formulated materials. Along with the thermal-mechanical analyses performed, a series of simple bi-material strip tests were conducted to comparatively analyze the relative effects of cure and thermal shrinkage amongst the materials under consideration. Finally, current knowledge gaps as well as questions arising from the present study are identified and a path forward presented.

  20. [Gender identity in adolescents of the lower classes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Alonso, A R

    1993-12-01

    This reflection on gender identity among lower class adolescent females begins with a discussion of concepts. The specific sociocultural context strongly influences gender identity, which depends largely on social definitions of the female or male. Adolescence is the phase of life from around ten to 18 years during which the individual assumes an adult personality and life plans. The lower class or marginal sector, by whatever term it is called, denotes the group forming the base of the socioeconomic structure. This profoundly heterogeneous group experiences restricted conditions of material and spiritual survival. High proportions are in-migrants from rural areas with little education who earn meager livelihoods in the informal sector. The symbolic configuration of their communities of origin entails a view of submission, dependence, and sacrifice as the dominant characteristics of the female role. Urban residence exposes the population to messages on the value of education, consumption, the modern woman, and family planning, values contradicting traditional female role expectations. Families are large and live in poor and crowded housing with few services. The sexual division of labor places heavy burdens on girls from an early age. Alcoholism, domestic violence, or drug addiction may affect psychoaffective development. The quality of education available to these population sectors is very low. School abandonment is common. Most who continue their studies will be frustrated by a lack of available employment. The less educated will be concentrated in poorly paid jobs in the domestic and personal services, without social security and subject to abuse and exploitation by the employer. Some 50% of the women are in union by age 18. Unmarried motherhood and frequent changes of sexual partners are common. Legal mechanisms to protect the rights of mothers and those of their children are almost completely lacking. Most of the problems suffered by this group result from

  1. Time to Confront Willis's Lads with a Ballet Class? A Case Study of Educational Orthodoxy and White Working-Class Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Martin

    2009-01-01

    This is a retrospective study tracing the longer term effects on identity and aspiration of white working-class boys from an area of high social deprivation. The boys were members of an acclaimed boys' dance company and have been retrospectively interviewed as young men in their twenties. Documentary and film material dating from the time they…

  2. Genetic Enhancement and the Biopolitical Horizon of Class Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wade Roberts

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I argue that the widespread use of liberal eugenics  would establish a biopolitical horizon for class conflict.  In the course of my discussion, I examine Foucault’s discussion of the origins of class racism in Society Must Be Defended.  I then turn to an examination of how a widespread use of genetic engineering could aggravate class divisions and produce new forms of class racism.  I conclude the essay with an overview of the political options which are available to opponents of liberal eugenics.

  3. Class characteristics of serrated knife stabs to cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pounder, Derrick J; Cormack, Lesley; Broadbent, Elizabeth; Millar, John

    2011-06-01

    A total of 136 stab wounds were made in cartilage with 8 serrated knives and 72 stabs with 4 nonserrated knives. The walls of the stab track were documented by photography, cast with dental impression material, and the casts photographed. Staining the translucent cartilage surface with blue or green food dye improved photography. Serrated blades produced striations on cartilage in all stabbings. Patterns of blade serration beyond the broad categories of coarse and fine were recognizable. The overall pattern of striations was "irregularly regular." The distance between the blade-spine wound end and the first serration striation is a class characteristic of the knife which produced the defect, as are distances to the subsequent serration striations, which become ever close together and eventually merge near the blade-edge wound end. Serrated knives may be ground (scalloped) on either the left side or the right side of the blade and this class characteristic is identifiable from the walls of the wound track, on which the scalloped blade surface produces broad ridges and narrow striation valleys, with a reverse image on the opposing wound wall. A drop point serrated blade consistently produced an additional oblique mark angled from the blade-spine wound end, accurately reflecting the shape of the blade tip, and representing a chatter mark.

  4. Terminology of carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagrov, G.N.; Nagornyi, V.G.; Ostrovskii, V.S.

    1986-07-01

    The need is discussed to standardize definition of carbonaceous material. Terms related to carbonaceous materials and their products are selected and analyzed. Diagramatic representation is given of relationships between carbonaceous materials. Carbon has two forms of structure, cubic and hexagonal, characterized by sp/sup 3/-hybrid groups of atoms forming spatial system of tetrahedral bonds. Hexagonal form of carbon is represented by natural materials such as graphite, shungite, anthracite and a number of artificial materials obtained during thermal treatment of organic substances at temperatures above carbonization temperature. 4 references.

  5. Genomic characterization of methanomicrobiales reveals three classes of methanogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain Anderson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Methanomicrobiales is the least studied order of methanogens. While these organisms appear to be more closely related to the Methanosarcinales in ribosomal-based phylogenetic analyses, they are metabolically more similar to Class I methanogens. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to improve our understanding of this lineage, we have completely sequenced the genomes of two members of this order, Methanocorpusculum labreanum Z and Methanoculleus marisnigri JR1, and compared them with the genome of a third, Methanospirillum hungatei JF-1. Similar to Class I methanogens, Methanomicrobiales use a partial reductive citric acid cycle for 2-oxoglutarate biosynthesis, and they have the Eha energy-converting hydrogenase. In common with Methanosarcinales, Methanomicrobiales possess the Ech hydrogenase and at least some of them may couple formylmethanofuran formation and heterodisulfide reduction to transmembrane ion gradients. Uniquely, M. labreanum and M. hungatei contain hydrogenases similar to the Pyrococcus furiosus Mbh hydrogenase, and all three Methanomicrobiales have anti-sigma factor and anti-anti-sigma factor regulatory proteins not found in other methanogens. Phylogenetic analysis based on seven core proteins of methanogenesis and cofactor biosynthesis places the Methanomicrobiales equidistant from Class I methanogens and Methanosarcinales. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that Methanomicrobiales, rather than being similar to Class I methanogens or Methanomicrobiales, share some features of both and have some unique properties. We find that there are three distinct classes of methanogens: the Class I methanogens, the Methanomicrobiales (Class II, and the Methanosarcinales (Class III.

  6. Genomic Characterization of Methanomicrobiales Reveals Three Classes of Methanogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Iain; Ulrich, Luke E.; Lupa, Boguslaw; Susanti, Dwi; Porat, Iris; Hooper, Sean D.; Lykidis, Athanasios; Sieprawska-Lupa, Magdalena; Dharmarajan, Lakshmi; Goltsman, Eugene; Lapidus, Alla; Saunders, Elizabeth; Han, Cliff; Land, Miriam; Lucas, Susan; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup; Whitman, William B.; Woese, Carl; Bristow, James; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2009-05-01

    Methanomicrobiales is the least studied order of methanogens. While these organisms appear to be more closely related to the Methanosarcinales in ribosomal-based phylogenetic analyses, they are metabolically more similar to Class I methanogens. In order to improve our understanding of this lineage, we have completely sequenced the genomes of two members of this order, Methanocorpusculum labreanum Z and Methanoculleus marisnigri JR1, and compared them with the genome of a third, Methanospirillum hungatei JF-1. Similar to Class I methanogens, Methanomicrobiales use a partial reductive citric acid cycle for 2-oxoglutarate biosynthesis, and they have the Eha energy-converting hydrogenase. In common with Methanosarcinales, Methanomicrobiales possess the Ech hydrogenase and at least some of them may couple formylmethanofuran formation and heterodisulfide reduction to transmembrane ion gradients. Uniquely, M. labreanum and M. hungatei contain hydrogenases similar to the Pyrococcus furiosus Mbh hydrogenase, and all three Methanomicrobiales have anti-sigma factor and anti-anti-sigma factor regulatory proteins not found in other methanogens. Phylogenetic analysis based on seven core proteins of methanogenesis and cofactor biosynthesis places the Methanomicrobiales equidistant from Class I methanogens and Methanosarcinales. Our results indicate that Methanomicrobiales, rather than being similar to Class I methanogens or Methanomicrobiales, share some features of both and have some unique properties. We find that there are three distinct classes of methanogens: the Class I methanogens, the Methanomicrobiales (Class II), and the Methanosarcinales (Class III).

  7. N=1 theories of class S_k

    OpenAIRE

    Gaiotto, Davide; Razamat, Shlomo S.

    2015-01-01

    We construct classes of ${\\cal N}=1$ superconformal theories elements of which are labeled by punctured Riemann surfaces. Degenerations of the surfaces correspond, in some cases, to weak coupling limits. Different classes are labeled by two integers (N,k). The k=1 case coincides with A_{N-1} ${\\cal N}=2$ theories of class S and simple examples of theories with k>1 are Z_k orbifolds of some of the A_{N-1} class S theories. For the space of ${\\cal N}=1$ theories to be complete in an appropriate...

  8. Assessment of the efficacy of blended learning in an introductory pharmacy class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Christina Elizabeth

    Blended learning is the convergence between traditional face-to-face learning typically seen in a university setting and a computer-mediated learning environment, and is increasingly being seen as a viable alternative for learning instruction. Pharmaceutical calculations (PC) is a course taken by students in the first year in the school of pharmacy at the University of Kansas (KU SOP). One of the objectives of the PC class is that students are able to perform calculations with minimal error consistently. This requires repetitive drill which is a poor use of class time. By moving presentation of material online and using class time for small learning group problem solving as well as practice exams, the transformation of the course to a blended or hybrid course is assessed for efficacy and found to have student outcomes which are comparable to previous face-to-face (F2F) classes. As KU SOP expands it class sizes from 105 to ˜150 students and its campuses (building a satellite campus in Wichita, Kansas), being able to provide quality instruction at a reasonable cost is desirable. By redesigning PC to be a hybrid course, the need to hire additional instructors and/or increase available resources is minimized. Instructors remain for the large part on the main campus in Lawrence while students are learning at remote locations, a cost-effective measure for all parties involved. Using small learning groups (consisting of not more than 3 or 4 students) to work problems in PC was demonstrated to be an effective use of F2F class time in the fall semester, 2008 at KU. The class was taught by the same instructor in the fall of 2009 using blended learning as the class format. The current computer Learning Management System (LMS) in use at KU is Blackboard((c)2010). By using Blackboard to deliver lectures and have students work through tutorials to learn the material, class time was devoted to highly-focused problem solving. Due to unequal data distribution, the non

  9. Representations of deaf students about inclusion in physical education classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tássia Pereira Alves

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Inclusion is a social process in school aims to change attitudes and to build a position to cover everyone without distinction. Thus, the objective was to analyze the representations of deaf students on their inclusion in physical education classes. It is qualitative, descriptive and analytical, attended eight deaf students from 2 public schools in a city in the countryside of Bahia. For data production, it was used a semi -structured interview, through the aid of an interpreter of Brazilian Sign Language (Libras, at the same time, it was translated by the interpreter and transcribed by the researchers. Data analysis used the technique of categorical content analysis. The inclusion of deaf people in physical education classes still failed to materialize and in fact, even having found some teachers with pedagogical actions that proved to be inclusive, yet they still leave many gaps, regarding satisfactory learning of students because they simply just integrate deaf students in the classroom. It is necessary that the school and the teacher ensure that the curriculum is accessible to them, so that they can contribute to the construction of citizenship, motor development, cognitive and social-emotional student.

  10. Economic struggle and the class culture of workers

    OpenAIRE

    Branko Bembič

    2013-01-01

    Economic struggles are usually linked to the spontaneous working class ideology of fighting for a mere improvement in wages and working conditions. However, they often transcend their meagre economic results as they are indispensable in the construction of the working class culture of solidarity. Far from being spontaneous, the process of transforming the trade union orientation from class unionism to business unionism in the USA and to social partnership in Europe had to be imposed through s...

  11. On Bivariate Generalized Exponential-Power Series Class of Distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Jafari, Ali Akbar; Roozegar, Rasool

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new class of bivariate distributions by compounding the bivariate generalized exponential and power-series distributions. This new class contains some new sub-models such as the bivariate generalized exponential distribution, the bivariate generalized exponential-poisson, -logarithmic, -binomial and -negative binomial distributions. We derive different properties of the new class of distributions. The EM algorithm is used to determine the maximum likelihood estim...

  12. Social class and body weight among Chinese urban adults: the role of the middle classes in the nutrition transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnefond, Céline; Clément, Matthieu

    2014-07-01

    While a plethoric empirical literature addresses the relationship between socio-economic status and body weight, little is known about the influence of social class on nutritional outcomes, particularly in developing countries. The purpose of this article is to contribute to the analysis of the social determinants of adult body weight in urban China by taking into account the influence of social class. More specifically, we propose to analyse the position of the Chinese urban middle class in terms of being overweight or obese. The empirical investigations conducted as part of this research are based on a sample of 1320 households and 2841 adults from the China Health and Nutrition Survey for 2009. For the first step, we combine an economic approach and a sociological approach to identify social classes at household level. First, households with an annual per capita income between 10,000 Yuan and the 95th income percentile are considered as members of the middle class. Second, we strengthen the characterization of the middle class using information on education and employment. By applying clustering methods, we identify four groups: the elderly and inactive middle class, the old middle class, the lower middle class and the new middle class. For the second step, we implement an econometric analysis to assess the influence of social class on adult body mass index and on the probability of being overweight or obese. We use multinomial treatment regressions to deal with the endogeneity of the social class variable. Our results show that among the four subgroups of the urban middle class, the new middle class is the only one to be relatively well-protected against obesity. We suggest that this group plays a special role in adopting healthier food consumption habits and seems to be at a more advanced stage of the nutrition transition. PMID:24788113

  13. Meanings of Materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karana, E.

    2009-01-01

    This book is about meanings we attribute to materials of the objects around us. Materials convey meanings: they look traditional, they express luxury, they are associated with factories, or they conjure up one’s childhood. How do materials obtain these meanings? How do they interact with other e

  14. ORTHOGNATIC SURGICAL TREATMENT OF SKELETAL CLASS III MALOCLUSION: CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    GÜNGÖR, AHMET YALÇIN; Turkkahraman, Hakan; Baykul, Timucin; Aydın, Asım

    2012-01-01

    In this case report a case is presented with skeletal class III malocclusion which were treated with proper planned orthognatic surgery and orthodontic treatment. Our patient was a girl with 16 years, 3 months of chronologic and Ru period of skeletal age. A concave soft tissue profile and Class III molar relation was detected in extraoral and intraoral examination. Cephalometric evaluation revealed a significant Class III skeletal discrepancy (ANBº= -6). Presurgical orthodontics involved deco...

  15. On Ramsey properties of classes with forbidden trees

    CERN Document Server

    Foniok, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Let $\\F$ be a set of relational trees and let $\\Forbh(\\F)$ be the class of all structures that admit no homomorphism from any tree in $\\F$; all this happens over a fixed finite relational signature $\\sigma$. There is a natural way to expand $\\Forbh(\\F)$ by unary relations to an amalgamation class. This expanded class, enhanced with a linear ordering, has the Ramsey property.

  16. QUANTUM COMPLEXITY OF THE INTEGRATION PROBLEM FOR ANISOTROPIC CLASSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-fei Hu; Pei-xin Ye

    2005-01-01

    We obtain the optimal order of high-dimensional integration complexity in the quantum computation model in anisotropic Sobolev classes Wr∞ ([0, 1]d) and Holder Nikolskii classes Hr∞([0, 1]d). It is proved that for these classes of functions there is a speed-up of quantum algorithms over deterministic classical algorithms due to factor n-1 and over randomized classical methods due to factor n-1/2. Moreover, we give an estimation for optimal query complexity in the class H∧∞ (D) whose smoothness index is the boundary of some complete set in Zd+.

  17. Liquidity Constraints of the Middle Class

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campbell, J.R.; Hercowitz, Zvi

    2015-01-01

    Among U.S. middle-class households, the marginal propensity to consume is either invariant to household wealth or a U-shaped function thereof. In contrast, precautionary savings models predict that wealth reduces the marginal propensity to consume. We bridge this gap between theory and data with ter

  18. Managing changes of location classes of gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Sergio B.; Sousa, Antonio Geraldo de [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    Most of the gas pipeline design codes utilize a class location system, where the design safety factor and the hydrostatic test factor are determined according to the population density in the vicinities of the pipeline route. Consequently, if an operator is requested or desires to maintain an existing gas pipeline in compliance with its design code, it will reduce the operational pressure or replace pipe sections to increase the wall thickness whenever a change in location class takes place. This article introduces an alternative methodology to deal with changes in location classes of gas pipelines. Initially, selected codes that utilize location class systems are reviewed. Afterwards, a model for the area affected by an ignition following a natural gas pipeline leak is described. Finally, a methodology to determine the MAOP and third part damage mitigation measures for gas transport pipelines that underwent changes in location class is presented. (author)

  19. CLASSING APPROACH TO ANALYZING THE INVESTMENT SPACE OF SILK INDUSTRY OF UZBEKISTAN

    OpenAIRE

    Madjidov, Shakhrukh; Ibragimova, Sabokhat

    2015-01-01

    In the article the results of verification were brought which were dedicated for cluster approach and analyzing the investment space of silk industry of Uzbekistan. In particular the purpose of investment’s direction to the main capital of silk industry in corresponding class while proceeding from closeness to manual forces and raw material resources.

  20. The dynamics of absence behaviour: Interrelations between absence from class and absence in class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasson, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    absence is best prevented. Sample: Fieldwork was conducted at a vocational school containing 850 students. In this particular study, 24 student interviews were used in combination with interviews from four teachers and three school managers. Design and methods: The study is an ethnographic case study of a...... single school conducted over a continuous six-month period. It used participant observation followed by semi-structured interviews and school documents. Results: Findings suggest that student absence consists of interrelated forms of absence behaviour that have specific consequences for student...... the social practice of students, teachers and school managers. Evaluations of both absence from class and absence in class are important for understanding how absence behaviour can be identified and prevented....

  1. A Study of Teacher Feedback in Different English Class Types

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Huan

    2016-01-01

    This essay mainly focuses on the feedback move in IRF(initiate-response-feedback) to investigate the characters and functions of teacher feedback in different class types through classroom observation. The research finds that (1) teachers in dif-ferent class types prefer to adopt evaluative feedback and use more positive feedback .(2) the proportion of each feedback is dif-ferent in listening and speaking, reading and writing class. The implications are that English teachers in senior high school should adopt different feedback flexibly and consider what kind of feedback is more likely elicit the students’output in different class types.

  2. Modelling of thermoelectric materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Lasse

    consuming. Another approach is to model the thermoelectric properties of a material on a computer. Several crystal structures can be investigated this way without use of much man power. I have chosen the latter approach. Using density functional theory I am able to calculate the band structure of a material....... This band structure I can then use to calculate the thermoelectric properties of the material. With these results I have investigated several materials and found the optimum theoretical doping concentration. If materials with these doping concentrations be synthesised, considerably better thermoelectric......In order to discover new good thermoelectric materials, there are essentially two ways. One way is to go to the laboratory, synthesise a new material, and measure the thermoelectric properties. The amount of compounds, which can be investigated this way is limited because the process is time...

  3. Making Class Actions Work: The Untapped Potential of the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert H. Klonoff

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Over twenty years ago, the Supreme Court recognized that in class action litigation, absent class members “must receive notice plus an opportunity to be heard and participate in the litigation, whether in person or through counsel.” Although the absent class members’ rights to receive notice and an opportunity to opt out are of vital importance, the ability to be heard and participate in the litigation are also important.

  4. Electronic structure studies of topological materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuyun

    Three-dimensional (3D) Dirac fermions are a new class of topological quantum materials. In 3D Dirac semimetals, the conduction and valence bands touch each other at discrete points in the momentum space and show linear dispersions along all momentum directions, forming 3D Dirac cones which are protected by the crystal symmetry. Here I will present our recent studies of the electronic structures of novel materials which host 3D Dirac fermions by using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy.

  5. An Analysis of Social Class Classification Based on Linguistic Variables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Xia-sha

    2016-01-01

    Since language is an influential tool in social interaction, the relationship of speech and social factors, such as social class, gender, even age is worth studying. People employ different linguistic variables to imply their social class, status and iden-tity in the social interaction. Thus the linguistic variation involves vocabulary, sounds, grammatical constructions, dialects and so on. As a result, a classification of social class draws people’s attention. Linguistic variable in speech interactions indicate the social relationship between people. This paper attempts to illustrate three main linguistic variables which influence the social class, and further sociolinguistic studies need to be more concerned about.

  6. A New Class of Electrically Tunable Metamaterial Terahertz Modulators

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Rusen; Liu, Lei; Jena, Debdeep; Xing, Huili Grace

    2012-01-01

    Switchable metamaterials offer unique solutions for efficiently manipulating electromagnetic waves, particularly for terahertz waves, which has been difficult since naturally occurring materials rarely respond to terahertz frequencies controllably. However, few terahertz modulators demonstrated to date exhibit simultaneously low attenuation and high modulation depth. In this letter we propose a new class of electrically-tunable terahertz metamaterial modulators employing metallic frequency-selective-surfaces (FSS) in conjunction with capacitively-tunable layers of electrons, promising near 100% modulation depth and < 15% attenuation. The fundamental departure in our design from the prior art is tuning enabled by self-gated electron layers that is independent from the metallic FSS. Our proposal is applicable to all possible electrically tunable elements including graphene, Si, MoS2, oxides etc, thus opening up myriad opportunities for realizing high performance switchable metamaterials over an ultra-wide te...

  7. Integration of Nutrition Education Classes Into English As Second Language Classes For Refugees

    OpenAIRE

    Gunnell, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Recently resettled refugees are at high risk for food insecurity and its health consequences. This observational study evaluated the effectiveness of integrating nutrition lessons into English as a Second Language (ESL) classes at a work-site training center for refugees. The lessons focused on making healthy choices with a limited budget. Through the assistance of ESL teachers, nutrition educator assistants (NEAs) from the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) taught nutrition les...

  8. QUALITATIVE STUDY OF CAVITATED BIFURCATION FOR A CLASS OF INCOMPRESSIBLE GENERALIZED NEO-HOOKEAN SPHERES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Xue-gang; ZHU Zheng-you

    2005-01-01

    The problem of spherical cavitated bifurcation was examined for a class of incompressible generalized neo-Hookean materials, in which the materials may be viewed as the homogeneous incompressible isotropic neo-Hookean material with radial perturbations.The condition of void nucleation for this problem was obtained. In contrast to the situation for a homogeneous isotropic neo-Hookean sphere, it is shown that not only there exists a secondary turning bifurcation point on the cavitated bifurcation solution which bifurcates locally to the left from trivial solution, and also the critical load is smaller than that for the material with no perturbations, as the parameters belong to some regions. It is proved that the cavitated bifurcation equation is equivalent to a class of normal forms with single-sided constraints near the critical point by using singularity theory. The stability of solutions and the actual stable equilibrium state were discussed respectively by using the minimal potential energy principle.

  9. Schur convexity for a class of symmetric functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Schur convexity and concavity of a class of symmetric functions are discussed, and an open problem proposed by Guan in "Some properties of a class of symmetric functions" is answered. As consequences, some inequalities are established by use of the theory of majorization.

  10. Class analysis and the reorientation of class theory: the case of persisting differentials in educational attainment. 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldthorpe, John H

    2010-01-01

    In class analysis the main regularities that have been established by empirical research are not ones of long-term class formation or decomposition, as envisaged in Marxist or liberal theory, but rather ones that exhibit the powerful resistance to change of class relations and associated life-chances and patterns of social action. If these regularities are to be explained, theory needs to be correspondingly reoriented, and must abandon functionalist and teleological assumptions in favour of providing more secure micro-foundations. This argument is developed and illustrated in the course of an attempt to apply rational action theory to the explanation of persisting class differentials in educational attainment. PMID:20092500

  11. Micromechanics of hierarchical materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishnaevsky, Leon, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    A short overview of micromechanical models of hierarchical materials (hybrid composites, biomaterials, fractal materials, etc.) is given. Several examples of the modeling of strength and damage in hierarchical materials are summarized, among them, 3D FE model of hybrid composites...... with nanoengineered matrix, fiber bundle model of UD composites with hierarchically clustered fibers and 3D multilevel model of wood considered as a gradient, cellular material with layered composite cell walls. The main areas of research in micromechanics of hierarchical materials are identified, among them......, the investigations of the effects of load redistribution between reinforcing elements at different scale levels, of the possibilities to control different material properties and to ensure synergy of strengthening effects at different scale levels and using the nanoreinforcement effects. The main future directions...

  12. Analysis of College Classes Based on U-CLASS System Using Personal Mobile Nodes

    OpenAIRE

    Chonggun Kim; Jeongmi Kim; Hohwan Park; Ilkyu Ha

    2015-01-01

    The increase in mobile communications has led to advanced educational methods and technologies through accepting new technologies. A lot of studies have tried to overcome temporal and spatial limits on using personal mobile devices and have tried to increase learning effectiveness using various efficient educational methods. In this paper, U-CLASS, an interactive learning management system that provides interactive communications between a professor and students, is proposed and implemented. ...

  13. Intersections of Gender, Race, and Class in Introductory Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, Jennifer; Gougherty, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    We update Ferree and Hall’s (1996) examination of the stratification systems of gender, race, and class in introductory textbooks. Using a sample of textbooks from 2003 through 2010, we explore 24 introductory sociology textbooks to determine the relationship between categories of gender, race, and class and levels of analysis. Previous research…

  14. 7 CFR 1007.40 - Classes of utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Classes of utilization. 1007.40 Section 1007.40 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Classification of Milk § 1007.40 Classes of utilization. See § 1000.40....

  15. 7 CFR 1126.40 - Classes of utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Classes of utilization. 1126.40 Section 1126.40 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Classification of Milk § 1126.40 Classes of utilization. See § 1000.40....

  16. 7 CFR 1033.40 - Classes of utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Classes of utilization. 1033.40 Section 1033.40 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Classification of Milk § 1033.40 Classes of utilization. See § 1000.40....

  17. 7 CFR 1001.40 - Classes of utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Classes of utilization. 1001.40 Section 1001.40 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Classification of Milk § 1001.40 Classes of utilization. See § 1000.40....

  18. 7 CFR 1131.40 - Classes of utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Classes of utilization. 1131.40 Section 1131.40 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Classification of Milk § 1131.40 Classes of utilization. See § 1000.40....

  19. 7 CFR 1124.40 - Classes of utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Classes of utilization. 1124.40 Section 1124.40 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1124.40 Classes of utilization. See § 1000.40....

  20. 7 CFR 1032.40 - Classes of utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Classes of utilization. 1032.40 Section 1032.40 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Classification of Milk § 1032.40 Classes of utilization. See § 1000.40....

  1. 7 CFR 1006.40 - Classes of utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Classes of utilization. 1006.40 Section 1006.40 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Classification of Milk § 1006.40 Classes of utilization. See § 1000.40....

  2. 7 CFR 1005.40 - Classes of utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Classes of utilization. 1005.40 Section 1005.40 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1005.40 Classes of utilization. See § 1000.40....

  3. 7 CFR 1030.40 - Classes of utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Classes of utilization. 1030.40 Section 1030.40 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1030.40 Classes of utilization. See § 1000.40....

  4. Type Iax Supernovae: A New Class of Stellar Explosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foley, Ryan J.; Challis, P. J.; Chornock, R.;

    2013-01-01

    We describe observed properties of the Type Iax class of supernovae (SNe Iax), consisting of SNe observationally similar to its prototypical member, SN 2002cx. The class currently has 25 members, and we present optical photometry and/or optical spectroscopy for most of them. SNe Iax are spectrosc...

  5. On the effective and automatic enumeration of polynomial permutation classes

    OpenAIRE

    Homberger, Cheyne; Vatter, Vince

    2013-01-01

    We describe an algorithm, implemented in Python, which can enumerate any permutation class with polynomial enumeration from a structural description of the class. In particular, this allows us to find formulas for the number of permutations of length n which can be obtained by a finite number of block sorting operations (e.g., reversals, block transpositions, cut-and-paste moves).

  6. Nonproliferation Graduate Fellowship Program, Annual Report, Class of 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMakin, Andrea H.

    2013-09-23

    This 32-pp annual report/brochure describes the accomplishments of the Class of 2012 of the Nonproliferation Graduate Fellowship Program (the last class of this program), which PNNL administers for the National Nuclear Security Administration. The time period covers Sept 2011 through June 2013.

  7. Geometric properties of composition operators belonging to Schatten classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongsheng Zhu

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the connection between the geometry of the image domain of an analytic function mapping the unit disk into itself and the membership of the composition operator induced by this function in the Schatten classes. The purpose is to provide solutions to Lotto's conjectures and show a new compact composition operator which is not in any of the Schatten classes.

  8. A CLASS OF NONMONOTONE CONJUGATE GRADIENT METHODS FOR NONCONVEX FUNCTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuYun; WeiZengxin

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the global convergence of a class of nonmonotone conjugate gradient methods (NM methods) for nonconvex object functions. This class of methods includes the nonmonotone counterpart of modified Polak-Ribiere method and modified Hestenes-Stiefel method as special cases.

  9. 19 CFR 19.1 - Classes of customs warehouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Classes of customs warehouses. 19.1 Section 19.1 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS WAREHOUSES, CONTAINER STATIONS AND CONTROL OF MERCHANDISE THEREIN § 19.1 Classes...

  10. Prime valued polynomials and class numbers of quadratic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Mollin

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available It is the purpose of this paper to give a survey of the relationship between the class number one problem for real quadratic fields and prime-producing quadratic polynomials; culminating in an overview of the recent solution to the class number one problem for real quadratic fields of Richaud-Degert type. We conclude with new conjectures, questions and directions.

  11. The Application of Nonverbal Communication in College English Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞彬彬

    2008-01-01

    As an auxiliary means of teaching,nonverbal communication plays a vital role in college English class, Based on the analysis of the three most frequently used aspects in nonverbal communication:gestures,eye contact,and physical distance,this paper is aimed at suggesting the significance of nonverbal communication in college English teaching and the application of it in college English class.

  12. The Intersections of Social Class and the Transition to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furstenberg, Frank F.

    2008-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to and overview of the literature on how the transition to adulthood is shaped by social class. It brings together two strands of literature. The first reviews why and how the third decade of life has been reshaped by later and longer education. The second considers how the social class position of young…

  13. Principles of Food Science Class Sheds Light on Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Janet

    2004-01-01

    Many students are curious about the steps in food preparation. As a result of such experiences, the author of this article began to incorporate science demonstrations into food preparation classes. She conducted research, developed resources, and piloted the "Principles of Food Science" class over the next 6 years. "Principles of Food Science"…

  14. 78 FR 37114 - Self-Regulation of Class II Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... the issuance of a certificate for tribal self-regulation of Class II gaming. 78 FR 20236, April 4... National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Part 518 RIN 3141-AA44 Self-Regulation of Class II Gaming AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission, Department of the Interior. ACTION: Final rule; technical and...

  15. Geometric properties of composition operators belonging to Schatten classes

    OpenAIRE

    Yongsheng Zhu

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the connection between the geometry of the image domain of an analytic function mapping the unit disk into itself and the membership of the composition operator induced by this function in the Schatten classes. The purpose is to provide solutions to Lotto's conjectures and show a new compact composition operator which is not in any of the Schatten classes.

  16. Race/class : Jamaica's discourse of heritable identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane J. Austin-Broos

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available Argues that Jamaican notions of 'race' and 'class' can be rendered as a discourse of heritable biological and environmental identity. There has been a movement in the meaning of colour categories from an emphasis on biology, to a greater emphasis on environment. This transition has been encouraged by the emergence of class as a 20th-c. idiom.

  17. Joining of advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Messler, Robert W

    1993-01-01

    Provides an unusually complete and readable compilation of the primary and secondary options for joining conventional materials in non-conventional ways. Provides unique coverage of adhesive bonding using both organic and inorganic adhesives, cements and mortars. Focuses on materials issues without ignoring issues related to joint design, production processing, quality assurance, process economics, and joining performance in service.Joining of advanced materials is a unique treatment of joining of both conventional and advanced metals andalloys, intermetallics, ceramics, glasses, polymers, a

  18. Mutation classes of finite type cluster algebras with principal coefficients

    CERN Document Server

    Seven, Ahmet

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we prove Conjecture 4.8 of "Cluster algebras IV" by S. Fomin and A. Zelevinsky, stating that the mutation classes of rectangular matrices associated with cluster algebras of finite type are precisely those classes which are finite.

  19. 22 CFR 40.9 - Classes of inadmissible aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Classes of inadmissible aliens. 40.9 Section 40.9 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND... inadmissible aliens. Subparts B through L describe classes of inadmissible aliens who are ineligible to...

  20. 47 CFR 80.207 - Classes of emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 80.207, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Classes of emission. 80.207 Section 80.207... MARITIME SERVICES General Technical Standards § 80.207 Classes of emission. (a) Authorization to...

  1. Does a tetracycline resistance determinant of class N exist?

    OpenAIRE

    Horaud, T; Delbos, F; Pepper, K

    1990-01-01

    pMV120 was reported to carry the tetracycline resistance (Tcr) determinant of class N. We obtained tetracycline-susceptible transconjugants harboring plasmids with restriction enzyme profiles indistinguishable from those of pMV120 isolated from tetracycline-resistant clones. We conclude that pMV120 is a cryptic plasmid and that class N of Tcr determinants does not exist.

  2. The Rise of Class Culture Theory in Educational Anthropology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    This article chronicles how the ideas of neo-Weberians, Marxists, feminists, and critical race thinkers have merged to create a new cultural production or class culture paradigm of schooling. Reviews of recent ethnographic work illustrates how the articulations among class, race, gender, and sexual identity practices in schools are studied without…

  3. Selfsimilarity in a Class of Quadratic-Quasiperiodic Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Masanobu; Odagaki, Takashi

    1993-04-01

    We prove that quasiperiodic chains associated with a class of quadratic irrational numbers have an inflation symmetry and can be generated from a regular chain by a hyperinflation. We devise the explicit method to find the hyperinflation symmetry and discuss the properties of such a class of quasiperiodic sequences.

  4. 19 CFR 151.25 - Mixing classes of sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mixing classes of sugar. 151.25 Section 151.25... TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.25 Mixing classes of sugar. No regulations relative to the weighing, taring, sampling,...

  5. Invariants for a Class of Nongeneric Three-qubit States

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, B Z; Sun, Bao-Zhi; Fei, Shao-Ming

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the equivalence of quantum states under local unitary transformations. A complete set of invariants under local unitary transformations is presented for a class of non-generic three-qubit mixed states. It is shown that two such states in this class are locally equivalent if and only if all these invariants have equal values for them.

  6. Input, Output, and Negotiation of Meaning in Spanish Conversation Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondon-Pari, Graziela

    2014-01-01

    This research study is based on the analysis of speech in three Spanish conversation classes. Research questions are: What is the ratio of English and Spanish spoken in class? Is classroom speech more predominant in students or the instructor? And, are teachers' beliefs in regards to the use of English and Spanish consistent with their…

  7. Using Storytelling Strategies to Improve Student Comprehension in Online Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Rasby Marlene; Murray, Ottis

    2012-01-01

    Previous research shows that presenting class material in story formats can improve student learning in lecture classes. This pilot study of eight sociology classes investigates the efficacy of using storytelling as a means to improve student comprehension in online classes. Our findings show that when material is presented in story format rather…

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF LEARNING MATERIAL

    OpenAIRE

    Salminen, Tomi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to develop learning material to support the Quality tools lectures. The topic of this thesis was generated by Pasi-Waltteri Valtanen, out of need for learning material that supports the Quality tools lectures. Topics which the learning material was creates were Quality Function Deployment (QFD), Design of Experiments (DOE), Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), Statistical Process Control (SPC) and the Taguchi method These topics were chosen beca...

  9. Piezoelectric actuators control applications of smart materials

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Seung-Bok

    2010-01-01

    Newer classes of smart materials are beginning to display the capacity for self-repair, self-diagnosis, self-multiplication, and self-degradation. While there are other candidates, piezoelectric actuators and sensors are proving to be the best choice. This title details the authors' research and development in this area.

  10. Development of K-12 Engineering Outreach Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, William

    2003-01-01

    Six modules were created that can be used in K-12 classes to introduce students to what engineers can do at NASA.The purpose of this project was to create outreach materials for the classroom. To make it appealing to students, many color NASA photographs are used to illustrate NASA applications.Student experiments are described that can be performed to illustrate topics.

  11. Sub-classes and evolution stability of Wolfram's classesin the total-rule cellular automata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Guangwu; TIAN Feng; DONG Yinfeng

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a concept of sub-classes and its evolution stability for the Wolfram's classes. Firstly, we obtain the sub-classes of the Wolfram's class IV, gene-piece of these sub-classes and their existing circumstance. Secondly, we introduce a new concept, the evolution stability, for the Wolfram's classes and sub-classes of Wolfram's class IV. Lastly, we find that Wolfram's classes I, II, and III have the evolution stability, but sub-classes of the Wolfram's class IV have not the evolution stability for the total rule cellular automata.

  12. Impact of Class Lecture Webcasting on Attendance and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traphagan, Tomoko; Kucsera, John V.; Kishi, Kyoko

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the impact of class lecture webcasts on students' attendance and learning. The research design employed four data collection methods in two class sections--one with webcast access and another without--of the same course taught by the same instructors. Results indicated the following four major findings. (1) The…

  13. Standardization of transportation classes for object-oriented deployment simulations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, J. F., Jr.; Howard, D. L.; Jackson, J.; Macal, C. M.; Nevins, M. R.; Van Groningen, C. N.

    1999-07-30

    Many recent efforts to integrate transportation and deployment simulations, although beneficial, have lacked a feature vital for seamless integration: a common data class representation. It is an objective of the Department of Defense (DoD) to standardize all classes used in object-oriented deployment simulations by developing a standard class attribute representation and behavior for all deployment simulations that rely on an underlying class representation. The Extensive Hierarchy and Object Representation for Transportation Simulations (EXHORT) is a collection of three hierarchies that together will constitute a standard and consistent class attribute representation and behavior that could be used directly by a large set of deployment simulations. The first hierarchy is the Transportation Class Hierarchy (TCH), which describes a significant portion of the defense transportation system; the other two deal with infrastructure and resource classes. EXHORT will allow deployment simulations to use the same set of underlying class data, ensure transparent exchanges, reduce the effort needed to integrate simulations, and permit a detailed analysis of the defense transportation system. This paper describes EXHORT's first hierarchy, the TCH, and provides a rationale for why it is a helpful tool for modeling major portions of the defense transportation system.

  14. Class Attendance and Performance in Principles of Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Elchanan; Johnson, Eric

    2006-01-01

    A sample of 347 students, enrolled in principles of economics classes during the period 1997-2001, is used to examine the relation between class attendance and student performance on examinations. Among the questions examined are: Is attendance related to performance, with and without controls for other factors? Do only substantial levels of…

  15. 75 FR 62459 - Revision of Class E Airspace; Unalakleet, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... for air traffic management of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) operations. DATES: Effective 0901 UTC... Federal Register to revise Class E airspace at Unalakleet, AK (75 FR 32865). Interested parties were... amendments to existing SIAPs require that the orientation and dimensions of Class E airspace be revised...

  16. 12 CFR 931.1 - Classes of capital stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classes of capital stock. 931.1 Section 931.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.1 Classes of capital stock. The authorized...

  17. A CLASS OF FUNCTIONAL EQUATION AND FRACTAL INTERPOLATION FUNCTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShaZhen

    1999-01-01

    A new class of functional equation in C0(I) is investigated. It is proved that some class of FIF satisfies the functional equation. Another functional equation is constructed. Theirsolutions can approximate FIF arbitrarily. And a new approximate estimate between FIF andinterpolated function is given.

  18. Effects of Behavioral and Social Class Information on Social Judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Reuben M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigated the role of disconfirming behavioral information and the limits on social class schema effects. Using a Bayesian model of social perception, it was found that unambiguous, relevant stimulus information influenced judgments. Although social class information did not affect relevant stimulus information, it did sway judgments in…

  19. A REMARK ON EXTINCTION OF A CLASS OF SUPERPROCESSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAOXUELEI

    1996-01-01

    The extinction of a class of superprocesses associated with general branching characteristics and underlying Markov processes is investigted, The extinction is closely associated with the branching characteristics and the recurrence and transience of underlying processes.

  20. Groupoid extensions of mapping class representations for bordered surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Bene, Alex; Penner, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The mapping class group of a surface with one boundary component admits numerous interesting representations including a representation as a group of automorphisms of a free group and as a group of symplectic transformations. Insofar as the mapping class group can be identified with the fundamental...... is called the Ptolemy groupoid. It is natural to try to extend representations of the mapping class group to the mapping class groupoid, i.e., to construct a homomorphism from the mapping class groupoid to the same target that extends the given representations arising from various choices of basepoint....... Among others, we extend both aforementioned representations to the groupoid level in this sense, where the symplectic representation is lifted both rationally and integrally. The techniques of proof include several algorithms involving fatgraphs and chord diagrams. The former extension is given...

  1. MNP:A Class of NP Optimization Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程歧; 朱洪

    1997-01-01

    A large class of NP optimization problems called MNP are studied.It is shown that Rmax(2)is in this class and some problems which are not likely in Rmax(2) are in this class.A new kind of reductions,SL-reductions,is defined to preserve approximability and nonapproximability,so it is a more general version of L-reductions and A-reductions.Then some complete problems of this class under SL-reductions are shown and it is proved that the max-clique problem is one of them.So all complete problems in this class are as difficult to approximate as the max-clique problem.

  2. Mechanics of materials model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, Jeffrey P.

    1987-01-01

    The Mechanics of Materials Model (MOMM) is a three-dimensional inelastic structural analysis code for use as an early design stage tool for hot section components. MOMM is a stiffness method finite element code that uses a network of beams to characterize component behavior. The MOMM contains three material models to account for inelastic material behavior. These include the simplified material model, which assumes a bilinear stress-strain response; the state-of-the-art model, which utilizes the classical elastic-plastic-creep strain decomposition; and Walker's viscoplastic model, which accounts for the interaction between creep and plasticity that occurs under cyclic loading conditions.

  3. 75 FR 13670 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Gadsden, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    ... direct final rule with a request for comments in the Federal Register on December 29, 2009 (74 FR 68667... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Gadsden, AL AGENCY: Federal... December 29, 2009 that amends Class E airspace at Northeast Alabama Regional, Gadsden, AL. DATES:...

  4. 75 FR 4270 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Anniston, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... direct final rule with a request for comments in the Federal Register on October 28, 2009 (74 FR 55449... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Modification of Class E Airspace; Anniston, AL AGENCY... October 28, 2009 that modifies the Class E airspace at Anniston Metropolitan Airport, Anniston, AL....

  5. 75 FR 20773 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Jackson, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... final rule with a request for comments in the Federal Register on December 7, 2009 (74 FR 63973), Docket... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Jackson, AL AGENCY... December 7, 2009 that establishes Class E airspace at Jackson Muni, Jackson, AL. DATES: Effective...

  6. Quality Differences and Price Responsiveness of Wheat Class Demands

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, William W.; Gallagher, Paul W.

    1990-01-01

    Price responsiveness and preferences for wheat classes are measured using a Case function specification. Results indicate there have been numerous changes in market shares of wheat classes from different exporters in specific markets. In general, quality differentials are important in some international markets; in others, relative prices are more important in determining market shares.

  7. Radar Observations of Main-Belt M-class Asteroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shepard, Michael K.; Clark, B. E.; Ockert-Bell, M.; Nolan, M. C.; Howell, E. S.; Magri, C.; Giorgini, J. D.; Benner, L. A. M.; Ostro, S. J.; Harris, A. W.; Warner, B. D.; Stephens, R. D.; Mueller, M.

    2009-01-01

    Using the S-band radar at Arecibo Observatory, we have observed 19 Tholen M-class asteroids. The mean radar albedo for all our targets is 0.28 ± 0.13, considerably higher than the mean radar albedo of every other class (Magri et al. 2007, Icarus 186, 126-151). We find approximately one-third (six) o

  8. Teacher Perceptions of Heterogeneous Ability Grouping in Secondary Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Nicole Cox

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to provide the best academic opportunities for all students, many high schools create heterogeneous classes by removing existing academic tracks or by offering only 1 level of course. Research has indicated that separating students by ability often exacerbates existing academic inequity; however, mixed ability classes can also create…

  9. In the Physics Class: University Physics Students' Enactment of Class and Gender in the Context of Laboratory Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsson, Anna T.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores how the doing of social class and gender can intersect with the learning of science, through case studies of two male, working-class university students' constitutions of identities as physics students. In doing so, I challenge the taken-for-granted notion that male physics students have an unproblematic relation to…

  10. The homogenization of a class of degenerate quasilinear parabolic equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xingyou; HUANG Yong

    2003-01-01

    The homogenization of a class of degenerate quasilinear parabolic equations is studied. The Ap weight theory and the classical compensated compactness method are incorporated to obtain the homogenized equation.

  11. Patchy colloidosomes - an emerging class of structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozynek, Z.; Józefczak, A.

    2016-07-01

    A colloidosome, i.e., a selectively permeable capsule composed of colloidal particles forming a stable homogenous shell, is a tiny container that can be used for storage, transportation, and release of cargo species. There are many routes to preparing colloidosomes; dozens of examples of future applications of such colloidal capsules have been demonstrated. Their functionality can be further extended if the capsules are designed to have heterogeneous shells, i.e., one or more regions (patches) of a shell are composed of material with specific properties that differ from the rest of the shell. Such patchy colloidosomes, supplemented by functionalities similar to that offered by well-studied patchy particles, will surely possess advantageous properties when compared with their homogenous counterparts. For example, owing to specific interactions between patches, they either can self-assemble into complex structures; specifically adhere to a surface; release their cargo species in specific direction; or guided-align,-orient or -propel. Fabrication of patchy colloidal microcapsules has long been theorized by scientists able to design different models, but actual large-scale production remains a challenge. Until now, only a few methods for fabricating patchy colloidosomes have been demonstrated, and these include production by means of microfluidics and mechanical pipetting. The field of science related to fabrication and application of patchy colloidosomes is clearly unexplored, and we envision it blooming in the coming years.

  12. A benefit-risk assessment of class III antiarrhythmic agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elming, Hanne; Brendorp, Bente; Pehrson, Steen;

    2004-01-01

    relief. Since many patients experience a decrease in physical performance as well as a diminished quality of life during arrhythmia there is still a need for antiarrhythmic drug therapy. The development of new antiarrhythmic agents has changed the focus from class I to class III agents since it became...... evident that with class I drug therapy the prevalence of mortality is considerably higher. This review focuses on the benefits and risks of known and newer class III antiarrhythmic agents. The benefits discussed include the ability to maintain sinus rhythm in persistent atrial fibrillation patients, and...... reducing the need for implantable cardioverter defibrillator shock/antitachycardia therapy, since no class III antiarrhythmic agents have proven survival benefit. The risks discussed mainly focus on pro-arrhythmia as torsade de pointes ventricular tachycardia....

  13. Random walk of second class particles in product shock measures

    CERN Document Server

    Balazs, Marton; Kovacs, Peter; Rakos, Attila

    2009-01-01

    We consider shock measures in a class of conserving stochastic particle systems on Z. These shock measures have a product structure with a step-like density profile and include a second class particle at the shock position. We show for the asymmetric simple exclusion process, for the exponential bricklayers' process, and for a generalized zero range process, that under certain conditions these shocks, and therefore the second class particles, perform a simple random walk. Some previous results, including random walks of product shock measures and stationary shock measures seen from a second class particle, are direct consequences of our more general theorem. Multiple shocks can also be handled easily in this framework. Similar shock structure is also found in a nonconserving model, the branching coalescing random walk, where the role of the second class particle is played by the rightmost (or leftmost) particle.

  14. Building an Evolving Method and Materials for Teaching Legal Writing in Large Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarence, Sherran; Albertus, Latiefa; Mwambene, Lea

    2014-01-01

    In South Africa and in other parts of the world, many professions are bemoaning the poor ability of many graduates to communicate their skills and knowledge effectively once they enter the workplace. Increasingly, pressure is placed on higher education to do more in terms of equipping future professionals with the necessary critical reading,…

  15. Transport of Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This address overviews the following aspects: concepts on transport of radioactive materials, quantities used to limit the transport, packages, types of packages, labeling, index transport calculation, tags, labeling, vehicle's requirements and documents required to authorize transportation. These requirements are considered in the regulation of transport of radioactive material that is in drafting step

  16. Doing Class Analysis in Singapore's Elite Education: Unravelling the Smokescreen of "Meritocratic Talk"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the specificity of the education-class nexus in an elite independent school in Singapore. It seeks to unravel the puzzle that meritocracy is dogmatically believed in Singapore in spite of evidences that point to the contrary. The paper draws on discursive (analysis of media materials) and institutional (analysis of interview…

  17. Class effect of pharmacotherapy in bipolar disorder: fact or misbelief?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieta Eduard

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anecdotal reports suggests that most clinicians treat medications as belonging to a class with regard to all therapeutic indications; this means that the whole 'class' of drugs is considered to possesses a specific therapeutic action. The present article explores the possible existence of a true 'class effect' for agents available for the treatment of bipolar disorder. Methods We reviewed the available treatment data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs and explored 16 'agent class'/'treatment issue' cases for bipolar disorder. Four classes of agents were examined: first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs, second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs, antiepileptics and antidepressants, with respect to their efficacy on four treatment issues of bipolar disorder (BD (acute mania, acute bipolar depression, maintenance against mania, maintenance against depression. Results From the 16 'agent class'/' treatment issue' cases, only 3 possible class effects were detected, and they all concerned acute mania and antipsychotics. Four effect cases have not been adequately studied (FGAs against acute bipolar depression and in maintenance protection from depression, and antidepressants against acute mania and protection from mania and they all concern treatment cases with a high risk of switching to the opposite pole, thus research in these areas is poor. There is no 'class effect' at all concerning antiepileptics. Conclusions The available data suggest that a 'class effect' is the exception rather than the rule in the treatment of BD. However, the possible presence of a 'class effect' concept discourages clinicians from continued scientific training and reading. Focused educational intervention might be necessary to change this attitude.

  18. The materiality of Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soon, Winnie

    2014-01-01

    to understand the socio-technical side of a changing network environment. Through the study of code, including but not limited to source code, technical specifications and other materials in relation to the artwork production, I would like to explore the materiality of code that goes beyond technical...

  19. Mid-Infrared Observations of Class I/Flat-Spectrum Systems in Six Nearby Molecular Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haisch, Karl E., Jr.; Barsony, Mary; Ressler, Michael E.; Greene, Thomas P.

    2006-12-01

    We have obtained new mid-infrared observations of 65 Class I/flat-spectrum (FS) objects in the Perseus, Taurus, Chamaeleon I and II, ρ Ophiuchi, and Serpens dark clouds. These objects represent a subset of the young stellar objects (YSOs) from our previous near-infrared multiplicity surveys. We detected 45 out of 48 (94%) of the single sources, 16 out of 16 (100%) of the primary components, and 12 out of 16 (75%) of the secondary/triple components of the binary/multiple objects surveyed. One target, IRS 34, a 0.31" separation FS binary, remains unresolved at near-infrared wavelengths. The composite spectral energy distributions for all of our sample YSOs are either Class I or FS, and in 15 out of 16 multiple systems at least one of the individual components displays a Class I or FS spectral index. However, the occurrence of mixed pairings, such as FS with Class I, FS with Class II, and, in one case, an FS with a Class III (Cha I T33B), is suprisingly frequent. Such behavior is not consistent with that of multiple systems among T Tauri stars (TTSs), where the companion of a classical TTS also tends to be a classical TTS, although other mixed pairings have been previously observed among Class II YSOs. Based on an analysis of the spectral indices of the individual binary components, there appears to be a higher proportion of mixed Class I/FS systems (65%-80%) than that of mixed classical and weak-lined TTSs (25%-40%), demonstrating that the envelopes of Class I/FS systems are rapidly evolving during this evolutionary phase. In general, the individual binary/multiple components suffer very similar extinctions, Av, suggesting that most of the line-of-sight material is either in the foreground of the molecular cloud or circumbinary. We report the discovery of a steep spectral index secondary companion to ISO-Cha I 97, detected for the first time via our mid-infrared observations. In our previous near-infrared imaging survey of binary/multiple Class I and FS YSOs, ISO

  20. New lithium iron pyrophosphate as 3.5 V class cathode material for lithium ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Shin-ichi; Nakamura, Megumi; Natsui, Ryuichi; Yamada, Atsuo

    2010-10-01

    A new pyrophosphate compound Li(2)FeP(2)O(7) was synthesized by a conventional solid-state reaction, and its crystal structure was determined. Its reversible electrode operation at ca. 3.5 V vs Li was identified with the capacity of a one-electron theoretical value of 110 mAh g(-1) even for ca. 1 μm particles without any special efforts such as nanosizing or carbon coating. Li(2)FeP(2)O(7) and its derivatives should provide a new platform for related lithium battery electrode research and could be potential competitors to commercial olivine LiFePO(4), which has been recognized as the most promising positive cathode for a lithium-ion battery system for large-scale applications, such as plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

  1. The Materiality of Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Ninna

    2016-01-01

    In this feature essay, Ninna Meier reflects on the materiality of the writing – and re-writing – process in academic research. She explores the ways in which our ever-accummulating thoughts come to form layers on the material objects in which we write our notes and discusses the pleasures of co-authorship....

  2. Materials of Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-09-15

    The objective of this project was to accumulate and establish a database of construction materials, coatings, refractory liners, and transitional materials that are appropriate for the hardware and scale-up facilities for atmospheric biomass and coal gasification processes. Cost, fabricability, survivability, contamination, modes of corrosion, failure modes, operational temperatures, strength, and compatibility are all areas of materials science for which relevant data would be appropriate. The goal will be an established expertise of materials for the fossil energy area within WRI. This would be an effort to narrow down the overwhelming array of materials information sources to the relevant set which provides current and accurate data for materials selection for fossil fuels processing plant. A significant amount of reference material on materials has been located, examined and compiled. The report that describes these resources is well under way. The reference material is in many forms including texts, periodicals, websites, software and expert systems. The most important part of the labor is to refine the vast array of available resources to information appropriate in content, size and reliability for the tasks conducted by WRI and its clients within the energy field. A significant has been made to collate and capture the best and most up to date references. The resources of the University of Wyoming have been used extensively as a local and assessable location of information. As such, the distribution of materials within the UW library has been added as a portion of the growing document. Literature from recent journals has been combed for all pertinent references to high temperature energy based applications. Several software packages have been examined for relevance and usefulness towards applications in coal gasification and coal fired plant. Collation of the many located resources has been ongoing. Some web-based resources have been examined.

  3. Cyclic subgroups in class groups of real quadratic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While examining the class numbers of the real quadratic field Q(√n2 + 3n + 9), we observed that the class number is often a multiple of 3. There is a simple explanation for this, namely -27 = (2n + 3)2 - 4(n2 + 3n + 9), so the cubes of the prime ideals above 3 are principal. If the prime ideals themselves are non-principal then 3 must divide the class number. In the present paper, we study this idea from a couple different directions. In the first section we present a criterion that allows us to show that the ideal class group of a real quadratic field has a cyclic subgroup of a given order n. We then give several families of fields to which this criterion applies, hence in which the ideal class groups contain elements of order n. In the second section, we discuss the situation where there is only a potential element of order p (=an odd prime) in the class group, such as the situation described above. We present a modification of the Cohen-Lenstra heuristics for the probability that in this situation the class number is actually a multiple of p. We also extend this idea to predict how often the potential element of order p is actually non-trivial. Both of these predictions agree fairly well with the numerical data. (author). 14 refs, 2 tabs

  4. The Use of Formative Online Quizzes to Enhance Class Preparation and Scores on Summative Exams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, John L.

    2008-01-01

    Online quizzes were introduced into an undergraduate Exercise Physiology course to encourage students to read ahead and think critically about the course material before coming to class. The purpose of the study was to determine if the use of the online quizzes was associated with improvements in summative exam scores and if the online quizzes…

  5. A class of globally convergent conjugate gradient methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴彧虹; 袁亚湘

    2003-01-01

    Conjugate gradient methods are very important ones for solving nonlinear optimization problems,especially for large scale problems. However, unlike quasi-Newton methods, conjugate gradient methods wereusually analyzed individually. In this paper, we propose a class of conjugate gradient methods, which can beregarded as some kind of convex combination of the Fletcher-Reeves method and the method proposed byDai et al. To analyze this class of methods, we introduce some unified tools that concern a general methodwith the scalarβk having the form of φk/φk-1. Consequently, the class of conjugate gradient methods canuniformly be analyzed.

  6. The Intersection between Out-of-class Language Learning Strategies and In-class Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Saazai Mat Saad

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies on out-of-class language learning strategies (OCLLSs are usually divorced from the activities in class. Thus, this study addresses the connection of the two entities. The participants in this study were nine international postgraduate students who were undergoing their English language proficiency course in an institution in Malaysia.  Data were gathered through their weekly online postings on Google + and interview during the course. The data from the students were triangulated with the information found in the pro forma of the modules and interview with the lecturers. Atlas ti was used to manage the data.  It was discovered that the type of assessment set by lecturers for the course determined the use of OCLLSs. Findings show that firstly, more OCLLS were used in completing assignments than preparing for quizzes/tests. Thus, from the 3 modules; it was found that students employed more strategies for oral communication and writing rather than for reading.  Secondly, the OCLLSs used could form a 'strategy chain or cluster' for the tasks of preparing for oral presentation and completing writing assignments. Lastly, there was evidence of technology dependency on some of the main OCLLSs.  

  7. Analysis of questioning technique during classes in medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Young

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Questioning is one of the essential techniques used by lecturers to make lectures more interactive and effective. This study surveyed the perception of questioning techniques by medical school faculty members and analyzed how the questioning technique is used in actual classes. Methods Data on the perceptions of the questioning skills used during lectures was collected using a self‒questionnaire for faculty members (N = 33 during the second semester of 2008. The questionnaire consisted of 18 items covering the awareness and characteristics of questioning skills. Recorded video tapes were used to observe the faculty members’ questioning skills. Results Most faculty members regarded the questioning technique during classes as being important and expected positive outcomes in terms of the students’ participation in class, concentration in class and understanding of the class contents. In the 99 classes analyzed, the median number of questions per class was 1 (0–29. Among them, 40 classes (40.4 % did not use questioning techniques. The frequency of questioning per lecture was similar regardless of the faculty members’ perception. On the other hand, the faculty members perceived that their usual wait time after question was approximately 10 seconds compared to only 2.5 seconds measured from video analysis. More lecture‒experienced faculty members tended to ask more questions in class. Conclusions There were some discrepancies regarding the questioning technique between the faculty members’ perceptions and reality, even though they had positive opinions of the technique. The questioning skills during a lecture need to be emphasized to faculty members.

  8. A chamada "nova classe média": cultura material, inclusão e distinção social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilaine Yaccoub

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem como objetivo apresentar uma discussão sobre a importância do consumo e cultura material para um determinado estrato social. A partir de uma pesquisa realizada sobre ligações clandestinas de energia elétrica, fenômeno sociotécnico de dimensões culturais conhecido por "gatos", residi por oito meses em um bairro popular na região metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro. Como moradora, pude penetrar na vida do bairro e analisar o estilo de vida de um grupo de moradores considerado a elite local, que, àquela época, fazia parte de um contingente mais amplo da população brasileira que estava adquirindo visibilidade pública, sendo denominado pela mídia como "nova classe média". Devido ao aumento da renda, à política de juros baixos e aos financiamentos facilitados a partir do Plano Real, esses "novos consumidores" obtiveram mais acesso a bens duráveis, especialmente eletroeletrônicos, elevando assim seu status perante seus iguais e muitas vezes adequando através de táticas seu novo padrão de consumo. Por meio do consumo, principalmente de carros e eletroeletrônicos, eles almejam inclusão em outro estrato social, as camadas médias urbanas.The aim of this article is discussing the importance of consuming and material culture for a determined social strata. In order to carry out research on illegal energy hook-ups, a social and technical phenomenon with a strong cultural dimension, I lived for eight months in a lower-class neighborhood in Greater Metropolitan Rio de Janeiro. As a resident of the neighborhood, I had insider access to the way of life there and was thus able to study the lifestyle of the so-called local elite, who were part of the segment of the Brazilian population increasingly acknowledged by the media as the "new middle class". As a result of increased income, low interest rates and greater access to financing created by the Plano Real, these "new consumers" were now able to purchase durable goods

  9. Steinitz class of elliptic curves with complex multilication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Let E be any elliptic curve having complex multiplication by the ring CK of integers of the quadratic number field K= Q(- D). Let H be the Hilbert class field of K. The Mordell-Weil group E(H) of H-rational points is a module over the Dedekind domain CK, its structure depends on its Steinitz class. Here the Steinits class is determined when D is any prime number. This result advances the result for the specific elliptic curves when D=10.A general theorem on structure of modules over Dedekind domain is also proposed.

  10. Polynomial approximations of a class of stochastic multiscale elasticity problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Viet Ha; Nguyen, Thanh Chung; Xia, Bingxing

    2016-06-01

    We consider a class of elasticity equations in {mathbb{R}^d} whose elastic moduli depend on n separated microscopic scales. The moduli are random and expressed as a linear expansion of a countable sequence of random variables which are independently and identically uniformly distributed in a compact interval. The multiscale Hellinger-Reissner mixed problem that allows for computing the stress directly and the multiscale mixed problem with a penalty term for nearly incompressible isotropic materials are considered. The stochastic problems are studied via deterministic problems that depend on a countable number of real parameters which represent the probabilistic law of the stochastic equations. We study the multiscale homogenized problems that contain all the macroscopic and microscopic information. The solutions of these multiscale homogenized problems are written as generalized polynomial chaos (gpc) expansions. We approximate these solutions by semidiscrete Galerkin approximating problems that project into the spaces of functions with only a finite number of N gpc modes. Assuming summability properties for the coefficients of the elastic moduli's expansion, we deduce bounds and summability properties for the solutions' gpc expansion coefficients. These bounds imply explicit rates of convergence in terms of N when the gpc modes used for the Galerkin approximation are chosen to correspond to the best N terms in the gpc expansion. For the mixed problem with a penalty term for nearly incompressible materials, we show that the rate of convergence for the best N term approximation is independent of the Lamé constants' ratio when it goes to {infty}. Correctors for the homogenization problem are deduced. From these we establish correctors for the solutions of the parametric multiscale problems in terms of the semidiscrete Galerkin approximations. For two-scale problems, an explicit homogenization error which is uniform with respect to the parameters is deduced. Together

  11. Exploring the Potential of Smartphones and Tablets for Performance Support in Food Chemistry Laboratory Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kolk, Koos; Hartog, Rob; Beldman, Gerrit; Gruppen, Harry

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, mobile applications appear on the market that can support students in chemistry laboratory classes. In a multiple app-supported laboratory, each of these applications covers one use-case. In practice, this leads to situations in which information is scattered over different screens and written materials. Such a multiple app-supported…

  12. Management of Class I and Class II Amalgam Restorations with Localized Defects: Five-Year Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Martin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Replacement of dental restorations has been the traditional treatment for defective restorations. This five-year prospective clinical trial evaluated amalgam restorations with localized defects that were treated by means of repair or refurbishing. Fifty-two patients (50% female and 50% male, mean age 28.3±18.1 years, range 18–80 with 160 class I and class II defective restorations were included. The study focused on the application of two minimally invasive treatments for localized restoration defects and compared these with no treatment and total replacement as negative and positive controls, respectively. Restorations were assessed by two calibrated examiners according to modified U.S. Public Health Service criteria, including marginal adaptation, anatomic form, secondary caries, and roughness. At five years, recall was examined in 45 patients with 108 restorations (67.5%. The results suggest that repair treatment is as effective as total replacement of restorations with localized defects, reducing biological costs to the patient and providing new tools to the clinician. Refinishing restoration is a useful treatment for localized anatomic form defects.

  13. Stringy Chern classes of singular toric varieties and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Batyrev, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Let X be a normal projective Q-Gorenstein variety with at worst log-terminal singularities. We prove a formula expressing the total stringy Chern class of a generic complete intersection in X via the total stringy Chern class of X. This formula is motivated by its applications to mirror symmetry for Calabi-Yau complete intersections in toric varieties. We compute stringy Chern classes and give a combinatorial interpretation of the stringy Libgober-Wood identity for arbitrary projective Q-Gorenstein toric varieties. As an application we derive a new combinatorial identity relating d-dimensional reflexive polytopes to the number 12 in dimension d>3.

  14. Study of Asymmetric Polling System with Two Message Classes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Chun-sheng; ZHANG Wei-dong

    2007-01-01

    A novel mixed polling system with multiple stations is considered.Each station produces two classes of messages served with different disciplines.The real time message served with exhaustive service discipline and the unreal time message served with gated service discipline.Using an iterative method, the exact mean waiting times for both message classes are derived.The influence of the gate location of the message class served by the gated service discipline on the mean waiting time is also analyzed.The analytical results are verified with simulation method and agree well with simulation results.

  15. Groupoid extensions of mapping class representations for bordered surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Bene, Alex; Penner, Robert

    The mapping class group of a surface with one boundary component admits numerous interesting representations including as a group of automorphisms of a free group and as a group of symplectic transformations. Insofar as the mapping class group can be identified with the fundamental group of Riemann...... to lift representations of the mapping class group to the Ptolemy groupoid, i.e., construct a homomorphism from the Ptolemy groupoid to the same target so that if a path in Teichm\\"uller space covers a loop in moduli space, then the two representations coincide. We lift both aforementioned representations...... of representations of the mapping class group that factor through its action on the fundamental group of the surface including, for instance, the Magnus representation and representations on the moduli spaces of flat connections....

  16. Dosing method of physical activity in aerobics classes for students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beliak Yu.I.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : reasons for the method of dosing of physical activity in aerobics classes for students. The basis of the method is the evaluation of the metabolic cost of funds used in them. Material : experiment involved the assessment of the pulse response of students to load complexes classical and step aerobics (n = 47, age 20-23 years. In complexes used various factors regulating the intensity: perform combinations of basic steps, involvement of movements with his hands, holding in hands dumbbells weighing 1kg increase in the rate of musical accompaniment, varying heights step platform. Results . on the basis of the relationship between heart rate and oxygen consumption was determined by the energy cost of each admission control load intensity. This indicator has been used to justify the intensity and duration of multiplicity aerobics. Figure correspond to the level of physical condition and motor activity deficits students. Conclusions : the estimated component of this method of dosing load makes it convenient for use in automated computer programs. Also it can be easily modified to dispense load other types of recreational fitness.

  17. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Norm is to establish, relating to the TRANSPORT OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS, safety and radiological protection requirements to ensure an adequate control level of the eventual exposure of persons, properties and environment to the ionizing radiation comprising: specifications on radioactive materials for transport; package type selection; specification of the package design and acceptance test requirements; arrangements relating to the transport itself; administrative requirements and responsibilities. (author)

  18. Explaining Social Class Inequalities in Educational Achievement in the UK: Quantifying the Contribution of Social Class Differences in School "Effectiveness"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Graham

    2016-01-01

    There are large social class inequalities in educational achievement in the UK. This paper quantifies the contribution of one mechanism to the production of these inequalities: social class differences in school "effectiveness," where "effectiveness" refers to a school's impact on pupils' educational achievement (relative to…

  19. Mechanics of moving materials

    CERN Document Server

    Banichuk, Nikolay; Neittaanmäki, Pekka; Saksa, Tytti; Tuovinen, Tero

    2014-01-01

    This book deals with theoretical aspects of modelling the mechanical behaviour of manufacturing, processing, transportation or other systems in which the processed or supporting material is travelling through the system. Examples of such applications include paper making, transmission cables, band saws, printing presses, manufacturing of plastic films and sheets, and extrusion of aluminium foil, textiles and other materials.   The work focuses on out-of-plane dynamics and stability analysis for isotropic and orthotropic travelling elastic and viscoelastic materials, with and without fluid-structure interaction, using analytical and semi-analytical approaches.  Also topics such as fracturing and fatigue are discussed in the context of moving materials. The last part of the book deals with optimization problems involving physical constraints arising from the stability and fatigue analyses, including uncertainties in the parameters.   The book is intended for researchers and specialists in the field, providin...

  20. Effect of age and diameter class on the properties of wood from clonal Eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma Michele Santos Santana

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of age and diameter class on the physical, thermal and chemical characteristics of a clone of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla. The material originated from a reforestation site owned by GERDAU S.A. and included trees at age 34, 48, 61, 74 and 86 months. Two trees were selected per age in each diameter class, observing the proportion of each established plot. Analyses of physical characteristics included wood basic density, dry matter weight and carbon stock, and of chemical characteristics included holocellulose, total extractives content, total lignin and ash content, in addition to elemental and thermal analysis of the wood. Results led to the conclusion that most wood properties were influenced by age and diameter class. The species was found to have great potential for production of biomass and generation of heat energy, potentially convertible into mechanical energy and electricity.

  1. Stability of Flip and Exchange Symmetric Entangled State Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafer Gedik, Mehmet

    2010-03-01

    Flip and exchange symmetric (FES) many-qubit states, which can be obtained from a state with the same symmetries by means of invertible local operations (ILO), constitute a one-parameter family of curves in the Hilbert space. Eigenstates of FES ILOs correspond to vectors that cannot be transformed to other FES states. Therefore, equivalence classes of states under ILO can be determined in a systematic way for an arbitrary number of qubits. More important, for entangled states, at the boundaries of neighboring equivalence classes, one can show that when the fidelity between the final state after an ILO and a state of the neighboring class approaches unity, probability of success decreases to zero. In other words, the classes are stable under ILOs.

  2. Existence for a class of discrete hyperbolic problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Rodica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the existence and uniqueness of solutions to a class of discrete hyperbolic systems with some nonlinear extreme conditions and initial data, in a real Hilbert space.

  3. Class preserving automorphisms of finite $p$-groups: A survey

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, Manoj K.

    2010-01-01

    In this short survey article, we try to list maximum number of known results on class preserving automorphisms of finite $p$-groups. We conclude the survey with some interesting (at least for the author) open problems on this topic.

  4. Class preserving automorphisms of finite $p$-groups: A survey

    CERN Document Server

    Yadav, Manoj K

    2010-01-01

    In this short survey article, we try to list maximum number of known results on class preserving automorphisms of finite $p$-groups. We conclude the survey with some interesting (at least to me) open problems on this topic.

  5. ON CLASSES OF REGULAR GRAPHS WITH CONSTANT METRIC DIMENSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad IMRAN; Syed Ahtsham ul Haq BOKHARY; Ali AHMAD; Andrea SEMANI(C)OV(A)-FE(N)OV(C)(I)KOV(A)

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,we are dealing with the study of the metric dimension of some classes of regular graphs by considering a class of bridgeless cubic graphs called the flower snarks Jn,a class of cubic convex polytopes considering the open problem raised in [M.Imran et al.,families of plane graphs with constant metric dimension,Utilitas Math.,in press] and finally Harary graphs H5,n by partially answering to an open problem proposed in [I.Javaid et al.,Families of regular graphs with constant metric dimension,Utilitas Math.,2012,88:43-57].We prove that these classes of regular graphs have constant metric dimension.

  6. On Certain Classes of Biharmonic Mappings Defined by Convolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a class of complex-valued biharmonic mappings, denoted by , together with its subclass , and then generalize the discussions in Ali et al. (2010 to the setting of and in a unified way.

  7. Classes of Spatiotemporal Objects and Their Closure Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Chomicki, Jan; Haesevoets, Sofie; Kuijpers, Bart; Revesz, Peter

    2002-01-01

    We present a data model for spatio-temporal databases. In this model spatio-temporal data is represented as a finite union of objects described by means of a spatial reference object, a temporal object and a geometric transformation function that determines the change or movement of the reference object in time. We define a number of practically relevant classes of spatio-temporal objects, and give complete results concerning closure under Boolean set operators for these classes. Since only f...

  8. Steganography: a class of secure and robust algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Bahi, Jacques M; Guyeux, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    This research work presents a new class of non-blind information hiding algorithms that are stego-secure and robust. They are based on some finite domains iterations having the Devaney's topological chaos property. Thanks to a complete formalization of the approach we prove security against watermark-only attacks of a large class of steganographic algorithms. Finally a complete study of robustness is given in frequency DWT and DCT domains.

  9. Specificity of Schoolchildren's Social Skills during Physical Education Classes

    OpenAIRE

    Malinauskas, Romualdas; Emeljanovas, Arunas

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyse the level of schoolchildren's social skills during physical education classes, and to examine specificity of social skills among schoolchildren during physical education classes. The analysis included 364 schoolchildren (178 male and 186 female students). The data were collected according to social skills inventory prepared by Bakutyte and adapted by Sniras and Malinauskas. An original conception of the exploration of schoolchildren’s social skills du...

  10. Classes of secondary metabolites identified in three legume species

    OpenAIRE

    Delci de Deus Nepomuceno; João Carlos de Carvalho Almeida; Mário Geraldo de Carvalho; Renata Duarte Fernandes; Francisco Eduardo Aragão Catunda Júnior

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify secondary metabolite classes of tropical kudzu, perennial soybean and archer legumes through identification by phytochemical screening and confirmation by infrared (IR), ¹H and carbon-13 NMR spectroscopy of fractions obtained by organic solvents partition of crude extracts. These analyses allowed for proposing the presence of the following metabolite classes: reducing sugars, saccharides, saponins, cardiac glucosides, terpenes, coumarins, tannins, a...

  11. Migrations of the Creative Class: Evidence from Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Høgni Kalsø; Niedomysl, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    A central element in contemporary regional development strategies is the ability for regions to attract and retain talented people. The underlying argument is that by attracting talented people, regions are better geared to meet the demand of competences of the knowledge economy and become more...... about the mobility of the creative class. In light of these findings, the article concludes with discussing why the creative class theory has become so influential despite the lack of empirical evidence...

  12. Thermal behaviour of geopolymers prepared using class F fly ash and elevated temperature curing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Bakharev [Monash University, Clayton, Vic. (Australia). Department of Civil Engineering

    2006-06-15

    This article reports a study of thermal stability of properties upon firing at 800-1200{sup o}C of geopolymer materials prepared using class F fly ash and Na and K alkaline activators. Compressive strength and shrinkage measurements, XRD, SEM (BEI), TGA and MIP were utilised in these studies. The materials were prepared at water/binder ratios in a range of 0.09-0.35, using compaction pressures up to 10 MPa and curing temperatures 80 and 100{sup o}C. Thermal stability of the studied geopolymer materials was rather low. In the samples prepared using sodium-containing activators rapid deterioration of strength at 800{sup o}C was observed, which was connected to a dramatic increase of the average pore size. Initially amorphous structures were replaced by the crystalline Na-feldspars. In materials prepared using fly ash and potassium silicate compressive strength was significantly increased on heating, deterioration of strength started at 1000{sup o}C. After firing these materials remained amorphous with reduced average pore size and significantly increased compressive strength. Compaction at 1-10 MPa reduced shrinkage on firing in all materials. Geopolymer materials prepared using class F fly ash and alkaline activators showed high shrinkage as well as large changes in compressive strength with increasing fired temperature in the range of 800-1200{sup o}C. Thus the materials were found unsuitable for refractory insulation applications.

  13. Mechanics of soft materials

    CERN Document Server

    Volokh, Konstantin

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a concise introduction to soft matter modelling. It offers an up-to-date review of continuum mechanical description of soft and biological materials from the basics to the latest scientific materials. It includes multi-physics descriptions, such as chemo-, thermo-, electro- mechanical coupling. It derives from a graduate course at Technion that has been established in recent years. It presents original explanations for some standard materials and features elaborated examples on all topics throughout the text. PowerPoint lecture notes can be provided to instructors. .

  14. Physical protection of nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    materials has increased considerably. Acts of terrorism have grown in frequency and severity. They are perpetrated by an ever-widening variety of groups with different motivations and a range of capability, training and equipment. Having concluded that more serious consideration than hereto must be given to the threat of dispersal of nuclear materials and non-nuclear radioactive materials against theft or sabotage the consultants have defined the elements that should constitute any States' system of physical protection; they have further classified nuclear materials and non-nuclear radioactive materials by their importance from the point of view of physical protection and, lastly, they have made recommendations regarding the level of physical protection needed for each of these classes of material. This article gives the understanding of elements of the system and protection requirements recommended by the consultants. (author)

  15. Computational consideration for selection of social classes in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andoria Ioniţă

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Middle class is a subject discussed by almost everyone, judging it in most cases from the visible living standard’s point of view: having the ownership of the dwelling, a car, making trips inside country or abroad, buying good quality and expensive goods or services and so on. But, at least in the case of our country, very often there is not a quantitative measurement of middle class, due to the fact that defining correct and reliable criteria to separate this social class from the others isn’t an easy task. Which are the “latent” factors which ensure each person’s capability to belong to the middle class? How much this affiliation depends on the individual characteristics and how much it depends on external factors like the characteristics of the society in which the persons are living in? A subtle definition of the middle class has to take into consideration several aspects, some of them more easily or more difficult to measure from the quantitative point of view. We are taking about some quantitative criteria like incomes or the number of endowment goods owned by a person, which are criteria relatively easy to estimate thought statistical methods, but also about aspects like wellbeing or social prestige, variables with a strong subjective specificity, on which there is very difficult to find an accord regarding methods of measurement between different specialists. This paper presents the results of an attempt to define social classes for Romania, in order to highlight the dimensions and the social importance of the middle class in our country. The elaboration of the methodology to build the social classes starts from the definition of 11 professional categories, based on the Classification of Occupation in Romania. By using the professional categories defined, which can be considered a first instrument (or a first step for the separation of middle class from the other ones, the present paper presents a first image of the middle

  16. Stability and optimal control for some classes of tritrophic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbusera, Luca; Pasquali, Sara; Gilioli, Gianni

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to study an optimal resource management problem for some classes of tritrophic systems composed by autotrophic resources (plants), bottom level consumers (herbivores) and top level consumers (humans). The first class of systems we discuss are linear chains, in which biomass flows from plants to herbivores, and from herbivores to humans. In the second class of systems humans are omnivorous and hence compete with herbivores for plant resources. Finally, in the third class of systems humans are omnivorous, but the plant resources are partitioned so that humans and herbivores do not complete for the same ones. The three trophic chains are expressed as Lotka-Volterra models, which seems to be a suitable choice in contexts where there is a shortage of food for the consumers. Our model parameters are taken from the literature on agro-pastoral systems in Sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:24245717

  17. Global asymptotic stability for a class of nonlinear chemical equations

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, David F.

    2007-01-01

    We consider a class of nonlinear differential equations that arises in the study of chemical reaction systems that are known to be locally asymptotically stable and prove that they are in fact globally asymptotically stable. More specifically, we will consider chemical reaction systems that are weakly reversible, have a deficiency of zero, and are equipped with mass action kinetics. We show that if for each $c \\in \\R_{> 0}^m$ the intersection of the stoichiometric compatibility class $c + S$ ...

  18. Ideal Class Groups and Subgroups of Real Quadratic Function Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we study the real quadratic function fields K=k(D), given a necessary and sufficient condition for the ideal class group H(K) of any real quadratic function field K to have a cyclic subgroup of order n, and obtained eight series of such fields. The ideal class numbers h(OK) of K in the series all have a factor n.

  19. Molten Air -- A new, highest energy class of rechargeable batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Licht, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    This study introduces the principles of a new class of batteries, rechargeable molten air batteries, and several battery chemistry examples are demonstrated. The new battery class uses a molten electrolyte, are quasi reversible, and have amongst the highest intrinsic battery electric energy storage capacities. Three examples of the new batteries are demonstrated. These are the iron, carbon and VB2 molten air batteries with respective intrinsic volumetric energy capacities of 10,000, 19,000 an...

  20. The roles of the teacher in ELT classes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘振梅

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays,ELT pays more attention to the ability of communication.So the role of the teacher is very different from the one before.This paper mainly gives an analysis of the possible roles a teacher is supposed to take in an ELT class by dividing the class into three stages,presenting the practical approaches and procedures of teaching to develop students'communicative abilities.

  1. Type Iax Supernovae: A New Class of Stellar Explosion

    OpenAIRE

    Foley, Ryan J.; Challis, P. J.; Chornock, R.; Ganeshalingam, M.; Li, W; Marion, G. H.; Morrell, N. I.; Pignata, G.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Silverman, J. M.; X Wang; Anderson, J.P.; Filippenko, A. V.; Freedman, W. L.; Hamuy, M.

    2012-01-01

    We describe observed properties of the Type Iax class of supernovae (SNe Iax), consisting of SNe observationally similar to its prototypical member, SN 2002cx. The class currently has 25 members, and we present optical photometry and/or optical spectroscopy for most of them. SNe Iax are spectroscopically similar to SNe Ia, but have lower maximum-light velocities (2000 M_V,peak > -18.9 mag), and most have hot photospheres. Relative t...

  2. Relativistic theories of materials

    CERN Document Server

    Bressan, Aldo

    1978-01-01

    The theory of relativity was created in 1905 to solve a problem concerning electromagnetic fields. That solution was reached by means of profound changes in fundamental concepts and ideas that considerably affected the whole of physics. Moreover, when Einstein took gravitation into account, he was forced to develop radical changes also in our space-time concepts (1916). Relativistic works on heat, thermodynamics, and elasticity appeared as early as 1911. However, general theories having a thermodynamic basis, including heat conduction and constitutive equations, did not appear in general relativity until about 1955 for fluids and appeared only after 1960 for elastic or more general finitely deformed materials. These theories dealt with materials with memory, and in this connection some relativistic versions of the principle of material indifference were considered. Even more recently, relativistic theories incorporating finite deformations for polarizable and magnetizable materials and those in which couple s...

  3. Physical characteristics of bright Class I methanol masers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leurini, S.; Menten, K. M.; Walmsley, C. M.

    2016-07-01

    Context. Class I methanol masers are thought to be tracers of interstellar shock waves. However, they have received relatively little attention mostly as a consequence of their low luminosities compared to other maser transitions. This situation has changed recently and Class I methanol masers are now routinely used as signposts of outflow activity especially in high extinction regions. The recent detection of polarisation in Class I lines now makes it possible to obtain direct observational information about magnetic fields in interstellar shocks. Aims: We make use of newly calculated collisional rate coefficients for methanol to investigate the excitation of Class I methanol masers and to reconcile the observed Class I methanol maser properties with model results. Methods: We performed large velocity gradient calculations with a plane-parallel slab geometry appropriate for shocks to compute the pump and loss rates which regulate the interactions of the different maser systems with the maser reservoir. We study the dependence of the pump rate coefficient, the maser loss rate, and the inversion efficiency of the pumping scheme of several Class I masers on the physics of the emitting gas. Results: We predict inversion in all transitions where maser emission is observed. Bright Class I methanol masers are mainly high-temperature (>100 K) high-density (n(H2) ~ 107-108 cm-3) structures with methanol maser emission measures, ξ, corresponding to high methanol abundances close to the limits set by collisional quenching. Our model predictions reproduce reasonably well most of the observed properties of Class I methanol masers. Class I masers in the 25 GHz series are the most sensitive to the density of the medium and mase at higher densities than other lines. Moreover, even at high density and high methanol abundances, their luminosity is predicted to be lower than that of the 44 GHz and 36 GHz masers. Our model predictions also reflect the observational result that the

  4. A Further Examination of the Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effect: Perceived Position in Class, Class Size, and Gender Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijs, Jochem; Verkuyten, Maykel; Helmond, Petra

    2010-01-01

    Among early adolescents (10-12 years) in the Netherlands, this study examined the academic self-concept in terms of the big-fish-little-pond effect (BFLPE). The BFLPE implies that students in classes where the average achievement is low will have a higher academic self-concept than equally achieving students in classes where the average…

  5. Turkish Managers as a Part of the Transnational Capitalist Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Yinaz Sener

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available During the period after 1970s, capitalism has gone through a significant restructuring. This period has been primarily characterized by the process of globalization. Globalization has not emerged as the natural result of capitalism but it has been actively promoted and the appropriate conditions for the functioning of global capitalism have been created by certain actors. Many scholars argue that it is a newly emerging transnational capitalist class which transformed capitalism into a globalizing project. Although the members of this class are located in different parts of the world, they have a common interest in supporting globalization. They are aware of their common interests and they have a certain class consciousness. Moreover, their habits, tastes, and lifestyles are becoming increasingly similar. Considering these debates on transnational capitalist class, in a case study of the Turkish top managers working in the ?stanbul branch of a multinational corporation, this paper looks at the lifestyle characteristics of this group of managers, comparing them with those aspects of the lifestyle of the transnational capitalist class that are indicated by the scholars. A second question that has been considered is to what extent these managers feel themselves as part of a transnational class that has common goals and interests. This study shows that for this group of managers the primary identification is with the people who have the same position with them, regardless of their country or corporation, not with their fellow nationals.

  6. Research into the environment of science laboratory classes in australian schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRobbie, Campbell J.; Giddings, Geoffrey J.; Fraser, Barry J.

    1990-01-01

    Existing instruments for assessing student or teacher perceptions of characteristics of actual or preferred classroom psychosocial environment are unsuitable for one of the most important settings in science teaching, namely, the science laboratory class. Consequently, the Science Laboratory Environment Inventory (SLEI), was designed to assess student or teacher perceptions of seven scales: Teacher Supportiveness, Student Cohesiveness, Open-Endedness, Integration, Organization, Rule Clarity and Material Environment. An important feature of the design of the study was that the new instrument was field tested simultaneously in six countries: Australia, USA, Canada, England, Nigeria and Israel. This paper is based on a sample of 4643 students in 225 individual laboratory classes, together with the teachers of most of these classes. Preliminary analyses were used to shed light on various important research questions including the differences between Actual and Preferred environments, gender differences in perceptions of Actual and Preferred environment, the relationship between the science laboratory environment and attitude towards science laboratory work, differences between school and university laboratory classes, differences between teachers’ and students’ perceptions of the same laboratory classes, and differences between laboratory classes in different science subjects (Physics, Chemistry, Biology).

  7. Evaluation of learning materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundsgaard, Jeppe; Hansen, Thomas Illum

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a holistic framework for evaluating learning materials and designs for learning. A holistic evaluation comprises investigations of the potential learning potential, the actualized learning potential, and the actual learning. Each aspect is explained and exemplified through...

  8. CHARACTERIZATION OF DAMAGED MATERIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, P C; Dehaven, M; McClelland, M; Chidester, S; Maienschein, J L

    2006-06-23

    Thermal damage experiments were conducted on LX-04, LX-10, and LX-17 at high temperatures. Both pristine and damaged samples were characterized for their material properties. A pycnometer was used to determine sample true density and porosity. Gas permeability was measured in a newly procured system (diffusion permeameter). Burn rate was measured in the LLNL strand burner. Weight losses upon thermal exposure were insignificant. Damaged pressed parts expanded, resulting in a reduction of bulk density by up to 10%. Both gas permeabilities and burn rates of the damaged samples increased by several orders of magnitude due to higher porosity and lower density. Moduli of the damaged materials decreased significantly, an indication that the materials became weaker mechanically. Damaged materials were more sensitive to shock initiation at high temperatures. No significant sensitization was observed when the damaged samples were tested at room temperature.

  9. 78 FR 21044 - Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Reading, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... amend Class D and Class E airspace at Reading, PA (78 FR 5754) Docket No. FAA-2012-1270. Interested... rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not..., 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation...

  10. Comparison of Group Cohesion, Class Participation, and Exam Performance in Live and Online Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galyon, Charles E.; Heaton, Eleanore C. T.; Best, Tiffany L.; Williams, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    Though class participation and group cohesion have shown some potential to promote student performance in conventional classrooms, their efficacy has not yet been demonstrated in an online-class setting. Group cohesion, defined as member attraction to and self-identification with a group, is thought to promote positive interdependence and the…

  11. THE ASSESSMENT OF DIFFICULTY OF YACHT SAILING CLASSES AND STUDENTS' GLOBAL SELF-ESTEEM

    OpenAIRE

    Romanowska-Tolloczko Anna.; Piwowarczyk Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: determination of relationship between the level of students’ global self-esteem and their perception of the degree of difficulty sailing yacht classes. Material and methods: Study consisted of 178 students of University School of Physical Education in Wrocław. The study used two tools: Polish adaptation of SES M. Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and a questionnaire designed by the authors of the study. Results: men were characterized by a higher self-esteem than women. Distribution of the...

  12. Liquid class predictor for liquid handling of complex mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seglke, Brent W.; Lekin, Timothy P.

    2008-12-09

    A method of establishing liquid classes of complex mixtures for liquid handling equipment. The mixtures are composed of components and the equipment has equipment parameters. The first step comprises preparing a response curve for the components. The next step comprises using the response curve to prepare a response indicator for the mixtures. The next step comprises deriving a model that relates the components and the mixtures to establish the liquid classes.

  13. Reassessing Pre-market Regulation of Class III Medical Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Zollinger, Geri

    2003-01-01

    Regulation of medical devices has evolved over the past twenty-five years. Initially, Congress created a regime where the safety and efficacy of all medical devices would be reviewed to varying degrees, depending on the risk posed by the device. Class III devices, the most dangerous class of devices, were to each have a safety and efficacy review. To permit new market entrants on similar grounds as those marketing devices prior to the 1976 Amendments, Congress also created a premarket notific...

  14. Credibility analysis of risk classes by generalized linear model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, Ovgucan Karadag; Sucu, Meral

    2016-06-01

    In this paper generalized linear model (GLM) and credibility theory which are frequently used in nonlife insurance pricing are combined for reliability analysis. Using full credibility standard, GLM is associated with limited fluctuation credibility approach. Comparison criteria such as asymptotic variance and credibility probability are used to analyze the credibility of risk classes. An application is performed by using one-year claim frequency data of a Turkish insurance company and results of credible risk classes are interpreted.

  15. Methods of motivating students to learn at technical mechanics classes

    OpenAIRE

    Marek, A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims at presenting different methods of motivating students to learn during technical mechanics classes.Design/methodology/approach: It was assumed that adding variety to the grading system would enhance students’ interest in technical mechanics classes. Exercises on the board were supplemented with simple experiments, in the preparation of which participated students themselves. The method of preparing the experiments and the way their presentation were evaluated by an aca...

  16. Several ways of encouraging students in English class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓云

    2006-01-01

    Encouragement is not only important in communication but also in teaching. This paper will analyse the importance of encouragement in middle school English class, offering some suggestions on how to improve English classroom teaching.

  17. ASYMPTOTIC SOLUTION TO MODEL FOR A CLASS OF VIRUS TRANSMISSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a class of HIV virus transmission is considered. The transmissive dynamic model for the HIV virus is described. Using the functional-variational iteration theory, the rule for human group in the epidemic transmissive area is studied.

  18. THE EFFECT OF BETWEEN CLASS ABILITY GROUPING ON SCIENCE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT AND SELF ESTEEM OF SIXTH CLASS STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Karademir, Çigdem Aldan

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research is to expose the effects of between class ability grouping on science academic achievement and self esteem of sixth class students. As a result, according to the achievement test, there couldn't be found a meaningful difference between the experiment and the control group (p>0.05), beside this there was found a meaningful difference between high, medium and low classes (p0.05). According to the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale, there couldn't be found a meaningful ...

  19. Prediction of MHC class I binding peptides, using SVMHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elofsson Arne

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background T-cells are key players in regulating a specific immune response. Activation of cytotoxic T-cells requires recognition of specific peptides bound to Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC class I molecules. MHC-peptide complexes are potential tools for diagnosis and treatment of pathogens and cancer, as well as for the development of peptide vaccines. Only one in 100 to 200 potential binders actually binds to a certain MHC molecule, therefore a good prediction method for MHC class I binding peptides can reduce the number of candidate binders that need to be synthesized and tested. Results Here, we present a novel approach, SVMHC, based on support vector machines to predict the binding of peptides to MHC class I molecules. This method seems to perform slightly better than two profile based methods, SYFPEITHI and HLA_BIND. The implementation of SVMHC is quite simple and does not involve any manual steps, therefore as more data become available it is trivial to provide prediction for more MHC types. SVMHC currently contains prediction for 26 MHC class I types from the MHCPEP database or alternatively 6 MHC class I types from the higher quality SYFPEITHI database. The prediction models for these MHC types are implemented in a public web service available at http://www.sbc.su.se/svmhc/. Conclusions Prediction of MHC class I binding peptides using Support Vector Machines, shows high performance and is easy to apply to a large number of MHC class I types. As more peptide data are put into MHC databases, SVMHC can easily be updated to give prediction for additional MHC class I types. We suggest that the number of binding peptides needed for SVM training is at least 20 sequences.

  20. 75 FR 68384 - Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials AGENCY: National Archives and Records Administration. ACTION: Notice of Opening of Additional Materials. SUMMARY: This notice announces the opening of additional Nixon Presidential Historical Materials by the Richard...

  1. 76 FR 35918 - Nixon Presidential Historical Materials; Opening of Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Nixon Presidential Historical Materials; Opening of Materials AGENCY: National Archives and Records Administration. ACTION: Notice of Opening of Additional Materials. SUMMARY: This notice announces the opening of additional Nixon Presidential Historical Materials by the Richard...

  2. 78 FR 42805 - Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials AGENCY: National Archives and Records Administration. ] ACTION: Notice of Opening of Additional Nixon Materials. SUMMARY: This notice announces the opening of additional Nixon Presidential Historical Materials by the...

  3. 75 FR 30863 - Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials AGENCY: National Archives and Records Administration. ACTION: Notice of opening of additional materials. SUMMARY: This notice announces the opening of additional Nixon Presidential Historical Materials by the Richard...

  4. 77 FR 58179 - Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials AGENCY: National Archives and Records Administration ACTION: Notice of opening of additional materials SUMMARY: This notice announces the opening of additional Nixon Presidential Historical Materials by the Richard...

  5. 76 FR 62856 - Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials AGENCY: National Archives and Records Administration. ACTION: Notice of opening of additional materials. SUMMARY: This notice announces the opening of Nixon Presidential Historical Materials by the Richard Nixon...

  6. 77 FR 31400 - Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials AGENCY: National Archives and Records Administration. ACTION: Notice of Opening of Additional Materials. SUMMARY: This notice announces the opening of additional Nixon Presidential Historical Materials by the Richard...

  7. 76 FR 27092 - Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Nixon Presidential Historical Materials: Opening of Materials AGENCY: National Archives and Records Administration. ACTION: Notice of opening of additional materials. SUMMARY: This notice announces the opening of additional Nixon Presidential Historical Materials by the Richard...

  8. Physical characteristics of bright Class I methanol masers

    CERN Document Server

    Leurini, S; Walmsley, C M

    2016-01-01

    Class I CH$_3$OH masers trace interstellar shocks. They have received little attention mostly as a consequence of their low luminosities; this situation has changed recently and Class I masers are now routinely used as signposts of outflows. The recent detection of polarisation in Class I lines now makes it possible to obtain information on magnetic fields in shocks. We make use of newly calculated collisional rates to investigate the excitation of Class I masers and to reconcile their observed properties with model results. We performed LVG calculations with a plane-parallel slab geometry to compute the pump and loss rates which regulate the interactions of the different maser systems with the maser reservoir. We study the dependence of the pump rate, the loss rate, and the inversion efficiency of the pumping scheme of Class I masers on the physics of the gas. Bright Class I masers are mainly high-temperature high-density structures with maser emission measures corresponding to high CH$_3$OH abundances close...

  9. Isomorphism classes and automorphism groups of algebras of Weyl type

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU; Yucai(苏育才); ZHAO; Kaiming(赵开明)

    2002-01-01

    In one of our recent papers, the associative and the Lie algebras of Weyl type A[D] = A F[D] were defined and studied, where A is a commutative associative algebra with an identity element over a field F of any characteristic, and F[D] is the polynomial algebra of a commutative derivation subalgebra D of A. In the present paper, a class of the above associative and Lie algebras A[D] with F being a field of characteristic 0, D consisting of locally finite but not locally nilpotent derivations of A, are studied. The isomorphism classes and automorphism groups of these associative and Lie algebras are determined.

  10. Modelling of Closed Loop Class E Inverter Based Induction Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Arumugam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents simulation of class E inverter based induction heater system using simulink. DC is converted into high frequency AC using class E inverter. This high frequency AC is used for induction heating. Closed loop systems are modeled and they are simulated using Mat lab Simulink.The results of closed loop systems are presented. The proposed amplifier with two series-parallel resonant load networks will allow sinusoidal output voltage to be achieved by associating with the positive and negative quasi-sinusoidal waveforms. The complementarily activated configuration will provide continuous high-ripple-frequency inputcurrent waveforms; this approach significantly reduces electromagnetic interference and requires very little filtering. With the symmetry of the push-pull Class-E Circuit, there is the additional benefit that the even harmonics are suppressed at the load, and thus there are fewer harmonic distortions.

  11. Uniform Approximation and Bracketing Properties of VC classes

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Terrence M

    2010-01-01

    We show that the sets in a family with finite VC dimension can be uniformly approximated within a given error by a finite partition. Immediate corollaries include the fact that VC classes have finite bracketing numbers, satisfy uniform laws of averages under strong dependence, and exhibit uniform mixing. Our results are based on recent work concerning uniform laws of averages for VC classes under ergodic sampling.

  12. The rise of China's middle class and prospects for democratization

    OpenAIRE

    Cichon, Frederick A.

    2007-01-01

    Since Deng Xiaoping instituted economic reforms under the "reform and open" policy in 1978, the Chinese Communist Party has overseen a gradualist approach to modernizing China's economy. A new Chinese middle class has emerged with China's economic reforms and economic growth. According to Seymour Martin Lipset's modernization theory, there is a strong relationship between socioeconomic development and the emergence of democratic politics accompanying the growth of an educated middle class...

  13. Class II barodontalgia: review and report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodmansey, Karl

    2008-01-01

    Barodontalgia is a rarely reported condition involving changes in ambient pressure resulting in tooth pain. According to Ferjentsik and Aker, Class II barodontalgia is observed in teeth that have pre-existing pulpal disease and an ultimate diagnosis of irreversible pulpitis.1 This article describes a case of Class II barodontalgia that was experienced on a commercial airline flight and reviews current knowledge regarding this phenomenon, including proposed etiologic mechanisms.

  14. Use of Literature to Enhance Motivation in ELT Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haldun Vural

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Foreign language teachers need to motivate their students to learn English. Literature can be a good means to achieve motivation in ELT classes. There has recently been a revival of interest in literature as a practical, motivating and an effective resource available for language learning. Therefore, we can assume that literature and authentic literary materials, especially short stories can enhance motivation of ELT students. Keeping this in mind, this study was carried out in an ELT classroom by using two homogeneous groups: an experimental group and a control group. First, for one semester, Experimental Group was provided with unabridged, authentic short stories, whereas Control Group was exposed to abridged and simplified texts and reading passages. The findings showed that the Experimental Group’s overall results of final exams and outcomes were better than that of the Control Group. Second, an attitude survey was used to understand the level of motivation of literature and to determine whether literature has a positive effect on reading and writing. The results suggested that use of short stories enhances learning and may be good motivational means in second and/or foreign language teaching settings through developing integrated reading, speaking, writing and listening skills. The results of this study may be beneficial to language practitioners in their classroom teaching.

  15. Class Habitus and Taste: Bourdieu' s theory of social class%阶级惯习与品味:布迪厄的阶级理论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘欣

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews Bourdieu''s theory of social class. It is organized into three main sections. In part one, as the background to understand his class theory, Bourdieu''s general framework of social theory, methodology, and key terms are briefly introduced. Part two reviews Bourdieu''s theoretical insights on class concept, capital and class classification, class habitus and taste, class trajectory and related topics. In part three, the author comments on Bourdieu'' s important contributions to class theory and its limitations, highlights the heuristic implication of his class theory and the possibility to apply it to Chinese society to develop some empirical research questions.

  16. Thermodynamics of Thermoelectric Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doak, Jeff W.

    One challenge facing society is the responsible use of our energy resources. Increasing the efficiency of energy generation provides one path to solving this challenge. One commonality among most current energy generation methods is that waste heat is generated during the generation process. Thermoelectrics can provide a solution to increasing the efficiency of power generation and automotive systems by converting waste heat directly to electricity. The current barrier to implementation of thermoelectric systems is the low efficiencies of underlying thermoelectric materials. The efficiency of a thermoelectric material depends on the electronic and thermal transport properties of the material; a good thermoelectric material should be an electronic conductor and a thermal insulator, traits which generally oppose one another. The thermal properties of a thermoelectric material can be improved by forming nanoscale precipitates with the material which scatter phonons, reducing the thermal conductivity. The electronic properties of a thermoelectric material can be improved by doping the material to increase the electronic conductivity or by alloying the material to favorably alter its band structure. The ability of these chemical modifications to affect the thermoelectric efficiency of material are ultimately governed by the chemical thermodynamics of the system. PbTe is a prototypical thermoelectric material: Alloying PbTe with PbS (or other materials) creates nanostructures which scatter phonons and reduce the lattice thermal conductivity. Doping PbTe with Na increases the hole concentration, increasing the electronic conductivity. In this work, we investigate the thermodynamics of PbTe and similar systems using first principles to understand the underlying mechanisms controlling the formation of nanostructures and the amount of doping allowed in these systems. In this work we: 1) investigate the thermodynamics of pseudo-binary alloys of IV--VI systems to identify the

  17. Study of Class I and Class III Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) Synthases with Substrates Containing a Modified Side Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Kaimin; Cao, Ruikai; Hua, Duy H; Li, Ping

    2016-04-11

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are carbon and energy storage polymers produced by a variety of microbial organisms under nutrient-limited conditions. They have been considered as an environmentally friendly alternative to oil-based plastics due to their renewability, versatility, and biodegradability. PHA synthase (PhaC) plays a central role in PHA biosynthesis, in which its activity and substrate specificity are major factors in determining the productivity and properties of the produced polymers. However, the effects of modifying the substrate side chain are not well understood because of the difficulty to accessing the desired analogues. In this report, a series of 3-(R)-hydroxyacyl coenzyme A (HACoA) analogues were synthesized and tested with class I synthases from Chromobacterium sp. USM2 (PhaCCs and A479S-PhaCCs) and Caulobacter crescentus (PhaCCc) as well as class III synthase from Allochromatium vinosum (PhaECAv). It was found that, while different PHA synthases displayed distinct preference with regard to the length of the alkyl side chains, they could withstand moderate side chain modifications such as terminal unsaturated bonds and the azide group. Specifically, the specific activity of PhaCCs toward propynyl analogue (HHxyCoA) was only 5-fold less than that toward the classical substrate HBCoA. The catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) of PhaECAv toward azide analogue (HABCoA) was determined to be 2.86 × 10(5) M(-1) s(-1), which was 6.2% of the value of HBCoA (4.62 × 10(6) M(-1) s(-1)) measured in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA). These side chain modifications may be employed to introduce new material functions to PHAs as well as to study PHA biogenesis via click-chemistry, in which the latter remains unknown and is important for metabolic engineering to produce PHAs economically. PMID:26974339

  18. Students' Perceptions of the Value of Using Videos as a Pre-Class Learning Experience in the Flipped Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Taotao; Logan, Joanne; Waugh, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The flipped classroom is an instructional model in which students viewed the learning content before class through instructor-provided video lectures or other pre-class learning materials, and in-class time is used for student-centered active learning. Video is widely utilized as a typical pre-class learning material in the flipped classroom. This…

  19. Class preserving automorphisms of some quotients of unitriangular groups

    CERN Document Server

    Bardakov, Valeriy; Yadav, Manoj K

    2011-01-01

    Let $\\textrm{UT}_n (K)$ be a unitriangular group over a field $K$ and $\\Gamma_{n,k} := \\textrm{UT}_n (K)/ \\gamma_k(\\textrm{UT}_n (K))$, where $\\gamma_k (\\mathrm{UT}_n(K))$ denotes the $k$-th term of the lower central series of $\\mathrm{UT}_n (K)$, $2 \\le k \\le n$. We prove that the group of all class preserving automorphisms of $\\Gamma_{n,k}$ is equal to $\\Inn(\\Gamma_{n,k})$ if and only if $K$ is a prime field. Let $G_n^{(m)} := \\mathrm{UT}_n (\\mathbb{F}_{p^m}) / \\gamma_3 (\\mathrm{UT}_n(\\mathbb{F}_{p^m}))$. We calculate the group of all class preserving automorphisms and class preserving outer automorphisms of $G_n^{(m)}$.

  20. Class of Antiretroviral Drugs and the Risk of Myocardial Infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Møller, Nina; Reiss, P; Sabin, CA;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have previously demonstrated an association between combination antiretroviral therapy and the risk of myocardial infarction. It is not clear whether this association differs according to the class of antiretroviral drugs. We conducted a study to investigate the association...... to the other drug class and established cardiovascular risk factors (excluding lipid levels), the relative rate of myocardial infarction per year of protease-inhibitor exposure was 1.16 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10 to 1.23), whereas the relative rate per year of exposure to nonnucleoside reverse......-transcriptase inhibitors was 1.05 (95% CI, 0.98 to 1.13). Adjustment for serum lipid levels further reduced the effect of exposure to each drug class to 1.10 (95% CI, 1.04 to 1.18) and 1.00 (95% CI, 0.93 to 1.09), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Increased exposure to protease inhibitors is associated with an increased risk...