WorldWideScience

Sample records for classes define evolutionary

  1. DEFINING THE MIDDLE CLASS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG HAIRONG

    2011-01-01

    China's cities housed more than 230 million middle-class residents in 2009ot 37 percent of the urban population,according to the 2011 Blue Book of Cities in China released on August 3.In China's main urban centers,Beijing and Shanghai,the middle class accounted for 46 percent and 38 percent,respectively,of the local population.

  2. DEFINING THE MIDDLE CLASS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Classifying the middle class remains controversial despite its alleged growth China’s cities housed more than 230 million middle-class residents in 2009 or 37 percent of the urban population,according to the 2011 Blue Book of Cities in China released on August 3.

  3. Comparing offline decoding performance in physiologically defined neuronal classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Matthew D.; Takahashi, Kazutaka; Suminski, Aaron J.; Ethier, Christian; Miller, Lee E.; Hatsopoulos, Nicholas G.

    2016-04-01

    Objective: Recently, several studies have documented the presence of a bimodal distribution of spike waveform widths in primary motor cortex. Although narrow and wide spiking neurons, corresponding to the two modes of the distribution, exhibit different response properties, it remains unknown if these differences give rise to differential decoding performance between these two classes of cells. Approach: We used a Gaussian mixture model to classify neurons into narrow and wide physiological classes. Using similar-size, random samples of neurons from these two physiological classes, we trained offline decoding models to predict a variety of movement features. We compared offline decoding performance between these two physiologically defined populations of cells. Main results: We found that narrow spiking neural ensembles decode motor parameters better than wide spiking neural ensembles including kinematics, kinetics, and muscle activity. Significance: These findings suggest that the utility of neural ensembles in brain machine interfaces may be predicted from their spike waveform widths.

  4. Responsibility for proving and defining in abstract algebra class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukawa-Connelly, Timothy

    2016-07-01

    There is considerable variety in inquiry-oriented instruction, but what is common is that students assume roles in mathematical activity that in a traditional, lecture-based class are either assumed by the teacher (or text) or are not visible at all in traditional math classrooms. This paper is a case study of the teaching of an inquiry-based undergraduate abstract algebra course. In particular, gives a theoretical account of the defining and proving processes. The study examines the intellectual responsibility for the processes of defining and proving that the professor devolved to the students. While the professor wanted the students to engage in all aspects of defining and proving, he was only successful at devolving responsibility for certain aspects and much more successful at devolving responsibility for proving than conjecturing or defining. This study suggests that even a well-intentioned instructor may not be able to devolve responsibility to students for some aspects of mathematical practice without using a research-based curriculum or further professional development.

  5. Defining universality classes for three different local bifurcations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonel, Edson D.

    2016-10-01

    The convergence to the fixed point at a bifurcation and near it is characterized via scaling formalism for three different types of local bifurcations of fixed points in differential equations, namely: (i) saddle-node; (ii) transcritical; and (iii) supercritical pitchfork. At the bifurcation, the convergence is described by a homogeneous function with three critical exponents α, β and z. A scaling law is derived hence relating the three exponents. Near the bifurcation the evolution towards the fixed point is given by an exponential function whose relaxation time is marked by a power law of the distance of the bifurcation point with an exponent δ. The four exponents α, β, z and δ can be used to defined classes of universality for the local bifurcations of fixed points in differential equations.

  6. On Certain Classes of Biharmonic Mappings Defined by Convolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a class of complex-valued biharmonic mappings, denoted by , together with its subclass , and then generalize the discussions in Ali et al. (2010 to the setting of and in a unified way.

  7. Comparing offline decoding performance in physiologically defined neuronal classes

    OpenAIRE

    Best, Matthew D.; Takahashi, Kazutaka; Suminski, Aaron J; Ethier, Christian; Miller, Lee E.; Hatsopoulos, Nicholas G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Recently, several studies have documented the presence of a bimodal distribution of spike waveform widths in primary motor cortex. Although narrow and wide spiking neurons, corresponding to the two modes of the distribution, exhibit different response properties, it remains unknown if these differences give rise to differential decoding performance between these two classes of cells. Approach We used a Gaussian mixture model to classify neurons into narrow and wide physiological cla...

  8. Regulatory networks define phenotypic classes of human stem cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Franz-Josef; Louise C. Laurent; Kostka, Dennis; Ulitsky, Igor; Williams, Roy; Lu, Christina; Park, In-Hyun; Rao, Mahendra S.; Shamir, Ron; Philip H. Schwartz; Schmidt, Nils O.; Loring, Jeanne F.

    2008-01-01

    Stem cells are defined as self-renewing cell populations that can differentiate into multiple distinct cell types. However, hundreds of different human cell lines from embryonic, fetal, and adult sources have been called stem cells, even though they range from pluripotent cells, typified by embryonic stem cells, which are capable of virtually unlimited proliferation and differentiation, to adult stem cell lines, which can generate a far more limited repertory of differentiated cell types. The...

  9. CONVERGENCE RATES FOR A CLASS OF EVOLUTIONARY ALGORITHMS WITH ELITIST STRATEGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁立新; 康立山

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses the convergence rates about a class of evolutionary al-gorithms in general search spaces by means of the ergodic theory in Markov chain and some techniques in Banach algebra. Under certain conditions that transition probability functions of Markov chains corresponding to evolutionary algorithms satisfy, the authors obtain the convergence rates of the exponential order. Furthermore, they also analyze the characteristics of the conditions which can be met by genetic operators and selection strategies.

  10. The Early Expansion and Evolutionary Dynamics of POU Class Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, David A.; Gates, Ruth D.; Jacobs, David K.

    2014-01-01

    The POU genes represent a diverse class of animal-specific transcription factors that play important roles in neurogenesis, pluripotency, and cell-type specification. Although previous attempts have been made to reconstruct the evolution of the POU class, these studies have been limited by a small number of representative taxa, and a lack of sequences from basally branching organisms. In this study, we performed comparative analyses on available genomes and sequences recovered through “gene fishing” to better resolve the topology of the POU gene tree. We then used ancestral state reconstruction to map the most likely changes in amino acid evolution for the conserved domains. Our work suggests that four of the six POU families evolved before the last common ancestor of living animals—doubling previous estimates—and were followed by extensive clade-specific gene loss. Amino acid changes are distributed unequally across the gene tree, consistent with a neofunctionalization model of protein evolution. We consider our results in the context of early animal evolution, and the role of POU5 genes in maintaining stem cell pluripotency. PMID:25261405

  11. Majorization for a Class of Analytic Functions Defined by q-Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Selvakumaran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new class of multivalent analytic functions defined by using q-differentiation and fractional q-calculus operators. Further, we investigate majorization properties for functions belonging to this class. Also, we point out some new and known consequences of our main result.

  12. Lower bounds on the class number of algebraic function fields defined over any finite field

    CERN Document Server

    Ballet, Stéphane

    2011-01-01

    We give lower bounds on the number of effective divisors of degree $\\leq g-1$ with respect to the number of places of certain degrees of an algebraic function field of genus $g$ defined over a finite field. We deduce lower bounds and asymptotics for the class number, depending mainly on the number of places of a certain degree. We give examples of towers of algebraic function fields having a large class number.

  13. Some Classes of Difference Sequence Spaces of Fuzzy Real Numbers Defined by Orlicz Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binod Chandra Tripathy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the classes of generalized difference bounded, convergent, and null sequences of fuzzy real numbers defined by an Orlicz function. Some properties of these sequence spaces like solidness, symmetricity, and convergence-free are studied. We obtain some inclusion relations involving these sequence spaces.

  14. Some Classes of Difference Sequence Spaces of Fuzzy Real Numbers Defined by Orlicz Function

    OpenAIRE

    Binod Chandra Tripathy; Stuti Borgohain

    2011-01-01

    We introduce the classes of generalized difference bounded, convergent, and null sequences of fuzzy real numbers defined by an Orlicz function. Some properties of these sequence spaces like solidness, symmetricity, and convergence-free are studied. We obtain some inclusion relations involving these sequence spaces.

  15. Defining the HLA class I-associated viral antigen repertoire from HIV-1-infected human cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ternette, Nicola; Yang, Hongbing; Partridge, Thomas;

    2016-01-01

    Recognition and eradication of infected cells by cytotoxic T lymphocytes is a key defense mechanism against intracellular pathogens. High-throughput definition of HLA class I-associated immunopeptidomes by mass spectrometry is an increasingly important analytical tool to advance our understanding...... of the induction of T-cell responses against pathogens such as HIV-1. We utilized a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry workflow including de novo-assisted database searching to define the HLA class I-associated immunopeptidome of HIV-1-infected human cells. We here report for the first time...... the identification of 75 HIV-1-derived peptides bound to HLA class I complexes that were purified directly from HIV-1-infected human primary CD4+ T cells and the C8166 human T-cell line. Importantly, one-third of eluted HIV-1 peptides had not been previously known to be presented by HLA class I. Over 82...

  16. Two classes of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma defined by relative abundance of mutations and copy number alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Ho; Hong, Eun-Kyung; Kong, Sun-Young; Han, Sung-Sik; Kim, Seoung-Hoon; Rhee, Je-Keun; Hwang, Soo-Kyung; Park, Sang-Jae; Kim, Tae-Min

    2016-04-26

    Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is a biliary tree-origin epithelial malignancy in liver with unfavorable clinical outcomes. Systematic genome analyses may advance our understanding of ICC pathogenesis also improving current diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. In this study, we analyzed 17 ICC tumor-vs-matched normal pairs using either whole-exome (n = 7), transcriptome sequencing (n = 7) or both platforms (n = 3). For somatic mutations, we identified recurrent mutations of previously reported genes such as KRAS, TP53, APC as well as epigenetic regulators and those of TGFβ signaling pathway. According to the abundance of somatic mutations and DNA copy number alterations (CNA), ten ICC exome cases were distinguished into two classes as those primarily driven by either somatic mutations (M class) or CNAs (C class). Compared to M class ICCs (92-147 somatic mutations; n = 5) with a relative deficit of CNAs, C class ICCs (54-84 mutations; n = 5) harbor recurrent focal CNAs including deletions involving CDKN2A, ROBO1, ROBO2, RUNX3, and SMAD4. We also show that transcriptome sequencing can be used for expression-based ICC categorization but the somatic mutation calling from the transcriptome can be heavily influenced by the gene expression level and potentially, by posttranscriptional modification such as nonsense mediated decay. Along with a substantial level of mutational heterogeneity of ICC genomes, our study reveals previously unrecognized two ICC classes defined by relative abundance of somatic mutations over CNAs or vice versa, which should be considered in the selection of genotyping platforms and sensitive screening of targets for ICC therapeutics.

  17. Two classes of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma defined by relative abundance of mutations and copy number alterations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Ho; Hong, Eun-Kyung; Kong, Sun-Young; Han, Sung-Sik; Kim, Seoung-Hoon; Rhee, Je-Keun; Hwang, Soo-Kyung; Park, Sang-Jae; Kim, Tae-Min

    2016-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is a biliary tree-origin epithelial malignancy in liver with unfavorable clinical outcomes. Systematic genome analyses may advance our understanding of ICC pathogenesis also improving current diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. In this study, we analyzed 17 ICC tumor-vs-matched normal pairs using either whole-exome (n = 7), transcriptome sequencing (n = 7) or both platforms (n = 3). For somatic mutations, we identified recurrent mutations of previously reported genes such as KRAS, TP53, APC as well as epigenetic regulators and those of TGFβ signaling pathway. According to the abundance of somatic mutations and DNA copy number alterations (CNA), ten ICC exome cases were distinguished into two classes as those primarily driven by either somatic mutations (M class) or CNAs (C class). Compared to M class ICCs (92–147 somatic mutations; n = 5) with a relative deficit of CNAs, C class ICCs (54–84 mutations; n = 5) harbor recurrent focal CNAs including deletions involving CDKN2A, ROBO1, ROBO2, RUNX3, and SMAD4. We also show that transcriptome sequencing can be used for expression-based ICC categorization but the somatic mutation calling from the transcriptome can be heavily influenced by the gene expression level and potentially, by posttranscriptional modification such as nonsense mediated decay. Along with a substantial level of mutational heterogeneity of ICC genomes, our study reveals previously unrecognized two ICC classes defined by relative abundance of somatic mutations over CNAs or vice versa, which should be considered in the selection of genotyping platforms and sensitive screening of targets for ICC therapeutics. PMID:27009864

  18. Predicting peptides binding to MHC class II molecules using multi-objective evolutionary algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Lin

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peptides binding to Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC class II molecules are crucial for initiation and regulation of immune responses. Predicting peptides that bind to a specific MHC molecule plays an important role in determining potential candidates for vaccines. The binding groove in class II MHC is open at both ends, allowing peptides longer than 9-mer to bind. Finding the consensus motif facilitating the binding of peptides to a MHC class II molecule is difficult because of different lengths of binding peptides and varying location of 9-mer binding core. The level of difficulty increases when the molecule is promiscuous and binds to a large number of low affinity peptides. In this paper, we propose two approaches using multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEA for predicting peptides binding to MHC class II molecules. One uses the information from both binders and non-binders for self-discovery of motifs. The other, in addition, uses information from experimentally determined motifs for guided-discovery of motifs. Results The proposed methods are intended for finding peptides binding to MHC class II I-Ag7 molecule – a promiscuous binder to a large number of low affinity peptides. Cross-validation results across experiments on two motifs derived for I-Ag7 datasets demonstrate better generalization abilities and accuracies of the present method over earlier approaches. Further, the proposed method was validated and compared on two publicly available benchmark datasets: (1 an ensemble of qualitative HLA-DRB1*0401 peptide data obtained from five different sources, and (2 quantitative peptide data obtained for sixteen different alleles comprising of three mouse alleles and thirteen HLA alleles. The proposed method outperformed earlier methods on most datasets, indicating that it is well suited for finding peptides binding to MHC class II molecules. Conclusion We present two MOEA-based algorithms for finding motifs

  19. Contrasting evolutionary histories of MHC class I and class II loci in grouse—Effects of selection and gene conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minias, Piotr; Bateson, Zachary W; Whittingham, Linda A; Johnson, Jeff A.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Dunn, Peter O

    2016-01-01

    Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) encode receptor molecules that are responsible for recognition of intracellular and extracellular pathogens (class I and class II genes, respectively) in vertebrates. Given the different roles of class I and II MHC genes, one might expect the strength of selection to differ between these two classes. Different selective pressures may also promote different rates of gene conversion at each class. Despite these predictions, surprisingly few studies have looked at differences between class I and II genes in terms of both selection and gene conversion. Here, we investigated the molecular evolution of MHC class I and II genes in five closely related species of prairie grouse (Centrocercus and Tympanuchus) that possess one class I and two class II loci. We found striking differences in the strength of balancing selection acting on MHC class I versus class II genes. More than half of the putative antigen-binding sites (ABS) of class II were under positive or episodic diversifying selection, compared with only 10% at class I. We also found that gene conversion had a stronger role in shaping the evolution of MHC class II than class I. Overall, the combination of strong positive (balancing) selection and frequent gene conversion has maintained higher diversity of MHC class II than class I in prairie grouse. This is one of the first studies clearly demonstrating that macroevolutionary mechanisms can act differently on genes involved in the immune response against intracellular and extracellular pathogens.

  20. Posttranslational modifications in microcin B17 define an additional class of DNA gyrase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorgey, P; Lee, J; Kördel, J; Vivas, E; Warner, P; Jebaratnam, D; Kolter, R

    1994-05-10

    Drugs that inhibit the activity of DNA gyrase fall almost exclusively into two structural classes, the quinolones and the coumarins. A third class of DNA gyrase inhibitor is defined by the ribosomally synthesized peptide antibiotic microcin B17 (MccB17). MccB17 contains 43 amino acid residues, but 14 of these are posttranslationally modified. Here we describe the characterization of the structure of these modifications. We propose that four cysteine and four serine side chains undergo condensation with the carbonyl group of the preceding residue, followed by alpha/beta dehydrogenation to yield four thiazole and four oxazole rings, respectively. The three proteins implicated in catalyzing these modifications (McbBCD) would constitute the only thiazole/oxazole biosynthetic enzymes identified. These results open up possibilities for the design of DNA gyrase inhibitors and add to the repertoire of posttranslational modifications with potential for protein engineering. Escherichia coli sbmA mutants, which lack the inner membrane protein (SbmA) involved in MccB17 uptake, were found to be resistant to bleomycin. Bleomycin is structurally unrelated to MccB17 except for the fact that it contains two thiazole rings. This suggests that thiazole rings are part of the MccB17 structure recognized by SbmA. This observation and the finding that SbmA homologs are widely conserved and can play developmental roles [Glazebrook, J., Ichige, A. & Walker, G. C. (1993) Genes Dev. 7, 1485-1497] suggest that thiazole- and oxazole-containing compounds may serve as signaling molecules for a wide variety of bacteria in diverse environments, including pathogen interactions with plant and animal hosts.

  1. Evolutionary history of black grouse major histocompatibility complex class IIB genes revealed through single locus sequence-based genotyping

    OpenAIRE

    Strand, Tanja; Wang, Biao; Meyer-Lucht, Yvonne; Höglund, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Background: Gene duplications are frequently observed in the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) of many species, and as a consequence loci belonging to the same MHC class are often too similar to tell apart. In birds, single locus genotyping of MHC genes has proven difficult due to concerted evolution homogenizing sequences at different loci. But studies on evolutionary history, mode of selection and heterozygosity correlations on the MHC cannot be performed before it is possible to analy...

  2. The TALE class homeobox gene Smed-prep defines the anterior compartment for head regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Felix

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Planaria continue to blossom as a model system for understanding all aspects of regeneration. They provide an opportunity to understand how the replacement of missing tissues from preexisting adult tissue is orchestrated at the molecular level. When amputated along any plane, planaria are capable of regenerating all missing tissue and rescaling all structures to the new size of the animal. Recently, rapid progress has been made in understanding the developmental pathways that control planarian regeneration. In particular Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is central in promoting posterior fates and inhibiting anterior identity. Currently the mechanisms that actively promote anterior identity remain unknown. Here, Smed-prep, encoding a TALE class homeodomain, is described as the first gene necessary for correct anterior fate and patterning during planarian regeneration. Smed-prep is expressed at high levels in the anterior portion of whole animals, and Smed-prep(RNAi leads to loss of the whole brain during anterior regeneration, but not during lateral regeneration or homeostasis in intact worms. Expression of markers of different anterior fated cells are greatly reduced or lost in Smed-prep(RNAi animals. We find that the ectopic anterior structures induced by abrogation of Wnt signaling also require Smed-prep to form. We use double knockdown experiments with the S. mediterranea ortholog of nou-darake (that when knocked down induces ectopic brain formation to show that Smed-prep defines an anterior fated compartment within which stem cells are permitted to assume brain fate, but is not required directly for this differentiation process. Smed-prep is the first gene clearly implicated as being necessary for promoting anterior fate and the first homeobox gene implicated in establishing positional identity during regeneration. Together our results suggest that Smed-prep is required in stem cell progeny as they form the anterior regenerative blastema and is

  3. The TALE class homeobox gene Smed-prep defines the anterior compartment for head regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Daniel A; Aboobaker, A Aziz

    2010-04-01

    Planaria continue to blossom as a model system for understanding all aspects of regeneration. They provide an opportunity to understand how the replacement of missing tissues from preexisting adult tissue is orchestrated at the molecular level. When amputated along any plane, planaria are capable of regenerating all missing tissue and rescaling all structures to the new size of the animal. Recently, rapid progress has been made in understanding the developmental pathways that control planarian regeneration. In particular Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is central in promoting posterior fates and inhibiting anterior identity. Currently the mechanisms that actively promote anterior identity remain unknown. Here, Smed-prep, encoding a TALE class homeodomain, is described as the first gene necessary for correct anterior fate and patterning during planarian regeneration. Smed-prep is expressed at high levels in the anterior portion of whole animals, and Smed-prep(RNAi) leads to loss of the whole brain during anterior regeneration, but not during lateral regeneration or homeostasis in intact worms. Expression of markers of different anterior fated cells are greatly reduced or lost in Smed-prep(RNAi) animals. We find that the ectopic anterior structures induced by abrogation of Wnt signaling also require Smed-prep to form. We use double knockdown experiments with the S. mediterranea ortholog of nou-darake (that when knocked down induces ectopic brain formation) to show that Smed-prep defines an anterior fated compartment within which stem cells are permitted to assume brain fate, but is not required directly for this differentiation process. Smed-prep is the first gene clearly implicated as being necessary for promoting anterior fate and the first homeobox gene implicated in establishing positional identity during regeneration. Together our results suggest that Smed-prep is required in stem cell progeny as they form the anterior regenerative blastema and is required for

  4. 42 CFR 433.56 - Classes of health care services and providers defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... defined to include facility services only and do not include surgical procedures; (10) Dental services...) Psychological services; (15) Therapist services, defined to include physical therapy, speech therapy, occupational therapy, respiratory therapy, audiological services, and rehabilitative specialist services;...

  5. A New Class of Generalized Close-to-Starlike Functions Defined by the Srivastava-Attiya Operator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.M.SRIVASTAVA; Dorina R(A)DUCANU; Grigore S.S(A)L(A)GEAN

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,we consider a new class CS*s,b of generalized close-to-starlike functions,which is defined by means of the Srivastava-Attiya operator Js,b involving the Hurwitz-Lerch Zeta function φ(z,s,a).Basic results such as inclusion relations,coefficient inequalities and other interesting properties of this class are investigated.Relevant connections of some of the results presented here with those that were obtained in earlier investigations are pointed out briefly.

  6. Painting with the Multiple Intelligences: Defining Student Success and Permanence in Art Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taspinar, Seyda Eraslan; Kaya, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objectives of the study are to determine the effect of teaching based on multiple intelligence theory (TBMIT) in visual arts class on student success and permanence. Experimental design is used in the study. Study group is composed of students at 8th grade in 2012-2013 educational term at Atatürk Secondary School in Igdir city centre. Experimental…

  7. Defining greater-than-class-C low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLRWPAA) was signed by President Reagan on January 15, 1986. This act requires the federal government to be responsible for the disposal of greater-than-class-C low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) that is generated commercially by state agencies and by federal entities (other than waste generated by atomic weapons research, development, or testing, or by decommissioning of vessels of the nuclear navy). To plan for disposal, the federal government will require estimates of the volume of waste involved and characterization of this waste. A clear definition of greater-than-class-C LLRW is the first step in determining what wastes will be included in the waste to be received by the federal government. This definition will influence major policy decisions to be made for management of such waste. The purpose of this paper is to examine the existing information on greater-than-class-C LLRW in view of the current definition of such waste and potential changes in this definition - for example, an upper limit on the concentrations of radionuclides in LLRW. The paper identifies further information needs to develop a clear definition of such waste for use in federal planning for acceptance of responsibility for disposal of such waste

  8. On differential subordinations for a class of analytic functions defined by a linear operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ravichandran

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We obtain several results concerning the differential subordination between analytic functions and a linear operator defined for a certain family of analytic functions which are introduced here by means of these linear operators. Also, some special cases are considered.

  9. DNA methylation and somatic mutations converge on cell cycle and define similar evolutionary histories in brain tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brett E.; Hong, Chibo; Hamilton, Emily G.; Bell, Robert J.A.; Smirnov, Ivan V.; Reis, Gerald F.; Phillips, Joanna J.; Barnes, Michael J.; Idbaih, Ahmed; Alentorn, Agusti; Kloezeman, Jenneke J.; Lamfers, Martine L. M.; Bollen, Andrew W.; Taylor, Barry S.; Molinaro, Annette M.; Olshen, Adam B.; Chang, Susan M.; Song, Jun S.; Costello, Joseph F.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The evolutionary history of tumor cell populations can be reconstructed from patterns of genetic alterations. In contrast to stable genetic events, epigenetic states are reversible and sensitive to the microenvironment, prompting the question whether epigenetic information can similarly be used to discover tumor phylogeny. We examined the spatial and temporal dynamics of DNA methylation in a cohort of low-grade gliomas and their patient-matched recurrences. Genes transcriptionally upregulated through promoter hypomethylation during malignant progression to high-grade glioblastoma were enriched in cell cycle function, evolving in parallel with genetic alterations that deregulate the G1/S cell cycle checkpoint. Moreover, phyloepigenetic relationships robustly recapitulated phylogenetic patterns inferred from somatic mutations. These findings highlight widespread co-dependency of genetic and epigenetic events throughout brain tumor evolution. PMID:26373278

  10. DNA Methylation and Somatic Mutations Converge on the Cell Cycle and Define Similar Evolutionary Histories in Brain Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazor, Tali; Pankov, Aleksandr; Johnson, Brett E; Hong, Chibo; Hamilton, Emily G; Bell, Robert J A; Smirnov, Ivan V; Reis, Gerald F; Phillips, Joanna J; Barnes, Michael J; Idbaih, Ahmed; Alentorn, Agusti; Kloezeman, Jenneke J; Lamfers, Martine L M; Bollen, Andrew W; Taylor, Barry S; Molinaro, Annette M; Olshen, Adam B; Chang, Susan M; Song, Jun S; Costello, Joseph F

    2015-09-14

    The evolutionary history of tumor cell populations can be reconstructed from patterns of genetic alterations. In contrast to stable genetic events, epigenetic states are reversible and sensitive to the microenvironment, prompting the question whether epigenetic information can similarly be used to discover tumor phylogeny. We examined the spatial and temporal dynamics of DNA methylation in a cohort of low-grade gliomas and their patient-matched recurrences. Genes transcriptionally upregulated through promoter hypomethylation during malignant progression to high-grade glioblastoma were enriched in cell cycle function, evolving in parallel with genetic alterations that deregulate the G1/S cell cycle checkpoint. Moreover, phyloepigenetic relationships robustly recapitulated phylogenetic patterns inferred from somatic mutations. These findings highlight widespread co-dependency of genetic and epigenetic events throughout brain tumor evolution. PMID:26373278

  11. NGC 6273: Towards Defining A New Class of Galactic Globular Clusters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christian I.; Rich, Robert Michael; Pilachowski, Catherine A.; Caldwell, Nelson; Mateo, Mario L.; Ira Bailey, John; Crane, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    A growing number of observations have found that several Galactic globular clusters exhibit abundance dispersions beyond the well-known light element (anti-)correlations. These clusters tend to be very massive, have >0.1 dex intrinsic metallicity dispersions, have complex sub-giant branch morphologies, and have correlated [Fe/H] and s-process element enhancements. Interestingly, nearly all of these clusters discovered so far have [Fe/H]~-1.7. In this context, we have examined the chemical composition of 18 red giant branch (RGB) stars in the massive, metal-poor Galactic bulge globular cluster NGC 6273 using high signal-to-noise, high resolution (R~27,000) spectra obtained with the Michigan/Magellan Fiber System (M2FS) and MSpec spectrograph mounted on the Magellan-Clay 6.5m telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. We find that the cluster exhibits a metallicity range from [Fe/H]=-1.80 to -1.30 and is composed of two dominant populations separated in [Fe/H] and [La/Fe] abundance. The increase in [La/Eu] as a function of [La/H] suggests that the increase in [La/Fe] with [Fe/H] is due to almost pure s-process enrichment. The most metal-rich star in our sample is not strongly La-enhanced, but is α-poor and may belong to a third "anomalous" stellar population. The two dominant populations exhibit the same [Na/Fe]-[Al/Fe] correlation found in other "normal" globular clusters. Therefore, NGC 6273 joins ω Centauri, M 22, M 2, and NGC 5286 as a possible new class of Galactic globular clusters.

  12. Defining the Relationship Between Human Error Classes and Technology Intervention Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegmann, Douglas A.; Rantanen, Eas M.

    2003-01-01

    The modus operandi in addressing human error in aviation systems is predominantly that of technological interventions or fixes. Such interventions exhibit considerable variability both in terms of sophistication and application. Some technological interventions address human error directly while others do so only indirectly. Some attempt to eliminate the occurrence of errors altogether whereas others look to reduce the negative consequences of these errors. In any case, technological interventions add to the complexity of the systems and may interact with other system components in unforeseeable ways and often create opportunities for novel human errors. Consequently, there is a need to develop standards for evaluating the potential safety benefit of each of these intervention products so that resources can be effectively invested to produce the biggest benefit to flight safety as well as to mitigate any adverse ramifications. The purpose of this project was to help define the relationship between human error and technological interventions, with the ultimate goal of developing a set of standards for evaluating or measuring the potential benefits of new human error fixes.

  13. Selection, diversity and evolutionary patterns of the MHC class II DAB in free-ranging Neotropical marsupials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otten Celine

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on the genetic architecture and diversity of the MHC has focused mainly on eutherian mammals, birds and fish. So far, studies on model marsupials used in laboratory investigations indicated very little or even no variation in MHC class II genes. However, natural levels of diversity and selection are unknown in marsupials as studies on wild populations are virtually absent. We used two endemic South American mouse opossums, Gracilinanus microtarsus and Marmosops incanus, to investigate characteristic features of MHC selection. This study is the first investigation of MHC selection in free-ranging Neotropical marsupials. In addition, the evolutionary history of MHC lineages within the group of marsupials was examined. Results G. microtarsus showed extensive levels of MHC diversity within and among individuals as 47 MHC-DAB alleles and high levels of sequence divergence were detected at a minimum of four loci. Positively selected codon sites were identified, of which most were congruent with human antigen binding sites. The diversity in M. incanus was rather low with only eight observed alleles at presumably two loci. However, these alleles also revealed high sequence divergence. Again, positive selection was identified on specific codon sites, all congruent with human ABS and with positively selected sites observed in G. microtarsus. In a phylogenetic comparison alleles of M. incanus interspersed widely within alleles of G. microtarsus with four alleles being present in both species. Conclusion Our investigations revealed extensive MHC class II polymorphism in a natural marsupial population, contrary to previous assumptions. Furthermore, our study confirms for the first time in marsupials the presence of three characteristic features common at MHC loci of eutherian mammals, birds and fish: large allelic sequence divergence, positive selection on specific sites and trans-specific polymorphism.

  14. Defining Darwinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, David L

    2011-03-01

    Evolutionary theory seems to lend itself to all sorts of misunderstanding. In this paper I strive to decrease such confusions, for example, between Darwinism and Darwinians, propositions and people, organisms and individuals, species as individuals versus species as classes, homologies and homoplasies, and finally essences versus histories.

  15. Evolution of the 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL) gene family:Conserved evolutionary pattern and two new gene classes in gymnosperms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui GAO; Dong-Mei GUO; Wen-Juan LIU; Jin-Hua RAN; Xiao-Quan WANG

    2012-01-01

    The 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL) is the branch point enzyme that channels the general phenylpropanoid metabolism into specific lignin and flavonoid biosynthesis branches.Genetic engineering experiments on the 4CL gene have been carried out in many species,but the precise functions of different gene members are still unresolved.To investigate the evolutionary relationships and functional differentiation of the 4CL gene family,we made a comprehensive evolutionary analysis of this gene family from 27 species representing the major lineages of land plants.The phylogenetic analysis indicates that both vascular and seed plant 4CL genes form monophyletic groups,and that three and two 4CL classes can be recognized in gymnosperms and angiosperms,respectively.The evolutionary rate and frequency of duplication of the 4CL gene family are much more conserved than that of the CAD/SAD (cinnamyl/sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase) gene family,which catalyzes the last step in monolignol biosynthesis.This may be due to different selective pressures on these genes whose products catalyze different steps in the biosynthesis pathway.In addition,we found two new major classes of 4CL genes in gymnosperms.

  16. THE PROTOCLUSTER G18.67+0.03: A TEST CASE FOR CLASS I CH{sub 3}OH MASERS AS EVOLUTIONARY INDICATORS FOR MASSIVE STAR FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cyganowski, C. J.; Zhang, Q. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Brogan, C. L.; Hunter, T. R.; Friesen, R. K.; Indebetouw, R. [NRAO, 520 Edgemont Rd, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Chandler, C. J., E-mail: ccyganowski@cfa.harvard.edu [NRAO, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)

    2012-12-01

    We present high angular resolution Submillimeter Array and Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array observations of the massive protocluster G18.67+0.03. Previously targeted in maser surveys of GLIMPSE Extended Green Objects (EGOs), this cluster contains three Class I CH{sub 3}OH maser sources, providing a unique opportunity to test the proposed role of Class I masers as evolutionary indicators for massive star formation. The millimeter observations reveal bipolar molecular outflows, traced by {sup 13}CO(2-1) emission, associated with all three Class I maser sources. Two of these sources (including the EGO) are also associated with 6.7 GHz Class II CH{sub 3}OH masers; the Class II masers are coincident with millimeter continuum cores that exhibit hot core line emission and drive active outflows, as indicated by the detection of SiO(5-4). In these cases, the Class I masers are coincident with outflow lobes, and appear as clear cases of excitation by active outflows. In contrast, the third Class I source is associated with an ultracompact (UC) H II region, and not with Class II masers. The lack of SiO emission suggests that the {sup 13}CO outflow is a relic, consistent with its longer dynamical timescale. Our data show that massive young stellar objects (MYSOs) associated only with Class I masers are not necessarily young and provide the first unambiguous evidence that Class I masers may be excited by both young (hot core) and older (UC H II) MYSOs within the same protocluster.

  17. Comparison of Hipparcos Trigonometric and Mount Wilson Spectroscopic Parallaxes for 90 Subgiants that Defined the Class in 1935

    CERN Document Server

    Sandage, Allan; Majewski, Steven R

    2015-01-01

    A history is given of the discovery between 1914 and 1935 of stars of intermediate luminosity between giants and dwarfs with spectral types between G0 to K3. The Mt Wilson spectroscopists identified about 90 such stars in their 1935 summary paper of spectroscopic absolute magnitudes for 4179 stars. Called "subgiants" by Str\\"omberg, these 90 stars defined the group at the time. The position of the Mt Wilson subgiants in the HR diagram caused difficulties in comparisons of high weight trigonometric parallaxes being measured and with Russell's prevailing evolution proposal, and critics questioned the reality of the Mt Wilson subgiants. We compare, star-by-star, the Mt Wilson spectroscopic absolute magnitudes of the 90 stars defining their sample against those absolute magnitudes derived from Hipparcos (HIP) trigonometric parallaxes. We address concerns over biases in the Mt Wilson calibration sample and biases created by the adopted methodology for calibration. Historically, these concerns were sufficient to di...

  18. Grouping and Classifying Electrophysiologically-Defined Classes of Neocortical Neurons by Single Cell, Whole-Genome Expression Profiling

    OpenAIRE

    Subkhankulova, Tatiana; Yano, Kojiro; Robinson, Hugh P. C.; Livesey, Frederick J

    2010-01-01

    The diversity of neuronal cell types and how to classify them are perennial questions in neuroscience. The advent of global gene expression analysis raised the possibility that comprehensive transcription profiling will resolve neuronal cell types into groups that reflect some or all aspects of their phenotype. This approach has been successfully used to compare gene expression between groups of neurons defined by a common property. Here we extend this approach to ask whether single neuron ge...

  19. Grouping and classifying electrophysiologically-defined classes of neocortical neurons by single cell, whole-genome expression profiling

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Subkhankulova; Kojiro Yano; Hugh Robinson; Livesey, Frederick J

    2010-01-01

    The diversity of neuronal cell types and how to classify them are perennial questions in neuroscience. The advent of global gene expression analysis raised the possibility that comprehensive transcription profiling will resolve neuronal cell types into groups that reflect some or all aspects of their phenotype. This approach has been successfully used to compare gene expression between groups of neurons defined by a common property. Here we extend this approach to ask whether single neuron ge...

  20. Comparison of Hipparcos Trigonometric and Mount Wilson Spectroscopic Parallaxes for 90 Subgiants that Defined the Class in 1935

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandage, Allan; Beaton, Rachael L.; Majewski, Steven R.

    2016-06-01

    A history is given of the discovery between 1914 and 1935 of stars of intermediate luminosity between giants and dwarfs with spectral types between G0 to K3. The Mount Wilson spectroscopists identified about 90 such stars in their 1935 summary paper of spectroscopic absolute magnitudes for 4179 stars. Called “subgiants” by Strömberg, these 90 stars defined the group at the time. The position of the Mount Wilson subgiants in the HR diagram caused difficulties in comparisons of high weight trigonometric parallaxes being measured in the 1930s and with Russell's prevailing evolution proposal, and critics questioned the reality of the Mount Wilson subgiants. To show that the 1935 Mount Wilson subgiants are real, we compare, star-by-star, the Mount Wilson spectroscopic absolute magnitudes of the 90 stars defining their sample against those absolute magnitudes derived from Hipparcos trigonometric parallaxes. We address concerns over biases in the Mount Wilson calibration sample and biases created by the adopted methodology for calibration. Historically, these concerns were sufficient to discredit the discovery of subgiants in the Mount Wilson sample. However, as shown here, the majority of the Mount Wilson stars identified as subgiants that also have reliable Hipparcos trigonometric parallaxes do lie among the subgiant sequence in the Hipparcos HR diagram. Moreover, no significant offset is seen between the M V brightnesses derived from the Mount Wilson spectroscopic parallaxes and the M V values derived from Hipparcos trigonometric parallaxes with {σ }π /π \\lt 0.10, which confirms in an impressive manner the efficacy of the original Mount Wilson assessments. The existence of subgiants proved that Russell's contraction proposal for stellar evolution from giants to the main sequence was incorrect. Instead, Gamow's 1944 unpublished conjecture that subgiants are post main-sequence stars just having left the main sequence was very nearly correct but was a decade

  1. The major synthetic evolutionary transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, Ricard

    2016-08-19

    Evolution is marked by well-defined events involving profound innovations that are known as 'major evolutionary transitions'. They involve the integration of autonomous elements into a new, higher-level organization whereby the former isolated units interact in novel ways, losing their original autonomy. All major transitions, which include the origin of life, cells, multicellular systems, societies or language (among other examples), took place millions of years ago. Are these transitions unique, rare events? Have they instead universal traits that make them almost inevitable when the right pieces are in place? Are there general laws of evolutionary innovation? In order to approach this problem under a novel perspective, we argue that a parallel class of evolutionary transitions can be explored involving the use of artificial evolutionary experiments where alternative paths to innovation can be explored. These 'synthetic' transitions include, for example, the artificial evolution of multicellular systems or the emergence of language in evolved communicating robots. These alternative scenarios could help us to understand the underlying laws that predate the rise of major innovations and the possibility for general laws of evolved complexity. Several key examples and theoretical approaches are summarized and future challenges are outlined.This article is part of the themed issue 'The major synthetic evolutionary transitions'. PMID:27431528

  2. The major synthetic evolutionary transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, Ricard

    2016-01-01

    Evolution is marked by well-defined events involving profound innovations that are known as ‘major evolutionary transitions'. They involve the integration of autonomous elements into a new, higher-level organization whereby the former isolated units interact in novel ways, losing their original autonomy. All major transitions, which include the origin of life, cells, multicellular systems, societies or language (among other examples), took place millions of years ago. Are these transitions unique, rare events? Have they instead universal traits that make them almost inevitable when the right pieces are in place? Are there general laws of evolutionary innovation? In order to approach this problem under a novel perspective, we argue that a parallel class of evolutionary transitions can be explored involving the use of artificial evolutionary experiments where alternative paths to innovation can be explored. These ‘synthetic’ transitions include, for example, the artificial evolution of multicellular systems or the emergence of language in evolved communicating robots. These alternative scenarios could help us to understand the underlying laws that predate the rise of major innovations and the possibility for general laws of evolved complexity. Several key examples and theoretical approaches are summarized and future challenges are outlined. This article is part of the themed issue ‘The major synthetic evolutionary transitions’. PMID:27431528

  3. Detection of newly antibody-defined epitopes on HLA class I alleles reacting with antibodies induced during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duquesnoy, R J; Hönger, G; Hösli, I; Marrari, M; Schaub, S

    2016-08-01

    The determination of HLA mismatch acceptability at the epitope level can be best performed with epitopes that have been verified experimentally with informative antibodies. The website-based International Registry of HLA Epitopes (http://www.epregistry.com.br) has a list of 81 antibody-verified HLA-ABC epitopes but more epitopes need to be added. Pregnancy offers an attractive model to study antibody responses to mismatched HLA epitopes which can be readily determined from the HLA types of child and mother. This report describes a HLAMatchmaker-based analysis of 16 postpregnancy sera tested in single HLA-ABC allele binding assays. Most sera reacted with alleles carrying epitopes that have been antibody-verified, and this study focused on the reactivity of additional alleles that share other epitopes corresponding to eplets and other amino acid residue configurations. This analysis led in the identification of 16 newly antibody-defined epitopes, seven are equivalent to eplets and nine correspond to combinations of eplets in combination with other nearby residue configurations. These epitopes will be added to the repertoire of antibody-verified epitopes in the HLA Epitope Registry. PMID:27312793

  4. On the Ritt order and type of a certain class of functions defined by BE-Dirichletian elements

    OpenAIRE

    Marcel Berland

    1999-01-01

    We introduce the notions of Ritt order and type to functions defined by the series ∑n=1∞fn(Ã+iÄ0)exp(−sλn),      s=Ã+iÄ,(Ã,Ä)∈R×R                                            (*) indexed by Ä0 on R, where (ÃŽÂ...

  5. Strigolactones are a new-defined class of plant hormones which inhibit shoot branching and mediate the interaction of plant-AM fungi and plant-parasitic weeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZAITLIN; David

    2009-01-01

    Because plants are sessile organisms,the ability to adapt to a wide range of environmental conditions is critical for their survival.As a consequence,plants use hormones to regulate growth,mitigate biotic and abiotic stresses,and to communicate with other organisms.Many plant hormones function plei-otropically in vivo,and often work in tandem with other hormones that are chemically distinct.A newly-defined class of plant hormones,the strigolactones,cooperate with auxins and cytokinins to control shoot branching and the outgrowth of lateral buds.Strigolactones were originally identified as compounds that stimulated the germination of parasitic plant seeds,and were also demonstrated to induce hyphal branching in arbuscular mycorrhizal(AM) fungi.AM fungi form symbioses with higher plant roots and mainly facilitate the absorption of phosphate from the soil.Conforming to the classical definition of a plant hormone,strigolactones are produced in the roots and translocated to the shoots where they inhibit shoot outgrowth and branching.The biosynthesis of this class of compounds is regulated by soil nutrient availability,i.e.the plant will increase its production of strigolactones when the soil phosphate concentration is limited,and decrease production when phosphates are in ample supply.Strigolactones that affect plant shoot branching,AM fungal hyphal branching,and seed germination in parasitic plants facilitate chemical synthesis of similar compounds to control these and other biological processes by exogenous application.

  6. Quantitative Classification of Cerebellar Foliation in Cartilaginous Fishes (Class: Chondrichthyes) Using Three-Dimensional Shape Analysis and Its Implications for Evolutionary Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yopak, Kara E; Galinsky, Vitaly L; Berquist, Rachel M; Frank, Lawrence R

    2016-01-01

    A true cerebellum appeared at the onset of the chondrichthyan (sharks, batoids, and chimaerids) radiation and is known to be essential for executing fast, accurate, and efficient movement. In addition to a high degree of variation in size, the corpus cerebellum in this group has a high degree of variation in convolution (or foliation) and symmetry, which ranges from a smooth cerebellar surface to deep, branched convexities and folds, although the functional significance of this trait is unclear. As variation in the degree of foliation similarly exists throughout vertebrate evolution, it becomes critical to understand this evolutionary process in a wide variety of species. However, current methods are either qualitative and lack numerical rigor or they are restricted to two dimensions. In this paper, a recently developed method for the characterization of shapes embedded within noisy, three-dimensional data called spherical wave decomposition (SWD) is applied to the problem of characterizing cerebellar foliation in cartilaginous fishes. The SWD method provides a quantitative characterization of shapes in terms of well-defined mathematical functions. An additional feature of the SWD method is the construction of a statistical criterion for the optimal fit, which represents the most parsimonious choice of parameters that fits to the data without overfitting to background noise. We propose that this optimal fit can replace a previously described qualitative visual foliation index (VFI) in cartilaginous fishes with a quantitative analog, i.e. the cerebellar foliation index (CFI). The capability of the SWD method is demonstrated in a series of volumetric images of brains from different chondrichthyan species that span the range of foliation gradings currently described for this group. The CFI is consistent with the qualitative grading provided by the VFI, delivers a robust measure of cerebellar foliation, and can provide a quantitative basis for brain shape

  7. The value of impulsivity to define subgroups of addicted individuals differing in personality dysfunction, craving, psychosocial adjustment, and wellbeing: a latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albein-Urios, Natalia; Pilatti, Angelina; Lozano, Oscar; Martínez-González, José M; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2014-02-01

    High impulsivity is common to substance and gambling addictions. Despite these commonalities, there is still substantial heterogeneity on impulsivity levels within these diagnostic groups, and variations in impulsive levels predict higher severity of symptoms and poorer outcomes. We addressed the question of whether impulsivity scores can yield empirically driven subgroups of addicted individuals that will exhibit different clinical presentations and outcomes. We applied latent class analysis (LCA) to trait (UPPS-P impulsive behavior scale) and cognitive impulsivity (Stroop and d2 tests) scores in three predominantly male addiction diagnostic groups: Cocaine with Personality Disorders, Cocaine Non-comorbid, and Gambling and analyzed the usefulness of the resulting subgroups to differentiate personality beliefs and relevant outcomes: Craving, psychosocial adjustment, and quality of life. In accordance with impulsivity scores, the three addiction diagnostic groups are best represented as two separate classes: Class 1 characterized by greater trait impulsivity and poorer cognitive impulsivity performance and Class 2 characterized by lower trait impulsivity and better cognitive impulsivity performance. The two empirically derived classes showed significant differences on personality features and outcome variables (Class 1 exhibited greater personality dysfunction and worse clinical outcomes), whereas conventional diagnostic groups showed non-significant differences on most of these measures. Trait and cognitive impulsivity scores differentiate subgroups of addicted individuals with more versus less severe personality features and clinical outcomes. PMID:24014137

  8. The activation threshold of CD4+ T cells is defined by TCR/peptide-MHC class II interactions in the thymic medulla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Tom Li; Tikhonova, Anastasia; Riberdy, Janice M; Laufer, Terri M

    2009-11-01

    Immature thymocytes that are positively selected based upon their response to self-peptide-MHC complexes develop into mature T cells that are not overtly reactive to those same complexes. Developmental tuning is the active process through which TCR-associated signaling pathways of single-positive thymocytes are attenuated to respond appropriately to the peptide-MHC molecules that will be encountered in the periphery. In this study, we explore the mechanisms that regulate the tuning of CD4(+) single-positive T cells to MHC class II encountered in the thymic medulla. Experiments with murine BM chimeras demonstrate that tuning can be mediated by MHC class II expressed by either thymic medullary epithelial cells or thymic dendritic cells. Tuning does not require the engagement of CD4 by MHC class II on stromal cells. Rather, it is mediated by interactions between MHC class II and the TCR. To understand the molecular changes that distinguish immature hyperactive T cells from tuned mature CD4(+) T cells, we compared their responses to TCR stimulation. The altered response of mature CD4 single-positive thymocytes is characterized by the inhibition of ERK activation by low-affinity self-ligands and increased expression of the inhibitory tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1. Thus, persistent TCR engagement by peptide-MHC class II on thymic medullary stroma inhibits reactivity to self-Ags and prevents autoreactivity in the mature repertoire.

  9. Complex evolutionary relationships among four classes of modular RNA-binding splicing regulators in eukaryotes: the hnRNP, SR, ELAV-like and CELF proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yue Hang; Han, Siew Ping; Kassahn, Karin S; Skarshewski, Adam; Rothnagel, Joseph A; Smith, Ross

    2012-12-01

    Alternative RNA splicing in multicellular organisms is regulated by a large group of proteins of mainly unknown origin. To predict the functions of these proteins, classification of their domains at the sequence and structural level is necessary. We have focused on four groups of splicing regulators, the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP), serine-arginine (SR), embryonic lethal, abnormal vision (ELAV)-like, and CUG-BP and ETR-like factor (CELF) proteins, that show increasing diversity among metazoa. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses were used to obtain a broader understanding of their evolutionary relationships. Surprisingly, when we characterised sequence similarities across full-length sequences and conserved domains of ten metazoan species, we found some hnRNPs were more closely related to SR, ELAV-like and CELF proteins than to other hnRNPs. Phylogenetic analyses and the distribution of the RRM domains suggest that these proteins diversified before the last common ancestor of the metazoans studied here through domain acquisition and duplication to create genes of mixed evolutionary origin. We propose that these proteins were derived independently rather than through the expansion of a single protein family. Our results highlight inconsistencies in the current classification system for these regulators, which does not adequately reflect their evolutionary relationships, and suggests that a domain-based classification scheme may have more utility.

  10. Definable deduction relation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉平

    1999-01-01

    The nonmonotonic deduction relation in default reasoning is defined with fixed point style, which has the many-extension property that classical logic is not possessed of. These two kinds of deductions both have boolean definability property, that is, their extensions or deductive closures can be defined by boolean formulas. A generalized form of fixed point method is employed to define a class of deduction relations, which all have the above property. Theorems on definability and atomless boolean algebras in model theory are essential in dealing with this assertion.

  11. Evolutionary Demography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levitis, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    of biological and cultural evolution. Demographic variation within and among human populations is influenced by our biology, and therefore by natural selection and our evolutionary background. Demographic methods are necessary for studying populations of other species, and for quantifying evolutionary fitness...

  12. 基于进化算法的一类作业车间调度%A Class of Job Shop Scheduling Based on the Evolutionary Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何霆; 刘文煌; 梁力平

    2001-01-01

    At first, a new Hybrid evolutionary algorithm has been proposed based on analyzing several typical search algorithms. Finally some practical examples of simulation results show that the algorithm has good validity and potential to practical application.%在分析比较几种典型搜索算法的基础上,提出了一种新的混合进化算法。最后, 通过具体的算例验证了该算法的有效性。

  13. Evolutionary Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Dopfer, Kurt

    2006-01-01

    The paper provides an overview of major recent contributions in evolutionary economics. It starts of demonstrating that the pioneers of this approach such as Veblen, Schumpeter, Marshall and Hayek saw the economy as continuously changing and that this kind of "realism of perception" guides essentially also contemporary evolutionary economics. The economy is viewed as an evolving system of structured knowledge governing economic operations. Theoretically, a micro-meso-macro architecture is pro...

  14. Evolutionary strategies for solving optimization problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebeling, Werner; Reimann, Axel; Molgedey, Lutz

    We will give a survey of applications of thermodynamically and biologically oriented evolutionary strategies for optimization problems. Primarily, we investigate the solution of discrete optimization problems, most of combinatorial type, using a certain class of coupled differential equations. The problem is to find the minimum on a large set of real numbers (the potential) Ui, defined on the integer set i = 1 ...s, where s is an extremely large nu mber. The stationary states of the system correspond to relative optima on the discrete set. First, several elementary evolutionary strategies are described by simple deterministic equations, leading to a high-dimensional system of coupled differential equations. The known equations for thermodynamic search processes and for simple models of biological evolution are unified by defining a two-parameter family of equations which embed both cases. The unified equations model mixed Boltzmann/Darwin- strategies including basic elements of thermodynamical and biological evolution as well. In a next step a master equation model in the occupation number space is defined. We investigate the transition probabilities and the convergence properties using tools from the theory of stochastic processes. Several examples are analyzed. In particular we study the optimization of theoretical model sequences with simple valuation rules. In order to demonstrate that the strategies developed here may also be used to investigate realistic problems we present an example application to RNA folding (search for a minimum free energy configuration).

  15. Cloning and modeling of CD8 beta in the amphibian ambystoma Mexicanum. Evolutionary conserved structures for interactions with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellah, Julien S; Tuffèry, Pierre; Etchebest, Catherine; Guillet, Françoise; Bleux, Christian; Charlemagne, Jacques

    2002-04-17

    Mammalian and avian T-cells exhibit a large number of well characterized surface molecules associated with their maturation degree. Very little is known in comparison with T-cell differentiation in ectothermic vertebrates. This is mainly due to the lack of probes to identify T-cell subsets. We cloned and sequenced the first ectothermic CD8 beta DNA complementary to RNA from an amphibian species, the Mexican axolotl. The CD8 beta chain was 30-36% identical with its avian and mammalian homologues. The extracellular V-like domain contained the two typically conserved cysteines and was followed by a J-like sequence containing the canonical Phe-Gly-X-Gly stretch. The connecting peptide was much longer than in other species and contained potential O-glycosylation sites. The axolotl CD8 beta and major histocompatibility complex class I molecules were modeled using human HLA-A2/CD8 alphaalpha complex as template. The backbone conformation of axolotl CD8 beta matched well with the CD8 alpha-2 subunit of the human complex but significant structural differences were located in the CDR1, CDR2 and DE loops. Both axolotl and human class I showed large negative surface potential. The interacting area of the human CD8 alpha chain and of the corresponding region of axolotl CD8 beta had positive electrostatic potential compatible with complexation with the corresponding class I molecules. The presence of a CD8 beta homologue in an amphibian species implies that it was already present in the Devonian ancestor of amphibians and mammals, i.e. more than 400 million years ago. PMID:12034498

  16. Evolutionary macroecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alexandre F. Diniz-Filho

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Macroecology focuses on ecological questions at broad spatial and temporal scales, providing a statistical description of patterns in species abundance, distribution and diversity. More recently, historical components of these patterns have begun to be investigated more deeply. We tentatively refer to the practice of explicitly taking species history into account, both analytically and conceptually, as ‘evolutionary macroecology’. We discuss how the evolutionary dimension can be incorporated into macroecology through two orthogonal and complementary data types: fossils and phylogenies. Research traditions dealing with these data have developed more‐or‐less independently over the last 20–30 years, but merging them will help elucidate the historical components of diversity gradients and the evolutionary dynamics of species’ traits. Here we highlight conceptual and methodological advances in merging these two research traditions and review the viewpoints and toolboxes that can, in combination, help address patterns and unveil processes at temporal and spatial macro‐scales.

  17. Evolutionary Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nash, Ulrik William

    2014-01-01

    The concept of evolutionary expectations descends from cue learning psychology, synthesizing ideas on rational expectations with ideas on bounded rationality, to provide support for these ideas simultaneously. Evolutionary expectations are rational, but within cognitive bounds. Moreover......, they are correlated among people who share environments because these individuals satisfice within their cognitive bounds by using cues in order of validity, as opposed to using cues arbitrarily. Any difference in expectations thereby arise from differences in cognitive ability, because two individuals with identical...... cognitive bounds will perceive business opportunities identically. In addition, because cues provide information about latent causal structures of the environment, changes in causality must be accompanied by changes in cognitive representations if adaptation is to be maintained. The concept of evolutionary...

  18. Structural investigation of a novel N-acetyl glucosamine binding chi-lectin which reveals evolutionary relationship with class III chitinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Dipak N; Datta, Manali; Dev, Aditya; Dhindwal, Sonali; Singh, Nirpendra; Dasauni, Pushpanjali; Kundu, Suman; Sharma, Ashwani K; Tomar, Shailly; Kumar, Pravindra

    2013-01-01

    The glycosyl hydrolase 18 (GH18) family consists of active chitinases as well as chitinase like lectins/proteins (CLPs). The CLPs share significant sequence and structural similarities with active chitinases, however, do not display chitinase activity. Some of these proteins are reported to have specific functions and carbohydrate binding property. In the present study, we report a novel chitinase like lectin (TCLL) from Tamarindus indica. The crystal structures of native TCLL and its complex with N-acetyl glucosamine were determined. Similar to the other CLPs of the GH18 members, TCLL lacks chitinase activity due to mutations of key active site residues. Comparison of TCLL with chitinases and other chitin binding CLPs shows that TCLL has substitution of some chitin binding site residues and more open binding cleft due to major differences in the loop region. Interestingly, the biochemical studies suggest that TCLL is an N-acetyl glucosamine specific chi-lectin, which is further confirmed by the complex structure of TCLL with N-acetyl glucosamine complex. TCLL has two distinct N-acetyl glucosamine binding sites S1 and S2 that contain similar polar residues, although interaction pattern with N-acetyl glucosamine varies extensively among them. Moreover, TCLL structure depicts that how plants utilize existing structural scaffolds ingenuously to attain new functions. To date, this is the first structural investigation of a chi-lectin from plants that explore novel carbohydrate binding sites other than chitin binding groove observed in GH18 family members. Consequently, TCLL structure confers evidence for evolutionary link of lectins with chitinases.

  19. Evolutionary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swynghedauw, B

    2004-04-01

    Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution. Evolutionary, or darwinian, medicine takes the view that contemporary diseases result from incompatibility between the conditions under which the evolutionary pressure had modified our genetic endowment and the lifestyle and dietary habits in which we are currently living, including the enhanced lifespan, the changes in dietary habits and the lack of physical activity. An evolutionary trait express a genetic polymorphism which finally improve fitness, it needs million years to become functional. A limited genetic diversity is a necessary prerequisite for evolutionary medicine. Nevertheless, search for a genetic endowment would become nearly impossible if the human races were genetically different. From a genetic point of view, homo sapiens, is homogeneous, and the so-called human races have only a socio-economic definition. Historically, Heart Failure, HF, had an infectious origin and resulted from mechanical overload which triggered mechanoconversion by using phylogenically ancient pleiotropic pathways. Adaptation was mainly caused by negative inotropism. Recently, HF was caused by a complex remodelling caused by the trophic effects of mechanics, ischemia, senescence, diabetes and, neurohormones. The generally admitted hypothesis is that cancers were largely caused by a combination of modern reproductive and dietary lifestyles mismatched with genotypic traits, plus the longer time available for a confrontation. Such a concept is illustrated for skin and breast cancers, and also for the link between cancer risk and dietary habits.

  20. Paths of lateral gene transfer of lysyl-aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases with a unique evolutionary transition stage of prokaryotes coding for class I and II varieties by the same organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nussinov Ruth

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the premise that lateral gene transfer (LGT is a dominant evolutionary force is still in considerable dispute, the case for widespread LGT in the family of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRS is no longer contentious. aaRSs are ancient enzymes, guarding the fidelity of the genetic code. They are clustered in two structurally unrelated classes. Only lysine aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (LysRS is found both as a class 1 and a class 2 enzyme (LysRS1-2. Remarkably, in several extant prokaryotes both classes of the enzyme coexist, a unique phenomenon that has yet to receive its due attention. Results We applied a phylogenetic approach for determining the extent and origin of LGT in prokaryotic LysRS. Reconstructing species trees for Archaea and Bacteria, and inferring that their last common ancestors encoded LysRS1 and LysRS2, respectively, we studied the gains and losses of both classes. A complex pattern of LGT events emerged. In specific groups of organisms LysRS1 was replaced by LysRS2 (and vice versa. In one occasion, within the alpha proteobacteria, a LysRS2 to LysRS1 LGT was followed by reversal to LysRS2. After establishing the most likely LGT paths, we studied the possible origins of the laterally transferred genes. To this end, we reconstructed LysRS gene trees and evaluated the likely origins of the laterally transferred genes. While the sources of LysRS1 LGTs were readily identified, those for LysRS2 remain, for now, uncertain. The replacement of one LysRS by another apparently transits through a stage simultaneously coding for both synthetases, probably conferring a selective advantage to the affected organisms. Conclusion The family of LysRSs features complex LGT events. The currently available data were sufficient for identifying unambiguously the origins of LysRS1 but not of LysRS2 gene transfers. A selective advantage is suggested to organisms encoding simultaneously LysRS1-2.

  1. Define Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Madsen, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    "Project" is a key concept in IS management. The word is frequently used in textbooks and standards. Yet we seldom find a precise definition of the concept. This paper discusses how to define the concept of a project. The proposed definition covers both heavily formalized projects and informally ...

  2. A finite-buffer queue with a single vacation policy: An analytical study with evolutionary positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woźniak Marcin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, application of an evolutionary strategy to positioning a GI/M/1/N-type finite-buffer queueing system with exhaustive service and a single vacation policy is presented. The examined object is modeled by a conditional joint transform of the first busy period, the first idle time and the number of packets completely served during the first busy period. A mathematical model is defined recursively by means of input distributions. In the paper, an analytical study and numerical experiments are presented. A cost optimization problem is solved using an evolutionary strategy for a class of queueing systems described by exponential and Erlang distributions.

  3. Evolutionary Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Heylighen, Francis

    2011-01-01

    Evolutionary psychology (EP) is an approach to the study of the mind that is founded on Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection. It assumes that our mental abilities, emotions and preferences are adapted specifically for solving problems of survival and reproduction in humanity’s ancestral environment, and derives testable predictions from this assumption. This has important implications for our understanding of the conditions for human well-being.

  4. Evolutionary thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, Tam

    2015-01-01

    Evolution as an idea has a lengthy history, even though the idea of evolution is generally associated with Darwin today. Rebecca Stott provides an engaging and thoughtful overview of this history of evolutionary thinking in her 2013 book, Darwin's Ghosts: The Secret History of Evolution. Since Darwin, the debate over evolution—both how it takes place and, in a long war of words with religiously-oriented thinkers, whether it takes place—has been sustained and heated. A growing share of this de...

  5. A Virtual Class Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik; Ostermann, Klaus; Cook, William Randall

    2006-01-01

    , not as static components of a class. When used as types, virtual classes depend upon object identity - each object instance introduces a new family of virtual class types. Virtual classes support large scale program composition techniques, including higher-order hierarchies and family polymorphism. The original......Virtual classes are class-valued attributes of objects. Like virtual methods, virtual classes are defined in an object's class and may be redefined within subclasses. They resemble inner classes, which are also defined within a class, but virtual classes are accessed through object instances...... definition of virtual classes in BETA left open the question of static type safety, since some type errors were not caught until runtime. Later the languages Caesar and gbeta have used a more strict static analysis in order to ensure static type safety. However, the existence of a sound, statically typed...

  6. Micro Evolutionary Processes and Adaptation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHADMANOV; R; K; RUBAN; I; N; VOROPAEVA; N; L; SHADMANOVA; A; R

    2008-01-01

    It would be well to note that in the absence of clear data about the formation of adaptation systems,or mechanisms of their occurrence,all that is recognized is the realization of the micro evolutionary processes.There is no well-defined connection between information exchange and formation of

  7. Research on Online Topic Evolutionary Pattern Mining in Text Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Chen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Text Streams are a class of ubiquitous data that came in over time and are extraordinary large in scale that we often lose track of. Basically, text streams forms the fundamental source of information that can be used to detect semantic topic which individuals and organizations are interested in as well as detect burst events within communities. Thus, intelligent system that can automatically extract interesting temporal pattern from text streams is terribly needed; however, Evolutionary Pattern Mining is not well addressed in previous work. In this paper, we start a tentative research on topic evolutionary pattern mining system by discussing fully properties of a topic after formally definition, as well as proposing a common and formal framework in analyzing text streams. We also defined three basic tasks including (1 online topic Detection, (2 event evolution extraction and (3 topic property life cycle, and proposed three common mining algorithms respectively. Finally we exemplify the application of Evolutionary Pattern Mining and shows that interesting patterns can be extracted in newswire dataset

  8. Inflated impact factors? The true impact of evolutionary papers in non-evolutionary journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Amongst the numerous problems associated with the use of impact factors as a measure of quality are the systematic differences in impact factors that exist among scientific fields. While in theory this can be circumvented by limiting comparisons to journals within the same field, for a diverse and multidisciplinary field like evolutionary biology, in which the majority of papers are published in journals that publish both evolutionary and non-evolutionary papers, this is impossible. However, a journal's overall impact factor may well be a poor predictor for the impact of its evolutionary papers. The extremely high impact factors of some multidisciplinary journals, for example, are by many believed to be driven mostly by publications from other fields. Despite plenty of speculation, however, we know as yet very little about the true impact of evolutionary papers in journals not specifically classified as evolutionary. Here I present, for a wide range of journals, an analysis of the number of evolutionary papers they publish and their average impact. I show that there are large differences in impact among evolutionary and non-evolutionary papers within journals; while the impact of evolutionary papers published in multidisciplinary journals is substantially overestimated by their overall impact factor, the impact of evolutionary papers in many of the more specialized, non-evolutionary journals is significantly underestimated. This suggests that, for evolutionary biologists, publishing in high-impact multidisciplinary journals should not receive as much weight as it does now, while evolutionary papers in more narrowly defined journals are currently undervalued. Importantly, however, their ranking remains largely unaffected. While journal impact factors may thus indeed provide a meaningful qualitative measure of impact, a fair quantitative comparison requires a more sophisticated journal classification system, together with multiple field-specific impact statistics per

  9. Inflated impact factors? The true impact of evolutionary papers in non-evolutionary journals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Postma

    Full Text Available Amongst the numerous problems associated with the use of impact factors as a measure of quality are the systematic differences in impact factors that exist among scientific fields. While in theory this can be circumvented by limiting comparisons to journals within the same field, for a diverse and multidisciplinary field like evolutionary biology, in which the majority of papers are published in journals that publish both evolutionary and non-evolutionary papers, this is impossible. However, a journal's overall impact factor may well be a poor predictor for the impact of its evolutionary papers. The extremely high impact factors of some multidisciplinary journals, for example, are by many believed to be driven mostly by publications from other fields. Despite plenty of speculation, however, we know as yet very little about the true impact of evolutionary papers in journals not specifically classified as evolutionary. Here I present, for a wide range of journals, an analysis of the number of evolutionary papers they publish and their average impact. I show that there are large differences in impact among evolutionary and non-evolutionary papers within journals; while the impact of evolutionary papers published in multidisciplinary journals is substantially overestimated by their overall impact factor, the impact of evolutionary papers in many of the more specialized, non-evolutionary journals is significantly underestimated. This suggests that, for evolutionary biologists, publishing in high-impact multidisciplinary journals should not receive as much weight as it does now, while evolutionary papers in more narrowly defined journals are currently undervalued. Importantly, however, their ranking remains largely unaffected. While journal impact factors may thus indeed provide a meaningful qualitative measure of impact, a fair quantitative comparison requires a more sophisticated journal classification system, together with multiple field

  10. Lengsin is a survivor of an ancient family of class I glutamine synthetases in eukaryotes that has undergone evolutionary re-engineering for a role in the vertebrate eye lens.

    OpenAIRE

    Wyatt, Keith; White, Helen E.; Wang, Luchun; Bateman, Orval A.; Slingsby, Christine; Orlova, Elena V.; Wistow, Graeme

    2006-01-01

    Lengsin is a member of the glutamine synthetase (GS) superfamily expressed in the vertebrate eye lens. While the GS homology domains of lengsin are well conserved in all species examined, the N-terminal domain shows evidence of dynamic evolutionary changes. Compared with zebrafish and chicken, most mammals have an additional exon in the lengsin gene corresponding to part of the N-terminal domain, however in human this is a non-functional pseudoexon. Lengsin belongs to the hitherto purely prok...

  11. Evolutionary Games and Social Conventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    2007-01-01

    in Aumann (1976) and which, together with the assumptions of perfect rationality, came to be defining of classical game theory. However, classical game theory is currently undergoing severe crisis as a tool for exploring social phenomena; a crisis emerging from the problem of equilibrium selection around...... which any theory of convention must revolve. In response, the so-called evolutionary turn has developed. While retaining the broad framework, in which games are described in terms of strategies and payoffs, this marks a transition from the classical assumptions of perfect rationality and common...... knowledge to assumptions characterising agents as conditioned for playing certain strategies upon the population of which evolutionary processes operate. By providing accounts of equilibrium selection and stability properties of behaviours, the resulting frameworks have been brought to work as well...

  12. Sounds unheard of evolutionary algorithms as creative tools for the contemporary composer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlstedt, Palle

    2004-01-01

    Evolutionary algorithms are studied as tools for generating novel musical material in the form of musical scores and synthesized sounds. The choice of genetic representation defines a space of potential music. This space is explored using evolutionary algorithms, in search of useful musical...... material. In this way, the computer becomes a creative tool that is integrated into the artistic process. Several implementations of these ideas are presented, based on interactive evolution, genetic algorithms and artificial life models. A number of different representations of music and sound...... are discussed, with a focus on parameterized sound synthesis and the representation of scores as recursively described trees. The dynamic behavior of a class of sound synthesis engines, consisting of networks of modulating oscillators, is also investigated. Finally, a number of compositions that have been...

  13. Evolutionary Explanation of Psychopaths

    OpenAIRE

    Seungbae Park

    2013-01-01

    Psychopaths are brutal individuals, having no empathetic concern for others. Initially, the existence of psychopaths seems to be a mystery from an evolutionary point of view. On close examination, however, it can be accommodated by evolutionary theory. Brutal individuals excelled meek individuals in the desperate circumstances where they had to fight their competitors over natural resources for survival and reproduction. This evolutionary explanation of psychopaths receives support from Pinke...

  14. Defining of the BDX930 Assembly Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, R. S.; Moore, J. S.

    1983-01-01

    A definition of the BDX930 assembly language is presented. Various definition problems and suggested solutions are included. A class of defined recognizers based on boolean valued nowrecursive functions is employed in preprocessing.

  15. Remembering the evolutionary Freud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Allan

    2006-03-01

    Throughout his career as a writer, Sigmund Freud maintained an interest in the evolutionary origins of the human mind and its neurotic and psychotic disorders. In common with many writers then and now, he believed that the evolutionary past is conserved in the mind and the brain. Today the "evolutionary Freud" is nearly forgotten. Even among Freudians, he is regarded to be a red herring, relevant only to the extent that he diverts attention from the enduring achievements of the authentic Freud. There are three ways to explain these attitudes. First, the evolutionary Freud's key work is the "Overview of the Transference Neurosis" (1915). But it was published at an inopportune moment, forty years after the author's death, during the so-called "Freud wars." Second, Freud eventually lost interest in the "Overview" and the prospect of a comprehensive evolutionary theory of psychopathology. The publication of The Ego and the Id (1923), introducing Freud's structural theory of the psyche, marked the point of no return. Finally, Freud's evolutionary theory is simply not credible. It is based on just-so stories and a thoroughly discredited evolutionary mechanism, Lamarckian use-inheritance. Explanations one and two are probably correct but also uninteresting. Explanation number three assumes that there is a fundamental difference between Freud's evolutionary narratives (not credible) and the evolutionary accounts of psychopathology that currently circulate in psychiatry and mainstream journals (credible). The assumption is mistaken but worth investigating.

  16. ADAPTION METHOD OF CLIENT-SIDE CODE IN EVOLUTIONARY PROCESS OF JAVA CLASS LIBRARIES%Java 类库演化过程中客户端代码适配方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱诚; 董瑞志; 彭鑫; 赵文耘

    2014-01-01

    Class libraries technique enables the programmers may concentrate on organising the business logic of software products by directly invoking the interfaces exposed in class libraries without the need to know the implementation details.However,since the on-going version evo-lution of the class libraries,the time and the cost of adapting the client-side codes to new class libraries will increase significantly.Therefore, we propose a solution with regard to automatic generation of data adaption layer to deal with the class libraries evolution issue of Java language class libraries.The approach presented in the paper analyses the common patterns of Java class libraries evolution and gives corresponding adap-tation scheme for every evolution pattern of the class library,on this basis it develops the code generator of the adaption layer.Aiming at specific client-side code,the code generator of adaptation layer automatically generates the adaption layer code so as to accomplish the compatibility of the evolved libraries on the new class library.Finally,we demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach by a case study.%类库技术使得程序员无需了解实现细节,直接调用类库暴露的接口就可以组织软件产品的业务逻辑。由于类库的版本不断演化,将客户端代码适配到新类库的时间与成本将大幅增加。为此,提出一个代码适配层自动化生成的解决方案,来应对 Java语言类库的类库演化问题。分析 Java 类库演化的常见模式,针对每一种类库演化模式给出相应的适配方案,在此基础上开发适配层代码生成器。针对特定的客户端代码,适配层代码生成器为客户端代码自动产生适配层代码,以完成客户端代码对新类库的兼容。最后,通过一个案例研究,展示了该方法的可行性。

  17. Micro Evolutionary Processes and Adaptation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHADMANOV R K; RUBAN I N; VOROPAEVA N L; SHADMANOVA A R

    2008-01-01

    @@ It would be well to note that in the absence of clear data about the formation of adaptation systems,or mechanisms of their occurrence,all that is recognized is the realization of the micro evolutionary processes.There is no well-defined connection between information exchange and formation of adaptation systems.Obviously,it occurs because mechanisms and systems reacting to any external actions are not considered from the point of view of "coexistence" of dynamic and static processes and structures.

  18. Myxoma Virus Leukemia-Associated Protein Is Responsible for Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I and Fas-CD95 Down-Regulation and Defines Scrapins, a New Group of Surface Cellular Receptor Abductor Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Guerin, Jean-Luc; Gelfi, Jacqueline; Boullier, Severine; Delverdier, Maxence; Bellanger, Frederique-Anne; Bertagnoli, Stephane; Drexler, Ingo; Sutter, Gerd; Messud-Petit, Frederique

    2002-01-01

    Down-modulation of major histocompatibility class I (MHC-I) molecules is a viral strategy for survival in the host. Myxoma virus, a member of the Poxviridae family responsible for rabbit myxomatosis, can down-modulate the expression of MHC-I molecules, but the viral factor(s) has not been described. We cloned and characterized a gene coding for an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident protein containing an atypical zinc finger and two transmembrane domains, which we called myxoma virus leukemia...

  19. Ordenação de populações em amplas classes de nível de saúde, segundo um indicador abrangente definido por uma função discriminante linear Ranking of populations in broad classes of health levels according to a comprehensive indicador defined by a linear discriminant function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Ferreira Novo

    1985-08-01

    , were defined according to a criterion based on the rank of the sum of the normal reduced deviations calculated for the distributions of the values for each indicator. For the computation of discriminant function equations by the stepwise technique, reciprocal transformation was used for the four indicators expressed as ratios and for the other two their face values were used. Critical analysis of results as shown that the formula: Z = 2895/IMR + 2060/BR + 1000/MRIPD, can be used as a comprehensve indicator allowing the ranking of countries in broad classes of health levels, as follows: A - 737 or more; Denmark and Sweden; B - 637 |- 737: Australia, Netherland, England and Wales, Iceland, Luxembourg, Norway and Switzerland; C - 537 |- 637: Federal Republic of Germany, Canada, Scotland, Finland and Japan; D - 437 |- 537: Austria, Belgium, United States, France, Northern Ireland, Italy and New Zealand; E - 337 |- 437: Bulgaria, Spain, Greece, Hong Kong, Hungary, Ireland, Israel and Singapore; F - 237 |- 337: Barbados, Costa Rica, Yugoslavia, Poland, Portugal and Romania; G - 137 |- 237: Chile, Guyana, Mauritius, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago and Uruguay; H - < 137: Egygt, Guatemala and Mexico.

  20. Evolutionary humanoid robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Eaton, Malachy

    2015-01-01

    This book examines how two distinct strands of research on autonomous robots, evolutionary robotics and humanoid robot research, are converging. The book will be valuable for researchers and postgraduate students working in the areas of evolutionary robotics and bio-inspired computing.

  1. Polymorphic Evolutionary Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Michael A

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, I present an analytical framework for polymorphic evolutionary games suitable for explicitly modeling evolutionary processes in diploid populations with sexual reproduction. The principal aspect of the proposed approach is adding diploid genetics cum sexual recombination to a traditional evolutionary game, and switching from phenotypes to haplotypes as the new game׳s pure strategies. Here, the relevant pure strategy׳s payoffs derived by summing the payoffs of all the phenotypes capable of producing gametes containing that particular haplotype weighted by the pertinent probabilities. The resulting game is structurally identical to the familiar Evolutionary Games with non-linear pure strategy payoffs (Hofbauer and Sigmund, 1998. Cambridge University Press), and can be analyzed in terms of an established analytical framework for such games. And these results can be translated into the terms of genotypic, and whence, phenotypic evolutionary stability pertinent to the original game. PMID:27016340

  2. Evolutionary cell biology: two origins, one objective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Michael; Field, Mark C; Goodson, Holly V; Malik, Harmit S; Pereira-Leal, José B; Roos, David S; Turkewitz, Aaron P; Sazer, Shelley

    2014-12-01

    All aspects of biological diversification ultimately trace to evolutionary modifications at the cellular level. This central role of cells frames the basic questions as to how cells work and how cells come to be the way they are. Although these two lines of inquiry lie respectively within the traditional provenance of cell biology and evolutionary biology, a comprehensive synthesis of evolutionary and cell-biological thinking is lacking. We define evolutionary cell biology as the fusion of these two eponymous fields with the theoretical and quantitative branches of biochemistry, biophysics, and population genetics. The key goals are to develop a mechanistic understanding of general evolutionary processes, while specifically infusing cell biology with an evolutionary perspective. The full development of this interdisciplinary field has the potential to solve numerous problems in diverse areas of biology, including the degree to which selection, effectively neutral processes, historical contingencies, and/or constraints at the chemical and biophysical levels dictate patterns of variation for intracellular features. These problems can now be examined at both the within- and among-species levels, with single-cell methodologies even allowing quantification of variation within genotypes. Some results from this emerging field have already had a substantial impact on cell biology, and future findings will significantly influence applications in agriculture, medicine, environmental science, and synthetic biology. PMID:25404324

  3. Evolutionary cell biology: two origins, one objective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Michael; Field, Mark C; Goodson, Holly V; Malik, Harmit S; Pereira-Leal, José B; Roos, David S; Turkewitz, Aaron P; Sazer, Shelley

    2014-12-01

    All aspects of biological diversification ultimately trace to evolutionary modifications at the cellular level. This central role of cells frames the basic questions as to how cells work and how cells come to be the way they are. Although these two lines of inquiry lie respectively within the traditional provenance of cell biology and evolutionary biology, a comprehensive synthesis of evolutionary and cell-biological thinking is lacking. We define evolutionary cell biology as the fusion of these two eponymous fields with the theoretical and quantitative branches of biochemistry, biophysics, and population genetics. The key goals are to develop a mechanistic understanding of general evolutionary processes, while specifically infusing cell biology with an evolutionary perspective. The full development of this interdisciplinary field has the potential to solve numerous problems in diverse areas of biology, including the degree to which selection, effectively neutral processes, historical contingencies, and/or constraints at the chemical and biophysical levels dictate patterns of variation for intracellular features. These problems can now be examined at both the within- and among-species levels, with single-cell methodologies even allowing quantification of variation within genotypes. Some results from this emerging field have already had a substantial impact on cell biology, and future findings will significantly influence applications in agriculture, medicine, environmental science, and synthetic biology.

  4. Human Resource Ecosystem and its evolutionary rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Paper,based on the concept and the elements of human resource ecosystem(HR Ecosystem),studies the function and structure of HR Ecosystem,introduces the entropy theory to define the content of entropy of HR Ecosystem,constructs the corresponding distinctive model to distinguish the direction of the evolution of HR Ecosystem and the evolutionary entropy model, and applies the models to demonstrate the evolutionary rules of HR Ecosystem.The study shows that the entropy theory can be well applied to the analysis on HR Ecosystem and that it opens up a new field in the research of human resource management and provides a new effective technical method.

  5. Evolutionary Conditions in the Dissipative MHD System Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Inoue, Tsuyoshi

    2007-01-01

    The evolutionary conditions for the dissipative continuous magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shocks are studied. We modify Hada's approach in the stability analysis of the MHD shock waves. The matching conditions between perturbed shock structure and asymptotic wave modes shows that all types of the MHD shocks, including the intermediate shocks, are evolutionary and perturbed solutions are uniquely defined. We also adopt our formalism to the MHD shocks in the system with resistivity without viscosity, which is often used in numerical simulation, and show that all types of shocks that are found in the system satisfy the evolutionary condition and perturbed solutions are uniquely defined. These results suggest that the intermediate shocks may appear in reality.

  6. When development matters: From evolutionary psychology to evolutionary developmental psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Blasi, Carlos; Bjorklund, David F.; Gardiner, Amy K.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents evolutionary developmental psychology (EDP) as an emerging field of evolutionary psychology (EP). In describing the core tenets of both approaches and the differences between them, we emphasize the important roles that evolution and development have in understanding human behaviour. We suggest that developmental psychologists should pay more attention to evolutionary issues and, conversely, evolutionary psychologists should take development seriously ...

  7. Evolutionary Theorizing in Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Richard R. Nelson; Winter, Sidney G.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews the case for an evolutionary approach to problems of economic analysis, ranging from the details of individual firm behavior in the short run through industrial dynamics to the historical evolution of institutions and technologies. We draw upon a substantial body of recent research contributions. We characterize micro behavior as governed by skills and routines that are shaped by learning and selection. We then consider major areas of application of evolutionary thinking, i...

  8. Music and evolutionary computation

    OpenAIRE

    Reis, Cecília; Marques, Viriato M.; Machado, J. A. Tenreiro

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a brief history of the western music: from its genesis to serialism and the Darmstadt school. Also some mathematical aspects of music are then presented and confronted with music as a form of art. The question is, are these two distinct aspects compatible? Can computers be of real help in automatic composition? The more appealing algorithmic approach is evolutionary computation as it offers creativity potential. Therefore, the Evolutionary Algorithms are then introduced an...

  9. Two distinct classes of IgG Fc receptors on a human monocyte line (U937) defined by differences in binding of murine IgG subclasses at low ionic strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two distinct classes of IgG Fc receptors (FcR) on cells of a human monocytic line (U937) by analyzing the direct binding of murine IgG subclasses in medium of low ionic strength. Four lines of evidence support this contention. (1) The binding of aggregated murine IgB2b (AggmIgG2b) to U937 and Daudi cells was enhanced at low ionic strength, whereas monomeric murine IgG2a (mIgG2a) did not bind to Daudi cells and its high affinity binding to U937 cells was unaffected by changes in ionic strength. (2) Double reciprocal inhibition experiments with U937 cells indicated that the binding of both ligands was inhibited 30 to 135 times more efficiently by the homologous ligand than by the heterologous one. That is, the binding of 125I-AggmIgG2b was inhibited 50% by 3.5 μg/ml of AggmIgG2b and 100 μg/ml of mIgG2a. Similarly, the binding of 125I-mIgG2a was inhibited 50% by 2.5 μg/ml of mIgG2a and only 44% by 243 μg/ml of AggmIgG2b. (3) A monoclonal antibody of the IgG2b subclass raised against an IgG FcR on K562 cells inhibited binding to U937 cells of AggmIgG2b but not of mIgG2a. (4) Trypsinization of U937 cells abrogated by 32% the binding of mIgG2a but did not affect the binding of AggmIgG2b. Human IgG inhibited binding of both AggmIgG2b and mIgG2a t U937 cells. They propose that the newly recognized FcR that binds AggmIgG2b is the human homologue of the murine macrophage IgG2b/1 FcR (FcRII), and that the previously described 72,000 dalton high-affinity FcR on U937 cells that binds mIgG2a is the human equivalent of the murine macrophage IgG2a FcR (FcRI)

  10. Behavior Trees for Evolutionary Robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheper, Kirk Y W; Tijmons, Sjoerd; de Visser, Cornelis C; de Croon, Guido C H E

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary Robotics allows robots with limited sensors and processing to tackle complex tasks by means of sensory-motor coordination. In this article we show the first application of the Behavior Tree framework on a real robotic platform using the evolutionary robotics methodology. This framework is used to improve the intelligibility of the emergent robotic behavior over that of the traditional neural network formulation. As a result, the behavior is easier to comprehend and manually adapt when crossing the reality gap from simulation to reality. This functionality is shown by performing real-world flight tests with the 20-g DelFly Explorer flapping wing micro air vehicle equipped with a 4-g onboard stereo vision system. The experiments show that the DelFly can fully autonomously search for and fly through a window with only its onboard sensors and processing. The success rate of the optimized behavior in simulation is 88%, and the corresponding real-world performance is 54% after user adaptation. Although this leaves room for improvement, it is higher than the 46% success rate from a tuned user-defined controller. PMID:26606468

  11. Evolutionary potential games on lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, György; Borsos, István

    2016-04-01

    Game theory provides a general mathematical background to study the effect of pair interactions and evolutionary rules on the macroscopic behavior of multi-player games where players with a finite number of strategies may represent a wide scale of biological objects, human individuals, or even their associations. In these systems the interactions are characterized by matrices that can be decomposed into elementary matrices (games) and classified into four types. The concept of decomposition helps the identification of potential games and also the evaluation of the potential that plays a crucial role in the determination of the preferred Nash equilibrium, and defines the Boltzmann distribution towards which these systems evolve for suitable types of dynamical rules. This survey draws parallel between the potential games and the kinetic Ising type models which are investigated for a wide scale of connectivity structures. We discuss briefly the applicability of the tools and concepts of statistical physics and thermodynamics. Additionally the general features of ordering phenomena, phase transitions and slow relaxations are outlined and applied to evolutionary games. The discussion extends to games with three or more strategies. Finally we discuss what happens when the system is weakly driven out of the "equilibrium state" by adding non-potential components representing games of cyclic dominance.

  12. Evolutionary development of tensegrity structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Daniel; Vico, Francisco J

    2010-09-01

    Contributions from the emerging fields of molecular genetics and evo-devo (evolutionary developmental biology) are greatly benefiting the field of evolutionary computation, initiating a promise of renewal in the traditional methodology. While direct encoding has constituted a dominant paradigm, indirect ways to encode the solutions have been reported, yet little attention has been paid to the benefits of the proposed methods to real problems. In this work, we study the biological properties that emerge by means of using indirect encodings in the context of form-finding problems. A novel indirect encoding model for artificial development has been defined and applied to an engineering structural-design problem, specifically to the discovery of tensegrity structures. This model has been compared with a direct encoding scheme. While the direct encoding performs similarly well to the proposed method, indirect-based results typically outperform the direct-based results in aspects not directly linked to the nature of the problem itself, but to the emergence of properties found in biological organisms, like organicity, generalization capacity, or modularity aspects which are highly valuable in engineering. PMID:20619314

  13. Behavior Trees for Evolutionary Robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheper, Kirk Y W; Tijmons, Sjoerd; de Visser, Cornelis C; de Croon, Guido C H E

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary Robotics allows robots with limited sensors and processing to tackle complex tasks by means of sensory-motor coordination. In this article we show the first application of the Behavior Tree framework on a real robotic platform using the evolutionary robotics methodology. This framework is used to improve the intelligibility of the emergent robotic behavior over that of the traditional neural network formulation. As a result, the behavior is easier to comprehend and manually adapt when crossing the reality gap from simulation to reality. This functionality is shown by performing real-world flight tests with the 20-g DelFly Explorer flapping wing micro air vehicle equipped with a 4-g onboard stereo vision system. The experiments show that the DelFly can fully autonomously search for and fly through a window with only its onboard sensors and processing. The success rate of the optimized behavior in simulation is 88%, and the corresponding real-world performance is 54% after user adaptation. Although this leaves room for improvement, it is higher than the 46% success rate from a tuned user-defined controller.

  14. Evolutionary history of human disease genes reveals phenotypic connections and comorbidity among genetic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Solip; Yang, Jae-Seong; Kim, Jinho; Shin, Young-Eun; Hwang, Jihye; Park, Juyong; Jang, Sung Key; Kim, Sanguk

    2012-01-01

    The extent to which evolutionary changes have impacted the phenotypic relationships among human diseases remains unclear. In this work, we report that phenotypically similar diseases are connected by the evolutionary constraints on human disease genes. Human disease groups can be classified into slowly or rapidly evolving classes, where the diseases in the slowly evolving class are enriched with morphological phenotypes and those in the rapidly evolving class are enriched with physiological phenotypes. Our findings establish a clear evolutionary connection between disease classes and disease phenotypes for the first time. Furthermore, the high comorbidity found between diseases connected by similar evolutionary constraints enables us to improve the predictability of the relative risk of human diseases. We find the evolutionary constraints on disease genes are a new layer of molecular connection in the network-based exploration of human diseases.

  15. Can play be defined?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Can play be defined? There is reason to raise critical questions about the established academic demand that at phenomenon – also in humanist studies – should first of all be defined, i.e. de-lineated and by neat lines limited to a “little box” that can be handled. The following chapter develops....... Human beings can very well understand play – or whatever phenomenon in human life – without defining it....

  16. Defining Quantum Control Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Ying, Mingsheng; Yu, Nengkun; Feng, Yuan

    2012-01-01

    A remarkable difference between quantum and classical programs is that the control flow of the former can be either classical or quantum. One of the key issues in the theory of quantum programming languages is defining and understanding quantum control flow. A functional language with quantum control flow was defined by Altenkirch and Grattage [\\textit{Proc. LICS'05}, pp. 249-258]. This paper extends their work, and we introduce a general quantum control structure by defining three new quantu...

  17. Protein 3D structure computed from evolutionary sequence variation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora S Marks

    Full Text Available The evolutionary trajectory of a protein through sequence space is constrained by its function. Collections of sequence homologs record the outcomes of millions of evolutionary experiments in which the protein evolves according to these constraints. Deciphering the evolutionary record held in these sequences and exploiting it for predictive and engineering purposes presents a formidable challenge. The potential benefit of solving this challenge is amplified by the advent of inexpensive high-throughput genomic sequencing.In this paper we ask whether we can infer evolutionary constraints from a set of sequence homologs of a protein. The challenge is to distinguish true co-evolution couplings from the noisy set of observed correlations. We address this challenge using a maximum entropy model of the protein sequence, constrained by the statistics of the multiple sequence alignment, to infer residue pair couplings. Surprisingly, we find that the strength of these inferred couplings is an excellent predictor of residue-residue proximity in folded structures. Indeed, the top-scoring residue couplings are sufficiently accurate and well-distributed to define the 3D protein fold with remarkable accuracy.We quantify this observation by computing, from sequence alone, all-atom 3D structures of fifteen test proteins from different fold classes, ranging in size from 50 to 260 residues, including a G-protein coupled receptor. These blinded inferences are de novo, i.e., they do not use homology modeling or sequence-similar fragments from known structures. The co-evolution signals provide sufficient information to determine accurate 3D protein structure to 2.7-4.8 Å C(α-RMSD error relative to the observed structure, over at least two-thirds of the protein (method called EVfold, details at http://EVfold.org. This discovery provides insight into essential interactions constraining protein evolution and will facilitate a comprehensive survey of the universe of

  18. Applying evolutionary anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Mhairi A; Lawson, David W

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary anthropology provides a powerful theoretical framework for understanding how both current environments and legacies of past selection shape human behavioral diversity. This integrative and pluralistic field, combining ethnographic, demographic, and sociological methods, has provided new insights into the ultimate forces and proximate pathways that guide human adaptation and variation. Here, we present the argument that evolutionary anthropological studies of human behavior also hold great, largely untapped, potential to guide the design, implementation, and evaluation of social and public health policy. Focusing on the key anthropological themes of reproduction, production, and distribution we highlight classic and recent research demonstrating the value of an evolutionary perspective to improving human well-being. The challenge now comes in transforming relevance into action and, for that, evolutionary behavioral anthropologists will need to forge deeper connections with other applied social scientists and policy-makers. We are hopeful that these developments are underway and that, with the current tide of enthusiasm for evidence-based approaches to policy, evolutionary anthropology is well positioned to make a strong contribution.

  19. Paleoanthropology and evolutionary theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Paleoanthropologists of the first half of the twentieth century were little concerned either with evolutionary theory or with the technicalities and broader implications of zoological nomenclature. In consequence, the paleoanthropological literature of the period consisted largely of a series of descriptions accompanied by authoritative pronouncements, together with a huge excess of hominid genera and species. Given the intellectual flimsiness of the resulting paleoanthropological framework, it is hardly surprising that in 1950 the ornithologist Ernst Mayr met little resistance when he urged the new postwar generation of paleoanthropologists to accept not only the elegant reductionism of the Evolutionary Synthesis but a vast oversimplification of hominid phylogenetic history and nomenclature. Indeed, the impact of Mayr's onslaught was so great that even when developments in evolutionary biology during the last quarter of the century brought other paleontologists to the realization that much more has been involved in evolutionary histories than the simple action of natural selection within gradually transforming lineages, paleoanthropologists proved highly reluctant to follow. Even today, paleoanthropologists are struggling to reconcile an intuitive realization that the burgeoning hominid fossil record harbors a substantial diversity of species (bringing hominid evolutionary patterns into line with that of other successful mammalian families), with the desire to cram a huge variety of morphologies into an unrealistically minimalist systematic framework. As long as this theoretical ambivalence persists, our perception of events in hominid phylogeny will continue to be distorted.

  20. Defeating pathogen drug resistance: guidance from evolutionary theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, John W

    2008-12-01

    Many of the greatest challenges in medicine and public health involve the evolution of drug resistance by pathogens. Recent advances in the theory of natural selection suggest that there are two broad classes of pathogen traits that can be targeted by drugs or vaccines. The first class, consisting of traits that benefit the individual organisms bearing them, causes a strong evolutionary response and the rapid emergence of drug resistance. The second class, consisting of traits that benefit groups of pathogen organisms including the individual provider, causes a weaker evolutionary response and less drug resistance. Although most previous drug development has targeted the first class, it would be advantageous to focus on the second class as targets for drug and vaccine development. Specific examples and test cases are discussed.

  1. Archaeogenetics in evolutionary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwman, Abigail; Rühli, Frank

    2016-09-01

    Archaeogenetics is the study of exploration of ancient DNA (aDNA) of more than 70 years old. It is an important part of the wider studies of many different areas of our past, including animal, plant and pathogen evolution and domestication events. Hereby, we address specifically the impact of research in archaeogenetics in the broader field of evolutionary medicine. Studies on ancient hominid genomes help to understand even modern health patterns. Human genetic microevolution, e.g. related to abilities of post-weaning milk consumption, and specifically genetic adaptation in disease susceptibility, e.g. towards malaria and other infectious diseases, are of the upmost importance in contributions of archeogenetics on the evolutionary understanding of human health and disease. With the increase in both the understanding of modern medical genetics and the ability to deep sequence ancient genetic information, the field of archaeogenetic evolutionary medicine is blossoming. PMID:27289479

  2. Historically defined autobiographical periods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Norman R.; Hansen, Tia G. B.; Lee, Peter J.;

    2012-01-01

    The chapter reviews a research programme that has demonstrated the existence of historically defined autobiographical periods and identified the conditions that bring them about. Data from four samples of World War II-generation adults show that historically defined autobiographical periods endure...

  3. Evolutionary Computation:ao Overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HeZhenya; WeiChengjian

    1997-01-01

    Evolutionary computation is a field of simulating evolution on a computer.Both aspects of it ,the problem solving aspect and the aspect of modeling natural evolution,are important.Simulating evolution on a computer results in stochastic optimization techniques that can outperform classical methods of optimization when applied to difficult real-world problems.There are currently four main avenues of research in simulated evolution:genetic algorithms,evolutionary programming,evolution strategies,and genetic programming.This paper presents a brief overview of thd field on evolutionary computation,including some theoretical issues,adaptive mechanisms,improvements,constrained optimizqtion,constrained satisfaction,evolutionary neural networks,evolutionary fuzzy systems,hardware evolution,evolutionary robotics,parallel evolutionary computation,and co-evolutionary models.The applications of evolutionary computation for optimizing system and intelligent information processing in telecommunications are also introduced.

  4. Studies in evolutionary agroecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wille, Wibke

    of Evolutionary Agroecology that the highest yielding individuals do not necessarily perform best as a population. The investment of resources into strategies and structures increasing individual competitive ability carries a cost. If a whole population consists of individuals investing resources to compete......Darwinian evolution by natural selection is driven primarily by differential survival and reproduction among individuals in a population. When the evolutionary interest of an individual is in conflict with the interests of the population, the genes increasing individual fitness at the cost...

  5. Evolutionary Statistical Procedures

    CERN Document Server

    Baragona, Roberto; Poli, Irene

    2011-01-01

    This proposed text appears to be a good introduction to evolutionary computation for use in applied statistics research. The authors draw from a vast base of knowledge about the current literature in both the design of evolutionary algorithms and statistical techniques. Modern statistical research is on the threshold of solving increasingly complex problems in high dimensions, and the generalization of its methodology to parameters whose estimators do not follow mathematically simple distributions is underway. Many of these challenges involve optimizing functions for which analytic solutions a

  6. BEAST: Bayesian evolutionary analysis by sampling trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drummond Alexei J

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evolutionary analysis of molecular sequence variation is a statistical enterprise. This is reflected in the increased use of probabilistic models for phylogenetic inference, multiple sequence alignment, and molecular population genetics. Here we present BEAST: a fast, flexible software architecture for Bayesian analysis of molecular sequences related by an evolutionary tree. A large number of popular stochastic models of sequence evolution are provided and tree-based models suitable for both within- and between-species sequence data are implemented. Results BEAST version 1.4.6 consists of 81000 lines of Java source code, 779 classes and 81 packages. It provides models for DNA and protein sequence evolution, highly parametric coalescent analysis, relaxed clock phylogenetics, non-contemporaneous sequence data, statistical alignment and a wide range of options for prior distributions. BEAST source code is object-oriented, modular in design and freely available at http://beast-mcmc.googlecode.com/ under the GNU LGPL license. Conclusion BEAST is a powerful and flexible evolutionary analysis package for molecular sequence variation. It also provides a resource for the further development of new models and statistical methods of evolutionary analysis.

  7. Evolutionary optimization of cooperative heterogeneous teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soule, Terence; Heckendorn, Robert B.

    2007-04-01

    There is considerable interest in developing teams of autonomous, unmanned vehicles that can function in hostile environments without endangering human lives. However, heterogeneous teams, teams of units with specialized roles and/or specialized capabilities, have received relatively little attention. Specialized roles and capabilities can significantly increase team effectiveness and efficiency. Unfortunately, developing effective cooperation mechanisms is much more difficult in heterogeneous teams. Units with specialized roles or capabilities require specialized software that take into account the role and capabilities of both itself and its neighbors. Evolutionary algorithms, algorithms modeled on the principles of natural selection, have a proven track record in generating successful teams for a wide variety of problem domains. Using classification problems as a prototype, we have shown that typical evolutionary algorithms either generate highly effective teams members that cooperate poorly or poorly performing individuals that cooperate well. To overcome these weaknesses we have developed a novel class of evolutionary algorithms. In this paper we apply these algorithms to the problem of controlling simulated, heterogeneous teams of "scouts" and "investigators". Our test problem requires producing a map of an area and to further investigate "areas of interest". We compare several evolutionary algorithms for their ability to generate individually effective members and high levels of cooperation.

  8. Part E: Evolutionary Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Part E, Evolutionary Computation, edited by Professors Frank Neumann, Carsten Witt, Peter Merz, Carlos A. Coello Coello, Oliver Schütze, Thomas Bartz-Beielstein, Jörn Mehnen, and Günther Raidl, concerns the third fundamental element of what is traditionally being considered to be the core of Comp...

  9. Learning: An Evolutionary Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, Joanna

    2009-01-01

    This paper draws on the philosophy of Karl Popper to present a descriptive evolutionary epistemology that offers philosophical solutions to the following related problems: "What happens when learning takes place?" and "What happens in human learning?" It provides a detailed analysis of how learning takes place without any direct transfer of…

  10. Origins of evolutionary transitions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ellen Clarke

    2014-04-01

    An `evolutionary transition in individuality’ or `major transition’ is a transformation in the hierarchical level at which natural selection operates on a population. In this article I give an abstract (i.e. level-neutral and substrate-neutral) articulation of the transition process in order to precisely understand how such processes can happen, especially how they can get started.

  11. The evolution of the class A scavenger receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whelan Fiona J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The class A scavenger receptors are a subclass of a diverse family of proteins defined based on their ability to bind modified lipoproteins. The 5 members of this family are strikingly variable in their protein structure and function, raising the question as to whether it is appropriate to group them as a family based on their ligand binding abilities. Results To investigate these relationships, we defined the domain architecture of each of the 5 members followed by collecting and annotating class A scavenger receptor mRNA and amino acid sequences from publicly available databases. Phylogenetic analyses, sequence alignments, and permutation tests revealed a common evolutionary ancestry of these proteins, indicating that they form a protein family. We postulate that 4 distinct gene duplication events and subsequent domain fusions, internal repeats, and deletions are responsible for the diverse protein structures and functions of this family. Despite variation in domain structure, there are highly conserved regions across all 5 members, indicating the possibility that these regions may represent key conserved functional motifs. Conclusions We have shown with significant evidence that the 5 members of the class A scavenger receptors form a protein family. We have indicated that these receptors have a common origin which may provide insight into future functional work with these proteins.

  12. How to define surveillance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The task of this paper is to explore and compare ways of defining surveillance. In order to give meaning to concepts that describe the realities of society, social theory is needed. Therefore social theory is employed in this paper for discussing ways of defining surveillance. “Living in ‘surveillance societies’ may throw up challenges of a fundamental – ontological – kind” (Lyon, 1994, p.19. Social theory is a way of clarifying such ontological questions that concern the basic nature and reality of surveillance. A distinction between neutral and negative concepts of surveillance is drawn. Some potential disadvantages of neutral concepts of surveillance are outlined. This paper wants to contribute to the discussion of how to best define surveillance and wants to show that one of the main theoretical differences and questions in surveillance theory is if surveillance should be defined as a negative or a neutral concept.

  13. Defining Documentary Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    A discussion of various attemts at defining documentary film regarding form, content, truth, stile, genre or reception - and a propoposal of a positive list of essential, but non-exclusive characteristica of documentary film......A discussion of various attemts at defining documentary film regarding form, content, truth, stile, genre or reception - and a propoposal of a positive list of essential, but non-exclusive characteristica of documentary film...

  14. EVOG: a database for evolutionary analysis of overlapping genes

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dae-Soo; Cho, Chi-Young; Huh, Jae-Won; Kim, Heui-Soo; Cho, Hwan-Gue

    2008-01-01

    Overlapping genes are defined as a pair of genes whose transcripts are overlapped. Recently, many cases of overlapped genes have been investigated in various eukaryotic organisms; however, their origin and transcriptional control mechanism has not yet been clearly determined. In this study, we implemented evolutionary visualizer for overlapping genes (EVOG), a Web-based DB with a novel visualization interface, to investigate the evolutionary relationship between overlapping genes. Using this ...

  15. Analog Circuit Design Optimization Based on Evolutionary Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Mansour Barari; Hamid Reza Karimi; Farhad Razaghian

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates an evolutionary-based designing system for automated sizing of analog integrated circuits (ICs). Two evolutionary algorithms, genetic algorithm and PSO (Parswal particle swarm optimization) algorithm, are proposed to design analog ICs with practical user-defined specifications. On the basis of the combination of HSPICE and MATLAB, the system links circuit performances, evaluated through specific electrical simulation, to the optimization system in the MATLAB environmen...

  16. INFLUENCE OF PRIORS OVER MULTITYPED OBJECT IN EVOLUTIONARY CLUSTERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.Visalatchi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Evolutionary clustering is an evolving research area in data mining. The evolution diagnosis of any homogeneous as well as heterogeneous network will provide an overall view about the network. Applications of evolutionary clustering includes, analyzing, the social networks, information networks, about their structure, properties and behaviors. In this paper, the authors study the problem of influence of priors over multi-typed object in evolutionary clustering. Priors are defined for each type of object in a heterogeneous information network and experimental results were produced to show how consistency and quality of cluster changes according to the priors.

  17. Recent Advances in Evolutionary Computation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Yao; Yong Xu

    2006-01-01

    Evolutionary computation has experienced a tremendous growth in the last decade in both theoretical analyses and industrial applications. Its scope has evolved beyond its original meaning of "biological evolution" toward a wide variety of nature inspired computational algorithms and techniques, including evolutionary, neural, ecological, social and economical computation, etc., in a unified framework. Many research topics in evolutionary computation nowadays are not necessarily "evolutionary". This paper provides an overview of some recent advances in evolutionary computation that have been made in CERCIA at the University of Birmingham, UK. It covers a wide range of topics in optimization, learning and design using evolutionary approaches and techniques, and theoretical results in the computational time complexity of evolutionary algorithms. Some issues related to future development of evolutionary computation are also discussed.

  18. Defining Student Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelson, Rick D.; Flick, Arend

    2011-01-01

    Few terms in the lexicon of higher education today are invoked more frequently, and in more varied ways, than "engagement". The phrase "student engagement" has come to refer to how "involved" or "interested" students appear to be in their learning and how "connected" they are to their classes, their institutions, and each other. As measured by…

  19. Nouns to Define Homophobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto Campo Arias

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The term ‘homophobia’ was introduced in the academic context more than 40 years ago. However, its meaning has changed over time. Objective. To review the nouns used in the last twelve years to define homophobia. Methodology. The authors conducted a systematic search in Medline through Pubmed that included editorials, letters to editors, comments and narrative reviews, in English and Spanish. A qualitative analysis (Grounded theory was applied to analyze nouns used to define homophobia since 2001 through 2012. Results. Authors reviewed three papers including ten nouns to define homophobia, the most common noun was fear. The terms were grouped into two domains: negative attitude and discomfort with homosexuality. Conclusion. Fear is the most used word to describe homophobia. The terms were grouped into two domains: negative attitude and discomfort toward homosexuality.

  20. Structural and evolutionary bioinformatics of the SPOUT superfamily of methyltransferases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purta Elzbieta

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SPOUT methyltransferases (MTases are a large class of S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent enzymes that exhibit an unusual alpha/beta fold with a very deep topological knot. In 2001, when no crystal structures were available for any of these proteins, Anantharaman, Koonin, and Aravind identified homology between SpoU and TrmD MTases and defined the SPOUT superfamily. Since then, multiple crystal structures of knotted MTases have been solved and numerous new homologous sequences appeared in the databases. However, no comprehensive comparative analysis of these proteins has been carried out to classify them based on structural and evolutionary criteria and to guide functional predictions. Results We carried out extensive searches of databases of protein structures and sequences to collect all members of previously identified SPOUT MTases, and to identify previously unknown homologs. Based on sequence clustering, characterization of domain architecture, structure predictions and sequence/structure comparisons, we re-defined families within the SPOUT superfamily and predicted putative active sites and biochemical functions for the so far uncharacterized members. We have also delineated the common core of SPOUT MTases and inferred a multiple sequence alignment for the conserved knot region, from which we calculated the phylogenetic tree of the superfamily. We have also studied phylogenetic distribution of different families, and used this information to infer the evolutionary history of the SPOUT superfamily. Conclusion We present the first phylogenetic tree of the SPOUT superfamily since it was defined, together with a new scheme for its classification, and discussion about conservation of sequence and structure in different families, and their functional implications. We identified four protein families as new members of the SPOUT superfamily. Three of these families are functionally uncharacterized (COG1772, COG1901, and COG4080

  1. Evolutionary constrained optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Deb, Kalyanmoy

    2015-01-01

    This book makes available a self-contained collection of modern research addressing the general constrained optimization problems using evolutionary algorithms. Broadly the topics covered include constraint handling for single and multi-objective optimizations; penalty function based methodology; multi-objective based methodology; new constraint handling mechanism; hybrid methodology; scaling issues in constrained optimization; design of scalable test problems; parameter adaptation in constrained optimization; handling of integer, discrete and mix variables in addition to continuous variables; application of constraint handling techniques to real-world problems; and constrained optimization in dynamic environment. There is also a separate chapter on hybrid optimization, which is gaining lots of popularity nowadays due to its capability of bridging the gap between evolutionary and classical optimization. The material in the book is useful to researchers, novice, and experts alike. The book will also be useful...

  2. Evolutionary status of Entamoeba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Jiuhong; WEN Jianfan; XIN Dedong; LU Siqi

    2004-01-01

    In addition to its medical importance as parasitic pathogen, Entamoeba has aroused people's interest in its evolutionary status for a long time. Lacking mitochondrion and other intracellular organelles common to typical eukaryotes, Entamoeba and several other amitochondrial protozoans have been recognized as ancient pre-mitochondriate eukaryotes and named "archezoa", the most primitive extant eukaryotes. It was suggested that they might be living fossils that remained in a primitive stage of evolution before acquisition of organelles, lying close to the transition between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. However, recent studies revealed that Entamoeba contained an organelle, "crypton" or "mitosome", which was regarded as specialized or reductive mitochondrion. Relative molecular phylogenetic analyses also indicated the existence or the probable existence of mitochondrion in Entamoeba. Our phylogenetic analysis based on DNA topoisomerase II strongly suggested its divergence after some mitchondriate eukaryotes. Here, all these recent researches are reviewed and the evolutionary status of Entamoeba is discussed.

  3. Evolutionary biology of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Bernard; Summers, Kyle

    2005-10-01

    Cancer is driven by the somatic evolution of cell lineages that have escaped controls on replication and by the population-level evolution of genes that influence cancer risk. We describe here how recent evolutionary ecological studies have elucidated the roles of predation by the immune system and competition among normal and cancerous cells in the somatic evolution of cancer. Recent analyses of the evolution of cancer at the population level show how rapid changes in human environments have augmented cancer risk, how strong selection has frequently led to increased cancer risk as a byproduct, and how anticancer selection has led to tumor-suppression systems, tissue designs that slow somatic evolution, constraints on morphological evolution and even senescence itself. We discuss how applications of the tools of ecology and evolutionary biology are poised to revolutionize our understanding and treatment of this disease.

  4. Introduction to Evolutionary Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Xinjie

    2010-01-01

    Evolutionary algorithms (EAs) are becoming increasingly attractive for researchers from various disciplines, such as operations research, computer science, industrial engineering, electrical engineering, social science, economics, etc. This book presents an insightful, comprehensive, and up-to-date treatment of EAs, such as genetic algorithms, differential evolution, evolution strategy, constraint optimization, multimodal optimization, multiobjective optimization, combinatorial optimization, evolvable hardware, estimation of distribution algorithms, ant colony optimization, particle swarm opti

  5. Evolutionary health psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Dickins, Thomas E.

    2006-01-01

    For the last decade and a half the discipline of Evolutionary Psychology (EP) has been developing with great success. The first collection of significant papers was published in 1992 (Barkow et al.) and recently a landmark handbook has been produced summing the progress so far, as well as setting an agenda for future study (Buss, 2005). Unlike other areas within Psychology, EP extends its interest to all behaviours, rightly seeing them as part of an evolved phenotype, and health has not escap...

  6. Evolutionary economics and psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Witt, Ulrich

    2006-01-01

    Evolutionary economics is a paradigm for explaining the transformation of the economy. To achieve its goal, it needs being founded on a proper theory of economic behavior. The paper discusses these foundations. It is argued that the historical malleability of economic behavior is based on the interactions between innate behavior dispositions and adaptation mechanisms on the one hand and the limited, and always selective, cognitive and observational learning that contributes to an ever more ex...

  7. Evolutionary game design

    CERN Document Server

    Browne, Cameron

    2011-01-01

    The book describes the world's first successful experiment in fully automated board game design. Evolutionary methods were used to derive new rule sets within a custom game description language, and self-play trials used to estimate each derived game's potential to interest human players. The end result is a number of new and interesting games, one of which has proved popular and gone on to be commercially published.

  8. Evolutionary theory of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attolini, Camille Stephan-Otto; Michor, Franziska

    2009-06-01

    As Theodosius Dobzhansky famously noted in 1973, "Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution," and cancer is no exception to this rule. Our understanding of cancer initiation, progression, treatment, and resistance has advanced considerably by regarding cancer as the product of evolutionary processes. Here we review the literature of mathematical models of cancer evolution and provide a synthesis and discussion of the field.

  9. Evolutionary mysteries in meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenormand, Thomas; Engelstädter, Jan; Johnston, Susan E; Wijnker, Erik; Haag, Christoph R

    2016-10-19

    Meiosis is a key event of sexual life cycles in eukaryotes. Its mechanistic details have been uncovered in several model organisms, and most of its essential features have received various and often contradictory evolutionary interpretations. In this perspective, we present an overview of these often 'weird' features. We discuss the origin of meiosis (origin of ploidy reduction and recombination, two-step meiosis), its secondary modifications (in polyploids or asexuals, inverted meiosis), its importance in punctuating life cycles (meiotic arrests, epigenetic resetting, meiotic asymmetry, meiotic fairness) and features associated with recombination (disjunction constraints, heterochiasmy, crossover interference and hotspots). We present the various evolutionary scenarios and selective pressures that have been proposed to account for these features, and we highlight that their evolutionary significance often remains largely mysterious. Resolving these mysteries will likely provide decisive steps towards understanding why sex and recombination are found in the majority of eukaryotes.This article is part of the themed issue 'Weird sex: the underappreciated diversity of sexual reproduction'. PMID:27619705

  10. Evolutionary consequences of autopolyploidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisod, Christian; Holderegger, Rolf; Brochmann, Christian

    2010-04-01

    Autopolyploidy is more common in plants than traditionally assumed, but has received little attention compared with allopolyploidy. Hence, the advantages and disadvantages of genome doubling per se compared with genome doubling coupled with hybridizations in allopolyploids remain unclear. Autopolyploids are characterized by genomic redundancy and polysomic inheritance, increasing effective population size. To shed light on the evolutionary consequences of autopolyploidy, we review a broad range of studies focusing on both synthetic and natural autopolyploids encompassing levels of biological organization from genes to evolutionary lineages. The limited evidence currently available suggests that autopolyploids neither experience strong genome restructuring nor wide reorganization of gene expression during the first generations following genome doubling, but that these processes may become more important in the longer term. Biogeographic and ecological surveys point to an association between the formation of autopolyploid lineages and environmental change. We thus hypothesize that polysomic inheritance may provide a short-term evolutionary advantage for autopolyploids compared to diploid relatives when environmental change enforces range shifts. In addition, autopolyploids should possess increased genome flexibility, allowing them to adapt and persist across heterogeneous landscapes in the long run. PMID:20070540

  11. The evolutionary language game: an orthogonal approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenaerts, Tom; Jansen, Bart; Tuyls, Karl; De Vylder, Bart

    2005-08-21

    Evolutionary game dynamics have been proposed as a mathematical framework for the cultural evolution of language and more specifically the evolution of vocabulary. This article discusses a model that is mutually exclusive in its underlying principals with some previously suggested models. The model describes how individuals in a population culturally acquire a vocabulary by actively participating in the acquisition process instead of passively observing and communicate through peer-to-peer interactions instead of vertical parent-offspring relations. Concretely, a notion of social/cultural learning called the naming game is first abstracted using learning theory. This abstraction defines the required cultural transmission mechanism for an evolutionary process. Second, the derived transmission system is expressed in terms of the well-known selection-mutation model defined in the context of evolutionary dynamics. In this way, the analogy between social learning and evolution at the level of meaning-word associations is made explicit. Although only horizontal and oblique transmission structures will be considered, extensions to vertical structures over different genetic generations can easily be incorporated. We provide a number of simplified experiments to clarify our reasoning.

  12. On Defining Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Though central to any pedagogical development of physics, the concept of mass is still not well understood. Properly defining mass has proven to be far more daunting than contemporary textbooks would have us believe. And yet today the origin of mass is one of the most aggressively pursued areas of research in all of physics. Much of the excitement…

  13. Defining Game Mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel

    2008-01-01

    This article defins game mechanics in relation to rules and challenges. Game mechanics are methods invoked by agents for interacting with the game world. I apply this definition to a comparative analysis of the games Rez, Every Extend Extra and Shadow of the Colossus that will show the relevance...... of a formal definition of game mechanics. Udgivelsesdato: Dec 2008...

  14. Defining Data Science

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yangyong; Xiong, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Data science is gaining more and more and widespread attention, but no consensus viewpoint on what data science is has emerged. As a new science, its objects of study and scientific issues should not be covered by established sciences. Data in cyberspace have formed what we call datanature. In the present paper, data science is defined as the science of exploring datanature.

  15. Evolutionary aspects of life forms in angiosperm families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, P; VanAndel, J

    1995-01-01

    The distribution patterns of life forms among extant families, subclasses and classes are described with the aim of detecting evolutionary trends. The explosive diversification of angiosperms constrains the possibilities for detecting such trends. Moreover, the extant groups of seed plants are only

  16. Evolutionary View of Human Nature and the Goals of Law

    OpenAIRE

    ZALUSKI, Wojciech

    2008-01-01

    In this paper an attempt is made to show that evolutionary theory may be used to define the goals of law. While addressing the problem of defining the goals of law, one can use evolutionary theory in two radically different ways. First, one can reason from the empirical observation that evolution operated according to the principle of the survival of the fittest to the normative conclusion that survival of the fittest is good and therefore ought to be the main goal of law. This...

  17. MELEC: Meta-Level Evolutionary Composer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Calvo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Genetic algorithms (GA’s are global search mechanisms that have been applied to many disciplines including music composition. Computer system MELEC composes music using evolutionary computation on two levels: the object and the meta. At the object-level, MELEC employs GAs to compose melodic motifs and iteratively refine them through evolving generations. At the meta-level, MELEC forms the overall musical structure by concatenating the generated motifs in an order that depends on the evolutionary process. In other words, the structure of the music is determined by a geneological traversal of the algorithm’s execution sequence. In this implementation, we introduce a new data structure that tracks the execution of the GA, the Genetic Algorithm Traversal Tree, and uses its traversal to define the musical structure. Moreover, we employ a Fibonacci-based fitness function to shape the melodic evolution.

  18. Protein interface classification by evolutionary analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte Jose M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Distinguishing biologically relevant interfaces from lattice contacts in protein crystals is a fundamental problem in structural biology. Despite efforts towards the computational prediction of interface character, many issues are still unresolved. Results We present here a protein-protein interface classifier that relies on evolutionary data to detect the biological character of interfaces. The classifier uses a simple geometric measure, number of core residues, and two evolutionary indicators based on the sequence entropy of homolog sequences. Both aim at detecting differential selection pressure between interface core and rim or rest of surface. The core residues, defined as fully buried residues (>95% burial, appear to be fundamental determinants of biological interfaces: their number is in itself a powerful discriminator of interface character and together with the evolutionary measures it is able to clearly distinguish evolved biological contacts from crystal ones. We demonstrate that this definition of core residues leads to distinctively better results than earlier definitions from the literature. The stringent selection and quality filtering of structural and sequence data was key to the success of the method. Most importantly we demonstrate that a more conservative selection of homolog sequences - with relatively high sequence identities to the query - is able to produce a clearer signal than previous attempts. Conclusions An evolutionary approach like the one presented here is key to the advancement of the field, which so far was missing an effective method exploiting the evolutionary character of protein interfaces. Its coverage and performance will only improve over time thanks to the incessant growth of sequence databases. Currently our method reaches an accuracy of 89% in classifying interfaces of the Ponstingl 2003 datasets and it lends itself to a variety of useful applications in structural biology and

  19. Defining Legal Moralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jens Damgaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses how legal moralism should be defined. It is argued that legal moralism should be defined as the position that “For any X, it is always a pro tanto reason for justifiably imposing legal regulation on X that X is morally wrong (where “morally wrong” is not conceptually equivalent...... to “harmful”)”. Furthermore, a distinction between six types of legal moralism is made. The six types are grouped according to whether they are concerned with the enforcement of positive or critical morality, and whether they are concerned with criminalising, legally restricting, or refraining from legally...... protecting morally wrong behaviour. This is interesting because not all types of legal moralism are equally vulnerable to the different critiques of legal moralism that have been put forth. Indeed, I show that some interesting types of legal moralism have not been criticised at all....

  20. Define Digital Vernacular

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘佳; 李海英; James Stevens; Rough Nelson

    2014-01-01

    As science and technology developed, the tools of humans developed from humans’hands, to mechanical and digital technologies. The tools influ-ence almost everything in the humans’world, so does vernacular. The digital vernacular could be understood as using digital technology to vernacular; the digital means technologies. It also could be understood as doing vernacular in a digital way;the digital means data and information, in other words it can be seeking truth from facts. Define digital vernacular is not only what is digital vernacular, but also about how to do the digital vernacular and what kind of attitude we should hold to-ward the digital vernacular. Define digital vernacular as both thinking and doing.

  1. DEFINING SUCCESS IN PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rodrigues de Farias Filho

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Project Management Discipline has been widely used in the last years for companies around the world and these companies have been investing large amounts on surveys, training and consulting in order to get benefits for the organizations that need to create competitive advantage in the high competitive Market and to achieve their business strategy goals. Studies from the major world authors show many ways to define success at the organizations. In Brazil, the Benchmarking Study in GP from the PMI Chapters in 2009, show most studied companies don’t have a process do assess whether they are achieving the expected business goals with their investments in Project Management. This article goal is to demonstrate many ways to define success in project, which will facilitate the process to assess whether the companies are achieving these expected goals. The methodology used was a literature review, collecting publications, textbooks and documents from subject-matter-experts.

  2. Defining talent management components

    OpenAIRE

    Golchin Shafieian

    2014-01-01

    In today's world of global trade, it can guarantee success and excellence of organizations against competitors is talented human resources in an organization, especially at the managerial level. But the challenges that organizations face include: attracting, evaluating, exploring, and developing and keeping talent. The main objective of this study is to define the components of talent management in the University of Chaloos, in order to provide a way to reduce the challenges and short comings...

  3. Software Defined Networking

    OpenAIRE

    Roncero Hervás, Óscar

    2014-01-01

    Software Defined Networks (SDN) is a paradigm in which routing decisions are taken by a control layer. In contrast to conventional network structures, the control plane and forwarding plane are separated and communicate through standard protocols like OpenFlow. Historically, network management was based on a layered approach, each one isolated from the others. SDN proposes a radically different approach by bringing together the management of all these layers into a single controller. It is th...

  4. SDN : Software defined networks

    OpenAIRE

    Wiklund, Petter

    2014-01-01

    This report is a specialization in Software defined networking. SDN really comes to revolutionize the industry and it’s under constant development. But is the technology ready to be launched into operation yet? The report would initially involve a number of problems that today's network technology is facing. It then follows a deeper description of what this software-based networking technology really is and how it works. Further, the technique is being tested in a lab assignment, using a prog...

  5. Defining local food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Safania Normann

    2013-01-01

    Despite evolving local food research, there is no consistent definition of “local food.” Various understandings are utilized, which have resulted in a diverse landscape of meaning. The main purpose of this paper is to examine how researchers within the local food systems literature define local...... food, and how these definitions can be used as a starting point to identify a new taxonomy of local food based on three domains of proximity....

  6. Residues of Chern classes

    OpenAIRE

    Suwa, Tatsuo; 諏訪, 立雄

    2003-01-01

    If we have a finite number of sections of a complex vector bundle E over a manifold M, certain Chern classes of E are localized at the singular set S, i.e., the set of points where the sections fail to be linearly independent. When S is compact, the localizations define the residues at each connected component of S by the Alexander duality. If M itself is compact, the sum of the residues is equal to the Poincaré dual of the corresponding Chern class. This type of theory is also developed for ...

  7. Residues of Chern classes

    OpenAIRE

    Suwa, Tatsuo

    2003-01-01

    If we have a finite number of sections of a complex vector bundle $E$ over a manifold $M$ , certain Chern classes of $E$ are localized at the singular set $S$ , i.e., the set of points where the sections fail to be linearly independent. When $S$ is compact, the localizations define the residues at each connected component of $S$ by the Alexander duality. If $M$ itself is compact, the sum of the residues is equal to the Poincaré dual of the corresponding Chern class. This type of theory is als...

  8. Evolutionary Product Development in Working-Class Housing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eger, Arthur O.

    2009-01-01

    The well‐known economical product life cycle describes the typical pattern of a product’s turnover over time. Although it has become a central concept in product development and marketing, it has severe practical limitations. Probably one of the most important limitations is that it is a purely quan

  9. Evolutionary Product Development in Working-Class Housing

    OpenAIRE

    Eger, Arthur O.

    2009-01-01

    The well‐known economical product life cycle describes the typical pattern of a product’s turnover over time. Although it has become a central concept in product development and marketing, it has severe practical limitations. Probably one of the most important limitations is that it is a purely quantitative, descriptive relationship. It describes the most probable pattern over time in the relative growth and decline of the numbers sold of a successful product from its incubence until its exti...

  10. Constraints as evolutionary systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rácz, István

    2016-01-01

    The constraint equations for smooth $[n+1]$-dimensional (with $n\\geq 3$) Riemannian or Lorentzian spaces satisfying the Einstein field equations are considered. It is shown, regardless of the signature of the primary space, that the constraints can be put into the form of an evolutionary system comprised either by a first order symmetric hyperbolic system and a parabolic equation or, alternatively, by a strongly hyperbolic system and a subsidiary algebraic relation. In both cases the (local) existence and uniqueness of solutions are also discussed.

  11. The molecular origins of evolutionary innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Andreas

    2011-10-01

    The history of life is a history of evolutionary innovations, qualitatively new phenotypic traits that endow their bearers with new, often game-changing abilities. We know many individual examples of innovations and their natural history, but we know little about the fundamental principles of phenotypic variability that permit new phenotypes to arise. Most phenotypic innovations result from changes in three classes of systems: metabolic networks, regulatory circuits, and macromolecules. I here highlight two important features that these classes of systems share. The first is the ubiquity of vast genotype networks - connected sets of genotypes with the same phenotype. The second is the great phenotypic diversity of small neighborhoods around different genotypes in genotype space. I here explain that both features are essential for the phenotypic variability that can bring forth qualitatively new phenotypes. Both features emerge from a common cause, the robustness of phenotypes to perturbations, whose origins are linked to life in changing environments. PMID:21872964

  12. An evolutionary dynamics model adapted to eusocial insects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise van Oudenhove

    Full Text Available This study aims to better understand the evolutionary processes allowing species coexistence in eusocial insect communities. We develop a mathematical model that applies adaptive dynamics theory to the evolutionary dynamics of eusocial insects, focusing on the colony as the unit of selection. The model links long-term evolutionary processes to ecological interactions among colonies and seasonal worker production within the colony. Colony population dynamics is defined by both worker production and colony reproduction. Random mutations occur in strategies, and mutant colonies enter the community. The interactions of colonies at the ecological timescale drive the evolution of strategies at the evolutionary timescale by natural selection. This model is used to study two specific traits in ants: worker body size and the degree of collective foraging. For both traits, trade-offs in competitive ability and other fitness components allows to determine conditions in which selection becomes disruptive. Our results illustrate that asymmetric competition underpins diversity in ant communities.

  13. Modular prediction of protein structural classes from sequences of twilight-zone identity with predicting sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurgan Lukasz

    2009-12-01

    predictions stem from the novel features that express collocation of the secondary structure segments in the protein sequence and that combine evolutionary and secondary structure information. Our work demonstrates that conservation and arrangement of the secondary structure segments predicted along the protein chain can successfully predict structural classes which are defined based on the spatial arrangement of the secondary structures. A web server is available at http://biomine.ece.ualberta.ca/MODAS/.

  14. Defining Business Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Trequattrini

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present scientific contribution is to investigate from the business economics standpoing the emerging phenomenon of company networks. In particular, through the analysis of the theory of networks will be proposed the principal categories of business networks, and even before this the concept of the network will be defined. The proposed research, qualitatively, represents the point of departure for the study of the network phenomenon in light of the current economic phase termed “economy of knowledge”. Moreover, the research questions are the following: From where does the theory of networks arise? Do company networks consider themselves equal to knowledge networks?

  15. Defining Business Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Trequattrini

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present scientific contribution is to investigate from the businesseconomics standpoing the emerging phenomenon of company networks. In particular,through the analysis of the theory of networks will be proposed the principal categories ofbusiness networks, and even before this the concept of the network will be defined. Theproposed research, qualitatively, represents the point of departure for the study of thenetwork phenomenon in light of the current economic phase termed “economy of knowledge”.Moreover, the research questions are the following: From where does the theory of networksarise? Do company networks consider themselves equal to knowledge networks?

  16. Evolutionary status of Polaris

    CERN Document Server

    Fadeyev, Yu A

    2015-01-01

    Hydrodynamic models of short--period Cepheids were computed to determine the pulsation period as a function of evolutionary time during the first and third crossings of the instability strip. The equations of radiation hydrodynamics and turbulent convection for radial stellar pulsations were solved with the initial conditions obtained from the evolutionary models of population I stars (X=0.7, Z=0.02) with masses from 5.2 to 6.5 Msol and the convective core overshooting parameter 0.1 <= aov <= 0.3. In Cepheids with period of 4 d the rate of pulsation period change during the first crossing of the instability strip is over fifty times larger than that during the third crossing. Polaris is shown to cross the instability strip for the first time and to be the fundamental mode pulsator. The best agreement between the predicted and observed rates of period change was obtained for the model with mass of 5.4 Msol and the overshooting parameter aov=0.25. The bolometric luminosity and radius are L = 1.26e3 Lsol a...

  17. Evolutionary status of Polaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadeyev, Yu. A.

    2015-05-01

    Hydrodynamic models of short-period Cepheids were computed to determine the pulsation period as a function of evolutionary time during the first and third crossings of the instability strip. The equations of radiation hydrodynamics and turbulent convection for radial stellar pulsations were solved with the initial conditions obtained from the evolutionary models of Population I stars (X = 0.7, Z = 0.02) with masses from 5.2 to 6.5 M⊙ and the convective core overshooting parameter 0.1 ≤ αov ≤ 0.3. In Cepheids with period of 4 d the rate of pulsation period change during the first crossing of the instability strip is over 50 times larger than that during the third crossing. Polaris is shown to cross the instability strip for the first time and to be the fundamental mode pulsator. The best agreement between the predicted and observed rates of period change was obtained for the model with mass of 5.4 M⊙ and the overshooting parameter αov = 0.25. The bolometric luminosity and radius are L = 1.26 × 103 L⊙ and R = 37.5 R⊙, respectively. In the HR diagram, Polaris is located at the red edge of the instability strip.

  18. Evolutionary Psychology: The Academic Debate

    OpenAIRE

    Suplizio, Jean

    2005-01-01

    This dissertation examines the academic debate that surrounds the new field called "Evolutionary Psychology." Evolutionary psychology has emerged as the most popular successor theory to human sociobiology. Its proponents search for evolved psychological mechanisms and emphasize universal features of the human mind. My thesis is that in order to flourish evolutionary psychologists must engage other researchers on equal terms -- something they have not been doing. To show this, I examine the...

  19. Software-Defined Cluster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂华; 杨晓君; 刘淘英

    2015-01-01

    The cluster architecture has played an important role in high-end computing for the past 20 years. With the advent of Internet services, big data, and cloud computing, traditional clusters face three challenges: 1) providing flexible system balance among computing, memory, and I/O capabilities;2) reducing resource pooling overheads;and 3) addressing low performance-power efficiency. This position paper proposes a software-defined cluster (SDC) architecture to deal with these challenges. The SDC architecture inherits two features of traditional cluster: its architecture is multicomputer and it has loosely-coupled interconnect. SDC provides two new mechanisms: global I/O space (GIO) and hardware-supported native access (HNA) to remote devices. Application software can define a virtual cluster best suited to its needs from resources pools provided by a physical cluster, and traditional cluster ecosystems need no modification. We also discuss a prototype design and implementation of a 32-processor cloud server utilizing the SDC architecture.

  20. Defining talent management components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golchin Shafieian

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In today's world of global trade, it can guarantee success and excellence of organizations against competitors is talented human resources in an organization, especially at the managerial level. But the challenges that organizations face include: attracting, evaluating, exploring, and developing and keeping talent. The main objective of this study is to define the components of talent management in the University of Chaloos, in order to provide a way to reduce the challenges and short comings and also to look for ways to improve employee performance is discussed. This study is based on data collected from all employees of the University of Chaloos in August 2013; through two questionnaires have been developed. The statistical population has been considered 407 persons in these universities and according the Morgan Table, 198 persons were selected as sample of among research society. More over, 28 questions are used for determining components of talent management. Finally, we concluded that the component of talent management have been properly defined in the Universities of Chaloos.

  1. The nonlinear effects of evolutionary innovation biospheric feedbacks on qualitative environmental change: from the microbial to metazoan world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Martin

    2013-05-01

    The biomass of living organisms hosts only a small portion of the elemental abundance at the surface of the Earth, yet biology plays a defining role in the composition and stability of the biosphere by acting on sensitive geochemical feedbacks controlling global element cycles. This type of influence is evident in a class of evolutionary innovations that have a profoundly disproportionate effect on the biosphere, referred to here as evolutionary innovation biospheric feedbacks (EIBFs). A particular biological innovation need not be complex, rather its influence is amplified by its effect on geochemical feedbacks controlling elemental cycling. The lead-up to the metazoan radiation (~585 million years ago) provides an example of such an EIBF. While commonly attributed to an increase in free oxygen concentration, the reason for this step increase in O2 almost 2 billion years after the advent of oxygenic photosynthesis is traced to a seemingly unrelated evolutionary innovation resulting in a critical by-product of the first soils: secondary clay minerals. Detrital clay minerals deposited in continental margin sediments sequester organic carbon compounds and thus prevent consumption of atmospheric oxygen produced during photosynthesis. The transition from the abiotic to biotic land surface at the end of the Precambrian shifted biogeochemical cycling to this terrestrial-dominated modern mode that enabled sufficient oxygenation of the biosphere to trigger the metazoan radiation.

  2. Annotating user-defined abstractions for optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinlan, D; Schordan, M; Vuduc, R; Yi, Q

    2005-12-05

    This paper discusses the features of an annotation language that we believe to be essential for optimizing user-defined abstractions. These features should capture semantics of function, data, and object-oriented abstractions, express abstraction equivalence (e.g., a class represents an array abstraction), and permit extension of traditional compiler optimizations to user-defined abstractions. Our future work will include developing a comprehensive annotation language for describing the semantics of general object-oriented abstractions, as well as automatically verifying and inferring the annotated semantics.

  3. Darwinism and the Expansion of Evolutionary Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Stephen Jay

    1982-04-01

    The essence of Darwinism lies in the claim that natural selection is a creative force, and in the reductionist assertion that selection upon individual organisms is the locus of evolutionary change. Critiques of adaptationism and gradualism call into doubt the traditional consequences of the argument for creativity, while a concept of hierarchy, with selection acting upon such higher-level ``individuals'' as demes and species, challenges the reductionist claim. An expanded hierarchical theory would not be Darwinism, as strictly defined, but it would capture, in abstract form, the fundamental feature of Darwin's vision--direction of evolution by selection at each level.

  4. Function Follows Performance in Evolutionary Computational Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasold, Anke; Foged, Isak Worre

    2011-01-01

    architectural projects. At the core lies the formulation of a methodology that is based upon the idea of human and computational selection in accordance with pre-defined performance criteria that can be adapted to different requirements by the mere change of parameter input in order to reach location specific......As the title ‘Function Follows Performance in Evolutionary Computational Processing’ suggests, this paper explores the potentials of employing multiple design and evaluation criteria within one processing model in order to account for a number of performative parameters desired within varied...

  5. Defining critical thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovatt, Abbie

    2014-05-01

    Nursing education has long struggled to define critical thinking and explain how the process of critical thinking fits into the context of nursing. Despite this long time struggle, nurses and nurse educators continue to strive to foster critical thinking skills in nursing students as intuitively most nurses believe that critical thinking is necessary to function competently in the workplace. This article explores the most recent work of Dr. Stephen Brookfield and ties the concepts which are explored in Brookfield's work to nursing practice. Brookfield identifies that learners understand the meaning of critical thinking the best when the process is first demonstrated. Role modeling is a method educators can use to demonstrate critical thinking and is a strategy which nurses often use in the clinical area to train and mentor new nursing staff. Although it is not a new strategy in nursing education, it is a valuable strategy to engage learners in critical thinking activities. PMID:24418065

  6. Implementing Software Defined Radio

    CERN Document Server

    Grayver, Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Software Defined Radio makes wireless communications easier, more efficient, and more reliable. This book bridges the gap between academic research and practical implementation. When beginning a project, practicing engineers, technical managers, and graduate students can save countless hours by considering the concepts presented in these pages. The author covers the myriad options and trade-offs available when selecting an appropriate hardware architecture. As demonstrated here, the choice between hardware- and software-centric architecture can mean the difference between meeting an aggressive schedule and bogging down in endless design iterations. Because of the author’s experience overseeing dozens of failed and successful developments, he is able to present many real-life examples. Some of the key concepts covered are: Choosing the right architecture for the market – laboratory, military, or commercial Hardware platforms – FPGAs, GPPs, specialized and hybrid devices Standardization efforts to ens...

  7. Defining cyber warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan D. Mladenović

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyber conflicts represent a new kind of warfare that is technologically developing very rapidly. Such development results in more frequent and more intensive cyber attacks undertaken by states against adversary targets, with a wide range of diverse operations, from information operations to physical destruction of targets. Nevertheless, cyber warfare is waged through the application of the same means, techniques and methods as those used in cyber criminal, terrorism and intelligence activities. Moreover, it has a very specific nature that enables states to covertly initiate attacks against their adversaries. The starting point in defining doctrines, procedures and standards in the area of cyber warfare is determining its true nature. In this paper, a contribution to this effort was made through the analysis of the existing state doctrines and international practice in the area of cyber warfare towards the determination of its nationally acceptable definition.

  8. Evolutionary plant physiology: Charles Darwin's forgotten synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutschera, Ulrich; Niklas, Karl J.

    2009-11-01

    Charles Darwin dedicated more than 20 years of his life to a variety of investigations on higher plants (angiosperms). It has been implicitly assumed that these studies in the fields of descriptive botany and experimental plant physiology were carried out to corroborate his principle of descent with modification. However, Darwin’s son Francis, who was a professional plant biologist, pointed out that the interests of his father were both of a physiological and an evolutionary nature. In this article, we describe Darwin’s work on the physiology of higher plants from a modern perspective, with reference to the following topics: circumnutations, tropisms and the endogenous oscillator model; the evolutionary patterns of auxin action; the root-brain hypothesis; phloem structure and photosynthesis research; endosymbioses and growth-promoting bacteria; photomorphogenesis and phenotypic plasticity; basal metabolic rate, the Pfeffer-Kleiber relationship and metabolic optimality theory with respect to adaptive evolution; and developmental constraints versus functional equivalence in relationship to directional natural selection. Based on a review of these various fields of inquiry, we deduce the existence of a Darwinian (evolutionary) approach to plant physiology and define this emerging scientific discipline as the experimental study and theoretical analysis of the functions of green, sessile organisms from a phylogenetic perspective.

  9. Universal power law behaviors in genomic sequences and evolutionary models

    CERN Document Server

    Martignetti, L

    2007-01-01

    We study the length distribution of a particular class of DNA sequences known as 5'UTR exons. These exons belong to the messanger RNA of protein coding genes, but they are not coding (they are located upstream of the coding portion of the mRNA) and are thus less constrained from an evolutionary point of view. We show that both in mouse and in human these exons show a very clean power law decay in their length distribution and suggest a simple evolutionary model which may explain this finding. We conjecture that this power law behaviour could indeed be a general feature of higher eukaryotes.

  10. Design games: A conceptual framework for dynamic evolutionary design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sönmez, N.O.; Erdem, A.

    2014-01-01

    Most evolutionary computation (EC) applications in design fields either assume simplified, static, performance-oriented procedures for design or focus on well-defined sub-problems, to be able to impose problem-solving and optimization schemes on design tasks, which render known EC techniques directl

  11. Spore: Spawning Evolutionary Misconceptions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Thomas E.; Sinatra, Gale M.; Schrader, P. G.

    2010-10-01

    The use of computer simulations as educational tools may afford the means to develop understanding of evolution as a natural, emergent, and decentralized process. However, special consideration of developmental constraints on learning may be necessary when using these technologies. Specifically, the essentialist (biological forms possess an immutable essence), teleological (assignment of purpose to living things and/or parts of living things that may not be purposeful), and intentionality (assumption that events are caused by an intelligent agent) biases may be reinforced through the use of computer simulations, rather than addressed with instruction. We examine the video game Spore for its depiction of evolutionary content and its potential to reinforce these cognitive biases. In particular, we discuss three pedagogical strategies to mitigate weaknesses of Spore and other computer simulations: directly targeting misconceptions through refutational approaches, targeting specific principles of scientific inquiry, and directly addressing issues related to models as cognitive tools.

  12. EVOLUTIONARY THEORY AND THE MARKET COMPETITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIRGHI Nicoleta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary theory study of processes that transform economy for firms, institutions, industries, employment, production, trade and growth within, through the actions of diverse agents from experience and interactions, using evolutionary methodology. Evolutionary theory analyses the unleashing of a process of technological and institutional innovation by generating and testing a diversity of ideas which discover and accumulate more survival value for the costs incurred than competing alternatives.This paper presents study the behavior of the firms on the market used the evolutionary theory.The paper is to present in full the developments that have led to the re-assessment of theories of firms starting from the criticism on Coase's theory based on the lack of testable hypotheses and on non-operative definition of transaction costs. In the literature in the field studies on firms were allotted a secondary place for a long period of time, to date the new theories of the firm hold a dominant place in the firms’ economic analysis. In an article, published in 1937, Ronald H. Coase identified the main sources of the cost of using the market mechanism. The firms theory represent a issue intensively studied in the literature in the field, regarding the survival, competitiveness and innovation of firm on the market. The research of Nelson and Winter, “An Evolutionary Theory of Economic Change” (1982 is the starting point for a modern literature in the field which considers the approach of the theory of the firm from an evolutionary perspective. Nelson and Winter have shown that the “orthodox” theory, is objectionable primarily by the fact that the hypothesis regarding profit maximization has a normative character and is not valid in any situation. Nelson and Winter reconsidered their microeconomic analysis showing that excessive attention should not be paid to market equilibrium but rather to dynamic processes resulting from irreversible

  13. The Social Psychology of Class and Classism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Bernice

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, one is born into a family that can be identified as working class, middle class, or affluent--divisions that denote status and power, as defined by access to resources. This article explores the relationships between social class membership and a wide array of personal and social daily life experiences. It concludes with a…

  14. Encouraging Undergraduate Class Participation: A Student Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Nichole S.; Gragg, Marcia N.; Cramer, Kenneth M.

    2009-01-01

    Undergraduate classes typically involve a professor lecturing to 100 or more students. Too often, this results in minimal opportunities for student participation. Positive reinforcement was used to promote student participation (i.e., defined as relevant comments or questions) in a second-year psychology class (N = 97). Class participation was…

  15. Defining the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Simon; Maslin, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Time is divided by geologists according to marked shifts in Earth's state. Recent global environmental changes suggest that Earth may have entered a new human-dominated geological epoch, the Anthropocene. Should the Anthropocene - the idea that human activity is a force acting upon the Earth system in ways that mean that Earth will be altered for millions of years - be defined as a geological time-unit at the level of an Epoch? Here we appraise the data to assess such claims, first in terms of changes to the Earth system, with particular focus on very long-lived impacts, as Epochs typically last millions of years. Can Earth really be said to be in transition from one state to another? Secondly, we then consider the formal criteria used to define geological time-units and move forward through time examining whether currently available evidence passes typical geological time-unit evidence thresholds. We suggest two time periods likely fit the criteria (1) the aftermath of the interlinking of the Old and New Worlds, which moved species across continents and ocean basins worldwide, a geologically unprecedented and permanent change, which is also the globally synchronous coolest part of the Little Ice Age (in Earth system terms), and the beginning of global trade and a new socio-economic "world system" (in historical terms), marked as a golden spike by a temporary drop in atmospheric CO2, centred on 1610 CE; and (2) the aftermath of the Second World War, when many global environmental changes accelerated and novel long-lived materials were increasingly manufactured, known as the Great Acceleration (in Earth system terms) and the beginning of the Cold War (in historical terms), marked as a golden spike by the peak in radionuclide fallout in 1964. We finish by noting that the Anthropocene debate is politically loaded, thus transparency in the presentation of evidence is essential if a formal definition of the Anthropocene is to avoid becoming a debate about bias. The

  16. Two Aspects of Evolutionary Algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the paradigm of evolutionary algorithms (Eas). We argue about the need for new heuristics in real-world problem solving, discussing reasons why some problems are difficult tosolve. After introducing the main concepts of evolutionary algorithms, we concentrate on two issues:(1)self-adaptation of the parameters of EA, and (2) handling constraints.

  17. Topics of Evolutionary Computation 2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ursem, Rasmus Kjær

    This booklet contains the student reports from the course: Topics of Evolutionary Computation, Fall 2001, given by Thiemo Krink, Rene Thomsen and Rasmus K. Ursem......This booklet contains the student reports from the course: Topics of Evolutionary Computation, Fall 2001, given by Thiemo Krink, Rene Thomsen and Rasmus K. Ursem...

  18. Open Issues in Evolutionary Robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Fernando; Duarte, Miguel; Correia, Luís; Oliveira, Sancho Moura; Christensen, Anders Lyhne

    2016-01-01

    One of the long-term goals in evolutionary robotics is to be able to automatically synthesize controllers for real autonomous robots based only on a task specification. While a number of studies have shown the applicability of evolutionary robotics techniques for the synthesis of behavioral control, researchers have consistently been faced with a number of issues preventing the widespread adoption of evolutionary robotics for engineering purposes. In this article, we review and discuss the open issues in evolutionary robotics. First, we analyze the benefits and challenges of simulation-based evolution and subsequent deployment of controllers versus evolution on real robotic hardware. Second, we discuss specific evolutionary computation issues that have plagued evolutionary robotics: (1) the bootstrap problem, (2) deception, and (3) the role of genomic encoding and genotype-phenotype mapping in the evolution of controllers for complex tasks. Finally, we address the absence of standard research practices in the field. We also discuss promising avenues of research. Our underlying motivation is the reduction of the current gap between evolutionary robotics and mainstream robotics, and the establishment of evolutionary robotics as a canonical approach for the engineering of autonomous robots. PMID:26581015

  19. Open Issues in Evolutionary Robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Fernando; Duarte, Miguel; Correia, Luís; Oliveira, Sancho Moura; Christensen, Anders Lyhne

    2016-01-01

    One of the long-term goals in evolutionary robotics is to be able to automatically synthesize controllers for real autonomous robots based only on a task specification. While a number of studies have shown the applicability of evolutionary robotics techniques for the synthesis of behavioral control, researchers have consistently been faced with a number of issues preventing the widespread adoption of evolutionary robotics for engineering purposes. In this article, we review and discuss the open issues in evolutionary robotics. First, we analyze the benefits and challenges of simulation-based evolution and subsequent deployment of controllers versus evolution on real robotic hardware. Second, we discuss specific evolutionary computation issues that have plagued evolutionary robotics: (1) the bootstrap problem, (2) deception, and (3) the role of genomic encoding and genotype-phenotype mapping in the evolution of controllers for complex tasks. Finally, we address the absence of standard research practices in the field. We also discuss promising avenues of research. Our underlying motivation is the reduction of the current gap between evolutionary robotics and mainstream robotics, and the establishment of evolutionary robotics as a canonical approach for the engineering of autonomous robots.

  20. Evolutionary Design of Boolean Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhang-yi; ZHANG Huan-guo; QIN Zhong-ping; MENG Qing-shu

    2005-01-01

    We use evolutionary computing to synthesize Boolean functions randomly. By using specific crossover and mutation operator in evolving process and modifying search space and fitness function, we get some high non-linearity functions which have other good cryptography characteristics such as autocorrelation etc. Comparing to other heuristic search techniques, evolutionary computing approach is more effective because of global search strategy and implicit parallelism.

  1. Evolutionary Explanations of Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Kardum

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews several most important evolutionary mechanisms that underlie eating disorders. The first part clarifies evolutionary foundations of mental disorders and various mechanisms leading to their development. In the second part selective pressures and evolved adaptations causing contemporary epidemic of obesity as well as differences in dietary regimes and life-style between modern humans and their ancestors are described. Concerning eating disorders, a number of current evolutionary explanations of anorexia nervosa are presented together with their main weaknesses. Evolutionary explanations of eating disorders based on the reproductive suppression hypothesis and its variants derived from kin selection theory and the model of parental manipulation were elaborated. The sexual competition hypothesis of eating disorder, adapted to flee famine hypothesis as well as explanation based on the concept of social attention holding power and the need to belonging were also explained. The importance of evolutionary theory in modern conceptualization and research of eating disorders is emphasized.

  2. My Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵传怡

    2006-01-01

    My name is Zhao Chuanyi.I am in Class Ten Grade seven.There are 61 students in our class.And 26 are girls and 35 are boys.One is from America.Boys like football and basketball.Girls like singing and dancing.We are all

  3. Word classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2007-01-01

    a parts-of-speech system that includes the categories Verb, Noun, Adjective and Adverb, other languages may use only a subset of these four lexical categories. Furthermore, quite a few languages have a major word class whose members cannot be classified in terms of the categories Verb – Noun – Adjective...

  4. Defining an emerging disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutou, F; Pastoret, P-P

    2015-04-01

    Defining an emerging disease is not straightforward, as there are several different types of disease emergence. For example, there can be a 'real' emergence of a brand new disease, such as the emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in the 1980s, or a geographic emergence in an area not previously affected, such as the emergence of bluetongue in northern Europe in 2006. In addition, disease can emerge in species formerly not considered affected, e.g. the emergence of bovine tuberculosis in wildlife species since 2000 in France. There can also be an unexpected increase of disease incidence in a known area and a known species, or there may simply be an increase in our knowledge or awareness of a particular disease. What all these emerging diseases have in common is that human activity frequently has a role to play in their emergence. For example, bovine spongiform encephalopathy very probably emerged as a result of changes in the manufacturing of meat-and-bone meal, bluetongue was able to spread to cooler climes as a result of uncontrolled trade in animals, and a relaxation of screening and surveillance for bovine tuberculosis enabled the disease to re-emerge in areas that had been able to drastically reduce the number of cases. Globalisation and population growth will continue to affect the epidemiology of diseases in years to come and ecosystems will continue to evolve. Furthermore, new technologies such as metagenomics and high-throughput sequencing are identifying new microorganisms all the time. Change is the one constant, and diseases will continue to emerge, and we must consider the causes and different types of emergence as we deal with these diseases in the future. PMID:26470448

  5. Hanford Defined Wastes model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the methodology behind the Hanford Defined Wastes (HDW) model for estimating the contents of Hanford high level waste (HLW) tanks. The HDW model is based on historical process and transaction histories for each tank and has four major components: Waste Status and Transaction Record Summary (WSTRS), Tank Layer Model (TLM), Supernatant Mixing Model (SMM), and HDW Compositions. Three examples of the application of HDW model estimates are described, including comparisons with global site inventories, comparisons with per tank assays, and comparisons of HDW TOC (Total Organic Carbon) estimates with existing hydrogen watch list tanks. The HDW model provides a cross check on existing assumptions for the global site inventory of wastes. Note that existing inventories for Hanford are based on much the same source information as the HDW model, chemicals used and process flowsheet data. Despite that, the HDW model predicts that the sodium inventory for Hanford tanks is 40,300 MT (metric tonnes), which is only 58% of the previous baseline estimate of 69,000 MT. There are other significant differences for inventories of chromium, iron, and nitrate as well. There are two causes for these differences; (1) previous neglect of chemical inventory placed into the ground at Hanford; (2) double counting attributed to tank inventory that was retrieved, reprocessed, and returned to the tanks. This double-counted inventory was counted once when it first went into the tanks and then again after it was reprocessed. The HDW model estimates also can provide a basis for targeting tanks for organic safety issues. In particular, the HDW model has shown that 88% of flammable gas watch list tanks have HDW estimated organic concentrations in excess of 0.64 wt% TOC. Derivation of variabilities for the HDW model estimates and other potential uses will also be outlined

  6. Class size versus class composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Sam

    Raising schooling quality in low-income countries is a pressing challenge. Substantial research has considered the impact of cutting class sizes on skills acquisition. Considerably less attention has been given to the extent to which peer effects, which refer to class composition, also may affect...... outcomes. This study uses new microdata from East Africa, incorporating test score data for over 250,000 children, to compare the likely efficacy of these two types of interventions. Endogeneity bias is addressed via fixed effects and instrumental variables techniques. Although these may not fully mitigate...

  7. Evolutionary dynamics of group interactions on structured populations: A review

    CERN Document Server

    Perc, Matjaz; Szolnoki, Attila; Floría, Luis M; Moreno, Yamir; 10.1098/rsif.2012.0997

    2013-01-01

    Interactions among living organisms, from bacteria colonies to human societies, are inherently more complex than interactions among particles and nonliving matter. Group interactions are a particularly important and widespread class, representative of which is the public goods game. In addition, methods of statistical physics have proven valuable for studying pattern formation, equilibrium selection, and self-organisation in evolutionary games. Here we review recent advances in the study of evolutionary dynamics of group interactions on structured populations, including lattices, complex networks and coevolutionary models. We also compare these results with those obtained on well-mixed populations. The review particularly highlights that the study of the dynamics of group interactions, like several other important equilibrium and non-equilibrium dynamical processes in biological, economical and social sciences, benefits from the synergy between statistical physics, network science and evolutionary game theory...

  8. Modeling tumor evolutionary dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz eStransky

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Tumorigenesis can be seen as an evolutionary process, in which the transformation of a normal cell into a tumor cell involves a number of limiting genetic and epigenetic events, occurring in a series of discrete stages. However, not all mutations in a cell are directly involved in cancer development and it is likely that most of them (passenger mutations do not contribute in any way to tumorigenesis. Moreover, the process of tumor evolution is punctuated by selection of advantageous (driver mutations and clonal expansions. Regarding these driver mutations, it is uncertain how many limiting events are required and / or sufficient to promote a tumorigenic process or what are the values associated with the adaptive advantage of different driver mutations. In spite of the availability of high-quality cancer data, several assumptions about the mechanistic process of cancer initiation and development remain largely untested, both mathematically and statistically. Here we review the development of mathematical/computational models where some assumptions were tested and discuss the impact of these models to the field of tumor biology.

  9. Industrial Applications of Evolutionary Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez, Ernesto; Tonda, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    This book is intended as a reference both for experienced users of evolutionary algorithms and for researchers that are beginning to approach these fascinating optimization techniques. Experienced users will find interesting details of real-world problems, and advice on solving issues related to fitness computation, modeling and setting appropriate parameters to reach optimal solutions. Beginners will find a thorough introduction to evolutionary computation, and a complete presentation of all evolutionary algorithms exploited to solve different problems. The book could fill the gap between the

  10. On uniqueness of characteristic classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feliu, Elisenda

    2011-01-01

    We give an axiomatic characterization of maps from algebraic K-theory. The results apply to a large class of maps from algebraic K-theory to any suitable cohomology theory or to algebraic K-theory. In particular, we obtain comparison theorems for the Chern character and Chern classes and for the...... Adams operations and ¿-operations on higher algebraic K-theory. We show that the Adams operations and ¿-operations defined by Grayson agree with the ones defined by Gillet and Soulé....

  11. Evolutionary biology and life histories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown, C. R.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The demographic processes that drive the spread of populations through environments and in turn determine the abundance of organisms are the same demographic processes that drive the spread of genes through populations and in turn determine gene frequencies and fitness. Conceptually, marked similarities exist in the dynamic processes underlying population ecology and those underlying evolutionary biology. Central to an understanding of both disciplines is life history and its component demographic rates, such as survival, fecundity, and age of first breeding, and biologists from both fields have a vested interest in good analytical machinery for the estimation and analysis of these demographic rates. In the EURING conferences, we have been striving since the mid 1980s to promote a quantitative understanding of demographic rates through interdisciplinary collaboration between ecologists and statisticians. From the ecological side, the principal impetus has come from population biology, and in particular from wildlife biology, but the importance of good quantitative insights into demographic processes has long been recognized by a number of evolutionary biologists (e.g., Nichols & Kendall, 1995; Clobert, 1995; Cooch et al., 2002. In organizing this session, we have aimed to create a forum for those committed to gaining the best possible understanding of evolutionary processes through the application of modern quantitative methods for the collection and interpretation of data on marked animal populations. Here we present a short overview of the material presented in the session on evolutionary biology and life histories. In a plenary talk, Brown & Brown (2004 explored how mark–recapture methods have allowed a better understanding of the evolution of group–living and alternative reproductive tactics in colonial cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota. By estimating the number of transient birds passing through colonies of different sizes, they

  12. Lipschitz classes on local fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-yi SU; Guo-xiang CHEN

    2007-01-01

    The Lipschitz class Lipα on a local field K is defined in this note, and the equivalent relationship between the Lipschitz class Lipα and the Holder type space Cα (K) is proved. Then, those important characteristics on the Euclidean space Rn and the local field K are compared, so that one may interpret the essential differences between the analyses on Rn and K. Finally, the Cantor type fractal function (V)(x) is showed in the Lipschitz class Lip (m, K), m < ln2/ln3.

  13. Evolutionary computation for reinforcement learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Whiteson

    2012-01-01

    Algorithms for evolutionary computation, which simulate the process of natural selection to solve optimization problems, are an effective tool for discovering high-performing reinforcement-learning policies. Because they can automatically find good representations, handle continuous action spaces, a

  14. Evolutionary Processes and Mental Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitz, Herman H.

    1973-01-01

    The author hypothesizes that central nervous system damage of deficiency associated with mental retardation affects primarily those cortical processes which developed at a late stage in man's evolutionary history. (Author)

  15. Molluscan Evolutionary Genomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simison, W. Brian; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2005-12-01

    In the last 20 years there have been dramatic advances in techniques of high-throughput DNA sequencing, most recently accelerated by the Human Genome Project, a program that has determined the three billion base pair code on which we are based. Now this tremendous capability is being directed at other genome targets that are being sampled across the broad range of life. This opens up opportunities as never before for evolutionary and organismal biologists to address questions of both processes and patterns of organismal change. We stand at the dawn of a new 'modern synthesis' period, paralleling that of the early 20th century when the fledgling field of genetics first identified the underlying basis for Darwin's theory. We must now unite the efforts of systematists, paleontologists, mathematicians, computer programmers, molecular biologists, developmental biologists, and others in the pursuit of discovering what genomics can teach us about the diversity of life. Genome-level sampling for mollusks to date has mostly been limited to mitochondrial genomes and it is likely that these will continue to provide the best targets for broad phylogenetic sampling in the near future. However, we are just beginning to see an inroad into complete nuclear genome sequencing, with several mollusks and other eutrochozoans having been selected for work about to begin. Here, we provide an overview of the state of molluscan mitochondrial genomics, highlight a few of the discoveries from this research, outline the promise of broadening this dataset, describe upcoming projects to sequence whole mollusk nuclear genomes, and challenge the community to prepare for making the best use of these data.

  16. Evolutionary computation for trading systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kaucic, Massimiliano

    2008-01-01

    Evolutionary computations, also called evolutionary algorithms, consist of several heuristics, which are able to solve optimization tasks by imitating some aspects of natural evolution. They may use different levels of abstraction, but they are always working on populations of possible solutions for a given task. The basic idea is that if only those individuals of a population which meet a certain selection criteria reproduce, while the remaining individuals die, the population wi...

  17. Counterpunishment revisited: an evolutionary approach

    OpenAIRE

    Wolff, Irenaeus

    2009-01-01

    Evolutionary game theory has shown that in environments characterised by a social-dilemma situation punishment may be an adaptive behaviour. Experimental evidence closely corresponds to this finding but yields contradictory results on the cooperation-enhancing effect of punishment if players are allowed to retaliate against their punishers. The present study sets out to examine the question of whether cooperation will still be part of an evolutionary stable strategy if we allow for counterpun...

  18. Behaviour Trees for Evolutionary Robotics

    OpenAIRE

    Scheper, Kirk Y. W.; Tijmons, Sjoerd; de Visser, Coen C.; de Croon, Guido C. H. E.

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary Robotics allows robots with limited sensors and processing to tackle complex tasks by means of sensory-motor coordination. In this paper we show the first application of the Behaviour Tree framework to a real robotic platform using the Evolutionary Robotics methodology. This framework is used to improve the intelligibility of the emergent robotic behaviour as compared to the traditional Neural Network formulation. As a result, the behaviour is easier to comprehend and manually ad...

  19. Evolutionary status of Be stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorec, J.; Frémat, Y.; Cidale, L.

    2004-12-01

    Fundamental parameters of nearly 50 field Be stars have been determined. Correcting these parameters from gravity darkening effects induced the fast rotation, we deduced the evolutionary phase of the studied stars. We show that the evolutionary phase at which appear the Be phenomenon is mass dependent: the smaller the stellar mass the elder the phase in the main sequence at which the Be phenomenon seem to appear.

  20. Evolutionary Explanations of Eating Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Igor Kardum; Asmir Gračanin; Jasna Hudek-Knežević

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews several most important evolutionary mechanisms that underlie eating disorders. The first part clarifies evolutionary foundations of mental disorders and various mechanisms leading to their development. In the second part selective pressures and evolved adaptations causing contemporary epidemic of obesity as well as differences in dietary regimes and life-style between modern humans and their ancestors are described. Concerning eating disorders, a number of current evoluti...

  1. Evolutionary economics and regional policy

    OpenAIRE

    Lambooy, Jan G.; Boschma, Ron

    2001-01-01

    The principal objective of this paper is to formulate some possible links between evolutionary economics and regional policy, a topic that has not (yet) been covered by the literature. We firstly give a brief overview of some issues of regional policy, conceived as a strategy to influence the spatial matrix of economic development. Then, we outline what we take to be the essential arguments and components of evolutionary economics. More in particular, we focus attention on the economic founda...

  2. Evolutionary Games of Multiplayer Cooperation on Graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Jorge; Wu, Bin; Arranz, Jordi; Traulsen, Arne

    2016-08-01

    There has been much interest in studying evolutionary games in structured populations, often modeled as graphs. However, most analytical results so far have only been obtained for two-player or linear games, while the study of more complex multiplayer games has been usually tackled by computer simulations. Here we investigate evolutionary multiplayer games on graphs updated with a Moran death-Birth process. For cycles, we obtain an exact analytical condition for cooperation to be favored by natural selection, given in terms of the payoffs of the game and a set of structure coefficients. For regular graphs of degree three and larger, we estimate this condition using a combination of pair approximation and diffusion approximation. For a large class of cooperation games, our approximations suggest that graph-structured populations are stronger promoters of cooperation than populations lacking spatial structure. Computer simulations validate our analytical approximations for random regular graphs and cycles, but show systematic differences for graphs with many loops such as lattices. In particular, our simulation results show that these kinds of graphs can even lead to more stringent conditions for the evolution of cooperation than well-mixed populations. Overall, we provide evidence suggesting that the complexity arising from many-player interactions and spatial structure can be captured by pair approximation in the case of random graphs, but that it need to be handled with care for graphs with high clustering.

  3. Class distinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, M. Catherine

    Typical 101 courses discourage many students from pursuing higher level science and math courses. Introductory classes in science and math serve largely as a filter, screening out all but the most promising students, and leaving the majority of college graduates—including most prospective teachers—with little understanding of how science works, according to a study conducted for the National Science Foundation. Because few teachers, particularly at the elementary level, experience any collegiate science teaching that stresses skills of inquiry and investigation, they simply never learn to use those methods in their teaching, the report states.

  4. Opportunistic Migration in Spatial Evolutionary Games

    CERN Document Server

    Buesser, Pierre; Antonioni, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    We study evolutionary games in a spatial diluted grid environment in which agents strategically interact locally but can also opportunistically move to other positions within a given migration radius. Using the imitation of the best rule for strategy revision, it is shown that cooperation may evolve and be stable in the Prisoner's Dilemma game space for several migration distances but only for small game interaction radius while the Stag Hunt class of games become fully cooperative. We also show that only a few trials are needed for cooperation to evolve, i.e. searching costs are not an issue. When the stochastic Fermi strategy update protocol is used cooperation cannot evolve in the Prisoner's Dilemma if the selection intensity is high in spite of opportunistic migration. However, when imitation becomes more random, fully or partially cooperative states are reached in all games for all migration distances tested and for short to intermediate interaction radii.

  5. Opportunistic migration in spatial evolutionary games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buesser, Pierre; Tomassini, Marco; Antonioni, Alberto

    2013-10-01

    We study evolutionary games in a spatial diluted grid environment in which agents strategically interact locally but can also opportunistically move to other positions within a given migration radius. Using the imitation of the best rule for strategy revision, it is shown that cooperation may evolve and be stable in the Prisoner's Dilemma game space for several migration distances but only for small game interaction radius while the Stag Hunt class of games become fully cooperative. We also show that only a few trials are needed for cooperation to evolve, i.e., searching costs are not an issue. When the stochastic Fermi strategy update protocol is used cooperation cannot evolve in the Prisoner's Dilemma if the selection intensity is high in spite of opportunistic migration. However, when imitation becomes more random, fully or partially cooperative states are reached in all games for all migration distances tested and for short to intermediate interaction radii.

  6. THE CONCEPT OF USING EVOLUTIONARY ALGORITHMS AS TOOLS FOR OPTIMAL PLANNING OF MULTIMODAL COMPOSITION IN THE DIDACTIC TEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek A. Jakubowski

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning we would like to provide a short description of the new theory of learning in the digital age called connectivism. It is the integration of principles explored by the following theories: chaos, network, complexity and self-organization. Next, we describe in short new visual solutions for the teaching of writing so called multimodal literacy 5–11. We define and describe the following notions: multimodal text and original theory so called NOS (non-optimum systems methodology as a basis for new methods of visual solutions at the classes and audiovisual texts applications. Especially, we would like to emphasize the tremendous usefulness of evolutionary algorithms VEGA and NSGA as tools for optimal planning of multimodal composition in teaching texts. Finally, we give some examples of didactic texts for classrooms, which provide a deep insight into learning skills and tasks needed in the Internet age.

  7. Evolutionary Computational Methods for Identifying Emergent Behavior in Autonomous Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrile, Richard J.; Guillaume, Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    A technique based on Evolutionary Computational Methods (ECMs) was developed that allows for the automated optimization of complex computationally modeled systems, such as autonomous systems. The primary technology, which enables the ECM to find optimal solutions in complex search spaces, derives from evolutionary algorithms such as the genetic algorithm and differential evolution. These methods are based on biological processes, particularly genetics, and define an iterative process that evolves parameter sets into an optimum. Evolutionary computation is a method that operates on a population of existing computational-based engineering models (or simulators) and competes them using biologically inspired genetic operators on large parallel cluster computers. The result is the ability to automatically find design optimizations and trades, and thereby greatly amplify the role of the system engineer.

  8. Spectrum sensing through software defined radio

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Miguel Filipe Batista

    2014-01-01

    Dissertação apresentada para obtenção do Grau de Mestre em Engenharia Electrotécnica e de Computadores, pela Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia A change in paradigm when it comes to controlling radio transmissions is in course. Tasks usually executed in an exclusive class of hardware systems are increasingly controlled by software systems. A deep change to the software domain is foreseeable, creating a true Software Defined Radio. At the same time this chang...

  9. Evolutionary morphology, platyrrhine evolution, and systematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberger, Alfred L

    2011-12-01

    This special volume of the Anatomical Record focuses on the evolutionary morphology of New World monkeys. The studies range from three-dimensional surface geometry of teeth to enamel ultrastructure; from cranioskeletal adaptations for eating leaves and seeds to the histology of taste bud proxies; from the architecture of its bones to the mechanoreceptors of the tail's skin; from the physical properties of wild foods to the feeding biomechanics of jaws and skull; from the shapes of claws and fingertips, and of elbows, to the diversity and morphology of positional behavior; from the vomeronasal organ and its biological roles to links between brains, guts, sociality, and feeding; from the gum-eating adaptations of the smallest platyrrhines to the methods used to infer how big the largest fossil platyrrhines were. They demonstrate the power of combining functional morphology, behavior, and phylogenetic thinking as an approach toward reconstructing the evolutionary history of platyrrhine primates. While contributing new findings pertaining to all the major clades and ecological guilds, these articles reinforce the view that platyrrhines are a coherent ecophylogenetic array that differentiated along niche dimensions definable principally by body size, positional behavior, and feeding strategies. In underlining the value of character analysis and derived morphological and behavioral patterns as tools for deciphering phylogenetic and adaptational history, doubts are raised about a competing small-bore morphological method, parsimony-based cladistic studies. Intentionally designed not to enlist the rich reservoir of platyrrhine evolutionary morphology, an empirical assessment of the costs incurred by this research stratagem reveals inconsistent, nonrepeatable, and often conflicting results. PMID:22042518

  10. Occult hepatitis B infection: an evolutionary scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukashov Vladimir V

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Occult or latent hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is defined as infection with detectable HBV DNA and undetectable surface antigen (HBsAg in patients' blood. The cause of an overt HBV infection becoming an occult one is unknown. To gain insight into the mechanism of the development of occult infection, we compared the full-length HBV genome from a blood donor carrying an occult infection (d4 with global genotype D genomes. Results The phylogenetic analysis of polymerase, core and X protein sequences did not distinguish d4 from other genotype D strains. Yet, d4 surface protein formed the evolutionary outgroup relative to all other genotype D strains. Its evolutionary branch was the only one where accumulation of substitutions suggests positive selection (dN/dS = 1.3787. Many of these substitutiions accumulated specifically in regions encoding the core/surface protein interface, as revealed in a 3D-modeled protein complex. We identified a novel RNA splicing event (deleting nucleotides 2986-202 that abolishes surface protein gene expression without affecting polymerase, core and X-protein related functions. Genotype D strains differ in their ability to perform this 2986-202 splicing. Strains prone to 2986-202 splicing constitute a separate clade in a phylogenetic tree of genotype D HBVs. A single substitution (G173T that is associated with clade membership alters the local RNA secondary structure and is proposed to affect splicing efficiency at the 202 acceptor site. Conclusion We propose an evolutionary scenario for occult HBV infection, in which 2986-202 splicing generates intracellular virus particles devoid of surface protein, which subsequently accumulates mutations due to relaxation of coding constraints. Such viruses are deficient of autonomous propagation and cannot leave the host cell until it is lysed.

  11. The Zipf Law revisited: An evolutionary model of emerging classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levitin, L.B. [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Schapiro, B. [TINA, Brandenburg (Germany); Perlovsky, L. [NRC, Wakefield, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Zipf`s Law is a remarkable rank-frequency relationship observed in linguistics (the frequencies of the use of words are approximately inversely proportional to their ranks in the decreasing frequency order) as well as in the behavior of many complex systems of surprisingly different nature. We suggest an evolutionary model of emerging classification of objects into classes corresponding to concepts and denoted by words. The evolution of the system is derived from two basic assumptions: first, the probability to recognize an object as belonging to a known class is proportional to the number of objects in this class already recognized, and, second, there exists a small probability to observe an object that requires creation of a new class ({open_quotes}mutation{close_quotes} that gives birth to a new {open_quotes}species{close_quotes}). It is shown that the populations of classes in such a system obey the Zipf Law provided that the rate of emergence of new classes is small. The model leads also to the emergence of a second-tier structure of {open_quotes}super-classes{close_quotes} - groups of classes with almost equal populations.

  12. A Class of Graceful Trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟凡洪; 苏耕; 杨继

    2000-01-01

    The present paper shows the coordinates of a tree and its vertices, defines a kind of Trees with Odd-Number Radiant Type (TONRT), deals with the gracefulness of TONRT by using the edge-moving theorem, and uses graceful TONRT to construct another class of graceful trees.

  13. Evolutionary genetics of maternal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Jason B; Wade, Michael J

    2016-04-01

    Maternal genetic effects (MGEs), where genes expressed by mothers affect the phenotype of their offspring, are important sources of phenotypic diversity in a myriad of organisms. We use a single-locus model to examine how MGEs contribute patterns of heritable and nonheritable variation and influence evolutionary dynamics in randomly mating and inbreeding populations. We elucidate the influence of MGEs by examining the offspring genotype-phenotype relationship, which determines how MGEs affect evolutionary dynamics in response to selection on offspring phenotypes. This approach reveals important results that are not apparent from classic quantitative genetic treatments of MGEs. We show that additive and dominance MGEs make different contributions to evolutionary dynamics and patterns of variation, which are differentially affected by inbreeding. Dominance MGEs make the offspring genotype-phenotype relationship frequency dependent, resulting in the appearance of negative frequency-dependent selection, while additive MGEs contribute a component of parent-of-origin dependent variation. Inbreeding amplifies the contribution of MGEs to the additive genetic variance and, therefore enhances their evolutionary response. Considering evolutionary dynamics of allele frequency change on an adaptive landscape, we show that this landscape differs from the mean fitness surface, and therefore, under some condition, fitness peaks can exist but not be "available" to the evolving population. PMID:26969266

  14. System Model Semantics of Class Diagrams

    OpenAIRE

    Cengarle, Maria Victoria; Grönninger, Hans; Rumpe, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Defining semantics for UML is a difficult task. Disagreements in the meaning of UML constructs as well as the size of UML are major obstacles. In this report, we describe our approach to define the semantics for UML. Semantics is defined denotationally as a mapping into our semantics domain called the system model [4, 5, 6]. We demonstrate our approach by defining the semantics for a comprehensive version of class diagrams. The semantics definition is detailed for UML/P class diagrams, a vari...

  15. Evolutionary complexity for protection of critical assets.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaile, Corbett Chandler; Chandross, Michael Evan

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes the work performed as part of a one-year LDRD project, 'Evolutionary Complexity for Protection of Critical Assets.' A brief introduction is given to the topics of genetic algorithms and genetic programming, followed by a discussion of relevant results obtained during the project's research, and finally the conclusions drawn from those results. The focus is on using genetic programming to evolve solutions for relatively simple algebraic equations as a prototype application for evolving complexity in computer codes. The results were obtained using the lil-gp genetic program, a C code for evolving solutions to user-defined problems and functions. These results suggest that genetic programs are not well-suited to evolving complexity for critical asset protection because they cannot efficiently evolve solutions to complex problems, and introduce unacceptable performance penalties into solutions for simple ones.

  16. Evolutionary potential games on lattices and graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Szabo, Gyorgy

    2015-01-01

    Game theory provides a general mathematical background to study the effect of pair interactions and evolutionary rules on the macroscopic behavior of multi-player games where players with a finite number of strategies may represent a wide scale of biological objects, human individuals, or even their associations. In these systems the interactions are characterized by matrices that can be decomposed into elementary matrices (games) and classified into four types. The concept of decomposition helps the identification of potential games and also the evaluation of the potential that plays a crucial role in the determination of the preferred Nash equilibrium, and defines the Boltzmann distribution towards which these systems evolve for suitable types of dynamical rules. This survey draws parallel between the potential games and the kinetic Ising type models which are investigated for a wide scale of connectivity structures. We discuss briefly the applicability of the tools and concepts of statistical physics and t...

  17. Class formation and consumption among middle-class professionals in Shenzhen

    OpenAIRE

    Jacqueline Elfick

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the role of consumption in defining Chinese middle-class identity by examining the consumption practices of urban professionals. It is widely agreed that China has a thriving middle class. The exact definition of this middle class, however, is disputed by scholars and the Chinese popular press. Debates about class are also manifest in the daily lives of urban professionals. One of the most interesting areas in which identity is contested is that of consumption. The researc...

  18. Neuronal boost to evolutionary dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vladar, Harold P.; Szathmáry, Eörs

    2015-01-01

    Standard evolutionary dynamics is limited by the constraints of the genetic system. A central message of evolutionary neurodynamics is that evolutionary dynamics in the brain can happen in a neuronal niche in real time, despite the fact that neurons do not reproduce. We show that Hebbian learning and structural synaptic plasticity broaden the capacity for informational replication and guided variability provided a neuronally plausible mechanism of replication is in place. The synergy between learning and selection is more efficient than the equivalent search by mutation selection. We also consider asymmetric landscapes and show that the learning weights become correlated with the fitness gradient. That is, the neuronal complexes learn the local properties of the fitness landscape, resulting in the generation of variability directed towards the direction of fitness increase, as if mutations in a genetic pool were drawn such that they would increase reproductive success. Evolution might thus be more efficient within evolved brains than among organisms out in the wild. PMID:26640653

  19. Evolutionary engineering for industrial microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanee, Niti; Fisher, Adam B; Fong, Stephen S

    2012-01-01

    Superficially, evolutionary engineering is a paradoxical field that balances competing interests. In natural settings, evolution iteratively selects and enriches subpopulations that are best adapted to a particular ecological niche using random processes such as genetic mutation. In engineering desired approaches utilize rational prospective design to address targeted problems. When considering details of evolutionary and engineering processes, more commonality can be found. Engineering relies on detailed knowledge of the problem parameters and design properties in order to predict design outcomes that would be an optimized solution. When detailed knowledge of a system is lacking, engineers often employ algorithmic search strategies to identify empirical solutions. Evolution epitomizes this iterative optimization by continuously diversifying design options from a parental design, and then selecting the progeny designs that represent satisfactory solutions. In this chapter, the technique of applying the natural principles of evolution to engineer microbes for industrial applications is discussed to highlight the challenges and principles of evolutionary engineering.

  20. Steps Towards Operationalising an Evolutionary Archaeological Definition of Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riede, Felix

    2011-01-01

    with individual actions. Chaîne opèratoire research, combined with the formal and quantitative identification of variability in individual material culture behaviour allows those traits critical in the social transmission of cultural information to be identified. Once such traits are identified, quantitative...... of culture and that it improves upon traditional, typologically defined techno-complexes. In conclusion, the benefits and limits of such an evolutionary and quantitative definition of culture are discussed.......This paper examines the definition of archaeological cultures/techno-complexes from an evolutionary perspective, in which culture is defined as a system of social information transmission. A formal methodology is presented through which the concept of a culture can be operationalised, at least...

  1. Evolutionary optimization of optical antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Feichtner, Thorsten; Kiunke, Markus; Hecht, Bert

    2012-01-01

    The design of nano-antennas is so far mainly inspired by radio-frequency technology. However, material properties and experimental settings need to be reconsidered at optical frequencies, which entails the need for alternative optimal antenna designs. Here a checkerboard-type, initially random array of gold cubes is subjected to evolutionary optimization. To illustrate the power of the approach we demonstrate that by optimizing the near-field intensity enhancement the evolutionary algorithm finds a new antenna geometry, essentially a split-ring/two-wire antenna hybrid which surpasses by far the performance of a conventional gap antenna by shifting the n=1 split-ring resonance into the optical regime.

  2. The evolutionary psychology of hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shawaf, Laith

    2016-10-01

    An evolutionary psychological perspective suggests that emotions can be understood as coordinating mechanisms whose job is to regulate various psychological and physiological programs in the service of solving an adaptive problem. This paper suggests that it may also be fruitful to approach hunger from this coordinating mechanism perspective. To this end, I put forward an evolutionary task analysis of hunger, generating novel a priori hypotheses about the coordinating effects of hunger on psychological processes such as perception, attention, categorization, and memory. This approach appears empirically fruitful in that it yields a bounty of testable new hypotheses. PMID:27328100

  3. Evolutionary Aesthetics and Print Advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Luczaj

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the extent to which predictions based on the theory of evolutionary aesthetics are utilized by the advertising industry. The purpose of a comprehensive content analysis of print advertising is to determine whether the items indicated by evolutionists such as animals, flowers, certain types of landscapes, beautiful humans, and some colors are part of real advertising strategies. This article has shown that many evolutionary hypotheses (although not all of them are supported by empirical data. Along with these hypotheses, some inferences from Bourdieu’s cultural capital theory were tested. It turned out that advertising uses both biological schemata and cultural patterns to make an image more likable.

  4. Diversity-Guided Evolutionary Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ursem, Rasmus Kjær

    2002-01-01

    Population diversity is undoubtably a key issue in the performance of evolutionary algorithms. A common hypothesis is that high diversity is important to avoid premature convergence and to escape local optima. Various diversity measures have been used to analyze algorithms, but so far few...... algorithms have used a measure to guide the search. The diversity-guided evolutionary algorithm (DGEA) uses the wellknown distance-to-average-point measure to alternate between phases of exploration (mutation) and phases of exploitation (recombination and selection). The DGEA showed remarkable results...

  5. The Onfp Class in the Magellanic Clouds

    OpenAIRE

    Walborn, Nolan R.; Howarth, Ian D.; Evans, Christopher J.; Crowther, Paul A; Moffat, Anthony F. J.; St-Louis, Nicole; Farina, Cecilia; Bosch, Guillermo L.; Morrell, Nidia I.; Barba, Rodolfo H.; van Loon, Jacco Th.

    2010-01-01

    The Onfp class of rotationally broadened, hot spectra was defined some time ago in the Galaxy, where its membership to date numbers only eight. The principal defining characteristic is a broad, centrally reversed He II $\\lambda$4686 emission profile; other emission and absorption lines are also rotationally broadened. Recent surveys in the Magellanic Clouds (MCs) have brought the class membership there, including some related spectra, to 28. We present a survey of the spectral morphology and ...

  6. Defining asthma in genetic studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelman, GH; Postma, DS; Meijer, G.

    1999-01-01

    Genetic studies have been hampered by the lack of a gold standard to diagnose asthma. The complex nature of asthma makes it more difficult to identify asthma genes. Therefore, approaches to define phenotypes, which have been successful in other genetically complex diseases, may be applied to define

  7. Virus world as an evolutionary network of viruses and capsidless selfish elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koonin, Eugene V; Dolja, Valerian V

    2014-06-01

    Viruses were defined as one of the two principal types of organisms in the biosphere, namely, as capsid-encoding organisms in contrast to ribosome-encoding organisms, i.e., all cellular life forms. Structurally similar, apparently homologous capsids are present in a huge variety of icosahedral viruses that infect bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes. These findings prompted the concept of the capsid as the virus "self" that defines the identity of deep, ancient viral lineages. However, several other widespread viral "hallmark genes" encode key components of the viral replication apparatus (such as polymerases and helicases) and combine with different capsid proteins, given the inherently modular character of viral evolution. Furthermore, diverse, widespread, capsidless selfish genetic elements, such as plasmids and various types of transposons, share hallmark genes with viruses. Viruses appear to have evolved from capsidless selfish elements, and vice versa, on multiple occasions during evolution. At the earliest, precellular stage of life's evolution, capsidless genetic parasites most likely emerged first and subsequently gave rise to different classes of viruses. In this review, we develop the concept of a greater virus world which forms an evolutionary network that is held together by shared conserved genes and includes both bona fide capsid-encoding viruses and different classes of capsidless replicons. Theoretical studies indicate that selfish replicons (genetic parasites) inevitably emerge in any sufficiently complex evolving ensemble of replicators. Therefore, the key signature of the greater virus world is not the presence of a capsid but rather genetic, informational parasitism itself, i.e., various degrees of reliance on the information processing systems of the host.

  8. Virus World as an Evolutionary Network of Viruses and Capsidless Selfish Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolja, Valerian V.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Viruses were defined as one of the two principal types of organisms in the biosphere, namely, as capsid-encoding organisms in contrast to ribosome-encoding organisms, i.e., all cellular life forms. Structurally similar, apparently homologous capsids are present in a huge variety of icosahedral viruses that infect bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes. These findings prompted the concept of the capsid as the virus “self” that defines the identity of deep, ancient viral lineages. However, several other widespread viral “hallmark genes” encode key components of the viral replication apparatus (such as polymerases and helicases) and combine with different capsid proteins, given the inherently modular character of viral evolution. Furthermore, diverse, widespread, capsidless selfish genetic elements, such as plasmids and various types of transposons, share hallmark genes with viruses. Viruses appear to have evolved from capsidless selfish elements, and vice versa, on multiple occasions during evolution. At the earliest, precellular stage of life's evolution, capsidless genetic parasites most likely emerged first and subsequently gave rise to different classes of viruses. In this review, we develop the concept of a greater virus world which forms an evolutionary network that is held together by shared conserved genes and includes both bona fide capsid-encoding viruses and different classes of capsidless replicons. Theoretical studies indicate that selfish replicons (genetic parasites) inevitably emerge in any sufficiently complex evolving ensemble of replicators. Therefore, the key signature of the greater virus world is not the presence of a capsid but rather genetic, informational parasitism itself, i.e., various degrees of reliance on the information processing systems of the host. PMID:24847023

  9. Rough Class on a Completely Distributive Lattice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈德刚; 张文修; 宋士吉

    2003-01-01

    This paper generalizes the Pawlak rough set method to a completely distributive lattice. Theconcept of a rough set has many applications in data mining. The approximation operators on a completelydistributive lattice are studied, the rough class on a completely distributive lattice is defined and theexpressional theorems of the rough class are proven. These expressional theorems are used to prove that thecollection of all rough classes is an atomic completely distributive lattice.

  10. Hybrid multiobjective evolutionary design for artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Chi-Keong; Teoh, Eu-Jin; Tan, Kay Chen

    2008-09-01

    Evolutionary algorithms are a class of stochastic search methods that attempts to emulate the biological process of evolution, incorporating concepts of selection, reproduction, and mutation. In recent years, there has been an increase in the use of evolutionary approaches in the training of artificial neural networks (ANNs). While evolutionary techniques for neural networks have shown to provide superior performance over conventional training approaches, the simultaneous optimization of network performance and architecture will almost always result in a slow training process due to the added algorithmic complexity. In this paper, we present a geometrical measure based on the singular value decomposition (SVD) to estimate the necessary number of neurons to be used in training a single-hidden-layer feedforward neural network (SLFN). In addition, we develop a new hybrid multiobjective evolutionary approach that includes the features of a variable length representation that allow for easy adaptation of neural networks structures, an architectural recombination procedure based on the geometrical measure that adapts the number of necessary hidden neurons and facilitates the exchange of neuronal information between candidate designs, and a microhybrid genetic algorithm ( microHGA) with an adaptive local search intensity scheme for local fine-tuning. In addition, the performances of well-known algorithms as well as the effectiveness and contributions of the proposed approach are analyzed and validated through a variety of data set types.

  11. Evolutionary models of human personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haysom, H.J.; Verweij, C.J.H.; Zietsch, B.P.

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral genetic studies have shown that around a third to a half of the between-individual variation in personality traits can be accounted for by genetic differences between individuals. There is rapidly growing interest in understanding the evolutionary basis of this genetic variation. In this

  12. Evolutionary Computation and its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Licheng Jiao; Lishan Kang; Zhenya He; Tao Xie

    2006-01-01

    @@ On Mar.23,2006,a project in the Major Program of NSFC-"Evolutionary computation and its application",managed by Prof.Licheng Jiao,Prof.Lishan Kang,Prof.Zhenya He,and Prof.Tao Xie,passed its Final Qualification Process and was evaluated as Excellent.

  13. Evolutionary dynamics of mammalian karyotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Alberto Redi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This special volume of Cytogenetic and Genome Research (edited by Roscoe Stanyon, University of Florence and Alexander Graphodatsky, Siberian division of the Russian Academy of Sciences is dedicated to the fascinating long search of the forces behind the evolutionary dynamics of mammalian karyotypes, revealed after the hypotonic miracle of the 1950s....

  14. The Challange of Evolutionary Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banathy, Bela H.

    Emerging educational needs in the interdependent world of the Information Age are explored. The current global human predicament in the historical context of the evolution of human systems is examined. A description is given of a systems view of the current evolutionary stage and the new educational needs of the Information Age that can be derived…

  15. Evolutionary perspective in child growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochberg, Ze'ev

    2011-07-01

    Hereditary, environmental, and stochastic factors determine a child's growth in his unique environment, but their relative contribution to the phenotypic outcome and the extent of stochastic programming that is required to alter human phenotypes is not known because few data are available. This is an attempt to use evolutionary life-history theory in understanding child growth in a broad evolutionary perspective, using the data and theory of evolutionary predictive adaptive growth-related strategies. Transitions from one life-history phase to the next have inherent adaptive plasticity in their timing. Humans evolved to withstand energy crises by decreasing their body size, and evolutionary short-term adaptations to energy crises utilize a plasticity that modifies the timing of transition from infancy into childhood, culminating in short stature in times of energy crisis. Transition to juvenility is part of a strategy of conversion from a period of total dependence on the family and tribe for provision and security to self-supply, and a degree of adaptive plasticity is provided and determines body composition. Transition to adolescence entails plasticity in adapting to energy resources, other environmental cues, and the social needs of the maturing adolescent to determine life-span and the period of fecundity and fertility. Fundamental questions are raised by a life-history approach to the unique growth pattern of each child in his given genetic background and current environment.

  16. Evolutionary Perspective in Child Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze’ev Hochberg

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary, environmental, and stochastic factors determine a child’s growth in his unique environment, but their relative contribution to the phenotypic outcome and the extent of stochastic programming that is required to alter human phenotypes is not known because few data are available. This is an attempt to use evolutionary life-history theory in understanding child growth in a broad evolutionary perspective, using the data and theory of evolutionary predictive adaptive growth-related strategies. Transitions from one life-history phase to the next have inherent adaptive plasticity in their timing. Humans evolved to withstand energy crises by decreasing their body size, and evolutionary short-term adaptations to energy crises utilize a plasticity that modifies the timing of transition from infancy into childhood, culminating in short stature in times of energy crisis. Transition to juvenility is part of a strategy of conversion from a period of total dependence on the family and tribe for provision and security to self-supply, and a degree of adaptive plasticity is provided and determines body composition. Transition to adolescence entails plasticity in adapting to energy resources, other environmental cues, and the social needs of the maturing adolescent to determine life-span and the period of fecundity and fertility. Fundamental questions are raised by a life-history approach to the unique growth pattern of each child in his given genetic background and current environment.

  17. Genetical Genomics for Evolutionary Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, J.C.P.; Smant, G.; Jansen, R.C.

    2012-01-01

    enetical genomics combines acquired high-throughput genomic data with genetic analysis. In this chapter, we discuss the application of genetical genomics for evolutionary studies, where new high-throughput molecular technologies are combined with mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) on the genome i

  18. Evolutionary trends in directional hearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carr, Catherine E; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Tympanic hearing is a true evolutionary novelty that arose in parallel within early tetrapods. We propose that in these tetrapods, selection for sound localization in air acted upon pre-existing directionally sensitive brainstem circuits, similar to those in fishes. Auditory circuits in birds and...

  19. Evolutionary Psychology and Intelligence Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    This article seeks to unify two subfields of psychology that have hitherto stood separately: evolutionary psychology and intelligence research/differential psychology. I suggest that general intelligence may simultaneously be an evolved adaptation and an individual-difference variable. Tooby and Cosmides's (1990a) notion of random quantitative…

  20. Large population evolutionary games played within a life history framework

    OpenAIRE

    Ramsey, David

    2009-01-01

    peer-reviewed In many evolutionary games, such as parental care games, the length of time spent playing a realisation of the game is dependent on the strategy of an individual. Also, the payoff of a deserting male cannot be defined in isolation from the strategies used in the population as a whole. Such games should be defined as games against the field (large population games) rather than two-player games. Several examples are presented to illustrate the theory of such games a...

  1. Defined Contribution vs Defined Pension: Reforming the Legal Retirement Age

    OpenAIRE

    Lacomba, Juan Antonio; Lagos, Francisco Miguel

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the effects of changing Social Security parameters on the optimal legal retirement age. Two Social Security Systems are studied, with opposite results. When the pension scheme has a defined contribution, a more redistributive system will delay the preferred legal retirement age. On the other hand, when the pension benefit is the defined parameter, the increase in the redistribution level will lower this preferred age.

  2. The Hidden World within Plants: Ecological and Evolutionary Considerations for Defining Functioning of Microbial Endophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardoim, Pablo R; van Overbeek, Leonard S; Berg, Gabriele; Pirttilä, Anna Maria; Compant, Stéphane; Campisano, Andrea; Döring, Matthias; Sessitsch, Angela

    2015-09-01

    All plants are inhabited internally by diverse microbial communities comprising bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and protistic taxa. These microorganisms showing endophytic lifestyles play crucial roles in plant development, growth, fitness, and diversification. The increasing awareness of and information on endophytes provide insight into the complexity of the plant microbiome. The nature of plant-endophyte interactions ranges from mutualism to pathogenicity. This depends on a set of abiotic and biotic factors, including the genotypes of plants and microbes, environmental conditions, and the dynamic network of interactions within the plant biome. In this review, we address the concept of endophytism, considering the latest insights into evolution, plant ecosystem functioning, and multipartite interactions.

  3. OPTIMISED RANDOM MUTATIONS FOR EVOLUTIONARY ALGORITHMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean McGerty

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To demonstrate our approaches we will use Sudoku puzzles, which are an excellent test bed for evolutionary algorithms. The puzzles are accessible enough for people to enjoy. However the more complex puzzles require thousands of iterations before an evolutionary algorithm finds a solution. If we were attempting to compare evolutionary algorithms we could count their iterations to solution as an indicator of relative efficiency. Evolutionary algorithms however include a process of random mutation for solution candidates. We will show that by improving the random mutation behaviours we were able to solve problems with minimal evolutionary optimisation. Experiments demonstrated the random mutation was at times more effective at solving the harder problems than the evolutionary algorithms. This implies that the quality of random mutation may have a significant impact on the performance of evolutionary algorithms with Sudoku puzzles. Additionally this random mutation may hold promise for reuse in hybrid evolutionary algorithm behaviours.

  4. Theoretical approaches to elections defining

    OpenAIRE

    Natalya V. Lebedeva

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical approaches to elections defining develop the nature, essence and content of elections, help to determine their place and a role as one of the major national law institutions in democratic system.

  5. An Evolutionary Framework for 3-SAT Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Borgulya, István

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we present a new evolutionary framework for 3-SAT. This method can be divided into three stages, where each stage is an evolutionary algorithm. The first stage improves the quality of the initial population. The second stage improves the speed of the algorithm periodically generating new solutions. The 3rd stage is a hybrid evolutionary algorithm, which improves the solutions with a local search. The key points of our algorithm are the evolutionary framework and the mutation ope...

  6. From computers to cultivation: reconceptualizing evolutionary psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Louise eBarrett; Thomas ePollet; Gert eStulp

    2014-01-01

    Does evolutionary theorizing have a role in psychology? This is a more contentious issue than one might imagine, given that as evolved creatures, the answer must surely be yes. The contested nature of evolutionary psychology lies not in our status as evolved beings, but in the extent to which evolutionary ideas add value to studies of human behaviour, and the rigour with which these ideas are tested. This, in turn, is linked to the framework in which particular evolutionary ideas are situated...

  7. From computers to cultivation: reconceptualizing evolutionary psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Barrett, Louise; Pollet, Thomas V.; Stulp, Gert

    2014-01-01

    Does evolutionary theorizing have a role in psychology? This is a more contentious issue than one might imagine, given that, as evolved creatures, the answer must surely be yes. The contested nature of evolutionary psychology lies not in our status as evolved beings, but in the extent to which evolutionary ideas add value to studies of human behavior, and the rigor with which these ideas are tested. This, in turn, is linked to the framework in which particular evolutionary ideas are situated....

  8. Evolutionary algorithm for vehicle driving cycle generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perhinschi, Mario G; Marlowe, Christopher; Tamayo, Sergio; Tu, Jun; Wayne, W Scott

    2011-09-01

    Modeling transit bus emissions and fuel economy requires a large amount of experimental data over wide ranges of operational conditions. Chassis dynamometer tests are typically performed using representative driving cycles defined based on vehicle instantaneous speed as sequences of "microtrips", which are intervals between consecutive vehicle stops. Overall significant parameters of the driving cycle, such as average speed, stops per mile, kinetic intensity, and others, are used as independent variables in the modeling process. Performing tests at all the necessary combinations of parameters is expensive and time consuming. In this paper, a methodology is proposed for building driving cycles at prescribed independent variable values using experimental data through the concatenation of "microtrips" isolated from a limited number of standard chassis dynamometer test cycles. The selection of the adequate "microtrips" is achieved through a customized evolutionary algorithm. The genetic representation uses microtrip definitions as genes. Specific mutation, crossover, and karyotype alteration operators have been defined. The Roulette-Wheel selection technique with elitist strategy drives the optimization process, which consists of minimizing the errors to desired overall cycle parameters. This utility is part of the Integrated Bus Information System developed at West Virginia University. PMID:22010377

  9. Coordination and growth: the Stag Hunt game on evolutionary networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, the study of evolutionary games on networks has attracted great interest, focused mainly on the problem of the emergence of cooperation. A well studied framework for this problem is the Prisoner's Dilemma game on fixed, evolving or growing networks. In this paper we present a complete picture of the behavior of another important social dilemma, the Stag Hunt game, under an evolutionary preferential attachment model, in which the network grows according to the dynamical states of the elements of the system. We observe the emergence of a scale-free and hierarchical organization of the strategies according to connectivity classes as a by-product of the diffusion of cooperation in the network. Depending on the parametrization of the game dynamics, we find a smooth transition from cooperation to defection and a polymorphic state with simultaneous presence of cooperator and defector hubs, which is very unusual in coordination games

  10. The citation field of evolutionary economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolfsma, Wilfred; Leydesdorff, Loet

    2010-01-01

    Evolutionary economics has developed into an academic field of its own, institutionalized around, amongst others, the Journal of Evolutionary Economics (JEE). This paper analyzes the way and extent to which evolutionary economics has become an interdisciplinary journal, as its aim was: a journal tha

  11. EVOG: a database for evolutionary analysis of overlapping genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Soo; Cho, Chi-Young; Huh, Jae-Won; Kim, Heui-Soo; Cho, Hwan-Gue

    2009-01-01

    Overlapping genes are defined as a pair of genes whose transcripts are overlapped. Recently, many cases of overlapped genes have been investigated in various eukaryotic organisms; however, their origin and transcriptional control mechanism has not yet been clearly determined. In this study, we implemented evolutionary visualizer for overlapping genes (EVOG), a Web-based DB with a novel visualization interface, to investigate the evolutionary relationship between overlapping genes. Using this technique, we collected and analyzed all overlapping genes in human, chimpanzee, orangutan, marmoset, rhesus, cow, dog, mouse, rat, chicken, Xenopus, zebrafish and Drosophila. This integrated database provides a manually curated database that displays the evolutionary features of overlapping genes. The EVOG DB components included a number of overlapping genes (10074 in human, 10,009 in chimpanzee, 67,039 in orangutan, 51,001 in marmoset, 219 in rhesus, 3627 in cow, 209 in dog, 10,700 in mouse, 7987 in rat, 1439 in chicken, 597 in Xenopus, 2457 in zebrafish and 4115 in Drosophila). The EVOG database is very effective and easy to use for the analysis of the evolutionary process of overlapping genes when comparing different species. Therefore, EVOG could potentially be used as the main tool to investigate the evolution of the human genome in relation to disease by comparing the expression profiles of overlapping genes. EVOG is available at http://neobio.cs.pusan.ac.kr/evog/. PMID:18986995

  12. The theories on inequality: class theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Arslan

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available This stduy aims to analyse  class theory and its major expansions. In addition, the problems and dilemmas of class theory are discussed. Social inequality, either socially or economically, is one of the most common features of capitalist societies. Some people or some social groups have more money, more prestige, more privilege and more influence on the decision making process.               Two main strategies have been used for analysing and explaining inequalities. The first and most popular strategy is “class theory” which stresses ownership and control to explain class differentiation. It concentrates on the inequalities based mainly on the ownership or non-ownership of economic resources. Class theory was fathered by Karl Marx and especially developed by Marxist writers. Class analysts focus on identification of classes as the major social forces of society. There are two main schools of thought in class theory with their variations within each school: a Marxist Class Theory, b Weberian Class Theory  If the Marxist class analysis and Weberian class analysis are examined it will be seen that, two approaches are incompatible and it is impossible to synthesise them. Nevertheless, Hindess sees Weber’s view as the correction of and supplement to Marx’s ideas rather than an alternative. When the ideas of Marx and Weber are compared, it will be clearly seen that both Marx and Weber explain classes in relation to the economy. Nevertheless, while Marx defines classes in terms of the relations of production, Weber defines them in relation to the market. 

  13. Facet-defining inequalities for the simple graph partitioning polytope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Michael Malmros

    2007-01-01

    The simple graph partitioning problem is to partition an edge-weighted graph into mutually node-disjoint subgraphs, each containing at most b nodes, such that the sum of the weights of all edges in the subgraphs is maximal. In this paper we provide several classes of facet-defining inequalities f...

  14. Evolutionary Approaches to Expensive Optimisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maumita Bhattacharya

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Surrogate assisted evolutionary algorithms (EA are rapidly gaining popularity where applications of EA in complex real world problem domains are concerned. Although EAs are powerful global optimizers, finding optimal solution to complex high dimensional, multimodal problems often require very expensive fitness function evaluations. Needless to say, this could brand any population-based iterative optimization technique to be the most crippling choice to handle such problems. Use of approximate model or surrogates provides a much cheaper option. However, naturally this cheaper option comes with its own price! This paper discusses some of the key issues involved with use of approximation in evolutionary algorithm, possible best practices and solutions. Answers to the following questions have been sought: what type of fitness approximation to be used; which approximation model to use; how to integrate the approximation model in EA; how much approximation to use; and how to ensure reliable approximation.

  15. Exponential Expansion in Evolutionary Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Peter; Jagtfelt, Tue

    2013-01-01

    concepts are described in detail. Taken together it provides the rudimentary aspects of an economic system within an analytical perspective. It is argued that the main dynamic processes of the evolutionary perspective can be reduced to these four concepts. The model and concepts are evaluated in the light......This article attempts to solve current problems of conceptual fragmentation within the field of evolutionary economics. One of the problems, as noted by a number of observers, is that the field suffers from an assemblage of fragmented and scattered concepts (Boschma and Martin 2010). A solution...... to this problem is proposed in the form of a model of exponential expansion. The model outlines the overall structure and function of the economy as exponential expansion. The pictographic model describes four axiomatic concepts and their exponential nature. The interactive, directional, emerging and expanding...

  16. Evolutionary model of stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldasch, Joachim

    2014-12-01

    The paper presents an evolutionary economic model for the price evolution of stocks. Treating a stock market as a self-organized system governed by a fast purchase process and slow variations of demand and supply the model suggests that the short term price distribution has the form a logistic (Laplace) distribution. The long term return can be described by Laplace-Gaussian mixture distributions. The long term mean price evolution is governed by a Walrus equation, which can be transformed into a replicator equation. This allows quantifying the evolutionary price competition between stocks. The theory suggests that stock prices scaled by the price over all stocks can be used to investigate long-term trends in a Fisher-Pry plot. The price competition that follows from the model is illustrated by examining the empirical long-term price trends of two stocks.

  17. Class Vectors: Embedding representation of Document Classes

    OpenAIRE

    Sachan, Devendra Singh; Kumar, Shailesh

    2015-01-01

    Distributed representations of words and paragraphs as semantic embeddings in high dimensional data are used across a number of Natural Language Understanding tasks such as retrieval, translation, and classification. In this work, we propose "Class Vectors" - a framework for learning a vector per class in the same embedding space as the word and paragraph embeddings. Similarity between these class vectors and word vectors are used as features to classify a document to a class. In experiment o...

  18. Quantum computing. Defining and detecting quantum speedup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønnow, Troels F; Wang, Zhihui; Job, Joshua; Boixo, Sergio; Isakov, Sergei V; Wecker, David; Martinis, John M; Lidar, Daniel A; Troyer, Matthias

    2014-07-25

    The development of small-scale quantum devices raises the question of how to fairly assess and detect quantum speedup. Here, we show how to define and measure quantum speedup and how to avoid pitfalls that might mask or fake such a speedup. We illustrate our discussion with data from tests run on a D-Wave Two device with up to 503 qubits. By using random spin glass instances as a benchmark, we found no evidence of quantum speedup when the entire data set is considered and obtained inconclusive results when comparing subsets of instances on an instance-by-instance basis. Our results do not rule out the possibility of speedup for other classes of problems and illustrate the subtle nature of the quantum speedup question.

  19. Evolutionary biology and life histories

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, C R; Thomson, D. L.

    2004-01-01

    The demographic processes that drive the spread of populations through environments and in turn determine the abundance of organisms are the same demographic processes that drive the spread of genes through populations and in turn determine gene frequencies and fitness. Conceptually, marked similarities exist in the dynamic processes underlying population ecology and those underlying evolutionary biology. Central to an understanding of both disciplines is life history and its component demogr...

  20. Evolutionary potential games on lattices

    OpenAIRE

    Szabo, Gyorgy; Borsos, Istvan

    2015-01-01

    Game theory provides a general mathematical background to study the effect of pair interactions and evolutionary rules on the macroscopic behavior of multi-player games where players with a finite number of strategies may represent a wide scale of biological objects, human individuals, or even their associations. In these systems the interactions are characterized by matrices that can be decomposed into elementary matrices (games) and classified into four types. The concept of decomposition h...

  1. Evolutionary robotics – A review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dilip Kumar Pratihar

    2003-12-01

    In evolutionary robotics, a suitable robot control system is developed automatically through evolution due to the interactions between the robot and its environment. It is a complicated task, as the robot and the environment constitute a highly dynamical system. Several methods have been tried by various investigators to solve this problem. This paper provides a survey on some of these important studies carried out in the recent past.

  2. Testing evolutionary convergence on Europa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A major objective in solar system exploration is the insertion of appropriate biology-oriented experiments in future missions. We discuss various reasons for suggesting that this type of research be considered a high priority for feasibility studies and, subsequently, for technological development of appropriate melters and submersibles. Based on numerous examples, we argue in favour of the assumption that Darwin's theory is valid for the evolution of life anywhere in the universe. We have suggested how to obtain preliminary insights into the question of the distribution of life in the universe. Universal evolution of intelligent behaviour is at the end of an evolutionary pathway, in which evolution of ion channels in the membrane of microorganisms occurs in its early stages. Further, we have argued that a preliminary test of this conjecture is feasible with experiments on the Europan surface or ocean, involving evolutionary biosignatures (ion channels). This aspect of the exploration for life in the solar system should be viewed as a complement to the astronomical approach for the search of evidence of the later stages of the evolutionary pathways towards intelligent behaviour. (author)

  3. Modular Software-Defined Radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhiemeier Arnd-Ragnar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the technical and commercial boundary conditions for software-defined radio (SDR, it is suggestive to reconsider the concept anew from an unconventional point of view. The organizational principles of signal processing (rather than the signal processing algorithms themselves are the main focus of this work on modular software-defined radio. Modularity and flexibility are just two key characteristics of the SDR environment which extend smoothly into the modeling of hardware and software. In particular, the proposed model of signal processing software includes irregular, connected, directed, acyclic graphs with random node weights and random edges. Several approaches for mapping such software to a given hardware are discussed. Taking into account previous findings as well as new results from system simulations presented here, the paper finally concludes with the utility of pipelining as a general design guideline for modular software-defined radio.

  4. Exploitation and the class struggle

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Cuestas; Bruce Philp

    2010-01-01

    This paper contributes to our understanding of the determinants and dynamics of Marxian exploitation using quarterly UK data, 1955-2008. Initially a simple model is introduced for the purpose of defining exploitation and its component parts, before elaborating on theoretical issues which are important in estimating the rate of exploitation. In the empirical analysis we seek to explain the effect of class struggle, for the UK economy, using quarterly data. Attention is paid to three forces whi...

  5. Assessment of evolutionary status of eclipsing binaries using light-curve parameters and spectral classification

    CERN Document Server

    Ekaterina, Avvakumova

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a procedure for the classification of eclipsing binaries from their light-curve parameters and spectral type. The procedure was tested on more than 1000 systems with known classification, and its efficiency was estimated for every evolutionary status we use. The procedure was applied to about 4700 binaries with no classification, and the vast majority of them was classified successfully. Systems of relatively rare evolutionary classes were detected in that process, as well as systems with unusual and/or contradictory parameters. Also, for 50 previously unclassified cluster binaries evolutionary classes were identified. These stars can serve as tracers for age and distance estimation of their parent stellar systems. The procedure proved itself as fast, flexible and effective enough to be applied to large ground based and space born surveys, containing tens of thousands of eclipsing binaries.

  6. Does Class Size Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; Brewer, Dominic J.; Gamoran, Adam; Willms, J. Douglas

    2001-01-01

    Reports on the significance of class size to student learning. Includes an overview of class size in various countries, the importance of teacher adaptability, and the Asian paradox of large classes allied to high test scores. (MM)

  7. RxClass

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The RxClass Browser is a web application for exploring and navigating through the class hierarchies to find the RxNorm drug members associated with each class....

  8. The Great Struggles of Life: Darwin and the Emergence of Evolutionary Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, David M.

    2009-01-01

    Darwin envisioned a scientific revolution for psychology. His theories of natural and sexual selection identified two classes of struggles--the struggle for existence and the struggle for mates. The emergence of evolutionary psychology and related disciplines signals the fulfillment of Darwin's vision. Natural selection theory guides scientists to…

  9. Perspective: Evolutionary design of granular media and block copolymer patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Heinrich M.; de Pablo, Juan J.

    2016-05-01

    The creation of new materials "by design" is a process that starts from desired materials properties and proceeds to identify requirements for the constituent components. Such process is challenging because it inverts the typical modeling approach, which starts from given micro-level components to predict macro-level properties. We describe how to tackle this inverse problem using concepts from evolutionary computation. These concepts have widespread applicability and open up new opportunities for design as well as discovery. Here we apply them to design tasks involving two very different classes of soft materials, shape-optimized granular media and nanopatterned block copolymer thin films.

  10. Evolutionary model of the personal income distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldasch, Joachim

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a qualitative picture of the personal income distribution. Treating an economy as a self-organized system the key idea of the model is that the income distribution contains competitive and non-competitive contributions. The presented model distinguishes between three main income classes. 1. Capital income from private firms is shown to be the result of an evolutionary competition between products. A direct consequence of this competition is Gibrat’s law suggesting a lognormal income distribution for small private firms. Taking into account an additional preferential attachment mechanism for large private firms the income distribution is supplemented by a power law (Pareto) tail. 2. Due to the division of labor a diversified labor market is seen as a non-competitive market. In this case wage income exhibits an exponential distribution. 3. Also included is income from a social insurance system. It can be approximated by a Gaussian peak. A consequence of this theory is that for short time intervals a fixed ratio of total labor (total capital) to net income exists (Cobb-Douglas relation). A comparison with empirical high resolution income data confirms this pattern of the total income distribution. The theory suggests that competition is the ultimate origin of the uneven income distribution.

  11. Defining Usability of PN Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolajsen, Hanne Westh; Ahola, Titta; Fleury, Alexandre;

    In this deliverable usability and user experience are defined in relation to MAGNET Beyond technologies, and it is described how the main MAGNET Beyond concepts can be evaluated through the involvement of users. The concepts include the new "Activity based communication approach" for interacting ...

  12. Defining and Classifying Interest Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baroni, Laura; Carroll, Brendan; Chalmers, Adam;

    2014-01-01

    The interest group concept is defined in many different ways in the existing literature and a range of different classification schemes are employed. This complicates comparisons between different studies and their findings. One of the important tasks faced by interest group scholars engaged...

  13. A Hierachical Evolutionary Algorithm for Multiobjective Optimization in IMRT

    CERN Document Server

    Holdsworth, Clay; Liao, Jay; Phillips, Mark H

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Current inverse planning methods for IMRT are limited because they are not designed to explore the trade-offs between the competing objectives between the tumor and normal tissues. Our goal was to develop an efficient multiobjective optimization algorithm that was flexible enough to handle any form of objective function and that resulted in a set of Pareto optimal plans. Methods: We developed a hierarchical evolutionary multiobjective algorithm designed to quickly generate a diverse Pareto optimal set of IMRT plans that meet all clinical constraints and reflect the trade-offs in the plans. The top level of the hierarchical algorithm is a multiobjective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA). The genes of the individuals generated in the MOEA are the parameters that define the penalty function minimized during an accelerated deterministic IMRT optimization that represents the bottom level of the hierarchy. The MOEA incorporates clinical criteria to restrict the search space through protocol objectives and then...

  14. Evolutionary history of the somatostatin and somatostatin receptors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Muhammad Moaeen-Ud-Din; Li Guo Yang

    2009-04-01

    Somatostatin and its receptors have a critical role in mammalian growth through their control pattern of secretion of growth hormone, but the evolutionary history of somatostatin and somatostatin receptors are ill defined. We used comparative whole genome analysis of Danio rerio, Carassius auratus, Xenopus tropicalis, Gallus gallus, Monodelphis domestica, Homo sapiens, Sus scrofa, Bos taurus, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Canis lupus familiaris, Ovis aries, Equus caballus, Pan troglodytes and Macaca mulatto to identify somatostatin and somatostatin receptors in each species. To date, we have identified a minimum of two genes of somatostatin and five somatostatin receptor genes in mammalian species with variable forms. We established a clear evolutionary history of the somatostatin system and traced the origin of the somatostatin system to 395 million years ago (MYA), identifying critical steps in their evolution.

  15. Analog Circuit Design Optimization Based on Evolutionary Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Barari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates an evolutionary-based designing system for automated sizing of analog integrated circuits (ICs. Two evolutionary algorithms, genetic algorithm and PSO (Parswal particle swarm optimization algorithm, are proposed to design analog ICs with practical user-defined specifications. On the basis of the combination of HSPICE and MATLAB, the system links circuit performances, evaluated through specific electrical simulation, to the optimization system in the MATLAB environment, for the selected topology. The system has been tested by typical and hard-to-design cases, such as complex analog blocks with stringent design requirements. The results show that the design specifications are closely met. Comparisons with available methods like genetic algorithms show that the proposed algorithm offers important advantages in terms of optimization quality and robustness. Moreover, the algorithm is shown to be efficient.

  16. Open-Ended Evolutionary Robotics: an Information Theoretic Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Delarboulas, Pierre; Sebag, Michèle

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with designing self-driven fitness functions for Embedded Evolutionary Robotics. The proposed approach considers the entropy of the sensori-motor stream generated by the robot controller. This entropy is computed using unsupervised learning; its maximization, achieved by an on-board evolutionary algorithm, implements a "curiosity instinct", favouring controllers visiting many diverse sensori-motor states (sms). Further, the set of sms discovered by an individual can be transmitted to its offspring, making a cultural evolution mode possible. Cumulative entropy (computed from ancestors and current individual visits to the sms) defines another self-driven fitness; its optimization implements a "discovery instinct", as it favours controllers visiting new or rare sensori-motor states. Empirical results on the benchmark problems proposed by Lehman and Stanley (2008) comparatively demonstrate the merits of the approach.

  17. Cultivating World-class S&T Experts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Nan

    2010-01-01

    @@ Based on an analysis of innovation activities and their evolutionary processes in modern world history,as well as innovation systems both in China and around the world,a recent report presented by the Academic Divisions of CAS offers suggestions on system and mechanism improvement for the cultivation of world-class S&T experts in China.

  18. Comparison of Group Cohesion, Class Participation, and Exam Performance in Live and Online Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galyon, Charles E.; Heaton, Eleanore C. T.; Best, Tiffany L.; Williams, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    Though class participation and group cohesion have shown some potential to promote student performance in conventional classrooms, their efficacy has not yet been demonstrated in an online-class setting. Group cohesion, defined as member attraction to and self-identification with a group, is thought to promote positive interdependence and the…

  19. APPLICATION OF TWO OPERATORS TRANSFORM FROM CLASS A OPERATOR TO THE CLASS OF HYPONORMAL OPERATOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Changsen; Ding Yanfeng

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we give an operator transform (∧T)(*) from class A operator to the class of hyponormal operators. It is different from the operator transform (∧T) defined by M.Chō and T. Yamazaki. Then, we show that σ(T) = σ(∧T)(*)) and σa(T)\\{0} = σa(∧T)(*))\\{0},in case T belongs to class A. Next, we obtain some relations between (∧T) and (∧T)(*).

  20. A divergent calponin homology (NN–CH) domain defines a novel family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Kenneth Bødtker; Andersen, Jens S.; Pedersen, Lotte Bang

    2014-01-01

    and NUF2 share evolutionary ancestry with a novel protein family in mammals comprising, besides NDC80/HEC1 and NUF2, three Intraflagellar Transport (IFT) complex B subunits (IFT81, IFT57, CLUAP1) as well as six proteins with poorly defined function (FAM98A-C, CCDC22, CCDC93 and C14orf166). We show...

  1. Defining Spaces of Potential Art: The significance of representation in computer-aided creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlstedt, Palle

    2005-01-01

    One way of looking at the creative process is as a search in a space of possible answers. One way of simulating such a process is through evolutionary algorithms, i.e., simulated evolution by random variation and selection. The search space is defined by the chosen genetic representation, a kind...

  2. Operationalizing Max Weber's probability concept of class situation: the concept of social class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ken

    2007-03-01

    In this essay I take seriously Max Weber's astonishingly neglected claim that class situation may be defined, not in categorial terms, but probabilistically. I then apply this idea to another equally neglected claim made by Weber that the boundaries of social classes may be determined by the degree of social mobility within such classes. Taking these two ideas together I develop the idea of a non-categorial boundary 'surface' between classes and of a social class 'corridor' made up of all those people who are still to be found within the boundaries of the social class into which they were born. I call social mobility within a social class 'intra-class social mobility' and social mobility between classes 'inter-class social mobility'. I also claim that this distinction resolves the dispute between those sociologists who claim that late industrial societies are still highly class bound and those who think that this is no longer the case. Both schools are right I think, but one is referring to a high degree of intra-class social mobility and the other to an equally high degree of inter-class mobility. Finally I claim that this essay provides sociology with only one example among many other possible applications of how probability theory might usefully be used to overcome boundary problems generally in sociology.

  3. Evolutionary Origin of the Proepicardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Cano

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The embryonic epicardium and the cardiac mesenchyme derived from it are critical to heart development. The embryonic epicardium arises from an extracardiac progenitor tissue called the proepicardium, a proliferation of coelomic cells located at the limit between the liver and the sinus venosus. A proepicardium has not been described in invertebrates, and the evolutionary origin of this structure in vertebrates is unknown. We herein suggest that the proepicardium might be regarded as an evolutionary derivative from an ancient pronephric external glomerulus that has lost its excretory role. In fact, we previously described that the epicardium arises by cell migration from the primordia of the right pronephric external glomerulus in a representative of the most primitive vertebrate lineage, the lamprey Petromyzon marinus. In this review, we emphasize the striking similarities between the gene expression profiles of the proepicardium and the developing kidneys, as well as the parallelisms in the signaling mechanisms involved in both cases. We show some preliminary evidence about the existence of an inhibitory mechanism blocking glomerular differentiation in the proepicardium. We speculate as to the possibility that this developmental link between heart and kidney can be revealing a phylogenetically deeper association, supported by the existence of a heart-kidney complex in Hemichordates. Finally, we suggest that primitive hematopoiesis could be related with this heart-kidney complex, thus accounting for the current anatomical association of the hematopoietic stem cells with an aorta-gonad-mesonephros area. In summary, we think that our hypothesis can provide new perspectives on the evolutionary origin of the vertebrate heart.

  4. Evolution of innate-like T cells and their selection by MHC class I-like molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edholm, Eva-Stina; Banach, Maureen; Robert, Jacques

    2016-08-01

    Until recently, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-like-restricted innate-like αβT (iT) cells expressing an invariant or semi-invariant T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire were thought to be a recent evolutionary acquisition restricted to mammals. However, molecular and functional studies in Xenopus laevis have demonstrated that iT cells, defined as MHC class I-like-restricted innate-like αβT cells with a semi-invariant TCR, are evolutionarily conserved and prominent from early development in amphibians. As these iT cells lack the specificity conferred by conventional αβ TCRs, it is generally considered that they are specialized to recognize conserved antigens equivalent to pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Thus, one advantage offered by the MHC class I-like iT cell-based recognition system is that it can be adapted to a common pathogen and function on the basis of a relatively small number of T cells. Although iT cells have only been functionally described in mammals and amphibians, the identification of non-classical MHC/MHC class I-like genes in other groups of endothermic and ectothermic vertebrates suggests that iT cells have a broader phylogenetic distribution than previously envisioned. In this review, we discuss the possible role of iT cells during the emergence of the jawed vertebrate adaptive immune system. PMID:27368412

  5. Defining the Polar Field Reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, Lisa; Hathaway, David H.

    2013-01-01

    The polar fields on the Sun are directly related to solar cycle variability. Recently there has been interest in studying an important characteristic of the polar fields: the timing of the polar field reversals. However this characteristic has been poorly defined, mostly due to the limitations of early observations. In the past, the reversals have been calculated by averaging the flux above some latitude (i.e. 55deg or 75deg). Alternatively, the reversal could be defined by the time in which the previous polarity is completely canceled and replaced by the new polarity at 90de, precisely at the pole. We will use a surface flux transport model to illustrate the differences in the timing of the polar field reversal based on each of these definitions and propose standardization in the definition of the polar field reversal. The ability to predict the timing of the polar field reversal using a surface flux transport model will also be discussed.

  6. Evolutionary robotics: model or design?

    OpenAIRE

    Trianni, Vito

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I review recent work in evolutionary robotics (ER), and discuss the perspectives and future directions of the field. First, I propose to draw a crisp distinction between studies that exploit ER as a design methodology on the one hand, and studies that instead use ER as a modeling tool to better understand phenomena observed in biology. Such a distinction is not always that obvious in the literature, however. It is my conviction that ER would profit from an explicit commitment t...

  7. Steps Towards an Evolutionary Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Tiezzi, E

    2006-01-01

    If thermodynamics is to physics as logic is to philosophy, recent theoretical advancements lend new coherence to the marvel and dynamism of life on Earth. Enzo Tiezzi's "Steps Towards an Evolutionary Physics" is a primer and guide, to those who would to stand on the shoulders of giants to attain this view: Heisenberg, Planck, Bateson, Varela, and Prigogine as well as notable contemporary scientists. The adventure of such a free and enquiring spirit thrives not so much on answers as on new questions. The book offers a new gestalt on the uncertainty principle and concept of probability. A wide r

  8. Metabolism at Evolutionary Optimal States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraes Rabbers

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Metabolism is generally required for cellular maintenance and for the generation of offspring under conditions that support growth. The rates, yields (efficiencies, adaptation time and robustness of metabolism are therefore key determinants of cellular fitness. For biotechnological applications and our understanding of the evolution of metabolism, it is necessary to figure out how the functional system properties of metabolism can be optimized, via adjustments of the kinetics and expression of enzymes, and by rewiring metabolism. The trade-offs that can occur during such optimizations then indicate fundamental limits to evolutionary innovations and bioengineering. In this paper, we review several theoretical and experimental findings about mechanisms for metabolic optimization.

  9. Defining Clusters of Related Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Mercedes Delgado; Porter, Michael E.; Scott Stern

    2014-01-01

    Clusters are geographic concentrations of industries related by knowledge, skills, inputs, demand, and/or other linkages. A growing body of empirical literature has shown the positive impact of clusters on regional and industry performance, including job creation, patenting, and new business formation. There is an increasing need for cluster-based data to support research, facilitate comparisons of clusters across regions, and support policymakers and practitioners in defining regional strate...

  10. Defining the TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER ALLIANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlbom, Gabriella; Åman, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this project was to define the Technology Transfer Alliance (TTA), a nonprofit organization for Higher Education Institutions supporting capacity building in ICT and renewable energy through a project-driven learning. TTA is today still only an idea, waiting to be launched, which is why the goals for this bachelor thesis are to establish partnerships with institutions that will support the reaching of the goals of TTA, as well as providing a more solid definition of the functions o...

  11. AIDS defining disease: Disseminated cryptococcosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan Anupama

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Disseminated cryptococcosis is one of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome defining criteria and the most common cause of life threatening meningitis. Disseminated lesions in the skin manifest as papules or nodules that mimic molluscum contagiosum (MC. We report here a human immunodeficiency virus positive patient who presented with MC like lesions. Disseminated cryptococcosis was confirmed by India ink preparation and histopathology. The condition of the patient improved with amphotercin B.

  12. Defining and measuring ecological specialization

    OpenAIRE

    Devictor, Vincent; Clavel, Joanne; Julliard, Romain; Lavergne, Sébastien; Mouillot, David; Thuiller, Wilfried; Venail, Patrick; Villéger, Sébastien; Mouquet, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    1.  Ecological specialization is one of the main concepts in ecology and conservation. However, this concept has become highly context-dependent and is now obscured by the great variability of existing definitions and methods used to characterize ecological specialization. 2.  In this study, we clarify this concept by reviewing the strengths and limitations of different approaches commonly used to define and measure ecological specialization. We first show that ecological specialization can e...

  13. The definability of physical concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adonai S. Sant'Anna

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Our main purpose here is to make some specific considerations about the definability of physical concepts like mass, force, time, space, spacetime, and closed systems in the context of physical theories. Our starting motivation is a simple example of a collection of definitions of closed system in the literature of physics and philosophy of physics. Next we discuss the problem of definitions in theoretical physics from the point of view of modern theories of definition.

  14. The definability of physical concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Adonai S. Sant'Anna

    2005-01-01

    Our main purpose here is to make some specific considerations about the definability of physical concepts like mass, force, time, space, spacetime, and closed systems in the context of physical theories. Our starting motivation is a simple example of a collection of definitions of closed system in the literature of physics and philosophy of physics. Next we discuss the problem of definitions in theoretical physics from the point of view of modern theories of definition.

  15. Defining and teaching veterinary professionalism

    OpenAIRE

    Mossop, Liz

    2012-01-01

    Despite extensive research and discussion around the notion of medical professionalism, veterinary professionalism is an understudied area. The aim of this study was to define the concept of veterinary professionalism and analyse the hidden curriculum of a new veterinary school, in order to produce a new curriculum of professionalism. This study used a constructivist grounded theory method to develop the definition. An iterative approach, using interviews and focus groups, collected inform...

  16. Software Defined Radio Transceiver Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Corley, Gerry; Sanchez Mora , Magdalena; Farrell, Ronan

    2008-01-01

    This document presents the design and implementation of a low cost reconfigurable radio transceiver platform. The platform will be used as a research tool in the investigation of software defined radio techniques. The hardware presented is an evolution of work presented at the 2006 RIA colloquium. The platform consists of four hardware elements, namely a radio transmitter, a radio receiver, a baseband interface and a PC to perform signal processing and configuration. Data and control c...

  17. Complicated evolutionary patterns of microRNAs in vertebrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG XiaoWo; ZHANG XueGong; LI YanDa

    2008-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of~22 nt long endogenous non-coding RNAs that play important regulatory roles in diverse organisms. Up to now, little is known about the evolutionary properties of these crucial regulators. Most miRNAs were thought to be phylogenetically conserved, but recently, a number of poorly-conserved miRNAs have been reported and miRNA innovation is shown to be an ongoing process. In this work, through the characterization of an miRNA super family, we studied the evolutionary patterns of miRNAs in vertebrates. Recently generated miRNAs seem to evolve rapidly during a certain period following their emergence. Multiple lineage-specific expansions were observed. Homolgous premiRNAs may produce mature products from the opposite stem arms following tandem duplications, which may have important contribution to miRNA innovation. Our observations of miRNAs' complicated evolutionary patterns support the notion that these key regulatory molecules may play very active roles in evolution.

  18. An Allele Real-Coded Quantum Evolutionary Algorithm Based on Hybrid Updating Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Xian Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For improving convergence rate and preventing prematurity in quantum evolutionary algorithm, an allele real-coded quantum evolutionary algorithm based on hybrid updating strategy is presented. The real variables are coded with probability superposition of allele. A hybrid updating strategy balancing the global search and local search is presented in which the superior allele is defined. On the basis of superior allele and inferior allele, a guided evolutionary process as well as updating allele with variable scale contraction is adopted. And Hε gate is introduced to prevent prematurity. Furthermore, the global convergence of proposed algorithm is proved by Markov chain. Finally, the proposed algorithm is compared with genetic algorithm, quantum evolutionary algorithm, and double chains quantum genetic algorithm in solving continuous optimization problem, and the experimental results verify the advantages on convergence rate and search accuracy.

  19. An Allele Real-Coded Quantum Evolutionary Algorithm Based on Hybrid Updating Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Xian; Qian, Xiao-Yi; Peng, Hui-Deng; Wang, Jian-Hui

    2016-01-01

    For improving convergence rate and preventing prematurity in quantum evolutionary algorithm, an allele real-coded quantum evolutionary algorithm based on hybrid updating strategy is presented. The real variables are coded with probability superposition of allele. A hybrid updating strategy balancing the global search and local search is presented in which the superior allele is defined. On the basis of superior allele and inferior allele, a guided evolutionary process as well as updating allele with variable scale contraction is adopted. And H ε gate is introduced to prevent prematurity. Furthermore, the global convergence of proposed algorithm is proved by Markov chain. Finally, the proposed algorithm is compared with genetic algorithm, quantum evolutionary algorithm, and double chains quantum genetic algorithm in solving continuous optimization problem, and the experimental results verify the advantages on convergence rate and search accuracy. PMID:27057159

  20. Improving DNA Computing Using Evolutionary Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godar J. Ibrahim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available the field of DNA Computing has attracted many biologists and computer scientists as it has a biological interface, small size and substantial parallelism. DNA computing depends on DNA molecules’ biochemical reactions which they can randomly anneal and they might accidentally cause improper or unattractive computations. This will inspire opportunities to use evolutionary computation via DNA. Evolutionary Computation emphasizes on probabilistic search and optimization methods which are mimicking the organic evolution models. The research work aims at offering a simulated evolutionary DNA computing model which incorporates DNA computing with an evolutionary algorithm. This evolutionary approach provides the likelihood for increasing dimensionality through replacing the typical filtering method by an evolutionary one. Thus, via iteratively increasing and recombination a population of strands, eliminating incorrect solutions from the population, and choosing the best solutions via gel electrophoresis, an optimal or near-optimal solution can be evolved rather than extracted from the initial population.

  1. MATERNO-FETAL IMMUNOTOLERANCE: AN EVOLUTIONARY VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Paulesu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since Medawar (1953, much attention has been given to the immunological paradox of the survival and growth of the semi-allogeneic fetus in the maternal uterus. Numerous studies, mainly on the human placenta, have established fundamental mechanisms of this phenomenon; however, many aspects are still unclear and the complex process has yet to be completely defined. One of the accepted principles is that the secretion and action of mediators, i.e. cytokines, at the materno-fetal interface have a central role. Focusing on the cytokine Interleukin-1 (IL-1 the review highlights the importance of a physiological approach based on evolutionary studies in animals using similar or different reproductive strategies. Data on IL-1 in viviparity and oviparity, two reproductive strategies in which female reproductive tissues have to deal with paternal-derived antigens on sperm, fertilized eggs, and embryo, will be presented and discussed in the light of materno-fetal immuntolerance. Ovuliparity, a reproductive modality in which the eggs are released from the female reproductive tract and fertilization and embryonic development take place in the external environment will also be extensively reported as a negative control in the studies on materno-fetal immunotolerance. The evidence shown reveals that non-mammalian vertebrates with different reproductive strategies represent a good model to understand biological mechanisms allowing fetal acceptance and growth in the maternal tissues.

  2. The Evolutionary Puzzle of Suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri-Jean Aubin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of self-destruction are difficult to reconcile with evolution’s first rule of thumb: survive and reproduce. However, evolutionary success ultimately depends on inclusive fitness. The altruistic suicide hypothesis posits that the presence of low reproductive potential and burdensomeness toward kin can increase the inclusive fitness payoff of self-removal. The bargaining hypothesis assumes that suicide attempts could function as an honest signal of need. The payoff may be positive if the suicidal person has a low reproductive potential. The parasite manipulation hypothesis is founded on the rodent—Toxoplasma gondii host-parasite model, in which the parasite induces a “suicidal” feline attraction that allows the parasite to complete its life cycle. Interestingly, latent infection by T. gondii has been shown to cause behavioral alterations in humans, including increased suicide attempts. Finally, we discuss how suicide risk factors can be understood as nonadaptive byproducts of evolved mechanisms that malfunction. Although most of the mechanisms proposed in this article are largely speculative, the hypotheses that we raise accept self-destructive behavior within the framework of evolutionary theory.

  3. Evolutionary epistemology a multiparadigm program

    CERN Document Server

    Pinxten, Rik

    1987-01-01

    This volume has its already distant origin in an inter­national conference on Evolutionary Epistemology the editors organized at the University of Ghent in November 1984. This conference aimed to follow up the endeavor started at the ERISS (Epistemologically Relevant Internalist Sociology of Science) conference organized by Don Campbell and Alex Rosen­ berg at Cazenovia Lake, New York, in June 1981, whilst in­ jecting the gist of certain current continental intellectual developments into a debate whose focus, we thought, was in danger of being narrowed too much, considering the still underdeveloped state of affairs in the field. Broadly speaking, evolutionary epistemology today con­ sists of two interrelated, yet qualitatively distinct inves­ tigative efforts. Both are drawing on Darwinian concepts, which may explain why many people have failed to discriminate them. One is the study of the evolution of the cognitive apparatus of living organisms, which is first and foremost the province of biologists and...

  4. Evolutionary expansion of the Monogenea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearn, G C

    1994-12-01

    The evolutionary expansion of the monogeneans has taken place in parallel with the diversification of the fish-like vertebrates. In this article the main trends in monogenean evolution are traced from a hypothetical skin-parasitic ancestor on early vertebrates. Special consideration is given to the following topics: early divergence between skin feeders and blood feeders; diversification and specialization of the haptor for attachment to skin; transfer from host to host, viviparity and the success of the gyrodactylids; predation on skin parasites and camouflage; colonization of the buccal and branchial cavities; diversification and specialization of the haptor for attachment to the gills; phoresy in gill parasites; the development of endoparasitism and the origin of the cestodes; the success of dactylogyroidean gill parasites; the uniqueness of the polyopisthocotyleans; ovoviviparity and the colonization of the tetrapods. Host specificity has been the guiding force of coevolution between monogeneans and their vertebrate hosts, but the establishment of monogeneans on unrelated hosts sharing the same environment (host-switching) may have been underestimated. Host-switching has provided significant opportunities for evolutionary change of direction and is probably responsible for the establishment of monogeneans on cephalopod molluscs, on the hippopotamus and possibly on chelonians. There are indications that host-switching may be more common in monogeneans that spread by direct transfer of adults/juveniles from host to host. A limitation on the further expansion of monogeneans is the need for water for the dispersal of the infective larva (oncomiracidium).

  5. EVOLUTIONARY THEORY AND THE MARKET COMPETITION

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoleta SIRGHI

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary theory study of processes that transform economy for firms, institutions, industries, employment, production, trade and growth within, through the actions of diverse agents from experience and interactions, using evolutionary methodology. Evolutionary theory analyses the unleashing of a process of technological and institutional innovation by generating and testing a diversity of ideas which discover and accumulate more survival value for the costs incurred than competing alterna...

  6. Evolutionary robotics: what, why, and where to

    OpenAIRE

    Doncieux, Stephane; Bredeche, Nicolas; Mouret, Jean-Baptiste; Eiben, Agoston E. (Gusz)

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary robotics applies the selection, variation, and heredity principles of natural evolution to the design of robots with embodied intelligence. It can be considered as a subfield of robotics that aims to create more robust and adaptive robots. A pivotal feature of the evolutionary approach is that it considers the whole robot at once, and enables the exploitation of robot features in a holistic manner. Evolutionary robotics can also be seen as an innovative approach to the study of e...

  7. The Citation Field of Evolutionary Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Dolfsma, Wilfred; Leydesdorff, Loet

    2010-01-01

    Evolutionary economics has developed into an academic field of its own, institutionalized around, amongst others, the Journal of Evolutionary Economics (JEE). This paper analyzes the way and extent to which evolutionary economics has become an interdisciplinary journal, as its aim was: a journal that is indispensable in the exchange of expert knowledge on topics and using approaches that relate naturally with it. Analyzing citation data for the relevant academic field for the Journal of Evolu...

  8. The emerging empirics of evolutionary economic geography

    OpenAIRE

    Boschma, RA; Frenken, K Koen

    2010-01-01

    Following last decade’s programmatic papers on Evolutionary Economic Geography, we report on recent empirical advances and how this empirical work can be positioned vis-à-vis other strands of research in economic geography. First, we review studies on the path dependent nature of clustering, and how the evolutionary perspective relates to that of New Economic Geography. Second, we discuss research on agglomeration externalities in Regional Science, and how Evolutionary Economic Geography cont...

  9. An introduction to evolutionary developmental psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machluf, Karin; Liddle, James R; Bjorklund, David F

    2014-04-29

    Evolutionary developmental psychology represents a synthesis of modern evolutionary theory and developmental psychology. Here we introduce the special issue on evolutionary developmental psychology by briefly discussing the history of this field and then summarizing the variety of topics that are covered. In this special issue, leading researchers provide a collection of theoretical and empirical articles that highlight recent findings and propose promising areas for future research.

  10. Regional systems of innovation: an evolutionary perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Cooke, P.; M G Uranga; G Etxebarria

    1998-01-01

    The authors develop the concept of regional systems of innovation and relate it to preexisting research on national systems of innovation. They argue that work conducted in the 'new regional science' field is complementary to systems of innovation approaches. They seek to link new regional work to evolutionary economics, and argue for the development of evolutionary regional science. Common elements of interest to evolutionary innovation research and new regional science are important in unde...

  11. Evolutionary Autonomous Health Monitoring System (EAHMS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For supporting NASA's Robotics, Tele-Robotics and Autonomous Systems Roadmap, we are proposing the "Evolutionary Autonomous Health Monitoring System" (EAHMS) for...

  12. Software Defined DCF77 Receiver

    OpenAIRE

    F. Zaplata; M. Kasal

    2013-01-01

    This paper shows the solution of time stamp software defined receiver integration into low cost com-mercial devices. The receiver is based on a general pur-pose processor and its analog to digital converter. The amplified signal from a narrow-band antenna is connected to the converter and no complicated filtration has to be used. All signal processing is digitally provided by the processor. During signal reception, the processor stays available for its main tasks and signal processing con-sum...

  13. Software Defined DCF77 Receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Zaplata

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the solution of time stamp software defined receiver integration into low cost com-mercial devices. The receiver is based on a general pur-pose processor and its analog to digital converter. The amplified signal from a narrow-band antenna is connected to the converter and no complicated filtration has to be used. All signal processing is digitally provided by the processor. During signal reception, the processor stays available for its main tasks and signal processing con-sumes only a small part of its computational power.

  14. UNIQLO, Define Your Own Fashion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2009-01-01

    @@ Yes,women like and enjoy shopping.Always,they want to buy some well-designed clothes with the most 'in'factors; and what's of the great importance,they would like to hear the words:"wow! You fit the wear well!"However,the most satisfied right things could not be always waiting for you there or you would not help complaining the so-fast changing trends day by day.At that time,why not to seek some delights from the basic classic collections?UNIQLO maybe is a choice for you to define your own fashion.

  15. Evolutionary triangulation: informing genetic association studies with evolutionary evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Minjun; Graham, Britney E; Zhang, Ge; Harder, Reed; Kodaman, Nuri; Moore, Jason H; Muglia, Louis; Williams, Scott M

    2016-01-01

    Genetic studies of human diseases have identified many variants associated with pathogenesis and severity. However, most studies have used only statistical association to assess putative relationships to disease, and ignored other factors for evaluation. For example, evolution is a factor that has shaped disease risk, changing allele frequencies as human populations migrated into and inhabited new environments. Since many common variants differ among populations in frequency, as does disease prevalence, we hypothesized that patterns of disease and population structure, taken together, will inform association studies. Thus, the population distributions of allelic risk variants should reflect the distributions of their associated diseases. Evolutionary Triangulation (ET) exploits this evolutionary differentiation by comparing population structure among three populations with variable patterns of disease prevalence. By selecting populations based on patterns where two have similar rates of disease that differ substantially from a third, we performed a proof of principle analysis for this method. We examined three disease phenotypes, lactase persistence, melanoma, and Type 2 diabetes mellitus. We show that for lactase persistence, a phenotype with a simple genetic architecture, ET identifies the key gene, lactase. For melanoma, ET identifies several genes associated with this disease and/or phenotypes related to it, such as skin color genes. ET was less obviously successful for Type 2 diabetes mellitus, perhaps because of the small effect sizes in known risk loci and recent environmental changes that have altered disease risk. Alternatively, ET may have revealed new genes involved in conferring disease risk for diabetes that did not meet nominal GWAS significance thresholds. We also compared ET to another method used to filter for phenotype associated genes, population branch statistic (PBS), and show that ET performs better in identifying genes known to associate with

  16. Defining Life: The Virus Viewpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forterre, Patrick

    2010-04-01

    Are viruses alive? Until very recently, answering this question was often negative and viruses were not considered in discussions on the origin and definition of life. This situation is rapidly changing, following several discoveries that have modified our vision of viruses. It has been recognized that viruses have played (and still play) a major innovative role in the evolution of cellular organisms. New definitions of viruses have been proposed and their position in the universal tree of life is actively discussed. Viruses are no more confused with their virions, but can be viewed as complex living entities that transform the infected cell into a novel organism—the virus—producing virions. I suggest here to define life (an historical process) as the mode of existence of ribosome encoding organisms (cells) and capsid encoding organisms (viruses) and their ancestors. I propose to define an organism as an ensemble of integrated organs (molecular or cellular) producing individuals evolving through natural selection. The origin of life on our planet would correspond to the establishment of the first organism corresponding to this definition.

  17. Classes and Theories of Trees Associated with a Class Of Linear Orders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goranko, Valentin; Kellerman, Ruaan

    2011-01-01

    these classes of trees and between their corresponding first-order theories. We then obtain some general results about the axiomatization of the first-order theories of some of these classes of trees in terms of the first-order theory of the generating class C, and indicate the problems obstructing such general...... results for the other classes. These problems arise from the possible existence of nondefinable paths in trees, that need not satisfy the first-order theory of C, so we have started analysing first order definable and undefinable paths in trees....

  18. Deciphering the evolutionary history of open and closed mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazer, Shelley; Lynch, Michael; Needleman, Daniel

    2014-11-17

    The origin of the nucleus at the prokaryote-to-eukaryote transition represents one of the most important events in the evolution of cellular organization. The nuclear envelope encircles the chromosomes in interphase and is a selectively permeable barrier between the nucleoplasm and cytoplasm and an organizational scaffold for the nucleus. It remains intact in the 'closed' mitosis of some yeasts, but loses its integrity in the 'open' mitosis of mammals. Instances of both types of mitosis within two evolutionary clades indicate multiple evolutionary transitions between open and closed mitosis, although the underlying genetic changes that influenced these transitions remain unknown. A survey of the diversity of mitotic nuclei that fall between these extremes is the starting point from which to determine the physiologically relevant characteristics distinguishing open from closed mitosis and to understand how they evolved and why they are retained in present-day organisms. The field is now poised to begin addressing these issues by defining and documenting patterns of mitotic nuclear variation within and among species and mapping them onto a phylogenic tree. Deciphering the evolutionary history of open and closed mitosis will complement cell biological and genetic approaches aimed at deciphering the fundamental organizational principles of the nucleus.

  19. Defining life: synthesis and conclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayon, Jean

    2010-04-01

    The first part of the paper offers philosophical landmarks on the general issue of defining life. Section 1 defends that the recognition of "life" has always been and remains primarily an intuitive process, for the scientist as for the layperson. However we should not expect, then, to be able to draw a definition from this original experience, because our cognitive apparatus has not been primarily designed for this. Section 2 is about definitions in general. Two kinds of definition should be carefully distinguished: lexical definitions (based upon current uses of a word), and stipulative or legislative definitions, which deliberately assign a meaning to a word, for the purpose of clarifying scientific or philosophical arguments. The present volume provides examples of these two kinds of definitions. Section 3 examines three traditional philosophical definitions of life, all of which have been elaborated prior to the emergence of biology as a specific scientific discipline: life as animation (Aristotle), life as mechanism, and life as organization (Kant). All three concepts constitute a common heritage that structures in depth a good deal of our cultural intuitions and vocabulary any time we try to think about "life". The present volume offers examples of these three concepts in contemporary scientific discourse. The second part of the paper proposes a synthesis of the major debates developed in this volume. Three major questions have been discussed. A first issue (Section 4) is whether we should define life or not, and why. Most authors are skeptical about the possibility of defining life in a strong way, although all admit that criteria are useful in contexts such as exobiology, artificial life and the origins of life. Section 5 examines the possible kinds of definitions of life presented in the volume. Those authors who have explicitly defended that a definition of life is needed, can be classified into two categories. The first category (or standard view) refers

  20. Defining Life: Synthesis and Conclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayon, Jean

    2010-04-01

    The first part of the paper offers philosophical landmarks on the general issue of defining life. §1 defends that the recognition of “life” has always been and remains primarily an intuitive process, for the scientist as for the layperson. However we should not expect, then, to be able to draw a definition from this original experience, because our cognitive apparatus has not been primarily designed for this. §2 is about definitions in general. Two kinds of definition should be carefully distinguished: lexical definitions (based upon current uses of a word), and stipulative or legislative definitions, which deliberately assign a meaning to a word, for the purpose of clarifying scientific or philosophical arguments. The present volume provides examples of these two kinds of definitions. §3 examines three traditional philosophical definitions of life, all of which have been elaborated prior to the emergence of biology as a specific scientific discipline: life as animation (Aristotle), life as mechanism, and life as organization (Kant). All three concepts constitute a common heritage that structures in depth a good deal of our cultural intuitions and vocabulary any time we try to think about “life”. The present volume offers examples of these three concepts in contemporary scientific discourse. The second part of the paper proposes a synthesis of the major debates developed in this volume. Three major questions have been discussed. A first issue (§4) is whether we should define life or not, and why. Most authors are skeptical about the possibility of defining life in a strong way, although all admit that criteria are useful in contexts such as exobiology, artificial life and the origins of life. §5 examines the possible kinds of definitions of life presented in the volume. Those authors who have explicitly defended that a definition of life is needed, can be classified into two categories. The first category (or standard view) refers to two conditions

  1. Evolutionary, structural and biochemical evidence for a new interaction site of the leptin obesity protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaucher, Eric A.; Miyamoto, Michael M.; Benner, Steven A.

    2003-01-01

    The Leptin protein is central to the regulation of energy metabolism in mammals. By integrating evolutionary, structural, and biochemical information, a surface segment, outside of its known receptor contacts, is predicted as a second interaction site that may help to further define its roles in energy balance and its functional differences between humans and other mammals.

  2. A priori bounds for degenerate and singular evolutionary partial integro-differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Vergara, Vicente

    2010-01-01

    We study quasilinear evolutionary partial integro-differential equations of second order which include time fractional $p$-Laplace equations of time order less than one. By means of suitable energy estimates and De Giorgi's iteration technique we establish results asserting the global boundedness of appropriately defined weak solutions of these problems. We also show that a maximum principle is valid for such equations.

  3. Markov Networks in Evolutionary Computation

    CERN Document Server

    Shakya, Siddhartha

    2012-01-01

    Markov networks and other probabilistic graphical modes have recently received an upsurge in attention from Evolutionary computation community, particularly in the area of Estimation of distribution algorithms (EDAs).  EDAs have arisen as one of the most successful experiences in the application of machine learning methods in optimization, mainly due to their efficiency to solve complex real-world optimization problems and their suitability for theoretical analysis. This book focuses on the different steps involved in the conception, implementation and application of EDAs that use Markov networks, and undirected models in general. It can serve as a general introduction to EDAs but covers also an important current void in the study of these algorithms by explaining the specificities and benefits of modeling optimization problems by means of undirected probabilistic models. All major developments to date in the progressive introduction of Markov networks based EDAs are reviewed in the book. Hot current researc...

  4. Evolutionary advantages of adaptive rewarding

    CERN Document Server

    Szolnoki, Attila

    2012-01-01

    Our wellbeing depends as much on our personal success, as it does on the success of our society. The realization of this fact makes cooperation a very much needed trait. Experiments have shown that rewards can elevate our readiness to cooperate, but since giving a reward inevitably entails paying a cost for it, the emergence and stability of such behavior remain elusive. Here we show that allowing for the act of rewarding to self-organize in dependence on the success of cooperation creates several evolutionary advantages that instill new ways through which collaborative efforts are promoted. Ranging from indirect territorial battle to the spontaneous emergence and destruction of coexistence, phase diagrams and the underlying spatial patterns reveal fascinatingly reach social dynamics that explains why this costly behavior has evolved and persevered. Comparisons with adaptive punishment, however, uncover an Achilles heel of adaptive rewarding that is due to over-aggression, which in turn hinders optimal utiliz...

  5. Evolutionary Industrial Physical Model Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrascal, Alberto; Alberdi, Amaia

    Both complexity and lack of knowledge associated to physical processes makes physical models design an arduous task. Frequently, the only available information about the physical processes are the heuristic data obtained from experiments or at best a rough idea on what are the physical principles and laws that underlie considered physical processes. Then the problem is converted to find a mathematical expression which fits data. There exist traditional approaches to tackle the inductive model search process from data, such as regression, interpolation, finite element method, etc. Nevertheless, these methods either are only able to solve a reduced number of simple model typologies, or the given black-box solution does not contribute to clarify the analyzed physical process. In this paper a hybrid evolutionary approach to search complex physical models is proposed. Tests carried out on a real-world industrial physical process (abrasive water jet machining) demonstrate the validity of this approach.

  6. Evolutionary history of exon shuffling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, Gustavo S; Cancherini, Douglas V; de Souza, Sandro J

    2012-06-01

    Exon shuffling has been characterized as one of the major evolutionary forces shaping both the genome and the proteome of eukaryotes. This mechanism was particularly important in the creation of multidomain proteins during animal evolution, bringing a number of functional genetic novelties. Here, genome information from a variety of eukaryotic species was used to address several issues related to the evolutionary history of exon shuffling. By comparing all protein sequences within each species, we were able to characterize exon shuffling signatures throughout metazoans. Intron phase (the position of the intron regarding the codon) and exon symmetry (the pattern of flanking introns for a given exon or block of adjacent exons) were features used to evaluate exon shuffling. We confirmed previous observations that exon shuffling mediated by phase 1 introns (1-1 exon shuffling) is the predominant kind in multicellular animals. Evidence is provided that such pattern was achieved since the early steps of animal evolution, supported by a detectable presence of 1-1 shuffling units in Trichoplax adhaerens and a considerable prevalence of them in Nematostella vectensis. In contrast, Monosiga brevicollis, one of the closest relatives of metazoans, and Arabidopsis thaliana, showed no evidence of 1-1 exon or domain shuffling above what it would be expected by chance. Instead, exon shuffling events are less abundant and predominantly mediated by phase 0 introns (0-0 exon shuffling) in those non-metazoan species. Moreover, an intermediate pattern of 1-1 and 0-0 exon shuffling was observed for the placozoan T. adhaerens, a primitive animal. Finally, characterization of flanking intron phases around domain borders allowed us to identify a common set of symmetric 1-1 domains that have been shuffled throughout the metazoan lineage.

  7. Evolutionary primacy of sodium bioenergetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Yuri I

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The F- and V-type ATPases are rotary molecular machines that couple translocation of protons or sodium ions across the membrane to the synthesis or hydrolysis of ATP. Both the F-type (found in most bacteria and eukaryotic mitochondria and chloroplasts and V-type (found in archaea, some bacteria, and eukaryotic vacuoles ATPases can translocate either protons or sodium ions. The prevalent proton-dependent ATPases are generally viewed as the primary form of the enzyme whereas the sodium-translocating ATPases of some prokaryotes are usually construed as an exotic adaptation to survival in extreme environments. Results We combine structural and phylogenetic analyses to clarify the evolutionary relation between the proton- and sodium-translocating ATPases. A comparison of the structures of the membrane-embedded oligomeric proteolipid rings of sodium-dependent F- and V-ATPases reveals nearly identical sets of amino acids involved in sodium binding. We show that the sodium-dependent ATPases are scattered among proton-dependent ATPases in both the F- and the V-branches of the phylogenetic tree. Conclusion Barring convergent emergence of the same set of ligands in several lineages, these findings indicate that the use of sodium gradient for ATP synthesis is the ancestral modality of membrane bioenergetics. Thus, a primitive, sodium-impermeable but proton-permeable cell membrane that harboured a set of sodium-transporting enzymes appears to have been the evolutionary predecessor of the more structurally demanding proton-tight membranes. The use of proton as the coupling ion appears to be a later innovation that emerged on several independent occasions. Reviewers This article was reviewed by J. Peter Gogarten, Martijn A. Huynen, and Igor B. Zhulin. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' comments section.

  8. Network Coded Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krigslund, Jeppe; Hansen, Jonas; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani;

    2015-01-01

    Software Defined Networking (SDN) and Network Coding (NC) are two key concepts in networking that have garnered a large attention in recent years. On the one hand, SDN's potential to virtualize services in the Internet allows a large flexibility not only for routing data, but also to manage...... buffering, scheduling, and processing over the network. On the other hand, NC has shown great potential for increasing robustness and performance when deployed on intermediate nodes in the network. This new paradigm changes the dynamics of network protocols, requiring new designs that exploit its potential....... This paper advocates for the use of SDN to bring about future Internet and 5G network services by incorporating network coding (NC) functionalities. The inherent flexibility of both SDN and NC provides a fertile ground to envision more efficient, robust, and secure networking designs, that may also...

  9. Network Coded Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jonas; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Krigslund, Jeppe;

    2015-01-01

    Software defined networking has garnered large attention due to its potential to virtualize services in the Internet, introducing flexibility in the buffering, scheduling, processing, and routing of data in network routers. SDN breaks the deadlock that has kept Internet network protocols stagnant...... for decades, while applications and physical links have evolved. This article advocates for the use of SDN to bring about 5G network services by incorporating network coding (NC) functionalities. The latter constitutes a major leap forward compared to the state-of-the- art store and forward Internet paradigm....... The inherent flexibility of both SDN and NC provides fertile ground to envision more efficient, robust, and secure networking designs, which may also incorporate content caching and storage, all of which are key challenges of the upcoming 5G networks. This article not only proposes the fundamentals...

  10. Evolutionary design assistants for architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Onur Sönmez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In its parallel pursuit of an increased competitivity for design offices and more pleasurable and easier workflows for designers, artificial design intelligence is a technical, intellectual, and political challenge. While human-machine cooperation has become commonplace through Computer Aided Design (CAD tools, a more improved collaboration and better support appear possible only through an endeavor into a kind of artificial design intelligence, which is more sensitive to the human perception of affairs.Considered as part of the broader Computational Design studies, the research program of this quest can be called Artificial / Autonomous / Automated Design (AD. The current available level of Artificial Intelligence (AI for design is limited and a viable aim for current AD would be to develop design assistants that are capable of producing drafts for various design tasks. Thus, the overall aim of this thesis is the development of approaches, techniques, and tools towards artificial design assistants that offer a capability for generating drafts for sub-tasks within design processes. The main technology explored for this aim is Evolutionary Computation (EC, and the target design domain is architecture. The two connected research questions of the study concern, first, the investigation of the ways to develop an architectural design assistant, and secondly, the utilization of EC for the development of such assistants.While developing approaches, techniques, and computational tools for such an assistant, the study also carries out a broad theoretical investigation into the main problems, challenges, and requirements towards such assistants on a rather overall level. Therefore, the research is shaped as a parallel investigation of three main threads interwoven along several levels, moving from a more general level to specific applications. The three research threads comprise, first, theoretical discussions and speculations with regard to both existing

  11. Domain Representable Spaces Defined by Strictly Positive Induction

    OpenAIRE

    Køber, Petter Kristian

    2010-01-01

    Recursive domain equations have natural solutions. In particular there are domains defined by strictly positive induction. The class of countably based domains gives a computability theory for possibly non-countably based topological spaces. A $ qcb_{0} $ space is a topological space characterized by its strong representability over domains. In this paper, we study strictly positive inductive definitions for $ qcb_{0} $ spaces by means of domain representations, i.e. we show that there exists...

  12. A Hybrid Chaotic Quantum Evolutionary Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Y.; Zhang, M.; Cai, H.

    2010-01-01

    and enhance the global search ability. A large number of tests show that the proposed algorithm has higher convergence speed and better optimizing ability than quantum evolutionary algorithm, real-coded quantum evolutionary algorithm and hybrid quantum genetic algorithm. Tests also show that when chaos...

  13. Oversimplifying Evolutionary Psychology Leads to Explanatory Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Chuck; Ledbetter, Jay N.

    2010-01-01

    Comments on Evolutionary psychology: Controversies, questions, prospects, and limitations by Confer et al. They argued that SST cannot explain the existence of either homosexuality or suicide within the human species. We contend that a sufficiently nuanced evolutionary position has no difficulties explaining either phenomenon. Also in this…

  14. On Economic Applications of Evolutionary Game Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Friedman

    2010-01-01

    Evolutionary games have considerable unrealized potential for modeling substantive economic issues. They promise richer predictions than orthodox game models but often require more extensive specifications. This paper exposits the specification of evolutionary game models and classifies the possible asymptotic behavior for one and two dimensional models.

  15. Handbook of differential equations evolutionary equations

    CERN Document Server

    Dafermos, CM

    2008-01-01

    The material collected in this volume discusses the present as well as expected future directions of development of the field with particular emphasis on applications. The seven survey articles present different topics in Evolutionary PDE's, written by leading experts.- Review of new results in the area- Continuation of previous volumes in the handbook series covering Evolutionary PDEs- Written by leading experts

  16. Information Geometry and Evolutionary Game Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Harper, Marc

    2009-01-01

    The Shahshahani geometry of evolutionary game theory is realized as the information geometry of the simplex, deriving from the Fisher information metric of the manifold of categorical probability distributions. Some essential concepts in evolutionary game theory are realized information-theoretically. Results are extended to the Lotka-Volterra equation and to multiple population systems.

  17. On the Evolutionary Stability of Bargaining Inefficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Anders

    This paper investigates whether 'tough' bargaining behavior, which gives rise to inefficiency, can be evolutionary stable. We show that in a two-stage Nash Demand Game tough behavior survives. Indeed, almost all the surplus may be wasted. We also study the Ultimatum Game. Here evolutionary...

  18. Improving the structural quality of UML class diagrams with the genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deryugina Olga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of improving the structural quality of UML class diagrams can be formulated as an optimization problem. The Genetic algorithm is concerned to be able to solve such problems. This paper focuses on the ways in which the Genetic algorithm can be applied to the problem of improving structural quality of UML class diagrams. It develops the theme of semantically equivalent transformations of UML class diagrams during the evolutionary search. This paper suggests the structural semantics of the UML class diagrams. It also formulates the problem of improving the structural quality of a UML class diagram during the evolutionary search and proposes a solution of the problem based on the Genetic algorithm. The paper presents the results of the computational experiment aimed at improving of the structural quality of the UML class diagram with the help of the Genetic algorithm and identifies issues for future work.

  19. The Citation Field of Evolutionary Economics

    CERN Document Server

    Dolfsma, Wilfred

    2010-01-01

    Evolutionary economics has developed into an academic field of its own, institutionalized around, amongst others, the Journal of Evolutionary Economics (JEE). This paper analyzes the way and extent to which evolutionary economics has become an interdisciplinary journal, as its aim was: a journal that is indispensable in the exchange of expert knowledge on topics and using approaches that relate naturally with it. Analyzing citation data for the relevant academic field for the Journal of Evolutionary Economics, we use insights from scientometrics and social network analysis to find that, indeed, the JEE is a central player in this interdisciplinary field aiming mostly at understanding technological and regional dynamics. It does not, however, link firmly with the natural sciences (including biology) nor to management sciences, entrepreneurship, and organization studies. Another journal that could be perceived to have evolutionary acumen, the Journal of Economic Issues, does relate to heterodox economics journa...

  20. Evolutionary Psychiatry and Nosology: Prospects and Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Faucher

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I explain why evolutionary psychiatry is not where the next revolution in psychiatry will come from. I will proceed as follows. Firstly, I will review some of the problems commonly attributed to current nosologies, more specifically to the DSM. One of these problems is the lack of a clear and consensual definition of mental disorder; I will then examine specific attempts to spell out such a definition that use the evolutionary framework. One definition that deserves particular attention (for a number of reasons that I will mention later, is one put forward by Jerome Wakefield. Despite my sympathy for his position, I must indicate a few reasons why I think his attempt might not be able to resolve the problems related to current nosologies. I suggest that it might be wiser for an evolutionary psychiatrist to adopt the more integrative framework of “treatable conditions” (Cosmides and Tooby, 1999. As it is thought that an evolutionary approach can contribute to transforming the way we look at mental disorders, I will provide the reader with a brief sketch of the basic tenets of evolutionary psychology. The picture of the architecture of the human mind that emerges from evolutionary psychology is thought by some to be the crucial backdrop to identifying specific mental disorders and distinguishing them from normal conditions. I will also provide two examples of how evolutionary thinking is supposed to change our thinking about some disorders. Using the case of depression, I will then show what kind of problems evolutionary explanations of particular psychopathologies encounter. In conclusion, I will evaluate where evolutionary thinking leaves us in regard to what I identify as the main problems of our current nosologies. I’ll then argue that the prospects of evolutionary psychiatry are not good.

  1. Software Defined Common Processing System (SDCPS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Coherent Logix, Incorporated proposes the Software Defined Common Processing System (SDCPS) program to facilitate the development of a Software Defined Radio...

  2. Information gating: an evolutionary model of personality function and dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, W P

    1998-01-01

    Utilizing principles of evolutionary biology, a model is developed which defines the essential adaptive functions of personality as a whole, and describes how failure in those functions produces the maladaptations characteristic of personality disorders. In this model, personality is hypothesized to have evolved specifically to make human culture possible by managing the flow of information within the culture, especially by mediating teaching and learning, competition and cooperation, and leading and following. These essential culture-forming capacities of personality have at their root the more basic function of information gating, which is defined here as the continuous regulation by personality of its openness for the bidirectional flow of sensory, cognitive, emotional, and motor information between internal self and external social systems, to best meet the needs of both in various situations. The maladaptations characteristic of personality disorders are postulated to be due to their being chronically and frequently too open or too closed for expressing or assimilating social information, given their circumstances. The relationship of this model to other evolutionary models of personality is discussed, as are its clinical and research implications.

  3. Variable-Voltage Class-E Power Amplifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acar, Mustafa; Annema, Anne Johan; Nauta, Bram

    2007-01-01

    The Class-E power amplifier is widely used due to its high efficiency, resulting from switching at zero voltage and zero slope of the switch voltage. In this paper, we extend general analytical solutions for the Class-E power amplifier to the ideal single-ended Variable-Voltage Class-E (Class-EVV) p

  4. Semisimple Classes of Semirings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    U. Hebisch; H.J. Weinert

    2002-01-01

    A famous result of Sands states that a class S of associative rings is semisimple if and only if S is regular, coinductive, and extensionally closed. Here,we investigate semisimple classes in a Kurosh-Amitsur radical theory for semirings. We show that such a class S is regular, K-coinductive, and K-extensionally closed. But a characterization of semisimple classes of semirings needs a fourth condition, namely that S is inverse semi-isomorphically closed. We also obtain other characterizations and results for semisimple classes and for subdirect products of semirings.

  5. Loosely coupled class families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2001-01-01

    are expressed using virtual classes seem to be very tightly coupled internally. While clients have achieved the freedom to dynamically use one or the other family, it seems that any given family contains a xed set of classes and we will need to create an entire family of its own just in order to replace one...... of the members with another class. This paper shows how to express class families in such a manner that the classes in these families can be used in many dierent combinations, still enabling family polymorphism and ensuring type safety....

  6. Class, Culture and Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrits, Gitte Sommer

    2013-01-01

    Even though contemporary discussions of class have moved forward towards recognizing a multidimensional concept of class, empirical analyses tend to focus on cultural practices in a rather narrow sense, that is, as practices of cultural consumption or practices of education. As a result......, discussions within political sociology have not yet utilized the merits of a multidimensional conception of class. In light of this, the article suggests a comprehensive Bourdieusian framework for class analysis, integrating culture as both a structural phenomenon co-constitutive of class and as symbolic...

  7. Robustness of Cooperation in the Evolutionary Prisoner's Dilemma on Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Poncela, J; Floria, L M; Moreno, Y

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies on the evolutionary dynamics of the Prisoner's Dilemma game in scale-free networks have demonstrated that the heterogeneity of the network interconnections enhances the evolutionary success of cooperation. In this paper we address the issue of how the characterization of the asymptotic states of the evolutionary dynamics depends on the initial concentration of cooperators. We find that the measure and the connectedness properties of the set of nodes where cooperation reaches fixation is largely independent of initial conditions, in contrast with the behavior of both the set of nodes where defection is fixed, and the fluctuating nodes. We also check for the robustness of these results when varying the degree heterogeneity along a one-parametric family of networks interpolating between the class of Erdos-Renyi graphs and the Barabasi-Albert networks.

  8. Evolutionary genomics of animal personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oers, Kees; Mueller, Jakob C

    2010-12-27

    Research on animal personality can be approached from both a phenotypic and a genetic perspective. While using a phenotypic approach one can measure present selection on personality traits and their combinations. However, this approach cannot reconstruct the historical trajectory that was taken by evolution. Therefore, it is essential for our understanding of the causes and consequences of personality diversity to link phenotypic variation in personality traits with polymorphisms in genomic regions that code for this trait variation. Identifying genes or genome regions that underlie personality traits will open exciting possibilities to study natural selection at the molecular level, gene-gene and gene-environment interactions, pleiotropic effects and how gene expression shapes personality phenotypes. In this paper, we will discuss how genome information revealed by already established approaches and some more recent techniques such as high-throughput sequencing of genomic regions in a large number of individuals can be used to infer micro-evolutionary processes, historical selection and finally the maintenance of personality trait variation. We will do this by reviewing recent advances in molecular genetics of animal personality, but will also use advanced human personality studies as case studies of how molecular information may be used in animal personality research in the near future. PMID:21078651

  9. The Evolutionary Origins of Hierarchy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henok Mengistu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hierarchical organization-the recursive composition of sub-modules-is ubiquitous in biological networks, including neural, metabolic, ecological, and genetic regulatory networks, and in human-made systems, such as large organizations and the Internet. To date, most research on hierarchy in networks has been limited to quantifying this property. However, an open, important question in evolutionary biology is why hierarchical organization evolves in the first place. It has recently been shown that modularity evolves because of the presence of a cost for network connections. Here we investigate whether such connection costs also tend to cause a hierarchical organization of such modules. In computational simulations, we find that networks without a connection cost do not evolve to be hierarchical, even when the task has a hierarchical structure. However, with a connection cost, networks evolve to be both modular and hierarchical, and these networks exhibit higher overall performance and evolvability (i.e. faster adaptation to new environments. Additional analyses confirm that hierarchy independently improves adaptability after controlling for modularity. Overall, our results suggest that the same force-the cost of connections-promotes the evolution of both hierarchy and modularity, and that these properties are important drivers of network performance and adaptability. In addition to shedding light on the emergence of hierarchy across the many domains in which it appears, these findings will also accelerate future research into evolving more complex, intelligent computational brains in the fields of artificial intelligence and robotics.

  10. Wholistic Health Care: Evolutionary Conceptual Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziebarth, Deborah Jean

    2016-10-01

    While performing a data search to define "wholistic health care", it was evident that a definite gap existed in published literature. In addition, there are different definitions and several similar terms (whole person care, wholistic health, whole person health, wholism, etc.), which may cause confusion. The purpose of this paper was to present the analysis of "wholistic health care" using Rodgers' Evolutionary Method. The method allows for the historical and social nature of "wholistic health care" and how it changes over time. Attributes, antecedents, and consequences of wholistic health care were reduced using a descriptive matrix. In addition, attributes that consistently occurred in wholistic health care were presented as essential attributes. Definitions of Wholistic Health Care Provider(s), Wholistic Health, Wholistic Illness, Wholistic Healing, and Patient were created from the analysis of the literature review of attributes, antecedents, and consequences of wholistic health care. Wholistic Health Care is defined as the assessment, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of wholistic illness in human beings to maintain wholistic health or enhance wholistic healing. Identified wholistic health needs are addressed simultaneously by one or a team of allied health professionals in the provision of primary care, secondary care, and tertiary care. Wholistic health care is patient centered and considers the totality of the person (e.g., human development at a given age, genetic endowments, disease processes, environment, culture, experiences, relationships, communication, assets, attitudes, beliefs, and lifestyle behaviors). Patient centered refers to the patient as active participant in deciding the course of care. Essential attributes of wholistic health care are faith (spiritual) integrating, health promoting, disease managing, coordinating, empowering, and accessing health care. Wholistic health care may occur in collaboration with a faith-based organization to

  11. Evolutionary hierarchy of vertebrate-like heterotrimeric G protein families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Arunkumar; Mustafa, Arshi; Almén, Markus Sällman; Fredriksson, Robert; Williams, Michael J; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2015-10-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins perform a crucial role as molecular switches controlling various cellular responses mediated by G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling pathway. Recent data have shown that the vertebrate-like G protein families are found across metazoans and their closest unicellular relatives. However, an overall evolutionary hierarchy of vertebrate-like G proteins, including gene family annotations and in particular mapping individual gene gain/loss events across diverse holozoan lineages is still incomplete. Here, with more expanded invertebrate taxon sampling, we have reconstructed phylogenetic trees for each of the G protein classes/families and provide a robust classification and hierarchy of vertebrate-like heterotrimeric G proteins. Our results further extend the evidence that the common ancestor (CA) of holozoans had at least five ancestral Gα genes corresponding to all major vertebrate Gα classes and contain a total of eight genes including two Gβ and one Gγ. Our results also indicate that the GNAI/O-like gene likely duplicated in the last CA of metazoans to give rise to GNAI- and GNAO-like genes, which are conserved across invertebrates. Moreover, homologs of GNB1-4 paralogon- and GNB5 family-like genes are found in most metazoans and that the unicellular holozoans encode two ancestral Gβ genes. Similarly, most bilaterian invertebrates encode two Gγ genes which include a representative of the GNG gene cluster and a putative homolog of GNG13. Interestingly, our results also revealed key evolutionary events such as the Drosophila melanogaster eye specific Gβ subunit that is found conserved in most arthropods and several previously unidentified species specific expansions within Gαi/o, Gαs, Gαq, Gα12/13 classes and the GNB1-4 paralogon. Also, we provide an overall proposed evolutionary scenario on the expansions of all G protein families in vertebrate tetraploidizations. Our robust classification/hierarchy is essential to further

  12. Evolutionary theory and the naturalist fallacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh

    2008-01-01

    The article is an invited response to a target article by Joseph Carroll entitled "An evolutionary paradigm for literary study". It argues that the target article  misuse the fact that works of art are based on adaptations that were fitness-enhancing in the era of evolutionary adaptations to claim...... that great work of art are also automatically fitness-enhancing in the present day environment, at that there are simple correllations between whether a work of art has a high aesthetic value and whether it is fitness-enhancing or not.  Keywords :  Evolutionary aesthetics, film theory, literary theory...

  13. First-class Compositions--Defining and composing object and aspect compositions with first-class operators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, Lodewijk; Havinga, Wilke; Aksit, Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    A considerable amount of research, especially within the OO and AOSD communities, has focused on understanding the potential and limitations of various composition techniques. This has led to a large number of proposals for alternative composition techniques, including many variations of message di

  14. A possibilistic approach to rotorcraft design through a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Han Gil

    Most of the engineering design processes in use today in the field may be considered as a series of successive decision making steps. The decision maker uses information at hand, determines the direction of the procedure, and generates information for the next step and/or other decision makers. However, the information is often incomplete, especially in the early stages of the design process of a complex system. As the complexity of the system increases, uncertainties eventually become unmanageable using traditional tools. In such a case, the tools and analysis values need to be "softened" to account for the designer's intuition. One of the methods that deals with issues of intuition and incompleteness is possibility theory. Through the use of possibility theory coupled with fuzzy inference, the uncertainties estimated by the intuition of the designer are quantified for design problems. By involving quantified uncertainties in the tools, the solutions can represent a possible set, instead of a crisp spot, for predefined levels of certainty. From a different point of view, it is a well known fact that engineering design is a multi-objective problem or a set of such problems. The decision maker aims to find satisfactory solutions, sometimes compromising the objectives that conflict with each other. Once the candidates of possible solutions are generated, a satisfactory solution can be found by various decision-making techniques. A number of multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) have been developed, and can be found in the literature, which are capable of generating alternative solutions and evaluating multiple sets of solutions in one single execution of an algorithm. One of the MOEA techniques that has been proven to be very successful for this class of problems is the strength Pareto evolutionary algorithm (SPEA) which falls under the dominance-based category of methods. The Pareto dominance that is used in SPEA, however, is not enough to account for the

  15. EVOLUCIONISTA Y DARWIN Evolutionary Economics and Darwin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVÁN D. HERNANDEZ U

    disyuntivas racionales es insuficiente, esto plantea un reto para que futuras investigaciones consideren al pensamiento evolucionista como una alternativa a la hora de estudiar sistemas con altos niveles de emprenderismo por necesidad, alta desigualdad y alta felicidad. Es seguramente un terreno fructífero e interesante.From the XIXth century onwards, two different paths were taken in the history of economic science. Almost simultaneously, the darwinian and the marginalist revolution took place but their respective -ulterior motif - could not be more opposited one from the other. The theory of Darwin about the evolution of the species by means of the natural selection, became a challenge to the dominant vision of the world: the Newtonian one (Witt, 1999. This challenge to the Newtonian ideal, was influenced, paradoxically, by intellectual stimuli coming from thinkers outside biology. These influences emanated from the liberal social philosophy of -laissez faire, laissez passer- during the XVIII century and beginning of the XIX century. In Darwin's correspondence with Herbert Spencer, stands out the clear influence of economists-philosophers like Adam Smith, from the so-called School of Edinburgh, and Robert Malthus. The paradox is that nowadays Darwin, in return, influences modern economists. The Darwinian revolution in the modern economy consists in showing capitalism as a evolutionary process explained by processes of change of patterns in the relations between entities. But great part of this study of Darwinian influence does not have to do with the study of Biology itself. It is related to the principles and concepts that define the evolutionary mechanism that is the foundation of the development of the modern evolutionary theory. What can we learn from the study of the natural system and its related disciplines in the field of social thinking in the adaptability of agents, in the face of adversity and bio- and sociodiversity? The high degree of entrepreneurship in Latin

  16. Selective constraints in experimentally defined primate regulatory regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Gaffney

    Full Text Available Changes in gene regulation may be important in evolution. However, the evolutionary properties of regulatory mutations are currently poorly understood. This is partly the result of an incomplete annotation of functional regulatory DNA in many species. For example, transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs, a major component of eukaryotic regulatory architecture, are typically short, degenerate, and therefore difficult to differentiate from randomly occurring, nonfunctional sequences. Furthermore, although sites such as TFBSs can be computationally predicted using evolutionary conservation as a criterion, estimates of the true level of selective constraint (defined as the fraction of strongly deleterious mutations occurring at a locus in regulatory regions will, by definition, be upwardly biased in datasets that are a priori evolutionarily conserved. Here we investigate the fitness effects of regulatory mutations using two complementary datasets of human TFBSs that are likely to be relatively free of ascertainment bias with respect to evolutionary conservation but, importantly, are supported by experimental data. The first is a collection of almost >2,100 human TFBSs drawn from the literature in the TRANSFAC database, and the second is derived from several recent high-throughput chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with genomic microarray (ChIP-chip analyses. We also define a set of putative cis-regulatory modules (pCRMs by spatially clustering multiple TFBSs that regulate the same gene. We find that a relatively high proportion ( approximately 37% of mutations at TFBSs are strongly deleterious, similar to that at a 2-fold degenerate protein-coding site. However, constraint is significantly reduced in human and chimpanzee pCRMS and ChIP-chip sequences, relative to macaques. We estimate that the fraction of regulatory mutations that have been driven to fixation by positive selection in humans is not significantly different from zero. We also find

  17. [Evolutionary medicine: an emergent basic science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spotorno, Angel E

    2005-02-01

    Evolutionary Medicine is an emergent basic science that offers new and varied perspectives to the comprehension of human health. The application of classic evolutionary theories (descent with modification, and natural selection) to the human organism, to its pathogens, and their mutual co-evolution, provides new explanations about why we get sick, how we can prevent this, and how we can heal. Medicine has focused mainly on the proximate or immediate causes of diseases and the treatment of symptoms, and very little on its evolutionary or mediate causes. For instance, the present human genome and phenotypes are essentially paleolithic ones: they are not adapted to modern life style, thus favoring the so-called diseases of civilization (ie: ateroesclerosis, senescence, myopia, phobias, panic attacks, stress, reproductive cancers). With the evolutionary approach, post-modern medicine is detecting better the vulnerabilities, restrictions, biases, adaptations and maladaptations of human body, its actual diseases, and its preventions.

  18. Evolutionary origins of leadership and followership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vugt, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Drawing upon evolutionary logic, leadership is reconceptualized in terms of the outcome of strategic interactions among individuals who are following different, yet complementary, decision rules to solve recurrent coordination problems. This article uses the vast psychological literature on leadership as a database to test several evolutionary hypotheses about the origins of leadership and followership in humans. As expected, leadership correlates with initiative taking, trait measures of intelligence, specific task competencies, and several indicators of generosity. The review finds no link between leadership and dominance. The evolutionary analysis accounts for reliable age, health, and sex differences in leadership emergence. In general, evolutionary theory provides a useful, integrative framework for studying leader-follower relationships and generates various novel research hypotheses. PMID:17201593

  19. Evolutionary Topology Optimization for Heat Conduction Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jiachun; YE Bangyan; TANG Yong; GUAN Qiming; YANG Xudong

    2006-01-01

    An effective evolutionary method for solving the structural topology design problems of heat conductive fields is presented in this paper. The topology optimization model based on minimizing the heat transport potential capacity dissipation of heat conductive field is then established and the corresponding sensitivity of objective function is derived to determine which elements would be removed of the heat conductive field for having the increment of the objective heat transport potential capacity dissipation minimized. A Filtering technique is employed in sensitivity field to eliminate numerical instabilities in the evolutionary procedure. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the validity and the engineering applicability of the evolutionary method by contrast with SIMP method, meanwhile we can come to a conclusion that higher speed of convergence and clearer optimal topology distribution without intermediate elements can be attained by using evolutionary strategy, with the results laying a reliable foundation for the subsequent shape and size optimizations in thermal engineering.

  20. How mutation affects evolutionary games on graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Benjamin; Traulsen, Arne; Tarnita, Corina E; Nowak, Martin A

    2012-04-21

    Evolutionary dynamics are affected by population structure, mutation rates and update rules. Spatial or network structure facilitates the clustering of strategies, which represents a mechanism for the evolution of cooperation. Mutation dilutes this effect. Here we analyze how mutation influences evolutionary clustering on graphs. We introduce new mathematical methods to evolutionary game theory, specifically the analysis of coalescing random walks via generating functions. These techniques allow us to derive exact identity-by-descent (IBD) probabilities, which characterize spatial assortment on lattices and Cayley trees. From these IBD probabilities we obtain exact conditions for the evolution of cooperation and other game strategies, showing the dual effects of graph topology and mutation rate. High mutation rates diminish the clustering of cooperators, hindering their evolutionary success. Our model can represent either genetic evolution with mutation, or social imitation processes with random strategy exploration.

  1. Evolutionary Theories of Aging and Longevity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid A. Gavrilov

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to provide students and researchers entering the field of aging studies with an introduction to the evolutionary theories of aging, as well as to orient them in the abundant modern scientific literature on evolutionary gerontology. The following three major evolutionary theories of aging are discussed: 1 the theory of programmed death suggested by August Weismann, 2 the mutation accumulation theory of aging suggested by Peter Medawar, and 3 the antagonistic pleiotropy theory of aging suggested by George Williams. We also discuss a special case of the antagonistic pleiotropy theory, the disposable soma theory developed by Tom Kirkwood and Robin Holliday. The theories are compared with each other as well as with recent experimental findings. At present the most viable evolutionary theories are the mutation accumulation theory and the antagonistic pleiotropy theory; these theories are not mutually exclusive, and they both may become a part of a future unifying theory of aging.

  2. Still doing evolutionary algorithms with Perl

    CERN Document Server

    Guervos, Juan J Merelo

    2009-01-01

    Algorithm::Evolutionary (A::E from now on) was introduced in 2002, after a talk in YAPC::EU in Munich. 7 years later, A::E is in its 0.67 version (past its "number of the beast" 0.666), and has been used extensively, to the point of being the foundation of much of the (computer) science being done by our research group (and, admittedly, not many others). All is not done, however; now A::E is being integrated with POE so that evolutionary algorithms (EAs) can be combined with all kinds of servers and used in client, servers, and anything in between. In this companion to the talk I will explain what evolutionary algorithms are, what they are being used for, how to do them with Perl (using these or other fine modules found in CPAN) and what evolutionary algorithms can do for Perl at large.

  3. Teaching Evolutionary Theory as General Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Paul

    1984-01-01

    Provides a rationale for including evolution as part of a college general education curriculum, discussing the content of evolutionary theory, instructional principles, Darwin's contributions, evolution and religion, and the relationship of evolution with current events. (DMM)

  4. Evolutionary Robotics: What, Why, and Where to

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephane eDoncieux

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary robotics applies the selection, variation, and heredity principles of natural evolution to the design of robots with embodied intelligence. It can be considered as a subfield of robotics that aims to create more robust and adaptive robots. A pivotal feature of the evolutionary approach is that it considers the whole robot at once, and enables the exploitation of robot features in a holistic manner. Evolutionary robotics can also be seen as an innovative approach to the study of evolution based on a new kind of experimentalism. The use of robots as a substrate can help address questions that are difficult, if not impossible, to investigate through computer simulations or biological studies. In this paper we consider the main achievements of evolutionary robotics, focusing particularly on its contributions to both engineering and biology. We briefly elaborate on methodological issues, review some of the most interesting findings, and discuss important open issues and promising avenues for future work.

  5. Challenges and Opportunities of Evolutionary Robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Sofge, D A; Bugajska, M D; Schultz, A C

    2007-01-01

    Robotic hardware designs are becoming more complex as the variety and number of on-board sensors increase and as greater computational power is provided in ever-smaller packages on-board robots. These advances in hardware, however, do not automatically translate into better software for controlling complex robots. Evolutionary techniques hold the potential to solve many difficult problems in robotics which defy simple conventional approaches, but present many challenges as well. Numerous disciplines including artificial life, cognitive science and neural networks, rule-based systems, behavior-based control, genetic algorithms and other forms of evolutionary computation have contributed to shaping the current state of evolutionary robotics. This paper provides an overview of developments in the emerging field of evolutionary robotics, and discusses some of the opportunities and challenges which currently face practitioners in the field.

  6. Wolbachia versus dengue: Evolutionary forecasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, James J; Turelli, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A novel form of biological control is being applied to the dengue virus. The agent is the maternally transmitted bacterium Wolbachia, naturally absent from the main dengue vector, the mosquito Aedes aegypti. Three Wolbachia-based control strategies have been proposed. One is suppression of mosquito populations by large-scale releases of males incompatible with native females; this intervention requires ongoing releases. The other interventions transform wild mosquito populations with Wolbachia that spread via the frequency-dependent fitness advantage of Wolbachia-infected females; those interventions potentially require just a single, local release for area-wide disease control. One of these latter strategies uses Wolbachia that shortens mosquito life, indirectly preventing viral maturation/transmission. The other strategy uses Wolbachia that block viral transmission. All interventions can be undermined by viral, bacterial or mosquito evolution; viral virulence in humans may also evolve. We examine existing theory, experiments and comparative evidence to motivate predictions about evolutionary outcomes. (i) The life-shortening strategy seems the most likely to be thwarted by evolution. (ii) Mosquito suppression has a reasonable chance of working locally, at least in the short term, but long-term success over large areas is challenging. (iii) Dengue blocking faces strong selection for viral resistance but may well persist indefinitely at some level. Virulence evolution is not mathematically predictable, but comparative data provide no precedent for Wolbachia increasing dengue virulence. On balance, our analysis suggests that the considerable possible benefits of these technologies outweigh the known negatives, but the actual risk is largely unknown. PMID:24481199

  7. Semantic Analysis of Virtual Classes and Nested Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    1999-01-01

    Virtual classes and nested classes are distinguishing features of BETA. Nested classes originated from Simula, but until recently they have not been part of main stream object- oriented languages. C++ has a restricted form of nested classes and they were included in Java 1.1. Virtual classes is the...... classes and parameterized classes have been made. Although virtual classes and nested classes have been used in BETA for more than a decade, their implementation has not been published. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of virtual classes and nested classes by presenting the...

  8. Evolutionary explanations in medical and health profession courses: are you answering your students' "why" questions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malyango Avelin A

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical and pre-professional health students ask questions about human health that can be answered in two ways, by giving proximate and evolutionary explanations. Proximate explanations, most common in textbooks and classes, describe the immediate scientifically known biological mechanisms of anatomical characteristics or physiological processes. These explanations are necessary but insufficient. They can be complemented with evolutionary explanations that describe the evolutionary processes and principles that have resulted in human biology we study today. The main goal of the science of Darwinian Medicine is to investigate human disease, disorders, and medical complications from an evolutionary perspective. Discussion This paper contrasts the differences between these two types of explanations by describing principles of natural selection that underlie medical questions. Thus, why is human birth complicated? Why does sickle cell anemia exist? Why do we show symptoms like fever, diarrhea, and coughing when we have infection? Why do we suffer from ubiquitous age-related diseases like arteriosclerosis, Alzheimer's and others? Why are chronic diseases like type II diabetes and obesity so prevalent in modern society? Why hasn't natural selection eliminated the genes that cause common genetic diseases like hemochromatosis, cystic fibrosis, Tay sachs, PKU and others? Summary In giving students evolutionary explanations professors should underscore principles of natural selection, since these can be generalized for the analysis of many medical questions. From a research perspective, natural selection seems central to leading hypotheses of obesity and type II diabetes and might very well explain the occurrence of certain common genetic diseases like cystic fibrosis, hemochromatosis, Tay sachs, Fragile X syndrome, G6PD and others because of their compensating advantages. Furthermore, armed with evolutionary explanations, health care

  9. Class network routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanot, Gyan; Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.; Takken, Todd E.; Vranas, Pavlos M.

    2009-09-08

    Class network routing is implemented in a network such as a computer network comprising a plurality of parallel compute processors at nodes thereof. Class network routing allows a compute processor to broadcast a message to a range (one or more) of other compute processors in the computer network, such as processors in a column or a row. Normally this type of operation requires a separate message to be sent to each processor. With class network routing pursuant to the invention, a single message is sufficient, which generally reduces the total number of messages in the network as well as the latency to do a broadcast. Class network routing is also applied to dense matrix inversion algorithms on distributed memory parallel supercomputers with hardware class function (multicast) capability. This is achieved by exploiting the fact that the communication patterns of dense matrix inversion can be served by hardware class functions, which results in faster execution times.

  10. Evolutionary fingerprints in genome-scale networks

    OpenAIRE

    Schütte, Moritz

    2012-01-01

    Mathematical modeling of biological phenomena has experienced increasing interest since new high-throughput technologies give access to growing amounts of molecular data. These modeling approaches are especially able to test hypotheses which are not yet experimentally accessible or guide an experimental setup. One particular attempt investigates the evolutionary dynamics responsible for today's composition of organisms. Computer simulations either propose an evolutionary mechanism and thus re...

  11. Evolutionary food web models in fragmented landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Allhoff, Korinna Theresa

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystems all over the world currently experience dramatic changes in their environment. The direct consequences are increased extinction rates. Food webs, which are networks of predator-prey interactions, provide a basic understanding of ecosystems and therefore help to identify reasonable conservation strategies. In this thesis, I analyze evolutionary metacommunities, which can be modeled as evolutionary networks of networks: The outer networks represent fragmented landscapes of sever...

  12. Toward an Evolutionary Theory of Production

    OpenAIRE

    Winter, Sidney G.

    2002-01-01

    Production theory in the neoclassical tradition is strong on Abstract generality. Its high level of Abstraction tends to impede understanding of technological change, partly because its perspective on production differs so much from those of engineers, managers and technologists. A more grounded approach is needed for evolutionary economics, since evolutionary thinking sees questions of production as tightly and reciprocally connected with questions of coordination, incentives, and organizati...

  13. Epigenetic catalysis in an evolutionary context

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, Dr. Rodrick

    2009-01-01

    Recent work by Ciliberti et al. finds the spinglass model of regulatory gene networks adapted from neural network studies to have a single giant connected component in a metanetwork space of interaction matrices, permitting only gradual evolutionary transition, in conflict with empirical studies of development in sea urchin species that found evidence for punctuated equilibrium evolutionary transition. Shifting perspective from the highly parallel matrix space to the grammar/syntax of the tim...

  14. The evolutionary biology of child health

    OpenAIRE

    Crespi, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    I apply evolutionary perspectives and conceptual tools to analyse central issues underlying child health, with emphases on the roles of human-specific adaptations and genomic conflicts in physical growth and development. Evidence from comparative primatology, anthropology, physiology and human disorders indicates that child health risks have evolved in the context of evolutionary changes, along the human lineage, affecting the timing, growth-differentiation phenotypes and adaptive significanc...

  15. Stellar evolutionary models: uncertainties and systematics

    OpenAIRE

    Cassisi, S.

    2005-01-01

    In this last decade, our knowledge of evolutionary and structural properties of stars of different mass and chemical composition is significantly improved. This result has been achieved as a consequence of our improved capability in understanding and describing the physical behavior of stellar matter in the different thermal regimes characteristic of the different stellar mass ranges and/or evolutionary stages. This notwithstanding, current generation of stellar models is still affected by si...

  16. Hybrid evolutionary algorithms to solve scheduling problems

    OpenAIRE

    Minetti, Gabriela F.; Salto, Carolina; Bermúdez, Carlos; Fernandez, Natalia; Alfonso, Hugo; Gallard, Raúl Hector

    2002-01-01

    The choice of a search algorithm can play a vital role in the success of a scheduling application. Evolutionary algorithms (EAs) can be used to solve this kind of combinatorial optimization problems. Compared to conventional heuristics (CH) and local search techniques (LS), EAs are not well suited for fine-tuninf those structures, which are very close to optimal solutions. Therefore, in complex problems, it is essential to build hybrid evolutionary algorithms (HEA) by incorporating CH and/or ...

  17. Improving DNA Computing Using Evolutionary Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Godar J. Ibrahim; Tarik A. Rashid; Ahmed T. Sadiq

    2016-01-01

    the field of DNA Computing has attracted many biologists and computer scientists as it has a biological interface, small size and substantial parallelism. DNA computing depends on DNA molecules’ biochemical reactions which they can randomly anneal and they might accidentally cause improper or unattractive computations. This will inspire opportunities to use evolutionary computation via DNA. Evolutionary Computation emphasizes on probabilistic search and optimization methods which are mimickin...

  18. Stochastic evolutionary dynamics of direct reciprocity

    OpenAIRE

    Lorens A. Imhof; Nowak, Martin A.

    2009-01-01

    Evolutionary game theory is the study of frequency-dependent selection. The success of an individual depends on the frequencies of strategies that are used in the population. We propose a new model for studying evolutionary dynamics in games with a continuous strategy space. The population size is finite. All members of the population use the same strategy. A mutant strategy is chosen from some distribution over the strategy space. The fixation probability of the mutant strategy in the reside...

  19. The evolutionary position of turtles revised

    OpenAIRE

    Zardoya, Rafael; Meyer, Axel

    2001-01-01

    Consensus on the evolutionary position of turtles within the amniote phylogeny has eluded evolutionary biologists for more than a century. This phylogenetic problem has remained unsolved partly because turtles have such a unique morphology that only few characters can be used to link them with any other group of amniotes. Among the many alternative hypotheses that have been postulated to explain the origin and phylogenetic relationships of turtles, a general agreement among paleontologists em...

  20. Global Optimization with Hybrid Evolutionary Computation

    OpenAIRE

    Bashir, Hassan Abdullahi

    2014-01-01

    An investigation has been made into hybrid systems which include stochastic and deterministic optimization. This thesis aims to provide new and relevant insights into the design of the nature-inspired hybrid optimization paradigms. It combines evolutionary and gradient-based methods. These hybrid evolutionary methods yield improved performance when applied to complex global optimization tasks and recent research has shown many of such hybridization policies.The thesis has three broad contribu...

  1. R. A. Fisher and Evolutionary Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Karlin, Samuel

    1992-01-01

    R. A. Fisher, apart from his fundamental contributions to statistical science, fostered many developments of theoretical evolutionary science. In commemoration of Fisher's birth centenary (1991), this paper highlights several of Fisher's interests in evolutionary processes. These include the "Fundamental Theorem of Natural Selection," studies on the phenomenon of an even sex ratio in natural populations, the "runaway process" of sexual selection and models of polygenic inheritance. Some histo...

  2. Evolutionary Music Composition: A Quantitative Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Johannes Høydahl

    2011-01-01

    Artificial Evolution has shown great potential in the musical domain. One task in which Evolutionary techniques have shown special promise is in the automatic creation or composition of music. However, a major challenge faced when constructing evolutionary music composition systems is finding a suitable fitness function.Several approaches to fitness have been tried. The most common is interactive evaluation. However, major efficiency challenges with such an approach have inspired the search f...

  3. The Evolutionary Robustness of Forgiveness and Cooperation

    CERN Document Server

    Bó, Pedro Dal

    2012-01-01

    We study the evolutionary robustness of strategies in infinitely repeated prisoners' dilemma games in which players make mistakes with a small probability and are patient. The evolutionary process we consider is given by the replicator dynamics. We show that there are strategies with a uniformly large basin of attraction independently of the size of the population. Moreover, we show that those strategies forgive defections and, assuming that they are symmetric, they cooperate.

  4. Humanism and multiculturalism: an evolutionary alliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comas-Diaz, Lillian

    2012-12-01

    Humanism and multiculturalism are partners in an evolutionary alliance. Humanistic and multicultural psychotherapies have historically influenced each other. Humanism represents the third force in psychotherapy, while multiculturalism embodies the fourth developmental stage. Multiculturalism embraces humanistic values grounded in collective and social justice contexts. Examples of multicultural humanistic constructs include contextualism, holism, and liberation. Certainly, the multicultural-humanistic connection is a necessary shift in the evolution of psychotherapy. Humanism and multiculturalism participate in the development of an inclusive and evolutionary psychotherapy. PMID:23205825

  5. Derivation of evolutionary payoffs from observable behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Feigel, Alexander; Englander, Avraham; Engel, Assaf

    2008-01-01

    Interpretation of animal behavior, especially as cooperative or selfish, is a challenge for evolutionary theory. Strategy of a competition should follow from corresponding Darwinian payoffs for the available behavioral options. The payoffs and decision making processes, however, are difficult to observe and quantify. Here we present a general method for the derivation of evolutionary payoffs from observable statistics of interactions. The method is applied to combat of male bowl and doily spi...

  6. Evolutionary Minority Games: the benefits of imitation

    OpenAIRE

    Metzler, Richard; Horn, Christian

    2002-01-01

    In the original Evolutionary Minority Game, a segregation into two populations with opposing preferences is observed under many circumstances. We show that this segregation becomes more pronounced and more robust if the dynamics are changed slightly, such that strategies with above-average fitness become more frequent. Similar effects occur also for a generalization of the EMG to more than two choices, and for evolutionary dynamics of a different stochastic strategy for the Minority Game.

  7. How evolutionary crystal structure prediction works--and why.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oganov, Artem R; Lyakhov, Andriy O; Valle, Mario

    2011-03-15

    overall shape and explore their intrinsic dimensionalities. Because of the inverse relationships between order and energy and between the dimensionality and diversity of an ensemble of crystal structures, the chances that a random search will find the ground state decrease exponentially with increasing system size. A well-designed evolutionary algorithm allows for much greater computational efficiency. We illustrate the power of evolutionary CSP through applications that examine matter at high pressure, where new, unexpected phenomena take place. Evolutionary CSP has allowed researchers to make unexpected discoveries such as a transparent phase of sodium, a partially ionic form of boron, complex superconducting forms of calcium, a novel superhard allotrope of carbon, polymeric modifications of nitrogen, and a new class of compounds, perhydrides. These methods have also led to the discovery of novel hydride superconductors including the "impossible" LiH(n) (n=2, 6, 8) compounds, and CaLi(2). We discuss extensions of the method to molecular crystals, systems of variable composition, and the targeted optimization of specific physical properties.

  8. Interactive Evolutionary Multi-Objective Optimization Algorithm Using Cone Dominance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dalaijargal Purevsuren; Saif ur Rehman; Gang Cui; Jianmin Bao; Nwe Nwe Htay Win

    2015-01-01

    As the number of objectives increases, the performance of the Pareto dominance⁃based Evolutionary Multi⁃objective Optimization ( EMO) algorithms such as NSGA⁃II, SPEA2 severely deteriorates due to the drastic increase in the Pareto⁃incomparable solutions. We propose a sorting method which classifies these incomparable solutions into several ordered classes by using the decision maker's ( DM) preference information. This is accomplished by designing an interactive evolutionary algorithm and constructing convex cones. This method allows the DMs to drive the search process toward a preferred region of the Pareto optimal front. The performance of the proposed algorithm is assessed for two, three, and four⁃objective knapsack problems. The results demonstrate the algorithm's ability to converge to the most preferred point. The evaluation and comparison of the results indicate that the proposed approach gives better solutions than that of NSGA⁃II. In addition, the approach is more efficient compared to NSGA⁃II in terms of the number of generations required to reach the preferred point.

  9. Wavelet evolutionary network for complex-constrained portfolio rebalancing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganya, N. C.; Vijayalakshmi Pai, G. A.

    2012-07-01

    Portfolio rebalancing problem deals with resetting the proportion of different assets in a portfolio with respect to changing market conditions. The constraints included in the portfolio rebalancing problem are basic, cardinality, bounding, class and proportional transaction cost. In this study, a new heuristic algorithm named wavelet evolutionary network (WEN) is proposed for the solution of complex-constrained portfolio rebalancing problem. Initially, the empirical covariance matrix, one of the key inputs to the problem, is estimated using the wavelet shrinkage denoising technique to obtain better optimal portfolios. Secondly, the complex cardinality constraint is eliminated using k-means cluster analysis. Finally, WEN strategy with logical procedures is employed to find the initial proportion of investment in portfolio of assets and also rebalance them after certain period. Experimental studies of WEN are undertaken on Bombay Stock Exchange, India (BSE200 index, period: July 2001-July 2006) and Tokyo Stock Exchange, Japan (Nikkei225 index, period: March 2002-March 2007) data sets. The result obtained using WEN is compared with the only existing counterpart named Hopfield evolutionary network (HEN) strategy and also verifies that WEN performs better than HEN. In addition, different performance metrics and data envelopment analysis are carried out to prove the robustness and efficiency of WEN over HEN strategy.

  10. ABS 497 Complete Class

    OpenAIRE

    admin

    2015-01-01

    ABS 497 Complete Class   To purchase this material click below link   http://www.assignmentcloud.com/ABS-497/ABS-497-Complete-Class-Guide   For more classes visit   www.assignmentcloud.com   ABS 497 Week 1 Assignment Community Change ABS 497 Week 1 DQ 1 Fabian's Story ABS 497 Week 1 DQ 2 Doug's Story ABS 497 Week 2 DQ 1 Parenting Styles ABS 497 Week 2 DQ 2 Ethnicity and Learning Theory ABS 497 Week 3 ...

  11. Fostering a Middle Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO BIN

    2011-01-01

    Though there is no official definition of "middle class" in China,the tag has become one few Chinese people believe they deserve anyway.In early August,the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences released a report on China's urban development,saying China had a middle-class population of 230 million in 2009,or 37 percent of its urban residents.It also forecast half of city dwellers in China would be part of the middle class by 2023.

  12. Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm using Self-Organizing Data Analysis Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionut Balan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Multiobjective optimization is widely used in problems solving from a variety of areas. To solve such problems there was developed a set of algorithms, most of them based on evolutionary techniques. One of the algorithms from this class, which gives quite good results is SPEA2, method which is the basis of the proposed algorithm in this paper. Results from this paper are obtained by running these two algorithms on a flow-shop problem.

  13. Feasibility Preserving Constraint-Handling Strategies for Real Parameter Evolutionary Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Padhye, Nikhil; Mittal, Pulkit; Deb, Kalyanmoy

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary Algorithms (EAs) are being routinely applied for a variety of optimization tasks, and real-parameter optimization in the presence of constraints is one such important area. During constrained optimization EAs often create solutions that fall outside the feasible region; hence a viable constraint- handling strategy is needed. This paper focuses on the class of constraint-handling strategies that repair infeasible solutions by bringing them back into the search space and explicitly...

  14. An Evolutionary Algorithm for Solving Bilevel Programming Problems Using Duality Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Hecheng Li; Lei Fang

    2012-01-01

    Bilevel programming is characterized by two optimization problems located at different levels, in which the constraint region of the upper level problem is implicitly determined by the lower level problem. This paper is focused on a class of bilevel programming with a linear lower level problem and presents a new algorithm for solving this kind of problems by combining an evolutionary algorithm with the duality principle. First, by using the prime-dual conditions of the lower level problem, t...

  15. Evolutionary Consequences of DNA Methylation in a Basal Metazoan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Groves B; Bay, Line K; Matz, Mikhail V

    2016-09-01

    Gene body methylation (gbM) is an ancestral and widespread feature in Eukarya, yet its adaptive value and evolutionary implications remain unresolved. The occurrence of gbM within protein-coding sequences is particularly puzzling, because methylation causes cytosine hypermutability and hence is likely to produce deleterious amino acid substitutions. We investigate this enigma using an evolutionarily basal group of Metazoa, the stony corals (order Scleractinia, class Anthozoa, phylum Cnidaria). We show that patterns of coral gbM are similar to other invertebrate species, predicting wide and active transcription and slower sequence evolution. We also find a strong correlation between gbM and codon bias, resulting from systematic replacement of CpG bearing codons. We conclude that gbM has strong effects on codon evolution and speculate that this may influence establishment of optimal codons. PMID:27189563

  16. Hox gene survey in the chaetognath Spadella cephaloptera: evolutionary implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papillon, Daniel; Perez, Yvan; Fasano, Laurent; Le Parco, Yannick; Caubit, Xavier

    2003-04-01

    We present the isolation of six Hox genes in the chaetognath Spadella cephaloptera. We identified one member of the paralogy group 3, four median genes and a mosaic gene that shares features of both median and posterior classes ( SceMedPost). Several hypotheses may account for the presence of a mosaic Hox gene in this animal. Here we propose that SceMedPost may represent an ancestral gene, which has not diverged totally into a posterior or a median one. This hypothesis has interesting implications for the reconstruction of the evolutionary history of Hox genes and suggests that Chaetognatha lineage divergence could predate the deuterostome/protostome split. Such a phylogenetic position is considered in the light of their embryological and morphological characters. PMID:12690453

  17. Evolutionary patterns of proteinase activity in attine ant fungus gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semenova, Tatyana; Hughes, David Peter; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan;

    2011-01-01

    of evolutionary more derived fungal symbionts. This notion is also supported by buffering capacities of fungus gardens at pH 5.2 being remarkably high, and suggests that the fungal symbiont actively helps to maintain garden acidity at this specific level. Metalloproteinases dominated the activity profiles....... Conclusions: Proteinase pH optima and buffering capacities of fungal symbionts appear to have evolved remarkable adaptations to living in obligate symbiosis with farming ants. Although the functional roles of serine and metalloproteinases in fungus gardens are unknown, the differential production...... hypothesized that fungal proteinase activity may have been under selection for efficiency and that different classes of proteinases might be involved. Results: We determined proteinase activity profiles across a wide pH range for fungus gardens of 14 Panamanian species of fungus-growing ants, representing...

  18. Assessment of student conceptions of evolutionary trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacquiere, Luke

    Biologists use evolutionary trees to depict hypotheses about the relationships among taxa. Trees possess lines that represent lineages, internal nodes that represent where lineages become evolutionarily isolated from one another and terminal nodes that represent the taxa under consideration. Interpreting a tree (i.e., "tree-thinking") is an important skill for biologists yet many students struggle when reading evolutionary trees. Common documented misconceptions include using morphological similarity, internal node counting or terminal node proximity, instead of identifying the internal node that represents a most recent common ancestor (MRCA), to determine relationships among taxa. I developed an instrument to assess whether students were using common ancestry or another, non-scientific, strategy to determine relationships among taxa. The study is the first to explicitly test hypotheses about how students approach reading evolutionary trees. To test the hypotheses an instrument was developed. The instrument is the first reliable and valid assessment testing student understanding of how to use most recent common ancestor to interpret evolutionary relationships in tree diagrams. Instructors can use the instrument as a diagnostic tool enabling them to help students learn this challenging concept. This study shows that, contrary to the assertion that students hold misconceptions about evolutionary trees made in the literature, students do not consistently use erroneous strategies when interpreting trees. This study suggests that a constructivist perspective of cognitive structure describes students' conception of evolutionary trees more closely than a misconception perspective.

  19. Functionally reciprocal mutations of the prolactin signalling pathway define hairy and slick cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlejohn, Mathew D; Henty, Kristen M; Tiplady, Kathryn; Johnson, Thomas; Harland, Chad; Lopdell, Thomas; Sherlock, Richard G; Li, Wanbo; Lukefahr, Steven D; Shanks, Bruce C; Garrick, Dorian J; Snell, Russell G; Spelman, Richard J; Davis, Stephen R

    2014-01-01

    Lactation, hair development and homeothermy are characteristic evolutionary features that define mammals from other vertebrate species. Here we describe the discovery of two autosomal dominant mutations with antagonistic, pleiotropic effects on all three of these biological processes, mediated through the prolactin signalling pathway. Most conspicuously, mutations in prolactin (PRL) and its receptor (PRLR) have an impact on thermoregulation and hair morphology phenotypes, giving prominence to this pathway outside of its classical roles in lactation.

  20. Functionally reciprocal mutations of the prolactin signalling pathway define hairy and slick cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Littlejohn, Mathew D; Henty, Kristen M.; Tiplady, Kathryn; Johnson, Thomas; Harland, Chad; Lopdell, Thomas; Sherlock, Richard G.; Li, Wanbo; Lukefahr, Steven D.; Shanks, Bruce C.; Garrick, Dorian J; Snell, Russell G.; Spelman, Richard J; Stephen R. Davis

    2014-01-01

    Lactation, hair development and homeothermy are characteristic evolutionary features that define mammals from other vertebrate species. Here we describe the discovery of two autosomal dominant mutations with antagonistic, pleiotropic effects on all three of these biological processes, mediated through the prolactin signalling pathway. Most conspicuously, mutations in prolactin (PRL) and its receptor (PRLR) have an impact on thermoregulation and hair morphology phenotypes, giving prominence to...

  1. Sensitivity versus accuracy in multiclass problems using memetic Pareto evolutionary neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Caballero, Juan Carlos; Martínez, Francisco José; Hervás, César; Gutiérrez, Pedro Antonio

    2010-05-01

    This paper proposes a multiclassification algorithm using multilayer perceptron neural network models. It tries to boost two conflicting main objectives of multiclassifiers: a high correct classification rate level and a high classification rate for each class. This last objective is not usually optimized in classification, but is considered here given the need to obtain high precision in each class in real problems. To solve this machine learning problem, we use a Pareto-based multiobjective optimization methodology based on a memetic evolutionary algorithm. We consider a memetic Pareto evolutionary approach based on the NSGA2 evolutionary algorithm (MPENSGA2). Once the Pareto front is built, two strategies or automatic individual selection are used: the best model in accuracy and the best model in sensitivity (extremes in the Pareto front). These methodologies are applied to solve 17 classification benchmark problems obtained from the University of California at Irvine (UCI) repository and one complex real classification problem. The models obtained show high accuracy and a high classification rate for each class.

  2. Evolutionary Economics, Endogenous Growth Models, and Resource-Advantage Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Shelby D. Hunt

    1997-01-01

    The gap between evolutionary and neoclassical economics remains large. This article proposed that the gap can be narrowed by evolutionary economies developing process theories that can provide evolutionary theoretical foundations for formal models in the neoclassical equilibrium tradition. This article argues that a process of competitions labeled "resource-advantage theory," can provide an evolutionary, theoretical foundation for formal models of endogenous economic growth.

  3. Quantum classifying spaces and universal quantum characteristic classes

    CERN Document Server

    Durdevic, M

    1996-01-01

    A construction of the noncommutative-geometric counterparts of classical classifying spaces is presented, for general compact matrix quantum structure groups. A quantum analogue of the classical concept of the classifying map is introduced and analyzed. Interrelations with the abstract algebraic theory of quantum characteristic classes are discussed. Various non-equivalent approaches to defining universal characteristic classes are outlined.

  4. Teaching Large Evening Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wambuguh, Oscar

    2008-01-01

    High enrollments, conflicting student work schedules, and the sheer convenience of once-a-week classes are pushing many colleges to schedule evening courses. Held from 6 to 9 pm or 7 to 10 pm, these classes are typically packed, sometimes with more than 150 students in a large lecture theater. How can faculty effectively teach, control, or even…

  5. Universality classes of inflation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, Diederik

    2014-01-01

    We investigate all single-field, slow-roll inflationary models whose slow-roll parameters scale as 1/N in the limit of a large number of e-folds N. We proof that all such models belong to two universality classes, characterised by a single parameter. One class contains small field models like hillto

  6. Teaching Social Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tablante, Courtney B.; Fiske, Susan T.

    2015-01-01

    Discussing socioeconomic status in college classes can be challenging. Both teachers and students feel uncomfortable, yet social class matters more than ever. This is especially true, given increased income inequality in the United States and indications that higher education does not reduce this inequality as much as many people hope. Resources…

  7. The Last Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhl, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    The last class of the semester is like a goodbye. It can be cold and perfunctory or warm and heartfelt. For many years, I erred on the side of "cold and perfunctory." No more. Now my last classes are a time of celebration and ritual as I invite students to focus on qualities such as acceptance and gratitude.

  8. Class in disguise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Stine Thidemann; Prieur, Annick

    This paper asks how class can have importance in one of the worlds’ most equal societies: Denmark. The answer is that class here appears in disguised forms. The field under study is a city, Aalborg, in the midst of transition from a stronghold of industrialism to a post industrial economy...

  9. Defining the Product Chemical Space of Monoterpenoid Synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Boxue; Poulter, C Dale; Jacobson, Matthew P

    2016-08-01

    Terpenoid synthases create diverse carbon skeletons by catalyzing complex carbocation rearrangements, making them particularly challenging for enzyme function prediction. To begin to address this challenge, we have developed a computational approach for the systematic enumeration of terpenoid carbocations. Application of this approach allows us to systematically define a nearly complete chemical space for the potential carbon skeletons of products from monoterpenoid synthases. Specifically, 18758 carbocations were generated, which we cluster into 74 cyclic skeletons. Five of the 74 skeletons are found in known natural products; some of the others are plausible for new functions, either in nature or engineered. This work systematizes the description of function for this class of enzymes, and provides a basis for predicting functions of uncharacterized enzymes. To our knowledge, this is the first computational study to explore the complete product chemical space of this important class of enzymes. PMID:27517297

  10. On defining semantics of extended attribute grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    1980-01-01

    Knuth has introduced attribute grammars (AGs) as a tool to define the semanitcs of context-free languages. The use of AGs in connection with programming language definitions has mostly been to define the context-sensitive syntax of the language and to define a translation in code for a hypothetic...

  11. Transmissible cancers in an evolutionary context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujvari, Beata; Papenfuss, Anthony T; Belov, Katherine

    2016-07-01

    Cancer is an evolutionary and ecological process in which complex interactions between tumour cells and their environment share many similarities with organismal evolution. Tumour cells with highest adaptive potential have a selective advantage over less fit cells. Naturally occurring transmissible cancers provide an ideal model system for investigating the evolutionary arms race between cancer cells and their surrounding micro-environment and macro-environment. However, the evolutionary landscapes in which contagious cancers reside have not been subjected to comprehensive investigation. Here, we provide a multifocal analysis of transmissible tumour progression and discuss the selection forces that shape it. We demonstrate that transmissible cancers adapt to both their micro-environment and macro-environment, and evolutionary theories applied to organisms are also relevant to these unique diseases. The three naturally occurring transmissible cancers, canine transmissible venereal tumour (CTVT) and Tasmanian devil facial tumour disease (DFTD) and the recently discovered clam leukaemia, exhibit different evolutionary phases: (i) CTVT, the oldest naturally occurring cell line is remarkably stable; (ii) DFTD exhibits the signs of stepwise cancer evolution; and (iii) clam leukaemia shows genetic instability. While all three contagious cancers carry the signature of ongoing and fairly recent adaptations to selective forces, CTVT appears to have reached an evolutionary stalemate with its host, while DFTD and the clam leukaemia appear to be still at a more dynamic phase of their evolution. Parallel investigation of contagious cancer genomes and transcriptomes and of their micro-environment and macro-environment could shed light on the selective forces shaping tumour development at different time points: during the progressive phase and at the endpoint. A greater understanding of transmissible cancers from an evolutionary ecology perspective will provide novel avenues for

  12. Dutton, Davies, and Imaginative Virtual Worlds: The Current State of Evolutionary Aesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Carroll

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a commentary comparing the evolutionary perspectives of Denis Dutton’s The Art Instinct (2009 and Stephen Davies’s The Artful Species (2012. Their topics thus necessarily overlap, but their books have different purposes and a different feel. Davies’s book is an academic exercise. He has no real arguments or claims of his own. Dutton wishes to demonstrate that evolutionary psychology can provide a satisfying naturalistic explanation of aesthetic experience. Neither Davies nor Dutton fully succeeds in his ambition. Davies extends his scepticism well beyond a sensible account of the state of current knowledge about human evolution, and Dutton fails to recognize underlying theoretical differences in his main sources of theoretical inspiration. The limitations in these two works do not define the boundaries of current knowledge in evolutionary aesthetics. The most advanced and adequate concept in the evolutionary humanities is the idea that humans evolved the capacity to create imaginative virtual worlds and use those worlds to guide human behaviour. Both books being considered in this essay approach the idea of imaginative virtual worlds and almost grasp it. Before taking up that topic, the paper shall discuss two subsidiary issues: Dutton’s effort to incorporate sexual selection, and Davies’s sceptical negations about all evolutionary knowledge.

  13. EvoluCode: Evolutionary Barcodes as a Unifying Framework for Multilevel Evolutionary Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linard, Benjamin; Nguyen, Ngoc Hoan; Prosdocimi, Francisco; Poch, Olivier; Thompson, Julie D

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionary systems biology aims to uncover the general trends and principles governing the evolution of biological networks. An essential part of this process is the reconstruction and analysis of the evolutionary histories of these complex, dynamic networks. Unfortunately, the methodologies for representing and exploiting such complex evolutionary histories in large scale studies are currently limited. Here, we propose a new formalism, called EvoluCode (Evolutionary barCode), which allows the integration of different evolutionary parameters (eg, sequence conservation, orthology, synteny …) in a unifying format and facilitates the multilevel analysis and visualization of complex evolutionary histories at the genome scale. The advantages of the approach are demonstrated by constructing barcodes representing the evolution of the complete human proteome. Two large-scale studies are then described: (i) the mapping and visualization of the barcodes on the human chromosomes and (ii) automatic clustering of the barcodes to highlight protein subsets sharing similar evolutionary histories and their functional analysis. The methodologies developed here open the way to the efficient application of other data mining and knowledge extraction techniques in evolutionary systems biology studies. A database containing all EvoluCode data is available at: http://lbgi.igbmc.fr/barcodes.

  14. Lie theory and control systems defined on spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockett, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    It is shown that in constructing a theory for the most elementary class of control problems defined on spheres, some results from the Lie theory play a natural role. To understand controllability, optimal control, and certain properties of stochastic equations, Lie theoretic ideas are needed. The framework considered here is the most natural departure from the usual linear system/vector space problems which have dominated control systems literature. For this reason results are compared with those previously available for the finite dimensional vector space case.

  15. A novel evolutionary approach for optimizing content-based image indexing algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadatmand-Tarzjan, Mahdi; Moghaddam, Hamid Abrishami

    2007-02-01

    Optimization of content-based image indexing and retrieval (CBIR) algorithms is a complicated and time-consuming task since each time a parameter of the indexing algorithm is changed, all images in the database should be indexed again. In this paper, a novel evolutionary method called evolutionary group algorithm (EGA) is proposed for complicated time-consuming optimization problems such as finding optimal parameters of content-based image indexing algorithms. In the new evolutionary algorithm, the image database is partitioned into several smaller subsets, and each subset is used by an updating process as training patterns for each chromosome during evolution. This is in contrast to genetic algorithms that use the whole database as training patterns for evolution. Additionally, for each chromosome, a parameter called age is defined that implies the progress of the updating process. Similarly, the genes of the proposed chromosomes are divided into two categories: evolutionary genes that participate to evolution and history genes that save previous states of the updating process. Furthermore, a new fitness function is defined which evaluates the fitness of the chromosomes of the current population with different ages in each generation. We used EGA to optimize the quantization thresholds of the wavelet-correlogram algorithm for CBIR. The optimal quantization thresholds computed by EGA improved significantly all the evaluation measures including average precision, average weighted precision, average recall, and average rank for the wavelet-correlogram method.

  16. Evolutionary testing using an extended Chaining Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMinn, P; Holcombe, M

    2006-01-01

    Fitness functions derived from certain types of white-box test goals can be inadequate for evolutionary software test data generation (Evolutionary Testing), due to a lack of search guidance to the required test data. Often this is because the fitness function does not take into account data dependencies within the program under test, and the fact that certain program statements may need to have been executed prior to the target structure in order for it to be feasible. This paper proposes a solution to this problem by hybridizing Evolutionary Testing with an extended Chaining Approach. The Chaining Approach is a method which identifies statements on which the target structure is data dependent, and incrementally develops chains of dependencies in an event sequence. By incorporating this facility into Evolutionary Testing, and by performing a test data search for each generated event sequence, the search can be directed into potentially promising, unexplored areas of the test object's input domain. Results presented in the paper show that test data can be found for a number of test goals with this hybrid approach that could not be found by using the original Evolutionary Testing approach alone. One such test goal is drawn from code found in the publicly available libpng library. PMID:16536890

  17. The TALE class homeobox gene Smed-prep defines the anterior compartment for head regeneration.

    OpenAIRE

    Felix, Daniel A.; A. Aziz Aboobaker

    2010-01-01

    Planaria continue to blossom as a model system for understanding all aspects of regeneration. They provide an opportunity to understand how the replacement of missing tissues from preexisting adult tissue is orchestrated at the molecular level. When amputated along any plane, planaria are capable of regenerating all missing tissue and rescaling all structures to the new size of the animal. Recently, rapid progress has been made in understanding the developmental pathways that control planaria...

  18. The analysis of the human hemopexin promoter defines a new class of liver-specific genes.

    OpenAIRE

    Poli, V.; Silengo, L; Altruda, F; Cortese, R

    1989-01-01

    Hemopexin (Hpx) is a plasma glycoprotein which is expressed only in the liver. It is synthesized at a lower rate in the fetal liver than in the adult, and its level increases during acute infections. As shown here, a fragment of the human hemopexin promoter spanning from positions -130 to +22 relative to the cap site is sufficient to direct cell-specific transcription of a reporter gene. Within this segment a short sequence, located between positions -120 and -104, is responsible for this eff...

  19. Full circumpolar migration ensures evolutionary unity in the Emperor penguin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristofari, Robin; Bertorelle, Giorgio; Ancel, André; Benazzo, Andrea; Le Maho, Yvon; Ponganis, Paul J; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Trathan, Phil N; Whittington, Jason D; Zanetti, Enrico; Zitterbart, Daniel P; Le Bohec, Céline; Trucchi, Emiliano

    2016-06-14

    Defining reliable demographic models is essential to understand the threats of ongoing environmental change. Yet, in the most remote and threatened areas, models are often based on the survey of a single population, assuming stationarity and independence in population responses. This is the case for the Emperor penguin Aptenodytes forsteri, a flagship Antarctic species that may be at high risk continent-wide before 2100. Here, using genome-wide data from the whole Antarctic continent, we reveal that this top-predator is organized as one single global population with a shared demography since the late Quaternary. We refute the view of the local population as a relevant demographic unit, and highlight that (i) robust extinction risk estimations are only possible by including dispersal rates and (ii) colony-scaled population size is rather indicative of local stochastic events, whereas the species' response to global environmental change is likely to follow a shared evolutionary trajectory.

  20. Full circumpolar migration ensures evolutionary unity in the Emperor penguin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristofari, Robin; Bertorelle, Giorgio; Ancel, André; Benazzo, Andrea; Le Maho, Yvon; Ponganis, Paul J.; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Trathan, Phil N.; Whittington, Jason D.; Zanetti, Enrico; Zitterbart, Daniel P.; Le Bohec, Céline; Trucchi, Emiliano

    2016-01-01

    Defining reliable demographic models is essential to understand the threats of ongoing environmental change. Yet, in the most remote and threatened areas, models are often based on the survey of a single population, assuming stationarity and independence in population responses. This is the case for the Emperor penguin Aptenodytes forsteri, a flagship Antarctic species that may be at high risk continent-wide before 2100. Here, using genome-wide data from the whole Antarctic continent, we reveal that this top-predator is organized as one single global population with a shared demography since the late Quaternary. We refute the view of the local population as a relevant demographic unit, and highlight that (i) robust extinction risk estimations are only possible by including dispersal rates and (ii) colony-scaled population size is rather indicative of local stochastic events, whereas the species' response to global environmental change is likely to follow a shared evolutionary trajectory. PMID:27296726

  1. Optimization of energy systems based on Evolutionary and Social metaphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimopoulos, George G.; Frangopoulos, Christos A. [National Technical University of Athens, School of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering, Heroon Polytechniou 9, 157 73 Zografou (Greece)

    2008-02-15

    Optimization problems that arise in energy systems design often have several features that hinder the use of many optimization techniques. These optimization problems have non-continuous mixed variable definition domains, are heavily constrained, are multimodal (i.e. have many local optima) and, foremost, the functions used to define the engineering optimization problem are often computationally intensive. Three methods are tested here: (a) a Struggle Genetic Algorithm (StrGA), (b) a Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm (PSOA), and (c) a PSOA with Struggle Selection (PSOStr). The last is a hybrid of the evolutionary StrGA and the socially inspired PSOA. They are tested in four purely mathematical and three energy systems thermoeconomic optimization problems. All of the methods solved successfully all the problems. The PSOStr, however, outperformed the other methods in terms of both solution accuracy and computational cost (i.e. function evaluations). (author)

  2. Modeling evolutionary games in populations with demographic structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiang-Yi; Giaimo, Stefano; Baudisch, Annette;

    2015-01-01

    interactions, but usually omits life history and the demographic structure of the population. Here we show how an integration of both aspects can substantially alter the underlying evolutionary dynamics. We study the replicator dynamics of strategy interactions in life stage structured populations. Individuals...... have two basic strategic behaviours, interacting in pairwise games. A player may condition behaviour on the life stage of its own, or that of the opponent, or the matching of life stages between both players. A strategy is thus defined as the set of rules that determines a player׳s life stage dependent...... behaviours. We show that the diversity of life stage structures and life stage dependent strategies can promote each other, and the stable frequency of basic strategic behaviours can deviate from game equilibrium in populations with life stage structures....

  3. Full circumpolar migration ensures evolutionary unity in the Emperor penguin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristofari, Robin; Bertorelle, Giorgio; Ancel, André; Benazzo, Andrea; Le Maho, Yvon; Ponganis, Paul J; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Trathan, Phil N; Whittington, Jason D; Zanetti, Enrico; Zitterbart, Daniel P; Le Bohec, Céline; Trucchi, Emiliano

    2016-01-01

    Defining reliable demographic models is essential to understand the threats of ongoing environmental change. Yet, in the most remote and threatened areas, models are often based on the survey of a single population, assuming stationarity and independence in population responses. This is the case for the Emperor penguin Aptenodytes forsteri, a flagship Antarctic species that may be at high risk continent-wide before 2100. Here, using genome-wide data from the whole Antarctic continent, we reveal that this top-predator is organized as one single global population with a shared demography since the late Quaternary. We refute the view of the local population as a relevant demographic unit, and highlight that (i) robust extinction risk estimations are only possible by including dispersal rates and (ii) colony-scaled population size is rather indicative of local stochastic events, whereas the species' response to global environmental change is likely to follow a shared evolutionary trajectory. PMID:27296726

  4. Investigating evolutionary conservation of dendritic cell subset identity and functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thien-Phong eVu Manh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DC were initially defined as mononuclear phagocytes with a dendritic morphology and an exquisite efficiency for naïve T cell activation. DC encompass several subsets initially identified by their expression of specific cell surface molecules and later shown to excel in distinct functions and to develop under the instruction of different transcription factors or cytokines. Very few cell surface molecules are expressed in a specific manner on any immune cell type. Hence, to identify cell types, the sole use of a small number of cell surface markers in classical flow cytometry can be deceiving. Moreover, the markers currently used to define mononuclear phagocyte subsets vary depending on the tissue and animal species studied and even between laboratories. This has led to confusion in the definition of DC subset identity and in their attribution of specific functions. There is a strong need to identify a rigorous and consensus way to define mononuclear phagocyte subsets, with precise guidelines potentially applicable throughout tissues and species. We will discuss the advantages, drawbacks and complementarities of different methodologies: cell surface phenotyping, ontogeny, functional characterization and molecular profiling. We will advocate that gene expression profiling is a very rigorous, largely unbiased and accessible method to define the identity of mononuclear phagocyte subsets, which strengthens and refines surface phenotyping. It is uniquely powerful to yield new, experimentally testable, hypotheses on the ontogeny or functions of mononuclear phagocyte subsets, their molecular regulation and their evolutionary conservation. We propose defining cell populations based on a combination of cell surface phenotyping, expression analysis of hallmark genes and robust functional assays, in order to reach a consensus and integrate faster the huge but scattered knowledge accumulated by different laboratories on different cell types

  5. Social Class Dialogues and the Fostering of Class Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Meredith

    2015-01-01

    How do critical pedagogies promote undergraduate students' awareness of social class, social class identity, and social class inequalities in education? How do undergraduate students experience class consciousness-raising in the intergroup dialogue classroom? This qualitative study explores undergraduate students' class consciousness-raising in an…

  6. Computational and evolutionary aspects of language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Martin A.; Komarova, Natalia L.; Niyogi, Partha

    2002-06-01

    Language is our legacy. It is the main evolutionary contribution of humans, and perhaps the most interesting trait that has emerged in the past 500 million years. Understanding how darwinian evolution gives rise to human language requires the integration of formal language theory, learning theory and evolutionary dynamics. Formal language theory provides a mathematical description of language and grammar. Learning theory formalizes the task of language acquisition-it can be shown that no procedure can learn an unrestricted set of languages. Universal grammar specifies the restricted set of languages learnable by the human brain. Evolutionary dynamics can be formulated to describe the cultural evolution of language and the biological evolution of universal grammar.

  7. Monochromaticity in neutral evolutionary network models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halu, Arda; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2012-12-01

    Recent studies on epistatic networks of model organisms have unveiled a certain type of modular property called monochromaticity in which the networks are clustered into functional modules that interact with each other through the same type of epistasis. Here, we propose and study three epistatic network models that are inspired by the duplication-divergence mechanism to gain insight into the evolutionary basis of monochromaticity and to test if it can be explained as the outcome of a neutral evolutionary hypothesis. We show that the epistatic networks formed by these stochastic evolutionary models have monochromaticity conflict distributions that are centered close to zero and are statistically significantly different from their randomized counterparts. In particular, the last model we propose yields a strictly monochromatic solution. Our results agree with the monochromaticity findings in real organisms and point toward the possible role of a neutral mechanism in the evolution of this phenomenon. PMID:23367998

  8. Evolutionary Population Synthesis for Single Stellar Populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张奉辉; 韩占文; 李立芳; Jarrod R.Hurley

    2002-01-01

    Using the evolutionary population synthesis technique, we present the latest integrated colours for instantaneous burst single stellar populations (SSPs) of different metallicities and we investigate their colour evolution. Unlike previous research, we adopt the stellar evolutionary models that employ, amongst other things, recent opacities and a revised equation of state (EOS), and include evolutionary processes such as convective overshooting, thermal pulses and dredge-up. The models are used in the convenient form of analytical fitting functions. In addition, we use the BaSeL model for the library of stellar spectra. This model provides an extensive low-resolution theoretical flux distribution and UB VRIJHKLM colours, which have been calibrated empirically or semi-empirically, for a wide range of stellar parameters.

  9. An evolutionary model with Turing machines

    CERN Document Server

    Feverati, Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    The development of a large non-coding fraction in eukaryotic DNA and the phenomenon of the code-bloat in the field of evolutionary computations show a striking similarity. This seems to suggest that (in the presence of mechanisms of code growth) the evolution of a complex code can't be attained without maintaining a large inactive fraction. To test this hypothesis we performed computer simulations of an evolutionary toy model for Turing machines, studying the relations among fitness and coding/non-coding ratio while varying mutation and code growth rates. The results suggest that, in our model, having a large reservoir of non-coding states constitutes a great (long term) evolutionary advantage.

  10. Computational complexity of ecological and evolutionary spatial dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibsen-Jensen, Rasmus; Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Nowak, Martin A

    2015-12-22

    There are deep, yet largely unexplored, connections between computer science and biology. Both disciplines examine how information proliferates in time and space. Central results in computer science describe the complexity of algorithms that solve certain classes of problems. An algorithm is deemed efficient if it can solve a problem in polynomial time, which means the running time of the algorithm is a polynomial function of the length of the input. There are classes of harder problems for which the fastest possible algorithm requires exponential time. Another criterion is the space requirement of the algorithm. There is a crucial distinction between algorithms that can find a solution, verify a solution, or list several distinct solutions in given time and space. The complexity hierarchy that is generated in this way is the foundation of theoretical computer science. Precise complexity results can be notoriously difficult. The famous question whether polynomial time equals nondeterministic polynomial time (i.e., P = NP) is one of the hardest open problems in computer science and all of mathematics. Here, we consider simple processes of ecological and evolutionary spatial dynamics. The basic question is: What is the probability that a new invader (or a new mutant) will take over a resident population? We derive precise complexity results for a variety of scenarios. We therefore show that some fundamental questions in this area cannot be answered by simple equations (assuming that P is not equal to NP).

  11. DQw3 variants defined by cloned alloreactive T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickelson, E M; Nepom, G T; Nisperos, B; Hansen, J A

    1988-01-01

    The polymorphism of HLA class II molecules expressing the serologically defined alloantigen DQw3 was studied using cloned proliferative T lymphocytes. Two clones, IG9 and IC3, were selectively primed against DQw3-associated determinants and tested against a panel of 92 HLA-D homozygous cells. Both clones were specific for DQw3, but each showed a distinct response pattern. Clone IG9 recognized a DQw3-associated determinant expressed on a subset of DR4 and DR5 haplotypes and on all DRw6, 7, w8, and w9 haplotypes tested. In contrast, clone IC3 recognized a distinct DQw3-associated determinant expressed only on a subset of DR4 haplotypes. In monoclonal antibody inhibition experiments, anti-DQ, but not anti-DR or anti-DP antibodies, blocked reactivity of both clones IG9 and IC3, further demonstrating that the determinants defined by these clones are associated with DQ molecules. In DNA hybridization studies using a DQ beta probe, a correlation was observed between restriction site polymorphisms in the DQ beta gene, designated DQw"3.1" and "3.2," and the expression of the T-cell-defined IG9 and IC3 determinants. It is, thus, possible to demonstrate by cloned T-cell reactivity functionally relevant recognition sites on DQw3+ molecules that are associated with structural polymorphisms defined by molecular and genomic analysis. PMID:2452816

  12. Cladistic approaches to identifying determinants of variability in multifactorial phenotypes and the evolutionary significance of variation in the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, A R

    1996-01-01

    Genetic surveys based on detailed restriction site mapping or DNA sequencing allow one to identify many different classes of mutational change at the molecular level and to estimate the evolutionary history of the genetic variation (a haplotype tree). These two sources of information can be combined in a powerful fashion to test hypotheses about the evolutionary significance of genetic variation and to identify mutations that are associated with diseases. Hypotheses about selection on various classes of genetic variation can be tested by examining the distribution patterns of different mutational classes upon the haplotype tree. The power of this procedure can be enhanced if it is coupled with comparative data from other, closely related species. With respect to disease associations, all mutations that affect phenotypic variation in a population occurred at some point in the evolutionary history of the region of the gene containing the mutations. Even if this evolutionary history is estimated from mutations other than those causing phenotypic effects, the phenotypically important mutations are imbedded in this same evolutionary history. Hence, whole branches (clades) of the haplotype tree should display homogeneous phenotypic effects and this fact is utilized to search for phenotypic associations of haplotypes by using nested clades in a haplotype tree. This procedure has more power than alternatives that do not use evolutionary history, and it avoids several statistical and interpretative problems associated with single-marker analyses. All of these methods could be used more extensively if more human genetic surveys concentrated on greater genetic resolution in small DNA regions and included non-human apes.

  13. From computers to cultivation: reconceptualizing evolutionary psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise eBarrett

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Does evolutionary theorizing have a role in psychology? This is a more contentious issue than one might imagine, given that as evolved creatures, the answer must surely be yes. The contested nature of evolutionary psychology lies not in our status as evolved beings, but in the extent to which evolutionary ideas add value to studies of human behaviour, and the rigour with which these ideas are tested. This, in turn, is linked to the framework in which particular evolutionary ideas are situated. While the framing of the current research topic places the brain-as-computer metaphor in opposition to evolutionary psychology, the most prominent school of thought in this field (born out of cognitive psychology, and often known as the Santa Barbara school is entirely wedded to the computational theory of mind as an explanatory framework. Its unique aspect is to argue that the mind consists of a large number of functionally specialized (i.e., domain-specific computational mechanisms, or modules (the massive modularity hypothesis. Far from offering an alternative to, or an improvement on, the current perspective, we argue that evolutionary psychology is a mainstream computational theory, and that its arguments for domain-specificity often rest on shaky premises. We then go on to suggest that the various forms of e-cognition (i.e., embodied, embedded, enactive represent a true alternative to standard computational approaches, with an emphasis on cognitive integration or the extended mind hypothesis in particular. We feel this offers the most promise for human psychology because it incorporates the social and historical processes that are crucial to human ‘mind-making’ within an evolutionarily-informed framework. In addition to linking to other research areas in psychology, this approach is more likely to form productive links to other disciplines within the social sciences, not least by encouraging a healthy pluralism in approach.

  14. PSYCH 515 Complete Class

    OpenAIRE

    admin

    2015-01-01

      PSYCH 515 Advanced Abnormal Psychology To purchase this material click on below link http://www.assignmentcloud.com/PSYCH-515/PSYCH-515-Complete-Class-Guide For more details www.assignmentcloud.com

  15. Raradox of class description

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕光

    2004-01-01

    We have a more active class atmophere, but more passive self-study situations. We are too talktive when we should bury ourselves in books, but too less efficient when we spend too much time. We complain teachers

  16. IELP Class Observation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈了了

    2010-01-01

    @@ As an exchange student majoring in English, I am curious about how English is taught to international students here in America. Therefore, I observed an IELP (Intensive English Learning Program) class in Central Connecticut State University where I study.

  17. Teaching Heterogeneous Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millrood, Radislav

    2002-01-01

    Discusses an approach to teaching heterogeneous English-as-a-Second/Foreign-Language classes. Draws on classroom research data to describe the features of a success-building lesson context. (Author/VWL)

  18. Genomes, Phylogeny, and Evolutionary Systems Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, Monica

    2005-03-25

    With the completion of the human genome and the growing number of diverse genomes being sequenced, a new age of evolutionary research is currently taking shape. The myriad of technological breakthroughs in biology that are leading to the unification of broad scientific fields such as molecular biology, biochemistry, physics, mathematics and computer science are now known as systems biology. Here I present an overview, with an emphasis on eukaryotes, of how the postgenomics era is adopting comparative approaches that go beyond comparisons among model organisms to shape the nascent field of evolutionary systems biology.

  19. A Generic Design Model for Evolutionary Algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Feng; Kang Li-shan; Chen Yu-ping

    2003-01-01

    A generic design model for evolutionary algo rithms is proposed in this paper. The model, which was described by UML in details, focuses on the key concepts and mechanisms in evolutionary algorithms. The model not only achieves separation of concerns and encapsulation of implementations by classification and abstraction of those concepts,it also has a flexible architecture due to the application of design patterns. As a result, the model is reusable, extendible,easy to understand, easy to use, and easy to test. A large number of experiments applying the model to solve many different problems adequately illustrate the generality and effectivity of the model.

  20. Evolutionary dynamics of complex communications networks

    CERN Document Server

    Karyotis, Vasileios; Papavassiliou, Symeon

    2013-01-01

    Until recently, most network design techniques employed a bottom-up approach with lower protocol layer mechanisms affecting the development of higher ones. This approach, however, has not yielded fascinating results in the case of wireless distributed networks. Addressing the emerging aspects of modern network analysis and design, Evolutionary Dynamics of Complex Communications Networks introduces and develops a top-bottom approach where elements of the higher layer can be exploited in modifying the lowest physical topology-closing the network design loop in an evolutionary fashion similar to

  1. Evolutionary strategy for achieving autonomous navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Douglas W.

    1999-01-01

    An approach is presented for the evolutionary development of supervised autonomous navigation capabilities for small 'backpackable' ground robots, in the context of a DARPA- sponsored program to provide robotic support to small units of dismounted warfighters. This development approach relies on the implementation of a baseline visual serving navigation capability, including tools to support operator oversight and override, which is then enhanced with semantically referenced commands and a mission scripting structure. As current and future machine perception techniques are able to automatically designate visual serving goal points, this approach should provide a natural evolutionary pathway to higher levels of autonomous operation and reduced requirements for operator intervention.

  2. Evolutionary Phase Transitions in Random Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skanata, Antun; Kussell, Edo

    2016-07-01

    We present analytical results for long-term growth rates of structured populations in randomly fluctuating environments, which we apply to predict how cellular response networks evolve. We show that networks which respond rapidly to a stimulus will evolve phenotypic memory exclusively under random (i.e., nonperiodic) environments. We identify the evolutionary phase diagram for simple response networks, which we show can exhibit both continuous and discontinuous transitions. Our approach enables exact analysis of diverse evolutionary systems, from viral epidemics to emergence of drug resistance.

  3. Applying Evolutionary Algorithm to Public Key Cryptosystems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tu Hang; Li Li; Wu Tao-jun; Li Yuan- xiang

    2003-01-01

    A best algorithm generated scheme is proposed in the paper by making use of the thought of evolutionary algorithm, which can generate dynamically the best algorithm of generating primes in RSA cryptography under different conditions. Taking into account the factors of time, space and security integrated, this scheme possessed strong practicability. The paper also proposed a model of multi degree parallel evolutionary algorithrn to evaluate synthetically the efficiency and security of the public key cryptography. The model con tributes to designing public key cryptography system too.

  4. A class in astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airieau, S. A.

    1999-09-01

    The goal of this class is to provide basic astrobiology knowledge to upper division science students. The scope is broad and in-depth coverage is not possible in this introductory course. Instead, science students from various branches of academia can acquire a broad basis and understanding of the other fields: astronomy, biology, geology, biochemistry, planetary and space sciences. The class is highly modular and allows instructors to concentrate on or eliminate topics according to their priorities and preferences.

  5. Nordic Walking Classes

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2015-01-01

    Four classes of one hour each are held on Tuesdays. RDV barracks parking at Entrance A, 10 minutes before class time. Spring Course 2015: 05.05/12.05/19.05/26.05 Prices 40 CHF per session + 10 CHF club membership 5 CHF/hour pole rental Check out our schedule and enroll at: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Nordic%20Walking/NewForm.aspx? Hope to see you among us! fitness.club@cern.ch

  6. Generalized Fourier transforms classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Svend; Møller, Steen

    2002-01-01

    The Fourier class of integral transforms with kernels $B(\\omega r)$ has by definition inverse transforms with kernel $B(-\\omega r)$. The space of such transforms is explicitly constructed. A slightly more general class of generalized Fourier transforms are introduced. From the general theory foll...... follows that integral transform with kernels which are products of a Bessel and a Hankel function or which is of a certain general hypergeometric type have inverse transforms of the same structure....

  7. Embodying class and gender

    OpenAIRE

    Geers, Alexie

    2015-01-01

    In March 1937, when the first issue of Marie-Claire was published, the images of the female body it presented to its female readers from working-class backgrounds contrasted sharply with those featured in previous magazines. The female bodies are dressed and groomed to seduce and replace the hieratic bodies that presented fashions synonymous with membership in the upper classes. The present essay examines this shift and shows that the visual repertoire employed is borrowed from that of the fe...

  8. Ecological, historical and evolutionary determinants of modularity in weighted seed-dispersal networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleuning, Matthias; Ingmann, Lili; Strauß, Rouven;

    2014-01-01

    algorithm to detect modularity in weighted bipartite networks in a global analysis of avian seed-dispersal networks. We define roles of species, such as connector values, for weighted and binary networks and associate them with avian species traits and phylogeny. The weighted, but not binary, analysis...... demonstrates the dominating impact of ecological factors on the structure of seed-dispersal networks, but also underscores the relevance of evolutionary history in shaping species roles in ecological communities....

  9. A novel stability criterion for interval time-delay chaotic systems via the evolutionary programming approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, J.-J. [Department of Computer and Communication, Shu-Te University, Kaohsiung 824, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: jjyan@mail.stu.edu.tw; Hung, M.-L. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Far-East College, No. 49, Jung-Haw Road, Hsin-Shih Town, Tainan 744, Taiwan (China)

    2006-09-15

    This paper investigates a novel stability criterion for interval time-delay chaotic systems via the evolutionary programming (EP) approach. First a delay-dependent criterion is derived for ensuring the stability of degenerate time-delay systems, and then by solving eigenvalue location optimization problems, which will be defined later, the robust stability of interval time-delay systems can be guaranteed. An example is given to verify our method that yields less conservative results than those appeared in the literature.

  10. Software Defined Networking (Dagstuhl Seminar 12363)

    OpenAIRE

    Hui, Pan; Koponen, Teemu

    2013-01-01

    This report documents the talks and discussions of Dagstuhl Seminar 12363 "Software Defined Networking". The presented talks represent a spectrum of industrial and academic work as well as both technical and organizational developments surrounding Software Defined Networking (SDN). The topic of SDN has garnered significant attention over the past few years in the networking community and beyond, and indeed the term "Software Defined Networking" itself carries different meani...

  11. Reconfigurable, Cognitive Software Defined Radio Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Intelligent Automation Inc, (IAI) is currently developing a software defined radio (SDR) platform that can adaptively switch between different modes of operation...

  12. Software Defined Common Processing System (SDCPS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Coherent Logix, Incorporated (CLX) proposes the development of a Software Defined Common Processing System (SDCPS) that leverages the inherent advantages of an...

  13. Classes of hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic turbulent decay

    CERN Document Server

    Brandenburg, Axel

    2016-01-01

    We perform numerical simulations of decaying hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. We classify our time-dependent solutions by their evolutionary tracks in parametric plots between instantaneous scaling exponents. We find distinct classes of solutions evolving along specific trajectories toward points on a line of self-similar solutions. These trajectories are determined by the underlying physics governing individual cases, and not by the initial conditions, as is widely assumed. In the helical case, even for a scale-invariant initial spectrum (inversely proportional to wavenumber k), the solution evolves along the same trajectory as for a Batchelor spectrum (proportional to k^4). All of our self-similar solutions have an intrinsic subinertial range close to k^4$.

  14. Incorporating evolutionary principles into environmental management and policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lankau, Richard; Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard; Harris, David J.;

    2011-01-01

    As policymakers and managers work to mitigate the effects of rapid anthropogenic environmental changes, they need to consider organisms’ responses. In light of recent evidence that evolution can be quite rapid, this now includes evolutionary responses. Evolutionary principles have a long history...... of evolutionary history and prescriptive manipulation of three basic evolutionary factors: selection, variation, and gene flow. For each, we review and propose ways that policy makers and managers can use evolutionary thinking to preserve threatened species, combat pest species, or reduce undesirable evolutionary...... changes. Such evolution-based management has potential to be a highly efficient and consistent way to create greater ecological resilience to widespread, rapid, and multifaceted environmental change....

  15. Identification of novel SINEs from Cyprinidae and their evolutionary significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Yawei; HE Shunping; CHEN Yiyu

    2007-01-01

    Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are widespread among eukaryotic genomes. They are repetitive DNA sequences that have been amplified by retrotransposition. In this study, a class of SINEs were isolated from the Opsariichthys bidens genome, and named Opsar. Sequence analysis confirmed that Opsar is a new class of typical SINEs derived from tRNA molecules. With the tRNA-derived region of Opsar and through BLASTN search, we further identified Zb-SINEs from the zebrafish genome, which includes two groups: Zb-SINE-A and Zb-SINE-B. The Zb-SINE-A group comprises subfamilies of -A1-A5, and the Zb-SINE-B group is a dimer of the tRNAAla-derived region and shares a similar dimeric composition to Alu. Zb-SINEs are composed of three distinct regions:a 5' end tRNA-derived region, a tRNA-unrelated region and a 3' end AT-rich region. The flanking regions are AT rich. The average length of Zb-SINEs elements is about 340 bp. Zb-SINEs account for as much as 0.1% of the whole zebrafish genome. About 70 % of the Zb-SINEs are on chromosomes 11, 18, and 19. These Zb-SINEs were characterized by PCR and dot hybridization. The distribution pattern of Zb-SINEs in genome strongly supports the master genes model. The tRNA-derived regions of Opsar and Zb-SINEs were compared with the tRNAAla gene, and they showed 76 % similarity, indicating that Opsar and Zb-SINEs originated from an inactive tRNAAlasequence or a tRNAAla-like sequence. In view of the evolutionary status of zebrafish in the Cyprinidae, we deduced that Zb-SINEs were a very old class of interspersed sequences.

  16. No effect of weight cycling on the post-career BMI of weight class elite athletes.

    OpenAIRE

    Marquet, Laurie-anne; Brown, Morgan; Tafflet, Muriel; Nassif, Hala; Mouraby, Rémy; Bourhaleb, Samir; Toussaint, Jean-François; Desgorces, François-Denis

    2013-01-01

    International audience; BACKGROUND: Repetitions of pre-competition weight-loss diets done by athletes participating in weight class sports can be regarded as periods of weight cycling. The aim of the present study is to identify the long term post-career (22 years) evolutionary profile of athletes' BMI after such weight cycling. METHODS: One hundred and thirty-six retired French athletes who participated in major international competitions in weight class sports (rowers, wrestlers, boxers, an...

  17. Class Formation and Consumption among Middle-Class Professionals in Shenzhen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Elfick

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the role of consumption in defining Chinese middle-class identity by examining the consumption practices of urban professionals. It is widely agreed that China has a thriving middle class. The exact definition of this middle class, however, is disputed by scholars and the Chinese popular press. Debates about class are also manifest in the daily lives of urban professionals. One of the most interesting areas in which identity is contested is that of consumption. The research is based on 60 in-depth interviews among professionals conducted in Shenzhen in the period 2004-2010. New wealth means that the myriad of goods on offer is accessible to large sections of the urban population. Professionals have become keen and selective shoppers. Many describe their consumption practices as informed by their own highly individualistic taste. This paper argues that professional consumption practices sometimes express individual taste but, more importantly, serve to articulate a collective social identity.

  18. Complex evolutionary systems in behavioral finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Hommes; F. Wagener

    2008-01-01

    Traditional finance is built on the rationality paradigm. This chapter discusses simple models from an alternative approach in which financial markets are viewed as complex evolutionary systems. Agents are boundedly rational and base their investment decisions upon market forecasting heuristics. Pri

  19. Compassion: An Evolutionary Analysis and Empirical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Jennifer L.; Keltner, Dacher; Simon-Thomas, Emiliana

    2010-01-01

    What is compassion? And how did it evolve? In this review, we integrate 3 evolutionary arguments that converge on the hypothesis that compassion evolved as a distinct affective experience whose primary function is to facilitate cooperation and protection of the weak and those who suffer. Our empirical review reveals compassion to have distinct…

  20. Evolutionary Biology: Its Value to Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Hampton L.

    1972-01-01

    Cites examples of the contribution of basic research in evolutionary biology to the solution of problems facing society (1) by dispelling myths about human origins, the nature of the individual, and the nature of race (2) by providing basic data concerning the effects of overpopulation, the production of improved sources of food, resistance of…

  1. An Evolutionary Perspective on War Heroism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusch, Hannes; Störmer, C.

    2015-01-01

    Humans are one of the most cooperative and altruistic species on the planet. At the same time, humans have a long history of violent and deadly intergroup conflicts or wars. Recently, contemporary evolutionary theorists have revived Charles Darwin’s idea that human in-group altruism and out-group ho

  2. Genomes and evolutionary genomics of animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luting SONG; Wen WANG

    2013-01-01

    Alongside recent advances and booming applications of DNA sequencing technologies,a great number of complete genome sequences for animal species are available to researchers.Hundreds of animals have been involved in whole genome sequencing,and at least 87 non-human animal species' complete or draft genome sequences have been published since 1998.Based on these technological advances and the subsequent accumulation of large quantity of genomic data,evolutionary genomics has become one of the most rapidly advancing disciplines in biology.Scientists now can perform a number of comparative and evolutionary genomic studies for animals,to identify conserved genes or other functional elements among species,genomic elements that confer animals their own specific characteristics and new phenotypes for adaptation.This review deals with the current genomic and evolutionary research on non-human animals,and displays a comprehensive landscape of genomes and the evolutionary genomics of non-human animals.It is very helpful to a better understanding of the biology and evolution of the myriad forms within the animal kingdom [Current Zoology 59 (1):87-98,2013].

  3. Face Alignment Using Boosting and Evolutionary Search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Hua; Liu, Duanduan; Poel, Mannes; Nijholt, Anton; Zha, H.; Taniguchi, R.-I.; Maybank, S.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a face alignment approach using granular features, boosting, and an evolutionary search algorithm. Active Appearance Models (AAM) integrate a shape-texture-combined morphable face model into an efficient fitting strategy, then Boosting Appearance Models (BAM) consider the f

  4. Molecular selection in a unified evolutionary sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, S. W.

    1986-01-01

    With guidance from experiments and observations that indicate internally limited phenomena, an outline of unified evolutionary sequence is inferred. Such unification is not visible for a context of random matrix and random mutation. The sequence proceeds from Big Bang through prebiotic matter, protocells, through the evolving cell via molecular and natural selection, to mind, behavior, and society.

  5. Indigenous Knowledge, Ecology, and Evolutionary Biology

    OpenAIRE

    E. N. Anderson

    2011-01-01

    Review of Indigenous Knowledge, Ecology, and Evolutionary Biology. Raymond Pierotti. 2011. Routledge (Taylor & Francis Group), New York.  Pp. Xv + 264, Bibliography, index.  ISBN13: 978-0-415-87924-8 (hbk), 978-0-203-84711-4 (ebk).

  6. Gypsy dragon: An evolutionary approach to narratives

    OpenAIRE

    Čvorović Jelena

    2007-01-01

    This paper will attempt to explain Serbian Gypsy oral narratives by applying concepts drawn from evolutionary psychology. The Gypsy story will illustrate how various narrative characteristics are used by Gypsies to employ social knowledge on local surroundings to better serve fitness solutions.

  7. Evolutionary Psychology: Controversies, Questions, Prospects, and Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confer, Jaime C.; Easton, Judith A.; Fleischman, Diana S.; Goetz, Cari D.; Lewis, David M. G.; Perilloux, Carin; Buss, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Evolutionary psychology has emerged over the past 15 years as a major theoretical perspective, generating an increasing volume of empirical studies and assuming a larger presence within psychological science. At the same time, it has generated critiques and remains controversial among some psychologists. Some of the controversy stems from…

  8. Cellular encoding for interactive evolutionary robotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruau, F.C.; Quatramaran, K.

    1996-01-01

    This work reports experiments in interactive evolutionary robotics. The goal is to evolve an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to control the locomotion of an 8-legged robot. The ANNs are encoded using a cellular developmental process called cellular encoding. In a previous work similar experiments ha

  9. QDist—Quartet Distance Between Evolutionary Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailund; Pedersen, Christian N. Storm

    2004-01-01

    QDist is a program for computing the quartet distance between two unrooted evolutionary trees, i.e. the number of quartet topology differences between the two trees, where a quartet topology is the topological subtree induced by four species. The implementation is based on an algorithm with running...... time O(n log² n), which makes it practical to compare large trees....

  10. An evolutionary basis for pollination ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemstein, S.C.

    1987-01-01

    In the introduction and chapter 2 the incentives and way of reasoning are given for the description of an evolutionary basis of pollination ecology. Starting from the until recently rather anecdotical character of the study of pollination ecology as a whole, and in the absence of large-scale correla

  11. Guiding evolutionary search towards innovative solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reehuis, Edgar Julius Jeronimus

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this work is to develop a method that, operating on top of an Evolutionary Algorithm, increases its likeliness of finding innovative solutions. This likeliness is laid out to be increased with the diversity of the solutions found, provided that they are of sufficient quality. The de

  12. College Students' Misconceptions about Evolutionary Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meir, Eli; Perry, Judy; Herron, Jon C.; Kingsolver, Joel

    2007-01-01

    Evolution is at the center of the biological sciences and is therefore a required topic for virtually every college biology student. Over the past year, the authors have been building a new simulation software package called EvoBeaker to teach college-level evolutionary biology through simulated experiments. They have built both micro and…

  13. Using Human Evolution to Teach Evolutionary Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besterman, Hugo; La Velle, Linda Baggott

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses some traditional approaches to the teaching of evolutionary theory at pre-university level, criticising in particular some of the more commonly used models and exemplars. Curricular demands are described and an alternative approach is suggested, using the emerging story of human evolution. Recent discoveries help to illustrate…

  14. Indoor Thermal Comfort, an Evolutionary Biology Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoops, John L.

    2006-04-15

    As is becoming increasingly clear, the human species evolvedin the East African savannah. Details of the precise evolutionary chainremain unresolved however it appears that the process lasted severalmillion years, culminating with the emergence of modern Homo sapiensroughly 200,000 years ago. Following that final evolutionary developmentmodern Homo sapiens relatively quickly populated the entire world.Clearly modern Homo sapiens is a successful, resourceful and adaptablespecies. In the developed societies, modern humans live an existence farremoved from our evolutionary ancestors. As we have learned over the lastcentury, this "new" lifestyle can often result in unintendedconsequences. Clearly, our modern access to food, shelter, transportationand healthcare has resulted in greatly expanded expected lifespan butthis new lifestyle can also result in the emergence of different kinds ofdiseases and health problems. The environment in modern buildings haslittle resemblance to the environment of the savannah. We strive tocreate environments with little temperature, air movement and lightvariation. Building occupants often express great dissatisfaction withthese modern created environments and a significant fraction even developsomething akin to allergies to specific buildings (sick buildingsyndrome). Are the indoor environments we are creating fundamentallyunhealthy -- when examined from an evolutionary perspective?

  15. 2004 Structural, Function and Evolutionary Genomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas L. Brutlag Nancy Ryan Gray

    2005-03-23

    This Gordon conference will cover the areas of structural, functional and evolutionary genomics. It will take a systematic approach to genomics, examining the evolution of proteins, protein functional sites, protein-protein interactions, regulatory networks, and metabolic networks. Emphasis will be placed on what we can learn from comparative genomics and entire genomes and proteomes.

  16. Evolutionary testing of object-oriented software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.S. Silva; M. van Someren

    2010-01-01

    It is estimated that 80% of software development cost is spent on detecting and fixing defects. To tackle this issue, a number of tools and testing techniques have been developed to improve the existing testing framework. Although techniques such as static analysis, random testing and evolutionary t

  17. On evolutionary ray-projection dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, Reinoud; Roorda, Berend

    2011-01-01

    We introduce the ray-projection dynamics in evolutionary game theory by employing a ray projection of the relative fitness (vector) function, i.e., a projection unto the unit simplex along a ray through the origin. Ray-projection dynamics are weakly compatible in the terminology of Friedman (Econome

  18. Haplogroups as Evolutionary Markers of Cognitive Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindermann, Heiner; Woodley, Michael A.; Stratford, James

    2012-01-01

    Studies investigating evolutionary theories on the origins of national differences in intelligence have been criticized on the basis that both national cognitive ability measures and supposedly evolutionarily informative proxies (such as latitude and climate) are confounded with general developmental status. In this study 14 Y chromosomal…

  19. A Clustal Alignment Improver Using Evolutionary Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rene; Fogel, Gary B.; Krink, Thimo

    2002-01-01

    Multiple sequence alignment (MSA) is a crucial task in bioinformatics. In this paper we extended previous work with evolutionary algorithms (EA) by using MSA solutions obtained from the wellknown Clustal V algorithm as a candidate solution seed of the initial EA population. Our results clearly show...

  20. On the Evolutionary Bases of Consumer Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Michael; Xiao, Sarah Hong

    2010-01-01

    This article locates consumer behavior analysis within the modern neo-Darwinian synthesis, seeking to establish an interface between the ultimate-level theorizing of human evolutionary psychology and the proximate level of inquiry typically favored by operant learning theorists. Following an initial overview of the central tenets of neo-Darwinism,…

  1. Evolutionary optimization of production materials workflow processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert, Luke Thomas; Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Jacobsen, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    We present an evolutionary optimisation technique for stochastic production processes, which is able to find improved production materials workflow processes with respect to arbitrary combinations of numerical quantities associated with the production process. Working from a core fragment of the ...... where a baked goods company seeks to improve production time while simultaneously minimising the cost and use of resources....

  2. Testing for Independence between Evolutionary Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behdenna, Abdelkader; Pothier, Joël; Abby, Sophie S; Lambert, Amaury; Achaz, Guillaume

    2016-09-01

    Evolutionary events co-occurring along phylogenetic trees usually point to complex adaptive phenomena, sometimes implicating epistasis. While a number of methods have been developed to account for co-occurrence of events on the same internal or external branch of an evolutionary tree, there is a need to account for the larger diversity of possible relative positions of events in a tree. Here we propose a method to quantify to what extent two or more evolutionary events are associated on a phylogenetic tree. The method is applicable to any discrete character, like substitutions within a coding sequence or gains/losses of a biological function. Our method uses a general approach to statistically test for significant associations between events along the tree, which encompasses both events inseparable on the same branch, and events genealogically ordered on different branches. It assumes that the phylogeny and themapping of branches is known without errors. We address this problem from the statistical viewpoint by a linear algebra representation of the localization of the evolutionary events on the tree.We compute the full probability distribution of the number of paired events occurring in the same branch or in different branches of the tree, under a null model of independence where each type of event occurs at a constant rate uniformly inthephylogenetic tree. The strengths andweaknesses of themethodare assessed via simulations;we then apply the method to explore the loss of cell motility in intracellular pathogens. PMID:27208890

  3. The evolutionary advantage of diploid sex

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, A.O.; de Oliveira, S. Moss; Martins, J. S. Sa

    2002-01-01

    We modify the Penna Model for biological aging, which is based on the mutation-accumulation theory, in order to verify if there would be any evolutionary advantage of triploid over diploid organisms. We show that this is not the case, and that usual sex is always better than that involving three individuals.

  4. Defining Dynamic Graphics by a Graphical Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛其昌; 戴汝为

    1991-01-01

    A graphical language which can be used for defining dynamic picture and applying control actions to it is defined with an expanded attributed grammar.Based on this a system is built for developing the presentation of application data of user interface.This system provides user interface designers with a friendly and high efficient programming environment.

  5. a Semantic Model to Define Indoor Space in Context of Emergency Evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwari, Nishith; Rajan, K. S.

    2016-06-01

    There have been various ways in which the indoor space of a building has been defined. In most of the cases the models have specific purpose on which they focus such as facility management, visualisation or navigation. The focus of our work is to define semantics of a model which can incorporate different aspects of the space within a building without losing any information provided by the data model. In this paper we have suggested a model which defines indoor space in terms of semantic and syntactic features. Each feature belongs to a particular class and based on the class, has a set of properties associated with it. The purpose is to capture properties like geometry, topology and semantic information like name, function and capacity of the space from a real world data model. The features which define the space are determined using the geometric information and the classes are assigned based on the relationships like connectivity, openings and function of the space. The ontology of the classes of the feature set defined will be discussed in the paper.

  6. Genome landscape and evolutionary plasticity of chromosomes in malaria mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Xia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nonrandom distribution of rearrangements is a common feature of eukaryotic chromosomes that is not well understood in terms of genome organization and evolution. In the major African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae, polymorphic inversions are highly nonuniformly distributed among five chromosomal arms and are associated with epidemiologically important adaptations. However, it is not clear whether the genomic content of the chromosomal arms is associated with inversion polymorphism and fixation rates. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To better understand the evolutionary dynamics of chromosomal inversions, we created a physical map for an Asian malaria mosquito, Anopheles stephensi, and compared it with the genome of An. gambiae. We also developed and deployed novel Bayesian statistical models to analyze genome landscapes in individual chromosomal arms An. gambiae. Here, we demonstrate that, despite the paucity of inversion polymorphisms on the X chromosome, this chromosome has the fastest rate of inversion fixation and the highest density of transposable elements, simple DNA repeats, and GC content. The highly polymorphic and rapidly evolving autosomal 2R arm had overrepresentation of genes involved in cellular response to stress supporting the role of natural selection in maintaining adaptive polymorphic inversions. In addition, the 2R arm had the highest density of regions involved in segmental duplications that clustered in the breakpoint-rich zone of the arm. In contrast, the slower evolving 2L, 3R, and 3L, arms were enriched with matrix-attachment regions that potentially contribute to chromosome stability in the cell nucleus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results highlight fundamental differences in evolutionary dynamics of the sex chromosome and autosomes and revealed the strong association between characteristics of the genome landscape and rates of chromosomal evolution. We conclude that a unique combination of various

  7. Translation in ESL Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy Imola Katalin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of translation in foreign language classes cannot be dealt with unless we attempt to make an overview of what translation meant for language teaching in different periods of language pedagogy. From the translation-oriented grammar-translation method through the complete ban on translation and mother tongue during the times of the audio-lingual approaches, we have come today to reconsider the role and status of translation in ESL classes. This article attempts to advocate for translation as a useful ESL class activity, which can completely fulfil the requirements of communicativeness. We also attempt to identify some activities and games, which rely on translation in some books published in the 1990s and the 2000s.

  8. The Future of Psychology: Evolutionary Approach to Scientific Psychology%进化心理学:心理科学的未来发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雷; David C. Geary

    2007-01-01

    @@ "Evolutionary psychology is an approach to psychology, in which knowledge and principles from evolutionary biology are put to use in research on the structure of the human mind" (Cosmides & Tooby,2001, p.1). The approach can be used to study and to provide broad theoretical framing of nearly all of the issues and topics within the traditionally defined fields of psychology. The 19 papers included in this special issue on evolutionary psychology are written by leading scholars in the field and address topics that can be organized by the familiar divisions of cognitive, developmental, and social psychology.

  9. Evolutionary psychology and evolutionary developmental psychology: understanding the evolution of human behavior and development

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Blasi, Carlos; Causey, Kayla

    2010-01-01

    This is an introduction to this special issue on evolutionary psychology (EP) and evolutionary developmental psychology (EDP). We suggest here that, contrary to some common assumptions, mainstream psychology continues to be essentially non Darwinian and that EP and EDP are new approaches that can potentially help us to change this situation. We then present the organization of the special issue (composed of six papers). We conclude that evolution is certainly not the final cons...

  10. Inferring the determinants of protein evolutionary rates in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yang; Shao, Xiaojian; Dong, Dong

    2016-06-15

    Understanding the determinants of protein evolutionary rates is one of the most fundamental evolutionary questions. Previous studies have revealed that many biological variables are tightly associated with protein evolutionary rates in mammals. However, the dominant role of these biological variables and their combinatorial effects to evolutionary rates of mammalian proteins are still less understood. In this work, we derived a quantitative model to correlate protein evolutionary rates with the levels of these variables. The result showed that only a small number of variables are necessary to accurately predict protein evolutionary rates, among which miRNA regulation plays the most important role. Our result suggested that biological variables are extensively interrelated and suffer from hidden redundancies in determining protein evolutionary rates. Various variables should be considered in a natural ensemble to comprehensively assess the determinants of protein evolutionary rate.

  11. Evolutionary epistemology, rationality, and the sociology of knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Bartley, W W

    1993-01-01

    This collection of essays in support of the theory of evolutionary epistemology includes articles by Karl Popper, Peter Munz and Gerhard Vollmer. This volume attempts to show how an evolutionary and non-justificational approach affects the sociology of knowledge.

  12. Evolutionary Snowdrift Game Incorporating Costly Punishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yap Yee Jiun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of punishments in promoting cooperation is an important issue. We incorporate costly punishments into the snowdrift game (SG by introducing a third punishing (P character and study the effects.  The punishers, who carry basically a cooperative (C character, are willing to pay a cost of a so as to punish a non-cooperative (D opponent by ß. Depending on the initial fractions of the characters, a, ß, and the cost-to-benefit ratio r in SG, the three-character system evolves either into a steady state consisting only of C and P characters or only of C and D characters in a well-mixed population.  The former situation represents an enhancement in cooperation relative to SG, while the latter is similar to SG. The dynamics in approaching these different steady states are found to be different.  Analytically, the key features in the steady states and dynamics obtained by simulations are captured by a set of differential equations.  The sensitivity to the initial distribution of characters is studied by depicting the flow in a phase portrait and analyzing the nature of fixed points. The analysis also shows the role of P-character in preventing a system from invasion by D-character agents. Starting from a population consisting only of C and P agents, a D-character agent intended to invade the system cannot survive when the initial fraction of P-agents is greater than r/ß. Our model, defined intentionally as a simulation algorithm, can be readily generalized to incorporate many interesting effects, such as those in a networked population. ABSTRAK: Peranan hukuman dalam meningkatkan kerjasama merupakan isu penting.  Hukuman berat diterapkan ke dalam permainan hanyutan salji (snowdrift game (SG dengan memperkenalkan karekter penghukum (P ketiga dan akibatnya dipantau. Penghukum, pada asasnya membawa watak koperatif (C, sanggup membayar kos a, agar dia menghukum lawan yang tidak koperatif (D dengan ß. Bergantung kepada pecahan permulaan watak

  13. Talking Class in Tehroon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian; Rezakhani, Khodadad

    2016-01-01

    Persian, like any other language, is laced with references to class, both blatant and subtle. With idioms and metaphors, Iranians can identify and situate others, and thus themselves, within hierarchies of social status and privilege, both real and imagined. Some class-related terms can be traced...... back to medieval times, whereas others are of modern vintage, the linguistic legacy of television shows, pop songs, social media memes or street vernacular. Every day, it seems, an infectious set of phrases appears that make yesterday’s seem embarrassingly antiquated....

  14. MIDDLE CLASS MOVEMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. K. Sravana Kumar

    2016-01-01

                The middle class is placed between labour and capital. It neither directly awns the means of production that pumps out the surplus generated by wage labour power, nor does it, by its own labour, produce the surplus which has use and exchange value. Broadly speaking, this class consists of the petty bourgeoisie and the white-collar workers. The former are either self-employed or involved in the distribution of commodities and t...

  15. Class Actions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2009-01-01

    The article deals with the relatively new Danish Act on Class Action (Danish: gruppesøgsmål) which was suggested by The Permanent Council on Civil procedure (Retsplejerådet) of which the article's author is a member. The operability of the new provisions is illustrated through some wellknown Dani...... cases: Hafnia case (investment prospectus), and Danish Eternit (roof elements) where the existence of Danish provisions on class actions might have made a difference, and the article also deals with the delicate questions of opt-in and opt-out....

  16. 49 CFR 232.207 - Class IA brake tests-1,000-mile inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class IA brake tests-1,000-mile inspection. 232... Class IA brake tests—1,000-mile inspection. (a) Except as provided in § 232.213, each train shall receive a Class IA brake test performed by a qualified person, as defined in § 232.5, at a location...

  17. "Always in My Face": An Exploration of Social Class Consciousness, Salience, and Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Georgianna L.

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study explores social class consciousness, salience, and values of White, low-income, first-generation college students. Overall, participants minimized the salience of social class as an aspect of their identity with many of them expressing that they did not want their social class to define them. Although participants largely…

  18. A Generalization of Weak WT2-Class of Differential Forms and Its Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Gao Hongya; Wang Tian; Di Qinghua

    2016-01-01

    A generalized class of weak ${\\cal WT}_2$-class of differential forms is defined, a weak reverse H\\"older inequality is obtained for this class, and some applications to the regularity theory of weakly $(K_1, K_2)$-quasiregular mappings, very weak solutions of nonhomogeneous $\\cal A$-harmonic equations, and generalized solutions of Beltrami system with three characteristic matrices are given.

  19. The Experiences of Working-Class College Students Who Became University Presidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Mary E.

    2012-01-01

    Working-class students enter college lacking necessary capital to predict their academic and personal success making college success less likely than for middle class students (Bufton, 2003; Mack, 2006; Paulsen & St. John, 2002; Rose, 1997; Wegner, 1973). This same social class origin helps to define experiences, provides context for…

  20. Chemically defined medium and Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewczyk, Nathaniel J.; Kozak, Elena; Conley, Catharine A.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: C. elegans has been established as a powerful genetic system. Use of a chemically defined medium (C. elegans Maintenance Medium (CeMM)) now allows standardization and systematic manipulation of the nutrients that animals receive. Liquid cultivation allows automated culturing and experimentation and should be of use in large-scale growth and screening of animals. RESULTS: We find that CeMM is versatile and culturing is simple. CeMM can be used in a solid or liquid state, it can be stored unused for at least a year, unattended actively growing cultures may be maintained longer than with standard techniques, and standard C. elegans protocols work well with animals grown in defined medium. We also find that there are caveats to using defined medium. Animals in defined medium grow more slowly than on standard medium, appear to display adaptation to the defined medium, and display altered growth rates as they change the composition of the defined medium. CONCLUSIONS: As was suggested with the introduction of C. elegans as a potential genetic system, use of defined medium with C. elegans should prove a powerful tool.