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Sample records for class ssvep paradigm

  1. Research on High-Frequency Combination Coding-Based SSVEP-BCIs and Its Signal Processing Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Feng Zhang; Chengcheng Han; Lili Li; Xin Zhang; Jun Xie; Yeping Li

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a new steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) paradigm for brain computer interface (BCI) systems. The new paradigm is High-Frequency Combination Coding-Based SSVEP (HFCC-SSVEP). The goal of this study is to increase the number of targets using fewer stimulation frequencies, with diminishing subject’s fatigue and reducing the risk of photosensitive epileptic seizures. This paper investigated the HFCC-SSVEP high-frequency response (beyond 25 Hz) for 3 frequencies (25 H...

  2. Research on High-Frequency Combination Coding-Based SSVEP-BCIs and Its Signal Processing Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a new steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP paradigm for brain computer interface (BCI systems. The new paradigm is High-Frequency Combination Coding-Based SSVEP (HFCC-SSVEP. The goal of this study is to increase the number of targets using fewer stimulation frequencies, with diminishing subject’s fatigue and reducing the risk of photosensitive epileptic seizures. This paper investigated the HFCC-SSVEP high-frequency response (beyond 25 Hz for 3 frequencies (25 Hz, 33.33 Hz, and 40 Hz. HFCC-SSVEP produces nn with n high stimulation frequencies through Time Series Combination Code. Furthermore, The Improved Hilbert-Huang Transform (IHHT is adopted to extract time-frequency feature of the proposed SSVEP response. Lastly, the differentiation combination (DC method is proposed to select the combination coding sequence in order to increase the recognition rate; as a result, IHHT algorithm and DC method for the proposed SSVEP paradigm in this study increase recognition efficiency so as to improve ITR and increase the stability of the BCI system. Furthermore, SSVEPs evoked by high-frequency stimuli (beyond 25 Hz minimally diminish subject’s fatigue and prevent safety hazards linked to photo-induced epileptic seizures. This study tests five subjects in order to verify the feasibility of the proposed method.

  3. An Asynchronous P300 BCI With SSVEP-Based Control State Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panicker, Rajesh C.; Puthusserypady, Sadasivan; Sun, Ying

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, an asynchronous brain–computer interface (BCI) system combining the P300 and steady-state visually evoked potentials (SSVEPs) paradigms is proposed. The information transfer is accomplished using P300 event-related potential paradigm and the control state (CS) detection is achieved...

  4. Assisted closed-loop optimization of SSVEP-BCI efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobo eFernandez-Vargas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We designed a novel assisted closed-loop optimization protocol to improve the efficiency of brain computer interfaces (BCI based on steady state visually evoked potentials (SSVEP. In traditional paradigms, the control over the BCI-performance completely depends on the subjects’ ability to learn from the given feedback cues. By contrast, in the proposed protocol both the subject and the machine share information and control over the BCI goal. Generally, the innovative assistance consists in the delivery of online information together with the online adaptation of BCI stimuli properties. In our case, this adaptive optimization process is realized by (i a closed-loop search for the best set of SSVEP flicker frequencies and (ii feedback of actual SSVEP magnitudes to both the subject and the machine. These closed-loop interactions between subject and machine are evaluated in real-time by continuous measurement of their efficiencies, which are used as online criteria to adapt the BCI control parameters. The proposed protocol aims to compensate for variability in possibly unknown subjects’ state and trait dimensions. In a study with N = 18 subjects, we found significant evidence that our protocol outperformed classic SSVEP-BCI control paradigms. Evidence is presented that it takes indeed into account interindividual variabilities: e.g. under the new protocol, baseline resting state EEG measures predict subjects’ BCI performances. This paper illustrates the promising potential of assisted closed-loop protocols in BCI systems. Probably their applicability might be expanded to innovative uses, e.g. as possible new diagnostic/therapeutic tools for clinical contexts and as new paradigms for basic research.

  5. Frequency- and Phase Encoded SSVEP Using Spatiotemporal Beamforming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittevrongel, Benjamin; Van Hulle, Marc M

    2016-01-01

    In brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) based on steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) the number of selectable targets is rather limited when each target has its own stimulation frequency. One way to remedy this is by combining frequency- with phase encoding. We introduce a new multivariate spatiotemporal filter, based on Linearly Constrained Minimum Variance (LCMV) beamforming, for discriminating between frequency-phase encoded targets more accurately, even when using short signal lengths than with (extended) Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA), which is traditionally posited for this stimulation paradigm. PMID:27486801

  6. Frequency- and Phase Encoded SSVEP Using Spatiotemporal Beamforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hulle, Marc M.

    2016-01-01

    In brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) based on steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) the number of selectable targets is rather limited when each target has its own stimulation frequency. One way to remedy this is by combining frequency- with phase encoding. We introduce a new multivariate spatiotemporal filter, based on Linearly Constrained Minimum Variance (LCMV) beamforming, for discriminating between frequency-phase encoded targets more accurately, even when using short signal lengths than with (extended) Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA), which is traditionally posited for this stimulation paradigm. PMID:27486801

  7. A Study on SSVEP-Based BCI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng-Hua Wu; De-Zhong Yao

    2009-01-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) can help the deformity person finish some basic activities.In this paper,we concern some critical aspects of SSVEP based BCI,including stimulator selection,method of SSVEP extracting in a short time,stimulating frequency selection,and signal electrode selection.The conclusion is that the stimulator type should be based on the complexity of the BCI system,the method based on wavelet analysis is more valid than the power spectrum method in extracting the SSVEP in a short period,and the selections of stimulating frequency and electrode are important in designing a BCI system.These contents are meaningful for implementing a real SSVEP-based BCI.

  8. Comparative Study of SSVEP- and P300-Based Models for the Telepresence Control of Humanoid Robots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhao

    Full Text Available In this paper, we evaluate the control performance of SSVEP (steady-state visual evoked potential- and P300-based models using Cerebot-a mind-controlled humanoid robot platform. Seven subjects with diverse experience participated in experiments concerning the open-loop and closed-loop control of a humanoid robot via brain signals. The visual stimuli of both the SSVEP- and P300- based models were implemented on a LCD computer monitor with a refresh frequency of 60 Hz. Considering the operation safety, we set the classification accuracy of a model over 90.0% as the most important mandatory for the telepresence control of the humanoid robot. The open-loop experiments demonstrated that the SSVEP model with at most four stimulus targets achieved the average accurate rate about 90%, whereas the P300 model with the six or more stimulus targets under five repetitions per trial was able to achieve the accurate rates over 90.0%. Therefore, the four SSVEP stimuli were used to control four types of robot behavior; while the six P300 stimuli were chosen to control six types of robot behavior. Both of the 4-class SSVEP and 6-class P300 models achieved the average success rates of 90.3% and 91.3%, the average response times of 3.65 s and 6.6 s, and the average information transfer rates (ITR of 24.7 bits/min 18.8 bits/min, respectively. The closed-loop experiments addressed the telepresence control of the robot; the objective was to cause the robot to walk along a white lane marked in an office environment using live video feedback. Comparative studies reveal that the SSVEP model yielded faster response to the subject's mental activity with less reliance on channel selection, whereas the P300 model was found to be suitable for more classifiable targets and required less training. To conclude, we discuss the existing SSVEP and P300 models for the control of humanoid robots, including the models proposed in this paper.

  9. Comparative Study of SSVEP- and P300-Based Models for the Telepresence Control of Humanoid Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Li, Wei; Li, Mengfan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the control performance of SSVEP (steady-state visual evoked potential)- and P300-based models using Cerebot-a mind-controlled humanoid robot platform. Seven subjects with diverse experience participated in experiments concerning the open-loop and closed-loop control of a humanoid robot via brain signals. The visual stimuli of both the SSVEP- and P300- based models were implemented on a LCD computer monitor with a refresh frequency of 60 Hz. Considering the operation safety, we set the classification accuracy of a model over 90.0% as the most important mandatory for the telepresence control of the humanoid robot. The open-loop experiments demonstrated that the SSVEP model with at most four stimulus targets achieved the average accurate rate about 90%, whereas the P300 model with the six or more stimulus targets under five repetitions per trial was able to achieve the accurate rates over 90.0%. Therefore, the four SSVEP stimuli were used to control four types of robot behavior; while the six P300 stimuli were chosen to control six types of robot behavior. Both of the 4-class SSVEP and 6-class P300 models achieved the average success rates of 90.3% and 91.3%, the average response times of 3.65 s and 6.6 s, and the average information transfer rates (ITR) of 24.7 bits/min 18.8 bits/min, respectively. The closed-loop experiments addressed the telepresence control of the robot; the objective was to cause the robot to walk along a white lane marked in an office environment using live video feedback. Comparative studies reveal that the SSVEP model yielded faster response to the subject's mental activity with less reliance on channel selection, whereas the P300 model was found to be suitable for more classifiable targets and required less training. To conclude, we discuss the existing SSVEP and P300 models for the control of humanoid robots, including the models proposed in this paper. PMID:26562524

  10. SSVEP Extraction Based on the Similarity of Background EEG

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenghua Wu

    2014-01-01

    Steady-state Visual Evoked Potential (SSVEP) outperforms the other types of ERPs for Brain-computer Interface (BCI), and thus it is widely employed. In order to apply SSVEP-based BCI to real life situations, it is important to improve the accuracy and transfer rate of the system. Aimed at this target, many SSVEP extraction methods have been proposed. All these methods are based directly on the properties of SSVEP, such as power and phase. In this study, we first filtered out the target freque...

  11. Alpha neurofeedback training improves SSVEP-based BCI performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Feng; Nuno da Cruz, Janir; Nan, Wenya; Wong, Chi Man; Vai, Mang I.; Rosa, Agostinho

    2016-06-01

    Objective. Steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) can provide relatively easy, reliable and high speed communication. However, the performance is still not satisfactory, especially in some users who are not able to generate strong enough SSVEP signals. This work aims to strengthen a user’s SSVEP by alpha down-regulating neurofeedback training (NFT) and consequently improve the performance of the user in using SSVEP-based BCIs. Approach. An experiment with two steps was designed and conducted. The first step was to investigate the relationship between the resting alpha activity and the SSVEP-based BCI performance, in order to determine the training parameter for the NFT. Then in the second step, half of the subjects with ‘low’ performance (i.e. BCI classification accuracy assigned to a NFT group to perform a real-time NFT, and the rest half to a non-NFT control group for comparison. Main results. The first step revealed a significant negative correlation between the BCI performance and the individual alpha band (IAB) amplitudes in the eyes-open resting condition in a total of 33 subjects. In the second step, it was found that during the IAB down-regulating NFT, on average the subjects were able to successfully decrease their IAB amplitude over training sessions. More importantly, the NFT group showed an average increase of 16.5% in the SSVEP signal SNR (signal-to-noise ratio) and an average increase of 20.3% in the BCI classification accuracy, which was significant compared to the non-NFT control group. Significance. These findings indicate that the alpha down-regulating NFT can be used to improve the SSVEP signal quality and the subjects’ performance in using SSVEP-based BCIs. It could be helpful to the SSVEP related studies and would contribute to more effective SSVEP-based BCI applications.

  12. Alpha neurofeedback training improves SSVEP-based BCI performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Feng; Nuno da Cruz, Janir; Nan, Wenya; Wong, Chi Man; Vai, Mang I.; Rosa, Agostinho

    2016-06-01

    Objective. Steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) can provide relatively easy, reliable and high speed communication. However, the performance is still not satisfactory, especially in some users who are not able to generate strong enough SSVEP signals. This work aims to strengthen a user’s SSVEP by alpha down-regulating neurofeedback training (NFT) and consequently improve the performance of the user in using SSVEP-based BCIs. Approach. An experiment with two steps was designed and conducted. The first step was to investigate the relationship between the resting alpha activity and the SSVEP-based BCI performance, in order to determine the training parameter for the NFT. Then in the second step, half of the subjects with ‘low’ performance (i.e. BCI classification accuracy <80%) were randomly assigned to a NFT group to perform a real-time NFT, and the rest half to a non-NFT control group for comparison. Main results. The first step revealed a significant negative correlation between the BCI performance and the individual alpha band (IAB) amplitudes in the eyes-open resting condition in a total of 33 subjects. In the second step, it was found that during the IAB down-regulating NFT, on average the subjects were able to successfully decrease their IAB amplitude over training sessions. More importantly, the NFT group showed an average increase of 16.5% in the SSVEP signal SNR (signal-to-noise ratio) and an average increase of 20.3% in the BCI classification accuracy, which was significant compared to the non-NFT control group. Significance. These findings indicate that the alpha down-regulating NFT can be used to improve the SSVEP signal quality and the subjects’ performance in using SSVEP-based BCIs. It could be helpful to the SSVEP related studies and would contribute to more effective SSVEP-based BCI applications.

  13. Studying modulation on simultaneously activated SSVEP neural networks by a cognitive task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhenghua

    2014-01-01

    Since the discovery of steady-state visually evoked potential (SSVEP), it has been used in many fields. Numerous studies suggest that there exist three SSVEP neural networks in different frequency bands. An obvious phenomenon has been observed, that the amplitude and phase of SSVEP can be modulated by a cognitive task. Previous works have studied this modulation on separately activated SSVEP neural networks by a cognitive task. If two or more SSVEP neural networks are activated simultaneously in the process of a cognitive task, is the modulation on different SSVEP neural networks the same? In this study, two different SSVEP neural networks were activated simultaneously by two different frequency flickers, with a working memory task irrelevant to the flickers being conducted at the same time. The modulated SSVEP waves were compared with each other and to those only under one flicker in previous studies. The comparison results show that the cognitive task can modulate different SSVEP neural networks with a similar style.

  14. Comparison between wire and wireless EEG acquisition systems based on SSVEP in an Independent-BCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tello, Richard M G; Müller, Sandra M T; Bastos-Filho, Teodiano; Ferreira, Andre

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison between two different technologies of acquisition systems (BrainNet36 and Emotiv Epoc) for an Independent-BCI based on Steady-State Visual Evoked Potential (SSVEP). Two stimuli separated by a viewing angle experiments. The class is obtained through a criterion of maxima. The left and right flicker stimuli were modulated at frequencies of 8.0 and 13.0 Hz, respectively. Acquisition via BrainNet system showed better results, obtaining the highest value for accuracy (100%) and the highest ITR (35.18 bits/min). This Independent-BCI is based on covert attention. PMID:25569887

  15. A novel 9-class auditory ERP paradigm driving a predictive text entry system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes eHöhne

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs based on Event Related Potentials (ERPs strive for offering communication pathways which are independent of muscle activity. While most visual ERP-based BCI paradigms require good control of the user's gaze direction, auditory BCI paradigms overcome this restriction. The present work proposes a novel approach using Auditory Evoked Potentials (AEP for the example of a multiclass text spelling application. To control the ERP speller, BCI users focus their attention to two-dimensional auditory stimuli that vary in both, pitch (high/medium/low and direction (left/middle/right and that are presented via headphones. The resulting nine different control signals are exploited to drive a predictive text entry system. It enables the user to spell a letter by a single 9-class decision plus two additional decisions to confirm a spelled word.This paradigm - called PASS2D - was investigated in an online study with twelve healthy participants. Users spelled with more than 0.8 characters per minute on average (3.4 bits per minute which makes PASS2D a competitive method. It could enrich the toolbox of existing ERP paradigms for BCI end users like late-stage ALS patients.

  16. Driving a Semiautonomous Mobile Robotic Car Controlled by an SSVEP-Based BCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Brain-computer interfaces represent a range of acknowledged technologies that translate brain activity into computer commands. The aim of our research is to develop and evaluate a BCI control application for certain assistive technologies that can be used for remote telepresence or remote driving. The communication channel to the target device is based on the steady-state visual evoked potentials. In order to test the control application, a mobile robotic car (MRC) was introduced and a four-class BCI graphical user interface (with live video feedback and stimulation boxes on the same screen) for piloting the MRC was designed. For the purpose of evaluating a potential real-life scenario for such assistive technology, we present a study where 61 subjects steered the MRC through a predetermined route. All 61 subjects were able to control the MRC and finish the experiment (mean time 207.08 s, SD 50.25) with a mean (SD) accuracy and ITR of 93.03% (5.73) and 14.07 bits/min (4.44), respectively. The results show that our proposed SSVEP-based BCI control application is suitable for mobile robots with a shared-control approach. We also did not observe any negative influence of the simultaneous live video feedback and SSVEP stimulation on the performance of the BCI system. PMID:27528864

  17. Driving a Semiautonomous Mobile Robotic Car Controlled by an SSVEP-Based BCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawicki, Piotr; Gembler, Felix; Volosyak, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Brain-computer interfaces represent a range of acknowledged technologies that translate brain activity into computer commands. The aim of our research is to develop and evaluate a BCI control application for certain assistive technologies that can be used for remote telepresence or remote driving. The communication channel to the target device is based on the steady-state visual evoked potentials. In order to test the control application, a mobile robotic car (MRC) was introduced and a four-class BCI graphical user interface (with live video feedback and stimulation boxes on the same screen) for piloting the MRC was designed. For the purpose of evaluating a potential real-life scenario for such assistive technology, we present a study where 61 subjects steered the MRC through a predetermined route. All 61 subjects were able to control the MRC and finish the experiment (mean time 207.08 s, SD 50.25) with a mean (SD) accuracy and ITR of 93.03% (5.73) and 14.07 bits/min (4.44), respectively. The results show that our proposed SSVEP-based BCI control application is suitable for mobile robots with a shared-control approach. We also did not observe any negative influence of the simultaneous live video feedback and SSVEP stimulation on the performance of the BCI system.

  18. Driving a Semiautonomous Mobile Robotic Car Controlled by an SSVEP-Based BCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Stawicki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain-computer interfaces represent a range of acknowledged technologies that translate brain activity into computer commands. The aim of our research is to develop and evaluate a BCI control application for certain assistive technologies that can be used for remote telepresence or remote driving. The communication channel to the target device is based on the steady-state visual evoked potentials. In order to test the control application, a mobile robotic car (MRC was introduced and a four-class BCI graphical user interface (with live video feedback and stimulation boxes on the same screen for piloting the MRC was designed. For the purpose of evaluating a potential real-life scenario for such assistive technology, we present a study where 61 subjects steered the MRC through a predetermined route. All 61 subjects were able to control the MRC and finish the experiment (mean time 207.08 s, SD 50.25 with a mean (SD accuracy and ITR of 93.03% (5.73 and 14.07 bits/min (4.44, respectively. The results show that our proposed SSVEP-based BCI control application is suitable for mobile robots with a shared-control approach. We also did not observe any negative influence of the simultaneous live video feedback and SSVEP stimulation on the performance of the BCI system.

  19. Driving a Semiautonomous Mobile Robotic Car Controlled by an SSVEP-Based BCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawicki, Piotr; Gembler, Felix; Volosyak, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Brain-computer interfaces represent a range of acknowledged technologies that translate brain activity into computer commands. The aim of our research is to develop and evaluate a BCI control application for certain assistive technologies that can be used for remote telepresence or remote driving. The communication channel to the target device is based on the steady-state visual evoked potentials. In order to test the control application, a mobile robotic car (MRC) was introduced and a four-class BCI graphical user interface (with live video feedback and stimulation boxes on the same screen) for piloting the MRC was designed. For the purpose of evaluating a potential real-life scenario for such assistive technology, we present a study where 61 subjects steered the MRC through a predetermined route. All 61 subjects were able to control the MRC and finish the experiment (mean time 207.08 s, SD 50.25) with a mean (SD) accuracy and ITR of 93.03% (5.73) and 14.07 bits/min (4.44), respectively. The results show that our proposed SSVEP-based BCI control application is suitable for mobile robots with a shared-control approach. We also did not observe any negative influence of the simultaneous live video feedback and SSVEP stimulation on the performance of the BCI system. PMID:27528864

  20. A MUSIC-based method for SSVEP signal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kun; Liu, Quan; Ai, Qingsong; Zhou, Zude; Xie, Sheng Quan; Meng, Wei

    2016-03-01

    The research on brain computer interfaces (BCIs) has become a hotspot in recent years because it offers benefit to disabled people to communicate with the outside world. Steady state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based BCIs are more widely used because of higher signal to noise ratio and greater information transfer rate compared with other BCI techniques. In this paper, a multiple signal classification based method was proposed for multi-dimensional SSVEP feature extraction. 2-second data epochs from four electrodes achieved excellent accuracy rates including idle state detection. In some asynchronous mode experiments, the recognition accuracy reached up to 100%. The experimental results showed that the proposed method attained good frequency resolution. In most situations, the recognition accuracy was higher than canonical correlation analysis, which is a typical method for multi-channel SSVEP signal processing. Also, a virtual keyboard was successfully controlled by different subjects in an unshielded environment, which proved the feasibility of the proposed method for multi-dimensional SSVEP signal processing in practical applications.

  1. An online hybrid BCI system based on SSVEP and EMG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ke; Cinetto, Andrea; Wang, Yijun; Chen, Xiaogang; Gao, Shangkai; Gao, Xiaorong

    2016-04-01

    Objective. A hybrid brain-computer interface (BCI) is a device combined with at least one other communication system that takes advantage of both parts to build a link between humans and machines. To increase the number of targets and the information transfer rate (ITR), electromyogram (EMG) and steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) were combined to implement a hybrid BCI. A multi-choice selection method based on EMG was developed to enhance the system performance. Approach. A 60-target hybrid BCI speller was built in this study. A single trial was divided into two stages: a stimulation stage and an output selection stage. In the stimulation stage, SSVEP and EMG were used together. Every stimulus flickered at its given frequency to elicit SSVEP. All of the stimuli were divided equally into four sections with the same frequency set. The frequency of each stimulus in a section was different. SSVEPs were used to discriminate targets in the same section. Different sections were classified using EMG signals from the forearm. Subjects were asked to make different number of fists according to the target section. Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) and mean filtering was used to classify SSVEP and EMG separately. In the output selection stage, the top two optimal choices were given. The first choice with the highest probability of an accurate classification was the default output of the system. Subjects were required to make a fist to select the second choice only if the second choice was correct. Main results. The online results obtained from ten subjects showed that the mean accurate classification rate and ITR were 81.0% and 83.6 bits min-1 respectively only using the first choice selection. The ITR of the hybrid system was significantly higher than the ITR of any of the two single modalities (EMG: 30.7 bits min-1, SSVEP: 60.2 bits min-1). After the addition of the second choice selection and the correction task, the accurate classification rate and ITR was

  2. Frequency- and Phase Encoded SSVEP Using Spatiotemporal Beamforming

    OpenAIRE

    Wittevrongel, Benjamin; Hulle, Marc van

    2016-01-01

    In brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) based on steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) the number of selectable targets is rather limited when each target has its own stimulation frequency. One way to remedy this is by combining frequency- with phase encoding. We introduce a new multivariate spatiotemporal filter, based on Linearly Constrained Minimum Variance (LCMV) beamforming, for discriminating between frequency-phase encoded targets more accurately, even when using short signal leng...

  3. A Novel 9-Class Auditory ERP Paradigm Driving a Predictive Text Entry System

    OpenAIRE

    Johannes eHöhne; Martijn eSchreuder; Benjamin eBlankertz; Michael eTangermann

    2011-01-01

    Brain–computer interfaces (BCIs) based on event related potentials (ERPs) strive for offering communication pathways which are independent of muscle activity. While most visual ERP-based BCI paradigms require good control of the user's gaze direction, auditory BCI paradigms overcome this restriction. The present work proposes a novel approach using auditory evoked potentials for the example of a multiclass text spelling application. To control the ERP speller, BCI users focus their attention ...

  4. A Prototype SSVEP Based Real Time BCI Gaming System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignas Martišius

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although brain-computer interface technology is mainly designed with disabled people in mind, it can also be beneficial to healthy subjects, for example, in gaming or virtual reality systems. In this paper we discuss the typical architecture, paradigms, requirements, and limitations of electroencephalogram-based gaming systems. We have developed a prototype three-class brain-computer interface system, based on the steady state visually evoked potentials paradigm and the Emotiv EPOC headset. An online target shooting game, implemented in the OpenViBE environment, has been used for user feedback. The system utilizes wave atom transform for feature extraction, achieving an average accuracy of 78.2% using linear discriminant analysis classifier, 79.3% using support vector machine classifier with a linear kernel, and 80.5% using a support vector machine classifier with a radial basis function kernel.

  5. Modes of salmonid MHC class I and II evolution differ from the primate paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shum, B.P.; Guethlein, L.; Flodin, L.R.; Adkison, M.A.; Hedrick, R.P.; Nehring, R.B.; Stet, R.J.M.; Secombes, C.; Parham, P.

    2001-01-01

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) represent two salmonid genera separated for 15-20 million years. cDNA sequences were determined for the classical MHC class I heavy chain gene UBA and the MHC class II β-chain gene DAB from 15 rainbow and 10 brown trout. Both genes a

  6. Simple communication using a SSVEP-based BCI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majority of Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) for communication purposes are speller, i.e., the user has to select letter by letter. In this work, is proposed a different approach where the user can select words from a word set designed in order to answer a wide range of questions. The word selection process is commanded by a Steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) based-BCI that allows selecting a word in an average time of 26 s with accuracies of 92% on average. This BCI is focus in the first stages on rehabilitation or even in first moments of some diseases (such as stroke), when the person is eager to communicate with family and doctors.

  7. A New Paradigm for Identification of Classes of High Energy Gamma-Ray Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, D F; Reimer, O

    2005-04-08

    A large fraction of the expected number of source detections of the forthcoming observatory Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) will be initially unidentified. We argue that traditional methodological approaches to identify individual detections and/or populations of gamma-ray sources present procedural limitations. These limitations will hamper our ability to classify the populations lying in the anticipated dataset with the required degree of confidence, in particular for those for which no member has yet been detected convincingly with the predecessor experiment EGRET. Here we suggest a new paradigm for achieving the classification of gamma-ray source populations that is based on implementing an a priori protocol to search for theoretically-motivated candidates. It is essential that such paradigm will be defined before the data is unblinded, in order to protect the discovery potential of the sample. Key to the new procedure is a quantitative assessment of the confidence level by which new populations can be claimed to have been discovered. When needed, small number statistics is applied for population studies in gamma-ray astronomy. Although we refer here explicitly only to the case of GLAST, the scheme we present can certainly be adapted to other experiments confronted with a similar combination of problems.

  8. Multiple frequencies sequential coding for SSVEP-based brain-computer interface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangsong Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP-based brain-computer interface (BCI has become one of the most promising modalities for a practical noninvasive BCI system. Owing to both the limitation of refresh rate of liquid crystal display (LCD or cathode ray tube (CRT monitor, and the specific physiological response property that only a very small number of stimuli at certain frequencies could evoke strong SSVEPs, the available frequencies for SSVEP stimuli are limited. Therefore, it may not be enough to code multiple targets with the traditional frequencies coding protocols, which poses a big challenge for the design of a practical SSVEP-based BCI. This study aimed to provide an innovative coding method to tackle this problem. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we present a novel protocol termed multiple frequencies sequential coding (MFSC for SSVEP-based BCI. In MFSC, multiple frequencies are sequentially used in each cycle to code the targets. To fulfill the sequential coding, each cycle is divided into several coding epochs, and during each epoch, certain frequency is used. Obviously, different frequencies or the same frequency can be presented in the coding epochs, and the different epoch sequence corresponds to the different targets. To show the feasibility of MFSC, we used two frequencies to realize four targets and carried on an offline experiment. The current study shows that: 1 MFSC is feasible and efficient; 2 the performance of SSVEP-based BCI based on MFSC can be comparable to some existed systems. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The proposed protocol could potentially implement much more targets with the limited available frequencies compared with the traditional frequencies coding protocol. The efficiency of the new protocol was confirmed by real data experiment. We propose that the SSVEP-based BCI under MFSC might be a promising choice in the future.

  9. On the quantification of SSVEP frequency responses in human EEG in realistic BCI conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Kuś

    Full Text Available This article concerns one of the most important problems of brain-computer interfaces (BCI based on Steady State Visual Evoked Potentials (SSVEP, that is the selection of the a-priori most suitable frequencies for stimulation. Previous works related to this problem were done either with measuring systems that have little in common with actual BCI systems (e.g., single flashing LED or were presented on a small number of subjects, or the tested frequency range did not cover a broad spectrum. Their results indicate a strong SSVEP response around 10 Hz, in the range 13-25 Hz, and at high frequencies in the band of 40-60 Hz. In the case of BCI interfaces, stimulation with frequencies from various ranges are used. The frequencies are often adapted for each user separately. The selection of these frequencies, however, was not yet justified in quantitative group-level study with proper statistical account for inter-subject variability. The aim of this study is to determine the SSVEP response curve, that is, the magnitude of the evoked signal as a function of frequency. The SSVEP response was induced in conditions as close as possible to the actual BCI system, using a wide range of frequencies (5-30 Hz, in step of 1 Hz. The data were obtained for 10 subjects. SSVEP curves for individual subjects and the population curve was determined. Statistical analysis were conducted both on the level of individual subjects and for the group. The main result of the study is the identification of the optimal range of frequencies, which is 12-18 Hz, for the registration of SSVEP phenomena. The applied criterion of optimality was: to find the largest contiguous range of frequencies yielding the strong and constant-level SSVEP response.

  10. The Quantum Mixed-Spin Heme State of Barley Peroxidase: A Paradigm for Class III Peroxidases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howes, B.D.; Ma, J.; Marzocchi, M.P.; Schiodt, C.B.; Shelnutt, J.A.; Smulevich, G.; Welinder, K.G.; Zhang, J.

    1999-03-23

    Electronic absorption and resonance Raman (RR) spectra of the ferric form of barley grain peroxidase (BP 1) at various pH values both at room temperature and 20 K are . reported, together with EPR spectra at 10 K. The ferrous forms and the ferric complex with fluoride have also been studied. A quantum mechanically mixed-spin (QS) state has been identified. The QS heme species co-exists with 6- and 5-cHS heroes; the relative populations of these three spin states are found to be dependent on pH and temperature. However, the QS species remains in all cases the dominant heme spin species. Barley peroxidase appears to be further characterized by a splitting of the two vinyl stretching modes, indicating that the vinyl groups are differently conjugated with the porphyrin. An analysis of the presently available spectroscopic data for proteins from all three peroxidase classes suggests that the simultaneous occurrence of the QS heme state as well as the splitting of the two vinyl stretching modes is confined to class III enzymes. The former point is discussed in terms of the possible influences of heme deformations on heme spin state. It is found that moderate saddling alone is probably not enough to cause the QS state, although some saddling maybe necessary for the QS state.

  11. The Characteristics of Solar X-Class Flares and CMEs: A Paradigm for Stellar Superflares and Eruptions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harra, Louise K.; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Janvier, Miho; Toriumi, Shin; Hudson, Hugh; Matthews, Sarah; Woods, Magnus M.; Hara, Hirohisa; Guedel, Manuel; Kowalski, Adam; Osten, Rachel; Kusano, Kanya; Lueftinger, Theresa

    2016-08-01

    This paper explores the characteristics of 42 solar X-class flares that were observed between February 2011 and November 2014, with data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and other sources. This flare list includes nine X-class flares that had no associated CMEs. In particular our aim was to determine whether a clear signature could be identified to differentiate powerful flares that have coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from those that do not. Part of the motivation for this study is the characterization of the solar paradigm for flare/CME occurrence as a possible guide to the stellar observations; hence we emphasize spectroscopic signatures. To do this we ask the following questions: Do all eruptive flares have long durations? Do CME-related flares stand out in terms of active-region size vs. flare duration? Do flare magnitudes correlate with sunspot areas, and, if so, are eruptive events distinguished? Is the occurrence of CMEs related to the fraction of the active-region area involved? Do X-class flares with no eruptions have weaker non-thermal signatures? Is the temperature dependence of evaporation different in eruptive and non-eruptive flares? Is EUV dimming only seen in eruptive flares? We find only one feature consistently associated with CME-related flares specifically: coronal dimming in lines characteristic of the quiet-Sun corona, i.e. 1 - 2 MK. We do not find a correlation between flare magnitude and sunspot areas. Although challenging, it will be of importance to model dimming for stellar cases and make suitable future plans for observations in the appropriate wavelength range in order to identify stellar CMEs consistently.

  12. Social Movements Facing the Processes of Globalization: Beyond the Paradigms of Class and Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Alfaro

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay focuses on a particular expression of globalization and regionalization that entails social, political, cultural and economic dimensions: social movements. I argue that current social movements are not necessarily articulated only in terms of class struggle-as the major labor movements were for the last two centuries. Neither do they articulate their protests only in terms of identity and recognition-such as women's movements did in the 1960s. Social movements are now most commonly organized around a discourse that combines those two dimensions. Contemporary social movements are expanding from the structural economic and industrial system (and thus abandoning the form of traditional class struggles to cultural and identity grounds. New social movements are now seen more and more as symbolic challengers, because power-that affects everyday life and tries to manipulate and give social meaning to things-is being contested by individuals in both the public and private spheres. Thus movements have a more symbolic function: they are a new kind of media, fighting for symbolic and cultural stakes, and for a different meaning and orientation of social action. However, constructing a collective identity within a social movement is not definitive. A movement's identity is constructed on an everyday basis, and within the process of globalization, the contact and social interaction with others -with the other, which allows the definition of one's own identity-is not only possible but also necessary. This paper considers the Zapatista rebellion in Chiapas as an empirical approach to social movements expanding from regional, local mobilizations and discourse, to more global oriented contentious activities. I argue that the Zapatista movement's identity in 1994 was quite different from the one it has now: the Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional (EZLN, or Zapatista National Liberation Army discourse has been transformed, from having an ethnic

  13. Semi-supervised adaptation in ssvep-based brain-computer interface using tri-training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bender, Thomas; Kjaer, Troels W.; Thomsen, Carsten E.;

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel and computationally simple tri-training based semi-supervised steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based brain-computer interface (BCI). It is implemented with autocorrelation-based features and a Naïve-Bayes classifier (NBC). The system uses nine characters...

  14. DTU BCI speller: An SSVEP-based spelling system with dictionary support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilic, Adnan; Kjaer, Troels W.; Thomsen, Carsten E.;

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a new brain computer interface (BCI) speller, named DTU BCI speller, is introduced. It is based on the steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) and features dictionary support. The system focuses on simplicity and user friendliness by using a single electrode for the signal...

  15. Automatic Determination of the Optimum Stimulation Frequencies in an SSVEP based BCI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaashoek, I.; Garcia Molina, G.

    2009-01-01

    A brain computer interface (or BCI) is a communication or control system which does not need any neuromuscular activity to produce a message or action. In this project, an SSVEP based BCI is used. This means that when the user concentrates on a LED, flickering with a certain frequency, the steady s

  16. D3.1 BRAIN - Initial prototype of advanced SSVEP signal processing tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihajlovic, V.; Garcia Molina, G.

    2009-01-01

    This document describes the High Frequency (HF) Steady-State Visual Evoked Potential (SSVEP) based Brain Computer Interface (BCI) developed at Philips Research Europe (PRE). The interface is based on the fact that the oscillatory visual stimuli can elicit oscillatory brain activity at the same frequ

  17. A BMI-based occupational therapy assist suit: asynchronous control by SSVEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi eSakurada

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A brain-machine interface (BMI is an interface technology that uses neurophysiological signals from the brain to control external machines. Recent invasive BMI technologies have succeeded in the asynchronous control of robot arms for a useful series of actions, such as reaching and grasping. In this study, we developed non-invasive BMI technologies aiming to make such useful movements using the subject's own hands by preparing a BMI-based occupational therapy assist suit (BOTAS. We prepared a pre-recorded series of useful actionsa grasping-a-ball movement and a carrying-the-ball movementand added asynchronous control using steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP signals. A SSVEP signal was used to trigger the grasping-a-ball movement and another SSVEP signal was used to trigger the carrying-the-ball movement. A support vector machine was used to classify EEG signals recorded from the visual cortex (Oz in real time. Untrained, able-bodied participants (n = 12 operated the system successfully. Classification accuracy and time required for SSVEP detection were approximately 88% and 3 s, respectively. We further recruited three patients with upper cervical spinal cord injuries; they also succeeded in operating the system without training. These data suggest that our BOTAS system is potentially useful in terms of rehabilitation of patients with upper limb disabilities.

  18. Comparison of PSDA and CCA detection methods in a SSVEP-based BCI-system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakvoort, Gido; Reuderink, Boris; Obbink, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Using steady-state visually evoked potential (SSVEP) in brain-computer interface (BCI) systems is the subject of a lot of research. One of the most popular and widely used detection method is using a power spectral density analysis (PSDA). Lately there have been some new methods emerging, one of the

  19. Enhancing performances of SSVEP-based brain-computer interfaces via exploiting inter-subject information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Peng; Chen, Xiaogang; Wang, Yijun; Gao, Xiaorong; Gao, Shangkai

    2015-08-01

    Objective. A new training-free framework was proposed for target detection in steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) using joint frequency-phase coding. Approach. The key idea is to transfer SSVEP templates from the existing subjects to a new subject to enhance the detection of SSVEPs. Under this framework, transfer template-based canonical correlation analysis (tt-CCA) methods were developed for single-channel and multi-channel conditions respectively. In addition, an online transfer template-based CCA (ott-CCA) method was proposed to update EEG templates by online adaptation. Main results. The efficiency of the proposed framework was proved with a simulated BCI experiment. Compared with the standard CCA method, tt-CCA obtained an 18.78% increase of accuracy with a data length of 1.5 s. A simulated test of ott-CCA further received an accuracy increase of 2.99%. Significance. The proposed simple yet efficient framework significantly facilitates the use of SSVEP BCIs using joint frequency-phase coding. This study also sheds light on the benefits from exploring and exploiting inter-subject information to the electroencephalogram (EEG)-based BCIs.

  20. Fully Online Multicommand Brain-Computer Interface with Visual Neurofeedback Using SSVEP Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hovagim Bakardjian

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new multistage procedure for a real-time brain-machine/computer interface (BCI. The developed system allows a BCI user to navigate a small car (or any other object on the computer screen in real time, in any of the four directions, and to stop it if necessary. Extensive experiments with five young healthy subjects confirmed the high performance of the proposed online BCI system. The modular structure, high speed, and the optimal frequency band characteristics of the BCI platform are features which allow an extension to a substantially higher number of commands in the near future.

  1. Home Automation Using SSVEP & Eye-Blink Detection Based Brain-Computer Interface

    OpenAIRE

    Goel, Kratarth; Vohra, Raunaq; Kamath, Anant; Baths, Veeky

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel brain computer interface based home automation system using two responses - Steady State Visually Evoked Potential (SSVEP) and the eye-blink artifact, which is augmented by a Bluetooth based indoor localization system, to greatly increase the number of controllable devices. The hardware implementation of this system to control a table lamp and table fan using brain signals has also been discussed and state-of-the-art results have been achieved.

  2. Autonomous Parameter Adjustment for SSVEP-Based BCIs with a Novel BCI Wizard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gembler, Felix; Stawicki, Piotr; Volosyak, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) transfer human brain activities into computer commands and enable a communication channel without requiring movement. Among other BCI approaches, steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based BCIs have the potential to become accurate, assistive technologies for persons with severe disabilities. Those systems require customization of different kinds of parameters (e.g., stimulation frequencies). Calibration usually requires selecting predefined parameters by experienced/trained personnel, though in real-life scenarios an interface allowing people with no experience in programming to set up the BCI would be desirable. Another occurring problem regarding BCI performance is BCI illiteracy (also called BCI deficiency). Many articles reported that BCI control could not be achieved by a non-negligible number of users. In order to bypass those problems we developed a SSVEP-BCI wizard, a system that automatically determines user-dependent key-parameters to customize SSVEP-based BCI systems. This wizard was tested and evaluated with 61 healthy subjects. All subjects were asked to spell the phrase "RHINE WAAL UNIVERSITY" with a spelling application after key parameters were determined by the wizard. Results show that all subjects were able to control the spelling application. A mean (SD) accuracy of 97.14 (3.73)% was reached (all subjects reached an accuracy above 85% and 25 subjects even reached 100% accuracy).

  3. Filter bank canonical correlation analysis for implementing a high-speed SSVEP-based brain-computer interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaogang; Wang, Yijun; Gao, Shangkai; Jung, Tzyy-Ping; Gao, Xiaorong

    2015-08-01

    Objective. Recently, canonical correlation analysis (CCA) has been widely used in steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) due to its high efficiency, robustness, and simple implementation. However, a method with which to make use of harmonic SSVEP components to enhance the CCA-based frequency detection has not been well established. Approach. This study proposed a filter bank canonical correlation analysis (FBCCA) method to incorporate fundamental and harmonic frequency components to improve the detection of SSVEPs. A 40-target BCI speller based on frequency coding (frequency range: 8-15.8 Hz, frequency interval: 0.2 Hz) was used for performance evaluation. To optimize the filter bank design, three methods (M1: sub-bands with equally spaced bandwidths; M2: sub-bands corresponding to individual harmonic frequency bands; M3: sub-bands covering multiple harmonic frequency bands) were proposed for comparison. Classification accuracy and information transfer rate (ITR) of the three FBCCA methods and the standard CCA method were estimated using an offline dataset from 12 subjects. Furthermore, an online BCI speller adopting the optimal FBCCA method was tested with a group of 10 subjects. Main results. The FBCCA methods significantly outperformed the standard CCA method. The method M3 achieved the highest classification performance. At a spelling rate of ˜33.3 characters/min, the online BCI speller obtained an average ITR of 151.18 ± 20.34 bits min-1. Significance. By incorporating the fundamental and harmonic SSVEP components in target identification, the proposed FBCCA method significantly improves the performance of the SSVEP-based BCI, and thereby facilitates its practical applications such as high-speed spelling.

  4. The Characteristics of Solar X-Class Flares and CMEs: A Paradigm for Stellar Superflares and Eruptions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harra, Louise K.; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Janvier, Miho; Toriumi, Shin; Hudson, Hugh; Matthews, Sarah; Woods, Magnus M.; Hara, Hirohisa; Guedel, Manuel; Kowalski, Adam; Osten, Rachel; Kusano, Kanya; Lueftinger, Theresa

    2016-07-01

    We study the characteristics of moving type IV radio bursts that extend to hectometric wavelengths (interplanetary type IV or type {IV}_{{IP}} bursts) and their relationship with energetic phenomena on the Sun. Our dataset comprises 48 interplanetary type IV bursts observed with the Radio and Plasma Wave Investigation (WAVES) instrument onboard Wind in the 13.825 MHz - 20 kHz frequency range. The dynamic spectra of the Radio Solar Telescope Network (RSTN), the Nançay Decametric Array (DAM), the Appareil de Routine pour le Traitement et l' Enregistrement Magnetique de l' Information Spectral (ARTEMIS-IV), the Culgoora, Hiraso, and the Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation (IZMIRAN) Radio Spectrographs were used to track the evolution of the events in the low corona. These were supplemented with soft X-ray (SXR) flux-measurements from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) and coronal mass ejections (CME) data from the Large Angle and Spectroscopic Coronagraph (LASCO) onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). Positional information of the coronal bursts was obtained by the Nançay Radioheliograph (NRH). We examined the relationship of the type IV events with coronal radio bursts, CMEs, and SXR flares. The majority of the events (45) were characterized as compact, their duration was on average 106 minutes. This type of events was, mostly, associated with M- and X-class flares (40 out of 45) and fast CMEs, 32 of these events had CMEs faster than 1000 km s^{-1}. Furthermore, in 43 compact events the CME was possibly subjected to reduced aerodynamic drag as it was propagating in the wake of a previous CME. A minority (three) of long-lived type IV_{IP} bursts was detected, with durations from 960 minutes to 115 hours. These events are referred to as extended or long duration and appear to replenish their energetic electron content, possibly from electrons escaping from the corresponding coronal type

  5. Testing the Paradigm that Ultra-Luminous X-Ray Sources as a Class Represent Accreting Intermediate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghea, C. T.; Weaver, K. A.; Colbert, E. J. M.; Roberts, T. P.

    2008-01-01

    To test the idea that ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) in external galaxies represent a class of accreting Intermediate-Mass Black Holes (IMBHs), we have undertaken a program to identify ULXs and a lower luminosity X-ray comparison sample with the highest quality data in the Chandra archive. We establish a general property of ULXs that the most X-ray luminous objects possess the fattest X-ray spectra (in the Chandra band pass). No prior sample studies have established the general hardening of ULX spectra with luminosity. This hardening occurs at the highest luminosities (absorbed luminosity > or equals 5x10(exp 39) ergs/s) and is in line with recent models arguing that ULXs are actually stellar-mass black holes. From spectral modeling, we show that the evidence originally taken to mean that ULXs are IMBHs - i.e., the "simple IMBH model" - is nowhere near as compelling when a large sample of ULXs is looked at properly. During the last couple of years, XMM-Newton spectroscopy of ULXs has to some large extent begun to negate the simple IMBH model based on fewer objects. We confirm and expand these results, which validates the XMM-Newton work in a broader sense with independent X-ray data. We find (1) that cool disk components are present with roughly equal probability and total flux fraction for any given ULX, regardless of luminosity, and (2) that cool disk components extend below the standard ULX luminosity cutoff of 10(exp 39) ergs/s, down to our sample limit of 10(exp 38:3) ergs/s. The fact that cool disk components are not correlated with luminosity damages the argument that cool disks indicate IMBHs in ULXs, for which a strong statistical support was never made.

  6. The enhanced information flow from visual cortex to frontal area facilitates SSVEP response: evidence from model-driven and data-driven causality analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fali; Tian, Yin; Zhang, Yangsong; Qiu, Kan; Tian, Chunyang; Jing, Wei; Liu, Tiejun; Xia, Yang; Guo, Daqing; Yao, Dezhong; Xu, Peng

    2015-10-05

    The neural mechanism of steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEP) is still not clearly understood. Especially, only certain frequency stimuli can evoke SSVEP. Our previous network study reveals that 8 Hz stimulus that can evoke strong SSVEP response shows the enhanced linkage strength between frontal and visual cortex. To further probe the directed information flow between the two cortex areas for various frequency stimuli, this paper develops a causality analysis based on the inversion of double columns model using particle swarm optimization (PSO) to characterize the directed information flow between visual and frontal cortices with the intracranial rat electroencephalograph (EEG). The estimated model parameters demonstrate that the 8 Hz stimulus shows the enhanced directional information flow from visual cortex to frontal lobe facilitates SSVEP response, which may account for the strong SSVEP response for 8 Hz stimulus. Furthermore, the similar finding is replicated by data-driven causality analysis. The inversion of neural mass model proposed in this study may be helpful to provide the new causality analysis to link the physiological model and the observed datasets in neuroscience and clinical researches.

  7. SSVEP and ANN based optimal speller design for Brain Computer Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irshad Ahmad Ansari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This work put forwards an optimal BCI (Brain Computer Interface speller design based on Steady State Visual Evoked Potentials (SSVEP and Artificial Neural Network (ANN in order to help the people with severe motor impairments. This work is carried out to enhance the accuracy and communication rate of  BCI system. To optimize the BCI system, the work has been divided into two steps: First, designing of an encoding technique to choose characters from the speller interface and the second is the development and implementation of feature extraction algorithm to acquire optimal features, which is used to train the BCI system for classification using neural network. Optimization of speller interface is focused on representation of character matrix and its designing parameters. Then again, a lot of deliberations made in order to optimize selection of features and user’s time window. Optimized system works nearly the same with the new user and gives character per minute (CPM of 13 ± 2 with an average accuracy of 94.5% by choosing first two harmonics of power spectral density as the feature vectors and using the 2 second time window for each selection. Optimized BCI performs better with experienced users with an average accuracy of 95.1%. Such a good accuracy has not been reported before in account of fair enough CPM.DOI: 10.15181/csat.v2i2.1059

  8. A comparison of two spelling Brain-Computer Interfaces based on visual P3 and SSVEP in Locked-In Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Combaz

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We study the applicability of a visual P3-based and a Steady State Visually Evoked Potentials (SSVEP-based Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs for mental text spelling on a cohort of patients with incomplete Locked-In Syndrome (LIS. METHODS: Seven patients performed repeated sessions with each BCI. We assessed BCI performance, mental workload and overall satisfaction for both systems. We also investigated the effect of the quality of life and level of motor impairment on the performance. RESULTS: All seven patients were able to achieve an accuracy of 70% or more with the SSVEP-based BCI, compared to 3 patients with the P3-based BCI, showing a better performance with the SSVEP BCI than with the P3 BCI in the studied cohort. Moreover, the better performance of the SSVEP-based BCI was accompanied by a lower mental workload and a higher overall satisfaction. No relationship was found between BCI performance and level of motor impairment or quality of life. CONCLUSION: Our results show a better usability of the SSVEP-based BCI than the P3-based one for the sessions performed by the tested population of locked-in patients with respect to all the criteria considered. The study shows the advantage of developing alternative BCIs with respect to the traditional matrix-based P3 speller using different designs and signal modalities such as SSVEPs to build a faster, more accurate, less mentally demanding and more satisfying BCI by testing both types of BCIs on a convenience sample of LIS patients.

  9. Paradigm Shift

    OpenAIRE

    Besancenot, Damien; Dogguy, Habib

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the consequences of young researchers' scientifc choice on the dynamics of sciences. We develop a simple two state mean field game model to analyze the competition between two paradigms based on Kuhn's theory of scientifc revolutions. At the beginning of their career, young researchers choose the paradigm in which they want to work according to social and personal motivations. Despite the possibility of multiple equilibria the model exhibits at least one stable solution in...

  10. A user-friendly SSVEP-based brain-computer interface using a time-domain classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, An; Sullivan, Thomas J.

    2010-04-01

    We introduce a user-friendly steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based brain-computer interface (BCI) system. Single-channel EEG is recorded using a low-noise dry electrode. Compared to traditional gel-based multi-sensor EEG systems, a dry sensor proves to be more convenient, comfortable and cost effective. A hardware system was built that displays four LED light panels flashing at different frequencies and synchronizes with EEG acquisition. The visual stimuli have been carefully designed such that potential risk to photosensitive people is minimized. We describe a novel stimulus-locked inter-trace correlation (SLIC) method for SSVEP classification using EEG time-locked to stimulus onsets. We studied how the performance of the algorithm is affected by different selection of parameters. Using the SLIC method, the average light detection rate is 75.8% with very low error rates (an 8.4% false positive rate and a 1.3% misclassification rate). Compared to a traditional frequency-domain-based method, the SLIC method is more robust (resulting in less annoyance to the users) and is also suitable for irregular stimulus patterns.

  11. Fluctuating paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Simmons, L. W.; Tomkins, J. L.; Kotiaho, J. S.; Hunt, J.

    1999-01-01

    A prominent paradigm in evolutionary biology over the last ten years has been the role of fluctuating asymmetry in sexual selection. Fluctuating asymmetry in bilaterally paired traits, and in particular sexual traits, has been proposed to be a reliable indicator of individual quality and the focus of selection through sexual competition and attractiveness. We surveyed the literature on fluctuating asymmetry and sexual selection and found a marked chronological decline in the proportion of stu...

  12. A Two-Stage State Recognition Method for Asynchronous SSVEP-Based Brain-Computer Interface System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zimu; DENG Zhidong

    2013-01-01

    A two-stage state recognition method is proposed for asynchronous SSVEP (steady-state visual evoked potential) based brain-computer interface (SBCI) system.The two-stage method is composed of the idle state (IS) detection and control state (CS) discrimination modules.Based on blind source separation and continuous wavelet transform techniques,the proposed method integrates functions of multi-electrode spatial filtering and feature extraction.In IS detection module,a method using the ensemble IS feature is proposed.In CS discrimination module,the ensemble CS feature is designed as feature vector for control intent classification.Further,performance comparisons are investigated among our IS detection module and other existing ones.Also the experimental results validate the satisfactory performance of our CS discrimination module.

  13. An Idle-State Detection Algorithm for SSVEP-Based Brain-Computer Interfaces Using a Maximum Evoked Response Spatial Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Huang, Bisheng; Wu, Wei; Li, Siliang

    2015-11-01

    Although accurate recognition of the idle state is essential for the application of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) in real-world situations, it remains a challenging task due to the variability of the idle state. In this study, a novel algorithm was proposed for the idle state detection in a steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based BCI. The proposed algorithm aims to solve the idle state detection problem by constructing a better model of the control states. For feature extraction, a maximum evoked response (MER) spatial filter was developed to extract neurophysiologically plausible SSVEP responses, by finding the combination of multi-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) signals that maximized the evoked responses while suppressing the unrelated background EEGs. The extracted SSVEP responses at the frequencies of both the attended and the unattended stimuli were then used to form feature vectors and a series of binary classifiers for recognition of each control state and the idle state were constructed. EEG data from nine subjects in a three-target SSVEP BCI experiment with a variety of idle state conditions were used to evaluate the proposed algorithm. Compared to the most popular canonical correlation analysis-based algorithm and the conventional power spectrum-based algorithm, the proposed algorithm outperformed them by achieving an offline control state classification accuracy of 88.0 ± 11.1% and idle state false positive rates (FPRs) ranging from 7.4 ± 5.6% to 14.2 ± 10.1%, depending on the specific idle state conditions. Moreover, the online simulation reported BCI performance close to practical use: 22.0 ± 2.9 out of the 24 control commands were correctly recognized and the FPRs achieved as low as approximately 0.5 event/min in the idle state conditions with eye open and 0.05 event/min in the idle state condition with eye closed. These results demonstrate the potential of the proposed algorithm for implementing practical SSVEP BCI systems. PMID

  14. A solution to solve the dilemma of high frequencies and LCD screen for SSVEP responses

    OpenAIRE

    Cecotti, Hubert; Rivet, Bertrand

    2010-01-01

    International audience Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI) based on the detection of Steady-State Visual Evoked Potentials have proven to be highly efficient. Compared to other BCI paradigm, they usually provide the best information transfer rate. However, this type of BCI requires visual stimuli. These stimuli can be on LEDs or on a computer screen. LEDs can allow flickering lights of high frequencies while flickering lights on an LCD screen can be an integrated as a part of the user interfac...

  15. Didaktiske paradigmer og refleksion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Torben Spanget

    2014-01-01

    this article. A possible utilitarian didactical paradigm, already indicated by Krogh as a historical paradigm prominent in our time, is also discussed. It is suggested that reflection could be seen as a normative response to the utilitarian paradigm, and not as a paradigm in its own right. It is concluded...... that reflection must be understood as an overarching cultural phenomenon and a very important qualification of all Nielsen’s paradigms, and also a possible utilitarian paradigm, because it has the potential to add dynamic elements to the more or less static didactic paradigms. Thus the semiotic analysis may...

  16. Emergent Gravity Paradigm: Recent Progress

    CERN Document Server

    Padmanabhan, T

    2014-01-01

    Research during the last one decade or so suggests that the gravitational field equations in a large class of theories (including, but not limited to, general relativity) have the same status as the equations of, say, gas dynamics or elasticity. This paradigm provides a refreshingly different way of interpreting spacetime dynamics and highlights the fact that several features of classical gravitational theories have direct thermodynamic interpretation. I review the recent progress in this approach, achieved during the last few years.

  17. Emergence and decline of scientific paradigms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornholdt, S.; Jensen, Mogens Høgh; Sneppen, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Scientific paradigms have a tendency to rise fast and decline slowly. This asymmetry reflects the difficulty in developing a truly original idea, compared to the ease at which a concept can be eroded by numerous modifications. Here we formulate a model for the emergence and spread of ideas which...... deals with this asymmetry by constraining the ability of agents to return to already abandoned concepts. The model exhibits a fairly regular pattern of global paradigm shifts, where older paradigms are eroded and subsequently replaced by new ones. The model sets the theme for a new class of pattern...

  18. Paradigms of polyamory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, M

    1999-01-01

    SUMMARY The paradigm theory of Thomas Kuhn is used as a framework to discuss alternative ways of intimacy. The author discusses the implications of structuring actual lesbian relationships by a paradigm of monogamy among Latin-American women. The author proposes that creating alternative paradigms of multiple relationships would be useful for many lesbians as models for alternative life patterns.

  19. Positioning Theory in Paradigms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Xiao-qiu

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of theory and paradigm to a researcher. It starts from introducing and analyzing the definition of the two terms, by using the theories in the field of intercultural communication as examples. To a good researcher, he needs not only clarifying the paradigm his research is positioned, but also integrating the theories in his paradigm.

  20. A Paradigm for Spreadsheet Engineering Methodologies

    CERN Document Server

    Grossman, Thomas A

    2008-01-01

    Spreadsheet engineering methodologies are diverse and sometimes contradictory. It is difficult for spreadsheet developers to identify a spreadsheet engineering methodology that is appropriate for their class of spreadsheet, with its unique combination of goals, type of problem, and available time and resources. There is a lack of well-organized, proven methodologies with known costs and benefits for well-defined spreadsheet classes. It is difficult to compare and critically evaluate methodologies. We present a paradigm for organizing and interpreting spreadsheet engineering recommendations. It systematically addresses the myriad choices made when developing a spreadsheet, and explicitly considers resource constraints and other development parameters. This paradigm provides a framework for evaluation, comparison, and selection of methodologies, and a list of essential elements for developers or codifiers of new methodologies. This paradigm identifies gaps in our knowledge that merit further research.

  1. Research of brain-computer interface automatic vehicle system based on SSVEP%基于SSVEP的脑-机接口自动车系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽; 孙永; 马彦臻; 何洋

    2011-01-01

    This paper mainly carried out proposes the research of SSVEP brain-computer interface automatic vehicle control systems,which describes the principles of the visual evoked potentials that used in brain-computer interface,and the single-chip is used to designs visual stimulation. Base on the LABVIEW platform, it also uses Hilbert Huang Transform to extract evoked potential vector continuously,which produces brain-computer interface control signals that can be applied to automatic vehicle control system to control the car around before and after exercise. According to a lot of experiments to verify,this sistem can send out the control commands that the correct rate is higher than 83% and can also send a command less than 5 seconds compared with the average time based on SSVEP,so it proves that the system is feasible and has a high application value.%阐述了视觉诱发电位用于脑-机接口的原理,系统采用单片机设计视觉刺激器,同时在LABVIEW平台上,利用希尔伯特黄变换实时提取诱发电位向量,产生脑机接口控制信号,并用于自动车控制系统,从而控制小车的前后左右运动.通过大量实验验证,设计的基于稳态视觉诱发电位的脑-机接口自动车控制系统,发送控制命令正确率高于83%,发送一个命令的平均时间低于5 s,证明该系统的方案是可行的,具有较高的应用价值.

  2. An Integrative Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammack, Phillip L.

    2005-01-01

    Through the application of life course theory to the study of sexual orientation, this paper specifies a new paradigm for research on human sexual orientation that seeks to reconcile divisions among biological, social science, and humanistic paradigms. Recognizing the historical, social, and cultural relativity of human development, this paradigm…

  3. A heretic's view of the object-oriented paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per

    1998-01-01

    A basic assumption of the object-oriented paradigm of computer programming and database thinking is that objects (including classes) are dynamic: classes have objects as instances which can be created, modified, and deleted. I argue that this leads to unnecessary conceptual difficulties, and sugg......A basic assumption of the object-oriented paradigm of computer programming and database thinking is that objects (including classes) are dynamic: classes have objects as instances which can be created, modified, and deleted. I argue that this leads to unnecessary conceptual difficulties...

  4. Paradigms for machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlimmer, Jeffrey C.; Langley, Pat

    1991-01-01

    Five paradigms are described for machine learning: connectionist (neural network) methods, genetic algorithms and classifier systems, empirical methods for inducing rules and decision trees, analytic learning methods, and case-based approaches. Some dimensions are considered along with these paradigms vary in their approach to learning, and the basic methods are reviewed that are used within each framework, together with open research issues. It is argued that the similarities among the paradigms are more important than their differences, and that future work should attempt to bridge the existing boundaries. Finally, some recent developments in the field of machine learning are discussed, and their impact on both research and applications is examined.

  5. The MOND paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Milgrom, Mordehai

    2008-01-01

    I review briefly different aspects of the MOND paradigm, with emphasis on phenomenology, epitomized here by many MOND laws of galactic motion--analogous to Kepler's laws of planetary motion. I then comment on the possible roots of MOND in cosmology, possibly the deepest and most far reaching aspect of MOND. This is followed by a succinct account of existing underlying theories. I also reflect on the implications of MOND's successes for the dark matter (DM) paradigm: MOND predictions imply tha...

  6. Development (Paradigm) Failures

    OpenAIRE

    Hodler, Roland

    2011-01-01

    Over time the international development community has advocated various development paradigms, but countries following these paradigms have often performed poorly. I provide an explanation for this poor performance. In my model the political leader of a developing country chooses a policy and whether to implement it in an honest or corrupt manner. These choices affect domestic production and aid inflows. Production is high when productive capacity is high, and when the policy is appropriate i...

  7. Emergence and decline of scientific paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornholdt, S; Jensen, M H; Sneppen, K

    2011-02-01

    Scientific paradigms have a tendency to rise fast and decline slowly. This asymmetry reflects the difficulty in developing a truly original idea, compared to the ease at which a concept can be eroded by numerous modifications. Here we formulate a model for the emergence and spread of ideas which deals with this asymmetry by constraining the ability of agents to return to already abandoned concepts. The model exhibits a fairly regular pattern of global paradigm shifts, where older paradigms are eroded and subsequently replaced by new ones. The model sets the theme for a new class of pattern formation models, where local dynamics breaks the detailed balance in a way that prevents old states from defending themselves against new nucleating or invading states. The model allows for frozen events in terms of the coexistence of multiple metastable states. PMID:21405444

  8. Entre o realismo e o ficcional: representações sobre "raça", sexualidade e classe em dois romances paradigmáticos de Jorge Amado Between realism and fiction: representations of race, sexuality, and class in two paradigmatic novels by Jorge Amado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Moutinho

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo é apresentada e discutida a forma como as concepções e representações sobre "raça", miscigenação, sexualidade, gênero, erotismo e casamento são operadas em duas obras paradigmáticas representativas de dois importantes períodos da trajetória de Jorge Amado: Jubiabá, da fase nomeada de "romance proletário", e Gabriela, Cravo e Canela, tido como o livro que representa uma virada na carreira do autor, inaugurando o período do chamado "romance dialógico". Esses dois romances são protagonizados por casais inter-raciais que funcionam como o suporte a partir do qual Jorge Amado veicula algumas representações correntes na sociedade (e na ciência da época, não somente sobre a relação entre negros e brancos, como, igualmente, de uma nação que em um nível se percebe como mestiça e em outro enfrentava (e enfrenta o dilema da diferenciação racial. Como será visto, desejo proibido e luta de classes vividos pelo par homem negro / mulher branca (Jubiabá, uma vez contrastados com erotismo, casamento e progresso em foco na relação homem (quase branco / mulher mestiça, lançam luzes sobre algumas das representações de nação presentes e veiculadas na sociedade brasileira por suas mais variadas instituições.This article presents and discusses how concepts and representations of "race", miscegenation, sexuality, gender, erotism, and marriage are operated in two paradigmatic novels by Jorge Amado which represent two important periods in the author's trajectory: Jubiabá, from the period called "proletarian novel", and Gabriela, Cravo e Canela, which marked a twist in Amado's career, beginning of the phase called "dialogical novel". The protagonists in both novels are inter-racial couples who help the author transmit some current social representations (and on science in that time, not only of the relations between blacks and whites, but as well of a nation that, on the one hand, perceives itself as having mixed

  9. Paradigms of Migration: From Integration to Transnationalism

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Giordano

    2010-01-01

    This article provides a critical analysis from the viewpoint of social anthropology of the different theoretic approaches that also set the tone of current debates on immigration in Europe and elsewhere. We begin by retracing the models developed and popularized since the 1960s to discuss the integration theory and Marxist reflections on the rise of class consciousness in immigrants. The article illustrates the paradigm shift that occurred in the 1990s that takes into account the role of the ...

  10. Paradigms and pragmatic constructivism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørreklit, Hanne; Nørreklit, Lennart; Mitchell, Falconer

    2010-01-01

    to the analysis of the comment on their past paper. Findings - In addressing each of the issues in turn the authors clarify their analysis. Originality/value - The paper provides an argument for the development of a paradigm for accounting practice derived from the use of pragmatic constructivism....

  11. Paradigms in object recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A broad range of approaches has been proposed and applied for the complex and rather difficult task of object recognition that involves the determination of object characteristics and object classification into one of many a priori object types. Our paper revises briefly the three main different paradigms in pattern recognition, namely Bayesian statistics, neural networks, and expert systems. (author)

  12. The Nature of Paradigms and Paradigm Shifts in Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaiotidi, Elvira

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the author attempts to extend the paradigm approach into the philosophy of music education and to build upon this basis a model for structuring music education discourse. The author begins with an examination of Peter Abbs' account of paradigms and paradigm shifts in arts education. Then she turns to Kuhn's conception and to his…

  13. Research Paradigm of Displaced Aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Tanno, Syota

    2013-01-01

    A review of research paradigm of displaced aggression is presented. The author arranged the Japanese wording of displaced aggression, summarized the historical transition of research on displaced aggression, and reviewed research paradigm of displaced aggression.

  14. Yoga, Sundhed og Paradigme

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Anna Bjerning Berg; Nielsen, Anna Sabine; Zunda, Daniella

    2014-01-01

    Our focal point and core concepts in this paper are science, health and yoga. Our main concern is to shed light on the understanding of these three concepts and how it varies, depending on the scientific approach these concepts are dealt with. The problem statement of this paper is thereby: How is it possible to argue, based on Kuhn's paradigm theory, that yoga/ayurveda and medical science represent fundamentally different views on health, yoga and science? We choose two scientific ap...

  15. Analogue mouse pointer control via an online steady state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) brain-computer interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John J.; Palaniappan, Ramaswamy

    2011-04-01

    The steady state visual evoked protocol has recently become a popular paradigm in brain-computer interface (BCI) applications. Typically (regardless of function) these applications offer the user a binary selection of targets that perform correspondingly discrete actions. Such discrete control systems are appropriate for applications that are inherently isolated in nature, such as selecting numbers from a keypad to be dialled or letters from an alphabet to be spelled. However motivation exists for users to employ proportional control methods in intrinsically analogue tasks such as the movement of a mouse pointer. This paper introduces an online BCI in which control of a mouse pointer is directly proportional to a user's intent. Performance is measured over a series of pointer movement tasks and compared to the traditional discrete output approach. Analogue control allowed subjects to move the pointer faster to the cued target location compared to discrete output but suffers more undesired movements overall. Best performance is achieved when combining the threshold to movement of traditional discrete techniques with the range of movement offered by proportional control.

  16. Paradigm, science and society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.T. van der Merwe

    1975-03-01

    Full Text Available The subject of my contribution to the Taljaard Festschrift is focused on a cardinal aspect of the contemporary discussion in the area of theory of science, namely the relationship between science and society', and in this connection especially the role ascribed by certain scholars to paradigms in the practice of science. Because of its bridge function, the first task will be a global getting acquainted with some characteristic accents in contemporary theory of science. If this is successful, it can hopefully open up avenues for a view of the relationship of the remaining two components of the above mentioned subject.

  17. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PARADIGM - SYNOPSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantinescu Andreea

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Even if sustainable development is a concept that gained quite recently its scientific prestige, through contribution of researchers its content has upgraded to a high degree of conceptual luggage and, through contribution from governance representatives, has gained an impressive good-practice background. Allowing the use of different methodological premises and conceptual tools, sustainable development paradigm is equipped with all the elements that would allow the opening of new horizons of knowledge. Based on the facility which can operate the concept of sustainable development, the European Union aims to develop both a more competitive economy based on environmental protection as well as a new governance of economic policy. This on one hand demonstrates the sustainable development ability to irradiate creativity towards the establishment of interdisciplinary bridges and on the other hand explains the growing interest of researchers interested in the problem of analyzing in detail this fruitful concept. Launched first as a theoretical framework to serve justify actions responsible for weighting economic growth, the concept of Sustainable Development has quickly become a topic of ethical debate circumscribed to the area of perfectibility of human nature to the necessity registry. In this regard, the philosophical content of this paradigm could not remain outside researchers concerns, who want to provide both policy makers and the general public a wide range of evidence to demonstrate the viability of this paradigm. Academia waits until maximization of the contribution of governance to achieve sustainable economic development, which consists in conjunction of this upward path with the momentum given by public policy sync, perfectly adapted for globalization era and all crises to come. However, because this concept based its structure and composition on three pillars, equally important economy, society and environment any attempt to strengthen

  18. Challenging the Innovation Paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    Sveiby, Karl Erik; Segercrantz, Beata

    2012-01-01

    Innovation is almost always seen as a "good thing". Challenging the Innovation Paradigm is a critical analysis of the innovation frenzy and contemporary innovation research. The one-sided focus on desirable effects of innovation misses many opportunities to reduce the undesirable consequences. Authors in this book show how systemic effects outside the innovating firms reduce the net benefits of innovation for individual employees, customers, as well as for society as a whole - also the innovators' own organizations. This book analyzes the dominant discourses that construct and recons

  19. Marketing! Where is Paradigm?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deosir Flávio Lobo de Castro Júnior

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative- qualitative debate is not a new discussion. The aim of this study therefore is to check through the concept of paradigm, new perspectives to understand the academic research in marketing, developments of marketing thinking and methodologies used in the studies of quality of service. Without pretending to exhaust the subject and present a final conclusion, studies that point to the need and importance of qualitative research, as it helps the researcher to better understand the complex nature of the social world in which we live are presented. According to Santana and Gomes (2007, after examining the discussion of Hegel and Kant, reason and conclude that epistemology itself are historical buildings and evolve from contradictions. This article is divided into five moments. The first part presents besides introducing the constitution of the goals of this theoretical essay. The second part presents a brief discussion of the concept of paradigm and marketing. The third part presents a historical retrospective of marketing and its evolution from its schools from studies of Miranda and Arruda (2004. The fourth part presents the methodology of the studies on quality of services and finally the fifth part presents the final considerations.

  20. The Peter Pan paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larson Janet E

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Genetic and environmental agents that disrupt organogenesis are numerous and well described. Less well established, however, is the role of delay in the developmental processes that yield functionally immature tissues at birth. Evidence is mounting that organs do not continue to develop postnatally in the context of these organogenesis insults, condemning the patient to utilize under-developed tissues for adult processes. These poorly differentiated organs may appear histologically normal at birth but with age may deteriorate revealing progressive or adult-onset pathology. The genetic and molecular underpinning of the proposed paradigm reveals the need for a comprehensive systems biology approach to evaluate the role of maternal-fetal environment on organogenesis. You may delay, but time will not Benjamin Franklin USA Founding Father

  1. Paradigms for parasite conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Eric R; Carlson, Colin J; Bueno, Veronica M; Burgio, Kevin R; Cizauskas, Carrie A; Clements, Christopher F; Seidel, Dana P; Harris, Nyeema C

    2016-08-01

    Parasitic species, which depend directly on host species for their survival, represent a major regulatory force in ecosystems and a significant component of Earth's biodiversity. Yet the negative impacts of parasites observed at the host level have motivated a conservation paradigm of eradication, moving us farther from attainment of taxonomically unbiased conservation goals. Despite a growing body of literature highlighting the importance of parasite-inclusive conservation, most parasite species remain understudied, underfunded, and underappreciated. We argue the protection of parasitic biodiversity requires a paradigm shift in the perception and valuation of their role as consumer species, similar to that of apex predators in the mid-20th century. Beyond recognizing parasites as vital trophic regulators, existing tools available to conservation practitioners should explicitly account for the unique threats facing dependent species. We built upon concepts from epidemiology and economics (e.g., host-density threshold and cost-benefit analysis) to devise novel metrics of margin of error and minimum investment for parasite conservation. We define margin of error as the risk of accidental host extinction from misestimating equilibrium population sizes and predicted oscillations, while minimum investment represents the cost associated with conserving the additional hosts required to maintain viable parasite populations. This framework will aid in the identification of readily conserved parasites that present minimal health risks. To establish parasite conservation, we propose an extension of population viability analysis for host-parasite assemblages to assess extinction risk. In the direst cases, ex situ breeding programs for parasites should be evaluated to maximize success without undermining host protection. Though parasitic species pose a considerable conservation challenge, adaptations to conservation tools will help protect parasite biodiversity in the face of

  2. Paradigms for parasite conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Eric R; Carlson, Colin J; Bueno, Veronica M; Burgio, Kevin R; Cizauskas, Carrie A; Clements, Christopher F; Seidel, Dana P; Harris, Nyeema C

    2016-08-01

    Parasitic species, which depend directly on host species for their survival, represent a major regulatory force in ecosystems and a significant component of Earth's biodiversity. Yet the negative impacts of parasites observed at the host level have motivated a conservation paradigm of eradication, moving us farther from attainment of taxonomically unbiased conservation goals. Despite a growing body of literature highlighting the importance of parasite-inclusive conservation, most parasite species remain understudied, underfunded, and underappreciated. We argue the protection of parasitic biodiversity requires a paradigm shift in the perception and valuation of their role as consumer species, similar to that of apex predators in the mid-20th century. Beyond recognizing parasites as vital trophic regulators, existing tools available to conservation practitioners should explicitly account for the unique threats facing dependent species. We built upon concepts from epidemiology and economics (e.g., host-density threshold and cost-benefit analysis) to devise novel metrics of margin of error and minimum investment for parasite conservation. We define margin of error as the risk of accidental host extinction from misestimating equilibrium population sizes and predicted oscillations, while minimum investment represents the cost associated with conserving the additional hosts required to maintain viable parasite populations. This framework will aid in the identification of readily conserved parasites that present minimal health risks. To establish parasite conservation, we propose an extension of population viability analysis for host-parasite assemblages to assess extinction risk. In the direst cases, ex situ breeding programs for parasites should be evaluated to maximize success without undermining host protection. Though parasitic species pose a considerable conservation challenge, adaptations to conservation tools will help protect parasite biodiversity in the face of

  3. Simulation research on the influence of flash stimulation under visual pathway on SSVEP%视觉通路下闪光刺激对SSVEP影响的仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭湛超; 覃玉荣; 赵隆

    2016-01-01

    稳态视觉诱发电位(steady-state visual evoked potentials,SSVEP)是一种在频率固定的重复视觉刺激下出现的大脑皮层稳态响应。针对目前不同学者在不同实验条件下测试闪光刺激的参数(占空比、频率)对SSVEP影响结果差异较大而难以归纳其共性规律问题,本文基于集总参数模型法,将光刺激下视觉通路的同一类神经元等效为一个单元,利用单元间的耦合系数建立视觉通路计算模型,并通过该模型仿真研究闪光刺激的占空比和频率对SSVEP影响的初步规律,为刺激参数的选择提供有价值的理论依据。最后通过实验验证了模型的可靠性及结论的有效性。%Steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)is a steady-state response to a fixed frequency of repetitive visual stimulation in the cerebral cortex.With the issue of huge result differences gained by different stimulus pa-rameters setting about SSVEP,such as duty cycle or frequency,a visual pathway computation model based on the lumped parameter theory was proposed.In this model,the same kind of neurons in visual pathway can be equiva-lent to a module.Using coupling coefficients between different modules,the rule for the impact of stimulus frequen-cy and duty cycle on SSVEP are derived,which can provide a valuable basis of stimulus parameter selection.Final-ly,the model’s reliability and conclusion’s validity are verified by experiment.

  4. Naturalistic Inquiry: Paradigm and Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotto, Linda S.

    Despite the rhetoric acclaiming it as a new paradigm, educational researchers have tended to treat naturalistic inquiry as a new or alternative method employed within the dominant, rationalistic paradigm. Spokespersons for naturalistic inquiry tend to concentrate on what one does differently rather than how one perceives what one is doing…

  5. Functional reactive paradigm advantages for Android development

    OpenAIRE

    SUTULA ALEXANDER

    2015-01-01

    This article describes conceptual difference between imperative, reactive paradigms and functional reactive style advantages in Android development. Solutions of imperative paradigm main problems are described.

  6. Health Inequities: Evaluation of Two Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashcroft, Rachelle

    2010-01-01

    Social work practice in health is shaped by underlying paradigms. To effectively target health inequities, practitioners need to consider appropriate paradigms. In this exploration of how six health paradigms shape theory and practice, the two health paradigms that most attended to health inequalities are social determinants of health and…

  7. A New Paradigm For Testing Human And Machine Motion Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papathomas, Thomas V.; Gorea, Andrei

    1989-08-01

    We present a new paradigm for studying motion perception. This approach is based on a class of stimuli that we devised for testing the relative strength of stimulus attributes (luminance, color, spatial frequency, orientation, binocular disparity, etc.) in eliciting motion perception by correspondence matching. In this class of stimuli, different attributes are matched simultaneously in the spatio-temporal domain in a systematic, algorithmic manner which allows each attribute to produce motion in an arbitrary direction (if, of course, it is a token for movement perception), independently of the other attributes. This results in animation sequences in which many different motion paths may co-exist, each path due to a different attribute. Such an arrangement allows a direct comparison of the strength of attributes in eliciting movement. Results from psychophysical experiments based on our paradigm can be used to develop complex motion detection models for machine vision systems which attempt to approximate human performance. Similar methods are discussed for studying stereopsis mechanisms.

  8. Towards reduction of Paradigm coordination models

    OpenAIRE

    Andova, S.; Groenewegen, L. P. J.; Vink, de, E.P.; Aceto, Luca; Mousavi, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    The coordination modelling language Paradigm addresses collaboration between components in terms of dynamic constraints. Within a Paradigm model, component dynamics are consistently specified at a detailed and a global level of abstraction. To enable automated verification of Paradigm models, a translation of Paradigm into process algebra has been defined in previous work. In this paper we investigate, guided by a client-server example, reduction of Paradigm models based on a notion of global...

  9. Cultural Paradigms in Management Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz Sulkowski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present an idea for understanding cultural processes in the organizational discourse from the perspective of four paradigms in management sciences based on the concept of G. Burrell and G. Morgan.Methodology: The author has elaborated a valuable list of structures of the scientifi c theory based on the respective paradigms and has compared cultural paradigms in management sciences. The methodology involves an analysis of classical and recent world literature. Nowadays there is no consensus on the defi nitions, types or research models of organizational culture.Originality: In the literature on the subject we can fi nd many, sometimes contradictory cultural research studies that require further analysis. Precisely because of the diversity and complexity of cultural issues in management sciences a multi-paradigmatic analysis is necessary. The paper presents a proposal for a pluralistic approach to the theory and methodology of cultural studies in management sciences.

  10. CNN a paradigm for complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Chua, Leon O

    1998-01-01

    Revolutionary and original, this treatise presents a new paradigm of EMERGENCE and COMPLEXITY, with applications drawn from numerous disciplines, including artificial life, biology, chemistry, computation, physics, image processing, information science, etc.CNN is an acronym for Cellular Neural Networks when used in the context of brain science, or Cellular Nonlinear Networks, when used in the context of emergence and complexity. A CNN is modeled by cells and interactions: cells are defined as dynamical systems and interactions are defined via coupling laws. The CNN paradigm is a universal Tur

  11. Bayesian test and Kuhn's paradigm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Xiaoping

    2006-01-01

    Kuhn's theory of paradigm reveals a pattern of scientific progress,in which normal science alternates with scientific revolution.But Kuhn underrated too much the function of scientific test in his pattern,because he focuses all his attention on the hypothetico-deductive schema instead of Bayesian schema.This paper employs Bayesian schema to re-examine Kuhn's theory of paradigm,to uncover its logical and rational components,and to illustrate the tensional structure of logic and belief,rationality and irrationality,in the process of scientific revolution.

  12. The synthesis paradigm in genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, William R

    2014-02-01

    Experimental genetics with model organisms and mathematically explicit genetic theory are generally considered to be the major paradigms by which progress in genetics is achieved. Here I argue that this view is incomplete and that pivotal advances in genetics--and other fields of biology--are also made by synthesizing disparate threads of extant information rather than generating new information from experiments or formal theory. Because of the explosive expansion of information in numerous "-omics" data banks, and the fragmentation of genetics into numerous subdisciplines, the importance of the synthesis paradigm will likely expand with time.

  13. Transmission pricing: paradigms and methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirmohammadi, Dariush [Pacific Gas and Electric Co., San Francisco, CA (United States); Vieira Filho, Xisto; Gorenstin, Boris [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pereira, Mario V.P. [Power System Research, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    In this paper we describe the principles of several paradigms and methodologies for pricing transmission services. The paper outlines some of the main characteristics of these paradigms and methodologies such as where they may be used for best results. Due to their popularity, power flow based MW-mile and short run marginal cost pricing methodologies will be covered in some detail. We conclude the paper with examples of the application of these two pricing methodologies for pricing transmission services in Brazil. (author) 25 refs., 2 tabs.

  14. Paradigms in Physics Education Research

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, Amy D; McKagan, Sarah B

    2013-01-01

    Physics education research (PER) includes three distinct paradigms: quantitative research, qualitative research, and question-driven research. Quantitative PER seeks reproducible, representative patterns and relationships; human behavior is seen as dictated by lawful (albeit probabilistic) relationships. Qualitative PER seeks to refine and develop theory by linking theory to cases; human action is seen as shaped by the meanings that participants make of their local environments. Question-driven physics education researchers prioritize questions over the pursuit of local meanings or abstract relationships. We illustrate each paradigm with interviews with physics education researchers and examples of published PER.

  15. The Paradigm of Distributed Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    This presentation aims to focus on and develop the notion of distributed creativity from a cultural psychological perspective. It will start by outlining the need for a cultural psychological paradigm of creative expression and argue that this perspective is primarily concerned with what can...

  16. Explaining (Missing) Regulator Paradigm Shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigger, Angela; Buch-Hansen, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    of competition regulation is heaving into sight. It sets out to explain this from the vantage point of a critical political economy perspective, which identifies the circumstances under which a crisis can result in a regulatory paradigm shift. Contrasting the current situation with the shift in EC/EU competition...

  17. Black hole evaporation: a paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A paradigm describing black hole evaporation in non-perturbative quantum gravity is developed by combining two sets of detailed results: (i) resolution of the Schwarzschild singularity using quantum geometry methods and (ii) time evolution of black holes in the trapping and dynamical horizon frameworks. Quantum geometry effects introduce a major modification in the traditional spacetime diagram of black hole evaporation, providing a possible mechanism for recovery of information that is classically lost in the process of black hole formation. The paradigm is developed directly in the Lorentzian regime and necessary conditions for its viability are discussed. If these conditions are met, much of the tension between expectations based on spacetime geometry and structure of quantum theory would be resolved

  18. Understanding the land management paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    There is a worldwide need to build understanding of the land management paradigm and for institutional development to establish sustainable national concepts. This includes creation and adoption of a policy on land development, and an approach that combines the land administration/cadastre/land r......There is a worldwide need to build understanding of the land management paradigm and for institutional development to establish sustainable national concepts. This includes creation and adoption of a policy on land development, and an approach that combines the land administration....../cadastre/land registration function with topographic mapping. The author seeks to awaken more awareness of global trends in this area, recognising that the systems design involved is always unique....

  19. Crises and paradigms in macroeconomics

    OpenAIRE

    Malcolm Sawyer

    2010-01-01

    Contrasts are drawn between mainstream macroeconomics (with the 'New Consensus in Macroeconomics' taken as the current manifestation) and heterodox macroeconomics and their abilities to comprehend the financial crises and world wide recession of 2007 – 09 for macroeconomic paradigms is discussed. Specifically, the contrasting ways in which the two schools of thought treat unemployment, human behaviour, aggregate and money and credit are discussed. It is concluded that the events of 2007 –...

  20. Membrane Paradigm and Holographic Hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eling, Christopher [SISSA, Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste, Italy and INFN Sezione di Trieste, Via Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Neiman, Yasha; Oz, Yaron, E-mail: cteling@sissa.it, E-mail: yashula@gmail.com, E-mail: yaronoz@post.tau.ac.il [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2011-09-22

    We discuss recent work showing that in certain cases the membrane paradigm equations governing the dynamics of black hole horizons can be recast as relativistic conservation law equations. In the context of gauge/gravity dualities, these equations are interpreted as defining the viscous hydrodynamics of a holographically dual relativistic field theory. Using this approach, one can derive the viscous transport coefficients and the form of the entropy current for field theories dual to gravity plus matter fields.

  1. Employee discipline: a changing paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raper, J L; Myaya, S N

    1993-12-01

    To increase the receptiveness of health care supervisors to a broader meaning of discipline and to simulate investigation of nontraditional methods of encouragement to employees who fail to meet minimum standards of conduct and thereby negatively affect the quality of patient care, a subjectively realistic view of the implications of the traditional punitive disciplinary paradigm is presented. Through the use of a case study, the authors present, explain, and apply the contemporary concept of discipline without punishment as first described by J. Huberman.

  2. Political Market. Paradigms and Realities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Macoviciuc

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper Political Market. Paradigms and Realities, by Simona Busoi, is an important contribution and a spadework within our specialized literature. Recently issued by Editura ASE (The Bucharest Academy of Economic Studies Publishing House, in the collection “Et in Arcadia ego”, it offers to the readers a synthesis of the literature destined to the study of political phenomena from an economic point of view, but also a lucid analysis of the Romanian political market.

  3. The Afrocentric Paradigm: Contours and Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazama, Ama

    2001-01-01

    Defines and describes Afrocentricity, suggesting that Afrocentricity within the academic context is best understood as a paradigm. Explains how Afrocentricity meets the definition of a paradigm, examining the affective, cognitive, and conative aspects of the Afrocentric paradigm (metaphysical and sociological) and looking at the structural and…

  4. Towards reduction of Paradigm coordination models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andova, S.; Groenewegen, L.P.J.; Vink, E.P. de; Aceto, L.; Mousavi, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    The coordination modelling language Paradigm addresses collaboration between components in terms of dynamic constraints. Within a Paradigm model, component dynamics are consistently specified at a detailed and a global level of abstraction. To enable automated verification of Paradigm models, a tran

  5. Orphism as a scientific paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biernat Przemyslaw

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In my essay I would like to examine current interpretative paradigm, which western scholarship cast on heterogenous and ambiguous data first to create and then to modify the notion of ‘orphism’. In case of paradigms preceding the actual one, the role which ‘orphism’ played in contemporary theories and controversies centered around the question of its significance for emergence of Christianity is well known. That is why in my work I would like to focus on deconstruction of interpretative consensus, elaborated in recent years, which is to be found in such works as Martin West’s The Orphic Poems (1983, Ritual Texts for the Afterlife. Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets by Fritz Graf and Sarah Iles-Johnston (2007 or monumental Orfeo y la tradición órfica. Un reencuentro (2008 edited by Alberto Bernabé. What is significant, inasmuch as we can write the history of Athenian religion or the history of Hellenistic kings’ worship, we still cannot write the history of orphism. In formulation of all these scholars it is an ahistorical phenomenon, a hidden constant in the sphere of Greek religion, never expressed directly and entirely, but always alluded to y ancient authors. I find difficult to agree with such a statement. The aim of my inquiry is to reveal assumptions of current paradigm, which are hidden in it, but leave a distinct impression on data.

  6. Poverty eradication: a new paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pethe, V P

    1998-08-01

    This article offers a new paradigm for eradicating poverty in India. It was assumed incorrectly by Mahatma Gandhi that a good society without mass poverty would follow after independence. India copied Western models of development and developed giant factories, big dams, and megacities. Agriculture did not expand the number of jobs for people. The Western paradigm failed in India because of the false assumption of "trickle down" of income to the masses. The targeted programs to the poor did not directly benefit enough of the poor. Mega-industrialization led to reduced employment and higher skill needs. The model failed mainly because it was a proxy and relied on indirect ways of reaching the poor. The models failed to be adapted to conditions in India. The Swadeshi paradigm is a direct model for addressing mass poverty. Poverty is affected by immediate, intermediate, and ultimate determinants. Poverty begets social and economic problems, such as ignorance, ill health, high fertility, unemployment, and crime. In India and developing countries, mass poverty results from under use of human resources; lack of equal opportunities; and an outdated non-egalitarian social structure, an unjust global economic order, human cruelty, and erosion of ethical values. Indians are squandering their precious resources mimicking Western consumerism. Poverty leads to rapid population growth. People become productive assets with universal literacy, compulsory and free education, health services and sanitation, vocational training, and work ethics. India needs people-oriented policies with less emphasis on capital accumulation. PMID:12294462

  7. Poverty eradication: a new paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pethe, V P

    1998-08-01

    This article offers a new paradigm for eradicating poverty in India. It was assumed incorrectly by Mahatma Gandhi that a good society without mass poverty would follow after independence. India copied Western models of development and developed giant factories, big dams, and megacities. Agriculture did not expand the number of jobs for people. The Western paradigm failed in India because of the false assumption of "trickle down" of income to the masses. The targeted programs to the poor did not directly benefit enough of the poor. Mega-industrialization led to reduced employment and higher skill needs. The model failed mainly because it was a proxy and relied on indirect ways of reaching the poor. The models failed to be adapted to conditions in India. The Swadeshi paradigm is a direct model for addressing mass poverty. Poverty is affected by immediate, intermediate, and ultimate determinants. Poverty begets social and economic problems, such as ignorance, ill health, high fertility, unemployment, and crime. In India and developing countries, mass poverty results from under use of human resources; lack of equal opportunities; and an outdated non-egalitarian social structure, an unjust global economic order, human cruelty, and erosion of ethical values. Indians are squandering their precious resources mimicking Western consumerism. Poverty leads to rapid population growth. People become productive assets with universal literacy, compulsory and free education, health services and sanitation, vocational training, and work ethics. India needs people-oriented policies with less emphasis on capital accumulation.

  8. International Politics: A Desirable Paradigm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Aiding; Feng Shuai

    2007-01-01

    This article first traces the origin of four concepts: International Politics (IP), International Relations (IR), World Politics (WP) and Global Politics (GP) and discusses the similarities among these four paradigms. It then analyses their application both at home and abroad. Finally, it argues for the desirability of selecting the concept of IP in academic training, thus facilitating practical application of concepts. It asserts that this will not only enhance academic discussion about IP among different Chinese schools of thought, but also help blazing new ideas.

  9. New Indivisible Planetary Science Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Herndon, J. Marvin

    2013-01-01

    I present here a new, indivisible planetary science paradigm, a wholly self-consistent vision of the nature of matter in the Solar System, and dynamics and energy sources of planets. Massive-core planets formed by condensing and raining-out from within giant gaseous protoplanets at high pressures and high temperatures. Earth's complete condensation included a 300 Earth-mass gigantic gas/ice shell that compressed the rocky kernel to about 66% of Earth's present diameter. T-Tauri eruptions stri...

  10. Psychiatry beyond the current paradigm.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bracken, Pat

    2012-12-01

    A series of editorials in this Journal have argued that psychiatry is in the midst of a crisis. The various solutions proposed would all involve a strengthening of psychiatry\\'s identity as essentially \\'applied neuroscience\\'. Although not discounting the importance of the brain sciences and psychopharmacology, we argue that psychiatry needs to move beyond the dominance of the current, technological paradigm. This would be more in keeping with the evidence about how positive outcomes are achieved and could also serve to foster more meaningful collaboration with the growing service user movement.

  11. A LEGO paradigm for virtual accelerator concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper considers basic features of a Virtual Accelerator concept based on LEGO paradigm. This concept involves three types of components: different mathematical models for accelerator design problems, integrated beam simulation packages (i. e. COSY, MAD, OptiM and others), and a special class of virtual feedback instruments similar to real control systems (EPICS). All of these components should inter-operate for more complete analysis of control systems and increased fault tolerance. The Virtual Accelerator is an information and computing environment which provides a framework for analysis based on these components that can be combined in different ways. Corresponding distributed computing services establish interaction between mathematical models and low level control system. The general idea of the software implementation is based on the Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) that allows using cloud computing technology and enables remote access to the information and computing resources. The Virtual Accelerator allows a designer to combine powerful instruments for modeling beam dynamics in a friendly way including both self-developed and well-known packages. In the scope of this concept the following is also proposed: the control system identification, analysis and result verification, visualization as well as virtual feedback for beam line operation. The architecture of the Virtual Accelerator system itself and results of beam dynamics studies are presented. (authors)

  12. Paradigms of Migration: From Integration to Transnationalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Giordano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a critical analysis from the viewpoint of social anthropology of the different theoretic approaches that also set the tone of current debates on immigration in Europe and elsewhere. We begin by retracing the models developed and popularized since the 1960s to discuss the integration theory and Marxist reflections on the rise of class consciousness in immigrants. The article illustrates the paradigm shift that occurred in the 1990s that takes into account the role of the immigrants’ culture in their society of origin, whereby immigrants appear to act in conformity with two cultural systems of reference, i.e., of their society of origin and of the society of residence. This theoretical model highlights the transnational aspect of migration phenomena. In this article, we analyze the social organization of transnationalism starting from two fundamental types of aggregation: diasporas and social networks. The centuries-old Chinese immigration in Malaysia provides evidence that diaspora and social networks are not opposite forms of social organization, but rather coexisting and interacting ones. By means of an historical perspective, we will show that the social networks of the Chinese in Malaysia gradually became a national diaspora in which not only economically but also politically powerful clan-like social networks are still in action.

  13. The blazar paradigm and its discontents

    CERN Document Server

    Dermer, C D

    2014-01-01

    The standard blazar paradigm consists of a supermassive black hole that expels relativistic jets of magnetized plasma in our direction. This plasma entrains nonthermal synchrotron-emitting electrons that furthermore scatter internally-produced synchrotron photons as well as externally-produced photons from the accretion-disk, the broad-line region, and the infrared-emitting torus. This picture has been very successful in reproducing the two-humped blazar spectral energy distribution. Yet various discontents persist, including (1) ultra-short variability at TeV energies that is much shorter than the black hole's dynamical timescale; (2) very-high energy (VHE; >100 GeV) radiation from FSRQs; (3) evidence for a hard spectral component in high-synchrotron peaked objects, found when deabsorbing the measured VHE spectrum using conventional extragalactic background light (EBL) models; (4) an unusual slowly varying class of BL Lac objects; (5) location of the gamma-ray emission region. Some of these problems can be r...

  14. The Rise of Class Culture Theory in Educational Anthropology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    This article chronicles how the ideas of neo-Weberians, Marxists, feminists, and critical race thinkers have merged to create a new cultural production or class culture paradigm of schooling. Reviews of recent ethnographic work illustrates how the articulations among class, race, gender, and sexual identity practices in schools are studied without…

  15. Hypothesis Formation, Paradigms, and Openness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrad P. Pritscher

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A part of hypothesis formation, while necessary for scientific investigation, is beyond direct observation. Powerful hypothesis formation is more than logical and is facilitated by mind­opening. As Percy Bridgeman, Nobel laureate, said, science is: “Nothing more than doing one's damnedest with one's mind, no holds barred.” This paper suggests more open schooling helps generate more open hypothesizing which helps one do one's damnedest with one's mind. It is hypothesized that a more open process of hypothesis formation may help schools and society forge new ways of living and learning so that more people more often can do their damnedest with their mind. This writing does not offer a new paradigm but rather attempts to elaborate on the notion that new paradigms are difficult to form without openness to what was previously quasi­unthinkable. More on these topics and issues is included in the author's Reopening Einstein's Thought: About What Can't Be Learned From Textbooks ­­to be published by Sense Publishers in June 2008.

  16. My Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵传怡

    2006-01-01

    My name is Zhao Chuanyi.I am in Class Ten Grade seven.There are 61 students in our class.And 26 are girls and 35 are boys.One is from America.Boys like football and basketball.Girls like singing and dancing.We are all

  17. Word classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2007-01-01

    a parts-of-speech system that includes the categories Verb, Noun, Adjective and Adverb, other languages may use only a subset of these four lexical categories. Furthermore, quite a few languages have a major word class whose members cannot be classified in terms of the categories Verb – Noun – Adjective...

  18. ENVIRONMENTALISM AND CLASSIC PARADIGMS OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    D. D. Miniaeva

    2014-01-01

    This article examines an environmentalism integration process into Three classical paradigms of international relations theory (Liberalism, Realism and Marxism) into Three classical paradigms of international relations theory (Liberalism, Realism and Marxism). The main purpose of this study is to reveal the result of this integration. Methods used in this article include analysis and comparison of "ecological" paradigms on selected parameters (the nature of international relations, actors, ta...

  19. Class size versus class composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Sam

    Raising schooling quality in low-income countries is a pressing challenge. Substantial research has considered the impact of cutting class sizes on skills acquisition. Considerably less attention has been given to the extent to which peer effects, which refer to class composition, also may affect...... outcomes. This study uses new microdata from East Africa, incorporating test score data for over 250,000 children, to compare the likely efficacy of these two types of interventions. Endogeneity bias is addressed via fixed effects and instrumental variables techniques. Although these may not fully mitigate...

  20. Understanding the land management paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land and natural resources that are required to achieve sustainable development. Land Administration Systems (LAS) are institutional...... development towards the capacity to design, build, and manage Land Administration Systems that incorporate sustainable land policies and efficient spatial data infrastructures.......Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land and natural resources that are required to achieve sustainable development. Land Administration Systems (LAS) are institutional...... frameworks complicated by the tasks they must perform, by national cultural, political and judicial settings, and by technology. This paper facilitates an overall understanding of the land management paradigm. This paper assists sharing LAS among countries with diverse legal systems and institutional...

  1. New Paradigms For Asteroid Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Johansen, Anders; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Gounelle, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    Asteroids and meteorites provide key evidence on the formation of planetesimals in the Solar System. Asteroids are traditionally thought to form in a bottom-up process by coagulation within a population of initially km-scale planetesimals. However, new models challenge this idea by demonstrating that asteroids of sizes from 100 to 1000 km can form directly from the gravitational collapse of small particles which have organised themselves in dense filaments and clusters in the turbulent gas. Particles concentrate passively between eddies down to the smallest scales of the turbulent gas flow and inside large-scale pressure bumps and vortices. The streaming instability causes particles to take an active role in the concentration, by piling up in dense filaments whose friction on the gas reduces the radial drift compared to that of isolated particles. In this chapter we review new paradigms for asteroid formation and compare critically against the observed properties of asteroids as well as constraints from meteo...

  2. Emerging Paradigms in Machine Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Lakhmi; Howlett, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This  book presents fundamental topics and algorithms that form the core of machine learning (ML) research, as well as emerging paradigms in intelligent system design. The  multidisciplinary nature of machine learning makes it a very fascinating and popular area for research.  The book is aiming at students, practitioners and researchers and captures the diversity and richness of the field of machine learning and intelligent systems.  Several chapters are devoted to computational learning models such as granular computing, rough sets and fuzzy sets An account of applications of well-known learning methods in biometrics, computational stylistics, multi-agent systems, spam classification including an extremely well-written survey on Bayesian networks shed light on the strengths and weaknesses of the methods. Practical studies yielding insight into challenging problems such as learning from incomplete and imbalanced data, pattern recognition of stochastic episodic events and on-line mining of non-stationary ...

  3. Datacubes as a Service Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Angelo Pio; Baumann, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Spatio-temporal data sets often can be represented conveniently through datacubes as a common unifying paradigm. Flexible, scalable services can be offered based on the concept of a datacube query language while hiding the technicalities, thereby allowing user-friendly visual data interaction. One of today's most influential initiatives in Big Geo Data is EarthServer which is paving the way for flexible, scalable datacube services based on innovative NewSQL technology (Fig. 1). Researchers from Europe, the US and recently Australia have teamed up to rigorously materialize the datacube paradigm for Earth Observation, ocean, meteorological, and planetary science. EarthServer has established client and server technology for such spatio-temporal datacubes strictly based on the open datacube standards, OGC WCS and WPCS. The underlying scalable array engine, rasdaman, enables direct interaction, including 3-D visualization, what-if scenarios, common EO data processing, and general analytics on regular and irregular grids. Integration of datacube and metadata retrieval, together with advanced visualization based on NASA WorldWind, are geared towards an effective, user-friendly access and analysis. Conversely, EarthServer is significantly shaping the ISO, OGC, and INSPIRE Big Data standards landscape by being specification editor. Phase 1 of EarthServer has advanced scalable array data¬base technology into 100+ TB services; in phase 2, a federation of Petabyte datacubes is being built in Europe and Australia to perform ad-hoc querying and merging. Phase 1 reviewers have attested rasdaman to "significantly transform the way that scientists in different areas of Earth Science will be able to access and use data in a way that hitherto was not possible". Altogether, these large-scale deployments prove that datacubes are a convenient model for presenting users with a simple, consolidated view on the massive amount of data files gathered - "a cube tells more than a million

  4. Is This the Paradigm Shift We Need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirvis, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Woocher's essay, states Mirvis, is seminal in the field of Jewish education. It proposes a new paradigm for Jewish education in North America. This proposed paradigm is supported by a comprehensive multi-disciplinary research drawing on literature from education, philosophy, history, sociology, psychology, and economics. The essay reflects a…

  5. Towards a New Paradigm of Moral Personhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimer, Jeremy A.; Walker, Lawrence J.

    2008-01-01

    Moral psychology is between paradigms. Kohlberg's model of moral rationality has proved inadequate in explaining action; yet its augmentation--moral personality--awaits empirical embodiment. This article addresses some critical issues in developing a comprehensive empirical paradigm of moral personhood. Is a first-person or a third-person…

  6. The cognitive paradigm and the immunological homunculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, I R

    1992-12-01

    In last month's issue of Immunology Today, Irun Cohen discussed the inadequacies of the clonal selection paradigm and proposed a cognitive paradigm in which preformed internal images guide and restrict the process of clonal activation. Here he clarifies the nature of these internal images, during on concrete examples from the image of infection and the image of self, the immunological homunculus.

  7. Programming Paradigms in Computer Science Education

    OpenAIRE

    Bolshakova, Elena

    2005-01-01

    Main styles, or paradigms of programming – imperative, functional, logic, and object-oriented – are shortly described and compared, and corresponding programming techniques are outlined. Programming languages are classified in accordance with the main style and techniques supported. It is argued that profound education in computer science should include learning base programming techniques of all main programming paradigms.

  8. Developing the New Educational Paradigm in Russian Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Verbitsky

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The mission of education is changing according to the changing system of social values. Developed concepts related to the conformities of human growth determine the content, education and upbringing methods, pedagogic position and thinking, and way of life in educational institutions.The paper looks at the problems regarding the transition to the new educational paradigm. The author has conducted the historical review and retrospective analysis of the existing over the centuries educational paradigms: natural, civil, Christian, anthropological, and classical. The main emphasis is placed on the latter paradigm based on the principle of conformity to nature and learner’s perception and memorization of the ready-made educational material, since that out-of-date explanatory and illustrative traditional method still remains the most popular in pedagogic environment and dominating over the last three centuries in the world education. Lecture–workshop system of higher education appears to be its specific version based on the same theoretical principles. Most school teachers and academic staff at universities, colleges and vocational schools – some of them without special pedagogic education – work successfully according to Komensky, the founder of the class-lesson system of education. The comparison between the above mentioned classical paradigm and developing modern one in Russian educational system is given. The most significant contro- versies between the two educational models, preventing the implementation of the perspective innovations, are examined. It is emphasized that they can be solved on the theoretical and technological basis of the context teaching. 

  9. An oblique membrane paradigm for cosmological horizon

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Tower

    2014-01-01

    The membrane paradigm is a formalism for studying the event horizon of black holes. After analyzing it with some technical details and realizing it in the Reissner-Nordstrom black hole, we extend the paradigm to cosmological horizons. A standard membrane paradigm is established for the pure de Sitter horizon, and an oblique membrane paradigm is proposed for the trapping horizon of the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker universe. In the latter case, the cosmological stretched horizon is oblique, thus the running of renormalization parameter is nonzero in the timelike direction and gives a correction to the membrane pressure. In this paradigm, the cosmological equations come from continuity equations of the membrane fluid and the bulk fluid respectively.

  10. The Physical and Cognitive Paradigms in Information Retrieval Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, David

    1992-01-01

    Explores the role of paradigms in information retrieval research and discusses the nature of a paradigm and the applicability of the paradigm concept to a multidisciplinary field such as information science. The features of the physical paradigm and the cognitive paradigm are outlined, and their origins, nature, and role are examined. (55…

  11. Class distinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, M. Catherine

    Typical 101 courses discourage many students from pursuing higher level science and math courses. Introductory classes in science and math serve largely as a filter, screening out all but the most promising students, and leaving the majority of college graduates—including most prospective teachers—with little understanding of how science works, according to a study conducted for the National Science Foundation. Because few teachers, particularly at the elementary level, experience any collegiate science teaching that stresses skills of inquiry and investigation, they simply never learn to use those methods in their teaching, the report states.

  12. MDMA and the "ecstasy paradigm".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jon C

    2014-01-01

    For nearly 30 years, there has been a steady flow of research papers highlighting the dangers of MDMA and the implications for ecstasy users. After such a long time, it would be reasonable to expect that these dangers would be obvious due to the large number of ecstasy users. The available evidence does not indicate that there are millions of ecstasy users experiencing any problems linked to their ecstasy use. The "precautionary principle" suggests that, in the absence of knowing for certain, "experts" should argue that MDMA be avoided. However, this may have been taken too far, as the dire warnings do not seem to be reducing with the lack of epidemiological evidence of clinically relevant problems. The "ecstasy paradigm" is one way of articulating this situation, in that the needs of research funders and publication bias lead to a specific set of subcultural norms around what information is acceptable in the public domain. By digging a little deeper, it is easy to find problems with the evidence base that informs the public debate around MDMA. The key question is whether it is acceptable to maintain this status quo given the therapeutic potential of MDMA.

  13. New Indivisible Planetary Science Paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    Herndon, J Marvin

    2013-01-01

    I present here a new, indivisible planetary science paradigm, a wholly self-consistent vision of the nature of matter in the Solar System, and dynamics and energy sources of planets. Massive-core planets formed by condensing and raining-out from within giant gaseous protoplanets at high pressures and high temperatures. Earth's complete condensation included a 300 Earth-mass gigantic gas/ice shell that compressed the rocky kernel to about 66% of Earth's present diameter. T-Tauri eruptions stripped the gases away from the inner planets and stripped a portion of Mercury's incompletely condensed protoplanet, and transported it to the region between Mars and Jupiter where it fused with in-falling oxidized condensate from the outer regions of the Solar System and formed the parent matter of ordinary chondrite meteorites, the main-Belt asteroids, and veneer for the inner planets, especially Mars. In response to decompression-driven planetary volume increases, cracks form to increase surface area and mountain ranges ...

  14. Metacognition: A new cognitive paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kankaraš Miloš

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews concept of metacognition, defined as: (a knowledge about ones own cognitive activity, (b strategies to monitor and regulate cognitive activity and behavior, and (c subjective or metacognitive experiences which comes from some changes or temporary difficulties in cognitive functioning. While describing different conceptualizations of metacognition, its development, fields of application, relation with intelligence, and its constrictions and ambiguity, we attempt to present new and emerging metacognitive paradigm, which is, for a relatively short period, succeeded to improve, expand, and redefine wide range of theoretical and practical fields in psychology, on new and original way. How do we become conscious of our own cognitive processes? What role and significance that consciousness has, what is the functional level above thinking processes and how that level, which monitor and control cognitive activity, works. Metacognition is concept that presents, as so far, the most important insight in those human mind areas, which, although very important, remained on the margin of psychological investigations until now.

  15. Life behind cell walls: paradigm lost, paradigm regained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamport, D T

    2001-09-01

    This review of the living cell wall and its protein components is in two parts. The first is anecdotal. A personal account spanning over 40 years research may perhaps be an antidote to one stereotypical view of scientists as detached and humorless. The second part deals with the meaning of function, particularly as it applies to hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins. Function is a difficult word to define objectively. However, with help from such luminaries as Humpty Dumpty: "A word means what I want it to mean, neither more nor less," and Wittgenstein: "Giving examples of usage ... is the only way to talk about meaning," it is possible to construct a ziggurat representing increasingly complex levels of organization from molecular structure to ecology. Forty years ago I suggested that hydroxyproline-rich structural proteins played a key role in cell wall functioning. But because the bulk of the wall is carbohydrate, there has been an understandable resistance to paradigm change. Expansins, paradoxically, contribute greatly to this resistance because their modus operandi as cell-wall-loosening proteins is based on the idea that they break hydrogen bonds between polysaccharide chains allowing slippage. However, this view is not consistent with the recent discovery [Grobe et al. (1999) Eur. J. Biochem 263: 33-40] that beta-expansins may be proteases, as it implies that the extensin network is not a straightjacket but a substrate for expansin in muro. Such a direct role for extensins in both negative and positive regulation of cell expansion and elongation may constitute a major morphogenetic mechanism operating at all levels of plant growth and development.

  16. Ostracism Online: A social media ostracism paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Wouter; Levordashka, Ana; Ruff, Johanna R; Kraaijeveld, Steven; Lueckmann, Jan-Matthis; Williams, Kipling D

    2015-06-01

    We describe Ostracism Online, a novel, social media-based ostracism paradigm designed to (1) keep social interaction experimentally controlled, (2) provide researchers with the flexibility to manipulate the properties of the social situation to fit their research purposes, (3) be suitable for online data collection, (4) be convenient for studying subsequent within-group behavior, and (5) be ecologically valid. After collecting data online, we compared the Ostracism Online paradigm with the Cyberball paradigm (Williams & Jarvis Behavior Research Methods, 38, 174-180, 2006) on need-threat and mood questionnaire scores (van Beest & Williams Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 91, 918-928, 2006). We also examined whether ostracized targets of either paradigm would be more likely to conform to their group members than if they had been included. Using a Bayesian analysis of variance to examine the individual effects of the different paradigms and to compare these effects across paradigms, we found analogous effects on need-threat and mood. Perhaps because we examined conformity to the ostracizers (rather than neutral sources), neither paradigm showed effects of ostracism on conformity. We conclude that Ostracism Online is a cost-effective, easy to use, and ecologically valid research tool for studying the psychological and behavioral effects of ostracism. PMID:24878596

  17. The cognitive paradigm ontology: design and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Jessica A; Laird, Angela R

    2012-01-01

    We present the basic structure of the Cognitive Paradigm Ontology (CogPO) for human behavioral experiments. While the experimental psychology and cognitive neuroscience literature may refer to certain behavioral tasks by name (e.g., the Stroop paradigm or the Sternberg paradigm) or by function (a working memory task, a visual attention task), these paradigms can vary tremendously in the stimuli that are presented to the subject, the response expected from the subject, and the instructions given to the subject. Drawing from the taxonomy developed and used by the BrainMap project ( www.brainmap.org ) for almost two decades to describe key components of published functional imaging results, we have developed an ontology capable of representing certain characteristics of the cognitive paradigms used in the fMRI and PET literature. The Cognitive Paradigm Ontology is being developed to be compliant with the Basic Formal Ontology (BFO), and to harmonize where possible with larger ontologies such as RadLex, NeuroLex, or the Ontology of Biomedical Investigations (OBI). The key components of CogPO include the representation of experimental conditions focused on the stimuli presented, the instructions given, and the responses requested. The use of alternate and even competitive terminologies can often impede scientific discoveries. Categorization of paradigms according to stimulus, response, and instruction has been shown to allow advanced data retrieval techniques by searching for similarities and contrasts across multiple paradigm levels. The goal of CogPO is to develop, evaluate, and distribute a domain ontology of cognitive paradigms for application and use in the functional neuroimaging community.

  18. Fuzzy Hybrid Deliberative/Reactive Paradigm (FHDRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmadi, Hengameth

    2004-01-01

    This work aims to introduce a new concept for incorporating fuzzy sets in hybrid deliberative/reactive paradigm. After a brief review on basic issues of hybrid paradigm the definition of agent-based fuzzy hybrid paradigm, which enables the agents to proceed and extract their behavior through quantitative numerical and qualitative knowledge and to impose their decision making procedure via fuzzy rule bank, is discussed. Next an example performs a more applied platform for the developed approach and finally an overview of the corresponding agents architecture enhances agents logical framework.

  19. Contemporary Treatment Paradigms in Keratoconus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhee, Charles N J; Kim, Bia Z; Wilson, Peter J

    2015-10-01

    The past 20 years have witnessed an explosion in our knowledge of keratoconus, accompanied by a radical transformation of management options. A 2-hit hypothesis proposes an underlying genetic predisposition coupled with external environmental factors, including eye rubbing and atopy. The variable prevalence and natural history have been better defined including significant cone progression in middle age. Therefore, current management must include early diagnosis, regular monitoring, and treatment of environmental cofactors. Spectacles and contact lenses remain fundamental to the optical management of keratoconus. Intrastromal corneal ring segments have been increasingly used, providing improvement in the corneal shape, corrected visual acuity, and contact lens wear. However, like contact lenses, intrastromal corneal ring segments do not treat the underlying disease process. Therefore, current approaches must also consider treatments to minimize keratoconus progression. Fortunately, there is increasing evidence that corneal collagen crosslinking will halt or slow progression in most cases. Until relatively recently, penetrating keratoplasty was the preferred intervention for advanced keratoconus, with long-term success in the region of 90%; however, the greatest risk of failure remains endothelial allograft rejection. Deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty has emerged in the new millennium as a preferred approach to conserve the host endothelium and avoid rejection. Nonetheless, the overall superiority of deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty compared with penetrating keratoplasty, in terms of optical and survival benefits, is still debated. This perspective provides an overview of our current knowledge of keratoconus and current management options. A step-ladder approach to managing keratoconus is outlined to provide the practitioner with a contemporary management paradigm.

  20. Gas transmission : a paradigm shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of energy markets in North America was discussed. The investment opportunities that are possible in a deregulated energy market, be it in production or in the generation of energy commodities, in the development of midstream infrastructure, or in the provision of energy services, were outlined. Deregulation of crude oil, natural gas and electricity has resulted in significant changes in the structure of energy markets and the way in which customers are served. One of the advantages of competition regarding power generation is that it has turned energy into a commodity which has resulted in greater customer choice and efficiency. As one example of midstream infrastructure development, the Alliance Pipeline project was described. This project was conceived as a means to enhance the value of western Canadian natural gas. The 1,900 mile pipeline will run from British Columbia, through Alberta into Chicago where it will interconnect with the North American gas transmission grid. The pipeline is an efficient means of transporting energy from Western Canada to North American markets, and Alliance, as a lowest cost transporter, will continue to put pressure on the traditional infrastructure to become even more competitive at the margin. As such, Alliance represents a paradigm shift in energy transportation, and serves as an excellent example of the type of investment opportunity that a deregulated market can provide. It was suggested that innovation and competition in a deregulated North American energy market will continue to increase. As electricity is deregulated, the energy market will respond more quickly to changes in supply and demand than it did in the past, in an effort to satisfy the needs of investors and customers. This will provide increased opportunities for restructuring and further competition

  1. Membrane paradigm of black holes in Chern-Simons modified gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tian-Yi; Wang, Towe

    2016-06-01

    The membrane paradigm of black hole is studied in the Chern-Simons modified gravity. Derived with the action principle a la Parikh-Wilczek, the stress tensor of membrane manifests a rich structure arising from the Chern-Simons term. The membrane stress tensor, if related to the bulk stress tensor in a special form, obeys the low-dimensional fluid continuity equation and the Navier-Stokes equation. This paradigm is applied to spherically symmetric static geometries, and in particular, the Schwarzschild black hole, which is a solution of a large class of dynamical Chern-Simons gravity.

  2. Membrane paradigm of black holes in Chern-Simons modified gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Tian-Yi

    2015-01-01

    The membrane paradigm of black hole is studied in the Chern-Simons modified gravity. Derived with the action principle a la Parikh-Wilczek, the stress tensor of membrane manifests a rich structure arising from the Chern-Simons term. The membrane stress tensor, if related to the bulk stress tensor in a special form, obeys the low-dimensional fluid continuity equation and the Navier-Stokes equation. This paradigm is applied to spherically symmetric static geometries, and in particular, the Schwarzschild black hole, which is a solution of a large class of dynamical Chern-Simons gravity.

  3. The safety implications of emerging software paradigms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addresses some of the emerging software paradigms that may be used in developing safety-critical software applications. Paradigms considered in this paper include knowledge-based systems, neural networks, genetic algorithms, and fuzzy systems. It presents one view of the software verification and validation activities that should be associated with each paradigm. The paper begins with a discussion of the historical evolution of software verification and validation. Next, a comparison is made between the verification and validation processes used for conventional and emerging software systems. Several verification and validation issues for the emerging paradigms are discussed and some specific research topics are identified. This work is relevant for monitoring and control at nuclear power plants

  4. Paradigms and Principles Shaping Educational Design Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKenney, Susan

    2014-01-01

    McKenney, S. (2013). Paradigms and Principles Shaping Educational Design Research. Invited panel presentation at the annual meeting of the European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction. August 27-31, Munich.

  5. Yakov Zeldovich and the Cosmic Web Paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    Einasto, Jaan

    2014-01-01

    I discuss the formation of the modern cosmological paradigm. In more detail I describe the early study of dark matter and cosmic web and the role of Yakov Zeldovich in the formation of the present concepts on these subjects.

  6. Engineering paradigms and anthropogenic global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohle, Martin

    2016-04-01

    This essay discusses 'paradigms' as means to conceive anthropogenic global change. Humankind alters earth-systems because of the number of people, the patterns of consumption of resources, and the alterations of environments. This process of anthropogenic global change is a composite consisting of societal (in the 'noosphere') and natural (in the 'bio-geosphere') features. Engineering intercedes these features; e.g. observing stratospheric ozone depletion has led to understanding it as a collateral artefact of a particular set of engineering choices. Beyond any specific use-case, engineering works have a common function; e.g. civil-engineering intersects economic activity and geosphere. People conceive their actions in the noosphere including giving purpose to their engineering. The 'noosphere' is the ensemble of social, cultural or political concepts ('shared subjective mental insights') of people. Among people's concepts are the paradigms how to shape environments, production systems and consumption patterns given their societal preferences. In that context, engineering is a means to implement a given development path. Four paradigms currently are distinguishable how to make anthropogenic global change happening. Among the 'engineering paradigms' for anthropogenic global change, 'adaptation' is a paradigm for a business-as-usual scenario and steady development paths of societies. Applying this paradigm implies to forecast the change to come, to appropriately design engineering works, and to maintain as far as possible the current production and consumption patterns. An alternative would be to adjust incrementally development paths of societies, namely to 'dovetail' anthropogenic and natural fluxes of matter and energy. To apply that paradigm research has to identify 'natural boundaries', how to modify production and consumption patterns, and how to tackle process in the noosphere to render alterations of common development paths acceptable. A further alternative

  7. International business and the eclectic paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The eclectic paradigm has become the dominant theoretical basis in the study of international business, multinational corporations and internationalization since 1980. However, developments such as economic globalization and the subsequent growth of global and alliance capitalism have fundamentally......, finance, evolutionary economics, resource-based theory or strategic management? Can it be utilized to explain new developments in international business and economics? Do these require new ideas and concepts to be integrated within the eclectic paradigm? What are the new challenges to which international...

  8. New Indivisible Planetary Science Paradigm: Consequence of Questioning Popular Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin Herndon, J.

    2014-05-01

    Progress in science involves replacing less precise understanding with more precise understanding. In science and in science education one should always question popular ideas; ask "What's wrong with this picture?" Finding limitations, conflicts or circumstances that require special ad hoc consideration sometimes is the key to making important discoveries. For example, from thermodynamic considerations, I found that the 'standard model of solar system formation' leads to insufficiently massive planetary cores. That understanding led me to discover a new indivisible planetary science paradigm. Massive-core planets formed by condensing and raining-out from within giant gaseous protoplanets at high pressures and high temperatures, accumulating heterogeneously on the basis of volatility with liquid core-formation preceding mantle-formation; the interior states of oxidation resemble that of the Abee enstatite chondrite. Core-composition was established during condensation based upon the relative solubilities of elements, including uranium, in liquid iron in equilibrium with an atmosphere of solar composition at high pressures and high temperatures. Uranium settled to the central region and formed planetary nuclear fission reactors, producing heat and planetary magnetic fields. Earth's complete condensation included a ~300 Earth-mass gigantic gas/ice shell that compressed the rocky kernel to about 66% of Earth's present diameter. T-Tauri eruptions, associated with the thermonuclear ignition of the Sun, stripped the gases away from the Earth and the inner planets. The T-Tauri outbursts stripped a portion of Mercury's incompletely condensed protoplanet and transported it to the region between Mars and Jupiter where it fused with in-falling oxidized condensate from the outer regions of the Solar System, forming the parent matter of ordinary chondrite meteorites, the main-Belt asteroids, and veneer for the inner planets, especially Mars. With its massive gas/ice shell

  9. The Underlying Social Dynamics of Paradigm Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claro, Francisco; Fuentes, Miguel Angel

    2015-01-01

    We develop here a multi-agent model of the creation of knowledge (scientific progress or technological evolution) within a community of researchers devoted to such endeavors. In the proposed model, agents learn in a physical-technological landscape, and weight is attached to both individual search and social influence. We find that the combination of these two forces together with random experimentation can account for both i) marginal change, that is, periods of normal science or refinements on the performance of a given technology (and in which the community stays in the neighborhood of the current paradigm); and ii) radical change, which takes the form of scientific paradigm shifts (or discontinuities in the structure of performance of a technology) that is observed as a swift migration of the knowledge community towards the new and superior paradigm. The efficiency of the search process is heavily dependent on the weight that agents posit on social influence. The occurrence of a paradigm shift becomes more likely when each member of the community attaches a small but positive weight to the experience of his/her peers. For this parameter region, nevertheless, a conservative force is exerted by the representatives of the current paradigm. However, social influence is not strong enough to seriously hamper individual discovery, and can act so as to empower successful individual pioneers who have conquered the new and superior paradigm. PMID:26418255

  10. The Underlying Social Dynamics of Paradigm Shifts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rodriguez-Sickert

    Full Text Available We develop here a multi-agent model of the creation of knowledge (scientific progress or technological evolution within a community of researchers devoted to such endeavors. In the proposed model, agents learn in a physical-technological landscape, and weight is attached to both individual search and social influence. We find that the combination of these two forces together with random experimentation can account for both i marginal change, that is, periods of normal science or refinements on the performance of a given technology (and in which the community stays in the neighborhood of the current paradigm; and ii radical change, which takes the form of scientific paradigm shifts (or discontinuities in the structure of performance of a technology that is observed as a swift migration of the knowledge community towards the new and superior paradigm. The efficiency of the search process is heavily dependent on the weight that agents posit on social influence. The occurrence of a paradigm shift becomes more likely when each member of the community attaches a small but positive weight to the experience of his/her peers. For this parameter region, nevertheless, a conservative force is exerted by the representatives of the current paradigm. However, social influence is not strong enough to seriously hamper individual discovery, and can act so as to empower successful individual pioneers who have conquered the new and superior paradigm.

  11. The Underlying Social Dynamics of Paradigm Shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Sickert, Carlos; Cosmelli, Diego; Claro, Francisco; Fuentes, Miguel Angel

    2015-01-01

    We develop here a multi-agent model of the creation of knowledge (scientific progress or technological evolution) within a community of researchers devoted to such endeavors. In the proposed model, agents learn in a physical-technological landscape, and weight is attached to both individual search and social influence. We find that the combination of these two forces together with random experimentation can account for both i) marginal change, that is, periods of normal science or refinements on the performance of a given technology (and in which the community stays in the neighborhood of the current paradigm); and ii) radical change, which takes the form of scientific paradigm shifts (or discontinuities in the structure of performance of a technology) that is observed as a swift migration of the knowledge community towards the new and superior paradigm. The efficiency of the search process is heavily dependent on the weight that agents posit on social influence. The occurrence of a paradigm shift becomes more likely when each member of the community attaches a small but positive weight to the experience of his/her peers. For this parameter region, nevertheless, a conservative force is exerted by the representatives of the current paradigm. However, social influence is not strong enough to seriously hamper individual discovery, and can act so as to empower successful individual pioneers who have conquered the new and superior paradigm.

  12. The Paradigm Shift in Language Learning in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玲

    2008-01-01

    <正>With the development of English as an international language,English speakers are widely spread in the world.The English learning fashion has been greatly changed since the culture background of English as a langauge has shifted to a mixed cultures instead of just British and American. But the standard varieties of British and American English have been accepted as the only generally accepted forms of standard English in China.The language learning fashion in China is about to undertake a big paradigm shift.This paper is an analysis of the English learning pattern shift in Chinese setting and therefore suggests a practical activities to apply this concept in English learning classes.

  13. A epidemiologia, os valores e o significado de paradigma Epidemiology, values, and the meaning of paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djalma Agripino de Melo Filho

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Recentemente, o emprego do termo paradigma chegou ao âmbito epidemiológico. Este texto analisou criticamente uma classificação de 'paradigmas epidemiológicos', proposta por Almeida-Filho. Inicialmente constatou-se que os valores não foram considerados como elementos fundamentais para a construção dos paradigmas, distanciando-se, assim, da matriz kuhniana. Uma vez que a sistematização procurou unir tendências antitéticas, ela pareceu estar mais próxima da epistéme foucaultiana. Finalmente, considerou-se mais apropriada a utilização do termo hegemonia, em vez de paradigma, para sistematizar períodos epidemiológicos, pois os valores das vertentes estão comprometidos com a particularidade (principalmente classe social.Use of the term paradigm has recently reached the epidemiological milieu. This article provides a critical analysis of a classification of "epidemiological paradigms" as proposed by Almeida-Filho. It was initially ascertained that values were not considered fundamental elements for the construction of paradigms, and that they therefore distanced themselves from the Kuhnian matrix. Systematization sought to unite antithetical tendencies and thus seemed closer to the Foucaltian epistéme. Finally, hegemony was considered a more appropriate term than paradigm for systematizing epidemiological periods, since the values of the different watersheds are committed to particularity (principally social class.

  14. ENVIRONMENTALISM AND CLASSIC PARADIGMS OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Miniaeva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines an environmentalism integration process into Three classical paradigms of international relations theory (Liberalism, Realism and Marxism into Three classical paradigms of international relations theory (Liberalism, Realism and Marxism. The main purpose of this study is to reveal the result of this integration. Methods used in this article include analysis and comparison of "ecological" paradigms on selected parameters (the nature of international relations, actors, targets, tools, processes. Results of research show that the beginning of the XXI century is distinguished by the development of new types of political concepts that explain interaction of elements in modern international relations in the area of environmental protection. The reason of these changes lies in the phenomena of environmentalism integration into Three paradigms of international relations. However, we cannot say that any of the examined paradigms accumulated all features of environmentalism without their modification. Better to say, it's rather similar to adaptation of environmental ideas. Therefore, to understand modern international relations processes, it is necessary to take into account their environmental element. Purchase on Elibrary.ru > Buy nowDOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2070-7568-2014-3-4

  15. Organizational improvement using Organizational paradigms with the support of people paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Shariful Alam

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available An organization is a vital part of social environment. Different parts of organization have great impact to the environment. On the other hand the different organizational strategy helps to improve the efficiency of organization and customer satisfaction. The people and tools of organization help to organization to work properly. This paper mainly describes about the organizational paradigms and people paradigms also the way how the people paradigms facilitate the organizational paradigms to improve the organizational architecture for better performance. This paper describes the different aspects of organizational like Information system strategy, Information system planning, Business process reengineering etc also End user computing, Knowledge management, Expert system of people paradigms.And finally there is a combination between those. Keywords: Business process reengineering, Customer satisfaction, end used computing, In Information System Strategy, knowledge management, Organizational improvement.

  16. Phase transitions in paradigm shift models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiseung Chae

    Full Text Available Two general models for paradigm shifts, deterministic propagation model (DM and stochastic propagation model (SM, are proposed to describe paradigm shifts and the adoption of new technological levels. By defining the order parameter m based on the diversity of ideas, Δ, it is studied when and how the phase transition or the disappearance of a dominant paradigm occurs as a cost C in DM or an innovation probability α in SM increases. In addition, we also investigate how the propagation processes affect the transition nature. From analytical calculations and numerical simulations m is shown to satisfy the scaling relation m=1-f(C/N for DM with the number of agents N. In contrast, m in SM scales as m=1-f(α(aN.

  17. White Dwarfs Near Black Holes: A New Paradigm for Type I Supernovae

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, J.R.; Mathews, G. J.

    2003-01-01

    We present calculations indicating the possibility of a new class of Type I supernovae. In this new paradigm relativistic terms enhance the self gravity of a carbon-oxygen white dwarf as it passes or orbits near a black hole. This relativistic compression can cause the central density to exceed the threshold for pycnonuclear reactions so that athermonuclear runaway ensues. We consider three possible environments: 1) white dwarfs orbiting a low-mass black hole; 2) white dwarfs encountering a m...

  18. Class Vectors: Embedding representation of Document Classes

    OpenAIRE

    Sachan, Devendra Singh; Kumar, Shailesh

    2015-01-01

    Distributed representations of words and paragraphs as semantic embeddings in high dimensional data are used across a number of Natural Language Understanding tasks such as retrieval, translation, and classification. In this work, we propose "Class Vectors" - a framework for learning a vector per class in the same embedding space as the word and paragraph embeddings. Similarity between these class vectors and word vectors are used as features to classify a document to a class. In experiment o...

  19. Reinforcing the Afrocentric Paradigm: A Theoretical Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sams, Timothy E.

    2010-01-01

    Thomas Kuhn's 1962 groundbreaking work, "The Scientific Revolution," established the process for creating, and the components of, a disciplinary paradigm. This "scientific revolution" has evolved to become the standard for determining a field's claim to disciplinary status. In 2001 and 2003, Ama Mazama, used Kuhn's model to establish the…

  20. A Review of Process Modeling Language Paradigms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Qin-hai; GUAN Zhi-min; LI Ying; ZHAO Xi-nan

    2002-01-01

    Process representation or modeling plays an important role in business process engineering.Process modeling languages can be evaluated by the extent to which they provide constructs useful for representing and reasoning about the aspects of a process, and subsequently are chosen for a certain purpose.This paper reviews process modeling language paradigms and points out their advantages and disadvantages.

  1. Toward an Ecological Paradigm in Adventure Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beringer, Almut

    2004-01-01

    Many forms of adventure therapy, in particular wilderness therapy, rely on challenges in the outdoors to achieve objectives of client change. While nature is drawn on as a medium for therapy and healing, some adventure therapists give nature little if any mention when it comes to explaining therapeutic success. The dominant paradigm in psychology…

  2. Augmenting the ADDIE Paradigm for Instructional Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xiaopeng; Branch, Robert Maribe

    2008-01-01

    The authors discuss topics appropriate for augmenting the ADDIE paradigm for instructional design. The topics selected are based on data from a study of working professionals who successfully completed an instructional design and technology certificate program and who identified related topics that they regarded as beneficial. The participants…

  3. New Paradigms for Computer Aids to Invention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langston, M. Diane

    Many people are interested in computer aids to rhetorical invention and want to know how to evaluate an invention aid, what the criteria are for a good one, and how to assess the trade-offs involved in buying one product or another. The frame of reference for this evaluation is an "old paradigm," which treats the computer as if it were paper, but…

  4. Empirical Testing of an Affective Learning Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmus, Edward P., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    This investigation of a college music course examined the effectiveness of a cyclical affective learning paradigm based on the premise that student affect toward a course of instruction will dictate, in part, cognitive performance. Results suggest that teachers would be better advised to concentrate on cognitive instruction than on affect.…

  5. Haptics in computer music : a paradigm shift

    CERN Document Server

    Castagné, Nicolas; Florens, Jean-Loup; Luciani, Annie

    2010-01-01

    With an historical point of view combined with a bibliographic overview, the article discusses the idea that haptic force feedback transducers correspond with a paradigm shift in our real-time tools for creating music. So doing, il shows that computer music may be regarded as a major field of research and application for haptics.

  6. Has the Education Paradigm Begun to Shift?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Clifton B.

    2014-01-01

    The author reviews various elements of what may be considered as evidence that the long-awaited shift in the education paradigm is actually happening. Concepts like student-centered learning, attainment-based evaluation, knowledge-based constructivism, and effort-based intelligence are growing, are being more widely recognized as important, and…

  7. Production planning development and paradigm integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Ledneva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews principles of different concepts of enterprise management including a theory of constrains, a Balanced Scorecard, lean production, Six Sigma. The authors believe that creating some mix or integration of these paradigms can bring extraordinary effect for production management. As example the modified Balanced Scorecard based on constraints and its application on Magnitorsk metallurgical enterprise in Russia is described.

  8. Operationalizing Social Justice Counseling: Paradigm to Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Judith A.

    2011-01-01

    Social justice counseling, like all humanistic models, recognizes the dignity of each human being, affirms the right of all people to choose and work toward their own goals, and asserts the importance of service to community. The social justice paradigm brings a special emphasis on the role of the environment. (Contains 1 figure and 1 table.)

  9. A new paradigm for doing Reformed dogmatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Spykman

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available When discussing Reformational Theology: A New Paradigm for Doing Dogmatics some people may call it my opus magnum. Perhaps time 'will tell. The book has only recently - early 1992 - entered the marketplace of theological ideas. How critic readers and reviewers respond will go a long way toward settling the case.

  10. Den postmoderna stadens två paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tom

    2005-01-01

    the attention of politicians, planners and architects today is focused on the individual, not the collective. But the policy of the third way has no counterpart in an urbanism torn between two paradigms. Tom Nielsen paints the picture of what has to urban development since the welfare state...

  11. ACCOUNTING PARADIGMS WHICH FAVOR HISTORICAL COST

    OpenAIRE

    Valentin Gabriel CRISTEA

    2014-01-01

    Henning Kirkegaard shows that the evolution of accounting is to shift from one paradigm to another . Business continuity perspective should guide the company into the future , without confine it exclusively in the past. Accounting in its classical form , however, can not be dissociated from the historical cost evaluation .

  12. 06472 Abstracts Collection - XQuery Implementation Paradigms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boncz, Peter A.; Grust, Torsten; Siméon, Jerome; Keulen, van Maurice; Boncz, P.A.; Grust, T.; Siméon, J.; Keulen, van M.

    2007-01-01

    From 19.11.2006 to 22.11.2006, the Dagstuhl Seminar 06472 ``XQuery Implementation Paradigms'' was held in the International Conference and Research Center (IBFI), Schloss Dagstuhl. During the seminar, several participants presented their current research, and ongoing work and open problems were disc

  13. 06472 Abstracts Collection - XQuery Implementation Paradigms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boncz, P.A.; Grust, T.; Siméon, J.; Keulen, M. van

    2007-01-01

    From 19.11.2006 to 22.11.2006, the Dagstuhl Seminar 06472 "XQuery Implementation Paradigms" was held in the International Conference and Research Center (IBFI), Schloss Dagstuhl. During the seminar, several participants presented their current research, and ongoing work and open problems were discus

  14. Redesigning Higher Education: Embracing a New Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, William R.; Watson, Sunnie Lee

    2014-01-01

    Higher education is under enormous pressure to transform itself and embrace a new paradigm. Operating under an outdated model that no longer aligns with the realities of modern society, institutions of higher education are recognizing the need to drastically remake themselves or possibly cease to exist. This article explores the current landscape…

  15. Dark matter and the neutrino portal paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    González-Macías, Vannia; Wudka, José

    2016-01-01

    A simple extension of the Standard Model (SM) that provides an explicit realization of the dark-matter (DM) neutrino-portal paradigm is presented. The leading interactions between the dark sector, containing scalars and relic fermions, and the SM involve neutrinos. This model meets all observational constraints.

  16. ACCOUNTING PARADIGMS WHICH FAVOR HISTORICAL COST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Gabriel CRISTEA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Henning Kirkegaard shows that the evolution of accounting is to shift from one paradigm to another . Business continuity perspective should guide the company into the future , without confine it exclusively in the past. Accounting in its classical form , however, can not be dissociated from the historical cost evaluation .

  17. Does Class Size Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; Brewer, Dominic J.; Gamoran, Adam; Willms, J. Douglas

    2001-01-01

    Reports on the significance of class size to student learning. Includes an overview of class size in various countries, the importance of teacher adaptability, and the Asian paradox of large classes allied to high test scores. (MM)

  18. RxClass

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The RxClass Browser is a web application for exploring and navigating through the class hierarchies to find the RxNorm drug members associated with each class....

  19. A Virtual Class Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik; Ostermann, Klaus; Cook, William Randall

    2006-01-01

    , not as static components of a class. When used as types, virtual classes depend upon object identity - each object instance introduces a new family of virtual class types. Virtual classes support large scale program composition techniques, including higher-order hierarchies and family polymorphism. The original......Virtual classes are class-valued attributes of objects. Like virtual methods, virtual classes are defined in an object's class and may be redefined within subclasses. They resemble inner classes, which are also defined within a class, but virtual classes are accessed through object instances...... definition of virtual classes in BETA left open the question of static type safety, since some type errors were not caught until runtime. Later the languages Caesar and gbeta have used a more strict static analysis in order to ensure static type safety. However, the existence of a sound, statically typed...

  20. Neural architecture underlying classification of face perception paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Angela R; Riedel, Michael C; Sutherland, Matthew T; Eickhoff, Simon B; Ray, Kimberly L; Uecker, Angela M; Fox, P Mickle; Turner, Jessica A; Fox, Peter T

    2015-10-01

    We present a novel strategy for deriving a classification system of functional neuroimaging paradigms that relies on hierarchical clustering of experiments archived in the BrainMap database. The goal of our proof-of-concept application was to examine the underlying neural architecture of the face perception literature from a meta-analytic perspective, as these studies include a wide range of tasks. Task-based results exhibiting similar activation patterns were grouped as similar, while tasks activating different brain networks were classified as functionally distinct. We identified four sub-classes of face tasks: (1) Visuospatial Attention and Visuomotor Coordination to Faces, (2) Perception and Recognition of Faces, (3) Social Processing and Episodic Recall of Faces, and (4) Face Naming and Lexical Retrieval. Interpretation of these sub-classes supports an extension of a well-known model of face perception to include a core system for visual analysis and extended systems for personal information, emotion, and salience processing. Overall, these results demonstrate that a large-scale data mining approach can inform the evolution of theoretical cognitive models by probing the range of behavioral manipulations across experimental tasks. PMID:26093327

  1. From use cases to UML class diagrams using logic grammars and constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Have, Christian Theil; Tveitane, Knut

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the possibilities for automated transition from Use Cases in a restricted natural language syntax into UML class diagrams, by trying to capture the semantics of the natural language and map it into building blocks of the object oriented programming paradigm (classes, objects, methods...

  2. Code Component Composition Reuse Is a New Programming Paradigm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    After describing the characteristics of programming paradigm,this pap er introduces the approach of code component composition reuse in detail, propos es and discusses viewpoint that code component composition reuse is a kind of ne w programming paradigm. This paper also specifies the characteristics of this ne w programming paradigm in detail, and points out some issues that must be resolv ed for using this new programming paradigm.

  3. Asynchronous P300 BCI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panicker, Rajesh; Puthusserypady, Sadasivan; Sun, Ying

    2010-01-01

    An asynchronous hybrid brain-computer interface (BCI) system combining the P300 and steady-state visually evoked potentials (SSVEP) paradigms is introduced. A P300 base system is used for information transfer, and is augmented to include SSVEP for control state detection. The proposed system has...

  4. Paradigm Shifts in the Treatment of Appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Grace Zee; Loeff, Deborah S

    2016-07-01

    Acute appendicitis is the most common cause of emergent surgery in children. Historically, surgical dogma dictated emergent appendectomy due to concern for impending perforation. Recently, however, there has been a paradigm shift in both the understanding of its pathophysiology as well as its treatment to more nonoperative management. No longer is it considered a spectrum from uncomplicated appendicitis inevitably progressing to complicated appendicitis over time. Rather, uncomplicated and complicated appendicitis are now considered two distinct pathophysiologic entities. This change requires not only educating the patients and their families but also the general practitioners who will be managing treatment expectations and caring for patients long term. In this article, we review the pathophysiology of appendicitis, including the differentiation between uncomplicated and complicated appendicitis, as well as the new treatment paradigms. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(7):e235-e240.]. PMID:27403670

  5. Security Issues in Mobile Agent Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Jain

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A mobile Agent is a Software program that migrates from node tonode of a heterogeneous network. They are goal-oriented i.e. workautonomously towards a goal, capable of suspending their executionon one platform and moving to other where they can resumeexecution using resources of these nodes and they meet and interactwith other agents. Agents may be stationary, always resident at asingle platform or mobile, capable of moving among differentplatforms at different time. The mobile agent paradigm providesmany benefits in developments of distributed application at the sametime introduce new requirements for security issues with thesesystems. In this paper we try to focus mainly on security issues thatarise when mobile agent paradigm comes into play.

  6. Web Content Analysis: Expanding the Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Susan C.

    Are established methods of content analysis (CA) adequate to analyze web content, or should new methods be devised to address new technological developments? This article addresses this question by contrasting narrow and broad interpretations of the concept of web content analysis. The utility of a broad interpretation that subsumes the narrow one is then illustrated with reference to research on weblogs (blogs), a popular web format in which features of HTML documents and interactive computer-mediated communication converge. The article concludes by proposing an expanded Web Content Analysis (WebCA) paradigm in which insights from paradigms such as discourse analysis and social network analysis are operationalized and implemented within a general content analytic framework.

  7. Paradigms for Realizing Machine Learning Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agneeswaran, Vijay Srinivas; Tonpay, Pranay; Tiwary, Jayati

    2013-12-01

    The article explains the three generations of machine learning algorithms-with all three trying to operate on big data. The first generation tools are SAS, SPSS, etc., while second generation realizations include Mahout and RapidMiner (that work over Hadoop), and the third generation paradigms include Spark and GraphLab, among others. The essence of the article is that for a number of machine learning algorithms, it is important to look beyond the Hadoop's Map-Reduce paradigm in order to make them work on big data. A number of promising contenders have emerged in the third generation that can be exploited to realize deep analytics on big data. PMID:27447253

  8. A New Paradigm for Chemical Engineering?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    material, energy usage and waste generation without compromising the economic value of the enterprise. Responding to these challenges requires a new insight into the characteristics of a sustainable system, for example, how to incorporate the product, the process and the related supply chain within...... the system boundary under investigation? A fundamental rethinking of how to identify the needed chemicals based products and how to design, build and operate the corresponding production units, is necessary. Indeed, the chemical industry today is changed from the chemical industry of forty years ago. Clear...... businesses has been observed. There is an increasing trend within the chemical industry to focus on products and the sustainable processes that can make them. Do these changes point to a paradigm shift in chemical engineering as a discipline? Historically, two previous paradigm shifts in chemical engineering...

  9. BMS invariance and the membrane paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna, Robert F.

    2016-03-01

    The Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs (BMS) group is the asymptotic symmetry group of asymptotically flat spacetime. It is infinite dimensional and entails an infinite number of conservation laws. According to the black hole membrane paradigm, null infinity (in asymptotically flat spacetime) and black hole event horizons behave like fluid membranes. The fluid dynamics of the membrane is governed by an infinite set of symmetries and conservation laws. Our main result is to point out that the infinite set of symmetries and conserved charges of the BMS group and the membrane paradigm are the same. This relationship has several consequences. First, it sheds light on the physical interpretation of BMS conservation laws. Second, it generalizes the BMS conservation laws to arbitrary subregions of arbitrary null surfaces. Third, it clarifies the identification of the superrotation subgroup of the BMS group. We briefly comment on the black hole information problem.

  10. SP 04-2 LCZ 696: A NEW PARADIGM SHIFT FOR THE TREATMENT OF HEART FAILURE?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, ByungSu

    2016-09-01

    Heart failure (HF) represents a significant healthcare issue because of its ever-increasing prevalence, poor prognosis and complex pathophysiology. The cornerstone of modern drug therapy in chronic HF is the inhibition of neurohormonal activation that plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of HF development and progression and, more specifically, of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and the sympathetic nervous system. LCZ696 is a first-in-class, angiotensin receptor NEP inhibitor (ARNI) that consists of a supramolecular complex of a molecule of the ARB valsartan in combination with a molecule of the NEP inhibitor prodrug AHU377 (also known as sacubitril). The recently published 'Prospective comparison of Angiotensin Receptor neprilysin inhibitors with Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and morbidity in Heart Failure' (PARADIGM-HF) trial applied an innovative approach to the introduction of new HF therapies. Instead of adding the new agent on top of standard care, an approach followed by the majority of previous HF clinical trials, PARADIGM-HF proposed the substitution of one of the cornerstones of modern HF therapy, the ACEi. The results reported by the PARADIGM-HF trial investigators are indeed impressive and introduce a paradigm shift in the treatment of chronic HFrEF. Although long-term data remain to be generated, the promising results are likely to expedite acceptance of the drug for HF-REF. PMID:27643144

  11. Consumers’ Empowerement for a New Marketing Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Danciu

    2013-01-01

    The marketing practices of the companies show that not all of them are observing ethical and moral standards and they manipulate the consumers. This paper has as main goal to examine the most usual unethical techniques, the present status of consumers’ power and how more power could work for a new marketing paradigm. There are many unethical marketing techniques which could be found in deceptive product recipes, packaging, promotion, prices and in other areas. Most consumers have no appropria...

  12. Security Issues in Mobile Agent Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Nitin Jain; Neeraj Singla

    2011-01-01

    A mobile Agent is a Software program that migrates from node tonode of a heterogeneous network. They are goal-oriented i.e. workautonomously towards a goal, capable of suspending their executionon one platform and moving to other where they can resumeexecution using resources of these nodes and they meet and interactwith other agents. Agents may be stationary, always resident at asingle platform or mobile, capable of moving among differentplatforms at different time. The mobile agent paradigm...

  13. The Knowledge Society: A Sustainability Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naim Hamdija Afgan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper defines the knowledge society as a human structured organisation based on contemporary developed knowledge and representing new quality of life support systems. It implies the need for a full understanding of distribution of knowledge, access to information and the capability to transfer information into a knowledge. The understanding of knowledge is the central challenge when defining a knowledge society. From our present perception of knowledge society, it is of interest to emphasize the role of the knowledge society in future development of human society. The life support systems are essential pillars of human society development. In this respect knowledge society represents a new paradigm for future development and it is strongly correlated to sustainable development. For this reason the sustainability paradigm of knowledge society is a potential frame for human society development leading to social cohesion, economic competitiveness and stability, use of resources and economic development, safeguarding biodiversity and the ecosystem.In order to verify the mutual relation between knowledge society and sustainability, we have to introduce the difference between these two terms. The knowledge society is based on the agglomeration of eco-knowledge, env-knowledge and soc-knowledge, it may be evaluated as the complex knowledge of quality of life support systems. We have to introduce metrics which will allow us to present knowledge as the paradigm of the number of indicators for verifying progress made.Sustainability metrics are designed to consolidate measures of economic, environmental and social performance of any system. It can be understood as a pattern for evaluation of the available knowledge about systems and their performance. In particular the decision-making process for the selection of the system under consideration must be based on the available knowledge. The link between knowledge and sustainability makes it possible for

  14. Using Participatory Paradigm to Learn Human Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Taillandier, Patrick; Chu, Thanh-Quang

    2009-01-01

    International audience Since the end of the seventies, the utilisation of multi-agents simulations has spread out. A typical use of these simulations concerns the modelling of human behaviour. In this application case, a key point to ensure the simulation realism is the definition of the agent behaviour. Unfortunately, designing such behaviour is often complex. In order to help the definition of such behaviour, we propose an approach based on the participatory paradigm. In our approach, a ...

  15. Imaging deductive reasoning and the new paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Mike Oaksford

    2015-01-01

    There has been a great expansion of research into human reasoning at all of Marr’s explanatory levels. There is a tendency for this work to progress within a level largely ignoring the others which can lead to slippage between levels (Chater, Oaksford, Nakisa, & Reddington, 2003). It is argued that recent brain imaging research on deductive reasoning—implementational level—has largely ignored the new paradigm in reasoning—computational level (Over, 2009). Consequently, recent imaging results ...

  16. Human Resources Development: A Paradigm Shift?

    OpenAIRE

    Corner, Lorraine

    1993-01-01

    A paradigm shift is taking place in contemporary understanding of the role of human resources in development. Support for the supply-sided human capital model rests on the proposition, not yet established empirically, that it leads to more rapid rates of development than alternative approaches. The human resources development strategy stresses that human resources are both producers and the intended beneficiaries of development. It thus focuses on the achievement of human development directly...

  17. A new paradigm of health education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    From, Ditte-Marie

    2016-01-01

    This article draws upon research exploring school-based community practices of health education for overweight children and their families. In accordance with the existing critique of the ‘obesity epidemic’ and medico-scientific discourses around food and exercise, this article challenges the pre...... learning. This, I argue, calls for a shift into a new paradigm of health education by regarding the promotion of health as a reflexive learning practice....

  18. Quality improvement through the paradigm of learning

    OpenAIRE

    Hafford-Letchfield, Trish; Lavender, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Purpose - If we are to achieve meaningful participation and co-production for older people in care, more radical approaches are required. This project explores an innovation where older people using social care were matched to community based learning mentors to develop partnerships within which learning interventions were facilitated. We explore how the concept of learning might be used as a paradigm to raise the quality of care in institutionalised settings using a co-productive and relati...

  19. Changing the Cultural Paradigm to Meet Emerging Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, William W.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews changes that are required in Space Transportation. This new transportation paradigm from the reliance on the Space Shuttle to a mixture of space transportation vehicles, i.e., the Russian Progress, vehicle, the Japanese HTV, the European ATV and other commercial orbital transportation systems, requires a new cultural paradigm. This new paradigm is outlined, and reviewed.

  20. Paradigm Adherence and Personality Correlates across Mental Health Professions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Laura Anne

    2012-01-01

    Paradigm adherence has been developed as a meta-theoretical approach to organize and to classify the multitude of different theories of counseling and psychotherapy. Four paradigms have been identified in the literature: The Organic-Medical, The Psychological, The Systemic-Relational, and the Social Constructivist paradigms. Only one other study…

  1. Biological robustness: paradigms, mechanisms, and systems principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitacre, James Michael

    2012-01-01

    Robustness has been studied through the analysis of data sets, simulations, and a variety of experimental techniques that each have their own limitations but together confirm the ubiquity of biological robustness. Recent trends suggest that different types of perturbation (e.g., mutational, environmental) are commonly stabilized by similar mechanisms, and system sensitivities often display a long-tailed distribution with relatively few perturbations representing the majority of sensitivities. Conceptual paradigms from network theory, control theory, complexity science, and natural selection have been used to understand robustness, however each paradigm has a limited scope of applicability and there has been little discussion of the conditions that determine this scope or the relationships between paradigms. Systems properties such as modularity, bow-tie architectures, degeneracy, and other topological features are often positively associated with robust traits, however common underlying mechanisms are rarely mentioned. For instance, many system properties support robustness through functional redundancy or through response diversity with responses regulated by competitive exclusion and cooperative facilitation. Moreover, few studies compare and contrast alternative strategies for achieving robustness such as homeostasis, adaptive plasticity, environment shaping, and environment tracking. These strategies share similarities in their utilization of adaptive and self-organization processes that are not well appreciated yet might be suggestive of reusable building blocks for generating robust behavior. PMID:22593762

  2. Biological Robustness: Paradigms, Mechanisms, and Systems Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Michael Whitacre

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Robustness has been studied through the analysis of data sets, simulations, and a variety of experimental techniques that each have their own limitations but together confirm the ubiquity of biological robustness. Recent trends suggest that different types of perturbation (e.g. mutational, environmental are commonly stabilized by similar mechanisms, and system sensitivities often display a long-tailed distribution with relatively few perturbations representing the majority of sensitivities. Conceptual paradigms from network theory, control theory, complexity science, and natural selection have been used to understand robustness, however each paradigm has a limited scope of applicability and there has been little discussion of the conditions that determine this scope or the relationships between paradigms. Systems properties such as modularity, bow-tie architectures, degeneracy, and other topological features are often positively associated with robust traits, however common underlying mechanisms are rarely mentioned. For instance, many system properties support robustness through functional redundancy or through response diversity with responses regulated by competitive exclusion and cooperative facilitation. Moreover, few studies compare and contrast alternative strategies for achieving robustness such as homeostasis, adaptive plasticity, environment shaping, and environment tracking. These strategies share similarities in their utilization of adaptive and self-organization processes that are not well appreciated yet might be suggestive of reusable building blocks for generating robust behavior.

  3. Shifting paradigms: Reflecting Germanys European policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Staeck

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Germany's presidency of the European Council in the first half of 1999 has focused the attention of schlolars on Germany's attitude towards the EU. Germany's European policy has been guided from the beginning by a pro-European vision of 'the house of Europe'. The hypothesis of the article is that this paradigm of German European policy is in flux. Via a constructivist approach it is argued that we are observing a paradigm shift away from a visionary towards a pragmatic European policy which is oriented around efficiency criteria and national interest. Evidence is given by analysing the following propositions: (1 the advocates of a European vision have vanished in Germany, and the broad coalition in society towards Europe is crumbling; (2 at the same time the discussion on Europe has become highly politicised; (3 in addition, important German institutions such as the Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht are reluctant to (re-strengthen the European idea; and (4 the fit between Germany's and the EU's institutional setting supports the change in paradigm. In conclusion it is argued that Germany is on its way to changing its role from that of a supporting participant to that of a self-confident active player.

  4. Toward a Metatheoretical Integration of Developmental Paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark W. Antley

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows how a partial consilience might be achieved in the field of human development by means of principles from general systems theory. The author concurs with Sameroff (1989 that it is possible to interpret the mechanistic, organisimic, and contextualist paradigms/worldviews (Goldhaber, 2000; Pepper, 1970 in terms of general systems theory. The author selects a major developmentalist from each paradigm and interprets that scholar’s work in terms of systems principles. The following developmentalists were selected: Arnold Sameroff (contextualism, Erik Erickson (organicism, and Albert Bandura (mechanism. The systems principles employed are wholeness and order, self-stabilization, self-reorganization, hierarchical interaction, and dialectical contradiction (Sameroff, 1989. The author addresses the conflicting presuppositions of the major paradigms in order to provide for their theoretical subsuming under systems theory. Finally, the author notes areas of inconsistency that will need to be resolved in the future and calls for further scholarship to translate developmental theory in terms of general systems theory for the benefit of students, scholars, consultants and other practitioners familiar with systems theory.

  5. Beyond maximum speed—a novel two-stimulus paradigm for brain-computer interfaces based on event-related potentials (P300-BCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Tobias; Kübler, Andrea

    2014-10-01

    Objective. The speed of brain-computer interfaces (BCI), based on event-related potentials (ERP), is inherently limited by the commonly used one-stimulus paradigm. In this paper, we introduce a novel paradigm that can increase the spelling speed by a factor of 2, thereby extending the one-stimulus paradigm to a two-stimulus paradigm. Two different stimuli (a face and a symbol) are presented at the same time, superimposed on different characters and ERPs are classified using a multi-class classifier. Here, we present the proof-of-principle that is achieved with healthy participants. Approach. Eight participants were confronted with the novel two-stimulus paradigm and, for comparison, with two one-stimulus paradigms that used either one of the stimuli. Classification accuracies (percentage of correctly predicted letters) and elicited ERPs from the three paradigms were compared in a comprehensive offline analysis. Main results. The accuracies slightly decreased with the novel system compared to the established one-stimulus face paradigm. However, the use of two stimuli allowed for spelling at twice the maximum speed of the one-stimulus paradigms, and participants still achieved an average accuracy of 81.25%. This study introduced an alternative way of increasing the spelling speed in ERP-BCIs and illustrated that ERP-BCIs may not yet have reached their speed limit. Future research is needed in order to improve the reliability of the novel approach, as some participants displayed reduced accuracies. Furthermore, a comparison to the most recent BCI systems with individually adjusted, rapid stimulus timing is needed to draw conclusions about the practical relevance of the proposed paradigm. Significance. We introduced a novel two-stimulus paradigm that might be of high value for users who have reached the speed limit with the current one-stimulus ERP-BCI systems.

  6. The role of derivational paradigms with adjectival base in Old English word-formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Novo Urraca

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to identify the primary adjectives of Old English as well as to gather the derivational paradigms that revolve around them. All in all, 459 primary adjectives are identified, which function as base of 6,587 derivatives. Two conclusions are drawn from the analysis. In the first place, the concept of derivational paradigm contributes to the explanation of the overall organization of the lexicon, while allowing for the discussion of questions that are at the core of current morphological theory, such as recursivity and productivity. The conclusion is drawn that primary adjectives play a significant role in Old English derivation. Even though they are not as productive as strong verbs, primary adjectives function as base of derivation of a significant number of non-basic terms, which, moreover, belong to all lexical categories and nearly all grammatical classes.

  7. Inevitable suicide: a new paradigm in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadock, Benjamin J

    2012-05-01

    The author suggests that a new paradigm may be needed which holds that some suicides may be inevitable. The goal of this paradigm would be to diminish the sense of failure and inadequacy felt by many psychiatrists who experience the suicide of a patient and to increase understanding of the unique biopsychosocial profile of those whose suicides appear to be inevitable. The author stresses that this proposed paradigm should not be misconstrued as therapeutic nihilism but rather should serve to stimulate efforts to treat this patient population more effectively. Risk factors that place individuals at high risk for suicide are reviewed, including presence of a mental illness, genetic predisposition, and factors such as a history of abuse, divorce, unemployment, male gender, recent discharge from a psychiatric hospital, prior suicide attempts, alcohol or other substance abuse, a history of panic attacks, and persistent suicidal thoughts, especially if coupled with a plan. The author notes that, in those suicides that appear to have been inevitable, risk factors are not only numerous but at the extreme end of profound pathology. The example of Ernest Hemingway is used to illustrate how such a combination of risk factors may have contributed to his eventual suicide. Psychiatrists, like other doctors, may have to acknowledge that some psychiatric disorders are associated with a high mortality rate as a natural outcome. This could lead to heightened vigilance, a more realistic view of what can and cannot be achieved with therapy, and efforts to improve the quality of life of patients at high risk for suicide with the goal of reducing this risk and prolonging their lives. (Journal of Psychiatric Practice 2012;18:221-224). PMID:22617088

  8. Three paradigms for the analysis of corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Vannucci

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades a growing awareness emerged of the relevance of corruption as an hidden factor which may negatively affect political and economic decision-making processes. In spite of a lively scientific debate there is no general consensus on a commonly accepted definition of what corruption is.The A. distinguishes three main paradigms, focusing on different (though not irreconcilable variables.The first is the economic paradigm, which usually takes the principal-agent model of corruption as its founding pillar. In this paradigm corruption is considered the outcome of rational individual choices, and its spread within a certain organization is influenced by the factors defining the structure of expected costs and rewards.A second approach – the cultural paradigm – looks at the differences in cultural traditions, social norms and interiorized values which shape individuals’ moral preferences and consideration of his social and institutional role. These are a leading forces that can push a corrupt public or private agent (not to violate legal norms.A third neo-institutional approach considers also mechanisms which allow the internal regulation of social interactions within corrupt networks, and their effects on individuals’ beliefs and preferences. Though the corrupt agreements cannot be enforced with legal sanctions, several informal, non-written rules, contractual provisos and conventions may regulate the corrupt exchange between agent and corruptor.The A. underlines that corruption is the outcome of a multitude of individual and collective choices which change public opinion towards corruption and its diffusion throughout the state, markets and civil society. There is no univocal recipe to deal with anti-bribery measures, since corruption is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon.Reforms aimed at dismantling systemic corruption have to be finely tuned against its hidden governance structures, i.e. its internal regulation of

  9. Power and shifting paradigm in translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Djovčoš

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with interrelation of dominant ideology and its influence on the translation and publishing policy as reflected on the example of Slovakia. The introductory part is devoted to theoretical framework for the research drawing upon the works of Slovak and foreign translation scholars. The analytical part is contrastive; it presents publishing tendencies in selected dominant vs dependent cultures within the periods of opposing ideologies (socialistic vs democratic regimes. It clearly shows the shift of paradigm and the place of "small cultures" in the intercultural dialogue/monologue.

  10. An adaptive paradigm for human space settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cameron M.

    2016-02-01

    Because permanent space settlement will be multigenerational it will have to be viable on ecological timescales so far unfamiliar to those planning space exploration. Long-term viability will require evolutionary and adaptive planning. Adaptations in the natural world provide many lessons for such planning, but implementing these lessons will require a new, evolutionary paradigm for envisioning and carrying out Earth-independent space settlement. I describe some of these adaptive lessons and propose some cognitive shifts required to implement them in a genuinely evolutionary approach to human space settlement.

  11. Trace elements as paradigms of developmental neurotoxicants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Herz, Katherine T

    2015-01-01

    several decades ago so that past and cumulated exposures could be easily characterized through analysis of biological samples, e.g. blood and urine. The first compelling evidence resulted from unfortunate poisoning events that allowed scrutiny of long-term outcomes of acute exposures that occurred during...... early development. Pursuant to this documentation, prospective studies of children's cohorts that applied sensitive neurobehavioral methods supported the notion that the brain is uniquely vulnerable to toxic damage during early development. Lead, methylmercury, and arsenic thereby serve as paradigm...

  12. Paradigms-Shift in Set Theory

    OpenAIRE

    DePauli-Schimanovich, Werner

    2008-01-01

    In this article the author claims that there is a paradigm shift from ZFC to NFUM and further to NACT - due to philosophical reasons, not mathematical ones. The goal is to construct systems where every "Not-Properclass" is a set! With help of Non-Monotonic Logic, the consistent systems NACT-MoonW, NACT*W, and NACT-SunW are producing "largest possible universes" of sets. Using self-evident philosophical principles, three approximations are suggested: NACT+NFUM-closed (to NACT*), NACT&ZFC4+(GCH...

  13. Chua's circuit a paradigm for chaos

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    For uninitiated researchers, engineers, and scientists interested in a quick entry into the subject of chaos, this book offers a timely collection of 55 carefully selected papers covering almost every aspect of this subject. Because Chua's circuit is endowed with virtually every bifurcation phenomena reported in the extensive literature on chaos, and because it is the only chaotic system which can be easily built by a novice, simulated in a personal computer, and tractable mathematically, it has become a paradigm for chaos, and a vehicle for illustrating this ubiquitous phenomenon. Its supreme

  14. Genes and human behavior: the emerging paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, A P

    1997-03-01

    The physical properties of human beings and other organisms as well as their social behavioral traits are manifestations of both genetic inheritance and environment. Recent behavioral research has indicated that certain characteristics or behaviors--such as schizophrenia, divorce, and homosexuality--are highly heritable and are not governed exclusively by social environment. A balanced view of human behavior includes the effects of social learning as well as of genetically determined behavior. A new paradigm promotes enhanced understanding and acceptance of human diversity, be it cultural, racial, or sexual, and has the potential to unite scientists and theologians by creating common grounds of understanding. PMID:15719495

  15. Superior refining performance beyond 2000 -- Breaking traditional paradigms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last 5 years, refining companies have not performed well financially, generating returns below the cost of capital. Environmental regulations have caused the industry to invest significant amounts of capital, and while new regulations will cause the shutdown of between 500 thousand and 1.2 million barrels per day of capacity, the industry structure will remain poor and financial returns for the average player will likely be volatile, cyclical, and below the cost of capital. Based on this industry outlook, refining companies seeking superior performance will have to break the traditional paradigms and adopt world-class practices used in other industries. Changes required to significantly improve financial returns will include shifts in business strategy to accommodate growth, and development of nontraditional services, as well as initiates to dramatically reshape cost structure and improve profitability. Making the changes to become a superior performer in the refining business will require a clear vision and strong leadership at multiple levels in the organization. The transformation will also require changes in company culture and incentive plans that encourage managers to act as owners. In addition, superior performers will push accountability for results to low levels in the organization. Given the herd mentality of the oil industry, superior performers must take decisive, preemptive action to generate a substantial, competitive advantage

  16. Universities in the global knowledge economy: the eclectic paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denys Ilnytskyy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As institutions of knowledge generation and diffusion, in the course of their activities universities should take into account not only the level of an organization or a country but also that of individual knowledge transformation, whereby creating favorable conditions for developing creativity of both graduates and academic staff who form the basis of the intellectual capital of the university and the country. While functioning in the global competitive climate, the national intellectual capital is a factor of socio-economic development and international competitive status of individual countries. During decades the concept of university has been evolving toward determining the operation mode of a university as that of an institution providing mass education, carrying out fundamental and applied researches as well as largely participating in local, national and global development. However, the university operation paradigm remains eclectic. Equal relationships between universities, government and industry in a knowledge-based society are well-defined by the concept of triple helix innovation systems engaging NGOs. World-class universities tend ever more to incorporate the feature of an entrepreneurial university actively competing in the global academic domain.

  17. Neprilysin Inhibition as a PARADIGM Shift in Heart Failure Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Ruth; Greenberg, Barry

    2016-08-01

    Heart failure is a growing global public health problem. With the aging population, increased risk factors for heart failure development, and better survival after myocardial infarction, the prevalence is only expected to increase in the coming years. Although existing therapies have improved the clinical course of heart failure patients, new approaches are urgently needed to enhance quality of life and reduce morbidity and mortality. However, there has been little progress in the treatment of chronic heart failure in the past decade with only two new drugs approved by the US FDA over this time. Better understanding of the neurohormonal axis of heart failure has lead to the development of LCZ696, a first-in-class novel agent that acts as an angiotensin receptor blocker and neprilysin inhibitor. In the PARADIGM-HF study, LCZ696 was superior to an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor in reducing mortality and HF hospitalizations and improving quality of life across a broad spectrum of symptomatic patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. While evaluation of long-term effects is still needed, the completed trials on LCZ696 demonstrate that the drug is generally well-tolerated with a safe side effect profile. LCZ696 should be strongly considered as a favorable alternative to angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers in appropriate heart failure patients. PMID:27271564

  18. Variable-Voltage Class-E Power Amplifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acar, Mustafa; Annema, Anne Johan; Nauta, Bram

    2007-01-01

    The Class-E power amplifier is widely used due to its high efficiency, resulting from switching at zero voltage and zero slope of the switch voltage. In this paper, we extend general analytical solutions for the Class-E power amplifier to the ideal single-ended Variable-Voltage Class-E (Class-EVV) p

  19. A New Paradigm for the Teaching of Business Law and Legal Environment Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Marc

    2006-01-01

    There is a need to develop curriculum and materials on law-related topics better designed for business students planning a career in business. Except incidentally, business school legal faculty are not teaching future lawyers or paralegals. The world of the business practitioner is very different from that of the lawyer. For most business people…

  20. Semisimple Classes of Semirings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    U. Hebisch; H.J. Weinert

    2002-01-01

    A famous result of Sands states that a class S of associative rings is semisimple if and only if S is regular, coinductive, and extensionally closed. Here,we investigate semisimple classes in a Kurosh-Amitsur radical theory for semirings. We show that such a class S is regular, K-coinductive, and K-extensionally closed. But a characterization of semisimple classes of semirings needs a fourth condition, namely that S is inverse semi-isomorphically closed. We also obtain other characterizations and results for semisimple classes and for subdirect products of semirings.

  1. Loosely coupled class families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2001-01-01

    are expressed using virtual classes seem to be very tightly coupled internally. While clients have achieved the freedom to dynamically use one or the other family, it seems that any given family contains a xed set of classes and we will need to create an entire family of its own just in order to replace one...... of the members with another class. This paper shows how to express class families in such a manner that the classes in these families can be used in many dierent combinations, still enabling family polymorphism and ensuring type safety....

  2. Class, Culture and Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrits, Gitte Sommer

    2013-01-01

    Even though contemporary discussions of class have moved forward towards recognizing a multidimensional concept of class, empirical analyses tend to focus on cultural practices in a rather narrow sense, that is, as practices of cultural consumption or practices of education. As a result......, discussions within political sociology have not yet utilized the merits of a multidimensional conception of class. In light of this, the article suggests a comprehensive Bourdieusian framework for class analysis, integrating culture as both a structural phenomenon co-constitutive of class and as symbolic...

  3. Passage of American shad: paradigms and realities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, Alex; Castro-Santos, Theodore

    2012-01-01

    Despite more than 250 years of development, the passage of American shad Alosa sapidissima at dams and other barriers frequently remains problematic. Few improvements in design based on knowledge of the swimming, schooling, and migratory behaviors of American shad have been incorporated into passage structures. Large-scale technical fishways designed for the passage of adult salmonids on the Columbia River have been presumed to have good performance for American shad but have never been rigorously evaluated for this species. Similar but smaller fishway designs on the East Coast frequently have poor performance. Provision of effective downstream passage for both juvenile and postspawning adult American shad has been given little consideration in most passage projects. Ways to attract and guide American shad to both fishway entrances and downstream bypasses remain marginally understood. The historical development of passage structures for American shad has resulted in assumptions and paradigms about American shad behavior and passage that are frequently unsubstantiated by supporting data or appropriate experimentation. We propose that many of these assumptions and paradigms are either unfounded or invalid and that significant improvements to American shad upstream and downstream passage can be made via a sequential program of behavioral experimentation, application of experimental results to the physical and hydraulic design of new structures, and controlled tests of large-scale prototype structures in the laboratory and field.

  4. Imaging Deductive Reasoning and the New Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike eOaksford

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There has been a great expansion of research into human reasoning at all of Marr’s explanatory levels. There is a tendency for this work to progress within a level largely ignoring the others which can lead to slippage between levels (Chater, Oaksford, Nakisa, & Reddington, 2003. It is argued that recent brain imaging research on deductive reasoning—implementational level—has largely ignored the new paradigm in reasoning—computational level (Over, 2009. Consequently, recent imaging results are reviewed with the focus on how they relate to the new paradigm. The imaging results are drawn primarily from a recent meta-analysis by Prado, Chadha, and Booth (2011 but further imaging results are also reviewed where relevant. Three main observations are made. First, the main function of the core brain region identified is most likely elaborative, defeasible reasoning not deductive reasoning. Second, the subtraction methodology and the meta-analytic approach may remove all traces of content specific System 1 processes thought to underpin much human reasoning. Third, interpreting the function of the brain regions activated by a task depends on theories of the function that a task engages. When there are multiple interpretations of that function, interpreting what an active brain region is doing is not clear cut. It is concluded that there is a need to more tightly connect brain activation to function, which could be achieved using formalized computational level models and a parametric variation approach.

  5. Imaging deductive reasoning and the new paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oaksford, Mike

    2015-01-01

    There has been a great expansion of research into human reasoning at all of Marr's explanatory levels. There is a tendency for this work to progress within a level largely ignoring the others which can lead to slippage between levels (Chater et al., 2003). It is argued that recent brain imaging research on deductive reasoning-implementational level-has largely ignored the new paradigm in reasoning-computational level (Over, 2009). Consequently, recent imaging results are reviewed with the focus on how they relate to the new paradigm. The imaging results are drawn primarily from a recent meta-analysis by Prado et al. (2011) but further imaging results are also reviewed where relevant. Three main observations are made. First, the main function of the core brain region identified is most likely elaborative, defeasible reasoning not deductive reasoning. Second, the subtraction methodology and the meta-analytic approach may remove all traces of content specific System 1 processes thought to underpin much human reasoning. Third, interpreting the function of the brain regions activated by a task depends on theories of the function that a task engages. When there are multiple interpretations of that function, interpreting what an active brain region is doing is not clear cut. It is concluded that there is a need to more tightly connect brain activation to function, which could be achieved using formalized computational level models and a parametric variation approach. PMID:25774130

  6. Towards a New Paradigm in Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Jacobs

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A new paradigm in human development must be founded upon a new paradigm in education. A human-centered educational system is needed whose aim is the fullest development of the capacities of each individual. Today humanity is on the cusp of a major transition in education, our most powerful instrument for conscious social evolution. Quality education can now be made universally accessible and affordable. Equally important, future education must be made relevant to the rapidly changing needs of society, the increasingly sophisticated demands of the labor market, the growing shortage of attitudes and skills need to promote entrepreneurship and full employment, the values needed for social harmony and problem solving, and the individuality needed for leadership, independent thinking and creativity. The coming revolution in education spurred by the breakthrough in online learning has made all of these goals achievable. New technology can facilitate a shift from the drudgery of passive knowledge transfer and memorization to the exhilaration of active learning that fosters curiosity, discovery and original thinking. It can also help break down the intellectual boundaries between disciplines, making possible a more comprehensive, transdisciplinary, integrated approach to knowledge. A revolution in higher education is upon us.

  7. Consumers’ Empowerement for a New Marketing Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Danciu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The marketing practices of the companies show that not all of them are observing ethical and moral standards and they manipulate the consumers. This paper has as main goal to examine the most usual unethical techniques, the present status of consumers’ power and how more power could work for a new marketing paradigm. There are many unethical marketing techniques which could be found in deceptive product recipes, packaging, promotion, prices and in other areas. Most consumers have no appropriate powers and tools to counteract the manipulation techniques and feel they have fewer rights than the marketers. The current state of empowerment of the consumer show that the European consumers are not in the best position in the market as the Consumer Empowerment Index proves. This matter of facts emphasizes a strong need for a better empowerment of the consumers. The consumer which has more power and wisely use it could improve the balance of power in the market. But the consumers should have a proactive buying behavior in order to get such results. These revolutionary consumers attack the structural roots of the social, economic and political problems which produces a new market ideology as a part of the new tier of transnational institutional ideology. This consumer behavior may have a strong influence toward a new marketing paradigm.

  8. Testing the membrane paradigm with holography

    CERN Document Server

    de Boer, Jan; Pinzani-Fokeeva, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    One version of the membrane paradigm states that as far as outside observers are concerned, black holes can be replaced by a dissipative membrane with simple physical properties located at the stretched horizon. We demonstrate, in the AdS/CFT context, that such a membrane paradigm is incomplete in several aspects. We argue that it generically fails to capture the massive quasinormal modes, unless we replace the stretched horizon by the true horizon, and show this explicitly for a scalar field in a BTZ background. We also consider linearized metric perturbations of a five-dimensional AdS-Schwarzschild black brane and show that a spurious excitation appears in the long-wavelength response that is only removed from the spectrum when the stretched horizon is replaced by ingoing boundary conditions at the true horizon. We interpret this excitation in terms of an additional Goldstone boson that appears due to symmetry breaking by the classical solution ending on the stretched horizon rather than the true horizon.

  9. Tolerance of sexual harassment: a laboratory paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelone, David J; Mitchell, Damon; Carola, Kara

    2009-12-01

    The present study attempted to develop a laboratory analogue for the study of tolerance for sexual harassment by using an online speed-dating paradigm. In that context, the relation between participants' sexual harassment attitudes, perpetrator attractiveness, perpetrator status, and perceived dating potential of the perpetrator were examined as factors influencing participants' tolerance of sexually harassing behavior. Participants were 128 female college students from a small northeastern public university. Results indicated that attractiveness, high social status, and attitudinal beliefs about sexual harassment were all predictive of tolerance for sexual harassment, providing preliminary support for the validity of this paradigm. In addition, participants' self reported likelihood to date a bogus male dating candidate was also predictive of tolerance for sexual harassment, over and above the aforementioned variables, suggesting that dating potential can play a role in perceptions of sexual harassment. Further, this experiment demonstrated that perceptions of sexual harassment can be assessed using the in vivo measurement of behavior. In addition, using an online environment not only provides a contemporary spin and adds a greater degree of external validity compared to other sexual harassment analogues, it also reduces any risk of potential physical sexual contact for participants. PMID:19030980

  10. Osteoporosis: Modern Paradigms for Last Century's Bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Marlena C; Wolber, Frances M

    2016-01-01

    The skeleton is a metabolically active organ undergoing continuously remodelling. With ageing and menopause the balance shifts to increased resorption, leading to a reduction in bone mineral density and disruption of bone microarchitecture. Bone mass accretion and bone metabolism are influenced by systemic hormones as well as genetic and lifestyle factors. The classic paradigm has described osteoporosis as being a "brittle bone" disease that occurs in post-menopausal, thin, Caucasian women with low calcium intakes and/or vitamin D insufficiency. However, a study of black women in Africa demonstrated that higher proportions of body fat did not protect bone health. Isoflavone interventions in Asian postmenopausal women have produced inconsistent bone health benefits, due in part to population heterogeneity in enteric bacterial metabolism of daidzein. A comparison of women and men in several Asian countries identified significant differences between countries in the rate of bone health decline, and a high incidence rate of osteoporosis in both sexes. These studies have revealed significant differences in genetic phenotypes, debunking long-held beliefs and leading to new paradigms in study design. Current studies are now being specifically designed to assess genotype differences between Caucasian, Asian, African, and other phenotypes, and exploring alternative methodology to measure bone architecture. PMID:27322315

  11. Long Period Variables: questioning the pulsation paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    Berlioz-Arthaud, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Long period variables, among them Miras, are thought to be pulsating. Under this approach the whole star inflates and deflates along a period that can vary from 100 to 900 days; that pulsation is assumed to produce shock waves on the outer layers of the star that propagate into the atmosphere and could account for the increase in luminosity and the presence of emission lines in the spectra of these stars. However, this paradigm can seriously be questioned from a theoretical point of view. First, in order to maintain a radial pulsation, the spherical symmetry of the star must be preserved: how can it be reconciled with the large convective cells present in these stars? or when close companions are detected? Secondly, how different radial and non-radial pulsation modes of a sphere could be all damped except one radial mode? These problems have no solution and significantly weigh on the pulsation paradigm. Acknowledging this inconsistency, we show that a close companion around these stars could account for the s...

  12. Locating the Doctoral Study in the "Paradigm Skirmishes": Challenges and Prospects for Adopting a Paradigm Cradle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruto-Korir, Rose; Lubbe, Carien

    2010-01-01

    It is important to understand the thought patterns of students and supervisors that underlie the choice of paradigm and determine the progression of doctoral studies as an integral part of articulating scholarship at the doctoral level and subsequently, to completing the research. This paper traces a student's and a supervisor's thought patterns…

  13. Lexical Ambiguity in Nouns: Frequency Dominance and Declensional Classes

    OpenAIRE

    Mancuso, Azzurra; Laudanna, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    The existence of differences in lexical processing between ambiguous and unambiguous words is still controversial. Many factors seem to play a role in determining different ambiguity effects in word recognition, such as ambiguity type, experimental paradigm, frequency dominance, etc. The aim of this study is to investigate the role played by frequency dominance and declensional class in recognizing Italian homonymous nouns, namely, forms with multiple unrelated meaning...

  14. Revisiting System Paradigms from the Viewpoint of Manufacturing Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuming Bi

    2011-01-01

    A system paradigm is an abstract representation of system; it includes system architecture used to determine the types and numbers of components and their relations in the system. The design of system paradigm relies on customers’ requirements and the characteristics of the manufacturing environment. Many system paradigms and design guidelines have been proposed for a variety of customers’ needs including functions, cost, quality, personalization, and lead time of products. However, the c...

  15. Organizations, Paradigms, and People: The Challenge of KM Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Teresa; Burton, Yvette

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on Knowledge Management (KM) and how these interventions are put into practice by organizations and society. The topics include: 1) The Multiple Paradigm Tool; 2) Four Paradigms: tool for the Analyzing Organizations; 3) Assumptions About the Nature of Social Science; 4) Assumptions About the Nature of Society; 5) Schools of Sociological and Organizational Theory; 6) Meaning and Metaphors in the Four Paradigms; and 7) Possibilities and Conclusions.

  16. Paradigm Shift from Current Manufacturing to Social Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Mohajeri, Babak

    2015-01-01

    The emergent phenomenon of social manufacturing is disrupting industries all over the world. Social manufacturing represents a new collaborative manufacturing paradigm. The shift from the current manufacturing paradigm to social manufacturing is facilitated by rapid development of mobile technologies, new digital manufacturing, and online social networks. There are already successful businesses that build upon the social manufacturing paradigm, e.g., in finance, hospitality, and transportatio...

  17. High-frequency combination coding-based steady-state visual evoked potential for brain computer interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Xin; Xie, Jun; Li, Yeping; Han, Chengcheng; Lili, Li; Wang, Jing [School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Xu, Guang-Hua [School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710054 (China)

    2015-03-10

    This study presents a new steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) paradigm for brain computer interface (BCI) systems. The goal of this study is to increase the number of targets using fewer stimulation high frequencies, with diminishing subject’s fatigue and reducing the risk of photosensitive epileptic seizures. The new paradigm is High-Frequency Combination Coding-Based High-Frequency Steady-State Visual Evoked Potential (HFCC-SSVEP).Firstly, we studied SSVEP high frequency(beyond 25 Hz)response of SSVEP, whose paradigm is presented on the LED. The SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio) of high frequency(beyond 40 Hz) response is very low, which is been unable to be distinguished through the traditional analysis method; Secondly we investigated the HFCC-SSVEP response (beyond 25 Hz) for 3 frequencies (25Hz, 33.33Hz, and 40Hz), HFCC-SSVEP produces n{sup n} with n high stimulation frequencies through Frequence Combination Code. Further, Animproved Hilbert-huang transform (IHHT)-based variable frequency EEG feature extraction method and a local spectrum extreme target identification algorithmare adopted to extract time-frequency feature of the proposed HFCC-SSVEP response.Linear predictions and fixed sifting (iterating) 10 time is used to overcome the shortage of end effect and stopping criterion,generalized zero-crossing (GZC) is used to compute the instantaneous frequency of the proposed SSVEP respondent signals, the improved HHT-based feature extraction method for the proposed SSVEP paradigm in this study increases recognition efficiency, so as to improve ITR and to increase the stability of the BCI system. what is more, SSVEPs evoked by high-frequency stimuli (beyond 25Hz) minimally diminish subject’s fatigue and prevent safety hazards linked to photo-induced epileptic seizures, So as to ensure the system efficiency and undamaging.This study tests three subjects in order to verify the feasibility of the proposed method.

  18. The use of repetition suppression paradigms in developmental cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordt, Marisa; Hoehl, Stefanie; Weigelt, Sarah

    2016-07-01

    Repetition suppression paradigms allow a more detailed look at brain functioning than classical paradigms and have been applied vigorously in adult cognitive neuroscience. These paradigms are well suited for studies in the field of developmental cognitive neuroscience as they can be applied without collecting a behavioral response and across all age groups. Furthermore, repetition suppression paradigms can be employed in various neuroscience techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG). In the present article we review studies using repetition suppression paradigms in developmental cognitive neuroscience covering the age range from infancy to adolescence. Our first goal is to point out characteristics of developmental repetition suppression effects. In doing so, we discuss the relationship of the direction of repetition effects (suppression vs enhancement) with developmental factors, and address the question how the direction of repetition effects might be related to looking-time effects in behavioral infant paradigms, the most prominently used behavioral measure in infant research. To highlight the potential of repetition suppression paradigms, our second goal is to provide an overview on the insights recently obtained by applying repetition paradigms in neurodevelopmental studies, including research on children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). We conclude that repetition suppression paradigms are valuable tools for investigating neurodevelopmental processes, while at the same time we highlight the necessity for further studies that disentangle methodological and developmental factors. PMID:27161033

  19. Lorenz on Light: A Precocious Photon Paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    Potter, H C

    2008-01-01

    In 1867, during the time when Maxwell was publishing his electromagnetic theory, L. Lorenz published his theory equating light vibrations with electric currents. Starting from Kirchhoff's Ohm's law expression, Lorenz introduces scalar potential retardation to obtain an expression for the electric field using retarded potentials. In his theory Lorenz sets the vacuum light speed equal to \\sqrt{2}/2 times Weber's measured superluminal value for magnetic induction speed. Using the wave equation Green's function paradigm Lorenz reduces his integral, retarded Ohm's law formulation to a differential formulation for current density. This represents his solution to the electromagnetic action at a distance problem. During the reduction he presents a light like, plane wave solution for current density that can not satisfy initial conditions on the expanding wave front and, using a faulty by parts integration that neglects retardation, he develops the eponymic Lorenz condition. Although generally accepted, this condition...

  20. The Rational Relevance of the Diffuse Paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Processes like the globalization consistency and learning about society are screened by diffuse concepts such as those taking the last steps of the industrial civilization and hierarchically ordered world through hegemony. This is why the meaning of globalization is given by deviant trends, like globalism, and the knowledge society is taken for the tools promoted by itself, such as the internet. This does not imply only approximations of meaning but rather the vanity of change, preserving the status quo represented by the pre-global world or the adversity principle. Historicism of paradigm cannot be avoided. Evolvement towards something else, announced by globalization is implacable, and the new ordinating principle, the one of competition, opens the opportunity horizon to global world.

  1. In search of a new paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.

    2005-01-01

    In this review of research priorities, presented for the European Commission, food allergy is established as a disease with a considerable impact on modern society. Research paradigms have changed from establishing basic symptomatology and diagnostic methods over allergen characterization to a risk......-identification approach looking at which patients are at risk of developing reactions to a certain dose of allergenic food. In order to solve some of the apparent paradoxes of regional, temporal, and species-related differences in sensitization and food allergic reactions, it is suggested to study the basic underlying...... mechanisms in the cross-field between immunology and gastroenterology. Research priorities should include the molecular basis of cross-reactivity, the digestion and maintenance of antigenicity, the genetics of food allergy, and the immune response to food antigens and effects on the gastrointestinal immune...

  2. Inflationary paradigm in trouble after Planck2013

    CERN Document Server

    Ijjas, Anna; Loeb, Abraham

    2013-01-01

    The recent Planck satellite combined with earlier results eliminate a wide spectrum of more complex inflationary models and favor models with a single scalar field, as reported in the analysis of the collaboration. More important, though, is that all the simplest inflaton models are disfavored by the data while the surviving models -- namely, those with plateau-like potentials -- are problematic. We discuss how the restriction to plateau-like models leads to three independent problems: it exacerbates both the initial conditions problem and the multiverse-unpredictability problem and it creates a new difficulty which we call the inflationary "unlikeliness problem." Finally, we comment on problems reconciling inflation with a standard model Higgs, as suggested by recent LHC results. In sum, we find that recent experimental data disfavors all the best-motivated inflationary scenarios and introduces new, serious difficulties that cut to the core of the inflationary paradigm. Forthcoming searches for B-modes, non-...

  3. [Meta-legal paradigms of nanomedicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Alvarez, Salvador

    2012-01-01

    Nanomedicine is the Nanotechnology applied in the field of Medicine. Nanomedicine includes a wide range of technologies applied to devices, materials, medical procedures and treatment modalities are being developed, in some cases, through the convergence of living and nonliving materials. The developments in this scientific field are the prelude of a new era in health where Nanotechnology will provide, in a short period of time, substantial benefits for the general welfare and health of people with serious and incurable diseases using other more traditional medical treatments. This is, in brief, the object of this research that has been focused in the study of the ethical-legal paradigms that should inform the developments and expectations generated by medical applications of Nanotechnology.

  4. The Rational Relevance of the Diffuse Paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Processes like the globalization consistency and learning about society are screened by diffuse concepts such as those taking the last steps of the industrial civilization and hierarchically ordered world through hegemony. This is why the meaning of globalization is given by deviant trends, like globalism, and the knowledge society is taken for the tools promoted by itself, such as the internet. This does not imply only approximations of meaning but rather the vanity of change, preserving the status quo represented by the pre-global world or the adversity principle. Historicism of paradigm cannot be avoided. Evolvement towards something else, announced by globalization is implacable, and the new ordinating principle, the one of competition, opens the opportunity horizon to global world

  5. An Instrumental Paradigm for Ubiquitous Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted

    2008-01-01

    shortcomings of some of the restrictive assumptions contemporary graphical user interfaces are built upon. Research approach -- Based on activity theory and ecological psychology a conceptual model for ubiquitous interaction is proposed and iteratively challenged and developed through actual implementation....... Findings/Design -- The project will ultimately shed light on how an understanding of interaction form activity theory and ecological psychology maps to an implementation of a new conceptual model for interaction with technology. Research limitations/Implications -- Implementation of an actual system...... will require comprehensive experimental user centred development. Originality/Value -- This research offers a new way of thinking interaction, suited for the dynamism of modern computing. Take away message -- Through a strong foundation in activity theory and ecological psychology a new paradigm for ubiquitous...

  6. The complexity paradigm in management reconceptualizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Slavica P.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Chaos and complexity theory is a special, functionalist systems approach to dealing with complex, dynamic, nonlinear systems. Through treating organizations as complex, with their environments coevolving, nonlinear systems, complexity theory is aimed at creative research of their erratic nature. When an organization is in a state of bounded instability, at the edge of chaos, order and disorder are intertwined, its behavior is irregular and unpredictable but has some pattern. According to the complexity paradigm organizations have to strive to avoid the equilibrium states of stability and instability. They have instead to strive to remain in a state of bounded instability, at the edge of chaos, where they are able to display their full potential for creativity and innovation.

  7. Social Media Guidelines and the News Paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blumell, Lindsey; Hellmueller, Lea; Etter, Michael

    Social network use continues to increase in the majority of regions around the world, with a global increase of 17.6% in 2012, and another projected 12.6% in 2014 (digital.org, 2014). Social media have also been incorporated into daily routines of American journalists, with 53.8% reporting...... that they use microblogs like Twitter on a regular basis to both gather and disseminate information (Willnat & Weaver, 2014). The aim of this study is to investigate how social media, more specifically, social media guidelines, implemented at the organizational level intercede with journalism practices...... and if these guidelines challenge the news paradigm. While using social media have been a “loop-hole” of sorts to disseminating political information in countries that have strong censorship (the Arab Spring being a premiere example, Eltantawy & Wiest, 2011; Lotan, Graeff, Ananny, Gaffney, & Pearce, 2011), journalists...

  8. TAMU: A New Space Mission Operations Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkat, Leila; Ruszkowski, James; Haensly, Jean; Pennington, Granvil A.; Hogle, Charles

    2011-01-01

    The Transferable, Adaptable, Modular and Upgradeable (TAMU) Flight Production Process (FPP) is a model-centric System of System (SoS) framework which cuts across multiple organizations and their associated facilities, that are, in the most general case, in geographically diverse locations, to develop the architecture and associated workflow processes for a broad range of mission operations. Further, TAMU FPP envisions the simulation, automatic execution and re-planning of orchestrated workflow processes as they become operational. This paper provides the vision for the TAMU FPP paradigm. This includes a complete, coherent technique, process and tool set that result in an infrastructure that can be used for full lifecycle design and decision making during any flight production process. A flight production process is the process of developing all products that are necessary for flight.

  9. On the solitary wave paradigm for tsunamis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per A.; Fuhrman, David R.; Schäffer, Hemming Andreas

    2008-01-01

    the evolution of initial rectangular shaped humps of water propagating large distances over a constant depth. The objective is to clarify under which circumstances the front of the wave can develop into an undular bore with a leading soliton. In this connection we discuss and test various measures...... of long waves into shorter waves, which has been observed e.g. in connection with the Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004. This happens if the front of the tsunami becomes sufficently steep, and as a result the front turns into an undular bore. We discuss the importance of these very short waves in connection......Since the 1970s, solitary waves have commonly been used to model tsunamis especially in experimental and mathematical studies. Unfortunately, the link to geophysical scales is not well established, and in this work we question the geophysical relevance of this paradigm. In part 1, we simulate...

  10. A postfoundationalist research paradigm of practical theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Kyu Park

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Practical theology describes a context, interprets what has been discovered, brings in Christian norms, and constructs models of Christian practice. It is a process that involves epistemology and hermeneutics. For practical theology to be transformative, a postfoundational theological framework that allows interdisciplinary work and interpretation of experience in a given context is essential. Research in postfoundational practical theology can be conducted using narratives and social constructionism to obtain meaning from events or situations and to construct preferred realities.This article examines and argues for postfoundationalism – transversal reason, interdisciplinarity and interpreted experience – as a viable theological option against rigid foundationalism and relativistic nonfoundationalism. Also discussed are the process and the interdisciplinary nature of practical theology. It is suggested that narrative research and social constructionism should be part of the research paradigm of postfoundational practical theology.

  11. BMS invariance and the membrane paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    Penna, Robert F

    2015-01-01

    We reinterpret the BMS invariance of gravitational scattering using the membrane paradigm. BMS symmetries imply an infinite number of conserved quantities. Energy conservation at every angle is equivalent to the fluid energy equation on the membrane (a conservation law at each point in the fluid). Momentum conservation at every angle is equivalent to the Damour-Navier-Stokes equation on the membrane. Soft gravitons are encoded in the membrane's mass-energy density, $\\Sigma(z,\\bar{z})$. Fluid dynamics is governed by infinite dimensional reparametrization invariance, which corresponds to the group of volume preserving diffeomorphisms. This coincides with the generalized BMS group, so there is a connection between the fluid and gravity pictures at the level of symmetries. The existence of membrane fluid conservation laws at event horizons implies BMS symmetries also act on event horizons. This may be relevant for the information problem because it implies infalling information can be stored in $\\Sigma(z,\\bar{z})...

  12. Semantic Analysis of Virtual Classes and Nested Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    1999-01-01

    Virtual classes and nested classes are distinguishing features of BETA. Nested classes originated from Simula, but until recently they have not been part of main stream object- oriented languages. C++ has a restricted form of nested classes and they were included in Java 1.1. Virtual classes is the...... classes and parameterized classes have been made. Although virtual classes and nested classes have been used in BETA for more than a decade, their implementation has not been published. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of virtual classes and nested classes by presenting the...

  13. Class network routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanot, Gyan; Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.; Takken, Todd E.; Vranas, Pavlos M.

    2009-09-08

    Class network routing is implemented in a network such as a computer network comprising a plurality of parallel compute processors at nodes thereof. Class network routing allows a compute processor to broadcast a message to a range (one or more) of other compute processors in the computer network, such as processors in a column or a row. Normally this type of operation requires a separate message to be sent to each processor. With class network routing pursuant to the invention, a single message is sufficient, which generally reduces the total number of messages in the network as well as the latency to do a broadcast. Class network routing is also applied to dense matrix inversion algorithms on distributed memory parallel supercomputers with hardware class function (multicast) capability. This is achieved by exploiting the fact that the communication patterns of dense matrix inversion can be served by hardware class functions, which results in faster execution times.

  14. ABS 497 Complete Class

    OpenAIRE

    admin

    2015-01-01

    ABS 497 Complete Class   To purchase this material click below link   http://www.assignmentcloud.com/ABS-497/ABS-497-Complete-Class-Guide   For more classes visit   www.assignmentcloud.com   ABS 497 Week 1 Assignment Community Change ABS 497 Week 1 DQ 1 Fabian's Story ABS 497 Week 1 DQ 2 Doug's Story ABS 497 Week 2 DQ 1 Parenting Styles ABS 497 Week 2 DQ 2 Ethnicity and Learning Theory ABS 497 Week 3 ...

  15. Fostering a Middle Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO BIN

    2011-01-01

    Though there is no official definition of "middle class" in China,the tag has become one few Chinese people believe they deserve anyway.In early August,the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences released a report on China's urban development,saying China had a middle-class population of 230 million in 2009,or 37 percent of its urban residents.It also forecast half of city dwellers in China would be part of the middle class by 2023.

  16. Truck shipment risks for assessing hazardous materials - a new paradigm incorporating safety and security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, A.; McSweeney, T.; Allen, J.; Lepofsky, M. [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Abkowitz, M. [Dept. of Civil Engineering, Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Recent terrorist events, most notably September 11, 2001, have taught us that transportation risk management must be performed with a different lens to accommodate terrorism scenarios that would have previously been considered unlikely to warrant serious attention. Given these circumstances, a new paradigm is needed for managing the risks associated with highway transport of hazardous materials. In particular, this paradigm must: 1) more explicitly consider security threat and vulnerability, and 2) integrate security considerations into an overall framework for addressing natural and man-made disasters, be they accidental or planned. This paper summarizes the results of a study sponsored by the U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration for the purpose of exploring how a paradigm might evolve in which both safety and security risks can be evaluated as a systematic, integrated process. The work was directed at developing a methodology for assessing the impacts of hazardous materials safety and security incident consequences when transported by highway. This included consideration of the manner in which these materials could be involved in initiating events as well as potential outcomes under a variety of release conditions. The methodology is subsequently applied to various classes of hazardous materials to establish an economic profile of the impacts that might be expected if a major release were to occur. The paper concludes with a discussion of the findings and implications associated with this effort.

  17. Moving Forward: Two Paradigms and Takeaways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocco, Tonette S.

    2011-01-01

    Disability is not something one experiences in isolation of other characteristics. Sociocultural characteristics, such as race, class, gender, sexual orientation, age and disability, interact with each other in various combinations forming unique adults. When interacting with other characteristics, disability can dominate the other…

  18. The Question of Work: Adolescent Literature and the Eriksonian Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgan, Mary

    1988-01-01

    Suggests that focusing on paradigms of work--the way it is described, together with the thematic implications it embodies--can be useful in teaching literature to young adults. Examines how examples from literature illustrate Erik H. Erikson's paradigm of the psychosocial stages of development in late childhood and adolescence. (MM)

  19. Paradigm shift from cartography to geo-communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Lars

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues that the domain of GIS, cartography, geo-information etc. is facing a paradigm shift. The implication of a paradigm shift is a complete and necessary re-definition of e.g. the philosophical foundation of the system, as well as with a major upgrade and readjustment of procedures...

  20. Fear conditioning with film clips: a complex associative learning paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E. Kunze; A. Arntz; M. Kindt

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives: We argue that the stimuli used in traditional fear conditioning paradigms are too simple to model the learning and unlearning of complex fear memories. We therefore developed and tested an adapted fear conditioning paradigm, specifically designed for the study of complex a

  1. Strategic Intellectual Capital Development: A Defining Paradigm for HRD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holton, Elwood F., III; Yamkovenko, Bogdan

    2008-01-01

    The performance paradigm of human resource development (HRD) practice has served the field well, particularly in enhancing the relevance and impact of HRD interventions. However, in this article, it is argued that the time has come for a new defining paradigm to advance the field of HRD to a higher level of organizational impact. This article…

  2. A Practical Examination of Two Diverse Research Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Robert A.

    2007-01-01

    This manuscript examines the practical differences between quantitative and qualitative inquiry by comparing the differences between one article from each paradigm. Quantitative research differs greatly from qualitative inquiry in purpose, assumptions, methodology, and representation. While quantitative research has been the dominant paradigm for…

  3. The Learner-Centered Paradigm of Education: Roles for Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigeluth, Charles M.

    2014-01-01

    The learner-centered paradigm of education requires very different roles for technology, as well as for teachers and students, compared with the teacher-centered paradigm. Rather than almost exclusively serving the teacher for teaching, technology primarily serves the student for learning. It does so through four major roles: (1) keeping records…

  4. The Hermeneutical-Praxis Paradigm and Practical Theology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Sook

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this article is to propose a method for practical theology, the hermeneutical-praxis paradigm, based on discussions of three different methodological approaches to practical theology. This article suggests the hermeneutical-praxis paradigm, which bridges theory and practice, which connects church with society, which correlates theology…

  5. A Paradigm for Learning in a World of Continuous Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Through ongoing rapid-fire changes in the nature of communications, the social, professional, and political landscapes of our time are rapidly transforming. But the prevailing paradigm in most schools and school systems is a relic of the industrial revolution. Schools and school systems must adopt a new paradigm for learning if they are to remain…

  6. Cortex and Memory: Emergence of a New Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuster, Joaquin M.

    2009-01-01

    Converging evidence from humans and nonhuman primates is obliging us to abandon conventional models in favor of a radically different, distributed-network paradigm of cortical memory. Central to the new paradigm is the concept of memory network or cognit--that is, a memory or an item of knowledge defined by a pattern of connections between neuron…

  7. Paradigms in the Gerontology Classroom: Connections and Challenges to Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    The article explores paradigms for approaching course content to be studied in the classroom. These paradigms, or global views about what is of interest or importance and ways of knowing, relate to key questions in gerontology, such as what is the relevant domain/content to be studied, what is the central level of analysis or action, what are…

  8. Researching Style: Epistemology, Paradigm Shifts and Research Interest Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This paper identifies the need for a deliberate approach to theory building in the context of researching cognitive and learning style differences in human performance. A case for paradigm shift and a focus upon research epistemology is presented, building upon a recent critique of style research. A proposal for creating paradigm shift is made,…

  9. Affective Computing used in an imaging interaction paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Nette

    2003-01-01

    This paper combines affective computing with an imaging interaction paradigm. An imaging interaction paradigm means that human and computer communicates primarily by images. Images evoke emotions in humans, so the computer must be able to behave emotionally intelligent. An affective image selection...

  10. Analysis on New Paradigms of Informatization in the Countryside

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei; XUE; Lina; WANG

    2014-01-01

    Through the analyses of several typical paradigms of informatization in the countryside,the status of informatization in the countryside and some unresolved issues were studied. A new way was proposed to develop rural information with embedded mobile phone terminal,and to explore an inexpensive and efficient information services paradigm for the future development in the countryside.

  11. Libraries and Learning: A History of Paradigm Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Scott

    2009-01-01

    The transformation of information from a scarce to a superabundant commodity has driven three paradigms in the design of library space. These are the reader-centered, book-centered, and learning-centered paradigms. The first two competed inconclusively with one another throughout most of the twentieth century. Revolutionary changes in information…

  12. Paradigms and Problem-Solving: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Eta S.

    1984-01-01

    Thomas Kuhn's conceptions of the influence of paradigms on the progress of science form the framework for analyzing how medical educators have approached research on medical problem solving. A new paradigm emphasizing multiple types of problems with varied solution strategies is proposed. (Author/MLW)

  13. The World Religions Paradigm Time for a Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    The teaching of religions has long relied on the World Religions paradigm to guide curricula throughout education, which has led to a widening gap, on the one hand, between what is taught in schools and in universities and, on the other, between research and teaching. While the World Religions paradigm has allowed the inclusion of non-Christian…

  14. Teaching Large Evening Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wambuguh, Oscar

    2008-01-01

    High enrollments, conflicting student work schedules, and the sheer convenience of once-a-week classes are pushing many colleges to schedule evening courses. Held from 6 to 9 pm or 7 to 10 pm, these classes are typically packed, sometimes with more than 150 students in a large lecture theater. How can faculty effectively teach, control, or even…

  15. Universality classes of inflation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, Diederik

    2014-01-01

    We investigate all single-field, slow-roll inflationary models whose slow-roll parameters scale as 1/N in the limit of a large number of e-folds N. We proof that all such models belong to two universality classes, characterised by a single parameter. One class contains small field models like hillto

  16. DEFINING THE MIDDLE CLASS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG HAIRONG

    2011-01-01

    China's cities housed more than 230 million middle-class residents in 2009ot 37 percent of the urban population,according to the 2011 Blue Book of Cities in China released on August 3.In China's main urban centers,Beijing and Shanghai,the middle class accounted for 46 percent and 38 percent,respectively,of the local population.

  17. Teaching Social Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tablante, Courtney B.; Fiske, Susan T.

    2015-01-01

    Discussing socioeconomic status in college classes can be challenging. Both teachers and students feel uncomfortable, yet social class matters more than ever. This is especially true, given increased income inequality in the United States and indications that higher education does not reduce this inequality as much as many people hope. Resources…

  18. The Last Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhl, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    The last class of the semester is like a goodbye. It can be cold and perfunctory or warm and heartfelt. For many years, I erred on the side of "cold and perfunctory." No more. Now my last classes are a time of celebration and ritual as I invite students to focus on qualities such as acceptance and gratitude.

  19. Class in disguise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Stine Thidemann; Prieur, Annick

    This paper asks how class can have importance in one of the worlds’ most equal societies: Denmark. The answer is that class here appears in disguised forms. The field under study is a city, Aalborg, in the midst of transition from a stronghold of industrialism to a post industrial economy...

  20. DEFINING THE MIDDLE CLASS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Classifying the middle class remains controversial despite its alleged growth China’s cities housed more than 230 million middle-class residents in 2009 or 37 percent of the urban population,according to the 2011 Blue Book of Cities in China released on August 3.

  1. The machine paradigm and alternative approaches in cognitive science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barutta, Joaquín; Aravena, Pía; Ibáñez, Agustín

    2010-06-01

    In a recent paper called To think human out of the machine paradigm, it is stated that psychological science operates within a machine paradigm that is committed to mechanical causality. In addition, it is emphasizes the epistemological and methodological limitations of explanations based in deterministic mechanics and instead argues for the need of an 'organic paradigm' that takes into consideration psychological processes such as subjectivity, inter-subjectivity, and agency. Although there is no doubt that much psychological science has operated under a machine paradigm, we argue that recent psychological research is pursued using a wide variety of approaches and with an absence of a partially integrated meta-theoretical corpus. The present situation looks more like a Tower of Babel of epistemological approaches and empirical programs. The reconsideration of the organic paradigm and an explicitly addressed epistemological framework could constitute a step forward and lead to an explanatory pluralism built on greater dialogue within the psychological sciences. PMID:20306344

  2. Expanding the Telepresence Paradigm to the UNOLS Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, D.; Scowcroft, G.

    2014-12-01

    The Inner Space Center (ISC) at the University of Rhode Island Graduate School of Oceanography (URI-GSO) has been at the forefront of developing the tools, techniques, and protocols for telepresence-enabled ocean science exploration and education programs. Working primarily with the Ocean Exploration Trust's E/V Nautilus and the NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer, the ISC facility and staff have supported dozens of research cruises with significant shore-based support, while delivering related educational programming across the globe. Through a partnership with the University National Oceanographic Laboratory System (UNOLS), the ISC is broadening its reach and capabilities to serve vessels in the U.S. academic research fleet, managed by UNOLS. The ISC has developed and used a portable shipboard "mobile telepresence unit" (MTU) on several UNOLS ships to support projects led by ocean scientists that employed the telepresence paradigm as part of their research and outreach programs. Utilizing the ISC facilities provides opportunities for effective, successful broader impact activities and shore-based remote science connectivity. With new UNOLS ships coming online, including the R/V Sikuliaq, the R/V Neil Armstrong, and the R/V Sally Ride, in addition to future Regional Class Research Vessels (RCRVs), telepresence capability has become a technical requirement for a variety of reasons. Older vessels are being retrofit with this forward-looking technology, and URI's research vessel, the R/V Endeavor, has been recently configured with technology to support telepresence operations. This presentation will provide an overview of the future of telepresence technology, its use in ocean science research and education, and advantages for using this capability to support broader impact activities. In addition, ISC successes, challenges, and lessons learned in employing telepresence technologies and methodologies onboard the academic research fleet will be discussed.

  3. Machine learning paradigms applications in recommender systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lampropoulos, Aristomenis S

    2015-01-01

    This timely book presents Applications in Recommender Systems which are making recommendations using machine learning algorithms trained via examples of content the user likes or dislikes. Recommender systems built on the assumption of availability of both positive and negative examples do not perform well when negative examples are rare. It is exactly this problem that the authors address in the monograph at hand. Specifically, the books approach is based on one-class classification methodologies that have been appearing in recent machine learning research. The blending of recommender systems and one-class classification provides a new very fertile field for research, innovation and development with potential applications in “big data” as well as “sparse data” problems. The book will be useful to researchers, practitioners and graduate students dealing with problems of extensive and complex data. It is intended for both the expert/researcher in the fields of Pattern Recognition, Machine Learning and ...

  4. Aggregated search: a new information retrieval paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Kopliku, Arlind; Pinel-Sauvagnat, Karen; Boughanem, Mohand

    2014-01-01

    Traditional search engines return ranked lists of search results. It is up to the user to scroll this list, scan within different documents and assemble information that fulfill his/her information need. Aggregated search represents a new class of approaches where the information is not only retrieved but also assembled. This is the current evolution in Web search, where diverse content (images, videos, ...) and relational content (similar entities, features) are included in search results. I...

  5. The future of management: The NASA paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Philip R.

    1992-01-01

    Prototypes of 21st century management, especially for large scale enterprises, may well be found within the aerospace industry. The space era inaugurated a number of projects of such scope and magnitude that another type of management had to be created to ensure successful achievement. The challenges will be not just in terms of technology and its management, but also human and cultural in dimension. Futurists, students of management, and those concerned with technological administration would do well to review the literature of emerging space management for its wider implications. NASA offers a paradigm, or demonstrated model, of future trends in the field of management at large. More research is needed on issues of leadership for Earth based project in space and space based programs with managers there. It is needed to realize that large scale technical enterprises, such as are undertaken in space, require a new form of management. NASA and other responsible agencies are urged to study excellence in space macromanagement, including the necessary multidisciplinary skills. Two recommended targets are the application of general living systems theory and macromanagement concepts for space stations in the 1990s.

  6. The Democratic Paradigm: A Vanishing Act?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qasir Shah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The premise of this issue of the journal is that in western secular democracies the principles underlying the democratic paradigm at the national level are not in any serious doubt. It is this presumption that I wish to address. This paper will assert that the citizen is no longer at the heart of the democratic process. Using the example of the UK, I will argue that this is a consequence of the representative nature of liberal democracy which conceptualises citizenship as a legal status, giving citizens protection of the law rather than participating in its formulation or execution as in the civic republican model. Liberal democracy not only eschews greater political participation, it does not prepare citizens for it. There currently exists a democratic deficit at local and national level which is leading to a decline in active citizenship. Therefore any attempt to democratise globalisation without addressing the weakening of national democracies will simply lead to the current political elites populating new ‘democratic’ structures. With this in mind I will counter arguments utilised to discredit the civic republican model of democracy. I will argue that in England the present educational system, predicated upon a narrow skills-based agenda premised upon an economic rationale, is undermining democracy by not preparing the citizenry for active political participation or to critique governance. In addition, policy changes in England are leading to the commodification of education which will undermine its social purpose and inter alia democracy.

  7. A New Paradigm for Adaptive Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Rist

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Uncertainty is a pervasive feature in natural resource management. Adaptive management, an approach that focuses on identifying critical uncertainties to be reduced via diagnostic management experiments, is one favored approach for tackling this reality. While adaptive management is identified as a key method in the environmental management toolbox, there remains a lack of clarity over when its use is appropriate or feasible. Its implementation is often viewed as suitable only in a limited set of circumstances. Here we restructure some of the ideas supporting this view, and show why much of the pessimism around AM may be unwarranted. We present a new framework for deciding when AM is appropriate, feasible, and subsequently successful. We thus present a new paradigm for adaptive management that shows that there are no categorical limitations to its appropriate use, the boundaries of application being defined by problem conception and the resources available to managers. In doing so we also separate adaptive management as a management tool, from the burden of failures that result from the complex policy, social, and institutional environment within which management occurs.

  8. Differential Paradigms in Animal Models of Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsley, S Manoj Kumar; Bhat, B Vishnu

    2016-09-01

    Sepsis is a serious clinical problem involving complex mechanisms which requires better understanding and insight. Animal models of sepsis have played a major role in providing insight into the complex pathophysiology of sepsis. There have been various animal models of sepsis with different paradigms. Endotoxin, bacterial infusion, cecal ligation and puncture, and colon ascendens stent peritonitis models are the commonly practiced methods at present. Each of these models has their own advantages and also confounding factors. We have discussed the underlying mechanisms regulating each of these models along with possible reasons why each model failed to translate into the clinic. In animal models, the timing of development of the hemodynamic phases and the varied cytokine patterns could not accurately resemble the progression of clinical sepsis. More often, the exuberant and transient pro-inflammatory cytokine response is only focused in most models. Immunosuppression and apoptosis in the later phase of sepsis have been found to cause more damage than the initial acute phase of sepsis. Likewise, better understanding of the existing models of sepsis could help us create a more relevant model which could provide solution to the currently failed clinical trials in sepsis. PMID:27432263

  9. Inflationary paradigm in trouble after Planck2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijjas, Anna; Steinhardt, Paul J.; Loeb, Abraham

    2013-06-01

    Recent results from the Planck satellite combined with earlier observations from WMAP, ACT, SPT and other experiments eliminate a wide spectrum of more complex inflationary models and favor models with a single scalar field, as reported by the Planck Collaboration. More important, though, is that all the simplest inflaton models are disfavored statistically relative to those with plateau-like potentials. We discuss how a restriction to plateau-like models has three independent serious drawbacks: it exacerbates both the initial conditions problem and the multiverse-unpredictability problem and it creates a new difficulty that we call the inflationary "unlikeliness problem." Finally, we comment on problems reconciling inflation with a standard model Higgs, as suggested by recent LHC results. In sum, we find that recent experimental data disfavors all the best-motivated inflationary scenarios and introduces new, serious difficulties that cut to the core of the inflationary paradigm. Forthcoming searches for B-modes, non-Gaussianity and new particles should be decisive.

  10. Covariant Entropy Bound and Padmanabhan's Emergent Paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    Hadi, H; Darabi, F

    2016-01-01

    The covariant entropy conjecture is invariant under time reversal and consequently its origin must be statistical rather than thermodynamical. This may impose a fundamental constraint on the number of degrees of freedom in nature. Indeed, the covariant entropy bound imposes an upper entropy bound for any physical system. Considering a cosmological system, we show that Padmanabhan's emergent paradigm, which indicates that the emergence of cosmic space is due to the discrepancy between the surface and bulk degrees of freedom, leads to a lower entropy bound. The lower and upper entropy bounds may coincide on the apparent horizon for the radiation field and dark energy with the equations of state $\\omega=\\frac{1}{3}$ and $\\omega=-1$, respectively. Moreover, the maximal entropy inside the apparent horizon occurs when it is filled completely by the radiation field or dark energy. It turns out that for dark energy case (pure de Sitter space)\\ the holographic principle is satisfied in the sense that the number of deg...

  11. Paradigms-Shift in Set Theory

    CERN Document Server

    DePauli-Schimanovich, Werner

    2008-01-01

    In this article the author claims that there is a paradigm shift from ZFC to NFUM and further to NACT - due to philosophical reasons, not mathematical ones. The goal is to construct systems where every "Not-Properclass" is a set! With help of Non-Monotonic Logic, the consistent systems NACT-MoonW, NACT*W, and NACT-SunW are producing "largest possible universes" of sets. Using self-evident philosophical principles, three approximations are suggested: NACT+NFUM-closed (to NACT*), NACT&ZFC4+(GCH) (also to NACT*) and NACT-NFUM (to NACT-Sun). Also the system NACT[&ZFC4-closed]+(FCA) is considered. NFUM = NFU with (AC) and measurable properclass Ord. NFUM-closed is NFUM where the set-constituting formulas Ai in the set operator need not only to be stratified but also to be made parameter-free (i.e., have only x as free variable over which the set is comprehended). In other formulas, free variables are allowed. Keywords: Set Theory, ZFC, Naive Set Theory, Predicate-Extension, Church Schema of Comprehension, ...

  12. Emerging paradigms in mind-body medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, C

    2001-02-01

    The emerging paradigms in medicine can be seen through mind-body interactions. Observations in many meditative traditions suggest a series of objective indicators of health beyond absence of disease. Several of the physical signs have been confirmed by research or are consistent with modern science. Further correlation with long term health outcome is needed. Integration of meditation with conventional therapy has enriched psychotherapy with parallels drawn between the Nine Step Qigong and Freudian developmental psychology. A unified theory of the chakra system and the meridian system widely used in traditional mind-body interventions and acupuncture is presented in terms of modern science based on the morphogenetic singularity theory. Acupuncture points originate from the organizing centers in morphogenesis. Meridians and chakras are related to the underdifferentiated, interconnected cellular network that regulates growth and physiology. This theory explains the distribution and nonspecific activation of organizing centers and acupuncture points; the high electric conductance of the meridian system; the polarity effect of electroacupuncture; the side-effect profile of acupuncture; and the ontogeny, phylogeny, and physiologic function of the meridian system and chakra system. It also successfully predicted several findings in conventional biomedical science. These advances have implications in many disciplines of medicine. PMID:11246939

  13. A new paradigm for computer users

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikstrom, M.C.; Gustafson, J.L.

    1995-07-01

    Why is it that mathematical results are useful for centuries, yet computer programs suffer tumultuous changes of technology? Can one write programs that will be useful in fifty years? Extreme efforts to preserve ``dusty deck`` programs have confused the roles and responsibilities of four participants: the end user, application programmer, system software designer, and hardware engineer. Users feel they must know hardware details like word size and megahertz rate--yet are oblivious to error in the output. Application programmers try to guess compiler behavior, often obtaining high performance only by trickery. With new hardware, that old guess is often wrong. The result is ``high-performance code`` that is slower than the original code. The hardware engineer tries to maintain compatibility through many generations, sacrificing performance and hardware affordability to meet presumed needs of the other three participants. We propose that the respective roles and responsibilities be clearly delineated via a three-stage contract between the four participants. The result is a new interaction paradigm that should allow programs to share the longevity of mathematical results and absorb technical advances gracefully.

  14. Changing the paradigm for engineering ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jon Alan

    2014-12-01

    Modern philosophy recognizes two major ethical theories: deontology, which encourages adherence to rules and fulfillment of duties or obligations; and consequentialism, which evaluates morally significant actions strictly on the basis of their actual or anticipated outcomes. Both involve the systematic application of universal abstract principles, reflecting the culturally dominant paradigm of technical rationality. Professional societies promulgate codes of ethics with which engineers are expected to comply (deontology), while courts and the public generally assign liability to engineers primarily in accordance with the results of their work, whether intended or unintended (consequentialism). A third option, prominent in ancient philosophy, has reemerged recently: virtue ethics, which recognizes that sensitivity to context and practical judgment are indispensable in particular concrete situations, and therefore rightly focuses on the person who acts, rather than the action itself. Beneficial character traits--i.e., virtues--are identified within a specific social practice in light of the internal goods that are unique to it. This paper proposes a comprehensive framework for implementing virtue ethics within engineering. PMID:24189836

  15. Inflationary paradigm in trouble after Planck2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ijjas, Anna, E-mail: aijjas@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); University Observatory Munich, 81679 Munich (Germany); Steinhardt, Paul J., E-mail: steinh@princeton.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Princeton Center for Theoretical Science, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Loeb, Abraham, E-mail: aloeb@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-06-25

    Recent results from the Planck satellite combined with earlier observations from WMAP, ACT, SPT and other experiments eliminate a wide spectrum of more complex inflationary models and favor models with a single scalar field, as reported by the Planck Collaboration. More important, though, is that all the simplest inflaton models are disfavored statistically relative to those with plateau-like potentials. We discuss how a restriction to plateau-like models has three independent serious drawbacks: it exacerbates both the initial conditions problem and the multiverse-unpredictability problem and it creates a new difficulty that we call the inflationary “unlikeliness problem.” Finally, we comment on problems reconciling inflation with a standard model Higgs, as suggested by recent LHC results. In sum, we find that recent experimental data disfavors all the best-motivated inflationary scenarios and introduces new, serious difficulties that cut to the core of the inflationary paradigm. Forthcoming searches for B-modes, non-Gaussianity and new particles should be decisive.

  16. Biofabrication: a 21st century manufacturing paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mironov, V; Trusk, T; Markwald, R [Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Kasyanov, V [Riga Stradins University, Riga (Latvia); Little, S [South Carolina EPSCoR/IDeA Program, Columbia, SC (United States); Swaja, R [South Carolina Bioengineering Alliance, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Biofabrication can be defined as the production of complex living and non-living biological products from raw materials such as living cells, molecules, extracellular matrices, and biomaterials. Cell and developmental biology, biomaterials science, and mechanical engineering are the main disciplines contributing to the emergence of biofabrication technology. The industrial potential of biofabrication technology is far beyond the traditional medically oriented tissue engineering and organ printing and, in the short term, it is essential for developing potentially highly predictive human cell- and tissue-based technologies for drug discovery, drug toxicity, environmental toxicology assays, and complex in vitro models of human development and diseases. In the long term, biofabrication can also contribute to the development of novel biotechnologies for sustainable energy production in the future biofuel industry and dramatically transform traditional animal-based agriculture by inventing 'animal-free' food, leather, and fur products. Thus, the broad spectrum of potential applications and rapidly growing arsenal of biofabrication methods strongly suggests that biofabrication can become a dominant technological platform and new paradigm for 21st century manufacturing. The main objectives of this review are defining biofabrication, outlining the most essential disciplines critical for emergence of this field, analysis of the evolving arsenal of biofabrication technologies and their potential practical applications, as well as a discussion of the common challenges being faced by biofabrication technologies, and the necessary conditions for the development of a global biofabrication research community and commercially successful biofabrication industry. (topical review)

  17. Biofabrication: a 21st century manufacturing paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironov, V; Trusk, T; Kasyanov, V; Little, S; Swaja, R; Markwald, R

    2009-06-01

    Biofabrication can be defined as the production of complex living and non-living biological products from raw materials such as living cells, molecules, extracellular matrices, and biomaterials. Cell and developmental biology, biomaterials science, and mechanical engineering are the main disciplines contributing to the emergence of biofabrication technology. The industrial potential of biofabrication technology is far beyond the traditional medically oriented tissue engineering and organ printing and, in the short term, it is essential for developing potentially highly predictive human cell- and tissue-based technologies for drug discovery, drug toxicity, environmental toxicology assays, and complex in vitro models of human development and diseases. In the long term, biofabrication can also contribute to the development of novel biotechnologies for sustainable energy production in the future biofuel industry and dramatically transform traditional animal-based agriculture by inventing 'animal-free' food, leather, and fur products. Thus, the broad spectrum of potential applications and rapidly growing arsenal of biofabrication methods strongly suggests that biofabrication can become a dominant technological platform and new paradigm for 21st century manufacturing. The main objectives of this review are defining biofabrication, outlining the most essential disciplines critical for emergence of this field, analysis of the evolving arsenal of biofabrication technologies and their potential practical applications, as well as a discussion of the common challenges being faced by biofabrication technologies, and the necessary conditions for the development of a global biofabrication research community and commercially successful biofabrication industry. PMID:20811099

  18. Challenging the standard perfect fluid paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, James

    2015-04-01

    We show that the standard perfect fluid paradigm is not necessarily a valid description of a curved space steady state gravitational source. Simply by virtue of not being flat, curved space geometries have to possess intrinsic length scales, and such length scales can affect the fluid structure.We show that for the specific case of a static, spherically symmetric geometry, the steady state energy-momentum tensor that ensues will in general be of the form Tμν =(ρ + p) UμUν + pgμν + qπμν where πμν is a symmetric, traceless rank two tensor which obeys Uμπμν = 0 . Such a qπμν type term is absent for an incoherently averaged steady state fluid in a spacetime where there are no intrinsic length scales, and in principle would thus be missed in a covariantizing of a flat spacetime Tμν. While it is reassuring that we find that in practice the effect of such qπμν type terms is small for weak gravity stars, for strong gravity systems their potential influence would need to be explored.

  19. Weight discretization paradigm for optical neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiesler, Emile; Choudry, Amar; Caulfield, H. John

    1990-08-01

    Neural networks are a primary candidate architecture for optical computing. One of the major problems in using neural networks for optical computers is that the information holders: the interconnection strengths (or weights) are normally real valued (continuous), whereas optics (light) is only capable of representing a few distinguishable intensity levels (discrete). In this paper a weight discretization paradigm is presented for back(ward error) propagation neural networks which can work with a very limited number of discretization levels. The number of interconnections in a (fully connected) neural network grows quadratically with the number of neurons of the network. Optics can handle a large number of interconnections because of the fact that light beams do not interfere with each other. A vast amount of light beams can therefore be used per unit of area. However the number of different values one can represent in a light beam is very limited. A flexible, portable (machine independent) neural network software package which is capable of weight discretization, is presented. The development of the software and some experiments have been done on personal computers. The major part of the testing, which requires a lot of computation, has been done using a CRAY X-MP/24 super computer.

  20. SAR IMAGE SEGMENTATION WITH UNKNOWN NUMBER OF CLASSES COMBINED VORONOI TESSELLATION AND RJMCMC ALGORITHM

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Q. H.; Li, Y.; Y Wang

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel segmentation method for automatically determining the number of classes in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images by combining Voronoi tessellation and Reversible Jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo (RJMCMC) strategy. Instead of giving the number of classes a priori, it is considered as a random variable and subject to a Poisson distribution. Based on Voronoi tessellation, the image is divided into homogeneous polygons. By Bayesian paradigm, a posterior distribut...

  1. Social Class Dialogues and the Fostering of Class Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Meredith

    2015-01-01

    How do critical pedagogies promote undergraduate students' awareness of social class, social class identity, and social class inequalities in education? How do undergraduate students experience class consciousness-raising in the intergroup dialogue classroom? This qualitative study explores undergraduate students' class consciousness-raising in an…

  2. Immunity induced by a broad class of inorganic crystalline materials is directly controlled by their chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.R. Williams (Gareth); K. Fierens (Kaat); S.G. Preston (Stephen); A.C. Lunn; O. Rysnik (Oliwia); S. de Prijck (Sofie); M. Kool (Mirjam); H.C. Buckley (Hannah); B.N.M. Lambrecht (Bart); D. O'Hare (Dermot); J.M. Austyn (Jonathan)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThere is currently no paradigm in immunology that enables an accurate prediction of how the immune system will respond to any given agent. Here we show that the immunological responses induced by members of a broad class of inorganic crystalline materials are controlled purely by their p

  3. Naming Action in Japanese: Effects of Semantic Similarity and Grammatical Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Noriko; Vinson, David P.; Vigliocco, Gabriella; Watanabe, Masumi; Arciuli, Joanne

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether the semantic similarity and grammatical class of distracter words affects the naming of pictured actions (verbs) in Japanese. Three experiments used the picture-word interference paradigm with participants naming picturable actions while ignoring distracters. In all three experiments, we manipulated the semantic…

  4. Learning OWL class expressions

    CERN Document Server

    Lehmann, J

    2010-01-01

    With the advent of the Semantic Web and Semantic Technologies, ontologies have become one of the most prominent paradigms for knowledge representation and reasoning. However, recent progress in the field faces a lack of well structured ontologies with large amounts of instance data due to the fact that engineering such ontologies requires a considerable investment of resources. Nowadays, knowledge bases often provide large volumes of data without sophisticated schemata. Hence, methods for automated schema acquisition and maintenance are sought. Schema acquisition is closely related to solving

  5. PSYCH 515 Complete Class

    OpenAIRE

    admin

    2015-01-01

      PSYCH 515 Advanced Abnormal Psychology To purchase this material click on below link http://www.assignmentcloud.com/PSYCH-515/PSYCH-515-Complete-Class-Guide For more details www.assignmentcloud.com

  6. Raradox of class description

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕光

    2004-01-01

    We have a more active class atmophere, but more passive self-study situations. We are too talktive when we should bury ourselves in books, but too less efficient when we spend too much time. We complain teachers

  7. IELP Class Observation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈了了

    2010-01-01

    @@ As an exchange student majoring in English, I am curious about how English is taught to international students here in America. Therefore, I observed an IELP (Intensive English Learning Program) class in Central Connecticut State University where I study.

  8. Teaching Heterogeneous Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millrood, Radislav

    2002-01-01

    Discusses an approach to teaching heterogeneous English-as-a-Second/Foreign-Language classes. Draws on classroom research data to describe the features of a success-building lesson context. (Author/VWL)

  9. The Old Paradigm in Computer Aids to Invention: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langston, M. Diane

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the major types of computer aids to invention to reveal the paper-based design paradigm that characterizes them. Discusses implications of this "old paradigm" and suggests directions for developing new, uniquely electronic paradigms for future aids. (AEW)

  10. A class in astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airieau, S. A.

    1999-09-01

    The goal of this class is to provide basic astrobiology knowledge to upper division science students. The scope is broad and in-depth coverage is not possible in this introductory course. Instead, science students from various branches of academia can acquire a broad basis and understanding of the other fields: astronomy, biology, geology, biochemistry, planetary and space sciences. The class is highly modular and allows instructors to concentrate on or eliminate topics according to their priorities and preferences.

  11. Nordic Walking Classes

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2015-01-01

    Four classes of one hour each are held on Tuesdays. RDV barracks parking at Entrance A, 10 minutes before class time. Spring Course 2015: 05.05/12.05/19.05/26.05 Prices 40 CHF per session + 10 CHF club membership 5 CHF/hour pole rental Check out our schedule and enroll at: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Nordic%20Walking/NewForm.aspx? Hope to see you among us! fitness.club@cern.ch

  12. Generalized Fourier transforms classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Svend; Møller, Steen

    2002-01-01

    The Fourier class of integral transforms with kernels $B(\\omega r)$ has by definition inverse transforms with kernel $B(-\\omega r)$. The space of such transforms is explicitly constructed. A slightly more general class of generalized Fourier transforms are introduced. From the general theory foll...... follows that integral transform with kernels which are products of a Bessel and a Hankel function or which is of a certain general hypergeometric type have inverse transforms of the same structure....

  13. Embodying class and gender

    OpenAIRE

    Geers, Alexie

    2015-01-01

    In March 1937, when the first issue of Marie-Claire was published, the images of the female body it presented to its female readers from working-class backgrounds contrasted sharply with those featured in previous magazines. The female bodies are dressed and groomed to seduce and replace the hieratic bodies that presented fashions synonymous with membership in the upper classes. The present essay examines this shift and shows that the visual repertoire employed is borrowed from that of the fe...

  14. [Feminist theory: the challenge of turning into a paradigm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, M S

    1997-01-01

    From crisis of traditional paradigm and having feminist criticism as an epicentre, this work attempts to present the challenge feminist theory faces for becoming a new paradigm and for that, a bibliographical research is accomplished, sustained by literature regarding to this theme. It is evidentiated that the challenge of being a paradigm in ascension makes this theory to face theoretical, conceptual and methodological problems which need a joined effort to be deepened and solved. However, this theory development depend not only on the academic world but is also linked to changes in social structure for it will more easily emerge, from a more equalitary society, knowledge with no domination of gender.

  15. A synchronous paradigm for modeling stable reactive systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, V.L.

    1998-12-01

    This paper describes a modeling technique for single-agent reactive systems, that is influenced by the modeling paradigm of Parnas as well as by the synchronous paradigms of LUSTRE and ESTEREL. In this paradigm, single-agent reactive systems are modeled in a universe having a discrete clock. This discretization of time greatly reduces the temporal complexity of the model. He believes that the advantage of this reduction in temporal complexity is that the resulting model is in many ways better suited to automated software construction and analysis techniques (e.g., deductive synthesis, transformation, and verification) than models that are based on continuous representations of time.

  16. Quantitative analysis of distributed control paradigms of robot swarms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngo, Trung Dung

    2010-01-01

    Given a task of designing controller for mobile robots in swarms, one might wonder which distributed control paradigms should be selected. Until now, paradigms of robot controllers have been within either behaviour based control or neural network based control, which have been recognized as two...... describe the physical and simulated robots, experiment scenario, and experiment setup. Third, we present our robot controllers based on behaviour based and neural network based paradigms. Fourth, we graphically show their experiment results and quantitatively analyse the results in comparison of the two...

  17. Local seafood: rethinking the direct marketing paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua S. Stoll

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Faced with strict regulations, rising operational costs, depleted stocks, and competition from less expensive foreign imports, many fishers are pursuing new ways to market and sell their catch. Direct marketing arrangements can increase the ex-vessel value of seafood and profitability of operations for fishers by circumventing dominant wholesale chains of custody and capturing the premium that customers are willing to pay for local seafood. Our analysis goes beyond a paradigm that understands direct marketing arrangements as solely economic tools to consider how these emerging business configurations create a set of conditions that can result in increased bonding and bridging capital among fishers by incentivizing cooperation, communication, and information production and organization. To build our case, we report on the economic value being generated for fishers in a cooperatively owned and operated direct marketing arrangement in eastern North Carolina. Over the course of 2 years, fishers participating in the Walking Fish community-supported fishery received 33% more revenue for their catch compared to the average monthly ex-vessel price of finfish and shellfish landed in the surrounding region, and an additional 14% to 18% more per dollar by way of year-end profit sharing. We argue that these economic benefits create an incentive to participate, resulting in cooperation among fishers and increased communication skills that foster bonding and bridging capital that put fishers in a position to identify and respond to challenges that threaten the social-ecological resilience of the systems within which they operate. We suggest that "institutional starters" like these can play a critical role in increasing the resilience of social-ecological systems, including fisheries.

  18. Transcranial magnetic stimulation intensities in cognitive paradigms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob A Kaminski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS has become an important experimental tool for exploring the brain's functional anatomy. As TMS interferes with neural activity, the hypothetical function of the stimulated area can thus be tested. One unresolved methodological issue in TMS experiments is the question of how to adequately calibrate stimulation intensities. The motor threshold (MT is often taken as a reference for individually adapted stimulation intensities in TMS experiments, even if they do not involve the motor system. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether it is reasonable to adjust stimulation intensities in each subject to the individual MT if prefrontal regions are stimulated prior to the performance of a cognitive paradigm. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Repetitive TMS (rTMS was applied prior to a working memory task, either at the 'fixed' intensity of 40% maximum stimulator output (MSO, or individually adapted at 90% of the subject's MT. Stimulation was applied to a target region in the left posterior middle frontal gyrus (pMFG, as indicated by a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI localizer acquired beforehand, or to a control site (vertex. Results show that MT predicted the effect size after stimulating subjects with the fixed intensity (i.e., subjects with a low MT showed a greater behavioral effect. Nevertheless, the individual adaptation of intensities did not lead to stable effects. CONCLUSION: Therefore, we suggest assessing MT and account for it as a measure for general cortical TMS susceptibility, even if TMS is applied outside the motor domain.

  19. 构件类的语法描述及构件关系的语义描述%Syntax Description of Component Class and Semantics Description of Component Relationship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾明

    2003-01-01

    In this paper,sameness and difference of component class and component ,class and object are compared. Syntax of component class is described using BNF paradigm. After some definitions are given,semantics of component inherit and reference relationship are described.

  20. Clinical fMRI of language function in aphasic patients: Reading paradigm successful, while word generation paradigm fails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engstroem, Maria; Landtblom, Anne-Marie; Ragnehed, Mattias; Lundberg, Peter (Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV), Linkoeping Univ., Linkoeping (Sweden)), e-mail: maria.engstrom@liu.se; Karlsson, Marie; Crone, Marie (Dept. of Clinical and Experimental Medicine/Logopedics, Linkoeping Univ., Linkoeping (Sweden)); Antepohl, Wolfram (Dept. of Clinical and Experimental Medicine/Rehabilitation, Linkoeping Univ., Linkoeping (Sweden))

    2010-07-15

    Background: In fMRI examinations, it is very important to select appropriate paradigms assessing the brain function of interest. In addition, the patients' ability to perform the required cognitive tasks during fMRI must be taken into account. Purpose: To evaluate two language paradigms, word generation and sentence reading for their usefulness in examinations of aphasic patients and to make suggestions for improvements of clinical fMRI. Material and Methods: Five patients with aphasia after stroke or trauma sequelae were examined by fMRI. The patients' language ability was screened by neurolinguistic tests and elementary pre-fMRI language tests. Results: The sentence-reading paradigm succeeded to elicit adequate language-related activation in perilesional areas whereas the word generation paradigm failed. These findings were consistent with results on the behavioral tests in that all patients showed very poor performance in phonemic fluency, but scored well above mean at a reading comprehension task. Conclusion: The sentence-reading paradigm is appropriate to assess language function in this patient group, while the word-generation paradigm seems to be inadequate. In addition, it is crucial to use elementary pre-fMRI language tests to guide the fMRI paradigm decision.

  1. Testing New Programming Paradigms with NAS Parallel Benchmarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, H.; Frumkin, M.; Schultz, M.; Yan, J.

    2000-01-01

    Over the past decade, high performance computing has evolved rapidly, not only in hardware architectures but also with increasing complexity of real applications. Technologies have been developing to aim at scaling up to thousands of processors on both distributed and shared memory systems. Development of parallel programs on these computers is always a challenging task. Today, writing parallel programs with message passing (e.g. MPI) is the most popular way of achieving scalability and high performance. However, writing message passing programs is difficult and error prone. Recent years new effort has been made in defining new parallel programming paradigms. The best examples are: HPF (based on data parallelism) and OpenMP (based on shared memory parallelism). Both provide simple and clear extensions to sequential programs, thus greatly simplify the tedious tasks encountered in writing message passing programs. HPF is independent of memory hierarchy, however, due to the immaturity of compiler technology its performance is still questionable. Although use of parallel compiler directives is not new, OpenMP offers a portable solution in the shared-memory domain. Another important development involves the tremendous progress in the internet and its associated technology. Although still in its infancy, Java promisses portability in a heterogeneous environment and offers possibility to "compile once and run anywhere." In light of testing these new technologies, we implemented new parallel versions of the NAS Parallel Benchmarks (NPBs) with HPF and OpenMP directives, and extended the work with Java and Java-threads. The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of alternative programming paradigms. NPBs consist of five kernels and three simulated applications that mimic the computation and data movement of large scale computational fluid dynamics (CFD) applications. We started with the serial version included in NPB2.3. Optimization of memory and cache usage

  2. Energy aware paradigm for energy efficient ICT: a systemic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ricciardi, Sergio; Careglio, Davide; Santos Boada, Germán; Solé Pareta, Josep

    2010-01-01

    In this work we describe the Energy Aware Paradigm we believe should be adopted for successfully designing and deploying energy efficient ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) based systems. Peer Reviewed

  3. Applying universal scaling laws to identify the best molecular design paradigms for third-order nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Perez-Moreno, Javier; Kuzyk, Mark G

    2016-01-01

    The scaling of the fundamental limits of the second hyperpolarizability is used to define the intrinsic second hyperpolarizability, which aids in identifying material classes with ultralarge nonlinear-optical response per unit of molecular size. The intrinsic nonlinear response is a size-independent metric that we apply to comparing classes of molecular homologues, which are made by adding repeat units to extend their lengths. Several new figures of merit are proposed that quantify not only the intrinsic nonlinear response, but also how the second hyperpolarizability increases with size within a molecular class. Scaling types can be classified into sub-scaling, nominal scaling that follows the theory of limits, and super-scaling behavior. Super-scaling homologues that have large intrinsic nonlinearity are the most promising because they efficiently take advantage of increased size. We apply our approach to data in the literature to identify the best super-scaling molecular paradigms and articulate the importa...

  4. Sustainable intensification: A new paradigm for African agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    The Montpellier Panel

    2013-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa faces a rapid population growth that drives food demand and scarcity together with scarcity in natural resources such as land, water, and soil fertility. This Montpellier Panel report identifies the paradigm of sustainable intensification as a framework to address both of these issues. It provides a comprehensive overview of the sustainable intensification paradigm, which seeks to utilize existing land to maximize yields, incomes, and nutrition while minimizing negative ext...

  5. The Paradigm of Critical Realism: Approach to an Interdisciplinary Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Tavana

    2015-01-01

    The debate of method of recognition in humanities, social and nature science is one of the apprehensions of Scientists in Wisdom Domain –especially in the modern world. This apprehension, before all things was of appearing in the paradigm of methodoligical between the advocates of the paradigms of positivism with having a share of the natural science. They used to values of naturalism in social and human studies. Additionally, testing and observation and repetition are present as the main ter...

  6. Ageing, oxidative stress and cancer: paradigms in parallax

    OpenAIRE

    Benz, Christopher C.; Yau, Christina

    2008-01-01

    Two paradigms central to geroscience research are that aging is associated with increased oxidative stress and increased cancer risk. Therefore, it could be deduced that cancers arising with ageing will show evidence of increased oxidative stress. Recent studies of gene expression in age-controlled breast cancer cases indicate that this deduction is false, posing parallax views of these two paradigms, and highlighting the unanswered question: does ageing cause or simply permit cancer developm...

  7. How do new innovation paradigms challenge current innovation policy perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Mette Præst; Tanev, Stoyan; Bisgaard, Tanja;

    2012-01-01

    Successful firms today are forced to deal with new competitive realities by being globally present, innovatively resourceful and internationally competitive on multiple markets across the world. The new competitive realities challenge firms to open their innovation processes by adopting new...... multiple actors by managing knowledge sharing processes across entire value networks. The chapter provides a brief description and comparison of these new innovation paradigms and discusses the challenges that these paradigms imply for existing innovation policies. The innovation policy recommendations...

  8. On the power of the basic algorithmic design paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Sashka Tchameva

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation formalizes the intuitive notion of the basic algorithmic paradigms. We present three formal models which aim to capture the intrinsic power of greedy, backtracking and dynamic programming algorithms. We develop lower bound techniques for proving negative results for all algorithms in all models, which allow us to make strong statements about the limitations of each paradigm. Borodin et al. (2003) designed the Priority algorithms, a formal model of greedy algorithms for sched...

  9. Extended Informatics Paradigm in Biological and Psychological Education

    OpenAIRE

    Dobilas KIRVELIS; Kastytis BEITAS

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work is to present extended informatics paradigm (EIP). This paradigm expands concept of informatics from traditional information and communication technologies (ICT) to a wide use of informational thinking, databases and related technologies in biology and psychology. The essential difference of EIP is an especial attention to nature and purpose of information in organized biological and/or psychological systems. Information as a phenomenon appeared on the Earth 3-4 billion y...

  10. The Need for a New Paradigm in Scandinavian Health Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin Mooney

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that the discipline of health economics has lost its way due to its persistent focus on individualistic and consequential values. The paper suggests how this might be remedied in both theory and practice. It proposes a new paradigm for health economics, which focuses on communitarian values. This new paradigm is discussed in the context of the Scandinavian welfare model.

  11. Perspective Shifts in Marketing: Toward a Paradigm Change?

    OpenAIRE

    Gaetano M. Golinelli; Sergio Barile; Marialuisa Saviano; Francesco Polese

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this contribution is to discuss the evolution of marketing, arguing whether it is accomplishing a paradigm change. Starting from previous definitions of paradigm, we adopt the viable systems approach ( v S a ) as a general interpretation key useful for interpreting the evolution of marketing over the last few decades. Through the lens of the v S a structure-system approach, which suggests distinguishing between a structure-based view and a systems-based view, we discuss the contrib...

  12. Comunication: the Paradigms of symmetry, antisymmetry anda asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winfried Nöth

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines how the process of communication is represented (a in the etymology of the conceptof communication, (b in everyday metaphors of communication, and (c in 20th century theories andmodels of communication. These reflect this paradox in three different scenarios: the paradigms ofsymmetry, antisymmetry and asymmetry. The dead end into which communication theory is led by theproponents of the latter paradigm is contrasted with some solutions offered by Charles S. Peirce’scommunication theory.

  13. Time perception: paradigms, methods, target duration and individual differences

    OpenAIRE

    McFarlane, Henriett A

    2008-01-01

    The present study assessed the role of the time judgement paradigms of prospective and retrospective durations, the length of durations and the effects of the states of mood and arousal in time perception. The role of the biological variable of circadian types was also assessed. Long target durations were judged as shorter than whereas short target durations were judged as longer. Duration judgement paradigms did not affect perception of time and neither did mood and circa...

  14. Linguistic Diversity, Global Paradigms and Taken-for-Grantedness

    OpenAIRE

    Martel, Angéline

    2004-01-01

    In the first part of this paper taken-for-granted hypotheses in linguistic diversity are presented. In the second part the two constellations of globalized ideologies are described constituting paradigms that these hypotheses illustrate: competition and solidarity. In the third part, a condensed version of emerging globalized concerns is given. Sociolinguistics and anthropological linguistics are disciplines that increasingly theorize and analyze within the solidarity paradigm....

  15. A New Paradigm Shift in Antithrombotic Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita ePudusseri

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Decades after the introduction of oral anti-coagulants namely the vitamin K antagonist Warfarin and antiplatelet agents such as Aspirin and Plavix, new classes of direct, small molecule, novel oral anti-coagulant medications and antiplatelet P2Y12 receptor inhibitors have recently become available. For the novel oral anticoagulants, these agents can be separated by direct thrombin inhibitors such as Dabigatran and direct Factor Xa inhibitors such as Rivaroxaban and Apixaban. For next generation antiplatelet agents such as Ticagrelor and Prasugrel, these new P2Y12 receptor inhibitors form the cornerstone of therapy for patients with acute coronary syndrome or undergoing percutaneous interventions. These novel oral antithrombotics are revolutionizing the field of stroke prevention, atrial fibrillation, the management of venous thromboembolism and treatment of acute coronary syndrome. This article reviews the current research developed in order to identify therapeutic effects and establish net clinical benefits of these new oral antithrombotics.

  16. A membrane paradigm at large D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sayantani; De, Anandita; Minwalla, Shiraz; Mohan, Ravi; Saha, Arunabha

    2016-04-01

    We study SO( d + 1) invariant solutions of the classical vacuum Einstein equations in p + d + 3 dimensions. In the limit d → ∞ with p held fixed we construct a class of solutions labelled by the shape of a membrane (the event horizon), together with a `velocity' field that lives on this membrane. We demonstrate that our metrics can be corrected to nonsingular solutions at first sub-leading order in d if and only if the membrane shape and `velocity' field obey equations of motion which we determine. These equations define a well posed initial value problem for the membrane shape and this `velocity' and so completely determine the dynamics of the black hole. They may be viewed as governing the non-linear dynamics of the light quasi normal modes of Emparan, Suzuki and Tanabe.

  17. A membrane paradigm at large D

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharyya, Sayantani; Minwalla, Shiraz; Mohan, Ravi; Saha, Arunabha

    2015-01-01

    We study $SO(d+1)$ invariant solutions of the classical vacuum Einstein equations in $p+d+3$ dimensions. In the limit $d \\to \\infty$ with $p$ held fixed we construct a class of solutions labelled by the shape of a membrane (the event horizon), together with a `velocity' field that lives on this membrane. We demonstrate that our metrics can be corrected to nonsingular solutions at first sub-leading order in $\\frac{1}{d}$ if and only if the membrane shape and `velocity' field obey equations of motion which we determine. These equations define a well posed initial value problem for the membrane shape and this `velocity' and so completely determinethe dynamics of the black hole. They may be viewed as governing the non-linear dynamics of the light quasi normal modes of Emparan, Suzuki and Tanabe.

  18. The string-pulling paradigm in comparative psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Ivo F; Osvath, Mathias

    2015-05-01

    String pulling is one of the most widely used paradigms in comparative psychology. First documented 2 millennia ago, it has been a well-established scientific paradigm for a century. More than 160 bird and mammal species have been tested in over 200 studies with countless methodological variations. The paradigm can be used to address a wide variety of issues on animal cognition; for example, what animals understand about contact and connection as well as whether they rely on perceptual feedback, grasp the functionality of strings, generalize across conditions, apply their knowledge flexibly, and possess insight. Mammals are typically tested on a horizontal configuration, birds on a vertical one, making the studies difficult to compare; in particular, pulling a string vertically requires better coordination and attention. A species' performance on the paradigm is often influenced by its ecology, especially concerning whether limbs are used for foraging. Many other factors can be of importance and should be considered. The string-pulling paradigm is easy to administer, vary, and apply to investigate a wide array of cognitive abilities. Although it can be and has been used to compare species, divergent methods and unclear reporting have limited its comparative utility. With increasing research standards, the paradigm is expected to become an even more fundamental tool in comparative psychology.

  19. Translation in ESL Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy Imola Katalin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of translation in foreign language classes cannot be dealt with unless we attempt to make an overview of what translation meant for language teaching in different periods of language pedagogy. From the translation-oriented grammar-translation method through the complete ban on translation and mother tongue during the times of the audio-lingual approaches, we have come today to reconsider the role and status of translation in ESL classes. This article attempts to advocate for translation as a useful ESL class activity, which can completely fulfil the requirements of communicativeness. We also attempt to identify some activities and games, which rely on translation in some books published in the 1990s and the 2000s.

  20. Talking Class in Tehroon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian; Rezakhani, Khodadad

    2016-01-01

    Persian, like any other language, is laced with references to class, both blatant and subtle. With idioms and metaphors, Iranians can identify and situate others, and thus themselves, within hierarchies of social status and privilege, both real and imagined. Some class-related terms can be traced...... back to medieval times, whereas others are of modern vintage, the linguistic legacy of television shows, pop songs, social media memes or street vernacular. Every day, it seems, an infectious set of phrases appears that make yesterday’s seem embarrassingly antiquated....

  1. MIDDLE CLASS MOVEMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. K. Sravana Kumar

    2016-01-01

                The middle class is placed between labour and capital. It neither directly awns the means of production that pumps out the surplus generated by wage labour power, nor does it, by its own labour, produce the surplus which has use and exchange value. Broadly speaking, this class consists of the petty bourgeoisie and the white-collar workers. The former are either self-employed or involved in the distribution of commodities and t...

  2. Class Actions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2009-01-01

    The article deals with the relatively new Danish Act on Class Action (Danish: gruppesøgsmål) which was suggested by The Permanent Council on Civil procedure (Retsplejerådet) of which the article's author is a member. The operability of the new provisions is illustrated through some wellknown Dani...... cases: Hafnia case (investment prospectus), and Danish Eternit (roof elements) where the existence of Danish provisions on class actions might have made a difference, and the article also deals with the delicate questions of opt-in and opt-out....

  3. Residues of Chern classes

    OpenAIRE

    Suwa, Tatsuo; 諏訪, 立雄

    2003-01-01

    If we have a finite number of sections of a complex vector bundle E over a manifold M, certain Chern classes of E are localized at the singular set S, i.e., the set of points where the sections fail to be linearly independent. When S is compact, the localizations define the residues at each connected component of S by the Alexander duality. If M itself is compact, the sum of the residues is equal to the Poincaré dual of the corresponding Chern class. This type of theory is also developed for ...

  4. Residues of Chern classes

    OpenAIRE

    Suwa, Tatsuo

    2003-01-01

    If we have a finite number of sections of a complex vector bundle $E$ over a manifold $M$ , certain Chern classes of $E$ are localized at the singular set $S$ , i.e., the set of points where the sections fail to be linearly independent. When $S$ is compact, the localizations define the residues at each connected component of $S$ by the Alexander duality. If $M$ itself is compact, the sum of the residues is equal to the Poincaré dual of the corresponding Chern class. This type of theory is als...

  5. TIPS (trigger an IIF paradigm shift)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Challenge: New Mexico Corporate Services (NMCS) recordable injuries have been averaging 2-4 per year for the last 5 years with no statistical improvement. However, we believe all NM employees must go home incident and injury free every day and just as healthy as they came to work. In addition, we have received feedback from several sources, that indicates some employees are reluctant to report injuries. These indicators showed us that continuing our current strategies, making incremental improvement and changes, would not give us the improvement desired. We needed a paradigm shift to get everyone completely engaged in the IIF (Incident and Injury Free) culture, in order to achieve true IIF results. Methods/Strategies: We formed a small (3-person) taskforce consisting of safety representatives from EHS, Site Services and CS Operations. We reviewed 5 years worth of data to determine what was injuring our people. We also decided to review all injuries, not simply those classified as recordable by OSHA standards. First we identified the types of injury information needed to get a true picture of our safety issues. We analyzed IRB (Incident Review Board) data showing us the following factors and whether any of them contributed to the injury: - Date - Incident Description - Severity - Root Cause - Type of Injury - Season - Work Group/Shift - Area - Improper evaluation of hazard - Inadequate work procedures - Incorrect Mental Model - Inadequate PPE Requirement - Failure to Follow or Unaware of PPE Requirement - Shortcut or Schedule Pressure - Last or First Day of Shift or Adjacent to Holiday - OT - Aggravate Existing Condition - Inadequate Training or Passdown - Experience in Task - Corrective Action Taken - Overall Quality of Response. Once this information was collected for all injuries in an Excel file, we graphed it several ways to help reveal trends: - Shift 7 had double the injuries of shift 5 - Night shift injuries were relatively high but lower than Shift 7 -Shift

  6. Reference class forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    Underbudgettering og budgetoverskridelser forekommer i et flertal af større bygge- og anlægsprojekter. Problemet skyldes optimisme og/eller strategisk misinformation i budgetteringsprocessen. Reference class forecasting (RCF) er en prognosemetode, som er udviklet for at reducere eller eliminere...

  7. Fostering a Middle Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Though there is no official definition of "middle class" in China, the tag has become one few Chinese people believe they deserve anyway.In early August, the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences released a report on China’s urban development,

  8. Openers for Biology Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gridley, C. Robert R.

    This teaching guide contains 200 activities that are suitable for openers and demonstrations in biology classes. Details are provided regarding the use of these activities. Some of the broad topics under which the activities are organized include algae, amphibians, bacteria, biologists, crustaceans, dinosaurs, ecology, evolution, flowering plants,…

  9. Teaching Very Large Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRogatis, Amy; Honerkamp, Kenneth; McDaniel, Justin; Medine, Carolyn; Nyitray, Vivian-Lee; Pearson, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The editor of "Teaching Theology and Religion" facilitated this reflective conversation with five teachers who have extensive experience and success teaching extremely large classes (150 students or more). In the course of the conversation these professors exchange and analyze the effectiveness of several active learning strategies they…

  10. Adeus à classe trabalhadora?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoff Eley

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available No início da década de 1980, a política centrada em classes da tradição socialista estava em crise, e comentadores importantes adotaram tons apocalípticos. No final da década, a esquerda permanecia profundamente dividida entre os advogados da mudança e os defensores da fé. Em meados dos anos 1990, os primeiros tinham, de modo geral, ganhado a batalha. O artigo busca apresentar essa mudança contemporânea não como a 'morte da classe', mas como o desa­parecimento de um tipo particular de ­sociedade de classes, marcado pelo ­processo de formação da classe trabalhadora entre os anos 1880 e 1940 e pelo alinhamento político daí resultante, atingindo seu apogeu na construção social-democrata do acordo do pós-guerra. Quando mudanças de longo prazo na economia se combinaram com o ataque ao keynesianismo na política de recessão a partir de meados da década de 1970, a unidade da classe trabalhadora deixou de estar disponível da forma antiga e bastante utilizada, como o terreno natural da política de esquerda. Enquanto uma coletividade dominante da classe trabalhadora entrou em declínio, outra se corporificou de modo lento e desigual para tomar o lugar daquela. Mas a unidade operacional dessa nova agregação da classe trabalhadora ainda está, em grande parte, em formação. Para recuperar a eficácia política da tradição socialista, alguma nova visão de agência política coletiva será necessária, uma visão imaginativamente ajustada às condições emergentes da produção e acumulação capitalista no início do século XXI.

  11. Ethics in dermatology: toward a new paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Martín, S; Galera-Martin, C; Guerra-Tapia, A

    2013-01-01

    Medical ethics have evolved over time, and ethical responsibilities have often been shared by priests, the governing classes, and physicians. The emergence of scientific medicine led to the separation of functions, yet physicians have nonetheless continued to enjoy an extraordinary degree of moral authority and great social privilege. From this starting point, professional medical ethics developed as a specific moral system based on special rights and duties (paternalism and medical confidentiality). Various historical events brought this longstanding situation to a point of crisis toward the middle of the 20th century, and for several decades since, medical ethics have been based on freedom of choice for the patient with regard to decisions about his or her own body and health. Recent developments have created a new, still poorly defined model that takes into consideration such matters as euthanasia, abortion, provision of information on the benefits and harm of treatments, the sharing of therapeutic decision-making with the patient and/or family members, the choice of public or private medical providers, therapeutic guidelines, and the extension of the scope of practice to include preventive measures and cosmetic procedures. What is needed now is a new ethical system for plural societies that harbor different religions, beliefs and lifestyles, but that is also rational, universal and subject to ongoing revision-a system always striving for scientific, technical and moral excellence. Such an ethical system would have to be taught in medical schools, as it would need to bear fruit beyond mere good intentions.

  12. Effects of Ordering Strategies and Programming Paradigms on Sparse Matrix Computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliker, Leonid; Li, Xiaoye; Husbands, Parry; Biswas, Rupak; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Conjugate Gradient (CG) algorithm is perhaps the best-known iterative technique to solve sparse linear systems that are symmetric and positive definite. For systems that are ill-conditioned, it is often necessary to use a preconditioning technique. In this paper, we investigate the effects of various ordering and partitioning strategies on the performance of parallel CG and ILU(O) preconditioned CG (PCG) using different programming paradigms and architectures. Results show that for this class of applications: ordering significantly improves overall performance on both distributed and distributed shared-memory systems, that cache reuse may be more important than reducing communication, that it is possible to achieve message-passing performance using shared-memory constructs through careful data ordering and distribution, and that a hybrid MPI+OpenMP paradigm increases programming complexity with little performance gains. A implementation of CG on the Cray MTA does not require special ordering or partitioning to obtain high efficiency and scalability, giving it a distinct advantage for adaptive applications; however, it shows limited scalability for PCG due to a lack of thread level parallelism.

  13. Brain Based Teaching Model as Transformation of Learning Paradigm in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfani Sesmiarni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain -based teaching model is a new paradigm that can facilitate students in optimizing student learning by the functioning the brain as a whole. Lessons are held today assume that all students equally so that learning provide the same services to each student in the class. With this model, the students are given different stimulation according to their abilities and needs. Base on brain learning theory -based teaching, the learning should pay attention to the five needs of the brain in general. The fifth factor is the need for a sense of comfort, the need for interaction, the need for knowledge, the need for the activity and the need for self-reflection. All these needs will be connected if the lecturers able to present emotional learning, social learning, cognitive learning, physical learning and teaching reflection. Key Word : Instrucetional, Brain Based teaching, Learning.Copyright © 2015 by Al-Ta'lim All right reserved

  14. Area of Concern: A new paradigm in life cycle assessment for the development of footprint metrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridoutt, Bradley G.; Pfister, Stephan; Manzardo, Alessandro;

    2016-01-01

    As a class of environmental metrics, footprints have been poorly defined, have shared an unclear relationship to life cycle assessment (LCA), and the variety of approaches to quantification have sometimes resulted in confusing and contradictory messages in the marketplace. In response, a task force...... operating under the auspices of the UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative project on environmental life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) has been working to develop generic guidance for developers of footprint metrics. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a universal footprint definition and related...... are defined by the interests of stakeholders in society rather than the LCA community. In addition, areas of concern are stand-alone and not necessarily part of a framework intended for comprehensive environmental performance assessment. The area of concern paradigm is needed to support the development...

  15. Non-terrestrial origin of life: a transformative research paradigm shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, N Chandra; Trevors, J T

    2013-06-01

    Theories and hypotheses in science are continually subject to verification, critical re-evaluation, revision and indeed evolution, in response to new observations and discoveries. Theories of the origin of life have been more constrained than other scientific theories and hypotheses in this regard, through the force of social and cultural pressures. There has been a tendency to adhere too rigidly to a class of theory that demands a purely terrestrial origin of life. For nearly five decades evidence in favour of a non-terrestrial origin of life and panspermia has accumulated which has not been properly assessed. A point has now been reached that demands the serious attention of biologists to a possibly transformative paradigm shift of the question of the origin of life, with profound implications across many disciplines.

  16. SCKE:Combining Logic— with Object Oriented Paradigm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金芝; 胡守仁

    1993-01-01

    A new implementation(SCKE-Structured Communication Knowledge Entity)has been proposed towards combining the logic with the object-oriented paradigm of computing.It is intended to explore the advatnages in these two paradigms in a structured,natural and efficient manner for large-scale knowledge processing.The SCKE model supports modularity and protection for the structured development of knowledge systems.It also introduces the concepts that are typical for the object-oriented systems in the logic-oriented paradigm,without losing its advantages as a declarative language.Various inheritance hierarchies are supported in the SCKE model.They provide the semantics basis basis for various knowledge in AI systems.The M-entity/K-entity/Instance inberitance captures the relationship among the control,procedural and factural knowledge in AI systems.And ,the super-entity/entity/instance inheritance shows the concepts of data abstraction in the knowledge of a particular domain.In addition,the SCKE model is not simply supported on top of Prolog like other attempts to integrate the object-into the logic-oriented paradigm.The SCKE model is a tightly coupled model of the logic and the object-oriented paradigm and its interpreter uniformly interprets the logic semantics and the object-oriented semantics.

  17. Uncorking the Future: Transitions to a New Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Jacobs

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article explores issues discussed at three recent WAAS events regarding the process of transition to a new paradigm. The prominent institutions and policies governing the present paradigm are founded upon a bedrock of ideas and values and an abstract, reductionistic mode of analytic thinking detached from people and social reality. Escape from the present blind alley and transition to a new paradigm require adoption of a different way of thinking that is human-centered, value-based, inclusive and synthetic. The multidimensional challenges confronting humanity today are the consequence of precious opportunities missed at the end of the Cold War. At the same time the awareness and energy released by these challenges has the potential for converting current challenges into unprecedented opportunities for progress at the global level. The outcome depends on our capacity to discover the complementarity underlying apparently contradictory, opposite viewpoints. Multi-culturalism is at once the source of intense frictions and conflict and the rich genetic potential from which a new paradigm can emerge. A new paradigm requires a deeper understanding of the cultural underpinnings of democracy, a rational examination of the sacred cow of national sovereignty, and explicit recognition of the social responsibility of science for the consequences of scientific discovery and technological innovation. Leadership will play a crucial role in determining the outcome – intellectual leadership at the level of ideas, scientific leadership that exhibits consciousness responsibility, transformational leadership at the level of international institutions and nation-states.

  18. The Paradigm of Critical Realism: Approach to an Interdisciplinary Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Tavana

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The debate of method of recognition in humanities, social and nature science is one of the apprehensions of Scientists in Wisdom Domain –especially in the modern world. This apprehension, before all things was of appearing in the paradigm of methodoligical between the advocates of the paradigms of positivism with having a share of the natural science. They used to values of naturalism in social and human studies. Additionally, testing and observation and repetition are present as the main terms of recognition. In front, the difference between human studies and natural science is important for the advocates of hermeneutic paradigm. Also, they speak about the methodology of interpretation (understanding of human and social phenomenon. But, in the second half of 20th century another paradigms was established as the Critical realism. This paradigm is tried to parther from the methodoloigcal binary and has a share from the recognition of ontological positivism and epistemological hermeneutics attain to a procedure of interdisciplinary about recognition. So, on the basis of this subject, this article mentioned this question that: would the critical realism receive as the methodology in interdisciplinary? Method of the Article is postulate. This article reasoned that multilayer ontology and epistemology redounded to multilayer methodology that could build up the knowledge of interdisciplinary.

  19. e-Science Paradigm for Astroparticle Physics at KISTI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kihyeon

    2016-03-01

    The Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information (KISTI) has been studying the e-Science paradigm. With its successful application to particle physics, we consider the application of the paradigm to astroparticle physics. The Standard Model of particle physics is still not considered perfect even though the Higgs boson has recently been discovered. Astrophysical evidence shows that dark matter exists in the universe, hinting at new physics beyond the Standard Model. Therefore, there are efforts to search for dark matter candidates using direct detection, indirect detection, and collider detection. There are also efforts to build theoretical models for dark matter. Current astroparticle physics involves big investments in theories and computing along with experiments. The complexity of such an area of research is explained within the framework of the e-Science paradigm. The idea of the e-Science paradigm is to unify experiment, theory, and computing. The purpose is to study astroparticle physics anytime and anywhere. In this paper, an example of the application of the paradigm to astrophysics is presented.

  20. School 2.0 and the Digital Blackboard: a mercantilization paradigm of the educational system through ICTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Murillo García

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We now live in a digital society, fostered and run by a global market, which in turn is managed by multinational corporations and large financial institutions that are creating a new role for education: the school, as an essential element of the economy due to its investments and its importance as a market place for multinationals, but most importantly due to its function in training of a new social class, the “prosumers”. The paradigm of these changes can be clearly seen in the “School 2.0” and its predecessor, the “Digital Balckboard” resources in Aragón (Spain.

  1. Disability, disparate impact, and class actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Michael Ashley; Waterstone, Michael E

    2006-12-01

    Following Title VII's enactment, group-based employment discrimination actions flourished due to disparate impact theory and the class action device. Courts recognized that subordination that defined a group's social identity was also sufficient legally to bind members together, even when relief had to be issued individually. Woven through these cases was a notion of panethnicity that united inherently unrelated groups into a common identity, for example, Asian Americans. Stringent judicial interpretation subsequently eroded both legal frameworks and it has become increasingly difficult to assert collective employment actions, even against discriminatory practices affecting an entire group. This deconstruction has immensely disadvantaged persons with disabilities. Under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), individual employee claims to accommodate specific impairments, such as whether to install ramps or replace computer screens, have all but eclipsed a coherent theory of disability-based disparate impact law. Moreover, the class action device has been virtually nonexistent in disability discrimination employment cases. The absence of collective action has been especially harmful because the realm of the workplace is precisely where group-based remedies are needed most. Specifically, a crucial but overlooked issue in disability integration is the harder-to-reach embedded norms that require job and policy modifications. The Article argues that pandisability theory serves as an analogue to earlier notions of panethnicity and provides an equally compelling heuristic for determining class identity. It shows that pandisability undergirds ADA public service and public accommodation class actions in which individualized remedy assessments have been accepted as part of group-based challenges to social exclusion. The Article also demonstrates that this broader vision of collective action is consistent with the history underlying the class action device. Taking

  2. World Class Facilities Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmstrøm, Ole Emil; Jensen, Per Anker

    2013-01-01

    Alle der med entusiasme arbejder med Facilities Management drømmer om at levere World Class. DFM drømmer om at skabe rammer og baggrund for, at vi i Danmark kan bryste os at være blandt de førende på verdensplan. Her samles op på, hvor tæt vi er på at nå drømmemålet.......Alle der med entusiasme arbejder med Facilities Management drømmer om at levere World Class. DFM drømmer om at skabe rammer og baggrund for, at vi i Danmark kan bryste os at være blandt de førende på verdensplan. Her samles op på, hvor tæt vi er på at nå drømmemålet....

  3. A new microcomputer software system evaluation paradigm: the medical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokol, P

    1991-08-01

    The new fourth-generation software has enormously eased the burden of computing for users, but they have also created a confusing, difficult problem in software evaluation and selection. Therefore it is argued that a sound and complete evaluation paradigm is a key element in an efficient and effective software system design and use process. While much has been written about software evaluation in general, in the medical field, the guidances and recommendations previously provided are too general to be of practical use. Considering also the other weaknesses of conventional evaluation paradigms we have decided to develop a more adequate one which will have a solid theoretical framework, specific guidances, strict and well-defined taxonomic space, and a fair ranking approach. In the present paper we will therefore introduce our new evaluation paradigm and show its applicability in evaluation and selection of medical software systems according to their usability. PMID:1800598

  4. Investigating true and false confessions within a novel experimental paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russano, Melissa B; Meissner, Christian A; Narchet, Fadia M; Kassin, Saul M

    2005-06-01

    The primary goal of the current study was to develop a novel experimental paradigm with which to study the influence of psychologically based interrogation techniques on the likelihood of true and false confessions. The paradigm involves guilty and innocent participants being accused of intentionally breaking an experimental rule, or "cheating." In the first demonstration of this paradigm, we explored the influence of two common police interrogation tactics: minimization and an explicit offer of leniency, or a "deal." Results indicated that guilty persons were more likely to confess than innocent persons, and that the use of minimization and the offer of a deal increased the rate of both true and false confessions. Police investigators are encouraged to avoid interrogation techniques that imply or directly promise leniency, as they appear to reduce the diagnostic value of any confession that is elicited. PMID:15943675

  5. Campus suicide prevention: bridging paradigms and forging partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drum, David J; Denmark, Adryon Burton

    2012-01-01

    Colleges and universities are increasingly recognizing the need to expand suicide-prevention efforts beyond the standard, clinical-intervention paradigm of suicide prevention, which relies on referral to, and treatment by, mental health services. These services frequently struggle, however, to provide effective, comprehensive care. After reviewing findings that support the need to adopt a broader, problem-focused paradigm, the article provides a framework for bridging this paradigm with the clinical-intervention approach and for conceptualizing a full continuum of preventive interventions. For each level of intervention (ranging from the individual to the ecological), we describe the goals and methods used, and provide examples to illustrate the role of psychiatrists and other campus mental health providers in the collaborative partnerships that must form to support a comprehensive, campus-wide suicide-prevention strategy.

  6. Paradigms of mangroves in treatment of anthropogenic wastewater pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Xiaoguang; Guo, Fen

    2016-02-15

    Mangroves have been increasingly recognized for treating wastewater from aquaculture, sewage and other sources with the overwhelming urbanization trend. This study clarified the three paradigms of mangroves in disposing wastewater contaminants: natural mangroves, constructed wetlands (including free water surface and subsurface flow) and mangrove-aquaculture coupling systems. Plant uptake is the common major mechanism for nutrient removal in all the paradigms as mangroves are generally nitrogen and phosphorus limited. Besides, sediments accrete and provide substrates for microbial activities, thereby removing organic matter and nutrients from wastewater in natural mangroves and constructed wetlands. Among the paradigms, the mangrove-aquaculture coupling system was determined to be the optimal alternative for aquaculture wastewater treatment by multi-criterion decision making. Sensitivity analysis shows variability of alternative ranking but underpins the coupling system as the most environment-friendly and cost-efficient option. Mangrove restoration is expected to be achievable if aquaculture ponds are planted with mangrove seedlings, creating the coupling system.

  7. Paradigms of mangroves in treatment of anthropogenic wastewater pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Xiaoguang; Guo, Fen

    2016-02-15

    Mangroves have been increasingly recognized for treating wastewater from aquaculture, sewage and other sources with the overwhelming urbanization trend. This study clarified the three paradigms of mangroves in disposing wastewater contaminants: natural mangroves, constructed wetlands (including free water surface and subsurface flow) and mangrove-aquaculture coupling systems. Plant uptake is the common major mechanism for nutrient removal in all the paradigms as mangroves are generally nitrogen and phosphorus limited. Besides, sediments accrete and provide substrates for microbial activities, thereby removing organic matter and nutrients from wastewater in natural mangroves and constructed wetlands. Among the paradigms, the mangrove-aquaculture coupling system was determined to be the optimal alternative for aquaculture wastewater treatment by multi-criterion decision making. Sensitivity analysis shows variability of alternative ranking but underpins the coupling system as the most environment-friendly and cost-efficient option. Mangrove restoration is expected to be achievable if aquaculture ponds are planted with mangrove seedlings, creating the coupling system. PMID:26706768

  8. Logic and human reasoning: an assessment of the deduction paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jonathan St B T

    2002-11-01

    The study of deductive reasoning has been a major paradigm in psychology for approximately the past 40 years. Research has shown that people make many logical errors on such tasks and are strongly influenced by problem content and context. It is argued that this paradigm was developed in a context of logicist thinking that is now outmoded. Few reasoning researchers still believe that logic is an appropriate normative system for most human reasoning, let alone a model for describing the process of human reasoning, and many use the paradigm principally to study pragmatic and probabilistic processes. It is suggested that the methods used for studying reasoning be reviewed, especially the instructional context, which necessarily defines pragmatic influences as biases.

  9. Ares V: Shifting the Payload Design Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumrall, Phil; Creech, Steve; Cockrell, Charles E.

    2009-01-01

    NASA is designing the Ares V heavy-lift cargo launch vehicle to send more crew and cargo to more places on the lunar surface than the 1960s-era Saturn V and to provide ongoing support for a permanent lunar outpost. This uncrewed cargo vehicle is designed to operate together with the Ares I crew vehicle (Figure 1). In addition to this role, however, its unmatched mass and volume capability represent a national asset for exploration, science, and commerce. The Ares V also enables or significantly enhances a large class of space missions not thought possible by scientists and engineers since the Saturn V program ended over 30 years ago. Compared to current systems, it will offer approximately five times the mass and volume to most orbits and locations. This should allow prospective mission planners to build robust payloads with margins that are three to five times the industry norm. The space inside the planned payload shroud has enough usable volume to launch the volumetric equivalent of approximately 10 Apollo Lunar Modules or approximately five equivalent Hubble Space Telescopes. This mass and volume capability to low-Earth orbit (LEO) enables a host of new scientific and observation platforms, such as telescopes, satellites, planetary and solar missions, as well as being able to provide the lift for future large in-space infrastructure missions, such as space based solar power and mining, Earth asteroid defense, propellant depots, etc. In addition, payload designers may also have the option of simplifying their designs or employing Ares V s payload as dumb mass to reduce technical and operational risk. The Ares V team is engaging the potential payload community now, two to three years before System Requirements Review (SRR), in order to better understand the additional requirements from the payload community that could be accommodated in the Ares V design in its conceptual phase. This paper will discuss the Ares V reference mission and capability, as well as its

  10. Bayesian evidence and predictivity of the inflationary paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubitosi, Giulia; Lagos, Macarena; Magueijo, João; Allison, Rupert

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we consider the issue of paradigm evaluation by applying Bayes' theorem along the following nested hierarchy of progressively more complex structures: i) parameter estimation (within a model), ii) model selection and comparison (within a paradigm), iii) paradigm evaluation. In such a hierarchy the Bayesian evidence works both as the posterior's normalization at a given level and as the likelihood function at the next level up. Whilst raising no objections to the standard application of the procedure at the two lowest levels, we argue that it should receive a considerable modification when evaluating paradigms, when testability and fitting data are equally important. By considering toy models we illustrate how models and paradigms that are difficult to falsify are always favoured by the Bayes factor. We argue that the evidence for a paradigm should not only be high for a given dataset, but exceptional with respect to what it would have been, had the data been different. With this motivation we propose a measure which we term predictivity, as well as a prior to be incorporated into the Bayesian framework, penalising unpredictivity as much as not fitting data. We apply this measure to inflation seen as a whole, and to a scenario where a specific inflationary model is hypothetically deemed as the only one viable as a result of information alien to cosmology (e.g. Solar System gravity experiments, or particle physics input). We conclude that cosmic inflation is currently hard to falsify, but that this could change were external/additional information to cosmology to select one of its many models. We also compare this state of affairs to bimetric varying speed of light cosmology.

  11. Software engineering frameworks for the cloud computing paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmood, Zaigham

    2013-01-01

    This book presents the latest research on Software Engineering Frameworks for the Cloud Computing Paradigm, drawn from an international selection of researchers and practitioners. The book offers both a discussion of relevant software engineering approaches and practical guidance on enterprise-wide software deployment in the cloud environment, together with real-world case studies. Features: presents the state of the art in software engineering approaches for developing cloud-suitable applications; discusses the impact of the cloud computing paradigm on software engineering; offers guidance an

  12. Robot Choreography: Performance Paradigms for Experimental HRI Setups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochum, Elizabeth Ann; Heath, Damith

    2016-01-01

    We propose a robust framework for combining performance paradigms with human robot interaction (HRI) research. Following an analysis of several case studies that combine the performing arts with HRI experiments, we propose a methodology and “best practices” for implementing choreography and other...... performance paradigms in HRI experiments. Case studies include experiments conducted in laboratory settings, “in the wild”, and live performance settings. We consider the technical and artistic challenges of designing and staging robots alongside humans in these various settings, and discuss how to combine...

  13. Overview of New Paradigms in the Field of Plant Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhia Bouktila

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Paradigm shifts are the core of scientific revolutions. They change how we view the world, the questions that scientists consider worth asking and the manner of doing science. There is often talk of paradigm shifts in reference to a global change of theory, such as the eclipsing of the geocentric by the heliocentric world vision (Copernican theory, the discovery of plate tectonics, the particular theory of heredity (Mendelian theory, or the discovery that DNA is the physical carrier of inheritance. Furthermore, paradigm shifts are used to refer to drastic changes occurring at a narrower scale, and triggering a number of backbone modifications in conceptional systems within the concerned disciplines. Recent biology is passing through a critical cross-road from reductionist concepts and methodologies towards the postgenomic, holistic, systems-based analyses of integrated and communicative networks of life processes. As a fundamental part of biology, plant sciences have been witnessing a number of paradigm shifts that have become evident since the dawn of this 21st century, which I treat here after. Paradigm shifts are the core of scientific revolutions. They change how we view the world, the questions that scientists consider worth asking and the manner of doing science. There is often talk of paradigm shifts in reference to a global change of theory, such as the eclipsing of the geocentric by the heliocentric world vision (Copernican theory, the discovery of plate tectonics, the particular theory of heredity (Mendelian theory, or the discovery that DNA is the physical carrier of inheritance. Furthermore, paradigm shifts are used to refer to drastic changes occurring at a narrower scale, and triggering a number of backbone modifications in conceptional systems within the concerned disciplines. Recent biology is passing through a critical cross-road from reductionist concepts and methodologies towards the postgenomic, holistic, systems

  14. Why empowerment does not empower: the bankruptcy of current paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belasco, J A; Gorham, G

    1996-03-01

    As a result of the rapid changes taking place in health care, nurse leaders are more challenged than ever to assume a new and different kind of leadership. Under the current paradigm, leaders are responsible for the performance of their people. Leaders do things TO the organization and the people in it. That paradigm of leader responsibility for other people's performance, given today's circumstances, guarantees organizational failure. A radical transformation in leadership thinking must take place. The leader's job is to get the people to be responsible for their own performance. PMID:8696832

  15. Place of great extinctions in the new ecological paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Я. Кипоренко

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper demonstrates importance of the knowledge of the causes and consequences of the Great extinctions that occurred before the origin of man, in the formation of a new environmental paradigm. Were described methodological foundations of paleoecological studies. Were analyzed the fossilized remains found directly by the authors on the territory of Ukraine. In the development of new environmental paradigm is necessary to consider knowledge of the great extinction (the knowledge of the past, because it is an event, that can be used not only to study past, as well as predicting the same events in the future

  16. Fingerprints of Primordial Universe Paradigms as Features in Density Perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xingang

    2011-01-01

    Experimentally distinguishing different primordial universe paradigms that lead to the Big Bang model is an outstanding challenge in modern cosmology and astrophysics. We show that a generic type of signals that exist in primordial universe models can be used for such purpose. These signals are induced by tiny oscillations of massive fields and manifest as features in primordial density perturbations. They are capable of recording the time-dependence of the scale factor of the primordial universe, and therefore provide direct evidence for specific paradigm.

  17. Dynamics of systems and change in the accounting paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Juliao Rossi

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this document is to demonstrate the potential of the dynamics of systems as a thinking trend which may help in the understanding process and the construction of an accounting paradigm change. This objective is framed inside a wider purpose: to propase interdisciplinary encounters that contribute to the necessary paradigm change. The described problem is studied from the «System Thinking», which is an approach with theoretical framework and representation and simulation tools related to the tapie.

  18. Communications for alternative development: towards a paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, R

    1984-01-01

    fulfill basic needs, and to preserve cultural deversity. The development process must be politicized and controlled by the people rather than by technocrats and bureaucrats. The role of the state must be reevaluated. After World War II, the state was perceived as having the capacity to liberalize and equalize society. The state has failed to live up to this expectation. Social equality must be established through democratization. Social classes must be redefined, the inablity of the proletariat to absorb the poor must be recognized, and consumerism must be curbed. Communication is the tool which can promote the cause of human survival and human dignity and expose the agenda of the strong forces which, in reality, constitutes a global project to end humanity. This agenda is pursued by scientists and elitists around the world. Their activities and policies will doom mankind to nuclear war, or to violent conflict over resources, or to the destruction of the world's poor. PMID:12313651

  19. Parametri, Variabili e altro: Un ripensamento su come questi concetti sono presentati in classe (Variable Parameters and Other Issues: A Review of How These Concepts Are Presented in Class).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarugi, Ivana; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of variables, in particular parameters, analyzes how these concepts are presented in textbooks, comments on paradigms of exercises in which parameters intervene, and points out difficulties encountered by students. Discusses results of teacher interviews concerning their dealing with parameters in class.…

  20. Class Participation: Promoting In-Class Student Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Kevin J.

    2013-01-01

    Class participation has long been valued by faculty members interested in engaging students in the learning process. This paper discusses class participation and shares participation techniques that promote active student engagement during class meetings. Emphasis is placed on techniques that invite a larger number of students into a course's…

  1. Class Action and Class Settlement in a European Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2013-01-01

    The article analyses the options for introducing common European rules on class action lawsuits with an opt-out-model in individual cases. An analysis is made of how the risks of misuse of class actions can be prevented. The article considers the Dutch rules on class settlements (the WCAM procedure...

  2. An "expanded" class perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steur, Luisa Johanna

    2014-01-01

    Following the police raid on the ‘Muthanga’ land occupation by Adivasi (‘indigenous’) activists in Kerala, India, in February 2003, intense public debate erupted about the fate of Adivasis in this ‘model’ development state. Most commentators saw the land occupation either as the fight...... capitalist relations, the exact social processes under which they were having to make a living, and what had only recently—and still largely ambiguously—made them ready to identify themselves politically as ‘Adivasi’. Demonstrating the usefulness of ethnographic curiosity driven by an ‘expanded’ class...

  3. The Class of '34

    OpenAIRE

    Cairney, Richard

    1995-01-01

    The Great Depression raged, governments were beleaguered, the unemployment rate stood at 30%, scurvy stalked the poor and no one was immune to contagious diseases such as scarlet fever, polio and measles when the University of Alberta School of Medicine's Class of '34 graduated. For four alumni who recently gathered in Edmonton—Drs. Morley Hodgson, Melvin Gaudin, John McLurg and Edmund Cairns—their 60th-anniversary reunion was a time to recall the changes they have witnessed in medicine, incl...

  4. Applying universal scaling laws to identify the best molecular design paradigms for second-order nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Perez-Moreno, Javier; Kuzyk, Mark G

    2016-01-01

    We apply scaling and the theory of the fundamental limits of the second-order molecular susceptibility to identify material classes with ultralarge nonlinear-optical response. Size effects are removed by normalizing all nonlinearities to get intrinsic values so that the scaling behavior of a series of molecular homologues can be determined. Several new figures of merit are proposed that quantify the desirable properties for molecules that can be designed by adding a sequence of repeat units, and used in the assessment of the data. Three molecular classes are found. They are characterized by sub-scaling, nominal scaling, or super-scaling. Super-scaling homologues most efficiently take advantage of increased size. We apply our approach to data currently available in the literature to identify the best super-scaling molecular paradigms with the aim of identifying desirable traits of new materials.

  5. Mining Java Class Naming Conventions

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Simon; Wermelinger, Michel; Yu, Yijun; Sharp, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Class names represent the concepts implemented in object-oriented source code and are key elements in program comprehension and, thus, software maintenance. Programming conventions often state that class names should be noun-phrases, but there is little further guidance for developers on the composition of class names. Other researchers have observed that the majority of Java class identifier names are composed of one or more nouns preceded, optionally, by one or more adjectives. However, no ...

  6. Academic Performance, School Desertion and Emotional Paradigm in University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Emma Rosa Cruz; Barrientos, Laura Gática; Castro, Patricia Eugenia García; García, Jesús Hernández

    2010-01-01

    The present work aims to describe academic performance, school desertion and the emotional paradigm of the university students of the accounting school of the Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla (FCPBUAP). We have found that low academic performance is related to students' economic deficiency, which affects their concentration on their…

  7. Environmental Concerns and the New Environmental Paradigm in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostrom, Ann; Barke, Richard; Turaga, Rama Mohana R.; O'Connor, Robert E.

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about environmental concerns and attitudes among people in former Soviet bloc countries in Eastern Europe despite widespread perceptions of severe environmental problems. The authors addressed this gap by examining Bulgarians' environmental concerns with a focus on whether the new environmental paradigm (NEP) scale can reliably…

  8. The New Environmental Paradigm Scale: From Marginality to Worldwide Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Riley E.

    2008-01-01

    The New Environmental Paradigm (NEP) Scale, published in "The Journal of Environmental Education" by R. E. Dunlap and K. D. Van Liere (1978), has become the most widely used measure of environmental concern in the world and been employed in hundreds of studies in dozens of nations. This article tells the story of the NEP Scale, beginning with how…

  9. In Search of a New Paradigm for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schejbal, David

    2012-01-01

    In this essay I argue that online education, artificial intelligence, and market pressures are driving higher education to adopt the industrial model and to find a new paradigm for delivering education at low costs. In addition, there is tremendous pressure from the federal government to make universities more accountable while making higher…

  10. Changing Paradigms: A Sketch for Sustainable Wellbeing and Ecosocial Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuuli Hirvilammi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We live in the Anthropocene era, where human action has an unforeseen impact on global ecosystems. This is visible, for instance, in climate change, in the loss of biodiversity and in the acidification of the oceans. Little attention is given to the fact that the Anthropocene is related to anthropocentric thinking that also guides our policies. Therefore, we argue that ecologically and socially sustainable policies will not be achieved by incidental policy measures alone, but a change of paradigm is needed. In our article, we lay out the tenets of a relational paradigm resting on holistic thinking and deep ecology. On the basis of this paradigm, the principles, conceptions and goals specific to any given policy can be formulated, giving them a common ground. In this article, we apply the relational paradigm to social policy in order to contribute to the quest for sustainable wellbeing in the overconsuming welfare states. Here, we formulate a multidimensional and relational conception of wellbeing, the HDLB-model (Having-Doing-Loving-Being, which is a modification of sociologist Erik Allardt’s theory. We illustrate how this model could provide the foundation of a sustainable ecosocial policy.

  11. Mass Communication and Relative Reality: A Conceptual Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethel, James A.

    Addressed to the alleged state of arrested development in current mass communication research, this paper traces contraditions in research findings to possible flaws in the basic research paradigm. The author's purpose is to stimulate and provoke discussion of the methodological implications for mass communication research in terms of two opposing…

  12. Identity-based marketing : A new balanced marketing paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsem, K.J.; Kostelijk, E.J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to propose a fundamentally new extension of the marketing paradigm. This is theoretically and practically necessary since in the authors' view there is an insufficient balance between customer and brand thinking. Design/methodology/approach - While the marketin

  13. Shifting paradigms of nontuberculous mycobacteria in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Tavs; Pressler, Tania; Høiby, Niels;

    2014-01-01

    Important paradigms of pulmonary disease with nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are currently shifting based on an increasing attention within the field of cystic fibrosis (CF). These shifts are likely to benefit the management of all patients with pulmonary NTM, regardless of underlying pathology...

  14. Think globally, research locally: paradigms and place in agroecological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Heather L; Smith, Alex A; Farmer, James R

    2014-10-01

    Conducting science for practical ends implicates scientists, whether they wish it or not, as agents in social-ecological systems, raising ethical, economic, environmental, and political issues. Considering these issues helps scientists to increase the relevance and sustainability of research outcomes. As we rise to the worthy call to connect basic research with food production, scientists have the opportunity to evaluate alternative food production paradigms and consider how our research funds and efforts are best employed. In this contribution, we review some of the problems produced by science conducted in service of industrial agriculture and its associated economic growth paradigm. We discuss whether the new concept of "ecological intensification" can rescue the industrial agriculture/growth paradigm and present an emerging alternative paradigm of decentralized, localized, biodiversity-promoting agriculture for a steady-state economy. This "custom fit" agriculture engages constructively with complex and highly localized ecosystems, and we draw from examples of published work to demonstrate how ecologists can contribute by using approaches that acknowledge local agricultural practices and draw on community participation.

  15. A Longitudinal analysis of the Porterian paradigm utilization in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Sehnem

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to investigate to what extent Michael Porter's ideas keep attracting the interest of Brazilian researchers vis-à-vis other possibilities. In this research, we conceptualize Porter's paradigm by the the following elements: strategic groups, generic strategies, model of the five forces and value chain. Weanalyzed conferece communications to EnANPAD¿s, from 1998 to 2008, and to 3Es, from 2003to 2007. The results indicate a decline in the use of the porterian paradigm as the main axis of research in strategy. The generic strategies and the model of five forces are the elements of Porter's paradigm most employed, while the concepts of strategic groups and value chain are the ones that received less attention by researchers. The analysis of methodology and purpose of comunications indicates that the "porterian life" in Brazil was characterized by the acritical use of its concepts in order to describe the reality of the strategy in Brazil. There are no evidences of consistent and systematic attempts to test or adapt the porterian paradigm for the Brazilian context. And results indicate no evidences that this trend will be reversed.

  16. Human Nature and Research Paradigms: Theory Meets Physical Therapy Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plack, Margaret M.

    2005-01-01

    Human nature is a very complex phenomenon. In physical therapy this complexity is enhanced by the need to understand the intersection between the art and science of human behavior and patient care. A paradigm is a set of basic beliefs that represent a worldview, defines the nature of the world and the individual's place in it, and helps to…

  17. User Perspective on a New Paradigm for Librarianship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parson, Willie L.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses a paradigm for academic librarianship that requires greater sensitivity to and identification with needs of library users. Centrality of library academic community is questioned, noting insistence of librarians on independent status of library and failure of bibliographic instruction programs to make issue of critical thinking top…

  18. Aesthetic Implications of the New Paradigm in Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simus, Jason Boaz

    2008-01-01

    The new paradigm in ecology emphasizes dynamic change, disturbance, and nonequilibrium in natural systems, and it presents some challenges for contemporary environmental aesthetics, one of which has to do with the thesis known as "scientific cognitivism." Scientific cognitivism holds that appropriate aesthetic appreciation of nature must be…

  19. Measuring Phantom Recollection in the Simplified Conjoint Recognition Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Christoph; Klauer, Karl Christoph

    2009-01-01

    False memories are sometimes strong enough to elicit recollective experiences. This phenomenon has been termed Phantom Recollection (PR). The Conjoint Recognition (CR) paradigm has been used to empirically separate PR from other memory processes. Recently, a simplification of the CR procedure has been proposed. We herein extend the simplified CR…

  20. A Tour of a New Paradigm: Relationships and Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blustein, David L.; Medvide, Mary Beth; Kozan, Saliha

    2012-01-01

    The authors provide a reaction to the Major Contribution by Richardson in this issue of "The Counseling Psychologist" on the counseling for work and relationships perspective. The authors examine the trajectory of Richardson's work, beginning with her seminal article in 1993, which set the stage for a new paradigm for vocational psychology.…

  1. Internationalisation policies: about new trends and contrasting paradigms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wende, van der Marijk C.

    2001-01-01

    In this article, internationalisation of higher education is analysed as a response to globalisation. A distinction is made between two paradigms in internationalisation: competition and cooperation. The different approaches to internationalisation in the Anglo-Saxon countries on the one hand and in

  2. Instructional Design and Technology Grounded in Enactivism: A Paradigm Shift?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Clark, Bruce; Winchester, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Although traditional instructional design and technology (IDT) has largely been based on objectivism, in the past 20 years, constructivism has emerged as a dominant framework for IDT. Both perspectives, however, present shortcomings. This paper explores enactivism--an emerging new philosophical world view--as an alternative paradigm. It also…

  3. Leveling the Playing Field: The Normed-Opportunity Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Alicia; Cormier, Bret T.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the practices, beliefs, and attitudes of secondary teachers in order to identify factors that led to success for non-dominant-group students. We found a unique paradigm among educators whose students of color and/or poverty showed no achievement gap. Rather than coming from a deficit perspective or one expecting assimilation, those…

  4. Finding a Way out of the Ethnographic Paradigm Jungle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Subhadip; Banerjee, Pratyush

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an attempt has been made to develop a hybrid ethnographic paradigm, taking the best points from the different approaches of ethnographic research. The pioneering proponents of ethnography differed in their conceptualization of the method, resulting in the development of three distinct schools of thought-holistic, semiotic and…

  5. The Borwn-Peterson Paradigm: A Comparison of Scoring Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, John J., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The short term memory performance of three groups of nonretarded and one group of 36 mentally retarded persons (mean mental age of 8.95 years) who were tested using the Brown-Peterson paradigm was compared using two scoring methods. (Author/SW)

  6. Governance Paradigms of Public Universities: An International Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Joe

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to develop a conceptual model of the wider influencing forces impacting the governance paradigms of public universities. It draws on the multi-theoretical governance concept and seeks to identify these forces through the lens of chief audit executives using a qualitative research approach. The interview data supported by published…

  7. A nonmusical paradigm for identifying absolute pitch possessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, David A.; Olson, Ingrid R.; Marks, Lawrence E.; Gore, John C.

    2004-09-01

    The ability to identify and reproduce sounds of specific frequencies is remarkable and uncommon. The etiology and defining characteristics of this skill, absolute pitch (AP), have been very controversial. One theory suggests that AP requires a specific type of early musical training and that the ability to encode and remember tones depends on these learned musical associations. An alternate theory argues that AP may be strongly dependent on hereditary factors and relatively independent of musical experience. To date, it has been difficult to test these hypotheses because all previous paradigms for identifying AP have required subjects to employ knowledge of musical nomenclature. As such, these tests are insensitive to the possibility of discovering AP in either nonmusicians or musicians of non-Western training. Based on previous literature in pitch memory, a paradigm is presented that is intended to distinguish between AP possessors and nonpossessors independent of the subjects' musical experience. The efficacy of this method is then tested with 20 classically defined AP possessors and 22 nonpossessors. Data from these groups strongly support the validity of the paradigm. The use of a nonmusical paradigm to identify AP may facilitate research into many aspects of this phenomenon.

  8. The new rural paradigm and the leader method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2013-01-01

    I am going today to speak on rural development and how it is currently practiced in Europe, with a specific focus on the new rural paradigm and the LEADER method. I will try to explain the background and setup of rural development in the European Union, and try to describe the principles of the so...

  9. A New Leadership Paradigm for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodland, Calvin; Parsons, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Leadership in the 21st century will require new insights and a new paradigm. With nearly 100 years of combined experience in community college teaching and administration, the authors of this chapter blend theory and experience into a design for engaging the "new normal."

  10. Teaching International Business Abroad: Paradigms Suggested by Metaphor Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr-Glass, David

    2009-01-01

    When International Business (IB) is taught abroad, the educational institution has to decide on organizational issues and educational and teaching paradigms. College and university programs abroad can adopt organizational values and identities similar to the home institution, or adapt to local operating environments. Likewise, educational and…

  11. Humanistic Paradigms of Education in the Postmodern Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šarkan, Martin; Nemec, Rastislav

    2010-01-01

    This study portrays the present social trends of the educational system against the background of the transformation of the social institutions that emerge as a result of the general changes to the social paradigm. These transformations have a direct impact on questions over classical humanistic ideals and educational goals relating to the social…

  12. TRANSITIONAL PARADIGM AS AN EXPLANATION FOR THE DEMOCRATIZATION PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerti Sqapi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the last quarter of the century, the transitional paradigm (or the approach of the transition has been a dominant paradigm that has greatly influenced different studies on democratization. The purpose of this paper, in a general perspective, is to conduct an analysis of the transitional paradigm, assumptions, key concepts, and hypotheses developed thereof, in order to evaluate the validity or at least be able to understand and explain the processes of democratization wave that affected third world countries.  Development of literature and studies within the conceptual framework of this paradigm was mainly conducted during the period of what is known as “the third wave of democratization.” Explanation and direction of change from autocratic to democratic regimes, evident in those countries affected by the third wave, were the main claim of the transition approach.  This paper attempts to investigate the validity of the conceptual framework of this approach with respect to the interpretation (and change of directions of the democratization processes in these countries.

  13. Aspects of Theories, Frameworks and Paradigms in Mathematics Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoilescu, Dorian

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses major theoretical debates and paradigms from the last decades in general education and their specific influences in mathematics education contexts. Behaviourism, cognitive science, constructivism, situated cognition, critical theory, place-based learning, postmodernism and poststructuralism and their significant aspects in…

  14. Developing Cultural Understanding: The Culture Triangle Paradigm in FCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Deborah A.; Schmidt-Rinehart, Barbara C.; Morris, Nancy A.

    2011-01-01

    Academic institutions as well as professional organizations are faced with providing their constituents with the knowledge and tools that will enable them to interact with people of other cultures--to be global citizens in both their personal and professional lives. The foreign language profession developed a paradigm that has been effectively…

  15. Resolving infrared singularities of QCD through the vertex paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    Cornwall, John M

    2014-01-01

    We furnish details and extensions for the vertex paradigm and related ideas. The vertex paradigm is a method for dealing non-perturbatively with the Schwinger-Dyson equations (SDE) of asymptotically-free (AF) gauge theories such as QCD, even in the face of necessary approximations. It provides a useful truncation for the infinitely-many SDE of the gauge- and renormalization-group invariant Pinch Technique (PT-RGI). We implement the vertex paradigm by successive approximations at the one-dressed-loop level, postulating input tree-level gluon and ghost propagators and a 3-gluon vertex that are well-behaved in the infrared and also satisfy several crucial PT-RGI Ward identities that are QED-like and ghost-free. Good IR behavior is assured by including a (non-running) gauge-invariant dynamical gluon and ghost mass as part of the input. The non-trivial part of the vertex paradigm is that, with our inputs, the one-loop output vertex then satisfies the correct Ward identity from which we can construct the output glu...

  16. A Paradigm for the Telephonic Assessment of Suicidal Ideation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halderman, Brent L.; Eyman, James R.; Kerner, Lisa; Schlacks, Bill

    2009-01-01

    A three-stage paradigm for telephonically assessing suicidal risk and triaging suicidal callers as practiced in an Employee Assistance Program Call Center was investigated. The first hypothesis was that the use of the procedure would increase the probability that callers would accept the clinician's recommendations, evidenced by fewer police…

  17. The Credit Crisis and Recession as a Paradigm Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, Dirk J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper contributes to the debate on what economics can learn from the credit crisis and recession. It asks what are the elements in the mainstream paradigm that caused many economists to misjudge the state of the economy so dramatically in the years leading up to the 2007 credit crisis and the 2

  18. Solar Ethics: A New Paradigm for Environmental Ethics and Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A.; Hung, Ruyu

    2009-01-01

    This article provides grounds for a new paradigm of environmental ethics and education based on the centrality of the sun and solar system--a shift from anthropocentrism to solar systemism. The article provides some grounds for this shift from the physical sciences that considers the planet Earth as part of a wider system that is dependent upon…

  19. Paradigm shifts in orthodontic treatment with mini-implant anchorage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny Joung-Lin Liaw

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available After the applications of mini-implant anchorage, the envelope of orthodontic treatment was expanded and some treatment modes were changed because of more predictable tooth movement with empowered anchorage. The author tried to share his experience of TADs applications for clarifying the paradigm shifts of orthodontic treatment assisted with the mini-implant anchorage.

  20. Innovation Policy Development and the Emergence of New Innovation Paradigms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan; Knudsen, Mette Præst; Bisgaard, Tanja;

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present article is to discuss innovation policy issues related to three emerging innovation paradigms: user-driven innovation, open innovation, and value co-creation. It provides a summary of insights based on innovation policy practices and challenges in Denmark....

  1. CARMA: Management infrastructure and middleware for multi-paradigm computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troxel, Ian A.

    A recent trend toward multi-paradigm systems that couple General-Purpose Processors (GPPs) and other special-purpose devices such as Field-Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) has shown impressive speedups. In fact, some researchers see such systems as vital to extending an anticipated slowing of Moore's law. However, extracting the full potential of large-scale, multi-paradigm, High-Performance Computing (HPC) systems has proven difficult due in part to a lack of traditional job management services upon which HPC users have come to rely. In this dissertation, the Comprehensive Approach to Reconfigurable Management Architecture (CARMA) is introduced and investigated. CARMA attempts to address the issue of large-scale, multi-paradigm system utilization by (1) providing a scalable, modular framework standard upon which other scholarly work can build; (2) conducting feasibility and tradeoff analysis of key components to determine strategies for reducing overhead and increasing performance and functionality; and (3) deploying initial prototypes with baseline services to receive feedback from the research community. In order to serve the needs of a wide range of HPC users, versions of CARMA tailored to two unique processing paradigms have been deployed and studied on an embedded space system and Beowulf cluster. Several scholarly contributions have been made by developing and analyzing the first comprehensive framework to date for job and resource management and services. CARMA is a first step toward developing an open standard with a modular design that will spur inventiveness and foster industry, government and scholarly collaboration much like Condor, Globus and the Open Systems Interconnect model have done for the cluster, grid and networking environments. Developing and evaluating components to fill out the CARMA infrastructure provided key insight into how future multi-paradigm runtime management services should be structured. In addition, deploying initial prototypes

  2. Reconciling Virtual Classes with Genericity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2006-01-01

    classes. As a result, a kind of type parameters have been introduced, but they are simple and only used where they excel. Conversely, final definitions of virtual classes have been re- moved from the language, thus making virtual classes more flexible. The result- ing language presents a clearer and more...

  3. Team Learning in Large Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Information and suggestions are provided on the use of team learning in large college classes. Introductory material discusses the negative cycle of student-teacher interaction that may be provoked by large classes, and the use of permanent, heterogeneous, six- or seven-member student learning groups as the central focus of class activity as a…

  4. Class Discovery in Galaxy Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Bazell, D; Bazell, David; Miller, David J.

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, automated, supervised classification techniques have been fruitfully applied to labeling and organizing large astronomical databases. These methods require off-line classifier training, based on labeled examples from each of the (known) object classes. In practice, only a small batch of labeled examples, hand-labeled by a human expert, may be available for training. Moreover, there may be no labeled examples for some classes present in the data, i.e. the database may contain several unknown classes. Unknown classes may be present due to 1) uncertainty in or lack of knowledge of the measurement process, 2) an inability to adequately ``survey'' a massive database to assess its content (classes), and/or 3) an incomplete scientific hypothesis. In recent work, new class discovery in mixed labeled/unlabeled data was formally posed, with a proposed solution based on mixture models. In this work we investigate this approach, propose a competing technique suitable for class discovery in neural network...

  5. Network class superposition analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Carl A B; Zeng, Chen; Simha, Rahul

    2013-01-01

    Networks are often used to understand a whole system by modeling the interactions among its pieces. Examples include biomolecules in a cell interacting to provide some primary function, or species in an environment forming a stable community. However, these interactions are often unknown; instead, the pieces' dynamic states are known, and network structure must be inferred. Because observed function may be explained by many different networks (e.g., ≈ 10(30) for the yeast cell cycle process), considering dynamics beyond this primary function means picking a single network or suitable sample: measuring over all networks exhibiting the primary function is computationally infeasible. We circumvent that obstacle by calculating the network class ensemble. We represent the ensemble by a stochastic matrix T, which is a transition-by-transition superposition of the system dynamics for each member of the class. We present concrete results for T derived from boolean time series dynamics on networks obeying the Strong Inhibition rule, by applying T to several traditional questions about network dynamics. We show that the distribution of the number of point attractors can be accurately estimated with T. We show how to generate Derrida plots based on T. We show that T-based Shannon entropy outperforms other methods at selecting experiments to further narrow the network structure. We also outline an experimental test of predictions based on T. We motivate all of these results in terms of a popular molecular biology boolean network model for the yeast cell cycle, but the methods and analyses we introduce are general. We conclude with open questions for T, for example, application to other models, computational considerations when scaling up to larger systems, and other potential analyses. PMID:23565141

  6. 78 FR 36787 - Rechanneling the Current Cardiac Risk Paradigm: Arrhythmia Risk Assessment During Drug...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Rechanneling the Current Cardiac Risk Paradigm: Arrhythmia... the Current Cardiac Risk Paradigm: Arrhythmia Risk Assessment During Drug Development Without...

  7. The changing paradigm: estrogen receptor α recognition on DNA and within the dynamic nature of nucleosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William M. Scovell

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα plays a major role in the expression of estrogen-responsive genes. Although its conventional binding characteristics have been considered coincident with & exclusively in the class of steroid hormone receptors, increasing evidence challenges this paradigm. ERα was shown to bind to consensus estrogen response element half-sites (cHERE in DNA in the presence of the ubiquitous, abundant & conserved architectural protein, high mobility group protein 1 (HMGB1. It also binds to direct repeats with various spacers, in addition to everted repeats. These in vitro binding sites have been shown to be active in vivo, with both the binding affinity and transcriptional activity increased in the presence of HMGB1. Surprisingly, ERα does not bind to the optimally oriented cERE at the dyad in rotationally phased and translationally positioned nucleosomes. However, the presence of HMGB1 restructures the nucleosome to facilitate increased ERα accessibility, resulting in sequence-specific estrogen receptor binding. The finding that HMGB1 interacts with unbound ERα provides a unique avenue for enhanced ERα activity and possibly an increase in the extent of targeting at estrogen-responsive genes. The findings are consistent with ERα 1 targeting a much wider selection of genomic response elements (half-sites and inverted, direct and everted repeats and 2 exhibiting characteristics of both steroid and non steroid nuclear receptors. Growing evidence already shows a competition occurs at the DNA level between ERα and the non steroid nuclear hormone receptor, thyroid receptor (TR. Collectively, these reports suggest a less restrictive cataloging for estrogen receptor and a broader paradigm for understanding its role in the regulation of estrogen-responsive genes and influence on non steroid hormone receptor activities.

  8. Paradigms in the study of creativity: introducing the perspective of cultural psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Glăveanu, Vlad Petre

    2010-01-01

    This article identifies three paradigms in creativity theory and research in psychology. The He-paradigm, focused on the solitary genius, has been followed, mainly after the 1950s, by the I-paradigm, equally individualistic in nature but attributing creativity to each and every individual. Extending this view, the We-paradigm incorporates what became known as the social psychology of creativity. The cultural psychology of creativity builds upon this last theoretical approach while being criti...

  9. Visualizing and tracking the growth of competing paradigms: Two case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, C.; Cribbin, T; Morar, S S; Macredie, R

    2002-01-01

    In this article we demonstrate the use of an integrative approach to visualizing and tracking the development of scientific paradigms. This approach is designed to reveal the long-term process of competing scientific paradigms. We assume that a cluster of highly cited and cocited scientific publications in a cocitation network represents the core of a predominant scientific paradigm. The growth of a paradigm is depicted and animated through the rise of citation rates and the movement of it...

  10. On the Relationship Between the Object-Oriented Paradigm and Software Reuse: An Empirical Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, John A.; Henry, Sallie M.; Kafura, Dennis G.; Schulman, Robert S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a controlled experiment designed to evaluate the impact of the object-oriented paradigm on software reuse. The experiment concludes that (1) the object-oriented paradigm substantially improves productivity over the procedural paradigm, (2) language differences are far more important when programmers reuse than when they do not, (3) under both moderate and strong encouragement to reuse, the object-oriented paradigm promotes higher productivity than the proce...

  11. E-learning paradigmer og e-learning strategiudvikling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus, Henrik Johannsen

    2003-01-01

    E-learning området er meget varieret hvad angår produkter, holdninger ogmeninger, og indeholder også en del 'støj' og mytedannelser, som afspejles i såvel denakademisk-videnskabelige som den journalistisk-offentlige debat om området. Dennevariation i såvel produkter som udtrykte meninger søges...... systematiseret og ordnet i fireidealtypiske paradigmer. Det vises, hvorledes disse fire paradigmer har hver sinebestemte karakteristika og udviklingsgrænser. Dette har afgørende strategisk betydningfor virksomheders og læreanstalters udvikling af e-learning, idet forkerte paradigmevalgvil hæmme udviklingen....

  12. Philosophy of science and the emerging paradigm: implications for hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osowiec, Darlene A

    2014-01-01

    Within the hypnosis field, there is a disparity between clinical and research worldviews. Clinical practitioners work with patients who are dealing with serious, often unique, real-world problems-lived experience. Researchers adhere to objective measurements, standardization, data, and statistics. Although there is overlap, an ongoing divergence can be counterproductive to the hypnosis field and to the larger professional and social contexts. The purpose of this article is: (1) to examine some of the major assumptions, the history, and the philosophy that undergird the definition of science, which was constructed in the mid-17th century; (2) to discover how science is a product of prevailing social forces and is undergoing a paradigm shift; and (3) to understand the more encompassing, holistic paradigm with implications for the hypnosis field.

  13. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency: Beyond the Protease/Antiprotease Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosio, Manuel G; Bazzan, Erica; Rigobello, Chiara; Tinè, Mariaenrica; Turato, Graziella; Baraldo, Simonetta; Saetta, Marina

    2016-08-01

    From the discovery that alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) was an effective inhibitor of neutrophil elastase originated the classic paradigm of protease/antiprotease imbalance, linking lung destruction to the unopposed effect of proteases in patients with the deficiency. Notwithstanding its importance as an antiprotease, it has become evident that alpha-1 antitrypsin has important antiinflammatory and immune-regulatory activities, which may be critically involved in lung destruction. We review here recent evidence showing that, indeed, an important adaptive immune reaction is present in lungs with AAT deficiency, similar to the one seen in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with normal AAT. On the basis of recent evidence from epidemiological, clinical, and pathogenetic studies, it is likely time to move on from the original protease/antiprotease hypothesis for the production of emphysema toward a more complex paradigm, involving the antiinflammatory and immune modulating functions of AAT. PMID:27564665

  14. Towards a new paradigm: Activity level balanced sustainability reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samudhram, Ananda; Siew, Eu-Gene; Sinnakkannu, Jothee; Yeow, Paul H P

    2016-11-01

    Technoeconomic paradigms based economic growth theories suggest that waves of technological innovations drove the economic growth of advanced economies. Widespread economic degradation and pollution is an unintended consequence of such growth. Tackling environmental and social issues at firm levels would help us to overcome such issues at macro-levels. Consequently, the Triple Bottom Line (TBL) reporting approach promotes firm level economic, environmental and social performances. Incorporating Zink's (2014) 3-pillar presentation model, this paper indicates that economic, social and environmental performances tend to be reported at firm level. All three pillars are not covered evenly at the activity levels. Thus, a loophole is identified whereby excellent environmental performance at activity levels could potentially leave poor social performance undisclosed. A refinement of the TBL paradigm, whereby all three pillars are covered at the activity level, is suggested, to enhance sustainability reporting. PMID:27029522

  15. [The clinician-scientist: proposal for a new paradigm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibovici, Leonard; Paul, Mical

    2010-10-01

    The decline in the attraction and prestige of the clinician-scientist paradigm is due to the dissonance between clinical work and conducting research in basic science. Medicine entails alleviating distress and prolonging life. Thus, medical research deals directly with the questions: what ails our patients and what shortens their lives? How can it be prevented? How can we alleviate suffering and prolong life? Research designs that fit these questions are: researcher (or patient) initiated randomized controlled trials; systematic reviews and meta-analysis; high-quality observational studies that address risk factors, natural history of disease, side-effects, and efficiency of treatment; research in ethics; and qualitative research. The clinician-scientist should perform medical research. Investing in this paradigm wilt encourage young doctors to conduct research directly oriented to benefit their patients.

  16. Local therapy, systemic benefit: challenging the paradigm of biological predeterminism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, J M

    2006-04-01

    This paper briefly reviews the historical evolution of paradigms that have been purported to characterise the clinical behaviour of breast cancer, with the intention of guiding treatment approaches. Results from randomised clinical trials and the explosion of knowledge in the area of cancer biology have discredited the monolithic paradigms that had dominated thinking about breast cancer in the past. Contemporary notions of breast cancer biology recognise that, although some cancers disseminate well before becoming clinically detectable, acquisition of a metastatic phenotype can occur at any point (or not at all) in the local evolution of the tumour. As a consequence, both systemic and timely local--regional therapies can be expected to influence disease dissemination and patient survival. This is consistent with results observed in clinical trials, overviews of which indicate that prevention of four local recurrences will, on the average, prevent one death from breast cancer. Optimisation of local-regional treatment is an important goal in breast cancer management. PMID:16605046

  17. Perception gustative des lipides alimentaires : paradigme et paradoxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaillard Dany

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Origin of spontaneous fat preference in mammals remains elusive. It is clearly a multimodal system resulting from the integration of orosensory and post-ingestive signals. For a long time, dietary lipids were thought to be only sensed in the oral cavity through their textural and olfactory cues. Recent data strongly suggest that the sense of taste also plays a significant role in the preference for lipid-rich foods and in lipid-mediated induction of cephalic phase of the digestion in rodents and in humans. Molecular and physiological mechanisms of this new paradigm become known. Some of these data were not fully expected and might be considered, as first sight, as paradoxical. The « fatty taste » paradigm and paradoxes are analyzed in this minireview.

  18. Compressive sensing as a paradigm for building physics models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Lance J.; Hart, Gus L. W.; Zhou, Fei; Ozoliņš, Vidvuds

    2013-01-01

    The widely accepted intuition that the important properties of solids are determined by a few key variables underpins many methods in physics. Though this reductionist paradigm is applicable in many physical problems, its utility can be limited because the intuition for identifying the key variables often does not exist or is difficult to develop. Machine learning algorithms (genetic programming, neural networks, Bayesian methods, etc.) attempt to eliminate the a priori need for such intuition but often do so with increased computational burden and human time. A recently developed technique in the field of signal processing, compressive sensing (CS), provides a simple, general, and efficient way of finding the key descriptive variables. CS is a powerful paradigm for model building; we show that its models are more physical and predict more accurately than current state-of-the-art approaches and can be constructed at a fraction of the computational cost and user effort.

  19. Towards a new paradigm: Activity level balanced sustainability reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samudhram, Ananda; Siew, Eu-Gene; Sinnakkannu, Jothee; Yeow, Paul H P

    2016-11-01

    Technoeconomic paradigms based economic growth theories suggest that waves of technological innovations drove the economic growth of advanced economies. Widespread economic degradation and pollution is an unintended consequence of such growth. Tackling environmental and social issues at firm levels would help us to overcome such issues at macro-levels. Consequently, the Triple Bottom Line (TBL) reporting approach promotes firm level economic, environmental and social performances. Incorporating Zink's (2014) 3-pillar presentation model, this paper indicates that economic, social and environmental performances tend to be reported at firm level. All three pillars are not covered evenly at the activity levels. Thus, a loophole is identified whereby excellent environmental performance at activity levels could potentially leave poor social performance undisclosed. A refinement of the TBL paradigm, whereby all three pillars are covered at the activity level, is suggested, to enhance sustainability reporting.

  20. Planning under uncertainties paradigm - application to electric power distribution systems planning; Paradigma de planejamento sob incertezas - aplicacao ao planejamento dos sistemas de distribuicao de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi Junior, Alberto

    1996-12-31

    In this work it is presented an original methodology of multistage planning, with conflictive objectives and restrictions, incorporating the concept of uncertainties. To do so, the proposed paradigm is based on the Dynamic Programming which comprehends the multistage subject to conflictive restrictions; on the Fuzzy Sets Theory, through the decisions and fuzzy numbers, which model the uncertainties and ambiguous decisions referent to qualitative variables; and on the consideration of evolutional rules associated to network flow algorithm. In its conceptual elaboration, the paradigm is developed in a very ample way, of generalized application to a well defined class of planning problems Particularly, the model fits in the flexible planning, which has been very discussed in the recent literature. Flexible planning must be understood as the one which allows to the planner, under well-defined limits, the evaluation of the planning policy composed by strips of options (discreet or continuous), associated to uncertainty levels related to the real world. In order to validate and consolidate the theoretic concepts, it was elaborated an algorithm turned to the aggregated planning of the distribution of electric energy, that presents intrinsic characteristics which are perfectly fitted in the paradigm`s applicability. (author) 41 refs., 26 figs., 36 tabs.

  1. Problem definition methodology for the "Communicating Material" paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Kubler, Sylvain; Derigent, William; Thomas, André; Rondeau, Eric

    2010-01-01

    International audience Today, more and more new technologies of information and wireless communication are useful for social, economic and industrial life. Auto-ID technologies such as RFID are a good example of that. The actual limits of these new systems are relative to their granularity, since items are the smallest parts of an ubiquitous system (Internet of things). In this paper we propose a "communicating material" new paradigm. Working on the credibility of this concept since some y...

  2. A new paradigm of knowledge engineering by soft computing

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, Liya

    2001-01-01

    Soft computing (SC) consists of several computing paradigms, including neural networks, fuzzy set theory, approximate reasoning, and derivative-free optimization methods such as genetic algorithms. The integration of those constituent methodologies forms the core of SC. In addition, the synergy allows SC to incorporate human knowledge effectively, deal with imprecision and uncertainty, and learn to adapt to unknown or changing environments for better performance. Together with other modern technologies, SC and its applications exert unprecedented influence on intelligent systems that mimic hum

  3. The Interculturality of MacWorld in the Globalitarian Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Nour Eddine Affaya

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The seminar’s director asks whether globalization represents a new intercultural dynamic or a will to hegemonic power. The term globalization is, by definition, a process in which the world participates, which it joins, in which it exchanges and communicates.Thus globalization is the carrier of a new paradigm between a tangible economic and communicative reality and an imagery, a phantasmagoria, an universe where imagery feeds on archetypes, prejudices, and dreams.

  4. Evolution of the marketing paradigm: a new vision

    OpenAIRE

    Galina V. ASTRATOVA; Olga A. Rushchitskaya

    2016-01-01

    Objective to confirm the feasibility of using the disciplinary matrix by Th. Kuhn in relation to the marketing theory. Methods paradigmatic and systemic methods of analysis of marketing phenomena. Results to date the paradigm as a specific tool of scientific research is poorly studied in the marketing methodology in contrast to other branches of knowledge. An analysis of available literature revealed no sources that use the famous disciplinary matrix by Th. Kuhn and its comp...

  5. Paradigm Regained? The Rules Of Wallersteins World-System Method

    OpenAIRE

    Walter L. Goldfrank

    2015-01-01

    The last third of the twentieth century was ushered in by a set ofeventswars, rebellions, ?nally economic crisisthat dealt a crushing blow to the previously dominant paradigm in U.S. social science, the structural-functionalist modernizationism elaborated by Talcott Parsons and his students. Within sociology, the site of much social science innovation in the post-war period, a notable splintering occurred. Already under-way in the early nineteen-sixties, this splintering was accelerated by th...

  6. SOCIAL INVESTMENT AS A NEW PARADIGM OF SOCIAL POLICY

    OpenAIRE

    Iveta Dudova

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the importance and potential benefits of social investment, particularly during times of economic imbalance. Social investment represents a new paradigm of social policy and a new approach to the economic challenges we are currently facing. The investigation concludes that this concept is based mainly on modernizing Europe’s social protection systems to ensure their sustainability, while enabling them to respond to new social needs. In times of crisi...

  7. Sustainable Public Procurement : a new policy paradigm in France ?

    OpenAIRE

    Le Velly, Ronan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the “new paradigm” of sustainable public procurement in France, that is, its cognitive and normative frameworks. Firstly, the author shows that the newness of this paradigm has to do with the identification of sustainable procurement as a stake in its own right. Next, he shows that the good practices associated with sustainable procurement are also new (close relationships with suppliers, systematic thought about what is needed, innovative methods of co...

  8. Happiness and the Family 2.0 Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocan, Rodica; Racorean, Stefana

    Does new media technology have the potential to make us happier? This paper explores the influence of new information communication technologies on family life satisfaction while analyzing some of the factors that determine changes in the way we live our lives in the information age. Family 2.0 is the new paradigm of family life and the emergence of Web 2.0 type of applications is at the very core of its existence.

  9. Paradigm shift: Can TQM save DOD's procurement process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Ross V.

    1992-11-01

    The Department of Defense's (DOD) ambitious introduction of total quality management (TQM) will fail, unless they change their paradigm and reengineer how they do business. TQM implementation in the defense department and possibilities for reengineering DOD's management structure were investigated. This paper uses a case study to investigate DOD's procurement efficiency and effectiveness with information technology. The findings show DOD is faced with its greatest challenge since WWII in meeting the rapidly evolving environment of the 1990s and the 21st century.

  10. 9/11 as a cause of paradigm shift?

    OpenAIRE

    Ehteshami, A.

    2007-01-01

    Paradigm shifts often occur in moments of trauma and profound dislocation. After a relatively long period of stability in the international system after 1945, the collapse of the Berlin Wall in 1989 has ushered in four dramatic powerful quakes in succession to destabilise the balance of power system which had been built around the superpower camps. These quakes have shaken the very foundations of the international systemic structures which had held the system steady for the pre...

  11. Bioengineering Heart Muscle: A Paradigm for Regenerative Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Lui, Kathy O; Tandon, Nina; Chien, Kenneth R.

    2011-01-01

    The idea of extending the lifetime of our organs is as old as humankind, fueled by major advances in organ transplantation, novel drugs, and medical devices. However, true regeneration of human tissue has becoming increasingly plausible only in recent years. The human heart has always been a focus of such efforts, given its notorious inability to repair itself following injury or disease. We discuss here the emerging bioengineering approaches to regeneration of heart muscle as a paradigm for ...

  12. How Citation Boosts Promote Scientific Paradigm Shifts and Nobel Prizes

    OpenAIRE

    Amin Mazloumian; Young-Ho Eom; Dirk Helbing; Sergi Lozano; Santo Fortunato

    2011-01-01

    Nobel Prizes are commonly seen to be among the most prestigious achievements of our times. Based on mining several million citations, we quantitatively analyze the processes driving paradigm shifts in science. We find that groundbreaking discoveries of Nobel Prize Laureates and other famous scientists are not only acknowledged by many citations of their landmark papers. Surprisingly, they also boost the citation rates of their previous publications. Given that innovations must outcompete the ...

  13. The challenges of neural mind-reading paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    Vilarroya, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    Neural mind-reading studies, based on multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) methods, are providing exciting new studies. Some of the results obtained with these paradigms have raised high expectations, such as the possibility of creating brain reading devices. However, such hopes are based on the assumptions that: (a) the BOLD signal is a marker of neural activity; (b) the BOLD pattern identified by a MVPA is a neurally sound pattern; (c) the MVPA's feature space is a good mapping of the neura...

  14. Osteoporosis: Modern Paradigms for Last Century’s Bones †

    OpenAIRE

    Kruger, Marlena C.; Wolber, Frances M.

    2016-01-01

    The skeleton is a metabolically active organ undergoing continuously remodelling. With ageing and menopause the balance shifts to increased resorption, leading to a reduction in bone mineral density and disruption of bone microarchitecture. Bone mass accretion and bone metabolism are influenced by systemic hormones as well as genetic and lifestyle factors. The classic paradigm has described osteoporosis as being a “brittle bone” disease that occurs in post-menopausal, thin, Caucasian women wi...

  15. The "Teucer Paradigm" and the Eastern Other in Western Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Bittarello, Maria Beatrice

    2007-01-01

    In her paper, "The 'Teucer Paradigm' and the Eastern Other in Western Literature," Maria Beatrice Bittarello argues that modern representations of characters with mixed-blood heritage (Western and Eastern) are rooted in classical representations of the Middle East and that such representations are thematically re-cast from a literary thematic archetype elaborated on in the ancient Greek and Roman cultures. Bittarello examines how Greek and Roman authors portray the Greek mythological hero Teu...

  16. The neoliberal policy paradigm and the great recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stein Howard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the relationship between neoliberal policies and the Great Recession with a focus on the persistence of the policy paradigm in spite of overwhelming evidence of its role in creating the crisis. These economic problems are only the latest that have arisen in the wake of the three long decade experiment with these policy packages. The paper investigates the ideological, methodological, historical, theoretical, political and economic interests underlying the perpetuation of neoliberalism.

  17. Computing discrete logarithm by interval-valued paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Nagy, Benedek; Vályi, Sándor

    2014-01-01

    Interval-valued computing is a relatively new computing paradigm. It uses finitely many interval segments over the unit interval in a computation as data structure. The satisfiability of Quantified Boolean formulae and other hard problems, like integer factorization, can be solved in an effective way by its massive parallelism. The discrete logarithm problem plays an important role in practice, there are cryptographical methods based on its computational hardness. In this paper we show that t...

  18. Testing paradigms of ecosystem change under climate warming in Antarctica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Melbourne-Thomas

    Full Text Available Antarctic marine ecosystems have undergone significant changes as a result of human activities in the past and are now responding in varied and often complicated ways to climate change impacts. Recent years have seen the emergence of large-scale mechanistic explanations-or "paradigms of change"-that attempt to synthesize our understanding of past and current changes. In many cases, these paradigms are based on observations that are spatially and temporally patchy. The West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP, one of Earth's most rapidly changing regions, has been an area of particular research focus. A recently proposed mechanistic explanation for observed changes in the WAP region relates changes in penguin populations to variability in krill biomass and regional warming. While this scheme is attractive for its simplicity and chronology, it may not account for complex spatio-temporal processes that drive ecosystem dynamics in the region. It might also be difficult to apply to other Antarctic regions that are experiencing some, though not all, of the changes documented for the WAP. We use qualitative network models of differing levels of complexity to test paradigms of change for the WAP ecosystem. Importantly, our approach captures the emergent effects of feedback processes in complex ecological networks and provides a means to identify and incorporate uncertain linkages between network elements. Our findings highlight key areas of uncertainty in the drivers of documented trends, and suggest that a greater level of model complexity is needed in devising explanations for ecosystem change in the Southern Ocean. We suggest that our network approach to evaluating a recent and widely cited paradigm of change for the Antarctic region could be broadly applied in hypothesis testing for other regions and research fields.

  19. Ordering schemes for sparse matrices using modern programming paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    Oliker, Leonid; Li, Xiaoye,; Husbands, Parry; Biswas, Rupak

    2000-01-01

    The Conjugate Gradient (CG) algorithm is perhaps the best-known iterative technique to solve sparse linear systems that are symmetric and positive definite. In previous work, we investigated the effects of various ordering and partitioning strategies on the performance of CG using different programming paradigms and architectures. This paper makes several extensions to our prior research. First, we present a hybrid(MPI+OpenMP) implementation of the CG algorithm on the IBM SP and show th...

  20. LOD wars: The affected-sib-pair paradigm strikes back!

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrall, M. [Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    1997-03-01

    In a recent letter, Greenberg et al. aired their concerns that the affected-sib-pair (ASP) approach was becoming excessively popular, owing to misconceptions and ignorance of the properties and limitations of both the ASP and the classic LOD-score approaches. As an enthusiast of using the ASP approach to map susceptibility genes for multifactorial traits, I would like to contribute a few comments and explanatory notes in defense of the ASP paradigm. 18 refs.

  1. The human dynamic clamp as a paradigm for social interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Dumas, Guillaume; de Guzman, Gonzalo C.; Tognoli, Emmanuelle; Kelso, J. A. Scott

    2014-01-01

    The human dynamic clamp (HDC) is proposed as a general paradigm for studies of elementary forms of social behavior in complex biological systems. HDC enables parametric control of real-time bidirectional interaction between humans and empirically grounded theoretical models of coordination dynamics. It thus provides necessary experimental access for laboratory investigations, while preserving the reciprocity and open boundary conditions inherent in daily life social interactions. As proof of ...

  2. Attention shifts the language network reflecting paradigm presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin eKollndorfer

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI is a reliable and non-invasive method with which to localize language function in pre-surgical planning. In clinical practice, visual stimulus presentation is often difficult or impossible, due to the patient’s restricted language or attention abilities. Therefore, our aim was to investigate modality-specific differences in visual and auditory stimulus presentation.Methods: Ten healthy subjects participated in an fMRI study comprising two experiments with visual and auditory stimulus presentation. In both experiments, two language paradigms (one for language comprehension and one for language production used in clinical practice were investigated. In addition to standard data analysis by the means of the general linear model (GLM, independent component analysis (ICA was performed to achieve more detailed information on language processing networks.Results: GLM analysis revealed modality-specific brain activation for both language paradigms for the contrast visual > auditory in the area of the intraparietal sulcus and the hippocampus, two areas related to attention and working memory. Using group ICA, a language network was detected for both paradigms independent of stimulus presentation modality. The investigation of language lateralization revealed no significant variations. Visually presented stimuli further activated an attention-shift network, which could not be identified for the auditory presented language.Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that the visually presented language stimuli additionally activate an attention-shift network. These findings will provide important information for pre-surgical planning in order to preserve reading abilities after brain surgery, significantly improving surgical outcomes. Our findings suggest that the presentation modality for language paradigms should be adapted on behalf of individual indication.

  3. Minimally invasive dentistry: paradigm shifts in preparation design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeSage, Brian P

    2009-01-01

    While the concept of minimally invasive dentistry has long been considered a rational, viable approach to restorative care, preparation design, material science, and long-term evidentiary support have only recently begun to provide the foundation necessary to support such treatment in the everyday practice. This article reviews the fundamental paradigm shift evidenced in contemporary prosthodontics as required to facilitate the emerging interest in delivering conservative restorative alternatives.

  4. Agua Para Todos: A New Regionalist Hydraulic Paradigm in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Lopez-Gunn

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the hydraulic paradigm in Spain and its evolution over the last 100 years to the current decentralisation process of "agua para todos", i.e. where different regional governments vie for control over 'scarce' water resources and defining the concept of hydro-solidarity between regions. Recent events seem to point to a new hydraulic bureaucracy at the sub-national level due to the political devolution currently taking place in Spain, where water has an increased political value in electoral terms. Water has strategic importance in single-issue politics and territorial identity, as compared to traditional left/right ideological politics for both national and regional parties in the Spanish multilevel electoral system. This refers to an important aspect of water politics – openly discussed in Spain but rarely analysed – namely the 'political returns' on water (or 'political rent-seeking'. This also points to spatial dimensions of the definition of state, identity, and access to resources in a semiarid country. This historical process of decentralisation of water is highlighted with particular reference to key events in recent Spanish history, including the Hydraulic Plan of the 1930s, its reappearance in the 1993 National Hydrological Plan, a revised version in the year 2001, and a final change in paradigm in 2005 at the national level. This suggests that the hydraulic paradigm is re-enacted at the regional government level. It is argued that a multi-scalar analysis of Spanish water decentralisation is essential in order to understand change and stasis in public policy paradigms related to water.

  5. Social Responsibility: A New Paradigm of Hospital Governance?

    OpenAIRE

    Brandão, Cristina; Rego, Guilhermina; Duarte, Ivone; Nunes, Rui

    2012-01-01

    Changes in modern societies originate the perception that ethical behaviour is essential in organization’s practices especially in the way they deal with aspects such as human rights. These issues are usually under the umbrella of the concept of social responsibility. Recently the Report of the International Bioethics Committee of UNESCO on Social Responsibility and Health has addressed this concept of social responsibility in the context of health care delivery suggesting a new paradigm in h...

  6. Pathology residency training: time for a new paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domen, Ronald E; Baccon, Jennifer

    2014-06-01

    The exponential growth of the field of pathology over the past several decades has created challenges for residency training programs. These challenges include the ability to train competent pathologists in 4 years, an increased demand for fellowship training, and the structuring and completion of maintenance of certification. The authors feel that pathology residency training has reached a critical point and that a new paradigm for training is required.

  7. QuECT: A New Quantum Programming Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Chakraborty, Arnab

    2011-01-01

    Quantum computation constitutes a rapidly expanding subfield of computer science. Development quantum algorithms is facilitated by the availability of efficient quantum programming languages, and a plethora of approaches has been already suggested in the literature, ranging from GUI-based simple tools to elaborate standalone programming languages. In this paper we propose a novel paradigm called Quantum Embeddable Circuit Technique (QuECT) that allows a programmer to embed a circuit diagram i...

  8. Pharmacometabonomics: An important new paradigm for precision medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Everett, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Many medicines are ineffective or unsafe in significant portions of their patient populations. A key thrust for 21st Century healthcare is to develop more personalized drug treatments such that patients receive medicines that both efficacious and safe. This paradigm is also known as precision medicine. Current personalised medicine approaches rely heavily on the analysis of the genomes of the patients or the organisms that infect them. However, this approach has had less impact and success th...

  9. New software engineering paradigm based on complexity science

    CERN Document Server

    Xiong, Jay

    2011-01-01

    This book describes a complete revolution in software engineering based on complexity science through the establishment of NSE -- Nonlinear Software Engineering paradigm which complies with the essential principles of complexity science, including the Nonlinearity principle, the Holism principle, the Complexity Arises From Simple Rules principle, the Initial Condition Sensitivity principle, the Sensitivity to Change principle, the Dynamics principle, the Openness principle, the Self-organization principle, and the Self-adaptation principle. The aims of this book are to offer revolutionary solu

  10. A new paradigm in contemporary marketing: relational marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolae Al. Pop

    2006-01-01

    Taking into account the main, already established marketing orientations the present article aims at stressing the dominant characteristic of contemporary marketing that it presents as a new paradigm of the last two decades. By emphasizing the meaning of relationship capital as fundamental organizational asset the connection between this concept and the one of relationship marketing is being marked. A review of the theoretical backgrounds corresponding to the managerial schools that contribut...

  11. Dunning’s eclectic paradigm applied on Jotun Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Minde, Nina

    2000-01-01

    This report is written both as an independent thesis and as part of the SNF research project “The multinational activities of Norwegian shipowning companies”, financed by the Research Council of Norway and the Norwegian Shipowners Association. The purpose of the report is to apply one of the main theories on international production, Dunning’s eclectic paradigm, on Jotun’s investment in Thailand. Jotun is one of a handful of Norwegian companies that had established affiliates in Thailand befo...

  12. Reading porn: the paradigm shift in pornography research

    OpenAIRE

    Attwood, F

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the paradigm shift in pornography theory and research from a focus on 'texts and effects' through to work emerging from the late 1980's onwards. The paper considers the reconceptualisation of pornography as a category, the location of pornography in relation to cultural hierarchy and form, the changing status of pornography in relation to mainstream representations, the significance of developing technologies and the movement towards more situated accounts of pornographic ...

  13. Critical Complexities, (from marginal paradigms to learning networks)

    OpenAIRE

    Magala, Slawomir

    2000-01-01

    textabstractThe concepts of critical theory require critical changes. Strategies of a Frankfurt school had been transformed in the new academic and institutional environment. The development of scientific research programs resulted in a flexible restructuring of research communities. The new complexity of research networks is less hierarchic, more mobile, not easily centralized. Theories of organizational learning reflect methodological compromises with respect to the paradigms and political ...

  14. Olympic Games: Old and New Paradigms of the Olympic Movement

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantin G. Tomilin

    2014-01-01

    The article observes the alternative variants of possible changing the generally accepted paradigm of the Olympic movement in a part of the places` selection of the future conducted Olympiads and mechanism of its financing. The article gives the example of conduction the Olympiad 1984 in Los Angeles (USA), with minimization of the expenses on construction of the athletic buildings, as well as undertaking the ceremony openings and closing of the XXIII summer Olympic games. There considered the...

  15. Quasinormal spectrum and the black hole membrane paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Starinets, A. O.

    2008-01-01

    The membrane paradigm approach to black hole physics introduces the notion of a stretched horizon as a fictitious time-like surface endowed with physical characteristics such as entropy, viscosity and electrical conductivity. We show that certain properties of the stretched horizons are encoded in the quasinormal spectrum of black holes. We compute analytically the lowest quasinormal frequency of a vector-type perturbation for a generic black hole with a translationally invariant horizon (bla...

  16. Risk Perception and Terrorism: Applying the Psychometric Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkin, Clinton M.

    2006-01-01

    This article appeared in Homeland Security Affairs (July 2006), v.2 no.2 While expert risk analyses are based on calculations of probability and damage, public estimates of risk are more often based on qualitative factors. It is important to understand how the public, not just homeland security experts, perceive and react to the threat of terrorism. Risk perception research in general, and the psychometric paradigm in particular, offer a basis for empirically examining attitudes toward pot...

  17. SOME PARADIGMS OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN FINANCIAL COMPUTER SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Balicki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses some paradigms of artificial intelligence in the context of their applications in computer financial systems. The proposed approach has a significant po-tential to increase the competitiveness of enterprises, including financial institutions. However, it requires the effective use of supercomputers, grids and cloud computing. A reference is made to the computing environment for Bitcoin. In addition, we characterized genetic programming and artificial neural networks to prepare investment strategies on the stock exchange market.

  18. The need for a new paradigm in economics

    OpenAIRE

    Garry Jacobs

    2015-01-01

    The multidimensional challenges confronting humanity today, combined with our inability to fully harness the abundant human, social, technological, and financial resources to meet human needs, point to serious insufficiencies in prevailing economic theory modeled on the natural science. A paradigm change is needed in the social sciences akin to that which occurred in Physics a century ago. A human-centered theoretical framework is needed to bridge the divide between economics and human values...

  19. Total Quality Management as a Paradigm of Business Success

    OpenAIRE

    Luburić Radoica

    2014-01-01

    Total Quality Management denotes a path by which - both in a stable and a transitional environment, in a professional and scientific way and by applying a variety of methods and techniques, through constant improvements and involvement of all employees - one could get to a model that enables a simultaneous achievement of the top quality level on one hand, and the top management level, on the other. Total Quality Management is a paradigm of business success in the entire world because its set ...

  20. Different Research Paradigms Concerning Giftedness and Gifted Education: Shall Ever They Meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Kurt A.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge regarding giftedness and gifted education is supplied by different sources of information and different research paradigms. Particularly relevant approaches are here the psychometric paradigm, the expert-novice paradigm, and the explanatory approaches from cognitive sciences, also the quasi-experimental social and developmental studies…

  1. Too Hard, Too Soft or Just about Right: Paradigms in Music Teachers' Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Tim

    2012-01-01

    This article considers some paradigms of educational research, and their relation to teachers' action research in their classrooms or studios. The positivist/scientific paradigm and the interpretive/naturalist paradigm are examined, with reference to two cases of music teachers' action research studies. These studies are found to be flawed because…

  2. THEORIES OF CONSUMER’S SATISFACTION AND THE OPERATIONALIZATION OF THE EXPECTATION DISCONFIRMATION PARADIGM

    OpenAIRE

    FLORIN LUCIAN ISAC; SERGIU RUSU

    2014-01-01

    The main paradigm that marks the literature dedicated to consumer’s satisfaction is the Expectation Disconfirmation Paradigm. A lot of theories explaining the nature and the development of consumer’s satisfaction from various perspectives fall under the umbrella of this paradigm

  3. Three Paradigms of Gifted Education: In Search of Conceptual Clarity in Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, David Yun; Chen, Fei

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to articulate and compare three major approaches or paradigms of gifted education, so that researchers and practitioners can be more explicit about their assumptions, goals, and educational strategies in their research and practice. We first define the term "paradigm", and then delineate three paradigms in the…

  4. Organizing MHC Class II Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Fooksman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II molecules are ligands for CD4+ T cells and are critical for initiating the adaptive immune response. This review is focused on what is currently known about MHC class II organization at the plasma membrane of antigen presenting cells and how this affects antigen presentation to T cells. The organization and diffusion of class II molecules have been measured by a variety of biochemical and microscopic techniques. Membrane lipids and other proteins have been implicated in MHC class II organization and function. However, when compared with the organization of MHC class I or TCR complexes, much less is known about MHC class II. Since clustering of T cell receptors occurs during activation, the organization of MHC molecules prior to recognition and during synapse formation may be critical for antigen presentation.

  5. A functional paradigm for evaluating culture: An example with cetaceans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alison Linda GREGGOR

    2012-01-01

    Nonhuman culture was first considered in nonhuman primates because they are genetically similar to humans.However,evolution is not progressive and therefore many species may occupy niches that favor socially transmitted,group specific behavior.Not surprisingly,evidence for culture has accrued in several taxonomic groups,including cetaceans.If culture is an adaptation,it is imperative we understand the factors that favor its formation.Understanding the evolutionary origin of culture will allow for a wider range of species to be studied,including those that are difficult to test in the laboratory.I propose a broad-based functional paradigm for evaluating nonhuman culture; based on the idea that while not all cultural behaviors may garner fitness benefits to the individual,the ecological and social environments in which cultural behaviors evolved must have favored the physical attributes and social learning capabilities that allow for cultural formation.Specifically this framework emphasizes the relationships between social learning,ecology,social systems,and biology in relation to culture.I illustrate the utility of the functional paradigm with evidence from the ceteacean group,while setting the stage for a stringent species by species analysis.By means of contextualizing culture,the Functional Paradigm can evaluate a species' potential to exhibit culture and can investigate potentially cultural behaviors [Current Zoology 58 (2):271-286,2012].

  6. Toward a patient-based paradigm for blood transfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrugia A

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Albert Farrugia,1,2 Eleftherios Vamvakas31College of Medicine, Biology and Environment, Australian National University, Acton, ACT, Australia; 2Centre for Orthopaedic Research, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia; 3Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USAAbstract: The current "manufacturing paradigm" of transfusion practice has detached transfusion from the clinical environment. As an example, fresh whole blood in large-volume hemorrhage may be superior to whole blood reconstituted from multiple components. Multicomponent apheresis can overcome logistical difficulties in matching patient needs with fresh component availability and can deliver the benefits of fresh whole blood. Because of the different transfusion needs of patients in emerging economies and the vulnerability of these blood systems to emerging infections, fresh whole blood and multicomponent apheresis can better meet patient needs when compared with transplants of the "manufacturing paradigm". We propose that patient blood management, along with panels of repeat, paid, accredited apheresis and fresh whole-blood donors can be used in emerging economies to support decentralized blood services. This alternative transfusion–medicine paradigm could eventually also be adopted by established economies to focus transfusion medicine on local patient needs and to alleviate the problem of the aging volunteer donor base.Keywords: indications, emerging countries, patient blood management

  7. Shifting paradigms: Reflecting Germany’s European policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michèle Knodt

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Germany's presidency of the European Council in the first half of 1999 has focused the attention of schlolars on Germany's attitude towards the EU. Germany's European policy has been guided from the beginning by a pro-European vision of 'the house of Europe'. The hypothesis of the article is that this paradigm of German European policy is in flux. Via a constructivist approach it is argued that we are observing a paradigm shift away from a visionary towards a pragmatic European policy which is oriented around efficiency criteria and national interest. Evidence is given by analysing the following propositions: (1 the advocates of a European vision have vanished in Germany, and the broad coalition in society towards Europe is crumbling; (2 at the same time the discussion on Europe has become highly politicised; (3 in addition, important German institutions such as the Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht are reluctant to (re-strengthen the European idea; and (4 the fit between Germany's and the EU's institutional setting supports the change in paradigm. In conclusion it is argued that Germany is on its way to changing its role from that of a supporting participant to that of a self-confident active player.

  8. A new paradigm for the universe (preliminary version)

    CERN Document Server

    Rourke, C

    2003-01-01

    A new paradigm for the structure of galaxies is proposed. The main hypothesis is that a normal galaxy contains a hypermassive black hole at its centre which generates the spiral arms. The paradigm gives satisfactory explanations for: * The rotation curve of a galaxy. * The spherical bulge at the centre of a normal galaxy. * The spiral structure and long-term stability of a normal galaxy. * The age and orbits of globular clusters. * The origin and prevalence of solar systems. * (Highly speculative) the origin of life. The paradigm is compatible with direct observations but not with many of the current interpretations of these observations. It is also incompatible with large swathes of current cosmological theory and in particular with the expanding universe and hot big bang theories. A tentative new explanation for the observed redshift of distant objects is given which is compatible with a static model for the universe. This paper is being circulated in a very preliminary form in the hope that others will wor...

  9. Modern Paradigm of Ensuring Competitive Advantages of an Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klymchuk Alyona O.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers evolution of development of the paradigm of ensuring competitive advantages of an enterprise. Foreign and domestic scientists focus on individual directions of development of competitive advantages and pay insufficient attention to new management concepts – development of the information society, knowledge economy and dynamism of integration processes. The goal of the study is formation of the modern paradigm of ensuring competitive advantages of an enterprise with consideration of tendencies of development of the knowledge economy, information society and integration processes. Enterprise competitiveness is a synergetic characteristic, which reflects enterprise capability of dynamic response to changes of the market situation with the aim of keeping predominance over other economic subjects. Management of the future, on the basis of the management 2.0 concept, should take into account interests not only of top management and shareholders but also employees, local communities and territories and meet requirements of the society in general, individual groups of consumers and tendencies of development of managerial and information technologies. The paradigm of the modern theory of ensuring competitive advantages should include models of keeping competitive advantages in the existing markets and models of development of future markets; strategy of development of enterprise competitiveness, human capital development and efficient enterprise management.

  10. [The dimension of the paradigm of complexity in health systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo-Ortiz, Guillermo; Fernández-Ortega, Miguel Ángel; Ortiz-Montalvo, Armando; Olivares-Santos, Roberto Antonio

    2015-01-01

    This article presents elements to better understand health systems from the complety paradigm, innovative perspective that offers other ways in the conception of the scientific knowledge prevalent away from linear, characterized by the arise of emerging dissociative and behaviors, based on the intra and trans-disciplinarity concepts such knowledges explain and understand in a different way what happens in the health systems with a view to efficiency and effectiveness. The complexity paradigm means another way of conceptualizing the knowledge, is different from the prevalent epistemology, is still under construction does not separate, not isolated, is not reductionist, or fixed, does not solve the problems, but gives other bases to know them and study them, is a different strategy, a perspective that has basis in the systems theory, informatics and cybernetics beyond traditional knowledge, the positive logics, the newtonian physics and symmetric mathematics, in which everything is centered and balanced, joint the "soft sciences and hard sciences", it has present the Social Determinants of Health and organizational culture. Under the complexity paradigm the health systems are identified with the following concepts: entropy, neguentropy, the thermodynamic second law, attractors, chaos theory, fractals, selfmanagement and self-organization, emerging behaviors, percolation, uncertainty, networks and robusteness; such expressions open new possibilities to improve the management and better understanding of the health systems, giving rise to consider health systems as complex adaptive systems. PMID:25982615

  11. Realizing a new paradigm in radiation therapy treatment planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegenhein, Peter

    2013-07-24

    This thesis investigates the feasibility of a new IMRT planning paradigm called Interactive Dose Shaping (IDS). The IDS paradigm enables the therapist to directly impose local dose features into the therapy plan. In contrast to the conventional IMRT planning approach, IDS does not employ an objective function to drive an iterative optimization procedure. In the first part of this work, the conventional IMRT plan optimization method is investigated. Concepts for a near-optimal implementation of the planning problem are provided. The second part of this work introduces the IDS concept. It is designed to overcome clinical drawbacks of the conventional method on the one hand and to provide interactive planning strategies which exploit the full potential of modern high-performance computer hardware on the other hand. The realization of the IDS concept consists of three main parts. (1)A two-step Dose Variation and Recovery (DVR) strategy which imposes localized plan features and recovers for unintentional plan modifications elsewhere. (2)A new dose calculation method (3)The design of an IDS planning framework which provides a powerful graphical user interface. It could be shown that the IDS paradigm is able to reproduce conventionally optimized therapy plans and that the IDS concepts can be realized in real-time.

  12. Revisiting Mary Daly: Towards a quadripartite theological and philosophical paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannelie Wood

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available I was a tenderfoot in feminist discourse when I started my research on patriarchy, feminism, and Mary Daly. In my thesis, one aspect I engaged was Daly’s battle with gender issues in Christian theology. From the beginning I was troubled by Mary Daly’s views on God, men, and women in her discourse on Christianity. Daly undoubtedly contributed to the discussion on gender issues in the Christian faith, but her focus on androcentrism and her interpretations of Scripture led her to abandon the Christian faith. Mary Daly has written extensively on patriarchy as it is found in religion – particularly in the Christian faith – and how it filters through society. In her critique of patriarchy she set her course to dismantle the facade of a patriarchal and misogynistic God as the root of patriarchy. Daly did not see any positive qualities of the Christian faith and completely rejected other interpretations of a God whose person embraces both male and female qualities. Against this background I will evaluate Daly’s post-Christian feminist theological and philosophical paradigm. I propose that Daly has a quadripartite theological and philosophical paradigm wherein there are four main players. The ‘Who is who’ in Daly’s quadripartite patriarchal theological and philosophical paradigm are the patriarchal male, the patriarchal female, the patriarchal God and the biophilic woman.

  13. Experiencing a Flipped Mathematics Class

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, A. Judy

    2013-01-01

    The flipped classroom is an old concept that has recently been redefined through the emergence of new technologies that allow teachers to deliver content out of class time. As such, various approaches for implementation exist. Most prominently, teachers are able to use class time in a student-centered manner, which allows students to experience the classroom in diverse ways. This study focuses on describing these experiences in a particular flipped adult upgrading mathematics class. Students ...

  14. Class Differences in Cohabitation Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Sassler, Sharon; Miller, Amanda J.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the burgeoning cohabitation literature, research has failed to examine social class variation in processes of forming and advancing such unions. Drawing upon in-depth interviews with 122 working- and middle-class cohabitors, we examine the duration between dating and moving in together, reasons for cohabiting, and subsequent plans. Transitions to cohabitation are more rapid among the working class. Respondents often cohabited for practical reasons—out of financial necessity, because i...

  15. Evolvement and Innovation of Service Paradigms%服务营销范式的演进与变革

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦福祥; 姚亚男

    2009-01-01

    The theory of services marketing evolves fast,but the academic research on the service paradigm is few and far between.Using the tool of Kuhn's paradigm assumptions,the thesis clarifies the three stages of services marketing paradigm evolvement,and implies the innovation of service paradigm.The research findings show that service science is right direction for the development of the service paradigm,but not replacement,what matters is the regeneration of the old paradigms.

  16. Predicting Acoustics in Class Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus Lynge; Rindel, Jens Holger

    2005-01-01

    Typical class rooms have fairly simple geometries, even so room acoustics in this type of room is difficult to predict using today's room acoustic computer modeling software. The reasons why acoustics of class rooms are harder to predict than acoustics of complicated concert halls might be explai......Typical class rooms have fairly simple geometries, even so room acoustics in this type of room is difficult to predict using today's room acoustic computer modeling software. The reasons why acoustics of class rooms are harder to predict than acoustics of complicated concert halls might...... with surface scattering is presented. Each of the two scattering effects is modeled as frequency dependent functions....

  17. Type Families with Class, Type Classes with Family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serrano, Alejandro; Hage, Jurriaan; Bahr, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Type classes and type families are key ingredients in Haskell programming. Type classes were introduced to deal with ad-hoc polymorphism, although with the introduction of functional dependencies, their use expanded to type-level programming. Type families also allow encoding type-level functions...

  18. Evolution of the marketing paradigm: a new vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina V. ASTRATOVA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to confirm the feasibility of using the disciplinary matrix by Th. Kuhn in relation to the marketing theory. Methods paradigmatic and systemic methods of analysis of marketing phenomena. Results to date the paradigm as a specific tool of scientific research is poorly studied in the marketing methodology in contrast to other branches of knowledge. An analysis of available literature revealed no sources that use the famous disciplinary matrix by Th. Kuhn and its components symbolic generalizations metaphysical parts values and conventional samples ndash in relation to marketing. The content of the marketing paradigm is described as the disciplinary matrix by Th. Kuhn which was composed of the four abovementioned elements 1 symbolic generalizations are the expressions that are used by members of the scientific community without disagreements and doubts and can be easily formalized or verbalized e.g. definition of marketing 2 metaphysical parts of modern marketing are a set of the existing concepts and theories e.g. theory of stages of marketing evolution 3 values in the context of the marketing paradigms are considered by the authors through emphasis on three research objects a goods service ndash creation of new goods andor formation of a set of qualities inherent in the goods service perceived by the consumer as a combination of rational and emotional values of the product b customer ndash development of quotvalue proposition for the consumerquot c sellermanufacturer ndash basing on the concept of quotvalue chainquot that builds strategic management of the company 4 conventional samples of the marketing paradigm include standards or algorithms models and methods of solving specific problems of marketing research for example a diagram of the stages of the marketing research process and industrial standards of their conduct. Scientific novelty the appropriateness of the disciplinary matrix by Th. Kuhn in relation to the marketing theory

  19. Stimulating Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB Research For Theory Development: Exploration Of Leadership Paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdu Ja’afaru Bambale

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper synthesizes major leadership paradigms for the purpose of identifying possible ways of influencing Organizational Citizenship Behaviors (OCBs to improve the functioning of organizations. The leadership paradigms were extended to old and modern categories toprovide for systematic understanding of their antecedents and potential influence patterns. The leadership approaches reported to have positive relationships with organizational citizenshipbehaviors include transformational leadership, charismatic leadership, and ethical leadership paradigms. We have found many modern leadership paradigms not to have been empiricallyinvestigated for possible relationships with OCB. This paper therefore discusses the dynamics and potentials for researches within the realms of the leadership paradigms and the OCB field.

  20. The Paradox of Paperless Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackie, Paula

    1998-01-01

    Describes paperless classes developed at Carleton College that augment traditional classes by giving students and faculty the ability to share digital course-related materials via the campus computer network. Presents a case study of a managerial economics course, and includes problems with various aspects of the course and solutions. (LRW)