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Sample records for class ssvep paradigm

  1. An independent SSVEP-based brain-computer interface in locked-in syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesenfants, D.; Habbal, D.; Lugo, Z.; Lebeau, M.; Horki, P.; Amico, E.; Pokorny, C.; Gómez, F.; Soddu, A.; Müller-Putz, G.; Laureys, S.; Noirhomme, Q.

    2014-06-01

    Objective. Steady-state visually evoked potential (SSVEP)-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) allow healthy subjects to communicate. However, their dependence on gaze control prevents their use with severely disabled patients. Gaze-independent SSVEP-BCIs have been designed but have shown a drop in accuracy and have not been tested in brain-injured patients. In the present paper, we propose a novel independent SSVEP-BCI based on covert attention with an improved classification rate. We study the influence of feature extraction algorithms and the number of harmonics. Finally, we test online communication on healthy volunteers and patients with locked-in syndrome (LIS). Approach. Twenty-four healthy subjects and six LIS patients participated in this study. An independent covert two-class SSVEP paradigm was used with a newly developed portable light emitting diode-based ‘interlaced squares' stimulation pattern. Main results. Mean offline and online accuracies on healthy subjects were respectively 85 ± 2% and 74 ± 13%, with eight out of twelve subjects succeeding to communicate efficiently with 80 ± 9% accuracy. Two out of six LIS patients reached an offline accuracy above the chance level, illustrating a response to a command. One out of four LIS patients could communicate online. Significance. We have demonstrated the feasibility of online communication with a covert SSVEP paradigm that is truly independent of all neuromuscular functions. The potential clinical use of the presented BCI system as a diagnostic (i.e., detecting command-following) and communication tool for severely brain-injured patients will need to be further explored.

  2. An Asynchronous P300 BCI With SSVEP-Based Control State Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panicker, Rajesh C.; Puthusserypady, Sadasivan; Sun, Ying

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, an asynchronous brain–computer interface (BCI) system combining the P300 and steady-state visually evoked potentials (SSVEPs) paradigms is proposed. The information transfer is accomplished using P300 event-related potential paradigm and the control state (CS) detection is achieved...

  3. Assisted closed-loop optimization of SSVEP-BCI efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Varona

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We designed a novel assisted closed-loop optimization protocol to improve the efficiency of brain computer interfaces (BCI based on steady state visually evoked potentials (SSVEP. In traditional paradigms, the control over the BCI-performance completely depends on the subjects’ ability to learn from the given feedback cues. By contrast, in the proposed protocol both the subject and the machine share information and control over the BCI goal. Generally, the innovative assistance consists in the delivery of online information together with the online adaptation of BCI stimuli properties. In our case, this adaptive optimization process is realized by (i a closed-loop search for the best set of SSVEP flicker frequencies and (ii feedback of actual SSVEP magnitudes to both the subject and the machine. These closed-loop interactions between subject and machine are evaluated in real-time by continuous measurement of their efficiencies, which are used as online criteria to adapt the BCI control parameters. The proposed protocol aims to compensate for variability in possibly unknown subjects’ state and trait dimensions. In a study with N = 18 subjects, we found significant evidence that our protocol outperformed classic SSVEP-BCI control paradigms. Evidence is presented that it takes indeed into account interindividual variabilities: e.g. under the new protocol, baseline resting state EEG measures predict subjects’ BCI performances. This paper illustrates the promising potential of assisted closed-loop protocols in BCI systems. Probably their applicability might be expanded to innovative uses, e.g. as possible new diagnostic/therapeutic tools for clinical contexts and as new paradigms for basic research.

  4. Frequency- and Phase Encoded SSVEP Using Spatiotemporal Beamforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hulle, Marc M.

    2016-01-01

    In brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) based on steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) the number of selectable targets is rather limited when each target has its own stimulation frequency. One way to remedy this is by combining frequency- with phase encoding. We introduce a new multivariate spatiotemporal filter, based on Linearly Constrained Minimum Variance (LCMV) beamforming, for discriminating between frequency-phase encoded targets more accurately, even when using short signal lengths than with (extended) Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA), which is traditionally posited for this stimulation paradigm. PMID:27486801

  5. SSVEP response is related to functional brain network topology entrained by the flickering stimulus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangsong Zhang

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that the brain network topology correlates with the cognitive function. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between functional brain networks that process sensory inputs and outputs. In this study, we focus on steady-state paradigms using a periodic visual stimulus, which are increasingly being used in both brain-computer interface (BCI and cognitive neuroscience researches. Using the graph theoretical analysis, we investigated the relationship between the topology of functional networks entrained by periodic stimuli and steady state visually evoked potentials (SSVEP using two frequencies and eleven subjects. First, the entire functional network (Network 0 of each frequency for each subject was constructed according to the coherence between electrode pairs. Next, Network 0 was divided into three sub-networks, in which the connection strengths were either significantly (positively for Network 1, negatively for Network 3 or non-significantly (Network 2 correlated with the SSVEP responses. Our results revealed that the SSVEP responses were positively correlated to the mean functional connectivity, clustering coefficient, and global and local efficiencies, while these responses were negatively correlated with the characteristic path length of Networks 0, 1 and 2. Furthermore, the strengths of these connections that significantly correlated with the SSVEP (both positively and negatively were mainly found to be long-range connections between the parietal-occipital and frontal regions. These results indicate that larger SSVEP responses correspond with better functional network topology structures. This study may provide new insights for understanding brain mechanisms when using SSVEPs as frequency tags.

  6. A Study on SSVEP-Based BCI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng-Hua Wu; De-Zhong Yao

    2009-01-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) can help the deformity person finish some basic activities.In this paper,we concern some critical aspects of SSVEP based BCI,including stimulator selection,method of SSVEP extracting in a short time,stimulating frequency selection,and signal electrode selection.The conclusion is that the stimulator type should be based on the complexity of the BCI system,the method based on wavelet analysis is more valid than the power spectrum method in extracting the SSVEP in a short period,and the selections of stimulating frequency and electrode are important in designing a BCI system.These contents are meaningful for implementing a real SSVEP-based BCI.

  7. Towards a gaze-independent hybrid-BCI based on SSVEPs, alpha-band modulations and the P300.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughnane, Gerard M; Meade, Emma; Reilly, Richard B; Lalor, Edmund C

    2014-01-01

    In recent years it has been shown to be possible to create a Brain Computer Interface (BCI) using non-invasive electroencephalographic (EEG) measurements of covert visual spatial attention. For example, that both Steady-State Visual Evoked Potentials (SSVEP) and parieto-occipital alpha band activity have been shown to be sensitive to covert attention and this has been exploited to provide simple communication control without the need for any physical movement. In this study, potential improvements in the speed and accuracy of such a BCI are investigated by exploring the possibility of incorporating a P300 task into an SSVEP covert attention paradigm. Should this be possible it would pave the way for a gaze-independent hybrid BCI based on three somewhat independent EEG signals. Within a well-established SSVEP-based attention paradigm we show that it is possible to make a binary classification of covert attention using just the P300 with an average accuracy of 71% across three subjects. We also validate previously published research by showing robust attention effects on the SSVEP and alpha band activity within this paradigm. In future work, it is hoped that by integrating the three signals into a hybrid BCI a significant improvement in performance will be forthcoming leading to an easily usable real time communication device for patients with severe disabilities such as Locked-In Syndrome (LIS). PMID:25570211

  8. Comparative Study of SSVEP- and P300-Based Models for the Telepresence Control of Humanoid Robots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhao

    Full Text Available In this paper, we evaluate the control performance of SSVEP (steady-state visual evoked potential- and P300-based models using Cerebot-a mind-controlled humanoid robot platform. Seven subjects with diverse experience participated in experiments concerning the open-loop and closed-loop control of a humanoid robot via brain signals. The visual stimuli of both the SSVEP- and P300- based models were implemented on a LCD computer monitor with a refresh frequency of 60 Hz. Considering the operation safety, we set the classification accuracy of a model over 90.0% as the most important mandatory for the telepresence control of the humanoid robot. The open-loop experiments demonstrated that the SSVEP model with at most four stimulus targets achieved the average accurate rate about 90%, whereas the P300 model with the six or more stimulus targets under five repetitions per trial was able to achieve the accurate rates over 90.0%. Therefore, the four SSVEP stimuli were used to control four types of robot behavior; while the six P300 stimuli were chosen to control six types of robot behavior. Both of the 4-class SSVEP and 6-class P300 models achieved the average success rates of 90.3% and 91.3%, the average response times of 3.65 s and 6.6 s, and the average information transfer rates (ITR of 24.7 bits/min 18.8 bits/min, respectively. The closed-loop experiments addressed the telepresence control of the robot; the objective was to cause the robot to walk along a white lane marked in an office environment using live video feedback. Comparative studies reveal that the SSVEP model yielded faster response to the subject's mental activity with less reliance on channel selection, whereas the P300 model was found to be suitable for more classifiable targets and required less training. To conclude, we discuss the existing SSVEP and P300 models for the control of humanoid robots, including the models proposed in this paper.

  9. Comparative Study of SSVEP- and P300-Based Models for the Telepresence Control of Humanoid Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Li, Wei; Li, Mengfan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the control performance of SSVEP (steady-state visual evoked potential)- and P300-based models using Cerebot-a mind-controlled humanoid robot platform. Seven subjects with diverse experience participated in experiments concerning the open-loop and closed-loop control of a humanoid robot via brain signals. The visual stimuli of both the SSVEP- and P300- based models were implemented on a LCD computer monitor with a refresh frequency of 60 Hz. Considering the operation safety, we set the classification accuracy of a model over 90.0% as the most important mandatory for the telepresence control of the humanoid robot. The open-loop experiments demonstrated that the SSVEP model with at most four stimulus targets achieved the average accurate rate about 90%, whereas the P300 model with the six or more stimulus targets under five repetitions per trial was able to achieve the accurate rates over 90.0%. Therefore, the four SSVEP stimuli were used to control four types of robot behavior; while the six P300 stimuli were chosen to control six types of robot behavior. Both of the 4-class SSVEP and 6-class P300 models achieved the average success rates of 90.3% and 91.3%, the average response times of 3.65 s and 6.6 s, and the average information transfer rates (ITR) of 24.7 bits/min 18.8 bits/min, respectively. The closed-loop experiments addressed the telepresence control of the robot; the objective was to cause the robot to walk along a white lane marked in an office environment using live video feedback. Comparative studies reveal that the SSVEP model yielded faster response to the subject's mental activity with less reliance on channel selection, whereas the P300 model was found to be suitable for more classifiable targets and required less training. To conclude, we discuss the existing SSVEP and P300 models for the control of humanoid robots, including the models proposed in this paper. PMID:26562524

  10. SSVEP Extraction Based on the Similarity of Background EEG

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenghua Wu

    2014-01-01

    Steady-state Visual Evoked Potential (SSVEP) outperforms the other types of ERPs for Brain-computer Interface (BCI), and thus it is widely employed. In order to apply SSVEP-based BCI to real life situations, it is important to improve the accuracy and transfer rate of the system. Aimed at this target, many SSVEP extraction methods have been proposed. All these methods are based directly on the properties of SSVEP, such as power and phase. In this study, we first filtered out the target freque...

  11. Evaluate the Feasibility of Using Frontal SSVEP to Implement an SSVEP-Based BCI in Young, Elderly and ALS Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hao-Teng; Lee, I-Hui; Tsai, Han-Ting; Chang, Hsiang-Chih; Shyu, Kuo-Kai; Hsu, Chuan-Chih; Chang, Hsiao-Huang; Yeh, Ting-Kuang; Chang, Chun-Yen; Lee, Po-Lei

    2016-05-01

    This paper studies the amplitude-frequency characteristic of frontal steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) and its feasibility as a control signal for brain computer interface (BCI). SSVEPs induced by different stimulation frequencies, from 13 ~ 31 Hz in 2 Hz steps, were measured in eight young subjects, eight elders and seven ALS patients. Each subject was requested to participate in a calibration study and an application study. The calibration study was designed to find the amplitude-frequency characteristics of SSVEPs recorded from Oz and Fpz positions, while the application study was designed to test the feasibility of using frontal SSVEP to control a two-command SSVEP-based BCI. The SSVEP amplitude was detected by an epoch-average process which enables artifact-contaminated epochs can be removed. The seven ALS patients were severely impaired, and four patients, who were incapable of completing our BCI task, were excluded from calculation of BCI performance. The averaged accuracies, command transfer intervals and information transfer rates in operating frontal SSVEP-based BCI were 96.1%, 3.43 s/command, and 14.42 bits/min in young subjects; 91.8%, 6.22 s/command, and 6.16 bits/min in elders; 81.2%, 12.14 s/command, and 1.51 bits/min in ALS patients, respectively. The frontal SSVEP could be an alternative choice to design SSVEP-based BCI. PMID:26625417

  12. Alpha neurofeedback training improves SSVEP-based BCI performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Feng; Nuno da Cruz, Janir; Nan, Wenya; Wong, Chi Man; Vai, Mang I.; Rosa, Agostinho

    2016-06-01

    Objective. Steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) can provide relatively easy, reliable and high speed communication. However, the performance is still not satisfactory, especially in some users who are not able to generate strong enough SSVEP signals. This work aims to strengthen a user’s SSVEP by alpha down-regulating neurofeedback training (NFT) and consequently improve the performance of the user in using SSVEP-based BCIs. Approach. An experiment with two steps was designed and conducted. The first step was to investigate the relationship between the resting alpha activity and the SSVEP-based BCI performance, in order to determine the training parameter for the NFT. Then in the second step, half of the subjects with ‘low’ performance (i.e. BCI classification accuracy <80%) were randomly assigned to a NFT group to perform a real-time NFT, and the rest half to a non-NFT control group for comparison. Main results. The first step revealed a significant negative correlation between the BCI performance and the individual alpha band (IAB) amplitudes in the eyes-open resting condition in a total of 33 subjects. In the second step, it was found that during the IAB down-regulating NFT, on average the subjects were able to successfully decrease their IAB amplitude over training sessions. More importantly, the NFT group showed an average increase of 16.5% in the SSVEP signal SNR (signal-to-noise ratio) and an average increase of 20.3% in the BCI classification accuracy, which was significant compared to the non-NFT control group. Significance. These findings indicate that the alpha down-regulating NFT can be used to improve the SSVEP signal quality and the subjects’ performance in using SSVEP-based BCIs. It could be helpful to the SSVEP related studies and would contribute to more effective SSVEP-based BCI applications.

  13. A novel 9-class auditory ERP paradigm driving a predictive text entry system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes eHöhne

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs based on Event Related Potentials (ERPs strive for offering communication pathways which are independent of muscle activity. While most visual ERP-based BCI paradigms require good control of the user's gaze direction, auditory BCI paradigms overcome this restriction. The present work proposes a novel approach using Auditory Evoked Potentials (AEP for the example of a multiclass text spelling application. To control the ERP speller, BCI users focus their attention to two-dimensional auditory stimuli that vary in both, pitch (high/medium/low and direction (left/middle/right and that are presented via headphones. The resulting nine different control signals are exploited to drive a predictive text entry system. It enables the user to spell a letter by a single 9-class decision plus two additional decisions to confirm a spelled word.This paradigm - called PASS2D - was investigated in an online study with twelve healthy participants. Users spelled with more than 0.8 characters per minute on average (3.4 bits per minute which makes PASS2D a competitive method. It could enrich the toolbox of existing ERP paradigms for BCI end users like late-stage ALS patients.

  14. Comparison between wire and wireless EEG acquisition systems based on SSVEP in an Independent-BCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tello, Richard M G; Müller, Sandra M T; Bastos-Filho, Teodiano; Ferreira, Andre

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison between two different technologies of acquisition systems (BrainNet36 and Emotiv Epoc) for an Independent-BCI based on Steady-State Visual Evoked Potential (SSVEP). Two stimuli separated by a viewing angle experiments. The class is obtained through a criterion of maxima. The left and right flicker stimuli were modulated at frequencies of 8.0 and 13.0 Hz, respectively. Acquisition via BrainNet system showed better results, obtaining the highest value for accuracy (100%) and the highest ITR (35.18 bits/min). This Independent-BCI is based on covert attention. PMID:25569887

  15. Driving a Semiautonomous Mobile Robotic Car Controlled by an SSVEP-Based BCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Brain-computer interfaces represent a range of acknowledged technologies that translate brain activity into computer commands. The aim of our research is to develop and evaluate a BCI control application for certain assistive technologies that can be used for remote telepresence or remote driving. The communication channel to the target device is based on the steady-state visual evoked potentials. In order to test the control application, a mobile robotic car (MRC) was introduced and a four-class BCI graphical user interface (with live video feedback and stimulation boxes on the same screen) for piloting the MRC was designed. For the purpose of evaluating a potential real-life scenario for such assistive technology, we present a study where 61 subjects steered the MRC through a predetermined route. All 61 subjects were able to control the MRC and finish the experiment (mean time 207.08 s, SD 50.25) with a mean (SD) accuracy and ITR of 93.03% (5.73) and 14.07 bits/min (4.44), respectively. The results show that our proposed SSVEP-based BCI control application is suitable for mobile robots with a shared-control approach. We also did not observe any negative influence of the simultaneous live video feedback and SSVEP stimulation on the performance of the BCI system. PMID:27528864

  16. A Prototype SSVEP Based Real Time BCI Gaming System

    OpenAIRE

    Martišius, Ignas; Damaševičius, Robertas

    2016-01-01

    Although brain-computer interface technology is mainly designed with disabled people in mind, it can also be beneficial to healthy subjects, for example, in gaming or virtual reality systems. In this paper we discuss the typical architecture, paradigms, requirements, and limitations of electroencephalogram-based gaming systems. We have developed a prototype three-class brain-computer interface system, based on the steady state visually evoked potentials paradigm and the Emotiv EPOC headset. A...

  17. A MUSIC-based method for SSVEP signal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kun; Liu, Quan; Ai, Qingsong; Zhou, Zude; Xie, Sheng Quan; Meng, Wei

    2016-03-01

    The research on brain computer interfaces (BCIs) has become a hotspot in recent years because it offers benefit to disabled people to communicate with the outside world. Steady state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based BCIs are more widely used because of higher signal to noise ratio and greater information transfer rate compared with other BCI techniques. In this paper, a multiple signal classification based method was proposed for multi-dimensional SSVEP feature extraction. 2-second data epochs from four electrodes achieved excellent accuracy rates including idle state detection. In some asynchronous mode experiments, the recognition accuracy reached up to 100 %. The experimental results showed that the proposed method attained good frequency resolution. In most situations, the recognition accuracy was higher than canonical correlation analysis, which is a typical method for multi-channel SSVEP signal processing. Also, a virtual keyboard was successfully controlled by different subjects in an unshielded environment, which proved the feasibility of the proposed method for multi-dimensional SSVEP signal processing in practical applications. PMID:26831487

  18. An online hybrid BCI system based on SSVEP and EMG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ke; Cinetto, Andrea; Wang, Yijun; Chen, Xiaogang; Gao, Shangkai; Gao, Xiaorong

    2016-04-01

    Objective. A hybrid brain-computer interface (BCI) is a device combined with at least one other communication system that takes advantage of both parts to build a link between humans and machines. To increase the number of targets and the information transfer rate (ITR), electromyogram (EMG) and steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) were combined to implement a hybrid BCI. A multi-choice selection method based on EMG was developed to enhance the system performance. Approach. A 60-target hybrid BCI speller was built in this study. A single trial was divided into two stages: a stimulation stage and an output selection stage. In the stimulation stage, SSVEP and EMG were used together. Every stimulus flickered at its given frequency to elicit SSVEP. All of the stimuli were divided equally into four sections with the same frequency set. The frequency of each stimulus in a section was different. SSVEPs were used to discriminate targets in the same section. Different sections were classified using EMG signals from the forearm. Subjects were asked to make different number of fists according to the target section. Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) and mean filtering was used to classify SSVEP and EMG separately. In the output selection stage, the top two optimal choices were given. The first choice with the highest probability of an accurate classification was the default output of the system. Subjects were required to make a fist to select the second choice only if the second choice was correct. Main results. The online results obtained from ten subjects showed that the mean accurate classification rate and ITR were 81.0% and 83.6 bits min-1 respectively only using the first choice selection. The ITR of the hybrid system was significantly higher than the ITR of any of the two single modalities (EMG: 30.7 bits min-1, SSVEP: 60.2 bits min-1). After the addition of the second choice selection and the correction task, the accurate classification rate and ITR was

  19. Frequency- and Phase Encoded SSVEP Using Spatiotemporal Beamforming

    OpenAIRE

    Wittevrongel, Benjamin; Hulle, Marc van

    2016-01-01

    In brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) based on steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) the number of selectable targets is rather limited when each target has its own stimulation frequency. One way to remedy this is by combining frequency- with phase encoding. We introduce a new multivariate spatiotemporal filter, based on Linearly Constrained Minimum Variance (LCMV) beamforming, for discriminating between frequency-phase encoded targets more accurately, even when using short signal leng...

  20. Discriminative Feature Extraction via Multivariate Linear Regression for SSVEP-Based BCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiqiang; Zhang, Yu; Waytowich, Nicholas R; Krusienski, Dean J; Zhou, Guoxu; Jin, Jing; Wang, Xingyu; Cichocki, Andrzej

    2016-05-01

    Many of the most widely accepted methods for reliable detection of steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) in the electroencephalogram (EEG) utilize canonical correlation analysis (CCA). CCA uses pure sine and cosine reference templates with frequencies corresponding to the visual stimulation frequencies. These generic reference templates may not optimally reflect the natural SSVEP features obscured by the background EEG. This paper introduces a new approach that utilizes spatio-temporal feature extraction with multivariate linear regression (MLR) to learn discriminative SSVEP features for improving the detection accuracy. MLR is implemented on dimensionality-reduced EEG training data and a constructed label matrix to find optimally discriminative subspaces. Experimental results show that the proposed MLR method significantly outperforms CCA as well as several other competing methods for SSVEP detection, especially for time windows shorter than 1 second. This demonstrates that the MLR method is a promising new approach for achieving improved real-time performance of SSVEP-BCIs. PMID:26812728

  1. Modes of salmonid MHC class I and II evolution differ from the primate paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shum, B.P.; Guethlein, L.; Flodin, L.R.; Adkison, M.A.; Hedrick, R.P.; Nehring, R.B.; Stet, R.J.M.; Secombes, C.; Parham, P.

    2001-01-01

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) represent two salmonid genera separated for 15-20 million years. cDNA sequences were determined for the classical MHC class I heavy chain gene UBA and the MHC class II β-chain gene DAB from 15 rainbow and 10 brown trout. Both genes a

  2. A Prototype SSVEP Based Real Time BCI Gaming System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martišius, Ignas; Damaševičius, Robertas

    2016-01-01

    Although brain-computer interface technology is mainly designed with disabled people in mind, it can also be beneficial to healthy subjects, for example, in gaming or virtual reality systems. In this paper we discuss the typical architecture, paradigms, requirements, and limitations of electroencephalogram-based gaming systems. We have developed a prototype three-class brain-computer interface system, based on the steady state visually evoked potentials paradigm and the Emotiv EPOC headset. An online target shooting game, implemented in the OpenViBE environment, has been used for user feedback. The system utilizes wave atom transform for feature extraction, achieving an average accuracy of 78.2% using linear discriminant analysis classifier, 79.3% using support vector machine classifier with a linear kernel, and 80.5% using a support vector machine classifier with a radial basis function kernel. PMID:27051414

  3. A Prototype SSVEP Based Real Time BCI Gaming System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martišius, Ignas

    2016-01-01

    Although brain-computer interface technology is mainly designed with disabled people in mind, it can also be beneficial to healthy subjects, for example, in gaming or virtual reality systems. In this paper we discuss the typical architecture, paradigms, requirements, and limitations of electroencephalogram-based gaming systems. We have developed a prototype three-class brain-computer interface system, based on the steady state visually evoked potentials paradigm and the Emotiv EPOC headset. An online target shooting game, implemented in the OpenViBE environment, has been used for user feedback. The system utilizes wave atom transform for feature extraction, achieving an average accuracy of 78.2% using linear discriminant analysis classifier, 79.3% using support vector machine classifier with a linear kernel, and 80.5% using a support vector machine classifier with a radial basis function kernel. PMID:27051414

  4. A New Paradigm for Identification of Classes of High Energy Gamma-Ray Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, D F; Reimer, O

    2005-04-08

    A large fraction of the expected number of source detections of the forthcoming observatory Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) will be initially unidentified. We argue that traditional methodological approaches to identify individual detections and/or populations of gamma-ray sources present procedural limitations. These limitations will hamper our ability to classify the populations lying in the anticipated dataset with the required degree of confidence, in particular for those for which no member has yet been detected convincingly with the predecessor experiment EGRET. Here we suggest a new paradigm for achieving the classification of gamma-ray source populations that is based on implementing an a priori protocol to search for theoretically-motivated candidates. It is essential that such paradigm will be defined before the data is unblinded, in order to protect the discovery potential of the sample. Key to the new procedure is a quantitative assessment of the confidence level by which new populations can be claimed to have been discovered. When needed, small number statistics is applied for population studies in gamma-ray astronomy. Although we refer here explicitly only to the case of GLAST, the scheme we present can certainly be adapted to other experiments confronted with a similar combination of problems.

  5. Extraction of SSVEP signals of a capacitive EEG helmet for human machine interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, Martin; Neumann, Peter; Becker, Matthias; Curio, Gabriel; Schilling, Meinhard

    2008-01-01

    The use of capacitive electrodes for measuring EEG eliminates the preparation procedure known from classical noninvasive EEG measurements. The insulated interface to the brain signals in combination with steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEP) enables a zero prep human machine interface triggered by brain signals. This paper presents a 28-channel EEG helmet system based on our capacitive electrodes measuring and analyzing SSVEPs even through scalp hair. Correlation analysis is employed to extract the stimulation frequency of the EEG signal. The system is characterized corresponding to the available detection time with different subjects. As demonstration of the use of capacitive electrodes for SSVEP measurements, preliminary online Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) results of the system are presented. Detection times lie about a factor of 3 higher than in galvanic EEG SSVEP measurements, but are low enough to establish a proper communication channel for Human Machine Interface (HMI). PMID:19163714

  6. Social Movements Facing the Processes of Globalization: Beyond the Paradigms of Class and Identity

    OpenAIRE

    Verónica Alfaro

    2004-01-01

    This essay focuses on a particular expression of globalization and regionalization that entails social, political, cultural and economic dimensions: social movements. I argue that current social movements are not necessarily articulated only in terms of class struggle-as the major labor movements were for the last two centuries. Neither do they articulate their protests only in terms of identity and recognition-such as women's movements did in the 1960s. Social movements are now most commonly...

  7. Simple communication using a SSVEP-based BCI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majority of Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) for communication purposes are speller, i.e., the user has to select letter by letter. In this work, is proposed a different approach where the user can select words from a word set designed in order to answer a wide range of questions. The word selection process is commanded by a Steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) based-BCI that allows selecting a word in an average time of 26 s with accuracies of 92% on average. This BCI is focus in the first stages on rehabilitation or even in first moments of some diseases (such as stroke), when the person is eager to communicate with family and doctors.

  8. The Quantum Mixed-Spin Heme State of Barley Peroxidase: A Paradigm for Class III Peroxidases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howes, B.D.; Ma, J.; Marzocchi, M.P.; Schiodt, C.B.; Shelnutt, J.A.; Smulevich, G.; Welinder, K.G.; Zhang, J.

    1999-03-23

    Electronic absorption and resonance Raman (RR) spectra of the ferric form of barley grain peroxidase (BP 1) at various pH values both at room temperature and 20 K are . reported, together with EPR spectra at 10 K. The ferrous forms and the ferric complex with fluoride have also been studied. A quantum mechanically mixed-spin (QS) state has been identified. The QS heme species co-exists with 6- and 5-cHS heroes; the relative populations of these three spin states are found to be dependent on pH and temperature. However, the QS species remains in all cases the dominant heme spin species. Barley peroxidase appears to be further characterized by a splitting of the two vinyl stretching modes, indicating that the vinyl groups are differently conjugated with the porphyrin. An analysis of the presently available spectroscopic data for proteins from all three peroxidase classes suggests that the simultaneous occurrence of the QS heme state as well as the splitting of the two vinyl stretching modes is confined to class III enzymes. The former point is discussed in terms of the possible influences of heme deformations on heme spin state. It is found that moderate saddling alone is probably not enough to cause the QS state, although some saddling maybe necessary for the QS state.

  9. On the quantification of SSVEP frequency responses in human EEG in realistic BCI conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Kuś

    Full Text Available This article concerns one of the most important problems of brain-computer interfaces (BCI based on Steady State Visual Evoked Potentials (SSVEP, that is the selection of the a-priori most suitable frequencies for stimulation. Previous works related to this problem were done either with measuring systems that have little in common with actual BCI systems (e.g., single flashing LED or were presented on a small number of subjects, or the tested frequency range did not cover a broad spectrum. Their results indicate a strong SSVEP response around 10 Hz, in the range 13-25 Hz, and at high frequencies in the band of 40-60 Hz. In the case of BCI interfaces, stimulation with frequencies from various ranges are used. The frequencies are often adapted for each user separately. The selection of these frequencies, however, was not yet justified in quantitative group-level study with proper statistical account for inter-subject variability. The aim of this study is to determine the SSVEP response curve, that is, the magnitude of the evoked signal as a function of frequency. The SSVEP response was induced in conditions as close as possible to the actual BCI system, using a wide range of frequencies (5-30 Hz, in step of 1 Hz. The data were obtained for 10 subjects. SSVEP curves for individual subjects and the population curve was determined. Statistical analysis were conducted both on the level of individual subjects and for the group. The main result of the study is the identification of the optimal range of frequencies, which is 12-18 Hz, for the registration of SSVEP phenomena. The applied criterion of optimality was: to find the largest contiguous range of frequencies yielding the strong and constant-level SSVEP response.

  10. Multiple frequencies sequential coding for SSVEP-based brain-computer interface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangsong Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP-based brain-computer interface (BCI has become one of the most promising modalities for a practical noninvasive BCI system. Owing to both the limitation of refresh rate of liquid crystal display (LCD or cathode ray tube (CRT monitor, and the specific physiological response property that only a very small number of stimuli at certain frequencies could evoke strong SSVEPs, the available frequencies for SSVEP stimuli are limited. Therefore, it may not be enough to code multiple targets with the traditional frequencies coding protocols, which poses a big challenge for the design of a practical SSVEP-based BCI. This study aimed to provide an innovative coding method to tackle this problem. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we present a novel protocol termed multiple frequencies sequential coding (MFSC for SSVEP-based BCI. In MFSC, multiple frequencies are sequentially used in each cycle to code the targets. To fulfill the sequential coding, each cycle is divided into several coding epochs, and during each epoch, certain frequency is used. Obviously, different frequencies or the same frequency can be presented in the coding epochs, and the different epoch sequence corresponds to the different targets. To show the feasibility of MFSC, we used two frequencies to realize four targets and carried on an offline experiment. The current study shows that: 1 MFSC is feasible and efficient; 2 the performance of SSVEP-based BCI based on MFSC can be comparable to some existed systems. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The proposed protocol could potentially implement much more targets with the limited available frequencies compared with the traditional frequencies coding protocol. The efficiency of the new protocol was confirmed by real data experiment. We propose that the SSVEP-based BCI under MFSC might be a promising choice in the future.

  11. The Characteristics of Solar X-Class Flares and CMEs: A Paradigm for Stellar Superflares and Eruptions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harra, Louise K.; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Janvier, Miho; Toriumi, Shin; Hudson, Hugh; Matthews, Sarah; Woods, Magnus M.; Hara, Hirohisa; Guedel, Manuel; Kowalski, Adam; Osten, Rachel; Kusano, Kanya; Lueftinger, Theresa

    2016-08-01

    This paper explores the characteristics of 42 solar X-class flares that were observed between February 2011 and November 2014, with data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and other sources. This flare list includes nine X-class flares that had no associated CMEs. In particular our aim was to determine whether a clear signature could be identified to differentiate powerful flares that have coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from those that do not. Part of the motivation for this study is the characterization of the solar paradigm for flare/CME occurrence as a possible guide to the stellar observations; hence we emphasize spectroscopic signatures. To do this we ask the following questions: Do all eruptive flares have long durations? Do CME-related flares stand out in terms of active-region size vs. flare duration? Do flare magnitudes correlate with sunspot areas, and, if so, are eruptive events distinguished? Is the occurrence of CMEs related to the fraction of the active-region area involved? Do X-class flares with no eruptions have weaker non-thermal signatures? Is the temperature dependence of evaporation different in eruptive and non-eruptive flares? Is EUV dimming only seen in eruptive flares? We find only one feature consistently associated with CME-related flares specifically: coronal dimming in lines characteristic of the quiet-Sun corona, i.e. 1 - 2 MK. We do not find a correlation between flare magnitude and sunspot areas. Although challenging, it will be of importance to model dimming for stellar cases and make suitable future plans for observations in the appropriate wavelength range in order to identify stellar CMEs consistently.

  12. Social Movements Facing the Processes of Globalization: Beyond the Paradigms of Class and Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Alfaro

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay focuses on a particular expression of globalization and regionalization that entails social, political, cultural and economic dimensions: social movements. I argue that current social movements are not necessarily articulated only in terms of class struggle-as the major labor movements were for the last two centuries. Neither do they articulate their protests only in terms of identity and recognition-such as women's movements did in the 1960s. Social movements are now most commonly organized around a discourse that combines those two dimensions. Contemporary social movements are expanding from the structural economic and industrial system (and thus abandoning the form of traditional class struggles to cultural and identity grounds. New social movements are now seen more and more as symbolic challengers, because power-that affects everyday life and tries to manipulate and give social meaning to things-is being contested by individuals in both the public and private spheres. Thus movements have a more symbolic function: they are a new kind of media, fighting for symbolic and cultural stakes, and for a different meaning and orientation of social action. However, constructing a collective identity within a social movement is not definitive. A movement's identity is constructed on an everyday basis, and within the process of globalization, the contact and social interaction with others -with the other, which allows the definition of one's own identity-is not only possible but also necessary. This paper considers the Zapatista rebellion in Chiapas as an empirical approach to social movements expanding from regional, local mobilizations and discourse, to more global oriented contentious activities. I argue that the Zapatista movement's identity in 1994 was quite different from the one it has now: the Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional (EZLN, or Zapatista National Liberation Army discourse has been transformed, from having an ethnic

  13. Comparative Study of SSVEP- and P300-Based Models for the Telepresence Control of Humanoid Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Jing ZHAO; Li, Wei; Li,Mengfan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the control performance of SSVEP (steady-state visual evoked potential)- and P300-based models using Cerebot—a mind-controlled humanoid robot platform. Seven subjects with diverse experience participated in experiments concerning the open-loop and closed-loop control of a humanoid robot via brain signals. The visual stimuli of both the SSVEP- and P300- based models were implemented on a LCD computer monitor with a refresh frequency of 60 Hz. Considering the operatio...

  14. Comparative Study of SSVEP- and P300-based Models for the Telepresence Control of Humanoid Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Jing ZHAO; Li, Wei; Li,Mengfan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the control performance of SSVEP (steady-state visual evoked potential)- and P300-based models using Cerebot – a mind-controlled humanoid robot platform. Seven subjects with diverse experience participated in experiments concerning the open-loop and closed-loop control of a humanoid robot via brain signals. The visual stimuli of both the SSVEP- and P300- based models were implemented on a LCD computer monitor with a refresh frequency of 60 Hz. Considering the ...

  15. Automatic Determination of the Optimum Stimulation Frequencies in an SSVEP based BCI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaashoek, I.; Garcia Molina, G.

    2009-01-01

    A brain computer interface (or BCI) is a communication or control system which does not need any neuromuscular activity to produce a message or action. In this project, an SSVEP based BCI is used. This means that when the user concentrates on a LED, flickering with a certain frequency, the steady s

  16. Enhancing performances of SSVEP-based brain-computer interfaces via exploiting inter-subject information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Peng; Chen, Xiaogang; Wang, Yijun; Gao, Xiaorong; Gao, Shangkai

    2015-08-01

    Objective. A new training-free framework was proposed for target detection in steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) using joint frequency-phase coding. Approach. The key idea is to transfer SSVEP templates from the existing subjects to a new subject to enhance the detection of SSVEPs. Under this framework, transfer template-based canonical correlation analysis (tt-CCA) methods were developed for single-channel and multi-channel conditions respectively. In addition, an online transfer template-based CCA (ott-CCA) method was proposed to update EEG templates by online adaptation. Main results. The efficiency of the proposed framework was proved with a simulated BCI experiment. Compared with the standard CCA method, tt-CCA obtained an 18.78% increase of accuracy with a data length of 1.5 s. A simulated test of ott-CCA further received an accuracy increase of 2.99%. Significance. The proposed simple yet efficient framework significantly facilitates the use of SSVEP BCIs using joint frequency-phase coding. This study also sheds light on the benefits from exploring and exploiting inter-subject information to the electroencephalogram (EEG)-based BCIs.

  17. DTU BCI speller: An SSVEP-based spelling system with dictionary support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilic, Adnan; Kjaer, Troels W.; Thomsen, Carsten E.;

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a new brain computer interface (BCI) speller, named DTU BCI speller, is introduced. It is based on the steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) and features dictionary support. The system focuses on simplicity and user friendliness by using a single electrode for the signal...

  18. A BMI-based occupational therapy assist suit: asynchronous control by SSVEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KenjiKansaku

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A brain-machine interface (BMI is an interface technology that uses neurophysiological signals from the brain to control external machines. Recent invasive BMI technologies have succeeded in the asynchronous control of robot arms for a useful series of actions, such as reaching and grasping. In this study, we developed non-invasive BMI technologies aiming to make such useful movements using the subject's own hands by preparing a BMI-based occupational therapy assist suit (BOTAS. We prepared a pre-recorded series of useful actionsa grasping-a-ball movement and a carrying-the-ball movementand added asynchronous control using steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP signals. A SSVEP signal was used to trigger the grasping-a-ball movement and another SSVEP signal was used to trigger the carrying-the-ball movement. A support vector machine was used to classify EEG signals recorded from the visual cortex (Oz in real time. Untrained, able-bodied participants (n = 12 operated the system successfully. Classification accuracy and time required for SSVEP detection were approximately 88% and 3 s, respectively. We further recruited three patients with upper cervical spinal cord injuries; they also succeeded in operating the system without training. These data suggest that our BOTAS system is potentially useful in terms of rehabilitation of patients with upper limb disabilities.

  19. Fully Online Multicommand Brain-Computer Interface with Visual Neurofeedback Using SSVEP Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hovagim Bakardjian

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new multistage procedure for a real-time brain-machine/computer interface (BCI. The developed system allows a BCI user to navigate a small car (or any other object on the computer screen in real time, in any of the four directions, and to stop it if necessary. Extensive experiments with five young healthy subjects confirmed the high performance of the proposed online BCI system. The modular structure, high speed, and the optimal frequency band characteristics of the BCI platform are features which allow an extension to a substantially higher number of commands in the near future.

  20. Autonomous Parameter Adjustment for SSVEP-Based BCIs with a Novel BCI Wizard

    OpenAIRE

    Gembler, Felix; Stawicki, Piotr; Volosyak, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) transfer human brain activities into computer commands and enable a communication channel without requiring movement. Among other BCI approaches, steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based BCIs have the potential to become accurate, assistive technologies for persons with severe disabilities. Those systems require customization of different kinds of parameters (e.g., stimulation frequencies). Calibration usually requires selecting predefined parameters...

  1. Development of a Brain Computer Interface (BCI) Speller System Based on SSVEP Signals

    OpenAIRE

    Movahedi, Mohammad Mehdi; Mehdizadeh, Alireza; Alipour, Abolfazl

    2013-01-01

    BCI is one of the most intriguing technologies among other HCI systems, mostly because of its capability of recording brain activities. Spelling BCIs, which help paralyzed people to maintain communication, are one of the striking topics in the field of BCI. In this scientific a spelling BCI system with high transfer rate and accuracy that uses SSVEP signals is proposed. In addition, we suggested that LED light sources can provide proper signals for speller BCIs and they can be used in future.

  2. EEG-based classification of video quality perception using steady state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acqualagna, Laura; Bosse, Sebastian; Porbadnigk, Anne K.; Curio, Gabriel; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Wiegand, Thomas; Blankertz, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    Objective. Recent studies exploit the neural signal recorded via electroencephalography (EEG) to get a more objective measurement of perceived video quality. Most of these studies capitalize on the event-related potential component P3. We follow an alternative approach to the measurement problem investigating steady state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) as EEG correlates of quality changes. Unlike the P3, SSVEPs are directly linked to the sensory processing of the stimuli and do not require long experimental sessions to get a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio. Furthermore, we investigate the correlation of the EEG-based measures with the outcome of the standard behavioral assessment. Approach. As stimulus material, we used six gray-level natural images in six levels of degradation that were created by coding the images with the HM10.0 test model of the high efficiency video coding (H.265/MPEG-HEVC) using six different compression rates. The degraded images were presented in rapid alternation with the original images. In this setting, the presence of SSVEPs is a neural marker that objectively indicates the neural processing of the quality changes that are induced by the video coding. We tested two different machine learning methods to classify such potentials based on the modulation of the brain rhythm and on time-locked components, respectively. Main results. Results show high accuracies in classification of the neural signal over the threshold of the perception of the quality changes. Accuracies significantly correlate with the mean opinion scores given by the participants in the standardized degradation category rating quality assessment of the same group of images. Significance. The results show that neural assessment of video quality based on SSVEPs is a viable complement of the behavioral one and a significantly fast alternative to methods based on the P3 component.

  3. Attentional modulation of SSVEP power depends on the network tagged by the flicker frequency

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Jian; Sperling, George; Srinivasan, Ramesh

    2005-01-01

    The modulation of steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) by attention was studied in detail using 15 “tag” frequencies in the range of 2.5–20 Hz. The stimuli were two series of random disc search arrays superimposed on two concentric color-marked annuli respectively. Two series of arrays were updated independently; one updated at one fixed frequency (flicker) and the other updated randomly according to a white noise distribution (random broadband flicker, rbbf). On each trial, the subje...

  4. The Characteristics of Solar X-Class Flares and CMEs: A Paradigm for Stellar Superflares and Eruptions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harra, Louise K.; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Janvier, Miho; Toriumi, Shin; Hudson, Hugh; Matthews, Sarah; Woods, Magnus M.; Hara, Hirohisa; Guedel, Manuel; Kowalski, Adam; Osten, Rachel; Kusano, Kanya; Lueftinger, Theresa

    2016-07-01

    We study the characteristics of moving type IV radio bursts that extend to hectometric wavelengths (interplanetary type IV or type {IV}_{{IP}} bursts) and their relationship with energetic phenomena on the Sun. Our dataset comprises 48 interplanetary type IV bursts observed with the Radio and Plasma Wave Investigation (WAVES) instrument onboard Wind in the 13.825 MHz - 20 kHz frequency range. The dynamic spectra of the Radio Solar Telescope Network (RSTN), the Nançay Decametric Array (DAM), the Appareil de Routine pour le Traitement et l' Enregistrement Magnetique de l' Information Spectral (ARTEMIS-IV), the Culgoora, Hiraso, and the Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation (IZMIRAN) Radio Spectrographs were used to track the evolution of the events in the low corona. These were supplemented with soft X-ray (SXR) flux-measurements from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) and coronal mass ejections (CME) data from the Large Angle and Spectroscopic Coronagraph (LASCO) onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). Positional information of the coronal bursts was obtained by the Nançay Radioheliograph (NRH). We examined the relationship of the type IV events with coronal radio bursts, CMEs, and SXR flares. The majority of the events (45) were characterized as compact, their duration was on average 106 minutes. This type of events was, mostly, associated with M- and X-class flares (40 out of 45) and fast CMEs, 32 of these events had CMEs faster than 1000 km s^{-1}. Furthermore, in 43 compact events the CME was possibly subjected to reduced aerodynamic drag as it was propagating in the wake of a previous CME. A minority (three) of long-lived type IV_{IP} bursts was detected, with durations from 960 minutes to 115 hours. These events are referred to as extended or long duration and appear to replenish their energetic electron content, possibly from electrons escaping from the corresponding coronal type

  5. Testing the Paradigm that Ultra-Luminous X-Ray Sources as a Class Represent Accreting Intermediate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghea, C. T.; Weaver, K. A.; Colbert, E. J. M.; Roberts, T. P.

    2008-01-01

    To test the idea that ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) in external galaxies represent a class of accreting Intermediate-Mass Black Holes (IMBHs), we have undertaken a program to identify ULXs and a lower luminosity X-ray comparison sample with the highest quality data in the Chandra archive. We establish a general property of ULXs that the most X-ray luminous objects possess the fattest X-ray spectra (in the Chandra band pass). No prior sample studies have established the general hardening of ULX spectra with luminosity. This hardening occurs at the highest luminosities (absorbed luminosity > or equals 5x10(exp 39) ergs/s) and is in line with recent models arguing that ULXs are actually stellar-mass black holes. From spectral modeling, we show that the evidence originally taken to mean that ULXs are IMBHs - i.e., the "simple IMBH model" - is nowhere near as compelling when a large sample of ULXs is looked at properly. During the last couple of years, XMM-Newton spectroscopy of ULXs has to some large extent begun to negate the simple IMBH model based on fewer objects. We confirm and expand these results, which validates the XMM-Newton work in a broader sense with independent X-ray data. We find (1) that cool disk components are present with roughly equal probability and total flux fraction for any given ULX, regardless of luminosity, and (2) that cool disk components extend below the standard ULX luminosity cutoff of 10(exp 39) ergs/s, down to our sample limit of 10(exp 38:3) ergs/s. The fact that cool disk components are not correlated with luminosity damages the argument that cool disks indicate IMBHs in ULXs, for which a strong statistical support was never made.

  6. Filter bank canonical correlation analysis for implementing a high-speed SSVEP-based brain-computer interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaogang; Wang, Yijun; Gao, Shangkai; Jung, Tzyy-Ping; Gao, Xiaorong

    2015-08-01

    Objective. Recently, canonical correlation analysis (CCA) has been widely used in steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) due to its high efficiency, robustness, and simple implementation. However, a method with which to make use of harmonic SSVEP components to enhance the CCA-based frequency detection has not been well established. Approach. This study proposed a filter bank canonical correlation analysis (FBCCA) method to incorporate fundamental and harmonic frequency components to improve the detection of SSVEPs. A 40-target BCI speller based on frequency coding (frequency range: 8-15.8 Hz, frequency interval: 0.2 Hz) was used for performance evaluation. To optimize the filter bank design, three methods (M1: sub-bands with equally spaced bandwidths; M2: sub-bands corresponding to individual harmonic frequency bands; M3: sub-bands covering multiple harmonic frequency bands) were proposed for comparison. Classification accuracy and information transfer rate (ITR) of the three FBCCA methods and the standard CCA method were estimated using an offline dataset from 12 subjects. Furthermore, an online BCI speller adopting the optimal FBCCA method was tested with a group of 10 subjects. Main results. The FBCCA methods significantly outperformed the standard CCA method. The method M3 achieved the highest classification performance. At a spelling rate of ˜33.3 characters/min, the online BCI speller obtained an average ITR of 151.18 ± 20.34 bits min-1. Significance. By incorporating the fundamental and harmonic SSVEP components in target identification, the proposed FBCCA method significantly improves the performance of the SSVEP-based BCI, and thereby facilitates its practical applications such as high-speed spelling.

  7. The enhanced information flow from visual cortex to frontal area facilitates SSVEP response: evidence from model-driven and data-driven causality analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fali; Tian, Yin; Zhang, Yangsong; Qiu, Kan; Tian, Chunyang; Jing, Wei; Liu, Tiejun; Xia, Yang; Guo, Daqing; Yao, Dezhong; Xu, Peng

    2015-10-01

    The neural mechanism of steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEP) is still not clearly understood. Especially, only certain frequency stimuli can evoke SSVEP. Our previous network study reveals that 8 Hz stimulus that can evoke strong SSVEP response shows the enhanced linkage strength between frontal and visual cortex. To further probe the directed information flow between the two cortex areas for various frequency stimuli, this paper develops a causality analysis based on the inversion of double columns model using particle swarm optimization (PSO) to characterize the directed information flow between visual and frontal cortices with the intracranial rat electroencephalograph (EEG). The estimated model parameters demonstrate that the 8 Hz stimulus shows the enhanced directional information flow from visual cortex to frontal lobe facilitates SSVEP response, which may account for the strong SSVEP response for 8 Hz stimulus. Furthermore, the similar finding is replicated by data-driven causality analysis. The inversion of neural mass model proposed in this study may be helpful to provide the new causality analysis to link the physiological model and the observed datasets in neuroscience and clinical researches.

  8. Paradigm Shift

    OpenAIRE

    Besancenot, Damien; Dogguy, Habib

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the consequences of young researchers' scientifc choice on the dynamics of sciences. We develop a simple two state mean field game model to analyze the competition between two paradigms based on Kuhn's theory of scientifc revolutions. At the beginning of their career, young researchers choose the paradigm in which they want to work according to social and personal motivations. Despite the possibility of multiple equilibria the model exhibits at least one stable solution in...

  9. A Comparison of Two Spelling Brain-Computer Interfaces Based on Visual P3 and SSVEP in Locked-In Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robben, Arne; Vanhoof, Gertie; Goeleven, Ann; Thijs, Vincent; Van Hulle, Marc M.; Laureys, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We study the applicability of a visual P3-based and a Steady State Visually Evoked Potentials (SSVEP)-based Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) for mental text spelling on a cohort of patients with incomplete Locked-In Syndrome (LIS). Methods Seven patients performed repeated sessions with each BCI. We assessed BCI performance, mental workload and overall satisfaction for both systems. We also investigated the effect of the quality of life and level of motor impairment on the performance. Results All seven patients were able to achieve an accuracy of 70% or more with the SSVEP-based BCI, compared to 3 patients with the P3-based BCI, showing a better performance with the SSVEP BCI than with the P3 BCI in the studied cohort. Moreover, the better performance of the SSVEP-based BCI was accompanied by a lower mental workload and a higher overall satisfaction. No relationship was found between BCI performance and level of motor impairment or quality of life. Conclusion Our results show a better usability of the SSVEP-based BCI than the P3-based one for the sessions performed by the tested population of locked-in patients with respect to all the criteria considered. The study shows the advantage of developing alternative BCIs with respect to the traditional matrix-based P3 speller using different designs and signal modalities such as SSVEPs to build a faster, more accurate, less mentally demanding and more satisfying BCI by testing both types of BCIs on a convenience sample of LIS patients. PMID:24086289

  10. A comparison of two spelling Brain-Computer Interfaces based on visual P3 and SSVEP in Locked-In Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Combaz

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We study the applicability of a visual P3-based and a Steady State Visually Evoked Potentials (SSVEP-based Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs for mental text spelling on a cohort of patients with incomplete Locked-In Syndrome (LIS. METHODS: Seven patients performed repeated sessions with each BCI. We assessed BCI performance, mental workload and overall satisfaction for both systems. We also investigated the effect of the quality of life and level of motor impairment on the performance. RESULTS: All seven patients were able to achieve an accuracy of 70% or more with the SSVEP-based BCI, compared to 3 patients with the P3-based BCI, showing a better performance with the SSVEP BCI than with the P3 BCI in the studied cohort. Moreover, the better performance of the SSVEP-based BCI was accompanied by a lower mental workload and a higher overall satisfaction. No relationship was found between BCI performance and level of motor impairment or quality of life. CONCLUSION: Our results show a better usability of the SSVEP-based BCI than the P3-based one for the sessions performed by the tested population of locked-in patients with respect to all the criteria considered. The study shows the advantage of developing alternative BCIs with respect to the traditional matrix-based P3 speller using different designs and signal modalities such as SSVEPs to build a faster, more accurate, less mentally demanding and more satisfying BCI by testing both types of BCIs on a convenience sample of LIS patients.

  11. An SSVEP based BCI to control a humanoid robot by using portable EEG device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güneysu, Arzu; Akin, H Levent

    2013-01-01

    Brain Computer Interfaces (BCIs) are systems that allow human subjects to interact with the environment by interpreting brain signals into machine commands. This work provides a design for a BCI to control a humanoid robot by using signals obtained from the Emotiv EPOC, a portable electroencephalogram (EEG) device with 14 electrodes and sampling rate of 128 Hz. The main objective is to process the neuroelectric responses to an externally driven stimulus and generate control signals for the humanoid robot Nao accordingly. We analyze steady-state visually evoked potential (SSVEP) induced by one of four groups of light emitting diodes (LED) by using two distinct signals obtained from the two channels of the EEG device which reside on top of the occipital lobe. An embedded system is designed for generating pulse width modulated square wave signals in order to flicker each group of LEDs with different frequencies. The subject chooses the direction by looking at one of these groups of LEDs that represent four directions. Fast Fourier Transform and a Gaussian model are used to detect the dominant frequency component by utilizing harmonics and neighbor frequencies. Then, a control signal is sent to the robot in order to draw a fixed sized line in that selected direction by BCI. Experimental results display satisfactory performance where the correct target is detected 75% of the time on the average across all test subjects without any training. PMID:24111332

  12. SSVEP and ANN based optimal speller design for Brain Computer Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irshad Ahmad Ansari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This work put forwards an optimal BCI (Brain Computer Interface speller design based on Steady State Visual Evoked Potentials (SSVEP and Artificial Neural Network (ANN in order to help the people with severe motor impairments. This work is carried out to enhance the accuracy and communication rate of  BCI system. To optimize the BCI system, the work has been divided into two steps: First, designing of an encoding technique to choose characters from the speller interface and the second is the development and implementation of feature extraction algorithm to acquire optimal features, which is used to train the BCI system for classification using neural network. Optimization of speller interface is focused on representation of character matrix and its designing parameters. Then again, a lot of deliberations made in order to optimize selection of features and user’s time window. Optimized system works nearly the same with the new user and gives character per minute (CPM of 13 ± 2 with an average accuracy of 94.5% by choosing first two harmonics of power spectral density as the feature vectors and using the 2 second time window for each selection. Optimized BCI performs better with experienced users with an average accuracy of 95.1%. Such a good accuracy has not been reported before in account of fair enough CPM.DOI: 10.15181/csat.v2i2.1059

  13. Affective SSVEP BCI to effectively control 3D objects by using a prism array-based display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Sungchul; Park, Min-Chul

    2014-06-01

    3D objects with depth information can provide many benefits to users in education, surgery, and interactions. In particular, many studies have been done to enhance sense of reality in 3D interaction. Viewing and controlling stereoscopic 3D objects with crossed or uncrossed disparities, however, can cause visual fatigue due to the vergenceaccommodation conflict generally accepted in 3D research fields. In order to avoid the vergence-accommodation mismatch and provide a strong sense of presence to users, we apply a prism array-based display to presenting 3D objects. Emotional pictures were used as visual stimuli in control panels to increase information transfer rate and reduce false positives in controlling 3D objects. Involuntarily motivated selective attention by affective mechanism can enhance steady-state visually evoked potential (SSVEP) amplitude and lead to increased interaction efficiency. More attentional resources are allocated to affective pictures with high valence and arousal levels than to normal visual stimuli such as white-and-black oscillating squares and checkerboards. Among representative BCI control components (i.e., eventrelated potentials (ERP), event-related (de)synchronization (ERD/ERS), and SSVEP), SSVEP-based BCI was chosen in the following reasons. It shows high information transfer rates and takes a few minutes for users to control BCI system while few electrodes are required for obtaining reliable brainwave signals enough to capture users' intention. The proposed BCI methods are expected to enhance sense of reality in 3D space without causing critical visual fatigue to occur. In addition, people who are very susceptible to (auto) stereoscopic 3D may be able to use the affective BCI.

  14. Organizational Paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIVIU GABRIEL CREŢU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the industrial age of the twenty century small firms or mass-production giants have been all organized on the classic principles defined by Smith, Taylor and Fayol. Lately, new organization theories have emerged to describe modern enterprises, process-oriented and much more agile in the new highly collaborative business landscape. Information and knowledge became the most important organizational assets as well as the basic concepts in enterprise architecture. This paper will provide an overview of organizational paradigms with respect to information and knowledge role in the business structure equation.

  15. A Two-Stage State Recognition Method for Asynchronous SSVEP-Based Brain-Computer Interface System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zimu; DENG Zhidong

    2013-01-01

    A two-stage state recognition method is proposed for asynchronous SSVEP (steady-state visual evoked potential) based brain-computer interface (SBCI) system.The two-stage method is composed of the idle state (IS) detection and control state (CS) discrimination modules.Based on blind source separation and continuous wavelet transform techniques,the proposed method integrates functions of multi-electrode spatial filtering and feature extraction.In IS detection module,a method using the ensemble IS feature is proposed.In CS discrimination module,the ensemble CS feature is designed as feature vector for control intent classification.Further,performance comparisons are investigated among our IS detection module and other existing ones.Also the experimental results validate the satisfactory performance of our CS discrimination module.

  16. A Comparison of Two Spelling Brain-Computer Interfaces Based on Visual P3 and SSVEP in Locked-In Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Combaz, Adrien; Chatelle, Camille; Robben, Arne; Vanhoof, Gertie; Goeleven, Ann; Thijs, Vincent; Hulle, Marc van; Laureys, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: We study the applicability of a visual P3-based and a Steady State Visually Evoked Potentials (SSVEP)-based Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) for mental text spelling on a cohort of patients with incomplete Locked-In Syndrome (LIS). Methods: Seven patients performed repeated sessions with each BCI. We assessed BCI performance, mental workload and overall satisfaction for both systems. We also investigated the effect of the quality of life and level of motor impairment on ...

  17. Clarifying the Narrative Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Walter R.

    1989-01-01

    Replies to Rowland's article (same issue) on Fisher's views of the narrative paradigm. Clarifies the narrative paradigm by discussing three senses in which "narration" can be understood, and by indicating what the narrative paradigm is not. (SR)

  18. An Idle-State Detection Algorithm for SSVEP-Based Brain-Computer Interfaces Using a Maximum Evoked Response Spatial Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Huang, Bisheng; Wu, Wei; Li, Siliang

    2015-11-01

    Although accurate recognition of the idle state is essential for the application of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) in real-world situations, it remains a challenging task due to the variability of the idle state. In this study, a novel algorithm was proposed for the idle state detection in a steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based BCI. The proposed algorithm aims to solve the idle state detection problem by constructing a better model of the control states. For feature extraction, a maximum evoked response (MER) spatial filter was developed to extract neurophysiologically plausible SSVEP responses, by finding the combination of multi-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) signals that maximized the evoked responses while suppressing the unrelated background EEGs. The extracted SSVEP responses at the frequencies of both the attended and the unattended stimuli were then used to form feature vectors and a series of binary classifiers for recognition of each control state and the idle state were constructed. EEG data from nine subjects in a three-target SSVEP BCI experiment with a variety of idle state conditions were used to evaluate the proposed algorithm. Compared to the most popular canonical correlation analysis-based algorithm and the conventional power spectrum-based algorithm, the proposed algorithm outperformed them by achieving an offline control state classification accuracy of 88.0 ± 11.1% and idle state false positive rates (FPRs) ranging from 7.4 ± 5.6% to 14.2 ± 10.1%, depending on the specific idle state conditions. Moreover, the online simulation reported BCI performance close to practical use: 22.0 ± 2.9 out of the 24 control commands were correctly recognized and the FPRs achieved as low as approximately 0.5 event/min in the idle state conditions with eye open and 0.05 event/min in the idle state condition with eye closed. These results demonstrate the potential of the proposed algorithm for implementing practical SSVEP BCI systems. PMID

  19. A solution to solve the dilemma of high frequencies and LCD screen for SSVEP responses

    OpenAIRE

    Cecotti, Hubert; Rivet, Bertrand

    2010-01-01

    International audience Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI) based on the detection of Steady-State Visual Evoked Potentials have proven to be highly efficient. Compared to other BCI paradigm, they usually provide the best information transfer rate. However, this type of BCI requires visual stimuli. These stimuli can be on LEDs or on a computer screen. LEDs can allow flickering lights of high frequencies while flickering lights on an LCD screen can be an integrated as a part of the user interfac...

  20. Covert enaction at work: Recording the continuous movements of visuospatial attention to visible or imagined targets by means of Steady-State Visual Evoked Potentials (SSVEPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregori Grgič, Regina; Calore, Enrico; de'Sperati, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Whereas overt visuospatial attention is customarily measured with eye tracking, covert attention is assessed by various methods. Here we exploited Steady-State Visual Evoked Potentials (SSVEPs) - the oscillatory responses of the visual cortex to incoming flickering stimuli - to record the movements of covert visuospatial attention in a way operatively similar to eye tracking (attention tracking), which allowed us to compare motion observation and motion extrapolation with and without eye movements. Observers fixated a central dot and covertly tracked a target oscillating horizontally and sinusoidally. In the background, the left and the right halves of the screen flickered at two different frequencies, generating two SSVEPs in occipital regions whose size varied reciprocally as observers attended to the moving target. The two signals were combined into a single quantity that was modulated at the target frequency in a quasi-sinusoidal way, often clearly visible in single trials. The modulation continued almost unchanged when the target was switched off and observers mentally extrapolated its motion in imagery, and also when observers pointed their finger at the moving target during covert tracking, or imagined doing so. The amplitude of modulation during covert tracking was ∼25-30% of that measured when observers followed the target with their eyes. We used 4 electrodes in parieto-occipital areas, but similar results were achieved with a single electrode in Oz. In a second experiment we tested ramp and step motion. During overt tracking, SSVEPs were remarkably accurate, showing both saccadic-like and smooth pursuit-like modulations of cortical responsiveness, although during covert tracking the modulation deteriorated. Covert tracking was better with sinusoidal motion than ramp motion, and better with moving targets than stationary ones. The clear modulation of cortical responsiveness recorded during both overt and covert tracking, identical for motion observation

  1. Didaktiske paradigmer og refleksion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Torben Spanget

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses the proposal of a didactic reflection paradigm set forward by Ellen Krogh in this issue of CURSIV. In CURSIV 9, Krogh proposed the paradigm in a discussion of possible links between the phenomenological analysis of subject didactics by Frede V. Nielsen and the semiotic......’s proposal is discussed in some detail and it is argued that a reflection paradigm does not live up to the criterion provided by Nielsen that a didactic paradigm must refer to a naturalistic phenomenon to be applicable for selection of content, at least in the interpretation of Nielsen that underlies this...... article. A possible utilitarian didactical paradigm, already indicated by Krogh as a historical paradigm prominent in our time, is also discussed. It is suggested that reflection could be seen as a normative response to the utilitarian paradigm, and not as a paradigm in its own right. It is concluded that...

  2. Paradigms of Intelligent Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Dana Ramona ANDRISESCU

    2007-01-01

    This paper approaches the subject of paradigms for the categories of intelligent systems. First we can look at the term paradigm in its scientific meaning and then we make acquaintance with the main categories of intelligent systems (expert systems, intelligent systems based on genetic algorithms, artificial neuronal systems, fuzzy systems, hybrid intelligent systems). We will see that every system has one or more paradigms, but hybrid intelligent systems combine paradigms because they are ma...

  3. Positioning Theory in Paradigms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Xiao-qiu

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of theory and paradigm to a researcher. It starts from introducing and analyzing the definition of the two terms, by using the theories in the field of intercultural communication as examples. To a good researcher, he needs not only clarifying the paradigm his research is positioned, but also integrating the theories in his paradigm.

  4. The brain frequency tuning function for facial emotion discrimination: An ssVEP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Maria; Alonso-Prieto, Esther; Handy, Todd; Barton, Jason

    2016-04-01

    Steady-state visual evoked potentials have only been applied recently to the study of face perception. We used this method to study the spatial and temporal dynamics of expression perception in the human brain and test the prediction that, as in the case of identity perception, the optimal frequency for facial expression would also be in the range of 5-6 Hz. We presented facial expressions at different flickering frequencies (2-8 Hz) to human observers while recording their brain electrical activity. Our modified adaptation paradigm contrasted blocks with varying expressions versus blocks with a constant neutral expression, while facial identity was kept constant. The presentation of different expressions created a larger steady-state response only at 5 Hz, corresponding to a cycle of 200 ms, over right occipito-temporal electrodes. Source localization using a time-domain analysis showed that the effect localized to the right occipito-temporal cortex, including the superior temporal sulcus and fusiform gyrus. PMID:27096944

  5. Paradigms for machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlimmer, Jeffrey C.; Langley, Pat

    1991-01-01

    Five paradigms are described for machine learning: connectionist (neural network) methods, genetic algorithms and classifier systems, empirical methods for inducing rules and decision trees, analytic learning methods, and case-based approaches. Some dimensions are considered along with these paradigms vary in their approach to learning, and the basic methods are reviewed that are used within each framework, together with open research issues. It is argued that the similarities among the paradigms are more important than their differences, and that future work should attempt to bridge the existing boundaries. Finally, some recent developments in the field of machine learning are discussed, and their impact on both research and applications is examined.

  6. Research of brain-computer interface automatic vehicle system based on SSVEP%基于SSVEP的脑-机接口自动车系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽; 孙永; 马彦臻; 何洋

    2011-01-01

    This paper mainly carried out proposes the research of SSVEP brain-computer interface automatic vehicle control systems,which describes the principles of the visual evoked potentials that used in brain-computer interface,and the single-chip is used to designs visual stimulation. Base on the LABVIEW platform, it also uses Hilbert Huang Transform to extract evoked potential vector continuously,which produces brain-computer interface control signals that can be applied to automatic vehicle control system to control the car around before and after exercise. According to a lot of experiments to verify,this sistem can send out the control commands that the correct rate is higher than 83% and can also send a command less than 5 seconds compared with the average time based on SSVEP,so it proves that the system is feasible and has a high application value.%阐述了视觉诱发电位用于脑-机接口的原理,系统采用单片机设计视觉刺激器,同时在LABVIEW平台上,利用希尔伯特黄变换实时提取诱发电位向量,产生脑机接口控制信号,并用于自动车控制系统,从而控制小车的前后左右运动.通过大量实验验证,设计的基于稳态视觉诱发电位的脑-机接口自动车控制系统,发送控制命令正确率高于83%,发送一个命令的平均时间低于5 s,证明该系统的方案是可行的,具有较高的应用价值.

  7. The MOND paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Milgrom, Mordehai

    2008-01-01

    I review briefly different aspects of the MOND paradigm, with emphasis on phenomenology, epitomized here by many MOND laws of galactic motion--analogous to Kepler's laws of planetary motion. I then comment on the possible roots of MOND in cosmology, possibly the deepest and most far reaching aspect of MOND. This is followed by a succinct account of existing underlying theories. I also reflect on the implications of MOND's successes for the dark matter (DM) paradigm: MOND predictions imply tha...

  8. Emergence and decline of scientific paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornholdt, S; Jensen, M H; Sneppen, K

    2011-02-01

    Scientific paradigms have a tendency to rise fast and decline slowly. This asymmetry reflects the difficulty in developing a truly original idea, compared to the ease at which a concept can be eroded by numerous modifications. Here we formulate a model for the emergence and spread of ideas which deals with this asymmetry by constraining the ability of agents to return to already abandoned concepts. The model exhibits a fairly regular pattern of global paradigm shifts, where older paradigms are eroded and subsequently replaced by new ones. The model sets the theme for a new class of pattern formation models, where local dynamics breaks the detailed balance in a way that prevents old states from defending themselves against new nucleating or invading states. The model allows for frozen events in terms of the coexistence of multiple metastable states. PMID:21405444

  9. Entre o realismo e o ficcional: representações sobre "raça", sexualidade e classe em dois romances paradigmáticos de Jorge Amado Between realism and fiction: representations of race, sexuality, and class in two paradigmatic novels by Jorge Amado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Moutinho

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo é apresentada e discutida a forma como as concepções e representações sobre "raça", miscigenação, sexualidade, gênero, erotismo e casamento são operadas em duas obras paradigmáticas representativas de dois importantes períodos da trajetória de Jorge Amado: Jubiabá, da fase nomeada de "romance proletário", e Gabriela, Cravo e Canela, tido como o livro que representa uma virada na carreira do autor, inaugurando o período do chamado "romance dialógico". Esses dois romances são protagonizados por casais inter-raciais que funcionam como o suporte a partir do qual Jorge Amado veicula algumas representações correntes na sociedade (e na ciência da época, não somente sobre a relação entre negros e brancos, como, igualmente, de uma nação que em um nível se percebe como mestiça e em outro enfrentava (e enfrenta o dilema da diferenciação racial. Como será visto, desejo proibido e luta de classes vividos pelo par homem negro / mulher branca (Jubiabá, uma vez contrastados com erotismo, casamento e progresso em foco na relação homem (quase branco / mulher mestiça, lançam luzes sobre algumas das representações de nação presentes e veiculadas na sociedade brasileira por suas mais variadas instituições.This article presents and discusses how concepts and representations of "race", miscegenation, sexuality, gender, erotism, and marriage are operated in two paradigmatic novels by Jorge Amado which represent two important periods in the author's trajectory: Jubiabá, from the period called "proletarian novel", and Gabriela, Cravo e Canela, which marked a twist in Amado's career, beginning of the phase called "dialogical novel". The protagonists in both novels are inter-racial couples who help the author transmit some current social representations (and on science in that time, not only of the relations between blacks and whites, but as well of a nation that, on the one hand, perceives itself as having mixed

  10. A Paradigm Shift in Biology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennaro Auletta

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available All new developments in biology deal with the issue of the complexity of organisms, often pointing out the necessity to update our current understanding. However, it is impossible to think about a change of paradigm in biology without introducing new explanatory mechanisms. I shall introduce the mechanisms of teleonomy and teleology as viable explanatory tools. Teleonomy is the ability of organisms to build themselves through internal forces and processes (in the expression of the genetic program and not external ones, implying a freedom relative to the exterior; however, the organism is able to integrate internal and external constraints in a process of co-adaptation. Teleology is that mechanism through which an organism exercises an informational control on another system in order to establish an equivalence class and select some specific information for its metabolic needs. Finally, I shall examine some interesting processes in phylogeny, ontogeny, and epigeny in which these two mechanisms are involved.

  11. A heretic's view of the object-oriented paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per

    1998-01-01

    A basic assumption of the object-oriented paradigm of computer programming and database thinking is that objects (including classes) are dynamic: classes have objects as instances which can be created, modified, and deleted. I argue that this leads to unnecessary conceptual difficulties, and sugg...

  12. Gender issues in architectural education: feminine paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Raluca Niculae

    2012-01-01

    Whether we are referring to architectural practice or architectural education, women’s lack of visibility is an important issue that reveals the fact that architecture is still defined by a masculine paradigm starting from design norms and canons followed by the dissemination of the traditional image of the architect as white aggressive and egocentric middle-class man. In terms of architectural education, the gender barometer leans, according to specific statistics, in favour of the male side...

  13. Paradigms of Migration: From Integration to Transnationalism

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Giordano

    2010-01-01

    This article provides a critical analysis from the viewpoint of social anthropology of the different theoretic approaches that also set the tone of current debates on immigration in Europe and elsewhere. We begin by retracing the models developed and popularized since the 1960s to discuss the integration theory and Marxist reflections on the rise of class consciousness in immigrants. The article illustrates the paradigm shift that occurred in the 1990s that takes into account the role of the ...

  14. HYBRID EXISTENCE. THREE PARADIGMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz Trzcinski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main problem of this text concerns the question of duality of human existence, and its relation with humans body. In the animistic paradigm body of a man is an “implement” unifying with the world, made by contact with sprits and ancestors. In the mechanical approach body is separate from consciousness, mind and spirit. It is a machine. In the holistic paradigm body is a part of the universe, and nowadays this universe is the informatics web. The man – golem, homunculus and automaton becomes part of total information. In this new situation the problem concerns psychological and moral attitude of man.

  15. Paradigms and pragmatic constructivism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørreklit, Hanne; Nørreklit, Lennart; Mitchell, Falconer

    2010-01-01

    the analysis of the comment on their past paper. Findings - In addressing each of the issues in turn the authors clarify their analysis. Originality/value - The paper provides an argument for the development of a paradigm for accounting practice derived from the use of pragmatic constructivism....

  16. The "New Environmental Paradigm"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Riley E.; Van Liere, Kent D.

    2008-01-01

    The "New Environmental Paradigm" or NEP appears to have gained considerable popularity in academic and intellectual circles, as well as among many college students; however, very little is known concerning the degree to which the general public has come to accept the ideas embodied in it. Thus, although there have been dozens of studies of…

  17. Paradigms of School Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrigley, Terry

    2011-01-01

    This short paper points to some paradigm issues in the field of school development (leadership, effectiveness, improvement) and their relationship to social justice. It contextualises the dominant School Effectiveness and School Improvement models within neo-liberal marketisation, paying attention to their transformation through a "marriage of…

  18. The paradigm of TQM

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Alcina Portugal

    2013-01-01

    In this short contribution a reflection on the evolution of the the Total Quality Management paradigm is pesented. The main differences between the three perspectives of Quality Management are analyzed, together with a set of changes and improvements to the practice of TQM that are likely to take place.

  19. Paradigms in object recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A broad range of approaches has been proposed and applied for the complex and rather difficult task of object recognition that involves the determination of object characteristics and object classification into one of many a priori object types. Our paper revises briefly the three main different paradigms in pattern recognition, namely Bayesian statistics, neural networks, and expert systems. (author)

  20. Programming Language Paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartoníček Jan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper's goal is to briefly explain the basic theory behind programming languages and their history while taking a close look at different programming paradigms that are used today as well as describing their differences, benefits, and drawbacks

  1. The Nature of Paradigms and Paradigm Shifts in Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaiotidi, Elvira

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the author attempts to extend the paradigm approach into the philosophy of music education and to build upon this basis a model for structuring music education discourse. The author begins with an examination of Peter Abbs' account of paradigms and paradigm shifts in arts education. Then she turns to Kuhn's conception and to his…

  2. Research Paradigm of Displaced Aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Tanno, Syota

    2013-01-01

    A review of research paradigm of displaced aggression is presented. The author arranged the Japanese wording of displaced aggression, summarized the historical transition of research on displaced aggression, and reviewed research paradigm of displaced aggression.

  3. Yoga, Sundhed og Paradigme

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Anna Bjerning Berg; Nielsen, Anna Sabine; Zunda, Daniella

    2014-01-01

    Our focal point and core concepts in this paper are science, health and yoga. Our main concern is to shed light on the understanding of these three concepts and how it varies, depending on the scientific approach these concepts are dealt with. The problem statement of this paper is thereby: How is it possible to argue, based on Kuhn's paradigm theory, that yoga/ayurveda and medical science represent fundamentally different views on health, yoga and science? We choose two scientific ap...

  4. Un nouveau paradigme en étymologie romane à l'épreuve de la classe - Quelle pertinence pour des élèves de 11 à 14 ans ?

    OpenAIRE

    Macaire, Dominique; Buchi, Eva; Carton, Francis; Chauveau, Jean-Paul; Greub, Yan; Herbert, Capucine; Cagnin-Richard, Marie France; Carpentier, Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    Depuis la controverse mémorable entre Antoine Thomas et Hugo Schuchardt sur la place respective de la phonétique et de la sémantique en étymologie de la fin du XIXe et du début du XXe siècle, la communauté des étymologistes romanistes n'a plus guère été agitée par des débats méthodologiques, un certain consensus s'étant peu à peu installé. Parmi les trois classes étymologiques - lexique héréditaire (transmis oralement de génération en génération depuis la protolangue), transferts lexicaux (em...

  5. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PARADIGM - SYNOPSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantinescu Andreea

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Even if sustainable development is a concept that gained quite recently its scientific prestige, through contribution of researchers its content has upgraded to a high degree of conceptual luggage and, through contribution from governance representatives, has gained an impressive good-practice background. Allowing the use of different methodological premises and conceptual tools, sustainable development paradigm is equipped with all the elements that would allow the opening of new horizons of knowledge. Based on the facility which can operate the concept of sustainable development, the European Union aims to develop both a more competitive economy based on environmental protection as well as a new governance of economic policy. This on one hand demonstrates the sustainable development ability to irradiate creativity towards the establishment of interdisciplinary bridges and on the other hand explains the growing interest of researchers interested in the problem of analyzing in detail this fruitful concept. Launched first as a theoretical framework to serve justify actions responsible for weighting economic growth, the concept of Sustainable Development has quickly become a topic of ethical debate circumscribed to the area of perfectibility of human nature to the necessity registry. In this regard, the philosophical content of this paradigm could not remain outside researchers concerns, who want to provide both policy makers and the general public a wide range of evidence to demonstrate the viability of this paradigm. Academia waits until maximization of the contribution of governance to achieve sustainable economic development, which consists in conjunction of this upward path with the momentum given by public policy sync, perfectly adapted for globalization era and all crises to come. However, because this concept based its structure and composition on three pillars, equally important economy, society and environment any attempt to strengthen

  6. Challenging the Innovation Paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    Sveiby, Karl Erik; Segercrantz, Beata

    2012-01-01

    Innovation is almost always seen as a "good thing". Challenging the Innovation Paradigm is a critical analysis of the innovation frenzy and contemporary innovation research. The one-sided focus on desirable effects of innovation misses many opportunities to reduce the undesirable consequences. Authors in this book show how systemic effects outside the innovating firms reduce the net benefits of innovation for individual employees, customers, as well as for society as a whole - also the innovators' own organizations. This book analyzes the dominant discourses that construct and recons

  7. Marketing! Where is Paradigm?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deosir Flávio Lobo de Castro Júnior

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative- qualitative debate is not a new discussion. The aim of this study therefore is to check through the concept of paradigm, new perspectives to understand the academic research in marketing, developments of marketing thinking and methodologies used in the studies of quality of service. Without pretending to exhaust the subject and present a final conclusion, studies that point to the need and importance of qualitative research, as it helps the researcher to better understand the complex nature of the social world in which we live are presented. According to Santana and Gomes (2007, after examining the discussion of Hegel and Kant, reason and conclude that epistemology itself are historical buildings and evolve from contradictions. This article is divided into five moments. The first part presents besides introducing the constitution of the goals of this theoretical essay. The second part presents a brief discussion of the concept of paradigm and marketing. The third part presents a historical retrospective of marketing and its evolution from its schools from studies of Miranda and Arruda (2004. The fourth part presents the methodology of the studies on quality of services and finally the fifth part presents the final considerations.

  8. Paradigms for parasite conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Eric R; Carlson, Colin J; Bueno, Veronica M; Burgio, Kevin R; Cizauskas, Carrie A; Clements, Christopher F; Seidel, Dana P; Harris, Nyeema C

    2016-08-01

    Parasitic species, which depend directly on host species for their survival, represent a major regulatory force in ecosystems and a significant component of Earth's biodiversity. Yet the negative impacts of parasites observed at the host level have motivated a conservation paradigm of eradication, moving us farther from attainment of taxonomically unbiased conservation goals. Despite a growing body of literature highlighting the importance of parasite-inclusive conservation, most parasite species remain understudied, underfunded, and underappreciated. We argue the protection of parasitic biodiversity requires a paradigm shift in the perception and valuation of their role as consumer species, similar to that of apex predators in the mid-20th century. Beyond recognizing parasites as vital trophic regulators, existing tools available to conservation practitioners should explicitly account for the unique threats facing dependent species. We built upon concepts from epidemiology and economics (e.g., host-density threshold and cost-benefit analysis) to devise novel metrics of margin of error and minimum investment for parasite conservation. We define margin of error as the risk of accidental host extinction from misestimating equilibrium population sizes and predicted oscillations, while minimum investment represents the cost associated with conserving the additional hosts required to maintain viable parasite populations. This framework will aid in the identification of readily conserved parasites that present minimal health risks. To establish parasite conservation, we propose an extension of population viability analysis for host-parasite assemblages to assess extinction risk. In the direst cases, ex situ breeding programs for parasites should be evaluated to maximize success without undermining host protection. Though parasitic species pose a considerable conservation challenge, adaptations to conservation tools will help protect parasite biodiversity in the face of

  9. Understanding Class in Contemporary Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrits, Gitte Sommer

    In this paper, I argue that claims about the death of class and the coming of the classless society are premature. Such claims are seldom genuinely empirical, and the theoretical argument often refers to a simple and therefore easily dismissible concept of class. By rejecting the concept of class...... altogether, sociological theory runs the risk of loosing the capacity for analysing stratification and vertical differentiation of power and freedom, which in late modernity seem to be a of continuing importance. Hence, I argue that although class analysis faces a number of serious challenges, it is possible...... to reinvent class analysis. The sociology of Pierre Bourdieu in many ways introduces an appropriate paradigm, and the paper therefore critically discusses Bourdieu's concept of class. Since the "Bourdieuan" class concept is primarily epistemological, i.e. a research strategy more than a theory...

  10. Naturalistic Inquiry: Paradigm and Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotto, Linda S.

    Despite the rhetoric acclaiming it as a new paradigm, educational researchers have tended to treat naturalistic inquiry as a new or alternative method employed within the dominant, rationalistic paradigm. Spokespersons for naturalistic inquiry tend to concentrate on what one does differently rather than how one perceives what one is doing…

  11. Functional reactive paradigm advantages for Android development

    OpenAIRE

    SUTULA ALEXANDER

    2015-01-01

    This article describes conceptual difference between imperative, reactive paradigms and functional reactive style advantages in Android development. Solutions of imperative paradigm main problems are described.

  12. Towards reduction of Paradigm coordination models

    OpenAIRE

    Andova, S.; Groenewegen, L. P. J.; Vink, de, E.P.; Aceto, Luca; Mousavi, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    The coordination modelling language Paradigm addresses collaboration between components in terms of dynamic constraints. Within a Paradigm model, component dynamics are consistently specified at a detailed and a global level of abstraction. To enable automated verification of Paradigm models, a translation of Paradigm into process algebra has been defined in previous work. In this paper we investigate, guided by a client-server example, reduction of Paradigm models based on a notion of global...

  13. Cultural Paradigms in Management Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz Sulkowski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present an idea for understanding cultural processes in the organizational discourse from the perspective of four paradigms in management sciences based on the concept of G. Burrell and G. Morgan.Methodology: The author has elaborated a valuable list of structures of the scientifi c theory based on the respective paradigms and has compared cultural paradigms in management sciences. The methodology involves an analysis of classical and recent world literature. Nowadays there is no consensus on the defi nitions, types or research models of organizational culture.Originality: In the literature on the subject we can fi nd many, sometimes contradictory cultural research studies that require further analysis. Precisely because of the diversity and complexity of cultural issues in management sciences a multi-paradigmatic analysis is necessary. The paper presents a proposal for a pluralistic approach to the theory and methodology of cultural studies in management sciences.

  14. Bayesian test and Kuhn's paradigm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Xiaoping

    2006-01-01

    Kuhn's theory of paradigm reveals a pattern of scientific progress,in which normal science alternates with scientific revolution.But Kuhn underrated too much the function of scientific test in his pattern,because he focuses all his attention on the hypothetico-deductive schema instead of Bayesian schema.This paper employs Bayesian schema to re-examine Kuhn's theory of paradigm,to uncover its logical and rational components,and to illustrate the tensional structure of logic and belief,rationality and irrationality,in the process of scientific revolution.

  15. Transmission pricing: paradigms and methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirmohammadi, Dariush [Pacific Gas and Electric Co., San Francisco, CA (United States); Vieira Filho, Xisto; Gorenstin, Boris [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pereira, Mario V.P. [Power System Research, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    In this paper we describe the principles of several paradigms and methodologies for pricing transmission services. The paper outlines some of the main characteristics of these paradigms and methodologies such as where they may be used for best results. Due to their popularity, power flow based MW-mile and short run marginal cost pricing methodologies will be covered in some detail. We conclude the paper with examples of the application of these two pricing methodologies for pricing transmission services in Brazil. (author) 25 refs., 2 tabs.

  16. Paradigms in Physics Education Research

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, Amy D; McKagan, Sarah B

    2013-01-01

    Physics education research (PER) includes three distinct paradigms: quantitative research, qualitative research, and question-driven research. Quantitative PER seeks reproducible, representative patterns and relationships; human behavior is seen as dictated by lawful (albeit probabilistic) relationships. Qualitative PER seeks to refine and develop theory by linking theory to cases; human action is seen as shaped by the meanings that participants make of their local environments. Question-driven physics education researchers prioritize questions over the pursuit of local meanings or abstract relationships. We illustrate each paradigm with interviews with physics education researchers and examples of published PER.

  17. CNN a paradigm for complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Chua, Leon O

    1998-01-01

    Revolutionary and original, this treatise presents a new paradigm of EMERGENCE and COMPLEXITY, with applications drawn from numerous disciplines, including artificial life, biology, chemistry, computation, physics, image processing, information science, etc.CNN is an acronym for Cellular Neural Networks when used in the context of brain science, or Cellular Nonlinear Networks, when used in the context of emergence and complexity. A CNN is modeled by cells and interactions: cells are defined as dynamical systems and interactions are defined via coupling laws. The CNN paradigm is a universal Tur

  18. The New Environmental Paradigm Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Don; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Reports the reliability, validity, and unidimensionality of New Environmental Paradigm (NEP) scale, an instrument designed to measure how people feel about nature. Based on statewide samples of farmers (N=348) and metropolitan residents (N=407) of Iowa, the NEP was determined to be valid, reliable, and multidimensional, measuring three distinct…

  19. Artificial life, the new paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A chronological synthesis of the most important facts is presented in the theoretical development and computational simulation that they have taken to the formation of a new paradigm that is known as artificial life; their characteristics and their main investigation lines are analyzed. Finally, a description of its work is made in the National University of Colombia

  20. Transplant rejection and paradigms lost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Terry B.

    2013-01-01

    During transplant rejection, migrating T cells infiltrate the grafted organ, but the signals that direct this migration are incompletely understood. In this issue of the JCI, Walch et al. debunk two classical paradigms concerning transplant rejection, with important consequences for the design of antirejection therapeutics. PMID:23676457

  1. Transplant rejection and paradigms lost

    OpenAIRE

    Strom, Terry B.

    2013-01-01

    During transplant rejection, migrating T cells infiltrate the grafted organ, but the signals that direct this migration are incompletely understood. In this issue of the JCI, Walch et al. debunk two classical paradigms concerning transplant rejection, with important consequences for the design of antirejection therapeutics.

  2. The emerging land management paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    Manchet: This paper was first presented by Professor Enemark at the RICS Christmas Lecture in December last year. It provides a cogent and detailed reference point for the current state of land management in developed countries, charts a course for the future and looks at how education must chang...... to meet the new paradigm....

  3. The Paradigm of Distributed Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    This presentation aims to focus on and develop the notion of distributed creativity from a cultural psychological perspective. It will start by outlining the need for a cultural psychological paradigm of creative expression and argue that this perspective is primarily concerned with what can be...

  4. Paradigms, Exemplars and Social Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Hal A.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers' social-cultural organization influences the scope, quality, quantity, coherence, dissemination, utilization and impact of research-based, theoretically sound knowledge. Five concepts--paradigm, exemplar, segment, network and gatekeeper--are salient to research on researchers' organization. Autobiographical reflections signal these…

  5. Towards reduction of Paradigm coordination models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Andova

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The coordination modelling language Paradigm addresses collaboration between components in terms of dynamic constraints. Within a Paradigm model, component dynamics are consistently specified at a detailed and a global level of abstraction. To enable automated verification of Paradigm models, a translation of Paradigm into process algebra has been defined in previous work. In this paper we investigate, guided by a client-server example, reduction of Paradigm models based on a notion of global inertness. Representation of Paradigm models as process algebraic specifications helps to establish a property-preserving equivalence relation between the original and the reduced Paradigm model. Experiments indicate that in this way larger Paradigm models can be analyzed.

  6. Black hole evaporation: a paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A paradigm describing black hole evaporation in non-perturbative quantum gravity is developed by combining two sets of detailed results: (i) resolution of the Schwarzschild singularity using quantum geometry methods and (ii) time evolution of black holes in the trapping and dynamical horizon frameworks. Quantum geometry effects introduce a major modification in the traditional spacetime diagram of black hole evaporation, providing a possible mechanism for recovery of information that is classically lost in the process of black hole formation. The paradigm is developed directly in the Lorentzian regime and necessary conditions for its viability are discussed. If these conditions are met, much of the tension between expectations based on spacetime geometry and structure of quantum theory would be resolved

  7. [Two paradigms of mathematical population biology. Attempting to synthesise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logofet, D O; Ulanova, N G; Belova, I N

    2011-01-01

    Whatever popular the slogan of nonlinear ecological interactions has been in theory, practical ecology professes the projection matrix paradigm, which is essentially linear, i.e., the linear matrix model paradigm for discrete-structured population dynamics. The dominant eigenvalue lamda1, of the projection matrix L is considered as a growth potential of the population. It provides for a quantitative measure of the fitness at which the species is adapted to the given environment, the measure being adequate and accurate, given the data of"identified individuals" type. The case of"identified individuals with unknown parents" bears uncertainty in the status-specific reproduction rates, which eliminates in a unique way (for a broad class of structures and life cycle graphs) by maximizing lamda1(L) under the constraints ensuing from the data and knowledge of species biology. The paradigm of linearity gives way to nonlinear models when modeled are species interactions, such as competition for shared resources, and where the outcome of interaction depends on the population structure of the competitors. This circumstance dictates a need for the synthesis of two paradigms, which is achieved in nonlinear matrix operators as models of interaction between the species whose populations are discrete-structured. PMID:22121575

  8. Towards reduction of Paradigm coordination models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andova, S.; Groenewegen, L.P.J.; Vink, E.P. de; Aceto, L.; Mousavi, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    The coordination modelling language Paradigm addresses collaboration between components in terms of dynamic constraints. Within a Paradigm model, component dynamics are consistently specified at a detailed and a global level of abstraction. To enable automated verification of Paradigm models, a tran

  9. Storytelling, advertising and paradigm fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, David

    2012-01-01

    'The art of storytelling in the modern age is fundamentally important. So, how we create stories for a screen-based culture is vitally important to master' (Hegarty, 2011, p.96-97). This paper explores the potential benefit of fusing aspects of creative writing with the curriculum of the BA Creative Advertising programme (BACAP) at Leeds College of Art (LCA) in order to address Sir John Hegarty's assertion. In particular it will focus on the characteristics of the 'classical paradigms' us...

  10. Membrane Paradigm and Holographic Hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Eling, Christopher; Oz, Yaron

    2010-01-01

    We discuss recent work showing that in certain cases the membrane paradigm equations governing the dynamics of black hole horizons can be recast as relativistic conservation law equations. In the context of gauge/gravity dualities, these equations are interpreted as defining the viscous hydrodynamics of a holographically dual relativistic field theory. Using this approach, one can derive the viscous transport coefficients and the form of the entropy current for field theories dual to gravity plus matter fields.

  11. Translation Definitions in Different Paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    Jixing LONG

    2013-01-01

    In the field of translation studies, owing to the factors such as the interests of scholar, cultural and historical reasons, scholars usually choose a definition of translation as the research orientation in a certain period of time. That is, as a scholastic community, they study under the same paradigm. Since the definition of translation not only describes and interprets the basic properties of translation, but also determines its connotation and extension, it is the core and basic part of ...

  12. Crises and paradigms in macroeconomics

    OpenAIRE

    Malcolm Sawyer

    2010-01-01

    Contrasts are drawn between mainstream macroeconomics (with the 'New Consensus in Macroeconomics' taken as the current manifestation) and heterodox macroeconomics and their abilities to comprehend the financial crises and world wide recession of 2007 – 09 for macroeconomic paradigms is discussed. Specifically, the contrasting ways in which the two schools of thought treat unemployment, human behaviour, aggregate and money and credit are discussed. It is concluded that the events of 2007 –...

  13. Understanding the land management paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    There is a worldwide need to build understanding of the land management paradigm and for institutional development to establish sustainable national concepts. This includes creation and adoption of a policy on land development, and an approach that combines the land administration/cadastre/land r....../cadastre/land registration function with topographic mapping. The author seeks to awaken more awareness of global trends in this area, recognising that the systems design involved is always unique....

  14. Political Market. Paradigms and Realities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Macoviciuc

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper Political Market. Paradigms and Realities, by Simona Busoi, is an important contribution and a spadework within our specialized literature. Recently issued by Editura ASE (The Bucharest Academy of Economic Studies Publishing House, in the collection “Et in Arcadia ego”, it offers to the readers a synthesis of the literature destined to the study of political phenomena from an economic point of view, but also a lucid analysis of the Romanian political market.

  15. Poverty eradication: a new paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pethe, V P

    1998-08-01

    This article offers a new paradigm for eradicating poverty in India. It was assumed incorrectly by Mahatma Gandhi that a good society without mass poverty would follow after independence. India copied Western models of development and developed giant factories, big dams, and megacities. Agriculture did not expand the number of jobs for people. The Western paradigm failed in India because of the false assumption of "trickle down" of income to the masses. The targeted programs to the poor did not directly benefit enough of the poor. Mega-industrialization led to reduced employment and higher skill needs. The model failed mainly because it was a proxy and relied on indirect ways of reaching the poor. The models failed to be adapted to conditions in India. The Swadeshi paradigm is a direct model for addressing mass poverty. Poverty is affected by immediate, intermediate, and ultimate determinants. Poverty begets social and economic problems, such as ignorance, ill health, high fertility, unemployment, and crime. In India and developing countries, mass poverty results from under use of human resources; lack of equal opportunities; and an outdated non-egalitarian social structure, an unjust global economic order, human cruelty, and erosion of ethical values. Indians are squandering their precious resources mimicking Western consumerism. Poverty leads to rapid population growth. People become productive assets with universal literacy, compulsory and free education, health services and sanitation, vocational training, and work ethics. India needs people-oriented policies with less emphasis on capital accumulation. PMID:12294462

  16. Orphism as a scientific paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biernat Przemyslaw

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In my essay I would like to examine current interpretative paradigm, which western scholarship cast on heterogenous and ambiguous data first to create and then to modify the notion of ‘orphism’. In case of paradigms preceding the actual one, the role which ‘orphism’ played in contemporary theories and controversies centered around the question of its significance for emergence of Christianity is well known. That is why in my work I would like to focus on deconstruction of interpretative consensus, elaborated in recent years, which is to be found in such works as Martin West’s The Orphic Poems (1983, Ritual Texts for the Afterlife. Orpheus and the Bacchic Gold Tablets by Fritz Graf and Sarah Iles-Johnston (2007 or monumental Orfeo y la tradición órfica. Un reencuentro (2008 edited by Alberto Bernabé. What is significant, inasmuch as we can write the history of Athenian religion or the history of Hellenistic kings’ worship, we still cannot write the history of orphism. In formulation of all these scholars it is an ahistorical phenomenon, a hidden constant in the sphere of Greek religion, never expressed directly and entirely, but always alluded to y ancient authors. I find difficult to agree with such a statement. The aim of my inquiry is to reveal assumptions of current paradigm, which are hidden in it, but leave a distinct impression on data.

  17. Class size versus class composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Sam

    Raising schooling quality in low-income countries is a pressing challenge. Substantial research has considered the impact of cutting class sizes on skills acquisition. Considerably less attention has been given to the extent to which peer effects, which refer to class composition, also may affect...

  18. About hypotheses and paradigms: exploring the Discreetness-Chance Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaellis, Eugene

    2006-01-01

    Hypotheses generally conform to paradigms which, over time, change, usually tardily, after they have become increasingly difficult to sustain under the impact of non-conforming evidence and alternative hypotheses, but more important, when they no longer are comfortably ensconced in the surrounding social-economic-political-cultural milieu. It is asserted that this milieu is the most important factor in shaping scientific theorizing. Some examples are cited: the rejection of the evidence that the world orbits around the sun (suspected by Pythagoras) in favor of centuries-long firm adherence to the Ptolemaic geocentric system; the early acceptance of Natural Selection in spite of its tautological essence and only conjectural supporting evidence, because it justified contemporaneous social-political ideologies as typified by, e.g., Spencer and Malthus. Economic, social, and cultural factors are cited as providing the ground, i.e., ideational substrate, for what is cited as the Discreetness-Chance Paradigm (DCP), that has increasingly dominated physics, biology, and medicine for over a century and which invokes small, discrete packets of energy/matter (quanta, genes, microorganisms, aberrant cells) functioning within an environment of statistical, not determined, causality. There is speculation on a possible paradigmatic shift from the DCP, which has fostered the proliferation, parallel with ("splitting") taxonomy, of alleged individual disease entities, their diagnoses, and, when available, their specific remedies, something particularly prominent in, e.g., psychiatry's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, a codified compendium of alleged mental and behavioral disorders, but evident in any textbook of diagnosis and treatment of physical ailments. This presumed paradigm shift may be reflected in Western medicine, presently increasingly empirical and atomized, towards a growing acceptance of a more generalized, subject-oriented, approach to health and disease, a non

  19. Word classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2007-01-01

    This article provides an overview of recent literature and research on word classes, focusing in particular on typological approaches to word classification. The cross-linguistic classification of word class systems (or parts-of-speech systems) presented in this article is based on statements found...... in grammatical descriptions of some 50 languages, which together constitute a representative sample of the world’s languages (Hengeveld et al. 2004: 529). It appears that there are both quantitative and qualitative differences between word class systems of individual languages. Whereas some languages...... employ a parts-of-speech system that includes the categories Verb, Noun, Adjective and Adverb, other languages may use only a subset of these four lexical categories. Furthermore, quite a few languages have a major word class whose members cannot be classified in terms of the categories Verb – Noun...

  20. New Indivisible Planetary Science Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Herndon, J. Marvin

    2013-01-01

    I present here a new, indivisible planetary science paradigm, a wholly self-consistent vision of the nature of matter in the Solar System, and dynamics and energy sources of planets. Massive-core planets formed by condensing and raining-out from within giant gaseous protoplanets at high pressures and high temperatures. Earth's complete condensation included a 300 Earth-mass gigantic gas/ice shell that compressed the rocky kernel to about 66% of Earth's present diameter. T-Tauri eruptions stri...

  1. Psychiatry beyond the current paradigm.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bracken, Pat

    2012-12-01

    A series of editorials in this Journal have argued that psychiatry is in the midst of a crisis. The various solutions proposed would all involve a strengthening of psychiatry\\'s identity as essentially \\'applied neuroscience\\'. Although not discounting the importance of the brain sciences and psychopharmacology, we argue that psychiatry needs to move beyond the dominance of the current, technological paradigm. This would be more in keeping with the evidence about how positive outcomes are achieved and could also serve to foster more meaningful collaboration with the growing service user movement.

  2. International Politics: A Desirable Paradigm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Aiding; Feng Shuai

    2007-01-01

    This article first traces the origin of four concepts: International Politics (IP), International Relations (IR), World Politics (WP) and Global Politics (GP) and discusses the similarities among these four paradigms. It then analyses their application both at home and abroad. Finally, it argues for the desirability of selecting the concept of IP in academic training, thus facilitating practical application of concepts. It asserts that this will not only enhance academic discussion about IP among different Chinese schools of thought, but also help blazing new ideas.

  3. Paradigms of Migration: From Integration to Transnationalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Giordano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a critical analysis from the viewpoint of social anthropology of the different theoretic approaches that also set the tone of current debates on immigration in Europe and elsewhere. We begin by retracing the models developed and popularized since the 1960s to discuss the integration theory and Marxist reflections on the rise of class consciousness in immigrants. The article illustrates the paradigm shift that occurred in the 1990s that takes into account the role of the immigrants’ culture in their society of origin, whereby immigrants appear to act in conformity with two cultural systems of reference, i.e., of their society of origin and of the society of residence. This theoretical model highlights the transnational aspect of migration phenomena. In this article, we analyze the social organization of transnationalism starting from two fundamental types of aggregation: diasporas and social networks. The centuries-old Chinese immigration in Malaysia provides evidence that diaspora and social networks are not opposite forms of social organization, but rather coexisting and interacting ones. By means of an historical perspective, we will show that the social networks of the Chinese in Malaysia gradually became a national diaspora in which not only economically but also politically powerful clan-like social networks are still in action.

  4. A LEGO paradigm for virtual accelerator concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper considers basic features of a Virtual Accelerator concept based on LEGO paradigm. This concept involves three types of components: different mathematical models for accelerator design problems, integrated beam simulation packages (i. e. COSY, MAD, OptiM and others), and a special class of virtual feedback instruments similar to real control systems (EPICS). All of these components should inter-operate for more complete analysis of control systems and increased fault tolerance. The Virtual Accelerator is an information and computing environment which provides a framework for analysis based on these components that can be combined in different ways. Corresponding distributed computing services establish interaction between mathematical models and low level control system. The general idea of the software implementation is based on the Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) that allows using cloud computing technology and enables remote access to the information and computing resources. The Virtual Accelerator allows a designer to combine powerful instruments for modeling beam dynamics in a friendly way including both self-developed and well-known packages. In the scope of this concept the following is also proposed: the control system identification, analysis and result verification, visualization as well as virtual feedback for beam line operation. The architecture of the Virtual Accelerator system itself and results of beam dynamics studies are presented. (authors)

  5. Hypothesis Formation, Paradigms, and Openness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrad P. Pritscher

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A part of hypothesis formation, while necessary for scientific investigation, is beyond direct observation. Powerful hypothesis formation is more than logical and is facilitated by mind­opening. As Percy Bridgeman, Nobel laureate, said, science is: “Nothing more than doing one's damnedest with one's mind, no holds barred.” This paper suggests more open schooling helps generate more open hypothesizing which helps one do one's damnedest with one's mind. It is hypothesized that a more open process of hypothesis formation may help schools and society forge new ways of living and learning so that more people more often can do their damnedest with their mind. This writing does not offer a new paradigm but rather attempts to elaborate on the notion that new paradigms are difficult to form without openness to what was previously quasi­unthinkable. More on these topics and issues is included in the author's Reopening Einstein's Thought: About What Can't Be Learned From Textbooks ­­to be published by Sense Publishers in June 2008.

  6. The Rise of Class Culture Theory in Educational Anthropology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    This article chronicles how the ideas of neo-Weberians, Marxists, feminists, and critical race thinkers have merged to create a new cultural production or class culture paradigm of schooling. Reviews of recent ethnographic work illustrates how the articulations among class, race, gender, and sexual identity practices in schools are studied without…

  7. ENVIRONMENTALISM AND CLASSIC PARADIGMS OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    D. D. Miniaeva

    2014-01-01

    This article examines an environmentalism integration process into Three classical paradigms of international relations theory (Liberalism, Realism and Marxism) into Three classical paradigms of international relations theory (Liberalism, Realism and Marxism). The main purpose of this study is to reveal the result of this integration. Methods used in this article include analysis and comparison of "ecological" paradigms on selected parameters (the nature of international relations, actors, ta...

  8. Understanding the land management paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    structures by identifying an ideal and historically neutral LAS model for: servicing the needs of governments, business and the public; utilising the latest technologies; servicing rights, responsibilities, restrictions and risks in relation to land; and delivering much broader information about sustainable...... frameworks complicated by the tasks they must perform, by national cultural, political and judicial settings, and by technology. This paper facilitates an overall understanding of the land management paradigm. This paper assists sharing LAS among countries with diverse legal systems and institutional......Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land and natural resources that are required to achieve sustainable development. Land Administration Systems (LAS) are institutional...

  9. New Paradigms For Asteroid Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Johansen, Anders; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Gounelle, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    Asteroids and meteorites provide key evidence on the formation of planetesimals in the Solar System. Asteroids are traditionally thought to form in a bottom-up process by coagulation within a population of initially km-scale planetesimals. However, new models challenge this idea by demonstrating that asteroids of sizes from 100 to 1000 km can form directly from the gravitational collapse of small particles which have organised themselves in dense filaments and clusters in the turbulent gas. Particles concentrate passively between eddies down to the smallest scales of the turbulent gas flow and inside large-scale pressure bumps and vortices. The streaming instability causes particles to take an active role in the concentration, by piling up in dense filaments whose friction on the gas reduces the radial drift compared to that of isolated particles. In this chapter we review new paradigms for asteroid formation and compare critically against the observed properties of asteroids as well as constraints from meteo...

  10. The emerging land management paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    paradigm. The model reflects drivers of globalisation and technology development which support establishment of multifunctional information systems incorporating diverse land rights, land use regulations and other useful data. A third major driver, sustainable development, stimulates demands...... for comprehensive information about environmental conditions in combination with other land related data. It is argued that development of such a model is important or even necessary for facilitating a holistic approach to the management of land as the key asset of any nation or jurisdiction. Finally, the paper......Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land that are required to achieve sustainable development. The concept of land includes properties and natural resources and thereby...

  11. Emerging Paradigms in Machine Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Lakhmi; Howlett, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This  book presents fundamental topics and algorithms that form the core of machine learning (ML) research, as well as emerging paradigms in intelligent system design. The  multidisciplinary nature of machine learning makes it a very fascinating and popular area for research.  The book is aiming at students, practitioners and researchers and captures the diversity and richness of the field of machine learning and intelligent systems.  Several chapters are devoted to computational learning models such as granular computing, rough sets and fuzzy sets An account of applications of well-known learning methods in biometrics, computational stylistics, multi-agent systems, spam classification including an extremely well-written survey on Bayesian networks shed light on the strengths and weaknesses of the methods. Practical studies yielding insight into challenging problems such as learning from incomplete and imbalanced data, pattern recognition of stochastic episodic events and on-line mining of non-stationary ...

  12. Explaining (Missing) Regulator Paradigm Shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigger, Angela; Buch-Hansen, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    regulation after the crisis in the 1970s, the paper argues that the preconditions for a fundamental shift in this issue area are not present this time around. Several reasons account for this: the current crisis has been construed by economic and political elites as a crisis within and not of neoliberal......The global financial and economic crisis has prompted some scholars to suggest that a fundamental regulatory shift away from neoliberalism will take place – both in general and in the field of EU competition regulation. This paper shows that so far no radical break with the neoliberal type of...... competition regulation is heaving into sight. It sets out to explain this from the vantage point of a critical political economy perspective, which identifies the circumstances under which a crisis can result in a regulatory paradigm shift. Contrasting the current situation with the shift in EC/EU competition...

  13. Shield calculations, optimization vs. paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many shieldings have been designed under the criteria of 'Maximum dose rates of project'. It has created the paradigm of those 'low dose rates', for the one which not few specialists would consider unacceptable levels of dose rate superior to the units of μSv.h-1, independently of the exposure times. At the present time numerous shieldings are being designed considering dose restrictions in real times of exposure. After these new shieldings, the dose rates could be notably superior to those after traditional shieldings, without it implies inadequate designs or constructive errors. In the work significant differences in levels of dose rates and thickness of shieldings estimated by both methods for some typical facilities. It was concluded that the use of real times of exposure is more adequate for the optimization of the Radiological Protection, although this method demands bigger care in its application. (Author)

  14. Datacubes as a Service Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Angelo Pio; Baumann, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Spatio-temporal data sets often can be represented conveniently through datacubes as a common unifying paradigm. Flexible, scalable services can be offered based on the concept of a datacube query language while hiding the technicalities, thereby allowing user-friendly visual data interaction. One of today's most influential initiatives in Big Geo Data is EarthServer which is paving the way for flexible, scalable datacube services based on innovative NewSQL technology (Fig. 1). Researchers from Europe, the US and recently Australia have teamed up to rigorously materialize the datacube paradigm for Earth Observation, ocean, meteorological, and planetary science. EarthServer has established client and server technology for such spatio-temporal datacubes strictly based on the open datacube standards, OGC WCS and WPCS. The underlying scalable array engine, rasdaman, enables direct interaction, including 3-D visualization, what-if scenarios, common EO data processing, and general analytics on regular and irregular grids. Integration of datacube and metadata retrieval, together with advanced visualization based on NASA WorldWind, are geared towards an effective, user-friendly access and analysis. Conversely, EarthServer is significantly shaping the ISO, OGC, and INSPIRE Big Data standards landscape by being specification editor. Phase 1 of EarthServer has advanced scalable array data¬base technology into 100+ TB services; in phase 2, a federation of Petabyte datacubes is being built in Europe and Australia to perform ad-hoc querying and merging. Phase 1 reviewers have attested rasdaman to "significantly transform the way that scientists in different areas of Earth Science will be able to access and use data in a way that hitherto was not possible". Altogether, these large-scale deployments prove that datacubes are a convenient model for presenting users with a simple, consolidated view on the massive amount of data files gathered - "a cube tells more than a million

  15. Blazars and the emerging AGN/black hole X-ray binary paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    P. Uttley(Astronomical Institute Anton Pannekoek, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands)

    2005-01-01

    We briefly review the emerging paradigm which links the radio-quiet and radio-loud classes of AGN to the different accretion states observed in stellar mass black hole X-ray binary systems (BHXRBs), and discuss the relevance of the AGN/BHXRB connection to blazar variability.

  16. Is This the Paradigm Shift We Need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirvis, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Woocher's essay, states Mirvis, is seminal in the field of Jewish education. It proposes a new paradigm for Jewish education in North America. This proposed paradigm is supported by a comprehensive multi-disciplinary research drawing on literature from education, philosophy, history, sociology, psychology, and economics. The essay reflects a…

  17. Programming Paradigms in Computer Science Education

    OpenAIRE

    Bolshakova, Elena

    2005-01-01

    Main styles, or paradigms of programming – imperative, functional, logic, and object-oriented – are shortly described and compared, and corresponding programming techniques are outlined. Programming languages are classified in accordance with the main style and techniques supported. It is argued that profound education in computer science should include learning base programming techniques of all main programming paradigms.

  18. Narrative: Mode of Discourse or Paradigm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Robert C.

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes Walter Fisher's work on the "narrative paradigm." Considers Fisher's definition of narrative too broad and advocates a more limited definition. Rejects Fisher's view that there is an independent standard of narrative rationality distinguishable from the "rational world paradigm," and his idea that the role of the expert in the public…

  19. Developing the New Educational Paradigm in Russian Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Verbitsky

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The mission of education is changing according to the changing system of social values. Developed concepts related to the conformities of human growth determine the content, education and upbringing methods, pedagogic position and thinking, and way of life in educational institutions.The paper looks at the problems regarding the transition to the new educational paradigm. The author has conducted the historical review and retrospective analysis of the existing over the centuries educational paradigms: natural, civil, Christian, anthropological, and classical. The main emphasis is placed on the latter paradigm based on the principle of conformity to nature and learner’s perception and memorization of the ready-made educational material, since that out-of-date explanatory and illustrative traditional method still remains the most popular in pedagogic environment and dominating over the last three centuries in the world education. Lecture–workshop system of higher education appears to be its specific version based on the same theoretical principles. Most school teachers and academic staff at universities, colleges and vocational schools – some of them without special pedagogic education – work successfully according to Komensky, the founder of the class-lesson system of education. The comparison between the above mentioned classical paradigm and developing modern one in Russian educational system is given. The most significant contro- versies between the two educational models, preventing the implementation of the perspective innovations, are examined. It is emphasized that they can be solved on the theoretical and technological basis of the context teaching. 

  20. Black holes: the membrane paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physics of black holes is explored in terms of a membrane paradigm which treats the event horizon as a two-dimensional membrane embedded in three-dimensional space. A 3+1 formalism is used to split Schwarzschild space-time and the laws of physics outside a nonrotating hole, which permits treatment of the atmosphere in terms of the physical properties of thin slices. The model is applied to perturbed slowly or rapidly rotating and nonrotating holes, and to quantify the electric and magnetic fields and eddy currents passing through a membrane surface which represents a stretched horizon. Features of tidal gravitational fields in the vicinity of the horizon, quasars and active galalctic nuclei, the alignment of jets perpendicular to accretion disks, and the effects of black holes at the center of ellipsoidal star clusters are investigated. Attention is also given to a black hole in a binary system and the interactions of black holes with matter that is either near or very far from the event horizon. Finally, a statistical mechanics treatment is used to derive a second law of thermodynamics for a perfectly thermal atmosphere of a black hole

  1. New Indivisible Planetary Science Paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    Herndon, J Marvin

    2013-01-01

    I present here a new, indivisible planetary science paradigm, a wholly self-consistent vision of the nature of matter in the Solar System, and dynamics and energy sources of planets. Massive-core planets formed by condensing and raining-out from within giant gaseous protoplanets at high pressures and high temperatures. Earth's complete condensation included a 300 Earth-mass gigantic gas/ice shell that compressed the rocky kernel to about 66% of Earth's present diameter. T-Tauri eruptions stripped the gases away from the inner planets and stripped a portion of Mercury's incompletely condensed protoplanet, and transported it to the region between Mars and Jupiter where it fused with in-falling oxidized condensate from the outer regions of the Solar System and formed the parent matter of ordinary chondrite meteorites, the main-Belt asteroids, and veneer for the inner planets, especially Mars. In response to decompression-driven planetary volume increases, cracks form to increase surface area and mountain ranges ...

  2. Class distinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, M. Catherine

    Typical 101 courses discourage many students from pursuing higher level science and math courses. Introductory classes in science and math serve largely as a filter, screening out all but the most promising students, and leaving the majority of college graduates—including most prospective teachers—with little understanding of how science works, according to a study conducted for the National Science Foundation. Because few teachers, particularly at the elementary level, experience any collegiate science teaching that stresses skills of inquiry and investigation, they simply never learn to use those methods in their teaching, the report states.

  3. The Efficacy of the Internet-Based Blackboard Platform in Developmental Writing Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shudooh, Yusuf M.

    2016-01-01

    The application of computer-assisted platforms in writing classes is a relatively new paradigm in education. The adoption of computers-assisted writing classes is gaining ground in many western and non western universities. Numerous issues can be addressed when conducting computer-assisted classes (CAC). However, a few studies conducted to assess…

  4. Ostracism Online: A social media ostracism paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Wouter; Levordashka, Ana; Ruff, Johanna R; Kraaijeveld, Steven; Lueckmann, Jan-Matthis; Williams, Kipling D

    2015-06-01

    We describe Ostracism Online, a novel, social media-based ostracism paradigm designed to (1) keep social interaction experimentally controlled, (2) provide researchers with the flexibility to manipulate the properties of the social situation to fit their research purposes, (3) be suitable for online data collection, (4) be convenient for studying subsequent within-group behavior, and (5) be ecologically valid. After collecting data online, we compared the Ostracism Online paradigm with the Cyberball paradigm (Williams & Jarvis Behavior Research Methods, 38, 174-180, 2006) on need-threat and mood questionnaire scores (van Beest & Williams Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 91, 918-928, 2006). We also examined whether ostracized targets of either paradigm would be more likely to conform to their group members than if they had been included. Using a Bayesian analysis of variance to examine the individual effects of the different paradigms and to compare these effects across paradigms, we found analogous effects on need-threat and mood. Perhaps because we examined conformity to the ostracizers (rather than neutral sources), neither paradigm showed effects of ostracism on conformity. We conclude that Ostracism Online is a cost-effective, easy to use, and ecologically valid research tool for studying the psychological and behavioral effects of ostracism. PMID:24878596

  5. Membrane paradigm of black holes in Chern-Simons modified gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Tian-Yi

    2015-01-01

    The membrane paradigm of black hole is studied in the Chern-Simons modified gravity. Derived with the action principle a la Parikh-Wilczek, the stress tensor of membrane manifests a rich structure arising from the Chern-Simons term. The membrane stress tensor, if related to the bulk stress tensor in a special form, obeys the low-dimensional fluid continuity equation and the Navier-Stokes equation. This paradigm is applied to spherically symmetric static geometries, and in particular, the Schwarzschild black hole, which is a solution of a large class of dynamical Chern-Simons gravity.

  6. Membrane paradigm of black holes in Chern-Simons modified gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tian-Yi; Wang, Towe

    2016-06-01

    The membrane paradigm of black hole is studied in the Chern-Simons modified gravity. Derived with the action principle a la Parikh-Wilczek, the stress tensor of membrane manifests a rich structure arising from the Chern-Simons term. The membrane stress tensor, if related to the bulk stress tensor in a special form, obeys the low-dimensional fluid continuity equation and the Navier-Stokes equation. This paradigm is applied to spherically symmetric static geometries, and in particular, the Schwarzschild black hole, which is a solution of a large class of dynamical Chern-Simons gravity.

  7. Gas transmission : a paradigm shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of energy markets in North America was discussed. The investment opportunities that are possible in a deregulated energy market, be it in production or in the generation of energy commodities, in the development of midstream infrastructure, or in the provision of energy services, were outlined. Deregulation of crude oil, natural gas and electricity has resulted in significant changes in the structure of energy markets and the way in which customers are served. One of the advantages of competition regarding power generation is that it has turned energy into a commodity which has resulted in greater customer choice and efficiency. As one example of midstream infrastructure development, the Alliance Pipeline project was described. This project was conceived as a means to enhance the value of western Canadian natural gas. The 1,900 mile pipeline will run from British Columbia, through Alberta into Chicago where it will interconnect with the North American gas transmission grid. The pipeline is an efficient means of transporting energy from Western Canada to North American markets, and Alliance, as a lowest cost transporter, will continue to put pressure on the traditional infrastructure to become even more competitive at the margin. As such, Alliance represents a paradigm shift in energy transportation, and serves as an excellent example of the type of investment opportunity that a deregulated market can provide. It was suggested that innovation and competition in a deregulated North American energy market will continue to increase. As electricity is deregulated, the energy market will respond more quickly to changes in supply and demand than it did in the past, in an effort to satisfy the needs of investors and customers. This will provide increased opportunities for restructuring and further competition

  8. "Greening" Business Education: Teaching the Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryland, Elisabeth K.

    1998-01-01

    Describes business administration education based on the New Environmental Paradigm of biosystems, balance, and interdependence. Provides syllabus, lesson plans, and partially annotated bibliography of 102 books, articles, periodicals, videos, and electronic media. (SK)

  9. Beyond desertification: New paradigms for dryland landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The dryland desertification paradigm focuses on losses of ecosystem services accompanying transitions from grasslands to systems dominated by bare ground or woody plants unpalatable for domestic livestock. However, recent studies reveal complex transitions across a range of environmental conditions ...

  10. International business and the eclectic paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The eclectic paradigm has become the dominant theoretical basis in the study of international business, multinational corporations and internationalization since 1980. However, developments such as economic globalization and the subsequent growth of global and alliance capitalism have fundamentally......, finance, evolutionary economics, resource-based theory or strategic management? Can it be utilized to explain new developments in international business and economics? Do these require new ideas and concepts to be integrated within the eclectic paradigm? What are the new challenges to which international......, John Cantwell, Terutomo Ozawa, Gabriel Benito, Lars Oxelheim, Timothy Devinney and Anoop Madhok - examine the legacy of the eclectic paradigm. This book systematically evaluates how the eclectic paradigm has survived the test of time, from a wide variety of perspectives. Contributors discuss whether...

  11. Yakov Zeldovich and the Cosmic Web Paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    Einasto, Jaan

    2014-01-01

    I discuss the formation of the modern cosmological paradigm. In more detail I describe the early study of dark matter and cosmic web and the role of Yakov Zeldovich in the formation of the present concepts on these subjects.

  12. The Emerging Paradigm in Black Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw, Terry

    1989-01-01

    Argues that traditional sociology has treated Black studies as peripheral to the study of human behavior. Proposes a paradigm that includes an emphasis on Afrocentric perspective and a methodology that combines positivist and critical methodologies. (FMW)

  13. The safety implications of emerging software paradigms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addresses some of the emerging software paradigms that may be used in developing safety-critical software applications. Paradigms considered in this paper include knowledge-based systems, neural networks, genetic algorithms, and fuzzy systems. It presents one view of the software verification and validation activities that should be associated with each paradigm. The paper begins with a discussion of the historical evolution of software verification and validation. Next, a comparison is made between the verification and validation processes used for conventional and emerging software systems. Several verification and validation issues for the emerging paradigms are discussed and some specific research topics are identified. This work is relevant for monitoring and control at nuclear power plants

  14. Engineering paradigms and anthropogenic global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohle, Martin

    2016-04-01

    This essay discusses 'paradigms' as means to conceive anthropogenic global change. Humankind alters earth-systems because of the number of people, the patterns of consumption of resources, and the alterations of environments. This process of anthropogenic global change is a composite consisting of societal (in the 'noosphere') and natural (in the 'bio-geosphere') features. Engineering intercedes these features; e.g. observing stratospheric ozone depletion has led to understanding it as a collateral artefact of a particular set of engineering choices. Beyond any specific use-case, engineering works have a common function; e.g. civil-engineering intersects economic activity and geosphere. People conceive their actions in the noosphere including giving purpose to their engineering. The 'noosphere' is the ensemble of social, cultural or political concepts ('shared subjective mental insights') of people. Among people's concepts are the paradigms how to shape environments, production systems and consumption patterns given their societal preferences. In that context, engineering is a means to implement a given development path. Four paradigms currently are distinguishable how to make anthropogenic global change happening. Among the 'engineering paradigms' for anthropogenic global change, 'adaptation' is a paradigm for a business-as-usual scenario and steady development paths of societies. Applying this paradigm implies to forecast the change to come, to appropriately design engineering works, and to maintain as far as possible the current production and consumption patterns. An alternative would be to adjust incrementally development paths of societies, namely to 'dovetail' anthropogenic and natural fluxes of matter and energy. To apply that paradigm research has to identify 'natural boundaries', how to modify production and consumption patterns, and how to tackle process in the noosphere to render alterations of common development paths acceptable. A further alternative

  15. Introduction. Les paradigmes de la justice

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelui Bîlbă

    2009-01-01

    Theories of justice are marred by a permanent state of conflict because they express prejudices whose source lies in the lifeworld. One may regard these theories as interpretations of the concept of justice. Assuming a strong meaning of “theory,” one can legitimately ask if it is possible to reduce a theory of justice to its underlying paradigm. Several different paradigms coexist in modernity; the tension between them has intensified with the advent of political ideologies. The newest parad...

  16. The Two Paradigms of Software Design

    OpenAIRE

    Ralph, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The dominant view of design in information systems and software engineering, the Rational Design Paradigm, views software development as a methodical, plan-centered, approximately rational process of optimizing a design candidate for known constraints and objectives. This paper synthesizes an Alternative Design Paradigm, which views software development as an amethodical, improvisational, emotional process of simultaneously framing the problem and building artifacts to address it. These confl...

  17. The Underlying Social Dynamics of Paradigm Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claro, Francisco; Fuentes, Miguel Angel

    2015-01-01

    We develop here a multi-agent model of the creation of knowledge (scientific progress or technological evolution) within a community of researchers devoted to such endeavors. In the proposed model, agents learn in a physical-technological landscape, and weight is attached to both individual search and social influence. We find that the combination of these two forces together with random experimentation can account for both i) marginal change, that is, periods of normal science or refinements on the performance of a given technology (and in which the community stays in the neighborhood of the current paradigm); and ii) radical change, which takes the form of scientific paradigm shifts (or discontinuities in the structure of performance of a technology) that is observed as a swift migration of the knowledge community towards the new and superior paradigm. The efficiency of the search process is heavily dependent on the weight that agents posit on social influence. The occurrence of a paradigm shift becomes more likely when each member of the community attaches a small but positive weight to the experience of his/her peers. For this parameter region, nevertheless, a conservative force is exerted by the representatives of the current paradigm. However, social influence is not strong enough to seriously hamper individual discovery, and can act so as to empower successful individual pioneers who have conquered the new and superior paradigm. PMID:26418255

  18. The Paradigm Shift in Language Learning in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玲

    2008-01-01

    <正>With the development of English as an international language,English speakers are widely spread in the world.The English learning fashion has been greatly changed since the culture background of English as a langauge has shifted to a mixed cultures instead of just British and American. But the standard varieties of British and American English have been accepted as the only generally accepted forms of standard English in China.The language learning fashion in China is about to undertake a big paradigm shift.This paper is an analysis of the English learning pattern shift in Chinese setting and therefore suggests a practical activities to apply this concept in English learning classes.

  19. A epidemiologia, os valores e o significado de paradigma Epidemiology, values, and the meaning of paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djalma Agripino de Melo Filho

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Recentemente, o emprego do termo paradigma chegou ao âmbito epidemiológico. Este texto analisou criticamente uma classificação de 'paradigmas epidemiológicos', proposta por Almeida-Filho. Inicialmente constatou-se que os valores não foram considerados como elementos fundamentais para a construção dos paradigmas, distanciando-se, assim, da matriz kuhniana. Uma vez que a sistematização procurou unir tendências antitéticas, ela pareceu estar mais próxima da epistéme foucaultiana. Finalmente, considerou-se mais apropriada a utilização do termo hegemonia, em vez de paradigma, para sistematizar períodos epidemiológicos, pois os valores das vertentes estão comprometidos com a particularidade (principalmente classe social.Use of the term paradigm has recently reached the epidemiological milieu. This article provides a critical analysis of a classification of "epidemiological paradigms" as proposed by Almeida-Filho. It was initially ascertained that values were not considered fundamental elements for the construction of paradigms, and that they therefore distanced themselves from the Kuhnian matrix. Systematization sought to unite antithetical tendencies and thus seemed closer to the Foucaltian epistéme. Finally, hegemony was considered a more appropriate term than paradigm for systematizing epidemiological periods, since the values of the different watersheds are committed to particularity (principally social class.

  20. ENVIRONMENTALISM AND CLASSIC PARADIGMS OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Miniaeva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines an environmentalism integration process into Three classical paradigms of international relations theory (Liberalism, Realism and Marxism into Three classical paradigms of international relations theory (Liberalism, Realism and Marxism. The main purpose of this study is to reveal the result of this integration. Methods used in this article include analysis and comparison of "ecological" paradigms on selected parameters (the nature of international relations, actors, targets, tools, processes. Results of research show that the beginning of the XXI century is distinguished by the development of new types of political concepts that explain interaction of elements in modern international relations in the area of environmental protection. The reason of these changes lies in the phenomena of environmentalism integration into Three paradigms of international relations. However, we cannot say that any of the examined paradigms accumulated all features of environmentalism without their modification. Better to say, it's rather similar to adaptation of environmental ideas. Therefore, to understand modern international relations processes, it is necessary to take into account their environmental element. Purchase on Elibrary.ru > Buy nowDOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2070-7568-2014-3-4

  1. Organizational improvement using Organizational paradigms with the support of people paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Shariful Alam

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available An organization is a vital part of social environment. Different parts of organization have great impact to the environment. On the other hand the different organizational strategy helps to improve the efficiency of organization and customer satisfaction. The people and tools of organization help to organization to work properly. This paper mainly describes about the organizational paradigms and people paradigms also the way how the people paradigms facilitate the organizational paradigms to improve the organizational architecture for better performance. This paper describes the different aspects of organizational like Information system strategy, Information system planning, Business process reengineering etc also End user computing, Knowledge management, Expert system of people paradigms.And finally there is a combination between those. Keywords: Business process reengineering, Customer satisfaction, end used computing, In Information System Strategy, knowledge management, Organizational improvement.

  2. Phase transitions in paradigm shift models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiseung Chae

    Full Text Available Two general models for paradigm shifts, deterministic propagation model (DM and stochastic propagation model (SM, are proposed to describe paradigm shifts and the adoption of new technological levels. By defining the order parameter m based on the diversity of ideas, Δ, it is studied when and how the phase transition or the disappearance of a dominant paradigm occurs as a cost C in DM or an innovation probability α in SM increases. In addition, we also investigate how the propagation processes affect the transition nature. From analytical calculations and numerical simulations m is shown to satisfy the scaling relation m=1-f(C/N for DM with the number of agents N. In contrast, m in SM scales as m=1-f(α(aN.

  3. White Dwarfs Near Black Holes: A New Paradigm for Type I Supernovae

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, J.R.; Mathews, G. J.

    2003-01-01

    We present calculations indicating the possibility of a new class of Type I supernovae. In this new paradigm relativistic terms enhance the self gravity of a carbon-oxygen white dwarf as it passes or orbits near a black hole. This relativistic compression can cause the central density to exceed the threshold for pycnonuclear reactions so that athermonuclear runaway ensues. We consider three possible environments: 1) white dwarfs orbiting a low-mass black hole; 2) white dwarfs encountering a m...

  4. A Closer Look at Transcription Intelligibility for Speakers with Dysarthria: Evaluation of Scoring Paradigms and Linguistic Errors Made by Listeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hustad, Katherine C.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study addressed the effects of 3 different paradigms for scoring orthographic transcriptions of dysarthric speech on intelligibility scores. The study also examined whether there were differences in transcription accuracy among words from different linguistic classes. Method: Speech samples were collected from 12 speakers with…

  5. Class Vectors: Embedding representation of Document Classes

    OpenAIRE

    Sachan, Devendra Singh; Kumar, Shailesh

    2015-01-01

    Distributed representations of words and paragraphs as semantic embeddings in high dimensional data are used across a number of Natural Language Understanding tasks such as retrieval, translation, and classification. In this work, we propose "Class Vectors" - a framework for learning a vector per class in the same embedding space as the word and paragraph embeddings. Similarity between these class vectors and word vectors are used as features to classify a document to a class. In experiment o...

  6. Teachers in Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Galen, Jane

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I argue for a closer read of the daily "class work" of teachers, as posited by Reay, 1998. In developing exploratory class portraits of four teachers who occupy distinctive social positions (two from working-class homes now teaching upper-middle-class children and two from upper-middle-class homes now teaching poor children), I…

  7. Dark matter and the neutrino portal paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    González-Macías, Vannia; Wudka, José

    2016-01-01

    A simple extension of the Standard Model (SM) that provides an explicit realization of the dark-matter (DM) neutrino-portal paradigm is presented. The leading interactions between the dark sector, containing scalars and relic fermions, and the SM involve neutrinos. This model meets all observational constraints.

  8. The New Environmental Paradigm Scale: A Reexamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Jack M.; Lasley, Paul

    1985-01-01

    Explains how the New Environmental Paradigm Scale (NEP) is used to examine and measure paradigmatic shifts in the public's orientation toward the physical environment. Study findings across three different populations confirm the dimensionality of a three-factor model. An appendix contains the NEP scale and item numbers. (ML)

  9. A Review of Process Modeling Language Paradigms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Qin-hai; GUAN Zhi-min; LI Ying; ZHAO Xi-nan

    2002-01-01

    Process representation or modeling plays an important role in business process engineering.Process modeling languages can be evaluated by the extent to which they provide constructs useful for representing and reasoning about the aspects of a process, and subsequently are chosen for a certain purpose.This paper reviews process modeling language paradigms and points out their advantages and disadvantages.

  10. Answer Set Programming and Other Computing Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yunsong

    2013-01-01

    Answer Set Programming (ASP) is one of the most prominent and successful knowledge representation paradigms. The success of ASP is due to its expressive non-monotonic modeling language and its efficient computational methods originating from building propositional satisfiability solvers. The wide adoption of ASP has motivated several extensions to…

  11. Multi level programming Paradigm for Extreme Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petiton, S.; Sato, M.; Emad, N.; Calvin, C.; Tsuji, M.; Dandouna, M.

    2014-06-01

    Abstract: In order to propose a framework and programming paradigms for post-petascale computing, on the road to exascale computing and beyond, we introduced new languages, associated with a hierarchical multi-level programming paradigm, allowing scientific end-users and developers to program highly hierarchical architectures designed for extreme computing. In this paper, we explain the interest of such hierarchical multi-level programming paradigm for extreme computing and its well adaptation to several large computational science applications, such as for linear algebra solvers used for reactor core physic. We describe the YML language and framework allowing describing graphs of parallel components, which may be developed using PGAS-like language such as XMP, scheduled and computed on supercomputers. Then, we propose experimentations on supercomputers (such as the "K" and "Hooper" ones) of the hybrid method MERAM (Multiple Explicitly Restarted Arnoldi Method) as a case study for iterative methods manipulating sparse matrices, and the block Gauss-Jordan method as a case study for direct method manipulating dense matrices. We conclude proposing evolutions for this programming paradigm.

  12. Augmenting the ADDIE Paradigm for Instructional Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xiaopeng; Branch, Robert Maribe

    2008-01-01

    The authors discuss topics appropriate for augmenting the ADDIE paradigm for instructional design. The topics selected are based on data from a study of working professionals who successfully completed an instructional design and technology certificate program and who identified related topics that they regarded as beneficial. The participants…

  13. Redesigning Higher Education: Embracing a New Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, William R.; Watson, Sunnie Lee

    2014-01-01

    Higher education is under enormous pressure to transform itself and embrace a new paradigm. Operating under an outdated model that no longer aligns with the realities of modern society, institutions of higher education are recognizing the need to drastically remake themselves or possibly cease to exist. This article explores the current landscape…

  14. Has the Education Paradigm Begun to Shift?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Clifton B.

    2014-01-01

    The author reviews various elements of what may be considered as evidence that the long-awaited shift in the education paradigm is actually happening. Concepts like student-centered learning, attainment-based evaluation, knowledge-based constructivism, and effort-based intelligence are growing, are being more widely recognized as important, and…

  15. Den postmoderna stadens två paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tom

    2005-01-01

    the attention of politicians, planners and architects today is focused on the individual, not the collective. But the policy of the third way has no counterpart in an urbanism torn between two paradigms. Tom Nielsen paints the picture of what has to urban development since the welfare state and the...

  16. Trace elements as paradigms of developmental neurotoxicants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Herz, Katherine T

    2015-01-01

    Trace elements have contributed unique insights into developmental neurotoxicity and serve as paradigms for such adverse effects. Many trace elements are retained in the body for long periods and can be easily measured to assess exposure by inexpensive analytical methods that became available sev...

  17. About the Consept of Pedagogic Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Testov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paradigm concept, essential for comprehension and analysis of the science history, is used quite freely and easily in educational sphere nowadays when some authors discuss their views, theories and developments referring to a new paradigm. Consequently, in pedagogy, there is an illusion of pseudo-paradigmatic progress, which results from the lack of unified understanding of the given concept, and reorganization complexity. According to the author, paradigmatic transformation in pedagogy and education mainly depends on the fundamental changes of the scientific worldview. Though, compared to the worldview alterations, paradigmatic changes take more time and effort. So, in order to overcome this lagging behind, a lot of contradicting views appear in the modern pedagogic theory. The research methodology is based on the works by T. Coon, defining the paradigm as the complex of theoretical and methodological notions, more general than the theory, concept and attitude. In author’s opinion, turning back to the scientific interpretation of the paradigm concept can overcome the existing misunderstanding of educational experience and its prospects, and ensure the adequate perception of pedagogic reality. 

  18. Empirical Testing of an Affective Learning Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmus, Edward P., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    This investigation of a college music course examined the effectiveness of a cyclical affective learning paradigm based on the premise that student affect toward a course of instruction will dictate, in part, cognitive performance. Results suggest that teachers would be better advised to concentrate on cognitive instruction than on affect.…

  19. Decision Making: New Paradigm for Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wales, Charles E.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Defines education's new paradigm as schooling based on decision making, the critical thinking skills serving it, and the knowledge base supporting it. Outlines a model decision-making process using a hypothetical breakfast problem; a late riser chooses goals, generates ideas, develops an action plan, and implements and evaluates it. (4 references)…

  20. Production planning development and paradigm integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Ledneva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews principles of different concepts of enterprise management including a theory of constrains, a Balanced Scorecard, lean production, Six Sigma. The authors believe that creating some mix or integration of these paradigms can bring extraordinary effect for production management. As example the modified Balanced Scorecard based on constraints and its application on Magnitorsk metallurgical enterprise in Russia is described.

  1. In search of a new paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.

    2005-01-01

    In this review of research priorities, presented for the European Commission, food allergy is established as a disease with a considerable impact on modern society. Research paradigms have changed from establishing basic symptomatology and diagnostic methods over allergen characterization to a ri...

  2. Does Class Size Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; Brewer, Dominic J.; Gamoran, Adam; Willms, J. Douglas

    2001-01-01

    Reports on the significance of class size to student learning. Includes an overview of class size in various countries, the importance of teacher adaptability, and the Asian paradox of large classes allied to high test scores. (MM)

  3. From use cases to UML class diagrams using logic grammars and constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Have, Christian Theil; Tveitane, Knut

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the possibilities for automated transition from Use Cases in a restricted natural language syntax into UML class diagrams, by trying to capture the semantics of the natural language and map it into building blocks of the object oriented programming paradigm (classes, objects, methods...

  4. Code Component Composition Reuse Is a New Programming Paradigm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    After describing the characteristics of programming paradigm,this pap er introduces the approach of code component composition reuse in detail, propos es and discusses viewpoint that code component composition reuse is a kind of ne w programming paradigm. This paper also specifies the characteristics of this ne w programming paradigm in detail, and points out some issues that must be resolv ed for using this new programming paradigm.

  5. Radiation a new paradigm... Societal impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latency is associated with the time lag it takes for the health effects resulting from exposure to ionising radiation to show up. However, the term latency can also be applied to the time it takes for a policy to be implemented. This length of time has been suggested as broadly 40-year process. Given that radioactivity was identified and named in 1896, three paradigms are identified and examined from 1896 to 2016 and the criteria for a 4th paradigm suggested for the period 2017-2056. The review examines the changes that have taken place in scientific understanding and in public trust, a few key developments and the associated establishment of the related organisational infrastructure designed to collate and assess the evidence.

  6. Security Issues in Mobile Agent Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Jain

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A mobile Agent is a Software program that migrates from node tonode of a heterogeneous network. They are goal-oriented i.e. workautonomously towards a goal, capable of suspending their executionon one platform and moving to other where they can resumeexecution using resources of these nodes and they meet and interactwith other agents. Agents may be stationary, always resident at asingle platform or mobile, capable of moving among differentplatforms at different time. The mobile agent paradigm providesmany benefits in developments of distributed application at the sametime introduce new requirements for security issues with thesesystems. In this paper we try to focus mainly on security issues thatarise when mobile agent paradigm comes into play.

  7. A New Paradigm for Chemical Engineering?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    system boundary under investigation? A fundamental rethinking of how to identify the needed chemicals based products and how to design, build and operate the corresponding production units, is necessary. Indeed, the chemical industry today is changed from the chemical industry of forty years ago. Clear...... evidence of this change comes from the jobs taken by graduating chemical engineering professionals in North America, Europe, and some of the Asian countries. In terms of where the graduating chemical engineers are going to work, a clear shift from the commodity chemical industry to the product oriented...... businesses has been observed. There is an increasing trend within the chemical industry to focus on products and the sustainable processes that can make them. Do these changes point to a paradigm shift in chemical engineering as a discipline? Historically, two previous paradigm shifts in chemical engineering...

  8. Paradigm Shifts in the Treatment of Appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Grace Zee; Loeff, Deborah S

    2016-07-01

    Acute appendicitis is the most common cause of emergent surgery in children. Historically, surgical dogma dictated emergent appendectomy due to concern for impending perforation. Recently, however, there has been a paradigm shift in both the understanding of its pathophysiology as well as its treatment to more nonoperative management. No longer is it considered a spectrum from uncomplicated appendicitis inevitably progressing to complicated appendicitis over time. Rather, uncomplicated and complicated appendicitis are now considered two distinct pathophysiologic entities. This change requires not only educating the patients and their families but also the general practitioners who will be managing treatment expectations and caring for patients long term. In this article, we review the pathophysiology of appendicitis, including the differentiation between uncomplicated and complicated appendicitis, as well as the new treatment paradigms. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(7):e235-e240.]. PMID:27403670

  9. Chaos theory: a new paradigm for psychotherapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonie, I

    1991-12-01

    Thomas Kuhn's concept of paradigm as central to the functioning of a mature science is linked with Johnson-Abercrombie's recognition that perception itself is shaped by the schemata available to the subject. The rapidly advancing field of non-linear mathematics, in offering conceptual forms to represent complex events, may provide a useful framework in which to place various psychodynamic formulations about the development of the personality, and suggests the possibility of a new approach to research concerning the efficacy of psychotherapy. Dan Stern's latest concept of "moments" as the basic unit in structuring the personality, leading to the complex representational patterns and feed-back loops he terms "RIGS" may be viewed in this context. The paradigm may be extended to include such concepts as Peterfreund's linkage of psychodynamic theorising with aspects of information theory generated by the study of computers, and with Sullivan's concepts of repetitive patterns of behaviour recognisable, and changing, throughout the course of a therapy. PMID:1793425

  10. Paradigm Adherence and Personality Correlates across Mental Health Professions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Laura Anne

    2012-01-01

    Paradigm adherence has been developed as a meta-theoretical approach to organize and to classify the multitude of different theories of counseling and psychotherapy. Four paradigms have been identified in the literature: The Organic-Medical, The Psychological, The Systemic-Relational, and the Social Constructivist paradigms. Only one other study…

  11. Changing the Cultural Paradigm to Meet Emerging Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, William W.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews changes that are required in Space Transportation. This new transportation paradigm from the reliance on the Space Shuttle to a mixture of space transportation vehicles, i.e., the Russian Progress, vehicle, the Japanese HTV, the European ATV and other commercial orbital transportation systems, requires a new cultural paradigm. This new paradigm is outlined, and reviewed.

  12. The Value of the Rational World and Narrative Paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Robert C.

    1989-01-01

    Considers Walter Fisher's criticisms of the "rational-world" paradigm, as well as his defense of the narrative paradigm. Concludes that a useful argumentative tradition, best represented by the informal logic movement, avoids the dangers identified by narrative proponents. Notes that the narrative paradigm largely fails to fulfill its aims. (MM)

  13. Sustainable Economic Development. A Paradigm Change

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Köppl; Claudia Pichl

    1995-01-01

    At the turn of the last decade a paradigm change in environmental policies became apparent. At the end of the 1970s and at the beginning of the 1980s, during the first environmental revolution, environmental problems were seen as a potential conflict between economic growth and the quality of the environment; since the end of the 1980s, however, the new concept of "sustainable development" which has guided the discussion and policies regarding the environment, has implied the possibility of a...

  14. Changing the Dominant Paradigm in Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Maria de Lourdes Mollo

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses the discussion proposed by the World Academy of Art & Science (WAAS) about the need to build a new paradigm to confront the challenges of the global society and to move across to a New Society discussing specific problems related to economic globalization and proposing changes. The ways in which economic orthodoxy and heterodoxy analyze the role of the State and the question of sustainability of development and the problems of environmental sustainability depend on thei...

  15. Agriculture for Development: Toward a New Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Byerlee, Derek; de Janvry, Alain; Sadoulet, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    The fundamental role that agriculture plays in development has long been recognized. In the seminal work on the subject, agriculture was seen as a source of contributions that helped induce industrial growth and a structural transformation of the economy. However, globalization, integrated value chains, rapid technological and institutional innovations, and environmental constraints have deeply changed the context for agriculture's role. We argue that a new paradigm is needed that recognizes ...

  16. Consumers’ Empowerement for a New Marketing Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Danciu

    2013-01-01

    The marketing practices of the companies show that not all of them are observing ethical and moral standards and they manipulate the consumers. This paper has as main goal to examine the most usual unethical techniques, the present status of consumers’ power and how more power could work for a new marketing paradigm. There are many unethical marketing techniques which could be found in deceptive product recipes, packaging, promotion, prices and in other areas. Most consumers have no appropria...

  17. Security Issues in Mobile Agent Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Nitin Jain; Neeraj Singla

    2011-01-01

    A mobile Agent is a Software program that migrates from node tonode of a heterogeneous network. They are goal-oriented i.e. workautonomously towards a goal, capable of suspending their executionon one platform and moving to other where they can resumeexecution using resources of these nodes and they meet and interactwith other agents. Agents may be stationary, always resident at asingle platform or mobile, capable of moving among differentplatforms at different time. The mobile agent paradigm...

  18. Human Resources Development: A Paradigm Shift?

    OpenAIRE

    Corner, Lorraine

    1993-01-01

    A paradigm shift is taking place in contemporary understanding of the role of human resources in development. Support for the supply-sided human capital model rests on the proposition, not yet established empirically, that it leads to more rapid rates of development than alternative approaches. The human resources development strategy stresses that human resources are both producers and the intended beneficiaries of development. It thus focuses on the achievement of human development directly...

  19. Imaging deductive reasoning and the new paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Mike Oaksford

    2015-01-01

    There has been a great expansion of research into human reasoning at all of Marr’s explanatory levels. There is a tendency for this work to progress within a level largely ignoring the others which can lead to slippage between levels (Chater, Oaksford, Nakisa, & Reddington, 2003). It is argued that recent brain imaging research on deductive reasoning—implementational level—has largely ignored the new paradigm in reasoning—computational level (Over, 2009). Consequently, recent imaging results ...

  20. Nuclear waste management: shifting the paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In planning the management of nuclear waste, the U.S. has emphasized performance assessments and compliance with regulations, and has under-utilized processes for facilitating public understanding and public acceptance. A paradigm shift is needed. Motivation for this viewpoint comes from the author's five years of service on the Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board (NWTRB) and from his experience in assessing risks associated with the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons complex

  1. The Knowledge Society: A Sustainability Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naim Hamdija Afgan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper defines the knowledge society as a human structured organisation based on contemporary developed knowledge and representing new quality of life support systems. It implies the need for a full understanding of distribution of knowledge, access to information and the capability to transfer information into a knowledge. The understanding of knowledge is the central challenge when defining a knowledge society. From our present perception of knowledge society, it is of interest to emphasize the role of the knowledge society in future development of human society. The life support systems are essential pillars of human society development. In this respect knowledge society represents a new paradigm for future development and it is strongly correlated to sustainable development. For this reason the sustainability paradigm of knowledge society is a potential frame for human society development leading to social cohesion, economic competitiveness and stability, use of resources and economic development, safeguarding biodiversity and the ecosystem.In order to verify the mutual relation between knowledge society and sustainability, we have to introduce the difference between these two terms. The knowledge society is based on the agglomeration of eco-knowledge, env-knowledge and soc-knowledge, it may be evaluated as the complex knowledge of quality of life support systems. We have to introduce metrics which will allow us to present knowledge as the paradigm of the number of indicators for verifying progress made.Sustainability metrics are designed to consolidate measures of economic, environmental and social performance of any system. It can be understood as a pattern for evaluation of the available knowledge about systems and their performance. In particular the decision-making process for the selection of the system under consideration must be based on the available knowledge. The link between knowledge and sustainability makes it possible for

  2. Quality improvement through the paradigm of learning

    OpenAIRE

    Hafford-Letchfield, Trish; Lavender, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Purpose - If we are to achieve meaningful participation and co-production for older people in care, more radical approaches are required. This project explores an innovation where older people using social care were matched to community based learning mentors to develop partnerships within which learning interventions were facilitated. We explore how the concept of learning might be used as a paradigm to raise the quality of care in institutionalised settings using a co-productive and relati...

  3. Using Participatory Paradigm to Learn Human Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Taillandier, Patrick; Chu, Thanh-Quang

    2009-01-01

    International audience Since the end of the seventies, the utilisation of multi-agents simulations has spread out. A typical use of these simulations concerns the modelling of human behaviour. In this application case, a key point to ensure the simulation realism is the definition of the agent behaviour. Unfortunately, designing such behaviour is often complex. In order to help the definition of such behaviour, we propose an approach based on the participatory paradigm. In our approach, a ...

  4. Toward a Metatheoretical Integration of Developmental Paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark W. Antley

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows how a partial consilience might be achieved in the field of human development by means of principles from general systems theory. The author concurs with Sameroff (1989 that it is possible to interpret the mechanistic, organisimic, and contextualist paradigms/worldviews (Goldhaber, 2000; Pepper, 1970 in terms of general systems theory. The author selects a major developmentalist from each paradigm and interprets that scholar’s work in terms of systems principles. The following developmentalists were selected: Arnold Sameroff (contextualism, Erik Erickson (organicism, and Albert Bandura (mechanism. The systems principles employed are wholeness and order, self-stabilization, self-reorganization, hierarchical interaction, and dialectical contradiction (Sameroff, 1989. The author addresses the conflicting presuppositions of the major paradigms in order to provide for their theoretical subsuming under systems theory. Finally, the author notes areas of inconsistency that will need to be resolved in the future and calls for further scholarship to translate developmental theory in terms of general systems theory for the benefit of students, scholars, consultants and other practitioners familiar with systems theory.

  5. Biological Robustness: Paradigms, Mechanisms, and Systems Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Michael Whitacre

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Robustness has been studied through the analysis of data sets, simulations, and a variety of experimental techniques that each have their own limitations but together confirm the ubiquity of biological robustness. Recent trends suggest that different types of perturbation (e.g. mutational, environmental are commonly stabilized by similar mechanisms, and system sensitivities often display a long-tailed distribution with relatively few perturbations representing the majority of sensitivities. Conceptual paradigms from network theory, control theory, complexity science, and natural selection have been used to understand robustness, however each paradigm has a limited scope of applicability and there has been little discussion of the conditions that determine this scope or the relationships between paradigms. Systems properties such as modularity, bow-tie architectures, degeneracy, and other topological features are often positively associated with robust traits, however common underlying mechanisms are rarely mentioned. For instance, many system properties support robustness through functional redundancy or through response diversity with responses regulated by competitive exclusion and cooperative facilitation. Moreover, few studies compare and contrast alternative strategies for achieving robustness such as homeostasis, adaptive plasticity, environment shaping, and environment tracking. These strategies share similarities in their utilization of adaptive and self-organization processes that are not well appreciated yet might be suggestive of reusable building blocks for generating robust behavior.

  6. What Do Ecological Paradigms Offer to Conservation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecological theory provides applications to biodiversity management but often falls short of expectations. One possibility is that heuristic theories of a young science are too immature. Logistic growth predicts a carrying capacity, but fisheries managed with the Lotka-Volterra paradigm continue to collapse. A second issue is that general predictions may not be useful. The theory of island biogeography predicts species richness but does not predict community composition. A third possibility is that the theory itself may not have much to do with nature, or that empirical parameterization is too difficult to know. The meta population paradigm is relevant to conservation, but meta populations might not be common in nature. For instance, empirical parameterization within the meta population paradigm is usually infeasible. A challenge is to determine why ecology fails to match needs of managers sometimes but helps at other. Managers may expect too much of paradigmatic blueprints, while ecologists believe them too much. Those who implement biodiversity conservation plans need simple, pragmatic guidelines based on science. Is this possible. What is possible An eclectic review of theory and practice demonstrate the power and weaknesses of the ideas that guide conservation and attempt to identify reasons for prevailing disappointment.

  7. Beyond maximum speed—a novel two-stimulus paradigm for brain-computer interfaces based on event-related potentials (P300-BCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Tobias; Kübler, Andrea

    2014-10-01

    Objective. The speed of brain-computer interfaces (BCI), based on event-related potentials (ERP), is inherently limited by the commonly used one-stimulus paradigm. In this paper, we introduce a novel paradigm that can increase the spelling speed by a factor of 2, thereby extending the one-stimulus paradigm to a two-stimulus paradigm. Two different stimuli (a face and a symbol) are presented at the same time, superimposed on different characters and ERPs are classified using a multi-class classifier. Here, we present the proof-of-principle that is achieved with healthy participants. Approach. Eight participants were confronted with the novel two-stimulus paradigm and, for comparison, with two one-stimulus paradigms that used either one of the stimuli. Classification accuracies (percentage of correctly predicted letters) and elicited ERPs from the three paradigms were compared in a comprehensive offline analysis. Main results. The accuracies slightly decreased with the novel system compared to the established one-stimulus face paradigm. However, the use of two stimuli allowed for spelling at twice the maximum speed of the one-stimulus paradigms, and participants still achieved an average accuracy of 81.25%. This study introduced an alternative way of increasing the spelling speed in ERP-BCIs and illustrated that ERP-BCIs may not yet have reached their speed limit. Future research is needed in order to improve the reliability of the novel approach, as some participants displayed reduced accuracies. Furthermore, a comparison to the most recent BCI systems with individually adjusted, rapid stimulus timing is needed to draw conclusions about the practical relevance of the proposed paradigm. Significance. We introduced a novel two-stimulus paradigm that might be of high value for users who have reached the speed limit with the current one-stimulus ERP-BCI systems.

  8. Asynchronous P300 BCI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panicker, Rajesh; Puthusserypady, Sadasivan; Sun, Ying

    2010-01-01

    An asynchronous hybrid brain-computer interface (BCI) system combining the P300 and steady-state visually evoked potentials (SSVEP) paradigms is introduced. A P300 base system is used for information transfer, and is augmented to include SSVEP for control state detection. The proposed system has...

  9. Loosely coupled class families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2001-01-01

    Families of mutually dependent classes that may be accessed polymor- phically provide an advanced tool for separation of concerns, in that it enables client code to use a group of instances of related classes safely without depending on the exact classes involved. However, class families which are...... expressed using virtual classes seem to be very tightly coupled internally. While clients have achieved the freedom to dynamically use one or the other family, it seems that any given family contains a xed set of classes and we will need to create an entire family of its own just in order to replace one of...... the members with another class. This paper shows how to express class families in such a manner that the classes in these families can be used in many dierent combinations, still enabling family polymorphism and ensuring type safety....

  10. Inevitable suicide: a new paradigm in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadock, Benjamin J

    2012-05-01

    The author suggests that a new paradigm may be needed which holds that some suicides may be inevitable. The goal of this paradigm would be to diminish the sense of failure and inadequacy felt by many psychiatrists who experience the suicide of a patient and to increase understanding of the unique biopsychosocial profile of those whose suicides appear to be inevitable. The author stresses that this proposed paradigm should not be misconstrued as therapeutic nihilism but rather should serve to stimulate efforts to treat this patient population more effectively. Risk factors that place individuals at high risk for suicide are reviewed, including presence of a mental illness, genetic predisposition, and factors such as a history of abuse, divorce, unemployment, male gender, recent discharge from a psychiatric hospital, prior suicide attempts, alcohol or other substance abuse, a history of panic attacks, and persistent suicidal thoughts, especially if coupled with a plan. The author notes that, in those suicides that appear to have been inevitable, risk factors are not only numerous but at the extreme end of profound pathology. The example of Ernest Hemingway is used to illustrate how such a combination of risk factors may have contributed to his eventual suicide. Psychiatrists, like other doctors, may have to acknowledge that some psychiatric disorders are associated with a high mortality rate as a natural outcome. This could lead to heightened vigilance, a more realistic view of what can and cannot be achieved with therapy, and efforts to improve the quality of life of patients at high risk for suicide with the goal of reducing this risk and prolonging their lives. (Journal of Psychiatric Practice 2012;18:221-224). PMID:22617088

  11. Chua's circuit a paradigm for chaos

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    For uninitiated researchers, engineers, and scientists interested in a quick entry into the subject of chaos, this book offers a timely collection of 55 carefully selected papers covering almost every aspect of this subject. Because Chua's circuit is endowed with virtually every bifurcation phenomena reported in the extensive literature on chaos, and because it is the only chaotic system which can be easily built by a novice, simulated in a personal computer, and tractable mathematically, it has become a paradigm for chaos, and a vehicle for illustrating this ubiquitous phenomenon. Its supreme

  12. Software development: A paradigm for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basili, Victor R.

    1989-01-01

    A new paradigm for software development that treats software development as an experimental activity is presented. It provides built-in mechanisms for learning how to develop software better and reusing previous experience in the forms of knowledge, processes, and products. It uses models and measures to aid in the tasks of characterization, evaluation and motivation. An organization scheme is proposed for separating the project-specific focus from the organization's learning and reuse focuses of software development. The implications of this approach for corporations, research and education are discussed and some research activities currently underway at the University of Maryland that support this approach are presented.

  13. Three paradigms for the analysis of corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Vannucci

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades a growing awareness emerged of the relevance of corruption as an hidden factor which may negatively affect political and economic decision-making processes. In spite of a lively scientific debate there is no general consensus on a commonly accepted definition of what corruption is.The A. distinguishes three main paradigms, focusing on different (though not irreconcilable variables.The first is the economic paradigm, which usually takes the principal-agent model of corruption as its founding pillar. In this paradigm corruption is considered the outcome of rational individual choices, and its spread within a certain organization is influenced by the factors defining the structure of expected costs and rewards.A second approach – the cultural paradigm – looks at the differences in cultural traditions, social norms and interiorized values which shape individuals’ moral preferences and consideration of his social and institutional role. These are a leading forces that can push a corrupt public or private agent (not to violate legal norms.A third neo-institutional approach considers also mechanisms which allow the internal regulation of social interactions within corrupt networks, and their effects on individuals’ beliefs and preferences. Though the corrupt agreements cannot be enforced with legal sanctions, several informal, non-written rules, contractual provisos and conventions may regulate the corrupt exchange between agent and corruptor.The A. underlines that corruption is the outcome of a multitude of individual and collective choices which change public opinion towards corruption and its diffusion throughout the state, markets and civil society. There is no univocal recipe to deal with anti-bribery measures, since corruption is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon.Reforms aimed at dismantling systemic corruption have to be finely tuned against its hidden governance structures, i.e. its internal regulation of

  14. Urgency of changing paradigms in radiation hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A problem has been raised on the necessity to substitute the linear-nonthreshold hypothesis as a paradigm of radiation hygiene for the hypothesis of the biological effectiveness of ionizing irradiations. A comparison of the methodological substantiation for both hypotheses and a conception of 'acceptable risk' has been carried out. It is suggested that the possibility of theoretical substantiation of safety standards for the radiational factor on the basis of adatational hypothesis be acknowledged instead of the linear - nonthreshold conception which has lost its historic significance

  15. Paradigms of migration : from integration to transnationalism

    OpenAIRE

    Giordano, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Straipsnyje iš socialinės antropologijos perspektyvos yra analizuojamos skirtingos teorinės prieigos, būdingos šiuolaikiniams debatams apie imigraciją Europoje ir pasaulyje. Straipsnio pradžioje aptariami modeliai, išplėtoti ir išpopuliarinti XX a. 7-ajame dešimtmetyje, naudoti aptariant integracijos teoriją ir marksistines refleksijas apie klasinę imigrantų sąmonę. Straipsnyje atveriama paradigmų kaita, įvykusi praeito amžiaus paskutiniajame dešimtmetyje: naujos analitinės prieigos ėmė telkt...

  16. Genes and human behavior: the emerging paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, A P

    1997-03-01

    The physical properties of human beings and other organisms as well as their social behavioral traits are manifestations of both genetic inheritance and environment. Recent behavioral research has indicated that certain characteristics or behaviors--such as schizophrenia, divorce, and homosexuality--are highly heritable and are not governed exclusively by social environment. A balanced view of human behavior includes the effects of social learning as well as of genetically determined behavior. A new paradigm promotes enhanced understanding and acceptance of human diversity, be it cultural, racial, or sexual, and has the potential to unite scientists and theologians by creating common grounds of understanding. PMID:15719495

  17. Paradigms-Shift in Set Theory

    OpenAIRE

    DePauli-Schimanovich, Werner

    2008-01-01

    In this article the author claims that there is a paradigm shift from ZFC to NFUM and further to NACT - due to philosophical reasons, not mathematical ones. The goal is to construct systems where every "Not-Properclass" is a set! With help of Non-Monotonic Logic, the consistent systems NACT-MoonW, NACT*W, and NACT-SunW are producing "largest possible universes" of sets. Using self-evident philosophical principles, three approximations are suggested: NACT+NFUM-closed (to NACT*), NACT&ZFC4+(GCH...

  18. An adaptive paradigm for human space settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cameron M.

    2016-02-01

    Because permanent space settlement will be multigenerational it will have to be viable on ecological timescales so far unfamiliar to those planning space exploration. Long-term viability will require evolutionary and adaptive planning. Adaptations in the natural world provide many lessons for such planning, but implementing these lessons will require a new, evolutionary paradigm for envisioning and carrying out Earth-independent space settlement. I describe some of these adaptive lessons and propose some cognitive shifts required to implement them in a genuinely evolutionary approach to human space settlement.

  19. Universities in the global knowledge economy: the eclectic paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denys Ilnytskyy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As institutions of knowledge generation and diffusion, in the course of their activities universities should take into account not only the level of an organization or a country but also that of individual knowledge transformation, whereby creating favorable conditions for developing creativity of both graduates and academic staff who form the basis of the intellectual capital of the university and the country. While functioning in the global competitive climate, the national intellectual capital is a factor of socio-economic development and international competitive status of individual countries. During decades the concept of university has been evolving toward determining the operation mode of a university as that of an institution providing mass education, carrying out fundamental and applied researches as well as largely participating in local, national and global development. However, the university operation paradigm remains eclectic. Equal relationships between universities, government and industry in a knowledge-based society are well-defined by the concept of triple helix innovation systems engaging NGOs. World-class universities tend ever more to incorporate the feature of an entrepreneurial university actively competing in the global academic domain.

  20. Neprilysin Inhibition as a PARADIGM Shift in Heart Failure Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Ruth; Greenberg, Barry

    2016-08-01

    Heart failure is a growing global public health problem. With the aging population, increased risk factors for heart failure development, and better survival after myocardial infarction, the prevalence is only expected to increase in the coming years. Although existing therapies have improved the clinical course of heart failure patients, new approaches are urgently needed to enhance quality of life and reduce morbidity and mortality. However, there has been little progress in the treatment of chronic heart failure in the past decade with only two new drugs approved by the US FDA over this time. Better understanding of the neurohormonal axis of heart failure has lead to the development of LCZ696, a first-in-class novel agent that acts as an angiotensin receptor blocker and neprilysin inhibitor. In the PARADIGM-HF study, LCZ696 was superior to an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor in reducing mortality and HF hospitalizations and improving quality of life across a broad spectrum of symptomatic patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. While evaluation of long-term effects is still needed, the completed trials on LCZ696 demonstrate that the drug is generally well-tolerated with a safe side effect profile. LCZ696 should be strongly considered as a favorable alternative to angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers in appropriate heart failure patients. PMID:27271564

  1. Superior refining performance beyond 2000 -- Breaking traditional paradigms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last 5 years, refining companies have not performed well financially, generating returns below the cost of capital. Environmental regulations have caused the industry to invest significant amounts of capital, and while new regulations will cause the shutdown of between 500 thousand and 1.2 million barrels per day of capacity, the industry structure will remain poor and financial returns for the average player will likely be volatile, cyclical, and below the cost of capital. Based on this industry outlook, refining companies seeking superior performance will have to break the traditional paradigms and adopt world-class practices used in other industries. Changes required to significantly improve financial returns will include shifts in business strategy to accommodate growth, and development of nontraditional services, as well as initiates to dramatically reshape cost structure and improve profitability. Making the changes to become a superior performer in the refining business will require a clear vision and strong leadership at multiple levels in the organization. The transformation will also require changes in company culture and incentive plans that encourage managers to act as owners. In addition, superior performers will push accountability for results to low levels in the organization. Given the herd mentality of the oil industry, superior performers must take decisive, preemptive action to generate a substantial, competitive advantage

  2. A Virtual Class Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik; Ostermann, Klaus; Cook, William Randall

    2006-01-01

    , statically typed model for virtual classes has been a long-standing open question. This paper presents a virtual class calculus, vc, that captures the essence of virtual classes in these full-fledged programming languages. The key contributions of the paper are a formalization of the dynamic and static...

  3. Consumers’ Empowerement for a New Marketing Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Danciu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The marketing practices of the companies show that not all of them are observing ethical and moral standards and they manipulate the consumers. This paper has as main goal to examine the most usual unethical techniques, the present status of consumers’ power and how more power could work for a new marketing paradigm. There are many unethical marketing techniques which could be found in deceptive product recipes, packaging, promotion, prices and in other areas. Most consumers have no appropriate powers and tools to counteract the manipulation techniques and feel they have fewer rights than the marketers. The current state of empowerment of the consumer show that the European consumers are not in the best position in the market as the Consumer Empowerment Index proves. This matter of facts emphasizes a strong need for a better empowerment of the consumers. The consumer which has more power and wisely use it could improve the balance of power in the market. But the consumers should have a proactive buying behavior in order to get such results. These revolutionary consumers attack the structural roots of the social, economic and political problems which produces a new market ideology as a part of the new tier of transnational institutional ideology. This consumer behavior may have a strong influence toward a new marketing paradigm.

  4. Long Period Variables: questioning the pulsation paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    Berlioz-Arthaud, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Long period variables, among them Miras, are thought to be pulsating. Under this approach the whole star inflates and deflates along a period that can vary from 100 to 900 days; that pulsation is assumed to produce shock waves on the outer layers of the star that propagate into the atmosphere and could account for the increase in luminosity and the presence of emission lines in the spectra of these stars. However, this paradigm can seriously be questioned from a theoretical point of view. First, in order to maintain a radial pulsation, the spherical symmetry of the star must be preserved: how can it be reconciled with the large convective cells present in these stars? or when close companions are detected? Secondly, how different radial and non-radial pulsation modes of a sphere could be all damped except one radial mode? These problems have no solution and significantly weigh on the pulsation paradigm. Acknowledging this inconsistency, we show that a close companion around these stars could account for the s...

  5. Imaging Deductive Reasoning and the New Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike eOaksford

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There has been a great expansion of research into human reasoning at all of Marr’s explanatory levels. There is a tendency for this work to progress within a level largely ignoring the others which can lead to slippage between levels (Chater, Oaksford, Nakisa, & Reddington, 2003. It is argued that recent brain imaging research on deductive reasoning—implementational level—has largely ignored the new paradigm in reasoning—computational level (Over, 2009. Consequently, recent imaging results are reviewed with the focus on how they relate to the new paradigm. The imaging results are drawn primarily from a recent meta-analysis by Prado, Chadha, and Booth (2011 but further imaging results are also reviewed where relevant. Three main observations are made. First, the main function of the core brain region identified is most likely elaborative, defeasible reasoning not deductive reasoning. Second, the subtraction methodology and the meta-analytic approach may remove all traces of content specific System 1 processes thought to underpin much human reasoning. Third, interpreting the function of the brain regions activated by a task depends on theories of the function that a task engages. When there are multiple interpretations of that function, interpreting what an active brain region is doing is not clear cut. It is concluded that there is a need to more tightly connect brain activation to function, which could be achieved using formalized computational level models and a parametric variation approach.

  6. Imaging deductive reasoning and the new paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oaksford, Mike

    2015-01-01

    There has been a great expansion of research into human reasoning at all of Marr's explanatory levels. There is a tendency for this work to progress within a level largely ignoring the others which can lead to slippage between levels (Chater et al., 2003). It is argued that recent brain imaging research on deductive reasoning-implementational level-has largely ignored the new paradigm in reasoning-computational level (Over, 2009). Consequently, recent imaging results are reviewed with the focus on how they relate to the new paradigm. The imaging results are drawn primarily from a recent meta-analysis by Prado et al. (2011) but further imaging results are also reviewed where relevant. Three main observations are made. First, the main function of the core brain region identified is most likely elaborative, defeasible reasoning not deductive reasoning. Second, the subtraction methodology and the meta-analytic approach may remove all traces of content specific System 1 processes thought to underpin much human reasoning. Third, interpreting the function of the brain regions activated by a task depends on theories of the function that a task engages. When there are multiple interpretations of that function, interpreting what an active brain region is doing is not clear cut. It is concluded that there is a need to more tightly connect brain activation to function, which could be achieved using formalized computational level models and a parametric variation approach. PMID:25774130

  7. A new guiding paradigm for waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New situations call for a revision of strategies in the waste recycling and recovery sector. The guiding paradigm is that the evaluation and optimization of strategies ought to be integral, i.e. it ought to incorporate all steps from cradle to grave, all cost components and also to take into account all environmental aspects, as well as resource depletion. Furthermore, all variants of a comparison must have the same output and the same boundaries in space and time. Total cost (comprising also environmental damage and resource depletion) is proposed here as the evaluation function; environmental damage can be made operational by the DALY concept (Hofstetter P. Perspectives in life cycle impact assessment. Boston: Kluwer Academic, 1998) ('disability adjusted loss of life years') accounting for the years of life lost due to premature death, to illness or annoyance. The search for optimal strategies in the waste sector evidently requires the solution of a system with an enormous number of parameters; the method of genetic algorithms may represent a suitable solution paradigm, leading to the result in a reasonable computing time

  8. Osteoporosis: Modern Paradigms for Last Century's Bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Marlena C; Wolber, Frances M

    2016-01-01

    The skeleton is a metabolically active organ undergoing continuously remodelling. With ageing and menopause the balance shifts to increased resorption, leading to a reduction in bone mineral density and disruption of bone microarchitecture. Bone mass accretion and bone metabolism are influenced by systemic hormones as well as genetic and lifestyle factors. The classic paradigm has described osteoporosis as being a "brittle bone" disease that occurs in post-menopausal, thin, Caucasian women with low calcium intakes and/or vitamin D insufficiency. However, a study of black women in Africa demonstrated that higher proportions of body fat did not protect bone health. Isoflavone interventions in Asian postmenopausal women have produced inconsistent bone health benefits, due in part to population heterogeneity in enteric bacterial metabolism of daidzein. A comparison of women and men in several Asian countries identified significant differences between countries in the rate of bone health decline, and a high incidence rate of osteoporosis in both sexes. These studies have revealed significant differences in genetic phenotypes, debunking long-held beliefs and leading to new paradigms in study design. Current studies are now being specifically designed to assess genotype differences between Caucasian, Asian, African, and other phenotypes, and exploring alternative methodology to measure bone architecture. PMID:27322315

  9. Towards a New Paradigm in Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Jacobs

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A new paradigm in human development must be founded upon a new paradigm in education. A human-centered educational system is needed whose aim is the fullest development of the capacities of each individual. Today humanity is on the cusp of a major transition in education, our most powerful instrument for conscious social evolution. Quality education can now be made universally accessible and affordable. Equally important, future education must be made relevant to the rapidly changing needs of society, the increasingly sophisticated demands of the labor market, the growing shortage of attitudes and skills need to promote entrepreneurship and full employment, the values needed for social harmony and problem solving, and the individuality needed for leadership, independent thinking and creativity. The coming revolution in education spurred by the breakthrough in online learning has made all of these goals achievable. New technology can facilitate a shift from the drudgery of passive knowledge transfer and memorization to the exhilaration of active learning that fosters curiosity, discovery and original thinking. It can also help break down the intellectual boundaries between disciplines, making possible a more comprehensive, transdisciplinary, integrated approach to knowledge. A revolution in higher education is upon us.

  10. Quantitative analysis of distributed control paradigms of robot swarms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngo, Trung Dung

    2010-01-01

    Given a task of designing controller for mobile robots in swarms, one might wonder which distributed control paradigms should be selected. Until now, paradigms of robot controllers have been within either behaviour based control or neural network based control, which have been recognized as two...... mainstreams of controller design for mobile robots. However, in swarm robotics, it is not clear how to determine control paradigms. In this paper we study the two control paradigms with various experiments of swarm aggregation. First, we introduce the two control paradigms for mobile robots. Second, we...... describe the physical and simulated robots, experiment scenario, and experiment setup. Third, we present our robot controllers based on behaviour based and neural network based paradigms. Fourth, we graphically show their experiment results and quantitatively analyse the results in comparison of the two...

  11. Lexical Ambiguity in Nouns: Frequency Dominance and Declensional Classes

    OpenAIRE

    Mancuso, Azzurra; Laudanna, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    The existence of differences in lexical processing between ambiguous and unambiguous words is still controversial. Many factors seem to play a role in determining different ambiguity effects in word recognition, such as ambiguity type, experimental paradigm, frequency dominance, etc. The aim of this study is to investigate the role played by frequency dominance and declensional class in recognizing Italian homonymous nouns, namely, forms with multiple unrelated meaning...

  12. Revising international environmental law through the paradigm of ecological sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Montini, Massimiliano

    2013-01-01

    International environmental law is undergoing a serious crisis. In order to improve its “environmental effectiveness”, the adoption of a new founding paradigm is necessary. The new paradigm ought to be based on the concept of “ecological sustainability”, grounded on the duty to protect and restore the integrity of the eco-systems. Besides setting the framework for the revision of international environmental law on the basis of the “ecological sustainability” paradigm, this paper focuses on it...

  13. Agriculture for development: New paradigm and options for success

    OpenAIRE

    de Janvry, Alain

    2009-01-01

    In the classical paradigm of development economics that prevailed in the 1960s, agricultural growth was held to be the key pillar for industrial growth, itself seen to be synonymous with economic development. The paradigm was anchored in telling success stories, from the long history of the “Western Experience” to the then-recent “Asian miracles”. And it was supported by rigorous modeling exercises. But, in spite of success stories, implementation of this paradigm was running into increasing ...

  14. Paradigm Shift from Current Manufacturing to Social Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Mohajeri, Babak

    2015-01-01

    The emergent phenomenon of social manufacturing is disrupting industries all over the world. Social manufacturing represents a new collaborative manufacturing paradigm. The shift from the current manufacturing paradigm to social manufacturing is facilitated by rapid development of mobile technologies, new digital manufacturing, and online social networks. There are already successful businesses that build upon the social manufacturing paradigm, e.g., in finance, hospitality, and transportatio...

  15. Revisiting System Paradigms from the Viewpoint of Manufacturing Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuming Bi

    2011-01-01

    A system paradigm is an abstract representation of system; it includes system architecture used to determine the types and numbers of components and their relations in the system. The design of system paradigm relies on customers’ requirements and the characteristics of the manufacturing environment. Many system paradigms and design guidelines have been proposed for a variety of customers’ needs including functions, cost, quality, personalization, and lead time of products. However, the c...

  16. Instrumental leadership: Extending the transformational-transactional leadership paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Rowold, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Although the transformational-transactional leadership paradigm is successful in explaining considerable portions of variance in organizationally relevant outcome criteria, recent critiques emphasized that this paradigm might be incomplete. Thus, Antonakis and House (2002) suggested that instrumental leadership might extend the transformational-transactional leadership paradigm and allow for a more detailed and realistic description of the leadership phenomenon. The present study is the first...

  17. Marketing in contemporary world: situational vs. postmodern paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Tanja Kesić; Ivana Kursan

    2008-01-01

    This paper points to the need for understanding consumer behavior and a variety of factors that influence consumer behavior, which is explained through situational and postmodern paradigms. The situational paradigm is based on the concept of impulse buying and focuses on the situational factors as dominant consumer behavior motivators, underlining the importance of external factors. On the other hand, this paper also underlines the inevitable existence of the postmodern paradigm which has its...

  18. The use of repetition suppression paradigms in developmental cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordt, Marisa; Hoehl, Stefanie; Weigelt, Sarah

    2016-07-01

    Repetition suppression paradigms allow a more detailed look at brain functioning than classical paradigms and have been applied vigorously in adult cognitive neuroscience. These paradigms are well suited for studies in the field of developmental cognitive neuroscience as they can be applied without collecting a behavioral response and across all age groups. Furthermore, repetition suppression paradigms can be employed in various neuroscience techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG). In the present article we review studies using repetition suppression paradigms in developmental cognitive neuroscience covering the age range from infancy to adolescence. Our first goal is to point out characteristics of developmental repetition suppression effects. In doing so, we discuss the relationship of the direction of repetition effects (suppression vs enhancement) with developmental factors, and address the question how the direction of repetition effects might be related to looking-time effects in behavioral infant paradigms, the most prominently used behavioral measure in infant research. To highlight the potential of repetition suppression paradigms, our second goal is to provide an overview on the insights recently obtained by applying repetition paradigms in neurodevelopmental studies, including research on children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). We conclude that repetition suppression paradigms are valuable tools for investigating neurodevelopmental processes, while at the same time we highlight the necessity for further studies that disentangle methodological and developmental factors. PMID:27161033

  19. Multidimensional Radar Waveforms: A New Paradigm for the Design and Operation of Highly Performant Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Krieger, Gerhard; Gebert, Nicolas; Moreira, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces and analyses the innovative paradigm of multidimensional waveform encoding for spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR). The combination of this technique with digital beamforming on receive enables a new class of highly performant SAR systems employing novel and highly flexible radar imaging modes. Examples are adaptive high-resolution wide-swath SAR imaging with compact antennas, enhanced parameter estimation sensitivity for applications like a...

  20. Wind power, policy learning and paradigm change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this article is to study how policy learning has led to new understandings of ways to support renewable energies, based on experience in the wind power sector. Drawing on analysis of the literature and informed by field-work in the wind power sector in Denmark, France and the UK, it explores the extent to which policy learning over the medium term has brought us closer to models that integrate economic, environmental and societal desiderata into renewables policy in a manner congruent with the sustainable development aspirations espoused by the European Union and its constituent states. It contributes to policy theory development by arguing in favour of a new policy paradigm that reaches beyond measures to increase production capacity per se to embrace both the institutional dynamics of innovation processes and the fostering of societal engagement in implementation processes

  1. Social Media Guidelines and the News Paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blumell, Lindsey; Hellmueller, Lea; Etter, Michael

    and if these guidelines challenge the news paradigm. While using social media have been a “loop-hole” of sorts to disseminating political information in countries that have strong censorship (the Arab Spring being a premiere example, Eltantawy & Wiest, 2011; Lotan, Graeff, Ananny, Gaffney, & Pearce, 2011), journalists......Social network use continues to increase in the majority of regions around the world, with a global increase of 17.6% in 2012, and another projected 12.6% in 2014 (digital.org, 2014). Social media have also been incorporated into daily routines of American journalists, with 53.8% reporting...... that they use microblogs like Twitter on a regular basis to both gather and disseminate information (Willnat & Weaver, 2014). The aim of this study is to investigate how social media, more specifically, social media guidelines, implemented at the organizational level intercede with journalism practices...

  2. Relativistic CFT Hydrodynamics from the Membrane Paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    Eling, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    We use the membrane paradigm to analyze the (d+1)-dimensional horizon dynamics of a uniformly boosted black brane in a (d+2)-dimensional asymptotically Anti-de-Sitter space-time. We show that the horizon dynamics is governed by the relativistic CFT hydrodynamics equations. The fluid velocity and temperature correspond to the normal to the horizon and to the surface gravity, respectively. The second law of thermodynamics for the fluid is mapped into the area increase theorem of General Relativity. The analysis is applicable, in general, to a non-singular horizon (null hypersurface), when the scale of variations of the macroscopic fields is much larger than the inverse of the temperature. As another example of such, we consider the Rindler horizon dynamics and show that it also evolves according to the CFT hydrodynamics equations. In the non-relativistic limit of our analysis we obtain the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations.

  3. The complexity paradigm in management reconceptualizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Slavica P.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Chaos and complexity theory is a special, functionalist systems approach to dealing with complex, dynamic, nonlinear systems. Through treating organizations as complex, with their environments coevolving, nonlinear systems, complexity theory is aimed at creative research of their erratic nature. When an organization is in a state of bounded instability, at the edge of chaos, order and disorder are intertwined, its behavior is irregular and unpredictable but has some pattern. According to the complexity paradigm organizations have to strive to avoid the equilibrium states of stability and instability. They have instead to strive to remain in a state of bounded instability, at the edge of chaos, where they are able to display their full potential for creativity and innovation.

  4. The Rational Relevance of the Diffuse Paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Processes like the globalization consistency and learning about society are screened by diffuse concepts such as those taking the last steps of the industrial civilization and hierarchically ordered world through hegemony. This is why the meaning of globalization is given by deviant trends, like globalism, and the knowledge society is taken for the tools promoted by itself, such as the internet. This does not imply only approximations of meaning but rather the vanity of change, preserving the status quo represented by the pre-global world or the adversity principle. Historicism of paradigm cannot be avoided. Evolvement towards something else, announced by globalization is implacable, and the new ordinating principle, the one of competition, opens the opportunity horizon to global world.

  5. TAMU: A New Space Mission Operations Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkat, Leila; Ruszkowski, James; Haensly, Jean; Pennington, Granvil A.; Hogle, Charles

    2011-01-01

    The Transferable, Adaptable, Modular and Upgradeable (TAMU) Flight Production Process (FPP) is a model-centric System of System (SoS) framework which cuts across multiple organizations and their associated facilities, that are, in the most general case, in geographically diverse locations, to develop the architecture and associated workflow processes for a broad range of mission operations. Further, TAMU FPP envisions the simulation, automatic execution and re-planning of orchestrated workflow processes as they become operational. This paper provides the vision for the TAMU FPP paradigm. This includes a complete, coherent technique, process and tool set that result in an infrastructure that can be used for full lifecycle design and decision making during any flight production process. A flight production process is the process of developing all products that are necessary for flight.

  6. Personality predicts obedience in a Milgram paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bègue, Laurent; Beauvois, Jean-Léon; Courbet, Didier; Oberlé, Dominique; Lepage, Johan; Duke, Aaron A

    2015-06-01

    This study investigates how obedience in a Milgram-like experiment is predicted by interindividual differences. Participants were 35 males and 31 females aged 26-54 from the general population who were contacted by phone 8 months after their participation in a study transposing Milgram's obedience paradigm to the context of a fake television game show. Interviews were presented as opinion polls with no stated ties to the earlier experiment. Personality was assessed by the Big Five Mini-Markers questionnaire (Saucier, 1994). Political orientation and social activism were also measured. Results confirmed hypotheses that Conscientiousness and Agreeableness would be associated with willingness to administer higher-intensity electric shocks to a victim. Political orientation and social activism were also related to obedience. Our results provide empirical evidence suggesting that individual differences in personality and political variables matter in the explanation of obedience to authority. PMID:24798990

  7. Lorenz on Light: A Precocious Photon Paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    Potter, H C

    2008-01-01

    In 1867, during the time when Maxwell was publishing his electromagnetic theory, L. Lorenz published his theory equating light vibrations with electric currents. Starting from Kirchhoff's Ohm's law expression, Lorenz introduces scalar potential retardation to obtain an expression for the electric field using retarded potentials. In his theory Lorenz sets the vacuum light speed equal to \\sqrt{2}/2 times Weber's measured superluminal value for magnetic induction speed. Using the wave equation Green's function paradigm Lorenz reduces his integral, retarded Ohm's law formulation to a differential formulation for current density. This represents his solution to the electromagnetic action at a distance problem. During the reduction he presents a light like, plane wave solution for current density that can not satisfy initial conditions on the expanding wave front and, using a faulty by parts integration that neglects retardation, he develops the eponymic Lorenz condition. Although generally accepted, this condition...

  8. BMS invariance and the membrane paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    Penna, Robert F

    2015-01-01

    We reinterpret the BMS invariance of gravitational scattering using the membrane paradigm. BMS symmetries imply an infinite number of conserved quantities. Energy conservation at every angle is equivalent to the fluid energy equation on the membrane (a conservation law at each point in the fluid). Momentum conservation at every angle is equivalent to the Damour-Navier-Stokes equation on the membrane. Soft gravitons are encoded in the membrane's mass-energy density, $\\Sigma(z,\\bar{z})$. Fluid dynamics is governed by infinite dimensional reparametrization invariance, which corresponds to the group of volume preserving diffeomorphisms. This coincides with the generalized BMS group, so there is a connection between the fluid and gravity pictures at the level of symmetries. The existence of membrane fluid conservation laws at event horizons implies BMS symmetries also act on event horizons. This may be relevant for the information problem because it implies infalling information can be stored in $\\Sigma(z,\\bar{z})...

  9. A postfoundationalist research paradigm of practical theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Kyu Park

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Practical theology describes a context, interprets what has been discovered, brings in Christian norms, and constructs models of Christian practice. It is a process that involves epistemology and hermeneutics. For practical theology to be transformative, a postfoundational theological framework that allows interdisciplinary work and interpretation of experience in a given context is essential. Research in postfoundational practical theology can be conducted using narratives and social constructionism to obtain meaning from events or situations and to construct preferred realities.This article examines and argues for postfoundationalism – transversal reason, interdisciplinarity and interpreted experience – as a viable theological option against rigid foundationalism and relativistic nonfoundationalism. Also discussed are the process and the interdisciplinary nature of practical theology. It is suggested that narrative research and social constructionism should be part of the research paradigm of postfoundational practical theology.

  10. [Meta-legal paradigms of nanomedicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Alvarez, Salvador

    2012-01-01

    Nanomedicine is the Nanotechnology applied in the field of Medicine. Nanomedicine includes a wide range of technologies applied to devices, materials, medical procedures and treatment modalities are being developed, in some cases, through the convergence of living and nonliving materials. The developments in this scientific field are the prelude of a new era in health where Nanotechnology will provide, in a short period of time, substantial benefits for the general welfare and health of people with serious and incurable diseases using other more traditional medical treatments. This is, in brief, the object of this research that has been focused in the study of the ethical-legal paradigms that should inform the developments and expectations generated by medical applications of Nanotechnology. PMID:23520915

  11. Changing the paradigm of disposing nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fukushima accident occurred in Japan in March 2011 could potentially change the courses of future nuclear energy development in many countries, including Japan. While this game-changing event re-focused the issues on nuclear safety, it also exposed the problem of 'What to do with the growing stocks of used fuel? ' especially toward their final disposal in geologic media. This problem is obviously not confined to Fukushima but is common to all nuclear power programs in the world. The answer to the challenge may lie in the possibility of changing the paradigm in managing the nuclear technologies and wastes in the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle, including the final disposal of long-lived and problematic radioactive wastes in deep geologic media. (author)

  12. Truck shipment risks for assessing hazardous materials - a new paradigm incorporating safety and security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent terrorist events, most notably September 11, 2001, have taught us that transportation risk management must be performed with a different lens to accommodate terrorism scenarios that would have previously been considered unlikely to warrant serious attention. Given these circumstances, a new paradigm is needed for managing the risks associated with highway transport of hazardous materials. In particular, this paradigm must: 1) more explicitly consider security threat and vulnerability, and 2) integrate security considerations into an overall framework for addressing natural and man-made disasters, be they accidental or planned. This paper summarizes the results of a study sponsored by the U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration for the purpose of exploring how a paradigm might evolve in which both safety and security risks can be evaluated as a systematic, integrated process. The work was directed at developing a methodology for assessing the impacts of hazardous materials safety and security incident consequences when transported by highway. This included consideration of the manner in which these materials could be involved in initiating events as well as potential outcomes under a variety of release conditions. The methodology is subsequently applied to various classes of hazardous materials to establish an economic profile of the impacts that might be expected if a major release were to occur. The paper concludes with a discussion of the findings and implications associated with this effort

  13. Semantic Analysis of Virtual Classes and Nested Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    1999-01-01

    Virtual classes and nested classes are distinguishing features of BETA. Nested classes originated from Simula, but until recently they have not been part of main stream object- oriented languages. C++ has a restricted form of nested classes and they were included in Java 1.1. Virtual classes is the...... classes and parameterized classes have been made. Although virtual classes and nested classes have been used in BETA for more than a decade, their implementation has not been published. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of virtual classes and nested classes by presenting the...

  14. Class network routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanot, Gyan; Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.; Takken, Todd E.; Vranas, Pavlos M.

    2009-09-08

    Class network routing is implemented in a network such as a computer network comprising a plurality of parallel compute processors at nodes thereof. Class network routing allows a compute processor to broadcast a message to a range (one or more) of other compute processors in the computer network, such as processors in a column or a row. Normally this type of operation requires a separate message to be sent to each processor. With class network routing pursuant to the invention, a single message is sufficient, which generally reduces the total number of messages in the network as well as the latency to do a broadcast. Class network routing is also applied to dense matrix inversion algorithms on distributed memory parallel supercomputers with hardware class function (multicast) capability. This is achieved by exploiting the fact that the communication patterns of dense matrix inversion can be served by hardware class functions, which results in faster execution times.

  15. Fostering a Middle Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO BIN

    2011-01-01

    Though there is no official definition of "middle class" in China,the tag has become one few Chinese people believe they deserve anyway.In early August,the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences released a report on China's urban development,saying China had a middle-class population of 230 million in 2009,or 37 percent of its urban residents.It also forecast half of city dwellers in China would be part of the middle class by 2023.

  16. New laser classes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By an up-dated international standard (IEC 60825-1 + Amendment 2) on laser safety some new laser classes are introduced. The new set of laser classes consists of 1, 1M, 2, 2M, 3R, 3B, and 4. This is a result of intense discussions in the committee and was laid down in 2000, slightly adjusted 2001. The previous classes 1, 2, 3A, 3B, and 4, established since more than 25 years, are partly abandoned. This paper compares the new classes to the old ones. (orig.)

  17. Class, Culture and Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrits, Gitte Sommer

    2013-01-01

    , discussions within political sociology have not yet utilized the merits of a multidimensional conception of class. In light of this, the article suggests a comprehensive Bourdieusian framework for class analysis, integrating culture as both a structural phenomenon co-constitutive of class and as symbolic...... practice. Further, the article explores this theoretical framework in a multiple correspondence analysis of a Danish survey, demonstrating how class and political practices are indeed homologous. However, the analysis also points at several elements of field autonomy, and the concluding discussion...

  18. High-frequency combination coding-based steady-state visual evoked potential for brain computer interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Xin; Xie, Jun; Li, Yeping; Han, Chengcheng; Lili, Li; Wang, Jing [School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Xu, Guang-Hua [School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710054 (China)

    2015-03-10

    This study presents a new steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) paradigm for brain computer interface (BCI) systems. The goal of this study is to increase the number of targets using fewer stimulation high frequencies, with diminishing subject’s fatigue and reducing the risk of photosensitive epileptic seizures. The new paradigm is High-Frequency Combination Coding-Based High-Frequency Steady-State Visual Evoked Potential (HFCC-SSVEP).Firstly, we studied SSVEP high frequency(beyond 25 Hz)response of SSVEP, whose paradigm is presented on the LED. The SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio) of high frequency(beyond 40 Hz) response is very low, which is been unable to be distinguished through the traditional analysis method; Secondly we investigated the HFCC-SSVEP response (beyond 25 Hz) for 3 frequencies (25Hz, 33.33Hz, and 40Hz), HFCC-SSVEP produces n{sup n} with n high stimulation frequencies through Frequence Combination Code. Further, Animproved Hilbert-huang transform (IHHT)-based variable frequency EEG feature extraction method and a local spectrum extreme target identification algorithmare adopted to extract time-frequency feature of the proposed HFCC-SSVEP response.Linear predictions and fixed sifting (iterating) 10 time is used to overcome the shortage of end effect and stopping criterion,generalized zero-crossing (GZC) is used to compute the instantaneous frequency of the proposed SSVEP respondent signals, the improved HHT-based feature extraction method for the proposed SSVEP paradigm in this study increases recognition efficiency, so as to improve ITR and to increase the stability of the BCI system. what is more, SSVEPs evoked by high-frequency stimuli (beyond 25Hz) minimally diminish subject’s fatigue and prevent safety hazards linked to photo-induced epileptic seizures, So as to ensure the system efficiency and undamaging.This study tests three subjects in order to verify the feasibility of the proposed method.

  19. High-frequency combination coding-based steady-state visual evoked potential for brain computer interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents a new steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) paradigm for brain computer interface (BCI) systems. The goal of this study is to increase the number of targets using fewer stimulation high frequencies, with diminishing subject’s fatigue and reducing the risk of photosensitive epileptic seizures. The new paradigm is High-Frequency Combination Coding-Based High-Frequency Steady-State Visual Evoked Potential (HFCC-SSVEP).Firstly, we studied SSVEP high frequency(beyond 25 Hz)response of SSVEP, whose paradigm is presented on the LED. The SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio) of high frequency(beyond 40 Hz) response is very low, which is been unable to be distinguished through the traditional analysis method; Secondly we investigated the HFCC-SSVEP response (beyond 25 Hz) for 3 frequencies (25Hz, 33.33Hz, and 40Hz), HFCC-SSVEP produces nn with n high stimulation frequencies through Frequence Combination Code. Further, Animproved Hilbert-huang transform (IHHT)-based variable frequency EEG feature extraction method and a local spectrum extreme target identification algorithmare adopted to extract time-frequency feature of the proposed HFCC-SSVEP response.Linear predictions and fixed sifting (iterating) 10 time is used to overcome the shortage of end effect and stopping criterion,generalized zero-crossing (GZC) is used to compute the instantaneous frequency of the proposed SSVEP respondent signals, the improved HHT-based feature extraction method for the proposed SSVEP paradigm in this study increases recognition efficiency, so as to improve ITR and to increase the stability of the BCI system. what is more, SSVEPs evoked by high-frequency stimuli (beyond 25Hz) minimally diminish subject’s fatigue and prevent safety hazards linked to photo-induced epileptic seizures, So as to ensure the system efficiency and undamaging.This study tests three subjects in order to verify the feasibility of the proposed method

  20. The "New Environmental Paradigm" in a Mexican Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral-Verdugo, Victor; Armendariz, Luz Irene

    2000-01-01

    Assesses Mexican people's beliefs about human-environment relations using the New Environmental Paradigm-Human Exception Paradigm (NEP-HEP) scale. Results point to a more holistic view of human relations with the environment, in contrast to the dualistic vision of some western countries. (Author/CCM)

  1. The Hermeneutical-Praxis Paradigm and Practical Theology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Sook

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this article is to propose a method for practical theology, the hermeneutical-praxis paradigm, based on discussions of three different methodological approaches to practical theology. This article suggests the hermeneutical-praxis paradigm, which bridges theory and practice, which connects church with society, which correlates theology…

  2. Strategic Intellectual Capital Development: A Defining Paradigm for HRD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holton, Elwood F., III; Yamkovenko, Bogdan

    2008-01-01

    The performance paradigm of human resource development (HRD) practice has served the field well, particularly in enhancing the relevance and impact of HRD interventions. However, in this article, it is argued that the time has come for a new defining paradigm to advance the field of HRD to a higher level of organizational impact. This article…

  3. A Practical Examination of Two Diverse Research Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Robert A.

    2007-01-01

    This manuscript examines the practical differences between quantitative and qualitative inquiry by comparing the differences between one article from each paradigm. Quantitative research differs greatly from qualitative inquiry in purpose, assumptions, methodology, and representation. While quantitative research has been the dominant paradigm for…

  4. Libraries and Learning: A History of Paradigm Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Scott

    2009-01-01

    The transformation of information from a scarce to a superabundant commodity has driven three paradigms in the design of library space. These are the reader-centered, book-centered, and learning-centered paradigms. The first two competed inconclusively with one another throughout most of the twentieth century. Revolutionary changes in information…

  5. A Paradigm for Learning in a World of Continuous Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Through ongoing rapid-fire changes in the nature of communications, the social, professional, and political landscapes of our time are rapidly transforming. But the prevailing paradigm in most schools and school systems is a relic of the industrial revolution. Schools and school systems must adopt a new paradigm for learning if they are to remain…

  6. Analysis on New Paradigms of Informatization in the Countryside

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei; XUE; Lina; WANG

    2014-01-01

    Through the analyses of several typical paradigms of informatization in the countryside,the status of informatization in the countryside and some unresolved issues were studied. A new way was proposed to develop rural information with embedded mobile phone terminal,and to explore an inexpensive and efficient information services paradigm for the future development in the countryside.

  7. The Question of Work: Adolescent Literature and the Eriksonian Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgan, Mary

    1988-01-01

    Suggests that focusing on paradigms of work--the way it is described, together with the thematic implications it embodies--can be useful in teaching literature to young adults. Examines how examples from literature illustrate Erik H. Erikson's paradigm of the psychosocial stages of development in late childhood and adolescence. (MM)

  8. The World Religions Paradigm Time for a Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    The teaching of religions has long relied on the World Religions paradigm to guide curricula throughout education, which has led to a widening gap, on the one hand, between what is taught in schools and in universities and, on the other, between research and teaching. While the World Religions paradigm has allowed the inclusion of non-Christian…

  9. Paradigms and Problem-Solving: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Eta S.

    1984-01-01

    Thomas Kuhn's conceptions of the influence of paradigms on the progress of science form the framework for analyzing how medical educators have approached research on medical problem solving. A new paradigm emphasizing multiple types of problems with varied solution strategies is proposed. (Author/MLW)

  10. Affective Computing used in an imaging interaction paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Nette

    2003-01-01

    This paper combines affective computing with an imaging interaction paradigm. An imaging interaction paradigm means that human and computer communicates primarily by images. Images evoke emotions in humans, so the computer must be able to behave emotionally intelligent. An affective image selection...

  11. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH IN AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS: PARADIGMS, PURPOSES, AND EVALUATION CRITERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Bitsch, Vera

    2001-01-01

    The qualitative paradigm is not widely discussed in agricultural economics, although research strategies are applied. The purpose of this contribution is (1) to elaborate on the paradigm of qualitative research; (2) to introduce purposes of qualitative research and provide examples; and (3) to discuss criteria of scientific rigor applicable.

  12. The machine paradigm and alternative approaches in cognitive science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barutta, Joaquín; Aravena, Pía; Ibáñez, Agustín

    2010-06-01

    In a recent paper called To think human out of the machine paradigm, it is stated that psychological science operates within a machine paradigm that is committed to mechanical causality. In addition, it is emphasizes the epistemological and methodological limitations of explanations based in deterministic mechanics and instead argues for the need of an 'organic paradigm' that takes into consideration psychological processes such as subjectivity, inter-subjectivity, and agency. Although there is no doubt that much psychological science has operated under a machine paradigm, we argue that recent psychological research is pursued using a wide variety of approaches and with an absence of a partially integrated meta-theoretical corpus. The present situation looks more like a Tower of Babel of epistemological approaches and empirical programs. The reconsideration of the organic paradigm and an explicitly addressed epistemological framework could constitute a step forward and lead to an explanatory pluralism built on greater dialogue within the psychological sciences. PMID:20306344

  13. Teaching Large Evening Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wambuguh, Oscar

    2008-01-01

    High enrollments, conflicting student work schedules, and the sheer convenience of once-a-week classes are pushing many colleges to schedule evening courses. Held from 6 to 9 pm or 7 to 10 pm, these classes are typically packed, sometimes with more than 150 students in a large lecture theater. How can faculty effectively teach, control, or even…

  14. Class in disguise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Stine Thidemann; Prieur, Annick

    This paper asks how class can have importance in one of the worlds’ most equal societies: Denmark. The answer is that class here appears in disguised forms. The field under study is a city, Aalborg, in the midst of transition from a stronghold of industrialism to a post industrial economy...

  15. Teaching Social Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tablante, Courtney B.; Fiske, Susan T.

    2015-01-01

    Discussing socioeconomic status in college classes can be challenging. Both teachers and students feel uncomfortable, yet social class matters more than ever. This is especially true, given increased income inequality in the United States and indications that higher education does not reduce this inequality as much as many people hope. Resources…

  16. DEFINING THE MIDDLE CLASS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Classifying the middle class remains controversial despite its alleged growth China’s cities housed more than 230 million middle-class residents in 2009 or 37 percent of the urban population,according to the 2011 Blue Book of Cities in China released on August 3.

  17. Machine learning paradigms applications in recommender systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lampropoulos, Aristomenis S

    2015-01-01

    This timely book presents Applications in Recommender Systems which are making recommendations using machine learning algorithms trained via examples of content the user likes or dislikes. Recommender systems built on the assumption of availability of both positive and negative examples do not perform well when negative examples are rare. It is exactly this problem that the authors address in the monograph at hand. Specifically, the books approach is based on one-class classification methodologies that have been appearing in recent machine learning research. The blending of recommender systems and one-class classification provides a new very fertile field for research, innovation and development with potential applications in “big data” as well as “sparse data” problems. The book will be useful to researchers, practitioners and graduate students dealing with problems of extensive and complex data. It is intended for both the expert/researcher in the fields of Pattern Recognition, Machine Learning and ...

  18. Aggregated search: a new information retrieval paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Kopliku, Arlind; Pinel-Sauvagnat, Karen; Boughanem, Mohand

    2014-01-01

    Traditional search engines return ranked lists of search results. It is up to the user to scroll this list, scan within different documents and assemble information that fulfill his/her information need. Aggregated search represents a new class of approaches where the information is not only retrieved but also assembled. This is the current evolution in Web search, where diverse content (images, videos, ...) and relational content (similar entities, features) are included in search results. I...

  19. International trade disputes in modern regulatory paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Gordeeva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the latest trends observed in the area of contradictory relations between countries with regard to international trade, which cause changes in the paradigm of international trade disputes. It has been found out that any state of inconsistent relations between the countries is recently characterized as a «trade war». It has been analyzed the notions of «dispute», «conflict», «war» according to international regulatory documents and determined the applicability of these terms depending on a number of criteria. It has been studied the evolution of the objects of international trade disputes since the time of ancient Greece until today, and new trends based on this have been revealed with regard to use of trade policy instruments that cause disputes between countries. Several specific examples of international trade disputes and causes of their occurrence have been considered. A quantitative analysis of international trade disputes in general and in relations between the leading countries in terms of a number of the trade disputes in which they were involved has been performed.

  20. A New Paradigm for Adaptive Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Rist

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Uncertainty is a pervasive feature in natural resource management. Adaptive management, an approach that focuses on identifying critical uncertainties to be reduced via diagnostic management experiments, is one favored approach for tackling this reality. While adaptive management is identified as a key method in the environmental management toolbox, there remains a lack of clarity over when its use is appropriate or feasible. Its implementation is often viewed as suitable only in a limited set of circumstances. Here we restructure some of the ideas supporting this view, and show why much of the pessimism around AM may be unwarranted. We present a new framework for deciding when AM is appropriate, feasible, and subsequently successful. We thus present a new paradigm for adaptive management that shows that there are no categorical limitations to its appropriate use, the boundaries of application being defined by problem conception and the resources available to managers. In doing so we also separate adaptive management as a management tool, from the burden of failures that result from the complex policy, social, and institutional environment within which management occurs.

  1. Revisiting cytogenetic paradigms armed with new tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It could be argued that most of the fundamental tenets of radiation biology were either discovered, or subsequently confirmed, by observing eukaryotic chromosomes under the microscope. These include, but are certainly not limited to, dose-response relationships with respect to intensity (dose rate/dose fractionation) and radiation quality (LET/track structure). Chromosome aberrations are exquisitely sensitive indicators of radiation damage, and provide quantitative information of biological effect on a cell-by-cell-basis. As such, they have long been a favored endpoint for theoreticians, thereby figuring prominently in the development of generalized models of radiation action. Most of these seminal contributions to radiation biology occurred over a period of time when cytogenetic techniques were, of course, less refined than today. Considering the increasing rate at which technological advances have been made available to the researcher over the past few years, a reexamination of some of the radiological principles that cytogenetics helped to found seems in order. As an example of such effort, this talk will center around improvements to the use of whole chromosome painting by FISH- principally combinatorial painting techniques like mFISH and SKY- for the purposes of examining in greater detail structural aberrations to chromosomes produced following exposure to ionizing radiations of differing quality and intensity. This and related approaches by various laboratories around the world have turned up a few surprise discoveries that do not always fit established paradigms, and which serve to sharpen arguments that have been used to buttress existing models of aberration formation

  2. Differential Paradigms in Animal Models of Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsley, S Manoj Kumar; Bhat, B Vishnu

    2016-09-01

    Sepsis is a serious clinical problem involving complex mechanisms which requires better understanding and insight. Animal models of sepsis have played a major role in providing insight into the complex pathophysiology of sepsis. There have been various animal models of sepsis with different paradigms. Endotoxin, bacterial infusion, cecal ligation and puncture, and colon ascendens stent peritonitis models are the commonly practiced methods at present. Each of these models has their own advantages and also confounding factors. We have discussed the underlying mechanisms regulating each of these models along with possible reasons why each model failed to translate into the clinic. In animal models, the timing of development of the hemodynamic phases and the varied cytokine patterns could not accurately resemble the progression of clinical sepsis. More often, the exuberant and transient pro-inflammatory cytokine response is only focused in most models. Immunosuppression and apoptosis in the later phase of sepsis have been found to cause more damage than the initial acute phase of sepsis. Likewise, better understanding of the existing models of sepsis could help us create a more relevant model which could provide solution to the currently failed clinical trials in sepsis. PMID:27432263

  3. Changing the paradigm for engineering ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jon Alan

    2014-12-01

    Modern philosophy recognizes two major ethical theories: deontology, which encourages adherence to rules and fulfillment of duties or obligations; and consequentialism, which evaluates morally significant actions strictly on the basis of their actual or anticipated outcomes. Both involve the systematic application of universal abstract principles, reflecting the culturally dominant paradigm of technical rationality. Professional societies promulgate codes of ethics with which engineers are expected to comply (deontology), while courts and the public generally assign liability to engineers primarily in accordance with the results of their work, whether intended or unintended (consequentialism). A third option, prominent in ancient philosophy, has reemerged recently: virtue ethics, which recognizes that sensitivity to context and practical judgment are indispensable in particular concrete situations, and therefore rightly focuses on the person who acts, rather than the action itself. Beneficial character traits--i.e., virtues--are identified within a specific social practice in light of the internal goods that are unique to it. This paper proposes a comprehensive framework for implementing virtue ethics within engineering. PMID:24189836

  4. [Oedipus, the medicine and the "evidential paradigm"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    The inquiry about the causes of the Thebes plague characterizes Sophocles' tragedy Oedipus the King. This inquiry uses a circumstantial method (Ginzburg's "evidential paradigm") which can be compared to Peirce's abduction. The circumstantial knowledge is a proceedment of the hippocratic medicine and Sophocles undoubtedly knew it: it can also be observed in the Mesopotamian proceedments of divination and medicine from which it probably derives through a laicization process. This knowledge is related to the [see text], a type of intelligence which has to do with the development of fluent situations. The characters of Oedipus also shows some aspects of a holy medicine (for example the theme of the enigma and some shamanist aspects) which reappear after the failure of the hippocratic medicine unsuccessfully used by the doctors during the Athens' plague. In this tragedy we can find different types of knowledge: on the one hand a rational knowledge of techniques (which in turn comes from a holy semiotic knowledge) and on the other hand an initiatory knowledge closely linked to the medicine which also includes interpretation. PMID:21563392

  5. Emerging paradigms in mind-body medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, C

    2001-02-01

    The emerging paradigms in medicine can be seen through mind-body interactions. Observations in many meditative traditions suggest a series of objective indicators of health beyond absence of disease. Several of the physical signs have been confirmed by research or are consistent with modern science. Further correlation with long term health outcome is needed. Integration of meditation with conventional therapy has enriched psychotherapy with parallels drawn between the Nine Step Qigong and Freudian developmental psychology. A unified theory of the chakra system and the meridian system widely used in traditional mind-body interventions and acupuncture is presented in terms of modern science based on the morphogenetic singularity theory. Acupuncture points originate from the organizing centers in morphogenesis. Meridians and chakras are related to the underdifferentiated, interconnected cellular network that regulates growth and physiology. This theory explains the distribution and nonspecific activation of organizing centers and acupuncture points; the high electric conductance of the meridian system; the polarity effect of electroacupuncture; the side-effect profile of acupuncture; and the ontogeny, phylogeny, and physiologic function of the meridian system and chakra system. It also successfully predicted several findings in conventional biomedical science. These advances have implications in many disciplines of medicine. PMID:11246939

  6. A new paradigm for computer users

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikstrom, M.C.; Gustafson, J.L.

    1995-07-01

    Why is it that mathematical results are useful for centuries, yet computer programs suffer tumultuous changes of technology? Can one write programs that will be useful in fifty years? Extreme efforts to preserve ``dusty deck`` programs have confused the roles and responsibilities of four participants: the end user, application programmer, system software designer, and hardware engineer. Users feel they must know hardware details like word size and megahertz rate--yet are oblivious to error in the output. Application programmers try to guess compiler behavior, often obtaining high performance only by trickery. With new hardware, that old guess is often wrong. The result is ``high-performance code`` that is slower than the original code. The hardware engineer tries to maintain compatibility through many generations, sacrificing performance and hardware affordability to meet presumed needs of the other three participants. We propose that the respective roles and responsibilities be clearly delineated via a three-stage contract between the four participants. The result is a new interaction paradigm that should allow programs to share the longevity of mathematical results and absorb technical advances gracefully.

  7. Biofabrication: a 21st century manufacturing paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mironov, V; Trusk, T; Markwald, R [Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Kasyanov, V [Riga Stradins University, Riga (Latvia); Little, S [South Carolina EPSCoR/IDeA Program, Columbia, SC (United States); Swaja, R [South Carolina Bioengineering Alliance, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Biofabrication can be defined as the production of complex living and non-living biological products from raw materials such as living cells, molecules, extracellular matrices, and biomaterials. Cell and developmental biology, biomaterials science, and mechanical engineering are the main disciplines contributing to the emergence of biofabrication technology. The industrial potential of biofabrication technology is far beyond the traditional medically oriented tissue engineering and organ printing and, in the short term, it is essential for developing potentially highly predictive human cell- and tissue-based technologies for drug discovery, drug toxicity, environmental toxicology assays, and complex in vitro models of human development and diseases. In the long term, biofabrication can also contribute to the development of novel biotechnologies for sustainable energy production in the future biofuel industry and dramatically transform traditional animal-based agriculture by inventing 'animal-free' food, leather, and fur products. Thus, the broad spectrum of potential applications and rapidly growing arsenal of biofabrication methods strongly suggests that biofabrication can become a dominant technological platform and new paradigm for 21st century manufacturing. The main objectives of this review are defining biofabrication, outlining the most essential disciplines critical for emergence of this field, analysis of the evolving arsenal of biofabrication technologies and their potential practical applications, as well as a discussion of the common challenges being faced by biofabrication technologies, and the necessary conditions for the development of a global biofabrication research community and commercially successful biofabrication industry. (topical review)

  8. Paradigms-Shift in Set Theory

    CERN Document Server

    DePauli-Schimanovich, Werner

    2008-01-01

    In this article the author claims that there is a paradigm shift from ZFC to NFUM and further to NACT - due to philosophical reasons, not mathematical ones. The goal is to construct systems where every "Not-Properclass" is a set! With help of Non-Monotonic Logic, the consistent systems NACT-MoonW, NACT*W, and NACT-SunW are producing "largest possible universes" of sets. Using self-evident philosophical principles, three approximations are suggested: NACT+NFUM-closed (to NACT*), NACT&ZFC4+(GCH) (also to NACT*) and NACT-NFUM (to NACT-Sun). Also the system NACT[&ZFC4-closed]+(FCA) is considered. NFUM = NFU with (AC) and measurable properclass Ord. NFUM-closed is NFUM where the set-constituting formulas Ai in the set operator need not only to be stratified but also to be made parameter-free (i.e., have only x as free variable over which the set is comprehended). In other formulas, free variables are allowed. Keywords: Set Theory, ZFC, Naive Set Theory, Predicate-Extension, Church Schema of Comprehension, ...

  9. SAR IMAGE SEGMENTATION WITH UNKNOWN NUMBER OF CLASSES COMBINED VORONOI TESSELLATION AND RJMCMC ALGORITHM

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Q. H.; Li, Y.; Y Wang

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel segmentation method for automatically determining the number of classes in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images by combining Voronoi tessellation and Reversible Jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo (RJMCMC) strategy. Instead of giving the number of classes a priori, it is considered as a random variable and subject to a Poisson distribution. Based on Voronoi tessellation, the image is divided into homogeneous polygons. By Bayesian paradigm, a posterior distribut...

  10. Immunity induced by a broad class of inorganic crystalline materials is directly controlled by their chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.R. Williams (Gareth); K. Fierens (Kaat); S.G. Preston (Stephen); A.C. Lunn; O. Rysnik (Oliwia); S. de Prijck (Sofie); M. Kool (Mirjam); H.C. Buckley (Hannah); B.N.M. Lambrecht (Bart); D. O'Hare (Dermot); J.M. Austyn (Jonathan)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThere is currently no paradigm in immunology that enables an accurate prediction of how the immune system will respond to any given agent. Here we show that the immunological responses induced by members of a broad class of inorganic crystalline materials are controlled purely by their p

  11. Social Class Dialogues and the Fostering of Class Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Meredith

    2015-01-01

    How do critical pedagogies promote undergraduate students' awareness of social class, social class identity, and social class inequalities in education? How do undergraduate students experience class consciousness-raising in the intergroup dialogue classroom? This qualitative study explores undergraduate students' class consciousness-raising in an…

  12. Learning OWL class expressions

    CERN Document Server

    Lehmann, J

    2010-01-01

    With the advent of the Semantic Web and Semantic Technologies, ontologies have become one of the most prominent paradigms for knowledge representation and reasoning. However, recent progress in the field faces a lack of well structured ontologies with large amounts of instance data due to the fact that engineering such ontologies requires a considerable investment of resources. Nowadays, knowledge bases often provide large volumes of data without sophisticated schemata. Hence, methods for automated schema acquisition and maintenance are sought. Schema acquisition is closely related to solving

  13. The non-proliferation paradigm and the restive outlier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear non-proliferation paradigm has rarely remained static. Its logic or the underlying principle has however been singular-non-proliferation should lead to nuclear disarmament, and eventually total elimination. It is the approach to the paradigm that has evolved over the years, often accentuated by, and many a time succumbing to, the transformations in the global security environment. Milestones in this evolution have often been construed as shifts in the paradigm, as newer security imperatives necessitated augmentations in existing approaches to proliferation challenges

  14. The new concepts of development of the dynamic structuralism paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Alejandro Cervigni

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this article is to make a critical review about the classical structuralist paradigm of cognitive development. Given this goal, we firstly analyze some of the core concepts of this paradigm, mainly those ones that suggest certain “stillness” when they try to explain the development of psychological functions. Secondly, we propose an alternative approach based on Kurt Fischer cognitive model of development, as long as we consider it an example of the dynamic development perspective. Finally, we highlight the theoretical implications of the dynamic model, proposing it as an alternative to confront the explanatory difficulties of the classical paradigm.

  15. Contemporary paradigms for research related to women's mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Shelley Anne; Letourneau, Nicole Lyn; Stoppard, Janet M

    2010-04-01

    Mental health problems are serious health concerns that affect women across diverse settings internationally. Knowledge of this population historically has been informed by research using a positivist approach. This article is a critical examination of contemporary paradigms for research related to women's mental health. We begin the article with an introduction to women's mental health, followed by an overview of the postpositivist, critical theory, and constructivist paradigms. We then present a critical examination of the benefits and limitations of these paradigms in relation to the study of women's mental health. We conclude with implications for research and practice. PMID:20390655

  16. Innovation Policy Development and the Emergence of New Innovation Paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoyan Tanev

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present article is to discuss innovation policy issues related to three emerging innovation paradigms: user-driven innovation, open innovation, and value co-creation. It provides a summary of insights based on innovation policy practices and challenges in Denmark. The choice of Danish innovation policy practices is not accidental. In 2008 Denmark implemented 40 different national innovation programs by allocating about 400 million euros. Since the three emerging paradigms have become globally relevant, the discussion of Danish policy development challenges and practices is expected to be insightful for innovation experts from other developed countries that are currently dealing with the adoption of these paradigms.

  17. Teaching Heterogeneous Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millrood, Radislav

    2002-01-01

    Discusses an approach to teaching heterogeneous English-as-a-Second/Foreign-Language classes. Draws on classroom research data to describe the features of a success-building lesson context. (Author/VWL)

  18. IELP Class Observation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈了了

    2010-01-01

    @@ As an exchange student majoring in English, I am curious about how English is taught to international students here in America. Therefore, I observed an IELP (Intensive English Learning Program) class in Central Connecticut State University where I study.

  19. PSYCH 515 Complete Class

    OpenAIRE

    admin

    2015-01-01

      PSYCH 515 Advanced Abnormal Psychology To purchase this material click on below link http://www.assignmentcloud.com/PSYCH-515/PSYCH-515-Complete-Class-Guide For more details www.assignmentcloud.com

  20. Raradox of class description

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕光

    2004-01-01

    We have a more active class atmophere, but more passive self-study situations. We are too talktive when we should bury ourselves in books, but too less efficient when we spend too much time. We complain teachers

  1. Local seafood: rethinking the direct marketing paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua S. Stoll

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Faced with strict regulations, rising operational costs, depleted stocks, and competition from less expensive foreign imports, many fishers are pursuing new ways to market and sell their catch. Direct marketing arrangements can increase the ex-vessel value of seafood and profitability of operations for fishers by circumventing dominant wholesale chains of custody and capturing the premium that customers are willing to pay for local seafood. Our analysis goes beyond a paradigm that understands direct marketing arrangements as solely economic tools to consider how these emerging business configurations create a set of conditions that can result in increased bonding and bridging capital among fishers by incentivizing cooperation, communication, and information production and organization. To build our case, we report on the economic value being generated for fishers in a cooperatively owned and operated direct marketing arrangement in eastern North Carolina. Over the course of 2 years, fishers participating in the Walking Fish community-supported fishery received 33% more revenue for their catch compared to the average monthly ex-vessel price of finfish and shellfish landed in the surrounding region, and an additional 14% to 18% more per dollar by way of year-end profit sharing. We argue that these economic benefits create an incentive to participate, resulting in cooperation among fishers and increased communication skills that foster bonding and bridging capital that put fishers in a position to identify and respond to challenges that threaten the social-ecological resilience of the systems within which they operate. We suggest that "institutional starters" like these can play a critical role in increasing the resilience of social-ecological systems, including fisheries.

  2. Automation of the free-exploratory paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Fabrício Dias; Goes, Tiago Costa; Vígaro, Milton Gonçalves; Teixeira-Silva, Flavia

    2011-04-30

    The free-exploratory paradigm (FEP) is currently the only proposed animal model of trait anxiety, making it highly valuable to behavioural neuroscience. However, FEP has not yet been automated, so its results depend on human scoring, which can be quite imprecise. The aim of this study was, therefore, to validate an automated version of FEP, using a commercially available video-tracking system (ANY-maze(©) - Stoelting Co., USA). To achieve this, two experiments were performed. The first one evaluated the reliability of the video-based automation of FEP, and the second, assessed whether the zeolites, used as a bedding material in the first experiment to facilitate video-tracking, influenced the animals' behaviour in FEP. In experiment I, 15 drug-naive, adult, male rats were tested in FEP, while their behaviour was simultaneously evaluated by ANY-maze(©) and two human observers. Subsequently, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated for the automated and manual results of the parameters "percentage of time in the novel side" (%TNS) and "total units visited" (TUV). The analysis resulted in high, significant values of ICC (%TNS: 0.9962 and TUV: 0.9453). In experiment II, 18 drug-naive, adult, male rats were allocated to two different groups: (1) tested in FEP with zeolites; and (2) tested in FEP with sawdust. The data obtained were analysed using the Student's t-test, which revealed no significant differences between the groups for the parameters %TNS and TUV. In conclusion, the data presented here show that automation of FEP, using a video-based tracking system, is not only possible, but also highly reliable. PMID:21376081

  3. Nordic Walking Classes

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2015-01-01

    Four classes of one hour each are held on Tuesdays. RDV barracks parking at Entrance A, 10 minutes before class time. Spring Course 2015: 05.05/12.05/19.05/26.05 Prices 40 CHF per session + 10 CHF club membership 5 CHF/hour pole rental Check out our schedule and enroll at: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Nordic%20Walking/NewForm.aspx? Hope to see you among us! fitness.club@cern.ch

  4. Embodying class and gender

    OpenAIRE

    Geers, Alexie

    2015-01-01

    In March 1937, when the first issue of Marie-Claire was published, the images of the female body it presented to its female readers from working-class backgrounds contrasted sharply with those featured in previous magazines. The female bodies are dressed and groomed to seduce and replace the hieratic bodies that presented fashions synonymous with membership in the upper classes. The present essay examines this shift and shows that the visual repertoire employed is borrowed from that of the fe...

  5. Generalized Fourier transforms classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Svend; Møller, Steen

    2002-01-01

    The Fourier class of integral transforms with kernels $B(\\omega r)$ has by definition inverse transforms with kernel $B(-\\omega r)$. The space of such transforms is explicitly constructed. A slightly more general class of generalized Fourier transforms are introduced. From the general theory foll...... follows that integral transform with kernels which are products of a Bessel and a Hankel function or which is of a certain general hypergeometric type have inverse transforms of the same structure....

  6. Clinical fMRI of language function in aphasic patients: Reading paradigm successful, while word generation paradigm fails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engstroem, Maria; Landtblom, Anne-Marie; Ragnehed, Mattias; Lundberg, Peter (Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV), Linkoeping Univ., Linkoeping (Sweden)), e-mail: maria.engstrom@liu.se; Karlsson, Marie; Crone, Marie (Dept. of Clinical and Experimental Medicine/Logopedics, Linkoeping Univ., Linkoeping (Sweden)); Antepohl, Wolfram (Dept. of Clinical and Experimental Medicine/Rehabilitation, Linkoeping Univ., Linkoeping (Sweden))

    2010-07-15

    Background: In fMRI examinations, it is very important to select appropriate paradigms assessing the brain function of interest. In addition, the patients' ability to perform the required cognitive tasks during fMRI must be taken into account. Purpose: To evaluate two language paradigms, word generation and sentence reading for their usefulness in examinations of aphasic patients and to make suggestions for improvements of clinical fMRI. Material and Methods: Five patients with aphasia after stroke or trauma sequelae were examined by fMRI. The patients' language ability was screened by neurolinguistic tests and elementary pre-fMRI language tests. Results: The sentence-reading paradigm succeeded to elicit adequate language-related activation in perilesional areas whereas the word generation paradigm failed. These findings were consistent with results on the behavioral tests in that all patients showed very poor performance in phonemic fluency, but scored well above mean at a reading comprehension task. Conclusion: The sentence-reading paradigm is appropriate to assess language function in this patient group, while the word-generation paradigm seems to be inadequate. In addition, it is crucial to use elementary pre-fMRI language tests to guide the fMRI paradigm decision.

  7. Clinical fMRI of language function in aphasic patients: Reading paradigm successful, while word generation paradigm fails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: In fMRI examinations, it is very important to select appropriate paradigms assessing the brain function of interest. In addition, the patients' ability to perform the required cognitive tasks during fMRI must be taken into account. Purpose: To evaluate two language paradigms, word generation and sentence reading for their usefulness in examinations of aphasic patients and to make suggestions for improvements of clinical fMRI. Material and Methods: Five patients with aphasia after stroke or trauma sequelae were examined by fMRI. The patients' language ability was screened by neurolinguistic tests and elementary pre-fMRI language tests. Results: The sentence-reading paradigm succeeded to elicit adequate language-related activation in perilesional areas whereas the word generation paradigm failed. These findings were consistent with results on the behavioral tests in that all patients showed very poor performance in phonemic fluency, but scored well above mean at a reading comprehension task. Conclusion: The sentence-reading paradigm is appropriate to assess language function in this patient group, while the word-generation paradigm seems to be inadequate. In addition, it is crucial to use elementary pre-fMRI language tests to guide the fMRI paradigm decision.

  8. Testing New Programming Paradigms with NAS Parallel Benchmarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, H.; Frumkin, M.; Schultz, M.; Yan, J.

    2000-01-01

    Over the past decade, high performance computing has evolved rapidly, not only in hardware architectures but also with increasing complexity of real applications. Technologies have been developing to aim at scaling up to thousands of processors on both distributed and shared memory systems. Development of parallel programs on these computers is always a challenging task. Today, writing parallel programs with message passing (e.g. MPI) is the most popular way of achieving scalability and high performance. However, writing message passing programs is difficult and error prone. Recent years new effort has been made in defining new parallel programming paradigms. The best examples are: HPF (based on data parallelism) and OpenMP (based on shared memory parallelism). Both provide simple and clear extensions to sequential programs, thus greatly simplify the tedious tasks encountered in writing message passing programs. HPF is independent of memory hierarchy, however, due to the immaturity of compiler technology its performance is still questionable. Although use of parallel compiler directives is not new, OpenMP offers a portable solution in the shared-memory domain. Another important development involves the tremendous progress in the internet and its associated technology. Although still in its infancy, Java promisses portability in a heterogeneous environment and offers possibility to "compile once and run anywhere." In light of testing these new technologies, we implemented new parallel versions of the NAS Parallel Benchmarks (NPBs) with HPF and OpenMP directives, and extended the work with Java and Java-threads. The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of alternative programming paradigms. NPBs consist of five kernels and three simulated applications that mimic the computation and data movement of large scale computational fluid dynamics (CFD) applications. We started with the serial version included in NPB2.3. Optimization of memory and cache usage

  9. The New Environmental Paradigm and Further Scale Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noe, Francis P.; Snow, Rob

    1990-01-01

    Examined were the responses of park visitors to the New Environmental Paradigm scale. Research methods, and results including reliabilities and factor analysis of the scales on the survey are discussed. (CW)

  10. Energy aware paradigm for energy efficient ICT: a systemic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ricciardi, Sergio; Careglio, Davide; Santos Boada, Germán; Solé Pareta, Josep

    2010-01-01

    In this work we describe the Energy Aware Paradigm we believe should be adopted for successfully designing and deploying energy efficient ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) based systems. Peer Reviewed

  11. [New Paradigms? Current Trends within National and International Psychotherapy Research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauß, Bernhard

    2015-09-01

    This article is devoted to the question which paradigms currently determine psychotherapy and psychotherapy research, and if there are indicators of paradigm changes in this field. The question of the efficacy and effectiveness (including the effectiveness of a transfer of psychotherapeutic knowledge to service) is specifically focussed as well as the question of the central therapeutic factors and the significance of the person of the therapist. It is argued that there are really some signals of a paradigm switch, with a turn away from controlled outcome research, representing only a minor part of patients in need of psychotherapy, towards a more specific process oriented research, also considering differential effects of the therapist. The most prominent indicator of a paradigm change is reflected by an increasing influence of patient oriented psychotherapy research which - consequently - should also be supported by the insurances as well as the funding organisations. PMID:26308458

  12. Applying universal scaling laws to identify the best molecular design paradigms for third-order nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Perez-Moreno, Javier; Kuzyk, Mark G

    2016-01-01

    The scaling of the fundamental limits of the second hyperpolarizability is used to define the intrinsic second hyperpolarizability, which aids in identifying material classes with ultralarge nonlinear-optical response per unit of molecular size. The intrinsic nonlinear response is a size-independent metric that we apply to comparing classes of molecular homologues, which are made by adding repeat units to extend their lengths. Several new figures of merit are proposed that quantify not only the intrinsic nonlinear response, but also how the second hyperpolarizability increases with size within a molecular class. Scaling types can be classified into sub-scaling, nominal scaling that follows the theory of limits, and super-scaling behavior. Super-scaling homologues that have large intrinsic nonlinearity are the most promising because they efficiently take advantage of increased size. We apply our approach to data in the literature to identify the best super-scaling molecular paradigms and articulate the importa...

  13. Place of great extinctions in the new ecological paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Кипоренко, О. Я.; У даний час не працює; Шабалтас, Г. Б.; Гімназія №178; Сокольський, Т. Г.; Гімназія №178

    2013-01-01

    The paper demonstrates importance of the knowledge of the causes and consequences of the Great extinctions that occurred before the origin of man, in the formation of a new environmental paradigm. Were described methodological foundations of paleoecological studies. Were analyzed the fossilized remains found directly by the authors on the territory of Ukraine. In the development of new environmental paradigm is necessary to consider knowledge of the great extinction (the knowledge of the pas...

  14. Comunication: the Paradigms of symmetry, antisymmetry anda asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winfried Nöth

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines how the process of communication is represented (a in the etymology of the conceptof communication, (b in everyday metaphors of communication, and (c in 20th century theories andmodels of communication. These reflect this paradox in three different scenarios: the paradigms ofsymmetry, antisymmetry and asymmetry. The dead end into which communication theory is led by theproponents of the latter paradigm is contrasted with some solutions offered by Charles S. Peirce’scommunication theory.

  15. The new concepts of development of the dynamic structuralism paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Mauricio Alejandro Cervigni **; Florencia Stelzer; Gustavo Ziraldo; Mariano Estanislao Bruno

    2012-01-01

    The main goal of this article is to make a critical review about the classical structuralist paradigm of cognitive development. Given this goal, we firstly analyze some of the core concepts of this paradigm, mainly those ones that suggest certain “stillness” when they try to explain the development of psychological functions. Secondly, we propose an alternative approach based on Kurt Fischer cognitive model of development, as long as we consider it an example of the dynamic development perspe...

  16. Perspective Shifts in Marketing: Toward a Paradigm Change?

    OpenAIRE

    Gaetano M. Golinelli; Sergio Barile; Marialuisa Saviano; Francesco Polese

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this contribution is to discuss the evolution of marketing, arguing whether it is accomplishing a paradigm change. Starting from previous definitions of paradigm, we adopt the viable systems approach ( v S a ) as a general interpretation key useful for interpreting the evolution of marketing over the last few decades. Through the lens of the v S a structure-system approach, which suggests distinguishing between a structure-based view and a systems-based view, we discuss the contrib...

  17. On the power of the basic algorithmic design paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Sashka Tchameva

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation formalizes the intuitive notion of the basic algorithmic paradigms. We present three formal models which aim to capture the intrinsic power of greedy, backtracking and dynamic programming algorithms. We develop lower bound techniques for proving negative results for all algorithms in all models, which allow us to make strong statements about the limitations of each paradigm. Borodin et al. (2003) designed the Priority algorithms, a formal model of greedy algorithms for sched...

  18. Sustainable intensification: A new paradigm for African agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    The Montpellier Panel

    2013-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa faces a rapid population growth that drives food demand and scarcity together with scarcity in natural resources such as land, water, and soil fertility. This Montpellier Panel report identifies the paradigm of sustainable intensification as a framework to address both of these issues. It provides a comprehensive overview of the sustainable intensification paradigm, which seeks to utilize existing land to maximize yields, incomes, and nutrition while minimizing negative ext...

  19. Modeling Paradigms Applied to the Analysis of European Air Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Makowski, M.

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents an overview of various modeling paradigms applicable to the analysis of complex decision-making that can be represented by large non-linear models. Such paradigms are illustrated by their application to the analysis of a model that helps to identify and analyze various cost-effective policy options aimed at improving European air quality. Also presented is the application of this model to support intergovernmental negotiations.

  20. Flipping the paradigm on malaria transmission-blocking vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Dinglasan, Rhoel R.; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo

    2008-01-01

    The idea of malaria transmission-blocking vaccines (TBVs) surfaced more than two decades ago. Since then, the research paradigm focused on developing TBVs that target surface antigens of parasite sexual stages. Only recently has an effort emerged that flipped this paradigm, targeting antigens of the parasite’s obligate invertebrate vector, the Anopheles mosquito. Here, we review the current state of knowledge of mosquito-based TBVs and discuss the utility of this approach for future vaccine d...

  1. Haptic BCI Paradigm based on Somatosensory Evoked Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Rutkowski, Tomasz M.; Mori, Hiromu; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Cai, Zhenyu; Chang, Moonjeong; Nishikawa, Nozomu; Makino, Shoji; Mori, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    A new concept and an online prototype of haptic BCI paradigm are presented. Our main goal is to develop a new, alternative and low cost paradigm, with open-source hardware and software components. We also report results obtained with the novel dry EEG electrodes based signal acquisition system by g.tec, which further improves experimental comfort. We address the following points: a novel application of the BCI; a new methodological approach used compared to earlier projects; a new benefit for...

  2. Extended Informatics Paradigm in Biological and Psychological Education

    OpenAIRE

    Dobilas KIRVELIS; Kastytis BEITAS

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work is to present extended informatics paradigm (EIP). This paradigm expands concept of informatics from traditional information and communication technologies (ICT) to a wide use of informational thinking, databases and related technologies in biology and psychology. The essential difference of EIP is an especial attention to nature and purpose of information in organized biological and/or psychological systems. Information as a phenomenon appeared on the Earth 3-4 billion y...

  3. Ageing, oxidative stress and cancer: paradigms in parallax

    OpenAIRE

    Benz, Christopher C.; Yau, Christina

    2008-01-01

    Two paradigms central to geroscience research are that aging is associated with increased oxidative stress and increased cancer risk. Therefore, it could be deduced that cancers arising with ageing will show evidence of increased oxidative stress. Recent studies of gene expression in age-controlled breast cancer cases indicate that this deduction is false, posing parallax views of these two paradigms, and highlighting the unanswered question: does ageing cause or simply permit cancer developm...

  4. Artificial Emotion Engine Benchmark Problem Based on Psychological Test Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Yi; Wang Zhi-liang

    2013-01-01

    Most of testing and evaluations of emotion model in the field of affective computing are self-evaluation, which aims at the application-specific background, while the research on the problem of the Benchmark emotional model is scarce. This paper firstly proposed the feasibility of making psychological test paradigm a part of artificial Benchmark engine, and with taking versatility and effectiveness as the evolutional factor to judge the engine by testing psychological paradigms. In addition, ...

  5. Realizing a new paradigm in radiation therapy treatment planning

    OpenAIRE

    Ziegenhein, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This thesis investigates the feasibility of a new IMRT planning paradigm called Interactive Dose Shaping (IDS). The IDS paradigm enables the therapist to directly impose local dose features into the therapy plan. In contrast to the conventional IMRT planning approach, IDS does not employ an objective function to drive an iterative optimization procedure. In the first part of this work, the conventional IMRT plan optimization method is investigated. Concepts for a near-optimal i...

  6. Time perception: paradigms, methods, target duration and individual differences

    OpenAIRE

    McFarlane, Henriett A

    2008-01-01

    The present study assessed the role of the time judgement paradigms of prospective and retrospective durations, the length of durations and the effects of the states of mood and arousal in time perception. The role of the biological variable of circadian types was also assessed. Long target durations were judged as shorter than whereas short target durations were judged as longer. Duration judgement paradigms did not affect perception of time and neither did mood and circa...

  7. Critical evaluation of paradigms for modelling integrated supply chains

    OpenAIRE

    Van Dam, K.H.; Adhitya, A.; Srinivasan, R.; Lukszo, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Contemporary problems in process systems engineering often require model-based decision support tool. Among the various modelling paradigms, equation-based models and agent-based models are widely used to develop dynamic models of systems. Which is the most appropriate modelling paradigm for a supply chain? In this paper, we seek to address this important question through a well-structured benchmarking process. First, we demonstrate that in the space of models, 'equations' and 'agents' are co...

  8. Linguistic Diversity, Global Paradigms and Taken-for-Grantedness

    OpenAIRE

    Martel, Angéline

    2004-01-01

    In the first part of this paper taken-for-granted hypotheses in linguistic diversity are presented. In the second part the two constellations of globalized ideologies are described constituting paradigms that these hypotheses illustrate: competition and solidarity. In the third part, a condensed version of emerging globalized concerns is given. Sociolinguistics and anthropological linguistics are disciplines that increasingly theorize and analyze within the solidarity paradigm....

  9. New radiobiological, radiation risk and radiation protection paradigms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-standing conventional paradigm for radiobiology has formed a logical basis for the standard paradigm for radiation risk of cancer and heritable effects and, from these paradigms, has developed the internationally applied system for radiation protection, but with many simplifications, assumptions and generalizations. A variety of additional radiobiological phenomena that do not conform to the standard paradigm for radiobiology may have potential implications for radiation risk and radiation protection. It is suggested, however, that the current state of knowledge is still insufficient for these phenomena, individually or collectively, to be formulated systematically into a new paradigm for radiobiology. Additionally, there is at present lack of direct evidence of their relevance to risk for human health, despite attractive hypotheses as to how they might be involved. Finally, it remains to be shown how incorporation of such phenomena into the paradigm for radiation protection would provide sufficient added value to offset disruption to the present widely applied system. Further research should aim for better mechanistic understanding of processes such as radiation-induced genomic instability (for all radiation types) and bystander effects (particularly for low-fluence high-LET particles) and also priority should be given to confirmation, or negation, of the relevance of the processes to human health risks from radiation.

  10. A knowledge-centered paradigm for operations and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A paradigm premised on the reactor design basis and on its systems, structures, and components also governs nuclear power plant operations. This machine-centered paradigm emphasizes a functional and discipline-based division of responsibilities, which can create hierarchical 'silos' and 'stovepipes' inhibiting the development and lateral exchange of knowledge about safety-critical system interactions. A knowledge-centered paradigm instead encourages the timely development, analysis, and exchange of information about system conditions and their likely consequences. This new paradigm puts operational focus on the importance of operating experience, informative root cause analyses, effective corrective actions, and cross-discipline exchange and cooperation. Although the knowledge-centered paradigm is already central to three main strategies of risk reduction, it is less likely to be recognized as such in terms of priorities, resources, and training: configuration control, control room operations, and root cause analysis. To maintain the capacity for safe shutdown and to preserve public trust, the knowledge-centered paradigm places as high a priority on interactions of safety-critical knowledge as it does on interactions of safety-critical systems, structures, and components. (author)

  11. Marketing in contemporary world: situational vs. postmodern paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Kesić

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper points to the need for understanding consumer behavior and a variety of factors that influence consumer behavior, which is explained through situational and postmodern paradigms. The situational paradigm is based on the concept of impulse buying and focuses on the situational factors as dominant consumer behavior motivators, underlining the importance of external factors. On the other hand, this paper also underlines the inevitable existence of the postmodern paradigm which has its roots in hyperreality, fragmentation, a change in the roles of production and consumption and consumer decentralization. It stresses the need for reconsidering various factor categories that model consumer behavior, instead of relying on any single category. Consumer behavior is analyzed through the postmodern paradigm that includes customization, allowing the consumer to shape marketing elements and adjust them to his needs so that he becomes an active participant and an experience producer. Considering consumer behavior as a little known marketing field leads to the conclusion that it rests on both these paradigms, even though they are contradictory. Such a contradiction lays the foundation for an integrated exploration of consumer behavior with no exclusion of either paradigm, one that will accept various influences forming the backbone of the postmodern era, and of marketing in the contemporary world.

  12. New working paradigms in research laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keighley, Wilma; Sewing, Andreas

    2009-07-01

    Work in research laboratories, especially within centralised functions in larger organisations, is changing fast. With easier access to external providers and Contract Research Organisations, and a focus on budgets and benchmarking, scientific expertise has to be complemented with operational excellence. New concepts, globally shared projects and restricted resources highlight the constraints of traditional operating models working from Monday to Friday and nine to five. Whilst many of our scientists welcome this new challenge, organisations have to enable and foster a more business-like mindset. Organisational structures, remuneration, as well as systems in finance need to be adapted to build operations that are best-in-class rather than merely minimising negative impacts of current organisational structures. PMID:19477291

  13. theories of class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaiotto, Davide; Razamat, Shlomo S.

    2015-07-01

    We construct classes of superconformal theories elements of which are labeled by punctured Riemann surfaces. Degenerations of the surfaces correspond, in some cases, to weak coupling limits. Different classes are labeled by two integers ( N, k). The k = 1 case coincides with A N - 1 theories of class and simple examples of theories with k > 1 are orbifolds of some of the A N - 1 class theories. For the space of theories to be complete in an appropriate sense we find it necessary to conjecture existence of new strongly coupled SCFTs. These SCFTs when coupled to additional matter can be related by dualities to gauge theories. We discuss in detail the A 1 case with k = 2 using the supersymmetric index as our analysis tool. The index of theories in classes with k > 1 can be constructed using eigenfunctions of elliptic quantum mechanical models generalizing the Ruijsenaars-Schneider integrable model. When the elliptic curve of the model degenerates these eigenfunctions become polynomials with coefficients being algebraic expressions in fugacities, generalizing the Macdonald polynomials with rational coefficients appearing when k = 1.

  14. Does class attendance still matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Abel Nyamapfene

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the impact of class attendance on academic performance in a second year Electronics Engineering course module with online notes and no mandatory class attendance policy. The study shows that class attendance is highly correlated to academic performance, despite the availability of online class notes. In addition, there is significant correlation between class attendance and non-class contact with the lecturer and between student performance in the first year of ...

  15. Translation in ESL Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy Imola Katalin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of translation in foreign language classes cannot be dealt with unless we attempt to make an overview of what translation meant for language teaching in different periods of language pedagogy. From the translation-oriented grammar-translation method through the complete ban on translation and mother tongue during the times of the audio-lingual approaches, we have come today to reconsider the role and status of translation in ESL classes. This article attempts to advocate for translation as a useful ESL class activity, which can completely fulfil the requirements of communicativeness. We also attempt to identify some activities and games, which rely on translation in some books published in the 1990s and the 2000s.

  16. BIO 315 Complete Class

    OpenAIRE

    admn

    2015-01-01

    BIO 315 Complete Class Check this A+ tutorial guideline at   http://www.assignmentcloud.com/BIO-315/BIO-315-Complete-Class BIO 315 Week 1 DQ 1 BIO 315 Week 1 DQ 2 BIO 315 Week 1 Individual Assignment Beren Robinson Field Study Paper BIO 315 Week 2 DQ 1 BIO 315 Week 2 DQ 2 BIO 315 Week 2 DQ 3 BIO 315 Week 2 Individual Assignment Environment Resources and Competition BIO 315 Week 2 Week Two Learning Team Exercises BIO 315 Week 3 DQ 1 BIO ...

  17. Class actions in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Raimundo, Maria Carlos Miranda

    2013-01-01

    Even eighteen years after the implementation of Law 83/95, of August 31, about the rights of participation in class action litigation in Portugal, there is no sufficient evidence of its applicability. Contrarily to what is observed in other countries as the United States and Brazil it seems that in Portugal, there is no interest of the several parties that would be involved in a class action litigation to obtain information or inform other parties relatively to the main procedures on it and t...

  18. An "expanded" class perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steur, Luisa Johanna

    2014-01-01

    Adivasis against their age-old colonization or the work of ‘external’ agitators. Capitalist restructuring and ‘globalization’ was generally seen as simply the latest chapter in the suffering of these Adivasis. Little focused attention was paid to the recent class trajectory of their lives under changing...... analysis, as elaborated in Marxian anthropology, this article provides an alternative to the liberal-culturalist explanation of indigenism in Kerala, arguing instead that contemporary class processes—as experienced close to the skin by the people who decided to participate in the Muthanga struggle...

  19. Talking Class in Tehroon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian; Rezakhani, Khodadad

    2016-01-01

    Persian, like any other language, is laced with references to class, both blatant and subtle. With idioms and metaphors, Iranians can identify and situate others, and thus themselves, within hierarchies of social status and privilege, both real and imagined. Some class-related terms can be traced...... back to medieval times, whereas others are of modern vintage, the linguistic legacy of television shows, pop songs, social media memes or street vernacular. Every day, it seems, an infectious set of phrases appears that make yesterday’s seem embarrassingly antiquated....

  20. Residues of Chern classes

    OpenAIRE

    Suwa, Tatsuo; 諏訪, 立雄

    2003-01-01

    If we have a finite number of sections of a complex vector bundle E over a manifold M, certain Chern classes of E are localized at the singular set S, i.e., the set of points where the sections fail to be linearly independent. When S is compact, the localizations define the residues at each connected component of S by the Alexander duality. If M itself is compact, the sum of the residues is equal to the Poincaré dual of the corresponding Chern class. This type of theory is also developed for ...

  1. Residues of Chern classes

    OpenAIRE

    Suwa, Tatsuo

    2003-01-01

    If we have a finite number of sections of a complex vector bundle $E$ over a manifold $M$ , certain Chern classes of $E$ are localized at the singular set $S$ , i.e., the set of points where the sections fail to be linearly independent. When $S$ is compact, the localizations define the residues at each connected component of $S$ by the Alexander duality. If $M$ itself is compact, the sum of the residues is equal to the Poincaré dual of the corresponding Chern class. This type of theory is als...

  2. TIPS (trigger an IIF paradigm shift)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Challenge: New Mexico Corporate Services (NMCS) recordable injuries have been averaging 2-4 per year for the last 5 years with no statistical improvement. However, we believe all NM employees must go home incident and injury free every day and just as healthy as they came to work. In addition, we have received feedback from several sources, that indicates some employees are reluctant to report injuries. These indicators showed us that continuing our current strategies, making incremental improvement and changes, would not give us the improvement desired. We needed a paradigm shift to get everyone completely engaged in the IIF (Incident and Injury Free) culture, in order to achieve true IIF results. Methods/Strategies: We formed a small (3-person) taskforce consisting of safety representatives from EHS, Site Services and CS Operations. We reviewed 5 years worth of data to determine what was injuring our people. We also decided to review all injuries, not simply those classified as recordable by OSHA standards. First we identified the types of injury information needed to get a true picture of our safety issues. We analyzed IRB (Incident Review Board) data showing us the following factors and whether any of them contributed to the injury: - Date - Incident Description - Severity - Root Cause - Type of Injury - Season - Work Group/Shift - Area - Improper evaluation of hazard - Inadequate work procedures - Incorrect Mental Model - Inadequate PPE Requirement - Failure to Follow or Unaware of PPE Requirement - Shortcut or Schedule Pressure - Last or First Day of Shift or Adjacent to Holiday - OT - Aggravate Existing Condition - Inadequate Training or Passdown - Experience in Task - Corrective Action Taken - Overall Quality of Response. Once this information was collected for all injuries in an Excel file, we graphed it several ways to help reveal trends: - Shift 7 had double the injuries of shift 5 - Night shift injuries were relatively high but lower than Shift 7 -Shift

  3. Ethics in dermatology: toward a new paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Martín, S; Galera-Martin, C; Guerra-Tapia, A

    2013-01-01

    Medical ethics have evolved over time, and ethical responsibilities have often been shared by priests, the governing classes, and physicians. The emergence of scientific medicine led to the separation of functions, yet physicians have nonetheless continued to enjoy an extraordinary degree of moral authority and great social privilege. From this starting point, professional medical ethics developed as a specific moral system based on special rights and duties (paternalism and medical confidentiality). Various historical events brought this longstanding situation to a point of crisis toward the middle of the 20th century, and for several decades since, medical ethics have been based on freedom of choice for the patient with regard to decisions about his or her own body and health. Recent developments have created a new, still poorly defined model that takes into consideration such matters as euthanasia, abortion, provision of information on the benefits and harm of treatments, the sharing of therapeutic decision-making with the patient and/or family members, the choice of public or private medical providers, therapeutic guidelines, and the extension of the scope of practice to include preventive measures and cosmetic procedures. What is needed now is a new ethical system for plural societies that harbor different religions, beliefs and lifestyles, but that is also rational, universal and subject to ongoing revision-a system always striving for scientific, technical and moral excellence. Such an ethical system would have to be taught in medical schools, as it would need to bear fruit beyond mere good intentions. PMID:22944290

  4. Effects of Ordering Strategies and Programming Paradigms on Sparse Matrix Computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliker, Leonid; Li, Xiaoye; Husbands, Parry; Biswas, Rupak; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Conjugate Gradient (CG) algorithm is perhaps the best-known iterative technique to solve sparse linear systems that are symmetric and positive definite. For systems that are ill-conditioned, it is often necessary to use a preconditioning technique. In this paper, we investigate the effects of various ordering and partitioning strategies on the performance of parallel CG and ILU(O) preconditioned CG (PCG) using different programming paradigms and architectures. Results show that for this class of applications: ordering significantly improves overall performance on both distributed and distributed shared-memory systems, that cache reuse may be more important than reducing communication, that it is possible to achieve message-passing performance using shared-memory constructs through careful data ordering and distribution, and that a hybrid MPI+OpenMP paradigm increases programming complexity with little performance gains. A implementation of CG on the Cray MTA does not require special ordering or partitioning to obtain high efficiency and scalability, giving it a distinct advantage for adaptive applications; however, it shows limited scalability for PCG due to a lack of thread level parallelism.

  5. Teaching Very Large Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRogatis, Amy; Honerkamp, Kenneth; McDaniel, Justin; Medine, Carolyn; Nyitray, Vivian-Lee; Pearson, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The editor of "Teaching Theology and Religion" facilitated this reflective conversation with five teachers who have extensive experience and success teaching extremely large classes (150 students or more). In the course of the conversation these professors exchange and analyze the effectiveness of several active learning strategies they…

  6. Reference class forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    Underbudgettering og budgetoverskridelser forekommer i et flertal af større bygge- og anlægsprojekter. Problemet skyldes optimisme og/eller strategisk misinformation i budgetteringsprocessen. Reference class forecasting (RCF) er en prognosemetode, som er udviklet for at reducere eller eliminere...

  7. Fostering a Middle Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Though there is no official definition of "middle class" in China, the tag has become one few Chinese people believe they deserve anyway.In early August, the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences released a report on China’s urban development,

  8. Second class weak currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The definition and general properties of weak second class currents are recalled and various detection possibilities briefly reviewed. It is shown that the existing data on nuclear beta decay can be consistently analysed in terms of a phenomenological model. Their implication on the fundamental structure of weak interactions is discussed

  9. Class Actions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2009-01-01

    The article deals with the relatively new Danish Act on Class Action (Danish: gruppesøgsmål) which was suggested by The Permanent Council on Civil procedure (Retsplejerådet) of which the article's author is a member. The operability of the new provisions is illustrated through some wellknown Danish...

  10. Adeus à classe trabalhadora?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoff Eley

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available No início da década de 1980, a política centrada em classes da tradição socialista estava em crise, e comentadores importantes adotaram tons apocalípticos. No final da década, a esquerda permanecia profundamente dividida entre os advogados da mudança e os defensores da fé. Em meados dos anos 1990, os primeiros tinham, de modo geral, ganhado a batalha. O artigo busca apresentar essa mudança contemporânea não como a 'morte da classe', mas como o desa­parecimento de um tipo particular de ­sociedade de classes, marcado pelo ­processo de formação da classe trabalhadora entre os anos 1880 e 1940 e pelo alinhamento político daí resultante, atingindo seu apogeu na construção social-democrata do acordo do pós-guerra. Quando mudanças de longo prazo na economia se combinaram com o ataque ao keynesianismo na política de recessão a partir de meados da década de 1970, a unidade da classe trabalhadora deixou de estar disponível da forma antiga e bastante utilizada, como o terreno natural da política de esquerda. Enquanto uma coletividade dominante da classe trabalhadora entrou em declínio, outra se corporificou de modo lento e desigual para tomar o lugar daquela. Mas a unidade operacional dessa nova agregação da classe trabalhadora ainda está, em grande parte, em formação. Para recuperar a eficácia política da tradição socialista, alguma nova visão de agência política coletiva será necessária, uma visão imaginativamente ajustada às condições emergentes da produção e acumulação capitalista no início do século XXI.

  11. Brain Based Teaching Model as Transformation of Learning Paradigm in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfani Sesmiarni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain -based teaching model is a new paradigm that can facilitate students in optimizing student learning by the functioning the brain as a whole. Lessons are held today assume that all students equally so that learning provide the same services to each student in the class. With this model, the students are given different stimulation according to their abilities and needs. Base on brain learning theory -based teaching, the learning should pay attention to the five needs of the brain in general. The fifth factor is the need for a sense of comfort, the need for interaction, the need for knowledge, the need for the activity and the need for self-reflection. All these needs will be connected if the lecturers able to present emotional learning, social learning, cognitive learning, physical learning and teaching reflection. Key Word : Instrucetional, Brain Based teaching, Learning.Copyright © 2015 by Al-Ta'lim All right reserved

  12. Parallel Conjugate Gradient: Effects of Ordering Strategies, Programming Paradigms, and Architectural Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliker, Leonid; Heber, Gerd; Biswas, Rupak

    2000-01-01

    The Conjugate Gradient (CG) algorithm is perhaps the best-known iterative technique to solve sparse linear systems that are symmetric and positive definite. A sparse matrix-vector multiply (SPMV) usually accounts for most of the floating-point operations within a CG iteration. In this paper, we investigate the effects of various ordering and partitioning strategies on the performance of parallel CG and SPMV using different programming paradigms and architectures. Results show that for this class of applications, ordering significantly improves overall performance, that cache reuse may be more important than reducing communication, and that it is possible to achieve message passing performance using shared memory constructs through careful data ordering and distribution. However, a multi-threaded implementation of CG on the Tera MTA does not require special ordering or partitioning to obtain high efficiency and scalability.

  13. Uncorking the Future: Transitions to a New Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Jacobs

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article explores issues discussed at three recent WAAS events regarding the process of transition to a new paradigm. The prominent institutions and policies governing the present paradigm are founded upon a bedrock of ideas and values and an abstract, reductionistic mode of analytic thinking detached from people and social reality. Escape from the present blind alley and transition to a new paradigm require adoption of a different way of thinking that is human-centered, value-based, inclusive and synthetic. The multidimensional challenges confronting humanity today are the consequence of precious opportunities missed at the end of the Cold War. At the same time the awareness and energy released by these challenges has the potential for converting current challenges into unprecedented opportunities for progress at the global level. The outcome depends on our capacity to discover the complementarity underlying apparently contradictory, opposite viewpoints. Multi-culturalism is at once the source of intense frictions and conflict and the rich genetic potential from which a new paradigm can emerge. A new paradigm requires a deeper understanding of the cultural underpinnings of democracy, a rational examination of the sacred cow of national sovereignty, and explicit recognition of the social responsibility of science for the consequences of scientific discovery and technological innovation. Leadership will play a crucial role in determining the outcome – intellectual leadership at the level of ideas, scientific leadership that exhibits consciousness responsibility, transformational leadership at the level of international institutions and nation-states.

  14. SCKE:Combining Logic— with Object Oriented Paradigm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金芝; 胡守仁

    1993-01-01

    A new implementation(SCKE-Structured Communication Knowledge Entity)has been proposed towards combining the logic with the object-oriented paradigm of computing.It is intended to explore the advatnages in these two paradigms in a structured,natural and efficient manner for large-scale knowledge processing.The SCKE model supports modularity and protection for the structured development of knowledge systems.It also introduces the concepts that are typical for the object-oriented systems in the logic-oriented paradigm,without losing its advantages as a declarative language.Various inheritance hierarchies are supported in the SCKE model.They provide the semantics basis basis for various knowledge in AI systems.The M-entity/K-entity/Instance inberitance captures the relationship among the control,procedural and factural knowledge in AI systems.And ,the super-entity/entity/instance inheritance shows the concepts of data abstraction in the knowledge of a particular domain.In addition,the SCKE model is not simply supported on top of Prolog like other attempts to integrate the object-into the logic-oriented paradigm.The SCKE model is a tightly coupled model of the logic and the object-oriented paradigm and its interpreter uniformly interprets the logic semantics and the object-oriented semantics.

  15. The Paradigm of Critical Realism: Approach to an Interdisciplinary Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Tavana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The debate of method of recognition in humanities, social and nature science is one of the apprehensions of Scientists in Wisdom Domain –especially in the modern world. This apprehension, before all things was of appearing in the paradigm of methodoligical between the advocates of the paradigms of positivism with having a share of the natural science. They used to values of naturalism in social and human studies. Additionally, testing and observation and repetition are present as the main terms of recognition. In front, the difference between human studies and natural science is important for the advocates of hermeneutic paradigm. Also, they speak about the methodology of interpretation (understanding of human and social phenomenon. But, in the second half of 20th century another paradigms was established as the Critical realism. This paradigm is tried to parther from the methodoloigcal binary and has a share from the recognition of ontological positivism and epistemological hermeneutics attain to a procedure of interdisciplinary about recognition. So, on the basis of this subject, this article mentioned this question that: would the critical realism receive as the methodology in interdisciplinary? Method of the Article is postulate. This article reasoned that multilayer ontology and epistemology redounded to multilayer methodology that could build up the knowledge of interdisciplinary.

  16. e-Science Paradigm for Astroparticle Physics at KISTI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kihyeon

    2016-03-01

    The Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information (KISTI) has been studying the e-Science paradigm. With its successful application to particle physics, we consider the application of the paradigm to astroparticle physics. The Standard Model of particle physics is still not considered perfect even though the Higgs boson has recently been discovered. Astrophysical evidence shows that dark matter exists in the universe, hinting at new physics beyond the Standard Model. Therefore, there are efforts to search for dark matter candidates using direct detection, indirect detection, and collider detection. There are also efforts to build theoretical models for dark matter. Current astroparticle physics involves big investments in theories and computing along with experiments. The complexity of such an area of research is explained within the framework of the e-Science paradigm. The idea of the e-Science paradigm is to unify experiment, theory, and computing. The purpose is to study astroparticle physics anytime and anywhere. In this paper, an example of the application of the paradigm to astrophysics is presented.

  17. Disability, disparate impact, and class actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Michael Ashley; Waterstone, Michael E

    2006-12-01

    Following Title VII's enactment, group-based employment discrimination actions flourished due to disparate impact theory and the class action device. Courts recognized that subordination that defined a group's social identity was also sufficient legally to bind members together, even when relief had to be issued individually. Woven through these cases was a notion of panethnicity that united inherently unrelated groups into a common identity, for example, Asian Americans. Stringent judicial interpretation subsequently eroded both legal frameworks and it has become increasingly difficult to assert collective employment actions, even against discriminatory practices affecting an entire group. This deconstruction has immensely disadvantaged persons with disabilities. Under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), individual employee claims to accommodate specific impairments, such as whether to install ramps or replace computer screens, have all but eclipsed a coherent theory of disability-based disparate impact law. Moreover, the class action device has been virtually nonexistent in disability discrimination employment cases. The absence of collective action has been especially harmful because the realm of the workplace is precisely where group-based remedies are needed most. Specifically, a crucial but overlooked issue in disability integration is the harder-to-reach embedded norms that require job and policy modifications. The Article argues that pandisability theory serves as an analogue to earlier notions of panethnicity and provides an equally compelling heuristic for determining class identity. It shows that pandisability undergirds ADA public service and public accommodation class actions in which individualized remedy assessments have been accepted as part of group-based challenges to social exclusion. The Article also demonstrates that this broader vision of collective action is consistent with the history underlying the class action device. Taking

  18. A new microcomputer software system evaluation paradigm: the medical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokol, P

    1991-08-01

    The new fourth-generation software has enormously eased the burden of computing for users, but they have also created a confusing, difficult problem in software evaluation and selection. Therefore it is argued that a sound and complete evaluation paradigm is a key element in an efficient and effective software system design and use process. While much has been written about software evaluation in general, in the medical field, the guidances and recommendations previously provided are too general to be of practical use. Considering also the other weaknesses of conventional evaluation paradigms we have decided to develop a more adequate one which will have a solid theoretical framework, specific guidances, strict and well-defined taxonomic space, and a fair ranking approach. In the present paper we will therefore introduce our new evaluation paradigm and show its applicability in evaluation and selection of medical software systems according to their usability. PMID:1800598

  19. Investigating true and false confessions within a novel experimental paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russano, Melissa B; Meissner, Christian A; Narchet, Fadia M; Kassin, Saul M

    2005-06-01

    The primary goal of the current study was to develop a novel experimental paradigm with which to study the influence of psychologically based interrogation techniques on the likelihood of true and false confessions. The paradigm involves guilty and innocent participants being accused of intentionally breaking an experimental rule, or "cheating." In the first demonstration of this paradigm, we explored the influence of two common police interrogation tactics: minimization and an explicit offer of leniency, or a "deal." Results indicated that guilty persons were more likely to confess than innocent persons, and that the use of minimization and the offer of a deal increased the rate of both true and false confessions. Police investigators are encouraged to avoid interrogation techniques that imply or directly promise leniency, as they appear to reduce the diagnostic value of any confession that is elicited. PMID:15943675

  20. Paradigms of mangroves in treatment of anthropogenic wastewater pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Xiaoguang; Guo, Fen

    2016-02-15

    Mangroves have been increasingly recognized for treating wastewater from aquaculture, sewage and other sources with the overwhelming urbanization trend. This study clarified the three paradigms of mangroves in disposing wastewater contaminants: natural mangroves, constructed wetlands (including free water surface and subsurface flow) and mangrove-aquaculture coupling systems. Plant uptake is the common major mechanism for nutrient removal in all the paradigms as mangroves are generally nitrogen and phosphorus limited. Besides, sediments accrete and provide substrates for microbial activities, thereby removing organic matter and nutrients from wastewater in natural mangroves and constructed wetlands. Among the paradigms, the mangrove-aquaculture coupling system was determined to be the optimal alternative for aquaculture wastewater treatment by multi-criterion decision making. Sensitivity analysis shows variability of alternative ranking but underpins the coupling system as the most environment-friendly and cost-efficient option. Mangrove restoration is expected to be achievable if aquaculture ponds are planted with mangrove seedlings, creating the coupling system. PMID:26706768

  1. Flexible Word Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Lier, Eva; Rijkhoff, Jan

    2013-01-01

    • First major publication on the phenomenon • Offers cross-linguistic, descriptive, and diverse theoretical approaches • Includes analysis of data from different language families and from lesser studied languages This book is the first major cross-linguistic study of 'flexible words', i.e. words...... that cannot be classified in terms of the traditional lexical categories Verb, Noun, Adjective or Adverb. Flexible words can - without special morphosyntactic marking - serve in functions for which other languages must employ members of two or more of the four traditional, 'specialised' word classes....... Thus, flexible words are underspecified for communicative functions like 'predicating' (verbal function), 'referring' (nominal function) or 'modifying' (a function typically associated with adjectives and e.g. manner adverbs). Even though linguists have been aware of flexible world classes for more...

  2. Ares V: Shifting the Payload Design Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumrall, Phil; Creech, Steve; Cockrell, Charles E.

    2009-01-01

    NASA is designing the Ares V heavy-lift cargo launch vehicle to send more crew and cargo to more places on the lunar surface than the 1960s-era Saturn V and to provide ongoing support for a permanent lunar outpost. This uncrewed cargo vehicle is designed to operate together with the Ares I crew vehicle (Figure 1). In addition to this role, however, its unmatched mass and volume capability represent a national asset for exploration, science, and commerce. The Ares V also enables or significantly enhances a large class of space missions not thought possible by scientists and engineers since the Saturn V program ended over 30 years ago. Compared to current systems, it will offer approximately five times the mass and volume to most orbits and locations. This should allow prospective mission planners to build robust payloads with margins that are three to five times the industry norm. The space inside the planned payload shroud has enough usable volume to launch the volumetric equivalent of approximately 10 Apollo Lunar Modules or approximately five equivalent Hubble Space Telescopes. This mass and volume capability to low-Earth orbit (LEO) enables a host of new scientific and observation platforms, such as telescopes, satellites, planetary and solar missions, as well as being able to provide the lift for future large in-space infrastructure missions, such as space based solar power and mining, Earth asteroid defense, propellant depots, etc. In addition, payload designers may also have the option of simplifying their designs or employing Ares V s payload as dumb mass to reduce technical and operational risk. The Ares V team is engaging the potential payload community now, two to three years before System Requirements Review (SRR), in order to better understand the additional requirements from the payload community that could be accommodated in the Ares V design in its conceptual phase. This paper will discuss the Ares V reference mission and capability, as well as its

  3. Bayesian evidence and predictivity of the inflationary paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubitosi, Giulia; Lagos, Macarena; Magueijo, João; Allison, Rupert

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we consider the issue of paradigm evaluation by applying Bayes' theorem along the following nested hierarchy of progressively more complex structures: i) parameter estimation (within a model), ii) model selection and comparison (within a paradigm), iii) paradigm evaluation. In such a hierarchy the Bayesian evidence works both as the posterior's normalization at a given level and as the likelihood function at the next level up. Whilst raising no objections to the standard application of the procedure at the two lowest levels, we argue that it should receive a considerable modification when evaluating paradigms, when testability and fitting data are equally important. By considering toy models we illustrate how models and paradigms that are difficult to falsify are always favoured by the Bayes factor. We argue that the evidence for a paradigm should not only be high for a given dataset, but exceptional with respect to what it would have been, had the data been different. With this motivation we propose a measure which we term predictivity, as well as a prior to be incorporated into the Bayesian framework, penalising unpredictivity as much as not fitting data. We apply this measure to inflation seen as a whole, and to a scenario where a specific inflationary model is hypothetically deemed as the only one viable as a result of information alien to cosmology (e.g. Solar System gravity experiments, or particle physics input). We conclude that cosmic inflation is currently hard to falsify, but that this could change were external/additional information to cosmology to select one of its many models. We also compare this state of affairs to bimetric varying speed of light cosmology.

  4. Overview of New Paradigms in the Field of Plant Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhia Bouktila

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Paradigm shifts are the core of scientific revolutions. They change how we view the world, the questions that scientists consider worth asking and the manner of doing science. There is often talk of paradigm shifts in reference to a global change of theory, such as the eclipsing of the geocentric by the heliocentric world vision (Copernican theory, the discovery of plate tectonics, the particular theory of heredity (Mendelian theory, or the discovery that DNA is the physical carrier of inheritance. Furthermore, paradigm shifts are used to refer to drastic changes occurring at a narrower scale, and triggering a number of backbone modifications in conceptional systems within the concerned disciplines. Recent biology is passing through a critical cross-road from reductionist concepts and methodologies towards the postgenomic, holistic, systems-based analyses of integrated and communicative networks of life processes. As a fundamental part of biology, plant sciences have been witnessing a number of paradigm shifts that have become evident since the dawn of this 21st century, which I treat here after. Paradigm shifts are the core of scientific revolutions. They change how we view the world, the questions that scientists consider worth asking and the manner of doing science. There is often talk of paradigm shifts in reference to a global change of theory, such as the eclipsing of the geocentric by the heliocentric world vision (Copernican theory, the discovery of plate tectonics, the particular theory of heredity (Mendelian theory, or the discovery that DNA is the physical carrier of inheritance. Furthermore, paradigm shifts are used to refer to drastic changes occurring at a narrower scale, and triggering a number of backbone modifications in conceptional systems within the concerned disciplines. Recent biology is passing through a critical cross-road from reductionist concepts and methodologies towards the postgenomic, holistic, systems

  5. Software engineering frameworks for the cloud computing paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmood, Zaigham

    2013-01-01

    This book presents the latest research on Software Engineering Frameworks for the Cloud Computing Paradigm, drawn from an international selection of researchers and practitioners. The book offers both a discussion of relevant software engineering approaches and practical guidance on enterprise-wide software deployment in the cloud environment, together with real-world case studies. Features: presents the state of the art in software engineering approaches for developing cloud-suitable applications; discusses the impact of the cloud computing paradigm on software engineering; offers guidance an

  6. Rethinking the Research Paradigms for Analyzing Tax Compliance Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    James Alm; Erich Kirchler; Stephan Muehlbacher; Katharina Gangl; Eva Hofmann; Christoph Kogler; Maria Pollai

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we give our perspective on the different paradigms that have shaped – and seem likely to shape in the future – research in the field of tax compliance behavior. These research paradigms include viewing tax evasion as a decision under risk made by a single taxpayer, as a social dilemma in which there is a tension between individual interests (e.g., cheating on one's taxes) and collective goals (e.g., providing public goods), as a series of decisions made by many different typ...

  7. Fingerprints of Primordial Universe Paradigms as Features in Density Perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xingang

    2011-01-01

    Experimentally distinguishing different primordial universe paradigms that lead to the Big Bang model is an outstanding challenge in modern cosmology and astrophysics. We show that a generic type of signals that exist in primordial universe models can be used for such purpose. These signals are induced by tiny oscillations of massive fields and manifest as features in primordial density perturbations. They are capable of recording the time-dependence of the scale factor of the primordial universe, and therefore provide direct evidence for specific paradigm.

  8. Dynamics of systems and change in the accounting paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Juliao Rossi

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this document is to demonstrate the potential of the dynamics of systems as a thinking trend which may help in the understanding process and the construction of an accounting paradigm change. This objective is framed inside a wider purpose: to propase interdisciplinary encounters that contribute to the necessary paradigm change. The described problem is studied from the «System Thinking», which is an approach with theoretical framework and representation and simulation tools related to the tapie.

  9. Communications for alternative development: towards a paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, R

    1984-01-01

    fulfill basic needs, and to preserve cultural deversity. The development process must be politicized and controlled by the people rather than by technocrats and bureaucrats. The role of the state must be reevaluated. After World War II, the state was perceived as having the capacity to liberalize and equalize society. The state has failed to live up to this expectation. Social equality must be established through democratization. Social classes must be redefined, the inablity of the proletariat to absorb the poor must be recognized, and consumerism must be curbed. Communication is the tool which can promote the cause of human survival and human dignity and expose the agenda of the strong forces which, in reality, constitutes a global project to end humanity. This agenda is pursued by scientists and elitists around the world. Their activities and policies will doom mankind to nuclear war, or to violent conflict over resources, or to the destruction of the world's poor. PMID:12313651

  10. Parametri, Variabili e altro: Un ripensamento su come questi concetti sono presentati in classe (Variable Parameters and Other Issues: A Review of How These Concepts Are Presented in Class).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarugi, Ivana; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of variables, in particular parameters, analyzes how these concepts are presented in textbooks, comments on paradigms of exercises in which parameters intervene, and points out difficulties encountered by students. Discusses results of teacher interviews concerning their dealing with parameters in class.…

  11. Class Action and Class Settlement in a European Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2013-01-01

    The article analyses the options for introducing common European rules on class action lawsuits with an opt-out-model in individual cases. An analysis is made of how the risks of misuse of class actions can be prevented. The article considers the Dutch rules on class settlements (the WCAM procedure...

  12. Applying universal scaling laws to identify the best molecular design paradigms for second-order nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Perez-Moreno, Javier; Kuzyk, Mark G

    2016-01-01

    We apply scaling and the theory of the fundamental limits of the second-order molecular susceptibility to identify material classes with ultralarge nonlinear-optical response. Size effects are removed by normalizing all nonlinearities to get intrinsic values so that the scaling behavior of a series of molecular homologues can be determined. Several new figures of merit are proposed that quantify the desirable properties for molecules that can be designed by adding a sequence of repeat units, and used in the assessment of the data. Three molecular classes are found. They are characterized by sub-scaling, nominal scaling, or super-scaling. Super-scaling homologues most efficiently take advantage of increased size. We apply our approach to data currently available in the literature to identify the best super-scaling molecular paradigms with the aim of identifying desirable traits of new materials.

  13. The New Environmental Paradigm Scale: Has It Outlived Its Usefulness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalonde, Roxanne; Jackson, Edgar L.

    2002-01-01

    Reports on a study based on the premise that although it continues to be desirable to chart public attitudes toward the natural environment, the widely-used, 12-item New Environmental Paradigm (NEP) scale is in need of revision if it is to measure the public's more recent and sophisticated understanding of complex environmental issues. (Contains…

  14. Environmental Concerns and the New Environmental Paradigm in Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostrom, Ann; Barke, Richard; Turaga, Rama Mohana R.; O'Connor, Robert E.

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about environmental concerns and attitudes among people in former Soviet bloc countries in Eastern Europe despite widespread perceptions of severe environmental problems. The authors addressed this gap by examining Bulgarians' environmental concerns with a focus on whether the new environmental paradigm (NEP) scale can reliably…

  15. The New Environmental Paradigm Scale: From Marginality to Worldwide Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Riley E.

    2008-01-01

    The New Environmental Paradigm (NEP) Scale, published in "The Journal of Environmental Education" by R. E. Dunlap and K. D. Van Liere (1978), has become the most widely used measure of environmental concern in the world and been employed in hundreds of studies in dozens of nations. This article tells the story of the NEP Scale, beginning with how…

  16. Aesthetic Implications of the New Paradigm in Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simus, Jason Boaz

    2008-01-01

    The new paradigm in ecology emphasizes dynamic change, disturbance, and nonequilibrium in natural systems, and it presents some challenges for contemporary environmental aesthetics, one of which has to do with the thesis known as "scientific cognitivism." Scientific cognitivism holds that appropriate aesthetic appreciation of nature must be…

  17. The Strategic Nature of False Recognition in the DRM Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael B.; Guerin, Scott A.; Wolford, George L.

    2011-01-01

    The false memory effect produced by the Deese/Roediger & McDermott (DRM) paradigm is reportedly impervious to warnings to avoid false alarming to the critical lures (D. A. Gallo, H. L. Roediger III, & K. B. McDermott, 2001). This finding has been used as strong evidence against models that attribute the false alarms to a decision process…

  18. Multi-level programming paradigm for extreme computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to propose a framework and programming paradigms for post peta-scale computing, on the road to exa-scale computing and beyond, we introduced new languages, associated with a hierarchical multi-level programming paradigm, allowing scientific end-users and developers to program highly hierarchical architectures designed for extreme computing. In this paper, we explain the interest of such hierarchical multi-level programming paradigm for extreme computing and its well adaptation to several large computational science applications, such as for linear algebra solvers used for reactor core physic. We describe the YML language and framework allowing describing graphs of parallel components, which may be developed using PGAS-like language such as XMP, scheduled and computed on supercomputers. Then, we propose experimentations on supercomputers (such as the 'K' and 'Hooper' ones) of the hybrid method MERAM (Multiple Explicitly Restarted Arnoldi Method) as a case study for iterative methods manipulating sparse matrices, and the block Gauss-Jordan method as a case study for direct method manipulating dense matrices. We conclude proposing evolutions for this programming paradigm. (authors)

  19. Shifting paradigms of nontuberculous mycobacteria in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Tavs; Pressler, Tania; Høiby, Niels;

    2014-01-01

    Important paradigms of pulmonary disease with nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are currently shifting based on an increasing attention within the field of cystic fibrosis (CF). These shifts are likely to benefit the management of all patients with pulmonary NTM, regardless of underlying pathology...

  20. A Longitudinal analysis of the Porterian paradigm utilization in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Sehnem

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to investigate to what extent Michael Porter's ideas keep attracting the interest of Brazilian researchers vis-à-vis other possibilities. In this research, we conceptualize Porter's paradigm by the the following elements: strategic groups, generic strategies, model of the five forces and value chain. Weanalyzed conferece communications to EnANPAD¿s, from 1998 to 2008, and to 3Es, from 2003to 2007. The results indicate a decline in the use of the porterian paradigm as the main axis of research in strategy. The generic strategies and the model of five forces are the elements of Porter's paradigm most employed, while the concepts of strategic groups and value chain are the ones that received less attention by researchers. The analysis of methodology and purpose of comunications indicates that the "porterian life" in Brazil was characterized by the acritical use of its concepts in order to describe the reality of the strategy in Brazil. There are no evidences of consistent and systematic attempts to test or adapt the porterian paradigm for the Brazilian context. And results indicate no evidences that this trend will be reversed.

  1. TRANSITIONAL PARADIGM AS AN EXPLANATION FOR THE DEMOCRATIZATION PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerti Sqapi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the last quarter of the century, the transitional paradigm (or the approach of the transition has been a dominant paradigm that has greatly influenced different studies on democratization. The purpose of this paper, in a general perspective, is to conduct an analysis of the transitional paradigm, assumptions, key concepts, and hypotheses developed thereof, in order to evaluate the validity or at least be able to understand and explain the processes of democratization wave that affected third world countries.  Development of literature and studies within the conceptual framework of this paradigm was mainly conducted during the period of what is known as “the third wave of democratization.” Explanation and direction of change from autocratic to democratic regimes, evident in those countries affected by the third wave, were the main claim of the transition approach.  This paper attempts to investigate the validity of the conceptual framework of this approach with respect to the interpretation (and change of directions of the democratization processes in these countries.

  2. Academic Performance, School Desertion and Emotional Paradigm in University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Emma Rosa Cruz; Barrientos, Laura Gática; Castro, Patricia Eugenia García; García, Jesús Hernández

    2010-01-01

    The present work aims to describe academic performance, school desertion and the emotional paradigm of the university students of the accounting school of the Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla (FCPBUAP). We have found that low academic performance is related to students' economic deficiency, which affects their concentration on their…

  3. Computational Hydrodynamics: How Portable and Scalable Are Heterogeneous Programming Paradigms?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlak, Wojciech; Glimberg, Stefan Lemvig; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter

    New many-core era applications at the interface of mathematics and computer science adopt modern parallel programming paradigms and expose parallelism through proper algorithms. We present new performance results for a novel massively parallel free surface wave model suitable for advanced...

  4. A New Leadership Paradigm for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodland, Calvin; Parsons, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Leadership in the 21st century will require new insights and a new paradigm. With nearly 100 years of combined experience in community college teaching and administration, the authors of this chapter blend theory and experience into a design for engaging the "new normal."

  5. Governance Paradigms of Public Universities: An International Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Joe

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to develop a conceptual model of the wider influencing forces impacting the governance paradigms of public universities. It draws on the multi-theoretical governance concept and seeks to identify these forces through the lens of chief audit executives using a qualitative research approach. The interview data supported by published…

  6. Innovation Policy Development and the Emergence of New Innovation Paradigms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan; Knudsen, Mette Præst; Bisgaard, Tanja;

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present article is to discuss innovation policy issues related to three emerging innovation paradigms: user-driven innovation, open innovation, and value co-creation. It provides a summary of insights based on innovation policy practices and challenges in Denmark....

  7. Mass Communication and Relative Reality: A Conceptual Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethel, James A.

    Addressed to the alleged state of arrested development in current mass communication research, this paper traces contraditions in research findings to possible flaws in the basic research paradigm. The author's purpose is to stimulate and provoke discussion of the methodological implications for mass communication research in terms of two opposing…

  8. Human Nature and Research Paradigms: Theory Meets Physical Therapy Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plack, Margaret M.

    2005-01-01

    Human nature is a very complex phenomenon. In physical therapy this complexity is enhanced by the need to understand the intersection between the art and science of human behavior and patient care. A paradigm is a set of basic beliefs that represent a worldview, defines the nature of the world and the individual's place in it, and helps to…

  9. Rethinking the paradigm for the development of inhaled drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, John N

    2015-12-30

    Nebulized treatment is an important delivery option for the young, elderly, and those with severe chronic respiratory disease, but there is a lack of new nebulized drug products being produced for these patients, leading to the potential for under-treatment. This communication describes a new drug development paradigm as a timely solution to this issue. Often, drug development is initiated with nebulizers in the early stages, to provide cheaper and faster drug development, and then switched to inhaler devices in later clinical trials to address the majority of patients. However, the waste of resource on parallel development of the inhaler can be large due to the high early attrition rate of new drug development. The new paradigm uses the nebulizer to continue drug development through to market, and initiates inhaler development after completion of the riskier early phase studies. New drug safety and efficacy can be assessed faster and more efficiently by using a nebulized formulation rather than developing an inhaler. The results of calculations of expected net present value showed that the new paradigm produced higher expected net present values than the conventional model over a range of economic scenarios. This new paradigm could therefore provide improved returns on investments, as well as more modern drugs in nebulized form for those patients unable to use inhalers. PMID:26475968

  10. Identity-based marketing : A new balanced marketing paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsem, K.J.; Kostelijk, E.J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to propose a fundamentally new extension of the marketing paradigm. This is theoretically and practically necessary since in the authors' view there is an insufficient balance between customer and brand thinking. Design/methodology/approach - While the marketin

  11. What Philanthropy's Paradigm Shift Means for Higher Ed Fundraising

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCully, George

    2015-01-01

    This is an unprecedented era of human history, in which simultaneous transformations of every technically advanced field are being driven by the powerful technological revolution in information and communications. Technically, these transformative changes are "paradigm shifts"--a distinct kind of historical change in which the governing…

  12. Think globally, research locally: paradigms and place in agroecological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Heather L; Smith, Alex A; Farmer, James R

    2014-10-01

    Conducting science for practical ends implicates scientists, whether they wish it or not, as agents in social-ecological systems, raising ethical, economic, environmental, and political issues. Considering these issues helps scientists to increase the relevance and sustainability of research outcomes. As we rise to the worthy call to connect basic research with food production, scientists have the opportunity to evaluate alternative food production paradigms and consider how our research funds and efforts are best employed. In this contribution, we review some of the problems produced by science conducted in service of industrial agriculture and its associated economic growth paradigm. We discuss whether the new concept of "ecological intensification" can rescue the industrial agriculture/growth paradigm and present an emerging alternative paradigm of decentralized, localized, biodiversity-promoting agriculture for a steady-state economy. This "custom fit" agriculture engages constructively with complex and highly localized ecosystems, and we draw from examples of published work to demonstrate how ecologists can contribute by using approaches that acknowledge local agricultural practices and draw on community participation. PMID:25326612

  13. Changing Paradigms: A Sketch for Sustainable Wellbeing and Ecosocial Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuuli Hirvilammi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We live in the Anthropocene era, where human action has an unforeseen impact on global ecosystems. This is visible, for instance, in climate change, in the loss of biodiversity and in the acidification of the oceans. Little attention is given to the fact that the Anthropocene is related to anthropocentric thinking that also guides our policies. Therefore, we argue that ecologically and socially sustainable policies will not be achieved by incidental policy measures alone, but a change of paradigm is needed. In our article, we lay out the tenets of a relational paradigm resting on holistic thinking and deep ecology. On the basis of this paradigm, the principles, conceptions and goals specific to any given policy can be formulated, giving them a common ground. In this article, we apply the relational paradigm to social policy in order to contribute to the quest for sustainable wellbeing in the overconsuming welfare states. Here, we formulate a multidimensional and relational conception of wellbeing, the HDLB-model (Having-Doing-Loving-Being, which is a modification of sociologist Erik Allardt’s theory. We illustrate how this model could provide the foundation of a sustainable ecosocial policy.

  14. A Paradigm Shift for Educational Administrators: The Total Quality Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, M. J.

    This paper reviews the major ideas of the seminal total quality management theorists, such as Deming, Crosby, Juran, Ishikawa, and Imai, to illustrate how total quality management is applicable to education. It is argued that there is a need for a paradigm shift in educational administration. The first part reviews current Australian societal…

  15. Leveling the Playing Field: The Normed-Opportunity Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Alicia; Cormier, Bret T.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the practices, beliefs, and attitudes of secondary teachers in order to identify factors that led to success for non-dominant-group students. We found a unique paradigm among educators whose students of color and/or poverty showed no achievement gap. Rather than coming from a deficit perspective or one expecting assimilation, those…

  16. Finding a Way out of the Ethnographic Paradigm Jungle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Subhadip; Banerjee, Pratyush

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an attempt has been made to develop a hybrid ethnographic paradigm, taking the best points from the different approaches of ethnographic research. The pioneering proponents of ethnography differed in their conceptualization of the method, resulting in the development of three distinct schools of thought-holistic, semiotic and…

  17. Instructional Design and Technology Grounded in Enactivism: A Paradigm Shift?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Clark, Bruce; Winchester, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Although traditional instructional design and technology (IDT) has largely been based on objectivism, in the past 20 years, constructivism has emerged as a dominant framework for IDT. Both perspectives, however, present shortcomings. This paper explores enactivism--an emerging new philosophical world view--as an alternative paradigm. It also…

  18. Developing Cultural Understanding: The Culture Triangle Paradigm in FCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Deborah A.; Schmidt-Rinehart, Barbara C.; Morris, Nancy A.

    2011-01-01

    Academic institutions as well as professional organizations are faced with providing their constituents with the knowledge and tools that will enable them to interact with people of other cultures--to be global citizens in both their personal and professional lives. The foreign language profession developed a paradigm that has been effectively…

  19. A movement ecology paradigm for unifying organismal movement research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Ran; Getz, Wayne M; Revilla, Eloy; Holyoak, Marcel; Kadmon, Ronen; Saltz, David; Smouse, Peter E

    2008-12-01

    Movement of individual organisms is fundamental to life, quilting our planet in a rich tapestry of phenomena with diverse implications for ecosystems and humans. Movement research is both plentiful and insightful, and recent methodological advances facilitate obtaining a detailed view of individual movement. Yet, we lack a general unifying paradigm, derived from first principles, which can place movement studies within a common context and advance the development of a mature scientific discipline. This introductory article to the Movement Ecology Special Feature proposes a paradigm that integrates conceptual, theoretical, methodological, and empirical frameworks for studying movement of all organisms, from microbes to trees to elephants. We introduce a conceptual framework depicting the interplay among four basic mechanistic components of organismal movement: the internal state (why move?), motion (how to move?), and navigation (when and where to move?) capacities of the individual and the external factors affecting movement. We demonstrate how the proposed framework aids the study of various taxa and movement types; promotes the formulation of hypotheses about movement; and complements existing biomechanical, cognitive, random, and optimality paradigms of movement. The proposed framework integrates eclectic research on movement into a structured paradigm and aims at providing a basis for hypothesis generation and a vehicle facilitating the understanding of the causes, mechanisms, and spatiotemporal patterns of movement and their role in various ecological and evolutionary processes. "Now we must consider in general the common reason for moving with any movement whatever." (Aristotle, De Motu Animalium, 4th century B.C.). PMID:19060196

  20. The new rural paradigm and the leader method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2013-01-01

    I am going today to speak on rural development and how it is currently practiced in Europe, with a specific focus on the new rural paradigm and the LEADER method. I will try to explain the background and setup of rural development in the European Union, and try to describe the principles of the so...

  1. A Paradigm for the Telephonic Assessment of Suicidal Ideation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halderman, Brent L.; Eyman, James R.; Kerner, Lisa; Schlacks, Bill

    2009-01-01

    A three-stage paradigm for telephonically assessing suicidal risk and triaging suicidal callers as practiced in an Employee Assistance Program Call Center was investigated. The first hypothesis was that the use of the procedure would increase the probability that callers would accept the clinician's recommendations, evidenced by fewer police…

  2. Social Studies and Emerging Paradigms: Artificial Intelligence and Consciousness Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Joseph A., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Asks three questions: (1) Are machines capable of thinking as people do? (2) How is the thinking of computers similar and different from human thinking? and (3) What exactly is thinking? Examines research in artificial intelligence. Describes the theory and research of consciousness education and discusses an emerging paradigm for human thinking…

  3. The Credit Crisis and Recession as a Paradigm Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, Dirk J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper contributes to the debate on what economics can learn from the credit crisis and recession. It asks what are the elements in the mainstream paradigm that caused many economists to misjudge the state of the economy so dramatically in the years leading up to the 2007 credit crisis and the 2

  4. Aspects of Theories, Frameworks and Paradigms in Mathematics Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoilescu, Dorian

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses major theoretical debates and paradigms from the last decades in general education and their specific influences in mathematics education contexts. Behaviourism, cognitive science, constructivism, situated cognition, critical theory, place-based learning, postmodernism and poststructuralism and their significant aspects in…

  5. Solar Ethics: A New Paradigm for Environmental Ethics and Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A.; Hung, Ruyu

    2009-01-01

    This article provides grounds for a new paradigm of environmental ethics and education based on the centrality of the sun and solar system--a shift from anthropocentrism to solar systemism. The article provides some grounds for this shift from the physical sciences that considers the planet Earth as part of a wider system that is dependent upon…

  6. Measuring Phantom Recollection in the Simplified Conjoint Recognition Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Christoph; Klauer, Karl Christoph

    2009-01-01

    False memories are sometimes strong enough to elicit recollective experiences. This phenomenon has been termed Phantom Recollection (PR). The Conjoint Recognition (CR) paradigm has been used to empirically separate PR from other memory processes. Recently, a simplification of the CR procedure has been proposed. We herein extend the simplified CR…

  7. User Perspective on a New Paradigm for Librarianship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parson, Willie L.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses a paradigm for academic librarianship that requires greater sensitivity to and identification with needs of library users. Centrality of library academic community is questioned, noting insistence of librarians on independent status of library and failure of bibliographic instruction programs to make issue of critical thinking top…

  8. Paradigm shifts in orthodontic treatment with mini-implant anchorage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny Joung-Lin Liaw

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available After the applications of mini-implant anchorage, the envelope of orthodontic treatment was expanded and some treatment modes were changed because of more predictable tooth movement with empowered anchorage. The author tried to share his experience of TADs applications for clarifying the paradigm shifts of orthodontic treatment assisted with the mini-implant anchorage.

  9. A nonmusical paradigm for identifying absolute pitch possessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, David A.; Olson, Ingrid R.; Marks, Lawrence E.; Gore, John C.

    2004-09-01

    The ability to identify and reproduce sounds of specific frequencies is remarkable and uncommon. The etiology and defining characteristics of this skill, absolute pitch (AP), have been very controversial. One theory suggests that AP requires a specific type of early musical training and that the ability to encode and remember tones depends on these learned musical associations. An alternate theory argues that AP may be strongly dependent on hereditary factors and relatively independent of musical experience. To date, it has been difficult to test these hypotheses because all previous paradigms for identifying AP have required subjects to employ knowledge of musical nomenclature. As such, these tests are insensitive to the possibility of discovering AP in either nonmusicians or musicians of non-Western training. Based on previous literature in pitch memory, a paradigm is presented that is intended to distinguish between AP possessors and nonpossessors independent of the subjects' musical experience. The efficacy of this method is then tested with 20 classically defined AP possessors and 22 nonpossessors. Data from these groups strongly support the validity of the paradigm. The use of a nonmusical paradigm to identify AP may facilitate research into many aspects of this phenomenon.

  10. Humanistic Paradigms of Education in the Postmodern Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šarkan, Martin; Nemec, Rastislav

    2010-01-01

    This study portrays the present social trends of the educational system against the background of the transformation of the social institutions that emerge as a result of the general changes to the social paradigm. These transformations have a direct impact on questions over classical humanistic ideals and educational goals relating to the social…

  11. Teaching International Business Abroad: Paradigms Suggested by Metaphor Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr-Glass, David

    2009-01-01

    When International Business (IB) is taught abroad, the educational institution has to decide on organizational issues and educational and teaching paradigms. College and university programs abroad can adopt organizational values and identities similar to the home institution, or adapt to local operating environments. Likewise, educational and…

  12. Internationalisation policies: about new trends and contrasting paradigms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wende, van der Marijk C.

    2001-01-01

    In this article, internationalisation of higher education is analysed as a response to globalisation. A distinction is made between two paradigms in internationalisation: competition and cooperation. The different approaches to internationalisation in the Anglo-Saxon countries on the one hand and in

  13. On Limiting the Narrative Paradigm: Three Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Robert C.

    1989-01-01

    Tests Walter R. Fisher's claim that all forms of discourse can be viewed as types of narrative by applying the narrative paradigm to three works that cannot traditionally be considered stories. Finds that the narrative approach is of little use when applied to discourse that does not tell a story. (SR)

  14. Models for predicting the inflectional paradigm of Croatian words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Šnajder

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Morphological analysis is a prerequisite for many natural language processing tasks. For inflectionally rich languages such as Croatian, morphological analysis typically relies on a morphological lexicon, which lists the lemmas and their paradigms. However, a real-life morphological analyzer must also be able to handle properly the out-of-vocabulary words. We address the task of predicting the correct inflectional paradigm of unknown Croatian words. We frame this as a supervised machine learning problem: we train a classifier to predict whether a candidate lemma-paradigm pair is correct based on a number of string- and corpus-based features. The candidate lemma-paradigm pairs are generated using a handcrafted morphology grammar. Our aim is to examine the machine learning aspect of the problem: we test a comprehensive set of features and evaluate the classification accuracy using different feature subsets. We show that satisfactory classification accuracy (92% can be achieved with SVM using a combination of string- and corpus-based features. On a per word basis, the F1-score is 53% and accuracy is 70%, which outperforms a frequency-based baseline by a wide margin. We discuss a number of possible directions for future research.

  15. Innovation Policy Development and the Emergence of New Innovation Paradigms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan; Knudsen, Mette Præst; Bisgaard, Tanja; Thomsen, Merethe Stjerne

    The objective of the present article is to discuss innovation policy issues related to three emerging innovation paradigms: user-driven innovation, open innovation, and value cocreation. It provides a summary of insights based on innovation policy practices and challenges in Denmark. The choice of...

  16. GBM 489 Complete Class

    OpenAIRE

    admn

    2015-01-01

    GBM 489 Complete Class Check this A+ tutorial guideline at   http://www.assignmentcloud.com/GBM-489/GBM-489-Strategic-Topics-in-Global-Business-Management GBM 489 Strategic Topics in Global Business Management GBM 489 Week 1 DQ 1 GBM 489 Week 1 DQ 2 GBM 489 Week 1 DQ 3 GBM 489 Week 1 Individual Global Trends Paper GBM 489 Week 2 DQ 1 GBM 489 Week 2 DQ 2 GBM 489 Week 2 DQ 3 GBM 489 Week 2 Individual Business Plan Article Analysis GBM 489...

  17. The Class of '34

    OpenAIRE

    Cairney, Richard

    1995-01-01

    The Great Depression raged, governments were beleaguered, the unemployment rate stood at 30%, scurvy stalked the poor and no one was immune to contagious diseases such as scarlet fever, polio and measles when the University of Alberta School of Medicine's Class of '34 graduated. For four alumni who recently gathered in Edmonton—Drs. Morley Hodgson, Melvin Gaudin, John McLurg and Edmund Cairns—their 60th-anniversary reunion was a time to recall the changes they have witnessed in medicine, incl...

  18. Mining Java Class Naming Conventions

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Simon; Wermelinger, Michel; Yu, Yijun; Sharp, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Class names represent the concepts implemented in object-oriented source code and are key elements in program comprehension and, thus, software maintenance. Programming conventions often state that class names should be noun-phrases, but there is little further guidance for developers on the composition of class names. Other researchers have observed that the majority of Java class identifier names are composed of one or more nouns preceded, optionally, by one or more adjectives. However, no ...

  19. URBAN AND REGIONAL CREATIVE CLASS THEORIES

    OpenAIRE

    Tremblay, Remy; CHICOINE, Huges

    2011-01-01

    The creative class theory suggests that society is composed of three social classes: the creative class, the service class, the working class, a different view or classification of the workforce. The boundaries separating the creative class from the upper ruling class and the lower working class rest on occupational premises. This paper examines the construction and tools of the creative class, its human composition as a social class, attending discourses, as well as the shifting foundations ...

  20. Teachers, Social Class and Underachievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Mairead; Gazeley, Louise

    2008-01-01

    Addressing the "the social class attainment gap" in education has become a government priority in England. Despite multiple initiatives, however, little has effectively addressed the underachievement of working-class pupils within the classroom. In order to develop clearer understandings of working-class underachievement at this level, this small…

  1. Misrepresenting Religious Education's Past and Present in Looking Forward: Gearon Using Kuhn's Concepts of Paradigm, Paradigm Shift and Incommensurability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Robert

    2015-01-01

    In looking to the future, some writers on religious education (RE) have attempted to evaluate current approaches to the subject. Some have characterised any significant change in approach as a "paradigm shift", a term derived from Thomas Kuhn's work in the philosophy of science. This article examines the uses of the terms…

  2. Pseudo Class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hummayani, Fadia M

    2016-04-01

    The treatment of deep anterior crossbite is technically challenging due to the difficulty of placing traditional brackets with fixed appliances. This case report represents a none traditional treatment modality to treat deep anterior crossbite in an adult pseudo class III malocclusion complicated by severely retruded, supraerupted upper and lower incisors. Treatment was carried out in 2 phases. Phase I treatment was performed by removable appliance "modified Hawley appliance with inverted labial bow," some modifications were carried out to it to suit the presented case. Positive overbite and overjet was accomplished in one month, in this phase with minimal forces exerted on the lower incisors. Whereas, phase II treatment was performed with fixed appliances (braces) to align teeth and have proper over bite and overjet and to close posterior open bite, this phase was accomplished within 11 month. PMID:27052290

  3. Pseudo Class III malocclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hummayani, Fadia M.

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of deep anterior crossbite is technically challenging due to the difficulty of placing traditional brackets with fixed appliances. This case report represents a none traditional treatment modality to treat deep anterior crossbite in an adult pseudo class III malocclusion complicated by severely retruded, supraerupted upper and lower incisors. Treatment was carried out in 2 phases. Phase I treatment was performed by removable appliance “modified Hawley appliance with inverted labial bow,” some modifications were carried out to it to suit the presented case. Positive overbite and overjet was accomplished in one month, in this phase with minimal forces exerted on the lower incisors. Whereas, phase II treatment was performed with fixed appliances (braces) to align teeth and have proper over bite and overjet and to close posterior open bite, this phase was accomplished within 11 month. PMID:27052290

  4. Paradigms in the study of creativity: introducing the perspective of cultural psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Glăveanu, Vlad Petre

    2010-01-01

    This article identifies three paradigms in creativity theory and research in psychology. The He-paradigm, focused on the solitary genius, has been followed, mainly after the 1950s, by the I-paradigm, equally individualistic in nature but attributing creativity to each and every individual. Extending this view, the We-paradigm incorporates what became known as the social psychology of creativity. The cultural psychology of creativity builds upon this last theoretical approach while being criti...

  5. Visualizing and tracking the growth of competing paradigms: Two case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, C.; Cribbin, T; Morar, S S; Macredie, R

    2002-01-01

    In this article we demonstrate the use of an integrative approach to visualizing and tracking the development of scientific paradigms. This approach is designed to reveal the long-term process of competing scientific paradigms. We assume that a cluster of highly cited and cocited scientific publications in a cocitation network represents the core of a predominant scientific paradigm. The growth of a paradigm is depicted and animated through the rise of citation rates and the movement of it...

  6. Change of Management Paradigm as a Factor in Development of Accounting: Strategic Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Ruslan Bruhanskyy

    2014-01-01

    The article addresses the analysis of the impact of changes in management paradigms on development of accounting practices, and study of feasibility of developing a strategic paradigm of accounting. The author has pointed out the basic management paradigms in conjunction with the development of accounting. Addressed is the effect of changes in management paradigms on the development of accounting systems. Analyzed are the approaches of national and foreign scientists to isolation of the strat...

  7. On the Relationship Between the Object-Oriented Paradigm and Software Reuse: An Empirical Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, John A.; Henry, Sallie M.; Kafura, Dennis G.; Schulman, Robert S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a controlled experiment designed to evaluate the impact of the object-oriented paradigm on software reuse. The experiment concludes that (1) the object-oriented paradigm substantially improves productivity over the procedural paradigm, (2) language differences are far more important when programmers reuse than when they do not, (3) under both moderate and strong encouragement to reuse, the object-oriented paradigm promotes higher productivity than the proce...

  8. On a Flow-Based Paradigm in Modeling and Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabah Al-Fedaghi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In computer science, the concept of flow is reflected in many terms such as data flow, control flow, message flow, information flow, and so forth. Many fields of study utilize the notion, including programming, communication (e.g., Shannon-Weaver communication model, software modeling, artificial intelligence, and knowledge representation. This paper focuses on two approaches that explicitly assert a flow-based paradigm: flow-based programming (FBP and flowthing modeling (FM. The first is utilized in programming and the latter in modeling (e.g., software development. Each produces a diagrammatic representation, and these are compared. The purpose is to promote progress in a flow-based paradigm and its utilization in the area of computer science. The resultant analysis highlights the fact that FBP and FM can benefit from each other’s methodology.

  9. Towards a new paradigm: Activity level balanced sustainability reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samudhram, Ananda; Siew, Eu-Gene; Sinnakkannu, Jothee; Yeow, Paul H P

    2016-11-01

    Technoeconomic paradigms based economic growth theories suggest that waves of technological innovations drove the economic growth of advanced economies. Widespread economic degradation and pollution is an unintended consequence of such growth. Tackling environmental and social issues at firm levels would help us to overcome such issues at macro-levels. Consequently, the Triple Bottom Line (TBL) reporting approach promotes firm level economic, environmental and social performances. Incorporating Zink's (2014) 3-pillar presentation model, this paper indicates that economic, social and environmental performances tend to be reported at firm level. All three pillars are not covered evenly at the activity levels. Thus, a loophole is identified whereby excellent environmental performance at activity levels could potentially leave poor social performance undisclosed. A refinement of the TBL paradigm, whereby all three pillars are covered at the activity level, is suggested, to enhance sustainability reporting. PMID:27029522

  10. Local therapy, systemic benefit: challenging the paradigm of biological predeterminism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, J M

    2006-04-01

    This paper briefly reviews the historical evolution of paradigms that have been purported to characterise the clinical behaviour of breast cancer, with the intention of guiding treatment approaches. Results from randomised clinical trials and the explosion of knowledge in the area of cancer biology have discredited the monolithic paradigms that had dominated thinking about breast cancer in the past. Contemporary notions of breast cancer biology recognise that, although some cancers disseminate well before becoming clinically detectable, acquisition of a metastatic phenotype can occur at any point (or not at all) in the local evolution of the tumour. As a consequence, both systemic and timely local--regional therapies can be expected to influence disease dissemination and patient survival. This is consistent with results observed in clinical trials, overviews of which indicate that prevention of four local recurrences will, on the average, prevent one death from breast cancer. Optimisation of local-regional treatment is an important goal in breast cancer management. PMID:16605046

  11. E-learning paradigmer og e-learning strategiudvikling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus, Henrik Johannsen

    2003-01-01

    E-learning området er meget varieret hvad angår produkter, holdninger ogmeninger, og indeholder også en del 'støj' og mytedannelser, som afspejles i såvel denakademisk-videnskabelige som den journalistisk-offentlige debat om området. Dennevariation i såvel produkter som udtrykte meninger søges...... systematiseret og ordnet i fireidealtypiske paradigmer. Det vises, hvorledes disse fire paradigmer har hver sinebestemte karakteristika og udviklingsgrænser. Dette har afgørende strategisk betydningfor virksomheders og læreanstalters udvikling af e-learning, idet forkerte paradigmevalgvil hæmme udviklingen....

  12. Planning under uncertainties paradigm - application to electric power distribution systems planning; Paradigma de planejamento sob incertezas - aplicacao ao planejamento dos sistemas de distribuicao de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi Junior, Alberto

    1996-12-31

    In this work it is presented an original methodology of multistage planning, with conflictive objectives and restrictions, incorporating the concept of uncertainties. To do so, the proposed paradigm is based on the Dynamic Programming which comprehends the multistage subject to conflictive restrictions; on the Fuzzy Sets Theory, through the decisions and fuzzy numbers, which model the uncertainties and ambiguous decisions referent to qualitative variables; and on the consideration of evolutional rules associated to network flow algorithm. In its conceptual elaboration, the paradigm is developed in a very ample way, of generalized application to a well defined class of planning problems Particularly, the model fits in the flexible planning, which has been very discussed in the recent literature. Flexible planning must be understood as the one which allows to the planner, under well-defined limits, the evaluation of the planning policy composed by strips of options (discreet or continuous), associated to uncertainty levels related to the real world. In order to validate and consolidate the theoretic concepts, it was elaborated an algorithm turned to the aggregated planning of the distribution of electric energy, that presents intrinsic characteristics which are perfectly fitted in the paradigm`s applicability. (author) 41 refs., 26 figs., 36 tabs.

  13. The Black-White Environmental Concern Gap: An Examination of Environmental Paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Judi

    1995-01-01

    Differences in environmental world views of 72 whites and 40 African Americans were investigated by contrasting dimensions of two opposing paradigms: the dominant social paradigm that emphasizes exploiting nature and the new environmental paradigm that emphasizes harmony and stewardship. Results reveal that differences between the races are small.…

  14. Three Paradigms of Gifted Education: In Search of Conceptual Clarity in Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, David Yun; Chen, Fei

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to articulate and compare three major approaches or paradigms of gifted education, so that researchers and practitioners can be more explicit about their assumptions, goals, and educational strategies in their research and practice. We first define the term "paradigm", and then delineate three paradigms in the…

  15. THEORIES OF CONSUMER’S SATISFACTION AND THE OPERATIONALIZATION OF THE EXPECTATION DISCONFIRMATION PARADIGM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLORIN LUCIAN ISAC

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The main paradigm that marks the literature dedicated to consumer’s satisfaction is the Expectation Disconfirmation Paradigm. A lot of theories explaining the nature and the development of consumer’s satisfaction from various perspectives fall under the umbrella of this paradigm

  16. Too Hard, Too Soft or Just about Right: Paradigms in Music Teachers' Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Tim

    2012-01-01

    This article considers some paradigms of educational research, and their relation to teachers' action research in their classrooms or studios. The positivist/scientific paradigm and the interpretive/naturalist paradigm are examined, with reference to two cases of music teachers' action research studies. These studies are found to be flawed because…

  17. THEORIES OF CONSUMER’S SATISFACTION AND THE OPERATIONALIZATION OF THE EXPECTATION DISCONFIRMATION PARADIGM

    OpenAIRE

    FLORIN LUCIAN ISAC; SERGIU RUSU

    2014-01-01

    The main paradigm that marks the literature dedicated to consumer’s satisfaction is the Expectation Disconfirmation Paradigm. A lot of theories explaining the nature and the development of consumer’s satisfaction from various perspectives fall under the umbrella of this paradigm

  18. Different Research Paradigms Concerning Giftedness and Gifted Education: Shall Ever They Meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Kurt A.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge regarding giftedness and gifted education is supplied by different sources of information and different research paradigms. Particularly relevant approaches are here the psychometric paradigm, the expert-novice paradigm, and the explanatory approaches from cognitive sciences, also the quasi-experimental social and developmental studies…

  19. On a Flow-Based Paradigm in Modeling and Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Sabah Al-Fedaghi

    2015-01-01

    In computer science, the concept of flow is reflected in many terms such as data flow, control flow, message flow, information flow, and so forth. Many fields of study utilize the notion, including programming, communication (e.g., Shannon-Weaver communication model), software modeling, artificial intelligence, and knowledge representation. This paper focuses on two approaches that explicitly assert a flow-based paradigm: flow-based programming (FBP) and flowthing modeling (FM). The first is ...

  20. Paradigm Regained? The Rules Of Wallersteins World-System Method

    OpenAIRE

    Walter L. Goldfrank

    2015-01-01

    The last third of the twentieth century was ushered in by a set ofeventswars, rebellions, ?nally economic crisisthat dealt a crushing blow to the previously dominant paradigm in U.S. social science, the structural-functionalist modernizationism elaborated by Talcott Parsons and his students. Within sociology, the site of much social science innovation in the post-war period, a notable splintering occurred. Already under-way in the early nineteen-sixties, this splintering was accelerated by th...

  1. Spanish version of the new ecological paradigm scale for children

    OpenAIRE

    Corraliza, José Antonio; Collado Salas, Silvia; Bethelmy Rincón, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    The New Ecological Paradigm (NEP) scale has been extensively used to measure adults’ environmental attitudes. However, it has only recently been adapted for use with children. This paper presents a Spanish version of the NEP Scale for Children, examines children’s ecological beliefs according to socio-demographic variables as well as the relationship between children’s ecological beliefs and pro-environmental behavior. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted, followed by confirmatory factor...

  2. SOCIAL INVESTMENT AS A NEW PARADIGM OF SOCIAL POLICY

    OpenAIRE

    Iveta Dudova

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the importance and potential benefits of social investment, particularly during times of economic imbalance. Social investment represents a new paradigm of social policy and a new approach to the economic challenges we are currently facing. The investigation concludes that this concept is based mainly on modernizing Europe’s social protection systems to ensure their sustainability, while enabling them to respond to new social needs. In times of crisi...

  3. SOME PARADIGMS OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN FINANCIAL COMPUTER SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Balicki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses some paradigms of artificial intelligence in the context of their applications in computer financial systems. The proposed approach has a significant po-tential to increase the competitiveness of enterprises, including financial institutions. However, it requires the effective use of supercomputers, grids and cloud computing. A reference is made to the computing environment for Bitcoin. In addition, we characterized genetic programming and artificial neural networks to prepare investment strategies on the stock exchange market.

  4. The Neoliberal Policy Paradigm and the Great Recession

    OpenAIRE

    Stein Howard

    2012-01-01

    The paper examines the relationship between neoliberal policies and the Great Recession with a focus on the persistence of the policy paradigm in spite of overwhelming evidence of its role in creating the crisis. These economic problems are only the latest that have arisen in the wake of the three long decade experiment with these policy packages. The paper investigates the ideological, methodological, historical, theoretical, political and economic interests underlying the perpetuation...

  5. Japan as a paradigm for U.S. homeland security

    OpenAIRE

    Ruth, Allen C.

    2006-01-01

    The 9/11 terrorist attacks on the United States were the impetus for change within the U.S. homeland security establishment. Despite these changes, deficiencies still exist. In addition to these deficiencies, the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT) is in full swing and the United States is engaged around the world. These factors provide valid reasons for the United States to research other countries' homeland security paradigms to provide a contrast in methods of combating terrorism. This thesis...

  6. New software engineering paradigm based on complexity science

    CERN Document Server

    Xiong, Jay

    2011-01-01

    This book describes a complete revolution in software engineering based on complexity science through the establishment of NSE -- Nonlinear Software Engineering paradigm which complies with the essential principles of complexity science, including the Nonlinearity principle, the Holism principle, the Complexity Arises From Simple Rules principle, the Initial Condition Sensitivity principle, the Sensitivity to Change principle, the Dynamics principle, the Openness principle, the Self-organization principle, and the Self-adaptation principle. The aims of this book are to offer revolutionary solu

  7. Reading porn: the paradigm shift in pornography research

    OpenAIRE

    Attwood, F

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the paradigm shift in pornography theory and research from a focus on 'texts and effects' through to work emerging from the late 1980's onwards. The paper considers the reconceptualisation of pornography as a category, the location of pornography in relation to cultural hierarchy and form, the changing status of pornography in relation to mainstream representations, the significance of developing technologies and the movement towards more situated accounts of pornographic ...

  8. LOD wars: The affected-sib-pair paradigm strikes back!

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrall, M. [Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    1997-03-01

    In a recent letter, Greenberg et al. aired their concerns that the affected-sib-pair (ASP) approach was becoming excessively popular, owing to misconceptions and ignorance of the properties and limitations of both the ASP and the classic LOD-score approaches. As an enthusiast of using the ASP approach to map susceptibility genes for multifactorial traits, I would like to contribute a few comments and explanatory notes in defense of the ASP paradigm. 18 refs.

  9. The "Teucer Paradigm" and the Eastern Other in Western Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Bittarello, Maria Beatrice

    2007-01-01

    In her paper, "The 'Teucer Paradigm' and the Eastern Other in Western Literature," Maria Beatrice Bittarello argues that modern representations of characters with mixed-blood heritage (Western and Eastern) are rooted in classical representations of the Middle East and that such representations are thematically re-cast from a literary thematic archetype elaborated on in the ancient Greek and Roman cultures. Bittarello examines how Greek and Roman authors portray the Greek mythological hero Teu...

  10. Sustainable Public Procurement : a new policy paradigm in France ?

    OpenAIRE

    Le Velly, Ronan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the “new paradigm” of sustainable public procurement in France, that is, its cognitive and normative frameworks. Firstly, the author shows that the newness of this paradigm has to do with the identification of sustainable procurement as a stake in its own right. Next, he shows that the good practices associated with sustainable procurement are also new (close relationships with suppliers, systematic thought about what is needed, innovative methods of co...

  11. How citation boosts promote scientific paradigm shifts and Nobel Prizes

    OpenAIRE

    Mazloumian A.; Eom Y.-H.; Helbing D.; Lozano S.; Fortunato S.

    2011-01-01

    Nobel Prizes are commonly seen to be among the most prestigious achievements of our times. Based on mining several million citations, we quantitatively analyze the processes driving paradigm shifts in science. We find that groundbreaking discoveries of Nobel Prize Laureates and other famous scientists are not only acknowledged by many citations of their landmark papers. Surprisingly, they also boost the citation rates of their previous publications. Given that innovations must outcompete the ...

  12. Computing discrete logarithm by interval-valued paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Nagy, Benedek; Vályi, Sándor

    2014-01-01

    Interval-valued computing is a relatively new computing paradigm. It uses finitely many interval segments over the unit interval in a computation as data structure. The satisfiability of Quantified Boolean formulae and other hard problems, like integer factorization, can be solved in an effective way by its massive parallelism. The discrete logarithm problem plays an important role in practice, there are cryptographical methods based on its computational hardness. In this paper we show that t...

  13. Change of economic paradigm and E-business

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Tae Chang [Korea Institute for Electronic Commerce, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    With an expansion of infrastructure and rapid increase of internet use due to the development of information and telecommunication technology, the world is reorganizing to a unlimited competition era without boundaries. These changes, so called a digital revolution, give influence on the whole lifestyle over every sector and its ripple effect is massive. In this study, it examines a change of economic paradigm and E-business and it discusses on the reactions of business sector.

  14. Innovation in international business research: a call for multiple paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel P Sullivan; John D Daniels

    2008-01-01

    Scholars disagree on IB's domain and future prescription, yet agree that research will engage topics dealing with dynamic change and hard-to-explain phenomena. This paper builds on these views, endorsing a multiparadigmatic perspective that complements IB's scientific and humanist paradigms with that of chaos theory. The latter, we argue, is instrumental in studying the non-normal patterns of nonlinear, far-from-equilibrium systems. We illustrate our ideas in the context of NGOs. Journal of I...

  15. Pharmacometabonomics: An important new paradigm for precision medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Everett, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Many medicines are ineffective or unsafe in significant portions of their patient populations. A key thrust for 21st Century healthcare is to develop more personalized drug treatments such that patients receive medicines that both efficacious and safe. This paradigm is also known as precision medicine. Current personalised medicine approaches rely heavily on the analysis of the genomes of the patients or the organisms that infect them. However, this approach has had less impact and success th...

  16. A new paradigm of knowledge engineering by soft computing

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, Liya

    2001-01-01

    Soft computing (SC) consists of several computing paradigms, including neural networks, fuzzy set theory, approximate reasoning, and derivative-free optimization methods such as genetic algorithms. The integration of those constituent methodologies forms the core of SC. In addition, the synergy allows SC to incorporate human knowledge effectively, deal with imprecision and uncertainty, and learn to adapt to unknown or changing environments for better performance. Together with other modern technologies, SC and its applications exert unprecedented influence on intelligent systems that mimic hum

  17. A new paradigm in contemporary marketing: relational marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolae Al. Pop

    2006-01-01

    Taking into account the main, already established marketing orientations the present article aims at stressing the dominant characteristic of contemporary marketing that it presents as a new paradigm of the last two decades. By emphasizing the meaning of relationship capital as fundamental organizational asset the connection between this concept and the one of relationship marketing is being marked. A review of the theoretical backgrounds corresponding to the managerial schools that contribut...

  18. Evolution of the marketing paradigm: a new vision

    OpenAIRE

    Galina V. ASTRATOVA; Olga A. Rushchitskaya

    2016-01-01

    Objective to confirm the feasibility of using the disciplinary matrix by Th. Kuhn in relation to the marketing theory. Methods paradigmatic and systemic methods of analysis of marketing phenomena. Results to date the paradigm as a specific tool of scientific research is poorly studied in the marketing methodology in contrast to other branches of knowledge. An analysis of available literature revealed no sources that use the famous disciplinary matrix by Th. Kuhn and its comp...

  19. Social Responsibility: A New Paradigm of Hospital Governance?

    OpenAIRE

    Brandão, Cristina; Rego, Guilhermina; Duarte, Ivone; Nunes, Rui

    2012-01-01

    Changes in modern societies originate the perception that ethical behaviour is essential in organization’s practices especially in the way they deal with aspects such as human rights. These issues are usually under the umbrella of the concept of social responsibility. Recently the Report of the International Bioethics Committee of UNESCO on Social Responsibility and Health has addressed this concept of social responsibility in the context of health care delivery suggesting a new paradigm in h...

  20. 9/11 as a cause of paradigm shift?

    OpenAIRE

    Ehteshami, A.

    2007-01-01

    Paradigm shifts often occur in moments of trauma and profound dislocation. After a relatively long period of stability in the international system after 1945, the collapse of the Berlin Wall in 1989 has ushered in four dramatic powerful quakes in succession to destabilise the balance of power system which had been built around the superpower camps. These quakes have shaken the very foundations of the international systemic structures which had held the system steady for the pre...

  1. Bioengineering Heart Muscle: A Paradigm for Regenerative Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Lui, Kathy O; Tandon, Nina; Chien, Kenneth R.

    2011-01-01

    The idea of extending the lifetime of our organs is as old as humankind, fueled by major advances in organ transplantation, novel drugs, and medical devices. However, true regeneration of human tissue has becoming increasingly plausible only in recent years. The human heart has always been a focus of such efforts, given its notorious inability to repair itself following injury or disease. We discuss here the emerging bioengineering approaches to regeneration of heart muscle as a paradigm for ...

  2. Making actors, paradigms and ideologies visible in governance for sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Söderbaum

    2009-01-01

    Research and teaching activities in economics and business management are specific not only in scientific terms but also in ideological terms. This political aspect has to be discussed openly. As an example, our interpretations of sustainable development (SD) and corporate social responsibility (CSR) are closely related to our ideological orientations. In considering more radical changes towards SD, the three levels of theory of science, paradigms in economics and ideological orientation have...

  3. A movement ecology paradigm for unifying organismal movement research

    OpenAIRE

    Nathan, Ran; Getz, Wayne M.; Revilla, Eloy; Holyoak, Marcel; Kadmon, Ronen; Saltz, David; Smouse, Peter E.

    2008-01-01

    Movement of individual organisms is fundamental to life, quilting our planet in a rich tapestry of phenomena with diverse implications for ecosystems and humans. Movement research is both plentiful and insightful, and recent methodological advances facilitate obtaining a detailed view of individual movement. Yet, we lack a general unifying paradigm, derived from first principles, which can place movement studies within a common context and advance the development of a mature scientific discip...

  4. Osteoporosis: Modern Paradigms for Last Century’s Bones †

    OpenAIRE

    Kruger, Marlena C.; Wolber, Frances M.

    2016-01-01

    The skeleton is a metabolically active organ undergoing continuously remodelling. With ageing and menopause the balance shifts to increased resorption, leading to a reduction in bone mineral density and disruption of bone microarchitecture. Bone mass accretion and bone metabolism are influenced by systemic hormones as well as genetic and lifestyle factors. The classic paradigm has described osteoporosis as being a “brittle bone” disease that occurs in post-menopausal, thin, Caucasian women wi...

  5. ZERO INVENTORY AND FIRM PERFORMANCE: A MANAGEMENT PARADIGM REVISITED

    OpenAIRE

    Obermaier, Robert; Donhauser, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The ?zero inventory? paradigm says that inventory reflects waste and should be eliminated causing performance to rise. In this study we investigate the effect of inventory holding on firm performance analyzing 3057 firm years of data. Interpreting performance as function of inventory, results show that firms with the lowest inventory have the worst performance (et vice versa). Understanding inventory as function of performance results indicate that low performing firms are...

  6. QuECT: A New Quantum Programming Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Chakraborty, Arnab

    2011-01-01

    Quantum computation constitutes a rapidly expanding subfield of computer science. Development quantum algorithms is facilitated by the availability of efficient quantum programming languages, and a plethora of approaches has been already suggested in the literature, ranging from GUI-based simple tools to elaborate standalone programming languages. In this paper we propose a novel paradigm called Quantum Embeddable Circuit Technique (QuECT) that allows a programmer to embed a circuit diagram i...

  7. Optimising Spoken Dialogue Strategies within the Reinforcement Learning Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Pietquin, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    This chapter described a formal description of a man-machine spoken dialogue suitable to introduce a mapping between man-machine dialogues and (partially observable) Markov decision processes. This allows data-driven optimization of a dialogue manager's interaction strategy using the reinforcement learning paradigm. Yet, such an optimization process often requires tenths of thousands of dialogues which are not accessible through real interactions with human users because of time and economica...

  8. The challenges of neural mind-reading paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    Vilarroya, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    Neural mind-reading studies, based on multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) methods, are providing exciting new studies. Some of the results obtained with these paradigms have raised high expectations, such as the possibility of creating brain reading devices. However, such hopes are based on the assumptions that: (a) the BOLD signal is a marker of neural activity; (b) the BOLD pattern identified by a MVPA is a neurally sound pattern; (c) the MVPA's feature space is a good mapping of the neura...

  9. Attention shifts the language network reflecting paradigm presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin eKollndorfer

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI is a reliable and non-invasive method with which to localize language function in pre-surgical planning. In clinical practice, visual stimulus presentation is often difficult or impossible, due to the patient’s restricted language or attention abilities. Therefore, our aim was to investigate modality-specific differences in visual and auditory stimulus presentation.Methods: Ten healthy subjects participated in an fMRI study comprising two experiments with visual and auditory stimulus presentation. In both experiments, two language paradigms (one for language comprehension and one for language production used in clinical practice were investigated. In addition to standard data analysis by the means of the general linear model (GLM, independent component analysis (ICA was performed to achieve more detailed information on language processing networks.Results: GLM analysis revealed modality-specific brain activation for both language paradigms for the contrast visual > auditory in the area of the intraparietal sulcus and the hippocampus, two areas related to attention and working memory. Using group ICA, a language network was detected for both paradigms independent of stimulus presentation modality. The investigation of language lateralization revealed no significant variations. Visually presented stimuli further activated an attention-shift network, which could not be identified for the auditory presented language.Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that the visually presented language stimuli additionally activate an attention-shift network. These findings will provide important information for pre-surgical planning in order to preserve reading abilities after brain surgery, significantly improving surgical outcomes. Our findings suggest that the presentation modality for language paradigms should be adapted on behalf of individual indication.

  10. Quasinormal spectrum and the black hole membrane paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Starinets, A. O.

    2008-01-01

    The membrane paradigm approach to black hole physics introduces the notion of a stretched horizon as a fictitious time-like surface endowed with physical characteristics such as entropy, viscosity and electrical conductivity. We show that certain properties of the stretched horizons are encoded in the quasinormal spectrum of black holes. We compute analytically the lowest quasinormal frequency of a vector-type perturbation for a generic black hole with a translationally invariant horizon (bla...

  11. Expanding the Obesity Research Paradigm to Reach African American Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiriki K. Kumanyika, PhD, MPH

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is more prevalent among African Americans and other racial and ethnic minority populations than among whites. The behaviors that determine weight status are embedded in the core social and cultural processes and environments of day-to-day life in these populations. Therefore, identifying effective, sustainable solutions to obesity requires an ecological model that is inclusive of relevant contextual variables. Race and ethnicity are potent stratification variables in U.S. society and strongly influence life contexts, including many aspects that relate to eating and physical activity behaviors. This article describes a synthesis initiated by the African American Collaborative Obesity Research Network (AACORN to build and broaden the obesity research paradigm. The focus is on African Americans, but the expanded paradigm has broader implications and may apply to other populations of color. The synthesis involves both community and researcher perspectives, drawing on and integrating insights from an expanded set of knowledge domains to promote a deeper understanding of relevant contexts. To augment the traditional, biomedical focus on energy balance, the expanded paradigm includes insights from family sociology, literature, philosophy, transcultural psychology, marketing, economics, and studies of the built environment. We also emphasize the need for more attention to tensions that may affect African American or other researchers who identify or are identified as members of the communities they study. This expanded paradigm, for which development is ongoing, poses new challenges for researchers who focus on obesity and obesity-related health disparities but also promises discovery of new directions that can lead to new solutions.

  12. The need for a new paradigm in economics

    OpenAIRE

    Garry Jacobs

    2015-01-01

    The multidimensional challenges confronting humanity today, combined with our inability to fully harness the abundant human, social, technological, and financial resources to meet human needs, point to serious insufficiencies in prevailing economic theory modeled on the natural science. A paradigm change is needed in the social sciences akin to that which occurred in Physics a century ago. A human-centered theoretical framework is needed to bridge the divide between economics and human values...

  13. Olympic Games: Old and New Paradigms of the Olympic Movement

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantin G. Tomilin

    2014-01-01

    The article observes the alternative variants of possible changing the generally accepted paradigm of the Olympic movement in a part of the places` selection of the future conducted Olympiads and mechanism of its financing. The article gives the example of conduction the Olympiad 1984 in Los Angeles (USA), with minimization of the expenses on construction of the athletic buildings, as well as undertaking the ceremony openings and closing of the XXIII summer Olympic games. There considered the...

  14. The human dynamic clamp as a paradigm for social interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Dumas, Guillaume; de Guzman, Gonzalo C.; Tognoli, Emmanuelle; Kelso, J. A. Scott

    2014-01-01

    The human dynamic clamp (HDC) is proposed as a general paradigm for studies of elementary forms of social behavior in complex biological systems. HDC enables parametric control of real-time bidirectional interaction between humans and empirically grounded theoretical models of coordination dynamics. It thus provides necessary experimental access for laboratory investigations, while preserving the reciprocity and open boundary conditions inherent in daily life social interactions. As proof of ...

  15. Agua Para Todos: A New Regionalist Hydraulic Paradigm in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Lopez-Gunn

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the hydraulic paradigm in Spain and its evolution over the last 100 years to the current decentralisation process of "agua para todos", i.e. where different regional governments vie for control over 'scarce' water resources and defining the concept of hydro-solidarity between regions. Recent events seem to point to a new hydraulic bureaucracy at the sub-national level due to the political devolution currently taking place in Spain, where water has an increased political value in electoral terms. Water has strategic importance in single-issue politics and territorial identity, as compared to traditional left/right ideological politics for both national and regional parties in the Spanish multilevel electoral system. This refers to an important aspect of water politics – openly discussed in Spain but rarely analysed – namely the 'political returns' on water (or 'political rent-seeking'. This also points to spatial dimensions of the definition of state, identity, and access to resources in a semiarid country. This historical process of decentralisation of water is highlighted with particular reference to key events in recent Spanish history, including the Hydraulic Plan of the 1930s, its reappearance in the 1993 National Hydrological Plan, a revised version in the year 2001, and a final change in paradigm in 2005 at the national level. This suggests that the hydraulic paradigm is re-enacted at the regional government level. It is argued that a multi-scalar analysis of Spanish water decentralisation is essential in order to understand change and stasis in public policy paradigms related to water.

  16. Happiness and the Family 2.0 Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocan, Rodica; Racorean, Stefana

    Does new media technology have the potential to make us happier? This paper explores the influence of new information communication technologies on family life satisfaction while analyzing some of the factors that determine changes in the way we live our lives in the information age. Family 2.0 is the new paradigm of family life and the emergence of Web 2.0 type of applications is at the very core of its existence.

  17. Ordering schemes for sparse matrices using modern programming paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    Oliker, Leonid; Li, Xiaoye,; Husbands, Parry; Biswas, Rupak

    2000-01-01

    The Conjugate Gradient (CG) algorithm is perhaps the best-known iterative technique to solve sparse linear systems that are symmetric and positive definite. In previous work, we investigated the effects of various ordering and partitioning strategies on the performance of CG using different programming paradigms and architectures. This paper makes several extensions to our prior research. First, we present a hybrid(MPI+OpenMP) implementation of the CG algorithm on the IBM SP and show th...

  18. A New Paradigm: from Quantum Fields to the Planck Vacuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daywitt W. C.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The current paradigm in fundamental physics assumes that Newton’s gravitational con- stant G , Planck’s (reduced constant ~ , and the fine structure constant are primary constants — i.e., these constants are associated with something basic in nature and are thus not reducible to something more fundamental. This assumption leads, for exam- ple, to the conclusion [1] that quantum fields are the fundamental building blocks out of which the visible universe is constructed.

  19. Reliability and Validity of Qualitative and Operational Research Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Bashir; Muhammad Tanveer Afzal; Muhammad Azeem

    2008-01-01

    Both qualitative and quantitative paradigms try to find the same result; the truth. Qualitative studies are tools used in understanding and describing the world of human experience. Since we maintain our humanity throughout the research process, it is largely impossible to escape the subjective experience, even for the most experienced of researchers. Reliability and Validity are the issue that has been described in great deal by advocates of quantitative researchers. The validity an...

  20. Problem definition methodology for the "Communicating Material" paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Kubler, Sylvain; Derigent, William; Thomas, André; Rondeau, Eric

    2010-01-01

    International audience Today, more and more new technologies of information and wireless communication are useful for social, economic and industrial life. Auto-ID technologies such as RFID are a good example of that. The actual limits of these new systems are relative to their granularity, since items are the smallest parts of an ubiquitous system (Internet of things). In this paper we propose a "communicating material" new paradigm. Working on the credibility of this concept since some y...

  1. How Citation Boosts Promote Scientific Paradigm Shifts and Nobel Prizes

    OpenAIRE

    Amin Mazloumian; Young-Ho Eom; Dirk Helbing; Sergi Lozano; Santo Fortunato

    2011-01-01

    Nobel Prizes are commonly seen to be among the most prestigious achievements of our times. Based on mining several million citations, we quantitatively analyze the processes driving paradigm shifts in science. We find that groundbreaking discoveries of Nobel Prize Laureates and other famous scientists are not only acknowledged by many citations of their landmark papers. Surprisingly, they also boost the citation rates of their previous publications. Given that innovations must outcompete the ...

  2. Total Quality Management as a Paradigm of Business Success

    OpenAIRE

    Luburić Radoica

    2014-01-01

    Total Quality Management denotes a path by which - both in a stable and a transitional environment, in a professional and scientific way and by applying a variety of methods and techniques, through constant improvements and involvement of all employees - one could get to a model that enables a simultaneous achievement of the top quality level on one hand, and the top management level, on the other. Total Quality Management is a paradigm of business success in the entire world because its set ...

  3. Modern Paradigm of Ensuring Competitive Advantages of an Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klymchuk Alyona O.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers evolution of development of the paradigm of ensuring competitive advantages of an enterprise. Foreign and domestic scientists focus on individual directions of development of competitive advantages and pay insufficient attention to new management concepts – development of the information society, knowledge economy and dynamism of integration processes. The goal of the study is formation of the modern paradigm of ensuring competitive advantages of an enterprise with consideration of tendencies of development of the knowledge economy, information society and integration processes. Enterprise competitiveness is a synergetic characteristic, which reflects enterprise capability of dynamic response to changes of the market situation with the aim of keeping predominance over other economic subjects. Management of the future, on the basis of the management 2.0 concept, should take into account interests not only of top management and shareholders but also employees, local communities and territories and meet requirements of the society in general, individual groups of consumers and tendencies of development of managerial and information technologies. The paradigm of the modern theory of ensuring competitive advantages should include models of keeping competitive advantages in the existing markets and models of development of future markets; strategy of development of enterprise competitiveness, human capital development and efficient enterprise management.

  4. Harvey A. K. Whitney Lecture. Shifting pharmacy's paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, M F

    1993-09-01

    Changes occurring in the pharmacy profession and their effects on the paradigm for pharmacy practice are discussed. The paradigm of pharmacy, the pattern or model of pharmacy's structure, services, daily activities, and organization, is shifting, and if pharmacists do not shift with it, they will be left behind. Advances in technological capabilities often result in automation and centralization of services. Improvements in drug therapy have caused shifts in the performance of clinical functions. Philosophical changes about the way health care should be delivered have produced the concepts of pharmaceutical care, patient-focused care, and continuous quality improvement of care. Teams of caregivers whose primary concern is the patient have replaced caregiving based on technology, discipline, or employee needs. Pharmacists have focused on the patient as their primary customer instead of the nurse or practitioner, and they anticipate the patient's needs in a structured and documented fashion. The principles of continuous quality improvement have been applied to every aspect of providing pharmaceutical care. If pharmacists are to adjust to the shift in the pharmacy paradigm, they must recognize their strength as a group, make proper recommendations about pharmaceutical use, move horizontally to grow as professionals, consider themselves clinicians, be active in the making of pharmaceutical care decisions, and believe in themselves. PMID:8135232

  5. The role of experience in Kuhn’s paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Sadeghi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the Kuhn’s historical method, one the one hand, there is no a distinctive role for discovery and empiric data to emergence of scientific paradigm and development of normal science. Discovery is not an individual and unexpected event, but it is a social legacy and has no distinctive border with invention. The empiric data, like discovery, is determined by paradigm and social education. On the other hand, Kuhn thinks that theory cannot be determined by the observation, and that, for each observation a variety of theories are imaginable which all of them are consistent with that experience. In this essay, I will argue that if an observation is theory-laden, it cannot be consistent with inconsistent theories, and then, Kuhn’s view that paradigm is the precondition of any perception, and his denying of observation-theory and discovery-invention distinctions is a main background for a kind of relativism that extends to the domain of ontology.

  6. Extended Informatics Paradigm in Biological and Psychological Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobilas KIRVELIS

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to present extended informatics paradigm (EIP. This paradigm expands concept of informatics from traditional information and communication technologies (ICT to a wide use of informational thinking, databases and related technologies in biology and psychology. The essential difference of EIP is an especial attention to nature and purpose of information in organized biological and/or psychological systems. Information as a phenomenon appeared on the Earth 3-4 billion years ago, when the life originated. Informatics paradigm considers the physical and chemical transformations of energy and matter as flows that are controlled, or as the signals for purposive informational control programs. Brain as product of biological evolution accomplishes a quick information processing, thinking and psychical activity. The information is born in control systems of organized systems. The organized systems are represented as informational closed-loop coding-decoding structures. Therefore, the scope of bioinformatics which is generally taught as a skill to deal with biological data bases should be extended, as well as the subject of informational psychology.

  7. A new paradigm for the universe (preliminary version)

    CERN Document Server

    Rourke, C

    2003-01-01

    A new paradigm for the structure of galaxies is proposed. The main hypothesis is that a normal galaxy contains a hypermassive black hole at its centre which generates the spiral arms. The paradigm gives satisfactory explanations for: * The rotation curve of a galaxy. * The spherical bulge at the centre of a normal galaxy. * The spiral structure and long-term stability of a normal galaxy. * The age and orbits of globular clusters. * The origin and prevalence of solar systems. * (Highly speculative) the origin of life. The paradigm is compatible with direct observations but not with many of the current interpretations of these observations. It is also incompatible with large swathes of current cosmological theory and in particular with the expanding universe and hot big bang theories. A tentative new explanation for the observed redshift of distant objects is given which is compatible with a static model for the universe. This paper is being circulated in a very preliminary form in the hope that others will wor...

  8. Hydropower development trends from a technological paradigm perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We propose a novel concept of hydropower development technological paradigm. • We create a data analysis system to visualize the keyword foci. • Future trajectories include hybrid power systems and resources from seawater. • The HDTP consists of a three-stage evolution and a policy framework. • The HDTP provides a how-to-do solution for the soft path. - Abstract: Hydropower has long been considered the backbone of the power generation sector in low-carbon and sustainable energy systems. Yet, as reliance on hydropower has been generally declining, the world is awakening to the need to fundamentally rethink the way hydropower is developed and managed. The paper proposes a systematic methodology to research the development trends and find a more sustainable hydropower path. Literature mining using the data analysis system and the technological paradigm theory were adopted to conduct the research. The keyword visualization results were found to meet the laws for the three phases of the technological paradigm. Specific key areas, such as small hydropower plants, hybrid power systems, and hydropower from seawater were identified as past, present and near future trajectories. To further accelerate hydropower development, specific subsidies and incentives need to be provided in areas such as capital costs and technological support. The study paves the way for a soft path solution which complements the hard path in hydropower field

  9. [The dimension of the paradigm of complexity in health systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo-Ortiz, Guillermo; Fernández-Ortega, Miguel Ángel; Ortiz-Montalvo, Armando; Olivares-Santos, Roberto Antonio

    2015-01-01

    This article presents elements to better understand health systems from the complety paradigm, innovative perspective that offers other ways in the conception of the scientific knowledge prevalent away from linear, characterized by the arise of emerging dissociative and behaviors, based on the intra and trans-disciplinarity concepts such knowledges explain and understand in a different way what happens in the health systems with a view to efficiency and effectiveness. The complexity paradigm means another way of conceptualizing the knowledge, is different from the prevalent epistemology, is still under construction does not separate, not isolated, is not reductionist, or fixed, does not solve the problems, but gives other bases to know them and study them, is a different strategy, a perspective that has basis in the systems theory, informatics and cybernetics beyond traditional knowledge, the positive logics, the newtonian physics and symmetric mathematics, in which everything is centered and balanced, joint the "soft sciences and hard sciences", it has present the Social Determinants of Health and organizational culture. Under the complexity paradigm the health systems are identified with the following concepts: entropy, neguentropy, the thermodynamic second law, attractors, chaos theory, fractals, selfmanagement and self-organization, emerging behaviors, percolation, uncertainty, networks and robusteness; such expressions open new possibilities to improve the management and better understanding of the health systems, giving rise to consider health systems as complex adaptive systems. PMID:25982615

  10. Toward a patient-based paradigm for blood transfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrugia A

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Albert Farrugia,1,2 Eleftherios Vamvakas31College of Medicine, Biology and Environment, Australian National University, Acton, ACT, Australia; 2Centre for Orthopaedic Research, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia; 3Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USAAbstract: The current "manufacturing paradigm" of transfusion practice has detached transfusion from the clinical environment. As an example, fresh whole blood in large-volume hemorrhage may be superior to whole blood reconstituted from multiple components. Multicomponent apheresis can overcome logistical difficulties in matching patient needs with fresh component availability and can deliver the benefits of fresh whole blood. Because of the different transfusion needs of patients in emerging economies and the vulnerability of these blood systems to emerging infections, fresh whole blood and multicomponent apheresis can better meet patient needs when compared with transplants of the "manufacturing paradigm". We propose that patient blood management, along with panels of repeat, paid, accredited apheresis and fresh whole-blood donors can be used in emerging economies to support decentralized blood services. This alternative transfusion–medicine paradigm could eventually also be adopted by established economies to focus transfusion medicine on local patient needs and to alleviate the problem of the aging volunteer donor base.Keywords: indications, emerging countries, patient blood management

  11. Revisiting Mary Daly: Towards a quadripartite theological and philosophical paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannelie Wood

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available I was a tenderfoot in feminist discourse when I started my research on patriarchy, feminism, and Mary Daly. In my thesis, one aspect I engaged was Daly’s battle with gender issues in Christian theology. From the beginning I was troubled by Mary Daly’s views on God, men, and women in her discourse on Christianity. Daly undoubtedly contributed to the discussion on gender issues in the Christian faith, but her focus on androcentrism and her interpretations of Scripture led her to abandon the Christian faith. Mary Daly has written extensively on patriarchy as it is found in religion – particularly in the Christian faith – and how it filters through society. In her critique of patriarchy she set her course to dismantle the facade of a patriarchal and misogynistic God as the root of patriarchy. Daly did not see any positive qualities of the Christian faith and completely rejected other interpretations of a God whose person embraces both male and female qualities. Against this background I will evaluate Daly’s post-Christian feminist theological and philosophical paradigm. I propose that Daly has a quadripartite theological and philosophical paradigm wherein there are four main players. The ‘Who is who’ in Daly’s quadripartite patriarchal theological and philosophical paradigm are the patriarchal male, the patriarchal female, the patriarchal God and the biophilic woman.

  12. A functional paradigm for evaluating culture: An example with cetaceans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alison Linda GREGGOR

    2012-01-01

    Nonhuman culture was first considered in nonhuman primates because they are genetically similar to humans.However,evolution is not progressive and therefore many species may occupy niches that favor socially transmitted,group specific behavior.Not surprisingly,evidence for culture has accrued in several taxonomic groups,including cetaceans.If culture is an adaptation,it is imperative we understand the factors that favor its formation.Understanding the evolutionary origin of culture will allow for a wider range of species to be studied,including those that are difficult to test in the laboratory.I propose a broad-based functional paradigm for evaluating nonhuman culture; based on the idea that while not all cultural behaviors may garner fitness benefits to the individual,the ecological and social environments in which cultural behaviors evolved must have favored the physical attributes and social learning capabilities that allow for cultural formation.Specifically this framework emphasizes the relationships between social learning,ecology,social systems,and biology in relation to culture.I illustrate the utility of the functional paradigm with evidence from the ceteacean group,while setting the stage for a stringent species by species analysis.By means of contextualizing culture,the Functional Paradigm can evaluate a species' potential to exhibit culture and can investigate potentially cultural behaviors [Current Zoology 58 (2):271-286,2012].

  13. Evolvement and Innovation of Service Paradigms%服务营销范式的演进与变革

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦福祥; 姚亚男

    2009-01-01

    The theory of services marketing evolves fast,but the academic research on the service paradigm is few and far between.Using the tool of Kuhn's paradigm assumptions,the thesis clarifies the three stages of services marketing paradigm evolvement,and implies the innovation of service paradigm.The research findings show that service science is right direction for the development of the service paradigm,but not replacement,what matters is the regeneration of the old paradigms.

  14. Experiencing a Flipped Mathematics Class

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, A. Judy

    2013-01-01

    The flipped classroom is an old concept that has recently been redefined through the emergence of new technologies that allow teachers to deliver content out of class time. As such, various approaches for implementation exist. Most prominently, teachers are able to use class time in a student-centered manner, which allows students to experience the classroom in diverse ways. This study focuses on describing these experiences in a particular flipped adult upgrading mathematics class. Students ...

  15. Class Differences in Cohabitation Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Sassler, Sharon; Miller, Amanda J.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the burgeoning cohabitation literature, research has failed to examine social class variation in processes of forming and advancing such unions. Drawing upon in-depth interviews with 122 working- and middle-class cohabitors, we examine the duration between dating and moving in together, reasons for cohabiting, and subsequent plans. Transitions to cohabitation are more rapid among the working class. Respondents often cohabited for practical reasons—out of financial necessity, because i...

  16. Professional Elites in "Classes" Societies

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Modern European identity has been forged in class struggles between the French revolution and fall of the Berlin Wall, which fell twice. Once, with the rest of the city in May 1945, when a national socialist alternative to a modernizing mix of parliamentary democracy and market economy crumbled after the hot WWII, and second time in November 1989, when a state socialist alternative crumbled after the Cold War. At the same time working class in the USA abandoned trade unions and class struggle...

  17. Reconciling Virtual Classes with Genericity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    classes. As a result, a kind of type parameters have been introduced, but they are simple and only used where they excel. Conversely, final definitions of virtual classes have been re- moved from the language, thus making virtual classes more flexible. The result- ing language presents a clearer and more...... flexible trade-off between extensibility and predictability, empowering programmers to choose the right balance....

  18. Evolution of the marketing paradigm: a new vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina V. ASTRATOVA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to confirm the feasibility of using the disciplinary matrix by Th. Kuhn in relation to the marketing theory. Methods paradigmatic and systemic methods of analysis of marketing phenomena. Results to date the paradigm as a specific tool of scientific research is poorly studied in the marketing methodology in contrast to other branches of knowledge. An analysis of available literature revealed no sources that use the famous disciplinary matrix by Th. Kuhn and its components symbolic generalizations metaphysical parts values and conventional samples ndash in relation to marketing. The content of the marketing paradigm is described as the disciplinary matrix by Th. Kuhn which was composed of the four abovementioned elements 1 symbolic generalizations are the expressions that are used by members of the scientific community without disagreements and doubts and can be easily formalized or verbalized e.g. definition of marketing 2 metaphysical parts of modern marketing are a set of the existing concepts and theories e.g. theory of stages of marketing evolution 3 values in the context of the marketing paradigms are considered by the authors through emphasis on three research objects a goods service ndash creation of new goods andor formation of a set of qualities inherent in the goods service perceived by the consumer as a combination of rational and emotional values of the product b customer ndash development of quotvalue proposition for the consumerquot c sellermanufacturer ndash basing on the concept of quotvalue chainquot that builds strategic management of the company 4 conventional samples of the marketing paradigm include standards or algorithms models and methods of solving specific problems of marketing research for example a diagram of the stages of the marketing research process and industrial standards of their conduct. Scientific novelty the appropriateness of the disciplinary matrix by Th. Kuhn in relation to the marketing theory

  19. First class models from linear and nonlinear second class constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Mehdi; Mardaani, Maryam; Monemzadeh, Majid; Nejad, Salman Abarghouei

    2015-10-01

    Two models with linear and nonlinear second class constraints are considered and gauged by embedding in an extended phase space. These models are studied by considering a free non-relativistic particle on the hyperplane and hypersphere in the configuration space. The gauged theory of the first model is obtained by converting the very second class system to the first class one directly. In contrast, the first class system related to the free particle on the hypersphere is derived with the help of the infinite Batalin-Fradkin-Tyutin (BFT) embedding procedure. We propose a practical formula, based on the simplified BFT method, which is practical in gauging linear and some nonlinear second class systems. As a result of gauging these two models, we show that in the conversion of second class constraints to the first class ones, the minimum number of phase space degrees of freedom for both systems is a pair of phase space coordinates. This pair is made up of a coordinate and its conjugate momentum for the first model, but the corresponding Poisson structure of the embedded non-relativistic particle on hypersphere is a nontrivial one. We derive infinite correction terms for the Hamiltonian of the nonlinear constraints and an interacting gauged Hamiltonian is constructed by summing over them. At the end, we find an open algebra for three first class objects of the embedded nonlinear system.

  20. Class Counts: Education, Inequality, and the Shrinking Middle Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornstein, Allan

    2007-01-01

    Class differences and class warfare have existed since the beginning of western civilization, but the gap in income and wealth between the rich (top 10 percent) and the rest has increased steadily in the last twenty-five years. The U.S. is heading for a financial oligarchy much worse than the aristocratic old world that our Founding Fathers feared…