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Sample records for class proteobacteria characterization

  1. Molecular Analysis of Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria of the β Subdivision of the Class Proteobacteria in Compost and Composted Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalchuk, George A.; Naoumenko, Zinaida S.; Derikx, Piet J. L.; Felske, Andreas; Stephen, John R.; Arkhipchenko, Irina A.

    1999-01-01

    Although the practice of composting animal wastes for use as biofertilizers has increased in recent years, little is known about the microorganisms responsible for the nitrogen transformations which occur in compost and during the composting process. Ammonia is the principle available nitrogenous compound in composting material, and the conversion of this compound to nitrite in the environment by chemolithotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria is an essential step in nitrogen cycling. Therefore, the distribution of ammonia-oxidizing members of the β subdivision of the class Proteobacteria in a variety of composting materials was assessed by amplifying 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and 16S rRNA by PCR and reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), respectively. The PCR and RT-PCR products were separated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and were identified by hybridization with a hierarchical set of oligonucleotide probes designed to detect ammonia oxidizer-like sequence clusters in the genera Nitrosospira and Nitrosomonas. Ammonia oxidizer-like 16S rDNA was detected in almost all of the materials tested, including industrial and experimental composts, manure, and commercial biofertilizers. A comparison of the DGGE and hybridization results after specific PCR and RT-PCR suggested that not all of the different ammonia oxidizer groups detected in compost are equally active. amoA, the gene encoding the active-site-containing subunit of ammonia monooxygenase, was also targeted by PCR, and template concentrations were estimated by competitive PCR. Detection of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in the composts tested suggested that such materials may not be biologically inert with respect to nitrification and that the fate of nitrogen during composting and compost storage may be affected by the presence of these organisms. PMID:9925559

  2. Algicidal Effects of a Novel Marine Pseudoalteromonas Isolate (Class Proteobacteria, Gamma Subdivision) on Harmful Algal Bloom Species of the Genera Chattonella, Gymnodinium, and Heterosigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovejoy, Connie; Bowman, John P.; Hallegraeff, Gustaaf M.

    1998-01-01

    During a bacterial survey of the Huon Estuary in southern Tasmania, Australia, we isolated a yellow-pigmented Pseudoalteromonas strain (class Proteobacteria, gamma subdivision), designated strain Y, that had potent algicidal effects on harmful algal bloom species. This organism was identified by 16S rRNA sequencing as a strain with close affinities to Pseudoalteromonas peptidysin. This bacterium caused rapid cell lysis and death (within 3 h) of gymnodinoids (including Gymnodinium catenatum) and raphidophytes (Chattonella marina and Heterosigma akashiwo). It caused ecdysis of armored dinoflagellates (e.g., Alexandrium catenella, Alexandrium minutum, and Prorocentrum mexicanum), but the algal cultures then recovered over the subsequent 24 h. Strain Y had no effect on a cryptomonad (Chroomonas sp.), a diatom (Skeletonema sp.), a cyanobacterium (Oscillatoria sp.), and two aplastidic protozoans. The algicidal principle of strain Y was excreted into the seawater medium and lost its efficacy after heating. Another common bacterial species, Pseudoalteromonas carrageenovora, was isolated at the same time and did not have these algicidal effects. The minimum concentrations of strain Y required to kill G. catenatum were higher than the mean concentrations found in nature under nonbloom conditions. However, the new bacterium showed a chemotactic, swarming behavior that resulted in localized high concentrations around target organisms. These observations imply that certain bacteria could play an important role in regulating the onset and development of harmful algal blooms. PMID:9687434

  3. Comparative Genomics of Regulation of Fatty Acid and Branched-chain Amino Acid Utilization in Proteobacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazakov, Alexey E.; Rodionov, Dmitry A.; Arkin, Adam Paul; Dubchak, Inna; Gelfand, Mikhail S.; Alm, Eric

    2008-10-31

    Bacteria can use branched-chain amino acids (ILV, i.e. isoleucine, leucine, valine) and fatty acids (FA) as sole carbon and energy sources convering ILV into acetyl-CoA, propanoyl-CoA and propionyl-CoA, respectively. In this work, we used the comparative genomic approach to identify candidate transcriptional factors and DNA motifs that control ILV and FA utilization pathways in proteobacteria. The metabolic regulons were characterized based on the identification and comparison of candidate transcription factor binding sites in groups of phylogenetically related genomes. The reconstructed ILV/FA regulatory network demonstrates considerable variability and involves six transcriptional factors from the MerR, TetR and GntR families binding to eleven distinct DNA motifs. The ILV degradation genes in gamma- and beta-proteobacteria are mainly regulated by anovel regulator from the MerR family (e.g., LiuR in Pseudomonas aeruginosa) (40 species), in addition, the TetR-type regulator LiuQ was identified in some beta-proteobacteria (8 species). Besides the core set of ILV utilization genes, the LiuR regulon in some lineages is expanded to include genes from other metabolic pathways, such as the glyoxylate shunt and glutamate synthase in the Shewanella species. The FA degradation genes are controlled by four regulators including FadR in gamma-proteobacteria (34 species), PsrA in gamma- and beta-proteobacteria (45 species), FadP in beta-proteobacteria (14 species), and LiuR orthologs in alpha-proteobacteria (22 species). The remarkable variability of the regulatory systems associated with the FA degradation pathway is discussed from the functional and evolutionary points of view.

  4. Brain microbial populations in HIV/AIDS: α-proteobacteria predominate independent of host immune status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William G Branton

    Full Text Available The brain is assumed to be a sterile organ in the absence of disease although the impact of immune disruption is uncertain in terms of brain microbial diversity or quantity. To investigate microbial diversity and quantity in the brain, the profile of infectious agents was examined in pathologically normal and abnormal brains from persons with HIV/AIDS [HIV] (n = 12, other disease controls [ODC] (n = 14 and in cerebral surgical resections for epilepsy [SURG] (n = 6. Deep sequencing of cerebral white matter-derived RNA from the HIV (n = 4 and ODC (n = 4 patients and SURG (n = 2 groups revealed bacterially-encoded 16 s RNA sequences in all brain specimens with α-proteobacteria representing over 70% of bacterial sequences while the other 30% of bacterial classes varied widely. Bacterial rRNA was detected in white matter glial cells by in situ hybridization and peptidoglycan immunoreactivity was also localized principally in glia in human brains. Analyses of amplified bacterial 16 s rRNA sequences disclosed that Proteobacteria was the principal bacterial phylum in all human brain samples with similar bacterial rRNA quantities in HIV and ODC groups despite increased host neuroimmune responses in the HIV group. Exogenous viruses including bacteriophage and human herpes viruses-4, -5 and -6 were detected variably in autopsied brains from both clinical groups. Brains from SIV- and SHIV-infected macaques displayed a profile of bacterial phyla also dominated by Proteobacteria but bacterial sequences were not detected in experimentally FIV-infected cat or RAG1⁻/⁻ mouse brains. Intracerebral implantation of human brain homogenates into RAG1⁻/⁻ mice revealed a preponderance of α-proteobacteria 16 s RNA sequences in the brains of recipient mice at 7 weeks post-implantation, which was abrogated by prior heat-treatment of the brain homogenate. Thus, α-proteobacteria represented the major bacterial component of the primate brain

  5. Genomic Characterization of Methanomicrobiales Reveals Three Classes of Methanogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Iain; Ulrich, Luke E.; Lupa, Boguslaw; Susanti, Dwi; Porat, Iris; Hooper, Sean D.; Lykidis, Athanasios; Sieprawska-Lupa, Magdalena; Dharmarajan, Lakshmi; Goltsman, Eugene; Lapidus, Alla; Saunders, Elizabeth; Han, Cliff; Land, Miriam; Lucas, Susan; Mukhopadhyay, Biswarup; Whitman, William B.; Woese, Carl; Bristow, James; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2009-05-01

    Methanomicrobiales is the least studied order of methanogens. While these organisms appear to be more closely related to the Methanosarcinales in ribosomal-based phylogenetic analyses, they are metabolically more similar to Class I methanogens. In order to improve our understanding of this lineage, we have completely sequenced the genomes of two members of this order, Methanocorpusculum labreanum Z and Methanoculleus marisnigri JR1, and compared them with the genome of a third, Methanospirillum hungatei JF-1. Similar to Class I methanogens, Methanomicrobiales use a partial reductive citric acid cycle for 2-oxoglutarate biosynthesis, and they have the Eha energy-converting hydrogenase. In common with Methanosarcinales, Methanomicrobiales possess the Ech hydrogenase and at least some of them may couple formylmethanofuran formation and heterodisulfide reduction to transmembrane ion gradients. Uniquely, M. labreanum and M. hungatei contain hydrogenases similar to the Pyrococcus furiosus Mbh hydrogenase, and all three Methanomicrobiales have anti-sigma factor and anti-anti-sigma factor regulatory proteins not found in other methanogens. Phylogenetic analysis based on seven core proteins of methanogenesis and cofactor biosynthesis places the Methanomicrobiales equidistant from Class I methanogens and Methanosarcinales. Our results indicate that Methanomicrobiales, rather than being similar to Class I methanogens or Methanomicrobiales, share some features of both and have some unique properties. We find that there are three distinct classes of methanogens: the Class I methanogens, the Methanomicrobiales (Class II), and the Methanosarcinales (Class III).

  6. Characterization of duck (Anas platyrhynchos) MHC class Igene in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    LIN ZHANG

    2017-06-17

    Jun 17, 2017 ... from Weishan Ma duck and Cherry Valley duck were cloned, and their characterization were investigated. The overall ... Then the first-strand cDNAs were syn- thesized ... opment, Tokyo, Japan) and DNAMAN demo software.

  7. Purification and Characterization of Enzymes from Yeast: An Extended Undergraduate Laboratory Sequence for Large Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanson, Kelly E.; Watt, Terry J.; McIntyre, Neil R.; Thompson, Marleesa

    2013-01-01

    Providing a project-based experience in an undergraduate biochemistry laboratory class can be complex with large class sizes and limited resources. We have designed a 6-week curriculum during which students purify and characterize the enzymes invertase and phosphatase from bakers yeast. Purification is performed in two stages via ethanol…

  8. Computation Sequences: A Way to Characterize Classes of Attribute Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis

    1983-01-01

    A computation sequence for a derivation tree specifies a way of walking through the tree evaluating all the attributes of all nodes. By requiring that each derivation tree has a computation sequence with a certain property, it is possible to give simple characterizations of well-known subclasses ...

  9. A geometric characterization of a class of modular representations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assadi, A.H.

    1988-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to prove the following characterization of the invertible elements of the Green ring of a p-elementary Abelian group. Let G=(Z/p) m , and let k be an algebraically closed field of characteristic p. Suppose M is a finitely generated indecomposable kG-module and let N be a kG-module such that Mx k N is stably isomorphic to k (with the trivial G-action). Then M is kG-isomorphic to a Heller module Ω n (k), n is an element of Z. In particular, we recover a theorem of E. Dade |D| on the characterization of endo-trivial modules as a corollary. If End k (M) approx.= k + Free and M is indecomposable, then M approx.= Ω n (k) for some n is an element of Z. (author). 10 refs

  10. IDEAL characterization of isometry classes of FLRW and inflationary spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canepa, Giovanni; Dappiaggi, Claudio; Khavkine, Igor

    2018-02-01

    In general relativity, an IDEAL (Intrinsic, Deductive, Explicit, ALgorithmic) characterization of a reference spacetime metric g 0 consists of a set of tensorial equations T[g]  =  0, constructed covariantly out of the metric g, its Riemann curvature and their derivatives, that are satisfied if and only if g is locally isometric to the reference spacetime metric g 0. The same notion can be extended to also include scalar or tensor fields, where the equations T[g, φ]=0 are allowed to also depend on the extra fields ϕ. We give the first IDEAL characterization of cosmological FLRW spacetimes, with and without a dynamical scalar (inflaton) field. We restrict our attention to what we call regular geometries, which uniformly satisfy certain identities or inequalities. They roughly split into the following natural special cases: constant curvature spacetime, Einstein static universe, and flat or curved spatial slices. We also briefly comment on how the solution of this problem has implications, in general relativity and inflation theory, for the construction of local gauge invariant observables for linear cosmological perturbations and for stability analysis.

  11. Workload Characterization of a Leadership Class Storage Cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Youngjae [ORNL; Gunasekaran, Raghul [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL; Dillow, David A [ORNL; Zhang, Zhe [ORNL; Settlemyer, Bradley W [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Understanding workload characteristics is critical for optimizing and improving the performance of current systems and software, and architecting new storage systems based on observed workload patterns. In this paper, we characterize the scientific workloads of the world s fastest HPC (High Performance Computing) storage cluster, Spider, at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). Spider provides an aggregate bandwidth of over 240 GB/s with over 10 petabytes of RAID 6 formatted capacity. OLCFs flagship petascale simulation platform, Jaguar, and other large HPC clusters, in total over 250 thousands compute cores, depend on Spider for their I/O needs. We characterize the system utilization, the demands of reads and writes, idle time, and the distribution of read requests to write requests for the storage system observed over a period of 6 months. From this study we develop synthesized workloads and we show that the read and write I/O bandwidth usage as well as the inter-arrival time of requests can be modeled as a Pareto distribution.

  12. Characterizing interactive engagement activities in a flipped introductory physics class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna K. Wood

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Interactive engagement activities are increasingly common in undergraduate physics teaching. As research efforts move beyond simply showing that interactive engagement pedagogies work towards developing an understanding of how they lead to improved learning outcomes, a detailed analysis of the way in which these activities are used in practice is needed. Our aim in this paper is to present a characterization of the type and duration of interactions, as experienced by students, that took place during two introductory physics courses (1A and 1B at a university in the United Kingdom. Through this work, a simple framework for analyzing lectures—the framework for interactive learning in lectures (FILL, which focuses on student interactions (with the lecturer, with each other, and with the material is proposed. The pedagogical approach is based on Peer Instruction (PI and both courses are taught by the same lecturer. We find lecture activities can be categorized into three types: interactive (25%, vicarious interactive (20% (involving questions to and from the lecturer, and noninteractive (55%. As expected, the majority of both interactive and vicarious interactive activities took place during PI. However, the way that interactive activities were used during non-PI sections of the lecture varied significantly between the two courses. Differences were also found in the average time spent on lecturer-student interactions (28% for 1A and 12% for 1B, although not on student-student interactions (12% and 12% or on individual learning (10% and 7%. These results are explored in detail and the implications for future research are discussed.

  13. [A new family of Alteromonadaceae fam. nov., including the marine proteobacteria species Alteromonas, Pseudoalteromonas, Idiomarina i Colwellia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, E P; Mikhaĭlov, V V

    2001-01-01

    The taxonomic position of the marine genera Alteromonas, Pseudoalteromonas, Idiomarina, and Colwellia within the gamma subclass of the class Proteobacteria were specified on the basis of their phenotypic, genotypic, and phylogenetic characteristics. Gram-negative aerobic bacteria of the genera Alteromonas, Pseudoalteromonas, and Idiomarina and facultatively anaerobic bacteria of the genus Colwellia were found to form a phylogenetic cluster with a 16S rRNA sequence homology of 90% or higher. The characteristics of these genera presented in this paper allow their reliable taxonomic identification. Based on the analysis of our experimental data and analyses available in the literature, we propose to combine the genera Alteromonas, Pseudoalteromonas, Idiomarina, and Colwellia into a new family, Alteromonadaceae fam. nov., with the type genus Alteromonas.

  14. Comparative analysis of LytS/LytTR-type histidine kinase/response regulator systems in γ-proteobacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Behr

    Full Text Available Bacterial histidine kinase/response regulator systems operate at the interface between environmental cues and physiological states. Escherichia coli contains two LytS/LytTR-type histidine kinase/response regulator systems, BtsS/BtsR (formerly YehU/YehT and YpdA/YpdB, which have been identified as pyruvate-responsive two-component systems. Since they exhibit remarkable similarity, we analyzed their phylogenetic distribution within the γ-proteobacteria, and experimentally characterized them in a set of representative species. We found that BtsS/BtsR is the predominant LytS/LytTR-type two-component system among γ-proteobacteria, whereas YpdA/YpdB primarily appears in a supplementary role. Based on our observations in E. coli, we used the highly conserved DNA-binding motifs to test the in vivo functionality of both systems in various genera, including Salmonella, Enterobacter, Citrobacter, Xenorhabdus, Yersinia, Aeromonas and Vibrio. The results suggest that, in all cases tested, BtsS/BtsR and YpdA/YpdB respond to different levels of pyruvate in the environment.

  15. Characterization of the Endothelial Cell Cytoskeleton following HLA Class I Ligation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Mary E.; Souda, Puneet; Jin, Yi-Ping; Whitelegge, Julian P.; Reed, Elaine F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Vascular endothelial cells (ECs) are a target of antibody-mediated allograft rejection. In vitro, when the HLA class I molecules on the surface of ECs are ligated by anti-HLA class I antibodies, cell proliferation and survival pathways are activated and this is thought to contribute to the development of antibody-mediated rejection. Crosslinking of HLA class I molecules by anti-HLA antibodies also triggers reorganization of the cytoskeleton, which induces the formation of F-actin stress fibers. HLA class I induced stress fiber formation is not well understood. Methodology and Principal Findings The present study examines the protein composition of the cytoskeleton fraction of ECs treated with HLA class I antibodies and compares it to other agonists known to induce alterations of the cytoskeleton in endothelial cells. Analysis by tandem mass spectrometry revealed unique cytoskeleton proteomes for each treatment group. Using annotation tools a candidate list was created that revealed 12 proteins, which were unique to the HLA class I stimulated group. Eleven of the candidate proteins were phosphoproteins and exploration of their predicted kinases provided clues as to how these proteins may contribute to the understanding of HLA class I induced antibody-mediated rejection. Three of the candidates, eukaryotic initiation factor 4A1 (eIF4A1), Tropomyosin alpha 4-chain (TPM4) and DDX3X, were further characterized by Western blot and found to be associated with the cytoskeleton. Confocal microscopy analysis showed that class I ligation stimulated increased eIF4A1 co-localization with F-actin and paxillin. Conclusions/Significance Colocalization of eIF4A1 with F-actin and paxillin following HLA class I ligation suggests that this candidate protein could be a target for understanding the mechanism(s) of class I mediated antibody-mediated rejection. This proteomic approach for analyzing the cytoskeleton of ECs can be applied to other agonists and various cells types

  16. Draft Genome Sequences of Three β-Lactam-Catabolizing Soil Proteobacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crofts, Terence S.; Wang, Bin; Spivak, Aaron

    2017-01-01

    Most antibiotics are derived from the soil, but their catabolism there, which is necessary to close the antibiotic carbon cycle, remains uncharacterized. We report the first draft genome sequences of soil Proteobacteria identified for subsisting solely on β-lactams as their carbon sources...

  17. Quantification of ploidy in proteobacteria revealed the existence of monoploid, (mero-oligoploid and polyploid species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito Pecoraro

    Full Text Available Bacteria are generally assumed to be monoploid (haploid. This assumption is mainly based on generalization of the results obtained with the most intensely studied model bacterium, Escherichia coli (a gamma-proteobacterium, which is monoploid during very slow growth. However, several species of proteobacteria are oligo- or polyploid, respectively. To get a better overview of the distribution of ploidy levels, genome copy numbers were quantified in four species of three different groups of proteobacteria. A recently developed Real Time PCR approach, which had been used to determine the ploidy levels of halophilic archaea, was optimized for the quantification of genome copy numbers of bacteria. Slow-growing (doubling time 103 minutes and fast-growing (doubling time 25 minutes E. coli cultures were used as a positive control. The copy numbers of the origin and terminus region of the chromosome were determined and the results were in excellent agreement with published data. The approach was also used to determine the ploidy levels of Caulobacter crescentus (an alpha-proteobacterium and Wolinella succinogenes (an epsilon-proteobacterium, both of which are monoploid. In contrast, Pseudomonas putida (a gamma-proteobacterium contains 20 genome copies and is thus polyploid. A survey of the proteobacteria with experimentally-determined genome copy numbers revealed that only three to four of 11 species are monoploid and thus monoploidy is not typical for proteobacteria. The ploidy level is not conserved within the groups of proteobacteria, and there are no obvious correlations between the ploidy levels with other parameters like genome size, optimal growth temperature or mode of life.

  18. Characterization of Class A low-level radioactive waste 1986--1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehmel, J.C.; Loomis, D.; Mauro, J.; Kaplan, M.

    1994-01-01

    Under contract to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, the firms of S. Cohen ampersand Associates, Inc. (SC ampersand A) and Eastern Research Group (ERG) have compiled a report that describes the physical, chemical, and radiological properties of Class-A low-level radioactive waste. The report also presents information characterizing various methods and facilities used to treat and dispose non-radioactive waste. A database management program was developed for use in accessing, sorting, analyzing, and displaying the electronic data provided by EG ampersand G. The program was used to present and aggregate data characterizing the radiological, physical, and chemical properties of the waste from descriptions contained in shipping manifests. The data thus retrieved are summarized in tables, histograms, and cumulative distribution curves presenting radionuclide concentration distributions in Class-A waste as a function of waste streams, by category of waste generators, and regions of the United States. The report also provides information characterizing methods and facilities used to treat and dispose non-radioactive waste, including industrial, municipal, and hazardous waste regulated under Subparts C and D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The information includes a list of disposal options, the geographical locations of the processing and disposal facilities, and a description of the characteristics of such processing and disposal facilities. Volume 1 contains the Executive Summary, Volume 2 presents the Class-A waste database, Volume 3 presents the information characterizing non-radioactive waste management practices and facilities, and Volumes 4 through 7 contain Appendices A through P with supporting information

  19. Characterization of Class A low-level radioactive waste 1986--1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehmel, J.C.; Loomis, D.; Mauro, J.; Kaplan, M.

    1994-01-01

    Under contract to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, the firms of S. Cohen ampersand Associates, Inc. (SC ampersand A) and Eastern Research Group (ERG) have compiled a report that describes the physical, chemical, and radiological properties of Class-A low-level radioactive waste. The report also presents information characterizing various methods and facilities used to treat and dispose non-radioactive waste. A database management program was developed for use in accessing, sorting, analyzing, and displaying the electronic data provided by EG ampersand G. The program was used to present and aggregate data characterizing the radiological, physical, and chemical properties of the waste from descriptions contained in shipping manifests. The data thus retrieved are summarized in tables, histograms, and cumulative distribution curves presenting radionuclide concentration distributions in Class-A waste as a function of waste streams, by category of waste generators, and regions of the United States. The report also provides information characterizing methods and facilities used to treat and dispose non-radioactive waste, including industrial, municipal, and hazardous waste regulated under Subparts C and D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The information includes a list of disposal options, the geographical locations of the processing and disposal facilities, and a description of the characteristics of such processing and disposal facilities. Volume 1 contains the Executive Summary, Volume 2 presents the Class-A waste database, Volume 3 presents the information characterizing non-radioactive waste management practices and facilities, and Volumes 4 through 7 contain Appendices A through P with supporting information

  20. Characterization of Class A low-level radioactive waste 1986--1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehmel, J.C.; Loomis, D.; Mauro, J.; Kaplan, M.

    1994-01-01

    Under contract to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, the firms of S. Cohen ampersand Associates, Inc. (SC ampersand A) and Eastern Research Group (ERG) have compiled a report that describes the physical, chemical, and radiological properties of Class-A low-level radioactive waste. The report also presents information characterizing various methods and facilities used to treat and dispose non-radioactive waste. A database management program was developed for use in accessing, sorting, analyzing, and displaying the electronic data provided by EG ampersand G. The program was used to present and aggregate data characterizing the radiological, physical, and chemical properties of the waste from descriptions contained in shipping manifests. The data thus retrieved are summarized in tables, histograms, and cumulative distribution curves presenting radionuclide concentration distributions in Class-A waste as a function of waste streams, by category of waste generators, and regions of the United States. The report also provides information characterizing methods and facilities used to treat and dispose non-radioactive waste, including industrial, municipal, and hazardous waste regulated under Subparts C and D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The information includes a list of disposal options, the geographical locations of the processing and disposal facilities, and a description of the characteristics of such processing and disposal facilities. Volume 1 contains the Executive Summary, Volume 2 presents the Class-A waste database, Volume 3 presents the information characterizing non-radioactive waste management practices and facilities, and Volumes 4 to 7 contain Appendices A to P with supporting information

  1. Characterization of 47 MHC class I sequences in Filipino cynomolgus macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kevin J.; Detmer, Ann M.; Karl, Julie A.; Wiseman, Roger W.; Blasky, Alex J.; Hughes, Austin L.; Bimber, Benjamin N.; O’Connor, Shelby L.; O’Connor, David H.

    2009-01-01

    Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) provide increasingly common models for infectious disease research. Several geographically distinct populations of these macaques from Southeast Asia and the Indian Ocean island of Mauritius are available for pathogenesis studies. Though host genetics may profoundly impact results of such studies, similarities and differences between populations are often overlooked. In this study we identified 47 full-length MHC class I nucleotide sequences in 16 cynomolgus macaques of Filipino origin. The majority of MHC class I sequences characterized (39 of 47) were unique to this regional population. However, we discovered eight sequences with perfect identity and six sequences with close similarity to previously defined MHC class I sequences from other macaque populations. We identified two ancestral MHC haplotypes that appear to be shared between Filipino and Mauritian cynomolgus macaques, notably a Mafa-B haplotype that has previously been shown to protect Mauritian cynomolgus macaques against challenge with a simian/human immunodeficiency virus, SHIV89.6P. We also identified a Filipino cynomolgus macaque MHC class I sequence for which the predicted protein sequence differs from Mamu-B*17 by a single amino acid. This is important because Mamu-B*17 is strongly associated with protection against simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) challenge in Indian rhesus macaques. These findings have implications for the evolutionary history of Filipino cynomolgus macaques as well as for the use of this model in SIV/SHIV research protocols. PMID:19107381

  2. Characterization of Greater-Than-Class C sealed sources. Volume 2, Sealed source characterization and future production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, G.; Griffel, A.

    1994-09-01

    Sealed sources are small, relatively high-activity radioactive sources typically encapsulated in a metallic container. The activities can range from less than 1 mCi to over 1,000 Ci. They are used in a variety of industries and are commonly available. Many of the sources will be classified as Greater-Than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) for the purpose of waste disposal. The US Department of Energy is responsible for disposing of this class of low-level radioactive waste. The characterization of a sealed source is essentially a function of the type of radiation it emits, the principal use for which it is applied, and the activity it contains. The types of radiation of most interest to the GTCC LLW Program are gamma rays and neutrons, since these are emitted by the highest activity sources. The principal uses of most importance are gamma irradiators, medical teletherapy, well logging probes, and other general neutron applications. Current annual production rates of potential Greater-Than-Class C (PGTCC) sources sold to specific licensees were estimated based on data collected from device manufacturers. These estimates were then adjusted for current trends in the industry to estimate future annual production rates. It is expected that there will be approximately 8,000 PGTCC sealed sources produced annually for specific licensees

  3. Isolation and characterization of major histocompatibility complex class II B genes in cranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohyama, Tetsuo I; Akiyama, Takuya; Nishida, Chizuko; Takami, Kazutoshi; Onuma, Manabu; Momose, Kunikazu; Masuda, Ryuichi

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we isolated and characterized the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II B genes in cranes. Genomic sequences spanning exons 1 to 4 were amplified and determined in 13 crane species and three other species closely related to cranes. In all, 55 unique sequences were identified, and at least two polymorphic MHC class II B loci were found in most species. An analysis of sequence polymorphisms showed the signature of positive selection and recombination. A phylogenetic reconstruction based on exon 2 sequences indicated that trans-species polymorphism has persisted for at least 10 million years, whereas phylogenetic analyses of the sequences flanking exon 2 revealed a pattern of concerted evolution. These results suggest that both balancing selection and recombination play important roles in the crane MHC evolution.

  4. LLUSTRATION OF AMINO ACIDS REACTIONS AND PROTEINS CHARACTERIZATION FOR EXPERIMENTAL BIOCHEMISTRY CLASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Parreira

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available New teaching methodologies have been developed to facilitate the learning of biochemistry concepts. A new  approach to Biochemistry  teaching  has become more frequent,  one that does not  require reagents but use photos, videos, softwares etc. Experimental Biochemistry classes, i.e. covering characterization of amino acids and proteins,  might be more productive with the use of complementary didactic material.  Furthermore,  if experiments cannot be implemented, classes may  be well illustrated with complementary didactic material covering from the simplest to the most  complex experiments.  In order to  aid Biochemistry classes without practical experiments, some tests and reactions were documented in our laboratory through digital photos, for  instance: (1 the biuret reaction wherein the blue reagent turns violet in the presence of proteins and changes to pink when combined with short-chain polypeptides; (2 the ninhydrin test used in amino acid analysis of proteins: most of the amino acids are hydrolyzed and react with ninhydrin; when reacting with these free amines, a deep blue or purple color appears; (3 methods for detecting proteins wherein spectrophotometry is used, that deals with the relationship between absorbance, concentration and path length, which constitute the Beer-Lambert Law. A didactic material constituted by texts, schemes and illustrated by photos has been created for each class topic. This material can be used either as a teacher script or in a presentation form to illustrate classes without experimental activities. Financial Support: Pro-Reitoria Graduação-USP, CNPq.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of new class of ionic liquids containing phenolate anion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lethesh, Kallidanthiyil Chellappan; Wilfred, Cecilia Devi; Taha, M. F.; Thanabalan, M.

    2014-01-01

    In these manuscript novel ionic liquids containing a new class of 'phenolate' anions was synthesized and characterized. 1-methylmidazole with different alkyl chains such as butyl, hexyl and octyl groups was used as the cationic part. All the ionic liquids were obtained as liquids at room temperature. The synthesized ionic liquids were characterized using 1 H NMR and 13 C NMR spectroscopy. The thermal stability of the ionic liquids was studied using thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). The effect of temperature on the density and viscosity of the ionic liquids were studied over a temperature range from 293.15 K to 373.15K at atmospheric pressure. From the experimental values of density, the molecular volume, standard molar entropy and the lattice energy of the ionic liquids were calculated

  6. Synthesis and characterization of new class of ionic liquids containing phenolate anion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lethesh, Kallidanthiyil Chellappan, E-mail: lethesh.chellappan@petronas.com.my [PETRONAS Ionic Liquids Center, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (Malaysia); Wilfred, Cecilia Devi; Taha, M. F. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (Malaysia); Thanabalan, M. [Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    In these manuscript novel ionic liquids containing a new class of 'phenolate' anions was synthesized and characterized. 1-methylmidazole with different alkyl chains such as butyl, hexyl and octyl groups was used as the cationic part. All the ionic liquids were obtained as liquids at room temperature. The synthesized ionic liquids were characterized using {sup 1}H NMR and {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy. The thermal stability of the ionic liquids was studied using thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). The effect of temperature on the density and viscosity of the ionic liquids were studied over a temperature range from 293.15 K to 373.15K at atmospheric pressure. From the experimental values of density, the molecular volume, standard molar entropy and the lattice energy of the ionic liquids were calculated.

  7. Characterization of a unique class C acid phosphatase from Clostridium perfringens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Thomas J; Chance, Deborah L; Calcutt, Michael J; Tanner, John J; Felts, Richard L; Waller, Stephen C; Henzl, Michael T; Mawhinney, Thomas P; Ganjam, Irene K; Fales, William H

    2009-06-01

    Clostridium perfringens is a gram-positive anaerobe and a pathogen of medical importance. The detection of acid phosphatase activity is a powerful diagnostic indicator of the presence of C. perfringens among anaerobic isolates; however, characterization of the enzyme has not previously been reported. Provided here are details of the characterization of a soluble recombinant form of this cell-associated enzyme. The denatured enzyme was approximately 31 kDa and a homodimer in solution. It catalyzed the hydrolysis of several substrates, including para-nitrophenyl phosphate, 4-methylumbelliferyl phosphate, and 3' and 5' nucleoside monophosphates at pH 6. Calculated K(m)s ranged from 0.2 to 0.6 mM with maximum velocity ranging from 0.8 to 1.6 micromol of P(i)/s/mg. Activity was enhanced in the presence of some divalent cations but diminished in the presence of others. Wild-type enzyme was detected in all clinical C. perfringens isolates tested and found to be cell associated. The described enzyme belongs to nonspecific acid phosphatase class C but is devoid of lipid modification commonly attributed to this class.

  8. Characterization of a Unique Class C Acid Phosphatase from Clostridium perfringens▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Thomas J.; Chance, Deborah L.; Calcutt, Michael J.; Tanner, John J.; Felts, Richard L.; Waller, Stephen C.; Henzl, Michael T.; Mawhinney, Thomas P.; Ganjam, Irene K.; Fales, William H.

    2009-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens is a gram-positive anaerobe and a pathogen of medical importance. The detection of acid phosphatase activity is a powerful diagnostic indicator of the presence of C. perfringens among anaerobic isolates; however, characterization of the enzyme has not previously been reported. Provided here are details of the characterization of a soluble recombinant form of this cell-associated enzyme. The denatured enzyme was ∼31 kDa and a homodimer in solution. It catalyzed the hydrolysis of several substrates, including para-nitrophenyl phosphate, 4-methylumbelliferyl phosphate, and 3′ and 5′ nucleoside monophosphates at pH 6. Calculated Kms ranged from 0.2 to 0.6 mM with maximum velocity ranging from 0.8 to 1.6 μmol of Pi/s/mg. Activity was enhanced in the presence of some divalent cations but diminished in the presence of others. Wild-type enzyme was detected in all clinical C. perfringens isolates tested and found to be cell associated. The described enzyme belongs to nonspecific acid phosphatase class C but is devoid of lipid modification commonly attributed to this class. PMID:19363079

  9. Greater-than-Class C low-level waste characterization technical review process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchison, D.; Magleby, M.

    1990-01-01

    Existing volume projections of greater-than-Class C low-level waste (GTCC LLW) vary significantly. The Department of Energy (DOE) National Low-Level Waste Management Program (NLLWMP) has undertaken activities to develop a best estimate of GTCC LLW volumes and activities for use as the planning basis. Initial information about the generation of GTCC LLW was obtained through a DOE Energy Information Administration survey. That information, combined with information from other related literature, formed the basis of a computer model, which projects potential GTCC LLW. This paper describes uncertainties in existing GTCC LLW characterization and volume projections data and describes the technical review process that is being used to assist in projections of GTCC LLW expected for storage and disposal. 8 refs., 2 tabs.

  10. Greater-than-Class C low-level waste characterization technical review process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchison, D.; Magleby, M.

    1990-01-01

    Existing volume projections of greater-than-Class C low-level waste (GTCC LLW) vary significantly. The Department of Energy (DOE) National Low-Level Waste Management Program (NLLWMP) has undertaken activities to develop a best estimate of GTCC LLW volumes and activities for use as the planning basis. Initial information about the generation of GTCC LLW was obtained through a DOE Energy Information Administration survey. That information, combined with information from other related literature, formed the basis of a computer model, which projects potential GTCC LLW. This paper describes uncertainties in existing GTCC LLW characterization and volume projections data and describes the technical review process that is being used to assist in projections of GTCC LLW expected for storage and disposal. 8 refs., 2 tabs

  11. Tools for LWR spent fuel characterization: Assembly classes and fuel designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, R.S.; Notz, K.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Characteristics Data Base (CDB) is sponsored by the DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). The CDB provides a single, comprehensive source of data pertaining to radioactive wastes that will or may require geologic disposal, including detailed data describing the physical, quantitative, and radiological characteristics of light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel. In developing the CDB, tools for the classification of fuel assembly types have been developed. The assembly class scheme is particularly useful for size- and handling-based describes these tools and presents results of their applications in the areas of fuel assembly type identification, characterization of projected discharges, cask accommodation analyses, and defective fuel analyses. Suggestions for additional applications are also made. 7 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  12. Synthesis, Characterization, and Computational Modeling of N-(1-Ethoxyvinylpyridinium Triflates, an Unusual Class of Pyridinium Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D. Shapiro

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available N-Substituted pyridinium salts constitute one of the most valuable reagent classes in organic synthesis, due to their versatility and ease of use. Herein we report a preliminary synthesis and detailed structural analysis of several N-(1-ethoxyvinylpyridinium triflates, an unusual class of pyridinium salts with potentially broad use as a reagent in organic synthesis. Treatment of pyridines with trifluoromethane sulfonic acid and ethoxyacetylene generates stable, isolable adducts which have been extensively characterized, due to their novelty. Three-dimensional structural stability is perpetuated by an array of C–H•••O hydrogen bonds involving oxygen atoms from the –SO3 groups of the triflate anion, and hydrogen atoms from the aromatic ring and vinyl group of the pyridinium cation. Predictions from density functional theory calculations of the energy landscape for rotation about the exocyclic C–N bond of 2-chloro-1-(1-ethoxyvinylpyridine-1-ium trifluoromethanesulfonate (7 and 1-(1-ethoxyvinylpyridine-1-ium trifluoromethanesulfonate (16 are also reported. Notably, the predicted global energy minimum of 7 was nearly identical to that found within the crystal structure.

  13. Characterization of EBV gB indicates properties of both class I and class II viral fusion proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backovic, Marija; Leser, George P.; Lamb, Robert A.; Longnecker, Richard; Jardetzky, Theodore S.

    2007-01-01

    To gain insight into Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) glycoprotein B (gB), recombinant, secreted variants were generated. The role of putative transmembrane regions, the proteolytic processing and the oligomerization state of the gB variants were investigated. Constructs containing 2 of 3 C-terminal hydrophobic regions were secreted, indicating that these do not act as transmembrane anchors. The efficiency of cleavage of the gB furin site was found to depend on the nature of C-terminus. All of the gB constructs formed rosette structures reminiscent of the postfusion aggregates formed by other viral fusion proteins. However, substitution of putative fusion loop residues, WY 112-113 and WLIY 193-196 , with less hydrophobic amino acids from HSV-1 gB, produced trimeric protein and abrogated the ability of the EBV gB ectodomains to form rosettes. These data demonstrate biochemical features of EBV gB that are characteristic of other class I and class II viral fusion proteins, but not of HSV-1 gB

  14. Characterization of an endogenous retrovirus class in elephants and their relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Englbrecht Claudia C

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endogenous retrovirus-like elements (ERV-Ls, primed with tRNA leucine are a diverse group of reiterated sequences related to foamy viruses and widely distributed among mammals. As shown in previous investigations, in many primates and rodents this class of elements has remained transpositionally active, as reflected by increased copy number and high sequence diversity within and among taxa. Results Here we examine whether proviral-like sequences may be suitable molecular probes for investigating the phylogeny of groups known to have high element diversity. As a test we characterized ERV-Ls occurring in a sample of extant members of superorder Uranotheria (Asian and African elephants, manatees, and hyraxes. The ERV-L complement in this group is even more diverse than previously suspected, and there is sequence evidence for active expansion, particularly in elephantids. Many of the elements characterized have protein coding potential suggestive of activity. Conclusions In general, the evidence supports the hypothesis that the complement had a single origin within basal Uranotheria.

  15. Functional Characterization of a Novel Class of Morantel-Sensitive Acetylcholine Receptors in Nematodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Courtot

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine receptors are pentameric ligand-gated channels involved in excitatory neuro-transmission in both vertebrates and invertebrates. In nematodes, they represent major targets for cholinergic agonist or antagonist anthelmintic drugs. Despite the large diversity of acetylcholine-receptor subunit genes present in nematodes, only a few receptor subtypes have been characterized so far. Interestingly, parasitic nematodes affecting human or animal health possess two closely related members of this gene family, acr-26 and acr-27 that are essentially absent in free-living or plant parasitic species. Using the pathogenic parasitic nematode of ruminants, Haemonchus contortus, as a model, we found that Hco-ACR-26 and Hco-ACR-27 are co-expressed in body muscle cells. We demonstrated that co-expression of Hco-ACR-26 and Hco-ACR-27 in Xenopus laevis oocytes led to the functional expression of an acetylcholine-receptor highly sensitive to the anthelmintics morantel and pyrantel. Importantly we also reported that ACR-26 and ACR-27, from the distantly related parasitic nematode of horses, Parascaris equorum, also formed a functional acetylcholine-receptor highly sensitive to these two drugs. In Caenorhabditis elegans, a free-living model nematode, we demonstrated that heterologous expression of the H. contortus and P. equorum receptors drastically increased its sensitivity to morantel and pyrantel, mirroring the pharmacological properties observed in Xenopus oocytes. Our results are the first to describe significant molecular determinants of a novel class of nematode body wall muscle AChR.

  16. Characterization of class II alpha genes and DLA-D region allelic associations in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, U M; Storb, R F

    1988-10-01

    Human major histocompatibility complex (HLA) cDNA probes were used to analyze the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the alpha genes of the DLA-D region in dogs. Genomic DNA from peripheral blood leucocytes of 23 unrelated DLA-D homozygous dogs representing nine DLA-D types (defined by mixed leucocyte reaction) was digested with restriction enzymes (BamHI, EcoRI, Hind III, Pvu II, Taq I, Rsa I, Msp I, Pst I and Bgl II), separated by agarose gel electrophoresis and transferred onto Biotrace membrane. The Southern blots were successively hybridized with radiolabelled HLA cDNA probes corresponding to DQ, DP, DZ and DR alpha genes. Clear evidence was obtained for the canine homologues of DQ and DR alpha genes with simple bi- or tri-allelic polymorphism respectively. Evidence for a single, nonpolymorphic DP alpha gene was also obtained. However, the presence of a DZ alpha gene could not be clearly demonstrated in canine genomic DNA. This report extends our previous RFLP analysis documenting polymorphism of DLA class II beta genes in the same panel of homozygous typing cell dogs, and provides the basis for DLA-D genotyping at a population level. This study also characterizes the RFLP-defined preferential allelic associations across the DLA-D region in nine different homozygous typing cell specificities.

  17. Characterizing the Effects of a Vertical Time Threshold for a Class of Well-Clear Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upchurch, Jason M.; Munoz, Cesar A.; Narkawicz, Anthony J.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Chamberlain James P.

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental requirement for the integration of unmanned aircraft into civil airspace is the capability of aircraft to remain well clear of each other and avoid collisions. This requirement has led to a broad recognition of the need for an unambiguous, formal definition of well clear. It is further recognized that any such definition must be interoperable with existing airborne collision avoidance systems (ACAS). A particular class of well-clear definitions uses logic checks of independent distance thresholds as well as independent time thresholds in the vertical and horizontal dimensions to determine if a well-clear violation is predicted to occur within a given time interval. Existing ACAS systems also use independent distance thresholds, however a common time threshold is used for the vertical and horizontal logic checks. The main contribution of this paper is the characterization of the effects of the decoupled vertical time threshold on a well-clear definition in terms of (1) time to well-clear violation, and (2) interoperability with existing ACAS. The paper provides governing equations for both metrics and includes simulation results to illustrate the relationships. In this paper, interoperability implies that the time of well-clear violation is strictly less than the time a resolution advisory is issued by ACAS. The encounter geometries under consideration in this paper are initially well clear and consist of constant-velocity trajectories resulting in near-mid-air collisions.

  18. Functional Characterization of a Novel Class of Morantel-Sensitive Acetylcholine Receptors in Nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtot, Elise; Charvet, Claude L.; Beech, Robin N.; Harmache, Abdallah; Wolstenholme, Adrian J.; Holden-Dye, Lindy; O’Connor, Vincent; Peineau, Nicolas; Woods, Debra J.; Neveu, Cedric

    2015-01-01

    Acetylcholine receptors are pentameric ligand–gated channels involved in excitatory neuro-transmission in both vertebrates and invertebrates. In nematodes, they represent major targets for cholinergic agonist or antagonist anthelmintic drugs. Despite the large diversity of acetylcholine-receptor subunit genes present in nematodes, only a few receptor subtypes have been characterized so far. Interestingly, parasitic nematodes affecting human or animal health possess two closely related members of this gene family, acr-26 and acr-27 that are essentially absent in free-living or plant parasitic species. Using the pathogenic parasitic nematode of ruminants, Haemonchus contortus, as a model, we found that Hco-ACR-26 and Hco-ACR-27 are co-expressed in body muscle cells. We demonstrated that co-expression of Hco-ACR-26 and Hco-ACR-27 in Xenopus laevis oocytes led to the functional expression of an acetylcholine-receptor highly sensitive to the anthelmintics morantel and pyrantel. Importantly we also reported that ACR-26 and ACR-27, from the distantly related parasitic nematode of horses, Parascaris equorum, also formed a functional acetylcholine-receptor highly sensitive to these two drugs. In Caenorhabditis elegans, a free-living model nematode, we demonstrated that heterologous expression of the H. contortus and P. equorum receptors drastically increased its sensitivity to morantel and pyrantel, mirroring the pharmacological properties observed in Xenopus oocytes. Our results are the first to describe significant molecular determinants of a novel class of nematode body wall muscle AChR. PMID:26625142

  19. Characterization of lipooligosaccharide-biosynthetic loci of Campylobacter jejuni reveals new lipooligosaccharide classes: Evidence of mosaic organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.T. Parker (Craig); M. Gilbert (Michel); N. Yuki (Nobuhiro); H.P. Endtz (Hubert); R.E. Mandrell (Robert)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe lipooligosaccharide (LOS) biosynthesis region is one of the more variable genomic regions between strains of Campylobacter jejuni. Indeed, eight classes of LOS biosynthesis loci have been established previously based on gene content and organization. In this study, we characterize

  20. New advanced characterization tools for PW-class lasers (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quéré, Fabien

    2017-05-01

    Spatio-temporal couplings (STC) of laser beams are ubiquitous in ultrafast optics. In the femtosecond range, chirped-pulse amplification (CPA), the key technology of amplified ultrashort pulses, relies on the use of massive STCs induced at different locations in laser systems (for instance by gratings or prisms), which should all eventually perfectly cancel out at the laser output. Residual STCs, for example resulting from imperfect compensation, decrease the peak intensity at focus by increasing both the focal spot size and the pulse duration. This is particularly detrimental for ultrahigh-intensity (UHI) lasers, which aim for the highest possible peak intensities. However, it is precisely with these lasers that such uncontrolled defects are most likely to occur, due to the complexity of these systems and the large diameters of the output beams. Accurately measuring STCs is thus essential in ultrafast optics. Significant progress has been made in the last decade, and several techniques are now available for the partial or complete spatiotemporal characterization of near-visible femtosecond laser beams. However, none of these has yet been applied to UHI femtosecond lasers, due to the difficulty of handling these large and powerful beams. As a result, all UHI lasers are currently characterized under the unjustified and unverified assumption of the absence of STCs, using separate measurements in space and time. This situation is now becoming a major bottleneck for the development of UHI lasers and their applications. In particular, the optimal and reliable operation of PW-class lasers now available or under construction all around the world will simply not be possible without a proper spatiotemporal metrology. In this talk, we present the first complete spatiotemporal experimental reconstruction of the field E(t,r) for a 100 TW peak-power laser, obtained using self-referenced spatially-resolved Fourier transform spectroscopy [1,2], and thus reveal the spatiotemporal

  1. From gene trees to organismal phylogeny in prokaryotes: the case of the gamma-Proteobacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Lerat

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The rapid increase in published genomic sequences for bacteria presents the first opportunity to reconstruct evolutionary events on the scale of entire genomes. However, extensive lateral gene transfer (LGT may thwart this goal by preventing the establishment of organismal relationships based on individual gene phylogenies. The group for which cases of LGT are most frequently documented and for which the greatest density of complete genome sequences is available is the gamma-Proteobacteria, an ecologically diverse and ancient group including free-living species as well as pathogens and intracellular symbionts of plants and animals. We propose an approach to multigene phylogeny using complete genomes and apply it to the case of the gamma-Proteobacteria. We first applied stringent criteria to identify a set of likely gene orthologs and then tested the compatibilities of the resulting protein alignments with several phylogenetic hypotheses. Our results demonstrate phylogenetic concordance among virtually all (203 of 205 of the selected gene families, with each of the exceptions consistent with a single LGT event. The concatenated sequences of the concordant families yield a fully resolved phylogeny. This topology also received strong support in analyses aimed at excluding effects of heterogeneity in nucleotide base composition across lineages. Our analysis indicates that single-copy orthologous genes are resistant to horizontal transfer, even in ancient bacterial groups subject to high rates of LGT. This gene set can be identified and used to yield robust hypotheses for organismal phylogenies, thus establishing a foundation for reconstructing the evolutionary transitions, such as gene transfer, that underlie diversity in genome content and organization.

  2. Characterization of PGL(2, p) by its order and one conjugacy class ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    validity of a conjecture of J. G. Thompson is generalized to the group PGL(2, p) by a new way. Keywords. Finite group; conjugacy class size; Thompson's ..... class size, J. Inequalities Appl. (2012) 310. [13] Conway J H, Curtis R T, Norton S P, Parker R A and Wilson R A, Atlas of Finite Groups. (1985) (Oxford: Clarendon ...

  3. Characterization of MHC class I and II genes in a subantarctic seabird, the blue petrel, Halobaena caerulea (Procellariiformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandh, Maria; Lannefors, Mimi; Bonadonna, Francesco; Westerdahl, Helena

    2011-10-01

    The great polymorphism observed in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes is thought to be maintained by pathogen-mediated selection possibly combined with MHC-disassortative mating, guided by MHC-determined olfactory cues. Here, we partly characterize the MHC class I and II B of the blue petrel, Halobaena caerulea (Procellariiformes), a bird with significant olfactory abilities that lives under presumably low pathogen burdens in Subantarctica. Blue petrels are long-lived, monogamous birds which suggest the necessity of an accurate mate choice process. The species is ancestral to songbirds (Passeriformes; many MHC loci), although not to gamefowls (Galliformes; few MHC loci). Considering the phylogenetic relationships and the low subantarctic pathogen burden, we expected few rather than many MHC loci in the blue petrel. However, when we analysed partial MHC class I and class II B cDNA and gDNA sequences we found evidence for as many as at least eight MHC class I loci and at least two class II B loci. These class I and II B sequences showed classical MHC characteristics, e.g. high nucleotide diversity, especially in putative peptide-binding regions where signatures of positive selection was detected. Trans-species polymorphism was found between MHC class II B sequences of the blue petrel and those of thin-billed prion, Pachyptila belcheri, two species that diverged ∼25 MYA. The observed MHC allele richness in the blue petrel may well serve as a basis for mate choice, especially since olfactory discrimination of MHC types may be possible in this species.

  4. Automated characterization of nerve fibers labeled fluorescently: determination of size, class and spatial distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodanov, Dimiter; Feirabend, Hans K P

    2008-10-03

    Morphological classification of nerve fibers could help interpret the assessment of neural regeneration and the understanding of selectivity of nerve stimulation. Specific populations of myelinated nerve fibers can be investigated by retrograde tracing from a muscle followed by microscopic measurements of the labeled fibers at different anatomical levels. Gastrocnemius muscles of adult rats were injected with the retrograde tracer Fluoro-Gold. After a survival period of 3 days, cross-sections of spinal cords, ventral roots, sciatic, and tibial nerves were collected and imaged on a fluorescence microscope. Nerve fibers were classified using a variation-based criterion acting on the distribution of their equivalent diameters. The same criterion was used to classify the labeled axons using the size of the fluorescent marker. Measurements of the axons were paired to those of the entire fibers (axons+myelin sheaths) in order to establish the correspondence between so-established axonal and fiber classifications. It was found that nerve fibers in L6 ventral roots could be classified into four populations comprising two classes of Aalpha (denoted Aalpha1 and Aalpha2), Agamma, and an additional class of Agammaalpha fibers. Cut-off borders between Agamma and Agammaalpha fiber classes were estimated to be 5.00+/-0.09 microm (SEM); between Agammaalpha and Aalpha1 fiber classes to be 6.86+/-0.11 microm (SEM); and between Aalpha1 and Aalpha2 fiber classes to be 8.66+/-0.16 microm (SEM). Topographical maps of the nerve fibers that innervate the gastrocnemius muscles were constructed per fiber class for the spinal root L6. The major advantage of the presented approach consists of the combined indirect classification of nerve fiber types and the construction of topographical maps of so-identified fiber classes.

  5. Molecular characterization of classical and nonclassical MHC class I genes from the golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Q-Q; Zhong, G-H; He, K; Sun, D-D; Wan, Q-H

    2016-02-01

    Classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I allelic polymorphism is essential for competent antigen presentation. To improve the genotyping efforts in the golden pheasant, it is necessary to differentiate more accurately between classical and nonclassical class I molecules. In our study, all MHC class I genes were isolated from one golden pheasant based on two overlapping PCR amplifications. In total, six full-length class I nucleotide sequences (A-F) were identified, and four were novel. Two (A and C) belonged to the IA1 gene, two (B and D) were alleles derived from the IA2 gene through transgene amplification, and two (E and F) comprised a third novel locus, IA3 that was excluded from the core region of the golden pheasant MHC-B. IA1 and IA2 exhibited the broad expression profiles characteristic of classical loci, while IA3 showed no expression in multiple tissues and was therefore defined as a nonclassical gene. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the three IA genes in the golden pheasant share a much closer evolutionary relationship than the corresponding sequences in other galliform species. This observation was consistent with high sequence similarity among them, which likely arises from the homogenizing effect of recombination. Our careful distinction between the classical and nonclassical MHC class I genes in the golden pheasant lays the foundation for developing locus-specific genotyping and establishing a good molecular marker system of classical MHC I loci. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Towards a simple characterization of the Chern-Schwartz-MacPherson class

    OpenAIRE

    Fullwood, James; Wang, Dongxu

    2016-01-01

    For a large class of possibly singular complete intersections we prove a formula for their Chern-Schwartz-MacPherson classes in terms of a single blowup along a scheme supported on the singular loci of such varieties. In the hypersurface case our formula recovers a formula of Aluffi proven in 1996. As our formula is in no way tailored to the complete intersection hypothesis, we conjecture that it holds for all closed subschemes of a smooth variety. If in fact true, such a formula would provid...

  7. Ammonia-Oxidizing β-Proteobacteria from the Oxygen Minimum Zone off Northern Chile▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Verónica; Ulloa, Osvaldo; Farías, Laura; Urrutia, Homero; Ramírez, Salvador; Junier, Pilar; Witzel, Karl-Paul

    2007-01-01

    The composition of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria from the β-Proteobacteria subclass (βAOB) was studied in the surface and upper-oxycline oxic waters (2- to 50-m depth, ∼200 to 44 μM O2) and within the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) suboxic waters (50- to 400-m depth, ≤10 μM O2) of the eastern South Pacific off northern Chile. This study was carried out through cloning and sequencing of genes coding for 16S rRNA and the ammonia monooxygenase enzyme active subunit (amoA). Sequences affiliated with Nitrosospira-like cluster 1 dominated the 16S rRNA gene clone libraries constructed from both oxic and suboxic waters. Cluster 1 consists exclusively of yet-uncultivated βAOB from marine environments. However, a single clone, out of 224 obtained from the OMZ, was found to belong to Nitrosospira lineage cluster 0. To our knowledge, cluster 0 sequences have been derived from βAOB isolated only from sand, soil, and freshwater environments. Sequences in clone libraries of the amoA gene from the surface and upper oxycline could be grouped in a marine subcluster, also containing no cultured representatives. In contrast, all 74 amoA sequences originating from the OMZ were either closely affiliated with cultured Nitrosospira spp. from clusters 0 and 2 or with other yet-uncultured βAOB from soil and an aerated-anoxic Orbal process waste treatment plant. Our results reveal the presence of Nitrosospira-like βAOB in both oxic and suboxic waters associated with the OMZ but with a clear community shift at the functional level (amoA) along the strong oxygen gradient. PMID:17416686

  8. Description of a Riboflavin Biosynthetic Gene Variant Prevalent in the Phylum Proteobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brutinel, Evan D.; Dean, Antony M.

    2013-01-01

    Riboflavin (vitamin B2) is the precursor of flavin mononucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide, which are cofactors essential for a host of intracellular redox reactions. Microorganisms synthesize flavins de novo to fulfill nutritional requirements, but it is becoming increasingly clear that flavins play a wider role in cellular physiology than was previously appreciated. Flavins mediate diverse processes beyond the cytoplasmic membrane, including iron acquisition, extracellular respiration, and interspecies interactions. While investigating the regulation of flavin electron shuttle biosynthesis in the Gram-negative gammaproteobacterium Shewanella oneidensis, we discovered that a riboflavin biosynthetic gene (ribBA) annotated as encoding a bifunctional 3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone 4-phosphate (DHBP) synthase/GTP cyclohydrolase II does not possess both functions. The novel gene, renamed ribBX here, encodes an amino-terminal DHBP synthase domain. The carboxy-terminal end of RibBX not only lacks GTP cyclohydrolase II activity but also has evolved a different function altogether in S. oneidensis, regulating the activity of the DHBP synthase domain. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the misannotation of ribBX as ribBA is rampant throughout the phylum Proteobacteria (40% of 2,173 annotated ribBA genes) and that ribBX emerged early in the evolution of this group of microorganisms. We examined the functionality of representative ribBX genes from Beta-, Gamma-, and Epsilonproteobacteria and found that, consistent with sequence-based predictions, the encoded GTP cyclohydrolase II domains lack catalytic activity. The persistence of ribBX in the genomes of so many phylogenetically divergent bacterial species lends weight to the argument that ribBX has evolved a function which lends a selective advantage to the host. PMID:24097946

  9. Characterization of major histocompatibility complex class I, and class II DRB loci of captive and wild Indian leopards (Panthera pardus fusca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Drashti R; Mitra, Siuli; Bhadouriya, Snehalata; Rao, Tirupathi; Kunteepuram, Vaishnavi; Gaur, Ajay

    2017-12-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC), in vertebrate animals, is a multi-genic protein complex that encodes various receptors. During a disease, MHC interacts with the antigen and triggers a cascade of adaptive immune responses to overcome a disease outbreak. The MHC is very important region from immunological point of view, but it is poorly characterized among Indian leopards. During this investigation, we examined genetic diversity for MHC class I (MHC-I) and MHC class II-DRB (MHC-II) among wild and captive Indian leopards. This study estimated a pool of 9 and 17 alleles for MHC-I and MHC-II, respectively. The wild group of individuals showed higher nucleotide diversity and amino acid polymorphism compared to the captive group. A phylogenetic comparison with other felids revealed a clustering in MHC-I and interspersed presence in MHC-II sequences. A test for selection also revealed a deviation from neutrality at MHC-II DRB loci and higher non-synonymous substitution rate (dN) among the individuals from wild group. Further, the wild individuals showed higher dN for both MHC I and II genes compared to the group that was bred under captive conditions. These findings suggest the role of micro-evolutionary forces, such as pathogen-mediated selection, to cause MHC variations among the two groups of Indian leopards, because the two groups have been bred in two different environments for a substantial period of time. Since, MHC diversity is often linked with the quality of immunological health; the results obtained from this study fill the gap of knowledge on disease predisposition among wild and captive Indian leopards.

  10. Characterization of Class A low-level radioactive waste 1986--1990. Volume 7: Appendices K--P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehmel, J.C.; Loomis, D.; Mauro, J. [S. Cohen & Associates, Inc., McLean, VA (United States); Kaplan, M. [Eastern Research Group, Inc., Lexington, MA (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Under contract to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, the firms of S. Cohen & Associates, Inc. (SC&A) and Eastern Research Group (ERG) have compiled a report that describes the physical, chemical, and radiological properties of Class-A low-level radioactive waste. The report also presents information characterizing various methods and facilities used to treat and dispose non-radioactive waste. A database management program was developed for use in accessing, sorting, analyzing, and displaying the electronic data provided by EG&G. The program was used to present and aggregate data characterizing the radiological, physical, and chemical properties of the waste from descriptions contained in shipping manifests. The data thus retrieved are summarized in tables, histograms, and cumulative distribution curves presenting radionuclide concentration distributions in Class-A waste as a function of waste streams, by category of waste generators, and regions of the United States. The report also provides information characterizing methods and facilities used to treat and dispose non-radioactive waste, including industrial, municipal, and hazardous waste regulated under Subparts C and D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The information includes a list of disposal options, the geographical locations of the processing and disposal facilities, and a description of the characteristics of such processing and disposal facilities. Volume 1 contains the Executive Summary, Volume 2 presents the Class-A waste database, Volume 3 presents the information characterizing non-radioactive waste management practices and facilities, and Volumes 4 through 7 contain Appendices A through P with supporting information.

  11. Characterization of Class A low-level radioactive waste 1986--1990. Volume 3: Main report -- Part B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehmel, J.C.; Loomis, D.; Mauro, J. [S. Cohen & Associates, Inc., McLean, VA (United States); Kaplan, M. [Eastern Research Group, Inc., Lexington, MA (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Under contract to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, the firms of S. Cohen & Associates, Inc. (SC&A) and Eastern Research Group (ERG) have compiled a report that describes the physical, chemical, and radiological properties of Class-A low-level radioactive waste. The report also presents information characterizing various methods and facilities used to treat and dispose non-radioactive waste. A database management program was developed for use in accessing, sorting, analyzing, and displaying the electronic data provided by EG&G. The program was used to present and aggregate data characterizing the radiological, physical, and chemical properties of the waste from descriptions contained in shipping manifests. The data thus retrieved are summarized in tables, histograms, and cumulative distribution curves presenting radionuclide concentration distributions in Class-A waste as a function of waste streams, by category of waste generators, and regions of the United States. The report also provides information characterizing methods and facilities used to treat and dispose non-radioactive waste, including industrial, municipal, and hazardous waste regulated under Subparts C and D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The information includes a list of disposal options, the geographical locations of the processing and disposal facilities, and a description of the characteristics of such processing and disposal facilities. Volume 1 contains the Executive Summary, Volume 2 presents the Class-A waste database, Volume 3 presents the information characterizing non-radioactive waste management practices and facilities, and Volumes 4 to 7 contain Appendices A to P with supporting information.

  12. Characterization and evaluation of graphene oxide scaffold for periodontal wound healing of class II furcation defects in dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Kohei; Miyaji, Hirofumi; Nishida, Erika; Miyata, Saori; Kato, Akihito; Tateyama, Akito; Furihata, Tomokazu; Shitomi, Kanako; Iwanaga, Toshihiko; Sugaya, Tsutomu

    2018-01-01

    The 3-dimensional scaffold plays a key role in volume and quality of repair tissue in periodontal tissue engineering therapy. We fabricated a novel 3D collagen scaffold containing carbon-based 2-dimensional layered material, named graphene oxide (GO). The aim of this study was to characterize and assess GO scaffold for periodontal tissue healing of class II furcation defects in dog. GO scaffolds were prepared by coating the surface of a 3D collagen sponge scaffold with GO dispersion. Scaffolds were characterized using cytotoxicity and tissue reactivity tests. In addition, GO scaffold was implanted into dog class II furcation defects and periodontal healing was investigated at 4 weeks postsurgery. GO scaffold exhibited low cytotoxicity and enhanced cellular ingrowth behavior and rat bone forming ability. In addition, GO scaffold stimulated healing of dog class II furcation defects. Periodontal attachment formation, including alveolar bone, periodontal ligament-like tissue, and cementum-like tissue, was significantly increased by GO scaffold implantation, compared with untreated scaffold. The results suggest that GO scaffold is biocompatible and possesses excellent bone and periodontal tissue formation ability. Therefore, GO scaffold would be beneficial for periodontal tissue engineering therapy.

  13. ZTI: Preliminary characterization of an ignition class reversed-field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bathke, C.G.; Krakowski, R.A.; Miller, R.L.; Werley, K.A.

    1990-01-01

    A preliminary cost-optimized conceptual design of an intermediate-step, ignition-class RFP device (ZTI) for the study of alpha-particle physics in a DT plasma is reported. The ZTI design reflects potentially significant cost savings relative to similar ignition-class tokamaks for device parameters that reside on the path to a viable commercial RFP reactor. Reductions in both device costs and number of steps to commercialization portend a significantly reduced development cost for fusion. The methodology and result and coupling realistic physics, engineering, and cost models through a multi-dimensional optimizer are reported for ZTI, which is a device that would follow the 2--4 MA ZTH on a approx-gt 1996--98 timescale. 15 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Isolation and characterization of major histocompatibility complex class IIB genes from the nurse shark.

    OpenAIRE

    Bartl, S; Weissman, I L

    1994-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) contains a set of linked genes which encode cell surface proteins involved in the binding of small peptide antigens for their subsequent recognition by T lymphocytes. MHC proteins share structural features and the presence and location of polymorphic residues which play a role in the binding of antigens. In order to compare the structure of these molecules and gain insights into their evolution, we have isolated two MHC class IIB genes from the nurse...

  15. Isolation and characterization of major histocompatibility complex class IIB genes from the nurse shark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartl, S; Weissman, I L

    1994-01-04

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) contains a set of linked genes which encode cell surface proteins involved in the binding of small peptide antigens for their subsequent recognition by T lymphocytes. MHC proteins share structural features and the presence and location of polymorphic residues which play a role in the binding of antigens. In order to compare the structure of these molecules and gain insights into their evolution, we have isolated two MHC class IIB genes from the nurse shark, Ginglymostoma cirratum. Two clones, most probably alleles, encode proteins which differ by 13 amino acids located in the putative antigen-binding cleft. The protein structure and the location of polymorphic residues are similar to their mammalian counterparts. Although these genes appear to encode a typical MHC protein, no T-cell-mediated responses have been demonstrated in cartilaginous fish. The nurse shark represents the most phylogenetically primitive organism in which both class IIA [Kasahara, M., Vazquez, M., Sato, K., McKinney, E.C. & Flajnik, M.F. (1992) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci USA 89, 6688-6692] and class IIB genes, presumably encoding the alpha/beta heterodimer, have been isolated.

  16. Characterization of a Nonclassical Class I MHC Gene in a Reptile, the Galápagos Marine Iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaberman, Scott; Du Pasquier, Louis; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2008-01-01

    Squamates are a diverse order of vertebrates, representing more than 7,000 species. Yet, descriptions of full-length major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes in this group are nearly absent from the literature, while the number of MHC studies continues to rise in other vertebrate taxa. The lack of basic information about MHC organization in squamates inhibits investigation into the relationship between MHC polymorphism and disease, and leaves a large taxonomic gap in our understanding of amniote MHC evolution. Here, we use both cDNA and genomic sequence data to characterize a class I MHC gene (Amcr-UA) from the Galápagos marine iguana, a member of the squamate subfamily Iguaninae. Amcr-UA appears to be functional since it is expressed in the blood and contains many of the conserved peptide-binding residues that are found in classical class I genes of other vertebrates. In addition, comparison of Amcr-UA to homologous sequences from other iguanine species shows that the antigen-binding portion of this gene is under purifying selection, rather than balancing selection, and therefore may have a conserved function. A striking feature of Amcr-UA is that both the cDNA and genomic sequences lack the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains that are necessary to anchor the class I receptor molecule into the cell membrane, suggesting that the product of this gene is secreted and consequently not involved in classical class I antigen-presentation. The truncated and conserved character of Amcr-UA lead us to define it as a nonclassical gene that is related to the few available squamate class I sequences. However, phylogenetic analysis placed Amcr-UA in a basal position relative to other published classical MHC genes from squamates, suggesting that this gene diverged near the beginning of squamate diversification. PMID:18682845

  17. Characterization of a nonclassical class I MHC gene in a reptile, the Galápagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Glaberman

    Full Text Available Squamates are a diverse order of vertebrates, representing more than 7,000 species. Yet, descriptions of full-length major histocompatibility complex (MHC genes in this group are nearly absent from the literature, while the number of MHC studies continues to rise in other vertebrate taxa. The lack of basic information about MHC organization in squamates inhibits investigation into the relationship between MHC polymorphism and disease, and leaves a large taxonomic gap in our understanding of amniote MHC evolution. Here, we use both cDNA and genomic sequence data to characterize a class I MHC gene (Amcr-UA from the Galápagos marine iguana, a member of the squamate subfamily Iguaninae. Amcr-UA appears to be functional since it is expressed in the blood and contains many of the conserved peptide-binding residues that are found in classical class I genes of other vertebrates. In addition, comparison of Amcr-UA to homologous sequences from other iguanine species shows that the antigen-binding portion of this gene is under purifying selection, rather than balancing selection, and therefore may have a conserved function. A striking feature of Amcr-UA is that both the cDNA and genomic sequences lack the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains that are necessary to anchor the class I receptor molecule into the cell membrane, suggesting that the product of this gene is secreted and consequently not involved in classical class I antigen-presentation. The truncated and conserved character of Amcr-UA lead us to define it as a nonclassical gene that is related to the few available squamate class I sequences. However, phylogenetic analysis placed Amcr-UA in a basal position relative to other published classical MHC genes from squamates, suggesting that this gene diverged near the beginning of squamate diversification.

  18. Profligate Biotin Synthesis in α-Proteobacteria – A Developing or Degenerating Regulatory System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Youjun; Zhang, Huimin; Cronan, John E.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Biotin (vitamin H) is a key enzyme cofactor required in all three domains of life. Although this cofactor was discovered over 70 years ago and has long been recognized as an essential nutrient for animals, our knowledge of the strategies bacteria use to sense biotin demand is very limited. The paradigm mechanism is that of Escherichia coli in which BirA protein, the prototypical bi-functional biotin protein ligase, both covalently attaches biotin to the acceptor proteins of central metabolism and represses transcription of the biotin biosynthetic pathway in response to biotin demand. However, in other bacteria the biotin protein ligase lacks a DNA-binding domain which raises the question of how these bacteria regulate the synthesis of biotin, an energetically expensive molecule. A bioinformatic study by Rodionov and Gelfand (FEMS Microbiol Lett. (2006) 255:102–107) identified a protein termed BioR in α-proteobacteria and predicted that BioR would have the biotin operon regulatory role that in most other bacteria is fulfilled by the BirA DNA-binding domain. We have now tested this prediction in the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens. As predicted the A. tumefaciens biotin protein ligase is a fully functional ligase that has no role in regulation of biotin synthesis whereas BioR represses transcription of the biotin synthesis genes. Moreover, as determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assays, BioR binds the predicted operator site, which is located downstream of the mapped transcription start site. qPCR measurements indicated that deletion of BioR resulted in a ca.15-fold increase of bio operon transcription in the presence of high biotin levels. Effective repression of a plasmid-borne bioB-lacZ reporter was seen only upon the overproduction of BioR. In contrast to E. coli and Bacillus subtilis where biotin synthesis is tightly controlled, A. tumefaciens synthesizes much more biotin than needed for modification of the biotin-requiring enzymes

  19. Characterization of binding specificities of bovine leucocyte class I molecules: impacts for rational epitope discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Andreas M.; Rasmussen, Michael; Svitek, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    confirmed experimentally. This study demonstrates how biochemical high-throughput assays combined with immunoinformatics can be used to characterize the peptide-binding motifs of BoLA-I molecules, boosting performance of MHC peptide-binding prediction methods, and empowering rational epitope discovery...

  20. Application of integrated reservoir management and reservoir characterization to optimize infill drilling, Class II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeron, Jack; Blasingame, Tom; Doublet, Louis; Kelkar, Mohan; Freeman, George; Callard, Jeff; Moore, David; Davies, David; Vessell, Richard; Pregger, Brian; Dixon, Bill; Bezant, Bryce

    2000-03-16

    The major purpose of this project was to demonstrate the use of cost effective reservoir characterization and management tools that will be helpful to both independent and major operators for the optimal development of heterogeneous, low permeability carbonate reservoirs such as the North Robertson (Clearfork) Unit.

  1. Characterizing long-term patterns of weight change in China using latent class trajectory modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Paynter

    Full Text Available Over the past three decades, obesity-related diseases have increased tremendously in China, and are now the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Patterns of weight change can be used to predict risk of obesity-related diseases, increase understanding of etiology of disease risk, identify groups at particularly high risk, and shape prevention strategies.Latent class trajectory modeling was used to compute weight change trajectories for adults aged 18 to 66 using the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS data (n = 12,611. Weight change trajectories were computed separately for males and females by age group at baseline due to differential age-related patterns of weight gain in China with urbanization. Generalized linear mixed effects models examined the association between weight change trajectories and baseline characteristics including urbanicity, BMI category, age, and year of study entry.Trajectory classes were identified for each of six age-sex subgroups corresponding to various degrees of weight loss, maintenance and weight gain. Baseline BMI status was a significant predictor of trajectory membership for all age-sex subgroups. Baseline overweight/obesity increased odds of following 'initial loss with maintenance' trajectories. We found no significant association between baseline urbanization and trajectory membership after controlling for other covariates.Trajectory analysis identified patterns of weight change for age by gender groups. Lack of association between baseline urbanization status and trajectory membership suggests that living in a rural environment at baseline was not protective. Analyses identified age-specific nuances in weight change patterns, pointing to the importance of subgroup analyses in future research.

  2. Discovery and dynamical characterization of the Amor-class asteroid 2012 XH16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlodarczyk, I.; Cernis, K.; Boyle, R. P.; Laugalys, V.

    2014-03-01

    The near-Earth asteroid belt is continuously replenished with material originally moving in Amor-class orbits. Here, the orbit of the dynamically interesting Amor-class asteroid 2012 XH16 is analysed. This asteroid was discovered with the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope (VATT) at the Mt Graham International Observatory as part of an ongoing asteroid survey focused on astrometry and photometry. The orbit of the asteroid was computed using 66 observations (57 obtained with VATT and 9 from the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory-Spacewatch II project) to give a = 1.63 au, e = 0.36, i = 3.76°. The absolute magnitude of the asteroid is 22.3 which translates into a diameter in the range 104-231 m, assuming the average albedos of S-type and C-type asteroids, respectively. We have used the current orbit to study the future dynamical evolution of the asteroid under the perturbations of the planets and the Moon, relativistic effects, and the Yarkovsky force. Asteroid 2012 XH16 is locked close to the strong 1:2 mean motion resonance with the Earth. The object shows stable evolution and could survive in near-resonance for a relatively long period of time despite experiencing frequent close encounters with Mars. Moreover, results of our computations show that the asteroid 2012 XH16 can survive in the Amor region at most for about 200-400 Myr. The evolution is highly chaotic with a characteristic Lyapunov time of 245 yr. Jupiter is the main perturber but the effects of Saturn, Mars and the Earth-Moon system are also important. In particular, secular resonances with Saturn are significant.

  3. Characterization of diode-laser stacks for high-energy-class solid state lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilar, Jan; Sikocinski, Pawel; Pranowicz, Alina; Divoky, Martin; Crump, P.; Staske, R.; Lucianetti, Antonio; Mocek, Tomas

    2014-03-01

    In this work, we present a comparative study of high power diode stacks produced by world's leading manufacturers such as DILAS, Jenoptik, and Quantel. The diode-laser stacks are characterized by central wavelength around 939 nm, duty cycle of 1 %, and maximum repetition rate of 10 Hz. The characterization includes peak power, electrical-to-optical efficiency, central wavelength and full width at half maximum (FWHM) as a function of diode current and cooling temperature. A cross-check of measurements performed at HiLASE-IoP and Ferdinand-Braun-Institut (FBH) shows very good agreement between the results. Our study reveals also the presence of discontinuities in the spectra of two diode stacks. We consider the results presented here a valuable tool to optimize pump sources for ultra-high average power lasers, including laser fusion facilities.

  4. A novel class of halogen-free, super-conductive lithium argyrodites: Synthesis and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Holger; Du, Hui; Kelley, Tracy; Leitner, Klaus; ter Maat, Johan; Scordilis-Kelley, Chariclea; Sanchez-Carrera, Roel; Kovalev, Igor; Mudalige, Anoma; Kulisch, Jörn; Safont-Sempere, Marina M.; Hartmann, Pascal; Weiβ, Thomas; Schneider, Ling; Hinrichsen, Bernd

    2017-10-01

    Solid electrolytes are the core components for many next generation lithium battery concepts such as all-solid-state batteries (ASSB) or batteries based on metallic lithium anodes protected by a ceramic or composite passivation layer. Therefore, the search for new solid state Li-ion conductors with superior properties and improved electrochemical stabilities remains of high interest. In this work, the synthesis of a new class of silicon-containing, sulfide-based lithium-ion conductors is reported. Very good conductivities of up to ∼2.0-3.0·10-3 S/cm could be achieved for compositions such as Li22SiP2S18, among the highest for silicon sulfide containing materials. Based on the recorded powder XRD diffraction patterns and simulations it could be confirmed that they constitute novel members of the argyrodite family of sulfide lithium-ion conductors. The cubic high-temperature modification of such argyrodites with high lithium-ion conductivity can therefore be stabilized by implementation of silicon into the lattice, while additional doping with halogen atoms is not necessary.

  5. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization. Appendix D-3: Characterization of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste from other generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish, L.W.

    1994-09-01

    The Other Generators category includes all greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) that is not generated or held by nuclear utilities or sealed sources licensees or that is not stored at Department of Energy facilities. To determine the amount of waste within this category, 90 LLW generators were contacted; 13 fit the Other Generators category. Based on information received from the 13 identified Other Generators, the GTCC LLW Management Program was able to (a) characterize the nature of industries in this category, (b) estimate the 1993 inventory of Other Generator waste for high, base, and low cases, and (c) project inventories to the year 2035 for high, base, and low cases. Assumptions were applied to each of the case estimates to account for generators who may not have been identified in this study

  6. Design and characterization of hirulogs: A novel class of bivalent peptide inhibitors of thrombin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maraganore, J.M.; Bourdon, P.; Jablonski, J.; Ramachandran, K.L. (Biogen, Inc., Cambridge, MA (USA)); Fenton, J.W. II (New York State Department of Health, Albany (USA))

    1990-07-31

    A novel class of synthetic peptides has been designed that inhibit the thrombin catalytic site and exhibit specificity for the anion-binding exosite (ABE) of {alpha}-thrombin. These peptides, called hirulogs, consist of (i) an active-site specificity sequence with a restricted Arg-Pro scissile bond, (ii) a polymeric linker of glycyl residues from 6 to 18 {angstrom} in length, and (iii) an ABE recognition sequence such as that in the hirudin C-terminus. Hirulog-1 ((D-Phe)-Pro-Arg-Pro-(Gly){sub 4}-Asn-Gly-Asp-Phe-Glu-Glu-Ile-Pro-Glu-Tyr-Leu) inhibits the thrombin-catalyzed hydrolysis of a tripeptide p-nitroanilide substrate with K{sub i} = 2.3 nM. In contrast, the synthetic C-terminal hirudin peptide S-Hir{sub 53-64}, which binds to the thrombin ABE, blocked the fibrinogen clotting activity of the enzyme with K{sub i} = 144 nM but failed to inhibit the hydrolysis of p-nitroanilide substrates at concentrations as high as 1 mM. Hirulog-1, but not S-Hir{sub 53-64}, was found to inhibit the incorporation of ({sup 14}C)diisopropyl fluorophosphate in thrombin. Hirulog-1 appears specific for thrombin as it lacks inhibitory activities toward human factor Xa, human plasmin, and bovine trypsin at inhibitor:enzyme concentrations 3 orders of magnitude higher than those required to inhibit thrombin. The optimal inhibitory activity of hirulog-1 depends upon all three components of its structure. Comparison of anticoagulant activities of hirulog-1, hirudin, and S-Hir{sub 53-64} showed that the synthetic hirulog-1 is 2-fold more potent than hirudin and 100-fold more active than S-Hir{sub 53-64} in increasing the activated partial thromboplastin time of normal human plasma.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of tunable coumarin- linked glasses as new class of organic/inorganic phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luridiana, Alberto; Pretta, Gianluca; Secci, Francesco; Frongia, Angelo [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Geologiche, Università degli Studi di Cagliari, Complesso universitario di Monserrato, SS 554, bivio per Sestu, Monserrato (Canada) (Italy); Chiriu, Daniele; Carbonaro, Carlo Maria; Corpino, Riccardo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Cagliari, Complesso universitario di Monserrato, SS 554, bivio per Sestu, Monserrato (Canada) (Italy); Ricci, Pier Carlo, E-mail: carlo.ricci@dsf.unica.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá degli Studi di Cagliari, S.P. Monserrato-Sestu Km 0,700, 09042 Monserrato (Canada) (Italy)

    2014-10-21

    It is well known that stilbene with a trans conformation is highly fluorescent. From the viewpoint of molecular structure, coumarins bear a carbon-carbon double bond which is fixed as trans conformation as in trans-stilbene through a lactone structure. This can help to avoid the trans-cis transformation of the double bond under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation as observed in stilbene compounds and results in strong fluorescence and high fluorescence quantum yield and photostability in most of coumarin derivatives. Herein we report some preliminary results about the synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of tunable coumarins and the development of a new linkage protocol for the obtainment of monolayer coumarin-covalently linked glasses. The resulting organic/inorganic coumarin/silica based Self-Assembled Monolayer (SMA) film is proposed as new phosphors for the substituting of critical raw materials, like rare earths, in photonics applications.

  8. Amplification of marine methanotrophic enrichment DNA with 16S rDNA PCR primers for type II alpha proteobacteria methanotrophs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockne, Karl J; Strand, Stuart E

    2003-09-01

    Type II alpha proteobacteria methanotrophs are capable of a wide range of cometabolic transformations of chlorinated solvents and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and this activity has been exploited in many terrestrial bioremediation systems. However, at present, all known obligately marine methanotrophic isolates are Type I gamma proteobacteria which do not have this activity to the extent of Type II methanotrophs. In previous work in our laboratory, determining the presence of Type II alpha proteobacteria methanotrophs in marine enrichment cultures that co-metabolized PAHs required a more sensitive assay. 16S rDNA PCR primers were designed based on oligonucleotide probes for serine pathway methanotrophs and serine pathway methylotrophs with an approximate amplification fragment size of 870 base pairs. Comparison of the primers using double primer BLAST searches in established nucleotide databases showed potential amplification with all Methylocystis and Methylosinus spp., as well as potential amplification with Methylocella palustrus. DNA from Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b, a Type II methanotroph, amplified with the primers with a fragment size of approximately 850 base pairs, whereas DNA extracted from Methylomonas methanica, a Type I methanotroph, did not. The primers were used to amplify DNA extracted from two marine methanotrophic enrichment cultures: a low nitrogen/low copper enrichment to select for Type II methanotrophs and a high nitrogen/high copper enrichment to select for Type I methanotrophs. Although DNA from both cultures amplified with the PCR primers, amplification was stronger in cultures that were specifically enriched for Type II methanotrophs, suggesting the presence of higher numbers of Type II methanotrophs. These results provide further evidence for the existence of Type II marine methanotrophs, suggesting the possibility of exploiting cometabolic activity in marine systems.

  9. Photosynthesis Is Widely Distributed among Proteobacteria as Demonstrated by the Phylogeny of PufLM Reaction Center Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes F. Imhoff

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Two different photosystems for performing bacteriochlorophyll-mediated photosynthetic energy conversion are employed in different bacterial phyla. Those bacteria employing a photosystem II type of photosynthetic apparatus include the phototrophic purple bacteria (Proteobacteria, Gemmatimonas and Chloroflexus with their photosynthetic relatives. The proteins of the photosynthetic reaction center PufL and PufM are essential components and are common to all bacteria with a type-II photosynthetic apparatus, including the anaerobic as well as the aerobic phototrophic Proteobacteria. Therefore, PufL and PufM proteins and their genes are perfect tools to evaluate the phylogeny of the photosynthetic apparatus and to study the diversity of the bacteria employing this photosystem in nature. Almost complete pufLM gene sequences and the derived protein sequences from 152 type strains and 45 additional strains of phototrophic Proteobacteria employing photosystem II were compared. The results give interesting and comprehensive insights into the phylogeny of the photosynthetic apparatus and clearly define Chromatiales, Rhodobacterales, Sphingomonadales as major groups distinct from other Alphaproteobacteria, from Betaproteobacteria and from Caulobacterales (Brevundimonas subvibrioides. A special relationship exists between the PufLM sequences of those bacteria employing bacteriochlorophyll b instead of bacteriochlorophyll a. A clear phylogenetic association of aerobic phototrophic purple bacteria to anaerobic purple bacteria according to their PufLM sequences is demonstrated indicating multiple evolutionary lines from anaerobic to aerobic phototrophic purple bacteria. The impact of pufLM gene sequences for studies on the environmental diversity of phototrophic bacteria is discussed and the possibility of their identification on the species level in environmental samples is pointed out.

  10. Enhanced metabolic versatility of planktonic sulfur-oxidizing γ-proteobacteria in an oxygen-deficient coastal ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro A. Murillo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur-oxidizing Gamma-proteobacteria are abundant in marine oxygen-deficient waters, and appear to play a key role in a previously unrecognized cryptic sulfur cycle. Metagenomic analyses of members of the uncultured SUP05 lineage in the Canadian seasonally anoxic fjord Saanich Inlet (SI, hydrothermal plumes in the Guaymas Basin (GB and single cell genomics analysis of two ARCTIC96BD-19 representatives from the South Atlantic Sub-Tropical Gyre (SASG have shown them to be metabolically versatile. However, SI and GB SUP05 bacteria seem to be obligate chemolithoautotrophs, whereas ARCTIC96BD-19 has the genetic potential for aerobic respiration. Here, we present results of a metagenomic analysis of sulfur-oxidizing Gamma-proteobacteria (GSO, closely related to the SUP05/ARCTIC96BD-19 clade, from a coastal ecosystem in the eastern South Pacific (ESP. This ecosystem experiences seasonal anoxia and accumulation of nitrite and ammonium at depth, with a corresponding increase in the abundance of GSO representatives. The ESP-GSOs appear to have a significantly different gene complement than those from Saanich Inlet, Guaymas Basin and SASG. Genomic analyses of de novo assembled contigs indicate the presence of a complete aerobic respiratory complex based on the cytochrome bc1 oxidase. Furthermore, they appear to encode a complete TCA cycle and several transporters for dissolved organic carbon species, suggesting a mixotrophic lifestyle. Thus, the success of sulfur-oxidizing Gamma-proteobacteria in oxygen-deficient marine ecosystems appears due not only to their previously recognized anaerobic metabolic versatility, but also to their capacity to function under aerobic conditions using different carbon sources. Finally, members of ESP-GSO cluster also have the genetic potential for reducing nitrate to ammonium based on the nirBD genes, and may therefore facilitate a tighter coupling of the nitrogen and sulfur cycles in oxygen-deficient waters.

  11. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization. Appendix E-3: GTCC LLW assumptions matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This study identifies four categories of GTCC LLW: nuclear utility; sealed sources; DOE-held; and other generators. Within each category, inventory and projection data are modeled in three scenarios: (1) Unpackaged volume--this is the unpackaged volume of waste that would exceed Class C limits if the waste calculation methods in 10 CFR 61.55 were applied to the discrete items before concentration averaging methods were applied to the volume; (2) Not-concentration-averaged (NCA) packaged volume--this is the packaged volume of GTCC LLW assuming that no concentration averaging is allowed; and (3) After-concentration-averaging (ACA) packaged volume--this is the packaged volume of GTCC LLW, which, for regulatory or practical reasons, cannot be disposed of in a LLW disposal facility using allowable concentration averaging practices. Three cases are calculated for each of the volumes described above. These values are defined as the low, base, and high cases. The following tables explain the assumptions used to determine low, base, and high case estimates for each scenario, within each generator category. The appendices referred to in these tables are appendices to Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Characterization: Estimated Volumes, Radionuclide Activities, and Other Characteristics (DOE/LLW-114, Revision 1)

  12. Cloning, characterization and anion inhibition study of a β-class carbonic anhydrase from the caries producing pathogen Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedeoglu, Nurcan; De Luca, Viviana; Isik, Semra; Yildirim, Hatice; Kockar, Feray; Capasso, Clemente; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2015-07-01

    The oral pathogenic bacterium involved in human dental caries formation Streptococcus mutans, encodes for two carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) one belonging to the α- and the other one to the β-class. This last enzyme (SmuCA) has been cloned, characterized and investigated for its inhibition profile with a major class of CA inhibitors, the inorganic anions. Here we show that SmuCA has a good catalytic activity for the CO2 hydration reaction, with kcat 4.2×10(5)s(-1) and kcat/Km of 5.8×10(7)M(-1)×s(-1), being inhibited by cyanate, carbonate, stannate, divannadate and diethyldithiocarbamate in the submillimolar range (KIs of 0.30-0.64mM) and more efficiently by sulfamide, sulfamate, phenylboronic acid and phenylarsonic acid (KIs of 15-46μM). The anion inhibition profile of the S. mutans enzyme is very different from other α- and β-CAs investigated earlier. Identification of effective inhibitors of this new enzyme may lead to pharmacological tools useful for understanding the role of S. mutans CAs in dental caries formation, and eventually the development of pharmacological agents with a new mechanism of antibacterial action. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of a new class of energetic compounds - ammonium nitriminotetrazolates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klapoetke, Thomas M.; Laub, Hans A.; Stierstorfer, Joerg [Chair of Inorganic Chemistry, Energetic Materials Research, Ludwig-Maximilian University of Munich, Department Chemistry and Biochemistry, Munich (Germany)

    2008-12-15

    1-Methyl-5-nitriminotetrazole (1) and 2-methyl-5-nitraminotetrazole (2) obtained by nitration of 1-methyl-5-aminotetrazole (3) and 2-methyl-5-aminotetrazole (4) were deprotonated using aqueous ammonia solution yielding the energetic compounds, ammonium 1-methyl-5-nitriminotetrazolate (5) and ammonium 2-methyl-5-nitriminotetrazolate (6). The nitrogen-rich salts were tested and characterized comprehensively using vibrational spectroscopy (Infrared (IR) and Raman), multinuclear ({sup 1}H, {sup 13}C, {sup 14}N, and {sup 15}N) NMR spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. The molecular structures in the crystalline state were determined using low temperature single crystal X-ray diffraction. The thermal behavior and the decompositions were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and gas IR spectroscopy. The heats of formation were calculated using bomb calorimetric measurements. In addition, the relevant detonation parameters, like the detonation pressure and velocity of detonation were calculated using the software EXPLO5 outperforming the values of TNT. Last but not least the sensitivities were determined using BAM methods showing moderate values against impact and friction (drophammer and friction tester) and the long-term stabilities were tested using Flexy Thermal safety calorimetry (TSC). X-ray crystallography: 5: monoclinic, P2{sub 1}/c, a=370.06(2) pm, b=2079.06(9) pm, c=859.69(5) pm, {beta}=99.120(5) , V=65306(6) pm{sup 3}, Z=4, {rho}{sub calc}=1.639 g cm{sup -3}; 6: monoclinic, P2{sub 1}, a=365.39(2) pm, b= 788.82(5) pm, c=1124.95(7) pm, {beta}=91.818(6), V=32408(3) pm{sup 3}, Z=2, {rho}{sub calc}=1.651 g cm{sup -3}. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  14. Specificity Characterization of SLA Class I Molecules Binding to Swine-Origin Viral Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Epitope Peptides in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixia Gao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Swine leukocyte antigen (SLA class I molecules play a crucial role in generating specific cellular immune responses against viruses and other intracellular pathogens. They mainly bind and present antigens of intracellular origin to circulating MHC I-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs. Binding of an appropriate epitope to an SLA class I molecule is the single most selective event in antigen presentation and the first step in the killing of infected cells by CD8+ CTLs. Moreover, the antigen epitopes are strictly restricted to specific SLA molecules. In this study, we constructed SLA class I complexes in vitro comprising viral epitope peptides, the extracellular region of the SLA-1 molecules, and β2-microglobulin (β2m using splicing overlap extension polymerase chain reaction (SOE-PCR. The protein complexes were induced and expressed in an Escherichia coli prokaryotic expression system and subsequently purified and refolded. Specific binding of seven SLA-1 proteins to one classical swine fever virus (CSFV and four porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV epitope peptides was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA-based method. The SLA-1∗13:01, SLA-1∗11:10, and SLA-1∗11:01:02 proteins were able to bind specifically to different CTL epitopes of CSFV and PRRSV and the MHC restrictions of the five epitopes were identified. The fixed combination of Asn151Val152 residues was identified as the potentially key amino acid residues influencing the binding of viral several CTL epitope peptides to SLA-1∗13:01 and SLA-1∗04:01:01 proteins. The more flexible pocket E in the SLA-1∗13:01 protein might have fewer steric limitations and therefore be able to accommodate more residues of viral CTL epitope peptides, and may thus play a critical biochemical role in determining the peptide-binding motif of SLA-1∗13:01. Characterization of the binding specificity of peptides to SLA class I molecules provides an

  15. Identification and Characterization of RibN, a Novel Family of Riboflavin Transporters from Rhizobium leguminosarum and Other Proteobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Angulo, Víctor A.; Bonomi, Hernán R.; Posadas, Diana M.; Serer, María I.; Torres, Alfredo G.; Zorreguieta, Ángeles

    2013-01-01

    Rhizobia are symbiotic bacteria able to invade and colonize the roots of legume plants, inducing the formation of nodules, where bacteria reduce atmospheric nitrogen (N2) to ammonia (NH3). Riboflavin availability influences the capacity of rhizobia to survive in the rhizosphere and to colonize roots. In this study, we identified the RL1692 gene of Rhizobium leguminosarum downstream of a flavin mononucleotide (FMN) riboswitch. RL1692 encodes a putative transmembrane permease with two EamA domains. The presence of an FMN riboswitch regulating a transmembrane protein is usually observed in riboflavin transporters, suggesting that RL1692 may be involved in riboflavin uptake. The product of RL1692, which we named RibN, is conserved in members of the alpha-, beta-, and gammaproteobacteria and shares no significant identity with any riboflavin transporter previously identified. In this work, we show that RibN is localized in the membrane cellular fraction and its expression is downregulated by riboflavin. By heterologous expression in a Brucella abortus mutant auxotrophic for riboflavin, we demonstrate that RibN possesses flavin transport activity. Similarly, we also demonstrate that RibN orthologues from Ochrobactrum anthropi and Vibrio cholerae (which lacks the FMN riboswitch) are able to transport riboflavin. An R. leguminosarum ribN null mutant exhibited lower nodule occupancy levels in pea plants during symbiosis assays. Thus, we propose that RibN and its homologues belong to a novel family of riboflavin transporters. This work provides the first experimental description of riboflavin transporters in Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:23935051

  16. Molecular characterization of class b carbapenemases in advanced stage of dissemination and emergence of class d carbapenemases in Enterobacteriaceae from Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedenić, Branka; Sardelić, Sanda; Luxner, Josefa; Bošnjak, Zrinka; Varda-Brkić, Dijana; Lukić-Grlić, Amarela; Mareković, Ivana; Frančula-Zaninović, Sonja; Krilanović, Marija; Šijak, Dorotea; Grisold, Andrea; Zarfel, Gernot

    2016-09-01

    Carbapenemases involved in acquired carbapenem resistance in Enterobacteriaceae belong to Ambler class A serin β-lactamases, class B metallo-β-lactamases (MBL) or class D OXA-48-like β-lactamases. The aim of the present study was to analyse the molecular epidemiology and the mechanisms and routes of spread of class B and class D carbapenemases in Croatia. In total 68 isolates were analyzed. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by broth microdilution method. PCR was used to detect antibiotic-resistance genes. Genotyping was performed by rep-PCR and MLST. Sixty-five isolates were found to harbour VIM-1 carbapenemase, seven of which were positive also for NDM-1, while two strains harboured only NDM-1. OXA-48 was detected in three isolates, two of which coproduced VIM-1. Thirty-six strains possessed additional CTX-M-15 β-lactamase whereas 64 were positive for TEM-1. CMY was found in 18 Citrobacter freundii isolates and DHA-1 in one Enterobacter cloacae isolate. Four different plasmid-incompatibility groups were found: A/C, L/M, N and FIIAs. Unlike C. freundii and E. cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae showed high diversity of rep-PCR patterns. E. cloacae and C. freundii predominantly belonged to one large clone which was allocated to ST105 and ST24, respectively. Three different types of carbapenemases were identified showing the complexity of CRE in Croatia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterization of MHC class II B polymorphism in bottlenecked New Zealand saddlebacks reveals low levels of genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Jolene T; Robertson, Bruce C; Grueber, Catherine E; Stanton, Jo-Ann L; Jamieson, Ian G

    2013-08-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is integral to the vertebrate adaptive immune system. Characterizing diversity at functional MHC genes is invaluable for elucidating patterns of adaptive variation in wild populations, and is particularly interesting in species of conservation concern, which may suffer from reduced genetic diversity and compromised disease resilience. Here, we use next generation sequencing to investigate MHC class II B (MHCIIB) diversity in two sister taxa of New Zealand birds: South Island saddleback (SIS), Philesturnus carunculatus, and North Island saddleback (NIS), Philesturnus rufusater. These two species represent a passerine family outside the more extensively studied Passerida infraorder, and both have experienced historic bottlenecks. We examined exon 2 sequence data from populations that represent the majority of genetic diversity remaining in each species. A high level of locus co-amplification was detected, with from 1 to 4 and 3 to 12 putative alleles per individual for South and North Island birds, respectively. We found strong evidence for historic balancing selection in peptide-binding regions of putative alleles, and we identified a cluster combining non-classical loci and pseudogene sequences from both species, although no sequences were shared between the species. Fewer total alleles and fewer alleles per bird in SIS may be a consequence of their more severe bottleneck history; however, overall nucleotide diversity was similar between the species. Our characterization of MHCIIB diversity in two closely related species of New Zealand saddlebacks provides an important step in understanding the mechanisms shaping MHC diversity in wild, bottlenecked populations.

  18. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization. Appendix E-2: Mixed GTCC LLW assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirner, N.P.

    1994-09-01

    Mixed greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (mixed GTCC LLW) is waste that combines two characteristics: it is radioactive, and it is hazardous. This report uses information compiled from Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Characterization: Estimated Volumes, Radionuclide Activities, and Other Characteristics (DOE/LLW 1 14, Revision 1), and applies it to the question of how much and what types of mixed GTCC LLW are generated and are likely to require disposal in facilities jointly regulated by the DOE and the NRC. The report describes how to classify a RCRA hazardous waste, and then applies that classification process to the 41 GTCC LLW waste types identified in the DOE/LLW-114 (Revision 1). Of the 41 GTCC LLW categories identified, only six were identified in this study as potentially requiring regulation as hazardous waste under RCRA. These wastes can be combined into the following three groups: fuel-in decontamination resins, organic liquids, and process waste consisting of lead scrap/shielding from a sealed source manufacturer. For the base case, no mixed GTCC LLW is expected from nuclear utilities or sealed source licensees, whereas only 177 ml of mixed GTCC LLW are expected to be produced by other generators through the year 2035. This relatively small volume represents approximately 40% of the base case estimate for GTCC wastes from other generators. For these other generators, volume estimates for mixed GTCC LLW ranged from less than 1 m 3 to 187 m 3 , depending on assumptions and treatments applied to the wastes

  19. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF HDPE PLASTIC FILM FOR HERBICIDE CONTAINER USING FLY ASH CLASS F AS FILLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatim Lailun Ni’mah

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available High Density Polyethylene (HDPE plastic plays an important role in various applications, for example, it can be used as a container (bottle. Petrokimia Kayaku Company, a branch of Petrokimia Company of Gresik, produces herbicides using HDPE plastic bottles as their container. Those plastic bottles undergo degradation (kempot for certain period of time. The aim of this research is to characterize and to synthesize the HDPE plastic film with class F fly ash as filler. The results expected from this research are producing the plastic with a better properties and durability. This research was initiated by taking the sample of HDPE plastic bottle and herbicides (containing Gramakuat, on active material parakuat dichloride at Petrokimia Kayaku Company. Both the initial HDPE and the degraded bottles was analyzed their tensile strength and Fourier Transform-Infra Red (FTIR spectral. The next step was to synthesize the HDPE plastic film using class F fly ash as filler and a coupling agent. The filler concentrations were 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20wt %. The best result was 5% filler concentration with tensile strength of 27.7 lbs. This HDPE film was then subjected to degradation test using pyridine solution with various concentrations (1%, 3% and 5% for two weeks, thermal degradation at 100 °C for two weeks and chemical resistance by xylene with soak time variation of 24 h, 98 h and 168 h. The result of degradations test show that the value of tensile strength was decreased with the increase of filler consentration. The chemical resistance, however, was increased.   Keywords: degradation, filler, fly ash, HDPE, Herbicide

  20. Characterization of MHC class I in a long distance migratory wader, the Icelandic black-tailed godwit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardal, Sara; Drews, Anna; Alves, José A; Ramos, Jaime A; Westerdahl, Helena

    2017-07-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) encodes proteins that are central for antigen presentation and pathogen elimination. MHC class I (MHC-I) genes have attracted a great deal of interest among researchers in ecology and evolution and have been partly characterized in a wide range of bird species. So far, the main focus has been on species within the bird orders Galliformes and Passeriformes, while Charadriiformes remain vastly underrepresented with only two species studied to date. These two Charadriiformes species exhibit striking differences in MHC-I characteristics and MHC-I diversity. We therefore set out to study a third species within Charadriiformes, the Icelandic subspecies of black-tailed godwits (Limosa limosa islandica). This subspecies is normally confined to parasite-poor environments, and we hence expected low MHC diversity. MHC-I was partially characterized first using Sanger sequencing and then using high-throughput sequencing (MiSeq) in 84 individuals. We verified 47 nucleotide alleles in open reading frame with classical MHC-I characteristics, and each individual godwit had two to seven putatively classical MHC alleles. However, in contrast to previous MHC-I data within Charadriiformes, we did not find any evidence of alleles with low sequence diversity, believed to represent non-classical MHC genes. The diversity and divergence of the godwits MHC-I genes to a large extent fell between the previous estimates within Charadriiformes. However, the MHC genes of the migratory godwits had few sites subject to positive selection, and one possible explanation could be a low exposure to pathogens.

  1. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization: Estimated volumes, radionuclide activities, and other characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulse, R.A.

    1991-08-01

    Planning for storage or disposal of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) requires characterization of that waste to estimate volumes, radionuclide activities, and waste forms. Data from existing literature, disposal records, and original research were used to estimate the characteristics and project volumes and radionuclide activities to the year 2035. GTCC LLW is categorized as: nuclear utilities waste, sealed sources waste, DOE-held potential GTCC LLW; and, other generator waste. It has been determined that the largest volume of those wastes, approximately 57%, is generated by nuclear power plants. The Other Generator waste category contributes approximately 10% of the total GTCC LLW volume projected to the year 2035. Waste held by the Department of Energy, which is potential GTCC LLW, accounts for nearly 33% of all waste projected to the year 2035; however, no disposal determination has been made for that waste. Sealed sources are less than 0.2% of the total projected volume of GTCC LLW

  2. Characterization of Greater-Than-Class C sealed sources. Volume 3, Sealed sources held by general licensees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, G.

    1994-09-01

    This is the third volume in a series of three volumes characterizing the population of sealed sources that may become greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW). In this volume, those sources possessed by general licensees are discussed. General-licensed devices may contain sealed sources with significant amounts of radioactive material. However, the devices are designed to be safe to use without special knowledge of radiological safety practices. Devices containing Am-241 or Cm-244 sources are most likely to become GTCC LLW after concentration averaging. This study estimates that there are about 16,000 GTCC devices held by general licensees; 15,000 of these contain Am-241 sources and 1,000 contain Cm-244 sources. Additionally, this study estimates that there are 1,600 GTCC devices sold to general licensees each year. However, due to a lack of available information on general licensees in Agreement States, these estimates are uncertain. This uncertainty is quantified in the low and high case estimates given in this report, which span approximately an order of magnitude

  3. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization. Appendix E-4: Packaging factors for greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, G.; Grant, P.; Winberg, M.; Williams, K.

    1994-09-01

    This report estimates packaging factors for several waste types that are potential greater-than-Class C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste (LLW). The packaging factor is defined as the volume of a GTCC LLW disposal container divided by the as-generated or ''unpackaged'' volume of the waste loaded into the disposal container. Packaging factors reflect any processes that reduce or increase an original unpackaged volume of GTCC LLW, the volume inside a waste container not occupied by the waste, and the volume of the waste container itself. Three values are developed that represent (a) the base case or most likely value for a packaging factor, (b) a high case packaging factor that corresponds to the largest anticipated disposal volume of waste, and (c) a low case packaging factor for the smallest volume expected. GTCC LLW is placed in three categories for evaluation in this report: activated metals, sealed sources, and all other waste

  4. Purification and Characterization of Suicin 65, a Novel Class I Type B Lantibiotic Produced by Streptococcus suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillancourt, Katy; LeBel, Geneviève; Frenette, Michel; Fittipaldi, Nahuel; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Grenier, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Bacteriocins are antimicrobial peptides of bacterial origin that are considered as a promising alternative to the use of conventional antibiotics. Recently, our laboratory reported the purification and characterization of two lantibiotics, suicin 90-1330 and suicin 3908, produced by the swine pathogen and zoonotic agent Streptococcus suis (serotype 2). In this study, a novel bacteriocin produced by S. suis has been identified and characterized. The producing strain S. suis 65 (serotype 2) was found to belong to the sequence type 28, that includes strains known to be weakly or avirulent in a mouse model. The bacteriocin, whose production was only possible following growth on solid culture medium, was purified to homogeneity by cationic exchange and reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. The bacteriocin, named suicin 65, was heat, pH and protease resistant. Suicin 65 was active against all S. suis isolates tested, including antibiotic resistant strains. Amino acid sequencing of the purified bacteriocin by Edman degradation revealed the presence of modified amino acids suggesting a lantibiotic. Using the partial sequence obtained, a blast was performed against published genomes of S. suis and allowed to identify a putative lantibiotic locus in the genome of S. suis 89-1591. From this genome, primers were designed and the gene cluster involved in the production of suicin 65 by S. suis 65 was amplified by PCR. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of ten open reading frames, including a duplicate of the structural gene. The structural genes (sssA and sssA') of suicin 65 encodes a 25-amino acid residue leader peptide and a 26-amino acid residue mature peptide yielding an active bacteriocin with a deducted molecular mass of 3,005 Da. Mature suicin 65 showed a high degree of identity with class I type B lantibiotics (globular structure) produced by Streptococcus pyogenes (streptococcin FF22; 84.6%), Streptococcus macedonicus (macedocin ACA-DC 198; 84

  5. Purification and Characterization of Suicin 65, a Novel Class I Type B Lantibiotic Produced by Streptococcus suis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katy Vaillancourt

    Full Text Available Bacteriocins are antimicrobial peptides of bacterial origin that are considered as a promising alternative to the use of conventional antibiotics. Recently, our laboratory reported the purification and characterization of two lantibiotics, suicin 90-1330 and suicin 3908, produced by the swine pathogen and zoonotic agent Streptococcus suis (serotype 2. In this study, a novel bacteriocin produced by S. suis has been identified and characterized. The producing strain S. suis 65 (serotype 2 was found to belong to the sequence type 28, that includes strains known to be weakly or avirulent in a mouse model. The bacteriocin, whose production was only possible following growth on solid culture medium, was purified to homogeneity by cationic exchange and reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. The bacteriocin, named suicin 65, was heat, pH and protease resistant. Suicin 65 was active against all S. suis isolates tested, including antibiotic resistant strains. Amino acid sequencing of the purified bacteriocin by Edman degradation revealed the presence of modified amino acids suggesting a lantibiotic. Using the partial sequence obtained, a blast was performed against published genomes of S. suis and allowed to identify a putative lantibiotic locus in the genome of S. suis 89-1591. From this genome, primers were designed and the gene cluster involved in the production of suicin 65 by S. suis 65 was amplified by PCR. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of ten open reading frames, including a duplicate of the structural gene. The structural genes (sssA and sssA' of suicin 65 encodes a 25-amino acid residue leader peptide and a 26-amino acid residue mature peptide yielding an active bacteriocin with a deducted molecular mass of 3,005 Da. Mature suicin 65 showed a high degree of identity with class I type B lantibiotics (globular structure produced by Streptococcus pyogenes (streptococcin FF22; 84.6%, Streptococcus macedonicus (macedocin ACA

  6. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization: Estimated volumes, radionuclide activities, and other characteristics. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) planning for the disposal of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) requires characterization of the waste. This report estimates volumes, radionuclide activities, and waste forms of GTCC LLW to the year 2035. It groups the waste into four categories, representative of the type of generator or holder of the waste: Nuclear Utilities, Sealed Sources, DOE-Held, and Other Generator. GTCC LLW includes activated metals (activation hardware from reactor operation and decommissioning), process wastes (i.e., resins, filters, etc.), sealed sources, and other wastes routinely generated by users of radioactive material. Estimates reflect the possible effect that packaging and concentration averaging may have on the total volume of GTCC LLW. Possible GTCC mixed LLW is also addressed. Nuclear utilities will probably generate the largest future volume of GTCC LLW with 65--83% of the total volume. The other generators will generate 17--23% of the waste volume, while GTCC sealed sources are expected to contribute 1--12%. A legal review of DOE`s obligations indicates that the current DOE-Held wastes described in this report will not require management as GTCC LLW because of the contractual circumstances under which they were accepted for storage. This report concludes that the volume of GTCC LLW should not pose a significant management problem from a scientific or technical standpoint. The projected volume is small enough to indicate that a dedicated GTCC LLW disposal facility may not be justified. Instead, co-disposal with other waste types is being considered as an option.

  7. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization: Estimated volumes, radionuclide activities, and other characteristics. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE's) planning for the disposal of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) requires characterization of the waste. This report estimates volumes, radionuclide activities, and waste forms of GTCC LLW to the year 2035. It groups the waste into four categories, representative of the type of generator or holder of the waste: Nuclear Utilities, Sealed Sources, DOE-Held, and Other Generator. GTCC LLW includes activated metals (activation hardware from reactor operation and decommissioning), process wastes (i.e., resins, filters, etc.), sealed sources, and other wastes routinely generated by users of radioactive material. Estimates reflect the possible effect that packaging and concentration averaging may have on the total volume of GTCC LLW. Possible GTCC mixed LLW is also addressed. Nuclear utilities will probably generate the largest future volume of GTCC LLW with 65--83% of the total volume. The other generators will generate 17--23% of the waste volume, while GTCC sealed sources are expected to contribute 1--12%. A legal review of DOE's obligations indicates that the current DOE-Held wastes described in this report will not require management as GTCC LLW because of the contractual circumstances under which they were accepted for storage. This report concludes that the volume of GTCC LLW should not pose a significant management problem from a scientific or technical standpoint. The projected volume is small enough to indicate that a dedicated GTCC LLW disposal facility may not be justified. Instead, co-disposal with other waste types is being considered as an option

  8. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma-associated Proteobacteria, but not commensal Prevotella spp., promote Toll-like receptor 2-independent lung inflammation and pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Musavian, Hanieh Sadat; Butt, Tariq Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    B, non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis). The commensal Prevotella spp. and pathogenic Proteobacteria were found to exhibit intrinsic differences in innate inflammatory capacities on murine lung cells in vitro. In vivo in mice, non-typeable H.influenzae induced severe Toll...... response to three Gram-negative commensal Prevotella strains (Prevotella melaninogenica, Prevotella nanceiensis and Prevotella salivae) and three Gram-negative pathogenic Proteobacteria known to colonize lungs of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma (Haemophilus influenzae...

  9. Proteins Related to the Type I Secretion System Are Associated with Secondary SecA_DEAD Domain Proteins in Some Species of Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia, Proteobacteria, Nitrospirae and Chlorobi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga K Kamneva

    Full Text Available A number of bacteria belonging to the PVC (Planctomycetes-Verrucomicrobia-Chlamydiae super-phylum contain unusual ribosome-bearing intracellular membranes. The evolutionary origins and functions of these membranes are unknown. Some proteins putatively associated with the presence of intracellular membranes in PVC bacteria contain signal peptides. Signal peptides mark proteins for translocation across the cytoplasmic membrane in prokaryotes, and the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum in eukaryotes, by highly conserved Sec machinery. This suggests that proteins might be targeted to intracellular membranes in PVC bacteria via the Sec pathway. Here, we show that canonical signal peptides are significantly over-represented in proteins preferentially present in PVC bacteria possessing intracellular membranes, indicating involvement of Sec translocase in their cellular targeting. We also characterized Sec proteins using comparative genomics approaches, focusing on the PVC super-phylum. While we were unable to detect unique changes in Sec proteins conserved among membrane-bearing PVC species, we identified (1 SecA ATPase domain re-arrangements in some Planctomycetes, and (2 secondary SecA_DEAD domain proteins in the genomes of some Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia, Proteobacteria, Nitrospirae and Chlorobi. This is the first report of potentially duplicated SecA in Gram-negative bacteria. The phylogenetic distribution of secondary SecA_DEAD domain proteins suggests that the presence of these proteins is not related to the occurrence of PVC endomembranes. Further genomic analysis showed that secondary SecA_DEAD domain proteins are located within genomic neighborhoods that also encode three proteins possessing domains specific for the Type I secretion system.

  10. Diversity and Transcriptional Levels of RuBisCO Form II of Sulfur-Oxidizing γ-Proteobacteria in Coastal-Upwelling Waters with Seasonal Anoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Léniz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal wind-driven upwelling, high primary production in surface waters, and oxygen deficiency in subsurface waters characterize the coastal ecosystem of the subtropical eastern South Pacific (ESP, and shape the nature and dynamics of the microbial community structure and function. We investigated the diversity, abundance, and transcriptional levels of the gene encoding the large subunit form II of the RuBisCO enzyme (cbbM in the pelagic microbial community at a continental-shelf site off central Chile over 2 years. We focused on cbbM genes affiliated with the sulfur-oxidizing γ-proteobacteria cluster, whose members are known to dominate in oxygen-deficient marine environments and are highly abundant in the study area. Phylogenetic analysis of cbbM sequences suggests the presence of a novel group of chemolithoautotrophs, closely related to the SUP05/ARCTIC96BD-19 clade. Through (RT-qPCR, we studied the cbbM gene abundance and transcript dynamics over an annual cycle, finding a significantly higher number of cbbM copies per unit volume in months of active upwelling and at depths in which oxygen was scarce or absent. The same temporal pattern was observed at the transcriptional level. We also analyzed the relative expression of key genes for carbon, nitrogen and sulfur cycling in six metatranscriptomic datasets, for two characteristic periods within the annual cycle: the anoxic upwelling and the suboxic downwelling. Our results indicate that coastal waters of the subtropical ESP contain transcriptionally active populations of carbon fixing pelagic bacteria, whose dynamics is controlled, in large part, by fluctuations in oxygen levels. They also suggest that chemolithoautotrophic processes coupled to the sulfur and nitrogen cycles become increasingly important for the carbon economy of marine coastal waters as oxygen concentrations decline.

  11. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization. Appendix A-3: Basis for greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste light water reactor projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancini, A.; Tuite, P.; Tuite, K.; Woodberry, S.

    1994-09-01

    This study characterizes low-level radioactive waste types that may exceed Class C limits at light water reactors, estimates the amounts of waste generated, and estimates radionuclide content and distribution within the waste. Waste types that may exceed Class C limits include metal components that become activated during operations, process wastes such as cartridge filters and decontamination resins, and activated metals from decommissioning activities. Operating parameters and current management practices at operating plants are reviewed and used to estimate the amounts of low-level waste exceeding Class C limits that is generated per fuel cycle, including amounts of routinely generated activated metal components and process waste. Radionuclide content is calculated for specific activated metals components. Empirical data from actual low-level radioactive waste are used to estimate radionuclide content for process wastes. Volumes and activities are also estimated for decommissioning activated metals that exceed Class C limits. To estimate activation levels of decommissioning waste, six typical light water reactors are modeled and analyzed. This study does not consider concentration averaging

  12. Characterization of CIA-1, an Ambler class A extended-spectrum β-lactamase from Chryseobacterium indologenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Takehisa; Nagata, Mika; Ishimine, Nau; Kawasaki, Kenji; Yamauchi, Kazuyoshi; Hidaka, Eiko; Kasuga, Eriko; Horiuchi, Kazuki; Oana, Kozue; Kawakami, Yoshiyuki; Honda, Takayuki

    2012-01-01

    An Ambler class A β-lactamase gene, bla(CIA-1), was cloned from the reference strain Chryseobacterium indologenes ATCC 29897 and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21. The bla(CIA-1) gene encodes a novel extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) that shared 68% and 60% identities with the CGA-1 and CME-1 β-lactamases, respectively. bla(CIA-1)-like genes were detected from clinical isolates. In addition to the metallo-β-lactamase IND of Ambler class B, C. indologenes has a class A ESBL gene, bla(CIA-1), located on the chromosome.

  13. Truck Rollover Characterization for Class-8 Tractor-Trailers Utilizing Standard Dual Tires and New-Generation Single Tires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capps, Gary [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). National Transportation Research Center; Knee, Bill [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). National Transportation Research Center; Franzese, Oscar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). National Transportation Research Center; Pollock, Paul [Dana Corporation, Kalamazoo, MI (United States). Commercial Vehicle Systems Division; Coleman, Daniel [Dana Corporation, Kalamazoo, MI (United States). Commercial Vehicle Systems Division; Janajreh, Ibrahim [Michelin Americas Research and Development Corporation, Greenville, SC (United States); Haas, Steven [Michelin Americas Research and Development Corporation, Greenville, SC (United States); Frey, Norm [Michelin Americas Research and Development Corporation, Greenville, SC (United States); Law, Harry [Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Fluor Daniel Engineering Innovation Building; Johnson, Eric [Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Fluor Daniel Engineering Innovation Building; Lawson, Robert [Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Fluor Daniel Engineering Innovation Building; Petrolino, Joe [National Transportation Research Center, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Rice, Dave [National Transportation Research Center, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2005-07-30

    The Heavy Truck Rollover Characterization Project is a major research effort conducted by the National Transportation Research Center, Inc. (NTRCI) in partnership with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Dana Corporation (Dana), Michelin Americas Research and Development Corporation (Michelin) and Clemson University (Clemson), under the NTRCIs Heavy Vehicle Safety Research Center (HVSRC) for the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). ORNL provided the day-to-day management of the project. The expertise mix of this team coupled with complementary research needs and interests, and a positive can-do attitude provided an extremely positive experimental research opportunity for all involved. Furthermore, this team supplied significant and valuable resources that provided a strong positive benchmark regarding the ability to conduct research within a public-private partnership. The work conducted by this team focused on initial efforts to generate data and information on heavy truck rollover not currently available in the industry. It reflects efforts within Phases 1 and 2 of a longer-term four-phase research program. A 1999 Peterbilt 379 class-8 tractor and 2004 Wabash dry freight van trailer were the test vehicles utilized in this effort. Both were instrumented with a number of sensors to capture the dynamics of the tractor and trailer as it engaged in various testing maneuvers that included: an evasive maneuver, swept sine, constant radius, and a run-off-the-road maneuver. The run-off-the-road maneuver was discontinued because the test track could not safety accommodate such a maneuver. These maneuvers were carried out utilizing both standard dual tires and new-generation dual tires in six test series. Two test series also included the use of a wider-slider suspension. Outriggers were placed on the test vehicle to assure that an actual rollover would not occur, however, the tests were designed to generate lift-off of tires during the tests. One of the main objectives

  14. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.

    2001-11-04

    The objective of this Class III project was demonstrate that reservoir characterization and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by CO2 flood can increase production from slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico. Phase 1 of the project, reservoir characterization, focused on Geraldine Ford and East Ford fields, which are Delaware Mountain Group fields that produce from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The demonstration phase of the project was a CO2 flood conducted in East Ford field, which is operated by Orla Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit.

  15. Characterization and Functional Analysis of Five MADS-Box B Class Genes Related to Floral Organ Identification in Tagetes erecta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Ai

    Full Text Available According to the floral organ development ABC model, B class genes specify petal and stamen identification. In order to study the function of B class genes in flower development of Tagetes erecta, five MADS-box B class genes were identified and their expression and putative functions were studied. Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses indicated that there were one PI-like gene-TePI, two euAP3-like genes-TeAP3-1 and TeAP3-2, and two TM6-like genes-TeTM6-1 and TeTM6-2 in T. erecta. Strong expression levels of these genes were detected in stamens of the disk florets, but little or no expression was detected in bracts, receptacles or vegetative organs. Yeast hybrid experiments of the B class proteins showed that TePI protein could form a homodimer and heterodimers with all the other four B class proteins TeAP3-1, TeAP3-2, TeTM6-1 and TeTM6-2. No homodimer or interaction was observed between the euAP3 and TM6 clade members. Over-expression of five B class genes of T. erecta in Nicotiana rotundifolia showed that only the transgenic plants of 35S::TePI showed altered floral morphology compared with the non-transgenic line. This study could contribute to the understanding of the function of B class genes in flower development of T. erecta, and provide a theoretical basis for further research to change floral organ structures and create new materials for plant breeding.

  16. Characterization and evolution of MHC class II B genes in Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaberman, Scott; Moreno, Maria A; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2009-08-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules play a key role in the adaptive immune system of vertebrates. Class II B genes appear to evolve in a very different manner in mammals and birds. Orthology is commonly observed among mammal loci, while genes tend to cluster phylogenetically within bird species. Here we present class II B data from a representative of another major group of amniotes, the squamates (i.e. lizards, snakes, amphisbaenians), with the ultimate goal of placing mammalian and avian MHC evolution into a broader context. In this study, eight class II B cDNA sequences were obtained from the Galápagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) which were divided into five locus groups, Amcr-DAB1 through -DAB5, based on similarities along most of the coding and noncoding portions of the transcribed gene. All marine iguana sequences were monophyletic with respect to class II genes from other vertebrates indicating that they originated from a common ancestral locus after squamates split from other reptiles. The beta-1 domain, which is involved in antigen binding, exhibited signatures of positive selection as well as interlocus gene conversion in both long and short tracts-a pattern also observed in birds and fish, but not in mammals. On the other hand, the beta-2 domain was divergent between gene groups, which is characteristic of mammals. Based on these results, we preliminarily show that squamate class II B genes have been shaped by a unique blend of evolutionary forces that have been observed in differing degrees in other vertebrates.

  17. Isolation and growth characteristics of an EDTA-degrading member of the alpha-subclass of Proteobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weilenmann, Hans-Ueli; Engeli, Barbara; Bucheli-Witschel, Margarete; Egli, Thomas

    2004-10-01

    A Gram-negative, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-degrading bacterium (deposited at the German Culture Collection as strain DSM 9103) utilising EDTA as the only source of carbon, energy and nitrogen was isolated from a mixed EDTA-degrading population that was originally enriched in a column system from a mixture of activated sludge and soil. Chemotaxonomic analysis of quinones, polar lipids and fatty acids allowed allocation of the isolate to the alpha-subclass of Proteobacteria. 16S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis revealed highest similarity to the Mesorhizobium genus followed by the Aminobacter genus. However, the EDTA-degrading strain apparently forms a new branch within the Phyllobacteriaceae/Mesorhizobia family. Growth of the strain was rather slow not only on EDTA (micro(max) = 0.05 h(-1)) but also on other substrates. Classical substrate utilisation testing in batch culture suggested a quite restricted carbon source spectrum with only lactate, glutamate, and complexing agents chemically related to EDTA (nitrilotriacetate, iminodiacetate and ethylenediaminedisuccinate) supporting growth. However, when EDTA-limited continuous cultures of strain DSM 9103 were pulsed with fumarate, succinate, glucose or acetate, these substrates were assimilated immediately. Apparently, the strain can use a broader spectrum than indicated by traditional substrate testing techniques. The EDTA species CaEDTA and MgEDTA served as growth substrates of the strain because in the mineral medium employed EDTA was predicted to be mainly present in the form of these two complexes. The bacterium was not able to degrade Fe3+-complexed EDTA.

  18. Detection of Class 1 and 2 Integrons, β-Lactamase Genes and Molecular Characterization of Sulfonamide Resistance in Escherichia coli Isolates Recovered from Poultry in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jam Kashif§, Rehana Buriro§, Javed Memon, Muhammad Yaqoob, Jamila Soomro§, Diao Dongxue, Huang Jinhu and Wang Liping*

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to detect integrons, β-lactamase genes and to characterize sulfonamide resistant E. coli isolates recovered from poultry. All the isolates (n=38 were investigated for the presence of integrons, Sul1, Sul2, Sul3 genes by PCR. Class 1 and class 2 integron were present in 79 and 16%, respectively. Additional resistance gene cassette embedded in class 1 and 2 integrons was aadA1, aadA5, dfrA17 and aadA22, dfrA, respectively. Sul1 and Sul2 genes were detected in 42.1 and 60.5% isolates, respectively. Both the Sul1 and Sul2 were present in 23% isolates. However, Sul3 gene was not present. Co-existence of Sul1 and Sul2 with class 1 integrons was found in 28.9 and 60.5% of class 1 integron positive isolates, respectively. Whereas, a less percentage of isolates showed a low level of resistance to β-lactams and no blaCTX-M, blaSHV and blaTEM was found. The MIC results showed resistance to sulfadiazine and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim in 88 and 84% isolates, resistance to penicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin was 52, 52 and 44%, respectively. Chloramphenicol, florfenicol, tetracycline and gentamycin resistance was found in 51, 5, 42 and 67% isolates, respectively. This study revealed high frequency of class 1 integrons, Sul genes among poultry E. coli isolates, therefore further spread of Sul genes and integrons is predictable.

  19. Characterizing a new class of variability in GRS 1915+105 with simultaneous INTEGRAL/RXTE observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannikainen, D.C.; Rodriguez, J.; Vilhu, O.

    2005-01-01

    find that the rising phase is shorter and harder than the declining phase, which is opposite to what has been observed in other otherwise similar variability classes in this source. The position in the colour-colour diagram throughout the revolution corresponds to State A (Belloni et al. 2000, A&A, 355...

  20. MHC class II genes in the European badger (Meles meles) : Characterization, patterns of variation, and transcription analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sin, Yung Wa; Dugdale, Hannah L.; Newman, Chris; Macdonald, David W.; Burke, Terry

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) comprises many genes, some of which are polymorphic with numerous alleles. Sequence variation among alleles is most pronounced in exon 2 of the class II genes, which encodes the alpha 1 and beta 1 domains that form the antigen-binding site (ABS) for the

  1. A personalized BEST: characterization of latent clinical classes of nonischemic heart failure that predict outcomes and response to bucindolol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P Kao

    Full Text Available Heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction (HFREF are heterogenous, and our ability to identify patients likely to respond to therapy is limited. We present a method of identifying disease subtypes using high-dimensional clinical phenotyping and latent class analysis that may be useful in personalizing prognosis and treatment in HFREF.A total of 1121 patients with nonischemic HFREF from the β-blocker Evaluation of Survival Trial were categorized according to 27 clinical features. Latent class analysis was used to generate two latent class models, LCM A and B, to identify HFREF subtypes. LCM A consisted of features associated with HF pathogenesis, whereas LCM B consisted of markers of HF progression and severity. The Seattle Heart Failure Model (SHFM Score was also calculated for all patients. Mortality, improvement in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF defined as an increase in LVEF ≥5% and a final LVEF of 35% after 12 months, and effect of bucindolol on both outcomes were compared across HFREF subtypes. Performance of models that included a combination of LCM subtypes and SHFM scores towards predicting mortality and LVEF response was estimated and subsequently validated using leave-one-out cross-validation and data from the Multicenter Oral Carvedilol Heart Failure Assessment Trial.A total of 6 subtypes were identified using LCM A and 5 subtypes using LCM B. Several subtypes resembled familiar clinical phenotypes. Prognosis, improvement in LVEF, and the effect of bucindolol treatment differed significantly between subtypes. Prediction improved with addition of both latent class models to SHFM for both 1-year mortality and LVEF response outcomes.The combination of high-dimensional phenotyping and latent class analysis identifies subtypes of HFREF with implications for prognosis and response to specific therapies that may provide insight into mechanisms of disease. These subtypes may facilitate development of personalized

  2. Characterization of class 1 integrons associated with R-plasmids in clinical Aeromonas salmonicida isolates from various geographical areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, A.S.; Bruun, Morten Sichlau; Larsen, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    Class 1 integrons were found in 26 of 40 antibiotic-resistant isolates of the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida from Northern Europe and North America. Three different dhfr genes, conferring trimethoprim resistance, and one ant(3 " )1a aminoglycoside resistance gene were identified as gene...... inserts. The gene cassettes tended to be conserved among isolates from a particular geographical area. Nineteen isolates transferred R- plasmids carrying different tet determinants to Escherichia coli in filter mating assays, and in 15 cases, the class 1 integrons were co-transferred. Transferable...... sulphadiazine, trimethoprim and streptomycin resistances were invariably encoded by integrons. It thus appears that integron-encoded antibiotic resistance genes contribute substantially to the horizontal spread of antimicrobial resistance within this species, being associated with conjugative plasmids....

  3. Phylogenetic characterization of Clonorchis sinensis proteins homologous to the sigma-class glutathione transferase and their differential expression profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Young-An; Kim, Jeong-Geun; Kong, Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione transferase (GST) is one of the major antioxidant proteins with diverse supplemental activities including peroxidase, isomerase, and thiol transferase. GSTs are classified into multiple classes on the basis of their primary structures and substrate/inhibitor specificity. However, the evolutionary routes and physiological environments specific to each of the closely related bioactive enzymes remain elusive. The sigma-like GSTs exhibit amino acid conservation patterns similar to the prostaglandin D synthases (PGDSs). In this study, we analyzed the phylogenetic position of the GSTs of the biocarcinogenic liver fluke, Clonorchis sinensis. We also observed induction profile of the GSTs in association with the parasite's maturation and in response to exogenous oxidative stresses, with special attention to sigma-class GSTs and PGDSs. The C. sinensis genome encoded 12 GST protein species, which were separately assigned to cytosolic (two omega-, one zeta-, two mu-, and five sigma-class), mitochondrial (one kappa-class), and microsomal (one membrane-associated proteins in eicosanoid and glutathione metabolism-like protein) GST families. Multiple sigma GST (or PGDS) orthologs were also detected in Opisthorchis viverrini. Other trematode species possessed only a single sigma-like GST gene. A phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that one of the sigma GST lineages duplicated in the common ancestor of trematodes were specifically expanded in the opisthorchiids, but deleted in other trematodes. The induction profiles of these sigma GST genes along with the development and aging of C. sinensis, and against various exogenous chemical stimuli strongly suggest that the paralogous sigma GST genes might be undergone specialized evolution to cope with the diverse hostile biochemical environments within the mammalian hepatobiliary ductal system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Expression and characterization of recombinant single-chain salmon class I MHC fused with beta2-microglobulin with biological activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Heng; Stet, René J M; Skjødt, Karsten

    2008-01-01

    Heterodimeric class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules consist of a putative 45-kDa heavy chain and a 12-kDa beta2-microglobulin (beta2m) light chain. The knowledge about MHC genes in Atlantic salmon accumulated during the last decade has allowed us to generate soluble and stable ...... MHC class I molecules with biological activity. We report here the use of a bacterial expression system to produce the recombinant single-chain MHC molecules based on a specific allele Sasa-UBA*0301. This particular allele was selected because previous work has shown its association...... antibodies were successfully produced against both the MHC class I heavy chain and beta(2)m, and showed binding to the recombinant molecule. The recombinant complex Sasabeta2mUBA*0301 was expressed and isolated; the production was scaled up by adjusting to its optimal conditions. Subsequently......, the recombinant proteins were purified by affinity chromatography using mAb against beta2m and alpha3. Eluates were analyzed by Western blot and refolded by the removal of denaturant. The correct folding was confirmed by measuring its binding capacity against mAb produced to recognize the native form of MHC...

  5. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization. Appendix A-2: Timing of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinke, W.F.

    1994-09-01

    Planning for the storage or disposal of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) requires characterization of that waste. Timing, or the date the waste will require storage or disposal, is an integral aspect of that planning. The majority of GTCC LLW is generated by nuclear power plants, and the length of time a reactor remains operational directly affects the amount of GTCC waste expected from that reactor. This report uses data from existing literature to develop high, base, and low case estimates for the number of plants expected to experience (a) early shutdown, (b) 40-year operation, or (c) life extension to 60-year operation. The discussion includes possible effects of advanced light water reactor technology on future GTCC LLW generation. However, the main focus of this study is timing for shutdown of current technology reactors that are under construction or operating

  6. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation, and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.; Zirczy, Helena H.

    2000-05-24

    The objective of this Class 3 project was to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. Phase 1 of the project, reservoir characterization, was completed this year, and Phase 2 began. The project is focused on East Ford field, a representative Delaware Mountain Group field that produces from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The field, discovered in 1960, is operated by Oral Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit. A CO{sub 2} flood is being conducted in the unit, and this flood is the Phase 2 demonstration for the project.

  7. Characterization of the Canine MHC Class I DLA-88*50101 Peptide Binding Motif as a Prerequisite for Canine T Cell Immunotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon M Barth

    Full Text Available There are limitations in pre-clinical settings using mice as a basis for clinical development in humans. In cancer, similarities exist between humans and dogs; thus, the dog patient can be a link in the transition from laboratory research on mouse models to clinical trials in humans. Knowledge of the peptides presented on MHC molecules is fundamental for the development of highly specific T cell-based immunotherapies. This information is available for human MHC molecules but is absent for the canine MHC. In the present study, we characterized the binding motif of dog leukocyte antigen (DLA class I allele DLA-88*50101, using human C1R and K562 transfected cells expressing the DLA-88*50101 heavy chain. MHC class I immunoaffinity-purification revealed 3720 DLA-88*50101 derived peptides, which enabled the determination of major anchor positions. The characterized binding motif of DLA-88*50101 was similar to HLA-A*02:01. Peptide binding analyses on HLA-A*02:01 and DLA-88*50101 via flow cytometry showed weak binding of DLA-88*50101 derived peptides to HLA-A*02:01, and vice versa. Our results present for the first time a detailed peptide binding motif of the canine MHC class I allelic product DLA-88*50101. These data support the goal of establishing dogs as a suitable animal model for the evaluation and development of T cell-based cancer immunotherapies, benefiting both dog and human patients.

  8. The characterization of petroleum and creosote-contaminated soils: Class component analysis by thin layer chromatography with flame ionization detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollard, S.J.T.; Hrudey, S.E.; Fuhr, B.J.; Alex, R.F.; Holloway, L.R.

    1992-01-01

    The assessment and reclamation of coal tar, creosote and petroleum-contaminated sites is emerging as a major challenge to industry and the federal and provincial Canadian governments. Contaminants frequently include polynuclear aromatic compounds (PAH), several high molecular weight analogues of which are documented carcinogens. Adaptation of thin layer chromatography with flame ionization detection for the analysis of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils is described. The method is directly applicable to the analysis of oily waste extracts from petroleum and creosote wood preservative site soils and is capable of distinguishing between the saturate, aromatic and polar components of waste residues. The method provides a rapid, low cost class component analysis of heavy hydrocarbon waste extracts and is particularly useful for estimating the extent of weathering experienced by chronically exposed hydrocarbon wastes in the soil environment. As such, it is useful as a screening tool for a preliminary assessment of the biotreatability or inherent recalcitrance of hydrocarbon waste mixtures. 11 refs., 5 figs

  9. Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies, Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    City of Long Beach; Tidelands Oil Production Company; University of Southern California; David K. Davies and Associates

    2002-09-30

    The objective of this project was to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. It was hoped that the successful application of these technologies would result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs.

  10. Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Evaluation of CO2 Gravity Drainage in the Naturally Fractured Spraberry Trend Area, Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, Bill; Schechter, David S.

    2002-07-26

    The goal of this project was to assess the economic feasibility of CO2 flooding the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in west Texas. This objective was accomplished through research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interactions in the reservoirs, (3) reservoir performance analysis, and (4) experimental investigations on CO2 gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. This provides results of the final year of the six-year project for each of the four areas.

  11. Telluro amino acids-synthesis, characterization and properties of a new and potentially useful class of compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Callahan, A.P.

    1978-01-01

    The Te-123m nuclide emits 159 keV photons suggesting that agents labeled with this nuclide would be attractive candidates for tissue imaging. Amino acids labeled with Te-123m are of particular interest since some of these compounds would be isosteric with the sulfur analogs and might behave similarly in vivo. Such agents could possibly be useful for pancreatic imaging and for other biomedical applications. The goal of this investigation was to develop a general chemical method for the preparation of telluro amino acids. Attempts by other workers to prepare such compounds by microbiological methods have been unsuccessful. Since telluro amino acids were unknown prior to our studies we attempted the synthesis of a representative member of this class of compounds by several routes. Two general approaches were considered which involved either the introduction of an (organo telluro) reagent into a substrate that contained the protected -CH(NH 2 )COOH moiety or introduction of the reagent into a substrate that could subsequently be converted to the α-amino acid after the coupling step

  12. Dependent Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasiunas, Vaidas; Mezini, Mira; Ostermann, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    of dependent classes and a machine-checked type soundness proof in Isabelle/HOL [29], the first of this kind for a language with virtual classes and path-dependent types. [29] T.Nipkow, L.C. Poulson, and M. Wenzel. Isabelle/HOL -- A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order Logic, volume 2283 of LNCS, Springer, 2002......Virtual classes allow nested classes to be refined in subclasses. In this way nested classes can be seen as dependent abstractions of the objects of the enclosing classes. Expressing dependency via nesting, however, has two limitations: Abstractions that depend on more than one object cannot...... be modeled and a class must know all classes that depend on its objects. This paper presents dependent classes, a generalization of virtual classes that expresses similar semantics by parameterization rather than by nesting. This increases expressivity of class variations as well as the flexibility...

  13. Residual stress characterization of a fabrication weld from the VICTORIA-Class submarine pressure hull: revealing the unseen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGregor, R.J.; Rogge, R.B.

    2010-01-01

    Explicit understanding of the residual-stress character of primary submarine pressure hull weldments will improve the fidelity of numerical analysis and experimentation supporting operational envelope and design life. A length of circumferential-seam closure weld was contained within a section of hull plate removed from the HMCS VICTORIA during the extended docking work period (EDWP) refit operations. This has provided a rare opportunity for detailed characterization of the as-received condition of this common weld-type from original vessel assembly. In collaboration with the Canadian Neutron Beam Centre of the National Research Council (NRC), a program was conducted to study this weld using neutron diffraction. Neutron diffraction is able to survey nondestructively through the section thickness, providing a three-dimensional characterization, while leaving the specimen intact for complementary study by other methods. Results indicate tensile stress peaks of up to 80% of the base-material yield stress. Understanding the three-dimensional behaviour of residual stress in this type of weld provides a valuable resource to the numerical modelling community. The results can also support fatigue and fracture experimental work and serve to confirm and improve the interpretation of the existing body of 'surface-only' work conducted on similar welds. (author)

  14. A new class of photoactivatable and carbene generating reagents with extremely high specific radioactivity. Synthesis, characterization and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, T.

    1994-01-01

    The main objective of this work was the development of new photocrosslinking and labeling reagents which show favourable photochemical properties and can be synthesized in an extremely high specific radioactivity. A key compound in the synthesis of these reagents was 2-tributyltin-4-(3-trifluormethyl-3H-diazirin-3-yl)-benzyl alcohol. Esters of this alcohol can be easily radioiodinated at a specific radioactivity of >2000 Ci/mmol under mild conditions. By experiments with a model compound it was shown that 2-iodo-4-(3-trifluormethyl-3H-diazirin-3-yl)-benzyl esters, upon photolysis, generate highly reactive (singlet) carbenes capable of inserting into CH-bonds. Equally important, there is no indication of loss of iodine under the photolysis conditions applied. Therefore two key requirements for photolabeling reagents are fulfilled. Several photoactivatable radioiodinated phospholipids have been synthesized. Their properties have been evaluated by labeling of the the membranes of intact erythrocytes and influenza viruses. Currently these lipids are used to study the interaction of various proteins (shown are experiments with MARCKS) with membranes. Furthermore a new class of actual label transfer crosslinkers (two thiol specific and one amino specific) have been developed. The range of potentialities of these reagents is currently being investigated. Finally a photoactivatable radioiodinated ceramide analogue suitable as a photoaffinity crosslinker has been developed with the goal of identifying the putative receptor of this second messenger-like lipid. Preliminary studies towards this goal are described. We are convinced that the reagents and methods presented in this work are valuable tools, and that they will find widespread use in future cell-biological and biochemical research. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  15. In vitro biological characterization of a novel, synthetic diaryl pyrazole resorcinol class of heat shock protein 90 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Swee Y; Boxall, Kathy; Rowlands, Martin; Prodromou, Chrisostomos; Roe, S Mark; Maloney, Alison; Powers, Marissa; Clarke, Paul A; Box, Gary; Sanderson, Sharon; Patterson, Lisa; Matthews, Thomas P; Cheung, Kwai-Ming J; Ball, Karen; Hayes, Angela; Raynaud, Florence; Marais, Richard; Pearl, Laurence; Eccles, Sue; Aherne, Wynne; McDonald, Edward; Workman, Paul

    2007-03-01

    The molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) has emerged as an exciting molecular target. Derivatives of the natural product geldanamycin, such as 17-allylamino-17-demethoxy-geldanamycin (17-AAG), were the first HSP90 ATPase inhibitors to enter clinical trial. Synthetic small-molecule HSP90 inhibitors have potential advantages. Here, we describe the biological properties of the lead compound of a new class of 3,4-diaryl pyrazole resorcinol HSP90 inhibitor (CCT018159), which we identified by high-throughput screening. CCT018159 inhibited human HSP90beta with comparable potency to 17-AAG and with similar ATP-competitive kinetics. X-ray crystallographic structures of the NH(2)-terminal domain of yeast Hsp90 complexed with CCT018159 or its analogues showed binding properties similar to radicicol. The mean cellular GI(50) value of CCT018159 across a panel of human cancer cell lines, including melanoma, was 5.3 mumol/L. Unlike 17-AAG, the in vitro antitumor activity of the pyrazole resorcinol analogues is independent of NQO1/DT-diaphorase and P-glycoprotein expression. The molecular signature of HSP90 inhibition, comprising increased expression of HSP72 protein and depletion of ERBB2, CDK4, C-RAF, and mutant B-RAF, was shown by Western blotting and quantified by time-resolved fluorescent-Cellisa in human cancer cell lines treated with CCT018159. CCT018159 caused cell cytostasis associated with a G(1) arrest and induced apoptosis. CCT018159 also inhibited key endothelial and tumor cell functions implicated in invasion and angiogenesis. Overall, we have shown that diaryl pyrazole resorcinols exhibited similar cellular properties to 17-AAG with potential advantages (e.g., aqueous solubility, independence from NQO1 and P-glycoprotein). These compounds form the basis for further structure-based optimization to identify more potent inhibitors suitable for clinical development.

  16. Characterization of vanadate-dependent NADH oxidation activity and isolation of yeast DNA which complements a class 1 vanadate resistance mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minasi, L.E.

    1989-01-01

    A vanadate-dependent NADH oxidation activity has been characterized in plasma membranes from the yeast S cerevisiae. NADH oxidation activity was maximally stimulated at pH 5.0 in phosphate buffer. NADH oxidation was not dependent on the concentration of plasma membranes. The vanadate-dependent NADH oxidation activity was abolished under anaerobic conditions and the concomitant uptake of oxygen occurred during NADH oxidation. The activity was inhibited by superoxide dismutase and stimulated by the presence of paraquat. These results indicate that the vanadate stimulation of NADH oxidation in yeast plasma membranes occurs as a result of the vanadate-dependent oxidation of NADH by superoxide, generated by a plasma membrane NADH oxidase. 51 V-NMR results indicated that a phosphate-vanadate anhydride was the stimulatory species in pH 5.0 and pH 7.0 phosphate buffer. Yeast DNA has been isolated which complements a class 1 vanadate resistance mutation

  17. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.; Mendez, Daniel L.

    2001-05-08

    The objective of this Class 3 project was demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstone's of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover oil more economically through geologically based field development. This project was focused on East Ford field, a Delaware Mountain Group field that produced from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The field, discovered in 9160, is operated by Oral Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit. A CO2 flood was being conducted in the unit, and this flood is the Phase 2 demonstration for the project.

  18. Phylogenetic Analysis and Antimicrobial Profiles of Cultured Emerging Opportunistic Pathogens (Phyla Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria) Identified in Hot Springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, Jocelyn Leonie; Abia, Akebe Luther King; Mavumengwana, Vuyo; Ubomba-Jaswa, Eunice

    2017-09-15

    Hot spring water may harbour emerging waterborne opportunistic pathogens that can cause infections in humans. We have investigated the diversity and antimicrobial resistance of culturable emerging and opportunistic bacterial pathogens, in water and sediment of hot springs located in Limpopo, South Africa. Aerobic bacteria were cultured and identified using 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene sequencing. The presence of Legionella spp. was investigated using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Isolates were tested for resistance to ten antibiotics representing six different classes: β-lactam (carbenicillin), aminoglycosides (gentamycin, kanamycin, streptomycin), tetracycline, amphenicols (chloramphenicol, ceftriaxone), sulphonamides (co-trimoxazole) and quinolones (nalidixic acid, norfloxacin). Gram-positive Kocuria sp. and Arthrobacter sp. and gram-negative Cupriavidus sp., Ralstonia sp., Cronobacter sp., Tepidimonas sp., Hafnia sp. and Sphingomonas sp. were isolated, all recognised as emerging food-borne pathogens. Legionella spp. was not detected throughout the study. Isolates of Kocuria , Arthrobacter and Hafnia and an unknown species of the class Gammaproteobacteria were resistant to two antibiotics in different combinations of carbenicillin, ceftriaxone, nalidixic acid and chloramphenicol. Cronobacter sp. was sensitive to all ten antibiotics. This study suggests that hot springs are potential reservoirs for emerging opportunistic pathogens, including multiple antibiotic resistant strains, and highlights the presence of unknown populations of emerging and potential waterborne opportunistic pathogens in the environment.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of a new class of glycosylated porphyrins bearing the RGD moiety and their application in photodynamic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaleix, Vincent

    2003-01-01

    The use of porphyrins and analogues as photosensitisers together with visible light is a new treatment of tumors (photodynamic therapy, PDT). Carbohydrate-substituted porphyrins are in this domain very promising compounds. In addition, it is known that endothelial cells of the neo-vascularisation in tumors express αVβ3 integrin. Extracellular domains of this transmembrane glycoprotein are able to bind components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and more precisely the sequence Arg-Gly-Asp. With the aim of their utilization in photodynamic therapy of cancers, we describe the synthesis and characterization (UV-Visible, mass, NMR) of new glucosylated porphyrins bearing the RGD moiety. The first synthesised compounds were derived from tritolyl and tri-glucosyl-aryl-porphyrins where the peptidic moiety is linked to the phenyl group by a spacer arm by means of a solid phase reaction.. The second series consists of glucosylated porphyrin derivatives bearing a cyclical unsaturated pentapeptide including RGD sequence, obtained by ring closing metathesis in solid phase. We have also synthesized a dimer in which the two glucosylated porphyrins are linked by the RGD sequence. These compounds produced 1 O 2 and photo-cyto-toxicities against K562 leukemia cell line were favourably compared to Photofrin II R . Due to their sensitising abilities, these compounds are of considerable interest for photodynamic therapy. (author) [fr

  20. Characterization and 454 pyrosequencing of Major Histocompatibility Complex class I genes in the great tit reveal complexity in a passerine system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepil Irem

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The critical role of Major Histocompatibility Complex (Mhc genes in disease resistance and their highly polymorphic nature make them exceptional candidates for studies investigating genetic effects on survival, mate choice and conservation. Species that harbor many Mhc loci and high allelic diversity are particularly intriguing as they are potentially under strong selection and studies of such species provide valuable information as to the mechanisms maintaining Mhc diversity. However comprehensive genotyping of complex multilocus systems has been a major challenge to date with the result that little is known about the consequences of this complexity in terms of fitness effects and disease resistance. Results In this study, we genotyped the Mhc class I exon 3 of the great tit (Parus major from two nest-box breeding populations near Oxford, UK that have been monitored for decades. Characterization of Mhc class I exon 3 was adopted and bidirectional sequencing was carried using the 454 sequencing platform. Full analysis of sequences through a stepwise variant validation procedure allowed reliable typing of more than 800 great tits based on 214,357 reads; from duplicates we estimated the repeatability of typing as 0.94. A total of 862 alleles were detected, and the presence of at least 16 functional loci was shown - the highest number characterized in a wild bird species. Finally, the functional alleles were grouped into 17 supertypes based on their antigen binding affinities. Conclusions We found extreme complexity at the Mhc class I of the great tit both in terms of allelic diversity and gene number. The presence of many functional loci was shown, together with a pseudogene family and putatively non-functional alleles; there was clear evidence that functional alleles were under strong balancing selection. This study is the first step towards an in-depth analysis of this gene complex in this species, which will help

  1. Bioinformatic analysis of an unusual gene-enzyme relationship in the arginine biosynthetic pathway among marine gamma proteobacteria: implications concerning the formation of N-acetylated intermediates in prokaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labedan Bernard

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The N-acetylation of L-glutamate is regarded as a universal metabolic strategy to commit glutamate towards arginine biosynthesis. Until recently, this reaction was thought to be catalyzed by either of two enzymes: (i the classical N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS, gene argA first characterized in Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa several decades ago and also present in vertebrates, or (ii the bifunctional version of ornithine acetyltransferase (OAT, gene argJ present in Bacteria, Archaea and many Eukaryotes. This paper focuses on a new and surprising aspect of glutamate acetylation. We recently showed that in Moritella abyssi and M. profunda, two marine gamma proteobacteria, the gene for the last enzyme in arginine biosynthesis (argH is fused to a short sequence that corresponds to the C-terminal, N-acetyltransferase-encoding domain of NAGS and is able to complement an argA mutant of E. coli. Very recently, other authors identified in Mycobacterium tuberculosis an independent gene corresponding to this short C-terminal domain and coding for a new type of NAGS. We have investigated the two prokaryotic Domains for patterns of gene-enzyme relationships in the first committed step of arginine biosynthesis. Results The argH-A fusion, designated argH(A, and discovered in Moritella was found to be present in (and confined to marine gamma proteobacteria of the Alteromonas- and Vibrio-like group. Most of them have a classical NAGS with the exception of Idiomarina loihiensis and Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis which nevertheless can grow in the absence of arginine and therefore appear to rely on the arg(A sequence for arginine biosynthesis. Screening prokaryotic genomes for virtual argH-X 'fusions' where X stands for a homologue of arg(A, we retrieved a large number of Bacteria and several Archaea, all of them devoid of a classical NAGS. In the case of Thermus thermophilus and Deinococcus radiodurans, the arg(A-like sequence

  2. Characterizing the Energetics of the Youngest Protostars: FIFI-LS Spectroscopy of Herschel-Identified Extreme Class 0 objects in Orion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megeath, S.

    2014-10-01

    We propose FIFI-LS spectroscopy observations toward 3 of the youngest known Herschel- detected Class 0 protostars in the Orion molecular clouds. Characterization of the far-IR spectrum toward these PACS Bright Red Sources (PBRS) is imperative: this is the only observational means to characterize the complete energetics of the outflow in the earliest stages of the star formation process. We have already obtained Herschel-PACS spectroscopy for 8/14 PBRS; for these, the CO rotation temperatures are systematically lower than the larger samples of 'more typical' protostars observed. Furthermore, all of the Herschel-detected PBRS also have CARMA CO (J=1-0) outflow maps, enabling us to identify tentative trends between the detection and morphology (compact or extended) of the CO outflow and the presence or lack of far-infrared emission lines. Moreover, we only convincingly detect [OI] emission toward the source with the brightest outflow emission; thus, [OI] may not be universally present in protostellar outflows. However, due to the small-numbers with PACS spectroscopy, it is unclear if these trends are real and the three proposed PBRS have outflow maps of varying morphologies, but no far-infrared spectra. The results from this program will provide a firm observational footing for the presence or lack of such trends and will strengthen the connection of the far-IR emission lines to the outflow.

  3. Cutting Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Andrew

    1976-01-01

    Provides critical reviews of three books, "The Political Economy of Social Class", "Ethnicity: Theory and Experience," and "Ethnicity in the United States," focusing on the political economy of social class and ethnicity. (Author/AM)

  4. Comparison of venoms from wild and long-term captive Bothrops atrox snakes and characterization of Batroxrhagin, the predominant class PIII metalloproteinase from the venom of this species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas-de-Sousa, L A; Amazonas, D R; Sousa, L F; Sant'Anna, S S; Nishiyama, M Y; Serrano, S M T; Junqueira-de-Azevedo, I L M; Chalkidis, H M; Moura-da-Silva, A M; Mourão, R H V

    2015-11-01

    Comparisons between venoms from snakes kept under captivity or collected at the natural environment are of fundamental importance in order to obtain effective antivenoms to treat human victims of snakebites. In this study, we compared composition and biological activities of Bothrops atrox venom from snakes collected at Tapajós National Forest (Pará State, Brazil) or maintained for more than 10 years under captivity at Instituto Butantan herpetarium after have been collected mostly at Maranhão State, Brazil. Venoms from captive or wild snakes were similar except for small quantitative differences detected in peaks correspondent to phospholipases A2 (PLA2), snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMP) class PI and serine proteinases (SVSP), which did not correlate with fibrinolytic and coagulant activities (induced by PI-SVMPs and SVSPs). In both pools, the major toxic component corresponded to PIII-SVMPs, which were isolated and characterized. The characterization by mass spectrometry of both samples identified peptides that matched with a single PIII-SVMP cDNA characterized by transcriptomics, named Batroxrhagin. Sequence alignments show a strong similarity between Batroxrhagin and Jararhagin (96%). Batroxrhagin samples isolated from venoms of wild or captive snakes were not pro-coagulant, but inhibited collagen-induced platelet-aggregation, and induced hemorrhage and fibrin lysis with similar doses. Results suggest that in spite of environmental differences, venom variability was detected only among the less abundant components. In opposition, the most abundant toxin, which is a PIII-SVMP related to the key effects of the venom, is structurally conserved in the venoms. This observation is relevant for explaining the efficacy of antivenoms produced with venoms from captive snakes in human accidents inflicted at distinct natural environments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  5. The common equine class I molecule Eqca-1*00101 (ELA-A3.1) is characterized by narrow peptide binding and T cell epitope repertoires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Tobias; Moore, Carrie; Sidney, John; Miller, Donald; Tallmadge, Rebecca; Harman, Rebecca M; Oseroff, Carla; Wriston, Amanda; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Hunt, Donald F; Osterrieder, Nikolaus; Peters, Bjoern; Antczak, Douglas F; Sette, Alessandro

    2015-11-01

    Here we describe a detailed quantitative peptide-binding motif for the common equine leukocyte antigen (ELA) class I allele Eqca-1*00101, present in roughly 25 % of Thoroughbred horses. We determined a preliminary binding motif by sequencing endogenously bound ligands. Subsequently, a positional scanning combinatorial library (PSCL) was used to further characterize binding specificity and derive a quantitative motif involving aspartic acid in position 2 and hydrophobic residues at the C-terminus. Using this motif, we selected and tested 9- and 10-mer peptides derived from the equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) proteome for their capacity to bind Eqca-1*00101. PSCL predictions were very efficient, with an receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve performance of 0.877, and 87 peptides derived from 40 different EHV-1 proteins were identified with affinities of 500 nM or higher. Quantitative analysis revealed that Eqca-1*00101 has a narrow peptide-binding repertoire, in comparison to those of most human, non-human primate, and mouse class I alleles. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from six EHV-1-infected, or vaccinated but uninfected, Eqca-1*00101-positive horses were used in IFN-γ enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assays. When we screened the 87 Eqca-1*00101-binding peptides for T cell reactivity, only one Eqca-1*00101 epitope, derived from the intermediate-early protein ICP4, was identified. Thus, despite its common occurrence in several horse breeds, Eqca-1*00101 is associated with a narrow binding repertoire and a similarly narrow T cell response to an important equine viral pathogen. Intriguingly, these features are shared with other human and macaque major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules with a similar specificity for D in position 2 or 3 in their main anchor motif.

  6. Characterization of microbial consortia in a terephthalate-degrading anaerobic granular sludge system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J H; Liu, W T; Tseng, I C; Cheng, S S

    2001-02-01

    The microbial composition and spatial distribution in a terephthalate-degrading anaerobic granular sludge system were characterized using molecular techniques. 16S rDNA clone library and sequence analysis revealed that 78.5% of 106 bacterial clones belonged to the delta subclass of the class Proteobacteria; the remaining clones were assigned to the green non-sulfur bacteria (7.5%), Synergistes (0.9%) and unidentified divisions (13.1%). Most of the bacterial clones in the delta-Proteobacteria formed a novel group containing no known bacterial isolates. For the domain Archaea, 81.7% and 18.3% of 72 archaeal clones were affiliated with Methanosaeta and Methanospirillum, respectively. Spatial localization of microbial populations inside granules was determined by transmission electron microscopy and fluorescent in situ hybridization with oligonucleotide probes targeting the novel delta-proteobacterial group, the acetoclastic Methanosaeta, and the hydrogenotrophic Methanospirillum and members of Methanobacteriaceae. The novel group included at least two different populations with identical rod-shape morphology, which made up more than 87% of the total bacterial cells, and were closely associated with methanogenic populations to form a nonlayered granular structure. This novel group was presumed to be the primary bacterial population involved in the terephthalate degradation in the methanogenic granular consortium.

  7. A multilocus approach to assessing co-evolutionary relationships between Steinernema spp. (Nematoda: Steinernematidae) and their bacterial symbionts Xenorhabdus spp. (gamma-Proteobacteria: Enterobacteriaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ming-Min; Stock, S Patricia

    2010-09-01

    Nematodes of the genus Steinernema Travassos, 1927 (Nematoda: Steinernematidae) and their associated bacteria, Xenorhabdus spp. (gamma-Proteobacteria), are an emergent model of terrestrial animal-microbe symbiosis. Interest in this association initially arose out of their potential as biocontrol agents against insect pests, but, despite advances in their field application and the growing popularity of this model system, relatively little has been published to uncover the evolutionary facets of this beneficial partnership. This study adds to the body of knowledge regarding nematode-bacteria symbiosis by proposing a possible scenario for their historical association in the form of a cophylogenetic hypothesis. Topological and likelihood based testing methods were employed to reconstruct a history of association between 30 host-symbiont pairs and to gauge the level of similarity between their inferred phylogenetic patterns.

  8. SURVEILLANCE of CARBAPENEM NON-SUSCEPTIBLE GRAM NEGATIVE STRAINS and CHARACTERIZATION of CARBAPENEMASES of CLASSES A, B and D in a LEBANESE HOSPITAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammoudi, Dalal; Moubareck, Carole Ayoub; Kanso, Abeer; Nordmann, Patrice; Sarkis, Dolla Karam

    2015-01-01

    The production of carbapenem-hydrolyzing enzymes has been recognized as one of the most currently relevant resistance mechanisms in gram negative bacterial isolates, and is being detected in various countries. In Lebanon, carbapenem resistance was studied among gram negative pathogens collected from a university hospital from January to June of years 2011 and 2012. All isolates were subjected to phenotypic tests including antibiotic susceptibility, cloxacillin effect, modified Hodge test, and Etest for metallo-β-lactamase detection. They were also subjected to genotyping by PCR sequencing to characterize β-lactamases. Between January and June 2011, 48 carbapenem non-susceptible strains were collected. Of these, one Klebsiella pneumoniae harbored OXA-48 and insertion sequence IS 1999; four Acinetobacter baumanni harbored simultaneously OXA-23 and GES-11, and three Pseudomonas harbored VIM-2 carbapenemase. Between January and June 2012, 100 carbapenem non-susceptible strains were collected. Of these, one K. pneumoniae harbored simultaneously OXA-48, IS 1999, and an acquired AmpC of the ACC group; four Serratia marcescens harbored OXA-48, while among eight A. baumannii, one strain co-harbored OXA-23 and GES-11, six harbored OXA-23 and one OXA-24. Fifteen P, aeruginosa and two Pseudomonas species harbored VIM-2; two P. aeruginosa strains produced IMP-1 and two others IMP-2. This epidemiological survey demonstrates the presence of carbapenemases of Ambler classes A, B, and D in a Lebanese hospital and indicates increase in the number and variety of such enzymes.

  9. SRP-2 is a cross-class inhibitor that participates in postembryonic development of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans: initial characterization of the clade L serpins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Stephen C; Kumar, Vasantha; Tsu, Christopher; Luke, Cliff J; Askew, Yuko S; Askew, David J; Mills, David R; Brömme, Dieter; Silverman, Gary A

    2004-04-09

    High molecular weight serpins are members of a large superfamily of structurally conserved proteins that inactivate target proteinases by a suicide substrate-like mechanism. In vertebrates, different clades of serpins distribute predominantly to either the intracellular or extracellular space. Although much is known about the function, structure, and inhibitory mechanism of circulating serpins such as alpha(1)-antitrypsin (SERPINA1) and antithrombin III (SERPINC1), relatively little is known about the function of the vertebrate intracellular (clade B) serpins. To gain a better understanding of the biology of the intracellular serpins, we initiated a comparative genomics study using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model system. A screen of the C. elegans genomic and cDNA databases revealed nine serpin genes, tandemly arrayed on chromosome V. Although the C. elegans serpins represent a unique clade (L), they share significant functional homology with members of the clade B group of intracellular serpins, since they lack typical N-terminal signal peptides and reside intracellularly. To determine whether nematode serpins function as proteinase inhibitors, one family member, srp-2, was chosen for further characterization. Biochemical analysis of recombinant SRP-2 protein revealed SRP-2 to be a dual cross-class inhibitor of the apoptosis-related serine proteinase, granzyme B, and the lysosomal cysteine proteinases, cathepsins K, L, S, and V. Analysis of temporal and spatial expression indicated that SRP-2 was present during early embryonic development and highly expressed in the intestine and hypoderm of larval and adult worms. Transgenic animals engineered to overexpress SRP-2 were slow growing and/or arrested at the first, second, or third larval stages. These data suggest that perturbations of serpin-proteinase balance are critical for correct postembryonic development in C. elegans.

  10. Functional Characterization of the Tau Class Glutathione-S-Transferases Gene (SbGSTU) Promoter of Salicornia brachiata under Salinity and Osmotic Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Vivekanand; Patel, Manish Kumar; Chaturvedi, Amit Kumar; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen or nitrogen species are generated in the plant cell during the extreme stress condition, which produces toxic compounds after reacting with the organic molecules. The glutathione-S-transferase (GST) enzymes play a significant role to detoxify these toxins and help in excretion or sequestration of them. In the present study, we have cloned 1023 bp long promoter region of tau class GST from an extreme halophyte Salicornia brachiata and functionally characterized using the transgenic approach in tobacco. Computational analysis revealed the presence of abiotic stress responsive cis-elements like ABRE, MYB, MYC, GATA, GT1 etc., phytohormones, pathogen and wound responsive motifs. Three 5'-deletion constructs of 730 (GP2), 509 (GP3) and 348 bp (GP4) were made from 1023 (GP1) promoter fragment and used for tobacco transformation. The single event transgenic plants showed notable GUS reporter protein expression in the leaf tissues of control as well as treated plants. The expression level of the GUS gradually decreases from GP1 to GP4 in leaf tissues, whereas the highest level of expression was detected with the GP2 construct in root and stem under control condition. The GUS expression was found higher in leaves and stems of salinity or osmotic stress treated transgenic plants than that of the control plants, but, lower in roots. An efficient expression level of GUS in transgenic plants suggests that this promoter can be used for both constitutive as well as stress inducible expression of gene(s). And this property, make it as a potential candidate to be used as an alternative promoter for crop genetic engineering.

  11. Word classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2007-01-01

    in grammatical descriptions of some 50 languages, which together constitute a representative sample of the world’s languages (Hengeveld et al. 2004: 529). It appears that there are both quantitative and qualitative differences between word class systems of individual languages. Whereas some languages employ...... a parts-of-speech system that includes the categories Verb, Noun, Adjective and Adverb, other languages may use only a subset of these four lexical categories. Furthermore, quite a few languages have a major word class whose members cannot be classified in terms of the categories Verb – Noun – Adjective...... – Adverb, because they have properties that are strongly associated with at least two of these four traditional word classes (e.g. Adjective and Adverb). Finally, this article discusses some of the ways in which word class distinctions interact with other grammatical domains, such as syntax and morphology....

  12. Class size versus class composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Sam

    Raising schooling quality in low-income countries is a pressing challenge. Substantial research has considered the impact of cutting class sizes on skills acquisition. Considerably less attention has been given to the extent to which peer effects, which refer to class composition, also may affect...... bias from omitted variables, the preferred IV results indicate considerable negative effects due to larger class sizes and larger numbers of overage-for-grade peers. The latter, driven by the highly prevalent practices of grade repetition and academic redshirting, should be considered an important...

  13. Characterization of a Bio-Based, Biodegradable Class of Copolymers, Poly[(R)-3-Hydroxybutyrate-Co-(R)-3- Hydroxyhexanoate], and Application Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieski, Brian

    As modern society begins to focus on sustainability and renewable resources there is a growing need for the polymer industry to develop more environmentally friendly materials and practices. Part of this movement can be seen in the use of recycled materials in new products and in the development of bio-based, biodegradable polymers. Bio-based, biodegradable polymers are produced from renewable carbon sources, such as vegetable oils, typically polymerized using fermentation reactions via bacteria, and are able to be consumed by bacteria in landfills to completely convert the polymers to water and CO2. One class of such polymers are poly(hydroxyalkanoate)'s (PHAs), which are chiral, aliphatic polyesters. Within this class of polyesters are poly(hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) and the copolymer poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate- co-(R)-3-hydroxyhexanoate] (PHBHx), which have received extensive study due to their material properties as thermoplastics. Although the properties of PHB have been widely explored, much still remains to be understood about these promising biodegradable polymers. Specifically, PHB and its copolymers exhibit physical gelation in most solvents, yet the origin and mechanism of gelation and the properties of the resulting gel state are unknown. This research effort was primarily focused on investigating the physical gel state of PHBHx. Five goals were laid out and completed: determining the origin of gelation, the mechanism of gelation, the structure of the gel state, the properties of the gel state, and the effects of gelation on electrospun fibers of PHBHx. These goals were achieved through material characterization of the gel state utilizing infrared spectroscopy/two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and many other analysis methods. Crystallization of the polymer in solution was found to cause gelation in PHBHx solutions, where the polymer crystals act as tie points forming

  14. Social Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aktor, Mikael

    2018-01-01

    . Although this social structure was ideal in nature and not equally confirmed in other genres of ancient and medieval literature, it has nevertheless had an immense impact on Indian society. The chapter presents an overview of the system with its three privileged classes, the Brahmins, the Kṣatriyas......The notions of class (varṇa) and caste (jāti) run through the dharmaśāstra literature (i.e. Hindu Law Books) on all levels. They regulate marriage, economic transactions, work, punishment, penance, entitlement to rituals, identity markers like the sacred thread, and social interaction in general...

  15. On uniqueness of characteristic classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feliu, Elisenda

    2011-01-01

    We give an axiomatic characterization of maps from algebraic K-theory. The results apply to a large class of maps from algebraic K-theory to any suitable cohomology theory or to algebraic K-theory. In particular, we obtain comparison theorems for the Chern character and Chern classes and for the ...

  16. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization. Appendix E-5: Impact of the 1993 NRC draft Branch Technical Position on concentration averaging of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuite, P.; Tuite, K.; Harris, G.

    1994-09-01

    This report evaluates the effects of concentration averaging practices on the disposal of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) generated by the nuclear utility industry and sealed sources. Using estimates of the number of waste components that individually exceed Class C limits, this report calculates the proportion that would be classified as GTCC LLW after applying concentration averaging; this proportion is called the concentration averaging factor. The report uses the guidance outlined in the 1993 Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) draft Branch Technical Position on concentration averaging, as well as waste disposal experience at nuclear utilities, to calculate the concentration averaging factors for nuclear utility wastes. The report uses the 1993 NRC draft Branch Technical Position and the criteria from the Barnwell, South Carolina, LLW disposal site to calculate concentration averaging factors for sealed sources. The report addresses three waste groups: activated metals from light water reactors, process wastes from light-water reactors, and sealed sources. For each waste group, three concentration averaging cases are considered: high, base, and low. The base case, which is the most likely case to occur, assumes using the specific guidance given in the 1993 NRC draft Branch Technical Position on concentration averaging. To project future GTCC LLW generation, each waste category is assigned a concentration averaging factor for the high, base, and low cases

  17. Characterization of coastal urban watershed bacterial communities leads to alternative community-based indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, C.H.; Sercu, B.; Van De Werhorst, L.C.; Wong, J.; DeSantis, T.Z.; Brodie, E.L.; Hazen, T.C.; Holden, P.A.; Andersen, G.L.

    2010-03-01

    Microbial communities in aquatic environments are spatially and temporally dynamic due to environmental fluctuations and varied external input sources. A large percentage of the urban watersheds in the United States are affected by fecal pollution, including human pathogens, thus warranting comprehensive monitoring. Using a high-density microarray (PhyloChip), we examined water column bacterial community DNA extracted from two connecting urban watersheds, elucidating variable and stable bacterial subpopulations over a 3-day period and community composition profiles that were distinct to fecal and non-fecal sources. Two approaches were used for indication of fecal influence. The first approach utilized similarity of 503 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) common to all fecal samples analyzed in this study with the watershed samples as an index of fecal pollution. A majority of the 503 OTUs were found in the phyla Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria. The second approach incorporated relative richness of 4 bacterial classes (Bacilli, Bacteroidetes, Clostridia and a-proteobacteria) found to have the highest variance in fecal and non-fecal samples. The ratio of these 4 classes (BBC:A) from the watershed samples demonstrated a trend where bacterial communities from gut and sewage sources had higher ratios than from sources not impacted by fecal material. This trend was also observed in the 124 bacterial communities from previously published and unpublished sequencing or PhyloChip- analyzed studies. This study provided a detailed characterization of bacterial community variability during dry weather across a 3-day period in two urban watersheds. The comparative analysis of watershed community composition resulted in alternative community-based indicators that could be useful for assessing ecosystem health.

  18. Birthing Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... management options. Breastfeeding basics. Caring for baby at home. Birthing classes are not just for new parents, though. ... midwife. Postpartum care. Caring for your baby at home, including baby first aid. Lamaze One of the most popular birthing techniques in the U.S., Lamaze has been around ...

  19. Functions, Compositions, and Evolution of the Two Types of Carboxysomes: Polyhedral Microcompartments That Facilitate CO2 Fixation in Cyanobacteria and Some Proteobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Benjamin D.; Long, Benedict M.; Badger, Murray R.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Cyanobacteria are the globally dominant photoautotrophic lineage. Their success is dependent on a set of adaptations collectively termed the CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM). The purpose of the CCM is to support effective CO2 fixation by enhancing the chemical conditions in the vicinity of the primary CO2-fixing enzyme, d-ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO), to promote the carboxylase reaction and suppress the oxygenase reaction. In cyanobacteria and some proteobacteria, this is achieved by encapsulation of RubisCO within carboxysomes, which are examples of a group of proteinaceous bodies called bacterial microcompartments. Carboxysomes encapsulate the CO2-fixing enzyme within the selectively permeable protein shell and simultaneously encapsulate a carbonic anhydrase enzyme for CO2 supply from a cytoplasmic bicarbonate pool. These bodies appear to have arisen twice and undergone a process of convergent evolution. While the gross structures of all known carboxysomes are ostensibly very similar, with shared gross features such as a selectively permeable shell layer, each type of carboxysome encapsulates a phyletically distinct form of RubisCO enzyme. Furthermore, the specific proteins forming structures such as the protein shell or the inner RubisCO matrix are not identical between carboxysome types. Each type has evolutionarily distinct forms of the same proteins, as well as proteins that are entirely unrelated to one another. In light of recent developments in the study of carboxysome structure and function, we present this review to summarize the knowledge of the structure and function of both types of carboxysome. We also endeavor to cast light on differing evolutionary trajectories which may have led to the differences observed in extant carboxysomes. PMID:24006469

  20. Arsenic-resistant and plant growth-promoting Firmicutes and γ-Proteobacteria species from industrially polluted irrigation water and corresponding cropland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, N; Rehman, Y; Hasnain, S

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to explore irrigation water polluted with industrial waste and corresponding cropland to screen bacteria for As detoxification and plant growth promotion. Plant growth-promoting (PGP) As-resistant cropland bacteria were isolated from contaminated irrigation water and corresponding agricultural soil. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the isolates belonged to two distinct bacterial lineages; Firmicutes and γ-Proteobacteria. Maximum As(V) resistance was exhibited by Klebsiella pneumoniae T22 and Klebsiella oxytoca N53 (550 mmol l -1 ), whereas maximum resistance against As(III) was exhibited by K. oxytoca N53 (200 mmol l -1 ). Maximum As(V) reduction was shown by K. pneumoniae T22 (6·7 mmol l -1 ), whereas maximum As(III) oxidation was exhibited by Bacillus subtilis T23 (4·8 mmol l -1 ). As resistance genes arsB and ACR3 were detected in many of the isolates through polymerase chain reaction. Many of these isolates exhibited PGP traits such as hydrogen cyanide and auxin production as well as phosphate solubilization. The bacterial strains were able to enhance Triticum aestivum growth both in the absence and presence of As, and statistically significant increase in shoot and root lengths was observed especially in case of Acinetobacter lwoffii T24 and Citrobacter freundii N52-treated plants. Cropland bacteria have the ability to support plant growth. Bacteria of croplands irrigated with industrially polluted water develop resistance against toxicants. These bacteria are helpful for the plant growth in such contaminated lands. The bacteria capable of both As detoxification and plant growth promotion, such as A. lwoffii T24 and C. freundii N52, are ideal for remediation and reclamation of polluted lands for agriculture purposes. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Greater-than-Class C low-level waste characterization. Appendix I: Impact of concentration averaging low-level radioactive waste volume projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuite, P.; Tuite, K.; O'Kelley, M.; Ely, P.

    1991-08-01

    This study provides a quantitative framework for bounding unpackaged greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste types as a function of concentration averaging. The study defines the three concentration averaging scenarios that lead to base, high, and low volumetric projections; identifies those waste types that could be greater-than-Class C under the high volume, or worst case, concentration averaging scenario; and quantifies the impact of these scenarios on identified waste types relative to the base case scenario. The base volume scenario was assumed to reflect current requirements at the disposal sites as well as the regulatory views. The high volume scenario was assumed to reflect the most conservative criteria as incorporated in some compact host state requirements. The low volume scenario was assumed to reflect the 10 CFR Part 61 criteria as applicable to both shallow land burial facilities and to practices that could be employed to reduce the generation of Class C waste types

  2. Greater-than-Class C low-level waste characterization. Appendix G: Evaluation of potential for greater-than-Class C classification of irradiated hardware generated by utility-operated reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, J.E.

    1991-08-01

    This study compiles and evaluates data from many sources to expand a base of data from which to estimate the activity concentrations and volumes of greater-than-Class C low-level waste that the Department of Energy will receive from the commercial power industry. Sources of these data include measurements of irradiated hardware made by or for the utilities that was classified for disposal in commercial burial sites, measurements of neutron flux in the appropriate regions of the reactor pressure vessel, analyses of elemental constituents of the particular structural material used for the components, and the activation analysis calculations done for hardware. Evaluations include results and assumptions in the activation analyses. Sections of this report and the appendices present interpretation of data and the classification definitions and requirements

  3. Coding Class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Hansbøl, Mikala

    Denne rapport rummer evaluering og dokumentation af Coding Class projektet1. Coding Class projektet blev igangsat i skoleåret 2016/2017 af IT-Branchen i samarbejde med en række medlemsvirksomheder, Københavns kommune, Vejle Kommune, Styrelsen for IT- og Læring (STIL) og den frivillige forening...... Coding Pirates2. Rapporten er forfattet af Docent i digitale læringsressourcer og forskningskoordinator for forsknings- og udviklingsmiljøet Digitalisering i Skolen (DiS), Mikala Hansbøl, fra Institut for Skole og Læring ved Professionshøjskolen Metropol; og Lektor i læringsteknologi, interaktionsdesign......, design tænkning og design-pædagogik, Stine Ejsing-Duun fra Forskningslab: It og Læringsdesign (ILD-LAB) ved Institut for kommunikation og psykologi, Aalborg Universitet i København. Vi har fulgt og gennemført evaluering og dokumentation af Coding Class projektet i perioden november 2016 til maj 2017...

  4. Molecular characterization of Ambler class A to D β-lactamases, ISAba1, and integrons reveals multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter spp. isolates in northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoyu; Liu, Bin; Chen, Yan; Huang, Honglan; Wang, Guoqing; Li, Fan; Ni, Zhaohui

    2016-12-01

    The prevalence of various Ambler class A to D β-lactamases, ISAba1, and class 1 and 2 integrons as well as the clonal relatedness in 105 Acinetobacter spp. isolates found in northeastern China was investigated. All 105 Acinetobacter spp. isolates were determined to be multidrug resistant (MDR), and the resistance rates to carbapenem agents were approximately 50%. PER, IMP, AmpC, and OXA-23 were found to be dominant β-lactamases belonging to different classes, respectively. This is the first report of the coexistence of bla PER , bla IMP , bla AmpC , and bla OXA-23-like genes in Acinetobacter spp. isolates from northeastern China. ISAba1 was found upstream of the bla OXA-23-like gene in 87.8% (36/41) strains and upstream of the bla OXA-51-like gene in 26.5% (13/49) strains. ISAba3-like element was found upstream of the bla OXA-58-like gene in one bla OXA-58-like -positive strain. The presence of IntI1 was detected in 63.8% (67/105) of the isolates and the most prevalent gene cassettes were aacA4, aadA1, and catB8. The highly prevalent isolates belong to international clonal lineage (ICL)-II. These results indicate that the wide horizontal and clonal spread of MDR Acinetobacter spp. isolates harbouring multiple β-lactamase genes has become a serious problem in northeastern China.

  5. Avian influenza virus and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) surveillance in commercial breeding farm in China and the characterization of Class I NDV isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Beixia; Huang, Yanyan; He, Yefeng; Xu, Chuantian; Lu, Xishan; Zhang, Wei; Meng, Bin; Yan, Shigan; Zhang, Xiumei

    2010-07-29

    In order to determine the actual prevalence of avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in ducks in Shandong province of China, extensive surveillance studies were carried out in the breeding ducks of an intensive farm from July 2007 to September 2008. Each month cloacal and tracheal swabs were taken from 30 randomly selected birds that appeared healthy. All of the swabs were negative for influenza A virus recovery, whereas 87.5% of tracheal swabs and 100% cloacal swabs collected in September 2007, were positive for Newcastle disease virus isolation. Several NDV isolates were recovered from tracheal and cloacal swabs of apparently healthy ducks. All of the isolates were apathogenic as determined by the MDT and ICPI. The HN gene and the variable region of F gene (nt 47-420) of four isolates selected at random were sequenced. A 374 bp region of F gene and the full length of HN gene were used for phylogenetic analysis. Four isolates were identified as the same isolate based on nucleotide sequences identities of 99.2-100%, displaying a closer phylogenetic relationship to lentogenic Class I viruses. There were 1.9-9.9% nucleotide differences between the isolates and other Class I virus in the variable region of F gene (nt 47-420), whereas there were 38.5-41.2% nucleotide difference between the isolates and Class II viruses. The amino acid sequences of the F protein cleavage sites in these isolates were 112-ERQERL-117. The full length of HN gene of these isolates was 1851 bp, coding 585 amino acids. The homology analysis of the nucleotide sequence of HN gene indicated that there were 2.0-4.2% nucleotide differences between the isolates and other Class I viruses, whereas there were 29.5-40.9% differences between the isolates and Class II viruses. The results shows that these isolates are not phylogenetically related to the vaccine strain (LaSota). This study adds to the understanding of the ecology of influenza viruses and Newcastle disease viruses in

  6. Chemical Characterization and Source Apportionment of Size Fractionated Atmospheric Aerosols, and, Evaluating Student Attitudes and Learning in Large Lecture General Chemistry Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Gregory Harold

    between the OOA2 and WBOA factors and smoke levels indicates that these factors can be used to identify the influence of biomass burning on ambient aerosols. The effectiveness of using the ChemWiki instead of a traditional textbook was investigated during the spring quarter of 2014. Student performance was measured using common midterms, a final, and a pre/post content exams. We also employed surveys, the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) for Chemistry, and a weekly time-on-task survey to quantify students' attitudes and study habits. The effectiveness of the ChemWiki compared to a traditional textbook was examined using multiple linear regression analysis with a standard non-inferiority testing framework. Results show that the performance of students in the section who were assigned readings from the ChemWiki was non-inferior to the performance of students in the section who were assigned readings from the traditional textbook, indicating that the ChemWiki does not substantially differ from the standard textbook in terms of student learning outcomes. The results from the surveys also suggest that the two classes were similar in their beliefs about chemistry and overall average time spent studying. These results indicate that the ChemWiki is a viable cost-saving alternative to traditional textbooks. The impact of using active learning techniques in a large lecture general chemistry class was investigated by assessing student performance and attitudes during the fall 2014 and winter 2015 quarters. One instructor applied active learning strategies while the remaining instructors employed more traditional lecture styles. Student performance, learning, learning environments, and attitudes were measured using a standardized pre/post exams, common final exams, classroom observations, and the CLASS chemistry instrument in large lecture general chemistry courses. Classroom observation data showed that the active learning class was the most student centered

  7. Characterization of VCC-1, a Novel Ambler Class A Carbapenemase from Vibrio cholerae Isolated from Imported Retail Shrimp Sold in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangat, Chand S; Boyd, David; Janecko, Nicol; Martz, Sarah-Lynn; Desruisseau, Andrea; Carpenter, Michael; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Mulvey, Michael R

    2016-01-11

    One of the core goals of the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS) is to monitor major meat commodities for antimicrobial resistance. Targeted studies with methodologies based on core surveillance protocols are used to examine other foods, e.g., seafood, for antimicrobial resistance to detect resistances of concern to public health. Here we report the discovery of a novel Ambler class A carbapenemase that was identified in a nontoxigenic strain of Vibrio cholerae (N14-02106) isolated from shrimp that was sold for human consumption in Canada. V. cholerae N14-02106 was resistant to penicillins, carbapenems, and monobactam antibiotics; however, PCR did not detect common β-lactamases. Bioinformatic analysis of the whole-genome sequence of V. cholerae N14-02106 revealed on the large chromosome a novel carbapenemase (referred to here as VCC-1, for Vibrio cholerae carbapenemase 1) with sequence similarity to class A enzymes. Two copies of blaVCC-1 separated and flanked by ISVch9 (i.e., 3 copies of ISVch9) were found in an acquired 8.5-kb region inserted into a VrgG family protein gene. Cloned blaVCC-1 conferred a β-lactam resistance profile similar to that in V. cholerae N14-02106 when it was transformed into a susceptible laboratory strain of Escherichia coli. Purified VCC-1 was found to hydrolyze penicillins, 1st-generation cephalosporins, aztreonam, and carbapenems, whereas 2nd- and 3rd-generation cephalosporins were poor substrates. Using nitrocefin as a reporter substrate, VCC-1 was moderately inhibited by clavulanic acid and tazobactam but not EDTA. In this report, we present the discovery of a novel class A carbapenemase from the food supply. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of the glpX-encoded class II fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutka, Hiten J.; Franzblau, Scott G.; Movahedzadeh, Farahnaz; Abad-Zapatero, Cele

    2011-01-01

    The crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the glpX-encoded class II fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase from M. tuberculosis in the apo form is reported. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase; EC 3.1.3.11), which is a key enzyme in gluconeogenesis, catalyzes the hydrolysis of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate to form fructose 6-phosphate and orthophosphate. The present investigation reports the crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of the glpX-encoded class II FBPase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. The recombinant protein, which was cloned using an Escherichia coli expression system, was purified and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method. The crystals diffracted to a resolution of 2.7 Å and belonged to the hexagonal space group P6 1 22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 131.3, c = 143.2 Å. The structure has been solved by molecular replacement and is currently undergoing refinement

  9. Class 1 integrons characterization and multilocus sequence typing of Salmonella spp. from swine production chains in Chiang Mai and Lamphun provinces, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonkhot, Phacharaporn; Tadee, Pakpoom; Yamsakul, Panuwat; Pocharoen, Chairoj; Chokesajjawatee, Nipa; Patchanee, Prapas

    2015-05-01

    Pigs and pork products are well known as an important source of Salmonella, one of the major zoonotic foodborne pathogens. The emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance is becoming a major public health concern worldwide. Integrons are genetic elements known to have a role in the acquisition and expression of genes conferring antibiotic resistance. This study focuses on the prevalence of class 1 integrons-carrying Salmonella, the genetic diversity of strains of those organisms obtained from swine production chains in Chiang Mai and Lamphun provinces, Thailand, using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and comparison of genetic diversity of sequence types of Salmonella from this study with pulsotypes identified in previous study. In 175 Salmonella strains, the overall prevalence of class 1 integrons-carrying-Salmonella was 14%. The gene cassettes array pattern "dfrA12-orfF-aadA2" was the most frequently observed. Most of the antimicrobial resistance identified was not associated with related gene cassettes harbored by Salmonella. Six sequence types were generated from 30 randomly selected strains detected by MLST. Salmonella at the human-animal-environment interface was confirmed. Linkages both in the farm to slaughterhouse contamination route and the horizontal transmission of resistance genes were demonstrated. To reduce this problem, the use of antimicrobials in livestock should be controlled by veterinarians. Education and training of food handlers as well as promotion of safe methods of food consumption are important avenues for helping prevent foodborne illness.

  10. Scavenger Receptor Class B, Type I, a CD36 Related Protein in Macrobrachium nipponense: Characterization, RNA Interference, and Expression Analysis with Different Dietary Lipid Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhili Ding

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The scavenger receptor class B, type I (SR-BI, is a member of the CD36 superfamily comprising transmembrane proteins involved in mammalian and fish lipid homeostasis regulation. We hypothesize that this receptor plays an important role in Macrobrachium nipponense lipid metabolism. However, little attention has been paid to SR-BI in commercial crustaceans. In the present study, we report a cDNA encoding M. nipponense scavenger receptor class B, type I (designated as MnSR-BI, obtained from a hepatopancreas cDNA library. The complete MnSR-BI coding sequence was 1545 bp, encoding 514 amino acid peptides. The MnSR-BI primary structure consisted of a CD36 domain that contained two transmembrane regions at the N- and C-terminals of the protein. SR-BI mRNA expression was specifically detected in muscle, gill, ovum, intestine, hepatopancreas, stomach, and ovary tissues. Furthermore, its expression in the hepatopancreas was regulated by dietary lipid sources, with prawns fed soybean and linseed oils exhibiting higher expression levels. RNAi-based SR-BI silencing resulted in the suppression of its expression in the hepatopancreas and variation in the expression of lipid metabolism-related genes. This is the first report of SR-BI in freshwater prawns and provides the basis for further studies on SR-BI in crustaceans.

  11. Regulation of expression and biochemical characterization of a beta-class carbonic anhydrase from the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium, Azospirillum brasilense Sp7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Simarjot; Mishra, Mukti Nath; Tripathi, Anil K

    2009-10-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA; [EC 4.2.1.1]) is a ubiquitous enzyme catalysing the reversible hydration of CO(2) to bicarbonate, a reaction that supports various biochemical and physiological functions. Genome analysis of Azospirillum brasilense, a nonphotosynthetic, nitrogen-fixing, rhizobacterium, revealed an ORF with homology to beta-class carbonic anhydrases (CAs). Biochemical characteristics of the beta-class CA of A. brasilense, analysed after cloning the gene (designated as bca), overexpressing in Escherichia coli and purifying the protein by affinity purification, revealed that the native recombinant enzyme is a homotetramer, inhibited by the known CA inhibitors. CA activity in A. brasilense cell extracts, reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR and Western blot analyses showed that bca was constitutively expressed under aerobic conditions. Lower beta-galactosidase activity in A. brasilense cells harbouring bca promoter: lacZ fusion during the stationary phase or during growth on 3% CO(2) enriched air or at acidic pH indicated that the transcription of bca was downregulated by the stationary phase, elevated CO(2) levels and acidic pH conditions. These observations were also supported by RT-PCR analysis. Thus, beta-CA in A. brasilense seems to be required for scavenging CO(2) from the ambient air and the requirement of CO(2) hydration seems to be higher for the cultures growing exponentially at neutral to alkaline pH.

  12. Characterization of non-coding DNA satellites associated with sweepoviruses (genus Begomovirus, Geminiviridae - definition of a distinct class of begomovirus-associated satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria eLozano

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Begomoviruses (family Geminiviridae are whitefly-transmitted, plant-infecting single-stranded DNA viruses that cause crop losses throughout the warmer parts of the World. Sweepoviruses are a phylogenetically distinct group of begomoviruses that infect plants of the family Convolvulaceae, including sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas. Two classes of subviral molecules are often associated with begomoviruses, particularly in the Old World; the betasatellites and the alphasatellites. An analysis of sweet potato and Ipomoea indica samples from Spain and Merremia dissecta samples from Venezuela identified small non-coding subviral molecules in association with several distinct sweepoviruses. The sequences of 18 clones were obtained and found to be structurally similar to tomato leaf curl virus–satellite (ToLCV-sat, the first DNA satellite identified in association with a begomovirus, with a region with significant sequence identity to the conserved region of betasatellites, an A-rich sequence, a predicted stem-loop structure containing the nonanucleotide TAATATTAC, and a second predicted stem-loop. These sweepovirus-associated satellites join an increasing number of ToLCV-sat-like non-coding satellites identified recently. Although sharing some features with betasatellites, evidence is provided to suggest that the ToLCV-sat-like satellites are distinct from betasatellites and should be considered a separate class of satellites, for which the collective name deltasatellites is proposed.

  13. Influence of two-phase anaerobic digestion on fate of selected antibiotic resistance genes and class I integrons in municipal wastewater sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Ying; Cui, Erping; Zuo, Yiru

    2016-01-01

    The response of representative antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) to lab-scale two-phase (acidogenic/methanogenic phase) anaerobic digestion processes under thermophilic and mesophilic conditions was explored. The associated microbial communities and bacterial pathogens were characterized by 16S ...... for ermB and blaTEM. ARGs patterns were correlated with Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria during the two-phase anaerobic digestion....

  14. Shear-wave velocity characterization of the USGS Hawaiian strong-motion network on the Island of Hawaii and development of an NEHRP site-class map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ivan G.; Stokoe, Kenneth; Cox, Brady R.; Yuan, Jiabei; Knudsen, Keith L.; Terra, Fabia; Okubo, Paul G.; Lin, Yin-Cheng

    2011-01-01

    To assess the level and nature of ground shaking in Hawaii for the purposes of earthquake hazard mitigation and seismic design, empirical ground-motion prediction models are desired. To develop such empirical relationships, knowledge of the subsurface site conditions beneath strong-motion stations is critical. Thus, as a first step to develop ground-motion prediction models for Hawaii, spectral-analysis-of-surface-waves (SASW) profiling was performed at the 22 free-field U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) strong-motion sites on the Big Island to obtain shear-wave velocity (VS) data. Nineteen of these stations recorded the 2006 Kiholo Bay moment magnitude (M) 6.7 earthquake, and 17 stations recorded the triggered M 6.0 Mahukona earthquake. VS profiling was performed to reach depths of more than 100 ft. Most of the USGS stations are situated on sites underlain by basalt, based on surficial geologic maps. However, the sites have varying degrees of weathering and soil development. The remaining strong-motion stations are located on alluvium or volcanic ash. VS30 (average VS in the top 30 m) values for the stations on basalt ranged from 906 to 1908 ft/s [National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) site classes C and D], because most sites were covered with soil of variable thickness. Based on these data, an NEHRP site-class map was developed for the Big Island. These new VS data will be a significant input into an update of the USGS statewide hazard maps and to the operation of ShakeMap on the island of Hawaii.

  15. Characterization and mutational analysis of omega-class GST (GSTO1 from Apis cerana cerana, a gene involved in response to oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Meng

    Full Text Available The Omega-class of GSTs (GSTOs is a class of cytosolic GSTs that have specific structural and functional characteristics that differ from those of other GST groups. In this study, we demonstrated the involvement of the GSTO1 gene from A. cerana cerana in the oxidative stress response and further investigated the effects of three cysteine residues of GSTO1 protein on this response. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR showed that AccGSTO1 was highly expressed in larvae and foragers, primarily in the midgut, epidermis, and flight muscles. The AccGSTO1 mRNA was significantly induced by cold and heat at 1 h and 3 h. The TBA (2-Thiobarbituric acid method indicated that cold or heat resulted in MDA accumulation, but silencing of AccGSTO1 by RNAi in honeybees increased the concentration of MDA. RNAi also increased the temperature sensitivity of honeybees and markedly reduced their survival. Disc diffusion assay indicated that overexpression of AccGSTO1 in E. coli caused the resistance to long-term oxidative stress. Furthermore, AccGSTO1 was active in an in vitro DNA protection assay. Mutations in Cys-28, Cys-70, and Cys-124 affected the catalytic activity and antioxidant activity of AccGSTO1. The predicted three-dimensional structure of AccGSTO1 was also influenced by the replacement of these cysteine residues. These findings suggest that AccGSTO1 plays a protective role in the response to oxidative stress.

  16. Design and Implementation of a CO2 Flood Utilizing Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Horizontal Injection Wells In a Shallow Shelf Carbonate Approaching Waterflood Depletion, Class II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wier, Don R. Chimanhusky, John S.; Czirr, Kirk L.; Hallenbeck, Larry; Gerard, Matthew G.; Dollens, Kim B.; Owen, Rex; Gaddis, Maurice; Moshell, M.K.

    2002-11-18

    The purpose of this project was to economically design an optimum carbon dioxide (CO2) flood for a mature waterflood nearing its economic abandonment. The original project utilized advanced reservoir characterization and CO2 horizontal injection wells as the primary methods to redevelop the South Cowden Unit (SCU). The development plans; project implementation and reservoir management techniques were to be transferred to the public domain to assist in preventing premature abandonment of similar fields.

  17. Identification and characterization of an Apis cerana cerana Delta class glutathione S-transferase gene ( AccGSTD) in response to thermal stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Huiru; Jia, Haihong; Wang, Xiuling; Gao, Hongru; Guo, Xingqi; Xu, Baohua

    2013-02-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are members of a multifunctional enzyme super family that plays a pivotal role in both insecticide resistance and protection against oxidative stress. In this study, we identified a single-copy gene, AccGSTD, as being a Delta class GST in the Chinese honey bee ( Apis cerana cerana). A predicted antioxidant response element, CREB, was found in the 1,492-bp 5'-flanking region, suggesting that AccGSTD may be involved in oxidative stress response pathways. Real-time PCR and immunolocalization studies demonstrated that AccGSTD exhibited both developmental- and tissue-specific expression patterns. During development, AccGSTD transcript was increased in adults. The AccGSTD expression level was the highest in the honey bee brain. Thermal stress experiments demonstrated that AccGSTD could be significantly upregulated by temperature changes in a time-dependent manner. It is hypothesized that high expression levels might be due to the increased levels of oxidative stress caused by the temperature challenges. Additionally, functional assays of the recombinant AccGSTD protein revealed that AccGSTD has the capability to protect DNA from oxidative damage. Taken together, these data suggest that AccGSTD may be responsible for antioxidant defense in adult honey bees.

  18. A cDNA Cloning of a Novel Alpha-Class Tyrosinase of Pinctada fucata: Its Expression Analysis and Characterization of the Expressed Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryousuke Takgi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tyrosinase plays an important role in the formation of the shell matrix and melanin synthesis in mollusks shells. A cDNA clone encoding a 47 kDa protein was isolated from the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata. The cDNA was 1,957 base pairs long and encodes a 417 residue protein that has extensive sequence identity with tyrosinase (polyphenol oxidase: EC 1.14.18.1. This tyrosinase-like protein, termed PfTy, contains an N-terminal signal sequence and the two copper-binding domain signatures (CuA and CuB, suggesting that PfTy belongs to the α-subclass of type-3 copper proteins. Enzyme activity of PfTy was examined by a spectrophotometric method using the translation product derived from an S30 T7 high-yield protein expression system. Tyrosinase activity was seen in this recombinant product. RT-PCR analysis showed that PfTy mRNA was expressed in the mantle pallial, but not in the mantle edge. Therefore, PfTy may participate in insoluble shell matrix formation of the nacreous layer. PfTy expression was also observed in the foot, liver, and adductor muscle, suggesting that PfTy participates in the synthesis of melanins, which are effective scavengers of free radicals formed in multiple intracellular oxidative processes. This is the first report of a novel α-class tyrosinase from the pearl oyster P. fucata.

  19. Characterizing Class-Specific Exposure-Viral Load Suppression Response of HIV Antiretrovirals Using A Model-Based Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y; Li, Y F; Zhang, D; Dockendorf, M; Tetteh, E; Rizk, M L; Grobler, J A; Lai, M-T; Gobburu, J; Ankrom, W

    2016-08-01

    We applied model-based meta-analysis of viral suppression as a function of drug exposure and in vitro potency for short-term monotherapy in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected treatment-naïve patients to set pharmacokinetic targets for development of nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) and integrase strand transfer inhibitors (InSTIs). We developed class-specific models relating viral load kinetics from monotherapy studies to potency normalized steady-state trough plasma concentrations. These models were integrated with a literature assessment of doses which demonstrated to have long-term efficacy in combination therapy, in order to set steady-state trough concentration targets of 6.17- and 2.15-fold above potency for NNRTIs and InSTIs, respectively. Both the models developed and the pharmacokinetic targets derived can be used to guide compound selection during preclinical development and to predict the dose-response of new antiretrovirals to inform early clinical trial design. © 2016 The Authors. Clinical and Translational Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  20. [Social classes and poverty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benach, Joan; Amable, Marcelo

    2004-05-01

    Social classes and poverty are two key social determinants fundamental to understand how disease and health inequalities are produced. During the 90's in Spain there has been a notable oscillation in the inequality and poverty levels, with an increase in the middle of the decade when new forms of social exclusion, high levels of unemployment and great difficulties in accessing the labour market, especially for those workers with less resources, emerged. Today society is still characterized by a clear social stratification and the existence of social classes with a predominance of high levels of unemployment and precarious jobs, and where poverty is an endemic social problem much worse than the EU average. To diminish health inequalities and to improve the quality of life will depend very much on the reduction of the poverty levels and the improvement of equal opportunities and quality of employment. To increase understanding of how social class and poverty affect public health, there is a need to improve the quality of both information and research, and furthermore planners and political decision makers must take into account those determinants when undertaking disease prevention and health promotion.

  1. Class III Mid-Term Project, "Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Hara

    2007-03-31

    The overall objective of this project was to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involved improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective has been to transfer technology that can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The first budget period addressed several producibility problems in the Tar II-A and Tar V thermal recovery operations that are common in SBC reservoirs. A few of the advanced technologies developed include a three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic geologic model, a 3-D deterministic thermal reservoir simulation model to aid in reservoir management and subsequent post-steamflood development work, and a detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rocks and fluids. State of the art operational work included drilling and performing a pilot steam injection and production project via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors), implementing a hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steamflood area to improve thermal efficiency, installing a 2400-foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location, testing a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems, and starting on an advanced reservoir management system through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring, and evaluation. The second budget period phase (BP2) continued to implement state-of-the-art operational work to optimize thermal recovery processes, improve well drilling and completion practices, and evaluate the

  2. Characterization of the peptide binding specificity of the HLA class I alleles B*38:01 and B*39:06.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidney, John; Schloss, Jennifer; Moore, Carrie; Lindvall, Mikaela; Wriston, Amanda; Hunt, Donald F; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; DiLorenzo, Teresa P; Sette, Alessandro

    2016-03-01

    B*38:01 and B*39:06 are present with phenotypic frequencies 39:06 is the B allele most associated with type 1 diabetes susceptibility and 38:01 is most protective. A previous study derived putative main anchor motifs for both alleles based on peptide elution data. The present study has utilized panels of single amino acid substitution peptide libraries to derive detailed quantitative motifs accounting for both primary and secondary influences on peptide binding. From these analyses, both alleles were confirmed to utilize the canonical position 2/C-terminus main anchor spacing. B*38:01 preferentially bound peptides with the positively charged or polar residues H, R, and Q in position 2 and the large hydrophobic residues I, F, L, W, and M at the C-terminus. B*39:06 had a similar preference for R in position 2, but also well-tolerated M, Q, and K. A more dramatic contrast between the two alleles was noted at the C-terminus, where the specificity of B*39:06 was clearly for small residues, with A as most preferred, followed by G, V, S, T, and I. Detailed position-by-position and residue-by-residue coefficient values were generated from the panels to provide detailed quantitative B*38:01 and B*39:06 motifs. It is hoped that these detailed motifs will facilitate the identification of T cell epitopes recognized in the context of two class I alleles associated with dramatically different dispositions towards type 1 diabetes, offering potential avenues for the investigation of the role of CD8 T cells in this disease.

  3. Characterization of a Novel Class I Transcription Factor A (CITFA) Subunit That Is Indispensable for Transcription by the Multifunctional RNA Polymerase I of Trypanosoma brucei

    KAUST Repository

    Nguyen, T. N.

    2012-10-26

    Trypanosoma brucei is the only organism known to have evolved a multifunctional RNA polymerase I (pol I) system that is used to express the parasite\\'s ribosomal RNAs, as well as its major cell surface antigens, namely, the variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) and procyclin, which are vital for establishing successful infections in the mammalian host and the tsetse vector, respectively. Thus far, biochemical analyses of the T. brucei RNA pol I transcription machinery have elucidated the subunit structure of the enzyme and identified the class I transcription factor A (CITFA). CITFA binds to RNA pol I promoters, and its CITFA-2 subunit was shown to be absolutely essential for RNA pol I transcription in the parasite. Tandem affinity purification (TAP) of CITFA revealed the subunits CITFA-1 to -6, which are conserved only among kinetoplastid organisms, plus the dynein light chain DYNLL1. Here, by tagging CITFA-6 instead of CITFA-2, a complex was purified that contained all known CITFA subunits, as well as a novel proline-rich protein. Functional studies carried out in vivo and in vitro, as well as a colocalization study, unequivocally demonstrated that this protein is a bona fide CITFA subunit, essential for parasite viability and indispensable for RNA pol I transcription of ribosomal gene units and the active VSG expression site in the mammalian-infective life cycle stage of the parasite. Interestingly, CITFA-7 function appears to be species specific, because expression of an RNA interference (RNAi)-resistant CITFA-7 transgene from Trypanosoma cruzi could not rescue the lethal phenotype of silencing endogenous CITFA-7.

  4. Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Evaluation of CO{sub 2} Gravity Drainage in the Naturally Fractured Spraberry Trend Area, Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, Bill; Schechter, David S.

    2001-11-19

    The goal of this project was to assess the economic feasibility of CO{sub 2} flooding the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in west Texas. This objective was accomplished through research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interactions in the reservoirs, (3) reservoir performance analysis, and (4) experimental investigations on CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. The four areas have been completed and reported in the previous annual reports. This report provides the results of the final year of the project including two SPE papers (SPE 71605 and SPE 71635) presented in the 2001 SPE Annual Meeting in New Orleans, two simulation works, analysis of logging observation wells (LOW) and progress of CO{sub 2} injection.

  5. A Virtual Class Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik; Ostermann, Klaus; Cook, William Randall

    2006-01-01

    Virtual classes are class-valued attributes of objects. Like virtual methods, virtual classes are defined in an object's class and may be redefined within subclasses. They resemble inner classes, which are also defined within a class, but virtual classes are accessed through object instances...... model for virtual classes has been a long-standing open question. This paper presents a virtual class calculus, vc, that captures the essence of virtual classes in these full-fledged programming languages. The key contributions of the paper are a formalization of the dynamic and static semantics of vc...

  6. Identification and characterization of five new classes of chlorogenic acids in burdock (Arctium lappa L.) roots by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Rakesh; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2011-01-01

    Burdock (Arcticum lappa L.) roots are used in folk medicine and also as a vegetable in Asian countries especially Japan, Korea, and Thailand. We have used LC-MS(n) (n = 2-4) to detect and characterize in burdock roots 15 quantitatively minor fumaric, succinic, and malic acid-containing chlorogenic acids, 11 of them not previously reported in nature. These comprise 3-succinoyl-4,5-dicaffeoyl or 1-succinoyl-3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 1,5-dicaffeoyl-3-succinoylquinic acid, 1,5-dicaffeoyl-4-succinoylquinic acid, and 3,4-dicaffeoyl-5-succinoylquinic acid (M(r) 616); 1,3-dicaffeoyl-5-fumaroylquinic acid and 1,5-dicaffeoyl-4-fumaroylquinic acid (M(r) 614); 1,5-dicaffeoyl-3-maloylquinic acid, 1,4-dicaffeoyl-3-maloylquinic acid, and 1,5-dicaffeoyl-4-maloylquinic acid (M(r) 632); 1,3,5-tricaffeoyl-4-succinoylquinic acid (M(r) 778); 1,5-dicaffeoyl-3,4-disuccinoylquinic acid (M(r) 716); 1,5-dicaffeoyl-3-fumaroyl-4-succinoylquinic acid and 1-fumaroyl-3,5-dicaffeoyl-4-succinoylquinic acid (M(r) 714); dicaffeoyl-dimaloylquinic acid (M(r) 748); and 1,5-dicaffeoyl-3-succinoyl-4-dimaloylquinic acid (M(r) 732). All the structures have been assigned on the basis of LC-MS(n) patterns of fragmentation, relative hydrophobicity, and analogy of fragmentation patterns if compared to caffeoylquinic acids.

  7. Major soil classes of the metropolitan region of Curitiba (PR, Brazil: I - mineralogical characterization of the sand, silt and clay fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Christina Duarte Pires

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the mineralogical and chemical characteristics of most representative soils of the Region of Curitiba, Paraná State. Samples were collected at different depths. The results showed: (a the quartz was the only identified mineral at the silt and sand fractions. The dominant clay mineral was Kaolinite, with contents ranging from 676.7 to 820.8 g kg-1. The gibbsite was also an important constituent of the most weathered horizons and the hematite and goethite contents were low, mainly in the Histosol; (b at the C horizon of the Inceptisol, high intensity of vermiculite/smectite reflections were detected (X-ray diffraction, justifying the high capacity of expansion and contraction, normally showed for this soil horizon; (c was observed a good relation between pedogenetic degree and crystallographic mineral characteristics.Devido a grande importância dos minerais, notadamente aqueles da fração argila, sobre o planejamento de uso e sobre os impactos das atividades antrópicas, estudos detalhados da composição dos solos das regiões metropolitanas são imprescindíveis. Para avaliar as características mineralógicas e químicas de solos mais representativos da Região Metropolitana de Curitiba, estado do Paraná, foram coletadas amostras das classes Organossolo, Latossolo e Cambissolo, em diferentes profundidades. As frações areia, silte e argila foram estudadas por difratometria de Raios-X (DRX e a fração mais fina foi submetida a análise térmica e extrações químicas com oxalato de amônio (OA, ditionito-citrato-bicarbonato (DCB e solução de NaOH 5 mol L-1 fervente. As características cristalográficas da hematita (Hm, goethita (Gt, gibbsita (Gb e caulinita (Ct foram determinadas por DRX. Os resultados permitiram concluir que: (a o quartzo foi o único mineral identificado nas frações areia e silte. Na fração argila, verificou-se o predomínio de Ct, com teores variando de 661,7 a 820,8 g kg-1

  8. Molecular characterization of kappa class glutathione S-transferase from the disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus) and changes in expression following immune and stress challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandamalika, W M Gayashani; Priyathilaka, Thanthrige Thiunuwan; Liyanage, D S; Lee, Sukkyoung; Lim, Han-Kyu; Lee, Jehee

    2018-06-01

    Glutathione S-transferase (GST; EC 2.5.1.18) isoenzymes represent a complex group of proteins that are involved in phase II detoxification in several organisms. In this study, GST kappa (GSTκ) from the disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus; AbGSTκ) was characterized at both the transcriptional and functional levels to determine its potential capacity to perform as a detoxification agent under conditions of different stress. The predicted AbGSTκ protein consists of 227 amino acids, with a predicted molecular weight of 25.6 kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point (pI) of 7.78. In silico analysis reveals that AbGSTκ is a disulfide bond formation protein A (DsbA), consisting of a thioredoxin domain, GSH binding sites (G-sites), and a catalytic residue. In contrast, no hydrophobic ligand binding site (H-site), or signal peptides, were detected. AbGSTκ showed the highest sequence identity with the orthologue from pufferfish (Takifugu obscurus) (60.0%). In a phylogenetic tree, AbGSTκ clustered closely together with other fish GSTκs, and was evolutionarily distanced from other cytosolic GSTs. The predicted three-dimensional structure clearly demonstrates that the dimer adopts a butterfly-like shape. A tissue distribution analysis revealed that GSTκ was highly expressed in the digestive tract, suggesting it has detoxification ability. Depending on the tissue and time, AbGSTκ showed different expression patterns, and levels of expression, following challenge of the abalone with immune stimulants. Enzyme kinetics of the purified recombinant proteins demonstrated its conjugating ability using 1-Chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and glutathione (GSH) as substrates, and suggested it has a low affinity for both substrates. The optimum temperature and pH for the rAbGSTκ GSH: CDNB conjugating activity were found to be 35 °C and pH 8, respectively indicating that the abalone is well adapted to a wide range of environmental conditions. Cibacron blue (100 μM) was

  9. RxClass

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The RxClass Browser is a web application for exploring and navigating through the class hierarchies to find the RxNorm drug members associated with each class....

  10. Two classes of metric spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Garrido

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The class of metric spaces (X,d known as small-determined spaces, introduced by Garrido and Jaramillo, are properly defined by means of some type of real-valued Lipschitz functions on X. On the other hand, B-simple metric spaces introduced by Hejcman are defined in terms of some kind of bornologies of bounded subsets of X. In this note we present a common framework where both classes of metric spaces can be studied which allows us to see not only the relationships between them but also to obtain new internal characterizations of these metric properties.

  11. Long-term nitrogen fertilization decreases bacterial diversity and favors the growth of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria in agro-ecosystems across the globe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Zhongmin [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). Inst. of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab. of Agricultural Resources and Environment; Su, Weiqin [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). Inst. of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab. of Agricultural Resources and Environment; Chen, Huaihai [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Biosciences Division; Barberan, Albert [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Soil, Water and Environmental Science; Zhao, Haochun [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). Inst. of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab. of Agricultural Resources and Environment; Yu, Mengjie [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). Inst. of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab. of Agricultural Resources and Environment; Yu, Lu [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). Inst. of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab. of Agricultural Resources and Environment; Brookes, Philip C. [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). Inst. of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab. of Agricultural Resources and Environment; Schadt, Christopher W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Biosciences Division; Chang, Scott X. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Renewable Resources; Xu, Jianming [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). Inst. of Soil and Water Resources and Environmental Science, Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab. of Agricultural Resources and Environment

    2018-04-25

    Long-term Elevated nitrogen (N) input from anthropogenic sources may cause soil acidification and decrease crop yield, yet the response of the belowground microbial community to long-term N input and the input of N combined with phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) is still poorly understood. Here, we explored the effect of long-term N and NPK fertilization on soil bacterial diversity and community composition using meta-analysis of a global dataset. Nitrogen fertilization decreased soil pH, and increased soil organic carbon (C) and available N contents. Bacterial taxonomic diversity was decreased by N fertilization alone, but was increased by NPK fertilization. The effect of N fertilization on bacterial diversity depends on soil texture and water management, but independent of crop type or N application rate. Both soil pH and organic C content were positively related to changes in bacterial diversity under N fertilization, while soil organic C was the dominant factor determining changes in bacterial diversity under NPK fertilization. Microbial biomass C decreased with decreasing bacterial diversity under long-term N fertilization. Nitrogen fertilization increased the relative abundance of copiotrophic bacteria (i.e. Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria), but reduced the abundance of oligotrophic taxa (i.e. Acidobacteria), consistent with the general life history strategy theory for bacteria. The relative abundance of Proteobacteria was also increased by NPK fertilization. The positive correlation between N application rate and the relative abundance of Actinobacteria indicates that increased N availability favored the growth of Actinobacteria. This first global analysis of long-term N and NPK fertilization effect on bacterial diversity and community composition suggests that N input decreases bacterial diversity but favors the growth of copiotrophic bacteria, providing a reference for nutrient management strategies for maintaining belowground microbial diversity in agro

  12. Polysaccharides and proteins added to flowing drinking water at microgram-per-liter levels promote the formation of biofilms predominated by bacteroidetes and proteobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sack, Eveline L W; van der Wielen, Paul W J J; van der Kooij, Dick

    2014-04-01

    Biopolymers are important substrates for heterotrophic bacteria in (ultra)oligotrophic freshwater environments, but information about their utilization at microgram-per-liter levels by attached freshwater bacteria is lacking. This study aimed at characterizing biopolymer utilization in drinking-water-related biofilms by exposing such biofilms to added carbohydrates or proteins at 10 μg C liter(-1) in flowing tap water for up to 3 months. Individually added amylopectin was not utilized by the biofilms, whereas laminarin, gelatin, and caseinate were. Amylopectin was utilized during steady-state biofilm growth with simultaneously added maltose but not with simultaneously added acetate. Biofilm formation rates (BFR) at 10 μg C liter(-1) per substrate were ranked as follows, from lowest to highest: blank or amylopectin (≤6 pg ATP cm(-2) day(-1)), gelatin or caseinate, laminarin, maltose, acetate alone or acetate plus amylopectin, and maltose plus amylopectin (980 pg ATP cm(-2) day(-1)). Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses revealed that the predominant maltose-utilizing bacteria also dominated subsequent amylopectin utilization, indicating catabolic repression and (extracellular) enzyme induction. The accelerated BFR with amylopectin in the presence of maltose probably resulted from efficient amylopectin binding to and hydrolysis by inductive enzymes attached to the bacterial cells. Cytophagia, Flavobacteriia, Gammaproteobacteria, and Sphingobacteriia grew during polysaccharide addition, and Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria, Cytophagia, Flavobacteriia, and Sphingobacteriia grew during protein addition. The succession of bacterial populations in the biofilms coincided with the decrease in the specific growth rate during biofilm formation. Biopolymers can clearly promote biofilm formation at microgram-per-liter levels in drinking water distribution systems and, depending on their concentrations, might

  13. Polysaccharides and Proteins Added to Flowing Drinking Water at Microgram-per-Liter Levels Promote the Formation of Biofilms Predominated by Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sack, Eveline L. W.; van der Kooij, Dick

    2014-01-01

    Biopolymers are important substrates for heterotrophic bacteria in (ultra)oligotrophic freshwater environments, but information about their utilization at microgram-per-liter levels by attached freshwater bacteria is lacking. This study aimed at characterizing biopolymer utilization in drinking-water-related biofilms by exposing such biofilms to added carbohydrates or proteins at 10 μg C liter−1 in flowing tap water for up to 3 months. Individually added amylopectin was not utilized by the biofilms, whereas laminarin, gelatin, and caseinate were. Amylopectin was utilized during steady-state biofilm growth with simultaneously added maltose but not with simultaneously added acetate. Biofilm formation rates (BFR) at 10 μg C liter−1 per substrate were ranked as follows, from lowest to highest: blank or amylopectin (≤6 pg ATP cm−2 day−1), gelatin or caseinate, laminarin, maltose, acetate alone or acetate plus amylopectin, and maltose plus amylopectin (980 pg ATP cm−2 day−1). Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses revealed that the predominant maltose-utilizing bacteria also dominated subsequent amylopectin utilization, indicating catabolic repression and (extracellular) enzyme induction. The accelerated BFR with amylopectin in the presence of maltose probably resulted from efficient amylopectin binding to and hydrolysis by inductive enzymes attached to the bacterial cells. Cytophagia, Flavobacteriia, Gammaproteobacteria, and Sphingobacteriia grew during polysaccharide addition, and Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria, Cytophagia, Flavobacteriia, and Sphingobacteriia grew during protein addition. The succession of bacterial populations in the biofilms coincided with the decrease in the specific growth rate during biofilm formation. Biopolymers can clearly promote biofilm formation at microgram-per-liter levels in drinking water distribution systems and, depending on their concentrations, might

  14. Characterization and transcriptional analysis of two gene clusters for type IV secretion machinery in Wolbachia of Armadillidium vulgare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Félix, Christine; Pichon, Samuel; Braquart-Varnier, Christine

    2008-01-01

    Wolbachia are maternally inherited alpha-proteobacteria that induce feminization of genetic males in most terrestrial crustacean isopods. Two clusters of vir genes for a type IV secretion machinery have been identified at two separate loci and characterized for the first time in a feminizing Wolb...

  15. Class 1 Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A "Class 1" area is a geographic area recognized by the EPA as being of the highest environmental quality and requiring maximum protection. Class I areas are areas...

  16. PRCR Classes and Activities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Cary, North Carolina — This data is specific to Parks and Recreation classes, workshops, and activities within the course catalog. It contains an entry for upcoming classes.*This data set...

  17. Class Notes for "Class-Y-News."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Judy L.

    1991-01-01

    A self-contained class of students with mild to moderate disabilities published a monthly newsletter which was distributed to students' families. Students became involved in writing, typing, drawing, folding, basic editing, and disseminating. (JDD)

  18. Classed identities in adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Jay, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    peer-reviewed The central argument of this thesis is that social class remains a persistent system of inequality in education, health, life chances and opportunities. Therefore class matters. But why is it that so little attention has been paid to class in the psychological literature? Three papers are presented here which draw together theoretical advances in psychological understandings of group processes and sociological understandings of the complexity of class. As western labour marke...

  19. A Model for Teaching Large Classes: Facilitating a "Small Class Feel"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Rosealie P.; Pappas, Eric

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a model for teaching large classes that facilitates a "small class feel" to counteract the distance, anonymity, and formality that often characterize large lecture-style courses in higher education. One author (E. P.) has been teaching a 300-student general education critical thinking course for ten years, and the…

  20. Characterization of Diazotrophs Containing Mo-Independent Nitrogenases, Isolated from Diverse Natural Environments▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Doris A.; Loveless, Telisa M.; Brown, James W.; Bishop, Paul E.

    2008-01-01

    Molybdenum-independent nitrogenases were first described in the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii and have since been described in other diazotrophic bacteria. Previously, we reported the isolation of seven diazotrophs with Mo-independent nitrogenases from aquatic environments. In the present study, we extend these results to include diazotrophs isolated from wood chip mulch, soil, “paraffin dirt,” and sediments from mangrove swamps. Mo-deficient, N-free media under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions were used for the isolations. A total of 26 isolates were genetically and physiologically characterized. Their phylogenetic placement was determined using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Most of the isolates are members of the gamma subdivision of the class Proteobacteria and appear to be specifically related to fluorescent pseudomonads and azotobacteria. Two other isolates, AN1 and LPF4, are closely related to Enterobacter spp. and Paenibacillus spp., respectively. PCR and/or Southern hybridization were used to detect the presence of nitrogenase genes in the isolates. PCR amplification of vnfG and anfG was used to detect the genetic potential for the expression of the vanadium-containing nitrogenase and the iron-only nitrogenase in the isolates. This study demonstrates that diazotrophs with Mo-independent nitrogenases can be readily isolated from diverse natural environments. PMID:18378646

  1. Loosely coupled class families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2001-01-01

    are expressed using virtual classes seem to be very tightly coupled internally. While clients have achieved the freedom to dynamically use one or the other family, it seems that any given family contains a xed set of classes and we will need to create an entire family of its own just in order to replace one...... of the members with another class. This paper shows how to express class families in such a manner that the classes in these families can be used in many dierent combinations, still enabling family polymorphism and ensuring type safety....

  2. Long-term antibiotic exposure in soil is associated with changes in microbial community structure and prevalence of class 1 integrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, David W; Bishop, Alistair H; Zhang, Lihong; Topp, Edward; Wellington, Elizabeth M H; Gaze, William H

    2016-10-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is one of the most significant challenges facing the global medical community and can be attributed to the use and misuse of antibiotics. This includes use as growth promoters or for prophylaxis and treatment of bacterial infection in intensively farmed livestock from where antibiotics can enter the environment as residues in manure. We characterised the impact of the long-term application of a mixture of veterinary antibiotics alone (tylosin, sulfamethazine and chlortetracycline) on class 1 integron prevalence and soil microbiota composition. Class 1 integron prevalence increased significantly (P Soil microbiota was analysed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and revealed significant alterations in composition. Of the 19 significantly different (P < 0.05) OTUs identified, 16 were of the Class Proteobacteria and these decreased in abundance relative to the control plots. Only one OTU, of the Class Cyanobacteria, was shown to increase in abundance significantly; a curiosity given the established sensitivity of this class to antibiotics. We hypothesise that the overrepresentation of Proteobacteria as OTUs that decreased significantly in relative abundance, coupled with the observations of an increase in integron prevalence, may represent a strong selective pressure on these taxa. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Class, Culture and Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrits, Gitte Sommer

    2013-01-01

    Even though contemporary discussions of class have moved forward towards recognizing a multidimensional concept of class, empirical analyses tend to focus on cultural practices in a rather narrow sense, that is, as practices of cultural consumption or practices of education. As a result......, discussions within political sociology have not yet utilized the merits of a multidimensional conception of class. In light of this, the article suggests a comprehensive Bourdieusian framework for class analysis, integrating culture as both a structural phenomenon co-constitutive of class and as symbolic...... practice. Further, the article explores this theoretical framework in a multiple correspondence analysis of a Danish survey, demonstrating how class and political practices are indeed homologous. However, the analysis also points at several elements of field autonomy, and the concluding discussion...

  4. Class network routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanot, Gyan [Princeton, NJ; Blumrich, Matthias A [Ridgefield, CT; Chen, Dong [Croton On Hudson, NY; Coteus, Paul W [Yorktown Heights, NY; Gara, Alan G [Mount Kisco, NY; Giampapa, Mark E [Irvington, NY; Heidelberger, Philip [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D [Mount Kisco, NY; Takken, Todd E [Mount Kisco, NY; Vranas, Pavlos M [Bedford Hills, NY

    2009-09-08

    Class network routing is implemented in a network such as a computer network comprising a plurality of parallel compute processors at nodes thereof. Class network routing allows a compute processor to broadcast a message to a range (one or more) of other compute processors in the computer network, such as processors in a column or a row. Normally this type of operation requires a separate message to be sent to each processor. With class network routing pursuant to the invention, a single message is sufficient, which generally reduces the total number of messages in the network as well as the latency to do a broadcast. Class network routing is also applied to dense matrix inversion algorithms on distributed memory parallel supercomputers with hardware class function (multicast) capability. This is achieved by exploiting the fact that the communication patterns of dense matrix inversion can be served by hardware class functions, which results in faster execution times.

  5. Culture and social class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Yuri

    2017-12-01

    A large body of research in Western cultures has demonstrated the psychological and health effects of social class. This review outlines a cultural psychological approach to social stratification by comparing psychological and health manifestations of social class across Western and East Asian cultures. These comparisons suggest that cultural meaning systems shape how people make meaning and respond to material/structural conditions associated with social class, thereby leading to culturally divergent manifestations of social class. Specifically, unlike their counterparts in Western cultures, individuals of high social class in East Asian cultures tend to show high conformity and other-orientated psychological attributes. In addition, cultures differ in how social class impacts health (i.e. on which bases, through which pathways, and to what extent). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Semantic Analysis of Virtual Classes and Nested Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    1999-01-01

    Virtual classes and nested classes are distinguishing features of BETA. Nested classes originated from Simula, but until recently they have not been part of main stream object- oriented languages. C++ has a restricted form of nested classes and they were included in Java 1.1. Virtual classes...... classes and parameterized classes have been made. Although virtual classes and nested classes have been used in BETA for more than a decade, their implementation has not been published. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of virtual classes and nested classes by presenting...

  7. Class in disguise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Stine Thidemann; Prieur, Annick

    This paper asks how class can have importance in one of the worlds’ most equal societies: Denmark. The answer is that class here appears in disguised forms. The field under study is a city, Aalborg, in the midst of transition from a stronghold of industrialism to a post industrial economy. The pa....... The paper also raises questions about how sociological discourses may contribute to the veiling of class....

  8. 16S Ribosomal DNA Characterization of Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria Isolated from Banana (Musa spp.) and Pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merril)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães Cruz, Leonardo; Maltempi de Souza, Emanuel; Weber, Olmar Baler; Baldani, José Ivo; Döbereiner, Johanna; de Oliveira Pedrosa, Fábio

    2001-01-01

    Nitrogen-fixing bacteria isolated from banana (Musa spp.) and pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merril) were characterized by amplified 16S ribosomal DNA restriction analysis and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Herbaspirillum seropedicae, Herbaspirillum rubrisubalbicans, Burkholderia brasilensis, and Burkholderia tropicalis were identified. Eight other types were placed in close proximity to these genera and other alpha and beta Proteobacteria. PMID:11319127

  9. Teaching Social Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tablante, Courtney B.; Fiske, Susan T.

    2015-01-01

    Discussing socioeconomic status in college classes can be challenging. Both teachers and students feel uncomfortable, yet social class matters more than ever. This is especially true, given increased income inequality in the United States and indications that higher education does not reduce this inequality as much as many people hope. Resources…

  10. Generalized Fourier transforms classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Svend; Møller, Steen

    2002-01-01

    The Fourier class of integral transforms with kernels $B(\\omega r)$ has by definition inverse transforms with kernel $B(-\\omega r)$. The space of such transforms is explicitly constructed. A slightly more general class of generalized Fourier transforms are introduced. From the general theory...

  11. Cutting Class Harms Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lewis A., III

    2012-01-01

    An accessible business school population of undergraduate students was investigated in three independent, but related studies to determine effects on grades due to cutting class and failing to take advantage of optional reviews and study quizzes. It was hypothesized that cutting classes harms exam scores, attending preexam reviews helps exam…

  12. Linking carbon and nitrogen cycling: Environmental transcription of mmoX, pmoA, and nifH by methane oxidizing Proteobacteria in a Sub-Arctic palsa peatland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebner, Susanne; Svenning, Mette M.

    2013-04-01

    Sub-Arctic terrestrial ecosystems are currently affected by climate change which causes degradation of stored organic carbon and emissions of greenhouse gases from microbial processes. Methane oxidizing bacteria (MOB) mitigate methane emissions and perform an important function in the soil-atmosphere interaction. In this study we investigated presence and environmental transcription of functional genes of MOB along the degradation of permafrost in a Sub-Arctic palsa peatland using molecular approaches. The acidic and oligotrophic peatland hosts a small number of active MOB among a seemingly specialized community. The methanotrophic community displayed a broad functional potential by transcribing genes for key enzymes involved in both carbon and nitrogen metabolisms including particulate and soluble methane monoogygenase (pMMO and sMMO) as well as nitrogenase. Transcription of mmoX that encodes for a subunit of the sMMO suggests an ecological importance of sMMO with a broad substrate range in this peatland. In situ transcripts of mmoX were tracked mainly to Methylocella related Beijerinckiaceae, and to relatives of Methylomonas while Methylocystis constituting the dominant group which utilizes pMMO. These results address interesting questions concerning in-situ substrate preferences of MOB, and the general importance of species that lack a pMMO for mitigating methane emissions. The importance of MOB for the nitrogen budget in this low pH, nitrogen limited habitat was identified by nifH transcripts of native methanotrophs. Hence, methane oxidizing Proteobacteria show an extended functional repertoire and importance for the biogeochemical cycling in this dynamic ecosystem of degrading permafrost.

  13. Classes of modules

    CERN Document Server

    Dauns, John

    2006-01-01

    Because traditional ring theory places restrictive hypotheses on all submodules of a module, its results apply only to small classes of already well understood examples. Often, modules with infinite Goldie dimension have finite-type dimension, making them amenable to use with type dimension, but not Goldie dimension. By working with natural classes and type submodules (TS), Classes of Modules develops the foundations and tools for the next generation of ring and module theory. It shows how to achieve positive results by placing restrictive hypotheses on a small subset of the complement submodules, Furthermore, it explains the existence of various direct sum decompositions merely as special cases of type direct sum decompositions. Carefully developing the foundations of the subject, the authors begin by providing background on the terminology and introducing the different module classes. The modules classes consist of torsion, torsion-free, s[M], natural, and prenatural. They expand the discussion by exploring...

  14. Luminosity class of neutron reflectometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pleshanov, N.K., E-mail: pnk@pnpi.spb.ru

    2016-10-21

    The formulas that relate neutron fluxes at reflectometers with differing q-resolutions are derived. The reference luminosity is defined as a maximum flux for measurements with a standard resolution. The methods of assessing the reference luminosity of neutron reflectometers are presented for monochromatic and white beams, which are collimated with either double diaphragm or small angle Soller systems. The values of the reference luminosity for unified parameters define luminosity class of reflectometers. The luminosity class characterizes (each operation mode of) the instrument by one number and can be used to classify operating reflectometers and optimize designed reflectometers. As an example the luminosity class of the neutron reflectometer NR-4M (reactor WWR-M, Gatchina) is found for four operation modes: 2.1 (monochromatic non-polarized beam), 1.9 (monochromatic polarized beam), 1.5 (white non-polarized beam), 1.1 (white polarized beam); it is shown that optimization of measurements may increase the flux at the sample up to two orders of magnitude with monochromatic beams and up to one order of magnitude with white beams. A fan beam reflectometry scheme with monochromatic neutrons is suggested, and the expected increase in luminosity is evaluated. A tuned-phase chopper with a variable TOF resolution is recommended for reflectometry with white beams.

  15. Social Class Dialogues and the Fostering of Class Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Meredith

    2015-01-01

    How do critical pedagogies promote undergraduate students' awareness of social class, social class identity, and social class inequalities in education? How do undergraduate students experience class consciousness-raising in the intergroup dialogue classroom? This qualitative study explores undergraduate students' class consciousness-raising in an…

  16. Optimizing UML Class Diagrams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergievskiy Maxim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of object-oriented development technologies rely on the use of the universal modeling language UML; class diagrams play a very important role in the design process play, used to build a software system model. Modern CASE tools, which are the basic tools for object-oriented development, can’t be used to optimize UML diagrams. In this manuscript we will explain how, based on the use of design patterns and anti-patterns, class diagrams could be verified and optimized. Certain transformations can be carried out automatically; in other cases, potential inefficiencies will be indicated and recommendations given. This study also discusses additional CASE tools for validating and optimizing of UML class diagrams. For this purpose, a plugin has been developed that analyzes an XMI file containing a description of class diagrams.

  17. Classes of Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Introduction Types of Heart Failure Classes of Heart Failure Heart Failure in Children Advanced Heart Failure • Causes and ... and Advanced HF • Tools and Resources • Personal Stories Heart Failure Questions to Ask Your Doctor Use these questions ...

  18. Generalized Fourier transforms classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Svend; Møller, Steen

    2002-01-01

    The Fourier class of integral transforms with kernels $B(\\omega r)$ has by definition inverse transforms with kernel $B(-\\omega r)$. The space of such transforms is explicitly constructed. A slightly more general class of generalized Fourier transforms are introduced. From the general theory foll...... follows that integral transform with kernels which are products of a Bessel and a Hankel function or which is of a certain general hypergeometric type have inverse transforms of the same structure....

  19. Nordic Walking Classes

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2015-01-01

    Four classes of one hour each are held on Tuesdays. RDV barracks parking at Entrance A, 10 minutes before class time. Spring Course 2015: 05.05/12.05/19.05/26.05 Prices 40 CHF per session + 10 CHF club membership 5 CHF/hour pole rental Check out our schedule and enroll at: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Nordic%20Walking/NewForm.aspx? Hope to see you among us! fitness.club@cern.ch

  20. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is an array of four telescopes designed to measure the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background. CLASS aims to detect the B-mode polarization from primordial gravitational waves predicted by cosmic inflation theory, as well as the imprint left by reionization upon the CMB E-mode polarization. This will be achieved through a combination of observing strategy and state-of-the-art instrumentation. CLASS is observing 70% of the sky to characterize the CMB at large angular scales, which will measure the entire CMB power spectrum from the reionization peak to the recombination peak. The four telescopes operate at frequencies of 38, 93, 145, and 217 GHz, in order to estimate Galactic synchrotron and dust foregrounds while avoiding atmospheric absorption. CLASS employs rapid polarization modulation to overcome atmospheric and instrumental noise. Polarization sensitive cryogenic detectors with low noise levels provide CLASS the sensitivity required to constrain the tensor-to-scalar ratio down to levels of r ~ 0.01 while also measuring the optical depth the reionization to sample-variance levels. These improved constraints on the optical depth to reionization are required to pin down the mass of neutrinos from complementary cosmological data. CLASS has completed a year of observations at 38 GHz and is in the process of deploying the rest of the telescope array. This poster provides an overview and update on the CLASS science, hardware and survey operations.

  1. Safety class methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donner, E.B.; Low, J.M.; Lux, C.R.

    1992-01-01

    DOE Order 6430.1A, General Design Criteria (GDC), requires that DOE facilities be evaluated with respect to ''safety class items.'' Although the GDC defines safety class items, it does not provide a methodology for selecting safety class items. The methodology described in this paper was developed to assure that Safety Class Items at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are selected in a consistent and technically defensible manner. Safety class items are those in the highest of four categories determined to be of special importance to nuclear safety and, merit appropriately higher-quality design, fabrication, and industrial test standards and codes. The identification of safety class items is approached using a cascading strategy that begins at the 'safety function' level (i.e., a cooling function, ventilation function, etc.) and proceeds down to the system, component, or structure level. Thus, the items that are required to support a safety function are SCls. The basic steps in this procedure apply to the determination of SCls for both new project activities, and for operating facilities. The GDC lists six characteristics of SCls to be considered as a starting point for safety item classification. They are as follows: 1. Those items whose failure would produce exposure consequences that would exceed the guidelines in Section 1300-1.4, ''Guidance on Limiting Exposure of the Public,'' at the site boundary or nearest point of public access 2. Those items required to maintain operating parameters within the safety limits specified in the Operational Safety Requirements during normal operations and anticipated operational occurrences. 3. Those items required for nuclear criticality safety. 4. Those items required to monitor the release of radioactive material to the environment during and after a Design Basis Accident. Those items required to achieve, and maintain the facility in a safe shutdown condition 6. Those items that control Safety Class Item listed above

  2. Structural properties of MHC class II ligands, implications for the prediction of MHC class II epitopes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper Winther Jørgensen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Major Histocompatibility class II (MHC-II molecules sample peptides from the extracellular space allowing the immune system to detect the presence of foreign microbes from this compartment. Prediction of MHC class II ligands is complicated by the open binding cleft of the MHC class II molecule, allowing binding of peptides extending out of the binding groove. Furthermore, only a few HLA-DR alleles have been characterized with a sufficient number of peptides (100-200 peptides per allele to derive accurate description of their binding motif. Little work has been performed characterizing structural properties of MHC class II ligands. Here, we perform one such large-scale analysis. A large set of SYFPEITHI MHC class II ligands covering more than 20 different HLA-DR molecules was analyzed in terms of their secondary structure and surface exposure characteristics in the context of the native structure of the corresponding source protein. We demonstrated that MHC class II ligands are significantly more exposed and have significantly more coil content than other peptides in the same protein with similar predicted binding affinity. We next exploited this observation to derive an improved prediction method for MHC class II ligands by integrating prediction of MHC- peptide binding with prediction of surface exposure and protein secondary structure. This combined prediction method was shown to significantly outperform the state-of-the-art MHC class II peptide binding prediction method when used to identify MHC class II ligands. We also tried to integrate N- and O-glycosylation in our prediction methods but this additional information was found not to improve prediction performance. In summary, these findings strongly suggest that local structural properties influence antigen processing and/or the accessibility of peptides to the MHC class II molecule.

  3. Caracterização química e mineralógica de agregados de diferentes classes de tamanho de Latossolos Bruno e Vermelho localizados no estado do Paraná Chemical and mineralogical characterization of the different structure size classes of Red-Yellow and Dusky Red Latosols in Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vander de Freitas Melo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O teor e a forma dos minerais da fração argila são determinantes na definição da morfologia dos agregados do solo. Objetivando estudar a mineralogia da fração argila e as propriedades químicas de diferentes classes de agregados de Latossolos (Latossolo Bruno Ácrico húmico - LBd e Latossolo Vermelho Distroférrico húmico - LVdf originados de rochas basálticas no Estado do Paraná, coletaram-se amostras indeformadas em diferentes profundidades (horizontes Bw1 e Bw2 em perfis de solos localizados em duas toposseqüências (quatro perfis no LBd e três no LVdf. Após secagem e separação das amostras indeformadas em seis classes de agregados (2-4; 1-2; 0,5-1; 0,25-0,5; 0,105-0,25; The content and shap of clay minerals are important in the definition of soil structure morphology. To evaluate the clay mineralogy and chemical properties of different aggregate size-classes of Latosols (Red-Yellow - LBd and Dusky Red - LVdf derived from basalt in the state of Paraná, Brazil, soil samples of the Bw1 and Bw2 horizons were collected in four LBd and three LVdf profiles, distributed across two distinct toposequences. Dried and undisturbed soil samples were separated into six size-classes (2-4; 1-2; 0.5-1; 0.25-0.5; 0.105-0.25; < 0.105 mm and the soluble Si in 0,5 mol L-1 acetic acid and exchangeable K, Ca, Mg and Al contents were determined. The clay fraction extracted from each aggregate size-class was investigated by X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis and chemical analysis. The content of exchangeable elements did not vary among the aggregate size-classes in the Bw1 and Bw2 horizons for Red-Yellow and Dusky Red Latosol profiles. In spite of the high and continuous weathering of these soils the mineralogical characteristics of the aggregate clay fraction were not homogenized. The highest variation in the mineral contents, according to the aggregate size class, was observed for the profile in the highest position of the LBd toposequence; the

  4. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Kathleen; Marriange, Tobias; Aamir, Ali; Appel, John W.; Bennett, Charles L.; Boone, Fletcher; Brewer, Michael; Chan, Manwei; Chuss, David T.; Colazo, Felipe; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is a four telescope array designed to characterize relic primordial gravitational waves from in ation and the optical depth to reionization through a measurement of the polarized cosmic microwave background (CMB) on the largest angular scales. The frequencies of the four CLASS telescopes, one at 38 GHz, two at 93 GHz, and one dichroic system at 145/217 GHz, are chosen to avoid spectral regions of high atmospheric emission and span the minimum of the polarized Galactic foregrounds: synchrotron emission at lower frequencies and dust emission at higher frequencies. Low-noise transition edge sensor detectors and a rapid front-end polarization modulator provide a unique combination of high sensitivity, stability, and control of systematics. The CLASS site, at 5200 m in the Chilean Atacama desert, allows for daily mapping of up to 70% of the sky and enables the characterization of CMB polarization at the largest angular scales. Using this combination of a broad frequency range, large sky coverage, control over systematics, and high sensitivity, CLASS will observe the reionization and recombination peaks of the CMB E- and B-mode power spectra. CLASS will make a cosmic variance limited measurement of the optical depth to reionization and will measure or place upper limits on the tensor-to-scalar ratio, r, down to a level of 0.01 (95% C.L.).

  5. Translation in ESL Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy Imola Katalin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of translation in foreign language classes cannot be dealt with unless we attempt to make an overview of what translation meant for language teaching in different periods of language pedagogy. From the translation-oriented grammar-translation method through the complete ban on translation and mother tongue during the times of the audio-lingual approaches, we have come today to reconsider the role and status of translation in ESL classes. This article attempts to advocate for translation as a useful ESL class activity, which can completely fulfil the requirements of communicativeness. We also attempt to identify some activities and games, which rely on translation in some books published in the 1990s and the 2000s.

  6. MIDDLE CLASS MOVEMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. K. Sravana Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The middle class is placed between labour and capital. It neither directly awns the means of production that pumps out the surplus generated by wage labour power, nor does it, by its own labour, produce the surplus which has use and exchange value. Broadly speaking, this class consists of the petty bourgeoisie and the white-collar workers. The former are either self-employed or involved in the distribution of commodities and the latter are non-manual office workers, supervisors and profession...

  7. Talking Class in Tehroon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian; Rezakhani, Khodadad

    2016-01-01

    Persian, like any other language, is laced with references to class, both blatant and subtle. With idioms and metaphors, Iranians can identify and situate others, and thus themselves, within hierarchies of social status and privilege, both real and imagined. Some class-related terms can be traced...... back to medieval times, whereas others are of modern vintage, the linguistic legacy of television shows, pop songs, social media memes or street vernacular. Every day, it seems, an infectious set of phrases appears that make yesterday’s seem embarrassingly antiquated....

  8. CLASS: The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Ali, Aamir; Amiri, Mandana; Appel, John W.; Araujo, Derek; Bennett, Charles L.; Boone, Fletcher; Chan, Manwei; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Chuss, David T.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is an experiment to measure the signature of a gravitational wave background from inflation in the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). CLASS is a multi-frequency array of four telescopes operating from a high-altitude site in the Atacama Desert in Chile. CLASS will survey 70% of the sky in four frequency bands centered at 38, 93, 148, and 217 GHz, which are chosen to straddle the Galactic-foreground minimum while avoiding strong atmospheric emission lines. This broad frequency coverage ensures that CLASS can distinguish Galactic emission from the CMB. The sky fraction of the CLASS survey will allow the full shape of the primordial B-mode power spectrum to be characterized, including the signal from reionization at low-length. Its unique combination of large sky coverage, control of systematic errors, and high sensitivity will allow CLASS to measure or place upper limits on the tensor-to-scalar ratio at a level of r = 0:01 and make a cosmic-variance-limited measurement of the optical depth to the surface of last scattering, tau. (c) (2014) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  9. Second class weak currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delorme, J.

    1978-01-01

    The definition and general properties of weak second class currents are recalled and various detection possibilities briefly reviewed. It is shown that the existing data on nuclear beta decay can be consistently analysed in terms of a phenomenological model. Their implication on the fundamental structure of weak interactions is discussed [fr

  10. World Class Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rosalita

    1998-01-01

    School communities are challenged to find ways to identify good teachers and give other teachers a chance to learn from them. The New Mexico World Class Teacher Project is encouraging teachers to pursue certification by the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards. This process sharpens teachers' student assessment skills and encourages…

  11. EPA Web Training Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheduled webinars can help you better manage EPA web content. Class topics include Drupal basics, creating different types of pages in the WebCMS such as document pages and forms, using Google Analytics, and best practices for metadata and accessibility.

  12. Class Actions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2009-01-01

    The article deals with the relatively new Danish Act on Class Action (Danish: gruppesøgsmål) which was suggested by The Permanent Council on Civil procedure (Retsplejerådet) of which the article's author is a member. The operability of the new provisions is illustrated through some wellknown Danish...

  13. Coming out in Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    This article shares how the author explained her trans status to her students. Everyone has been extremely supportive of her decision to come out in class and to completely mask the male secondary-sex characteristics, especially in the workplace. The department chair and the faculty in general have been willing to do whatever they can to assist…

  14. Working Together in Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pateşan Marioara

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The scores obtained by the military students are very important as a lot of opportunities depend on them: the choice of the branch, selection for different in and off-campus activities, the appointment to the workplace and so on. A qualifier, regardless of its form of effective expression, can make a difference in a given context of issuing a value judgment, in relation to the student's performance assessment. In our research we tried to find out what motives students, what determines them to get actively involved in the tasks they are given and the ways we can improve their participation in classes and assignments. In order to have an educated generation we need to have not only well prepared teachers but ones that are open-minded, flexible and in pace with the methodological novelties that can improve the teaching learning process in class. Along the years we have noticed that in classes where students constituted a cohesive group with an increasing degree of interaction between members, the results were better than in a group that did not appreciate team-work. In this article we want to highlight the fact that a teacher can bring to class the appropriate methods and procedures can contribute decisively to the strengthening of the group cohesion and high scores.

  15. Discharge of landfill leachate to streambed sediments impacts the mineralization potential of phenoxy acid herbicides depending on the initial abundance of tfdA gene classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pazarbasi, Meric Batioglu; Milosevic, Nemanja; Malaguerra, Flavio

    2013-01-01

    discharge to SM3, and lower herbicide mass discharges to SM1 and SM2 were determined due to groundwater discharge rates and herbicide concentrations. SM1-sediment with the lowest abundance of tfdA gene classes had the slowest mineralization, whereas SM2- and SM3-sediments with more abundant tfdA genes had......To understand the role of abundance of tfdA gene classes belonging to β- and γ-proteobacteria on phenoxy acid herbicide degradation, streambed sediments were sampled around three seepage meters (SMs) installed in a landfill-impacted groundwater–surface water interface. Highest herbicide mass...... faster mineralization. The observed difference in mineralization rates between discharge zones was simulated by a Monod-based kinetic model, which confirmed the role of abundance of tfdA gene classes. This study suggests presence of specific degraders adapted to slow growth rate and high yield strategy...

  16. Adeus à classe trabalhadora?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoff Eley

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available No início da década de 1980, a política centrada em classes da tradição socialista estava em crise, e comentadores importantes adotaram tons apocalípticos. No final da década, a esquerda permanecia profundamente dividida entre os advogados da mudança e os defensores da fé. Em meados dos anos 1990, os primeiros tinham, de modo geral, ganhado a batalha. O artigo busca apresentar essa mudança contemporânea não como a 'morte da classe', mas como o desa­parecimento de um tipo particular de ­sociedade de classes, marcado pelo ­processo de formação da classe trabalhadora entre os anos 1880 e 1940 e pelo alinhamento político daí resultante, atingindo seu apogeu na construção social-democrata do acordo do pós-guerra. Quando mudanças de longo prazo na economia se combinaram com o ataque ao keynesianismo na política de recessão a partir de meados da década de 1970, a unidade da classe trabalhadora deixou de estar disponível da forma antiga e bastante utilizada, como o terreno natural da política de esquerda. Enquanto uma coletividade dominante da classe trabalhadora entrou em declínio, outra se corporificou de modo lento e desigual para tomar o lugar daquela. Mas a unidade operacional dessa nova agregação da classe trabalhadora ainda está, em grande parte, em formação. Para recuperar a eficácia política da tradição socialista, alguma nova visão de agência política coletiva será necessária, uma visão imaginativamente ajustada às condições emergentes da produção e acumulação capitalista no início do século XXI.

  17. Evaluation depth of the curve of Spee in class I, class II, and class III malocclusion: A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjna Nayar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Occlusal plane is an essential consideration when multiple long-span posterior restorations are designed. When restorations are added to an existing tooth arrangement characterized by rotated, tipped, or extruded teeth, excursive interferences may be incorporated, resulting in detrimental squeal. The curve of Spee, which exists in the ideal natural dentition, allows harmony to exist between the anterior tooth and condylar guidance. This curve exists in the sagittal plane and is the best viewed from a lateral aspect. It permits total posterior disclusion on mandibular protrusion, given proper anterior tooth guidance. It is unclear that whether the curve of Spee is a description of the occlusal surface of each arch separately or in maximal intercuspation. The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in the depth of curve of Spee between the class I, class II, class III and to investigate the relationship of depth of curve of Spee with over jet, over-bite.

  18. Microbial Characterization of Qatari Barchan Sand Dunes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Abdul Majid

    Full Text Available This study represents the first characterization of sand microbiota in migrating barchan sand dunes. Bacterial communities were studied through direct counts and cultivation, as well as 16S rRNA gene and metagenomic sequence analysis to gain an understanding of microbial abundance, diversity, and potential metabolic capabilities. Direct on-grain cell counts gave an average of 5.3 ± 0.4 x 105 cells g-1 of sand. Cultured isolates (N = 64 selected for 16S rRNA gene sequencing belonged to the phyla Actinobacteria (58%, Firmicutes (27% and Proteobacteria (15%. Deep-sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons from 18 dunes demonstrated a high relative abundance of Proteobacteria, particularly enteric bacteria, and a dune-specific-pattern of bacterial community composition that correlated with dune size. Shotgun metagenome sequences of two representative dunes were analyzed and found to have similar relative bacterial abundance, though the relative abundances of eukaryotic, viral and enterobacterial sequences were greater in sand from the dune closer to a camel-pen. Functional analysis revealed patterns similar to those observed in desert soils; however, the increased relative abundance of genes encoding sporulation and dormancy are consistent with the dune microbiome being well-adapted to the exceptionally hyper-arid Qatari desert.

  19. THE LYGEO-STIPETEA CLASS IN SICILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. BRULLO

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Basing on literature data and unpublished relevés from Sicily, a survey of the syntaxa belonging to the class Lygeo-Stipetea Rivas-Martínez 1978 is presented. This perennial vegetation is characterized by the dominance of big caespitose hemicryptophytes, and it is widely distributed in Sicily from the sea level up to 1500 m a.s.l. The class is represented in Sicily by two orders, floristically and ecologically well differentiated: Lygeo-Stipetalia, including the sole alliance Moricandio-Lygeion exclusively of clayey substrates, and Hyparrhenietalia hirtae, including five alliances (Hyparrhenion hirtae, Avenulo cincinnatae-Ampelodesmion mauritanici, Thero-Brachypodion ramosi, Bromo-Oryzopsion miliaceae, and Arundion collinae occurring on various substrates. Within the class, 50 associations have been recognized. To support the syntaxonomic proposal, a multivariate numerical analysis, considering literature and personal data, has been performed. Nomenclature, floristic settlement, ecology, syndynamism and chorology are examined for each syntaxon.

  20. Flexible Word Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    • First major publication on the phenomenon • Offers cross-linguistic, descriptive, and diverse theoretical approaches • Includes analysis of data from different language families and from lesser studied languages This book is the first major cross-linguistic study of 'flexible words', i.e. words...... that cannot be classified in terms of the traditional lexical categories Verb, Noun, Adjective or Adverb. Flexible words can - without special morphosyntactic marking - serve in functions for which other languages must employ members of two or more of the four traditional, 'specialised' word classes. Thus......, flexible words are underspecified for communicative functions like 'predicating' (verbal function), 'referring' (nominal function) or 'modifying' (a function typically associated with adjectives and e.g. manner adverbs). Even though linguists have been aware of flexible world classes for more than...

  1. Storytelling in EFL Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Bala

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Storytelling is one of the oldest ways of education and oral tradition that is continuously being used to transfer the previous nation‘s cultures, tradition and customs. It constructs a bridge between the new and the old. Storytelling in EFL classes usually provides a meaningful context, interesting atmosphere and is used as a tool to highly motivate students. Although it seems to be mostly based on speaking, it is used to promote other skills such as writing, reading, and listening. Storytelling is mainly regarded to be grounded on imitation and repetition; nevertheless many creative activities can be implemented in the classroom since this method directs learners to use their imaginations. This study discusses the importance of storytelling as a teaching method, and it outlines the advantages of storytelling in EFL classes.

  2. Queen elizabeth class battleships

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Les

    2010-01-01

    The 'ShipCraft' series provides in-depth information about building and modifying model kits of famous warship types. Lavishly illustrated, each book takes the modeller through a brief history of the subject class, highlighting differences between sister-ships and changes in their appearance over their careers. This includes paint schemes and camouflage, featuring colour profiles and highly detailed line drawings and scale plans. The modelling section reviews the strengths and weaknesses of available kits, lists commercial accessory sets for super-detailing of the ships, and provides hints on modifying and improving the basic kit. This is followed by an extensive photographic survey of selected high-quality models in a variety of scales, and the book concludes with a section on research references - books, monographs, large-scale plans and relevant websites.This volume covers the five ships of the highly successful Queen Elizabeth class, a design of fast battleship that set the benchmark for the last generati...

  3. World Class Facilities Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmstrøm, Ole Emil; Jensen, Per Anker

    2013-01-01

    Alle der med entusiasme arbejder med Facilities Management drømmer om at levere World Class. DFM drømmer om at skabe rammer og baggrund for, at vi i Danmark kan bryste os at være blandt de førende på verdensplan. Her samles op på, hvor tæt vi er på at nå drømmemålet.......Alle der med entusiasme arbejder med Facilities Management drømmer om at levere World Class. DFM drømmer om at skabe rammer og baggrund for, at vi i Danmark kan bryste os at være blandt de førende på verdensplan. Her samles op på, hvor tæt vi er på at nå drømmemålet....

  4. Storytelling in EFL Classes

    OpenAIRE

    Emine Bala

    2015-01-01

    Storytelling is one of the oldest ways of education and oral tradition that is continuously being used to transfer the previous nation‘s cultures, tradition and customs. It constructs a bridge between the new and the old. Storytelling in EFL classes usually provides a meaningful context, interesting atmosphere and is used as a tool to highly motivate students. Although it seems to be mostly based on speaking, it is used to promote other skills such as writing, reading, and listening. Storytel...

  5. Esmeraldas-Class Corvettes,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-25

    The series of ships, named after all the provinces of Ecuador , include: --CA 11 ESMERALDAS, laid down 27 September 1979, launched 11 October 1980... LOJA , laid down 25 March 1981, launched 27 February 1982; fitting out at CNR Ancona. The building program, on schedule so far, calls for the entire class...built and are still building in 16 units for foreign navies (Libya, Ecuador , Iraq) with four possible armament alternatives. In particular, they

  6. Isolation and characterization of a cDNA clone coding for a glutathione S-transferase class delta enzyme from the biting midge Culicoides variipennis sonorensis Wirth and Jones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, M A; Pollenz, R S; Droog, F N; Nunamaker, R A; Tabachnick, W J; Murphy, K E

    2000-12-01

    Culicoides variipennis sonorensis is the primary vector of bluetongue viruses in North America. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are enzymes that catalyze nucleophilic substitutions, converting reactive lipophilic molecules into soluble conjugates. Increased GST activity is associated with development of insecticide resistance. Described here is the isolation of the first cDNA encoding a C. variipennis GST. The clone consists of 720 translated bases encoding a protein with a M(r) of approximately 24,800 composed of 219 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence is similar (64%-74%) to class Delta (previously named Theta) GSTs from the dipteran genera Musca, Drosophila, Lucilia and Anopheles. The cDNA was subcloned into pET-11b, expressed in Epicurian coli BL21 (DE3) and has a specific activity of approximately 28,000 units/mg for the substrate 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene.

  7. Static Members of Classes in C#

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian LUPASC

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The C# language is object-oriented, which is why the declared member data must be part of a class. Thus, there is no possibility to declare certain variables that can be accessed from anywhere within the application, as it happens, for example, with global variables at the C language level. Making this work in C# is possible through static members of the class. Declaring a class implies defining some of its member data that later receive values when creating each object. A static member of the class can be interpreted as belonging only to the class, not to the objects subsequently created, which means that for the non-static data, there are as many children as there were objects created, while for the static ones there is only one copy, regardless of the number of created objects. In this regard, this paper presents the main aspects that characterize these abstract concepts of object oriented programming in general and C# language in particular, detailing how to develop an application that includes both static and non-static members. At the same time, particularities in the mirror for the two types of data, restrictions on use and potential limitations are presented.

  8. Characterization of the microbial communities along the gastrointestinal tract of sheep by 454 pyrosequencing analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective The gastrointestinal tract of sheep contain complex microbial communities that influence numerous aspects of the sheep’s health and development. The objective of this study was to analyze the composition and diversity of the microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract sections (rumen, reticulum, omasum, abomasum, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon, and rectum of sheep. Methods This analysis was performed by 454 pyrosequencing using the V3-V6 region of the 16S rRNA genes. Samples were collected from five healthy, small tailed Han sheep aged 10 months, obtained at market. The bacterial composition of sheep gastrointestinal microbiota was investigated at the phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species levels. Results The dominant bacterial phyla in the entire gastrointestinal sections were Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria. In the stomach, the three most dominant genera in the sheep were Prevotella, unclassified Lachnospiraceae, and Butyrivibrio. In the small intestine, the three most dominant genera in the sheep were Escherichia, unclassified Lachnospiraceae, and Ruminococcus. In the large intestine, the three most dominant genera in the sheep were Ruminococcus, unclassified Ruminococcaceae, and Prevotella. R. flavefaciens, B. fibrisolvens, and S. ruminantium were three most dominant species in the sheep gastrointestinal tract. Principal Coordinates Analysis showed that the microbial communities from each gastrointestinal section could be separated into three groups according to similarity of community composition: stomach (rumen, reticulum, omasum, and abomasum, small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, and large intestine (cecum, colon, and rectum. Conclusion This is the first study to characterize the entire gastrointestinal microbiota in sheep by use of 16S rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing, expanding our knowledge of the gastrointestinal bacterial community of sheep.

  9. Haemophilus ducreyi Cutaneous Ulcer Strains Diverged from Both Class I and Class II Genital Ulcer Strains: Implications for Epidemiological Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharanesh Gangaiah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Haemophilus ducreyi has emerged as a major cause of cutaneous ulcers (CU in yaws-endemic regions of the tropics in the South Pacific, South East Asia and Africa. H. ducreyi was once thought only to cause the genital ulcer (GU disease chancroid; GU strains belong to 2 distinct classes, class I and class II. Using whole-genome sequencing of 4 CU strains from Samoa, 1 from Vanuatu and 1 from Papua New Guinea, we showed that CU strains diverged from the class I strain 35000HP and that one CU strain expressed β-lactamase. Recently, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention released the genomes of 11 additional CU strains from Vanuatu and Ghana; however, the evolutionary relationship of these CU strains to previously-characterized CU and GU strains is unknown.We performed phylogenetic analysis of 17 CU and 10 GU strains. Class I and class II GU strains formed two distinct clades. The class I strains formed two subclades, one containing 35000HP and HD183 and the other containing the remainder of the class I strains. Twelve of the CU strains formed a subclone under the class I 35000HP subclade, while 2 CU strains formed a subclone under the other class I subclade. Unexpectedly, 3 of the CU strains formed a subclone under the class II clade. Phylogenetic analysis of dsrA-hgbA-ncaA sequences yielded a tree similar to that of whole-genome phylogenetic tree.CU strains diverged from multiple lineages within both class I and class II GU strains. Multilocus sequence typing of dsrA-hgbA-ncaA could be reliably used for epidemiological investigation of CU and GU strains. As class II strains grow relatively poorly and are relatively more susceptible to vancomycin than class I strains, these findings have implications for methods to recover CU strains. Comparison of contemporary CU and GU isolates would help clarify the relationship between these entities.

  10. Haemophilus ducreyi Cutaneous Ulcer Strains Diverged from Both Class I and Class II Genital Ulcer Strains: Implications for Epidemiological Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangaiah, Dharanesh; Spinola, Stanley M

    2016-12-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi has emerged as a major cause of cutaneous ulcers (CU) in yaws-endemic regions of the tropics in the South Pacific, South East Asia and Africa. H. ducreyi was once thought only to cause the genital ulcer (GU) disease chancroid; GU strains belong to 2 distinct classes, class I and class II. Using whole-genome sequencing of 4 CU strains from Samoa, 1 from Vanuatu and 1 from Papua New Guinea, we showed that CU strains diverged from the class I strain 35000HP and that one CU strain expressed β-lactamase. Recently, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention released the genomes of 11 additional CU strains from Vanuatu and Ghana; however, the evolutionary relationship of these CU strains to previously-characterized CU and GU strains is unknown. We performed phylogenetic analysis of 17 CU and 10 GU strains. Class I and class II GU strains formed two distinct clades. The class I strains formed two subclades, one containing 35000HP and HD183 and the other containing the remainder of the class I strains. Twelve of the CU strains formed a subclone under the class I 35000HP subclade, while 2 CU strains formed a subclone under the other class I subclade. Unexpectedly, 3 of the CU strains formed a subclone under the class II clade. Phylogenetic analysis of dsrA-hgbA-ncaA sequences yielded a tree similar to that of whole-genome phylogenetic tree. CU strains diverged from multiple lineages within both class I and class II GU strains. Multilocus sequence typing of dsrA-hgbA-ncaA could be reliably used for epidemiological investigation of CU and GU strains. As class II strains grow relatively poorly and are relatively more susceptible to vancomycin than class I strains, these findings have implications for methods to recover CU strains. Comparison of contemporary CU and GU isolates would help clarify the relationship between these entities.

  11. Class impressions : Higher social class elicits lower prosociality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Doesum, Niels J.; Tybur, Joshua M.; Van Lange, Paul A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Social class predicts numerous important life outcomes and social orientations. To date, literature has mainly examined how an individual's own class shapes interactions with others. But how prosocially do people treat others they perceive as coming from lower, middle, or higher social classes?

  12. Class Action and Class Settlement in a European Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2013-01-01

    The article analyses the options for introducing common European rules on class action lawsuits with an opt-out-model in individual cases. An analysis is made of how the risks of misuse of class actions can be prevented. The article considers the Dutch rules on class settlements (the WCAM procedure...

  13. An "expanded" class perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steur, Luisa Johanna

    2014-01-01

    Following the police raid on the ‘Muthanga’ land occupation by Adivasi (‘indigenous’) activists in Kerala, India, in February 2003, intense public debate erupted about the fate of Adivasis in this ‘model’ development state. Most commentators saw the land occupation either as the fight...... analysis, as elaborated in Marxian anthropology, this article provides an alternative to the liberal-culturalist explanation of indigenism in Kerala, arguing instead that contemporary class processes—as experienced close to the skin by the people who decided to participate in the Muthanga struggle......—were what shaped their decision to embrace indigenism....

  14. Class prediction for high-dimensional class-imbalanced data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusa Lara

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of class prediction studies is to develop rules to accurately predict the class membership of new samples. The rules are derived using the values of the variables available for each subject: the main characteristic of high-dimensional data is that the number of variables greatly exceeds the number of samples. Frequently the classifiers are developed using class-imbalanced data, i.e., data sets where the number of samples in each class is not equal. Standard classification methods used on class-imbalanced data often produce classifiers that do not accurately predict the minority class; the prediction is biased towards the majority class. In this paper we investigate if the high-dimensionality poses additional challenges when dealing with class-imbalanced prediction. We evaluate the performance of six types of classifiers on class-imbalanced data, using simulated data and a publicly available data set from a breast cancer gene-expression microarray study. We also investigate the effectiveness of some strategies that are available to overcome the effect of class imbalance. Results Our results show that the evaluated classifiers are highly sensitive to class imbalance and that variable selection introduces an additional bias towards classification into the majority class. Most new samples are assigned to the majority class from the training set, unless the difference between the classes is very large. As a consequence, the class-specific predictive accuracies differ considerably. When the class imbalance is not too severe, down-sizing and asymmetric bagging embedding variable selection work well, while over-sampling does not. Variable normalization can further worsen the performance of the classifiers. Conclusions Our results show that matching the prevalence of the classes in training and test set does not guarantee good performance of classifiers and that the problems related to classification with class

  15. Teachers, Social Class and Underachievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Mairead; Gazeley, Louise

    2008-01-01

    Addressing the "the social class attainment gap" in education has become a government priority in England. Despite multiple initiatives, however, little has effectively addressed the underachievement of working-class pupils within the classroom. In order to develop clearer understandings of working-class underachievement at this level,…

  16. Mapping the Social Class Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toubøl, Jonas; Grau Larsen, Anton

    2017-01-01

    This article develops a new explorative method for deriving social class categories from patterns of occupational mobility. In line with Max Weber, our research is based on the notion that, if class boundaries do not inhibit social mobility then the class categories are of little value. Thus...

  17. Social class and body weight among Chinese urban adults: the role of the middle classes in the nutrition transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnefond, Céline; Clément, Matthieu

    2014-07-01

    While a plethoric empirical literature addresses the relationship between socio-economic status and body weight, little is known about the influence of social class on nutritional outcomes, particularly in developing countries. The purpose of this article is to contribute to the analysis of the social determinants of adult body weight in urban China by taking into account the influence of social class. More specifically, we propose to analyse the position of the Chinese urban middle class in terms of being overweight or obese. The empirical investigations conducted as part of this research are based on a sample of 1320 households and 2841 adults from the China Health and Nutrition Survey for 2009. For the first step, we combine an economic approach and a sociological approach to identify social classes at household level. First, households with an annual per capita income between 10,000 Yuan and the 95th income percentile are considered as members of the middle class. Second, we strengthen the characterization of the middle class using information on education and employment. By applying clustering methods, we identify four groups: the elderly and inactive middle class, the old middle class, the lower middle class and the new middle class. For the second step, we implement an econometric analysis to assess the influence of social class on adult body mass index and on the probability of being overweight or obese. We use multinomial treatment regressions to deal with the endogeneity of the social class variable. Our results show that among the four subgroups of the urban middle class, the new middle class is the only one to be relatively well-protected against obesity. We suggest that this group plays a special role in adopting healthier food consumption habits and seems to be at a more advanced stage of the nutrition transition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. z-CLASSES IN FINITE GROUPS OF CONJUGATE TYPE (n,1) 1 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    37

    Following this motivation to use the z-classes to classify. “dynamical types” of transformations, the z-classes of real hyperbolic isometries have been classified and counted by Gongopadhyay and Kulkarni [GK09]. Apart from geometric motivations, the z-classes are important objects in their own right. Characterizations of the ...

  19. Pseudo Class III malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadia M. Al-Hummayani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of deep anterior crossbite is technically challenging due to the difficulty of placing traditional brackets with fixed appliances. This case report represents a none traditional treatment modality to treat deep anterior crossbite in an adult pseudo class III malocclusion complicated by severely retruded, supraerupted upper and lower incisors. Treatment was carried out in 2 phases. Phase I treatment was performed by removable appliance “modified Hawley appliance with inverted labial bow,” some modifications were carried out to it to suit the presented case. Positive overbite and overjet was accomplished in one month, in this phase with minimal forces exerted on the lower incisors. Whereas, phase II treatment was performed with fixed appliances (braces to align teeth and have proper over bite and overjet and to close posterior open bite, this phase was accomplished within 11 month.

  20. [Economy class syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morio, Hiroshi

    2003-10-01

    Economy class syndrome is venous thromboembolism following air travel. This syndrome was firstly reported in 1946, and many cases have been reported since 1990s. Low air pressure and low humidity in the aircraft cabin may contribute to the mechanism of this syndrome. Risk factors for venous thrombosis in the plane were old age, small height, obesity, hormonal therapy, malignancy, smoking, pregnancy or recent parturition, recent trauma or operation, chronic disease and history of venous thrombosis. In Japan, the feminine gender is also risk factor though reason was not well known. For prophylaxis, adequate fluid intake and leg exercise are recommended to all passengers. For passengers with high risk, prophylactic measures such as compression stockings, aspirin or low molecular weight heparin should be considered.

  1. Network class superposition analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl A B Pearson

    Full Text Available Networks are often used to understand a whole system by modeling the interactions among its pieces. Examples include biomolecules in a cell interacting to provide some primary function, or species in an environment forming a stable community. However, these interactions are often unknown; instead, the pieces' dynamic states are known, and network structure must be inferred. Because observed function may be explained by many different networks (e.g., ≈ 10(30 for the yeast cell cycle process, considering dynamics beyond this primary function means picking a single network or suitable sample: measuring over all networks exhibiting the primary function is computationally infeasible. We circumvent that obstacle by calculating the network class ensemble. We represent the ensemble by a stochastic matrix T, which is a transition-by-transition superposition of the system dynamics for each member of the class. We present concrete results for T derived from boolean time series dynamics on networks obeying the Strong Inhibition rule, by applying T to several traditional questions about network dynamics. We show that the distribution of the number of point attractors can be accurately estimated with T. We show how to generate Derrida plots based on T. We show that T-based Shannon entropy outperforms other methods at selecting experiments to further narrow the network structure. We also outline an experimental test of predictions based on T. We motivate all of these results in terms of a popular molecular biology boolean network model for the yeast cell cycle, but the methods and analyses we introduce are general. We conclude with open questions for T, for example, application to other models, computational considerations when scaling up to larger systems, and other potential analyses.

  2. Damascus steel ledeburite class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanov, D. A.; Arkhangelsky, L. B.; Plotnikova, N. V.

    2017-02-01

    Discovered that some of blades Damascus steel has an unusual nature of origin of the excess cementite, which different from the redundant phases of secondary cementite, cementite of ledeburite and primary cementite in iron-carbon alloys. It is revealed that the morphological features of separate particles of cementite in Damascus steels lies in the abnormal size of excess carbides having the shape of irregular prisms. Considered three hypotheses for the formation of excess cementite in the form of faceted prismatic of excess carbides. The first hypothesis is based on thermal fission of cementite of a few isolated grains. The second hypothesis is based on the process of fragmentation cementite during deformation to the separate the pieces. The third hypothesis is based on the transformation of metastable cementite in the stable of angular eutectic carbide. It is shown that the angular carbides are formed within the original metastable colony ledeburite, so they are called “eutectic carbide”. It is established that high-purity white cast iron is converted into of Damascus steel during isothermal soaking at the annealing. It was revealed that some of blades Damascus steel ledeburite class do not contain in its microstructure of crushed ledeburite. It is shown that the pattern of carbide heterogeneity of Damascus steel consists entirely of angular eutectic carbides. Believe that Damascus steel refers to non-heat-resistant steel of ledeburite class, which have similar structural characteristics with semi-heat-resistant die steel or heat-resistant high speed steel, differing from them only in the nature of excess carbide phase.

  3. Understanding Class in Contemporary Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrits, Gitte Sommer

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, I argue that claims about the death of class and the coming of the classless society are premature. Such claims are seldom genuinely empirical, and the theoretical argument often refers to a simple and therefore easily dismissible concept of class. By rejecting the concept of class...... altogether, sociological theory runs the risk of loosing the capacity for analysing stratification and vertical differentiation of power and freedom, which in late modernity seem to be a of continuing importance. Hence, I argue that although class analysis faces a number of serious challenges, it is possible...... to reinvent class analysis. The sociology of Pierre Bourdieu in many ways introduces an appropriate paradigm, and the paper therefore critically discusses Bourdieu's concept of class. Since the "Bourdieuan" class concept is primarily epistemological, i.e. a research strategy more than a theory, empirical...

  4. Social class differences in self, attribution, and attention: socially expansive individualism of middle-class Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Nicholas A; Kitayama, Shinobu; Nisbett, Richard E

    2009-07-01

    Although U.S. culture strongly sanctions the ideal of independence, the specific ways in which independence is realized may be variable depending, among other factors, on social class. Characterized by relative scarcity of social and material resources, working-class (WC) Americans were expected to strongly value self-reliance. In contrast, with choices among abundant resources, middle-class (MC) Americans were expected to value personal control and social expansiveness. In support of this analysis, relative to their WC counterparts, MC Americans reported more support from friends and greater likelihood of giving and receiving advice but less self-reliance (Study 1). Furthermore, we found evidence that this social difference has cognitive consequences: College students with MC backgrounds were more likely than their WC counterparts were to endorse situational attributions for others' behavior (Studies 2a and 2b) as well as to show holistic visual attention (Study 3).

  5. Exploring social class: voices of inter-class couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Teresa; Melendez-Rhodes, Tatiana; Althusius, Erin; Hergic, Sara; Sleeman, Gillian; Ton, Nicky Kieu My; Zimpfer-Bak, A J

    2013-01-01

    Social class is not often discussed or examined in-depth in couple and family therapy research and literature even though social class shapes familial relationships and is considered an important variable in marital satisfaction. In this qualitative study, we explored the perceptions of eight couples who made lasting commitments across class lines by asking them about the impact of their social class backgrounds on their relationships. Three categories of themes emerged including: (a) differences and similarities in values and attitudes toward education, work, money, and class awareness/classism, (b) relationship issues involving families of origin, friends, and class-based couple conflict, and (c) differences in economic resources, social capital and privileges/opportunities. Implications for assessment and treatment of couples are included. © 2012 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  6. Working class conservatism: a system justification perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, John T

    2017-12-01

    Working class conservatism is a perennial issue in social science, but researchers have struggled to provide an adequate characterization. In social psychology, the question has too often been framed in 'either/or' terms of whether the disadvantaged are more or less likely to support the status quo than the advantaged. This is a crude rendering of the issue obscuring the fact that even if most working class voters are not conservative, millions are-and conservatives could not win elections without their support. System justification theory highlights epistemic, existential, and relational needs to reduce uncertainty, threat, and social discord that are shared by everyone-and that promote conservative attitudes. I summarize qualitative and quantitative evidence of system justification among the disadvantaged and consider prospects for more constructive political activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Phylogenetic relationships among marine Alteromonas-like proteobacteria: emended description of the family Alteromonadaceae and proposal of Pseudoalteromonadaceae fam. nov., Colwelliaceae fam. nov., Shewanellaceae fam. nov., Moritellaceae fam. nov., Ferrimonadaceae fam. nov., Idiomarinaceae fam. nov. and Psychromonadaceae fam. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Elena P; Flavier, Sébastien; Christen, Richard

    2004-09-01

    The phylogenetic relationships among marine Alteromonas-like bacteria of the genera Alteromonas, Pseudoalteromonas, Glaciecola, Thalassomonas, Colwellia, Idiomarina, Oceanimonas, Oceanisphaera, Shewanella, Moritella, Ferrimonas, Psychromonas and several other genera of the 'Gammaproteobacteria' were studied. Results of 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses revealed that some members of these genera formed several coherent groups at the family level. Characteristic signature oligonucleotides for studied taxa were defined. Signature positions are divided into three classes: (i) single compensatory mutations, (ii) double compensatory mutations and (iii) mutations affecting nucleotides not paired in the secondary structure. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity level within genera was 93 % or above. This value can be a useful additional criterion for genus discrimination. On the basis of this work and previous polyphasic taxonomic studies, the circumscription of the family Alteromonadaceae is limited to the genera Alteromonas and Glaciecola and the creation is proposed of the families Pseudoalteromonadaceae fam. nov. to accommodate bacteria of the genera Pseudoalteromonas and Algicola gen. nov. (formerly Pseudoalteromonas bacteriolytica) and Colwelliaceae fam. nov. to accommodate bacteria of the genera Colwellia and Thalassomonas. Bacteria of the genera Oceanimonas and Oceanisphaera formed a robust cluster and shared common signature oligonucleotides. Because of deep branching and lack of association with any other genus, the following families are proposed that include single genera: Idiomarinaceae fam. nov., Psychromonadaceae fam. nov., Moritellaceae fam. nov., Ferrimonadaceae fam. nov. and Shewanellaceae fam. nov. Finally, this study also revealed that [Hyphomicrobium] indicum should be reclassified as Photobacterium indicum comb. nov.

  8. Reconciling Virtual Classes with Genericity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2006-01-01

    is functional abstraction, yielding more precise knowledge about the outcome; the prime ex- ample is type parameterized classes. This paper argues that they should be clearly separated to work optimally. We have applied this design philosophy to a lan- guage based on an extension mechanism, namely virtual...... classes. As a result, a kind of type parameters have been introduced, but they are simple and only used where they excel. Conversely, final definitions of virtual classes have been re- moved from the language, thus making virtual classes more flexible. The result- ing language presents a clearer and more...

  9. Class Counts: Education, Inequality, and the Shrinking Middle Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornstein, Allan

    2007-01-01

    Class differences and class warfare have existed since the beginning of western civilization, but the gap in income and wealth between the rich (top 10 percent) and the rest has increased steadily in the last twenty-five years. The U.S. is heading for a financial oligarchy much worse than the aristocratic old world that our Founding Fathers feared…

  10. Type Families with Class, Type Classes with Family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serrano, Alejandro; Hage, Jurriaan; Bahr, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Type classes and type families are key ingredients in Haskell programming. Type classes were introduced to deal with ad-hoc polymorphism, although with the introduction of functional dependencies, their use expanded to type-level programming. Type families also allow encoding type-level functions......, now as rewrite rules. This paper looks at the interplay of type classes and type families, and how to deal with shortcomings in both of them. Furthermore, we show how to use families to simulate classes at the type level. However, type families alone are not enough for simulating a central feature...... of type classes: elaboration, that is, generating code from the derivation of a rewriting. We look at ways to solve this problem in current Haskell, and propose an extension to allow elaboration during the rewriting phase....

  11. Subaltern Classes, Class Struggles and Hegemony : a Gramscian Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivete Simionatto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article sought to revive the concept of subaltern classes and their relation with other categories, particularly the State, civil society and hegemony in the thinking of Antonio Gramsci, as a support for contemporary class struggles. It also analyzes the relations between subaltern classes, common sense and ideology, as well as the forms of “overcoming” conceptualized by Gramsci, through the culture and philosophy of praxis. The paper revives the discussion of the subaltern classes, based on the original Gramscian formulation in the realm of Marxism, through the dialectic interaction between structure and superstructure, economy and politics. In addition to the conceptual revival, it indicates some elements that can support the discussion of the forms of subalternity found in contemporary reality and the possibilities for strengthening the struggles of these class layers, above all in moments of strong demobilization of popular participation.

  12. Class I Cytokine Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinocher, Helena

    , the minimal determinants for specificity between membrane spanning helices were investigated with small artificial low complexity peptides, prior found to activate the EPOR in cells. The placement of single methyl group in the so called transmembrane aptamers (traptamers) determined the stabilizing effect...... characteristics of membrane spanning helices, was designed and hGHR TMD and hEPOR TMD produced in sufficient amounts for spectroscopic investigations. The isolated hGHR TMD was revealed to associate in dimeric complexes in detergent micelles and first presumptions about the dimer interface could be made. Further...... the traptamers on the hEPOR TMD dimeric complex in detergent micelles. To gain a better understanding of hGHR regulation a point mutation in the hGHR intracellular domain (ICD), which has recently been linked to lung cancer, was characterized. The mutation was found to decrease binding of suppressor of cytokine...

  13. Constant Width Planar Computation Characterizes ACC0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt

    2006-01-01

    We obtain a characterization of ACC0 in terms of a natural class of constant width circuits, namely in terms of constant width polynomial size planar circuits. This is shown via a characterization of the class of acyclic digraphs which can be embedded on a cylinder surface in such a way that all...

  14. Context-sensitive intra-class clustering

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Yingwei; Gutierrez-Osuna, Ricardo; Choe, Yoonsuck

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a new semi-supervised learning algorithm for intra-class clustering (ICC). ICC partitions each class into sub-classes in order to minimize overlap across clusters from different classes. This is achieved by allowing partitioning

  15. Race and Class on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Angel B.

    2016-01-01

    Colleges and universities have a significant role to play in shaping the future of race and class relations in America. As exhibited in this year's presidential election, race and class continue to divide. Black Lives Matter movements, campus protests, and police shootings are just a few examples of the proliferation of intolerance, and higher…

  16. Propagating Class and Method Combination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    1999-01-01

    number of implicit combinations. For example, it is possible to specify separate aspects of a family of classes, and then combine several aspects into a full-fledged class family. The combination expressions would explicitly combine whole-family aspects, and by propagation implicitly combine the aspects...

  17. Social Class and the Extracurriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, Will

    2012-01-01

    Social class is a powerful and often unrecognized influence on student participation in the extracurriculum. Spontaneous student-created extracurricular experiences depend on students affiliating and interacting with each other; student social class is a powerful influence on student affiliations. Students tend to exercise consciousness of kind-…

  18. Translanguaging in a Reading Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaish, Viniti; Subhan, Aidil

    2015-01-01

    Using translanguaging as a theoretical foundation, this paper analyses findings from a Grade 2 reading class for low achieving students, where Malay was used as a scaffold to teach English. Data come from one class in one school in Singapore and its Learning Support Programme (LSP), which is part of a larger research project on biliteracy. The LSP…

  19. A Touch of...Class!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netten, Joan W., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    A collection of ideas for class activities in elementary and secondary language classes includes a vocabulary review exercise and games of memory, counting, vocabulary, flashcard tic-tac-toe, dice, trashcans, questioning, and spelling. Some are designed specifically for French. (MSE)

  20. Characterization of bacterial community structure in a hydrocarbon-contaminated tropical African soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Lateef B; Ilori, Mathew O; Amund, Olukayode O; LiiMien, Yee; Nojiri, Hideaki

    2018-04-01

    The bacterial community structure in a hydrocarbon-contaminated Mechanical Engineering Workshop (MWO) soil was deciphered using 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis. Four hundred and thirty-seven clones cutting across 13 bacterial phyla were recovered from the soil. The representative bacterial phyla identified from MWO soil are Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Planctomycetes, Ignavibacteriae, Spirochaetes, Chlamydiae, Candidatus Saccharibacteria and Parcubacteria. Proteobacteria is preponderant in the contaminated soil (51.2%) with all classes except Epsilonproteobacteria duly represented. Rarefaction analysis indicates 42%, 52% and 77% of the clone library is covered at the species, genus and family/class delineations with Shannon diversity (H') and Chao1 richness indices of 5.59 and 1126, respectively. A sizeable number of bacterial phylotypes in the clone library shared high similarities with strains previously described to be involved in hydrocarbon biodegradation. Novel uncultured genera were identified that have not been previously reported from tropical African soil to be associated with natural attenuation of hydrocarbon pollutants. This study establishes the involvement of a wide array of physiologically diverse bacterial groups in natural attenuation of hydrocarbon pollutants in soil.

  1. Collective modes in multiband superfluids and superconductors: Multiple dynamical classes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ota, Yukihiro; Machida, Masahiko; Koyama, Tomio; Aoki, Hideo

    2011-01-01

    One important way to characterize the states having a gauge symmetry spontaneously broken over multibands is to look at their collective excitation modes. We find that a three-band system has multiple Leggett modes with significantly different masses, which can be classified into different dynamical classes according to whether multiple interband Josephson currents add or cancel. This provides a way to dynamically characterize multiband superconductivity while the pairing symmetry is a static property.

  2. Spectral energy distribution analysis of class I and class II FU Orionis stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gramajo, Luciana V.; Gómez, Mercedes [Observatorio Astronómico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Argentina, Laprida 854, 5000 Córdoba (Argentina); Rodón, Javier A., E-mail: luciana@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: mercedes@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: jrodon@eso.org [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile)

    2014-06-01

    FU Orionis stars (FUors) are eruptive pre-main sequence objects thought to represent quasi-periodic or recurring stages of enhanced accretion during the low-mass star-forming process. We characterize the sample of known and candidate FUors in a homogeneous and consistent way, deriving stellar and circumstellar parameters for each object. We emphasize the analysis in those parameters that are supposed to vary during the FUor stage. We modeled the spectral energy distributions of 24 of the 26 currently known FUors, using the radiative transfer code of Whitney et al. We compare our models with those obtained by Robitaille et al. for Taurus class II and I sources in quiescence periods by calculating the cumulative distribution of the different parameters. FUors have more massive disks: we find that ∼80% of the disks in FUors are more massive than any Taurus class II and I sources in the sample. Median values for the disk mass accretion rates are ∼10{sup –7} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} versus ∼10{sup –5} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} for standard young stellar objects (YSOs) and FUors, respectively. While the distributions of envelope mass accretion rates for class I FUors and standard class I objects are similar, FUors, on average, have higher envelope mass accretion rates than standard class II and class I sources. Most FUors (∼70%) have envelope mass accretion rates above 10{sup –7} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. In contrast, 60% of the classical YSO sample has an accretion rate below this value. Our results support the current scenario in which changes experimented by the circumstellar disk explain the observed properties of these stars. However, the increase in the disk mass accretion rate is smaller than theoretically predicted, although in good agreement with previous determinations.

  3. Molecular characterization of zeta class glutathione S-transferases ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In higher plants, studies on GSTs have focussed largely on agricultural plants. There is ... Mediterranean region and have to cope with several environmental stress conditions. ..... Naliwajski M. R. and Skłodowska M 2014 The oxidative stress.

  4. Characterizing Interactive Engagement Activities in a Flipped Introductory Physics Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Anna K.; Galloway, Ross K.; Donnelly, Robyn; Hardy, Judy

    2016-01-01

    Interactive engagement activities are increasingly common in undergraduate physics teaching. As research efforts move beyond simply showing that interactive engagement pedagogies work towards developing an understanding of "how" they lead to improved learning outcomes, a detailed analysis of the way in which these activities are used in…

  5. Cloning and functional characterization of a class III chitinase gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of the VvChiF III amino acid sequence showed that this gene corresponds to the Glyco-hydro-18 super family that consisting of a signal peptide with the length of 25 amino acids. Purified VvChiF III showed chitinase activity toward the soluble substrate, glycolchitin and antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea.

  6. Multi-Structural Class: What and How It Is Perceived

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamah, Siti Mina

    2013-01-01

    The perception of "students' learning which equals students' being given knowledge" has brought about the theatrical mode of classroom instruction which is typically characterized by whole-class presentational techniques in which teachers perform most of the talking in order to transfer the knowledge to the students. Since this mode was…

  7. Consumer Education in Any Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingo, Rosetta F.

    1977-01-01

    Examples are offered of how the classroom teacher can blend consumer education into typewriting, business English, business math, and other classes by intentionally focusing on principles and concepts or by including it incidentally when the opportunity arises. (TA)

  8. Ethnicity, class, and civil war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hechter, Michael Norman; Siroky, David

    2016-01-01

    of political instability. These two types of conflict result from distinct principles of group solidarity – ethnicity and class – and since each individual is simultaneously a member of an ethnic group (or many such groups) and a particular class, these two principles vary in the degree to which......Why are some countries prone to ethno-nationalist conflict, whereas others are plagued by class conflict? This is a question that has seldom been raised and rarely been examined empirically. This paper presents a social-structural theory to account for the variable incidence of these two forms......-group inequalities are high, and within-group inequalities low, ethnicity should be the dominant principle of group solidarity and serve as the primary basis of group conflict. By contrast, in countries where between-group inequalities are low, and within-group inequalities high, class is more likely to serve...

  9. Imbalanced Class Learning in Epigenetics

    OpenAIRE

    Haque, M. Muksitul; Skinner, Michael K.; Holder, Lawrence B.

    2014-01-01

    In machine learning, one of the important criteria for higher classification accuracy is a balanced dataset. Datasets with a large ratio between minority and majority classes face hindrance in learning using any classifier. Datasets having a magnitude difference in number of instances between the target concept result in an imbalanced class distribution. Such datasets can range from biological data, sensor data, medical diagnostics, or any other domain where labeling any instances of the mino...

  10. Fouling of Seawater Reverse Osmosis (SWRO) Membrane: Chemical and Microbiological Characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Muhammad T.

    2013-12-01

    In spite of abundant water resources, world is suffering from the scarcity of usable water. Seawater Reverse Osmosis (SWRO) desalination technology using polymeric membranes has been recognized as a key solution to water scarcity problem. However, economic sustainability of this advanced technology is adversely impacted by the membrane fouling problem. Fouling of RO membranes is a highly studied phenomenon. However, literature is found to be lacking a detailed study on kinetic and dynamic aspects of SWRO membrane fouling. The factors that impact the fouling dynamics, i.e., pretreatment and water quality were also not adequately studied at full–scale of operation. Our experimental protocol was designed to systematically explore these fouling aspects with the objective to improve the understanding of SWRO membrane fouling mechanisms. An approach with multiple analytical techniques was developed for fouling characterization. In addition to the fouling layer characterization, feed water quality was also analysed to assess its fouling potential. Study of SWRO membrane fouling dynamics and kinetics revealed variations in relative abundance of chemical and microbial constituents of the fouling layer, over operating time. Aromatic substances, most likely humic–like substances, were observed at relatively high abundance in the initial fouling layer, followed by progressive increase in relative abundances of proteins and polysaccharides. Microbial population grown on all membranes was dominated by specific groups/species belonging to different classes of Proteobacteria phylum; however, similar to abiotic foulant, their relative abundance also changed with the biofilm age and with the position of membrane element in RO vessel. Our results demonstrated that source water quality can significantly impact the RO membrane fouling scenarios. Moreover, the major role of chlorination in the SWRO membrane fouling was highlighted. It was found that intermittent mode of chlorination

  11. Imbalanced class learning in epigenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, M Muksitul; Skinner, Michael K; Holder, Lawrence B

    2014-07-01

    In machine learning, one of the important criteria for higher classification accuracy is a balanced dataset. Datasets with a large ratio between minority and majority classes face hindrance in learning using any classifier. Datasets having a magnitude difference in number of instances between the target concept result in an imbalanced class distribution. Such datasets can range from biological data, sensor data, medical diagnostics, or any other domain where labeling any instances of the minority class can be time-consuming or costly or the data may not be easily available. The current study investigates a number of imbalanced class algorithms for solving the imbalanced class distribution present in epigenetic datasets. Epigenetic (DNA methylation) datasets inherently come with few differentially DNA methylated regions (DMR) and with a higher number of non-DMR sites. For this class imbalance problem, a number of algorithms are compared, including the TAN+AdaBoost algorithm. Experiments performed on four epigenetic datasets and several known datasets show that an imbalanced dataset can have similar accuracy as a regular learner on a balanced dataset.

  12. The theory of social classes Maurice Halbwachs

    OpenAIRE

    L. V. Kozlova

    2014-01-01

    The article considers the basic thesis of Maurice Halbwachs’s theory of social classes outlined in the “Social classes and morphology” (1942): the concept of class is revealed as the object of collective representation, the main characteristics of classes, the criteria for its selection and conditions for classes formation are analyzed.

  13. How do older adult drivers self-regulate? Characteristics of self-regulation classes defined by latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Gwen; West, Bethany A; Luo, Feijun; Bird, Donna C; Freund, Katherine; Fortinsky, Richard H; Staplin, Loren

    2017-06-01

    Motor-vehicle crashes were the second leading cause of injury death for adults aged 65-84years in 2014. Some older drivers choose to self-regulate their driving to maintain mobility while reducing driving risk, yet the process remains poorly understood. Data from 729 older adults (aged ≥60years) who joined an older adult ride service program between April 1, 2010 and November 8, 2013 were analyzed to define and describe classes of driving self-regulation. Latent class analysis was employed to characterize older adult driving self-regulation classes using driving frequency and avoidance of seven driving situations. Logistic regression was used to explore associations between characteristics affecting mobility and self-regulation class. Three classes were identified (low, medium, and high self-regulation). High self-regulating participants reported the highest proportion of always avoiding seven risky driving situations and the lowest driving frequency followed by medium and low self-regulators. Those who were female, aged 80years or older, visually impaired, assistive device users, and those with special health needs were more likely to be high self-regulating compared with low self-regulating. Avoidance of certain driving situations and weekly driving frequency are valid indicators for describing driving self-regulation classes in older adults. Understanding the unique characteristics and mobility limitations of each class can guide optimal transportation strategies for older adults. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Finishing occlusion in Class II or Class III molar relation: therapeutic Class II and III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nangia, A; Darendeliler, M A

    2001-11-01

    The most frequent extraction regime consists of the removal of upper and lower premolars. Depending on anchorage requirements, camouflage treatment options, surgical intervention, or the absence of teeth in only one arch, it may become necessary to finalize the occlusion with a one-dental-unit discrepancy between the upper and lower dental arches. Guidelines are presented for finishing occlusions in Class II or Class III molar relation.

  15. Cpf1 Is a Single RNA-Guided Endonuclease of a Class 2 CRISPR-Cas System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zetsche, Bernd; Gootenberg, Jonathan S.; Abudayyeh, Omar O.; Slaymaker, Ian M.; Makarova, Kira S.; Essletzbichler, Patrick; Volz, Sara E.; Joung, Julia; Oost, van der John; Regev, Aviv; Koonin, Eugene V.; Zhang, Feng

    2015-01-01

    The microbial adaptive immune system CRISPR mediates defense against foreign genetic elements through two classes of RNA-guided nuclease effectors. Class 1 effectors utilize multi-protein complexes, whereas class 2 effectors rely on single-component effector proteins such as the well-characterized

  16. Biofilms on Hospital Shower Hoses: Characterization and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although the source of drinking water used in hospitals is commonly, biofilms on water pipelines are refuge to bacteria that survive different disinfection strategies. Drinking water (DW) biofilms are well known to harbor opportunistic pathogens, however, these biofilm communities remain poorly characterized by culture-independent approaches that circumvent the limitations of conventional monitoring efforts. Hence, the frequency of pathogens in DW biofilms and how biofilm members withstand high doses of disinfectants and/or chlorine residuals in the water supply remain speculative, but directly impact public health. The aim of this study was to characterize the composition of microbial communities growing on five hospital shower hoses using both culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques. Two different sequence-based methods were used to characterize the bacterial fractions: 16S rRNA gene sequencing of bacterial cultures and next generation sequencing of metagenomes. Based on the metagenomic data, we found that Mycobacterium-like species was the abundant bacterial taxa that overlapped among the five samples. We also recovered the draft genome of a novel Mycobacterium species, closely related to opportunistic pathogenic nontuberculous mycobacteria, M. rhodesiae and M. tusciae, in addition to other, less abundant species. In contrast, the cultured fraction was mostly affiliated to Proteobacteria, such as members of the Sphingomonas, Blastomonas and Porph

  17. Imagining class : A study into material social class position, subjective identification, and voting behavior across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Hooge, L.; Achterberg, P.H.J.; Reeskens, T.

    2018-01-01

    The traditional approach to class voting has largely ignored the question whether material class positions coincide with subjective class identification. Following Sosnaud et al. (2013), this study evaluates party preferences when Europeans’ material and subjective social class do not coincide.

  18. Parametric embedding for class visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Tomoharu; Saito, Kazumi; Ueda, Naonori; Stromsten, Sean; Griffiths, Thomas L; Tenenbaum, Joshua B

    2007-09-01

    We propose a new method, parametric embedding (PE), that embeds objects with the class structure into a low-dimensional visualization space. PE takes as input a set of class conditional probabilities for given data points and tries to preserve the structure in an embedding space by minimizing a sum of Kullback-Leibler divergences, under the assumption that samples are generated by a gaussian mixture with equal covariances in the embedding space. PE has many potential uses depending on the source of the input data, providing insight into the classifier's behavior in supervised, semisupervised, and unsupervised settings. The PE algorithm has a computational advantage over conventional embedding methods based on pairwise object relations since its complexity scales with the product of the number of objects and the number of classes. We demonstrate PE by visualizing supervised categorization of Web pages, semisupervised categorization of digits, and the relations of words and latent topics found by an unsupervised algorithm, latent Dirichlet allocation.

  19. Parenting classes: focus on discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J M

    1992-01-01

    Nurses in community settings have an opportunity to provide instruction related to health and life-style needs. An important consideration is the parental role. A particularly controversial and opinion-laden aspect of parenting is disciplining children. Discipline provides children with the security of clearly enforced rules to help them learn self-control and social standards. Parenting classes are worthwhile for people who have little formal or informal preparation. A survey of middle-class elementary school district parents' and childrens' attitudes toward discipline was conducted to develop meaningful parenting classes. Parents' feelings about being a mother or father were surprisingly negative. A parent educational program was developed to cover child growth and development and disciplinary practices. Parent evaluations led to continuation and an expansion of this program to other schools within the area.

  20. Gender, social class, and women's employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Kathleen L; Oh, Eunsil

    2017-12-01

    People in low-power positions, whether due to gender or class, tend to exhibit other-oriented rather than self-oriented behavior. Women's experiences at work and at home are shaped by social class, heightening identification with gender for relatively upper class women and identification with class for relatively lower class women, potentially mitigating, or even reversing, class-based differences documented in past research. Gender-class differences are reflected in women's employment beliefs and behaviors. Research integrating social class with gendered experiences in homes and workplaces deepens our understanding of the complex interplay between sources of power and status in society. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Are Ghanaian Diaspora Middle Class? Linking Middle Class to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-06-24

    Jun 24, 2015 ... Enfin, nous analyserons l'influence de cette élite dans le .... In other words, many people who are considered middle class, sometimes in a month ..... the same area, will in future help my children to have a network of friends .... Ghanaian politics since 1992, where the ruling party does not win an election to.

  2. Class Cuisine: Food in the Foreign Language Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauschenberg, Gretchen S.

    1984-01-01

    Food can both interest students in a foreign culture and motivate them to broaden their interests. Cooking with students can take many forms. The students can cook in class if adequate preparations are made and permission is granted. Students can contribute toward the purchase of food for snacks and meals, and the cost can be kept to the price of…

  3. Social Class Matters: Class Identities and Discourses in Educational Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Carolyn S.; Seiver, Machele

    2018-01-01

    In this conceptual literature review, the authors analyze research from the last 20 years to explore how social class discourses are reproduced, resisted, and appropriated within Kindergarten through Grade 12 classrooms in the United States. The findings challenge commonly held deficit discourses about students and families from economically…

  4. Chiral algebras of class S

    CERN Document Server

    Beem, Christopher; Rastelli, Leonardo; van Rees, Balt C.

    2015-01-01

    Four-dimensional N=2 superconformal field theories have families of protected correlation functions that possess the structure of two-dimensional chiral algebras. In this paper, we explore the chiral algebras that arise in this manner in the context of theories of class S. The class S duality web implies nontrivial associativity properties for the corresponding chiral algebras, the structure of which is best summarized in the language of generalized topological quantum field theory. We make a number of conjectures regarding the chiral algebras associated to various strongly coupled fixed points.

  5. Enzymatic Browning: a practical class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Pedrosa Silva Clerici

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a practical class about the enzymes polyphenol oxidases, which have been shown to be responsible for the enzymatic browning of fruits and vegetables. Vegetables samples were submitted to enzymatic inactivation process with chemical reagents, as well as by bleaching methods of applying heat by conventional oven and microwave oven. Process efficiency was assessed qualitatively by both observing the guaiacol peroxidase activity and after the storage period under refrigeration or freezing. The practical results obtained in this class allow exploring multidisciplinary knowledge in food science, with practical applications in everyday life.

  6. Mappings on Neutrosophic Soft Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawkat Alkhazaleh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1995 Smarandache introduced the concept of neutrosophic set which is a mathematical tool for handling problems involving imprecise, indeterminacy and inconsistent data. In 2013 Maji introduced the concept of neutrosophic soft set theory as a general mathematical tool for dealing with uncertainty. In this paper we define the notion of a mapping on classes where the neutrosophic soft classes are collections of neutrosophic soft set. We also define and study the properties of neutrosophic soft images and neutrosophic soft inverse images of neutrosophic soft sets.

  7. Dynamic characterizers of spatiotemporal intermittency

    OpenAIRE

    Gupte, Neelima; Jabeen, Zahera

    2006-01-01

    Systems of coupled sine circle maps show regimes of spatiotemporally intermittent behaviour with associated scaling exponents which belong to the DP class, as well as regimes of spatially intermittent behaviour (with associated regular dynamical behaviour) which do not belong to the DP class. Both types of behaviour are seen along the bifurcation boundaries of the synchronized solutions, and contribute distinct signatures to the dynamical characterizers of the system, viz. the distribution of...

  8. Immunoglobulin class-switch recombination deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durandy, Anne; Kracker, Sven

    2012-07-30

    Immunoglobulin class-switch recombination deficiencies (Ig-CSR-Ds) are rare primary immunodeficiencies characterized by defective switched isotype (IgG/IgA/IgE) production. Depending on the molecular defect in question, the Ig-CSR-D may be combined with an impairment in somatic hypermutation (SHM). Some of the mechanisms underlying Ig-CSR and SHM have been described by studying natural mutants in humans. This approach has revealed that T cell-B cell interaction (resulting in CD40-mediated signaling), intrinsic B-cell mechanisms (activation-induced cytidine deaminase-induced DNA damage), and complex DNA repair machineries (including uracil-N-glycosylase and mismatch repair pathways) are all involved in class-switch recombination and SHM. However, several of the mechanisms required for full antibody maturation have yet to be defined. Elucidation of the molecular defects underlying the diverse set of Ig-CSR-Ds is essential for understanding Ig diversification and has prompted better definition of the clinical spectrum of diseases and the development of increasingly accurate diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.

  9. 47 CFR 74.708 - Class A TV and digital Class A TV station protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class A TV and digital Class A TV station... SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.708 Class A TV and digital Class A TV station protection. (a) The Class A TV and digital Class A TV station protected contours are specified in...

  10. Conservative treatment of Angle Class III malocclusion with anterior crossbite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Hélder Ferreira de Aguiar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Angle Class III malocclusion is characterized by anteroposterior dental discrepancy which might be associated or not with skeletal changes. Class III molar relationship is associated with vertical or lingually tipped mandibular incisors and a usually concave profile. These characteristics seriously affect facial esthetics and most frequently are the reason why patients seek orthodontic treatment. This case was presented to the committee of the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Facial Orthopedics (BBO as part of the requisites to become a BBO Diplomate.

  11. Distinguishing PTSD, Complex PTSD, and Borderline Personality Disorder: A latent class analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marylène Cloitre

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: There has been debate regarding whether Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (Complex PTSD is distinct from Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD when the latter is comorbid with PTSD. Objective: To determine whether the patterns of symptoms endorsed by women seeking treatment for childhood abuse form classes that are consistent with diagnostic criteria for PTSD, Complex PTSD, and BPD. Method: A latent class analysis (LCA was conducted on an archival dataset of 280 women with histories of childhood abuse assessed for enrollment in a clinical trial for PTSD. Results: The LCA revealed four distinct classes of individuals: a Low Symptom class characterized by low endorsements on all symptoms; a PTSD class characterized by elevated symptoms of PTSD but low endorsement of symptoms that define the Complex PTSD and BPD diagnoses; a Complex PTSD class characterized by elevated symptoms of PTSD and self-organization symptoms that defined the Complex PTSD diagnosis but low on the symptoms of BPD; and a BPD class characterized by symptoms of BPD. Four BPD symptoms were found to greatly increase the odds of being in the BPD compared to the Complex PTSD class: frantic efforts to avoid abandonment, unstable sense of self, unstable and intense interpersonal relationships, and impulsiveness. Conclusions: Findings supported the construct validity of Complex PTSD as distinguishable from BPD. Key symptoms that distinguished between the disorders were identified, which may aid in differential diagnosis and treatment planning.

  12. Filters in Fuzzy Class Theory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kroupa, Tomáš

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 159, č. 14 (2008), s. 1773-1787 ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA AV ČR KJB100300502 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : filter * prime filter * fuzzy class theory Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.833, year: 2008

  13. Exploring Class-Based Intersectionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, David; Corona, Victor

    2014-01-01

    This paper argues that language, culture and identity researchers need to take the intersectionality of identity inscriptions seriously and, further to this, that an intersectional approach which emanates from an interest in social class provides a productive way to examine the lives and experience of individuals living in multicultural societies.…

  14. Human Relations Class. A Syllabus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillen, Mary A.

    A junior high level human relations class develops human interaction and oral communication skills. A week-by-week syllabus contains the following components: introduction of the students to each other and to the principles of body language, transactional analysis, and group interaction; behavior contracts; group dynamics topics and exercises;…

  15. Professional Elites in "Classes" Societies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J. Magala (Slawomir)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractModern European identity has been forged in class struggles between the French revolution and fall of the Berlin Wall, which fell twice. Once, with the rest of the city in May 1945, when a national socialist alternative to a modernizing mix of parliamentary democracy and market economy

  16. Active Learning in Large Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li

    2011-01-01

    teaching large classes (more than 50 students), and describe how we successfully have in a second semester course in the Bachelor of Engineering (BEng) and Bachelor of Science Engineering (BSc Eng) program at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). Approximately 200 students is attending...

  17. Achieving world class maintenance status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomlingson, P.D. [Paul D. Tomingson Associates (United States)

    2007-08-15

    The article written by a management consultant, discusses the art of successful planning and operation of maintenance in mines considering factors such as benchmaking, key performance indices (KPIs) and frequency of procedures which can help achieve 'world class maintenance'. 1 fig.

  18. Social Class and School Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Vincent C.

    2012-01-01

    This article takes a practical look at social class in school music by exploring the manifestations and impact of three of its dimensions: financial resources, cultural practices, and social networks. Three suggestions are discussed: provide a free and equal music education for all students, understand and respect each student's cultural…

  19. Small Classes 1, Vouchers 0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2000-01-01

    Alan Krueger's reanalyses of Eric Hanushek's school-productivity data show that Hanushek's "money doesn't matter" conclusions (influential in several states' education-finance hearings) have no factual basis. Hanushek excluded Tennessee's student/teacher ratio study (Project STAR). Also, class size is influencing students' success in…

  20. Latent class models for classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermunt, J.K.; Magidson, J.

    2003-01-01

    An overview is provided of recent developments in the use of latent class (LC) and other types of finite mixture models for classification purposes. Several extensions of existing models are presented. Two basic types of LC models for classification are defined: supervised and unsupervised

  1. Characterization of the abundant ≤0.2 μm cell-like particles inhabiting Lake Vida brine, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, E.; Ichimura, A.; Peng, V.; Fritsen, C. H.; Murray, A. E.

    2011-12-01

    Most lakes in the McMurdo Dry Valleys are perennially covered with 3 to 6 m of ice, but Lake Vida is frozen from the surface through the lake bed, with ice permeated by brine channels. Brine collected from within the ice of Lake Vida is six times saltier than seawater, anoxic, with temperature of -13.4 C, pH of 6.2, high concentrations of ferrous iron (>300 μM), NH4+ (3.6 mM), and N2O (>58 μM), making it a unique environment. The first analysis of Vida brine microbial community (sampled in 2005) detected a cell rich environment (107 cells/mL), with cells falling into two size classes: ≥0.5 μm (105 cells/mL) and ~0.2 μm (107 cells/mL). Microorganisms in the domain Bacteria were detected, but Eukarya and Archaea were not. The clone library from 2005 identified Bacteria related to the phyla Proteobacteria (γ, δ, and ɛ), Lentisphaera, Firmicutes, Spirochaeta, Bacterioidetes, Actinobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and candidate Division TM7. Brine samples were collected again in the austral summer of 2010 in which one of the focus areas is interrogating the ~0.2 μm cell size class. Molecular, imaging, and elemental analyses were employed to characterize the population of nano-sized particles (NP) that pass through 0.2 μm filters. The aim of testing was to determine whether or not these particles are cells with a morphology resulting from environmental stresses. These results are being compared to the same analyses applied in the whole brine microbial community. A 0.2 μm filtrate of brine incubated for 25 days at -13 C was collected on a 0.1 μm filter. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene DGGE profile showed differences in the banding pattern and relative intensity when comparing the 0.2 μm filtrate to the whole brine community. A 16S rRNA clone library from the 0.2 μm filtrate indicated the presence of genera previously described in the 2005 whole brine community clone library like Pscychrobacter, Marinobacter, and members related to candidate Division TM7. Also, the

  2. Trabalho e classes sociais Work and social classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Haddad

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Exposição, discussão e refutação das principais tentativas de atualizar a teoria marxista de classes e posterior reavaliação dessa teoria à luz da transformação da ciência em fator de produção e da possível perda de centralidade do trabalho no processo produtivo, tendo por base as interpretações lógicas da obra de Marx feitas por Ruy Fausto.Exposition, discussion and refutation of the main attempts of actualizing marxist class theory and a posterior reevaluation of this theory taking into account the transformation of Science into a factor of production and of the possible centrality-loss of work in the productive process, based on the logic interpretations of Marx's work made by Ruy Fausto.

  3. Student versus Faculty Perceptions of Missing Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleigh, Merry J.; Ritzer, Darren R.; Casey, Michael B.

    2002-01-01

    Examines and compares student and faculty attitudes towards students missing classes and class attendance. Surveys undergraduate students (n=231) in lower and upper level psychology courses and psychology faculty. Reports that students found more reasons acceptable for missing classes and that the amount of in-class material on the examinations…

  4. The Dimanganese(II) Site of Bacillus subtilis Class Ib Ribonucleotide Reductase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boal, Amie K.; Cotruvo, Jr., Joseph A.; Stubbe, JoAnne; Rosenzweig, Amy C. (MIT); (NWU)

    2014-10-02

    Class Ib ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) use a dimanganese-tyrosyl radical cofactor, Mn{sub 2}{sup III}-Y{sm_bullet}, in their homodimeric NrdF ({beta}2) subunit to initiate reduction of ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides. The structure of the Mn{sub 2}{sup II} form of NrdF is an important component in understanding O{sub 2}-mediated formation of the active metallocofactor, a subject of much interest because a unique flavodoxin, NrdI, is required for cofactor assembly. Biochemical studies and sequence alignments suggest that NrdF and NrdI proteins diverge into three phylogenetically distinct groups. The only crystal structure to date of a NrdF with a fully ordered and occupied dimanganese site is that of Escherichia coli Mn{sub 2}{sup II}-NrdF, prototypical of the enzymes from actinobacteria and proteobacteria. Here we report the 1.9 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of Bacillus subtilis Mn{sub 2}{sup II}-NrdF, representative of the enzymes from a second group, from Bacillus and Staphylococcus. The structures of the metal clusters in the {beta}2 dimer are distinct from those observed in E. coli Mn{sub 2}{sup II}-NrdF. These differences illustrate the key role that solvent molecules and protein residues in the second coordination sphere of the Mn{sub 2}{sup II} cluster play in determining conformations of carboxylate residues at the metal sites and demonstrate that diverse coordination geometries are capable of serving as starting points for Mn{sub 2}{sup III}-Y{sm_bullet} cofactor assembly in class Ib RNRs.

  5. Concurrence classes for general pure multipartite states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heydari, Hoshang

    2005-01-01

    We propose concurrence classes for general pure multipartite states based on an orthogonal complement of a positive operator-valued measure on quantum phase. In particular, we construct W m class, GHZ m , and GHZ m-1 class concurrences for general pure m-partite states. We give explicit expressions for W 3 and GHZ 3 class concurrences for general pure three-partite states and for W 4 , GHZ 4 and GHZ 3 class concurrences for general pure four-partite states

  6. Understanding Intra-Class Knowledge Inside CNN

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Donglai; Zhou, Bolei; Torrabla, Antonio; Freeman, William

    2015-01-01

    Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) has been successful in image recognition tasks, and recent works shed lights on how CNN separates different classes with the learned inter-class knowledge through visualization. In this work, we instead visualize the intra-class knowledge inside CNN to better understand how an object class is represented in the fully-connected layers. To invert the intra-class knowledge into more interpretable images, we propose a non-parametric patch prior upon previous CNN...

  7. The Fermilab physics class library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischler, M.; Brown, W.; Gaines, I.; Kennedy, R.D.; Marraffino, J.; Michelotti, L.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Yoh, J.; Adams, D.; Paterno, M.

    1997-02-01

    The Fermilab Physics Class Library Task Force has been formed to supply classes and utilities, primarily in support of efforts by CDF and D0 toward using C++. A collection of libraries and tools will be assembled via development by the task force, collaboration with other HEP developers, and acquisition of existing modules. The main emphasis is on a kit of resources which physics coders can incorporate into their programs, with confidence in robustness and correct behavior. The task force is drawn from CDF, DO and the FNAL Computing and Beams Divisions. Modules-containers, linear algebra, histograms, etc.-have been assigned priority, based on immediate Run II coding activity, and will be available at times ranging from now to late May

  8. Supervised Object Class Colour Normalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riabchenko, Ekatarina; Lankinen, Jukka; Buch, Anders Glent

    2013-01-01

    . In this work, we develop a such colour normalisation technique, where true colours are not important per se but where examples of same classes have photometrically consistent appearance. This is achieved by supervised estimation of a class specic canonical colour space where the examples have minimal variation......Colour is an important cue in many applications of computer vision and image processing, but robust usage often requires estimation of the unknown illuminant colour. Usually, to obtain images invariant to the illumination conditions under which they were taken, color normalisation is used...... in their colours. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method with qualitative and quantitative examples from the Caltech-101 data set and a real application of 3D pose estimation for robot grasping....

  9. Class renormalization: islands around islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meiss, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    An orbit of 'class' is one that rotates about a periodic orbit of one lower class with definite frequency. This contrasts to the 'level' of a periodic orbit which is the number of elements in its continued fraction expansion. Level renormalization is conventionally used to study the structure of quasi-periodic orbits. The scaling structure of periodic orbits encircling other periodic orbits in area preserving maps is discussed here. Fixed points corresponding to the accumulation of p/q bifurcations are found and scaling exponents determined. Fixed points for q > 2 correspond to self-similar islands around islands. Frequencies of the island boundary circles at the fixed points are obtained. Importance of this scaling for the motion of particles in stochastic regions is emphasized. (author)

  10. THE REPRESENTATION OF URBAN UPPER MIDDLE CLASS AMERICAN WOMEN'S COMMUNITY IN SEX AND THE CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yola Damayanti Gani

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The portrayal of urban upper middle class American women's community in Sex and the City-SATC-is built upon constructed symbols related to the position of urban upper middle class American Women's community and how cosmopolitan the women are. The symbol's construction is characterized by singleness, upper middle class social status, well-established career, alienation, consumptiveness, independence, gender consciousness, and open mindedness in their sexual knowledge. Television has helped to fracture traditional conventions about how women should place themselves in the midst of their society and constructed urban upper middle class American women's image and identity.

  11. QUALITY IN WORLD CLASS MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Arsovski

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The World Class Manufacturing (WCM is a contemporary concept that is applied by the world leaders in the business. In this concept, one of the nine pillars is directly related to the quality and the other eight are related to it indirectly. That is why is very important to investigate relations between this concept and concept of model of quality. In the end of this paper are appointed the examples of best practice.

  12. A characterization of Markovian homogeneous multicomponent Gaussian fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekhaguere, G.O.S.

    1980-01-01

    Necessary and sufficient conditions are given for a certain class of homogeneous multicomponent Gaussian generalized stochastic fields to possess a Markov property equivalent to Nelson's. The class of Markov fields so characterized has a as a cubclass the class of Markov fields which lead by Nelson's Reconstruction Theorem to some covariant (free) quantum fields. (orig.)

  13. Class of regular bouncing cosmologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilić, Milovan

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, I construct a class of everywhere regular geometric sigma models that possess bouncing solutions. Precisely, I show that every bouncing metric can be made a solution of such a model. My previous attempt to do so by employing one scalar field has failed due to the appearance of harmful singularities near the bounce. In this work, I use four scalar fields to construct a class of geometric sigma models which are free of singularities. The models within the class are parametrized by their background geometries. I prove that, whatever background is chosen, the dynamics of its small perturbations is classically stable on the whole time axis. Contrary to what one expects from the structure of the initial Lagrangian, the physics of background fluctuations is found to carry two tensor, two vector, and two scalar degrees of freedom. The graviton mass, which naturally appears in these models, is shown to be several orders of magnitude smaller than its experimental bound. I provide three simple examples to demonstrate how this is done in practice. In particular, I show that graviton mass can be made arbitrarily small.

  14. 75 FR 51171 - Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Kaneohe, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-19

    ...; Airspace Docket No. 10-AWP-10] Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Kaneohe, HI AGENCY: Federal... Class D and Class E airspace at Kaneohe Bay Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS), Kaneohe, HI. The FAA is... airspace and Class E airspace upward from 700 feet above the surface at Kaneohe Bay MCAS, Kaneohe Bay, HI...

  15. Constant Width Planar Computation Characterizes ACC0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K.A.

    2004-01-01

    We obtain a characterization of ACC 0 in terms of a natural class of constant width circuits, namely in terms of constant width polynomial size planar circuits. This is shown via a characterization of the class of acyclic digraphs which can be embedded on a cylinder surface in such a way that all...

  16. Do class size effects differ across grades?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nandrup, Anne Brink

    size cap that creates exogenous variation in class sizes. Significant (albeit modest) negative effects of class size increases are found for children on primary school levels. The effects on math abilities are statistically different across primary and secondary school. Larger classes do not affect......This paper contributes to the class size literature by analyzing whether short-run class size effects are constant across grade levels in compulsory school. Results are based on administrative data on all pupils enroled in Danish public schools. Identification is based on a government-imposed class...

  17. Latent class analysis of early developmental trajectory in baby siblings of children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, Rebecca J; Gross, Alden L; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Bauman, Margaret

    2012-09-01

    Siblings of children with autism (sibs-A) are at increased genetic risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and milder impairments. To elucidate diversity and contour of early developmental trajectories exhibited by sibs-A, regardless of diagnostic classification, latent class modeling was used. Sibs-A (N = 204) were assessed with the Mullen Scales of Early Learning from age 6 to 36 months. Mullen T scores served as dependent variables. Outcome classifications at age 36 months included: ASD (N = 52); non-ASD social/communication delay (broader autism phenotype; BAP; N = 31); and unaffected (N = 121). Child-specific patterns of performance were studied using latent class growth analysis. Latent class membership was then related to diagnostic outcome through estimation of within-class proportions of children assigned to each diagnostic classification. A 4-class model was favored. Class 1 represented accelerated development and consisted of 25.7% of the sample, primarily unaffected children. Class 2 (40.0% of the sample), was characterized by normative development with above-average nonverbal cognitive outcome. Class 3 (22.3% of the sample) was characterized by receptive language, and gross and fine motor delay. Class 4 (12.0% of the sample), was characterized by widespread delayed skill acquisition, reflected by declining trajectories. Children with an outcome diagnosis of ASD were spread across Classes 2, 3, and 4. Results support a category of ASD that involves slowing in early non-social development. Receptive language and motor development is vulnerable to early delay in sibs-A with and without ASD outcomes. Non-ASD sibs-A are largely distributed across classes depicting average or accelerated development. Developmental trajectories of motor, language, and cognition appear independent of communication and social delays in non-ASD sibs-A. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2012 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  18. Pain patterns during adolescence can be grouped into four pain classes with distinct profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holden, Sinead; Rathleff, Michael Skovdal; Roos, E. M.

    2018-01-01

    L (assessed by Euro-QoL 5D-3L). Latent class analysis was used to classify spatial pain patterns, based on the pain sites. The analysis included 2953 adolescents. RESULTS: Four classes were identified as follows: (1) little or no pain (63% of adolescents), (2) majority lower extremity pain (10%), (3) multi......-site bodily pain (22%) and (4) head and stomach pain (3%). The lower extremity multi-site pain group reported highest weekly sports participation (p ....001). Males were more likely to belong to the little or no pain class, whereas females were more likely to belong to the multi-site bodily pain class. CONCLUSIONS: Latent class analysis identified distinct classes of pain patterns in adolescents, characterized by sex, differences in HRQoL and sports...

  19. Composite materials processing, applications, characterizations

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    Composite materials are used as substitutions of metals/traditional materials in aerospace, automotive, civil, mechanical and other industries. The present book collects the current knowledge and recent developments in the characterization and application of composite materials. To this purpose the volume describes the outstanding properties of this class of advanced material which recommend it for various industrial applications.

  20. Class, Race and American Labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Collomp

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Labor history in the United States is well‑chartered territory. It is the object of countless scholarly books, appears in many college and university curricula and it is the subject of on‑going revisions and debates. Although labor history has always implied a form of at least implicit social commitment, it has been commented upon and written about as abundantly as other aspects of social history and often with more stamina or vindication. Nineteenth and early twentieth‑century working class ...

  1. First-Class Object Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    Typically, objects are monolithic entities with a fixed interface. To increase the flexibility in this area, this paper presents first-class object sets as a language construct. An object set offers an interface which is a disjoint union of the interfaces of its member objects. It may also be used...... for a special kind of method invocation involving multiple objects in a dynamic lookup process. With support for feature access and late-bound method calls object sets are similar to ordinary objects, only more flexible. The approach is made precise by means of a small calculus, and the soundness of its type...

  2. EFFICIENCY OF CURRENCY ASSET CLASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad R. Safarzadeh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing the risk and return for the S&P Currency Index Arbitrage and the Merk Absolute Return Currency Fund, this study intends to find whether currency asset classes are worthwhile investments. To determine where the efficient currency portfolios lie in the risk and return spectrum, this paper compares the two portfolios to fixed income and equity asset portfolios. The results lead to a baffling conclusion that, in general, the returns to low-risk currency asset portfolios are higher than the equity asset portfolios of same risk level.

  3. New class of combustion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merzhanov, A.G.; Borovinskaya, I.P.

    1975-01-01

    A short review is given of the results of work carried out since 1967 on studying the combustion processes caused by the interaction of chemical elements in the condensed phase and leading to the formation of refractory compounds. New phenomena and processes are described which are revealed when investigating the combustion of the systems of this class, viz solid-phase combustion, fast combustion in the condensed phase, filtering combustion, combustion in liquid nitrogen, spinning combustion, self-oscillating combustion, and repeated combustion. A new direction in employment of combustion processes is discussed, viz. a self-propagating high-temperature synthesis of refractory nitrides, carbides, borides, silicides and other compounds

  4. What Is Middle Class about the Middle Classes around the World?

    OpenAIRE

    Abhijit V. Banerjee; Esther Duflo

    2008-01-01

    We expect a lot from the middle classes. At least three distinct arguments about the special economic role of the middle class are traditionally made. In one, new entrepreneurs armed with a capacity and a tolerance for delayed gratification emerge from the middle class and create employment and productivity growth for the rest of society. In a second, perhaps more conventional view, the middle class is primarily a source of vital inputs for the entrepreneurial class: it is their "middle class...

  5. Patterns and predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder in refugees: A latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minihan, Savannah; Liddell, Belinda J; Byrow, Yulisha; Bryant, Richard A; Nickerson, Angela

    2018-05-01

    Although elevated rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been well-documented in refugees, no study has investigated the heterogeneity of DSM-5 PTSD symptomatology in such populations. This study aimed to determine whether there are unique patterns of DSM-5 defined PTSD symptomatology in refugees, and investigate whether factors characteristic of the refugee experience, including trauma exposure and post-migration stress, predict symptom profiles. Participants were 246 refugees and asylum-seekers from an Arabic-, English-, Farsi-, or Tamil-speaking background who had been resettled in Australia. Participants completed measures of post-migration living difficulties, trauma exposure, PTSD symptoms and functional disability. Latent class analysis was used to identify PTSD symptom profiles, and predictors of class membership were elucidated via multinomial logistic regression. Four classes were identified: a high-PTSD class (21.3%), a high-re-experiencing/avoidance class (15.3%), a moderate-PTSD class (23%), and a no PTSD class (40.3%). Trauma exposure and post-migration stress significantly predicted class membership and classes differed in degree of functional disability. The current study employed a cross-sectional design, which precluded inferences regarding the stability of classes of PTSD symptomatology. This study provides evidence for distinct patterns of PTSD symptomatology in refugees. We identified a novel class, characterized by high-re-experiencing and avoidance symptoms, as well as classes characterized by pervasive, moderate, and no symptomatology. Trauma exposure and post-migration stress differentially contributed to the emergence of these profiles. Individuals with high and moderate probability of PTSD symptoms evidenced substantial disability. These results support conceptualizations of PTSD as a heterogeneous construct, and highlight the importance of considering sub-clinical symptom presentations, as well as the post

  6. Mandatory Class 1 Federal Areas Web Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This web service contains the following layers: Mandatory Class 1 Federal Area polygons and Mandatory Class 1 Federal Area labels in the United States. The polygon...

  7. Investment Company Series and Class Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    Securities and Exchange Commission — The Series and Class Report provides basic identification information for all active registered investment company series and classes that have been issued IDs by...

  8. King george V class battleships

    CERN Document Server

    Chesneau, Roger

    2011-01-01

    The 'ShipCraft' series provides in-depth information about building and modifying model kits of famous warship types. Lavishly illustrated, each book takes the modeller through a brief history of the subject class, highlighting differences between sister-ships and changes in their appearance over their careers. This includes paint schemes and camouflage, featuring colour profiles and highly-detailed line drawings and scale plans. The modelling section reviews the strengths and weaknesses of available kits, lists commercial accessory sets for super-detailing of the ships, and provides hints on modifying and improving the basic kit. This is followed by an extensive photographic gallery of selected high-quality models in a variety of scales, and the book concludes with a section on research references - books, monographs, large-scale plans and relevant websites.The five battleships of the class covered by this volume were the most modern British capital ships to serve in the Second World War. They were involved ...

  9. Comprehending text in literature class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purić Daliborka S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the problem of understanding a text and the contribution of methodological apparatus in the reader book to comprehension of a text being read in junior classes of elementary school. By using the technique of content analysis from methodological apparatuses in eight reader books for the fourth grade of elementary school, approved for usage in 2014/2015 academic year, and surveying 350 teachers in 33 elementary schools and 11 administrative districts in the Republic of Serbia we examined: (a to what extent the Serbian language text book contents enable junior students to understand a literary text; (b to what extent teachers accept the suggestions offered in the textbook for preparing literature teaching. The results show that a large number of suggestions relate to reading comprehension, but some of categories of understanding are unevenly distributed in the methodological apparatus. On the other hand, the majority of teachers use the methodological apparatus given in a textbook for preparing classes, not only the textbook he or she selected for teaching but also other textbooks for the same grade.

  10. Class teacher’s gender culture

    OpenAIRE

    GOGOL-SAVRIY M.V.

    2012-01-01

    The article considers the gender approach in the professional culture of a class teacher. The nature, levels and sublevels of class teacher’s gender culture development are defined. Taking into consideration the concepts of leading researchers, the essence of components of class teacher’s gender culture is discovered according to the levels of its development as professional and educational activity. Proceeding from the results of the diagnostics of class teachers’ gender culture at comprehen...

  11. The intersectionality of discrimination attributes and bullying among youth: an applied latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnett, Bernice Raveche; Masyn, Katherine E; Austin, S Bryn; Miller, Matthew; Williams, David R; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2014-08-01

    Discrimination is commonly experienced among adolescents. However, little is known about the intersection of multiple attributes of discrimination and bullying. We used a latent class analysis (LCA) to illustrate the intersections of discrimination attributes and bullying, and to assess the associations of LCA membership to depressive symptoms, deliberate self harm and suicidal ideation among a sample of ethnically diverse adolescents. The data come from the 2006 Boston Youth Survey where students were asked whether they had experienced discrimination based on four attributes: race/ethnicity, immigration status, perceived sexual orientation and weight. They were also asked whether they had been bullied or assaulted for these attributes. A total of 965 (78%) students contributed to the LCA analytic sample (45% Non-Hispanic Black, 29% Hispanic, 58% Female). The LCA revealed that a 4-class solution had adequate relative and absolute fit. The 4-classes were characterized as: low discrimination (51%); racial discrimination (33%); sexual orientation discrimination (7%); racial and weight discrimination with high bullying (intersectional class) (7%). In multivariate models, compared to the low discrimination class, individuals in the sexual orientation discrimination class and the intersectional class had higher odds of engaging in deliberate self-harm. Students in the intersectional class also had higher odds of suicidal ideation. All three discrimination latent classes had significantly higher depressive symptoms compared to the low discrimination class. Multiple attributes of discrimination and bullying co-occur among adolescents. Research should consider the co-occurrence of bullying and discrimination.

  12. Do Class Size Effects Differ across Grades?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandrup, Anne Brink

    2016-01-01

    This paper contributes to the class size literature by analysing whether short-run class size effects are constant across grade levels in compulsory school. Results are based on administrative data on all pupils enrolled in Danish public schools. Identification is based on a government-imposed class size cap that creates exogenous variation in…

  13. Software extension and integration with type classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lämmel, Ralf; Ostermann, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    expressiveness, by using the language concept of \\emph{type classes}, as it is available in the functional programming language Haskell. A detailed comparison with related work shows that type classes provide a powerful framework in which solutions to known software extension and integration problems can...... be provided. We also pinpoint several limitations of type classes in this context....

  14. Making the Most of Your Class Website

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Lemoyne S.

    2011-01-01

    Students today are electronically connected, and they expect their learning to be connected as well. Many college students prefer online classes, even if they live on campus. Students who do take face-to-face classes often expect the class to have an online communication component (such as a discussion board). However, despite the fact that K-12…

  15. Reflections on Teaching a Large Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Rick

    1992-01-01

    Uses an analysis of small- and large-class differences as a framework for planning for and teaching a large class. Analyzes the process of developing and offering an organizational behavior class to 141 college students. Suggests ways to improve teaching effectiveness by minimizing psychological and physical distances, redistributing resources,…

  16. Application of TBT in Reading Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong-qin

    2007-01-01

    "TBT" means "task-based teaching". In a TBT class, students play the central role. In the class where students are provided with plenty of chances to be engaged in activities, the teacher is more like a patient listener rather than a talkative speaker. This paper mainly explores how task-based teaching is used in English reading class.

  17. Conceptualizing "Homework" in Flipped Mathematics Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, Zandra; Otten, Samuel; Birisci, Salih

    2017-01-01

    Flipped instruction is becoming more common in the United States, particularly in mathematics classes. One of the defining characteristics of this increasingly popular instructional format is the homework teachers assign. In contrast to traditional mathematics classes in which homework consists of problem sets, homework in flipped classes often…

  18. Regular extensions of some classes of grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus

    Culik and Cohen introduced the class of LR-regular grammars, an extension of the LR(k) grammars. In this report we consider the analogous extension of the LL(k) grammers, called the LL-regular grammars. The relations of this class of grammars to other classes of grammars are shown. Every LL-regular

  19. Factors Related to In-Class Spiritual Experience: Relationship between Pre-Class Scripture Reading, In-Class Note-Taking, and Perceived In-Class Spiritual Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, John, III; Sweat, Anthony R.; Plummer, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between student in-class note-taking and pre-class reading with perceived in-class spiritual and religious outcomes. This study surveyed 620 students enrolled in six different sections of an introductory religion course at a private religious university. Full-time religious faculty members…

  20. Class composition influences on pupils' cognitive development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peetsma, T.; van der Veen, I.; Koopman, P.; van Schooten, E.

    2006-01-01

    The proportion of low-achieving children in a class can affect the progress of individual pupils in that class. Having a large proportion of low achievers in a class could slow down growth in cognitive achievement but, might also boost such growth, due to the effects of specialist teaching geared to

  1. The Social Psychology of Class and Classism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Bernice

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, one is born into a family that can be identified as working class, middle class, or affluent--divisions that denote status and power, as defined by access to resources. This article explores the relationships between social class membership and a wide array of personal and social daily life experiences. It concludes with a…

  2. A class of Yang-Mills solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillejo, L.; Kugler, M.

    1980-09-01

    We investigate a class of solutions of the classical SU(2) Yang-Mills equations. The symmetry of this class prescribes a natural set of gauge invariant degrees of freedom. Using these degrees of freedom we obtain a simple set of equations which enables us to find all the solutions belonging to the class under discussion. (Author)

  3. Protective influences on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by MHC class I and class II alleles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustafa, M; Vingsbo, C; Olsson, T

    1994-01-01

    are resistant. Interestingly, rats with the MHC u haplotype develop an immune response to the MBP 63-88, but do not get EAE. In this study we have used intra-MHC recombinant rat strains to compare the influences of the MHC u with the a haplotype. We discovered the following: 1) The class II region of the MHC...... a haplotype permits EAE and a Th1 type of immune response as measured by IFN-gamma production after in vitro challenge of in vivo-primed T cells with MBP 63-88. 2) The class II region of the u haplotype is associated with a disease-protective immune response characterized by production of not only IFN......Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is influenced by polymorphism of the MHC. We have previously found that Lewis rats with certain MHC haplotypes are susceptible to disease induced with the myelin basic protein (MBP) peptide 63-88, whereas Lewis rats with other MHC haplotypes...

  4. Inverted rank distributions: Macroscopic statistics, universality classes, and critical exponents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo; Cohen, Morrel H.

    2014-01-01

    An inverted rank distribution is an infinite sequence of positive sizes ordered in a monotone increasing fashion. Interlacing together Lorenzian and oligarchic asymptotic analyses, we establish a macroscopic classification of inverted rank distributions into five “socioeconomic” universality classes: communism, socialism, criticality, feudalism, and absolute monarchy. We further establish that: (i) communism and socialism are analogous to a “disordered phase”, feudalism and absolute monarchy are analogous to an “ordered phase”, and criticality is the “phase transition” between order and disorder; (ii) the universality classes are characterized by two critical exponents, one governing the ordered phase, and the other governing the disordered phase; (iii) communism, criticality, and absolute monarchy are characterized by sharp exponent values, and are inherently deterministic; (iv) socialism is characterized by a continuous exponent range, is inherently stochastic, and is universally governed by continuous power-law statistics; (v) feudalism is characterized by a continuous exponent range, is inherently stochastic, and is universally governed by discrete exponential statistics. The results presented in this paper yield a universal macroscopic socioeconophysical perspective of inverted rank distributions.

  5. Imagining class: A study into material social class position, subjective identification, and voting behavior across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Hooge, Lorenzo; Achterberg, Peter; Reeskens, Tim

    2018-02-01

    The traditional approach to class voting has largely ignored the question whether material class positions coincide with subjective class identification. Following Sosnaud et al. (2013), this study evaluates party preferences when Europeans' material and subjective social class do not coincide. Seminal studies on voting behavior have suggested that members of lower classes are more likely to vote for the economic left and cultural right and that higher classes demonstrate the opposite pattern. Yet, these studies have on the one hand overlooked the possibility that there is a mismatch between the material class people can be classified in and the class they think they are part of, and on the other hand the consequences of this discordant class identification on voting behavior. Analyzing the 2009 wave of the European Elections Study, we find that the majority of the Europeans discordantly identify with the middle class, whereas only a minority of the lower and higher classes concordantly identify with their material social class. Further, material class only seems to predict economic voting behavior when it coincides with subjective class; for instance, individuals who have an inflated class identification are more likely to vote for the economic left, even when they materially can be classified as middle or high class. We conclude this paper with a discussion on scholarly debates concerning class and politics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Character Strengths of Class Clowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willibald F. Ruch

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Class clowns traditionally were studied as a type concept and identified via sociometric procedures. In the present study a variable-centered approach was favored and class clown behaviors were studied in the context of character strengths, orientations to happiness and satisfaction with life. A sample of 672 Swiss children and adolescents filled in an 18 item self-report instrument depicting class clown behaviors. A hierarchical model of class clown behaviors was developed distinguishing a general factor and the four positively correlated dimensions of identified as a class clown, comic talent, disruptive rule-breaker, and subversive joker. Analysis of the general factor showed that class clowns were primarily male, and tended to be seen as class clowns by the teacher. Analyses of the 24 character strengths of the VIA-Youth (Park & Peterson, 2006 showed that class clowns were high in humor and leadership, and low in strengths like prudence, self-regulation, modesty, honesty, fairness, perseverance, and love of learning. An inspection of signature strengths revealed that 75% of class clowns had humor as a signature strength. Furthermore, generally class clown behaviors were shown by students indulging in a life of pleasure, but low life of engagement. The four dimensions yielded different character strengths profiles. While all dimensions of class clowns behaviors were low in temperance strengths, the factors identified as the class clown and comic talent were correlated with leadership strengths and the two negative factors (disruptive rule-breaker, subversive joker were low in other directed strengths. The disruptive rule breaking class clown was additionally low in intellectual strengths. While humor predicted life satisfaction, class clowning tended to go along with diminished satisfaction with life. It is concluded that different types of class clowns need to be kept apart and need different attention by teachers.

  7. The character strengths of class clowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruch, Willibald; Platt, Tracey; Hofmann, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Class clowns traditionally were studied as a type concept and identified via sociometric procedures. In the present study a variable-centered approach was favored and class clown behaviors were studied in the context of character strengths, orientations to happiness and satisfaction with life. A sample of 672 Swiss children and adolescents filled in an 18 item self-report instrument depicting class clown behaviors. A hierarchical model of class clown behaviors was developed distinguishing a general factor and the four positively correlated dimensions of "identified as a class clown," "comic talent," "disruptive rule-breaker," and "subversive joker." Analysis of the general factor showed that class clowns were primarily male, and tended to be seen as class clowns by the teacher. Analyses of the 24 character strengths of the VIA-Youth (Park and Peterson, 2006) showed that class clowns were high in humor and leadership, and low in strengths like prudence, self-regulation, modesty, honesty, fairness, perseverance, and love of learning. An inspection of signature strengths revealed that 75% of class clowns had humor as a signature strength. Furthermore, class clown behaviors were generally shown by students indulging in a life of pleasure, but low life of engagement. The four dimensions yielded different character strengths profiles. While all dimensions of class clowns behaviors were low in temperance strengths, the factors "identified as the class clown" and "comic talent" were correlated with leadership strengths and the two negative factors ("disruptive rule-breaker," "subversive joker") were low in other directed strengths. The disruptive rule breaking class clown was additionally low in intellectual strengths. While humor predicted life satisfaction, class clowning tended to go along with diminished satisfaction with life. It is concluded that different types of class clowns need to be kept apart and need different attention by teachers.

  8. Characterization of Gastric Microbiota in Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Quanjiang; Xin, Yongning; Wang, Lili; Meng, Xinying; Yu, Xinjuan; Lu, Linlin; Xuan, Shiying

    2017-02-01

    Contribution of host genetic backgrounds in the development of gastric microbiota has not been clearly defined. This study was aimed to characterize the biodiversity, structure and composition of gastric microbiota among twins. A total of four pairs of twins and eight unrelated individuals were enrolled in the study. Antral biopsies were obtained during endoscopy. The bacterial 16S rRNA gene was amplified and pyrosequenced. Sequences were analyzed for the composition, structure, and α and β diversities of gastric microbiota. Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Fusobacteria were the most predominant phyla of gastric microbiota. Each individual, twins as well as unrelated individuals, harbored a microbiota of distinct composition. There was no evidence of additional similarity in the richness and evenness of gastric microbiota among co-twins as compared to unrelated individuals. Calculations of θ YC and PCoA demonstrated that the structure similarity of gastric microbial community between co-twins did not increase compared to unrelated individuals. In contrast, the structure of microbiota was altered enormously by Helicobacter pylori infection. These results suggest that host genetic backgrounds had little effect in shaping the gastric microbiota. This property of gastric microbiota could facilitate the studies discerning the role of microbiota from genetic grounds in the pathogenesis.

  9. Phylogenetic diversity and functional characterization of the Manila clam microbiota: a culture-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Laura; Jude-Lemeilleur, Florence; Raymond, Natalie; Henriques, Isabel; Garabetian, Frédéric; Alves, Artur

    2017-09-01

    According to the hologenome theory, the microbiota contributes to the fitness of the holobiont having an important role in its adaptation, survival, development, health, and evolution. Environmental stress also affects the microbiota and its capability to assist the holobiont in coping with stress factors. Here, we analyzed the diversity of cultivable bacteria associated with Manila clam tissues (mantle, gills, hemolymph) in two non-contaminated sites (Portugal and France) and one metal-contaminated site (Portugal). A total of 240 isolates were obtained. Representative isolates (n = 198) of the overall diversity were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing and subjected to functional characterization. Isolates affiliated with Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes. Proteobacteria (mostly Pseudoalteromonadaceae and Vibrionaceae) were dominant in non-contaminated sites while Actinobacteria (mostly Microbacteriaceae) dominated in the metal-contaminated site. The main factor affecting the microbiota composition was contamination. No significant differences were observed between clam tissues and geographic regions. Several isolates tested positive for antibacterial activity, biofilm formation, protease, and siderophore production. The results show that the Manila clam harbors a diverse microbiota that may contribute to clam protection and overall fitness, as well as to its adaptation to stressful environments. In addition, the Manila clam microbiota is revealed as a promising source of novel probiotics with potential application in aquaculture.

  10. Characterization of bacterial consortia capable of degrading 4-chlorobenzoate and 4-bromobenzoate under denitrifying conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bongkeun; Kerkhof, Lee J; Häggblom, Max M

    2002-08-06

    4-Chlorobenzoate and 4-bromobenzoate were readily degraded in denitrifying enrichment cultures established with river sediment, estuarine sediment or agricultural soil as inoculum. Stable denitrifying consortia were obtained and maintained by serial dilution and repeated feeding of substrates. Microbial community analyses were performed to characterize the 4-chlorobenzoate and 4-bromobenzoate degrading consortia with terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and cloning of 16S rRNA genes from the cultures. Interestingly, two major terminal restriction fragments (T-RFs) in the 4-chlorobenzoate degrading consortia and one T-RF in the 4-bromobenzoate utilizing consortium were observed from T-RFLP analysis regardless of their geographical and ecological origins. The two T-RFs (clones 4CB1 and 4CB2) in 4-chlorobenzoate degrading consortia were identified as members of the beta-subunit of the Proteobacteria on the basis of 16S rRNA sequencing analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes showed that clone 4CB1 was closely related to Thauera aromatica while clone 4CB2 was distantly related to the genera Limnobacter and Ralstonia. The 4-bromobenzoate utilizing consortium mainly consisted of one T-RF, which was identical to clone 4CB2 in spite of different enrichment substrate. This suggests that degradation of 4-chlorobenzoate and 4-bromobenzoate under denitrifying conditions was mediated by bacteria belonging to the beta-subunit of the Proteobacteria.

  11. A Class-Specific Optimizing Compiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Sharp

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Class-specific optimizations are compiler optimizations specified by the class implementor to the compiler. They allow the compiler to take advantage of the semantics of the particular class so as to produce better code. Optimizations of interest include the strength reduction of class:: array address calculations, elimination of large temporaries, and the placement of asynchronous send/recv calls so as to achieve computation/communication overlap. We will outline our progress towards the implementation of a C++ compiler capable of incorporating class-specific optimizations.

  12. Middle-class projects in modern Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Johan

    2017-01-01

    picture surrounding this class and its relationship to Malaysian national repertoires such as Islamic revivalism, politics, consumer culture, social mobility and the state-market nexus. I understand middle-class projects to be the making of local class culture in Malaysia and explore these in four...... research projects that each in their own way examine how Malay Muslim informants understand and practice “middle-classness” in different spatial and temporal contexts. In short, my findings show how Malay Muslim middle-class projects such as Islamic consumption shape local class culture in Malaysia....

  13. Master classes - What do they offer?

    OpenAIRE

    Hanken, Ingrid Maria; Long, Marion

    2012-01-01

    Master classes are a common way to teach music performance, but how useful are they in helping young musicians in their musical development? Based on his experiences of master classes Lali (2003:24) states that “For better or for worse, master classes can be life-changing events.” Anecdotal evidence confirm that master classes can provide vital learning opportunities, but also that they can be of little use to the student, or worse, detrimental. Since master classes are a common component in ...

  14. Linking Core Promoter Classes to Circadian Transcription.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pål O Westermark

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Circadian rhythms in transcription are generated by rhythmic abundances and DNA binding activities of transcription factors. Propagation of rhythms to transcriptional initiation involves the core promoter, its chromatin state, and the basal transcription machinery. Here, I characterize core promoters and chromatin states of genes transcribed in a circadian manner in mouse liver and in Drosophila. It is shown that the core promoter is a critical determinant of circadian mRNA expression in both species. A distinct core promoter class, strong circadian promoters (SCPs, is identified in mouse liver but not Drosophila. SCPs are defined by specific core promoter features, and are shown to drive circadian transcriptional activities with both high averages and high amplitudes. Data analysis and mathematical modeling further provided evidence for rhythmic regulation of both polymerase II recruitment and pause release at SCPs. The analysis provides a comprehensive and systematic view of core promoters and their link to circadian mRNA expression in mouse and Drosophila, and thus reveals a crucial role for the core promoter in regulated, dynamic transcription.

  15. Ecdysteroids: A novel class of anabolic agents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MK Parr

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasing numbers of dietary supplements with ecdysteroids are marketed as “natural anabolic agents”. Results of recent studies suggested that their anabolic effect is mediated by estrogen receptor (ER binding. Within this study the anabolic potency of ecdysterone was compared to well characterized anabolic substances. Effects on the fiber sizes of the soleus muscle in rats as well the diameter of C2C12 derived myotubes were used as biological readouts. Ecdysterone exhibited a strong hypertrophic effect on the fiber size of rat soleus muscle that was found even stronger compared to the test compounds metandienone (dianabol, estradienedione (trenbolox, and SARM S 1, all administered in the same dose (5 mg/kg body weight, for 21 days. In C2C12 myotubes ecdysterone (1 μM induced a significant increase of the diameter comparable to dihydrotestosterone (1 μM and IGF 1 (1.3 nM. Molecular docking experiments supported the ERβ mediated action of ecdysterone. To clarify its status in sports, ecdysterone should be considered to be included in the class “S1.2 Other Anabolic Agents” of the list of prohibited substances of the World Anti-Doping Agency.

  16. Two fundamentally different classes of microbial genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Yuri I; Makarova, Kira S; Lobkovsky, Alexander E; Koonin, Eugene V

    2016-11-07

    The evolution of bacterial and archaeal genomes is highly dynamic and involves extensive horizontal gene transfer and gene loss 1-4 . Furthermore, many microbial species appear to have open pangenomes, where each newly sequenced genome contains more than 10% ORFans, that is, genes without detectable homologues in other species 5,6 . Here, we report a quantitative analysis of microbial genome evolution by fitting the parameters of a simple, steady-state evolutionary model to the comparative genomic data on the gene content and gene order similarity between archaeal genomes. The results reveal two sharply distinct classes of microbial genes, one of which is characterized by effectively instantaneous gene replacement, and the other consists of genes with finite, distributed replacement rates. These findings imply a conservative estimate of the size of the prokaryotic genomic universe, which appears to consist of at least a billion distinct genes. Furthermore, the same distribution of constraints is shown to govern the evolution of gene complement and gene order, without the need to invoke long-range conservation or the selfish operon concept 7 .

  17. LISTENING CLASS AND MORAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Prancisca

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Since some students including in my class become more self-oriented and less aware on group, there is a need to integrate online teaching material which contains values in society into English language course. We believe that English language teaching, in some extents, could facilitate this necessity. A good choice of material, for example, is not only beneficial to promote students’ language skill, but also could inspire students to become a better individual. This paper aims to examine whether online materials could promote students’ English language skill, especially in listening comprehension. In addition, it is keen to better understand how these resources could influence and develop their moral values. The paper is designed as a classroom action research. To collect data, we employ two tests (pre-and post-test, questionnaires, and interview. Since this paper is still a research design, it should be noted that there is no finding and discussion yet here.

  18. Teacher's Questions in Reading Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuliati Rohmah

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The present paper discusses an English teacher's questions in Reading classes at MAN Malang III. Types of questions, functions of teacher's questions, question levels and the strategies applied by the teacher were put as the research problems. Non-participant observa­tion was applied to collect the data with the researcher as the main in­strument aided by field-notes and a tape recorder. It was found that the distribution of the questions did not allow the students to talk longer and to think more analytically. Meanwhile, the strategies applied by the teacher helped the students to respond to the questions previously unanswered. The teacher is suggested to produce more open and refer­ential question as well as inference and evaluation questions as to give more chances for the students to think aloud more.

  19. First-Class Object Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Typically, an object is a monolithic entity with a fixed interface.  To increase flexibility in this area, this paper presents first-class object sets as a language construct.  An object set offers an interface which is a disjoint union of the interfaces of its member objects.  It may also be use...... to a mainstream virtual machine in order to improve on the support for family polymorphism.  The approach is made precise by means of a small calculus, and the soundness of its type system has been shown by a mechanically checked proof in Coq....

  20. Debate on class issue in contemporary sociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonić Slobodan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary debate on class issue within the sociology in English speaking countries focuses on two questions. The first question is whether the crisis of the Marxist class analysis, which arose as a consequence of weakening of class identity and class behavior, is at the same time a sign of crisis of sociological class conception. There are American, British and Australian sociologists whose answer to this question is affirmative. However, others have been claiming that the Marxist class analysis could be replaced by the Weberian concept of stratification. The second question in this debate is on the exploratory importance of class for sociological analysis. Some sociologists have been claiming that its explanatory capacity is exhausted. However, there are others who argue that classes remain one of the most important tools a modern sociologist has. Finally, this paper points to the third way of saving the class analysis. It is about focusing on collective identity and collective action of the members of "developed" professions, as a kind of "small" classes or "proto-classes".

  1. Context-sensitive intra-class clustering

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Yingwei

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes a new semi-supervised learning algorithm for intra-class clustering (ICC). ICC partitions each class into sub-classes in order to minimize overlap across clusters from different classes. This is achieved by allowing partitioning of a certain class to be assisted by data points from other classes in a context-dependent fashion. The result is that overlap across sub-classes (both within- and across class) is greatly reduced. ICC is particularly useful when combined with algorithms that assume that each class has a unimodal Gaussian distribution (e.g., Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), quadratic classifiers), an assumption that is not always true in many real-world situations. ICC can help partition non-Gaussian, multimodal distributions to overcome such a problem. In this sense, ICC works as a preprocessor. Experiments with our ICC algorithm on synthetic data sets and real-world data sets indicated that it can significantly improve the performance of LDA and quadratic classifiers. We expect our approach to be applicable to a broader class of pattern recognition problems where class-conditional densities are significantly non-Gaussian or multi-modal. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Social class, contextualism, and empathic accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michael W; Côté, Stéphane; Keltner, Dacher

    2010-11-01

    Recent research suggests that lower-class individuals favor explanations of personal and political outcomes that are oriented to features of the external environment. We extended this work by testing the hypothesis that, as a result, individuals of a lower social class are more empathically accurate in judging the emotions of other people. In three studies, lower-class individuals (compared with upper-class individuals) received higher scores on a test of empathic accuracy (Study 1), judged the emotions of an interaction partner more accurately (Study 2), and made more accurate inferences about emotion from static images of muscle movements in the eyes (Study 3). Moreover, the association between social class and empathic accuracy was explained by the tendency for lower-class individuals to explain social events in terms of features of the external environment. The implications of class-based patterns in empathic accuracy for well-being and relationship outcomes are discussed.

  3. Describing three-class task performance: three-class linear discriminant analysis and three-class ROC analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xin; Frey, Eric C.

    2007-03-01

    Binary ROC analysis has solid decision-theoretic foundations and a close relationship to linear discriminant analysis (LDA). In particular, for the case of Gaussian equal covariance input data, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) value has a direct relationship to the Hotelling trace. Many attempts have been made to extend binary classification methods to multi-class. For example, Fukunaga extended binary LDA to obtain multi-class LDA, which uses the multi-class Hotelling trace as a figure-of-merit, and we have previously developed a three-class ROC analysis method. This work explores the relationship between conventional multi-class LDA and three-class ROC analysis. First, we developed a linear observer, the three-class Hotelling observer (3-HO). For Gaussian equal covariance data, the 3- HO provides equivalent performance to the three-class ideal observer and, under less strict conditions, maximizes the signal to noise ratio for classification of all pairs of the three classes simultaneously. The 3-HO templates are not the eigenvectors obtained from multi-class LDA. Second, we show that the three-class Hotelling trace, which is the figureof- merit in the conventional three-class extension of LDA, has significant limitations. Third, we demonstrate that, under certain conditions, there is a linear relationship between the eigenvectors obtained from multi-class LDA and 3-HO templates. We conclude that the 3-HO based on decision theory has advantages both in its decision theoretic background and in the usefulness of its figure-of-merit. Additionally, there exists the possibility of interpreting the two linear features extracted by the conventional extension of LDA from a decision theoretic point of view.

  4. We are all ordinary people : Perceptions of class and class differences in personal relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Eijk, G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines people’s perceptions of class and class differences—in general and with regard to personal relationships. Data from an original survey on personal networks (n=195) shows that most people think they are middle class, although many lower class respondents classify themselves as

  5. A New Class of Quorum Quenching Molecules from Staphylococcus Species Affects Communication and Growth of Gram-Negative Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Ya-Yun; Nega, Mulugeta; Wölfle, Martina; Plener, Laure; Grond, Stephanie; Jung, Kirsten; Götz, Friedrich

    2013-01-01

    The knowledge that many pathogens rely on cell-to-cell communication mechanisms known as quorum sensing, opens a new disease control strategy: quorum quenching. Here we report on one of the rare examples where Gram-positive bacteria, the ‘Staphylococcus intermedius group’ of zoonotic pathogens, excrete two compounds in millimolar concentrations that suppress the quorum sensing signaling and inhibit the growth of a broad spectrum of Gram-negative beta- and gamma-proteobacteria. These compounds were isolated from Staphylococcus delphini. They represent a new class of quorum quenchers with the chemical formula N-[2-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]-urea and N-(2-phenethyl)-urea, which we named yayurea A and B, respectively. In vitro studies with the N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) responding receptor LuxN of V. harveyi indicated that both compounds caused opposite effects on phosphorylation to those caused by AHL. This explains the quorum quenching activity. Staphylococcal strains producing yayurea A and B clearly benefit from an increased competitiveness in a mixed community. PMID:24098134

  6. MULTI-STRUCTURAL CLASS: WHAT AND HOW IT IS PERCEIVED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Mina Tamah

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The perception of “students’ learning which equals students’ being given knowledge” has brought about the theatrical mode of classroom instruction which is typically characterized by whole-class presentational techniques in which teachers perform most of the talking in order to transferthe knowledge to the students. Since this mode was ‘attacked’ quite relentlessly,teachers have been continually challenged to make a professionalchange. The professional demand is fortunately facilitated by the existence of innovations in teaching approaches, one of which is cooperative learning. Argued implicitly and/or explicitly in some references (e.g. Kagan et al., 1985; Kaye & Rogers, 1968; Sharan, 1994; Slavin, 1994; Tinzmann et al.,1990 is that it is not a good idea to rely on the exclusive use of cooperative classroom. This article is then intended to provide a model of multistructural class design. It is in fact the exemplification of what the writer has implemented in her reading class of university students. Simply stated, the class which is designed to be multistructural will be depicted and the students’ perception will, too.

  7. Class-E Amplifier Design Improvements for GSM Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Nadir

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Efficient power amplifiers are essential in portable battery-operated systems such as mobile phones. Also, the power amplifier (PA is the most power-consuming building block in the transmitter of a portable system. This paper investigates how the efficiency of the power amplifier (which is beneficial for multiple applications in communcation sector can be improved by increasing the efficiency of switching mode class E power amplifiers for frequencies of 900 MHz and 1800 MHz. The paper tackles modeling, design improvements and verification through simulation for higher efficiencies. This is the continuation of previous work by the authors. These nonlinear power amplifiers can only amplify constant-envelope RF signals without introducing significant distortion. Mobile systems such as Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS and Global System for Mobile communications (GSM use modulation schemes which generate constant amplitude RF outputs in order to use efficient but nonlinear power amplifiers. Improvements in designs are suggested and higher efficiencies are achieved, to the tune of 67.1% (for 900 MHz and 67.0% (1800 MHz.

  8. Class 2 piping rules in elevated temperature applications compared with Class 1 prescriptions for LMFBRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capello, R.; Stretti, G.; Cesari, F.G.

    1989-01-01

    An LMFBR plant has many piping systems subjected to elevated temperature (> 427 o C) which, depending on their function and safety criteria, are classified as of quality level 1 or 2. The design of class 1 and class 2 piping for elevated temperatures is performed in accordance with ASME CCN-47 and CCN-253 respectively. This paper discusses what level of knowledge and analysis is necessary, to apply the rules of class 2 (CCN-253) rather than those of class 1 (CCN-47) for the design analysis of piping systems. From the designer viewpoint the burden of verification is much greater in class 1 than in class 2. This paper also examines the reliability of class 2 rules for elevated temperature when used to obtain structural results and justify the design of class 1 systems. In fact it can be shown that in some cases it is possible to design class 1 piping systems using class 2 rules. (author)

  9. 47 CFR 73.6017 - Digital Class A TV station protection of Class A TV and digital Class A TV stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital Class A TV station protection of Class A TV and digital Class A TV stations. 73.6017 Section 73.6017 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Broadcast Stations § 73.6017 Digital Class A TV station protection of Class A TV and digital Class A TV...

  10. Social class rank, essentialism, and punitive judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michael W; Keltner, Dacher

    2013-08-01

    Recent evidence suggests that perceptions of social class rank influence a variety of social cognitive tendencies, from patterns of causal attribution to moral judgment. In the present studies we tested the hypotheses that upper-class rank individuals would be more likely to endorse essentialist lay theories of social class categories (i.e., that social class is founded in genetically based, biological differences) than would lower-class rank individuals and that these beliefs would decrease support for restorative justice--which seeks to rehabilitate offenders, rather than punish unlawful action. Across studies, higher social class rank was associated with increased essentialism of social class categories (Studies 1, 2, and 4) and decreased support for restorative justice (Study 4). Moreover, manipulated essentialist beliefs decreased preferences for restorative justice (Study 3), and the association between social class rank and class-based essentialist theories was explained by the tendency to endorse beliefs in a just world (Study 2). Implications for how class-based essentialist beliefs potentially constrain social opportunity and mobility are discussed.

  11. What are lay theories of social class?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnum, Michael E W

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have documented the effects of social class on psychological and behavioral variables. However, lay beliefs about how social class affects these dimensions have not been systematically tested. Studies 1 and 2 assessed lay beliefs about the association between social class and 8 variables (including psychological and behavioral tendencies and cognitive ability). Study 3 assessed lay beliefs about the Big five personality traits and social class, and study 4 reframed the 8 variables from study 1 in opposite terms and yielded similar results. Study 5 contained the variables framed as in both studies 1 and 4, and replicated those results suggesting that framing effects were not responsible for the effects observed. Interestingly, for the most part lay beliefs about social class did not differ as a function of participants' own social class. In general people held relatively accurate and consistent stereotypes about the relationship between social class and well-being, health, intelligence, and neuroticism. In contrast lay beliefs regarding social class and reasoning styles, as well as relational, social, and emotional tendencies were less consistent and coherent. This work suggests that on the whole people's beliefs about social class are not particularly accurate, and further that in some domains there are contradictory stereotypes about the consequences of social class.

  12. Streptococcus sanguinis Class Ib Ribonucleotide Reductase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhlynets, Olga; Boal, Amie K.; Rhodes, DeLacy V.; Kitten, Todd; Rosenzweig, Amy C.; Stubbe, JoAnne

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus sanguinis is a causative agent of infective endocarditis. Deletion of SsaB, a manganese transporter, drastically reduces S. sanguinis virulence. Many pathogenic organisms require class Ib ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) to catalyze the conversion of nucleotides to deoxynucleotides under aerobic conditions, and recent studies demonstrate that this enzyme uses a dimanganese-tyrosyl radical (MnIII2-Y•) cofactor in vivo. The proteins required for S. sanguinis ribonucleotide reduction (NrdE and NrdF, α and β subunits of RNR; NrdH and TrxR, a glutaredoxin-like thioredoxin and a thioredoxin reductase; and NrdI, a flavodoxin essential for assembly of the RNR metallo-cofactor) have been identified and characterized. Apo-NrdF with FeII and O2 can self-assemble a diferric-tyrosyl radical (FeIII2-Y•) cofactor (1.2 Y•/β2) and with the help of NrdI can assemble a MnIII2-Y• cofactor (0.9 Y•/β2). The activity of RNR with its endogenous reductants, NrdH and TrxR, is 5,000 and 1,500 units/mg for the Mn- and Fe-NrdFs (Fe-loaded NrdF), respectively. X-ray structures of S. sanguinis NrdIox and MnII2-NrdF are reported and provide a possible rationale for the weak affinity (2.9 μm) between them. These streptococcal proteins form a structurally distinct subclass relative to other Ib proteins with unique features likely important in cluster assembly, including a long and negatively charged loop near the NrdI flavin and a bulky residue (Thr) at a constriction in the oxidant channel to the NrdI interface. These studies set the stage for identifying the active form of S. sanguinis class Ib RNR in an animal model for infective endocarditis and establishing whether the manganese requirement for pathogenesis is associated with RNR. PMID:24381172

  13. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS): 38 GHz Detector Array of Bolometric Polarimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, John W.; Ali, Aamir; Amiri, Mandana; Araujo, Derek; Bennett, Charles L.; Boone, Fletcher; Chan, Manwei; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Chuss, David T.; Colazo, Felipe; hide

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) experiment aims to map the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) at angular scales larger than a few degrees. Operating from Cerro Toco in the Atacama Desert of Chile, it will observe over 65% of the sky at 38, 93, 148, and 217 GHz. In this paper we discuss the design, construction, and characterization of the CLASS 38 GHz detector focal plane, the first ever Q-band bolometric polarimeter array.

  14. The cosmology large angular scale surveyor (CLASS): 38-GHz detector array of bolometric polarimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, John W.; Ali, Aamir; Amiri, Mandana; Araujo, Derek; Bennet, Charles L.; Boone, Fletcher; Chan, Manwei; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Chuss, David T.; Colazo, Felipe; Crowe, Erik; Denis, Kevin; Dünner, Rolando; Eimer, Joseph; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Gothe, Dominik; Halpern, Mark; Harrington, Kathleen; Hilton, Gene; Hinshaw, Gary F.; Huang, Caroline; Irwin, Kent; Jones, Glenn; Karakula, John; Kogut, Alan J.; Larson, David; Limon, Michele; Lowry, Lindsay; Marriage, Tobias; Mehrle, Nicholas; Miller, Amber D.; Miller, Nathan; Moseley, Samuel H.; Novak, Giles; Reintsema, Carl; Rostem, Karwan; Stevenson, Thomas; Towner, Deborah; U-Yen, Kongpop; Wagner, Emily; Watts, Duncan; Wollack, Edward; Xu, Zhilei; Zeng, Lingzhen

    2014-07-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) experiment aims to map the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) at angular scales larger than a few degrees. Operating from Cerro Toco in the Atacama Desert of Chile, it will observe over 65% of the sky at 38, 93, 148, and 217 GHz. In this paper we discuss the design, construction, and characterization of the CLASS 38 GHz detector focal plane, the first ever Q-band bolometric polarimeter array.

  15. Notes to make more effective motivation math class in the first cycle of primary education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Camejo Puentes

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article didactic variants are presented to carry out the first phase of the motivation of Mathematics class, either content or fixation class, especially for the first cycle of primary education. The inner mathematic motivation and the practical or outer motivation are characterized and exemplified, and it is offered other variants that without being classified in one of those types, they can be effective keeping in mind the particularities of the psychic development of younger Primary School students.

  16. Class B0631+519: Last of the Class Lenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    York, Tom; Jackson, N.; Browne, I.W.A.; Koopmans, L.V.E.; McKean, J.P.; Norbury, M.A.; Biggs, A.D.; Blandford, R.D.; de Bruyn, A.G.; Fassnacht, C.D.; Myers, S.T.; Pearson, T.J.; Phillips, P.M.; Readhead, A.C.S.; Rusin, D.; Wilkinson, P.N.; /Jodrell Bank /Kapteyn Astron. Inst., Groningen /UC, Davis /JIVE, Dwingeloo /KIPAC, Menlo Park /NFRA,

    2005-05-31

    We report the discovery of the new gravitational lens system CLASS B0631+519. Imaging with the VLA, MERLIN and the VLBA reveals a doubly-imaged flat-spectrum radio core, a doubly-imaged steep-spectrum radio lobe and possible quadruply-imaged emission from a second lobe. The maximum separation between the lensed images is 1.16 arcsec. High resolution mapping with the VLBA at 5 GHz resolves the most magnified image of the radio core into a number of sub-components spread across approximately 20 mas. No emission from the lensing galaxy or an odd image is detected down to 0.31 mJy (5{sigma}) at 8.4 GHz. Optical and near-infrared imaging with the ACS and NICMOS cameras on the HST show that there are two galaxies along the line of sight to the lensed source, as previously discovered by optical spectroscopy. We find that the foreground galaxy at z=0.0896 is a small irregular, and that the other, at z=0.6196 is a massive elliptical which appears to contribute the majority of the lensing effect. The host galaxy of the lensed source is detected in the HST near-infrared imaging as a set of arcs, which form a nearly complete Einstein ring. Mass modeling using non-parametric techniques can reproduce the near-infrared observations and indicates that the small irregular galaxy has a (localized) effect on the flux density distribution in the Einstein ring at the 5-10% level.

  17. Bayesian Latent Class Analysis Tutorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuelin; Lord-Bessen, Jennifer; Shiyko, Mariya; Loeb, Rebecca

    2018-01-01

    This article is a how-to guide on Bayesian computation using Gibbs sampling, demonstrated in the context of Latent Class Analysis (LCA). It is written for students in quantitative psychology or related fields who have a working knowledge of Bayes Theorem and conditional probability and have experience in writing computer programs in the statistical language R . The overall goals are to provide an accessible and self-contained tutorial, along with a practical computation tool. We begin with how Bayesian computation is typically described in academic articles. Technical difficulties are addressed by a hypothetical, worked-out example. We show how Bayesian computation can be broken down into a series of simpler calculations, which can then be assembled together to complete a computationally more complex model. The details are described much more explicitly than what is typically available in elementary introductions to Bayesian modeling so that readers are not overwhelmed by the mathematics. Moreover, the provided computer program shows how Bayesian LCA can be implemented with relative ease. The computer program is then applied in a large, real-world data set and explained line-by-line. We outline the general steps in how to extend these considerations to other methodological applications. We conclude with suggestions for further readings.

  18. Integrals of the Ising class

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, D H; Borwein, J M; Crandall, R E

    2006-01-01

    From an experimental-mathematical perspective we analyse 'Ising-class' integrals. These are structurally related n-dimensional integrals we call C n , D n , E n , where D n is a magnetic susceptibility integral central to the Ising theory of solid-state physics. We first analyse C n := 4/(n factorial) ∫ 0 ∞ ... ∫ 0 ∞ 1/(Σ j=1 n (u j + 1/u j )) 2 du 1 /u 1 ... du n /u n . We had conjectured-on the basis of extreme-precision numerical quadrature-that C n has a finite large-n limit, namely C ∞ = 2 e -2γ , with γ being the Euler constant. On such a numerological clue we are able to prove the conjecture. We then show that integrals D n and E n both decay exponentially with n, in a certain rigorous sense. While C n , D n remain unresolved for n ≥ 5, we were able to conjecture a closed form for E 5 . Our experimental results involved extreme-precision, multidimensional quadrature on intricate integrands; thus, a highly parallel computation was required

  19. Speech-based Class Attendance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizel Amri, Umar; Nur Wahidah Nik Hashim, Nik; Hazrin Hany Mohamad Hanif, Noor

    2017-11-01

    In the department of engineering, students are required to fulfil at least 80 percent of class attendance. Conventional method requires student to sign his/her initial on the attendance sheet. However, this method is prone to cheating by having another student signing for their fellow classmate that is absent. We develop our hypothesis according to a verse in the Holy Qur’an (95:4), “We have created men in the best of mould”. Based on the verse, we believe each psychological characteristic of human being is unique and thus, their speech characteristic should be unique. In this paper we present the development of speech biometric-based attendance system. The system requires user’s voice to be installed in the system as trained data and it is saved in the system for registration of the user. The following voice of the user will be the test data in order to verify with the trained data stored in the system. The system uses PSD (Power Spectral Density) and Transition Parameter as the method for feature extraction of the voices. Euclidean and Mahalanobis distances are used in order to verified the user’s voice. For this research, ten subjects of five females and five males were chosen to be tested for the performance of the system. The system performance in term of recognition rate is found to be 60% correct identification of individuals.

  20. Classes evaluation: Methods and tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grabiński Tadeusz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a method, tools, course and results of foreign language classes evaluation conducted in the summer semester 2012/2013 in the Andrzej Frycz - Modrzewski Krakow University. Because a new evaluation procedure has been implemented at the University, the former method - based on paper forms filled in by the students - was abandoned. On the surveyanyplace.com website, a free account has been registered and the form of the evaluation questionnaire has been inserted. This coverage presents results of a taxometric analysis aimed at checking the degree of mutual correspondence (correlation between certain criteria and instancing a graphic presentation of the evaluation results in a multidimensional perspective. In order to classify the grading criteria, the Ward's agglomerative method, along with Euclidean metric as a measure of criteria similarity, have been used. Calculations have been made with the use of Statistica package. Results of the questionnaire show that foreign language teaching at the Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski Krakow University is conducted professionally and on a high factual level.

  1. A new Class of Extremal Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigmund, Ole

    2000-01-01

    microstructure belonging to the new class of composites has maximum bulk modulus and lower shear modulus than any previously known composite. Inspiration for the new composite class comes from a numerical topology design procedure which solves the inverse homogenization problem of distributing two isotropic......The paper presents a new class of two-phase isotropic composites with extremal bulk modulus. The new class consists of micro geometrics for which exact solutions can be proven and their bulk moduli are shown to coincide with the Hashin-Shtrikman bounds. The results hold for two and three dimensions...... and for both well- and non-well-ordered isotropic constituent phases. The new class of composites constitutes an alternative to the three previously known extremal composite classes: finite rank laminates, composite sphere assemblages and Vigdergauz microstructures. An isotropic honeycomb-like hexagonal...

  2. Stability of latent class segments over time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, Simone

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic stability, as the degree to which identified segments at a given time remain unchanged over time in terms of number, size and profile, is a desirable segment property which has received limited attention so far. This study addresses the question to what degree latent classes identified from...... logit model suggests significant changes in the price sensitivity and the utility from environmental claims between both experimental waves. A pooled scale adjusted latent class model is estimated jointly over both waves and the relative size of latent classes is compared across waves, resulting...... in significant differences in the size of two out of seven classes. These differences can largely be accounted for by the changes on the aggregated level. The relative size of latent classes is correlated at 0.52, suggesting a fair robustness. An ex-post characterisation of latent classes by behavioural...

  3. The Microbiota and Abundance of the Class 1 Integron-Integrase Gene in Tropical Sewage Treatment Plant Influent and Activated Sludge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magna C Paiva

    Full Text Available Bacteria are assumed to efficiently remove organic pollutants from sewage in sewage treatment plants, where antibiotic-resistance genes can move between species via mobile genetic elements known as integrons. Nevertheless, few studies have addressed bacterial diversity and class 1 integron abundance in tropical sewage. Here, we describe the extant microbiota, using V6 tag sequencing, and quantify the class 1 integron-integrase gene (intI1 in raw sewage (RS and activated sludge (AS. The analysis of 1,174,486 quality-filtered reads obtained from RS and AS samples revealed complex and distinct bacterial diversity in these samples. The RS sample, with 3,074 operational taxonomic units, exhibited the highest alpha-diversity indices. Among the 25 phyla, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes represented 85% (AS and 92% (RS of all reads. Increased relative abundance of Micrococcales, Myxococcales, and Sphingobacteriales and reduced pathogen abundance were noted in AS. At the genus level, differences were observed for the dominant genera Simplicispira and Diaphorobacter (AS as well as for Enhydrobacter (RS. The activated sludge process decreased (55% the amount of bacteria harboring the intI1 gene in the RS sample. Altogether, our results emphasize the importance of biological treatment for diminishing pathogenic bacteria and those bearing the intI1 gene that arrive at a sewage treatment plant.

  4. Priority classes and weighted constrained equal awards rules for the claims problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szwagrzak, Karol

    2015-01-01

    . They are priority-augmented versions of the standard weighted constrained equal awards rules, also known as weighted gains methods (Moulin, 2000): individuals are sorted into priority classes; the resource is distributed among the individuals in the first priority class using a weighted constrained equal awards...... rule; if some of the resource is left over, then it is distributed among the individuals in the second priority class, again using a weighted constrained equal awards rule; the distribution carries on in this way until the resource is exhausted. Our characterization extends to a generalized version...

  5. Type classes for mathematics in type theory

    OpenAIRE

    Spitters, Bas; Van der Weegen, Eelis

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of first-class type classes in the Coq system calls for re-examination of the basic interfaces used for mathematical formalization in type theory. We present a new set of type classes for mathematics and take full advantage of their unique features to make practical a particularly flexible approach formerly thought infeasible. Thus, we address both traditional proof engineering challenges as well as new ones resulting from our ambition to build upon this development a library...

  6. Exploring social class differences at work

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    This paper is part of a wider project that investigates how organisational and individual factors within the workplace contribute to social class differences and inequality by examining the relative impact of objective and subjective indicators of social class on explicit (e.g. salary, promotions) and implicit (e.g. career satisfaction, quality of working life, stress and well-being) career and work outcomes. \\ud There is increasing recognition that social class differences play a crucial rol...

  7. Middle Class Youth: Myth or Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U V Goliusova

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Many researches both in Russia and abroad are concerned with the question of whether middle class exists in Russia and, if so, what its distinctive features are. The problem of particular interest is the sources of recruiting to that social group. One of its source clusters is youth. The article considers main traits of middle class youth, their self-identification and their perception of Russian middle class.

  8. MHC class II expression through a hitherto unknown pathway supports T helper cell-dependent immune responses: implications for MHC class II deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buch, Thorsten; Polic, Bojan; Clausen, Björn E.; Weiss, Susanne; Akilli-Ozturk, Ozlem; Chang, Cheong-Hee; Flavell, Richard; Schulz, Ansgar; Jonjic, Stipan; Waisman, Ari; Förster, Irmgard

    2006-01-01

    MHC class II (MHCII) deficiency or bare lymphocyte syndrome (BLS) is a severe immunodeficiency characterized by deficient T helper (Th)-cell-dependent immunity. The disease is caused by defects of the MHCII promoter complex resulting in low or absent MHCII expression. We demonstrate in a murine

  9. Analysis of smoke trailers at individual classes of atmosphere stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carach, V.; Macala, J.

    2007-01-01

    At the present most endangered element of the environment is currently atmosphere and its pollution that rapidly accrue. Pollutants are emitted from air pollution sources. The output of pollutant from air pollution source is creating so-called smoke screen. Smoke screens can be observed from point sources of air pollution - smokestacks, up-cast. The purpose of this article was to build theoretical models of smoke screens rise from point source at different meteorological conditions characterized with fifth classes of atmosphere stability. (authors)

  10. New class of turbulence in active fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratanov, Vasil; Frey, Erwin

    2015-01-01

    Turbulence is a fundamental and ubiquitous phenomenon in nature, occurring from astrophysical to biophysical scales. At the same time, it is widely recognized as one of the key unsolved problems in modern physics, representing a paradigmatic example of nonlinear dynamics far from thermodynamic equilibrium. Whereas in the past, most theoretical work in this area has been devoted to Navier–Stokes flows, there is now a growing awareness of the need to extend the research focus to systems with more general patterns of energy injection and dissipation. These include various types of complex fluids and plasmas, as well as active systems consisting of self-propelled particles, like dense bacterial suspensions. Recently, a continuum model has been proposed for such “living fluids” that is based on the Navier–Stokes equations, but extends them to include some of the most general terms admitted by the symmetry of the problem [Wensink HH, et al. (2012) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109:14308–14313]. This introduces a cubic nonlinearity, related to the Toner–Tu theory of flocking, which can interact with the quadratic Navier–Stokes nonlinearity. We show that as a result of the subtle interaction between these two terms, the energy spectra at large spatial scales exhibit power laws that are not universal, but depend on both finite-size effects and physical parameters. Our combined numerical and analytical analysis reveals the origin of this effect and even provides a way to understand it quantitatively. Turbulence in active fluids, characterized by this kind of nonlinear self-organization, defines a new class of turbulent flows. PMID:26598708

  11. MHC class II expression in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yayi; Rozeboom, Leslie; Rivard, Christopher J; Ellison, Kim; Dziadziuszko, Rafal; Yu, Hui; Zhou, Caicun; Hirsch, Fred R

    2017-10-01

    Immunotherapy is an exciting development in lung cancer research. In this study we described major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class II protein expression in lung cancer cell lines and patient tissues. We studied MHC Class II (DP, DQ, DR) (CR3/43, Abcam) protein expression in 55 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines, 42 small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines and 278 lung cancer patient tissues by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Seven (12.7%) NSCLC cell lines were positive for MHC Class II. No SCLC cell lines were found to be MHC Class II positive. We assessed 139 lung cancer samples available in the Hirsch Lab for MHC Class II. There was no positive MHC Class II staining on SCLC tumor cells. MHC Class II expression on TILs in SCLC was significantly lower than that on TILs in NSCLC (P<0.001). MHC Class II was also assessed in an additional 139 NSCLC tumor tissues from Medical University of Gdansk, Poland. Patients with positive staining of MHC Class II on TILs had longer regression-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) than those whose TILs were MHC Class II negative (2.980 years, 95% CI 1.628-4.332 vs. 1.050 years, 95% CI 0.556-1.554, P=0.028) (3.230 years, 95% CI 2.617-3.843 vs. 1.390 years, 95% CI 0.629-2.151, P=0.014). MHC Class II was expressed both in NSCLC cell lines and tissues. However, MHC Class II was not detected in SCLC cell lines or tissue tumor cells. MHC Class II expression was lower on SCLC TILs than on NSCLC TILs. Loss of expression of MHC Class II on SCLC tumor cells and reduced expression on SCLC TILs may be a means of escaping anti-cancer immunity. Higher MHC Class II expression on TILs was correlated with better prognosis in patients with NSCLC. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Operationalizing Max Weber's probability concept of class situation: the concept of social class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ken

    2007-03-01

    In this essay I take seriously Max Weber's astonishingly neglected claim that class situation may be defined, not in categorial terms, but probabilistically. I then apply this idea to another equally neglected claim made by Weber that the boundaries of social classes may be determined by the degree of social mobility within such classes. Taking these two ideas together I develop the idea of a non-categorial boundary 'surface' between classes and of a social class 'corridor' made up of all those people who are still to be found within the boundaries of the social class into which they were born. I call social mobility within a social class 'intra-class social mobility' and social mobility between classes 'inter-class social mobility'. I also claim that this distinction resolves the dispute between those sociologists who claim that late industrial societies are still highly class bound and those who think that this is no longer the case. Both schools are right I think, but one is referring to a high degree of intra-class social mobility and the other to an equally high degree of inter-class mobility. Finally I claim that this essay provides sociology with only one example among many other possible applications of how probability theory might usefully be used to overcome boundary problems generally in sociology.

  13. Class categories and the subjective dimension of class: the case of Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrits, Gitte Sommer; Pedersen, Helene Helboe

    2018-03-01

    Class relations have been proven to affect various aspects of social life, even in modern individualized societies. However, following claims on individualization and the so-called 'death of class' thesis, studying the subjective dimension of class - that is, the way individuals perceive of class relations and their own position within them - has gone out of style. We argue that even in equalized societies, subjective class perceptions may still influence attitudes and behaviour as they evolve to fit modern class relations. To explore the existence as well as structure and content of perceived social classes, this article investigates how people describe society and social groups in focus group discussions. We find that groups in different positions in terms of education and economy all tend to apply hierarchical class categories to describe Danish society, which is normally seen as one of the most equal societies and political systems in the world. In addition, we find that economic resources serve as a baseline for the hierarchical ordering, often supplemented with notions of education, lifestyle and/or occupational profile. Even though people are somewhat uncomfortable with the notion of class, their descriptions of Danish society and classes are surprisingly similar within and across groups. We conclude that not only do class relations matter; people are also highly aware of the existing classes and able to position themselves and others according to their notion of classes. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  14. Structural (Performance) class Potential for North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric Jones; David E. Kretschmann; Kevin Cheung

    2014-01-01

    Structural class systems are species-independent product classification systems for structural timber. They are used throughout the world to reduce the number of species and grade choices that face the designer of wood construction projects. Structural class systems offer an opportunity to simplify timber specification in North America and to encourage more effective...

  15. Stress in Professional Classes: Causes, Manifestations, Coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, Fred F.

    1992-01-01

    Investigates whether students in professional journalism and mass communication classes experience class-related stress, what factors contribute to the stress, and whether that stress changes over time. Finds that students perceive stress in their professional course work, and reveals general stress patterns over the 15-week semester. (SR)

  16. Using Mobile Phone Technology in EFL Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sad, Süleyman Nihat

    2008-01-01

    Teachers of English as a foreign language (EFL) who want to develop successful lessons face numerous challenges, including large class sizes and inadequate instructional materials and technological support. Another problem is unmotivated students who refuse to participate in class activities. According to Harmer (2007), uncooperative and…

  17. New universality class in three dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Codello, A.; Safari, M.; Vacca, G. P.

    2017-01-01

    We study the Blume-Capel universality class in d=103-ϵ dimensions. The renormalization group flow is extracted by looking at poles in fractional dimension of three loop diagrams using MS. The theory is the only nontrivial universality class which admits an expansion to three dimensions with ϵ=13<...

  18. 29 CFR 1614.204 - Class complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... practice adversely affecting the class as well as the specific action or matter affecting the class agent.../Petition. (e) Notification. (1) Within 15 days of receiving notice that the administrative judge has... parties shall furnish to the administrative judge copies of all materials that they wish to be examined...

  19. The YouTube Makeup Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, David G.

    2009-01-01

    When a college instructor goes out of town and must miss a lecture, the standard options are to cancel the class meeting or to enlist a colleague to fill in. In the former case a teaching opportunity is lost; in the latter the substitute may not lead the class in the same way as the instructor. Some students routinely skip lectures by a guest…

  20. 76 FR 68058 - Classes of Poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... for some poultry classes, while extensive cross breeding has produced poultry with higher meat yields... Committee on Meat and Poultry Inspection (NACMPI) for consultation to ensure that there is no inconsistency... classifications, proposed changes to the game hen classes, and other proposed editorial changes. Response: FSIS...

  1. Intercultural and Media Education on Art Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Maria José; Chaves, Anabela; Costa, Manuela; Pereira, Emília Sá

    2009-01-01

    Visual art, music and literature, are part of the culture. Thus Art shows the interactions between different cultures. The aim of the article is to present some activities to include intercultural issues in Art and Mother Language classes. Art classes also give the opportunity to do Media Education.

  2. Higher Education and Class: Production or Reproduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiris, Panagiotis

    2013-01-01

    This article deals with questions relating to the role of education and especially Higher Education in the reproduction of class division in society. Social classes and how they are formed and reproduced has always been one of the greatest challenges for Marxism and social theory in general. The questions regarding the role of education, and…

  3. Software Training Classes Now Open | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer                                            Data Management Services, Inc. (DMS), has announced the opening of its spring session of software training classes, available to all employees at NCI at Frederick. Classes begin on March 31 and run through June 30.

  4. Teaching Multilevel Adult ESL Classes. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shank, Cathy C.; Terrill, Lynda R.

    Teachers in multilevel adult English-as-a-Second-Language classes are challenged to use a variety of materials, activities, and techniques to engage the interest of the learners and assist them in their educational goals. This digest recommends ways to choose and organize content for multilevel classes, explains grouping strategies, discusses a…

  5. Gender, Class and Rurality: Australian Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Lia; Pini, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The interrelationship between gender and class in rural spaces has received little attention. While rural scholars have focused on the implications for class from processes of gentrification and agricultural and rural restructuring, these analyses have remained largely ungendered. Similarly, feminist rural studies have rarely explored subjectivity…

  6. Social Class and Education: Global Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Lois, Ed.; Dolby, Nadine, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Social Class and Education: Global Perspectives" is the first empirically grounded volume to explore the intersections of class, social structure, opportunity, and education on a truly global scale. Fifteen essays from contributors representing the US, Europe, China, Latin America and other regions offer an unparralleled examination of…

  7. Social class, dementia and the fourth age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ian Rees

    2017-02-01

    Research addressing social class and dementia has largely focused on measures of socioeconomic status as causal risk factors for dementia and in observed differences in diagnosis, treatment and care. This large body of work has produced important insights but also contains numerous problems and weaknesses. Research needs to take account of the ways in which ageing and social class have been transformed in tandem with the economic, social and cultural coordinates of late modernity. These changes have particular consequences for individual identities and social relations. With this in mind this article adopts a critical gaze on research that considers interactions between dementia and social class in three key areas: (i) epidemiological approaches to inequalities in risk (ii) the role of social class in diagnosis and treatment and (iii) class in the framing of care and access to care. Following this, the article considers studies of dementia and social class that focus on lay understandings and biographical accounts. Sociological insights in this field come from the view that dementia and social class are embedded in social relations. Thus, forms of distinction based on class relations may still play an important role in the lived experience of dementia. © 2017 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  8. Social Class on Campus: Theories and Manifestations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, Will

    2011-01-01

    This is at once a playful text with a serious purpose: to provide the reader with the theoretical lenses to analyze the dynamics of social class. It will appeal to students, and indeed anyone interested in how class mediates relationships in higher education, both because of its engaging tone, and because it uses the college campus as a microcosm…

  9. The Power of In-Class Debates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ruth R.

    2009-01-01

    The students in three sections of a class rated their knowledge and identified their view before and after each of five in-class debates. The degree of self-reported knowledge was significantly different after four of the five debates. Between 31% and 58% of participants changed their views after participating in or observing each debate. Some…

  10. Meat Cutting Classes--Popular with Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostad, James; Carpentier, Dale

    1976-01-01

    Presents a session by session description of a "meats" class, which is offered to high school students (9-week period) and adults (8-week period). The classes cover identification of cuts (beef, sheep, hogs, and veal; grades and grading of live animals and carcasses; economics of butchering and cutting your own meat; actual slaughtering; and the…

  11. Morphological caracteristics of malocclusion class II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Class II malocclusion are complex anomalies of the skeletal and dental systems. The aim of this study is that the rengenkefalometrics analysis closer determine the morphological characteristics of this malocclusion. For this study were used 30 patients aged 18-30, previously clinically diagnosed class II, before the planned orthodontic treatment. The results analisis lateral cephalometric radiographs were compared with the 30 patients with class I malocclusion. Analyzed three linear and two angular cranial base dimensions and nine angular and four linear measures from the facial skeleton. The Results show: No statistically significant differensis in cranial base angle (SNBa and anterior cranial base length (S-N between class II and control Class I. Angle maxillar prognathism ( SNA is no signifikant different between class I and Class II but SNB angle were signifikant smaller. The length of maxillary base (A'-SnP is longer and the length of mandibule (Pg'-MT1/MT is signifficantly smaller. The gonial angle (ArGo-Me was smaller with open articular angle (GoArSN. Morphological characteristics of class II malocclusion are , retrognathic and smaller mandibular ligth, normognathic and longer maxilla, open articular angle with vertical tendency of the craniofacial growth pattern.

  12. 40 CFR 2.207 - Class determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Confidentiality of Business Information § 2.207 Class determinations. (a) The General Counsel may make and issue a... items of business information; (2) One or more characteristics common to all such items of information... § 2.204(b)(1), § 2.204(d), § 2.205(d), or § 2.206. However, the existence of a class determination...

  13. Flipping a Calculus Class: One Instructor's Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Katrina

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes one instructor's experiences during a year of flipping four calculus classes. The first exploration attempts to understand student expectations of a math class and their preference towards a flipped classroom. The second examines success of students from a flipped classroom, and the last investigates relationships with student…

  14. Race, class, gender, and American environmentalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorceta E. Taylor

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the environmental experiences of middle and working class whites and people of color in the United States during the 19th and 20th centuries. It examines their activism and how their environmental experiences influenced the kinds of discourses they developed. The paper posits that race, class, and gender had profound effects on people's...

  15. Introducing Newspapers in Developmental Reading Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstadt, Roberta; Rey, Victoria M.

    2009-01-01

    Newspapers are an effective educational and motivational tool in developmental reading classes. However, many students are unfamiliar with newspapers and read them infrequently. In order to foster newspaper reading and familiarize the college freshmen enrolled in their developmental reading classes with newspapers, the writers of this article…

  16. Various chapter styles for the memoir class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Document showcasing various chapter title page designs either included in the LaTeX memoir class or is easily manually coded.......Document showcasing various chapter title page designs either included in the LaTeX memoir class or is easily manually coded....

  17. The Communication Audit as a Class Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conaway, Roger N.

    1994-01-01

    Describes a class project in which students conduct a "communication audit" or assessment of an off-campus organization, providing students with opportunities to explore, examine, monitor, and evaluate communication in a practical way. Discusses grading, beginning the class, contacting clients, instrumentation and procedures, costs, and…

  18. Special Classes for Gifted Students? Absolutely!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton-Szabo, Sally

    1996-01-01

    This article makes a case for special classes for gifted students and answers objections to special classes raised by the middle school movement and the cooperative learning movement. A sample "Celebration of Me" unit taught to gifted seventh graders which involved poetry, literature, personal development, art, music, and physical fitness is…

  19. Distribution of taxonomic classes and the compositional structure of the astreroid belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gradie, J.C.; Tedesco, E.F.

    1989-01-01

    The distribution of asteroid taxonomic classes and, presumably, actual composition varies systematically with heliocentric distance and is seen qualitatively in the results of a variety of taxonomy methods. In general, the distribution of taxonomic classes is characterized by moderate-albedo asteroids dominant in the inner belt with low-albedo asteroids prevalent in the outer belt and beyond. If the differences in taxonomic classes are assumed to be due to differences in composition, then the asteroid belt can be divided into many compositionally distinct regions defined by peaks and troughs in the distributions of the various classes. Unfortunately, differences in the class definitions used by different classification methods are manifested in the bias-corrected distribution of the classes, which makes detailed interpretation of these trends difficult. UBV color differences among members of the moderate-albedo S class show a distribution in semimajor axis which indicates subgroups in the S class. Explanations of the causes of the overall trends range from primarily dynamical to primarily in situ arrangements of igneous, metamorphic and unaltered primitive material, but a combination of several of these factors may be more likely

  20. Gene Expression in Class 2 Integrons Is SOS-Independent and Involves Two Pc Promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jové, Thomas; Da Re, Sandra; Tabesse, Aurore; Gassama-Sow, Amy; Ploy, Marie-Cécile

    2017-01-01

    Integrons are powerful bacterial genetic elements that permit the expression and dissemination of antibiotic-resistance gene cassettes. They contain a promoter Pc that allows the expression of gene cassettes captured through site-specific recombination catalyzed by IntI, the integron-encoded integrase. Class 1 and 2 integrons are found in both clinical and environmental settings. The regulation of intI and of Pc promoters has been extensively studied in class 1 integrons and the regulatory role of the SOS response on intI expression has been shown. Here we investigated class 2 integrons. We characterized the P intI2 promoter and showed that intI2 expression is not regulated via the SOS response. We also showed that, unlike class 1 integrons, class 2 integrons possess not one but two active Pc promoters that are located within the attI2 region that seem to contribute equally to gene cassette expression. Class 2 integrons mostly encode an inactive truncated integrase, but the rare class 2 integrons that encode an active integrase are associated with less efficient Pc2 promoter variants. We propose an evolutionary model for class 2 integrons in which the absence of repression of the integrase gene expression led to mutations resulting in either inactive integrase or Pc variants of weaker activity, thereby reducing the potential fitness cost of these integrons.

  1. Gait and Function in Class III Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Ling

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Walking, more specifically gait, is an essential component of daily living. Walking is a very different activity for individuals with a Body Mass Index (BMI of 40 or more (Class III obesity compared with those who are overweight or obese with a BMI between 26–35. Yet all obesity weight classes receive the same physical activity guidelines and recommendations. This observational study examined the components of function and disability in a group with Class III obesity and a group that is overweight or has Class I obesity. Significant differences were found between the groups in the areas of gait, body size, health condition, and activity capacity and participation. The Timed Up and Go test, gait velocity, hip circumference, and stance width appear to be most predictive of activity capacity as observed during gait assessment. The findings indicate that Class III-related gait is pathologic and not a normal adaptation.

  2. The structural dynamics of social class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michael W; Park, Jun Won

    2017-12-01

    Individual agency accounts of social class persist in society and even in psychological science despite clear evidence for the role of social structures. This article argues that social class is defined by the structural dynamics of society. Specifically, access to powerful networks, groups, and institutions, and inequalities in wealth and other economic resources shape proximal social environments that influence how individuals express their internal states and motivations. An account of social class that highlights the means by which structures shape and are shaped by individuals guides our understanding of how people move up or down in the social class hierarchy, and provides a framework for interpreting neuroscience studies, experimental paradigms, and approaches that attempt to intervene on social class disparities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Social class & risk preferences and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish-Gephart, Jennifer J

    2017-12-01

    This paper reviews recent work regarding the link between one's societal ranking (or social class), and risk preferences and behavior. While the topic of social class and its relationship to risk has been studied only tentatively in psychology, preliminary evidence suggests that experiences with rank, access to resources, and movement between classes have a meaningful impact on people's risk preferences and behaviors. Yet, a clear pattern of results remains elusive. Some studies suggest that lower social class standing is related to risk aversion, while others suggest it is related to risk taking. These mixed results highlight the need for future research that examines when and why lower social class standing is related to more or less risky decisions. By shedding light on this important phenomenon, the hope is to offer intervention opportunities that influence policies and mitigate inequality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. MATLAB tensor classes for fast algorithm prototyping.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bader, Brett William; Kolda, Tamara Gibson (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)

    2004-10-01

    Tensors (also known as mutidimensional arrays or N-way arrays) are used in a variety of applications ranging from chemometrics to psychometrics. We describe four MATLAB classes for tensor manipulations that can be used for fast algorithm prototyping. The tensor class extends the functionality of MATLAB's multidimensional arrays by supporting additional operations such as tensor multiplication. The tensor as matrix class supports the 'matricization' of a tensor, i.e., the conversion of a tensor to a matrix (and vice versa), a commonly used operation in many algorithms. Two additional classes represent tensors stored in decomposed formats: cp tensor and tucker tensor. We descibe all of these classes and then demonstrate their use by showing how to implement several tensor algorithms that have appeared in the literature.

  5. Characterizing width two for variants of treewidth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodlaender, Hans L.; Kratsch, Stefan; Kreuzen, Vincent J.C.

    2017-01-01

    taking minors, and give the complete list of the six minor obstructions. As an intermediate result, we prove that every connected graph of special treewidth at most two can be constructed by arranging blocks of special treewidth at most two in a specific tree-like fashion.Inspired by the notion...... prove that the class of graphs having the parameter at most two is minor closed, and we characterize those classes in terms of a tree of cycles with additional conditions. Finally, we show that for each k≥3, the class of graphs with special treewidth, spaghetti treewidth, directed spaghetti treewidth...

  6. Social class, power, and selfishness: when and why upper and lower class individuals behave unethically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, David; Rucker, Derek D; Galinsky, Adam D

    2015-03-01

    Are the rich more unethical than the poor? To answer this question, the current research introduces a key conceptual distinction between selfish and unethical behavior. Based on this distinction, the current article offers 2 novel findings that illuminate the relationship between social class and unethical behavior. First, the effects of social class on unethical behavior are not invariant; rather, the effects of social class are moderated by whether unethical behavior benefits the self or others. Replicating past work, social class positively predicted unethical behavior; however, this relationship was only observed when that behavior was self-beneficial. When unethical behavior was performed to benefit others, social class negatively predicted unethical behavior; lower class individuals were more likely than upper class individuals to engage in unethical behavior. Overall, social class predicts people's tendency to behave selfishly, rather than predicting unethical behavior per se. Second, individuals' sense of power drove the effects of social class on unethical behavior. Evidence for this relationship was provided in three forms. First, income, but not education level, predicted unethical behavior. Second, feelings of power mediated the effect of social class on unethical behavior, but feelings of status did not. Third, two distinct manipulations of power produced the same moderation by self-versus-other beneficiary as was found with social class. The current theoretical framework and data both synthesize and help to explain a range of findings in the social class and power literatures. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Self-Education, Class and Gender in Edwardian Britain: Women in Lower Middle Class Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    Once societies embarked on programmes of mass education home schooling became essentially a middle-class project and remains so. This paper looks at the educational experiences of some lower middle class women at the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries for whom the resources of the middle-class home were simply not available. It…

  8. A Tale of Two Classes: The Black Poor and the Black Middle Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Arthur

    1991-01-01

    To understand the African-American family, the African-American poor and middle class must be investigated. Extra costs mean that it is much harder for African Americans to reach the middle class. Ways to improve the economic status of African-American families and to increase the middle class are discussed. (SLD)

  9. Social Class (In)Visibility and the Professional Experiences of Middle-Class Novice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David; Jones, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses upon the classed and early professional experiences of middle-class novice teachers in England experiencing and contemplating working in schools serving socio-economically disadvantaged communities. Through an examination of the visibility and invisibility of social class in education set within an increasingly unequal and…

  10. 78 FR 72056 - Proposed Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Christiansted, St. Croix, VI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Class D and Class E Airspace; Christiansted, St. Croix, VI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Class E Airspace at Christiansted, St. Croix, VI, to adjust the geographic coordinates of Henry E..., Christiansted, St. Croix, VI, to bring it in concert with the FAAs aeronautical database. The coordinates would...

  11. A-508 class 3 forgings for pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comon, J.

    1977-01-01

    The manufacture of the forged parts of the first PWR nuclear pressure vessel installed in France started in the Creusot-Loire's Forge Plant in 1961. Since this date, more than 300 forgings of this type were delivered (flanges, rings, zones, and nozzles). The major part of these forgings were made of Mn, Ni, Mo steel (SA 508 class 3). They represent a population large and homogeneous enough to attempt a statistical analysis of chemical and mechanical test results. The aim of this analysis was double: (1) a better knowledge of the scattering of the results and a better estimate of what can be introduced or accepted in a specification, and (2) the setting up of correlations existing between these results, particularly between chemical analysis and mechanical test results. In addition to this statistical analysis concerning industrial results, several laboratory studies are presented, giving a more complete characterization of SA 508 class 3. All these results form a very complete documentation showing that SA 508 class 3 steel is suitable for the manufacture of large forged vessels requiring a high degree of reliability

  12. Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) Focal Plane Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuss, D. T.; Ali, A.; Amiri, M.; Appel, J.; Bennett, C. L.; Colazo, F.; Denis, K. L.; Dunner, R.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Eimer, J.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) will measure the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background to search for and characterize the polarized signature of inflation. CLASS will operate from the Atacama Desert and observe approx.70% of the sky. A variable-delay polarization modulator provides modulation of the polarization at approx.10Hz to suppress the 1/f noise of the atmosphere and enable the measurement of the large angular scale polarization modes. The measurement of the inflationary signal across angular scales that spans both the recombination and reionization features allows a test of the predicted shape of the polarized angular power spectra in addition to a measurement of the energy scale of inflation. CLASS is an array of telescopes covering frequencies of 38, 93, 148, and 217 GHz. These frequencies straddle the foreground minimum and thus allow the extraction of foregrounds from the primordial signal. Each focal plane contains feedhorn-coupled transition-edge sensors that simultaneously detect two orthogonal linear polarizations. The use of single-crystal silicon as the dielectric for the on-chip transmission lines enables both high efficiency and uniformity in fabrication. Integrated band definition has been implemented that both controls the bandpass of the single-mode transmission on the chip and prevents stray light from coupling to the detectors.

  13. Class II HLA interactions modulate genetic risk for multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilthey, Alexander T; Xifara, Dionysia K; Ban, Maria; Shah, Tejas S; Patsopoulos, Nikolaos A; Alfredsson, Lars; Anderson, Carl A; Attfield, Katherine E; Baranzini, Sergio E; Barrett, Jeffrey; Binder, Thomas M C; Booth, David; Buck, Dorothea; Celius, Elisabeth G; Cotsapas, Chris; D’Alfonso, Sandra; Dendrou, Calliope A; Donnelly, Peter; Dubois, Bénédicte; Fontaine, Bertrand; Fugger, Lars; Goris, An; Gourraud, Pierre-Antoine; Graetz, Christiane; Hemmer, Bernhard; Hillert, Jan; Kockum, Ingrid; Leslie, Stephen; Lill, Christina M; Martinelli-Boneschi, Filippo; Oksenberg, Jorge R; Olsson, Tomas; Oturai, Annette; Saarela, Janna; Søndergaard, Helle Bach; Spurkland, Anne; Taylor, Bruce; Winkelmann, Juliane; Zipp, Frauke; Haines, Jonathan L; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Spencer, Chris C A; Stewart, Graeme; Hafler, David A; Ivinson, Adrian J; Harbo, Hanne F; Hauser, Stephen L; De Jager, Philip L; Compston, Alastair; McCauley, Jacob L; Sawcer, Stephen; McVean, Gil

    2016-01-01

    Association studies have greatly refined the understanding of how variation within the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes influences risk of multiple sclerosis. However, the extent to which major effects are modulated by interactions is poorly characterized. We analyzed high-density SNP data on 17,465 cases and 30,385 controls from 11 cohorts of European ancestry, in combination with imputation of classical HLA alleles, to build a high-resolution map of HLA genetic risk and assess the evidence for interactions involving classical HLA alleles. Among new and previously identified class II risk alleles (HLA-DRB1*15:01, HLA-DRB1*13:03, HLA-DRB1*03:01, HLA-DRB1*08:01 and HLA-DQB1*03:02) and class I protective alleles (HLA-A*02:01, HLA-B*44:02, HLA-B*38:01 and HLA-B*55:01), we find evidence for two interactions involving pairs of class II alleles: HLA-DQA1*01:01–HLA-DRB1*15:01 and HLA-DQB1*03:01–HLA-DQB1*03:02. We find no evidence for interactions between classical HLA alleles and non-HLA risk-associated variants and estimate a minimal effect of polygenic epistasis in modulating major risk alleles. PMID:26343388

  14. Universality Classes of Interaction Structures for NK Fitness Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sungmin; Schmiegelt, Benjamin; Ferretti, Luca; Krug, Joachim

    2018-02-01

    Kauffman's NK-model is a paradigmatic example of a class of stochastic models of genotypic fitness landscapes that aim to capture generic features of epistatic interactions in multilocus systems. Genotypes are represented as sequences of L binary loci. The fitness assigned to a genotype is a sum of contributions, each of which is a random function defined on a subset of k ≤ L loci. These subsets or neighborhoods determine the genetic interactions of the model. Whereas earlier work on the NK model suggested that most of its properties are robust with regard to the choice of neighborhoods, recent work has revealed an important and sometimes counter-intuitive influence of the interaction structure on the properties of NK fitness landscapes. Here we review these developments and present new results concerning the number of local fitness maxima and the statistics of selectively accessible (that is, fitness-monotonic) mutational pathways. In particular, we develop a unified framework for computing the exponential growth rate of the expected number of local fitness maxima as a function of L, and identify two different universality classes of interaction structures that display different asymptotics of this quantity for large k. Moreover, we show that the probability that the fitness landscape can be traversed along an accessible path decreases exponentially in L for a large class of interaction structures that we characterize as locally bounded. Finally, we discuss the impact of the NK interaction structures on the dynamics of evolution using adaptive walk models.

  15. Terpenoid composition and class of Tertiary resins from India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Suryendu; Mallick, Monalisa; Mathews, Runcie Paul [Department of Earth Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai-400076 (India); Bertram, Norbert [LTA-Labor fuer Toxikologie und Analytik, Friedrichshoeher Str. 28, D-53639 Koenigswinter (Germany); Greenwood, Paul F. [John De Laeter Mass Spectrometry and WA Biogeochemitry Centres (M090), The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley, WA, 6009 (Australia); WA - Organic and Isotope Geochemistry Centre, Curtin University of Technology, Kent St., Bentley 6102 (Australia)

    2009-10-01

    The terpenoid composition and class of Tertiary resins preserved within lignites of Cambay, Kutch and Cauvery Basins of India have been characterized using Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy. Major pyrolysis products include cadalene-based C{sub 15}-bicyclic sesquiterpenoids with some C{sub 30} and C{sub 31} bicadinanes and bicadinenes typical of Class II or dammar resin. The occurrence of these terpenoids in Early Eocene sediments may extend the first appearance of Dipterocarpaceae angiosperms, the predominant source of this resin class, back to the Early Eocene epoch in India. The same terpenoid biomarkers have been detected in many SE Asian oils reflecting a close source relationship with these resins. Strong CH{sub 3} (1377 cm{sup -} {sup 1}) and other CH{sub x} (3000-2800 and 1460-1450 cm{sup -} {sup 1}) aliphatic absorptions of much larger intensity than the aromatic C = C (1560-1650 cm{sup -} {sup 1}) absorption were detected in the Indian resins by FTIR Spectroscopy, confirming the quantitative significance of the terpenoid pyrolysates. (author)

  16. MIDDLE-CLASS FORMATION STRATEGY IN THE REGION: PRACTICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya Pereguda

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to generalize knowledge about the formation of the middle class in the region, practical aspects of this problem. The author shows details of formation strategy, its social aspects in the view of human geography. Also in this paper, the author discloses items in regional development studying, the role of society in it and its structure, tides between processes in society and features of regional placement of productive forces. The main goal of this article is to make an analysis of the middle class in the view of human geography; show aspects of the territorial organization of the middle class, their influence on the economic development. Another purpose of this article is to disclose the essence of the mechanism of interaction between middle class and regional development, the interrelation of these two various processes. The methodology of this article is based on the human geography conceptions. The author considers aspects of regional social and economic development of regions: theoretical justification of this process and the analysis of its examples of modern Ukrainian economic activity. The thesis of this analysis is that regional development in the country has to be based on a number of the basic principles (they are picked up for the concrete territory and proved. Results. The author pays attention to the social and economic methodology of research of the middle class and regional development. She considers features of spatial manifestation of the middle class, and also categories, which anyway characterize it. Also, the author makes an analysis of indicators of the middle class, which allow identifying it in its relation to other structural elements of society. Value. In the article, there are different points of view to strategy as a category, its role in economic policy and state development. Both strategies (development strategy for the territory and strategy as the instrument of regional policy in the

  17. Characterization of the Bacterial and Sulphate Reducing Community in the Alkaline and Constantly Cold Water of the Closed Kotalahti Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin Bomberg

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Drainage from metal-sulphide rich rocks may cause considerable environmental stress in the form of elevated sulphate and heavy metal contamination of the environment. Mine draining effects from closed mines may be abated using indigenous and introduced microbial communities for sulphate reduction and metal precipitation at the mining site. Here we characterized the general and sulphate reducing bacterial (SRB community of Kotalahti Mine (Finland. The mine was flooded after closure and sulphate reduction and metal precipitation was induced by addition of pig manure sludge into the Vehkankuilu shaft. Water was sampled from Vehkankuilu and Ollinkuilu shafts from depths −10, −30, −70 and −100 m 15 years after the treatment. The water in the shafts differed from each other biologically and geochemically. The shafts are not directly connected except by some fracture zones, and the Ollinkuilu shaft is used as a reference for environmental monitoring. The detected bacterial communities from both shafts contained methylotrophic γ-Proteobacteria, hydrogenotrophic and methylotrophic β-Proteobacteria and fermenting bacterial clades. The concentration of SRB was low, at most 4.0 × 103 dsrB genes·mL−1, and the SRB affiliated with Desulfobulbus and Thermoanaerobacteriales clades. Despite the obvious success of the mine as an in situ bioreactor for increasing water pH and removing sulphate and heavy metals by induced sulphate reduction under suboptimal temperature, only a small portion, less than 0.5%, of the bacterial population in the mine water was SRB.

  18. Evolution of major histocompatibility complex class I and class II genes in the brown bear

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins constitute an essential component of the vertebrate immune response, and are coded by the most polymorphic of the vertebrate genes. Here, we investigated sequence variation and evolution of MHC class I and class II DRB, DQA and DQB genes in the brown bear Ursus arctos to characterise the level of polymorphism, estimate the strength of positive selection acting on them, and assess the extent of gene orthology and trans-species polymorphism in Ursidae. Results We found 37 MHC class I, 16 MHC class II DRB, four DQB and two DQA alleles. We confirmed the expression of several loci: three MHC class I, two DRB, two DQB and one DQA. MHC class I also contained two clusters of non-expressed sequences. MHC class I and DRB allele frequencies differed between northern and southern populations of the Scandinavian brown bear. The rate of nonsynonymous substitutions (dN) exceeded the rate of synonymous substitutions (dS) at putative antigen binding sites of DRB and DQB loci and, marginally significantly, at MHC class I loci. Models of codon evolution supported positive selection at DRB and MHC class I loci. Both MHC class I and MHC class II sequences showed orthology to gene clusters found in the giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca. Conclusions Historical positive selection has acted on MHC class I, class II DRB and DQB, but not on the DQA locus. The signal of historical positive selection on the DRB locus was particularly strong, which may be a general feature of caniforms. The presence of MHC class I pseudogenes may indicate faster gene turnover in this class through the birth-and-death process. South–north population structure at MHC loci probably reflects origin of the populations from separate glacial refugia. PMID:23031405

  19. Evolution of major histocompatibility complex class I and class II genes in the brown bear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuduk Katarzyna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Major histocompatibility complex (MHC proteins constitute an essential component of the vertebrate immune response, and are coded by the most polymorphic of the vertebrate genes. Here, we investigated sequence variation and evolution of MHC class I and class II DRB, DQA and DQB genes in the brown bear Ursus arctos to characterise the level of polymorphism, estimate the strength of positive selection acting on them, and assess the extent of gene orthology and trans-species polymorphism in Ursidae. Results We found 37 MHC class I, 16 MHC class II DRB, four DQB and two DQA alleles. We confirmed the expression of several loci: three MHC class I, two DRB, two DQB and one DQA. MHC class I also contained two clusters of non-expressed sequences. MHC class I and DRB allele frequencies differed between northern and southern populations of the Scandinavian brown bear. The rate of nonsynonymous substitutions (dN exceeded the rate of synonymous substitutions (dS at putative antigen binding sites of DRB and DQB loci and, marginally significantly, at MHC class I loci. Models of codon evolution supported positive selection at DRB and MHC class I loci. Both MHC class I and MHC class II sequences showed orthology to gene clusters found in the giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca. Conclusions Historical positive selection has acted on MHC class I, class II DRB and DQB, but not on the DQA locus. The signal of historical positive selection on the DRB locus was particularly strong, which may be a general feature of caniforms. The presence of MHC class I pseudogenes may indicate faster gene turnover in this class through the birth-and-death process. South–north population structure at MHC loci probably reflects origin of the populations from separate glacial refugia.

  20. Evolution of major histocompatibility complex class I and class II genes in the brown bear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuduk, Katarzyna; Babik, Wiesław; Bojarska, Katarzyna; Sliwińska, Ewa B; Kindberg, Jonas; Taberlet, Pierre; Swenson, Jon E; Radwan, Jacek

    2012-10-02

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins constitute an essential component of the vertebrate immune response, and are coded by the most polymorphic of the vertebrate genes. Here, we investigated sequence variation and evolution of MHC class I and class II DRB, DQA and DQB genes in the brown bear Ursus arctos to characterise the level of polymorphism, estimate the strength of positive selection acting on them, and assess the extent of gene orthology and trans-species polymorphism in Ursidae. We found 37 MHC class I, 16 MHC class II DRB, four DQB and two DQA alleles. We confirmed the expression of several loci: three MHC class I, two DRB, two DQB and one DQA. MHC class I also contained two clusters of non-expressed sequences. MHC class I and DRB allele frequencies differed between northern and southern populations of the Scandinavian brown bear. The rate of nonsynonymous substitutions (dN) exceeded the rate of synonymous substitutions (dS) at putative antigen binding sites of DRB and DQB loci and, marginally significantly, at MHC class I loci. Models of codon evolution supported positive selection at DRB and MHC class I loci. Both MHC class I and MHC class II sequences showed orthology to gene clusters found in the giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca. Historical positive selection has acted on MHC class I, class II DRB and DQB, but not on the DQA locus. The signal of historical positive selection on the DRB locus was particularly strong, which may be a general feature of caniforms. The presence of MHC class I pseudogenes may indicate faster gene turnover in this class through the birth-and-death process. South-north population structure at MHC loci probably reflects origin of the populations from separate glacial refugia.

  1. Maxillary molar distalization with first class appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Namitha; Palukunnu, Biswas; Ravindran, Nidhi; Nair, Preeti P

    2014-02-27

    Non-extraction treatment has gained popularity for corrections of mild-to-moderate class II malocclusion over the past few decades. The distalization of maxillary molars is of significant value for treatment of cases with minimal arch discrepancy and mild class II molar relation associated with a normal mandibular arch and acceptable profile. This paper describes our experience with a 16-year-old female patient who reported with irregularly placed upper front teeth and unpleasant smile. The patient was diagnosed to have angles class II malocclusion with moderate maxillary anterior crowding, deep bite of 4 mm on a skeletal class II base with an orthognathic maxilla and retrognathic mandible and normal growth pattern. She presented an ideal profile and so molar distalization was planned with the first-class appliance. Molars were distalised by 8 mm on the right and left quadrants and class I molar relation achieved within 4 months. The space gained was utilised effectively to align the arch and establish a class I molar and canine relation.

  2. Do Convolutional Neural Networks Learn Class Hierarchy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Alsallakh; Jourabloo, Amin; Ye, Mao; Liu, Xiaoming; Ren, Liu

    2018-01-01

    Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) currently achieve state-of-the-art accuracy in image classification. With a growing number of classes, the accuracy usually drops as the possibilities of confusion increase. Interestingly, the class confusion patterns follow a hierarchical structure over the classes. We present visual-analytics methods to reveal and analyze this hierarchy of similar classes in relation with CNN-internal data. We found that this hierarchy not only dictates the confusion patterns between the classes, it furthermore dictates the learning behavior of CNNs. In particular, the early layers in these networks develop feature detectors that can separate high-level groups of classes quite well, even after a few training epochs. In contrast, the latter layers require substantially more epochs to develop specialized feature detectors that can separate individual classes. We demonstrate how these insights are key to significant improvement in accuracy by designing hierarchy-aware CNNs that accelerate model convergence and alleviate overfitting. We further demonstrate how our methods help in identifying various quality issues in the training data.

  3. Timely management of developing class III malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M R Yelampalli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Timing of orthodontic treatment, especially for children with developing class III malocclusions, has always been somewhat controversial, and definitive treatment tends to be delayed for severe class III cases. Developing class III patients with moderate to severe anterior crossbite and deep bite may need early intervention in some selected cases. Class III malocclusion may develop in children as a result of an inherent growth abnormality, i.e. true class III malocclusion, or as a result of premature occlusal contacts causing forward functional shift of the mandible, which is known as pseudo class III malocclusion. These cases, if not treated at the initial stage of development, interfere with normal growth of the jaw bases and may result in severe facial deformities. The treatment should be carried out as early as possible for permitting normal growth of the skeletal bases. This paper deals with the selection of an appropriate appliance from the various current options available for early intervention in developing class III malocclusion through two case reports.

  4. How social-class stereotypes maintain inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Federica; Fiske, Susan T

    2017-12-01

    Social class stereotypes support inequality through various routes: ambivalent content, early appearance in children, achievement consequences, institutionalization in education, appearance in cross-class social encounters, and prevalence in the most unequal societies. Class-stereotype content is ambivalent, describing lower-SES people both negatively (less competent, less human, more objectified), and sometimes positively, perhaps warmer than upper-SES people. Children acquire the wealth aspects of class stereotypes early, which become more nuanced with development. In school, class stereotypes advantage higher-SES students, and educational contexts institutionalize social-class distinctions. Beyond school, well-intentioned face-to-face encounters ironically draw on stereotypes to reinforce the alleged competence of higher-status people and sometimes the alleged warmth of lower-status people. Countries with more inequality show more of these ambivalent stereotypes of both lower-SES and higher-SES people. At a variety of levels and life stages, social-class stereotypes reinforce inequality, but constructive contact can undermine them; future efforts need to address high-status privilege and to query more heterogeneous samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 77 FR 9839 - Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace, and Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bozeman, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ..., to accommodate aircraft using Instrument Landing System (ILS) Localizer (LOC) standard instrument... 6005 Class E airspace areas extending upward from 700 feet or more above the surface of the earth...

  6. Sartorial symbols of social class elicit class-consistent behavioral and physiological responses: a dyadic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michael W; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2014-12-01

    Social rank in human and nonhuman animals is signaled by a variety of behaviors and phenotypes. In this research, we examined whether a sartorial manipulation of social class would engender class-consistent behavior and physiology during dyadic interactions. Male participants donned clothing that signaled either upper-class (business-suit) or lower-class (sweatpants) rank prior to engaging in a modified negotiation task with another participant unaware of the clothing manipulation. Wearing upper-class, compared to lower-class, clothing induced dominance--measured in terms of negotiation profits and concessions, and testosterone levels--in participants. Upper-class clothing also elicited increased vigilance in perceivers of these symbols: Relative to perceiving lower-class symbols, perceiving upper-class symbols increased vagal withdrawal, reduced perceptions of social power, and catalyzed physiological contagion such that perceivers' sympathetic nervous system activation followed that of the upper-class target. Discussion focuses on the dyadic process of social class signaling within social interactions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Social affiliation in same-class and cross-class interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Stéphane; Kraus, Michael W; Carpenter, Nichelle C; Piff, Paul K; Beermann, Ursula; Keltner, Dacher

    2017-02-01

    Historically high levels of economic inequality likely have important consequences for relationships between people of the same and different social class backgrounds. Here, we test the prediction that social affiliation among same-class partners is stronger at the extremes of the class spectrum, given that these groups are highly distinctive and most separated from others by institutional and economic forces. An internal meta-analysis of 4 studies (N = 723) provided support for this hypothesis. Participant and partner social class were interactively, rather than additively, associated with social affiliation, indexed by affiliative behaviors and emotions during structured laboratory interactions and in daily life. Further, response surface analyses revealed that paired upper or lower class partners generally affiliated more than average-class pairs. Analyses with separate class indices suggested that these patterns are driven more by parental income and subjective social class than by parental education. The findings illuminate the dynamics of same- and cross-class interactions, revealing that not all same-class interactions feature the same degree of affiliation. They also reveal the importance of studying social class from an intergroup perspective. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. The State of the Australian Middle Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive Hamilton

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a widespread view that the middle class in Australia is doing it tough, that they arefinding it increasingly difficult to maintain a decent standard of living and are suffering frommortgage stress. Indeed, some media reports have announced the end of the middle classdream.This paper tests a number of these popular views against the statistical data. It asks whetherthe typical Australian family can be said to be struggling? Are mortgages creating severeproblems for middle-class families? Is the middle class shrinking? Are families copingfinancially only because wives are going out to work?

  9. Characteristic classes, singular embeddings, and intersection homology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappell, S E; Shaneson, J L

    1987-06-01

    This note announces some results on the relationship between global invariants and local topological structure. The first section gives a local-global formula for Pontrjagin classes or L-classes. The second section describes a corresponding decomposition theorem on the level of complexes of sheaves. A final section mentions some related aspects of "singular knot theory" and the study of nonisolated singularities. Analogous equivariant analogues, with local-global formulas for Atiyah-Singer classes and their relations to G-signatures, will be presented in a future paper.

  10. Class, Mothering and the Values of Food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aamann, Iben Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    The data analysed in this empirical paper stems from ethnographic fieldwork among new school parents at three Danish primary schools. I draw on empirically grounded theories on the cultural and subjective dimensions of class, inspired by the “English School” of poststructuralist informed, feminist...... scholars, to explore how class matters. Using the values ascribed to food at social arrangements as a lens, I explore different ways of doing class and mothering: through the exchange value of the food, through its use value and through its healthiness. I conclude by arguing that food studies hold a huge...

  11. Exploring the diversity of Jupiter-class planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Leigh N; Irwin, Patrick G J; Barstow, Joanna K; de Kok, Remco J; Lee, Jae-Min; Aigrain, Suzanne

    2014-04-28

    available data, and the requirements for future spectroscopic characterization of a set of Jupiter-class objects to test our physical and chemical understanding of these planets.

  12. Class and ideological orientations revisited: an exploration of class-based mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Mattias; Berglund, Tomas; Oskarson, Maria

    2013-12-01

    Studies of the relationship between class position and political outlooks still only have a limited understanding of the class-related mechanisms that matter for ideological orientations. This article presents a comprehensive analysis of the mechanisms that link class position and left/right and authoritarian/libertarian orientations. Besides main factors such as income, career prospects, job security, education, class origin and class identification, the significance of work-related factors such as work autonomy, working in a team, a physically demanding job and a mentally demanding job is studied. The findings are based on a survey specifically designed for this purpose and collected in Sweden in 2008/2009. A great deal of the association between class position and left/right orientations is explained by socio-economic conditions; different classes sympathize with policies that will benefit them economically. Another important factor is class identification. Work-related factors also have relevance, but the effect of class position on left/right orientations works mainly through the remuneration system. Class position is also related to authoritarian/libertarian orientations. However, this relationship is less explained by socio-economic position per se, but is rather an effect of the educational system and its allocation of the workforce into different class positions. It also turns out that work-related factors do not explain the class effects; however, a physically demanding job shows a unique effect. Overall, our findings suggest that besides factors such as class position, income, education and class identification, we need to consider work-related aspects to derive a more complete understanding of the distribution of ideological orientations in Western societies. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2013.

  13. MHC class II B diversity in blue tits : A preliminary study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rivero-de Aguilar, Juan; Schut, Elske; Merino, Santiago; Martinez, Javier; Komdeur, Jan; Westerdahl, Helena

    In this study, we partly characterize major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II B in the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus). A total of 22 individuals from three different European locations: Spain, The Netherlands, and Sweden were screened for MHC allelic diversity. The MHC genes were

  14. Variation in MHC class II B genes in marbled murrelets: implications for delineating conservation units

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Vásquez-Carrillo; V. Friesen; L. Hall; M.Z. Peery

    2013-01-01

    Conserving genetic variation is critical for maintaining the evolutionary potential and viability of a species. Genetic studies seeking to delineate conservation units, however, typically focus on characterizing neutral genetic variation and may not identify populations harboring local adaptations. Here, variation at two major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II...

  15. Greater-than-Class-C Low-Level Waste Data Base user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    The Greater-than-Class-C Low-level Waste (GTCC LLW) Data Base characterizes GTCC LLW using low, base, and high cases for three different scenarios: unpackaged, packaged, and concentration averages. The GTCC LLW Data Base can be used to project future volumes and radionuclide activities. This manual provides instructions for users of the GTCC LLW Data Base

  16. On the Carleman classes of vectors of a scalar type spectral operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marat V. Markin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Carleman classes of a scalar type spectral operator in a reflexive Banach space are characterized in terms of the operator's resolution of the identity. A theorem of the Paley-Wiener type is considered as an application.

  17. Identifying Students at Risk: An Examination of Computer-Adaptive Measures and Latent Class Growth Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller-Margulis, Milena; McQuillin, Samuel D.; Castañeda, Juan Javier; Ochs, Sarah; Jones, John H.

    2018-01-01

    Multitiered systems of support depend on screening technology to identify students at risk. The purpose of this study was to examine the use of a computer-adaptive test and latent class growth analysis (LCGA) to identify students at risk in reading with focus on the use of this methodology to characterize student performance in screening.…

  18. Interaction of benzoate pyrimidine analogues with class 1A dihydroorotate dehydrogenase from Lactococcus lactis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolfe, Abigail E; Thymark, Majbritt; Gattis, Samuel G

    2007-01-01

    Dihydroorotate dehydrogenases (DHODs) catalyze the oxidation of dihydroorotate to orotate in the only redox reaction in pyrimidine biosynthesis. The pyrimidine binding sites are very similar in all structurally characterized DHODs, suggesting that the prospects for identifying a class-specific in......-system of the flavin, resulting in a green color....

  19. Introducing Emergency Preparedness in Childbirth Education Classes

    OpenAIRE

    DeWald, Lauren; Fountain, Lily

    2006-01-01

    In the wake of recent natural and man-made disasters and emergency situations, pregnant women are especially vulnerable. The authors of this column encourage childbirth educators to include disaster preparedness instruction and emergency childbirth techniques in their class content.

  20. Student Attitudes: A Study of Social Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Clifford A.

    1976-01-01

    Student attitudes toward current controversial problems (bussing for racial integration, legalization of abortion, and legalization of marijuana) were studied with regard to social class. The 1960 revision of the Purdue Master Attitude Scale was used. (LBH)

  1. Acquired Class D β-Lactamases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno T. Antunes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Class D β-lactamases have emerged as a prominent resistance mechanism against β-lactam antibiotics that previously had efficacy against infections caused by pathogenic bacteria, especially by Acinetobacter baumannii and the Enterobacteriaceae. The phenotypic and structural characteristics of these enzymes correlate to activities that are classified either as a narrow spectrum, an extended spectrum, or a carbapenemase spectrum. We focus on Class D β-lactamases that are carried on plasmids and, thus, present particular clinical concern. Following a historical perspective, the susceptibility and kinetics patterns of the important plasmid-encoded Class D β-lactamases and the mechanisms for mobilization of the chromosomal Class D β-lactamases are discussed.

  2. National Cyber Expert Addresses ELP Class

    OpenAIRE

    Center for Homeland Defense and Security

    2012-01-01

    Center for Homeland Defense and Security, PRESS RELEASES Governments, businesses and educational institutions should be making cybersecurity a top priority, a leading expert told a class of the Center for Homeland Defense and Security’s Executive Leaders Program. Brian...

  3. Distributed optimization of multi-class SVMs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Alber

    Full Text Available Training of one-vs.-rest SVMs can be parallelized over the number of classes in a straight forward way. Given enough computational resources, one-vs.-rest SVMs can thus be trained on data involving a large number of classes. The same cannot be stated, however, for the so-called all-in-one SVMs, which require solving a quadratic program of size quadratically in the number of classes. We develop distributed algorithms for two all-in-one SVM formulations (Lee et al. and Weston and Watkins that parallelize the computation evenly over the number of classes. This allows us to compare these models to one-vs.-rest SVMs on unprecedented scale. The results indicate superior accuracy on text classification data.

  4. On characteristic classes and continuous cohomology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bott, R.

    1986-01-01

    The paper was presented at the workshop on 'Supersymmetry and its applications', Cambridge, United Kingdom, 1985. Six theorems on characteristic classes and continuous cohomology are described, in connection with the theory of anomalies. (UK)

  5. Diagrammatic Reasoning with Classes and Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Jørgen Fischer

    2013-01-01

    We present and discuss a diagrammatic visualization and reasoning language coming about by augmenting Euler diagrams with higraphs. The diagrams serve (hierarchical as well as trans-hierarchical) classification and specification of various logical relationships between classes. The diagrams rely...

  6. Class, Social Suffering, and Health Consumerism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrild, Camilla Hoffmann; Risør, Mette Bech; Vedsted, Peter; Andersen, Rikke Sand

    2016-01-01

    In recent years an extensive social gradient in cancer outcome has attracted much attention, with late diagnosis proposed as one important reason for this. Whereas earlier research has investigated health care seeking among cancer patients, these social differences may be better understood by looking at health care seeking practices among people who are not diagnosed with cancer. Drawing on long-term ethnographic fieldwork among two different social classes in Denmark, our aim in this article is to explore the relevance of class to health care seeking practices and illness concerns. In the higher middle class, we predominantly encountered health care seeking resembling notions of health consumerism, practices sanctioned and encouraged by the health care system. However, among people in the lower working class, health care seeking was often shaped by the inseparability of physical, political, and social dimensions of discomfort, making these practices difficult for the health care system to accommodate.

  7. MANAGING LARGE CLASSES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. BARTH EKWUEME

    GLOBAL JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH VOL 15, 2016: 31-39. COPYRIGHT© ... classes or overcrowded classrooms affect the quality of education delivered in the school system. ... central to their national development strategy.

  8. Local formulae for combinatorial Pontryagin classes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaifullin, Alexander A

    2004-01-01

    Let p(|K|) be the characteristic class of a combinatorial manifold K given by a polynomial p in the rational Pontryagin classes of K. We prove that for any polynomial p there is a function taking each combinatorial manifold K to a cycle z p (K) in its rational simplicial chains such that: 1) the Poincare dual of z p (K) represents the cohomology class p(|K|); 2) the coefficient of each simplex Δ in the cycle z p (K) is determined solely by the combinatorial type of linkΔ. We explicitly describe all such functions for the first Pontryagin class. We obtain estimates for the denominators of the coefficients of the simplices in the cycles z p (K)

  9. Communication in the Special Needs Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, David

    1975-01-01

    This article stressed the importance of constant constructive communication between parents, teachers and students as a means towards building a relationship of trust, understanding and fulfillment in the special class. (Editor/RK)

  10. Combination Classes and "Hora de comunicacion."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldredge, Dee L.

    1989-01-01

    Ways to combine small classes of higher education students studying Spanish at various levels are described, including judicious use of language laboratories, staggering of the different level groups, and rotation of activities geared toward students' individual proficiency levels. (CB)

  11. CLASS: Core Library for Advanced Scenario Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouginot, B.; Thiolliere, N.

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear reactor simulation community has to perform complex electronuclear scenario simulations. To avoid constraints coming from the existing powerful scenario software such as COSI, VISION or FAMILY, the open source Core Library for Advanced Scenario Simulation (CLASS) has been developed. The main asset of CLASS is its ability to include any type of reactor, whether the system is innovative or standard. A reactor is fully described by its evolution database which should contain a set of different validated fuel compositions in order to simulate transitional scenarios. CLASS aims to be a useful tool to study scenarios involving Generation-IV reactors as well as innovative fuel cycles, like the thorium cycle. In addition to all standard key objects required by an electronuclear scenario simulation (the isotopic vector, the reactor, the fuel storage and the fabrication units), CLASS also integrates two new specific modules: fresh fuel evolution and recycled fuel fabrication. The first module, dealing with fresh fuel evolution, is implemented in CLASS by solving Bateman equations built from a database induced cross-sections. The second module, which incorporates the fabrication of recycled fuel to CLASS, can be defined by user priorities and/or algorithms. By default, it uses a linear Pu equivalent-method, which allows predicting, from the isotopic composition, the maximum burn-up accessible for a set type of fuel. This paper presents the basis of the CLASS scenario, the fuel method applied to a MOX fuel and an evolution module benchmark based on the French electronuclear fleet from 1977 to 2012. Results of the CLASS calculation were compared with the inventory made and published by the ANDRA organisation in 2012. For UOX used fuels, the ANDRA reported 12006 tonnes of heavy metal in stock, including cooling, versus 18500 tonnes of heavy metal predicted by CLASS. The large difference is easily explained by the presence of 56 tonnes of plutonium already separated

  12. Equational characterization for two-valued states in orthomodular quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenech, G.; Freytes, H.; de Ronde, C.

    In this paper we develop an algebraic framework in which several classes of two-valued states over orthomodular lattices may be equationally characterized. The class of two-valued states and the subclass of Jauch-Piron two-valued states are among the classes which we study.

  13. A class of minimally modified gravity theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chunshan; Mukohyama, Shinji, E-mail: chunshan.lin@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: shinji.mukohyama@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Center for Gravitational Physics, Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the Hamiltonian structure of a class of gravitational theories whose actions are linear in the lapse function. We derive the necessary and sufficient condition for a theory in this class to have two or less local physical degrees of freedom. As an application we then find several concrete examples of modified gravity theories in which the total number of local physical degrees of freedom in the gravity sector is two.

  14. On skein relations in class S theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachikawa, Yuji; Watanabe, Noriaki

    2015-01-01

    Loop operators of a class S theory arise from networks on the corresponding Riemann surface, and their operator product expansions are given in terms of the skein relations, that we describe in detail in the case of class S theories of type A. As two applications, we explicitly determine networks corresponding to dyonic loops of N=4SU(3) super Yang-Mills, and compute the superconformal index of a nontrivial network operator of the T 3 theory.

  15. Are segregated sports classes scientifically justified?

    OpenAIRE

    Lawson, Sian; Hall, Edward

    2014-01-01

    School sports classes are a key part of physical and mental development, yet in many countries these classes are gender segregated. Before institutionalised segregation can be condoned it is important to tackle assumptions and check for an evidence-based rationale. This presentation aims to analyse the key arguments for segregation given in comment-form response to a recent media article discussing mixed school sports (Lawson, 2013).\\ud \\ud The primary argument given was division for strength...

  16. Cyclophilin C Participates in the US2-Mediated Degradation of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Daniel C; Stocki, Pawel; Williams, David B

    2015-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus uses a variety of mechanisms to evade immune recognition through major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. One mechanism mediated by the immunoevasin protein US2 causes rapid disposal of newly synthesized class I molecules by the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation pathway. Although several components of this degradation pathway have been identified, there are still questions concerning how US2 targets class I molecules for degradation. In this study we identify cyclophilin C, a peptidyl prolyl isomerase of the endoplasmic reticulum, as a component of US2-mediated immune evasion. Cyclophilin C could be co-isolated with US2 and with the class I molecule HLA-A2. Furthermore, it was required at a particular expression level since depletion or overexpression of cyclophilin C impaired the degradation of class I molecules. To better characterize the involvement of cyclophilin C in class I degradation, we used LC-MS/MS to detect US2-interacting proteins that were influenced by cyclophilin C expression levels. We identified malectin, PDIA6, and TMEM33 as proteins that increased in association with US2 upon cyclophilin C knockdown. In subsequent validation all were shown to play a functional role in US2 degradation of class I molecules. This was specific to US2 rather than general ER-associated degradation since depletion of these proteins did not impede the degradation of a misfolded substrate, the null Hong Kong variant of α1-antitrypsin.

  17. Hidden Advantages and Disadvantages of Social Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudeau, Sébastien; Croizet, Jean-Claude

    2017-02-01

    Three studies conducted among fifth and sixth graders examined how school contexts disrupt the achievement of working-class students by staging unfair comparison with their advantaged middle-class peers. In regular classrooms, differences in performance among students are usually showcased in a way that does not acknowledge the advantage (i.e., higher cultural capital) experienced by middle-class students, whose upbringing affords them more familiarity with the academic culture than their working-class peers have. Results of Study 1 revealed that rendering differences in performance visible in the classroom by having students raise their hands was enough to undermine the achievement of working-class students. In Studies 2 and 3, we manipulated students' familiarity with an arbitrary standard as a proxy for social class. Our results suggest that classroom settings that make differences in performance visible undermine the achievement of the students who are less familiar with academic culture. In Study 3, we showed that being aware of the advantage in familiarity with a task restores the performance of the students who have less familiarity with the task.

  18. Gender differences in Class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Tiziano; Reyes, Brian C; McNamara, James A

    2005-07-01

    This study evaluated gender differences in the cephalometric records of a large-scale cross-sectional sample of Caucasian subjects with Class III malocclusion at different developmental ages. The purpose also was to provide average age-related and sex-related data for craniofacial measures in untreated Class III subjects that are used as reference in the diagnostic appraisal of the patient with Class III disharmony. The sample examined consisted of 1094 pretreatment lateral cephalometric records (557 female subjects and 537 male subjects) of Caucasian Class III individuals. The age range for female subjects was between three years six months and 57 years seven months. The male subject group ranged from three years three months to 48 years five months. Twelve age groups were identified. Skeletal maturity at different age periods also was determined using the stage of cervical vertebral maturation. Gender differences for all cephalometric variables were analyzed using parametric statistics. The findings of the study indicated that Class III malocclusion is associated with a significant degree of sexual dimorphism in craniofacial parameters, especially from the age of 13 onward. Male subjects with Class III malocclusion present with significantly larger linear dimensions of the maxilla, mandible, and anterior facial heights when compared with female subjects during the circumpubertal and postpubertal periods.

  19. Combining choice experiments with psychometric scales to assess the social acceptability of wind energy projects: A latent class approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strazzera, Elisabetta; Mura, Marina; Contu, Davide

    2012-01-01

    A choice experiment exercise is combined with psychometric scales in order: (1) to identify factors that explain support/opposition toward a wind energy development project; and (2) to assess (monetary) trade-offs between attributes of the project. A Latent Class estimator is fitted to the data, and different utility parameters are estimated, conditional on class allocation. It is found that the probability of class membership depends on specific psychometric variables. Visual impacts on valued sites are an important factor of opposition toward a project, and this effect is magnified when identity values are attached to the specific site, so much that no trade-off would be acceptable for a class of individuals characterized by strong place attachment. Conversely, other classes of individuals are willing to accept compensations, in form of private and/or public benefits. The distribution of benefits in the territory, and preservation of the option value related to the possible development of an archeological site, are important for a class of individuals concerned with the sustainability of the local economy. - Highlights: ► A Choice Experiment approach is used to assess acceptability of a wind farm project. ► Psychometric variables are used to model heterogeneity in a Latent Class model. ► No trade-off would be acceptable for a class of individuals. ► Another class of individuals is interested in private benefits. ► Other classes are interested in public benefits and sustainability of the development.

  20. Predominant typologies of psychopathology in the United States: a latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gabalawy, Renée; Tsai, Jack; Harpaz-Rotem, Ilan; Hoff, Rani; Sareen, Jitender; Pietrzak, Robert H

    2013-11-01

    Latent class analysis (LCA) offers a parsimonious way of classifying common typologies of psychiatric comorbidity. We used LCA to identify the nature and correlates of predominant typologies of Axis I and II disorders in a large and comprehensive population-based sample of U.S. adults. We analyzed data from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (2004-2005; n = 34,653), a population-based sample of U.S. adults. We derived latent classes based on all assessed Axis I and II disorders and examined the relationship between the identified Axis I classes and lifetime psychiatric disorders and suicide attempts, and physical and mental health-related quality of life. A four-class solution was optimal in characterizing predominant typologies of both Axis I and II disorders. For Axis I disorders, these included low psychopathology (n = 28,935, 84.0%), internalizing (n = 3693, 9.9%), externalizing (n = 1426, 4.5%), and high psychopathology (n = 599, 1.6%) classes. For Axis II disorders, these included no/low personality disorders (n = 31,265, 90.9%), obsessive/paranoid (n = 1635, 4.6%), borderline/dysregulated (n = 1319, 3.4%), and highly comorbid (n = 434, 1.1%) classes. Compared to the low psychopathology class, all other Axis I classes had significantly increased odds of mental disorders, elevated Axis II classes, suicide attempts and poorer quality of life, with the high psychopathology class having the overall highest rates of these correlates, with the exception of substance use disorders. Compared to the low psychopathology class, the internalizing and externalizing classes had increased rates of mood and anxiety disorders, and substance use disorders, respectively. Axis I and II psychopathology among U.S. adults may be best represented by four predominant typologies. Characterizing co-occurring patterns of psychopathology using person-based typologies represents a higher-order classification system that may be useful in clinical

  1. Mandibular condyle dimensions in Peruvian patients with Class II and Class III skeletal patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Zegarra-Baquerizo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare condylar dimensions of young adults with Class II and Class III skeletal patterns using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT. Materials and methods: 124 CBCTs from 18-30 year-old patients, divided into 2 groups according to skeletal patterns (Class II and Class III were evaluated. Skeletal patterns were classified by measuring the ANB angle of each patient. The anteroposterior diameter (A and P of the right and left mandibular condyle was assessed from a sagittal view by a line drawn from point A (anterior to P (posterior. The coronal plane allowed the evaluation of the medio-lateral diameter by drawing a line from point M (medium to L (lateral; all distances were measured in mm. Results: In Class II the A-P diameter was 9.06±1.33 and 8.86±1.56 for the right and left condyles respectively, in Class III these values were 8.71±1.2 and 8.84±1.42. In Class II the M-L diameter was 17.94±2.68 and 17.67±2.44 for the right and left condyles respectively, in Class III these values were 19.16±2.75 and 19.16±2.54. Conclusion: Class III M-L dimensions showed higher values than Class II, whereas these differences were minimal in A-P.

  2. Duration of the pubertal peak in skeletal Class I and Class III subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuc-Michalska, Małgorzata; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2010-01-01

    To estimate and compare the duration of the pubertal growth peak in Class I and Class III subjects. The data examined consisted of pretreatment lateral cephalometric records of 218 skeletal Class I or Class III subjects (93 female and 125 male subjects) of white ancestry. The duration of the pubertal peak was calculated from the average chronological age intervals between stages CS3 and CS4 of the cervical vertebral maturation in Class I vs Class III groups (t-test). In skeletal Class I subjects, the pubertal peak had a mean duration of 11 months, whereas in Class III subjects it lasted 16 months. The average difference (5 months) was statistically significant (P < .001). The growth interval corresponding to the pubertal growth spurt (CS3-CS4) was longer in Class III subjects than in subjects with normal skeletal relationships; the larger increases in mandibular length during the pubertal peak reported in the literature for Class III subjects may be related to the longer duration of the pubertal peak.

  3. 25 CFR 502.4 - Class III gaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Class III gaming. 502.4 Section 502.4 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.4 Class III gaming. Class III gaming means all forms of gaming that are not class I gaming or class...

  4. Classes and Theories of Trees Associated with a Class Of Linear Orders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goranko, Valentin; Kellerman, Ruaan

    2011-01-01

    Given a class of linear order types C, we identify and study several different classes of trees, naturally associated with C in terms of how the paths in those trees are related to the order types belonging to C. We investigate and completely determine the set-theoretic relationships between...... these classes of trees and between their corresponding first-order theories. We then obtain some general results about the axiomatization of the first-order theories of some of these classes of trees in terms of the first-order theory of the generating class C, and indicate the problems obstructing such general...... results for the other classes. These problems arise from the possible existence of nondefinable paths in trees, that need not satisfy the first-order theory of C, so we have started analysing first order definable and undefinable paths in trees....

  5. Identifying classes of persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning: a latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouwens, Peter J G; Lucas, Rosanne; Smulders, Nienke B M; Embregts, Petri J C M; van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs

    2017-07-17

    Persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning are often studied as a single group with similar characteristics. However, there are indications that differences exist within this population. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify classes of persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning and to examine whether these classes are related to individual and/or environmental characteristics. Latent class analysis was performed using file data of 250 eligible participants with a mean age of 26.1 (SD 13.8, range 3-70) years. Five distinct classes of persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning were found. These classes significantly differed in individual and environmental characteristics. For example, persons with a mild intellectual disability experienced fewer problems than those with borderline intellectual disability. The identification of five classes implies that a differentiated approach is required towards persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning.

  6. Mapping the social class structure: From occupational mobility to social class categories using network analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toubøl, Jonas; Larsen, Anton Grau

    2017-01-01

    This article develops a new explorative method for deriving social class categories from patterns of occupational mobility. In line with Max Weber, our research is based on the notion that, if class boundaries do not inhibit social mobility then the class categories are of little value. Thus......, unlike dominant, theoretically defined class schemes, this article derives social class categories from observed patterns in a mobility network covering intra-generational mobility. The network is based on a mobility table of 109 occupational categories tied together by 1,590,834 job shifts on the Danish...... labour market 2001–2007. The number of categories are reduced from 109 to 34 by applying a new clustering algorithm specifically designed for the study of mobility tables (MONECA). These intra-generational social class categories are related to the central discussions of gender, income, education...

  7. Debye classes in A15 compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staudenmann, J.; DeFacio, B.; Testardi, L.R.; Werner, S.A.; Fluekiger, R.; Muller, J.

    1981-01-01

    The comparison between electron charge-density distribution of V 3 Si, Cr 3 Si, and V 3 Ge at room temperature leads us to study the Debye temperatures at 0 0 K THETA 0 from specific-heat measurements for over 100 A15 compounds. A phenomenological THETA 0 (M), M the molecular mass, is obtained from the static scaling relation THETA 0 (M) = aM/sup b/ and this organizes all of the data into five Debye classes: V(V 3 Si), V-G, G(V 3 Ge), G-C, and C(Cr 3 Si). In contrast, the Debye temperature THETA 0 (V), with V as the unit-cell volume does not relate alloys as THETA 0 (M) does, with the exception of the C class. This latter case leads to the surprising result MproportionalV/sup approximately1/3/ and to a Grueneisen constant of 1.6 +- 0.1 for all compounds of this class. In the V class where V 3 Si and Nb 3 Sn are found, THETA 0 (V) labels these two alloys differently, as does their martensitic c/a ratios. With T-bar/sub c/ denoting the average superconducting transition temperature within a Debye class, interesting correlations are shown. One is the maximum of T-bar/sub c/ which exists in the V class where the strongest anharmonicity occurs. Another is the case of compounds formed only by transition elements up to and including Au. This interesting case shows that approx.3.2< T-bar/sub c/< approx.5.0 K in all of the five classes and that there is no correlation between T/sub c/ and the thermal properties. The implications of these observations for creating better models for the A15 compounds are briefly discussed

  8. Kinematics and design of a class of parallel manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Roger Barry

    1998-12-01

    This dissertation is concerned with the kinematic analysis and design of a class of three degree-of-freedom, spatial parallel manipulators. The class of manipulators is characterized by two platforms, between which are three legs, each possessing a succession of revolute, spherical, and revolute joints. The class is termed the "revolute-spherical-revolute" class of parallel manipulators. Two members of this class are examined. The first mechanism is a double-octahedral variable-geometry truss, and the second is termed a double tripod. The history the mechanisms is explored---the variable-geometry truss dates back to 1984, while predecessors of the double tripod mechanism date back to 1869. This work centers on the displacement analysis of these three-degree-of-freedom mechanisms. Two types of problem are solved: the forward displacement analysis (forward kinematics) and the inverse displacement analysis (inverse kinematics). The kinematic model of the class of mechanism is general in nature. A classification scheme for the revolute-spherical-revolute class of mechanism is introduced, which uses dominant geometric features to group designs into 8 different sub-classes. The forward kinematics problem is discussed: given a set of independently controllable input variables, solve for the relative position and orientation between the two platforms. For the variable-geometry truss, the controllable input variables are assumed to be the linear (prismatic) joints. For the double tripod, the controllable input variables are the three revolute joints adjacent to the base (proximal) platform. Multiple solutions are presented to the forward kinematics problem, indicating that there are many different positions (assemblies) that the manipulator can assume with equivalent inputs. For the double tripod these solutions can be expressed as a 16th degree polynomial in one unknown, while for the variable-geometry truss there exist two 16th degree polynomials, giving rise to 256

  9. The relationship between Class I and Class II methanol masers at high angular resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, T. P.; Ellingsen, S. P.; Voronkov, M. A.; Cimò, G.

    2018-06-01

    We have used the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) to make the first high-resolution observations of a large sample of class I methanol masers in the 95-GHz (80-71A+) transition. The target sources consist of a statistically complete sample of 6.7-GHz class II methanol masers with an associated 95-GHz class I methanol maser, enabling a detailed study of the relationship between the two methanol maser classes at arcsecond angular resolution. These sources have been previously observed at high resolution in the 36- and 44-GHz transitions, allowing comparison between all three class I maser transitions. In total, 172 95-GHz maser components were detected across the 32 target sources. We find that at high resolution, when considering matched maser components, a 3:1 flux density ratio is observed between the 95- and 44-GHz components, consistent with a number of previous lower angular resolution studies. The 95-GHz maser components appear to be preferentially located closer to the driving sources and this may indicate that this transition is more strongly inverted nearby to background continuum sources. We do not observe an elevated association rate between 95-GHz maser emission and more evolved sources, as indicated by the presence of 12.2-GHz class II masers. We find that in the majority of cases where both class I and class II methanol emission is observed, some component of the class I emission is associated with a likely outflow candidate.

  10. On CSM classes via Chern-Fulton classes of f-schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Fullwood, James; Wang, Dongxu

    2015-01-01

    The Chern-Fulton class is a generalization of Chern class to the realm of arbitrary embeddable schemes. While Chern-Fulton classes are sensitive to non-reduced scheme structure, they are not sensitive to possible singularities of the underlying support, thus at first glance are not interesting from a singularity theory viewpoint. However, we introduce a class of formal objects which we think of as `fractional schemes', or f-schemes for short, and then show that when one broadens the domain of...

  11. Classes, cultura e ação coletiva Classes, culture and collective action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brasílio Sallum Jr.

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O artigo faz uma revisão da literatura sobre classes e conflito social, analisando seus impasses. Em seguida, faz uma incursão aos legados de Pierre Bordieu e Marx sobre a matéria, indicando como poderiam ser integrados numa teoria renovada das classes sociais.The article surveys the literature on class and social conflict, focusing its theoretical dilemmas. Then it discusses Pierre Bordieu's and Marx's legacies on the subject, pointing out how they could be integrated in a renewed theory of social classes.

  12. Radiological characterization of nuclear plants under decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mincarini, M.

    1989-01-01

    In the present work a description of major problems encountered in qualitative and quantitative radiological characterization of nuclear plants for decommissioning and decontamination purpose is presented. Referring to several nuclear plant classes activation and contamination processes, direct and indirect radiological analysis and some italian significant experience are descripted

  13. Software engineering processes for Class D missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killough, Ronnie; Rose, Debi

    2013-09-01

    Software engineering processes are often seen as anathemas; thoughts of CMMI key process areas and NPR 7150.2A compliance matrices can motivate a software developer to consider other career fields. However, with adequate definition, common-sense application, and an appropriate level of built-in flexibility, software engineering processes provide a critical framework in which to conduct a successful software development project. One problem is that current models seem to be built around an underlying assumption of "bigness," and assume that all elements of the process are applicable to all software projects regardless of size and tolerance for risk. This is best illustrated in NASA's NPR 7150.2A in which, aside from some special provisions for manned missions, the software processes are to be applied based solely on the criticality of the software to the mission, completely agnostic of the mission class itself. That is, the processes applicable to a Class A mission (high priority, very low risk tolerance, very high national significance) are precisely the same as those applicable to a Class D mission (low priority, high risk tolerance, low national significance). This paper will propose changes to NPR 7150.2A, taking mission class into consideration, and discuss how some of these changes are being piloted for a current Class D mission—the Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS).

  14. Effects of emotion on different phoneme classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chul Min; Yildirim, Serdar; Bulut, Murtaza; Busso, Carlos; Kazemzadeh, Abe; Lee, Sungbok; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2004-10-01

    This study investigates the effects of emotion on different phoneme classes using short-term spectral features. In the research on emotion in speech, most studies have focused on prosodic features of speech. In this study, based on the hypothesis that different emotions have varying effects on the properties of the different speech sounds, we investigate the usefulness of phoneme-class level acoustic modeling for automatic emotion classification. Hidden Markov models (HMM) based on short-term spectral features for five broad phonetic classes are used for this purpose using data obtained from recordings of two actresses. Each speaker produces 211 sentences with four different emotions (neutral, sad, angry, happy). Using the speech material we trained and compared the performances of two sets of HMM classifiers: a generic set of ``emotional speech'' HMMs (one for each emotion) and a set of broad phonetic-class based HMMs (vowel, glide, nasal, stop, fricative) for each emotion type considered. Comparison of classification results indicates that different phoneme classes were affected differently by emotional change and that the vowel sounds are the most important indicator of emotions in speech. Detailed results and their implications on the underlying speech articulation will be discussed.

  15. COMMUNICATION AND INTERACTION IN ART CLASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Hrvanović

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Numerous indicators affect communication and interaction in art classes. For every teacher, as pedagogue, his successful educational activity is very important as some indicators influence the two-way exchange of information in art classes. Teaching art is very specific way of teaching process, because it is mostly based on exchange of visual information of artistic type which represents a special form of communication. The specificity of artistic information, way of acting on the viewer and intense emotional charge in the process of communication should be used as visual stimulus. The richness of imagery, stimulation of reality, abstraction and other cognitive processes in art classes experientially and visually improve students’ awareness and should be represented and diversified by origin and multiplied by quantity. The research paper aims to demonstrate the importance of connectivity between judgment of taste and ability to evaluate the quality of the work of art in art and non-art schools. Teaching and education in art classes is being realized precisely inside communicative relations and appropriate socio-emotional climate. In this research, visual communication in art classes is defined over the structure of the inventory that will examine the differences between abilities to evaluate the quality of artistic information and the judgment of taste.

  16. Peptide-binding motifs of two common equine class I MHC molecules in Thoroughbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Tobias; Lindvall, Mikaela; Moore, Erin; Moore, Eugene; Sidney, John; Miller, Donald; Tallmadge, Rebecca L; Myers, Paisley T; Malaker, Stacy A; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Osterrieder, Nikolaus; Peters, Bjoern; Hunt, Donald F; Antczak, Douglas F; Sette, Alessandro

    2017-05-01

    Quantitative peptide-binding motifs of MHC class I alleles provide a valuable tool to efficiently identify putative T cell epitopes. Detailed information on equine MHC class I alleles is still very limited, and to date, only a single equine MHC class I allele, Eqca-1*00101 (ELA-A3 haplotype), has been characterized. The present study extends the number of characterized ELA class I specificities in two additional haplotypes found commonly in the Thoroughbred breed. Accordingly, we here report quantitative binding motifs for the ELA-A2 allele Eqca-16*00101 and the ELA-A9 allele Eqca-1*00201. Utilizing analyses of endogenously bound and eluted ligands and the screening of positional scanning combinatorial libraries, detailed and quantitative peptide-binding motifs were derived for both alleles. Eqca-16*00101 preferentially binds peptides with aliphatic/hydrophobic residues in position 2 and at the C-terminus, and Eqca-1*00201 has a preference for peptides with arginine in position 2 and hydrophobic/aliphatic residues at the C-terminus. Interestingly, the Eqca-16*00101 motif resembles that of the human HLA A02-supertype, while the Eqca-1*00201 motif resembles that of the HLA B27-supertype and two macaque class I alleles. It is expected that the identified motifs will facilitate the selection of candidate epitopes for the study of immune responses in horses.

  17. Middle Class and Democracy in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Fierro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The consolidation of the middle class has been interpreted by modernization and postmodernization theories as a key factor for the functioning and stability of the democratic system. However, in Latin America the middle class has tended to be associated with two contradictory positions. On the one hand, it is emphasized that it plays a stabilizing and democratic role while, on the other hand, it is linked to supporting military coups. With the purpose of elucidate such a dilemma, the relationship that can be established between the socioeconomic status and the degree of support for democracy will be examined. In order to do this, an empirical analysis from Latinbarometer surveys databases will be conducted, covering seventeen countries in the region for the period from 1996 to 2011. It will be concluded that the middle class in Latin America does not have particularly more favorable attitudes toward democracy than other social segments.

  18. Young people, drinking and social class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolind, Torsten

    2011-01-01

    Analytical concepts such as 'bounded consumption' or 'controlled loss of control' have been applied to characterise contemporary youth intoxication. This article argues that this kind of cultural diagnosis benefits from being related to a focus on differences in social class. It is shown that in ......Analytical concepts such as 'bounded consumption' or 'controlled loss of control' have been applied to characterise contemporary youth intoxication. This article argues that this kind of cultural diagnosis benefits from being related to a focus on differences in social class. It is shown...... people to construct social class-related identities: mainstream youngsters continually confirm their taken-for-granted normality, and mainstream breakers resist the mainstream hegemonic (school) culture which usually defies them. In conclusion, bounded consumption, corresponding with contemporary ideals...

  19. Novamene: A new class of carbon allotropes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry A Burchfield

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We announce a new class of carbon allotropes. The basis of this new classification resides on the concept of combining hexagonal diamond (sp3 bonded carbon − lonsdaleite and ring carbon (sp2 bonded carbon − graphene. Since hexagonal diamond acts as an insulator and sp2 bonded rings act as conductors, these predicted materials have potential applications for transistors and other electronic components. We describe the structure of a proposed series of carbon allotropes, novamene, and carry out a detailed computational analysis of the structural and electronic properties of the simplest compound in this class: the single-ring novamene. In addition, we suggest how hundreds of different allotropes of carbon could be constructed within this class.

  20. Class Generation for Numerical Wind Atlases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutler, N.J.; Jørgensen, B.H.; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2006-01-01

    A new optimised clustering method is presented for generating wind classes for mesoscale modelling to produce numerical wind atlases. It is compared with the existing method of dividing the data in 12 to 16 sectors, 3 to 7 wind-speed bins and dividing again according to the stability...... of the atmosphere. Wind atlases are typically produced using many years of on-site wind observations at many locations. Numerical wind atlases are the result of mesoscale model integrations based on synoptic scale wind climates and can be produced in a number of hours of computation. 40 years of twice daily NCEP...... adapting to the local topography. The purpose of forming classes is to minimise the computational time for the mesoscale model while still representing the synoptic climate features. Only tried briefly in the past, clustering has traits that can be used to improve the existing class generation method...