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Sample records for class packing problem

  1. Heuristics for Multidimensional Packing Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeblad, Jens

    for a minimum height container required for the items. The main contributions of the thesis are three new heuristics for strip-packing and knapsack packing problems where items are both rectangular and irregular. In the two first papers we describe a heuristic for the multidimensional strip-packing problem...... that is based on a relaxed placement principle. The heuristic starts with a random overlapping placement of items and large container dimensions. From the overlapping placement overlap is reduced iteratively until a non-overlapping placement is found and a new problem is solved with a smaller container size...... of this heuristic are among the best published in the literature both for two- and three-dimensional strip-packing problems for irregular shapes. In the third paper, we introduce a heuristic for two- and three-dimensional rectangular knapsack packing problems. The two-dimensional heuristic uses the sequence pair...

  2. Generalized network improvement and packing problems

    CERN Document Server

    Holzhauser, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Michael Holzhauser discusses generalizations of well-known network flow and packing problems by additional or modified side constraints. By exploiting the inherent connection between the two problem classes, the author investigates the complexity and approximability of several novel network flow and packing problems and presents combinatorial solution and approximation algorithms. Contents Fractional Packing and Parametric Search Frameworks Budget-Constrained Minimum Cost Flows: The Continuous Case Budget-Constrained Minimum Cost Flows: The Discrete Case Generalized Processing Networks Convex Generalized Flows Target Groups Researchers and students in the fields of mathematics, computer science, and economics Practitioners in operations research and logistics The Author Dr. Michael Holzhauser studied computer science at the University of Kaiserslautern and is now a research fellow in the Optimization Research Group at the Department of Mathematics of the University of Kaiserslautern.

  3. The Maximum Resource Bin Packing Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyar, J.; Epstein, L.; Favrholdt, L.M.

    2006-01-01

    Usually, for bin packing problems, we try to minimize the number of bins used or in the case of the dual bin packing problem, maximize the number or total size of accepted items. This paper presents results for the opposite problems, where we would like to maximize the number of bins used...... algorithms, First-Fit-Increasing and First-Fit-Decreasing for the maximum resource variant of classical bin packing. For the on-line variant, we define maximum resource variants of classical and dual bin packing. For dual bin packing, no on-line algorithm is competitive. For classical bin packing, we find...

  4. Modified strip packing heuristics for the rectangular variable-sized bin packing problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FG Ortmann

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Two packing problems are considered in this paper, namely the well-known strip packing problem (SPP and the variable-sized bin packing problem (VSBPP. A total of 252 strip packing heuristics (and variations thereof from the literature, as well as novel heuristics proposed by the authors, are compared statistically by means of 1170 SPP benchmark instances in order to identify the best heuristics in various classes. A combination of new heuristics with a new sorting method yields the best results. These heuristics are combined with a previous heuristic for the VSBPP by the authors to find good feasible solutions to 1357 VSBPP benchmark instances. This is the largest statistical comparison of algorithms for the SPP and the VSBPP to the best knowledge of the authors.

  5. A Harmonic Algorithm for the 3D Strip Packing Problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Bansal (Nikhil); X. Han; K. Iwama; M. Sviridenko; G. Zhang (Guochuan)

    2013-01-01

    htmlabstractIn the three-dimensional (3D) strip packing problem, we are given a set of 3D rectangular items and a 3D box $B$. The goal is to pack all the items in $B$ such that the height of the packing is minimized. We consider the most basic version of the problem, where the items must be packed

  6. Comparing Online Algorithms for Bin Packing Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epstein, Leah; Favrholdt, Lene Monrad; Kohrt, Jens Svalgaard

    2012-01-01

    The relative worst-order ratio is a measure of the quality of online algorithms. In contrast to the competitive ratio, this measure compares two online algorithms directly instead of using an intermediate comparison with an optimal offline algorithm. In this paper, we apply the relative worst-ord......-order ratio to online algorithms for several common variants of the bin packing problem. We mainly consider pairs of algorithms that are not distinguished by the competitive ratio and show that the relative worst-order ratio prefers the intuitively better algorithm of each pair....

  7. The Planar Sandwich and Other 1D Planar Heat Flow Test Problems in ExactPack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singleton, Jr., Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-01-24

    This report documents the implementation of several related 1D heat flow problems in the verification package ExactPack [1]. In particular, the planar sandwich class defined in Ref. [2], as well as the classes PlanarSandwichHot, PlanarSandwichHalf, and other generalizations of the planar sandwich problem, are defined and documented here. A rather general treatment of 1D heat flow is presented, whose main results have been implemented in the class Rod1D. All planar sandwich classes are derived from the parent class Rod1D.

  8. Multi-dimensional Bin Packing Problems with Guillotine Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amossen, Rasmus Resen; Pisinger, David

    2010-01-01

    The problem addressed in this paper is the decision problem of determining if a set of multi-dimensional rectangular boxes can be orthogonally packed into a rectangular bin while satisfying the requirement that the packing should be guillotine cuttable. That is, there should exist a series of face...... parallel straight cuts that can recursively cut the bin into pieces so that each piece contains a box and no box has been intersected by a cut. The unrestricted problem is known to be NP-hard. In this paper we present a generalization of a constructive algorithm for the multi-dimensional bin packing...... problem, with and without the guillotine constraint, based on constraint programming....

  9. Integrating packing and distribution problems and optimization through mathematical programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Miguel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the integration of two combinatorial problems that frequently arise in production and distribution systems. One is the Bin Packing Problem (BPP problem, which involves finding an ordering of some objects of different volumes to be packed into the minimal number of containers of the same or different size. An optimal solution to this NP-Hard problem can be approximated by means of meta-heuristic methods. On the other hand, we consider the Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows (CVRPTW, which is a variant of the Travelling Salesman Problem (again a NP-Hard problem with extra constraints. Here we model those two problems in a single framework and use an evolutionary meta-heuristics to solve them jointly. Furthermore, we use data from a real world company as a test-bed for the method introduced here.

  10. A Heuristic Algorithm for Solving Triangle Packing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruimin Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The research on the triangle packing problem has important theoretic significance, which has broad application prospects in material processing, network resource optimization, and so forth. Generally speaking, the orientation of the triangle should be limited in advance, since the triangle packing problem is NP-hard and has continuous properties. For example, the polygon is not allowed to rotate; then, the approximate solution can be obtained by optimization method. This paper studies the triangle packing problem by a new kind of method. Such concepts as angle region, corner-occupying action, corner-occupying strategy, and edge-conjoining strategy are presented in this paper. In addition, an edge-conjoining and corner-occupying algorithm is designed, which is to obtain an approximate solution. It is demonstrated that the proposed algorithm is highly efficient, and by the time complexity analysis and the analogue experiment result is found.

  11. Solving non-standard packing problems by global optimization and heuristics

    CERN Document Server

    Fasano, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    This book results from a long-term research effort aimed at tackling complex non-standard packing issues which arise in space engineering. The main research objective is to optimize cargo loading and arrangement, in compliance with a set of stringent rules. Complicated geometrical aspects are also taken into account, in addition to balancing conditions based on attitude control specifications. Chapter 1 introduces the class of non-standard packing problems studied. Chapter 2 gives a detailed explanation of a general model for the orthogonal packing of tetris-like items in a convex domain. A number of additional conditions are looked at in depth, including the prefixed orientation of subsets of items, the presence of unusable holes, separation planes and structural elements, relative distance bounds as well as static and dynamic balancing requirements. The relative feasibility sub-problem which is a special case that does not have an optimization criterion is discussed in Chapter 3. This setting can be exploit...

  12. Bin-packing problems with load balancing and stability constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trivella, Alessio; Pisinger, David

    apper in a wide range of disciplines, including transportation and logistics, computer science, engineering, economics and manufacturing. The problem is well-known to be N P-hard and difficult to solve in practice, especially when dealing with the multi-dimensional cases. Closely connected to the BPP...... realistic constraints related to e.g. load balancing, cargo stability and weight limits, in the multi-dimensional BPP. The BPP poses additional challenges compared to the CLP due to the supplementary objective of minimizing the number of bins. In particular, in section 2 we discuss how to integrate bin......-packing and load balancing of items. The problem has only been considered in the literature in simplified versions, e.g. balancing a single bin or introducing a feasible region for the barycenter. In section 3 we generalize the problem to handle cargo stability and weight constraints....

  13. Bin packing problem solution through a deterministic weighted finite automaton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala-Díaz, J. C.; Pérez-Ortega, J.; Martínez-Rebollar, A.; Almanza-Ortega, N. N.; Hidalgo-Reyes, M.

    2016-06-01

    In this article the solution of Bin Packing problem of one dimension through a weighted finite automaton is presented. Construction of the automaton and its application to solve three different instances, one synthetic data and two benchmarks are presented: N1C1W1_A.BPP belonging to data set Set_1; and BPP13.BPP belonging to hard28. The optimal solution of synthetic data is obtained. In the first benchmark the solution obtained is one more container than the ideal number of containers and in the second benchmark the solution is two more containers than the ideal solution (approximately 2.5%). The runtime in all three cases was less than one second.

  14. Class and Home Problems: Optimization Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brian J.; Hissam, Robin S.; Shaeiwitz, Joseph A.; Turton, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Optimization problems suitable for all levels of chemical engineering students are available. These problems do not require advanced mathematical techniques, since they can be solved using typical software used by students and practitioners. The method used to solve these problems forces students to understand the trends for the different terms…

  15. An experimental comparison of some heuristics for cardinality constrained bin packing problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Remic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bin packing is an NPhard optimization problem of packing items of given sizes into minimum number of capacitylimited bins. Besides the basic problem, numerous other variants of bin packing exist. The cardinality constrained bin packing adds an additional constraint that the number of items in a bin must not exceed a given limit Nmax. Objectives: Goal of the paper is to present a preliminary experimental study which demostrates adaptations of the new algorithms to the general cardinality constrained bin packing problem. Methods/Approach: Straightforward modifications of First Fit Decreasing (FFD, Refined First Fit (RFF and the algorithm by Zhang et al. for the bin packing problem are compared to four cardinality constrained bin packing problem specific algorithms on random lists of items with 0%, 10%, 30% and 50% of large items. The behaviour of all algorithms when cardinality constraint Nmax increases is also studied. Results: Results show that all specific algorithms outperform the general algorithms on lists with low percentage of big items. Conclusions: One of the specific algorithms performs better or equally well even on lists with high percentage of big items and is therefore of significant interest. The behaviour when Nmax increases shows that specific algorithms can be used for solving the general bin packing problem as well.

  16. Application of Genetic Algorithm for the Bin Packing Problem with a New Representation Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mohamadi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Bin Packing Problem (BPP is to find the minimum number of binsneeded to pack a given set of objects of known sizes so that they donot exceed the capacity of each bin. This problem is known to beNP-Hard [5]; hence many heuristic procedures for its solution havebeen suggested. In this paper we propose a new representation schemeand solve the problem by a Genetic Algorithm. Limited computationalresults show the efficiency of this scheme.

  17. Augmented neural networks and problem structure-based heuristics for the bin-packing problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasap, Nihat; Agarwal, Anurag

    2012-08-01

    In this article, we report on a research project where we applied augmented-neural-networks (AugNNs) approach for solving the classical bin-packing problem (BPP). AugNN is a metaheuristic that combines a priority rule heuristic with the iterative search approach of neural networks to generate good solutions fast. This is the first time this approach has been applied to the BPP. We also propose a decomposition approach for solving harder BPP, in which subproblems are solved using a combination of AugNN approach and heuristics that exploit the problem structure. We discuss the characteristics of problems on which such problem structure-based heuristics could be applied. We empirically show the effectiveness of the AugNN and the decomposition approach on many benchmark problems in the literature. For the 1210 benchmark problems tested, 917 problems were solved to optimality and the average gap between the obtained solution and the upper bound for all the problems was reduced to under 0.66% and computation time averaged below 33 s per problem. We also discuss the computational complexity of our approach.

  18. Visual nesting system for irregular cutting-stock problem based on rubber band packing algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Liao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the packing problem of irregular items allocated into a rectangular sheet to minimize the waste. Conventional solution is not visual during the packing process. It obtains a reasonable and relatively satisfactory solution between the nesting time and nesting solution. This article adopts a physical method that uses rubber band packing algorithm to simulate a rubber band wrapping those packing irregular items. The simulation shows a visual and fast packing process. The resultant rubber band force is applied in the packing items to translate, rotate, and slide them to make the area decrease and obtain a high packing density. An improved analogy QuickHull algorithm is presented to obtain extreme points of rubber band convex hull. An adaptive module could set a variable rubber band force and a variable time step to make a proper convergence and no intersection. A quick convex decomposition method is used to solve the problem of concave polygon. A plural vector expression approach is adopted to calculate the resultant vector of the rubber band force. Several cases are compared with the benchmark problems to prove rubber band packing algorithm performance.

  19. ANALISIS TINGKAT OPTIMASI ALGORITMA GENETIKA DALAM HUKUM KETETAPAN HARDY-WEINBERG PADA BIN PACKING PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Noviar Panggabean

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak—Karna representasi abstrak dari beberapa sistem pengambilan keputusan yang nyata dalam kehidupan sehari hari membuat masalah optimasi kombinatorial umumnya sangat sulit untuk dipecahkan. Bin packing problem ialah solusi terbaik dalam mengatasi masalah optimasi kombinatorial, yang digunakan untuk mencari sebuah objek secara optimal dari sekelompok himpunan objek yang berhingga. Serangkaian pendekatan hybrid telah dikembangkan dalam hal ini untuk memecahkan masalah Bin Packing. Metaheuristik adalah salah satu pendekatan tingkat tinggi dalam memandu dalam memodifikasi beberapa metode heuristik lainnya untuk mencari tingkat optimasi yang lebih baik. Genetic Algorithm atau Algoritma Genetika juga merupakan metode metaheuristik yang digunakan untuk menyelesaikan berbagai masalah dalam hal peningkatan optimasi. Dalam algoritma genetika terdapat bermacam-macam varian. Dalam penelitian dipaparkan mengenai taksonomi dari algoritma genetika parallel (Parallel Genetic Algorithm yang memiliki kemampuan yang lebih baik dari algoritma genetika konvensional dalam hal kinerja dan skalabilitasnya. Tetapi algoritma genetika paralel ini hanya cocok untuk permasalahan jaringan komputer heterogen dan sistem terdistribusi. Berdasarkan penelitian yang sudah pernah dilakukan sebelumnya dan dari uraian diatas maka penulis tertarik untuk melakukan penelitian bagaimana menerapkan hukum ketetapan Hardy-Weinberg dari bidang biologi kedalam algoritma genetika melakukan analisis tingkat optimasi terhadap Bin Packing Problem..   Keywords— Genetic Algortihm, Hardy-Weinberg, Bin Packing Problem.

  20. An iterative bidirectional heuristic placement algorithm for solving the two-dimensional knapsack packing problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiangjen, Kanokwatt; Chaijaruwanich, Jeerayut; Srisujjalertwaja, Wijak; Unachak, Prakarn; Somhom, Samerkae

    2018-02-01

    This article presents an efficient heuristic placement algorithm, namely, a bidirectional heuristic placement, for solving the two-dimensional rectangular knapsack packing problem. The heuristic demonstrates ways to maximize space utilization by fitting the appropriate rectangle from both sides of the wall of the current residual space layer by layer. The iterative local search along with a shift strategy is developed and applied to the heuristic to balance the exploitation and exploration tasks in the solution space without the tuning of any parameters. The experimental results on many scales of packing problems show that this approach can produce high-quality solutions for most of the benchmark datasets, especially for large-scale problems, within a reasonable duration of computational time.

  1. 49 CFR 173.121 - Class 3-Assignment of packing group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... packing group shall be determined by applying the following criteria: Packing group Flash point (closed-cup) Initial boiling point I ≤35°C (95 °F) II 35 °C (95 °F) III ≥23 °C, ≤60 °C (≥73 °F, ≤140 °F) >35...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Definitions Classification, Packing Group Assignments...

  2. An analysis of shift class design problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Kroon (Leo); A.W.J. Kolen

    1994-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we consider a generalization of the Fixed Job Schedule Problem (FJSP) which appears in the aircraft maintenance process at an airport. A number of jobs must be carried out where each job requires processing from a fixed time to a fixed finish time. These jobs must be

  3. Heuristics for the Variable Sized Bin Packing Problem Using a Hybrid P-System and CUDA Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    AlEnezi, Qadha'a; AboElFotoh, Hosam; AlBdaiwi, Bader; AlMulla, Mohammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    The Variable Sized Bin Packing Problem has a wide range of application areas including packing, scheduling, and manufacturing. Given a list of items and variable sized bin types, the objective is to minimize the total size of the used bins. This problem is known to be NP-hard. In this article, we present two new heuristics for solving the problem using a new variation of P systems with active membranes, which we call a hybrid P system, implemented in CUDA. Our hybrid P-system model allows usi...

  4. A class of ejecta transport test problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammerberg, James E.; Buttler, William T.; Oro, David M.; Rousculp, Christopher L.; Morris, Christopher; Mariam, Fesseha G.

    2011-01-01

    Hydro code implementations of ejecta dynamics at shocked interfaces presume a source distribution function ofparticulate masses and velocities, f 0 (m, v;t). Some of the properties of this source distribution function have been determined from extensive Taylor and supported wave experiments on shock loaded Sn interfaces of varying surface and subsurface morphology. Such experiments measure the mass moment of f o under vacuum conditions assuming weak particle-particle interaction and, usually, fully inelastic capture by piezo-electric diagnostic probes. Recently, planar Sn experiments in He, Ar, and Kr gas atmospheres have been carried out to provide transport data both for machined surfaces and for coated surfaces. A hydro code model of ejecta transport usually specifies a criterion for the instantaneous temporal appearance of ejecta with source distribution f 0 (m, v;t 0 ). Under the further assumption of separability, f 0 (m,v;t 0 ) = f 1 (m)f 2 (v), the motion of particles under the influence of gas dynamic forces is calculated. For the situation of non-interacting particulates, interacting with a gas via drag forces, with the assumption of separability and simplified approximations to the Reynolds number dependence of the drag coefficient, the dynamical equation for the time evolution of the distribution function, f(r,v,m;t), can be resolved as a one-dimensional integral which can be compared to a direct hydro simulation as a test problem. Such solutions can also be used for preliminary analysis of experimental data. We report solutions for several shape dependent drag coefficients and analyze the results of recent planar dsh experiments in Ar and Xe.

  5. Characteristics, Problems and Needs of Multigrade Class Teachers in Burdur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan SAĞ

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at describing the characteristics, problems, and needs of primary teachers who carry out themultigrade class practices in Burdur. The study was conducted through the survey model and data wereobtained from teachers of multigrade classes through Schools with Multigrade Classes Questionnaire. A totalof 38 teachers participated to the research. Frequency and percentage statistics were used in the dataanalysis. In the study, a significant number of teachers of multigrade classes consisted of mid-age groupmales who reside in provinces and towns. More than half were graduates of class teacher education programsthough they had not taken any classes or courses related to multigrade classes and they perform theirteaching duties alongside school administration duties. It was found that the problems that teachers encounterconcentrate on school administration, instructional programs, instruction and assessment, and socioeconomicenvironment. Teachers of multigrade classes state that an in-service training program formultigrade class practices to be offered should include content addressing school administration,instructional programs, instructional conditions and assessment.

  6. Pre-Service Class Teacher' Ability in Solving Mathematical Problems and Skills in Solving Daily Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljaberi, Nahil M.; Gheith, Eman

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the ability of pre-service class teacher at University of Petrain solving mathematical problems using Polya's Techniques, their level of problem solving skills in daily-life issues. The study also investigates the correlation between their ability to solve mathematical problems and their level of problem solving…

  7. Cardinality reasoning for bin-packing constraint : Application to a tank allocation problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaus, Pierre; Régin, Jean Charles; Van Schaeren, Rowan; Dullaert, Wout; Raa, Birger

    2012-01-01

    Flow reasoning has been successfully used in CP for more than a decade. It was originally introduced by Régin in the well-known Alldifferent and Global Cardinality Constraint (GCC) available in most of the CP solvers. The BinPacking constraint was introduced by Shaw and mainly uses an independent

  8. Linear decomposition approach for a class of nonconvex programming problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Peiping; Wang, Chunfeng

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a linear decomposition approach for a class of nonconvex programming problems by dividing the input space into polynomially many grids. It shows that under certain assumptions the original problem can be transformed and decomposed into a polynomial number of equivalent linear programming subproblems. Based on solving a series of liner programming subproblems corresponding to those grid points we can obtain the near-optimal solution of the original problem. Compared to existing results in the literature, the proposed algorithm does not require the assumptions of quasi-concavity and differentiability of the objective function, and it differs significantly giving an interesting approach to solving the problem with a reduced running time.

  9. Students’ Problems in Writing Paraphrases in Research Paper Writing Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herdiansari Hayuningrum

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraphrase is one of the techniques of incorporating sources in which every writer is allowed to borrow the author’s ideas and restate them into their own words. Based on the previous study, it was found that English Language Education Study Program (ELESP students, Sanata Dharma University, were unable to paraphrase properly since they tended to copy the author’s words directly. If this problem was continuously ignored, it would be dangerous for the students because they could be charged with inadvertent plagiarism. This study was intended to investigate ELESP students’ problems in writing paraphrases and the reasons why they produce unacceptable paraphrases by conducting document analysis and interview in Research Paper Writing class. From the findings, it could be identified that the most frequent type of problem encountered by the students was word-for-word plagiarism.   DOI: https://doi.org/10.24071/llt.2012.150101

  10. Role-playing in the problem-based learning class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Zenobia C Y

    2012-01-01

    Learning and teaching have been conceptualized and executed in many styles, such as self-learning, peer learning, and interaction between the learner and mentor. Today, openness to alternative ideas and embracing innovative approaches in nursing education are encouraged in order to meet students' learning interests and needs, and to address ever-changing healthcare requests. Problem-based learning has been widely adopted in nursing education, with various positive effects on students' learning, such as motivated learning, team work, problem-solving skills and critical thinking. Role-plays have been demonstrated as an effective learning strategy that includes an active and experiential feature that facilitates students' autonomy in their health-related learning. However, there is a lack of discussion of whether and how role-play can be used in problem-based learning (PBL). This paper shows the development of a classroom-based innovation using role-play in the PBL class for higher diploma year-one nurse students (a total of 20 students, five per group). This paper consists of five sections: a) the literature on PBL and nurse education, and role-plays as the innovation; b) the PBL case scenario with the illustration of the two role-play scripts, c) student evaluation on role-play in the PBL class; d) discussions on both achievements and limitations of this innovation, and e) the conclusion. It is hoped that this paper will be an example to other nurse educators who are keen on exploring interactive and student-driven learning and teaching strategies in the PBL class. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A New Class of Solvable Many-Body Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Calogero

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A new class of solvable N-body problems is identified. They describe N unit-mass point particles whose time-evolution, generally taking place in the complex plane, is characterized by Newtonian equations of motion ''of goldfish type'' (acceleration equal force, with specific velocity-dependent one-body and two-body forces featuring several arbitrary coupling constants. The corresponding initial-value problems are solved by finding the eigenvalues of a time-dependent N×N matrix U(t explicitly defined in terms of the initial positions and velocities of the N particles. Some of these models are asymptotically isochronous, i.e. in the remote future they become completely periodic with a period T independent of the initial data (up to exponentially vanishing corrections. Alternative formulations of these models, obtained by changing the dependent variables from the N zeros of a monic polynomial of degree N to its N coefficients, are also exhibited.

  12. Transfer Learning for Class Imbalance Problems with Inadequate Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Stouhi, Samir; Reddy, Chandan K

    2016-07-01

    A fundamental problem in data mining is to effectively build robust classifiers in the presence of skewed data distributions. Class imbalance classifiers are trained specifically for skewed distribution datasets. Existing methods assume an ample supply of training examples as a fundamental prerequisite for constructing an effective classifier. However, when sufficient data is not readily available, the development of a representative classification algorithm becomes even more difficult due to the unequal distribution between classes. We provide a unified framework that will potentially take advantage of auxiliary data using a transfer learning mechanism and simultaneously build a robust classifier to tackle this imbalance issue in the presence of few training samples in a particular target domain of interest. Transfer learning methods use auxiliary data to augment learning when training examples are not sufficient and in this paper we will develop a method that is optimized to simultaneously augment the training data and induce balance into skewed datasets. We propose a novel boosting based instance-transfer classifier with a label-dependent update mechanism that simultaneously compensates for class imbalance and incorporates samples from an auxiliary domain to improve classification. We provide theoretical and empirical validation of our method and apply to healthcare and text classification applications.

  13. [The immuno-endocrine system. A new endocrine theory: the problem of the packed transport].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csaba, György

    2011-05-15

    Since the eighties of the last century hormone content was justified in immune cells (lymphocytes, granulocytes, monocytes, macrophages and mast cells), which produce, store and secrete these hormones. Although the amount of these materials in immune cells is relatively small, the mass of the producers (immune cells) is so large, that the phenomenon must be considered from endocrinological point of view, underlying the important differences between the "classical" and immuno-endocrine systems. Cells of the classic (built-in) endocrine system are mono-producers, while immune cells can synthesize many types of hormones (polyproducers). In addition, these cells can transport the whole hormone-producing machinery to the site of need, producing a local effect. This can be observed, for example, in the case of endorphin producing immune cells during inflammation and during early pregnancy around the chorionic villi. Hormone producing immune cells also have receptors for many hormones, so that they are poly-receivers. Via hormone producing and receiving capacity there is a bidirectional connection between the neuro-endocrine and immuno-endocrine systems. In addition, there is a network inside the immuno-endocrine system. The packed transport theory attempts to explain the mechanism and importance of the immuno-endocrine system.

  14. An off-line dual maximum resource bin packing model for solving the maintenance problem in the aviation industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Cristian Gruia

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the aviation industry, propeller motor engines have a lifecycle of several thousand hours of flight and the maintenance is an important part of their lifecycle. The present article considers a multi-resource, priority-based case scheduling problem, which is applied in a Romanian manufacturing company, that repairs and maintains helicopter and airplane engines at a certain quality level imposed by the aviation standards. Given a reduced budget constraint, the management’s goal is to maximize the utilization of their resources (financial, material, space, workers, by maintaining a prior known priority rule. An Off-Line Dual Maximum Resource Bin Packing model, based on a Mixed Integer Programming model is thus presented. The obtained results show an increase with approx. 25% of the Just in Time shipping of the engines to the customers and approx. 12,5% increase in the utilization of the working area.

  15. AN OFF-LINE DUAL MAXIMUM RESOURCE BIN PACKING MODEL FOR SOLVING THE MAINTENANCE PROBLEM IN THE AVIATION INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGE CRISTIAN GRUIA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the aviation industry, propeller motor engines have a lifecycle of several thousand hours of flight and the maintenance is an important part of their lifecycle. The present article considers a multi-resource, priority-based case scheduling problem, which is applied in a Romanian manufacturing company, that repairs and maintains helicopter and airplane engines at a certain quality level imposed by the aviation standards. Given a reduced budget constraint, the management’s goal is to maximize the utilization of their resources (financial, material, space, workers, by maintaining a prior known priority rule. An Off-Line Dual Maximum Resource Bin Packing model, based on a Mixed Integer Programing model is thus presented. The obtained results show an increase with approx. 25% of the Just in Time shipping of the engines to the customers and approx. 12,5% increase in the utilization of the working area.

  16. Problems of Indexing Classes of News Based on the Computed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    News is classified. Such classes as sports, politics, news on crime, gossips, business, etc., are common amongst newspapers in Nigeria. Interestingly most readers and patrons of newspapers adopt the rule of the thumb in choosing a suitable newspaper to read/buy. However, most newspapers try to cover all classes but ...

  17. Resolving the observer reference class problem in cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friederich, Simon

    2017-06-01

    The assumption that we are typical observers plays a core role in attempts to make multiverse theories empirically testable. A widely shared worry about this assumption is that it suffers from systematic ambiguity concerning the reference class of observers with respect to which typicality is assumed. As a way out, Srednicki and Hartle recommend that we empirically test typicality with respect to different candidate reference classes in analogy to how we test physical theories. Unfortunately, as this paper argues, this idea fails because typicality is not the kind of assumption that can be subjected to empirical tests. As an alternative, a background information constraint on observer reference class choice is suggested according to which the observer reference class should be chosen such that it includes precisely those observers who one could possibly be, given one's assumed background information.

  18. Existence for a class of discrete hyperbolic problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Rodica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the existence and uniqueness of solutions to a class of discrete hyperbolic systems with some nonlinear extreme conditions and initial data, in a real Hilbert space.

  19. Classes of disruptive behavior problems in referred adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijs, P.F.; van Lier, P.A.C.; Verhulst, F.C.; Ferdinand, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have found considerable overlap between attention/hyperactivity problems, aggressive/oppositional problems and delinquent/conduct problems in adolescents. Sampling and Methods: Mothers of 1,965 11- to 18-year-olds (1,116 boys, 849 girls), referred to mental health

  20. Resolving the observer reference class problem in cosmology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friederich, Simon

    2017-01-01

    The assumption that we are typical observers plays a core role in attempts to make multiverse theories empirically testable. A widely shared worry about this assumption is that it suffers from systematic ambiguity concerning the reference class of observers with respect to which typicality is

  1. Minimizers of a Class of Constrained Vectorial Variational Problems: Part I

    KAUST Repository

    Hajaiej, Hichem

    2014-04-18

    In this paper, we prove the existence of minimizers of a class of multiconstrained variational problems. We consider systems involving a nonlinearity that does not satisfy compactness, monotonicity, neither symmetry properties. Our approach hinges on the concentration-compactness approach. In the second part, we will treat orthogonal constrained problems for another class of integrands using density matrices method. © 2014 Springer Basel.

  2. Optimized packings with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pintér, János

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents a selection of case studies that address a substantial range of optimized object packings (OOP) and their applications. The contributing authors are well-recognized researchers and practitioners. The mathematical modelling and numerical solution aspects of each application case study are presented in sufficient detail. A broad range of OOP problems are discussed: these include various specific and non-standard container loading and object packing problems, as well as the stowing of hazardous and other materials on container ships, data centre resource management, automotive engineering design, space station logistic support, cutting and packing problems with placement constraints, the optimal design of LED street lighting, robust sensor deployment strategies, spatial scheduling problems, and graph coloring models and metaheuristics for packing applications. Novel points of view related to model development and to computational nonlinear, global, mixed integer optimization and heuristic st...

  3. Renormalization problem in a class of nonrenormalizable theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symanzik, K.

    1975-08-01

    A possible way to approach the simplest nonrenormalizable theory - phi 4 theory in more than four space-time dimensions - is described. The problems of extension to other nonrenormalizable theories are discussed and the conclusions reached so far are compared with the corresponding ones for renormalizable theories. For more details, Comm. Math. Phys. or DESY 75/12 should be consulted. (BJ) [de

  4. A new class of problems in the calculus of variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekeland, Ivar; Long, Yiming; Zhou, Qinglong

    2013-11-01

    This paper investigates an infinite-horizon problem in the one-dimensional calculus of variations, arising from the Ramsey model of endogeneous economic growth. Following Chichilnisky, we introduce an additional term, which models concern for the well-being of future generations. We show that there are no optimal solutions, but that there are equilibrium strateges, i.e. Nash equilibria of the leader-follower game between successive generations. To solve the problem, we approximate the Chichilnisky criterion by a biexponential criterion, we characterize its equilibria by a pair of coupled differential equations of HJB type, and we go to the limit. We find all the equilibrium strategies for the Chichilnisky criterion. The mathematical analysis is difficult because one has to solve an implicit differential equation in the sense of Thom. Our analysis extends earlier work by Ekeland and Lazrak.

  5. New fuzzy support vector machine for the class imbalance problem in medical datasets classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaoqing; Ni, Tongguang; Wang, Hongyuan

    2014-01-01

    In medical datasets classification, support vector machine (SVM) is considered to be one of the most successful methods. However, most of the real-world medical datasets usually contain some outliers/noise and data often have class imbalance problems. In this paper, a fuzzy support machine (FSVM) for the class imbalance problem (called FSVM-CIP) is presented, which can be seen as a modified class of FSVM by extending manifold regularization and assigning two misclassification costs for two classes. The proposed FSVM-CIP can be used to handle the class imbalance problem in the presence of outliers/noise, and enhance the locality maximum margin. Five real-world medical datasets, breast, heart, hepatitis, BUPA liver, and pima diabetes, from the UCI medical database are employed to illustrate the method presented in this paper. Experimental results on these datasets show the outperformed or comparable effectiveness of FSVM-CIP.

  6. New Fuzzy Support Vector Machine for the Class Imbalance Problem in Medical Datasets Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Gu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In medical datasets classification, support vector machine (SVM is considered to be one of the most successful methods. However, most of the real-world medical datasets usually contain some outliers/noise and data often have class imbalance problems. In this paper, a fuzzy support machine (FSVM for the class imbalance problem (called FSVM-CIP is presented, which can be seen as a modified class of FSVM by extending manifold regularization and assigning two misclassification costs for two classes. The proposed FSVM-CIP can be used to handle the class imbalance problem in the presence of outliers/noise, and enhance the locality maximum margin. Five real-world medical datasets, breast, heart, hepatitis, BUPA liver, and pima diabetes, from the UCI medical database are employed to illustrate the method presented in this paper. Experimental results on these datasets show the outperformed or comparable effectiveness of FSVM-CIP.

  7. Minimizers of a Class of Constrained Vectorial Variational Problems: Part I

    KAUST Repository

    Hajaiej, Hichem; Markowich, Peter A.; Trabelsi, Saber

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we prove the existence of minimizers of a class of multiconstrained variational problems. We consider systems involving a nonlinearity that does not satisfy compactness, monotonicity, neither symmetry properties. Our approach hinges

  8. On a class of O(n²) problems in computational geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gajentaan, A.; Overmars, M.H.

    1993-01-01

    There are many problems in computational geometry for which the best know algorithms take time (n2) (or more) in the worst case while only very low lower bounds are known. In this paper we describe a large class of problems for which we prove that they are all at least as dicult as the following

  9. ADOPTING THE PROBLEM BASED LEARNING APPROACH IN A GIS PROJECT MANAGEMENT CLASS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Problem Based Learning (PBL) is a process that emphasizes the need for developing problem solving skills through hands-on project formulation and management. A class adopting the PBL method provides students with an environment to acquire necessary knowledge to encounter, unders...

  10. Hardness of approximation for strip packing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamaszek, Anna Maria; Kociumaka, Tomasz; Pilipczuk, Marcin

    2017-01-01

    Strip packing is a classical packing problem, where the goal is to pack a set of rectangular objects into a strip of a given width, while minimizing the total height of the packing. The problem has multiple applications, for example, in scheduling and stock-cutting, and has been studied extensively......)-approximation by two independent research groups [FSTTCS 2016,WALCOM 2017]. This raises a questionwhether strip packing with polynomially bounded input data admits a quasi-polynomial time approximation scheme, as is the case for related twodimensional packing problems like maximum independent set of rectangles or two...

  11. Alexithymia and psychosocial problems among Italian preadolescents. A latent class analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannarini, Stefania; Balottin, Laura; Toldo, Irene; Gatta, Michela

    2016-10-01

    The study, conducted on Italian preadolscents aged 11 to 13 belonging to the general population, aims to investigate the relationship between the emotional functioning, namely, alexithymia, and the risk of developing behavioral and emotional problems measured using the Strength and Difficulty Questionnaire. The latent class analysis approach allowed to identify two latent variables, accounting for the internalizing (emotional symptoms and difficulties in emotional awareness) and for the externalizing problems (conduct problems and hyperactivity, problematic relationships with peers, poor prosocial behaviors and externally oriented thinking). The two latent variables featured two latent classes: the difficulty in dealing with problems and the strength to face problems that was representative of most of the healthy participants with specific gender differences. Along with the analysis of psychopathological behaviors, the study of resilience and strengths can prove to be a key step in order to develop valuable preventive approaches to tackle psychiatric disorders. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. A rectangle bin packing optimization approach to the signal scheduling problem in the FlexRay static segment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui ZHAO; Gui-he QIN; Jia-qiao LIU

    2016-01-01

    As FlexRay communication protocol is extensively used in distributed real-time applications on vehicles, signal scheduling in FlexRay network becomes a critical issue to ensure the safe and efficient operation of time-critical applications. In this study, we propose a rectangle bin packing optimization approach to schedule communication signals with timing constraints into the FlexRay static segment at minimum bandwidth cost. The proposed approach, which is based on integer linear program-ming (ILP), supports both the slot assignment mechanisms provided by the latest version of the FlexRay specification, namely, the single sender slot multiplexing, and multiple sender slot multiplexing mechanisms. Extensive experiments on a synthetic and an automotive X-by-wire system case study demonstrate that the proposed approach has a well optimized performance.

  13. The importance of implementation details and parameter settings in black-box optimization: a case study on Gaussian estimation-of-distribution algorithms and circles-in-a-square packing problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A.N. Bosman (Peter); Gallagher, M. (Marcus)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe consider a scalable problem that has strong ties with real-world problems, can be compactly formulated and efficiently evaluated, yet is not trivial to solve and has interesting characteristics that differ from most commonly used benchmark problems: packing n circles in a square

  14. Power Packing

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-08-16

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about how to pack a lunch safely, to help keep you from getting sick.  Created: 8/16/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/16/2011.

  15. Packing Smart

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-08-22

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about packing a lunch that's not boring and is full of the power and energy kids need to make it through the day.  Created: 8/22/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/22/2011.

  16. Class and Home Problems: Humidification, a True "Home" Problem for p. Chemical Engineer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condoret, Jean-Stephane

    2012-01-01

    The problem of maintaining hygrothermal comfort in a house is addressed using the chemical engineer's toolbox. A simple dynamic modelling proved to give a good description of the humidification of the house in winter, using a domestic humidifier. Parameters of the model were identified from a simple experiment. Surprising results, especially…

  17. Optimal Packed String Matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ben-Kiki, Oren; Bille, Philip; Breslauer, Dany

    2011-01-01

    In the packed string matching problem, each machine word accommodates – characters, thus an n-character text occupies n/– memory words. We extend the Crochemore-Perrin constantspace O(n)-time string matching algorithm to run in optimal O(n/–) time and even in real-time, achieving a factor – speed...

  18. An Ensemble Based Evolutionary Approach to the Class Imbalance Problem with Applications in CBIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aun Irtaza

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to lower the dependence on textual annotations for image searches, the content based image retrieval (CBIR has become a popular topic in computer vision. A wide range of CBIR applications consider classification techniques, such as artificial neural networks (ANN, support vector machines (SVM, etc. to understand the query image content to retrieve relevant output. However, in multi-class search environments, the retrieval results are far from optimal due to overlapping semantics amongst subjects of various classes. The classification through multiple classifiers generate better results, but as the number of negative examples increases due to highly correlated semantic classes, classification bias occurs towards the negative class, hence, the combination of the classifiers become even more unstable particularly in one-against-all classification scenarios. In order to resolve this issue, a genetic algorithm (GA based classifier comity learning (GCCL method is presented in this paper to generate stable classifiers by combining ANN with SVMs through asymmetric and symmetric bagging. The proposed approach resolves the classification disagreement amongst different classifiers and also resolves the class imbalance problem in CBIR. Once the stable classifiers are generated, the query image is presented to the trained model to understand the underlying semantic content of the query image for association with the precise semantic class. Afterwards, the feature similarity is computed within the obtained class to generate the semantic response of the system. The experiments reveal that the proposed method outperforms various state-of-the-art methods and significantly improves the image retrieval performance.

  19. A class of neutral functional differential equations and the abstract Cauchy problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentil, D.E. Jr.

    1985-12-01

    In this paper we establish the basic equivalence between the generalized solutions of a certain class of Neutral Functional Differential Equations and the trajectories of the associated abstract Cauchy problem. These results have applications in several fields including Mathematical Biology, Ecology and Control Theory. (author)

  20. Negative Peer Influence in Special Needs Classes--A Risk for Students with Problem Behaviour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Christoph Michael

    2010-01-01

    Children and adolescents with aggressive and delinquent behaviours are often educated in special needs classes with others who exhibit the same kind of challenging behaviour. Beside the opportunities provided by this approach there are also risks, as several studies point to the problem of negative peer influence among this student population.…

  1. Hydrostatic Pressure Project: Linked-Class Problem-Based Learning in Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Freddie J.; Lockwood-Cooke, Pamela; Hunt, Emily M.

    2011-01-01

    Over the last few years, WTAMU Mathematics, Engineering and Science faculty has used interdisciplinary projects as the basis for implementation of a linked-class approach to Problem-Based Learning (PBL). A project that has significant relevance to engineering statics, fluid mechanics, and calculus is the Hydrostatic Pressure Project. This project…

  2. Generalized Pattern Search methods for a class of nonsmooth optimization problems with structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogani, C.; Gasparo, M. G.; Papini, A.

    2009-07-01

    We propose a Generalized Pattern Search (GPS) method to solve a class of nonsmooth minimization problems, where the set of nondifferentiability is included in the union of known hyperplanes and, therefore, is highly structured. Both unconstrained and linearly constrained problems are considered. At each iteration the set of poll directions is enforced to conform to the geometry of both the nondifferentiability set and the boundary of the feasible region, near the current iterate. This is the key issue to guarantee the convergence of certain subsequences of iterates to points which satisfy first-order optimality conditions. Numerical experiments on some classical problems validate the method.

  3. A Class of time-fractional hemivariational inequalities with application to frictional contact problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Shengda; Migórski, Stanisław

    2018-03-01

    In this paper a class of elliptic hemivariational inequalities involving the time-fractional order integral operator is investigated. Exploiting the Rothe method and using the surjectivity of multivalued pseudomonotone operators, a result on existence of solution to the problem is established. Then, this abstract result is applied to provide a theorem on the weak solvability of a fractional viscoelastic contact problem. The process is quasistatic and the constitutive relation is modeled with the fractional Kelvin-Voigt law. The friction and contact conditions are described by the Clarke generalized gradient of nonconvex and nonsmooth functionals. The variational formulation of this problem leads to a fractional hemivariational inequality.

  4. Problems of teaching organisation in combined (Split classes in rural areas of the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leščešen Igor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to negative demographic trends that primarily took hold of rural areas in the Republic of Serbia as early as at the end of the twentieth century - a decline in birth-rate and migrations from rural to urban areas, the question of ever growing number of combined classes and their organisation is being raised. Combined classes in schools do not represent a desirable model that should be aspired to in the organising of educational work in primary education. In fact it is a necessity and practical need in certain social rural areas. Combined classes are increasingly becoming a reality. Village schools make 60 percent of the total number of schools and are attended by only 8 percent of pupils. The larger number of grades a classroom teacher works with in a classroom, the more numerous teaching organisation problems there are. The Educational Strategy of the Republic of Serbia 2011-2120 says that small village schools should be saved since their number will increase in the coming years considering demographic trends. This paper depicts main didactic problems that occur in the process of simultaneous work with students of different ages, in the same room, by one class teacher, as well as the possibility of their solution. Methods used in this paper include theoretical analysis of the existing literature as well as conversations with primary school teachers who teach combined classes.

  5. Solving a class of generalized fractional programming problems using the feasibility of linear programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Peiping; Zhang, Tongli; Wang, Chunfeng

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a new approximation algorithm for globally solving a class of generalized fractional programming problems (P) whose objective functions are defined as an appropriate composition of ratios of affine functions. To solve this problem, the algorithm solves an equivalent optimization problem (Q) via an exploration of a suitably defined nonuniform grid. The main work of the algorithm involves checking the feasibility of linear programs associated with the interesting grid points. It is proved that the proposed algorithm is a fully polynomial time approximation scheme as the ratio terms are fixed in the objective function to problem (P), based on the computational complexity result. In contrast to existing results in literature, the algorithm does not require the assumptions on quasi-concavity or low-rank of the objective function to problem (P). Numerical results are given to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  6. Quantum solution to a class of two-party private summation problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Run-Hua; Zhang, Shun

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we define a class of special two-party private summation (S2PPS) problems and present a common quantum solution to S2PPS problems. Compared to related classical solutions, our solution has advantages of higher security and lower communication complexity, and especially it can ensure the fairness of two parties without the help of a third party. Furthermore, we investigate the practical applications of our proposed S2PPS protocol in many privacy-preserving settings with big data sets, including private similarity decision, anonymous authentication, social networks, secure trade negotiation, secure data mining.

  7. Symmetry Reduction and Cauchy Problems for a Class of Fourth-Order Evolution Equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jina; Zhang Shunli

    2008-01-01

    We exploit higher-order conditional symmetry to reduce initial-value problems for evolution equations to Cauchy problems for systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs). We classify a class of fourth-order evolution equations which admit certain higher-order generalized conditional symmetries (GCSs) and give some examples to show the main reduction procedure. These reductions cannot be derived within the framework of the standard Lie approach, which hints that the technique presented here is something essential for the dimensional reduction of evolution equations

  8. Deterministic indexing for packed strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Skjoldjensen, Frederik Rye

    2017-01-01

    Given a string S of length n, the classic string indexing problem is to preprocess S into a compact data structure that supports efficient subsequent pattern queries. In the deterministic variant the goal is to solve the string indexing problem without any randomization (at preprocessing time...... or query time). In the packed variant the strings are stored with several character in a single word, giving us the opportunity to read multiple characters simultaneously. Our main result is a new string index in the deterministic and packed setting. Given a packed string S of length n over an alphabet σ...

  9. Improving attitudes toward mathematics learning with problem posing in class VIII

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vionita, Alfha; Purboningsih, Dyah

    2017-08-01

    This research is classroom action research which is collaborated to improve student's behavior toward math and mathematics learning at class VIII by using problem posing approach. The subject of research is all of students grade VIIIA which consist of 32 students. This research has been held on two period, first period is about 3 times meeting, and second period is about 4 times meeting. The instrument of this research is implementation of learning observation's guidance by using problem posing approach. Cycle test has been used to measure cognitive competence, and questionnaire to measure the students' behavior in mathematics learning process. The result of research shows the students' behavior has been improving after using problem posing approach. It is showed by the behavior's criteria of students that has increasing result from the average in first period to high in second period. Furthermore, the percentage of test result is also improve from 68,75% in first period to 78,13% in second period. On the other hand, the implementation of learning observation by using problem posing approach has also improving and it is showed by the average percentage of teacher's achievement in first period is 89,2% and student's achievement 85,8%. These results get increase in second period for both teacher and students' achievement which are 94,4% and 91,11%. As a result, students' behavior toward math learning process in class VIII has been improving by using problem posing approach.

  10. Enhancing Higher Order Thinking Skills In A Marine Biology Class Through Problem-Based Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M. Magsino

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to examine students' perspectives of their learning in marine biology in the collaborative group context of Problem-based Learning (PBL. Students’ higher order thinking skills (HOTS using PBL involves the development of their logical thinking and reasoning abilities which stimulates their curiosity and associative thinking. This study aimed to investigate how critical thinking skills, particularly analysis, synthesis and evaluation were enhanced in a marine biology class through PBL. Qualitative research approach was used to examine student responses in a questionnaire involving 10 open-ended questions that target students’ HOTS on a problem presented in a marine biology class for BS Biology students. Using axial coding as a qualitative data analysis technique by which grounded theory can be performed, the study was able to determine how students manifest their higher reasoning abilities when confronted with a marine biology situation. Results show student responses yielding affirmative remarks on the 10 questions intended to know their level of analysis (e.g., analyzing, classifying, inferring, discriminating and relating or connecting, synthesis (e.g., synthesizing and collaborating, and evaluation (e.g., comparing, criticizing, and convincing of information from the presented marine biology problem. Consequently, students were able to effectively design experiments to address the presented issue through problem-based learning. Results of the study show that PBL is an efficient instructional strategy embedded within a conventional curriculum used to develop or enhance critical thinking in marine biology.

  11. On the uniqueness of minimizers for a class of variational problems with Polyconvex integrand

    KAUST Repository

    Awi, Romeo

    2017-02-05

    We prove existence and uniqueness of minimizers for a family of energy functionals that arises in Elasticity and involves polyconvex integrands over a certain subset of displacement maps. This work extends previous results by Awi and Gangbo to a larger class of integrands. First, we study these variational problems over displacements for which the determinant is positive. Second, we consider a limit case in which the functionals are degenerate. In that case, the set of admissible displacements reduces to that of incompressible displacements which are measure preserving maps. Finally, we establish that the minimizer over the set of incompressible maps may be obtained as a limit of minimizers corresponding to a sequence of minimization problems over general displacements provided we have enough regularity on the dual problems. We point out that these results defy the direct methods of the calculus of variations.

  12. Two novel classes of solvable many-body problems of goldfish type with constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calogero, F [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , 00185 Rome (Italy); Gomez-Ullate, D [Departamento de Fisica Teorica II, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2007-05-18

    Two novel classes of many-body models with nonlinear interactions 'of goldfish type' are introduced. They are solvable provided the initial data satisfy a single constraint (in one case; in the other, two constraints), i.e., for such initial data the solution of their initial-value problem can be achieved via algebraic operations, such as finding the eigenvalues of given matrices or equivalently the zeros of known polynomials. Entirely isochronous versions of some of these models are also exhibited, i.e., versions of these models whose nonsingular solutions are all completely periodic with the same period.

  13. Packing in Two and Three Dimensions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martins, Gustavo H

    2003-01-01

    ...), the Multidimensional Knapsack Problem (MD-KP), and the Multidimensional Bin Packing Problem (MD-BPP). In these problems, there is a set of items, with rectangular dimensions, and a set of large containers, or bins, also with rectangular dimensions...

  14. The pursuit of perfect packing

    CERN Document Server

    Weaire, Denis

    2008-01-01

    Coauthored by one of the creators of the most efficient space packing solution, the Weaire-Phelan structure, The Pursuit of Perfect Packing, Second Edition explores a problem of importance in physics, mathematics, chemistry, biology, and engineering: the packing of structures. Maintaining its mathematical core, this edition continues and revises some of the stories from its predecessor while adding several new examples and applications. The book focuses on both scientific and everyday problems ranging from atoms to honeycombs. It describes packing models, such as the Kepler conjecture, Voronoï decomposition, and Delaunay decomposition, as well as actual structure models, such as the Kelvin cell and the Weaire-Phelan structure. The authors discuss numerous historical aspects and provide biographical details on influential contributors to the field, including emails from Thomas Hales and Ken Brakke. With examples from physics, crystallography, engineering, and biology, this accessible and whimsical bo...

  15. Approximation in generalized Hardy classes and resolution of inverse problems for tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, Y.

    2011-11-01

    This thesis concerns both the theoretical and constructive resolution of inverse problems for isotropic diffusion equation in planar domains, simply and doubly connected. From partial Cauchy boundary data (potential, flux), we look for those quantities on the remaining part of the boundary, where no information is available, as well as inside the domain. The proposed approach proceeds by considering solutions to the diffusion equation as real parts of complex valued solutions to some conjugated Beltrami equation. These particular generalized analytic functions allow to introduce Hardy classes, where the inverse problem is stated as a best constrained approximation issue (bounded extrema problem), and thereby is regularized. Hence, existence and smoothness properties, together with density results of traces on the boundary, ensure well-posedness. An application is studied, to a free boundary problem for a magnetically confined plasma in the tokamak Tore Supra (CEA Cadarache France). The resolution of the approximation problem on a suitable basis of functions (toroidal harmonics) leads to a qualification criterion for the estimated plasma boundary. A descent algorithm makes it decrease, and refines the estimations. The method does not require any integration of the solution in the overall domain. It furnishes very accurate numerical results, and could be extended to other devices, like JET or ITER. (author)

  16. Reflective discourse techniques: From in-class discussions to out-of-classroom problem solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wampler, Wendi; Demaree, Dedra; Gilbert, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Instructors often give prompts that encourage students to articulate their beliefs and conceptions, as well as encourage students to understand the thoughts of their peers. This reflective discourse is used in a calculus-based introductory physics class at Lane Community College, where the instructor explicitly has discourse goals integrated into his course structure. We investigate whether students utilize this discourse when solving problems outside of the classroom context. We interviewed groups of students after the end of spring term, 2012. The students were asked to solve open-ended problems, with analysis focused on whether students applied this reflective discourse. Students were asked a series of follow-up questions to reflect upon their experiences in the course.

  17. A class of singular Ro-matrices and extensions to semidefinite linear complementarity problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivakumar K.C.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For ARnxn and qRn, the linear complementarity problem LCP(A, q is to determine if there is xRn such that x ≥ 0; y = Ax + q ≥ 0 and xT y = 0. Such an x is called a solution of LCP(A,q. A is called an Ro-matrix if LCP(A,0 has zero as the only solution. In this article, the class of R0-matrices is extended to include typically singular matrices, by requiring in addition that the solution x above belongs to a subspace of Rn. This idea is then extended to semidefinite linear complementarity problems, where a characterization is presented for the multplicative transformation.

  18. A new class of ensemble conserving algorithms for approximate quantum dynamics: Theoretical formulation and model problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Kyle K. G.; Poulsen, Jens Aage; Nyman, Gunnar; Rossky, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    We develop two classes of quasi-classical dynamics that are shown to conserve the initial quantum ensemble when used in combination with the Feynman-Kleinert approximation of the density operator. These dynamics are used to improve the Feynman-Kleinert implementation of the classical Wigner approximation for the evaluation of quantum time correlation functions known as Feynman-Kleinert linearized path-integral. As shown, both classes of dynamics are able to recover the exact classical and high temperature limits of the quantum time correlation function, while a subset is able to recover the exact harmonic limit. A comparison of the approximate quantum time correlation functions obtained from both classes of dynamics is made with the exact results for the challenging model problems of the quartic and double-well potentials. It is found that these dynamics provide a great improvement over the classical Wigner approximation, in which purely classical dynamics are used. In a special case, our first method becomes identical to centroid molecular dynamics

  19. Distinct patterns of Internet and smartphone-related problems among adolescents by gender: Latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Yup; Lee, Donghwan; Nam, Cho Rong; Kim, Da Yea; Park, Sera; Kwon, Jun-Gun; Kweon, Yong-Sil; Lee, Youngjo; Kim, Dai Jin; Choi, Jung-Seok

    2018-05-23

    Background and objectives The ubiquitous Internet connections by smartphones weakened the traditional boundaries between computers and mobile phones. We sought to explore whether smartphone-related problems differ from those of computer use according to gender using latent class analysis (LCA). Methods After informed consents, 555 Korean middle-school students completed surveys on gaming, Internet use, and smartphone usage patterns. They also completed various psychosocial instruments. LCA was performed for the whole group and by gender. In addition to ANOVA and χ 2 tests, post-hoc tests were conducted to examine differences among the LCA subgroups. Results In the whole group (n = 555), four subtypes were identified: dual-problem users (49.5%), problematic Internet users (7.7%), problematic smartphone users (32.1%), and "healthy" users (10.6%). Dual-problem users scored highest for addictive behaviors and other psychopathologies. The gender-stratified LCA revealed three subtypes for each gender. With dual-problem and healthy subgroup as common, problematic Internet subgroup was classified in the males, whereas problematic smartphone subgroup was classified in the females in the gender-stratified LCA. Thus, distinct patterns were observed according to gender with higher proportion of dual-problem present in males. While gaming was associated with problematic Internet use in males, aggression and impulsivity demonstrated associations with problematic smartphone use in females. Conclusions An increase in the number of digital media-related problems was associated with worse outcomes in various psychosocial scales. Gaming may play a crucial role in males solely displaying Internet-related problems. The heightened impulsivity and aggression seen in our female problematic smartphone users requires further research.

  20. Influence of Problem Based Learning on Critical Thinking Skills and Competence Class VIII SMPN 1 Gunuang Omeh, 2016/2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswan, D. M.; Lufri, L.; Sumarmin, R.

    2018-04-01

    This research intends to determine the effect of Problem Based Learning models on students' critical thinking skills and competences. This study was a quasi-experimental research. The population of the study was the students of class VIII SMPN 1 Subdistrict Gunuang Omeh. Random sample selection is done by randomizing the class. Sample class that was chosen VIII3 as an experimental class given that treatment study based on problems and class VIII1 as control class that treatment usually given study. Instrument that used to consist of critical thinking test, cognitive tests, observation sheet of affective and psychomotor. Independent t-test and Mann Whitney U test was used for the analysis. Results showed that there was significant difference (sig competences.

  1. An Efficient Cost-Sensitive Feature Selection Using Chaos Genetic Algorithm for Class Imbalance Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Bian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the era of big data, feature selection is an essential process in machine learning. Although the class imbalance problem has recently attracted a great deal of attention, little effort has been undertaken to develop feature selection techniques. In addition, most applications involving feature selection focus on classification accuracy but not cost, although costs are important. To cope with imbalance problems, we developed a cost-sensitive feature selection algorithm that adds the cost-based evaluation function of a filter feature selection using a chaos genetic algorithm, referred to as CSFSG. The evaluation function considers both feature-acquiring costs (test costs and misclassification costs in the field of network security, thereby weakening the influence of many instances from the majority of classes in large-scale datasets. The CSFSG algorithm reduces the total cost of feature selection and trades off both factors. The behavior of the CSFSG algorithm is tested on a large-scale dataset of network security, using two kinds of classifiers: C4.5 and k-nearest neighbor (KNN. The results of the experimental research show that the approach is efficient and able to effectively improve classification accuracy and to decrease classification time. In addition, the results of our method are more promising than the results of other cost-sensitive feature selection algorithms.

  2. Personality types in childhood: relations to latent trajectory classes of problem behavior and overreactive parenting across the transition into adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Akker, A.L.; Deković, M.; Asscher, J.J.; Shiner, R.L.; Prinzie, P.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated relations among children's personality types, trajectories of internalizing and externalizing problems, and overreactive parenting across 6 years. Latent Class Analysis of the Big 5 personality dimensions (modeled as latent factors, based on mother, father and teacher

  3. [Research progress on standards of commodity classes of Chinese materia medica and discussion on several key problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Zeng, Yan; Guo, Lan-Ping; Huang, Lu-Qi; Jin, Yan; Zheng, Yu-Guang; Wang, Yong-Yan

    2014-05-01

    Standards of commodity classes of Chinese materia medica is an important way to solve the "Lemons Problem" of traditional Chinese medicine market. Standards of commodity classes are also helpful to rebuild market mechanisms for "high price for good quality". The previous edition of commodity classes standards of Chinese materia medica was made 30 years ago. It is no longer adapted to the market demand. This article researched progress on standards of commodity classes of Chinese materia medica. It considered that biological activity is a better choice than chemical constituents for standards of commodity classes of Chinese materia medica. It is also considered that the key point to set standards of commodity classes is finding the influencing factors between "good quality" and "bad quality". The article also discussed the range of commodity classes of Chinese materia medica, and how to coordinate standards of pharmacopoeia and commodity classes. According to different demands, diversiform standards can be used in commodity classes of Chinese materia medica, but efficacy is considered the most important index of commodity standard. Decoction pieces can be included in standards of commodity classes of Chinese materia medica. The authors also formulated the standards of commodity classes of Notoginseng Radix as an example, and hope this study can make a positive and promotion effect on traditional Chinese medicine market related research.

  4. The pursuit of perfect packing

    CERN Document Server

    Weaire, Denis

    2000-01-01

    In 1998 Thomas Hales dramatically announced the solution of a problem that has long teased eminent mathematicians: what is the densest possible arrangement of identical spheres? The Pursuit of Perfect Packing recounts the story of this problem and many others that have to do with packing things together. The examples are taken from mathematics, physics, biology, and engineering, including the arrangement of soap bubbles in foam, atoms in a crystal, the architecture of the bee''s honeycomb, and the structure of the Giant''s Causeway. Using an informal style and with key references, the book also includes brief accounts of the lives of many of the scientists who devoted themselves to problems of packing over many centuries, together with wry comments on their efforts. It is an entertaining introduction to the field for both specialists and the more general public.

  5. Classification of cancerous cells based on the one-class problem approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murshed, Nabeel A.; Bortolozzi, Flavio; Sabourin, Robert

    1996-03-01

    One of the most important factors in reducing the effect of cancerous diseases is the early diagnosis, which requires a good and a robust method. With the advancement of computer technologies and digital image processing, the development of a computer-based system has become feasible. In this paper, we introduce a new approach for the detection of cancerous cells. This approach is based on the one-class problem approach, through which the classification system need only be trained with patterns of cancerous cells. This reduces the burden of the training task by about 50%. Based on this approach, a computer-based classification system is developed, based on the Fuzzy ARTMAP neural networks. Experimental results were performed using a set of 542 patterns taken from a sample of breast cancer. Results of the experiment show 98% correct identification of cancerous cells and 95% correct identification of non-cancerous cells.

  6. ExactPack Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singleton, Robert Jr. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Israel, Daniel M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Doebling, Scott William [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Woods, Charles Nathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kaul, Ann [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Walter, John William Jr [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rogers, Michael Lloyd [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2016-05-09

    For code verification, one compares the code output against known exact solutions. There are many standard test problems used in this capacity, such as the Noh and Sedov problems. ExactPack is a utility that integrates many of these exact solution codes into a common API (application program interface), and can be used as a stand-alone code or as a python package. ExactPack consists of python driver scripts that access a library of exact solutions written in Fortran or Python. The spatial profiles of the relevant physical quantities, such as the density, fluid velocity, sound speed, or internal energy, are returned at a time specified by the user. The solution profiles can be viewed and examined by a command line interface or a graphical user interface, and a number of analysis tools and unit tests are also provided. We have documented the physics of each problem in the solution library, and provided complete documentation on how to extend the library to include additional exact solutions. ExactPack’s code architecture makes it easy to extend the solution-code library to include additional exact solutions in a robust, reliable, and maintainable manner.

  7. Slow Learner Errors Analysis in Solving Fractions Problems in Inclusive Junior High School Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novitasari, N.; Lukito, A.; Ekawati, R.

    2018-01-01

    A slow learner whose IQ is between 71 and 89 will have difficulties in solving mathematics problems that often lead to errors. The errors could be analyzed to where the errors may occur and its type. This research is qualitative descriptive which aims to describe the locations, types, and causes of slow learner errors in the inclusive junior high school class in solving the fraction problem. The subject of this research is one slow learner of seventh-grade student which was selected through direct observation by the researcher and through discussion with mathematics teacher and special tutor which handles the slow learner students. Data collection methods used in this study are written tasks and semistructured interviews. The collected data was analyzed by Newman’s Error Analysis (NEA). Results show that there are four locations of errors, namely comprehension, transformation, process skills, and encoding errors. There are four types of errors, such as concept, principle, algorithm, and counting errors. The results of this error analysis will help teachers to identify the causes of the errors made by the slow learner.

  8. Non-surgical alternative in the treatment of skeletal Class III problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Y

    1995-01-01

    The dental profession is not static, but dynamic. New research findings, along with medical and technological advances, necessitate constant re-examination of treatment philosophies and techniques. What were acceptable treatment techniques in the past may not necessarily be the most effective and best techniques for our patients today. Currently, many practitioners feel that the only treatment for the correction of a skeletal Class III abnormality is via orthognathic surgery in older patients. In some cases it may be the only treatment option. But in most cases today, there are more conservative, non-surgical treatment alternatives in correcting Class III problems in younger aged children. In treating facial-skeletal problems, it must be emphasized that the human face is a biological masterpiece of form and function. Its importance has been documented in arts and sciences since the beginning of modern civilization. It is important enough so that individuals who are blessed with attractive features are afforded greater opportunities in our society. Attractive faces are associated with intelligence, honesty and good work ethics. With the advent of orthognathic surgery, functional appliance, functional regulator, and myofunctional therapy, the dental profession has the capability of leveling out the playing field for many individuals in our society. It does so by being able to correct problems closely associated with the human psyche--the human face. The ability to change facial features brings tremendous prestige to our profession. Along with this prestige comes greater responsibility. Our ability to change facial features entails greater understanding of facial balance and harmony. Ricketts states that the face must conform to stringent proportions known as the "divine proportion" in order for it to be esthetically pleasing. Also, our ability to move facial-skeletal structures entails greater understanding of the biomechanics of the human face. Without this

  9. Polarizable protein packing

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Albert H.

    2011-01-24

    To incorporate protein polarization effects within a protein combinatorial optimization framework, we decompose the polarizable force field AMOEBA into low order terms. Including terms up to the third-order provides a fair approximation to the full energy while maintaining tractability. We represent the polarizable packing problem for protein G as a hypergraph and solve for optimal rotamers with the FASTER combinatorial optimization algorithm. These approximate energy models can be improved to high accuracy [root mean square deviation (rmsd) < 1 kJ mol -1] via ridge regression. The resulting trained approximations are used to efficiently identify new, low-energy solutions. The approach is general and should allow combinatorial optimization of other many-body problems. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Comput Chem, 2011 Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Poly-Cross-Linked PEI Through Aromatically Conjugated Imine Linkages as a New Class of pH-Responsive Nucleic Acids Packing Cationic Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shun; Jin, Tuo

    2016-01-01

    Cationic polyimines polymerized through aromatically conjugated bis-imine linkages and intra-molecular cross-linking were found to be a new class of effective transfection materials for their flexibility in structural optimization, responsiveness to intracellular environment, the ability to facilitate endosome escape and cytosol release of the nucleic acids, as well as self-metabolism. When three phthalaldehydes of different substitution positions were used to polymerize highly branched low-molecular weight polyethylenimine (PEI 1.8K), the product through ortho-phthalimines (named PPOP) showed significantly higher transfection activity than its two tere- and iso-analogs (named PPTP and PPIP). Physicochemical characterization confirmed the similarity of three polyimines in pH-responded degradability, buffer capacity, as well as the size and Zeta potential of the polyplexes formed from the polymers. A mechanistic speculation may be that the ortho-positioned bis-imine linkage of PPOP may only lead to the straight trans-configuration due to steric hindrance, resulting in larger loops of intra-polymer cross-linking and more flexible backbone. PMID:26869931

  11. Co-development of Problem Gambling and Depression Symptoms in Emerging Adults: A Parallel-Process Latent Class Growth Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgerton, Jason D; Keough, Matthew T; Roberts, Lance W

    2018-02-21

    This study examines whether there are multiple joint trajectories of depression and problem gambling co-development in a sample of emerging adults. Data were from the Manitoba Longitudinal Study of Young Adults (n = 679), which was collected in 4 waves across 5 years (age 18-20 at baseline). Parallel process latent class growth modeling was used to identified 5 joint trajectory classes: low decreasing gambling, low increasing depression (81%); low stable gambling, moderate decreasing depression (9%); low stable gambling, high decreasing depression (5%); low stable gambling, moderate stable depression (3%); moderate stable problem gambling, no depression (2%). There was no evidence of reciprocal growth in problem gambling and depression in any of the joint classes. Multinomial logistic regression analyses of baseline risk and protective factors found that only neuroticism, escape-avoidance coping, and perceived level of family social support were significant predictors of joint trajectory class membership. Consistent with the pathways model framework, we observed that individuals in the problem gambling only class were more likely using gambling as a stable way to cope with negative emotions. Similarly, high levels of neuroticism and low levels of family support were associated with increased odds of being in a class with moderate to high levels of depressive symptoms (but low gambling problems). The results suggest that interventions for problem gambling and/or depression need to focus on promoting more adaptive coping skills among more "at-risk" young adults, and such interventions should be tailored in relation to specific subtypes of comorbid mental illness.

  12. Shoulder pain -- a common problem in world-class badminton players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlström, Martin; Yeap, Joo Seng; Alfredson, Håkan; Söderman, Kerstin

    2006-06-01

    Badminton is a sport that requires a lot of over-shoulder motion, with the shoulder in abduction/external rotation. This questionnaire study on 188 international top-level badminton players during the World Mixed Team Championships showed that previous or present shoulder pain on the dominant side was reported by 52% of the players. Previous shoulder pain was reported by 37% of the players and on-going shoulder pain by 20% of the players. There were no significant differences in the prevalence of shoulder pain between men and women. The majority of the shoulder pain had started gradually. The pain was usually associated with shoulder activity, and stiffness was a common, associated symptom. Furthermore, the shoulder pain was associated with consequences such as sleeping disturbances, changes in training and competition habits, and it also affected activities of daily living. The majority of the players had sought medical advice and had been given different kinds of treatment. The study showed that shoulder pain is a common and significant problem in world-class badminton players, and the consequences are most likely of importance for their training and playing capacity.

  13. Stunden abstract. Der Einsatz von Nachrichten im Leistungskurs "Social Problems" (Class-Hour Plan. The Introduction of News in the Honors Course "Social Problems")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegler, Klaus

    1977-01-01

    Gives a detailed ESL (English as a second language) class-hour plan for using a BBC radio news program on vandalism as a social problem. Teaching goals, teaching materials and methodology are discussed. The working texts are appended; the news tests are available free from the author. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  14. Domain Discretization and Circle Packings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Kealey

    A circle packing is a configuration of circles which are tangent with one another in a prescribed pattern determined by a combinatorial triangulation, where the configuration fills a planar domain or a two-dimensional surface. The vertices in the triangulation correspond to centers of circles...... to domain discretization problems such as triangulation and unstructured mesh generation techniques. We wish to ask ourselves the question: given a cloud of points in the plane (we restrict ourselves to planar domains), is it possible to construct a circle packing preserving the positions of the vertices...... and constrained meshes having predefined vertices as constraints. A standard method of two-dimensional mesh generation involves conformal mapping of the surface or domain to standardized shapes, such as a disk. Since circle packing is a new technique for constructing discrete conformal mappings, it is possible...

  15. The advantages of hydraulic packing extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, R.S.

    1991-01-01

    Today's competitive environment, coupled with industry's desire to improve the efficiency of plant maintenance and operations, has management continually seeking ways to save time, money, and, at nuclear plants, radiation exposure. One area where a tremendous improvement in efficiency can be realized is valve packing removal. For example, industry experience indicates that up to 70% of the time it takes to repack a valve can be spent just removing the old packing. In some case, the bonnets of small valves are removed to facilitate packing removal and prevent stem and stuffing box damage that can occur when using packing removal picks. In other cases, small valves are simply removed and discarded because it costs less to replace the valves than to remove the packing using conventional methods. Hydraulic packing extraction greatly reduces packing removal time and will not damage the stem nor stuffing box, thus eliminating the need for bonnet removal or valve replacement. This paper will review some of the more common problems associated with manual packing extraction techniques. It will explain how hydraulic packing extraction eliminates or greatly reduces the impact of each of the problem areas. A discussion will be provided of some actual industry operating experiences related to success stories using hydraulic packing extraction. The paper will also briefly describe the operating parameters associated with hydraulic packing extraction tools. Throughout the paper, actual operating experiences from the nuclear power, fossil power, petrochemical, and refinery industries will be used to support the conclusion that hydraulic packing extraction is an alternative that can save time, money, and exposure

  16. The Initial and Neumann Boundary Value Problem for a Class Parabolic Monge-Ampère Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the existence, uniqueness, and asymptotic behavior of a classical solution to the initial and Neumann boundary value problem for a class nonlinear parabolic equation of Monge-Ampère type. We show that such solution exists for all times and is unique. It converges eventually to a solution that satisfies a Neumann type problem for nonlinear elliptic equation of Monge-Ampère type.

  17. Existence theorem and optimality conditions for a class of convex semi-infinite problems with noncompact index sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Kostyukova

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to study of a special class of semi-infinite problems arising in nonlinear parametric Semi-infinite Programming, when the differential properties of the solutions are being studied. These problems are convex and possess noncompact index sets. In the paper, we present conditions guaranteeing the existence of optimal solutions, and prove new optimality criterion. An example illustrating the obtained results is presented.

  18. Modi ed strip packing heuristics for the rectangular variable-sized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two packing problems are considered in this paper, namely the well-known strip packing problem (SPP) and the variable-sized bin packing problem (VSBPP). A total of 252 strip packing heuristics (and variations thereof) from the literature, as well as novel heuristics proposed by the authors, are compared statistically by ...

  19. THE INTEGRATED LAYOUT DECISIONS FOR AUTOMATIC CONTROL OF PACKING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Volodin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available On many industrial objects regulators of pressure are used. Following initial data are necessary for proper selection of a regulator and calculation of throughput: a working environment, entrance and target pressure, expense, temperature of a working environment, accuracy of regulation, a class of tightness, diameter of the pipeline, type of accession, constructional materials, external or internal registration of target pressure, protection against excess of pressure.The decision of this problem is closely connected with the proved choice of types of the process equipment, wide automation of technological processes, introduction of new technical decisions, use of necessary means of the control over realization of problems of complex mechanization of technological operations. In article the analysis of work of the functional module of a vertical multiline automatic packing machine on the basis of a proportional regulator of pressure «CAMOZZI» with realization of a feedback by means of an analog signal of regulator МХ-PRO [1-3] is lead. The drive of the holder for a rolled material has been tested on proportional management of position of the directing rollers used on a technological site of supply and regulation of a tension of a tape of a roll of a packing material at formation of packing.Results on use as the operating module of regulator МХ-PRO for management of a drive of the holder for a roll of a material in view of a course and pressure in a pneumatic system are received. Carried out researches provide the way to raise operational properties of a transportation system of supply of a packing material for technological processes of packing modules at the food enterprises.

  20. On a class of problems on interaction of stress concentrators of different types with an elastic semi-infinite plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkhitaryan, S. M.

    2018-04-01

    A class of mixed boundary-value problems of mathematical theory of elasticity dealing with interaction between stress concentrators of different types (such as cracks, absolutely rigid thin inclusions, punches, and stringers) and an elastic semi-infinite plate is considered. The method of Mellin integral transformation is used to reduce solving these problems to solving singular integral equations (SIE). After the governing SIE are solved, the following characteristics of the problem are determined: tangential contact stresses under stringers, dislocation density on the crack edges, breaking stresses outside the cracks on their line of location, the stress intensity factor (SIF), crack openings, jumps of contact stresses on the edges of inclusions.

  1. Priority classes and weighted constrained equal awards rules for the claims problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szwagrzak, Karol

    2015-01-01

    . They are priority-augmented versions of the standard weighted constrained equal awards rules, also known as weighted gains methods (Moulin, 2000): individuals are sorted into priority classes; the resource is distributed among the individuals in the first priority class using a weighted constrained equal awards...... rule; if some of the resource is left over, then it is distributed among the individuals in the second priority class, again using a weighted constrained equal awards rule; the distribution carries on in this way until the resource is exhausted. Our characterization extends to a generalized version...

  2. The complexity of the matching-cut problem for planar graphs and other graph classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonsma, P.S.

    2009-01-01

    The Matching-Cut problem is the problem to decide whether a graph has an edge cut that is also a matching. Previously this problem was studied under the name of the Decomposable Graph Recognition problem, and proved to be -complete when restricted to graphs with maximum degree four. In this paper it

  3. Cost Cumulant-Based Control for a Class of Linear Quadratic Tracking Problems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pham, Khanh D

    2007-01-01

    .... For instance, the present paper extends the application of cost-cumulant controller design to control of a wide class of linear-quadratic tracking systems where output measurements of a tracker...

  4. Does Post Septoplasty Nasal Packing Reduce Complications?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Naghibzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The main issues in nasal surgery are to stabilize the nose in the good position after surgery and preserve the cartilages and bones in the favorable situation and reduce the risk of deviation recurrence. Also it is necessary to avoid the synechia formation, nasal valve narrowing, hematoma and bleeding. Due to the above mentioned problems and in order to solve and minimize them nasal packing, nasal splint and nasal mold have been advised. Patients for whom the nasal packing used may faced to some problems like naso-pulmonary reflex, intractable pain, sleep disorder, post operation infection and very dangerous complication like toxic shock syndrome. We have two groups of patients and three surgeons (one of the surgeons used post operative nasal packing in his patients and the two others surgeons did not.Complications and morbidities were compared in these two groups. Comparing the two groups showed that the rate of complication and morbidities between these two groups were same and the differences were not valuable, except the pain and discomfort post operatively and at the time of its removal. Nasal packing has several risks for the patients while its effects are not studied. Septoplasty can be safely performed without postoperative nasal packing. Nasal packing had no main findings that compensated its usage. Septal suture is one of the procedures that can be used as alternative method to nasal packing. Therefore the nasal packing after septoplasty should be reserved for the patients with increased risk of bleeding.

  5. Valve-stem-packing improvement study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adey, C.W.; Klein, J.J.

    1982-08-01

    By employing questionnaires and face-to-face interviews with valve and valve packing manufacturers, as well as nuclear plant personnel, an understanding of valve stem packing leakage problems from each of the three viewpoints was developed. This information, in-house experience, and available technical literature were used to develop specific recommendations for valve manufacturers, valve packing manufacturers, and nuclear plant valve users. It was generally recommended that each these groups make better use of graphite packing. The questionnaires and interviews indicated that increased usage of graphite packing over the last few years has reduced the incidence of valve packing problems. To confirm this, a survey of Licensee Event Reports (LERs) from 1972 to 1980 was undertaken using the keywords Valve and Packing. A statistical analysis of the LER data confirms that the adoption of graphite packing has significantly reduced valve stem leakage

  6. Approximation algorithms for facility location problems with a special class of subadditive cost functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gabor, A.F.; Ommeren, van J.C.W.

    2006-01-01

    In this article we focus on approximation algorithms for facility location problems with subadditive costs. As examples of such problems, we present three facility location problems with stochastic demand and exponential servers, respectively inventory. We present a (1+e,1)-reduction of the facility

  7. Approximation algorithms for facility location problems with a special class of subadditive cost functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gabor, Adriana F.; van Ommeren, Jan C.W.

    2006-01-01

    In this article we focus on approximation algorithms for facility location problems with subadditive costs. As examples of such problems, we present three facility location problems with stochastic demand and exponential servers, respectively inventory. We present a $(1+\\varepsilon, 1)$-reduction of

  8. Linked-Class Problem-Based Learning in Engineering: Method and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Emily M.; Lockwood-Cooke, Pamela; Kelley, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Problem-Based Learning (PBL) is a problem-centered teaching method with exciting potential in engineering education for motivating and enhancing student learning. Implementation of PBL in engineering education has the potential to bridge the gap between theory and practice. Two common problems are encountered when attempting to integrate PBL into…

  9. Tunable random packings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumay, G; Vandewalle, N

    2007-01-01

    We present an experimental protocol that allows one to tune the packing fraction η of a random pile of ferromagnetic spheres from a value close to the lower limit of random loose packing η RLP ≅0.56 to the upper limit of random close packing η RCP ≅0.64. This broad range of packing fraction values is obtained under normal gravity in air, by adjusting a magnetic cohesion between the grains during the formation of the pile. Attractive and repulsive magnetic interactions are found to affect stongly the internal structure and the stability of sphere packing. After the formation of the pile, the induced cohesion is decreased continuously along a linear decreasing ramp. The controlled collapse of the pile is found to generate various and reproducible values of the random packing fraction η

  10. The influence of mechatronic learning systems on creative problem solving of pupils participating in technology class A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Christian Tönnsen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Without being creative and finding solutions for various problems of life mankind wouldn’t be what it is today. Problem solving always has been a key ability for development, in the past, the present and it will also be a key for the future. Creative problem solving is one of the most important ways of technical thinking and acting. Therefore, the ability of finding solutions for problems and realizing them is a primary goal for technological education, especially if it is part of a comprehensive school education. It can be assumed that the available resources affect the possibilities and the result of problem solving processes. In terms of technology classes there are numerous resources that aim for the development of pupils’ creative problem solving skills like for instance mechatronic educational environments (MEEs. Unfortunately there is currently no test instrument for rating the influence of these MEEs on the outcome in terms of creative technical problem solving processes. Therefore, we designed a trial for such purpose and tested it in a pilot study: 33 students (9th grade, average age of 15.24 years of comprehensive schools were given a problem, which had to be solved using three different MEEs. Solutions found by the students have been documented and analyzed to identify system characteristics which enhance or inhibit the creative outcome.Key words: Creative problem solving, technology education, mechatronic educational environments, Festo MecLab, Fischertechnik RoboTX, Lego Mindstorms EV3

  11. Fast Searching in Packed Strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip

    2009-01-01

    Given strings P and Q the (exact) string matching problem is to find all positions of substrings in Q matching P. The classical Knuth-Morris-Pratt algorithm [SIAM J. Comput., 1977] solves the string matching problem in linear time which is optimal if we can only read one character at the time....... However, most strings are stored in a computer in a packed representation with several characters in a single word, giving us the opportunity to read multiple characters simultaneously. In this paper we study the worst-case complexity of string matching on strings given in packed representation. Let m...... word-RAM with logarithmic word size we present an algorithm using time O(n/log(sigma) n + m + occ) Here occ is the number of occurrences of P in Q. For m = o(n) this improves the O(n) bound...

  12. On The Fekete-Szegö Problem for Generalized Class Mα,γ(β Defined By Differential Operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fethiye Müge SAKAR

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study the classical Fekete-Szegö problem was investigated. Given f(z=z+a2z2+a3z3+...  to be an analytic standartly normalized function in the open unit disk U={z ∈ C : |z|<1}. For |a3-μa22|, a sharp maximum value is provided through the classes of S*α,γ(β order β and type α under the condition of μ≥1.

  13. Problems in the acquisition of Noun Class 11 among Xhosa children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While there has been research on the partial or complete merger of Noun Classes 5 and 11 in a number of Bantu languages, no study has focused specifically on the acquisition of Cl. 11 by Xhosa-speaking children. In this paper we test our hypothesis that Xhosa-speaking children in both urban and rural areas no longer, ...

  14. A class of constitutive relations with internal variable derivatives. Derivation from homogenization and initial value problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrieux, S.; Joussemet, M.; Lorentz, E.

    1996-01-01

    A general framework for deriving and using a class of constitutive laws incorporating spatial gradients of internal variables is presented. It uses two basic ingredients: a derivation of such models by homogenization techniques and a reformulation of the evolution equation at the scale of the whole structure. (orig.)

  15. Developing and Evaluating Medical Humanities Problem-Based Learning Classes Facilitated by the Teaching Assistants Majored in the Liberal Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Fen-Yu; Shieh, Jeng-Yi; Kao, Tze-Wah; Wu, Chau-Chung; Chu, Tzong-Shinn; Chen, Yen-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although medical humanities courses taught by teachers from nonmedical backgrounds are not unusual now, few studies have compared the outcome of medical humanities courses facilitated by physicians to that by teaching assistants majored in the liberal arts. The objectives of this study were to (1) analyze the satisfaction of medical students with medical humanities problem-based learning (PBL) classes facilitated by nonmedical teaching assistants (TAF) majored in the liberal arts, and those facilitated by the attending physicians (APF) and (2) examine the satisfaction of medical students with clinical medicine-related and clinical medicine-unrelated medical humanities PBL classes. A total of 123 medical students, randomly assigned to 16 groups, participated in this study. There were 16 classes in the course: 8 of them were TAF classes; and the others were APF classes. Each week, each group rotated from 1 subject of the 16 subjects of PBL to another subject. All of the 16 groups went through all the 16 subjects in the 2013 spring semester. We examined the medical students’ satisfaction with each class, based on a rating score collected after each class was completed, using a scale from 0 (the lowest satisfaction) to 100 (the highest satisfaction). We also conducted multivariate linear regression analysis to examine the association between the independent variables and the students’ satisfaction. Medical students were more satisfied with the TAF (91.35 ± 7.75) medical humanities PBL classes than APF (90.40 ± 8.42) medical humanities PBL classes (P = 0.01). Moreover, medical students were more satisfied with the clinical medicine-unrelated topics (92.00 ± 7.10) than the clinical medicine-related topics (90.36 ± 7.99) in the medical humanities PBL course (P = 0.01). This medical humanities PBL course, including nonmedical subjects and topics, and nonmedical teaching assistants from the liberal arts as class facilitators, was

  16. Development of an effective valve packing program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, K.A.

    1996-12-01

    Current data now shows that graphite valve packing installed within the guidance of a controlled program produces not only reliable stem sealing but predictable running loads. By utilizing recent technological developments in valve performance monitoring for both MOV`s and AOV`s, valve packing performance can be enhanced while reducing maintenance costs. Once known, values are established for acceptable valve packing loads, the measurement of actual valve running loads via the current MOV/AOV diagnostic techniques can provide indication of future valve stem sealing problems, improper valve packing installation or identify the opportunity for valve packing program improvements. At times the full benefit of these advances in material and predictive technology remain under utilized due to simple past misconceptions associated with valve packing. This paper will explore the basis for these misconceptions, provide general insight into the current understanding of valve packing and demonstrate how with this new understanding and current valve diagnostic equipment the key aspects required to develop an effective, quality valve packing program fit together. The cost and operational benefits provided by this approach can be significant impact by the: elimination of periodic valve repacking, reduction of maintenance costs, benefits of leak-free valve operation, justification for reduced Post Maintenance Test Requirements, reduced radiation exposure, improved plant appearance.

  17. Symmetry analysis and exact solutions of one class of (1+3)-dimensional boundary-value problems of the Stefan type

    OpenAIRE

    Kovalenko, S. S.

    2014-01-01

    We present the group classification of one class of (1+3)-dimensional nonlinear boundary-value problems of the Stefan type that simulate the processes of melting and evaporation of metals. The results obtained are used for the construction of the exact solution of one boundary-value problem from the class under study.

  18. The Effects of Authentic Tasks on Preservice Teachers' Attitudes towards Classes and Problem Solving Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocyigit, Sinan; Zembat, Rengin

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of authentic tasks on preschool preservice teachers' attitudes towards the course and problem solving skills. The study was designed in accordance with the pretest-posttest control group model. The data were collected by using the "Problem Solving Skills Inventory", the "Course Attitude…

  19. Packing Degenerate Graphs Greedily

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Allen, P.; Böttcher, J.; Hladký, J.; Piguet, Diana

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 61, August (2017), s. 45-51 ISSN 1571-0653 R&D Projects: GA ČR GJ16-07822Y Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : tree packing conjecture * graph packing * graph processes Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics

  20. Diagnosis of class using swarm intelligence applied to problem of identification of nuclear transient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villas Boas Junior, Manoel; Strauss, Edilberto, E-mail: junior@lmp.ufrj.b [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Ceara/ Universidade do Estado do Ceara, Itaperi, CE (Brazil). Mestrado Integrado em Computacao Aplicada; Nicolau, Andressa dos Santos; Schirru, Roberto, E-mail: andressa@lmp.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Mello, Flavio Luis de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (POLI/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Eletronica e Computacao

    2011-07-01

    This article presents a computational model of the diagnostic system of transient. The model makes use of segmentation techniques applied to support decision making, based on identification of classes and optimized by Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm (PSO). The method proposed aims to classify an anomalous event in the signatures of three classes of the design basis transients postulated for the Angra 2 nuclear plant, where the PSO algorithm is used as a method of separation of classes, being responsible for finding the best centroid prototype vector of each accident/transient, ie equivalent to Voronoi vector that maximizes the number of correct classifications. To make the calculation of similarity between the set of the variables anomalous event in a given time t, and the prototype vector of variables of accident/transients, the metrics of Manhattan, Euclidean and Minkowski were used. The results obtained by the method proposed were compatible with others methods reported in the literature, allowing a solution that approximates the ideal solution, ie the Voronoi vectors. (author)

  1. Diagnosis of class using swarm intelligence applied to problem of identification of nuclear transient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villas Boas Junior, Manoel; Strauss, Edilberto; Nicolau, Andressa dos Santos; Schirru, Roberto; Mello, Flavio Luis de

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a computational model of the diagnostic system of transient. The model makes use of segmentation techniques applied to support decision making, based on identification of classes and optimized by Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm (PSO). The method proposed aims to classify an anomalous event in the signatures of three classes of the design basis transients postulated for the Angra 2 nuclear plant, where the PSO algorithm is used as a method of separation of classes, being responsible for finding the best centroid prototype vector of each accident/transient, ie equivalent to Voronoi vector that maximizes the number of correct classifications. To make the calculation of similarity between the set of the variables anomalous event in a given time t, and the prototype vector of variables of accident/transients, the metrics of Manhattan, Euclidean and Minkowski were used. The results obtained by the method proposed were compatible with others methods reported in the literature, allowing a solution that approximates the ideal solution, ie the Voronoi vectors. (author)

  2. Packing force data correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiman, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    One of the issues facing valve maintenance personnel today deals with an appropriate methodology for installing and setting valve packing that will minimize leak rates, yet ensure functionality of the the valve under all anticipated operating conditions. Several variables can affect a valve packing's ability to seal, such as packing bolt torque, stem finish, and lubrication. Stem frictional force can be an excellent overall indicator of some of the underlying conditions that affect the sealing characteristics of the packing and the best parameter to use when adjusting the packing. This paper addresses stem friction forces, analytically derives the equations related to these forces, presents a methodology for measuring these forces on valve stems, and attempts to correlate the data directly to the underlying variables

  3. An Augmented Lagrangian Method for a Class of Inverse Quadratic Programming Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jianzhong; Zhang Liwei

    2010-01-01

    We consider an inverse quadratic programming (QP) problem in which the parameters in the objective function of a given QP problem are adjusted as little as possible so that a known feasible solution becomes the optimal one. We formulate this problem as a minimization problem with a positive semidefinite cone constraint and its dual is a linearly constrained semismoothly differentiable (SC 1 ) convex programming problem with fewer variables than the original one. We demonstrate the global convergence of the augmented Lagrangian method for the dual problem and prove that the convergence rate of primal iterates, generated by the augmented Lagrange method, is proportional to 1/r, and the rate of multiplier iterates is proportional to 1/√r, where r is the penalty parameter in the augmented Lagrangian. As the objective function of the dual problem is a SC 1 function involving the projection operator onto the cone of symmetrically semi-definite matrices, the analysis requires extensive tools such as the singular value decomposition of matrices, an implicit function theorem for semismooth functions, and properties of the projection operator in the symmetric-matrix space. Furthermore, the semismooth Newton method with Armijo line search is applied to solve the subproblems in the augmented Lagrange approach, which is proven to have global convergence and local quadratic rate. Finally numerical results, implemented by the augmented Lagrangian method, are reported.

  4. The Artificial Neural Networks Based on Scalarization Method for a Class of Bilevel Biobjective Programming Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhong; Liu, June; Li, Xiong

    2017-01-01

    A two-stage artificial neural network (ANN) based on scalarization method is proposed for bilevel biobjective programming problem (BLBOP). The induced set of the BLBOP is firstly expressed as the set of minimal solutions of a biobjective optimization problem by using scalar approach, and then the whole efficient set of the BLBOP is derived by the proposed two-stage ANN for exploring the induced set. In order to illustrate the proposed method, seven numerical examples are tested and compared with results in the classical literature. Finally, a practical problem is solved by the proposed algorithm. PMID:29312446

  5. On the Inclusion of Difference Equation Problems and Z Transform Methods in Sophomore Differential Equation Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoye, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, I started covering difference equations and z transform methods in my introductory differential equations course. This allowed my students to extend the "classical" methods for (ordinary differential equation) ODE's to discrete time problems arising in many applications.

  6. A Special Class of Univalent Functions in Hele-Shaw Flow Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Curt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the time evolution of the free boundary of a viscous fluid for planar flows in Hele-Shaw cells under injection. Applying methods from the theory of univalent functions, we prove the invariance in time of Φ-likeness property (a geometric property which includes starlikeness and spiral-likeness for two basic cases: the inner problem and the outer problem. We study both zero and nonzero surface tension models. Certain particular cases are also presented.

  7. A non-penalty recurrent neural network for solving a class of constrained optimization problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we explain a methodology to analyze convergence of some differential inclusion-based neural networks for solving nonsmooth optimization problems. For a general differential inclusion, we show that if its right hand-side set valued map satisfies some conditions, then solution trajectory of the differential inclusion converges to optimal solution set of its corresponding in optimization problem. Based on the obtained methodology, we introduce a new recurrent neural network for solving nonsmooth optimization problems. Objective function does not need to be convex on R(n) nor does the new neural network model require any penalty parameter. We compare our new method with some penalty-based and non-penalty based models. Moreover for differentiable cases, we implement circuit diagram of the new neural network. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Class II malocclusion with complex problems treated with a novel combination of lingual orthodontic appliances and lingual arches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagita, Takeshi; Nakamura, Masahiro; Kawanabe, Noriaki; Yamashiro, Takashi

    2014-07-01

    This case report describes a novel method of combining lingual appliances and lingual arches to control horizontal problems. The patient, who was 25 years of age at her first visit to our hospital with a chief complaint of crooked anterior teeth, was diagnosed with skeletal Class II and Angle Class II malocclusion with anterior deep bite, lateral open bite, premolar crossbite, and severe crowding in both arches. She was treated with premolar extractions and temporary anchorage devices. Conventionally, it is ideal to use labial brackets simultaneously with appliances, such as a lingual arch, a quad-helix, or a rapid expansion appliance, in patients with complex problems requiring horizontal, anteroposterior, and vertical control; however, this patient strongly requested orthodontic treatment with lingual appliances. A limitation of lingual appliances is that they cannot be used with other conventional appliances. In this report, we present the successful orthodontic treatment of a complex problem using modified lingual appliances that enabled combined use of a conventional lingual arch. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 27 CFR 24.255 - Bottling or packing wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... in the same tax class when that wine is removed from bond, without benefit of tolerance, when the... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottling or packing wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine Bottling, Packing, and...

  10. Interpreting Students' and Teachers' Discourse in Science Classes: An Underestimated Problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, C. W. J. M.; Lijnse, P. L.

    1996-01-01

    Deals with the problem of the proper interpretation of discourse between students and teachers in classrooms. Presents several interpretations of a concrete classroom protocol in terms of misconceptions. Draws on Davidson's principle of charity and distinguishes between belief and meaning to present an analysis that interprets the discourse…

  11. New Class of Solutions for Water Infiltration Problems in Unsaturated Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barari, Amin; Omidvar, M; Momeni, M

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of approximate analytical solutions to Richards’ equation, which governs the problem of unsaturated flow in porous media. The existing methods generally fall within the category of numerical and analytical methods, often having many restrictions for practical situa...

  12. Admissible solutions for a class of nonlinear parabolic problem with non-negative data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feireisl, Eduard; Petzeltová, Hana; Simondon, F.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 131, č. 5 (2001), s. 857-883 ISSN 0308-2105 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1019703 Keywords : admissible solutions%nonlinear parabolic problem * admissible solutions * comparison principle * non-negative data Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.441, year: 2001

  13. Singular Cauchy Initial Value Problem for Certain Classes of Integro-Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šmarda Zdeněk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence and uniqueness of solutions and asymptotic estimate of solution formulas are studied for the following initial value problem: , , , where is a constant and . An approach which combines topological method of T. Ważewski and Schauder's fixed point theorem is used.

  14. Singular Initial Value Problem for Certain Classes of Systems of Ordinary Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Diblík

    2013-01-01

    dimension of the set of initial data generating such solutions is estimated. An asymptotic behavior of solutions is determined as well and relevant asymptotic formulas are derived. The method of functions defined implicitly and the topological method (Ważewski's method are used in the proofs. The results generalize some previous ones on singular initial value problems for differential equations.

  15. Class and Home Problems. Modeling an Explosion: The Devil Is in the Details

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Peter W.; Rudie, Alan W.

    2011-01-01

    Within the past 15 years, three North American pulp mills experienced catastrophic equipment failures while using 50 wt% hydrogen peroxide. In two cases, explosions occurred when normal pulp flow was interrupted due to other process problems. To understand the accidents, a kinetic model of alkali-catalyzed decomposition of peroxide was developed.…

  16. Hypergeometric Series Solution to a Class of Second-Order Boundary Value Problems via Laplace Transform with Applications to Nanofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebaid, Abdelhalim; Wazwaz, Abdul-Majid; Alali, Elham; Masaedeh, Basem S.

    2017-03-01

    Very recently, it was observed that the temperature of nanofluids is finally governed by second-order ordinary differential equations with variable coefficients of exponential orders. Such coefficients were then transformed to polynomials type by using new independent variables. In this paper, a class of second-order ordinary differential equations with variable coefficients of polynomials type has been solved analytically. The analytical solution is expressed in terms of a hypergeometric function with generalized parameters. Moreover, applications of the present results have been applied on some selected nanofluids problems in the literature. The exact solutions in the literature were derived as special cases of our generalized analytical solution.

  17. Packing configuration performance for small stem diameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aikin, J.A.; Spence, C.G.; Cumming, D.

    1997-01-01

    The extensive use of graphite packing and its excellent track record for large isolating valves in CANDU, Primary Heat Transfer (PHT) systems has resulted in an increased application of graphite packing on the conventional side. Many of these applications are in air operated valves (AOVs) where the packing sets are used on small stem diameters (<1 inch) with frequent short-cycling strokes (± 10% of full stroke). The direct application of the proven packing configurations for large isolated valves to control valve application has generated problems such as stiction, packing wear and, in isolated cases, stem stall. To address this issue, a test program was conducted at AECL, CRL by MED branch. The testing showed that by reconfiguring the packing sets and using PTFE wafers reductions in stem friction of 50% at ambient conditions, a 3 fold at hot conditions are achievable. The test program also demonstrated benefits gained in packing wear with different stem roughness finishes and the potential need to exercise small stems valves that see less than full stroke cycling. The paper describes the tests results and provides field support experience. (author)

  18. Cell packing structures

    KAUST Repository

    Pottmann, Helmut; Jiang, Caigui; Hö binger, Mathias; Wang, Jun; Bompas, Philippe; Wallner, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    optimization schemes for the computation of quad-based support structures. Hex-dominant structures may be designed via Voronoi tessellations, power diagrams, sphere packings and various extensions of these concepts. Apart from the obvious application as load

  19. A Numerical method for solving a class of fractional Sturm-Liouville eigenvalue problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed I. Syam

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to both theoretical and numerical studies of eigenvalues of regular fractional $2\\alpha $-order Sturm-Liouville problem where $\\frac{1}{2}< \\alpha \\leq 1$. In this paper, we implement the reproducing kernel method RKM to approximate the eigenvalues. To find the eigenvalues, we force the approximate solution produced by the RKM satisfy the boundary condition at $x=1$. The fractional derivative is described in the Caputo sense. Numerical results demonstrate the accuracy of the present algorithm. In addition, we prove the existence of the eigenfunctions of the proposed problem. Uniformly convergence of the approximate eigenfunctions produced by the RKM to the exact eigenfunctions is proven.

  20. A Class of Optimal Portfolio Liquidation Problems with a Linear Decreasing Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangming Ma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A problem of an optimal liquidation is investigated by using the Almgren-Chriss market impact model on the background that the n agents liquidate assets completely. The impact of market is divided into three components: unaffected price process, permanent impact, and temporary impact. The key element is that the variable temporary market impact is analyzed. When the temporary market impact is decreasing linearly, the optimal problem is described by a Nash equilibrium in finite time horizon. The stochastic component of the price process is eliminated from the mean-variance. Mathematically, the Nash equilibrium is considered as the second-order linear differential equation with variable coefficients. We prove the existence and uniqueness of solutions for the differential equation with two boundaries and find the closed-form solutions in special situations. The numerical examples and properties of the solution are given. The corresponding finance phenomenon is interpreted.

  1. Shelving 6 pack crisps

    OpenAIRE

    Garriga Torrecillas, Núria; Otrubova, Natalie; Worm, Robert; Larroque, Thibaut

    2017-01-01

    6-Pack crisps are one of the main products sold by PepsiCo using the standard shelf storage options offered by Tesco PLC. While presenting specific packaging involves a multitude of variables. This report focusses on cognitive recognition, brand confusion and product attractiveness. PepsiCo asked the research team to investigate innovative ways of presenting the crisp 6-pack variant on instore displays. research shows that attraction is crucial in the form of expected rewards. The combination...

  2. Child feeding practices in families of working and nonworking mothers of Indonesian middle class urban families: what are the problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshita, Airin; Schubert, Elizabeth; Whittaker, Maxine

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to explore the feeding practices in families of working and nonworking mothers with children (aged 12-36 months) of different nutritional status and types of domestic caregiver in Indonesian urban middle class families. It was designed as a qualitative multiple case study. Mothers and caregivers from 26 families were interviewed in depth, and caregivers were categorized as family and domestic-paid caregivers. The result suggested that offering formula milk to young children was a common practice, and there was a high recognition and familiarity toward a range of formula milk brands. Mothers reported challenges in encouraging their children to eat, and in some cases they appeared to lack knowledge on overcoming their child's feeding problem. The findings suggested the need to address the child feeding problems experienced by mothers in order to overcome the double burden of child nutrition in Indonesia.

  3. Bidispersed Sphere Packing on Spherical Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Timothy; Mascioli, Andrew; Burke, Christopher

    Packing problems on spherical surfaces have a long history, originating in the classic Thompson problem of finding the ground state configuration of charges on a sphere. Such packings contain a minimal number of defects needed to accommodate the curvature; this is predictable using the Gauss-Bonnet theorem from knowledge of the topology of the surface and the local symmetry of the ordering. Famously, the packing of spherical particles on a sphere contains a 'scar' transition, where additional defects over those required by topology appear above a certain critical number of particles and self-organize into chains or scars. In this work, we study the packing of bidispersed packings on a sphere, and hence determine the interaction of bidispersity and curvature. The resultant configurations are nearly crystalline for low values of bidispersity and retain scar-like structures; these rapidly become disordered for intermediate values and approach a so-called Appollonian limit at the point where smaller particles can be entirely accommodated within the voids left by the larger particles. We connect our results with studies of bidispersed packings in the bulk and on flat surfaces from the literature on glassy systems and jamming. Supported by a Cottrell Award from the Research Corporation for Science Advancement.

  4. Singular Cauchy Initial Value Problem for Certain Classes of Integro-Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Šmarda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence and uniqueness of solutions and asymptotic estimate of solution formulas are studied for the following initial value problem: g(ty′(t=ay(t[1+f(t,y(t,∫0+tK(t,s,y(t,y(sds], y(0+=0, t∈(0,t0], where a>0 is a constant and t0>0. An approach which combines topological method of T. Ważewski and Schauder's fixed point theorem is used.

  5. Storage and treatment of SNF of Alfa class nuclear submarines: current status and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatiev, Sviatoslav; Zabudko, Alexey; Pankratov, Dmitry; Somov, Ivan; Suvorov, Gennady

    2007-01-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The current status and main problems associated with storage, defueling and following treatment of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) of Nuclear Submarines (NS) with heavy liquid metal cooled reactors are considered. In the final analysis these solutions could be realized in the form of separate projects to be funded through national and bi- and multilateral funding in the framework of the international collaboration of the Russian Federation on complex utilization of NS and rehabilitation of contaminated objects allocated in the North-West region of Russia. (authors)

  6. The Method of Immersion the Problem of Comparing Technical Objects in an Expert Shell in the Class of Artificial Intelligence Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergey Vasilievich, Buharin; Aleksandr Vladimirovich, Melnikov; Svetlana Nikolaevna, Chernyaeva; Lyudmila Anatolievna, Korobova

    2017-08-01

    The method of dip of the underlying computational problem of comparing technical object in an expert shell in the class of data mining methods is examined. An example of using the proposed method is given.

  7. Battery Pack Thermal Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, Ahmad

    2016-06-14

    This presentation describes the thermal design of battery packs at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. A battery thermal management system essential for xEVs for both normal operation during daily driving (achieving life and performance) and off-normal operation during abuse conditions (achieving safety). The battery thermal management system needs to be optimized with the right tools for the lowest cost. Experimental tools such as NREL's isothermal battery calorimeter, thermal imaging, and heat transfer setups are needed. Thermal models and computer-aided engineering tools are useful for robust designs. During abuse conditions, designs should prevent cell-to-cell propagation in a module/pack (i.e., keep the fire small and manageable). NREL's battery ISC device can be used for evaluating the robustness of a module/pack to cell-to-cell propagation.

  8. Decontamination of pesticide packing using ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, C.L.; Mori, M.N.; Kodama, Yasko; Oikawa, H.; Sampa, M.H.O.

    2007-01-01

    The Brazilian agriculture activities have consumed about 288,000 tons of pesticides per year conditioned in about 107,000,000 packing with weight of approximately 23,000 tons. The discharge of empty plastic packing of pesticides can be an environmental concern causing problems to human health, animals, and plants if done without inspection and monitoring. The objective of this work is to study the ionizing radiation effect in the main pesticides used in Brazil for plastic packing decontamination. Among the commercial pesticides, chlorpyrifos has significant importance because of its wide distribution and extensive use and persistence. The radiation-induced degradation of chlorpyrifos in liquid samples and in polyethylene pack was studied by gamma radiolysis. Packing of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) three layer coextruded, named COEX, contaminated with chlorpyrifos, were irradiated using both a multipurpose Co-60 gamma irradiator and a gamma source with 5000 Ci total activity Gamma cell type. The chemical analysis of the chlorpyrifos was made using a gas chromatography associated to the Mass Spectrometry-GCMS from Shimadzu Model QP 5000. Gamma radiation was efficient for removing chlorpyrifos from the plastic packing, in all studied cases

  9. Decontamination of pesticide packing using ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, C.L. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares-IPEN-CNEN/SP Av. Lineu Prestes 2.242, 05508-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: clduarte@ipen.br; Mori, M.N.; Kodama, Yasko; Oikawa, H.; Sampa, M.H.O. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares-IPEN-CNEN/SP Av. Lineu Prestes 2.242, 05508-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2007-11-15

    The Brazilian agriculture activities have consumed about 288,000 tons of pesticides per year conditioned in about 107,000,000 packing with weight of approximately 23,000 tons. The discharge of empty plastic packing of pesticides can be an environmental concern causing problems to human health, animals, and plants if done without inspection and monitoring. The objective of this work is to study the ionizing radiation effect in the main pesticides used in Brazil for plastic packing decontamination. Among the commercial pesticides, chlorpyrifos has significant importance because of its wide distribution and extensive use and persistence. The radiation-induced degradation of chlorpyrifos in liquid samples and in polyethylene pack was studied by gamma radiolysis. Packing of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) three layer coextruded, named COEX, contaminated with chlorpyrifos, were irradiated using both a multipurpose Co-60 gamma irradiator and a gamma source with 5000 Ci total activity Gamma cell type. The chemical analysis of the chlorpyrifos was made using a gas chromatography associated to the Mass Spectrometry-GCMS from Shimadzu Model QP 5000. Gamma radiation was efficient for removing chlorpyrifos from the plastic packing, in all studied cases.

  10. Quasi-human seniority-order algorithm for unequal circles packing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Dingju

    2016-01-01

    In the existing methods for solving unequal circles packing problems, the initial configuration is given arbitrarily or randomly, but the impact of different initial configurations for existing packing algorithm to the speed of existing packing algorithm solving unequal circles packing problems is very large. The quasi-human seniority-order algorithm proposed in this paper can generate a better initial configuration for existing packing algorithm to accelerate the speed of existing packing algorithm solving unequal circles packing problems. In experiments, the quasi-human seniority-order algorithm is applied to generate better initial configurations for quasi-physical elasticity methods to solve the unequal circles packing problems, and the experimental results show that the proposed quasi-human seniority-order algorithm can greatly improve the speed of solving the problem.

  11. Fast searching in packed strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Given strings P and Q the (exact) string matching problem is to find all positions of substrings in Q matching P. The classical Knuth–Morris–Pratt algorithm [SIAM J. Comput. 6 (2) (1977) 323–350] solves the string matching problem in linear time which is optimal if we can only read one character...... at the time. However, most strings are stored in a computer in a packed representation with several characters in a single word, giving us the opportunity to read multiple characters simultaneously. In this paper we study the worst-case complexity of string matching on strings given in packed representation....... Let m⩽n be the lengths P and Q, respectively, and let σ denote the size of the alphabet. On a standard unit-cost word-RAM with logarithmic word size we present an algorithm using timeO(nlogσn+m+occ). Here occ is the number of occurrences of P in Q. For m=o(n) this improves the O(n) bound of the Knuth...

  12. Economics Action Pack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald's Corp., Oak Brook, IL.

    One of five McDonald's Action Packs, this learning package introduces intermediate grade students to basic economic concepts. The fourteen activities include the topics of consumption (4 activities), production (5), the market system (3), a pretest, and a posttest. Specific titles under consumption include The Wonderful Treasure Tree (introduction…

  13. Bio-inspired varying subspace based computational framework for a class of nonlinear constrained optimal trajectory planning problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y; Li, N

    2014-09-01

    Biological species have produced many simple but efficient rules in their complex and critical survival activities such as hunting and mating. A common feature observed in several biological motion strategies is that the predator only moves along paths in a carefully selected or iteratively refined subspace (or manifold), which might be able to explain why these motion strategies are effective. In this paper, a unified linear algebraic formulation representing such a predator-prey relationship is developed to simplify the construction and refinement process of the subspace (or manifold). Specifically, the following three motion strategies are studied and modified: motion camouflage, constant absolute target direction and local pursuit. The framework constructed based on this varying subspace concept could significantly reduce the computational cost in solving a class of nonlinear constrained optimal trajectory planning problems, particularly for the case with severe constraints. Two non-trivial examples, a ground robot and a hypersonic aircraft trajectory optimization problem, are used to show the capabilities of the algorithms in this new computational framework.

  14. Bio-inspired varying subspace based computational framework for a class of nonlinear constrained optimal trajectory planning problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Y; Li, N

    2014-01-01

    Biological species have produced many simple but efficient rules in their complex and critical survival activities such as hunting and mating. A common feature observed in several biological motion strategies is that the predator only moves along paths in a carefully selected or iteratively refined subspace (or manifold), which might be able to explain why these motion strategies are effective. In this paper, a unified linear algebraic formulation representing such a predator–prey relationship is developed to simplify the construction and refinement process of the subspace (or manifold). Specifically, the following three motion strategies are studied and modified: motion camouflage, constant absolute target direction and local pursuit. The framework constructed based on this varying subspace concept could significantly reduce the computational cost in solving a class of nonlinear constrained optimal trajectory planning problems, particularly for the case with severe constraints. Two non-trivial examples, a ground robot and a hypersonic aircraft trajectory optimization problem, are used to show the capabilities of the algorithms in this new computational framework. (paper)

  15. Consistency Check for the Bin Packing Constraint Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, Julien; Schaus, Pierre; Deville, Yves

    The bin packing problem (BP) consists in finding the minimum number of bins necessary to pack a set of items so that the total size of the items in each bin does not exceed the bin capacity C. The bin capacity is common for all the bins.

  16. Discovery of dominant and dormant genes from expression data using a novel generalization of SNR for multi-class problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung I-Fang

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Signal-to-Noise-Ratio (SNR is often used for identification of biomarkers for two-class problems and no formal and useful generalization of SNR is available for multiclass problems. We propose innovative generalizations of SNR for multiclass cancer discrimination through introduction of two indices, Gene Dominant Index and Gene Dormant Index (GDIs. These two indices lead to the concepts of dominant and dormant genes with biological significance. We use these indices to develop methodologies for discovery of dominant and dormant biomarkers with interesting biological significance. The dominancy and dormancy of the identified biomarkers and their excellent discriminating power are also demonstrated pictorially using the scatterplot of individual gene and 2-D Sammon's projection of the selected set of genes. Using information from the literature we have shown that the GDI based method can identify dominant and dormant genes that play significant roles in cancer biology. These biomarkers are also used to design diagnostic prediction systems. Results and discussion To evaluate the effectiveness of the GDIs, we have used four multiclass cancer data sets (Small Round Blue Cell Tumors, Leukemia, Central Nervous System Tumors, and Lung Cancer. For each data set we demonstrate that the new indices can find biologically meaningful genes that can act as biomarkers. We then use six machine learning tools, Nearest Neighbor Classifier (NNC, Nearest Mean Classifier (NMC, Support Vector Machine (SVM classifier with linear kernel, and SVM classifier with Gaussian kernel, where both SVMs are used in conjunction with one-vs-all (OVA and one-vs-one (OVO strategies. We found GDIs to be very effective in identifying biomarkers with strong class specific signatures. With all six tools and for all data sets we could achieve better or comparable prediction accuracies usually with fewer marker genes than results reported in the literature using the

  17. The Six Pack Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik; Ritter, Thomas

    Ever seen a growth strategies fail because it was not connect ed to the firm’s customer base? Or a customer relationship strategy falters just because it was the wrong thing to do with that given customer? This article presents the six pack model, a tool that makes growth profitable and predictable....... Not all customers can and should grow – thus a firm needs to classify its customers in order to implement the right customer strategy....

  18. Argo packing friction research update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanTassell, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper focuses on the issue of valve packing friction and its affect on the operability of motor- and air-operated valves (MOVs and AOVs). At this time, most nuclear power plants are required to perform postmaintenance testing following a packing adjustment or replacement. In many cases, the friction generated by the packing does not impact the operability window of a valve. However, to date there has not been a concerted effort to substantiate this claim. To quantify the effects of packing friction, it has become necessary to develop a formula to predict the friction effects accurately. This formula provides a much more accurate method of predicting packing friction than previously used factors based strictly on stem diameter. Over the past 5 years, Argo Packing Company has been developing and testing improved graphite packing systems at research facilities, such as AECL Chalk River and Wyle Laboratories. Much of this testing has centered around reducing and predicting friction that is related to packing. In addition, diagnostic testing for Generic Letter 89-10 MOVs and AOVs has created a significant data base. In July 1992 Argo asked several utilities to provide running load data that could be used to quantify packing friction repeatability and predictability. This technical paper provides the basis to predict packing friction, which will improve calculations for thrust requirements for Generic Leter 89-10 and future AOV programs. In addition, having an accurate packing friction formula will improve packing performance when low running loads are identified that would indicate insufficient sealing force

  19. Direct contact condensation in packed beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yi; Klausner, James F.; Mei, Renwei; Knight, Jessica [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2006-12-15

    A diffusion driven desalination process was recently described where a very effective direct contact condenser with a packed bed is used to condense water vapor out of an air/vapor mixture. A laboratory scale direct contact condenser has been fabricated as a twin tower structure with two stages, co-current and countercurrent. Experiments have been operated in each stage with respective saturated air inlet temperatures of 36, 40 and 43{sup o}C. The temperature and humidity data have been collected at the inlet and exit of the packed bed for different water to air mass flow ratios that vary between 0 and 2.5. A one-dimensional model based on conservation principles has been developed, which predicts the variation of temperature, humidity, and condensation rate through the condenser stages. Agreement between the model and experiments is very good. It is observed that the countercurrent flow stage condensation effectiveness is significantly higher than that for the co-current stage. The condensation heat and mass transfer rates were found to decrease when water blockages occur within the packed bed. Using high-speed digital cinematography, it was observed that this problem can occur at any operating condition, and is dependent on the packing surface wetting characteristics. This observation is used to explain the requirement for two different empirical constants, depending on packing diameter, suggested by Onda for the air side mass transfer coefficient correlation. (author)

  20. When addiction symptoms and life problems diverge: a latent class analysis of problematic gaming in a representative multinational sample of European adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colder Carras, Michelle; Kardefelt-Winther, Daniel

    2018-04-01

    The proposed diagnosis of Internet gaming disorder (IGD) in DSM-5 has been criticized for "borrowing" criteria related to substance addiction, as this might result in misclassifying highly involved gamers as having a disorder. In this paper, we took a person-centered statistical approach to group adolescent gamers by levels of addiction-related symptoms and gaming-related problems, compared these groups to traditional scale scores for IGD, and checked how groups were related to psychosocial well-being using a preregistered analysis plan. We performed latent class analysis and regression with items from IGD and psychosocial well-being scales in a representative sample of 7865 adolescent European gamers. Symptoms and problems matched in only two groups: an IGD class (2.2%) having a high level of symptoms and problems and a Normative class (63.5%) having low levels of symptoms and problems. We also identified two classes comprising 30.9% of our sample that would be misclassified based on their report of gaming-related problems: an Engaged class (7.3%) that seemed to correspond to the engaged gamers described in previous literature, and a Concerned class (23.6%) reporting few symptoms but moderate to high levels of problems. Our findings suggest that a reformulation of IGD is needed. Treating Engaged gamers as having IGD when their poor well-being might not be gaming related may delay appropriate treatment, while Concerned gamers may need help to reduce gaming but would not be identified as such. Additional work to describe the phenomenology of these two groups would help refine diagnosis, prevention and treatment for IGD.

  1. Reference book for design of valve packings, sealing high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doubt, G.L.

    1976-01-01

    Mockups of stuffing boxes for valves in the 1/4 to 1 in. (0.6-2.54cm) pipe size range and ASA 900 and up pressure class were tested to determine how temperature, stuffing box dimensions, packing compressive stress and stem surface finish affect water leak rate, packing friction torque and packing volume loss (creep). One brand of wire-reinforced asbestos braid on graphite-and-asbestos core packing was used in all tests. The theory of leakage through porous media was reviewed with emphasis on application to packed stuffing boxes, and a mathematical framework for relating leakage and packing friction to stuffing box dimensions and compressive stress was developed. The tests gave empirical relationships (1) for leak rate vs temperature, packing compressive stress, stem diameter and packing size, (2) for packing friction torque vs the above variables and (3) for packing creep vs temperature and stress. Packing stress affected leakage far more than any other variable, the leak rate being inversely proportional to stress to the 7.3 power at a packing temperature of 350 deg F (175 deg C). Factors which increase packing compression (density) have a strong reducing effect on leakage and a moderate to zero effect on packing friction torque. Surface finish had no visible effect on leakage, torque or creep. Empirical results and theory have been combined to show how stuffing boxes can be designed for a given leakage rate. Suggestions for decreasing leakage from existing high temperature stuffing boxes are included. (author)

  2. To Pack or Not to Pack? A Randomized Trial of Vaginal Packing After Vaginal Reconstructive Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermann, Lauren B; Crisp, Catrina C; Oakley, Susan H; Mazloomdoost, Donna; Kleeman, Steven D; Benbouajili, Janine M; Ghodsi, Vivian; Pauls, Rachel N

    2016-01-01

    Placement of vaginal packing after pelvic reconstructive surgery is common; however, little evidence exists to support the practice. Furthermore, patients have reported discomfort from the packs. We describe pain and satisfaction in women treated with and without vaginal packing. This institutional review board-approved randomized-controlled trial enrolled patients undergoing vaginal hysterectomy with prolapse repairs. The primary outcome was visual analog scales (VASs) for pain on postoperative day 1. Allocation to "packing" ("P") or "no-packing" ("NP") arms occurred intraoperatively at the end of surgery. Visual analog scales regarding pain and satisfaction were completed early on postoperative day 1 before packing removal. Visual analog scale scores for pain, satisfaction, and bother attributable to packing were recorded before discharge. All packing and perineal pads were weighed to calculate a "postoperative vaginal blood loss." Perioperative data were collected from the hospital record. Our sample size estimation required 74 subjects. Ninety-three women were enrolled. After exclusions, 77 were randomized (P, 37; NP, 40). No differences were found in surgical information, hemoglobin levels, or narcotic use between groups. However, "postoperative vaginal blood loss" was greater in packed subjects (P discharge (P, 35.0 vs NP, 40.0; P = 0.43] were not significantly different between treatment arms. Likewise, VAS scores for satisfaction before removal of packing (P, 81.0 vs NP, 90.0; P = 0.08] and before discharge (P, 90.0 vs NP, 90.5; P = 0.60] were not significantly different. Packed patients noted lower nursing verbal pain scores (P = 0.04) and used less ketorolac (P = 0.01). Bother from packing was low overall. Although there was no difference based on VAS, women receiving vaginal packing had lower nursing documented pain and used less ketorolac than packed women. Vaginal packing may provide benefit and can remain part of the surgical practice.

  3. Tracing for the problem-solving ability in advanced calculus class based on modification of SAVI model at Universitas Negeri Semarang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujiastuti, E.; Waluya, B.; Mulyono

    2018-03-01

    There were many ways of solving the problem offered by the experts. The author combines various ways of solving the problem as a form of novelty. Among the learning model that was expected to support the growth of problem-solving skills was SAVI. The purpose, to obtain trace results from the analysis of the problem-solving ability of students in the Dual Integral material. The research method was a qualitative approach. Its activities include tests was filled with mathematical connections, observation, interviews, FGD, and triangulation. The results were: (1) some students were still experiencing difficulties in solving the problems. (2) The application of modification of SAVI learning model effective in supporting the growth of problem-solving abilities. (3) The strength of the students related to solving the problem, there were two students in the excellent category, there were three students in right classes and one student in the medium group.

  4. OVERCOMING THE METER BARRIER AND THE FORMATION OF SYSTEMS WITH TIGHTLY PACKED INNER PLANETS (STIPs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boley, A. C.; Morris, M. A.; Ford, E. B.

    2014-01-01

    We present a solution to the long outstanding meter barrier problem in planet formation theory. As solids spiral inward due to aerodynamic drag, they will enter disk regions that are characterized by high temperatures, densities, and pressures. High partial pressures of rock vapor can suppress solid evaporation, and promote collisions between partially molten solids, allowing rapid growth. This process should be ubiquitous in planet-forming disks, which may be evidenced by the abundant class of Systems with Tightly packed Inner Planets discovered by the NASA Kepler Mission

  5. A New Result Concerning the Solvability of a Class of General Systems of Variational Equations with Nonmonotone Operators: Applications to Dirichlet and Neumann Nonlinear Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Toscano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new result of solvability for a wide class of systems of variational equations depending on parameters and governed by nonmonotone operators is found in a Banach real and reflexive space with applications to Dirichlet and Neumann problems related to nonlinear elliptic systems.

  6. Problems in detecting misfit of latent class models in diagnostic research without a gold standard were shown

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Smeden, M.; Oberski, D.L.; Reitsma, J.B.; Vermunt, J.K.; Moons, K.G.M.; de Groot, J.A.H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of goodness-of-fit testing to detect relevant violations of the assumptions underlying the criticized “standard” two-class latent class model. Often used to obtain sensitivity and specificity estimates for diagnostic tests in the

  7. Cell packing structures

    KAUST Repository

    Pottmann, Helmut

    2015-03-03

    This paper is an overview of architectural structures which are either composed of polyhedral cells or closely related to them. We introduce the concept of a support structure of such a polyhedral cell packing. It is formed by planar quads and obtained by connecting corresponding vertices in two combinatorially equivalent meshes whose corresponding edges are coplanar and thus determine planar quads. Since corresponding triangle meshes only yield trivial structures, we focus on support structures associated with quad meshes or hex-dominant meshes. For the quadrilateral case, we provide a short survey of recent research which reveals beautiful relations to discrete differential geometry. Those are essential for successfully initializing numerical optimization schemes for the computation of quad-based support structures. Hex-dominant structures may be designed via Voronoi tessellations, power diagrams, sphere packings and various extensions of these concepts. Apart from the obvious application as load-bearing structures, we illustrate here a new application to shading and indirect lighting. On a higher level, our work emphasizes the interplay between geometry, optimization, statics, and manufacturing, with the overall aim of combining form, function and fabrication into novel integrated design tools.

  8. School meal sociality or lunch pack individualism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sidse Schoubye; Holm, Lotte; Baarts, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    the social life of a school class, and how these arrangements involve strategies of both inclusion and exclusion. Two types of school meals are compared in the intervention study: a hot meal based on Nordic ingredients and the normal Danish school meal arrangement in which children bring lunch packs...... to school. The study discusses commensality by examining and comparing lunchtime interactions within the same group of children in the two contrasting meal situations. The results fail to confirm the conventional view that shared meals have greater social impacts and benefits than eating individualized...... foods. The article argues that the social entrepreneurship involved in sharing individual lunch packs might even outweigh some of the benefits of shared meals where everyone is served the same food....

  9. Flooding characteristics of Goodloe packing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begovich, J.M.; Watson, J.S.

    1976-08-01

    Experimental flooding data for the countercurrent flow of air and water in a 7.62-cm-diam glass column filled with Goodloe packing were compared with a correlation reported by the packing manufacturer. Flooding rates observed in this study were as low as one-half those predicted by the correlation. Rearranging the packing by inverting the column and removing some packing segments yielded results similar to the correlation for liquid-to-gas (L/G) mass flow rate ratios greater than 10, but the experimental flooding curve fell significantly below the correlation at lower L/G ratios. When the column was repacked with new packing, the results were essentially the same as those obtained in the inverted column. Thus, it is believed that a carefully packed column is more likely to yield flooding rates similar to those obtained in the new or inverted columns rather than rates predicted by the original correlation

  10. Numerical Simulation on Dense Packing of Granular Materials by Container Oscillation

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Liu; Dongxu You

    2013-01-01

    The packing of granular materials is a basic and important problem in geomechanics. An approach, which generates dense packing of spheres confined in cylindrical and cuboidal containers in three steps, is introduced in this work. A loose packing structure is first generated by means of a reference lattice method. Then a dense packing structure is obtained in a container by simulating dropping of particles under gravitational forces. Furthermore, a scheme that makes the bottom boundary fluctua...

  11. Pack stability in dip faces fitted with scraper conveyors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartzmann, R

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents an account of an investigation conducted by CERCHAR, at the request of HBNPC, into the problems of goafside pack stability. Winning method and support and stowing techniques are described. Sets out the study methods used: systematic measurement (by direct or remote means) using an instrument developed by CERCHAR to investigate all aspects of in situ pack behaviour: settling, stresses, pressure on supports, etc. Gives the results of the investigation (tables and graphs) load-bearing capacity of the supports, deformation of the surrounding rock, convergence and stresses in the pack (figures, graphs), resistance of support-timber screen, model of in situ pack behaviour. Detailed conclusions (potential techniques, detailed study, practical improvements in packing techniques) are presented.

  12. Packing for food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmielewski, A G [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    2006-07-01

    Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee approved the use of radiation treatment of foods. Nowadays food packaging are mostly made of plastics, natural or synthetic, therefore effect of irradiation on these materials is crucial for packing engineering for food irradiation technology. By selecting the right polymer materials for food packaging it can be ensured that the critical elements of material and product performance are not compromised. When packaging materials are in contact with food at the time of irradiation that regulatory approvals sometimes apply. The review of the R-and-D and technical papers regarding material selection, testing and approval is presented in the report. The most information come from the USA where this subject is well elaborated, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reports are reviewed as well. The report can be useful for scientists and food irradiation plants operators. (author)

  13. Packing for food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.

    2006-01-01

    Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee approved the use of radiation treatment of foods. Nowadays food packaging are mostly made of plastics, natural or synthetic, therefore effect of irradiation on these materials is crucial for packing engineering for food irradiation technology. By selecting the right polymer materials for food packaging it can be ensured that the critical elements of material and product performance are not compromised. When packaging materials are in contact with food at the time of irradiation that regulatory approvals sometimes apply. The review of the R-and-D and technical papers regarding material selection, testing and approval is presented in the report. The most information come from the USA where this subject is well elaborated, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reports are reviewed as well. The report can be useful for scientists and food irradiation plants operators. (author)

  14. Using In-class Group Exercises to Enhance Lectures and Provide Introductory Physics Students an Opportunity to Perfect Problem Solving Skills through Interactions with Fellow Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout, Joseph; Bland, Jared

    2013-03-01

    In this pilot project, one hour of lecture time was replaced with one hour of in-class assignments, which groups of students collaborated on. These in-class assignments consisted of problems or projects selected for the calculus-based introductory physics students The first problem was at a level of difficulty that the majority of the students could complete with a small to moderate amount of difficulty. Each successive problem was increasingly more difficult, the last problem being having a level of difficulty that was beyond the capabilities of the majority of the students and required some instructor intervention. The students were free to choose their own groups. Students were encouraged to interact and help each other understand. The success of the in-class exercises were measured using pre-tests and post-tests. The pre-test and post-test were completed by each student independently. Statistics were also compiled on each student's attendance record and the amount of time spent reading and studying, as reported by the student. Statistics were also completed on the student responses when asked if they had sufficient time to complete the pre-test and post-test and if they would have completed the test with the correct answers if they had more time. The pre-tests and post-tests were not used in the computation of the grades of the students.

  15. Replacement of the cooling tower packing at the Goesgen-Daeniken AG nuclear power plant; Ersatz der Kuehlturmeinbauten im Kernkraftwerk Goesgen-Daeniken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich, Hans Walter [Kernkraftwerk Goesgen-Daeniken AG, Daeniken (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    In 2005 the asbestos cement cooling tower packing was replaced by plastic material. Two years later, the packing showed strong deformations, deposits of solids and weight gain. At the end of 2007 parts of the packing collapsed into the cooling tower basin. Investigations were made, revealing that the thickness of the packing foil was too low and that packing geometry and biofilms on the surface of the packing favoured deposition of solids. Successful measures were taken to solve the problems. (orig.)

  16. Reducing Child Problem Behaviors and Improving Teacher-Child Interactions and Relationships: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Best in Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Kevin S.; Conroy, Maureen A.; Algina, James; Ladwig, Crystal; Jesse, Gabriel; Gyure, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Research has consistently linked early problem behavior with later adjustment problems, including antisocial behavior, learning problems and risk for the development of emotional/behavioral disorders (EBDs). Researchers have focused upon developing effective intervention programs for young children who arrive in preschool exhibiting chronic…

  17. Random packing of digitized particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korte, de A.C.J.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2013-01-01

    The random packing of regularly and irregularly shaped particles has been studied extensively. Within this paper, packing is studied from the perspective of digitized particles. These digitized particles are developed for and used in cellular automata systems, which are employed for the simple

  18. Random packing of digitized particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Korte, A.C.J.; Brouwers, Jos

    2012-01-01

    The random packing of regularly and irregularly shaped particles has been studied extensively. Within this paper, packing is studied from the perspective of digitized particles. These digitized particles are developed for and used in cellular automata systems, which are employed for the simple

  19. BNGS B valve packing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumming, D.

    1995-01-01

    The Bruce B Valve Packing Program began in 1987. The early history and development were presented at the 1992 International CANDU Maintenance conference. This presentation covers the evolution of the Bruce B Valve Packing Program over the period 1992 to 1995. (author)

  20. Matching and Compression of Strings with Automata and Word Packing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjoldjensen, Frederik Rye; Gørtz, Inge Li; Thomassen, Carsten

    pattern queries. In the deterministic variant the goal is to solve the string indexing problem without any randomization (at preprocessing time or query time). In the packed variant the strings are stored with several character in a single word, giving us the opportunity to read multiple characters...... in (deterministic) time O (m= + logm + log log ) ; where = w= log is the number of characters packed in a word of size w = (log n). Our query time is always at least as good as the previous best known bounds and whenever several characters are packed in a word, i.e., log w, the query times are faster. Dynamic...

  1. Practice and effectiveness of web-based problem-based learning approach in a large class-size system: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yongxia; Zhang, Peili

    2018-06-12

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is an effective and highly efficient teaching approach that is extensively applied in education systems across a variety of countries. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of web-based PBL teaching pedagogies in large classes. The cluster sampling method was used to separate two college-level nursing student classes (graduating class of 2013) into two groups. The experimental group (n = 162) was taught using a web-based PBL teaching approach, while the control group (n = 166) was taught using conventional teaching methods. We subsequently assessed the satisfaction of the experimental group in relation to the web-based PBL teaching mode. This assessment was performed following comparison of teaching activity outcomes pertaining to exams and self-learning capacity between the two groups. When compared with the control group, the examination scores and self-learning capabilities were significantly higher in the experimental group (P web-based PBL teaching approach. In a large class-size teaching environment, the web-based PBL teaching approach appears to be more optimal than traditional teaching methods. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of web-based teaching technologies in problem-based learning. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. THE DEVELOPMENT OF ELECTRONIC TEACHING MATERIALS BY FLIPBOOK ASSISTANCE BASED PROBLEM SOLVING SKILL WITH CTL APPROACH ON LEARNING MATHEMATICS CLASS V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUSNILAWATI Eva Gustiana RUSNILAWATI

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to produce Flipbook-based Electronic Teaching Materials (BAE based on problem solving skills with CTL Approach on Vocational School Class V learning valid, practical, and effective. This type of research is development research (Development Research. This research developed Flipbook-assisted Electronic Teaching Materials (BAE on the mathematics learning of Class V Primary School by using the 4-D development model developed by Thiagarajan, Semmel, and Semmel. The validation results show that the developed Teaching Materials are worthy of use with a good minimum category. The results of the experiments show that Electronic Materials developed are practical and effective. Completed learning in the classical has reached the minimum criteria of 75% that is for problem-solving test reached 86%. Based on a questionnaire of attitudes toward mathematics, 88% of students showed an increase in attitude scores on mathematics, and 85% of students showed attitudes toward mathematics with a good minimum category.

  3. The Black-Scholes option pricing problem in mathematical finance: generalization and extensions for a large class of stochastic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe; Sornette, Didier

    1994-06-01

    The ability to price risks and devise optimal investment strategies in thé présence of an uncertain "random" market is thé cornerstone of modern finance theory. We first consider thé simplest such problem of a so-called "European call option" initially solved by Black and Scholes using Ito stochastic calculus for markets modelled by a log-Brownien stochastic process. A simple and powerful formalism is presented which allows us to generalize thé analysis to a large class of stochastic processes, such as ARCH, jump or Lévy processes. We also address thé case of correlated Gaussian processes, which is shown to be a good description of three différent market indices (MATIF, CAC40, FTSE100). Our main result is thé introduction of thé concept of an optimal strategy in the sense of (functional) minimization of the risk with respect to the portfolio. If the risk may be made to vanish for particular continuous uncorrelated 'quasiGaussian' stochastic processes (including Black and Scholes model), this is no longer the case for more general stochastic processes. The value of the residual risk is obtained and suggests the concept of risk-corrected option prices. In the presence of very large deviations such as in Lévy processes, new criteria for rational fixing of the option prices are discussed. We also apply our method to other types of options, `Asian', `American', and discuss new possibilities (`doubledecker'...). The inclusion of transaction costs leads to the appearance of a natural characteristic trading time scale. L'aptitude à quantifier le coût du risque et à définir une stratégie optimale de gestion de portefeuille dans un marché aléatoire constitue la base de la théorie moderne de la finance. Nous considérons d'abord le problème le plus simple de ce type, à savoir celui de l'option d'achat `européenne', qui a été résolu par Black et Scholes à l'aide du calcul stochastique d'Ito appliqué aux marchés modélisés par un processus Log

  4. Nasal packing with ventilated nasal packs; a comparison with traditional vaseline nasal pack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, J.; Siddiqui, M.W.; Abbas, A.; Sami, M.; Ayub, Z.

    2017-01-01

    To compare the benefits of ventilated nasal packing with traditional vaseline guaze nasal packing. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at CMH Multan, from Jun 2014 to Dec 2014. Material and Methods: In this study, sample size of 80 patients was calculated using WHO calculator. Patients were divided in two groups using lottery method endotracheal tube and piece of surgical glove filled with ribbon guaze was utilized for fabricated ventilated nasal pack and compared with traditional nasal packs. Nasal obstruction and sleep disturbance were studied at eight hours and twenty-four hours following surgery using visual analog scale. Results: Mean nasal obstruction with ventilated nasal pack was 45.62 +- 6.17 and with Vaseline nasal pack was 77.67 +- 4.85 which was statistically significant (p=0.001) in both the groups. Mean sleep disturbance in both the groups was 46.32 +- 5.23 and 68.75 +- 2.70 respectively which was statistically significant (p=0.001) in both the groups. Conclusion: Patients with ventilated nasal packs were found to have better tolerance to nasal packs due to less nasal obstruction and sleep disturbance

  5. Developing and Evaluating Medical Humanities Problem-Based Learning Classes Facilitated by the Teaching Assistants Majored in the Liberal Arts: A Longitudinal Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Fen-Yu; Shieh, Jeng-Yi; Kao, Tze-Wah; Wu, Chau-Chung; Chu, Tzong-Shinn; Chen, Yen-Yuan

    2016-02-01

    Although medical humanities courses taught by teachers from nonmedical backgrounds are not unusual now, few studies have compared the outcome of medical humanities courses facilitated by physicians to that by teaching assistants majored in the liberal arts. The objectives of this study were to (1) analyze the satisfaction of medical students with medical humanities problem-based learning (PBL) classes facilitated by nonmedical teaching assistants (TAF) majored in the liberal arts, and those facilitated by the attending physicians (APF) and (2) examine the satisfaction of medical students with clinical medicine-related and clinical medicine-unrelated medical humanities PBL classes.A total of 123 medical students, randomly assigned to 16 groups, participated in this study. There were 16 classes in the course: 8 of them were TAF classes; and the others were APF classes. Each week, each group rotated from 1 subject of the 16 subjects of PBL to another subject. All of the 16 groups went through all the 16 subjects in the 2013 spring semester. We examined the medical students' satisfaction with each class, based on a rating score collected after each class was completed, using a scale from 0 (the lowest satisfaction) to 100 (the highest satisfaction). We also conducted multivariate linear regression analysis to examine the association between the independent variables and the students' satisfaction.Medical students were more satisfied with the TAF (91.35 ± 7.75) medical humanities PBL classes than APF (90.40 ± 8.42) medical humanities PBL classes (P = 0.01). Moreover, medical students were more satisfied with the clinical medicine-unrelated topics (92.00 ± 7.10) than the clinical medicine-related topics (90.36 ± 7.99) in the medical humanities PBL course (P = 0.01).This medical humanities PBL course, including nonmedical subjects and topics, and nonmedical teaching assistants from the liberal arts as class facilitators, was satisfactory. This

  6. Implementation of the - Constraint Method in Special Class of Multi-objective Fuzzy Bi-Level Nonlinear Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azza Hassan Amer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Geometric programming problem is a powerful tool for solving some special type nonlinear programming problems. In the last few years we have seen a very rapid development on solving multiobjective geometric programming problem. A few mathematical programming methods namely fuzzy programming, goal programming and weighting methods have been applied in the recent past to find the compromise solution. In this paper, -constraint method has been applied in bi-level multiobjective geometric programming problem to find the Pareto optimal solution at each level. The equivalent mathematical programming problems are formulated to find their corresponding value of the objective function based on the duality theorem at eash level. Here, we have developed a new algorithm for fuzzy programming technique to solve bi-level multiobjective geometric programming problems to find an optimal compromise solution. Finally the solution procedure of the fuzzy technique is illustrated by a numerical example

  7. Gender Differences in Solving Mathematics Problems among Two-Year College Students in a Developmental Algebra Class and Related Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonberger, Ann K.

    A study was conducted at the University of Maine at Orono (UMO) to examine gender differences with respect to mathematical problem-solving ability, visual spatial ability, abstract reasoning ability, field independence/dependence, independent learning style, and developmental problem-solving ability (i.e., formal reasoning ability). Subjects…

  8. Comparing and Transforming: An Application of Piaget's Morphisms Theory to the Development of Class Inclusion and Arithmetic Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrouillet, Pierre; Poirier, Louise

    1997-01-01

    Outlines Piaget's late ideas on categories and morphisms and the impact of these ideas on the comprehension of the inclusion relationship and the solution of arithmetic problems. Reports a study in which fourth through sixth graders were given arithmetic problems involving two known quantities associated with changes rather than states. Identified…

  9. Class and Homework Problems: The Break-Even Radius of Insulation Computed Using Excel Solver and WolframAlpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Greg

    2014-01-01

    A problem that illustrates two ways of computing the break-even radius of insulation is outlined. The problem is suitable for students who are taking an introductory module in heat transfer or transport phenomena and who have some previous knowledge of the numerical solution of non- linear algebraic equations. The potential for computer algebra,…

  10. On the perfect hexagonal packing of rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starostin, E L

    2006-01-01

    In most cases the hexagonal packing of fibrous structures or rods extremizes the energy of interaction between strands. If the strands are not straight, then it is still possible to form a perfect hexatic bundle. Conditions under which the perfect hexagonal packing of curved tubular structures may exist are formulated. Particular attention is given to closed or cycled arrangements of the rods like in the DNA toroids and spools. The closure or return constraints of the bundle result in an allowable group of automorphisms of the cross-sectional hexagonal lattice. The structure of this group is explored. Examples of open helical-like and closed toroidal-like bundles are presented. An expression for the elastic energy of a perfectly packed bundle of thin elastic rods is derived. The energy accounts for both the bending and torsional stiffnesses of the rods. It is shown that equilibria of the bundle correspond to solutions of a variational problem formulated for the curve representing the axis of the bundle. The functional involves a function of the squared curvature under the constraints on the total torsion and the length. The Euler-Lagrange equations are obtained in terms of curvature and torsion and due to the existence of the first integrals the problem is reduced to the quadrature. The three-dimensional shape of the bundle may be readily reconstructed by integration of the Ilyukhin-type equations in special cylindrical coordinates. The results are of universal nature and are applicable to various fibrous structures, in particular, to intramolecular liquid crystals formed by DNA condensed in toroids or packed inside the viral capsids

  11. The Use of Open-Ended Problem-Based Learning Scenarios in an Interdisciplinary Biotechnology Class: Evaluation of a Problem-Based Learning Course Across Three Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd R. Steck

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Use of open-ended Problem-Based Learning (PBL in biology classrooms has been limited by the difficulty in designing problem scenarios such that the content learned in a course can be predicted and controlled, the lack of familiarity of this method of instruction by faculty, and the difficulty in assessment. Here we present the results of a study in which we developed a team-based interdisciplinary course that combined the fields of biology and civil engineering across three years. We used PBL scenarios as the only learning tool, wrote the problem scenarios, and developed the means to assess these courses and the results of that assessment. Our data indicates that PBL changed students’ perception of their learning in content knowledge and promoted a change in students’ learning styles. Although no  statistically significant improvement in problem-solving skills and critical thinking skills was observed, students reported substantial changes in their problem-based learning strategies and critical thinking skills.

  12. Solving a Local Boundary Value Problem for a Nonlinear Nonstationary System in the Class of Feedback Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvitko, A. N.

    2018-01-01

    An algorithm convenient for numerical implementation is proposed for constructing differentiable control functions that transfer a wide class of nonlinear nonstationary systems of ordinary differential equations from an initial state to a given point of the phase space. Constructive sufficient conditions imposed on the right-hand side of the controlled system are obtained under which this transfer is possible. The control of a robotic manipulator is considered, and its numerical simulation is performed.

  13. Evaluation of POE and instructor-led problem-solving approaches integrated into force and motion lecture classes using a model analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakkapao, S; Pengpan, T; Srikeaw, S; Prasitpong, S

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the use of the predict–observe–explain (POE) approach integrated into large lecture classes on forces and motion. It is compared to the instructor-led problem-solving method using model analysis. The samples are science (SC, N = 420) and engineering (EN, N = 434) freshmen, from Prince of Songkla University, Thailand. Research findings from the force and motion conceptual evaluation indicate that the multimedia-supported POE method promotes students’ learning better than the problem-solving method, in particular for the velocity and acceleration concepts. There is a small shift of the students’ model states after the problem-solving instruction. Moreover, by using model analysis instructors are able to investigate students’ misconceptions and evaluate teaching methods. It benefits instructors in organizing subsequent instructional materials. (paper)

  14. New iodine filter pack design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackbee, B.A.

    1977-10-01

    To enable Naval Emergency Monitoring Teams to fulfil their role in the field it was necessary to locate or design a replacement filter pack for the collection of radioactive iodine air samples. Collaboration with the Berkeley Laboratories of the Central Electricity Generating Board provided the necessary starting point for a suitable type of package. Further development by NGTE (West Drayton) yielded the improved filter pack which is the subject of this memorandum. (author)

  15. Routing Trains Through Railway Junctions: A New Set Packing Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard; Larsen, Jesper; Ryan, David

    how the problem can be formulated as a set packing model. To exploit the structure of the problem we present a solution procedure which entails solving the dual of this formulation through the dynamic addition of violated cuts (primal variables). A discussion of the variable (train path) generation...

  16. A comparison of in-class learner engagement across lecture, problem-based learning, and team learning using the STROBE classroom observation tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, P Adam; Haidet, Paul; Schneider, Virginia; Searle, Nancy; Seidel, Charles L; Richards, Boyd F

    2005-01-01

    Having recently introduced team learning into the preclinical medical curriculum, evidence of the relative impact of this instructional method on in-class learner engagement was sought. To compare patterns of engagement behaviors among learners in class sessions across 3 distinct instructional methods: lecture, problem-based learning (PBL), and team learning. Trained observers used the STROBE classroom observation tool to measure learner engagement in 7 lecture, 4 PBL, and 3 team learning classrooms over a 12-month period. Proportions of different types of engagement behaviors were compared using chi-square. In PBL and team learning, the amount of learner-to-learner engagement was similar and much greater than in lecture, where most engagement was of the learner-to-instructor and self-engagement types. Also, learner-to-instructor engagement appeared greater in team learning than in PBL. Observed engagement behaviors confirm the potential of team learning to foster engagement similar to PBL, but with greater faculty input.

  17. Class III malocclusion with complex problems of lateral open bite and severe crowding successfully treated with miniscrew anchorage and lingual orthodontic brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagita, Takeshi; Kuroda, Shingo; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko; Yamashiro, Takashi

    2011-05-01

    In this article, we report the successful use of miniscrews in a patient with an Angle Class III malocclusion, lateral open bite, midline deviation, and severe crowding. Simultaneously resolving such problems with conventional Class III treatment is difficult. In this case, the treatment procedure was even more challenging because the patient preferred to have lingual brackets on the maxillary teeth. As a result, miniscrews were used to facilitate significant asymmetric tooth movement in the posterior and downward directions; this contributed to the camouflage of the skeletal mandibular protrusion together with complete resolution of the severe crowding and lateral open bite. Analysis of the jaw motion showed that irregularities in chewing movement were also resolved, and a stable occlusion was achieved. Improvements in the facial profile and dental arches remained stable at the 18-month follow-up. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessing the Social Skills and Problem Behaviors of Adolescents With Severe Disabilities Enrolled in General Education Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Gregory L; Huber, Heartley B; Carter, Erik W; Chen, Rui; Asmus, Jennifer M

    2016-07-01

    Although enhancing the social competence of students with severe disabilities has long remained a prominent focus of school-based intervention efforts, relatively little attention has focused on identifying the most critical social and behavioral needs of students during high school. We examined the social skills and problem behaviors of 137 adolescents with severe disabilities from the vantage point of both special educators and parents. We sought to identify areas of potential intervention need, explore factors associated with social skill and problem behavior ratings, and examine the extent to which teachers and parents converged in their assessments of these needs. Our findings indicate teachers and parents of high school students with severe disabilities rated social skills as considerably below average and problem behaviors as above average. In addition, lower social skills ratings were evident for students with greater support needs, lower levels of overall adaptive behavior, and a special education label of autism. We found moderate consistency in the degree to which teachers and parents aligned in their assessments of both social skills and problem behavior. We offer recommendations for assessment and intervention focused on strengthening the social competence of adolescents with severe disabilities within secondary school classrooms, as well as promising avenues for future research.

  19. The Social and Emotional Situation of First Graders with Classroom Behavior Problems and Classroom Learning Difficulties in Inclusive Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krull, Johanna; Wilbert, Jürgen; Hennemann, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The inclusion of children with special educational needs (SEN) in general education classrooms in Europe due to education policy and social developments is currently up for debate, especially in Germany. This paper addresses whether or not co-education of students with and without classroom problems and/or disabilities has negative consequences…

  20. The Listening Comprehension Strategies Used by College Students to Cope with the Aural Problems in EFL Classes: An Analytical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, Nahed Mohamed Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    The current study focused on the problems which students encounter while listening to the English language, the mental processes they activate in listening comprehension, and the strategies they use in different phases of comprehension. Also, it aimed to find out whether there were any differences between advanced and intermediate students in…

  1. Assessing the Social Skills and Problem Behaviors of Adolescents with Severe Disabilities Enrolled in General Education Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Gregory L.; Huber, Heartley B.; Carter, Erik W.; Chen, Rui; Asmus, Jennifer M.

    2016-01-01

    Although enhancing the social competence of students with severe disabilities has long remained a prominent focus of school-based intervention efforts, relatively little attention has focused on identifying the most critical social and behavioral needs of students during high school. We examined the social skills and problem behaviors of 137…

  2. Investigating the incidence of youth mental health problem by merging person register and school level class room survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Merikukka

    2017-04-01

    It is possible to merge datasets from school level to an individual level register data. The merged big data offers new possibilities to study questions related to the prevalence of mental health problems. The new linked data can be further analyzed to hierarchical model.

  3. Perceiving the Problem of Poverty and Schooling: Deconstructing the Class Stereotypes that Mis-Shape Education Practice and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorski, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    A rich history of scholarship has demonstrated the ways in which popular stereotypes of disenfranchised communities, including people living in poverty, affect individual biases and preconceptions. Less attention has been paid to the ways in which such stereotypes help frame policy and practice responses regarding social problems, such as the…

  4. The Views of the Teachers Related to the Problems the Nursery Class Teachers Encounter in Personnel Services and General Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertör, Eren; Akan, Durdagi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, it was aimed to analyze the problems that the nursery school teachers, who worked in primary schools of Ministry of National Education in Agri city center in 2014-2015 academic years, experience in personnel services and general services according to the views of the teachers. In the direction of this purpose, phenomenology design,…

  5. A minimax inequality for a class of functionals and applications to the existence of solutions for two-point boundary-value problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Alizadeh Afrouzi

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we establish an equivalent statement to minimax inequality for a special class of functionals. As an application, we prove the existence of three solutions to the Dirichlet problem $$displaylines{ -u''(x+m(xu(x =lambda f(x,u(x,quad xin (a,b,cr u(a=u(b=0, }$$ where $lambda>0$, $f:[a,b]imes mathbb{R}o mathbb{R}$ is a continuous function which changes sign on $[a,b]imes mathbb{R}$ and $m(xin C([a,b]$ is a positive function.

  6. A non-local theory of generalized entropy solutions of the Cauchy problem for a class of hyperbolic systems of conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panov, E Yu

    1999-01-01

    We consider a hyperbolic system of conservation laws on the space of symmetric second-order matrices. The right-hand side of this system contains the functional calculus operator f-bar(U) generated in the general case only by a continuous scalar function f(u). For these systems we define and describe the set of singular entropies, introduce the concept of generalized entropy solutions of the corresponding Cauchy problem, and investigate the properties of generalized entropy solutions. We define the class of strong generalized entropy solutions, in which the Cauchy problem has precisely one solution. We suggest a condition on the initial data under which any generalized entropy solution is strong, which implies its uniqueness. Under this condition we establish that the 'vanishing viscosity' method converges. An example shows that in the general case there can be more than one generalized entropy solution

  7. On the theory of generalized entropy solutions of the Cauchy problem for a class of non-strictly hyperbolic systems of conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panov, E Yu

    2000-01-01

    Many-dimensional non-strictly hyperbolic systems of conservation laws with a radially degenerate flux function are considered. For such systems the set of entropies is defined and described, the concept of generalized entropy solution of the Cauchy problem is introduced, and the properties of generalized entropy solutions are studied. The class of strong generalized entropy solutions is distinguished, in which the Cauchy problem in question is uniquely soluble. A condition on the initial data is described that ensures that the generalized entropy solution is strong and therefore unique. Under this condition the convergence of the 'vanishing viscosity' method is established. An example presented in the paper shows that a generalized entropy solution is not necessarily unique in the general case

  8. Independent contributions of the central executive, intelligence, and in-class attentive behavior to developmental change in the strategies used to solve addition problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, David C; Hoard, Mary K; Nugent, Lara

    2012-09-01

    Children's (N=275) use of retrieval, decomposition (e.g., 7=4+3 and thus 6+7=6+4+3), and counting to solve additional problems was longitudinally assessed from first grade to fourth grade, and intelligence, working memory, and in-class attentive behavior was assessed in one or several grades. The goal was to assess the relation between capacity of the central executive component of working memory, controlling for intelligence and in-class attentive behavior, and grade-related changes in children's use of these strategies. The predictor on intercept effects from multilevel models revealed that children with higher central executive capacity correctly retrieved more facts and used the most sophisticated counting procedure more frequently and accurately than their lower capacity peers at the beginning of first grade, but the predictor on slope effects indicated that this advantage disappeared (retrieval) or declined in importance (counting) from first grade to fourth grade. The predictor on slope effects also revealed that from first grade to fourth grade, children with higher capacity adopted the decomposition strategy more quickly than other children. The results remained robust with controls for children's sex, race, school site, speed of encoding Arabic numerals and articulating number words, and mathematics achievement in kindergarten. The results also revealed that intelligence and in-class attentive behavior independently contributed to children's strategy development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. An Overview of the Problems of Visual Arts Classes Within the Turkish Education System and Suggested Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cem Ozal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available System is a structure that operates within the relevant field with minimum error enabling attainment of an end-product as intended. It is only natural to encounter disruptions or deviations in human-induced systems. Nevertheless, any system targeting the training of individuals is a sensitive structure that should be designed meticulously since it is a long-term effort where consequences may significantly and directly affect the lives of the individuals within the system. The primary goals of the Turkish education system are clearly stated in the Basic Law of National Education. Although there are several formative studies such as curriculum design or system amendments within the system in compliance with these main goals, there are also certain obstacles or factors that adversely affect the achievement of these goals. This current study aims to identify and reveal the key problems that are preventing the achievement of the intended goals for the Visual Arts courses within the Turkish education system. Within this framework, identified problems are discussed from the perspective of decisions taken at the National Education Councils on teaching hours and permanent staff application, lack of physical spaces such as workshops and classrooms, teacher training, and employment, followed by a set of recommendations for possible solutions.

  10. Cylinder valve packing nut studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blue, S.C. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Paducah, KY (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The design, manufacture, and use of cylinder valve packing nuts have been studied to improve their resistance to failure from stress corrosion cracking. Stress frozen photoelastic models have been analyzed to measure the stress concentrations at observed points of failure. The load effects induced by assembly torque and thermal expansion of stem packing were observed by strain gaging nuts. The effects of finishing operations and heat treatment were studied by the strain gage hole boring and X-ray methods. Modifications of manufacturing and operation practices are reducing the frequency of stress corrosion failures.

  11. Multiplicity results for classes of one-dimensional p-Laplacian boundary-value problems with cubic-like nonlinearities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idris Addou

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available We study boundary-value problems of the type $$displaylines{ -(varphi_{p}( u' ' =lambda f( u ,hbox{ in }(0,1 cr u( 0 =u( 1 =0, }$$ where $p>1$, $varphi_{p}( x =left| x ight| ^{p-2}x$, and $lambda >0$. We provide multiplicity results when $f$ behaves like a cubic with three distinct roots, at which it satisfies Lipschitz-type conditions involving a parameter $q>1$. We shall show how changes in the position of $q$ with respect to $p$ lead to different behavior of the solution set. When dealing with sign-changing solutions, we assume that $f$ is {it half-odd}; a condition generalizing the usual oddness. We use a quadrature method.

  12. Hemiequilibrium problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aslam Noor

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a new class of equilibrium problems, known as hemiequilibrium problems. Using the auxiliary principle technique, we suggest and analyze a class of iterative algorithms for solving hemiequilibrium problems, the convergence of which requires either pseudomonotonicity or partially relaxed strong monotonicity. As a special case, we obtain a new method for hemivariational inequalities. Since hemiequilibrium problems include hemivariational inequalities and equilibrium problems as special cases, the results proved in this paper still hold for these problems.

  13. An Optimizing Space Data-Communications Scheduling Method and Algorithm with Interference Mitigation, Generalized for a Broad Class of Optimization Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rash, James

    2014-01-01

    NASA's space data-communications infrastructure-the Space Network and the Ground Network-provide scheduled (as well as some limited types of unscheduled) data-communications services to user spacecraft. The Space Network operates several orbiting geostationary platforms (the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS)), each with its own servicedelivery antennas onboard. The Ground Network operates service-delivery antennas at ground stations located around the world. Together, these networks enable data transfer between user spacecraft and their mission control centers on Earth. Scheduling data-communications events for spacecraft that use the NASA communications infrastructure-the relay satellites and the ground stations-can be accomplished today with software having an operational heritage dating from the 1980s or earlier. An implementation of the scheduling methods and algorithms disclosed and formally specified herein will produce globally optimized schedules with not only optimized service delivery by the space data-communications infrastructure but also optimized satisfaction of all user requirements and prescribed constraints, including radio frequency interference (RFI) constraints. Evolutionary algorithms, a class of probabilistic strategies for searching large solution spaces, is the essential technology invoked and exploited in this disclosure. Also disclosed are secondary methods and algorithms for optimizing the execution efficiency of the schedule-generation algorithms themselves. The scheduling methods and algorithms as presented are adaptable to accommodate the complexity of scheduling the civilian and/or military data-communications infrastructure within the expected range of future users and space- or ground-based service-delivery assets. Finally, the problem itself, and the methods and algorithms, are generalized and specified formally. The generalized methods and algorithms are applicable to a very broad class of combinatorial

  14. Towards optimal packed string matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ben-Kiki, Oren; Bille, Philip; Breslauer, Dany

    2014-01-01

    -size string-matching instruction wssm is available in contemporary commodity processors. The other word-size maximum-suffix instruction wslm is only required during the pattern pre-processing. Benchmarks show that our solution can be efficiently implemented, unlike some prior theoretical packed string...

  15. Application of Learning Engineering Techniques Thinking Aloud Pair Problem Solving in Learning Mathematics Students Class VII SMPN 15 Padang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widuri, S. Y. S.; Almash, L.; Zuzano, F.

    2018-04-01

    The students activity and responsible in studying mathematic is still lack. It gives an effect for the bad result in studying mathematic. There is one of learning technic to increase students activity in the classroom and the result of studying mathematic with applying a learning technic. It is “Thinking Aloud Pair Problem Solving (TAPPS)”. The purpose of this research is to recognize the developing of students activity in mathematic subject during applying that technic “TAPPS” in seven grade at SMPN 15 Padang and compare the students proportion in learning mathematic with TAPPS between learning process without it in seven grade at SMPN 15 Padang. Students activity for indicators 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 at each meeting is likely to increase and students activity for indicator 7 at each meeting is likely to decrease. The finding of this research is χ 2 = 9,42 and the value of p is 0,0005 < p < 0,005. Therefore p < 0,05 has means H 0 was rejected and H 1 was accepted. Thus, it was concluded that the activities and result in studying mathematic increased after applying learning technic the TAPPS.

  16. Improvement for the design of packed moving bed adsorption column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Wei

    2014-01-01

    The problems needed to pay attention to in the physical design of packed moving bed adsorption column were presented. The design of key parts such as the inlet and outlet of liquid phase and gas phase were improved. The expected effect was achieved by the improvement. (author)

  17. Modified strip packing heuristics for the rectangular variable-sized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frank G Ortmann

    objects. Therefore, the packing of items into a bin may be considered as “cutting” away ... not be rotated (the oriented problem, hence the abbreviation “O”) and in ...... [32] Gilmore PC & Gomory RE, 1961, A linear programming approach to the ...

  18. Viscoelastic gravel-pack carrier fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nehmer, W.L.

    1988-01-01

    The ability of a fluid to flow adequately into the formation during gravel-pack treatments is critical to achieving a good pack. Recent studies have indicated ''fish-eyes'' and/or ''microgels'' present in many polymer gelled carrier fluids will plug pore throats, leading to impaired leakoff and causing formation damage. Intensive manipulation of the polymer gelled fluid using shear and filter devices will help remove the particles, but it adds to the cost of the treatment in terms of equipment and manpower. Excessive shear will degrade the polymer leading to poor gravel suspension, while too little shear will cause filtration problems. A gelled carried fluid using a viscoelastic surfactant system has been found to leak off very efficiently to the formation, and cause no formation damage, without the use of shear/filter devices. Viscoelastic surfactant-base gelled fluids develop viscosity because of the association of surfactant moloecules into large rod-shaped aggregates. There is no hydration of polymer involved, so fish-eyes and microgels will not be formed in the viscoelastic fluid. A surfactant-base system having a yield point allows the gravel carrying properties to be much better than fluids gelled with conventional polymer systems (hydroxyethylcellulose [HEC]). For example, a gravel carried fluid gelled with 80 lb HEC/1,000 gal has a viscosity of about 400 cp at 170 sec/sup -1/; a viscoelastic surfactant-base system having only one-half the viscosity still flows into cores about four times more efficiently than the HEC-base fluid. The rheology, leakoff, formation damage and mixing properties of a viscoelastic, surfactant-base, gravel-pack carrier fluid are discussed

  19. Film packed lithium-ion battery with polymer stabilizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satoh, Masaharu; Nakahara, Kentaro [NEC Corp., Environment and Material Research Labs., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2004-11-30

    The 1600 mAh class of film packed lithium-ion battery has been fabricated with the polymer stabilizer. The adhesive polymer covered with fluorinated polymer beads enables to penetrate into the prismatically wound jerry-roll layers and connects the electrode layers and separator film. The battery demonstrates the improved properties after repeating the charge and discharge processes and should be useful for the various electronic equipment such as notebook type computers. (Author)

  20. Film packed lithium-ion battery with polymer stabilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Masaharu; Nakahara, Kentaro

    2004-01-01

    The 1600 mAh class of film packed lithium-ion battery has been fabricated with the polymer stabilizer. The adhesive polymer covered with fluorinated polymer beads enables to penetrate into the prismatically wounded jerry-roll layers and connects the electrode layers and separator film. The battery demonstrates the improved properties after repeating the charge and discharge processes and should be useful for the various electronics equipment such as notebook type computer

  1. Valve packing manual. A maintenance application guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aikin, J.A.; McCutcheon, R.G.; Cumming, D.

    1997-01-01

    Since 1970, AECL Chalk River Mechanical Equipment Development (MED) branch has invested over 175 person years in testing related to improving valve packing performance. Successful developments, including, 'live-loading', reduced packing heights, and performance-based packing qualification testing have been implemented. Since 1986, MED and the Integrated Valve Actuator Program Task Force - Valve Packing Steering Committee (IVAP-VPSC) have been involved in the development of combination die-formed graphite packing for use in CANDU plants. Many reports, articles, and specifications have been issued. Due to the large amount of test data and reports, a more user-friendly document has been prepared for everyday use. The Valve Packing Manual is based on many years of MED research and testing, as well as operating experience from CANDU nuclear generating stations (NGS). Since 1986, packing research and testing has been funded by the CANDU Owners Group (COG), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and participating valve packing manufacturers. The Valve Packing Manual (VPM) provides topical summaries of all work related to valve packing done since 1985. It includes advances in configuration design, stem packing friction, materials specifications, and installation procedures. This paper provides an overview on the application of the VPM with a focus on qualification testing, packing configuration, and stem packing friction. (author)

  2. When fast and slow interfaces grow together: Connection to the half-space problem of the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yasufumi; Takeuchi, Kazumasa A.

    2018-04-01

    We study height fluctuations of interfaces in the (1 +1 ) -dimensional Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) class, growing at different speeds in the left half and the right half of space. Carrying out simulations of the discrete polynuclear growth model with two different growth rates, combined with the standard setting for the droplet, flat, and stationary geometries, we find that the fluctuation properties at and near the boundary are described by the KPZ half-space problem developed in the theoretical literature. In particular, in the droplet case, the distribution at the boundary is given by the largest-eigenvalue distribution of random matrices in the Gaussian symplectic ensemble, often called the GSE Tracy-Widom distribution. We also characterize crossover from the full-space statistics to the half-space one, which arises when the difference between the two growth speeds is small.

  3. Interactions between two beta-sheets. Energetics of beta/beta packing in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, K C; Némethy, G; Rumsey, S; Tuttle, R W; Scheraga, H A

    1986-04-20

    The analysis of the interactions between regularly folded segments of the polypeptide chain contributes to an understanding of the energetics of protein folding. Conformational energy-minimization calculations have been carried out to determine the favorable ways of packing two right-twisted beta-sheets. The packing of two five-stranded beta-sheets was investigated, with the strands having the composition CH3CO-(L-Ile)6-NHCH3 in one beta-sheet and CH3CO-(L-Val)6-NHCH3 in the other. Two distinct classes of low-energy packing arrangements were found. In the class with lowest energies, the strands of the two beta-sheets are aligned nearly parallel (or antiparallel) with each other, with a preference for a negative orientation angle, because this arrangement corresponds to the best complementary packing of the two twisted saddle-shaped beta-sheets. In the second class, with higher interaction energies, the strands of the two beta-sheets are oriented nearly perpendicular to each other. While the surfaces of the two beta-sheets are not complementary in this arrangement, there is good packing between the corner of one beta-sheet and the interior part of the surface of the other, resulting in a favorable energy of packing. Both classes correspond to frequently observed orientations of beta-sheets in proteins. In proteins, the second class of packing is usually observed when the two beta-sheets are covalently linked, i.e. when a polypeptide strand passes from one beta-sheet to the other, but we have shown here that a large contribution to the stabilization of this packing arrangement arises from noncovalent interactions.

  4. Measured Black Carbon Deposition on the Sierra Nevada Snow Pack and Implication for Snow Pack Retreat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, O.L.; Corrigan, C.E.; Kirchstetter, T.W.; Cliff, S.S.; Ramanathan, V.

    2010-01-12

    Modeling studies show that the darkening of snow and ice by black carbon deposition is a major factor for the rapid disappearance of arctic sea ice, mountain glaciers and snow packs. This study provides one of the first direct measurements for the efficient removal of black carbon from the atmosphere by snow and its subsequent deposition to the snow packs of California. The early melting of the snow packs in the Sierras is one of the contributing factors to the severe water problems in California. BC concentrations in falling snow were measured at two mountain locations and in rain at a coastal site. All three stations reveal large BC concentrations in precipitation, ranging from 1.7 ng/g to 12.9 ng/g. The BC concentrations in the air after the snow fall were negligible suggesting an extremely efficient removal of BC by snow. The data suggest that below cloud scavenging, rather than ice nuclei, was the dominant source of BC in the snow. A five-year comparison of BC, dust, and total fine aerosol mass concentrations at multiple sites reveals that the measurements made at the sampling sites were representative of large scale deposition in the Sierra Nevada. The relative concentration of iron and calcium in the mountain aerosol indicates that one-quarter to one-third of the BC may have been transported from Asia.

  5. Packing Different Cuboids with Rotations and Spheres into a Cuboid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. G. Stoyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a packing optimization problem of different spheres and cuboids into a cuboid of the minimal height. Translations and continuous rotations of cuboids are allowed. In the paper, we offer a way of construction of special functions (Φ-functions describing how rotations can be dealt with. These functions permit us to construct the mathematical model of the problem as a classical mathematical programming problem. Basic characteristics of the mathematical model are investigated. When solving the problem, the characteristics allow us to apply a number of original and state-of-the-art efficient methods of local and global optimization. Numerical examples of packing from 20 to 300 geometric objects are given.

  6. Hypostatic jammed packings of frictionless nonspherical particles

    OpenAIRE

    VanderWerf, Kyle; Jin, Weiwei; Shattuck, Mark D.; O'Hern, Corey S.

    2017-01-01

    We perform computational studies of static packings of a variety of nonspherical particles including circulo-lines, circulo-polygons, ellipses, asymmetric dimers, and dumbbells to determine which shapes form hypostatic versus isostatic packings and to understand why hypostatic packings of nonspherical particles can be mechanically stable despite having fewer contacts than that predicted from na\\"ive constraint counting. To generate highly accurate force- and torque-balanced packings of circul...

  7. Safer v. Estate of Pack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-07-11

    The Superior Court of New Jersey, Appellate Division, recognized "a physician's duty to warn those known to be at risk of avoidable harm from a genetically transmissible condition." During the 1950s, Dr. George Pack treated Donna Shafer's father for a cancerous blockage of the colon and multiple polyposis. In 1990, Safer was diagnosed with the same condition, which she claims is inherited, and, if not diagnosed and treated, invariably will lead to metastic colorectal cancer. Safer alleged that Dr. Pack knew the hereditary nature of the disease, yet failed to warn the immediate family, thus breaching his professional duty to warn. The court did not follow the analysis of the trial court, that a physician has no legal duty to warn the child of a patient of the genetic risk of disease because no physician and patient relationship exists between the doctor and the child.

  8. Random packing of colloids and granular matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouterse, A.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis deals with the random packing of colloids and granular matter. A random packing is a stable disordered collection of touching particles, without long-range positional and orientational order. Experimental random packings of particles with the same shape but made of different materials

  9. Complications of balloon packing in epistaxis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeeren, Lenka; Derks, Wynia; Fokkens, Wytske; Menger, Dirk Jan

    2015-01-01

    Although balloon packing appears to be efficient to control epistaxis, severe local complications can occur. We describe four patients with local lesions after balloon packing. Prolonged balloon packing can cause damage to nasal mucosa, septum and alar skin (nasal mucosa, the cartilaginous skeleton

  10. Latent Class Analysis of Gambling Activities in a Sample of Young Swiss Men: Association with Gambling Problems, Substance Use Outcomes, Personality Traits and Coping Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Joseph; Baggio, Stéphanie; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Simon, Olivier; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Gmel, Gerhard

    2016-06-01

    The study aimed to identify different patterns of gambling activities (PGAs) and to investigate how PGAs differed in gambling problems, substance use outcomes, personality traits and coping strategies. A representative sample of 4989 young Swiss males completed a questionnaire assessing seven distinct gambling activities, gambling problems, substance use outcomes, personality traits and coping strategies. PGAs were identified using latent class analysis (LCA). Differences between PGAs in gambling and substance use outcomes, personality traits and coping strategies were tested. LCA identified six different PGAs. With regard to gambling and substance use outcomes, the three most problematic PGAs were extensive gamblers, followed by private gamblers, and electronic lottery and casino gamblers, respectively. By contrast, the three least detrimental PGAs were rare or non-gamblers, lottery only gamblers and casino gamblers. With regard to personality traits, compared with rare or non-gamblers, private and casino gamblers reported higher levels of sensation seeking. Electronic lottery and casino gamblers, private gamblers and extensive gamblers had higher levels of aggression-hostility. Extensive and casino gamblers reported higher levels of sociability, whereas casino gamblers reported lower levels of anxiety-neuroticism. Extensive gamblers used more maladaptive and less adaptive coping strategies than other groups. Results suggest that gambling is not a homogeneous activity since different types of gamblers exist according to the PGA they are engaged in. Extensive gamblers, electronic and casino gamblers and private gamblers may have the most problematic PGAs. Personality traits and coping skills may predispose individuals to PGAs associated with more or less negative outcomes.

  11. Decontamination of Chlorpyrifos packing using ionizing radiation: processing optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Manoel Nunes; Sampa, Maria Helena de Oliveira; Duarte, Celina Lopes

    2007-01-01

    The discharge of empty plastic packing of pesticide can be an environmental concern causing problems to human health, animals and plants if done without inspection and monitoring. Among the commercial pesticides, chlorpyrifos, o, o- Diethyl - o- (3,5,6 - trichloro - 2 - pyridyl) phosphorothioate, has significant importance because of its wide distribution, extensive use and persistence. The most commonly used formulations include the emulsified concentrate, granule, wet powder and dispersible granule has significant importance because of its wide distribution and extensive use and persistence. The hydroxyl .OH attack is the most efficient process of chemical oxidation. The degradation-induced of chlorpyrifos by gamma radiolysis was studied in packaging of high-density polyethylene tree layer coextruded, named COEX, irradiated intact and fragments. The intact packing was irradiated with water and the fragmented packing was irradiated with water and with a solution of 50% of water and 50% of acetonitrile. An AECL 'Gammacell 2201 60 Co source and a multipurpose gamma irradiator were used in the processing. The chemical analysis of the chlorpyrifos and by-products were made using a gas chromatography associated to the mass spectrometry (MSGC-Shimadzu QP5000. Radiation processing of packing in pieces showed higher efficiency in removing chlorpyrifos than whole packing. The presence of water showed fundamental to promote the formation of frees radicals and acetonitrile facilitate the dissolution of chlorpyrifos and consequently its removal. (author)

  12. Decontamination of Chlorpyrifos packing using ionizing radiation: processing optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Manoel Nunes; Sampa, Maria Helena de Oliveira; Duarte, Celina Lopes [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: mnmori@ipen.br; mhosampa@ipen.br; clduarte@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    The discharge of empty plastic packing of pesticide can be an environmental concern causing problems to human health, animals and plants if done without inspection and monitoring. Among the commercial pesticides, chlorpyrifos, o, o- Diethyl - o- (3,5,6 - trichloro - 2 - pyridyl) phosphorothioate, has significant importance because of its wide distribution, extensive use and persistence. The most commonly used formulations include the emulsified concentrate, granule, wet powder and dispersible granule has significant importance because of its wide distribution and extensive use and persistence. The hydroxyl .OH attack is the most efficient process of chemical oxidation. The degradation-induced of chlorpyrifos by gamma radiolysis was studied in packaging of high-density polyethylene tree layer coextruded, named COEX, irradiated intact and fragments. The intact packing was irradiated with water and the fragmented packing was irradiated with water and with a solution of 50% of water and 50% of acetonitrile. An AECL 'Gammacell 2201 {sup 60}Co source and a multipurpose gamma irradiator were used in the processing. The chemical analysis of the chlorpyrifos and by-products were made using a gas chromatography associated to the mass spectrometry (MSGC-Shimadzu QP5000. Radiation processing of packing in pieces showed higher efficiency in removing chlorpyrifos than whole packing. The presence of water showed fundamental to promote the formation of frees radicals and acetonitrile facilitate the dissolution of chlorpyrifos and consequently its removal. (author)

  13. SPH Modelling of Sea-ice Pack Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staroszczyk, Ryszard

    2017-12-01

    The paper is concerned with the problem of sea-ice pack motion and deformation under the action of wind and water currents. Differential equations describing the dynamics of ice, with its very distinct mateFfigrial responses in converging and diverging flows, express the mass and linear momentum balances on the horizontal plane (the free surface of the ocean). These equations are solved by the fully Lagrangian method of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). Assuming that the ice behaviour can be approximated by a non-linearly viscous rheology, the proposed SPH model has been used to simulate the evolution of a sea-ice pack driven by wind drag stresses. The results of numerical simulations illustrate the evolution of an ice pack, including variations in ice thickness and ice area fraction in space and time. The effects of different initial ice pack configurations and of different conditions assumed at the coast-ice interface are examined. In particular, the SPH model is applied to a pack flow driven by a vortex wind to demonstrate how well the Lagrangian formulation can capture large deformations and displacements of sea ice.

  14. Evaluation of Diagnostic Tests Using Information Theory for Multi-Class Diagnostic Problems and its Application for the Detection of Occlusal Caries Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umut Arslan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several methods are available to evaluate the performance of the tests when the purpose of the diagnostic test is to discriminate between two possible disease states. However multi-class diagnostic problems frequently appear in many areas of medical science. Hence, there is a need for methods which will enable us to characterize the accuracy of diagnostic tests when there are more than two possible disease states. Aims: To show that two information theory measures, information content (IC and proportional reduction in diagnostic uncertainty (PRDU, can be used for the evaluation of the performance of diagnostic tests for multi-class diagnostic problems that may appear in different areas of medical science. Study Design: Diagnostic accuracy study. Methods: Sixty freshly extracted permanent human molar and premolar teeth suspected to have occlusal caries lesions were selected for the study and were assessed by two experienced examiners. Each examiner performed two evaluations. Histological examination was used as the gold standard. The scores of the histological examination were defined as sound (n=11, enamel caries (n=22 and dentin caries (n=27. Diagnostic performance of i visual inspection, ii radiography, iii laser fluorescence (LF and iv micro-computed tomography (M-CT caries detection methods was evaluated by calculating IC and PRDU. Results: Micro-computed tomography examination was the best method among the diagnostic techniques for the diagnosis of occlusal caries in terms of both IC and PRDU. M-CT examination supplied the maximum diagnostic information about the diagnosis of occlusal caries in the first (IC: 1.056; p<0.05, (PRDU: 70.5% and second evaluation (IC: 1.105; p<0.05, (PRDU: 73.8% for the first examiner. M-CT examination was the best method among the diagnostic techniques for the second examiner in both the first (IC:1.105; p<0.05, (PRDU:73.8% and second evaluation (IC:1.061; p<0.05, (PRDU:70.8%. IC and PRDU were

  15. Implementation of Bin Packing Model for Reed Switch Production Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, Rainier Romero [Polytechnic University of Baja California, Calle de la Claridad S/N, Col Plutarco Elias Calles, Mexicali, B. C., 21376 (Mexico); Burtseva, Larysa [Engineering Institute, Autonomous University of Baja California, Calle de la Normal S/N, Col. Insurgentes Este, Mexicali, BC, 21280 (Mexico)

    2010-06-17

    This paper presents a form to resolve a real problem of efficient material election in reed switch manufacturing. The carrying out of the consumer demands depends on the stochastic results of the classification process where each lot of switches is distributed into bins according to an electric measure value. Various glass types are employed for the switch manufacturing. The effect caused by the glass type variation on the switch classification results was investigated. Based on real data statistic analysis, the problem is reduced to the lot number minimizing taking into consideration the glass type, and interpreted as a bin packing problem generalization. On difference to the classic bin packing problem, in the considered case, an item represents a set of pieces; a container is divided into a number of bins (sub-containers); the bin capacity is variable; there are the assignment restrictions between bins and sets of pieces; the items are allowed to be fragmented into bins and containers. The problem has a high complexity. A heuristic offline algorithm is proposed to find the quantity, types and packing sequence of containers, the item fragments associated with containers and bins. The bin capacities do not affect the algorithm.

  16. Implementation of Bin Packing Model for Reed Switch Production Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, Rainier Romero; Burtseva, Larysa

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a form to resolve a real problem of efficient material election in reed switch manufacturing. The carrying out of the consumer demands depends on the stochastic results of the classification process where each lot of switches is distributed into bins according to an electric measure value. Various glass types are employed for the switch manufacturing. The effect caused by the glass type variation on the switch classification results was investigated. Based on real data statistic analysis, the problem is reduced to the lot number minimizing taking into consideration the glass type, and interpreted as a bin packing problem generalization. On difference to the classic bin packing problem, in the considered case, an item represents a set of pieces; a container is divided into a number of bins (sub-containers); the bin capacity is variable; there are the assignment restrictions between bins and sets of pieces; the items are allowed to be fragmented into bins and containers. The problem has a high complexity. A heuristic offline algorithm is proposed to find the quantity, types and packing sequence of containers, the item fragments associated with containers and bins. The bin capacities do not affect the algorithm.

  17. Problem Posing

    OpenAIRE

    Šilhavá, Marie

    2009-01-01

    This diploma thesis concentrates on problem posing from the students' point of view. Problem posing can be either seen as a teaching method which can be used in the class, or it can be used as a tool for researchers or teachers to assess the level of students' understanding of the topic. In my research, I compare three classes, one mathematics specialist class and two generalist classes, in their ability of problem posing. As an assessment tool it seemed that mathemathics specialists were abl...

  18. Automated packing systems: review of industrial implementations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Paul F.; Batchelor, Bruce G.

    1993-08-01

    A rich theoretical background to the problems that occur in the automation of material handling can be found in operations research, production engineering, systems engineering and automation, more specifically machine vision, literature. This work has contributed towards the design of intelligent handling systems. This paper will review the application of these automated material handling and packing techniques to industrial problems. The discussion will also highlight the systems integration issues involved in these applications. An outline of one such industrial application, the automated placement of shape templates on to leather hides, is also discussed. The purpose of this system is to arrange shape templates on a leather hide in an efficient manner, so as to minimize the leather waste, before they are automatically cut from the hide. These pieces are used in the furniture and car manufacturing industries for the upholstery of high quality leather chairs and car seats. Currently this type of operation is semi-automated. The paper will outline the problems involved in the full automation of such a procedure.

  19. Hypostatic jammed packings of frictionless nonspherical particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderWerf, Kyle; Jin, Weiwei; Shattuck, Mark D.; O'Hern, Corey S.

    2018-01-01

    We perform computational studies of static packings of a variety of nonspherical particles including circulo-lines, circulo-polygons, ellipses, asymmetric dimers, dumbbells, and others to determine which shapes form packings with fewer contacts than degrees of freedom (hypostatic packings) and which have equal numbers of contacts and degrees of freedom (isostatic packings), and to understand why hypostatic packings of nonspherical particles can be mechanically stable despite having fewer contacts than that predicted from naive constraint counting. To generate highly accurate force- and torque-balanced packings of circulo-lines and cir-polygons, we developed an interparticle potential that gives continuous forces and torques as a function of the particle coordinates. We show that the packing fraction and coordination number at jamming onset obey a masterlike form for all of the nonspherical particle packings we studied when plotted versus the particle asphericity A , which is proportional to the ratio of the squared perimeter to the area of the particle. Further, the eigenvalue spectra of the dynamical matrix for packings of different particle shapes collapse when plotted at the same A . For hypostatic packings of nonspherical particles, we verify that the number of "quartic" modes along which the potential energy increases as the fourth power of the perturbation amplitude matches the number of missing contacts relative to the isostatic value. We show that the fourth derivatives of the total potential energy in the directions of the quartic modes remain nonzero as the pressure of the packings is decreased to zero. In addition, we calculate the principal curvatures of the inequality constraints for each contact in circulo-line packings and identify specific types of contacts with inequality constraints that possess convex curvature. These contacts can constrain multiple degrees of freedom and allow hypostatic packings of nonspherical particles to be mechanically

  20. The “Theoreticals” Pack

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    The Particle Zoo is a colourful set of hand-made soft toys representing the particles in the Standard Model and beyond. It includes a “theoreticals” pack where you can find yet undiscovered particles: the best-selling Higgs boson, the graviton, the tachyon, and dark matter. Supersymmetric particle soft toys are also available on demand. But what would happen to the zoo if Nature had prepared some unexpected surprises? Julie Peasley, the zookeeper, is ready to sew new smiling faces…   The "Theoreticals" pack in the Particle Zoo. There is only one place in the world where you can buy a smiling Higgs boson and it’s not at CERN, although this is where scientists hope to observe it. The blue star-shaped particle is the best seller of Julie Peasley’s Particle Zoo – a collection of tens of soft toys representing all sorts of particles, including composite and decaying particles.  Over the years Julie’s zoo ...

  1. Structured packing: an opportunity for energy savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez T, R.H.; Guadarrama G, J.J.

    1996-01-01

    This work emphasizes the advantages about the use of structured packing. This type of packings allows by its geometry to reduce the processing time giving energy savings and throw down the production costs in several industries such as heavy water production plants, petrochemical industry and all industries involved with separation processes. There is a comparative results of energy consumption utilizing the structured vs. Raschig packings. (Author)

  2. Numerical Simulation on Dense Packing of Granular Materials by Container Oscillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The packing of granular materials is a basic and important problem in geomechanics. An approach, which generates dense packing of spheres confined in cylindrical and cuboidal containers in three steps, is introduced in this work. A loose packing structure is first generated by means of a reference lattice method. Then a dense packing structure is obtained in a container by simulating dropping of particles under gravitational forces. Furthermore, a scheme that makes the bottom boundary fluctuate up and down was applied to obtain more denser packing. The discrete element method (DEM was employed to simulate the interactions between particle-particle and particle-boundary during the particles' motions. Finally, two cases were presented to indicate the validity of the method proposed in this work.

  3. Imaging of body packing: errors and medico-legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reginelli, Alfonso; Russo, Anna; Urraro, Fabrizio; Maresca, Duilia; Martiniello, Ciro; D'Andrea, Alfredo; Brunese, Luca; Pinto, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Body packing is the ingestion or insertion in the human body of packed illicit substances. Over the last 20 years, drug smuggling has increased global and new means of transport of narcotics have emerged. Among these, the most frequent one is the gastrointestinal tract: from mouth to anus, vagina, and ears. Cocaine is one of the most traded drugs, followed by heroin. Condoms, latex gloves, and balloons are typically used as drug packets for retention in the body. There are different radiologic modalities to detect illicit drugs in body packing: Plain radiography, computed tomography (CT), ultrasound, and magnetic resonance. Current protocols recommend the use of radiography to confirm packet retention and, in case of doubt, the use of abdominal CT scan with reduced mAs. In case of packet rupture, catastrophic effects can occur. Management of patients carrying packets of drugs is a recurrent medico-legal problem. To improve diagnostic accuracy and prevent hazardous complications, radiologists and emergency physicians should be familiar with radiologic features of body packing. The radiologist plays both a social and a medico-legal role in their assessment, and it should not be limited only to the identification of the packages but must also provide accurate information about their number and their exact location. In this review, we focus on diagnostic errors and medico-legal issues related to the radiological assessment of body packers.

  4. Method of immersion of a problem of comparison financial conditions of the enterprises in an expert cover in a class algorithms of artificial intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Bukharin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The financial condition of the enterprise can be estimated by a set of characteristics (solvency and liquidity, structure of the capital, profitability, etc.. The part of financial coefficients is low-informative, and other part contains the interconnected sizes. Therefore for elimination of ambiguity we will pass to the generalized indicators – rating numbers, and as the main means of research it is offered to use the theory of expert systems. As characteristic of the modern theory of expert systems it is necessary to consider application of intellectual ways of data processing of data mining, or simply data mining. The method of immersion of a problem of comparison of a financial condition of economic objects in an expert cover in a class of systems of artificial intelligence is offered (algorithms of a method of the analysis of hierarchies, contiguity leaning of a neural network, algorithm of training with function of activation softmax. The generalized indicator of structure of the capital in the form of rating number is entered and the sign (factorial space for seven concrete enterprises is created. Quantitative signs (financial coefficients of structure of the capital are allocated and their normalization by rules of the theory of expert systems is carried out. To the received set of the generalized indicators the method of the analysis of hierarchies is applied: on the basis of a linguistic scale of T. Saaty the ranks of signs reflecting the relative importance of various financial coefficients are defined and the matrix of pair comparisons is constructed. The vector of priority signs on the basis of the solution of the equation for own numbers and own vectors of the mentioned matrix is calculated. As a result the visualization of the received results which has allowed to eliminate difficulties of interpretation of small and negative values of the generalized indicator is carried out. The neural network with contiguity leaning and

  5. Spurious Latent Class Problem in the Mixed Rasch Model: A Comparison of Three Maximum Likelihood Estimation Methods under Different Ability Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Sedat

    2018-01-01

    Recent research has shown that over-extraction of latent classes can be observed in the Bayesian estimation of the mixed Rasch model when the distribution of ability is non-normal. This study examined the effect of non-normal ability distributions on the number of latent classes in the mixed Rasch model when estimated with maximum likelihood…

  6. The general packed column : an analytical solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, J.L.W.

    2000-01-01

    The transient behaviour of a packed column is considered. The column, uniformly packed on a macroscopic scale, is multi-structured on the microscopic level: the solid phase consists of particles, which may differ in incidence, shape or size, and other relevant physical properties. Transport in the

  7. On contact numbers in random rod packings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouterse, A.; Luding, Stefan; Philipse, A.P.

    2009-01-01

    Random packings of non-spherical granular particles are simulated by combining mechanical contraction and molecular dynamics, to determine contact numbers as a function of density. Particle shapes are varied from spheres to thin rods. The observed contact numbers (and packing densities) agree well

  8. 7 CFR 982.11 - Pack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... according to size, internal quality, and external appearance and condition of hazelnuts packed in accordance... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pack. 982.11 Section 982.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and...

  9. Dependent Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasiunas, Vaidas; Mezini, Mira; Ostermann, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    of dependent classes and a machine-checked type soundness proof in Isabelle/HOL [29], the first of this kind for a language with virtual classes and path-dependent types. [29] T.Nipkow, L.C. Poulson, and M. Wenzel. Isabelle/HOL -- A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order Logic, volume 2283 of LNCS, Springer, 2002......Virtual classes allow nested classes to be refined in subclasses. In this way nested classes can be seen as dependent abstractions of the objects of the enclosing classes. Expressing dependency via nesting, however, has two limitations: Abstractions that depend on more than one object cannot...... be modeled and a class must know all classes that depend on its objects. This paper presents dependent classes, a generalization of virtual classes that expresses similar semantics by parameterization rather than by nesting. This increases expressivity of class variations as well as the flexibility...

  10. Condensation in Nanoporous Packed Beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ally, Javed; Molla, Shahnawaz; Mostowfi, Farshid

    2016-05-10

    In materials with tiny, nanometer-scale pores, liquid condensation is shifted from the bulk saturation pressure observed at larger scales. This effect is called capillary condensation and can block pores, which has major consequences in hydrocarbon production, as well as in fuel cells, catalysis, and powder adhesion. In this study, high pressure nanofluidic condensation studies are performed using propane and carbon dioxide in a colloidal crystal packed bed. Direct visualization allows the extent of condensation to be observed, as well as inference of the pore geometry from Bragg diffraction. We show experimentally that capillary condensation depends on pore geometry and wettability because these factors determine the shape of the menisci that coalesce when pore filling occurs, contrary to the typical assumption that all pore structures can be modeled as cylindrical and perfectly wetting. We also observe capillary condensation at higher pressures than has been done previously, which is important because many applications involving this phenomenon occur well above atmospheric pressure, and there is little, if any, experimental validation of capillary condensation at such pressures, particularly with direct visualization.

  11. Hawking Colloquium Packed CERN Auditoriums

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Stephen Hawking's week long visit to CERN included an 'exceptional CERN colloquium' which filled six auditoriums. Stephen Hawking during his visit to the ATLAS experiment. Stephen Hawking, Lucasian Professor of Cambridge University, visited the Theory Unit of the Physics Department from 24 September to 1 October 2006. As part of his visit, he gave two lectures in the main auditorium - a theoretical seminar on 'The Semi-Classical Birth of The Universe', attended by about 120 specialists; and a colloquium titled 'The Origin of The Universe'. As a key public figure in theoretical physics, his presence was eagerly awaited on both occasions. Those who wanted to attend the colloquium had to arrive early and be equipped with plenty of patience. An hour before it was due to begin, the 400 capacity of the main auditorium was already full. The lecture, simultaneously broadcast to five other fully packed CERN auditoriums, was attended by an estimated total of 850. Stephen Hawking attracted a large CERN crowd, filling ...

  12. Compressed Subsequence Matching and Packed Tree Coloring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Cording, Patrick Hagge; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2017-01-01

    We present a new algorithm for subsequence matching in grammar compressed strings. Given a grammar of size n compressing a string of size N and a pattern string of size m over an alphabet of size \\(\\sigma \\), our algorithm uses \\(O(n+\\frac{n\\sigma }{w})\\) space and \\(O(n+\\frac{n\\sigma }{w}+m\\log N\\log...... w\\cdot occ)\\) or \\(O(n+\\frac{n\\sigma }{w}\\log w+m\\log N\\cdot occ)\\) time. Here w is the word size and occ is the number of minimal occurrences of the pattern. Our algorithm uses less space than previous algorithms and is also faster for \\(occ=o(\\frac{n}{\\log N})\\) occurrences. The algorithm uses...... a new data structure that allows us to efficiently find the next occurrence of a given character after a given position in a compressed string. This data structure in turn is based on a new data structure for the tree color problem, where the node colors are packed in bit strings....

  13. Hashish Body Packing: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Jesus Soriano-Perez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A 42-year-old African male was brought by the police to the emergency department under suspicion of drug smuggling by body-packing. Plain abdominal radiograph showed multiple foreign bodies within the gastrointestinal tract. Contrast-enhanced abdominal CT confirmed the findings, and the patient admitted to have swallowed “balls” of hashish. Body-packing is a recognized method of smuggling drugs across international borders. Body packers may present to the emergency department because of drug toxicity, intestinal obstruction, or more commonly, requested by law-enforcement officers for medical confirmation or exclusion of suspected body packing.

  14. Improved Taxation Rate for Bin Packing Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Walter; Qiu, Xian

    A cooperative bin packing game is a N-person game, where the player set N consists of k bins of capacity 1 each and n items of sizes a 1, ⋯ ,a n . The value of a coalition of players is defined to be the maximum total size of items in the coalition that can be packed into the bins of the coalition. We present an alternative proof for the non-emptiness of the 1/3-core for all bin packing games and show how to improve this bound ɛ= 1/3 (slightly). We conjecture that the true best possible value is ɛ= 1/7.

  15. Packing a Box with Bricks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepsen, Charles H.

    1991-01-01

    Presented are solutions to variations of a combinatorics problem from a recent International Mathematics Olympiad. In particular, the matrix algebra solution illustrates an interaction among the undergraduate areas of geometry, combinatorics, linear algebra, and group theory. (JJK)

  16. Comparing the efficacy of mature mud pack and hot pack treatments for knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarsan, Ayşe; Akkaya, Nuray; Ozgen, Merih; Yildiz, Necmettin; Atalay, Nilgun Simsir; Ardic, Fusun

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the efficacy of mature mud pack and hot pack therapies on patients with knee osteoarthritis. This study was designed as a prospective, randomized-controlled, and single-blinded clinical trial. Twenty-seven patients with clinical and radiologic evidence of knee osteoarthritis were randomly assigned into two groups and were treated with mature mud packs (n 15) or hot packs (n=12). Patients were evaluated for pain [based on the visual analog scale (VAS)], function (WOMAC, 6 min walking distance), quality of life [Short Form-36 (SF-36)], and serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) at baseline, post-treatment, and 3 and 6~months after treatment. The mud pack group shows a significant improvement in VAS, pain, stifness, and physical function domains of WOMAC. The difference between groups of pain and physical activity domains is significant at post-treatment in favor of mud pack. For a 6 min walking distance, mud pack shows significant improvement, and the difference is significant between groups in favor of mud pack at post-treatment and 3 and 6 months after treatment. Mud pack shows significant improvement in the pain subscale of SF-36 at the third month continuing until the sixth month after the treatment. Significant improvements are found for the social function, vitality/energy, physical role disability, and general health subscales of SF-36 in favor of the mud pack compared with the hot pack group at post-treatment. A significant increase is detected for IGF-1 in the mud pack group 3 months after treatment compared with the baseline, and the difference is significant between groups 3 months after the treatment. Mud pack is a favorable option compared with hotpack for pain relief and for the improvement of functional conditions in treating patients with knee osteoarthritis.

  17. Glottotecnologie didattiche per i migranti L’italiano fra le altre lingue nel progetto L-Pack (Citizenship Language Pack for Migrants in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierangela Diadori

    2017-01-01

    activities. The authors analyze and evaluate the results of the L-Pack Project, from pilot to dissemination, in different learning contexts both in situ and through e-learning. This is carried out on the basis of surveys concerning the project as a whole and in particular its use in Italian language teaching classes for migrants in Italy.

  18. Packing circles and spheres on surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Schiftner, Alexander; Hö binger, Mathias; Wallner, Johannes; Pottmann, Helmut

    2009-01-01

    Inspired by freeform designs in architecture which involve circles and spheres, we introduce a new kind of triangle mesh whose faces' incircles form a packing. As it turns out, such meshes have a rich geometry and allow us to cover surfaces with circle patterns, sphere packings, approximate circle packings, hexagonal meshes which carry a torsion-free support structure, hybrid tri-hex meshes, and others. We show how triangle meshes can be optimized so as to have the incircle packing property. We explain their relation to conformal geometry and implications on solvability of optimization. The examples we give confirm that this kind of meshes is a rich source of geometric structures relevant to architectural geometry. © 2009 ACM.

  19. Prevention and suppression of metal packing fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Mark; Rogers, William J; Sam Mannan, M; Ostrowski, Scott W

    2003-11-14

    Structured packing has been widely used because of large surface area that makes possible columns with high capacity and efficiency. The large surface area also contributes to fire hazards because of hydrocarbon deposits that can easily combust and promote combustion of the thin metal packing materials. Materials of high surface area that can fuel fires include reactive metals, such as titanium, and materials that are not considered combustible, such as stainless steel. Column design and material selection for packing construction is discussed together with employee training and practices for safe column maintenance and operations. Presented also are methods and agents for suppression of metal fires. Guidance for prevention and suppression of metal fires is related to incidents involving packing fires in columns.

  20. Packing circles and spheres on surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Schiftner, Alexander

    2009-12-01

    Inspired by freeform designs in architecture which involve circles and spheres, we introduce a new kind of triangle mesh whose faces\\' incircles form a packing. As it turns out, such meshes have a rich geometry and allow us to cover surfaces with circle patterns, sphere packings, approximate circle packings, hexagonal meshes which carry a torsion-free support structure, hybrid tri-hex meshes, and others. We show how triangle meshes can be optimized so as to have the incircle packing property. We explain their relation to conformal geometry and implications on solvability of optimization. The examples we give confirm that this kind of meshes is a rich source of geometric structures relevant to architectural geometry.

  1. Packing circles and spheres on surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Schiftner, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Inspired by freeform designs in architecture which involve circles and spheres, we introduce a new kind of triangle mesh whose faces\\' incircles form a packing. As it turns out, such meshes have a rich geometry and allow us to cover surfaces with circle patterns, sphere packings, approximate circle packings, hexagonal meshes which carry a torsion-free support structure, hybrid tri-hex meshes, and others. We show how triangle meshes can be optimized so as to have the incircle packing property. We explain their relation to conformal geometry and implications on solvability of optimization. The examples we give confirm that this kind of meshes is a rich source of geometric structures relevant to architectural geometry. © 2009 ACM.

  2. Packing circles and spheres on surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Schiftner, Alexander; Hö binger, Mathias; Wallner, Johannes; Pottmann, Helmut

    2009-01-01

    Inspired by freeform designs in architecture which involve circles and spheres, we introduce a new kind of triangle mesh whose faces' incircles form a packing. As it turns out, such meshes have a rich geometry and allow us to cover surfaces with circle patterns, sphere packings, approximate circle packings, hexagonal meshes which carry a torsion-free support structure, hybrid tri-hex meshes, and others. We show how triangle meshes can be optimized so as to have the incircle packing property. We explain their relation to conformal geometry and implications on solvability of optimization. The examples we give confirm that this kind of meshes is a rich source of geometric structures relevant to architectural geometry.

  3. Cutting Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Andrew

    1976-01-01

    Provides critical reviews of three books, "The Political Economy of Social Class", "Ethnicity: Theory and Experience," and "Ethnicity in the United States," focusing on the political economy of social class and ethnicity. (Author/AM)

  4. Random close packing in protein cores

    OpenAIRE

    Gaines, Jennifer C.; Smith, W. Wendell; Regan, Lynne; O'Hern, Corey S.

    2015-01-01

    Shortly after the determination of the first protein x-ray crystal structures, researchers analyzed their cores and reported packing fractions $\\phi \\approx 0.75$, a value that is similar to close packing equal-sized spheres. A limitation of these analyses was the use of `extended atom' models, rather than the more physically accurate `explicit hydrogen' model. The validity of using the explicit hydrogen model is proved by its ability to predict the side chain dihedral angle distributions obs...

  5. Granular packing as model glass formers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yujie

    2017-01-01

    Static granular packings are model hard-sphere glass formers. The nature of glass transition has remained a hotly debated issue. We review recent experimental progresses in using granular materials to study glass transitions. We focus on the growth of glass order with five-fold symmetry in granular packings and relate the findings to both geometric frustration and random first-order phase transition theories. (paper)

  6. Integrality gap analysis for bin packing games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kern, Walter; Qui, X.

    A cooperative bin packing game is an $N$-person game, where the player set $N$ consists of $k$ bins of capacity 1 each and $n$ items of sizes $a_1,\\dots,a_n$. The value $v(S)$ of a coalition $S$ of players is defined to be the maximum total size of items in $S$ that can be packed into the bins of

  7. Development of a leadership resource pack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The pack contains notes and presentation material for OSD inspectors to help them prepare for health and safety discussions with senior managers. The successful application of the leadership resource pack depends on an inspector gaining familiarity with the contents of the pack. Flexibility and adaptability were considered crucial factors in developing the contents. The pack is not considered a substitute for an inspector's own experience, knowledge or substitute for prior research. The leadership resource pack is intended as a source of knowledge and good practice that demonstrates how positive leadership can drive a health and safety agenda alongside business considerations. The benefits of the leadership resource pack include: the creation of a flexible tool that inspectors can use to highlight key leadership messages in health and safety; the development of a seven-stage model for characterising senior management commitment; practical examples of how leadership in health and safety management was felt throughout nine organisations; ideas for devising an aide memoire for specific discussions with senior managers. (author)

  8. Hardfacing and packings for improved valve performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aikin, J.A.; Patrick, J.N.F.; Inglis, I.

    2003-01-01

    The CANDU Owners Group (COG), Chemistry, Materials and Components (CMC) Program has supported an ongoing program on valve maintenance and performance for several years. An overview is presented of recent work on iron-based hardfacing, packing qualification, friction testing of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) packings, and an investigation of re-torquing valve packing. Based on this program, two new valve-packing materials have been qualified for use in CANDU stations. By doing this, CANDU maintenance can avoid having only one packing qualified for station use, as well as assess the potential impact of the industry trend towards using lower gland loads. The results from corrosion tests by AECL and the coefficient of friction studies at Battelle' s tribology testing facilities on Delcrome 910, an iron-based hardfacing alloy, indicate it is an acceptable replacement for Stellite 6 under certain conditions. This information can be used to update in-line valve purchasing specifications. The renewed interest in friction characteristics, and environmental qualification (EQ) of packing containing PTFE has resulted in a new test program in these areas. The COG-funded valve programs have resulted in modifications to design specifications for nuclear station in-line valves and have led to better maintenance practices and valve reliability. In the end, this means lower costs and cheaper electricity. (author)

  9. A lifelong learning hyper-heuristic method for bin packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Kevin; Hart, Emma; Paechter, Ben

    2015-01-01

    We describe a novel hyper-heuristic system that continuously learns over time to solve a combinatorial optimisation problem. The system continuously generates new heuristics and samples problems from its environment; and representative problems and heuristics are incorporated into a self-sustaining network of interacting entities inspired by methods in artificial immune systems. The network is plastic in both its structure and content, leading to the following properties: it exploits existing knowledge captured in the network to rapidly produce solutions; it can adapt to new problems with widely differing characteristics; and it is capable of generalising over the problem space. The system is tested on a large corpus of 3,968 new instances of 1D bin-packing problems as well as on 1,370 existing problems from the literature; it shows excellent performance in terms of the quality of solutions obtained across the datasets and in adapting to dynamically changing sets of problem instances compared to previous approaches. As the network self-adapts to sustain a minimal repertoire of both problems and heuristics that form a representative map of the problem space, the system is further shown to be computationally efficient and therefore scalable.

  10. Multi objective optimization of line pack management of gas pipeline system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chebouba, A

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the Line Pack Management of the ''GZ1 Hassi R'mell-Arzew'' gas pipeline. For a gas pipeline system, the decision-making on the gas line pack management scenarios usually involves a delicate balance between minimization of the fuel consumption in the compression stations and maximizing gas line pack. In order to select an acceptable Line Pack Management of Gas Pipeline scenario from these two angles for ''GZ1 Hassi R'mell- Arzew'' gas pipeline, the idea of multi-objective decision-making has been introduced. The first step in developing this approach is the derivation of a numerical method to analyze the flow through the pipeline under transient isothermal conditions. In this paper, the solver NSGA-II of the modeFRONTIER, coupled with a matlab program was used for solving the multi-objective problem

  11. Discipline Problems in The EFL Class: Is There a Cure? Problemas con la disciplina en el aula de inglés: ¿Existe una cura?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris de Almeida Soares

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the findings of an action research project carried out to minimize the negative class participation of 10 EFL pre-intermediate students, aged-11-14, in a language school in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. First, some theoretical issues concerning discipline in the language class will be discussed. Second, the original project I developed in 1995 to minimize the negative class participation of 14 EFL beginner students, aged 1 -15, will be reviewed. Next, the experiment with the 003 group will be described. The results seem to confirm that, although some adaptations to the original project were necessary, when students reflect upon their importance in the lessons, they tend to behave better in class and to show a more positive attitude towards learning.Este artículo discute los resultados de una investigación acción realizada para minimizar los problemas de disciplina en una clase de 10 alumnos de inglés, de nivel pre-intermedio, con edades entre 11-14 años, en un instituto de Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. En primer lugar, se discuten algunos presupuestos teóricos; en segundo lugar, presento el proyecto original que desarrollé en 1995 para trabajar con la indisciplina en mi clase de 14 alumnos principiantes en inglés, con edad entre 1 -15 años. A continuación, se describe el experimento realizado con el grupo de 003. Los resultados parecen confirmar que, aunque fueron necesarias algunas adaptaciones al proyecto inicial, cuando los alumnos reflexionan sobre su importancia para las clases, tienden a portarse mejor y demuestran una actitud más positiva hacia el aprendizaje.

  12. Comparing side chain packing in soluble proteins, protein-protein interfaces, and transmembrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, J C; Acebes, S; Virrueta, A; Butler, M; Regan, L; O'Hern, C S

    2018-05-01

    We compare side chain prediction and packing of core and non-core regions of soluble proteins, protein-protein interfaces, and transmembrane proteins. We first identified or created comparable databases of high-resolution crystal structures of these 3 protein classes. We show that the solvent-inaccessible cores of the 3 classes of proteins are equally densely packed. As a result, the side chains of core residues at protein-protein interfaces and in the membrane-exposed regions of transmembrane proteins can be predicted by the hard-sphere plus stereochemical constraint model with the same high prediction accuracies (>90%) as core residues in soluble proteins. We also find that for all 3 classes of proteins, as one moves away from the solvent-inaccessible core, the packing fraction decreases as the solvent accessibility increases. However, the side chain predictability remains high (80% within 30°) up to a relative solvent accessibility, rSASA≲0.3, for all 3 protein classes. Our results show that ≈40% of the interface regions in protein complexes are "core", that is, densely packed with side chain conformations that can be accurately predicted using the hard-sphere model. We propose packing fraction as a metric that can be used to distinguish real protein-protein interactions from designed, non-binding, decoys. Our results also show that cores of membrane proteins are the same as cores of soluble proteins. Thus, the computational methods we are developing for the analysis of the effect of hydrophobic core mutations in soluble proteins will be equally applicable to analyses of mutations in membrane proteins. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. 27 CFR 24.308 - Bottled or packed wine record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottled or packed wine... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.308 Bottled or packed wine record. A proprietor who bottles, packs, or receives bottled or packed beverage wine in bond shall...

  14. Coalescence preference in dense packing of bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeseul; Gim, Bopil; Gim, Bopil; Weon, Byung Mook

    2015-11-01

    Coalescence preference is the tendency that a merged bubble from the contact of two original bubbles (parent) tends to be near to the bigger parent. Here, we show that the coalescence preference can be blocked by densely packing of neighbor bubbles. We use high-speed high-resolution X-ray microscopy to clearly visualize individual coalescence phenomenon which occurs in micro scale seconds and inside dense packing of microbubbles with a local packing fraction of ~40%. Previous theory and experimental evidence predict a power of -5 between the relative coalescence position and the parent size. However, our new observation for coalescence preference in densely packed microbubbles shows a different power of -2. We believe that this result may be important to understand coalescence dynamics in dense packing of soft matter. This work (NRF-2013R1A22A04008115) was supported by Mid-career Researcher Program through NRF grant funded by the MEST and also was supported by Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (2009-0082580) and by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry and Education, Science and Technology (NRF-2012R1A6A3A04039257).

  15. Two-stage energy storage equalization system for lithium-ion battery pack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W.; Yang, Z. X.; Dong, G. Q.; Li, Y. B.; He, Q. Y.

    2017-11-01

    How to raise the efficiency of energy storage and maximize storage capacity is a core problem in current energy storage management. For that, two-stage energy storage equalization system which contains two-stage equalization topology and control strategy based on a symmetric multi-winding transformer and DC-DC (direct current-direct current) converter is proposed with bidirectional active equalization theory, in order to realize the objectives of consistent lithium-ion battery packs voltages and cells voltages inside packs by using a method of the Range. Modeling analysis demonstrates that the voltage dispersion of lithium-ion battery packs and cells inside packs can be kept within 2 percent during charging and discharging. Equalization time was 0.5 ms, which shortened equalization time of 33.3 percent compared with DC-DC converter. Therefore, the proposed two-stage lithium-ion battery equalization system can achieve maximum storage capacity between lithium-ion battery packs and cells inside packs, meanwhile efficiency of energy storage is significantly improved.

  16. Packing of ganglioside-phospholipid monolayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majewski, J.; Kuhl, T.L.; Kjær, K.

    2001-01-01

    Using synchrotron grazing-incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXD) and reflectivity, the in-plane and out-of-plane structure of mixed ganglioside-phospholipid monolayers was investigated at the air-water interface. Mixed monolayers of 0, 5, 10, 20, and 100 mol% ganglioside GM, and the phospholipid...... monolayers did not affect hydrocarbon tail packing (fluidization or condensation of the hydrocarbon region). This is in contrast to previous investigations of lipopolymer-lipid mixtures, where the packing structure of phospholipid monolayers was greatly altered by the inclusion of lipids bearing hydrophilic...

  17. Used fuel packing plant for CANDU fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzies, I.; Thayer, B.; Bains, N., E-mail: imenzies@atsautomation.com [ATS Automation, Cambridge, ON (Canada); Murchison, A., E-mail: amurchison@nwmo.ca [NWMO, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    Large forgings have been selected to containerize Light Water Reactor used nuclear fuel. CANDU fuel, which is significantly smaller in size, allows novel approaches for containerization. For example, by utilizing commercially available extruded ASME pipe a conceptual design of a Used Fuel Packing Plant for containerization of used CANDU fuel in a long lived metallic container has been developed. The design adopts a modular approach with multiple independent work cells to transfer and containerize the used fuel. Based on current technologies and concepts from proven industrial systems, the Used Fuel Packing Plant can assemble twelve used fuel containers per day considering conservative levels of process availability. (author)

  18. Effects of Problem-Based Learning Model versus Expository Model and Motivation to Achieve for Student's Physic Learning Result of Senior High School at Class XI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prayekti

    2016-01-01

    "Problem-based learning" (PBL) is one of an innovative learning model which can provide an active learning to student, include the motivation to achieve showed by student when the learning is in progress. This research is aimed to know: (1) differences of physic learning result for student group which taught by PBL versus expository…

  19. Teacher Opinions on the Problems Faced in Reading and Writing by Syrian Migrant Children in Their First Class at Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugurlu, Necla Isikdogan; Kayhan, Nilay

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate, according to the opinions of teachers, the problems faced by the children of Syrian families who have taken refuge in Turkey since 2011 with regard to their linguistic and communication skills, as well as their reading and writing process in Turkish as a foreign language. The research group is composed…

  20. Cylinder packing by simulated annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Helena Correia

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is motivated by the problem of loading identical items of circular base (tubes, rolls, ... into a rectangular base (the pallet. For practical reasons, all the loaded items are considered to have the same height. The resolution of this problem consists in determining the positioning pattern of the circular bases of the items on the rectangular pallet, while maximizing the number of items. This pattern will be repeated for each layer stacked on the pallet. Two algorithms based on the meta-heuristic Simulated Annealing have been developed and implemented. The tuning of these algorithms parameters implied running intensive tests in order to improve its efficiency. The algorithms developed were easily extended to the case of non-identical circles.Este artigo aborda o problema de posicionamento de objetos de base circular (tubos, rolos, ... sobre uma base retangular de maiores dimensões. Por razões práticas, considera-se que todos os objetos a carregar apresentam a mesma altura. A resolução do problema consiste na determinação do padrão de posicionamento das bases circulares dos referidos objetos sobre a base de forma retangular, tendo como objetivo a maximização do número de objetos estritamente posicionados no interior dessa base. Este padrão de posicionamento será repetido em cada uma das camadas a carregar sobre a base retangular. Apresentam-se dois algoritmos para a resolução do problema. Estes algoritmos baseiam-se numa meta-heurística, Simulated Annealling, cuja afinação de parâmetros requereu a execução de testes intensivos com o objetivo de atingir um elevado grau de eficiência no seu desempenho. As características dos algoritmos implementados permitiram que a sua extensão à consideração de círculos com raios diferentes fosse facilmente conseguida.

  1. A Cost Assessment of the Dayton Public Schools Vehicle Routing Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    known problems: the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) and the Bin Packing Problem ( BPP ) (Ralphs, 2003). The VRP has a plethora of real world...well known problems: the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) and the Bin Packing Problem ( BPP ) (Ralphs, 2003). The VRP has a plethora of real world

  2. Submaximal Riemann-Roch expected curves and symplectic packing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wioletta Syzdek

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We study Riemann-Roch expected curves on $mathbb{P}^1 imes mathbb{P}^1$ in the context of the Nagata-Biran conjecture. This conjecture predicts that for sufficiently large number of points multiple points Seshadri constants of an ample line bundle on algebraic surface are maximal. Biran gives an effective lower bound $N_0$. We construct examples verifying to the effect that the assertions of the Nagata-Biran conjecture can not hold for small number of points. We discuss cases where our construction fails. We observe also that there exists a strong relation between Riemann-Roch expected curves on $mathbb{P}^1 imes mathbb{P}^1$ and the symplectic packing problem. Biran relates the packing problem to the existence of solutions of certain Diophantine equations. We construct such solutions for any ample line bundle on $mathbb{P}^1 imes mathbb{P}^1$ and a relatively smallnumber of points. The solutions geometrically correspond to Riemann-Roch expected curves. Finally we discuss in how far the Biran number $N_0$ is optimal in the case of mathbb{P}^1 imes mathbb{P}^1. In fact we conjecture that it can be replaced by a lower number and we provide evidence justifying this conjecture.

  3. Simulating the pervasive fracture and fragmentation of materials and structures using randomly close-packed Voronoi tessellations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, Joseph E.

    2008-09-01

    Under extreme loading conditions most often the extent of material and structural fracture is pervasive in the sense that a multitude of cracks are nucleating, propagating in arbitrary directions, coalescing, and branching. Pervasive fracture is a highly nonlinear process involving complex material constitutive behavior, material softening, localization, surface generation, and ubiquitous contact. Two primary applications in which pervasive fracture is encountered are (1) weapons effects on structures and (2) geomechanics of highly jointed and faulted reservoirs. A pure Lagrangian computational method based on randomly close-packed Voronoi tessellations is proposed as a rational approach for simulating the pervasive fracture of materials and structures. Each Voronoi cell is formulated as a finite element using the reproducing kernel method. Fracture surfaces are allowed to nucleate only at the intercell faces. The randomly seeded Voronoi cells provide an unbiased network for representing cracks. In this initial study two approaches for allowing the new surfaces to initiate are studied: (1) dynamic mesh connectivity and the instantaneous insertion of a cohesive traction when localization is detected, and (2) a discontinuous Galerkin approach in which the interelement tractions are an integral part of the variational formulation, but only become active once localization is detected. Pervasive fracture problems are extremely sensitive to initial conditions and system parameters. Dynamic problems exhibit a form of transient chaos. The primary numerical challenge for this class of problems is the demonstration of model objectivity and, in particular, the identification and demonstration of a measure of convergence for engineering quantities of interest.

  4. American Spirit Pack Descriptors and Perceptions of Harm: A Crowdsourced Comparison of Modified Packs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Jennifer L; Richardson, Amanda; Feirman, Shari P; Villanti, Andrea C; Cantrell, Jennifer; Cohn, Amy; Tacelosky, Michael; Kirchner, Thomas R

    2016-08-01

    In 2015, the Food and Drug Administration issued warnings to three tobacco manufacturers who label their cigarettes as "additive-free" and/or "natural" on the grounds that they make unauthorized reduced risk claims. The goal of this study was to examine US adults' perceptions of three American Spirit (AS) pack descriptors ("Made with Organic Tobacco," "100% Additive-Free," and "100% US Grown Tobacco") to assess if they communicate reduced risk. In September 2012, three cross-sectional surveys were posted on Amazon Mechanical Turk. Adult participants evaluated the relative harm of a Marlboro Red pack versus three different AS packs with the descriptors "Made with Organic Tobacco," "100% Additive-Free," or "100% US Grown Tobacco" (Survey 1; n = 461); a Marlboro Red pack versus these AS packs modified to exclude descriptors (Survey 2; n = 857); and unmodified versus modified AS pack images (Survey 3; n = 1001). The majority of Survey 1 participants rated the unmodified AS packs as less harmful than the Marlboro Red pack; 35.4%-58.8% of Survey 2 participants also rated the modified (no claims) packs as less harmful than Marlboro Red. In these surveys, prior use of AS cigarettes was associated with reduced perceptions of risk (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.59-2.40). "Made with Organic Tobacco" and "100% Additive-Free" were associated with reduced perceptions of risk when comparing the modified versus the unmodified AS packs (Survey 3). Data suggest that these AS pack descriptors communicate reduced harm messages to consumers. Findings have implications for regulatory actions related to product labeling and packaging. These findings provide additional evidence that the "Made with Organic Tobacco," "100% Additive-Free," and "100% US Grown" descriptors, as well as other aspects of the AS pack design, communicate reduced harm to non-, current, and former smokers. Additionally, they provide support for the importance of FDA's 2015 warning to Santa Fe Natural Tobacco Company on

  5. High-resolution of particle contacts via fluorophore exclusion in deep-imaging of jammed colloidal packings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyeyune-Nyombi, Eru; Morone, Flaviano; Liu, Wenwei; Li, Shuiqing; Gilchrist, M. Lane; Makse, Hernán A.

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the structural properties of random packings of jammed colloids requires an unprecedented high-resolution determination of the contact network providing mechanical stability to the packing. Here, we address the determination of the contact network by a novel strategy based on fluorophore signal exclusion of quantum dot nanoparticles from the contact points. We use fluorescence labeling schemes on particles inspired by biology and biointerface science in conjunction with fluorophore exclusion at the contact region. The method provides high-resolution contact network data that allows us to measure structural properties of the colloidal packing near marginal stability. We determine scaling laws of force distributions, soft modes, correlation functions, coordination number and free volume that define the universality class of jammed colloidal packings and can be compared with theoretical predictions. The contact detection method opens up further experimental testing at the interface of jamming and glass physics.

  6. Random close packing in protein cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Jennifer C; Smith, W Wendell; Regan, Lynne; O'Hern, Corey S

    2016-03-01

    Shortly after the determination of the first protein x-ray crystal structures, researchers analyzed their cores and reported packing fractions ϕ ≈ 0.75, a value that is similar to close packing of equal-sized spheres. A limitation of these analyses was the use of extended atom models, rather than the more physically accurate explicit hydrogen model. The validity of the explicit hydrogen model was proved in our previous studies by its ability to predict the side chain dihedral angle distributions observed in proteins. In contrast, the extended atom model is not able to recapitulate the side chain dihedral angle distributions, and gives rise to large atomic clashes at side chain dihedral angle combinations that are highly probable in protein crystal structures. Here, we employ the explicit hydrogen model to calculate the packing fraction of the cores of over 200 high-resolution protein structures. We find that these protein cores have ϕ ≈ 0.56, which is similar to results obtained from simulations of random packings of individual amino acids. This result provides a deeper understanding of the physical basis of protein structure that will enable predictions of the effects of amino acid mutations to protein cores and interfaces of known structure.

  7. Granular packings with moving side walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landry, James W.; Grest, Gary Stephen

    2004-01-01

    The effects of movement of the side walls of a confined granular packing are studied by discrete element, molecular dynamics simulations. The dynamical evolution of the stress is studied as a function of wall movement both in the direction of gravity as well as opposite to it. For all wall velocities explored, the stress in the final state of the system after wall movement is fundamentally different from the original state obtained by pouring particles into the container and letting them settle under the influence of gravity. The original packing possesses a hydrostaticlike region at the top of the container which crosses over to a depth-independent stress. As the walls are moved in the direction opposite to gravity, the saturation stress first reaches a minimum value independent of the wall velocity, then increases to a steady-state value dependent on the wall velocity. After wall movement ceases and the packing reaches equilibrium, the stress profile fits the classic Janssen form for high wall velocities, while some deviations remain for low wall velocities. The wall movement greatly increases the number of particle-wall and particle-particle forces at the Coulomb criterion. Varying the wall velocity has only small effects on the particle structure of the final packing so long as the walls travel a similar distance.

  8. Importance of packing in spiral defect chaos

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We develop two measures to characterize the geometry of patterns exhibited by the state of spiral defect chaos, a weakly turbulent regime of Rayleigh-Bénard convection. These describe the packing of contiguous stripes within the pattern by quantifying their length and nearest-neighbor distributions. The distributions ...

  9. Wrap-Attack Pack: Product Packaging Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Hwan; Hoffman, K. Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Although many marketing courses discuss traditional concepts pertaining to product strategy, concepts specifically relating to packaging are often glossed over. This exercise, "Wrap-Attack Pack," teaches students about the utilitarian and hedonic design elements of packaging. More specifically, the primary objective is to creatively…

  10. Simple Cloud Chambers Using Gel Ice Packs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Masahiro; Kubota, Miki

    2012-01-01

    Although cloud chambers are highly regarded as teaching aids for radiation education, school teachers have difficulty in using cloud chambers because they have to prepare dry ice or liquid nitrogen before the experiment. We developed a very simple and inexpensive cloud chamber that uses the contents of gel ice packs which can substitute for dry…

  11. The new generation of packing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malikov, T.S.; Dzhonmurodov, A.S.; Usmanova, S.R.; Teshaev, Kh.I.; Mukhidinov, Z.K.

    2016-01-01

    Present article is devoted to new generation of packing materials. The methods of extraction and investigation of component composition and properties of whey protein, zein, carboxymethylcellulose, hyaluronic acid and pectins were elaborated in order to further application them in pharmaceutical industry as composite materials and for capsulation of medicines.

  12. Packing frustration in dense confined fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygård, Kim; Sarman, Sten; Kjellander, Roland

    2014-09-07

    Packing frustration for confined fluids, i.e., the incompatibility between the preferred packing of the fluid particles and the packing constraints imposed by the confining surfaces, is studied for a dense hard-sphere fluid confined between planar hard surfaces at short separations. The detailed mechanism for the frustration is investigated via an analysis of the anisotropic pair distributions of the confined fluid, as obtained from integral equation theory for inhomogeneous fluids at pair correlation level within the anisotropic Percus-Yevick approximation. By examining the mean forces that arise from interparticle collisions around the periphery of each particle in the slit, we calculate the principal components of the mean force for the density profile--each component being the sum of collisional forces on a particle's hemisphere facing either surface. The variations of these components with the slit width give rise to rather intricate changes in the layer structure between the surfaces, but, as shown in this paper, the basis of these variations can be easily understood qualitatively and often also semi-quantitatively. It is found that the ordering of the fluid is in essence governed locally by the packing constraints at each single solid-fluid interface. A simple superposition of forces due to the presence of each surface gives surprisingly good estimates of the density profiles, but there remain nontrivial confinement effects that cannot be explained by superposition, most notably the magnitude of the excess adsorption of particles in the slit relative to bulk.

  13. The benefits of using customized procedure packs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, R; Colquhoun, G; Jones, N; Bateman, R

    2001-01-01

    Discrete item purchasing is the traditional approach for hospitals to obtain consumable supplies for theatre procedures. Although most items are relatively low cost, the management and co-ordination of the supply chain, raising orders, controlling stock, picking and delivering to each operating theatre can be complex and costly. Customized procedure packs provide a solution.

  14. Multi-Objective Predictive Balancing Control of Battery Packs Based on Predictive Current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbiao Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Various balancing topology and control methods have been proposed for the inconsistency problem of battery packs. However, these strategies only focus on a single objective, ignore the mutual interaction among various factors and are only based on the external performance of the battery pack inconsistency, such as voltage balancing and state of charge (SOC balancing. To solve these problems, multi-objective predictive balancing control (MOPBC based on predictive current is proposed in this paper, namely, in the driving process of an electric vehicle, using predictive control to predict the battery pack output current the next time. Based on this information, the impact of the battery pack temperature caused by the output current can be obtained. Then, the influence is added to the battery pack balancing control, which makes the present degradation, temperature, and SOC imbalance achieve balance automatically due to the change of the output current the next moment. According to MOPBC, the simulation model of the balancing circuit is built with four cells in Matlab/Simulink. The simulation results show that MOPBC is not only better than the other traditional balancing control strategies but also reduces the energy loss in the balancing process.

  15. Laboratory studies of the behavior of undissolved solids in both pulsed and packed column extraction systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemer, D.D.

    1989-01-01

    A substantial fraction of the finely divided undissolved solid material found in nuclear fuel reprocessing dissolver-product solutions is hydrophobic and tends to ''seek'' any organic-aqueous interface existing within countercurrent liquid-liquid extraction systems. While passing through pulsed-type columns this material is swept out of the aqueous phase by the combined surface area of the tiny bubbles of dispersed phase. Because these bubbles have a net velocity towards the end of the column where the nominal interface is located, the solids are swept in that direction too. These solids tend to gather in a three-phase ''crud'' layer at the nominal interface point. At equilibrium, about the same amount breaks off from the crud layer and escapes into the liquid exiting from that end of the column as enters it from the other side. If large enough, the crud layer can even interfere with interface detection and control equipment. In packed-column extraction systems, an additional problem is that feed solids can accumulate within the packing material to the point that the column '' floods'' or even totally plugs. The keys to preventing solids-related problems is the correct choice of interface level, and with packed columns, the addition of a ''pulsing leg'' at the bottom of the column. Pulsing packed column systems not only prevents solids from settling onto packing material but it also increses the number of theoretical stages available for extraction. 3 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Word classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2007-01-01

    in grammatical descriptions of some 50 languages, which together constitute a representative sample of the world’s languages (Hengeveld et al. 2004: 529). It appears that there are both quantitative and qualitative differences between word class systems of individual languages. Whereas some languages employ...... a parts-of-speech system that includes the categories Verb, Noun, Adjective and Adverb, other languages may use only a subset of these four lexical categories. Furthermore, quite a few languages have a major word class whose members cannot be classified in terms of the categories Verb – Noun – Adjective...... – Adverb, because they have properties that are strongly associated with at least two of these four traditional word classes (e.g. Adjective and Adverb). Finally, this article discusses some of the ways in which word class distinctions interact with other grammatical domains, such as syntax and morphology....

  17. The P.E.A.C.E. Pack: A Computerized Online Assessment of School Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slee, Phillip T.; Mohyla, Jury

    2014-01-01

    School bullying is an international problem with harmful outcomes for those involved. This study describes the design and field testing of an innovative computer-based social learning tool for assessing student perceptions of bullying developed for an Australian intervention program called the P.E.A.C.E. Pack. Students rate their peer group…

  18. Column-to-column packing variation of disposable pre-packed columns for protein chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiger, Susanne; Hinterberger, Stephan; Jungbauer, Alois

    2017-12-08

    In the biopharmaceutical industry, pre-packed columns are the standard for process development, but they must be qualified before use in experimental studies to confirm the required performance of the packed bed. Column qualification is commonly done by pulse response experiments and depends highly on the experimental testing conditions. Additionally, the peak analysis method, the variation in the 3D packing structure of the bed, and the measurement precision of the workstation influence the outcome of qualification runs. While a full body of literature on these factors is available for HPLC columns, no comparable studies exist for preparative columns for protein chromatography. We quantified the influence of these parameters for commercially available pre-packed and self-packed columns of disposable and non-disposable design. Pulse response experiments were performed on 105 preparative chromatography columns with volumes of 0.2-20ml. The analyte acetone was studied at six different superficial velocities (30, 60, 100, 150, 250 and 500cm/h). The column-to-column packing variation between disposable pre-packed columns of different diameter-length combinations varied by 10-15%, which was acceptable for the intended use. The column-to-column variation cannot be explained by the packing density, but is interpreted as a difference in particle arrangement in the column. Since it was possible to determine differences in the column-to-column performance, we concluded that the columns were well-packed. The measurement precision of the chromatography workstation was independent of the column volume and was in a range of±0.01ml for the first peak moment and±0.007 ml 2 for the second moment. The measurement precision must be considered for small columns in the range of 2ml or less. The efficiency of disposable pre-packed columns was equal or better than that of self-packed columns. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Class size versus class composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Sam

    Raising schooling quality in low-income countries is a pressing challenge. Substantial research has considered the impact of cutting class sizes on skills acquisition. Considerably less attention has been given to the extent to which peer effects, which refer to class composition, also may affect...... bias from omitted variables, the preferred IV results indicate considerable negative effects due to larger class sizes and larger numbers of overage-for-grade peers. The latter, driven by the highly prevalent practices of grade repetition and academic redshirting, should be considered an important...

  20. Experimental studies on the coolability of packed beds. Flooding of hot dry packed beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leininger, S.; Kulenovic, R.; Laurien, E.

    2013-01-01

    In case of a severe accident in a nuclear power plant meltdown of the reactor core can occur and form a packed bed in the lower plenum of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) after solidification due to contact with water. The removal of after-heat and the long-term coolability is of essential interest. The efficient injection of cooling water into the packed bed has to be assured without endangering the structural integrity of the reactor pressure vessel. The experiments performed aimed to study the dry-out and the quenching (flooding) of hot dry packed beds. Two different inflow variants, bottom- and top-flooding including the variation of the starting temperature of the packed bed and the injection rate were studied. In case of bottom flooding the quenching time increases with increasing packed bed temperature and decreasing injection rate. In case of top flooding the flow pattern is more complex, in a first phase the water flows preferentially toward the RPV wall, the flow paths conduct the water downwards. The flow resistance of the packed bed increases with increasing bed temperatures. The quenching temperatures increase significantly above average.

  1. Heavy metals in the snow pack of Semey town

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panin, M.S.; Esenzholova, A.Zh.; Toropov, A.S.

    2008-01-01

    The data about the maintenance of heavy metals in the snow pack in various zones of Semey and biogeochemical operation factors of snow pack in Semey are presented in this work. Also the correlation connection between elements is calculated.

  2. Evaluation of Packed Distillation Columns I - Atmospheric Pressure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reynolds, Thaine

    1951-01-01

    .... Four column-packing combinations of the glass columns and four column-packing combinations of the steel columns were investigated at atmospheric pressure using a test mixture of methylcyclohexane...

  3. Microbiological Quality of Blister Pack Tablets in Community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Blister pack, Community pharmacy, Good Manufacturing Practice, Microbial contamination,. Quality control ... High levels of microbial contamination in blister-packed tablets ... and their drugs approved by the Jordan Food and Drug ...

  4. Packing of equal discs on a parabolic spiral lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xudong, F.; Bursill, L.A.; Julin, P.

    1989-01-01

    A contact disc model is investigated to determine the most closely-packed parabolic spiral lattice. The most space-efficient packings have divergence angles in agreement with the priority ranking of natural spiral structures

  5. Imaging of drug smuggling by body packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sica, Giacomo; Guida, Franco; Bocchini, Giorgio; Iaselli, Francesco; Iadevito, Isabella; Scaglione, Mariano

    2015-02-01

    Body packing, pushing, and stuffing are hazardous practices with complex medicolegal and social implications. A radiologist plays both a social and a medicolegal role in their assessment, and it should not be limited only to the identification of the packages but must also provide accurate information about their number and their exact location so as to prevent any package remains in the body packer. Radiologists must also be able to recognize the complications associated with these risky practices. Imaging assessment of body packing is performed essentially through plain abdominal X-ray and computed tomography scans. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, although with some advantages, actually have a limited use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Packing and Disorder in Substituted Fullerenes

    KAUST Repository

    Tummala, Naga Rajesh

    2016-07-15

    Fullerenes are ubiquitous as electron-acceptor and electron-transport materials in organic solar cells. Recent synthetic strategies to improve the solubility and electronic characteristics of these molecules have translated into a tremendous increase in the variety of derivatives employed in these applications. Here, we use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to examine the impact of going from mono-adducts to bis- and tris-adducts on the structural, cohesive, and packing characteristics of [6,6]-phenyl-C60-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and indene-C60. The packing configurations obtained at the MD level then serve as input for density functional theory calculations that examine the solid-state energetic disorder (distribution of site energies) as a function of chemical substitution. The variations in structural and site-energy disorders reflect the fundamental materials differences among the derivatives and impact the performance of these materials in thin-film electronic devices.

  7. Homometrism in close-packed structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mardix, S.

    1990-01-01

    Homometric structures are non-congruent structures having identical X-ray intensity distributions. It has so far been assumed that such structures, while theoretically interesting, would not be realized in practice. Homometrism in close-packed structures is shown to be a realistic possibility. Some general rules applicable to homometric pairs are presented; it is shown that an infinite number of them can be derived from one-dimensional homometric pairs. An exhaustive search of close-packed structures with periods of up to 26 reveals that the smallest period of a homometric pair is 15 and that their number increases rapidly with the period. Homometrism in polytypic structures is further discussed. (orig.)

  8. Application of Nanofiber-packed SPE for Determination of Urinary 1-Hydroxypyrene Level Using HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifegwu, Okechukwu Clinton; Anyakora, Chimezie; Chigome, Samuel; Torto, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    It is always desirable to achieve maximum sample clean-up, extraction, and pre-concentration with the minimum possible organic solvent. The miniaturization of sample preparation devices was successfully demonstrated by packing 10 mg of 11 electrospun polymer nanofibers into pipette tip micro column and mini disc cartridges for efficient pre-concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene in urine samples. 1-hydroxypyrene is an extensively studied biomarker of the largest class of chemical carcinogens. Excretory 1-hydroxypyrene was monitored with HPLC/fluorescence detector. Important parameters influencing the percentage recovery such as fiber diameter, fiber packing amount, eluent, fiber packing format, eluent volume, surface area, porosity, and breakthrough parameters were thoroughly studied and optimized. Under optimized condition, there was a near perfect linearity of response in the range of 1-1000 μg/L with a coefficient of determination (r (2)) between 0.9992 and 0.9999 and precision (% RSD) ≤7.64% (n = 6) for all the analysis (10, 25, and 50 μg/L). The Limit of detection (LOD) was between 0.022 and 0.15 μg/L. When compared to the batch studies, both disc packed nanofiber sorbents and pipette tip packed sorbents exhibited evident dominance based on their efficiencies. The experimental results showed comparable absolute recoveries for the mini disc packed fibers (84% for Nylon 6) and micro columns (80% for Nylon 6), although the disc displayed slightly higher recoveries possibly due to the exposure of the analyte to a larger reacting surface. The results also showed highly comparative extraction efficiencies between the nanofibers and conventional C-18 SPE sorbent. Nevertheless, miniaturized SPE devices simplified sample preparation, reducing back pressure, time of the analysis with acceptable reliability, selectivity, detection levels, and environmental friendliness, hence promoting green chemistry.

  9. Social Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aktor, Mikael

    2018-01-01

    . Although this social structure was ideal in nature and not equally confirmed in other genres of ancient and medieval literature, it has nevertheless had an immense impact on Indian society. The chapter presents an overview of the system with its three privileged classes, the Brahmins, the Kṣatriyas......The notions of class (varṇa) and caste (jāti) run through the dharmaśāstra literature (i.e. Hindu Law Books) on all levels. They regulate marriage, economic transactions, work, punishment, penance, entitlement to rituals, identity markers like the sacred thread, and social interaction in general...

  10. Class prediction for high-dimensional class-imbalanced data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusa Lara

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of class prediction studies is to develop rules to accurately predict the class membership of new samples. The rules are derived using the values of the variables available for each subject: the main characteristic of high-dimensional data is that the number of variables greatly exceeds the number of samples. Frequently the classifiers are developed using class-imbalanced data, i.e., data sets where the number of samples in each class is not equal. Standard classification methods used on class-imbalanced data often produce classifiers that do not accurately predict the minority class; the prediction is biased towards the majority class. In this paper we investigate if the high-dimensionality poses additional challenges when dealing with class-imbalanced prediction. We evaluate the performance of six types of classifiers on class-imbalanced data, using simulated data and a publicly available data set from a breast cancer gene-expression microarray study. We also investigate the effectiveness of some strategies that are available to overcome the effect of class imbalance. Results Our results show that the evaluated classifiers are highly sensitive to class imbalance and that variable selection introduces an additional bias towards classification into the majority class. Most new samples are assigned to the majority class from the training set, unless the difference between the classes is very large. As a consequence, the class-specific predictive accuracies differ considerably. When the class imbalance is not too severe, down-sizing and asymmetric bagging embedding variable selection work well, while over-sampling does not. Variable normalization can further worsen the performance of the classifiers. Conclusions Our results show that matching the prevalence of the classes in training and test set does not guarantee good performance of classifiers and that the problems related to classification with class

  11. 36 CFR 1002.16 - Horses and pack animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 1002... AND RECREATION § 1002.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are prohibited: (a) The use of animals other than those designated as “pack animals” for purposes of transporting equipment. (b) The use of...

  12. 36 CFR 34.10 - Saddle and pack animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Saddle and pack animals. 34... INTERIOR EL PORTAL ADMINISTRATIVE SITE REGULATIONS § 34.10 Saddle and pack animals. The use of saddle and pack animals is prohibited without a permit from the Superintendent. ...

  13. 36 CFR 2.16 - Horses and pack animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Horses and pack animals. 2.16... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.16 Horses and pack animals. The following are prohibited: (a) The use of animals other than those designated as “pack animals” for purposes of transporting...

  14. New Structured Packing CUB for Purification of Exhaust Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Novikova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available New structured packing for heat and mass transfer processes named CUB is presented in our article. The packing can be applied in packed towers for exhaust gas cleaning instead random packing, for example, rings type that are the most used in such processes. The advantages of the new packing over random packing are lower pressure drop, capability of purification and as a consequence long-term service of the packing. The researches of intensity of liquid-phase mass-transfer in packed bed depending on liquid spray rate and gas velocity were carried out. Obtained data show that packing CUB is more effective than the most popular type of structured packing under all other conditions being equal. As experimental data shown heat transfer coefficient was up by 17% and mass transfer coefficient was up by 51%. We found out optimal geometry of cross section of the new packing, namely, number of elements and parameters of one element. The new construction of structured packing is applicable for both type of column cross-section round and square.

  15. Packing parameters effect on injection molding of polypropylene nanostructured surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calaon, Matteo; Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2012-01-01

    having a diameter of 500 nm was employed. The tool insert surface was produced using chemical-based-batch techniques such aluminum anodization and nickel electroplating. During the injection molding process, polypropylene (PP) was employed as material and packing phase parameters (packing time, packing...

  16. Evaluation of Type II Fast Packs for Electrostatic Discharge Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    34 x 8" x 1 3/4") consisting of a reclosable cushioned carrier which mates into an outer fiberboard sleeve. A cushioning insert is used consisting of a... RECLOSABLE CUSHIONED CARRIER TEST LOAD FIGURE 1: Cancel Caddy Pack * CONVOLUTED 4* CUSHIONED I FIGURE 2: Type II Fast Pack (PPP-B-1672) TYPE II FAST PACK

  17. 21 CFR 133.124 - Cold-pack cheese food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cold-pack cheese food. 133.124 Section 133.124 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Cheese and Related Products § 133.124 Cold-pack cheese food. (a)(1) Cold-pack cheese food is the food...

  18. CoolPack – Simulation tools for refrigeration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Arne; Rasmussen, Bjarne D.; Andersen, Simon Engedal

    1999-01-01

    CoolPack is a collection of programs used for energy analysis and optimisation of refrigeration systems. CoolPack is developed at the Department of Energy Engineering at the Technical University of Denmark. The Danish Energy Agency finances the project. CoolPack is freeware and can be downloaded...

  19. 48 CFR 552.211-87 - Export packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Export packing. 552.211-87... FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 552.211-87 Export packing. As prescribed in 511.204(b)(7), insert the following clause: Export Packing (JAN 2010) (a...

  20. Symmetric scrolled packings of multilayered carbon nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savin, A. V.; Korznikova, E. A.; Lobzenko, I. P.; Baimova, Yu. A.; Dmitriev, S. V.

    2016-06-01

    Scrolled packings of single-layer and multilayer graphene can be used for the creation of supercapacitors, nanopumps, nanofilters, and other nanodevices. The full atomistic simulation of graphene scrolls is restricted to consideration of relatively small systems in small time intervals. To overcome this difficulty, a two-dimensional chain model making possible an efficient calculation of static and dynamic characteristics of nanoribbon scrolls with allowance for the longitudinal and bending stiffness of nanoribbons is proposed. The model is extended to the case of scrolls of multilayer graphene. Possible equilibrium states of symmetric scrolls of multilayer carbon nanotribbons rolled up so that all nanoribbons in the scroll are equivalent are found. Dependences of the number of coils, the inner and outer radii, lowest vibrational eigenfrequencies of rolled packages on the length L of nanoribbons are obtained. It is shown that the lowest vibrational eigenfrequency of a symmetric scroll decreases with a nanoribbon length proportionally to L -1. It is energetically unfavorable for too short nanoribbons to roll up, and their ground state is a stack of plane nanoribbons. With an increasing number k of layers, the nanoribbon length L necessary for creation of symmetric scrolls increases. For a sufficiently small number of layers k and a sufficiently large nanoribbon length L, the scrolled packing has the lowest energy as compared to that of stack of plane nanoribbons and folded structures. The results can be used for development of nanomaterials and nanodevices on the basis of graphene scrolled packings.

  1. Effect of vacuum packing and temperature on survival and hatching of strongyle eggs in faecal samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sengupta, Mita Eva; Thapa, Sundar; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2016-01-01

    Strongyle eggs of helminths of livestock usually hatch within a few hours or days after deposition with faeces. This poses a problem when faecal sampling is performed in the field. As oxygen is needed for embryonic development, it is recommended to reduce air supply during transport and refrigerate....... The present study therefore investigated the combined effect of vacuum packing and temperature on survival of strongyle eggs and their subsequent ability to hatch and develop into L3. Fresh faecal samples were collected from calves infected with Cooperia oncophora, pigs infected with Oesophagostomum dentatum......, and horses infected with Strongylus vulgaris and cyathostomins. The samples were allocated into four treatments: vacuum packing and storage at 5 °C or 20 °C (5 V and 20 V); normal packing in plastic gloves closed with a loose knot and storage at 5 °C or 20 °C (5 N and 20 N). The number of eggs per gram...

  2. A real-time insulation detection method for battery packs used in electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jiaqiang; Wang, Yujie; Yang, Duo; Zhang, Xu; Chen, Zonghai

    2018-05-01

    Due to the energy crisis and environmental pollution, electric vehicles have become more and more popular. Compared to traditional fuel vehicles, the electric vehicles are integrated with more high-voltage components, which have potential security risks of insulation. The insulation resistance between the chassis and the direct current bus of the battery pack is easily affected by factors such as temperature, humidity and vibration. In order to ensure the safe and reliable operation of the electric vehicles, it is necessary to detect the insulation resistance of the battery pack. This paper proposes an insulation detection scheme based on low-frequency signal injection method. Considering the insulation detector which can be easily affected by noises, the algorithm based on Kalman filter is proposed. Moreover, the battery pack is always in the states of charging and discharging during driving, which will lead to frequent changes in the voltage of the battery pack and affect the estimation accuracy of insulation detector. Therefore the recursive least squares algorithm is adopted to solve the problem that the detection results of insulation detector mutate with the voltage of the battery pack. The performance of the proposed method is verified by dynamic and static experiments.

  3. Birthing Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... management options. Breastfeeding basics. Caring for baby at home. Birthing classes are not just for new parents, though. ... midwife. Postpartum care. Caring for your baby at home, including baby first aid. Lamaze One of the most popular birthing techniques in the U.S., Lamaze has been around ...

  4. New raw materials improve packing sealing efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igel, B.; McKeague, L.

    2012-01-01

    End-users and OEM's using or manufacturing on/off and control valves expect a permanent and effective increase in service life together with an increased sealing capability while at the same time minimizing maintenance concerns. Developing materials which provide consistency and repeatability are essential characteristics to optimizing valve performance. “New Generation” materials and yarn allow us to meet this growing demand while complying with the requirements related to chemical purity and an increased level of safety to both plant workers and equipment in the nuclear environment. Through R&D initiatives and developments in new and improved raw materials; a new mechanical packing generation which optimizes friction coefficients and extended life cycle has been introduced to the industry. Lower friction values drastically optimize actuator effort and size improving efficiency for stem operation with significant improvements in flow control of fluids. Combined with new and improved procedures (installation, torque levels and consolidation recommendations), this new packing generation has provided significant improvement in the mechanical behavior of packing materials (independent tests carried out in collaboration with AECL and CETIM) this has provided the opportunity to develop successful Valve Enhancement Programs which offer improved efficiency, valve operation and repeatability. These NEW generation yarns are available with or without wire reinforcement depending on specific operating parameters and conditions. The purpose of this presentation is to demonstrate that new generation material(s). Which are available to the industry for AOV, MOV and Manual valves? - To highlight the steps taken in R&D and manufacturing contributing to the much improved yarns and finished packing products. - Comply and are designed to meet the stringent requirements in the nuclear industry - Simplify valve maintenance without risk to safety or performance - Increase service

  5. The mechanical behaviour of packed particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutton, R.

    1998-01-01

    Within the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management program, the central concept is to package used fuel in containers that would be deposited in an underground vault in a plutonic rock formation. To provide internal mechanical support for the container, the reference design specifies it to be filled with a matrix of compacted particulate material (called 'packed particulate'), such as quartz sand granules. The focus of this report is on the mechanical properties of the packed-particulate material, based on information drawn from the extant literature. We first consider the packing density of particulate matrices to minimize the remnant porosity and maximize mechanical stability under conditions of external pressure. Practical methods, involving vibratory packing, are reviewed and recommendations made to select techniques to achieve optimum packing density. The behaviour of particulates under compressive loading has been of interest to the powder metallurgy industry (i.e., the manufacture of products from pressed/sintered metal and ceramic powders) since the early decades of this century. We review the evidence showing that in short timescales, stress induced compaction occurs by particle shuffling and rearrangement, elastic distortion, plastic yielding and microfracturing. Analytical expressions are available to describe these processes in a semiquantitative fashion. Time-dependent compaction, mainly via creep mechanisms, is more complex. Much of the theoretical and experimental information is confined to higher temperatures (> 500 degrees C), where deformation rates are more rapid. Thus, for the relatively low ambient temperatures of the waste container (∼100 degrees C), we require analytical techniques to extrapolate the collective particulate creep behaviour. This is largely accomplished by employing current theories of creep deformation, particularly in the form of Deformation Mechanism Maps, which allow estimation of creep rates over a wide range of stress

  6. The mechanical behaviour of packed particulates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, R

    1998-01-01

    Within the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management program, the central concept is to package used fuel in containers that would be deposited in an underground vault in a plutonic rock formation. To provide internal mechanical support for the container, the reference design specifies it to be filled with a matrix of compacted particulate material (called 'packed particulate'), such as quartz sand granules. The focus of this report is on the mechanical properties of the packed-particulate material, based on information drawn from the extant literature. We first consider the packing density of particulate matrices to minimize the remnant porosity and maximize mechanical stability under conditions of external pressure. Practical methods, involving vibratory packing, are reviewed and recommendations made to select techniques to achieve optimum packing density. The behaviour of particulates under compressive loading has been of interest to the powder metallurgy industry (i.e., the manufacture of products from pressed/sintered metal and ceramic powders) since the early decades of this century. We review the evidence showing that in short timescales, stress induced compaction occurs by particle shuffling and rearrangement, elastic distortion, plastic yielding and microfracturing. Analytical expressions are available to describe these processes in a semiquantitative fashion. Time-dependent compaction, mainly via creep mechanisms, is more complex. Much of the theoretical and experimental information is confined to higher temperatures (> 500 degrees C), where deformation rates are more rapid. Thus, for the relatively low ambient temperatures of the waste container ({approx}100 degrees C), we require analytical techniques to extrapolate the collective particulate creep behaviour. This is largely accomplished by employing current theories of creep deformation, particularly in the form of Deformation Mechanism Maps, which allow estimation of creep rates over a wide

  7. HETP evaluation of structured packing distillation column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Orlando Jr.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Several tests with a hydrocarbon mixture of known composition (C8-C14, obtained from DETEN Chemistry S.A., have been performed in a laboratory distillation column, having 40mm of nominal diameter and 2.2m high, with internals of Sulzer DX gauze stainless steel structured packing. The main purpose of this work was to evaluate HETP of a structured packing laboratory scale distillation column, operating continuously. Six HETP correlations available in the literature were compared in order to find out which is the most appropriate for structured packing columns working with medium distillates. Prior to the experimental tests, simulation studies using commercial software PRO/II® were performed in order to establish the optimum operational conditions for the distillation, especially concerning operating pressure, top and bottom temperatures, feed location and reflux ratio. The results of PRO/II® were very similar to the analysis of the products obtained during continuous operation, therefore permitting the use of the properties calculated by that software on the theoretical models investigated. The theoretical models chosen for HETP evaluation were: Bravo, Rocha and Fair (1985; Rocha, Bravo and Fair (1993, 1996; Brunazzi and Pagliant (1997; Carlo, Olujić and Pagliant (2006; Olujić et al., (2004. Modifications concerning calculation of specific areas were performed on the correlations in order to fit them for gauze packing HETP evaluation. As the laboratory distillation column was operated continuously, different HETP values were found by the models investigated for each section of the column. The low liquid flow rates in the top section of the column are a source of error for HETP evaluation by the models; therefore, more reliable HETP values were found in the bottom section, in which liquid flow rates were much greater. Among the theoretical models, Olujić et al. (2004 has shown good results relative to the experimental tests. In addition, the

  8. Structural characterization of the packings of granular regular polygons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuncheng; Dong, Kejun; Yu, Aibing

    2015-12-01

    By using a recently developed method for discrete modeling of nonspherical particles, we simulate the random packings of granular regular polygons with three to 11 edges under gravity. The effects of shape and friction on the packing structures are investigated by various structural parameters, including packing fraction, the radial distribution function, coordination number, Voronoi tessellation, and bond-orientational order. We find that packing fraction is generally higher for geometrically nonfrustrated regular polygons, and can be increased by the increase of edge number and decrease of friction. The changes of packing fraction are linked with those of the microstructures, such as the variations of the translational and orientational orders and local configurations. In particular, the free areas of Voronoi tessellations (which are related to local packing fractions) can be described by log-normal distributions for all polygons. The quantitative analyses establish a clearer picture for the packings of regular polygons.

  9. Translation in ESL Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy Imola Katalin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of translation in foreign language classes cannot be dealt with unless we attempt to make an overview of what translation meant for language teaching in different periods of language pedagogy. From the translation-oriented grammar-translation method through the complete ban on translation and mother tongue during the times of the audio-lingual approaches, we have come today to reconsider the role and status of translation in ESL classes. This article attempts to advocate for translation as a useful ESL class activity, which can completely fulfil the requirements of communicativeness. We also attempt to identify some activities and games, which rely on translation in some books published in the 1990s and the 2000s.

  10. Coding Class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Hansbøl, Mikala

    Denne rapport rummer evaluering og dokumentation af Coding Class projektet1. Coding Class projektet blev igangsat i skoleåret 2016/2017 af IT-Branchen i samarbejde med en række medlemsvirksomheder, Københavns kommune, Vejle Kommune, Styrelsen for IT- og Læring (STIL) og den frivillige forening...... Coding Pirates2. Rapporten er forfattet af Docent i digitale læringsressourcer og forskningskoordinator for forsknings- og udviklingsmiljøet Digitalisering i Skolen (DiS), Mikala Hansbøl, fra Institut for Skole og Læring ved Professionshøjskolen Metropol; og Lektor i læringsteknologi, interaktionsdesign......, design tænkning og design-pædagogik, Stine Ejsing-Duun fra Forskningslab: It og Læringsdesign (ILD-LAB) ved Institut for kommunikation og psykologi, Aalborg Universitet i København. Vi har fulgt og gennemført evaluering og dokumentation af Coding Class projektet i perioden november 2016 til maj 2017...

  11. Packing C60 in Boron Nitride Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickelson, W.; Aloni, S.; Han, Wei-Qiang; Cumings, John; Zettl, A.

    2003-04-01

    We have created insulated C60 nanowire by packing C60 molecules into the interior of insulating boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs). For small-diameter BNNTs, the wire consists of a linear chain of C60 molecules. With increasing BNNT inner diameter, unusual C60 stacking configurations are obtained (including helical, hollow core, and incommensurate) that are unknown for bulk or thin-film forms of C60. C60 in BNNTs thus presents a model system for studying the properties of dimensionally constrained ``silo'' crystal structures. For the linear-chain case, we have fused the C60 molecules to form a single-walled carbon nanotube inside the insulating BNNT.

  12. Interactions between an alpha-helix and a beta-sheet. Energetics of alpha/beta packing in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, K C; Némethy, G; Rumsey, S; Tuttle, R W; Scheraga, H A

    1985-12-05

    Conformational energy computations have been carried out to determine the favorable ways of packing a right-handed alpha-helix on a right-twisted antiparallel or parallel beta-sheet. Co-ordinate transformations have been developed to relate the position and orientation of the alpha-helix to the beta-sheet. The packing was investigated for a CH3CO-(L-Ala)16-NHCH3 alpha-helix interacting with five-stranded beta-sheets composed of CH3CO-(L-Val)6-NHCH3 chains. All internal and external variables for both the alpha-helix and the beta-sheet were allowed to change during energy minimization. Four distinct classes of low-energy packing arrangements were found for the alpha-helix interacting with both the parallel and the anti-parallel beta-sheet. The classes differ in the orientation of the axis of the alpha-helix relative to the direction of the strands of the right-twisted beta-sheet. In the class with the most favorable arrangement, the alpha-helix is oriented along the strands of the beta-sheet, as a result of attractive non-bonded side-chain-side-chain interactions along the entire length of the alpha-helix. A class with nearly perpendicular orientation of the helix axis to the strands is also of low energy, because it allows similarly extensive attractive interactions. In the other two classes, the helix is oriented diagonally relative to the strands of the beta-sheet. In one of them, it interacts with the convex surface near the middle of the saddle-shaped twisted beta-sheet. In the other, it is oriented along the concave diagonal of the beta-sheet and, therefore, it interacts only with the corner regions of the sheet, so that this packing is energetically less favorable. The packing arrangements involving an antiparallel and a parallel beta-sheet are generally similar, although the antiparallel beta-sheet has been found to be more flexible. The major features of 163 observed alpha/beta packing arrangements in 37 proteins are accounted for in terms of the computed

  13. Contaminant bacteria in traditional-packed honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hening Tjaturina Pramesti

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Honey may be contaminated by microorganisms during its harvesting, processing, and packaging. Honey selected for clinical purposes must safe, sterile, and contain antimicrobial activity, so it must be evaluated using laboratory testing. The aim of this descriptive laboratory study was to isolate and identify the bacterial contaminant in the traditional-packed honey dealing with the use of honey for medical purposes. the colony forming units of honey sample cultured on blood agar were counted using Stuart bacterial colony counter. The suspected bacterial colonies were isolated and identified based on cultural morphology characteristics. The isolates of suspected bacterial colonies were stained according to Gram and Klein method and then were examined by the biochemical reaction. The results showed that there were two contaminant bacteria. Gram-positive cocci which were presumptively identified as coagulase-negative Staphylococci and gram-positive rods which were presumptively identified as Bacillus subtilis. In conclusion, the contaminant bacteria were regarded as low pathogen bacteria. The subtilin enzyme of B subtilis may cause an allergic reaction and coagulase-negative Staphylococci, Staphylococcus epidermidis is also an opportunist pathogen. Inevitably, for medical purposes, traditional-packed honey must be well filtered, water content above 18%, and standardized sterilization without loss of an antibacterial activity or change in properties.

  14. Mechanised packing for longwall coal faces. Monolithic packing and powered supports for the packhole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, F; Kitching, F

    1978-11-01

    If full advantage is to be taken of the great advances that have taken place in power loading and powered support at the coalface, other operations in that vicinity must be similarly mechanised and automated. The gateside packing is one of the most important of these ancillary operations on the longwall face, and in previous articles F. Carr and F. Kitching, National Coal Board Headquarters, Coalface Operations Mining Engineers have given a very comprehensive resume of the present situation. Subjects covered include the requirements of mechanised packing, the parameters involved, the various working arrangements, the different systems of gate-ends, the types of equipment that are being used, their characteristics, the spread of their application, and the results obtained from them. In this article the authors conclude their survey by dealing with dirt/cement and anhydrite packing, by taking a hard look at powered supports for the packhole, and by expressing their views on the way mechanised packing may be expected to develop in the future.

  15. Can Crystal Symmetry and Packing Influence the Active Site Conformation of Homohexameric Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylases?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Luić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It is generaly believed that enzymes retain most of their functionality in the crystal form due to the large solvent content of protein crystals. This is facilitated by the fact that their natural environment in solution is not too far from the one found in the crystal form. Nevertheless, if the nature of the enzyme is such to require conformational changes, overcoming of the crystal packing constraints may prove to be too difficult. Such conformational change is present in one class of enzymes (purine nucleoside phosphorylases, that is the subject of our scientific interest for many years. The influence of crystal symmetry and crystal packing on the conformation of the active sites in the case of homohexameric purine nucleoside phosphorylases is presented and analysed. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

  16. Content-aware photo collage using circle packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zongqiao; Lu, Lin; Guo, Yanwen; Fan, Rongfei; Liu, Mingming; Wang, Wenping

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we present a novel approach for automatically creating the photo collage that assembles the interest regions of a given group of images naturally. Previous methods on photo collage are generally built upon a well-defined optimization framework, which computes all the geometric parameters and layer indices for input photos on the given canvas by optimizing a unified objective function. The complex nonlinear form of optimization function limits their scalability and efficiency. From the geometric point of view, we recast the generation of collage as a region partition problem such that each image is displayed in its corresponding region partitioned from the canvas. The core of this is an efficient power-diagram-based circle packing algorithm that arranges a series of circles assigned to input photos compactly in the given canvas. To favor important photos, the circles are associated with image importances determined by an image ranking process. A heuristic search process is developed to ensure that salient information of each photo is displayed in the polygonal area resulting from circle packing. With our new formulation, each factor influencing the state of a photo is optimized in an independent stage, and computation of the optimal states for neighboring photos are completely decoupled. This improves the scalability of collage results and ensures their diversity. We also devise a saliency-based image fusion scheme to generate seamless compositive collage. Our approach can generate the collages on nonrectangular canvases and supports interactive collage that allows the user to refine collage results according to his/her personal preferences. We conduct extensive experiments and show the superiority of our algorithm by comparing against previous methods.

  17. Coil winding pack FE-analysis for a HELIAS reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schauer, F.; Egorov, K.; Bykov, V.

    2011-01-01

    At the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik (IPP) a reference design is being created of an upgraded five-periodic HELIAS type stellarator reactor which evolves from Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) by scaling of the coil centre line geometries by a factor of four. This reactor type was extensively investigated at IPP with regard to physical characteristics and to some extent also to engineering issues. The upgrade concerns an increase of the induction at the plasma axis and correspondingly at the superconductor. The aim is to develop the reactor concept to a stage and such detail that major engineering problems are unveiled, and relevant comparisons with other concepts, including tokamaks, can be drawn in view of upcoming decisions concerning a DEMO reactor. Even though progress in plasma physics, and in particular future results of W7-X and other machines - particularly of ITER - will probably lead to somewhat different coil shapes, no principal changes of the reference design are expected. In this paper the option of a roll-formed square coil cable jacket is investigated. Detailed structural FE analysis of the coil winding pack demonstrates the feasibility of such a conductor which appears to be the most economical option. It also allows sufficient space for a cable current density very similar to that of the ITER TF coil with a similar overall winding pack cross section of ∼0.5 m 2 . Already existing Nb 3 Sn conductors could thus be safely applied in such a HELIAS reactor. Obvious progress of superconductor technology, particularly concerning Nb 3 Al, will be beneficial concerning savings of conductor material, ease of manufacture, higher operation temperature, etc.

  18. Simulation of abuse tolerance of lithium-ion battery packs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spotnitz, Robert M.; Weaver, James; Yeduvaka, Gowri [Battery Design LLC, 2277 DeLucchi Drive, Pleasanton, CA 94588 (United States); Doughty, D.H.; Roth, E.P. [Lithium Battery Department, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States)

    2007-01-01

    A simple approach for using accelerating rate calorimetry data to simulate the thermal abuse resistance of battery packs is described. The thermal abuse tolerance of battery packs is estimated based on the exothermic behavior of a single cell and an energy balance than accounts for radiative, conductive, and convective heat transfer modes of the pack. For the specific example of a notebook computer pack containing eight 18650-size cells, the effects of cell position, heat of reaction, and heat-transfer coefficient are explored. Thermal runaway of the pack is more likely to be induced by thermal runaway of a single cell when that cell is in good contact with other cells and is close to the pack wall. (author)

  19. Multilayer DNA Origami Packed on Hexagonal and Hybrid Lattices

    OpenAIRE

    Ke, Yonggang; Voigt, Niels V.; Gothelf, Kurt V.; Shih, William M.

    2012-01-01

    “Scaffolded DNA origami” has been proven to be a powerful and efficient approach to construct two-dimensional or three-dimensional objects with great complexity. Multilayer DNA origami has been demonstrated with helices packing along either honeycomb-lattice geometry or square-lattice geometry. Here we report successful folding of multilayer DNA origami with helices arranged on a close-packed hexagonal lattice. This arrangement yields a higher density of helical packing and therefore higher r...

  20. Physics based modeling of a series parallel battery pack for asymmetry analysis, predictive control and life extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Nandhini; Basu, Suman; Hariharan, Krishnan S.; Kolake, Subramanya Mayya; Song, Taewon; Yeo, Taejung; Sohn, Dong Kee; Doo, Seokgwang

    2016-08-01

    Lithium-Ion batteries used for electric vehicle applications are subject to large currents and various operation conditions, making battery pack design and life extension a challenging problem. With increase in complexity, modeling and simulation can lead to insights that ensure optimal performance and life extension. In this manuscript, an electrochemical-thermal (ECT) coupled model for a 6 series × 5 parallel pack is developed for Li ion cells with NCA/C electrodes and validated against experimental data. Contribution of the cathode to overall degradation at various operating conditions is assessed. Pack asymmetry is analyzed from a design and an operational perspective. Design based asymmetry leads to a new approach of obtaining the individual cell responses of the pack from an average ECT output. Operational asymmetry is demonstrated in terms of effects of thermal gradients on cycle life, and an efficient model predictive control technique is developed. Concept of reconfigurable battery pack is studied using detailed simulations that can be used for effective monitoring and extension of battery pack life.

  1. Max–min Bin Packing Algorithm and its application in nano-particles filling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Dingju

    2016-01-01

    With regard to existing bin packing algorithms, higher packing efficiency often leads to lower packing speed while higher packing speed leads to lower packing efficiency. Packing speed and packing efficiency of existing bin packing algorithms including NFD, NF, FF, FFD, BF and BFD correlates negatively with each other, thus resulting in the failure of existing bin packing algorithms to satisfy the demand of nano-particles filling for both high speed and high efficiency. The paper provides a new bin packing algorithm, Max–min Bin Packing Algorithm (MM), which realizes both high packing speed and high packing efficiency. MM has the same packing speed as NFD (whose packing speed ranks no. 1 among existing bin packing algorithms); in case that the size repetition rate of objects to be packed is over 5, MM can realize almost the same packing efficiency as BFD (whose packing efficiency ranks No. 1 among existing bin packing algorithms), and in case that the size repetition rate of objects to be packed is over 500, MM can achieve exactly the same packing efficiency as BFD. With respect to application of nano-particles filling, the size repetition rate of nano particles to be packed is usually in thousands or ten thousands, far higher than 5 or 500. Consequently, in application of nano-particles filling, the packing efficiency of MM is exactly equal to that of BFD. Thus the irreconcilable conflict between packing speed and packing efficiency is successfully removed by MM, which leads to MM having better packing effect than any existing bin packing algorithm. In practice, there are few cases when the size repetition of objects to be packed is lower than 5. Therefore the MM is not necessarily limited to nano-particles filling, and can also be widely used in other applications besides nano-particles filling. Especially, MM has significant value in application of nano-particles filling such as nano printing and nano tooth filling.

  2. Meromorphic Vector Fields and Circle Packings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Kealey

    The objective of the Ph.D. project is to initiate a classification of bifurcations of meromorphic vector fields and to clarify their relation to circle packings. Technological applications are to image analysis and to effective grid generation using discrete conformal mappings. The two branches...... of dynamical systems, continuous and discrete, correspond to the study of differential equations (vector fields) and iteration of mappings respectively. In holomorphic dynamics, the systems studied are restricted to those described by holomorphic (complex analytic) functions or meromorphic (allowing poles...... as singularities) functions. There already exists a well-developed theory for iterative holomorphic dynamical systems, and successful relations found between iteration theory and flows of vector fields have been one of the main motivations for the recent interest in holomorphic vector fields. Restricting...

  3. Hyperstaticity and loops in frictional granular packings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tordesillas, Antoinette; Lam, Edward; Metzger, Philip T.

    2009-06-01

    The hyperstatic nature of granular packings of perfectly rigid disks is analyzed algebraically and through numerical simulation. The elementary loops of grains emerge as a fundamental element in addressing hyperstaticity. Loops consisting of an odd number of grains behave differently than those with an even number. For odd loops, the latent stresses are exterior and are characterized by the sum of frictional forces around each loop. For even loops, the latent stresses are interior and are characterized by the alternating sum of frictional forces around each loop. The statistics of these two types of loop sums are found to be Gibbsian with a "temperature" that is linear with the friction coefficient μ when μ<1.

  4. New Packing Structure of Concentration Solar Receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Shang-Yu; Lee, Yueh-Mu; Shih, Zun-Hao; Hong, Hwen-Fen; Shin, Hwa-Yuh; Kuo, Cherng-Tsong

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a solution to the temperature issue in High Concentration Photovoltaic (HCPV) module device by using different thermal conductive material and packing structure. In general, the open-circuited voltage of a device reduces with the increase of temperature and therefore degrades its efficiency. The thermal conductive material we use in this paper, silicon, has a high thermal conductive coefficient (149 W/m·K) and steady semiconductor properties which are suitable for the application of solar receiver in HCPV module. Solar cell was soldered on a metal-plated Si substrate with a thicker SiO 2 film which acts as an insulating layer. Then it was mounted on an Al-based plate to obtain a better heat dissipating result.

  5. Slow creep in soft granular packings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ishan; Fisher, Timothy S

    2017-05-14

    Transient creep mechanisms in soft granular packings are studied numerically using a constant pressure and constant stress simulation method. Rapid compression followed by slow dilation is predicted on the basis of a logarithmic creep phenomenon. Characteristic scales of creep strain and time exhibit a power-law dependence on jamming pressure, and they diverge at the jamming point. Microscopic analysis indicates the existence of a correlation between rheology and nonaffine fluctuations. Localized regions of large strain appear during creep and grow in magnitude and size at short times. At long times, the spatial structure of highly correlated local deformation becomes time-invariant. Finally, a microscale connection between local rheology and local fluctuations is demonstrated in the form of a linear scaling between granular fluidity and nonaffine velocity.

  6. Software complex for developing dynamically packed program system for experiment automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baluka, G.; Salamatin, I.M.

    1985-01-01

    Software complex for developing dynamically packed program system for experiment automation is considered. The complex includes general-purpose programming systems represented as the RT-11 standard operating system and specially developed problem-oriented moduli providing execution of certain jobs. The described complex is realized in the PASKAL' and MAKRO-2 languages and it is rather flexible to variations of the technique of the experiment

  7. Software extension and integration with type classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lämmel, Ralf; Ostermann, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    expressiveness, by using the language concept of \\emph{type classes}, as it is available in the functional programming language Haskell. A detailed comparison with related work shows that type classes provide a powerful framework in which solutions to known software extension and integration problems can...... be provided. We also pinpoint several limitations of type classes in this context....

  8. Conceptualizing "Homework" in Flipped Mathematics Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, Zandra; Otten, Samuel; Birisci, Salih

    2017-01-01

    Flipped instruction is becoming more common in the United States, particularly in mathematics classes. One of the defining characteristics of this increasingly popular instructional format is the homework teachers assign. In contrast to traditional mathematics classes in which homework consists of problem sets, homework in flipped classes often…

  9. A study of the genetic relationships within and among wolf packs using DNA fingerprinting and mitochondrial DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Niles; Clarkson, Peter; Mech, L. David; Meier, Thomas J.; Wayne, Robert K.

    1992-01-01

    DNA fingerprinting and mitochondrial DNA analyses have not been used in combination to study relatedness in natural populations. We present an approach that involves defining the mean fingerprint similarities among individuals thought to be unrelated because they have different mtDNA genotypes. Two classes of related individuals are identified by their distance in standard errors above this mean value. The number of standard errors is determined by analysis of the association between fingerprint similarity and relatedness in a population with a known genealogy. We apply this approach to gray wolf packs from Minnesota, Alaska, and the Northwest Territories. Our results show that: (1) wolf packs consist primarily of individuals that are closely related genetically, but some packs contain unrelated, non-reproducing individuals; (2) dispersal among packs within the same area is common; and (3) short-range dispersal appears more common for female than male wolves. The first two of these genetically-based observations are consistent with behavioral data on pack structure and dispersal in wolves, while the apparent sex bias in dispersal was not expected.

  10. Type Families with Class, Type Classes with Family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serrano, Alejandro; Hage, Jurriaan; Bahr, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Type classes and type families are key ingredients in Haskell programming. Type classes were introduced to deal with ad-hoc polymorphism, although with the introduction of functional dependencies, their use expanded to type-level programming. Type families also allow encoding type-level functions......, now as rewrite rules. This paper looks at the interplay of type classes and type families, and how to deal with shortcomings in both of them. Furthermore, we show how to use families to simulate classes at the type level. However, type families alone are not enough for simulating a central feature...... of type classes: elaboration, that is, generating code from the derivation of a rewriting. We look at ways to solve this problem in current Haskell, and propose an extension to allow elaboration during the rewriting phase....

  11. Standardized Definitions for Code Verification Test Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doebling, Scott William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-14

    This document contains standardized definitions for several commonly used code verification test problems. These definitions are intended to contain sufficient information to set up the test problem in a computational physics code. These definitions are intended to be used in conjunction with exact solutions to these problems generated using Exact- Pack, www.github.com/lanl/exactpack.

  12. Volatile compounds and odor preferences of ground beef added with garlic and red wine, and irradiated with charcoal pack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Haeng; Yun, Hyejeong; Lee, Ju Woon; Ahn, Dong Uk; Lee, Eun Joo; Jo, Cheorun

    2012-01-01

    Irradiation is the most efficient non-thermal technology for improving hygienic quality and extending the shelf-life of food products. One of the adverse effects of food irradiation, however, is off-flavor production, which significantly affects the sensory preferences for certain foods. In this study, garlic (5%, w/w) and red wine (1:1, w/w) were added to ground beef to increase the radiation sensitivity of pathogens and improve meat odor/flavor. Samples were irradiated at 0 or 5 kGy in the presence of charcoal pack. SPME-GC–MS analysis was performed to measure the changes in the volatile compounds and sensory characteristics of the samples. The amount of total volatile compounds produced from ground beef was greater when the sample was irradiated. When garlic and red wine were added to the ground beef, the amount of volatile compounds significantly increased, and the amount of volatile compounds increased even further after irradiation. However, when the samples were irradiated with charcoal pack, the amount of volatile compounds decreased significantly. Sensory evaluation indicated that charcoal pack significantly increased the odor preferences for both irradiated and non-irradiated ground beef added with garlic. These results indicated that addition of charcoal pack to ground beef could reduce off-odor problems induced by irradiation, and this effect was consistent even when certain additives such as garlic and red wine were added. - Highlights: ► Garlic and red wine were added to ground beef and irradiated at 5 kGy in the presence of charcoal pack. ► When the samples were irradiated with charcoal pack, the amount of volatile compounds decreased significantly and it affected sensory score. ► Thus, addition of charcoal pack to ground beef could reduce off-odor problems induced by irradiation. ► This effect was consistent when additives, such as garlic and red wine, were added into ground beef.

  13. New series of paper pack vending machines; Paper pack jido hanbaiki no shin series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohashi, M. [Fuji Denki Reiki Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Umino, S. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-07-10

    This paper presents series of paper pack vending machines. These machines may be broadly classified into those of cold drinks and of hot and cold drinks depending on the storage temperature of products. The former is the machine for cooling dairy products at 10{degree}C with a combined stacking by direct-stacked racks and chain-multiracks. The latter is provided with divided storing chambers with each chamber selectively cooled or heated. Products in the hot chamber are canned coffee and the like set at 55{degree}C. The temperature control is performed by a microcomputer. The chain-multiracks are provided with advantages such as capability of handling various kinds of container shapes, storing drinks and foods vertically, replacing products by the change of a shelf attachment with one operation, and storing one liter packs by setting pair columns. The direct-stacked racks are provided with advantages such as versatility of handling various kinds of containers and miniaturization of the mechanism other than the storage part. The installation space was reduced by devising the opening and closing of the door. The control part is capable of setting temperatures differently for cans and paper packs. 7 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Heuristics for Solving Problem of Evacuating Non-Ambulatory People in a Short-Notice Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Problem B&B Branch and Bound B&C Branch and Cut BPP Bin Packing Problem CCRP Capacity Constrained Route Planner CO Combinatorial Optimzation CRED...increase. Worst-case analyses for the related Bin Packing Problem ( BPP ), which can be viewed as a CVRP where all the customers are at the same

  15. Packing and Cohesive Properties of Some Locally Extracted Starches

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... properties of the particles affect the packing and cohesive properties of the starches, and are important in predicting the behaviour of the starches during handling and use in pharmaceutical preparations. These properties need to be closely controlled in pre-formulation studies. Keywords: Packing and cohesive properties, ...

  16. Characterization of metallic surfaces in phosphorous-bronze ordered packings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandru, Claudia; Titescu, Gh.

    1997-01-01

    Copper and its alloys, particularly the phosphorous bronze, are characterized by a high water wettability as compared with other materials. This feature led to utilization of phosphorous bronze in fabrication of contact elements, a packing type equipping the distillation columns. For heavy water separation by isotopic distillation under vacuum, ordered packings of phosphorous bronze networks were fabricated. The superior performances of these packings are determined by the material and also by the geometrical form and the state of the metallic surface. Thus, a procedure of evaluating the wettability has been developed, based on tests of the network material. The results of the tests constitute a criterion of rating the functional performances of packings, particularly of their efficiencies. Also, investigation techniques of the chemical composition and of the thickness of superficial layer on the packing were developed. It was found that the packing surface presents a layer of about 5-20 μm formed mainly by oxides of copper, tin, and, depending on the packing treatment, of oxides of other elements coming from the treatment agent. The paper presents characterization of phosphorous bronze treated with potassium permanganate, a specific treatment for improving the functional performances of the packings used in the heavy water concentration and re-concentration installations

  17. Duration of Nasal Packs in the Management of Epistaxis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundi, N. A.; Raza, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To compare the efficacy of nasal packs for 12 and 24 hours in the management of epistaxis. Study Design: Quasi experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Combined Military Hospital, Nowshera and Heavy Industries Taxilla Hospital, from October 2012 to April 2013. Methodology: A total of 60 patients presenting with epistaxis were selected and were divided into two groups of 30 patients each. Patients in both the groups were managed by nasal packs. In group-A packs were removed after 12 hours while in group-B after 24 hours. Symptoms of headache, lacrimation and recurrence of bleeding were recorded. SPSS 20 was used for data analysis and p-value less than 0.01 was considered significant. Results: There was significant difference for headache between removal of nasal packs after 12 hours and 24 hours (p < 0.001). There was significant difference for excessive lacrimation at 12 and 24 hours (p = 0.001). No significant difference was observed for recurrence of bleed when nasal packs were removed at 12 and 24 hours (p = 0.317). Conclusion: Duration in removal of nasal packs after 12 or 24 hours made a difference in the management of epistaxis. Symptoms of headache and excessive lacrimation were significantly higher when nasal packs were removed after 24 hours. It is recommended that patient could be managed with lesser duration of packs after episode of epistaxis to avoid inconvenience. (author)

  18. Hydrodynamics of multi-phase packed bed micro-reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Márquez Luzardo, N.M.

    2010-01-01

    Why to use packed bed micro-reactors for catalyst testing? Miniaturized packed bed reactors have a large surface-to-volume ratio at the reactor and particle level that favors the heat- and mass-transfer processes at all scales (intra-particle, inter-phase and inter-particle or reactor level). If the

  19. The Performance of Structured Packings in Trickle-Bed Reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frank, M.J.W.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Versteeg, G.F.; Swaaij, W.P.M. van

    1999-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out to investigate whether the use of structured packings might improve the mass transfer characteristics and the catalyst effectiveness of a trickle-bed reactor. Therefore, the performances of a structured packing, consisting of KATAPAK elements, and a dumped

  20. demonstrating close-packing of atoms using spherical bubble gums

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    chemistry and junior inorganic chemistry courses. However, the subject of three dimen- sional close-packing of atoms has always been difficult for students to understand. In particular, students find it difficult to visualize the packing of atoms in different layers. They cannot clearly identify tetrahedral and octahedral holes, and.

  1. Improved Erythrocyte Osmotic Fragility and Packed Cell Volume ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improved Erythrocyte Osmotic Fragility and Packed Cell Volume following administration of Aloe barbadensis Juice Extract in Rats. ... Abstract. Aloe barbadensis is a popular house plant that has a long history of a multipurpose folk remedy. ... Keywords: osmotic fragility, packed cell volume, haemoglobin, Aloe vera ...

  2. Metallic witness packs for behind-armour debris characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verolme, J.L.; Szymczak, M.; Broos, J.P.F.

    1999-01-01

    For the experimental characterization of behind-armour debris so-called metallic witness packs can be used. A metallic witness pack consists of an array of metallic plates interspaced by polystyrene foam sheets. To quantify the fragment mass and velocity from the corresponding hole area and position

  3. Characteristics of illegal and legal cigarette packs sold in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevalo, Rodrigo; Corral, Juan E; Monzon, Diego; Yoon, Mira; Barnoya, Joaquin

    2016-11-25

    Guatemala, as a party to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), is required to regulate cigarette packaging and labeling and eliminate illicit tobacco trade. Current packaging and labeling characteristics (of legal and illegal cigarettes) and their compliance with the FCTC is unknown. We sought to analyze package and label characteristics of illegal and legal cigarettes sold in Guatemala. We visited the 22 largest traditional markets in the country to purchase illegal cigarettes. All brands registered on tobacco industry websites were purchased as legal cigarettes. Analysis compared labeling characteristics of illegal and legal packs. Most (95%) markets and street vendors sold illegal cigarettes; 104 packs were purchased (79 illegal and 25 legal). Ten percent of illegal and none of the legal packs had misleading terms. Half of the illegal packs had a warning label covering 26 to 50% of the pack surface. All legal packs had a label covering 25% of the surface. Illegal packs were more likely to have information on constituents and emissions (85% vs. 45%, p Guatemala, neither illegal nor legal cigarette packs comply with FCTC labeling mandates. Urgent implementation and enforcement of the FCTC is necessary to halt the tobacco epidemic.

  4. Multilayer DNA Origami Packed on Hexagonal and Hybrid Lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ke, Yonggang; Voigt, Niels Vinther; Shih, William M.

    2012-01-01

    “Scaffolded DNA origami” has been proven to be a powerful and efficient approach to construct two-dimensional or three-dimensional objects with great complexity. Multilayer DNA origami has been demonstrated with helices packing along either honeycomb-lattice geometry or square-lattice geometry....... Here we report successful folding of multilayer DNA origami with helices arranged on a close-packed hexagonal lattice. This arrangement yields a higher density of helical packing and therefore higher resolution of spatial addressing than has been shown previously. We also demonstrate hybrid multilayer...... DNA origami with honeycomb-lattice, square-lattice, and hexagonal-lattice packing of helices all in one design. The availability of hexagonal close-packing of helices extends our ability to build complex structures using DNA nanotechnology....

  5. Multilayer DNA origami packed on hexagonal and hybrid lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yonggang; Voigt, Niels V; Gothelf, Kurt V; Shih, William M

    2012-01-25

    "Scaffolded DNA origami" has been proven to be a powerful and efficient approach to construct two-dimensional or three-dimensional objects with great complexity. Multilayer DNA origami has been demonstrated with helices packing along either honeycomb-lattice geometry or square-lattice geometry. Here we report successful folding of multilayer DNA origami with helices arranged on a close-packed hexagonal lattice. This arrangement yields a higher density of helical packing and therefore higher resolution of spatial addressing than has been shown previously. We also demonstrate hybrid multilayer DNA origami with honeycomb-lattice, square-lattice, and hexagonal-lattice packing of helices all in one design. The availability of hexagonal close-packing of helices extends our ability to build complex structures using DNA nanotechnology. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  6. Random close packing of hard spheres and disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, J.G.

    1983-01-01

    A simple definition of random close packing of hard spheres is presented, and the consequences of this definition are explored. According to this definition, random close packing occurs at the minimum packing fraction eta for which the median nearest-neighbor radius equals the diameter of the spheres. Using the radial distribution function at more dilute concentrations to estimate median nearest-neighbor radii, lower bounds on the critical packing fraction eta/sub RCP/ are obtained and the value of eta/sub RCP/ is estimated by extrapolation. Random close packing is predicted to occur for eta/sub RCP/ = 0.64 +- 0.02 in three dimensions and eta/sub RCP/ = 0.82 +- 0.02 in two dimensions. Both of these predictions are shown to be consistent with the available experimental data

  7. Statistical theory of correlations in random packings of hard particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yuliang; Puckett, James G; Makse, Hernán A

    2014-05-01

    A random packing of hard particles represents a fundamental model for granular matter. Despite its importance, analytical modeling of random packings remains difficult due to the existence of strong correlations which preclude the development of a simple theory. Here, we take inspiration from liquid theories for the n-particle angular correlation function to develop a formalism of random packings of hard particles from the bottom up. A progressive expansion into a shell of particles converges in the large layer limit under a Kirkwood-like approximation of higher-order correlations. We apply the formalism to hard disks and predict the density of two-dimensional random close packing (RCP), ϕ(rcp) = 0.85 ± 0.01, and random loose packing (RLP), ϕ(rlp) = 0.67 ± 0.01. Our theory also predicts a phase diagram and angular correlation functions that are in good agreement with experimental and numerical data.

  8. 6-PACK programme to decrease fall injuries in acute hospitals: cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Anna L; Morello, Renata T; Wolfe, Rory; Brand, Caroline A; Haines, Terry P; Hill, Keith D; Brauer, Sandra G; Botti, Mari; Cumming, Robert G; Livingston, Patricia M; Sherrington, Catherine; Zavarsek, Silva; Lindley, Richard I; Kamar, Jeannette

    2016-01-26

    To evaluate the effect of the 6-PACK programme on falls and fall injuries in acute wards. Cluster randomised controlled trial. Six Australian hospitals. All patients admitted to 24 acute wards during the trial period. Participating wards were randomly assigned to receive either the nurse led 6-PACK programme or usual care over 12 months. The 6-PACK programme included a fall risk tool and individualised use of one or more of six interventions: "falls alert" sign, supervision of patients in the bathroom, ensuring patients' walking aids are within reach, a toileting regimen, use of a low-low bed, and use of a bed/chair alarm. The co-primary outcomes were falls and fall injuries per 1000 occupied bed days. During the trial, 46 245 admissions to 16 medical and eight surgical wards occurred. As many people were admitted more than once, this represented 31 411 individual patients. Patients' characteristics and length of stay were similar for intervention and control wards. Use of 6-PACK programme components was higher on intervention wards than on control wards (incidence rate ratio 3.05, 95% confidence interval 2.14 to 4.34; Pcontrol wards. Positive changes in falls prevention practice occurred following the introduction of the 6-PACK programme. However, no difference was seen in falls or fall injuries between groups. High quality evidence showing the effectiveness of falls prevention interventions in acute wards remains absent. Novel solutions to the problem of in-hospital falls are urgently needed. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12611000332921. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Influence of γ-ray radiation on mechanical character of packing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashiro, Hisao; Sakuma, Toshio

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the results of investigation on coefficient of friction, normal to axial pressure-ratio and compressed strain of packings influenced by γ-ray irradiation, which are necessary to evaluate the mechanical characteristics of packing, using packings made of seven kinds of new materials and conventional asbestos packing A. It resulted that graphite packing was less influenced by the γ-ray exposure, whereas carbon-fiber (pitch) packing, tefron-fiber packing and alamid-fiber packing were much influenced as compared with the graphite packing. (author)

  10. SEPTOPLASTY WITH AND WITHOUT NASAL PACKING: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Septoplasty is one of the most commonly performed surgeries in rhinology to relieve nasal obstruction of patients with distortion in the midline cartilage or septum of the nose to relieve nasal obstruction of patient and findings consistent with nasal endoscopy. The anterior nasal packing routinely done following septoplasty is usually conventional and not evidence based. The purpose of nasal packing is to obtain haemostasis, enhance opposition of septal flaps, avoid septal haematoma formation, close the dead space, avoid synechiae formation, provide support to septal cartilage and prevent its displacement. OBJECTIVE This study intends to evaluate the effects of nasal packing on surgical success and related complications in septoplasty. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present clinical prospective and randomised study was carried out on patients attending Otorhinolaryngology Department of Santhiram Medical College & General Hospital between March 2012 and March 2015. Patients undergoing septoplasty were randomised either to receive anterior nasal packing or to not receive nasal packing postoperatively. RESULTS Levels of pain experienced by patients with nasal packing postoperatively during the initial 24 hours postoperatively and during the removal of the pack were significantly more. Post-operative headache, epiphora, swallowing discomfort and sleep disturbance were more in patients with nasal packing and statistically (p.05. Septal haematoma, adhesions and local infections in both groups were statistically insignificant (p>.05. CONCLUSION Septoplasty enhances the standard of living of patients with septal deviation and nasal obstruction. Our study results suggest that nasal packing after septoplasty is not obligatory. Nasal packing causes considerably more pain and complications, and it should be reserved only for those who have bleeding predisposition.

  11. Research and application of packing density for pebble bed in HTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Fujiang; Xie Fei; Sun Ximing

    2015-01-01

    The pebble bed high temperature gas-cooled reactor is one of the major types of reactors developed by Chinese nuclear technology. The statistical analysis for packing density in the pebble bed is an important issue of physical-thermal calculation and safety analysis. Aimed to this problem, a new kind of method was set up to solve this problem. Compared with the traditional lattice-fill method and the experiment, its efficiency and accuracy were verified, while helping to find out the best length of unit in the traditional lattice-fill method. This method was used to analyze the boundary effects observed by experiments. (authors)

  12. A fresh look at the wolf-pack theory of companion-animal dog social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kerkhove, Wendy

    2004-01-01

    A popular perspective on the social behavior of dogs in multiple-dog households sees the dogs' behavior as reflecting the sociobiological laws of the rigidly structured dominance hierarchy that has been described for wolf packs. This view suggests that aggression problems among dogs are natural expressions of conflict that arise whenever dominance status is in contention. One recommended solution has been for the owner to endorse and enforce a particular dominance hierarchy because, on the wolf pack model, aggression is minimized when the structure of the hierarchy is clear, strong, and stable. This article questions the validity of this perspective on 2 principal grounds. First, because it does not seem to occur in the wild, this article suggests the strong dominance hierarchy that has been described for wolves may be a by-product of captivity. If true, it implies that social behavior--even in wolves--may be a product more of environmental circumstances and contingencies than an instinctive directive. Second, because feral dogs do not exhibit the classic wolf-pack structure, the validity of the canid, social dominance hierarchy again comes into question. This article suggests that behavioral learning theory offers another perspective regarding the behavior of dogs and wolves in the wild or in captivity and offers an effective intervention for aggression problems.

  13. The Model Construction of English Ecological Class in the High School in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhen

    2017-01-01

    The Ecological class is a kind of class in which the system of class teaching is in a state of dynamic balance and it can enhance the efficiency of class teaching. The article analyzes the feature of English ecological class, illustrates the non-ecological class teaching problems and explores the ways to establish English ecological class from the…

  14. [Social classes and poverty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benach, Joan; Amable, Marcelo

    2004-05-01

    Social classes and poverty are two key social determinants fundamental to understand how disease and health inequalities are produced. During the 90's in Spain there has been a notable oscillation in the inequality and poverty levels, with an increase in the middle of the decade when new forms of social exclusion, high levels of unemployment and great difficulties in accessing the labour market, especially for those workers with less resources, emerged. Today society is still characterized by a clear social stratification and the existence of social classes with a predominance of high levels of unemployment and precarious jobs, and where poverty is an endemic social problem much worse than the EU average. To diminish health inequalities and to improve the quality of life will depend very much on the reduction of the poverty levels and the improvement of equal opportunities and quality of employment. To increase understanding of how social class and poverty affect public health, there is a need to improve the quality of both information and research, and furthermore planners and political decision makers must take into account those determinants when undertaking disease prevention and health promotion.

  15. A Virtual Class Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik; Ostermann, Klaus; Cook, William Randall

    2006-01-01

    Virtual classes are class-valued attributes of objects. Like virtual methods, virtual classes are defined in an object's class and may be redefined within subclasses. They resemble inner classes, which are also defined within a class, but virtual classes are accessed through object instances...... model for virtual classes has been a long-standing open question. This paper presents a virtual class calculus, vc, that captures the essence of virtual classes in these full-fledged programming languages. The key contributions of the paper are a formalization of the dynamic and static semantics of vc...

  16. Do gray wolves (Canis lupus) support pack mates during aggressive inter-pack interactions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Kira A; McIntyre, Richard T

    2016-09-01

    For group-living mammals, social coordination increases success in everything from hunting and foraging (Crofoot and Wrangham in Mind the Gap, Springer, Berlin, 2010; Bailey et al. in Behav Ecol Sociobiol 67:1-17, 2013) to agonism (Mosser and Packer in Anim Behav 78:359-370, 2009; Wilson et al. in Anim Behav 83:277-291, 2012; Cassidy et al. in Behav Ecol 26:1352-1360, 2015). Cooperation is found in many species and, due to its low costs, likely is a determining factor in the evolution of living in social groups (Smith in Anim Behav 92:291-304, 2014). Beyond cooperation, many mammals perform costly behaviors for the benefit of group mates (e.g., parental care, food sharing, grooming). Altruism is considered the most extreme case of cooperation where the altruist increases the fitness of the recipient while decreasing its own fitness (Bell in Selection: the mechanism of evolution. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2008). Gray wolf life history requires intra-pack familiarity, communication, and cooperation in order to succeed in hunting (MacNulty et al. in Behav Ecol doi: 10.1093/beheco/arr159 2011) and protecting group resources (Stahler et al. in J Anim Ecol 82: 222-234, 2013; Cassidy et al. in Behav Ecol 26:1352-1360, 2015). Here, we report 121 territorial aggressive inter-pack interactions in Yellowstone National Park between 1 April 1995 and 1 April 2011 (>5300 days of observation) and examine each interaction where one wolf interferes when its pack mate is being attacked by a rival group. This behavior was recorded six times (17.6 % of interactions involving an attack) and often occurred between dyads of closely related individuals. We discuss this behavior as it relates to the evolution of cooperation, sociality, and altruism.

  17. Packing Nonspherical Particles: All Shapes Are Not Created Equal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torquato, Salvatore

    2012-02-01

    Over the past decade there has been increasing interest in the effects of particle shape on the characteristics of dense particle packings, since deviations from sphericity can lead to more realistic models of granular media, nanostructured materials, and tissue architecture. It is clear the that the broken rotational symmetry of a nonspherical particle is a crucial aspect in determining its resulting packing characteristics, but given the infinite variety of possible shapes (ellipsoids, superballs, regular and irregular polyhedra, etc.) it is desirable to formulate packing organizing principles based the particle shape. Such principles are beginning to be elucidated; see Refs. 1 and 2 and references therein. Depending upon whether the particle has central symmetry, inequivalent principle axes, and smooth or flat surfaces, we can describe the nature of its densest packing (which is typically periodic) as well as its disordered jammed states (which may or may not be isostatic). Changing the shape of a particle can dramatically alter its packing attributes. This tunability capability via particle shape could be used to tailor many-particle systems (e.g., colloids and granular media) to have designed crystal, liquid and glassy states. [4pt] [1] S. Torquato and F. H. Stillinger, ``Jammed Hard-Particle Packings: From Kepler to Bernal and Beyond," Rev. Modern Phys. 82, 2633 (2010). [0pt] [2] Y. Jiao and S. Torquato, Communication: ``A Packing of Truncated Tetrahedra That Nearly Fills All of Space and its Melting Properties," J. Chem. Phys. 135, 151101 (2011).

  18. Fast charge implications: Pack and cell analysis and comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanim, Tanvir R.; Shirk, Matthew G.; Bewley, Randy L.; Dufek, Eric J.; Liaw, Bor Yann

    2018-03-01

    This study investigates the effect of 50-kW (about 2C) direct current fast charging on a full-size battery electric vehicle's battery pack in comparison to a pack exclusively charged at 3.3 kW, which is the common alternating current Level 2 charging power level. Comparable scaled charging protocols are also independently applied to individual cells at three different temperatures, 20 °C, 30 °C, and 40 °C, to perform a comparative analysis with the packs. Dominant cell-level aging modes were identified through incremental capacity analysis and compared with full packs to gain a clear understanding of additional key factors that affect pack aging. While the cell-level study showed a minor impact on performance due to direct current fast charging, the packs showed a significantly higher rate of capacity fade under similar charging protocols. This indicates that pack-level aging cannot be directly extrapolated from cell evaluation. Delayed fast charging, completing shortly before discharge, was found to have less of an impact on battery degradation than conventional alternating current Level 2 charging.

  19. Avoidance of cigarette pack health warnings among regular cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Olivia M; Attwood, Angela; O'Brien, Laura; Brooks, Sabrina; Hedge, Craig; Leonards, Ute; Munafò, Marcus R

    2014-03-01

    Previous research with adults and adolescents indicates that plain cigarette packs increase visual attention to health warnings among non-smokers and non-regular smokers, but not among regular smokers. This may be because regular smokers: (1) are familiar with the health warnings, (2) preferentially attend to branding, or (3) actively avoid health warnings. We sought to distinguish between these explanations using eye-tracking technology. A convenience sample of 30 adult dependent smokers participated in an eye-tracking study. Participants viewed branded, plain and blank packs of cigarettes with familiar and unfamiliar health warnings. The number of fixations to health warnings and branding on the different pack types were recorded. Analysis of variance indicated that regular smokers were biased towards fixating the branding rather than the health warning on all three pack types. This bias was smaller, but still evident, for blank packs, where smokers preferentially attended the blank region over the health warnings. Time-course analysis showed that for branded and plain packs, attention was preferentially directed to the branding location for the entire 10s of the stimulus presentation, while for blank packs this occurred for the last 8s of the stimulus presentation. Familiarity with health warnings had no effect on eye gaze location. Smokers actively avoid cigarette pack health warnings, and this remains the case even in the absence of salient branding information. Smokers may have learned to divert their attention away from cigarette pack health warnings. These findings have implications for cigarette packaging and health warning policy. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Enabling Microliquid Chromatography by Microbead Packing of Microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balvin, Manuel; Zheng, Yun

    2014-01-01

    The microbead packing is the critical element required in the success of on-chip microfabrication of critical microfluidic components for in-situ analysis and detection of chiral amino acids. In order for microliquid chromatography to occur, there must be a stationary phase medium within the microchannel that interacts with the analytes present within flowing fluid. The stationary phase media are the microbeads packed by the process discussed in this work. The purpose of the microliquid chromatography is to provide a lightweight, low-volume, and low-power element to separate amino acids and their chiral partners efficiently to understand better the origin of life. In order to densely pack microbeads into the microchannels, a liquid slurry of microbeads was created. Microbeads were extracted from a commercially available high-performance liquid chromatography column. The silica beads extracted were 5 microns in diameter, and had surface coating of phenyl-hexyl. These microbeads were mixed with a 200- proof ethanol solution to create a microbead slurry with the right viscosity for packing. A microfilter is placed at the outlet via of the microchannel and the slurry is injected, then withdrawn across a filter using modified syringes. After each injection, the channel is flushed with ethanol to enhance packing. This cycle is repeated numerous times to allow for a tightly packed channel of microbeads. Typical microbead packing occurs in the macroscale into tubes or channels by using highly pressurized systems. Moreover, these channels are typically long and straight without any turns or curves. On the other hand, this method of microbead packing is completed within a microchannel 75 micrometers in diameter. Moreover, the microbead packing is completed into a serpentine type microchannel, such that it maximizes microchannel length within a microchip. Doing so enhances the interactions of the analytes with the microbeads to separate efficiently amino acids and amino acid

  1. Scottish young people's perceptions of standardised packs - a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Macgregor

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Standardised cigarette packs were introduced into the UK in May 2016. Retailers could sell old stock until May 2017 after which only the sale of cigarettes and tobacco in standardised packs was allowed. As in Australia, pack shape, colour, opening mechanism and font are regulated, together with the size and position of health warnings and number of cigarettes in a pack. This paper explores Scottish young people's awareness of and views about standardised packs in Spring 2017. Methods The DISPLAY study is a five year study established to evaluate the national tobacco point-of sale (POS promotions ban in four communities in Scotland. This paper is based on the qualitative component, annual focus groups carried out with Secondary 2 (13 year olds and Secondary 4 (15 year olds students in four secondary schools. 16 groups (82 students convened in February - March 2017 explored students' perceptions of standardised packaging. Results There was a high level of awareness of standardised packs prior to their full implementation. Smokers had bought them, and they and other participants had seen them in possession of friends and family members, and in litter. Participants' views of the new packaging were generally negative, described as unappealing and depressing, particularly the pictorial health warnings. Packs were compared unfavourably with previous non-standardised versions. However, there was no consensus on their likely impact. Some participants argued that their impact would be widespread, while others thought that any impact would be confined to young non/occasional smokers and that established smokers would be unaffected. Conclusions In early 2017 young people in Scotland had high awareness and knowledge of standardised tobacco packs before their full implementation. Despite differing views about their likely impact on youth smoking, participants irrespective of smoking status overwhelmingly regarded them as unattractive and less

  2. Ecology of southern ocean pack ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brierley, Andrew S; Thomas, David N

    2002-01-01

    Around Antarctica the annual five-fold growth and decay of sea ice is the most prominent physical process and has a profound impact on marine life there. In winter the pack ice canopy extends to cover almost 20 million square kilometres--some 8% of the southern hemisphere and an area larger than the Antarctic continent itself (13.2 million square kilometres)--and is one of the largest, most dynamic ecosystems on earth. Biological activity is associated with all physical components of the sea-ice system: the sea-ice surface; the internal sea-ice matrix and brine channel system; the underside of sea ice and the waters in the vicinity of sea ice that are modified by the presence of sea ice. Microbial and microalgal communities proliferate on and within sea ice and are grazed by a wide range of proto- and macrozooplankton that inhabit the sea ice in large concentrations. Grazing organisms also exploit biogenic material released from the sea ice at ice break-up or melt. Although rates of primary production in the underlying water column are often low because of shading by sea-ice cover, sea ice itself forms a substratum that provides standing stocks of bacteria, algae and grazers significantly higher than those in ice-free areas. Decay of sea ice in summer releases particulate and dissolved organic matter to the water column, playing a major role in biogeochemical cycling as well as seeding water column phytoplankton blooms. Numerous zooplankton species graze sea-ice algae, benefiting additionally because the overlying sea-ice ceiling provides a refuge from surface predators. Sea ice is an important nursery habitat for Antarctic krill, the pivotal species in the Southern Ocean marine ecosystem. Some deep-water fish migrate to shallow depths beneath sea ice to exploit the elevated concentrations of some zooplankton there. The increased secondary production associated with pack ice and the sea-ice edge is exploited by many higher predators, with seals, seabirds and whales

  3. Ultratight crystal packing of a 10 kDa protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trillo-Muyo, Sergio [Molecular Biology Institute of Barcelona, Spanish Research Council CSIC, Barcelona Science Park, c/Baldiri Reixac 15-21, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Jasilionis, Andrius [Vilnius University, M. K. Čiurlionio 21/27, 03101 Vilnius (Lithuania); Domagalski, Marcin J. [University of Virginia, 1340 Jefferson Park Avenue, Charlottesville, VA 22908-0736 (United States); Chruszcz, Maksymilian [University of South Carolina, 631 Sumter Street, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Minor, Wladek [University of Virginia, 1340 Jefferson Park Avenue, Charlottesville, VA 22908-0736 (United States); Kuisiene, Nomeda [Vilnius University, M. K. Čiurlionio 21/27, 03101 Vilnius (Lithuania); Arolas, Joan L.; Solà, Maria; Gomis-Rüth, F. Xavier, E-mail: xgrcri@ibmb.csic.es [Molecular Biology Institute of Barcelona, Spanish Research Council CSIC, Barcelona Science Park, c/Baldiri Reixac 15-21, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-03-01

    The crystal structure of the C-terminal domain of a putative U32 peptidase from G. thermoleovorans is reported; it is one of the most tightly packed protein structures reported to date. While small organic molecules generally crystallize forming tightly packed lattices with little solvent content, proteins form air-sensitive high-solvent-content crystals. Here, the crystallization and full structure analysis of a novel recombinant 10 kDa protein corresponding to the C-terminal domain of a putative U32 peptidase are reported. The orthorhombic crystal contained only 24.5% solvent and is therefore among the most tightly packed protein lattices ever reported.

  4. Improvement of airtight and operation efficiency of joint packing material; Teikei mokuzizai no sirusei oyobi sagyosei no kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouchi, Tatsuya.; Harada, Tsutomu.; Ando, Hideki.; Yamato, Tsugio

    1998-12-01

    Formed joint packing materials presently used in each place of continuous casting factories are manufactured from a main material of refractory powder and various subsidiary materials, added with binder, mixed and formed to products. This joint material has disadvantages of 1) Setting to flange part of long nozzle is difficult owing to inferior ordinary temperature shape retaining property (workability), and 2) Hot workable time (workability) is short, when used under hot condition. To solve these problems, sealing property and workability (ordinary temperature shape retaining property and hot workable time) of joint packing material were improved using new binder and Al system materials, and hard type formed jpint packing material of excellent hot sealing property and workability compared to conventional formed packing materials was obtained. Examining various resins and refractory powders, special emulsion type resin and a material which consisted of a main refractory material of alumina and subsidiary materials of clay, flint, Al system metals were finally selected. The measurement results on ordinary temperature shape retaining property, hot workable time and hot sealing property of this joint packing material showed excellent results. (NEDO)

  5. Packing Density Approach for Sustainable Development of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarshan Dattatraya KORE

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the details of optimized mix design for normal strength concrete using particle packing density method. Also the concrete mixes were designed as per BIS: 10262-2009. Different water-cement ratios were used and kept same in both design methods. An attempt has been made to obtain sustainable and cost effective concrete product by use of particle packing density method. The parameters such as workability, compressive strength, cost analysis and carbon di oxide emission were discussed. The results of the study showed that, the compressive strength of the concrete produced by packing density method are closer to that of design compressive strength of BIS code method. By adopting the packing density method for design of concrete mixes, resulted in 11% cost saving with 12% reduction in carbon di oxide emission.

  6. PNGS-A unit 4 composite graphite valve packing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meaney, F.

    1992-01-01

    During the outage of Pickering 4 for retubing and rehabilitation, a composite graphite packing program was completed on 100 conventional valves and 50 nuclear valves. This paper describes component refurbishment, related maintenance, and manpower requirements. 2 figs

  7. The investigation of cooling tower packing in various arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golshayshi, H.R.; Missenden, J.F.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of form with corrugated packing on heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics in atmospheric cooling towers has been studied experimentally. The results showed that the heat transfer coefficient decreased with increase in packing pitch and increase in the ratio of rib pitch to rib height. Friction factors were expressed by a dimensional equation which included pitch and distance between the packings, for both smooth and rough surface. From these results, the relationship between packing heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop was deduced. The correlations were verified with additional experimental data taken with 1.1,P/D p /e 5 . This provides a useful semi experimental relation, in the area generally lacking in design and performance data. (author)

  8. Radiation sterilization of plastic packing materials and aseptic packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuoka, Keiko

    1986-01-01

    In the present day of 'satiation', quality, not quantity, is emphasized for foods, the consumers being oriented toward raw and healthy foodstuff. Aseptic Packaging is excellent means of conservation. While conventionally chemicals have been used for sterilization of packing materials for aseptic packaging, the sterilization by radiation is used in part recently. The following are described : history of aseptic packaging and its features, sterilization by radiation, γ-ray sterilization of large-sized containers, the development of an aseptic packaging system using electron rays, the occurrence of offensive odors from packing materials (comparison of odors from various materials, volatile substances occurring in irradiated polyethylene, influence of film grade upon the formation of carboxylic acid, influence of the irradiation conditions upon the occurrences of volatile substances, volatile substances occurring in the irradiation of bag-in-box packing materials), changes in properties of the packing materials. (Mori, K.)

  9. Kill or Cure? Different Types of Social Class Identification Amplify and Buffer the Relation between Social Class and Mental Health

    OpenAIRE

    Rubin, Mark

    2017-01-01

    The present research investigated different types of social class identification as moderators of the negative relation between social class and mental health problems. Psychology undergraduates (N = 355) completed an online survey that included measures of social class, mental health and well-being, and three aspects of social class identification: importance of identity, salience of identity, and perceived self-class similarity. Perceived self-class similarity buffered the negative associat...

  10. A set packing inspired method for real-time junction train routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper; Ehrgott, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Efficiently coordinating the often large number of interdependent, timetabled train movements on a railway junction, while satisfying a number of operational requirements, is one of the most important problems faced by a railway company. The most critical variant of the problem arises on a daily...... basis at major railway junctions where disruptions to rail traffic make the planned schedule/routing infeasible and rolling stock planners are forced to re-schedule/re-route trains in order to recover feasibility. The dynamic nature of the problem means that good solutions must be obtained quickly....... In this paper we describe a set packing inspired formulation of this problem and develop a branch-and-price based solution approach. A real life test instance arising in Germany and supplied by the major German railway company, Deutsche Bahn, indicates the efficiency of the proposed approach by confirming...

  11. A Set Packing Inspired Method for Real-Time Junction Train Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper; Ehrgott, Matthias

    Efficiently coordinating the often large number of interdependent, timetabled train movements on a railway junction, while satisfying a number of operational requirements, is one of the most important problems faced by a railway company. The most critical variant of the problem arises on a daily...... basis at major railway junctions where disruptions to rail traffi c make the planned schedule/routing infeasible and rolling stock planners are forced to reschedule/re-route trains in order to recover feasibility. The dynamic nature of the problem means that good solutions must be obtained quickly....... In this paper we describe a set packing inspired formulation of this problem and develop a branch-and-price based solution approach. A real life test instance arising in Germany and supplied by the major German railway company, Deutsche Bahn, indicates the efficiency of the proposed approach by confirming...

  12. Granular flow through an aperture: Influence of the packing fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, M. A.; De Schant, R.; Géminard, J.-C.

    2014-07-01

    For the last 50 years, the flow of a granular material through an aperture has been intensely studied in gravity-driven vertical systems (e.g., silos and hoppers). Nevertheless, in many industrial applications, grains are horizontally transported at constant velocity, lying on conveyor belts or floating on the surface of flowing liquids. Unlike fluid flows, that are controlled by the pressure, granular flow is not sensitive to the local pressure but rather to the local velocity of the grains at the outlet. We can also expect the flow rate to depend on the local density of the grains. Indeed, vertical systems are packed in dense configurations by gravity, but, in contrast, in horizontal systems the density can take a large range of values, potentially very small, which may significantly alter the flow rate. In the present article, we study, for different initial packing fractions, the discharge through an orifice of monodisperse grains driven at constant velocity by a horizontal conveyor belt. We report how, during the discharge, the packing fraction is modified by the presence of the outlet, and we analyze how changes in the packing fraction induce variations in the flow rate. We observe that variations of packing fraction do not affect the velocity of the grains at the outlet, and, therefore, we establish that flow-rate variations are directly related to changes in the packing fraction.

  13. RxClass

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The RxClass Browser is a web application for exploring and navigating through the class hierarchies to find the RxNorm drug members associated with each class....

  14. Computational fluid dynamics and experimental tests helping to understand the gravel pack displacement in petroleum wells; Fluidodinamica computacional (CFD) e testes experimentais ajudam a compreender o fenomeno do deslocamento do gravel pack em pocos de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Joao Vicente Martins de; Leal, Rafael Amorim Ferreira; Martins, Andre Leibsohn; Calderon, Agostinho; Ferreira, Marcus Vinicius Duarte [Petrobras S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mails: ivmm@petrobras.com.br, rafaelleal@petrobras.com.br, aleibsohn@petrobras.com.br, agoscal@petrobras.com.br, mvdferreira@petrobras.com.br; Simoes, Bruno; Barbosa, Diego [Halliburton, Novo Cavaleiros, Macae, RJ (Brazil)], E-mails: bruno.simoes@halliburton.com.br, diego.barbosa@halliburton.com.br

    2010-07-01

    In the petroleum exploitation and production in deep water, at the fields operated by PETROBRAS, Brazil, one of the problems frequently found is the need of elimination of sand production, having in mind that the most of those fields produce from the non consolidated sandstones. The opened well Gravel Packing is the technique most used for that task. Due to the fact of Gravel Packing operations occurs at thousand of meters below the surface, it is necessary the computational simulation for forecasting how particle deposition (Gravel) in the well occurs. So, it was used the commercial pack of fluid dynamics FLUENT 12, which calculates the fluid velocity field, coupled to another commercial pack, the EDEM, based on discrete elements that treat of particle mechanics. The coupling of the two software has shown adequate the comparison of the computational results with the experimental data shows a good adjustment. Besides, it was possible to simulate problems of well early clogging, showing that the computational simulation is strong and capable of captivating such a phenomena.

  15. Context-sensitive intra-class clustering

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Yingwei

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes a new semi-supervised learning algorithm for intra-class clustering (ICC). ICC partitions each class into sub-classes in order to minimize overlap across clusters from different classes. This is achieved by allowing partitioning of a certain class to be assisted by data points from other classes in a context-dependent fashion. The result is that overlap across sub-classes (both within- and across class) is greatly reduced. ICC is particularly useful when combined with algorithms that assume that each class has a unimodal Gaussian distribution (e.g., Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), quadratic classifiers), an assumption that is not always true in many real-world situations. ICC can help partition non-Gaussian, multimodal distributions to overcome such a problem. In this sense, ICC works as a preprocessor. Experiments with our ICC algorithm on synthetic data sets and real-world data sets indicated that it can significantly improve the performance of LDA and quadratic classifiers. We expect our approach to be applicable to a broader class of pattern recognition problems where class-conditional densities are significantly non-Gaussian or multi-modal. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Longitudinal dispersion coefficient depending on superficial velocity of hydrogen isotopes flowing in column packed with zeolite pellets at 77.4 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotoh, K. [Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu University, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan); Kubo, K.; Takashima, S.; Moriyama, S.T. [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu University, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan); Tanaka, M. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Oroshi-cho, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Sugiyama, T. [Faculty of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    Authors have been developing a cryogenic pressure swing adsorption system for hydrogen isotope separation. In the problem of its design and operation, it is necessary to predict the concentration profiles developing in packed beds of adsorbent pellets. The profiling is affected by the longitudinal dispersion of gas flowing in packed beds, in addition to the mass transfer resistance in porous media of adsorbent pellets. In this work, an equation is derived for estimating the packed-bed dispersion coefficient of hydrogen isotopes, by analyzing the breakthrough curves of trace D{sub 2} or HD replacing H{sub 2} adsorbed in synthetic zeolite particles packed columns at the liquefied nitrogen temperature 77.4 K. Since specialized for hydrogen isotopes, this equation can be considered to estimate the dispersion coefficients more reliable for the cryogenic hydrogen isotope adsorption process, than the existing equations. (authors)

  17. Differential equations problem solver

    CERN Document Server

    Arterburn, David R

    2012-01-01

    REA's Problem Solvers is a series of useful, practical, and informative study guides. Each title in the series is complete step-by-step solution guide. The Differential Equations Problem Solver enables students to solve difficult problems by showing them step-by-step solutions to Differential Equations problems. The Problem Solvers cover material ranging from the elementary to the advanced and make excellent review books and textbook companions. They're perfect for undergraduate and graduate studies.The Differential Equations Problem Solver is the perfect resource for any class, any exam, and

  18. Middle Class Youth: Myth or Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U V Goliusova

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Many researches both in Russia and abroad are concerned with the question of whether middle class exists in Russia and, if so, what its distinctive features are. The problem of particular interest is the sources of recruiting to that social group. One of its source clusters is youth. The article considers main traits of middle class youth, their self-identification and their perception of Russian middle class.

  19. Imbalanced class learning in epigenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, M Muksitul; Skinner, Michael K; Holder, Lawrence B

    2014-07-01

    In machine learning, one of the important criteria for higher classification accuracy is a balanced dataset. Datasets with a large ratio between minority and majority classes face hindrance in learning using any classifier. Datasets having a magnitude difference in number of instances between the target concept result in an imbalanced class distribution. Such datasets can range from biological data, sensor data, medical diagnostics, or any other domain where labeling any instances of the minority class can be time-consuming or costly or the data may not be easily available. The current study investigates a number of imbalanced class algorithms for solving the imbalanced class distribution present in epigenetic datasets. Epigenetic (DNA methylation) datasets inherently come with few differentially DNA methylated regions (DMR) and with a higher number of non-DMR sites. For this class imbalance problem, a number of algorithms are compared, including the TAN+AdaBoost algorithm. Experiments performed on four epigenetic datasets and several known datasets show that an imbalanced dataset can have similar accuracy as a regular learner on a balanced dataset.

  20. Mappings on Neutrosophic Soft Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawkat Alkhazaleh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1995 Smarandache introduced the concept of neutrosophic set which is a mathematical tool for handling problems involving imprecise, indeterminacy and inconsistent data. In 2013 Maji introduced the concept of neutrosophic soft set theory as a general mathematical tool for dealing with uncertainty. In this paper we define the notion of a mapping on classes where the neutrosophic soft classes are collections of neutrosophic soft set. We also define and study the properties of neutrosophic soft images and neutrosophic soft inverse images of neutrosophic soft sets.

  1. Ruin problems and tail asymptotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn-Nielsen, Anders

    The thesis Ruin Problems and Tail Asymptotics provides results on ruin problems for several classes of Markov processes. For a class of diffusion processes with jumps an explicit expression for the joint Laplace transform of the first passage time and the corresponding undershoot is derived...

  2. The Effect of Pharyngeal Packing during Nasal Surgery on the Incidence of Post Operative Nausea, Vomiting, and Sore Throat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Karbasfrushan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nausea and vomiting after ear, nose and throat (ENT surgery is one of the most common and notable problems facing anesthesiologists in this area. This study was conducted to determine the effect of a pharyngeal pack on the severity of nausea, vomiting, and sore throat among patients after ear, pharynx, and throat surgeries.   Materials and Methods: This randomized clinical study was performed in 140 patients (61 men and 79 women; age range, 20–40 years who had undergone nasal surgery in 2010. Patients were divided into two groups: the first group were treated using a pharyngeal pack (case group and the second group were managed without a pharyngeal pack (control group. Statistical analysis was performed using the Chi-square test and the Mann-Whitney U test. SPSS software was used for data analysis.   Results: The mean severity of nausea and vomiting in the two groups was 2.057, 1.371 and 1.100, respectively, with no significant differences between groups. However, the mean severity of sore throat was 1.714 in the group with the pharyngeal pack and 1.385 in the group without pharyngeal pack (P=0.010.   Conclusion:  Not only does a pharyngeal pack in ENT surgery not reduce the extent and severity of nausea and vomiting, but it also increases the severity of sore throat in patients when leaving the recovery room and discharging hospital.

  3. Using Mobile Phone Technology in EFL Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sad, Süleyman Nihat

    2008-01-01

    Teachers of English as a foreign language (EFL) who want to develop successful lessons face numerous challenges, including large class sizes and inadequate instructional materials and technological support. Another problem is unmotivated students who refuse to participate in class activities. According to Harmer (2007), uncooperative and…

  4. Packed-fluidized-bed blanket concept for a thorium-fueled commercial tokamak hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, J.W.H.; Miller, J.W.; Karbowski, J.S.; Chapin, D.L.; Kelly, J.L.

    1980-09-01

    A preliminary design of a thorium blanket was carried out as a part of the Commercial Tokamak Hybrid Reactor (CTHR) study. A fixed fuel blanket concept was developed as the reference CTHR blanket with uranium carbide fuel and helium coolant. A fixed fuel blanket was initially evaluated for the thorium blanket study. Subsequently, a new type of hybrid blanket, a packed-fluidized bed (PFB), was conceived. The PFB blanket concept has a number of unique features that may solve some of the problems encountered in the design of tokamak hybrid reactor blankets. This report documents the thorium blanket study and describes the feasibility assessment of the PFB blanket concept

  5. Student Attitudes: A Study of Social Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Clifford A.

    1976-01-01

    Student attitudes toward current controversial problems (bussing for racial integration, legalization of abortion, and legalization of marijuana) were studied with regard to social class. The 1960 revision of the Purdue Master Attitude Scale was used. (LBH)

  6. Performance of high-rate gravel-packed oil wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unneland, Trond

    2001-05-01

    Improved methods for the prediction, evaluation, and monitoring of performance in high-rate cased-hole gravel-packed oil wells are presented in this thesis. The ability to predict well performance prior to the gravel-pack operations, evaluate the results after the operation, and monitor well performance over time has been improved. This lifetime approach to performance analysis of gravel-packed oil wells contributes to increase oil production and field profitability. First, analytical models available for prediction of performance in gravel-packed oil wells are reviewed, with particular emphasis on high-velocity flow effects. From the analysis of field data from three North Sea oil fields, improved and calibrated cased-hole gravel-pack performance prediction models are presented. The recommended model is based on serial flow through formation sand and gravel in the perforation tunnels. In addition, new correlations for high-velocity flow in high-rate gravel-packed oil wells are introduced. Combined, this improves the performance prediction for gravel-packed oil wells, and specific areas can be targeted for optimized well design. Next, limitations in the current methods and alternative methods for evaluation and comparison of well performance are presented. The most widely used parameter, the skin factor, remains a convenient and important parameter. However, using the skin concept in direct comparisons between wells with different reservoir properties may result in misleading or even invalid conclusions. A discussion of the parameters affecting the skin value, with a clarification of limitations, is included. A methodology for evaluation and comparison of gravel-packed well performance is presented, and this includes the use of results from production logs and the use of effective perforation tunnel permeability as a parameter. This contributes to optimized operational procedures from well to well and from field to field. Finally, the data sources available for

  7. Important notice for Windows 2000 Service Pack 3 computers

    CERN Multimedia

    The NICE Team

    2005-01-01

    Microsoft is ending support for Windows 2000 Service Pack 3, which was introduced in 2002. As a consequence, computers running Windows 2000 Service Pack 3 (or older versions1)) must be updated. It is recommended that Windows 2000 computers be re-installed with Windows XP Service Pack 2 (see http://cern.ch/Win/Services/Installation/Diane). If this is not possible for compatibility reasons, Windows 2000 Service Pack 4 must be installed to ensure the computers continue to receive security patches (see http://cern.ch/Win/Docs/2000SP4). In the next few days, NICE 2000 computers requiring an update will receive a pop-up window with instructions. Users requiring help with the update can contact Helpdesk@cern.ch or call 78888. If your computer needs to be updated you are recommended to read the additional information available at http://cern.ch/Win/Docs/2000SP3. The NICE Team 1) To determine your Windows service pack version, use the ‘Start' button and select ‘Run'. In the new window that open...

  8. Important notice for Windows 2000 Service Pack 3 computers

    CERN Multimedia

    The NICE Team

    2005-01-01

    Microsoft is ending support for Windows 2000 Service Pack 3, which was introduced in 2002. As a consequence, computers running Windows 2000 Service Pack 3 (or older versions1) ) must be updated. It is recommended that Windows 2000 computers be re-installed with Windows XP Service Pack 2 (see http://cern.ch/Win/Services/Installation/Diane). If this is not possible for compatibility reasons, Windows 2000 Service Pack 4 must be installed to ensure the computers continue to receive security patches (see http://cern.ch/Win/Docs/2000SP4). In the next few days, NICE 2000 computers requiring an update will receive a pop-up window with instructions. Users requiring help with the update can contact Helpdesk@cern.ch or call 78888. If your computer needs to be updated you are recommended to read the additional information available at http://cern.ch/Win/Docs/2000SP3. The NICE Team 1) To determine your Windows service pack version, use the ‘Start' button and select ‘Run'. In the new window that opens, type ‘wi...

  9. Stress concentrations in an impregnated fibre bundle with random fibre packing

    OpenAIRE

    Swolfs, Y.; Gorbatikh, L.; Romanov, V.; Orlova, S.; Lomov, S. V.; Verpoest, I.

    2013-01-01

    The stress redistribution after a single fibre break is a fundamental issue in longitudinal strength models for unidirectional composites. Current models assume hexagonal or square fibre packings. In the present work, random fibre packings were modelled using 3D finite element analysis and compared to ordered fibre packings. Significant differences in the stress redistribution are found. Compared to square and hexagonal packings, random fibre packings result in smaller stress concentration fa...

  10. Improving the Bin Packing Heuristic through Grammatical Evolution Based on Swarm Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurelio Sotelo-Figueroa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years Grammatical Evolution (GE has been used as a representation of Genetic Programming (GP which has been applied to many optimization problems such as symbolic regression, classification, Boolean functions, constructed problems, and algorithmic problems. GE can use a diversity of searching strategies including Swarm Intelligence (SI. Particle Swarm Optimisation (PSO is an algorithm of SI that has two main problems: premature convergence and poor diversity. Particle Evolutionary Swarm Optimization (PESO is a recent and novel algorithm which is also part of SI. PESO uses two perturbations to avoid PSO’s problems. In this paper we propose using PESO and PSO in the frame of GE as strategies to generate heuristics that solve the Bin Packing Problem (BPP; it is possible however to apply this methodology to other kinds of problems using another Grammar designed for that problem. A comparison between PESO, PSO, and BPP’s heuristics is performed through the nonparametric Friedman test. The main contribution of this paper is proposing a Grammar to generate online and offline heuristics depending on the test instance trying to improve the heuristics generated by other grammars and humans; it also proposes a way to implement different algorithms as search strategies in GE like PESO to obtain better results than those obtained by PSO.

  11. Experimental, kinetic and numerical modeling of hydrogen production by catalytic reforming of crude ethanol over a commercial catalyst in packed bed tubular reactor and packed bed membrane reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboudheir, Ahmed; Akande, Abayomi; Idem, Raphael

    2006-01-01

    The demand for hydrogen energy has increased tremendously in recent years essentially because of the increase in the word energy consumption as well as recent developments in fuel cell technologies. The energy information administration has projected that world energy consumption will increase by 59% over the next two decades, from 1999 to 2020, in which the largest share is still dominated by fossil fuels (oil, natural gas and coal). Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions resulting from the combustion of these fossil fuels currently are estimated to account for three-fourth of human-caused CO 2 emissions worldwide. Greenhouse gas emission, including CO 2 , should be limited, as recommended at the Kyoto Conference, Japan, in December 1997. In this regard, hydrogen (H 2 ) has a significant future potential as an alternative fuel that can solve the problems of CO 2 emissions as well as the emissions of other air contaminants. One of the techniques to produce hydrogen is by reforming of hydrocarbons or biomass. Crude ethanol (a form of biomass, which essentially is fermentation broth) is easy to produce, is free of sulphur, has low toxicity, and is also safe to handle, transport and store. In addition, crude ethanol consists of oxygenated hydrocarbons, such as ethanol, lactic acid, glycerol, and maltose. These oxygenated hydrocarbons can be reformed completely to H 2 and CO 2 , the latter of which could be separated from H 2 by membrane technology. This provides for CO 2 capture for eventual storage or destruction. In the case of using crude ethanol, this will result in negative CO 2 , emissions. In this paper, we conducted experimental work on production of hydrogen by the catalytic reforming of crude ethanol over a commercial promoted Ni-based catalyst in a packed bed tubular reactor as well as a packed bed membrane reactor. As well, a rigorous numerical model was developed to simulate this process in both the catalytic packed bed tubular reactor and packed bed membrane

  12. The stochastic goodwill problem

    OpenAIRE

    Marinelli, Carlo

    2003-01-01

    Stochastic control problems related to optimal advertising under uncertainty are considered. In particular, we determine the optimal strategies for the problem of maximizing the utility of goodwill at launch time and minimizing the disutility of a stream of advertising costs that extends until the launch time for some classes of stochastic perturbations of the classical Nerlove-Arrow dynamics. We also consider some generalizations such as problems with constrained budget and with discretionar...

  13. Packing properties 1-alkanols and alkanes in a phospholipid membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westh, Peter

    2006-01-01

    We have used vibrating tube densitometry to investigate the packing properties of four alkanes and a homologous series of ten alcohols in fluid-phase membranes of dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC). It was found that the volume change of transferring these compounds from their pure states int...... into the membrane core, which is loosely packed. In this region, they partially occupy interstitial (or free-) volume, which bring about a denser molecular packing and generate a negative contribution to Vm(puremem)....... into the membrane, Vm(puremem), was positive for small (C4-C6) 1-alkanols while it was negative for larger alcohols and all alkanes. The magnitude of Vm(puremem) ranged from about +4 cm3/mol for alcohols with an alkyl chain about half the length of the fatty acids of DMPC, to -10 to -15 cm3/mol for the alkanes...

  14. Experimental performance evaluation of sintered Gd spheres packed beds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tura, A.; Nielsen, Klaus K.; Van Nong, Ngo

    2016-01-01

    Research in magnetic refrigeration heavily relies on the use of packed spheres in regenerators, however little investigation to verify that such non-monolithic arrangements guarantee a sufficiently constrained structure has yet been performed. This work presents a preliminary comparison of the pe......Research in magnetic refrigeration heavily relies on the use of packed spheres in regenerators, however little investigation to verify that such non-monolithic arrangements guarantee a sufficiently constrained structure has yet been performed. This work presents a preliminary comparison...... of the performance of AMRs consisting of Gd spheres with diameters ranging from 450-550 microns partially sintered by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) to similar spheres, sorted in the same size range and from the same batch, but merely packed. Pressure drop is compared at uniform temperature and at a range of heat...

  15. Two-Dimensional Model of Scrolled Packings of Molecular Nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savin, A. V.; Mazo, M. A.

    2018-04-01

    A simplified model of the in-plane molecular chain, allowing the description of folded and scrolled packings of molecular nanoribbons of different structures, is proposed. Using this model, possible steady states of single-layer nanoribbons scrolls of graphene, graphane, fluorographene, and fluorographane (graphene hydrogenated on the one side and fluorinated on the other side) are obtained. Their stability is demonstrated and their energy is calculated as a function of the nanoribbon length. It is shown that the scrolled packing is the most energetically favorable nanoribbon conformation at long lengths. The existences of scrolled packings for fluorographene nanoribbons and the existence of two different scroll types corresponding to left- and right-hand Archimedean spirals for fluorographane nanoribbons in the chain model are shown for the first time. The simplicity of the proposed model makes it possible to consider the dynamics of scrolls of rather long molecular nanoribbons at long enough time intervals.

  16. Pulse amplitude and frequency effects in a pulsed packed column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, S.H.

    1954-04-01

    A study has been made of the effect on the efficiency and capacity of applying pulses of varying amplitude and frequency to a packed column. In the efficiency studies, the maximum efficiency was obtained with a pulse having an amplitude of 3/8'' and a frequency of 140 cycles per minute. Under these conditions, the column was about five times as efficient as a simple packed column. Two general types of results were obtained in the capacity studies. Under certain conditions, the capacity increased over that of a simple packed column, but under others, it decreased. Some of the factors causing this were investigated but the fundamental reasons were not determined due to a lack of personnel for the necessary experiments. (author)

  17. FY-87 packing fabrication techniques (commercial waste form) results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werry, E.V.; Gates, T.E.; Cabbage, K.S.; Eklund, J.D.

    1988-04-01

    This report covers the investigation of fabrication techniques associated with the development of suitable materials and methods to provide a prefabricated packing for waste packages for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP). The principal functions of the packing are to minimize container corrosion during the 300 to 1000 years following repository closure and provide long-term control of the release of radionuclides from the waste package. The investigative work, discussed in this report, was specifically conceived to develop the design criteria for production of full-scale prototypical packing rings. The investigative work included the preparation of procedures, the preparation of fabrication materials, physical properties, and the determination of the engineering properties. The principal activities were the preparation of the materials and the determination of the physical properties. 21 refs., 20 figs., 14 tabs

  18. Pulse amplitude and frequency effects in a pulsed packed column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, S H

    1954-04-15

    A study has been made of the effect on the efficiency and capacity of applying pulses of varying amplitude and frequency to a packed column. In the efficiency studies, the maximum efficiency was obtained with a pulse having an amplitude of 3/8'' and a frequency of 140 cycles per minute. Under these conditions, the column was about five times as efficient as a simple packed column. Two general types of results were obtained in the capacity studies. Under certain conditions, the capacity increased over that of a simple packed column, but under others, it decreased. Some of the factors causing this were investigated but the fundamental reasons were not determined due to a lack of personnel for the necessary experiments. (author)

  19. Low-dose computed tomography for the detection of cocaine body packs. Clinical evaluation and legal issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pache, G.; Bulla, S.; Baumann, T.; Langer, M.; Blanke, P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To discuss the juridical basis for CT examinations of cocaine body packers and to evaluate the clinical implementation of a tube current reduction-based low-dose CT protocol. Materials and Methods: A literature search was performed to discuss the legal basis regarding the problem, the procedures, the potential harm and the proportionality. Retrospective evaluation of 8 patients who had undergone a low-dose CT scan (body mass index 2 30 mAs; > 25 kg/m 2 60 mAs) during the time period from February until October 2009 in order to exclude or to assess remaining cocaine body packs was approved by the institutional review board. The detectability and condition of the body packs were analyzed. Effective doses were calculated. Results: German jurisdiction does not distinguish between plain film X-ray and CT examinations. Both plain film X-ray and CT examination require a judicial warrant. However, examination results might still remain valid if a warrant was not requested. In 8 examinations (30 mAs n = 3, 60 mAs n = 5, mean BMI 25.9 ± 3.2.) a total of 34 body packs were correctly identified. The mean density of the body packs was 74.4 ± 31.9 HU (range 17 - 154 HU) with a cocaine content between 22.5 % and 72.8 %. The mean estimated radiation dose was 2.23 ± 0.72 mSv. Conclusion: Although medical legal aspects do not specify the diagnostic procedure to be performed, the high diagnostic accuracy and applied radiation dose reduction could establish low-dose CT as the method of choice for detecting cocaine body packs, thereby potentially avoiding future legal problems. (orig.)

  20. The 4-parameter Compressible Packing Model (CPM) including a critical cavity size ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roquier, Gerard

    2017-06-01

    The 4-parameter Compressible Packing Model (CPM) has been developed to predict the packing density of mixtures constituted by bidisperse spherical particles. The four parameters are: the wall effect and the loosening effect coefficients, the compaction index and a critical cavity size ratio. The two geometrical interactions have been studied theoretically on the basis of a spherical cell centered on a secondary class bead. For the loosening effect, a critical cavity size ratio, below which a fine particle can be inserted into a small cavity created by touching coarser particles, is introduced. This is the only parameter which requires adaptation to extend the model to other types of particles. The 4-parameter CPM demonstrates its efficiency on frictionless glass beads (300 values), spherical particles numerically simulated (20 values), round natural particles (125 values) and crushed particles (335 values) with correlation coefficients equal to respectively 99.0%, 98.7%, 97.8%, 96.4% and mean deviations equal to respectively 0.007, 0.006, 0.007, 0.010.

  1. Effect of lipid composition and packing on the adsorption of apolipoproteins to lipid monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibdah, J.A.; Lund-Katz, S.; Phillips, M.C.

    1987-01-01

    The monolayer system has been used to study the effects of lipoprotein surface lipid composition and packing on the affinities of apolipoproteins for the surfaces of lipoprotein particles. The adsorption of apolipoproteins injected beneath lipid monolayers prepared with pure lipids or lipoprotein surface lipids is evaluated by monitoring the surface pressure of the film and the surface concentration (Gamma) of 14 C-labelled apolipoprotein. At a given initial film pressure (π/sub i/) there is a higher adsorption of human apo A-I to unsaturated phosphatidylcholine (PC) monolayers compared to saturated PC monolayers (e.g., at π/sub i/ = 10 mN/m, Gamma = 0.35 and 0.06 mg/m 2 for egg PC and distearoyl PC, respectively, with 3 x 10 -4 mg/ml apo A-I in the subphase). In addition, adsorption of apo A-I is less to an egg sphingomyelin monolayer than to an egg PC monolayer. The adsorption of apo A-I to PC monolayers is decreased by addition of cholesterol. Generally, apo A-I adsorption diminishes as the lipid molecular area decreases. Apo A-I adsorbs more to monolayers prepared with HDL 3 surface lipids than with LDL surface lipids. These studies suggest that lipoprotein surface lipid composition and packing are crucial factors influencing the transfer and exchange of apolipoproteins among various lipoprotein classes during metabolism of lipoprotein particles

  2. A Quantitative Study on Packing Density and Pozzolanic Activity of Cementitious Materials Based on the Compaction Packing Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Jianqing; Chou, Kai; Huang, Zheng Yu; Zhao, Minghua

    2014-01-01

    A brief introduction to the theoretical basis of compaction packing model (CPM) and an over-view of the principle of the specific strength method provided the starting point of this study. Then, research on quantitative relations was carried out to find the correlation between the contribution rate of the pozzolanic activity and the contribution value of packing density when CPM was applied to fine powder mixture systems. The concept of the contribution value of the packing density being in direct correspondence with the contribution rate was proved by the compressive strength results and SEM images. The results indicated that the variation rule of the contribution rate of the pozzolanic activity is similar to that of the contribution value of packing density as calculated by CPM. This means the contribution value of the packing density could approximately simulate the change tendency of the contribution rate of the pozzolanic activity, which is of significant value for the future of mix designs for high and ultra-high performance concrete

  3. PENGARUH POROSITAS PACKING STEEL WOOL TERHADAP PRESSURE DROP DIDALAM PACKED BED COLUMN PADA DISTILASI CAMPURAN ETANOL-AMIL-ALKOHOL-AIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisna Kumala Dhaniswara

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Inventories of petroleum fuels are increasingly depleted and will someday run out. These shortcomings can be overcome by using alternative fuels, such as ethanol. Based on this, it is necessary to research and development of ethanol as a fuel. One way is with a separation in a packed distillation column. This study aims to assess the mass transfer phenomena that occur in the process of distilling a mixture of ethanol-water-amyl alcohol packed in column. In addition, this study aims to optimize temperature and reflux to obtain the highest levels of ethanol. This research method uses packed bed distillation system with the batch process. Feed used is synthetic ethanol, water, and solvent. Solvent used were amyl alcohol. Doing distillation with heating temperature is maintained. Distillation is done in the packing of stainless steel wool. Research carried out in a batch process with a variable temperature of  79°C; 84°C; 91°C; and porosity packing 20%; 30%; 40%; 50%; 60%; 70%; 80%.

  4. Forced Convection Heat Transfer of a sphere in Packed Bed Arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong-Young; Chung, Bum-Jin

    2016-01-01

    This paper analysis and discuss the forced convective heat transfer from heated single sphere, which is buried in unheated packed bed, depending on Re d with porosity. The present work determines the test matrix for the packed bed experiment. And this study discuss difference of heat transfer according to the location of heated sphere and compared heated bed with heated sphere in packed bed and compared FCC (Face Centered Cubic), HCP (Hexagonal Closed Packed) structured packed bed with random packed. This paper is to discuss and make the plan to experiment the heat transfer for depending on location of heated single sphere in unheated packed bed, to compare single sphere in packed bed with heated packed bed and to compare the structured packed bed with random packed bed. The Nu d increase as heated single sphere is close to the wall and bottom because of increasing porosity and enhancing eddy motion respectively. The existing experiment of heated sphere in packed bed do not consider the preheating effect which decrease heat transfer on downstream. The heat transfer rate of structured packed bed is different from random packed bed because of unsteady flow in random packed bed. In this study, mass transfer experiments will replace heat transfer experiments based on analogy concept. An electroplating system is adopted using limiting current technique

  5. Forced Convection Heat Transfer of a sphere in Packed Bed Arrangement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong-Young; Chung, Bum-Jin [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    This paper analysis and discuss the forced convective heat transfer from heated single sphere, which is buried in unheated packed bed, depending on Re{sub d} with porosity. The present work determines the test matrix for the packed bed experiment. And this study discuss difference of heat transfer according to the location of heated sphere and compared heated bed with heated sphere in packed bed and compared FCC (Face Centered Cubic), HCP (Hexagonal Closed Packed) structured packed bed with random packed. This paper is to discuss and make the plan to experiment the heat transfer for depending on location of heated single sphere in unheated packed bed, to compare single sphere in packed bed with heated packed bed and to compare the structured packed bed with random packed bed. The Nu{sub d} increase as heated single sphere is close to the wall and bottom because of increasing porosity and enhancing eddy motion respectively. The existing experiment of heated sphere in packed bed do not consider the preheating effect which decrease heat transfer on downstream. The heat transfer rate of structured packed bed is different from random packed bed because of unsteady flow in random packed bed. In this study, mass transfer experiments will replace heat transfer experiments based on analogy concept. An electroplating system is adopted using limiting current technique.

  6. Industry Pack Modules in Beam Instrumentation Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bravin, Enrico; CERN. Geneva. SPS and LEP Division

    1997-01-01

    In order to improve the performances of the VME based data acquisition systems new technologies coming up on the market have been investigated in the last few years. The IP-BUS developed by Green Spring computers has been adopted in several applications. By using intelligent carrier boards (the existing are based on the 680x0 CPU family) it is possible to build embedded systems and group them together in the same crate. This solution improves the potentialities of VME by lowering the load of data flow over the bus. Only preprocessed data is exchanged between the different embedded modules. The IP modules also offer a cheap solution for normal VME implementations using passive carrier boards. In this paper we describe our experience so far by describing the use we make of these new products and the problems we encountered on the way

  7. The sintering behavior of close-packed spheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Tikare, V.; Frandsen, Henrik Lund

    2012-01-01

    The sintering behavior of close-packed spheres is investigated using a numerical model. The investigated systems are the body-centered cubic (bcc), face-centered cubic (fcc) and hexagonal close-packed spheres (hcp). The sintering behavior is found to be ideal, with no grain growth until full dens...... density is reached for all systems. During sintering, the grains change shape from spherical to tetrakaidecahedron, similar to the geometry analyzed by Coble [R.L. Coble, J. Appl. Phys. 32 (1961) 787]....

  8. Growth of Vanadium Carbide by Halide-Activated Pack Diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes, Frederico Augusto Pires; Christiansen, Thomas Lundin; Dahl, Kristian Vinter

    The present work investigates growth of vanadium carbide (VC) layers by the pack diffusion method on a Vanadis 6 tool steel. The VC layers were produced by pack diffusion at 1000°C for 1, 4 and 16 hours. The VC layers were characterized with optical and electron microscopy, Vickers hardness tests...... and X-ray diffraction. Homogeneous VC mono-phase layers with Vickers hardness of more than 2400 HV were obtained. Hardening and tempering of the vanadized Vanadis 6 steel did not affect the VC layers....

  9. Photoneutron and Photonuclear Cross Sections According to Packed cluster Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Mekkawi, L.S.; El-Bakty, O.M.

    1998-01-01

    Photonuclear gross sections have been estimated for 232 Th, 237 Np, 239 Pu, 233 U, 234 U, 235 U, 238 U in the energy range from threshold up to 20 MeV, by perturbation balance in Packed Cluster. The Packed Cluster (gamma, f) and (gamma, n) cross sections require complete absence of any (gamma,2n) or (gamma,nf) cross sections for 233 U and 234 U as in experiment. It also explains the early (gamma,n) and gamma,nf) reactions in 235 U

  10. Volatile compounds and odor preferences of ground beef added with garlic and red wine, and irradiated with charcoal pack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Haeng; Yun, Hyejeong; Lee, Ju Woon; Ahn, Dong Uk; Lee, Eun Joo; Jo, Cheorun

    2012-08-01

    Irradiation is the most efficient non-thermal technology for improving hygienic quality and extending the shelf-life of food products. One of the adverse effects of food irradiation, however, is off-flavor production, which significantly affects the sensory preferences for certain foods. In this study, garlic (5%, w/w) and red wine (1:1, w/w) were added to ground beef to increase the radiation sensitivity of pathogens and improve meat odor/flavor. Samples were irradiated at 0 or 5 kGy in the presence of charcoal pack. SPME-GC-MS analysis was performed to measure the changes in the volatile compounds and sensory characteristics of the samples. The amount of total volatile compounds produced from ground beef was greater when the sample was irradiated. When garlic and red wine were added to the ground beef, the amount of volatile compounds significantly increased, and the amount of volatile compounds increased even further after irradiation. However, when the samples were irradiated with charcoal pack, the amount of volatile compounds decreased significantly. Sensory evaluation indicated that charcoal pack significantly increased the odor preferences for both irradiated and non-irradiated ground beef added with garlic. These results indicated that addition of charcoal pack to ground beef could reduce off-odor problems induced by irradiation, and this effect was consistent even when certain additives such as garlic and red wine were added.

  11. Chain-length-dependent intermolecular packing in polyphenylenes: a high pressure study

    CERN Document Server

    Heimel, G; Oehzelt, M; Hummer, K; Koppelhuber-Bitschnau, B; Porsch, F; Ambrosch-Draxl, C; Resel, R

    2003-01-01

    We report on pressure-induced structural changes in crystalline oligo(para-phenylenes) containing two to six phenyl rings. The results are discussed with particular emphasis put on the implications these changes in intermolecular distances and molecular arrangement have on important bulk properties of this class of materials, such as optical response and charge transport. We performed energy dispersive x-ray diffraction in a systematic study on polycrystalline powders of biphenyl, para-terphenyl, p-quaterphenyl, p-quinquephenyl and p-sexiphenyl under hydrostatic pressure up to 60 kbar. Revisiting the crystal structures at ambient conditions reveals details in the packing principle. A linear relationship between the density at ambient conditions and the number of phenyl rings is found. High pressure data not only yields pressure-dependent lattice parameters and hints towards pressure-induced changes in the molecular arrangement but also allows for an analysis of the equations of state of these substances as a ...

  12. A Natural Component-Based Oxygen Indicator with In-Pack Activation for Intelligent Food Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Keehoon; Jang, Nan Young; Jeon, Junsu

    2016-12-28

    Intelligent food packaging can provide consumers with reliable and correct information on the quality and safety of packaged foods. One of the key constituents in intelligent packaging is a colorimetric oxygen indicator, which is widely used to detect oxygen gas involved in food spoilage by means of a color change. Traditional oxygen indicators consisting of redox dyes and strong reducing agents have two major problems: they must be manufactured and stored under anaerobic conditions because air depletes the reductant, and their components are synthetic and toxic. To address both of these serious problems, we have developed a natural component-based oxygen indicator characterized by in-pack activation. The conventional oxygen indicator composed of synthetic and artificial components was redesigned using naturally occurring compounds (laccase, guaiacol, and cysteine). These natural components were physically separated into two compartments by a fragile barrier. Only when the barrier was broken were all of the components mixed and the function as an oxygen indicator was begun (i.e., in-pack activation). Depending on the component concentrations, the natural component-based oxygen indicator exhibited different response times and color differences. The rate of the color change was proportional to the oxygen concentration. This novel colorimetric oxygen indicator will contribute greatly to intelligent packaging for healthier and safer foods.

  13. Operationalizing Max Weber's probability concept of class situation: the concept of social class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ken

    2007-03-01

    In this essay I take seriously Max Weber's astonishingly neglected claim that class situation may be defined, not in categorial terms, but probabilistically. I then apply this idea to another equally neglected claim made by Weber that the boundaries of social classes may be determined by the degree of social mobility within such classes. Taking these two ideas together I develop the idea of a non-categorial boundary 'surface' between classes and of a social class 'corridor' made up of all those people who are still to be found within the boundaries of the social class into which they were born. I call social mobility within a social class 'intra-class social mobility' and social mobility between classes 'inter-class social mobility'. I also claim that this distinction resolves the dispute between those sociologists who claim that late industrial societies are still highly class bound and those who think that this is no longer the case. Both schools are right I think, but one is referring to a high degree of intra-class social mobility and the other to an equally high degree of inter-class mobility. Finally I claim that this essay provides sociology with only one example among many other possible applications of how probability theory might usefully be used to overcome boundary problems generally in sociology.

  14. A new Class of Extremal Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigmund, Ole

    2000-01-01

    microstructure belonging to the new class of composites has maximum bulk modulus and lower shear modulus than any previously known composite. Inspiration for the new composite class comes from a numerical topology design procedure which solves the inverse homogenization problem of distributing two isotropic......The paper presents a new class of two-phase isotropic composites with extremal bulk modulus. The new class consists of micro geometrics for which exact solutions can be proven and their bulk moduli are shown to coincide with the Hashin-Shtrikman bounds. The results hold for two and three dimensions...... and for both well- and non-well-ordered isotropic constituent phases. The new class of composites constitutes an alternative to the three previously known extremal composite classes: finite rank laminates, composite sphere assemblages and Vigdergauz microstructures. An isotropic honeycomb-like hexagonal...

  15. Class 1 Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A "Class 1" area is a geographic area recognized by the EPA as being of the highest environmental quality and requiring maximum protection. Class I areas are areas...

  16. PRCR Classes and Activities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Cary, North Carolina — This data is specific to Parks and Recreation classes, workshops, and activities within the course catalog. It contains an entry for upcoming classes.*This data set...

  17. Class Notes for "Class-Y-News."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Judy L.

    1991-01-01

    A self-contained class of students with mild to moderate disabilities published a monthly newsletter which was distributed to students' families. Students became involved in writing, typing, drawing, folding, basic editing, and disseminating. (JDD)

  18. Precipitation of sparingly soluble salts in packed sandbeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlakou, Efstathia I.; Sygouni, Varvara; Paraskeva, Christakis A.

    2015-04-01

    One of the main problems encountered by the oil extraction industry, is the reduction of the local permeability of the rock formation near the extraction wells because of salt deposition in the pores of the rocks during the injection of brine water to displace the trapped oil ganglia within the oil formations. This phenomenon makes the oil recovery less efficient and under extreme cases the well is abandoned with a large amount of oil entrapped. Several detailed studies have been conducted in the past concerning sand bed consolidation using sparingly soluble salts for varying conditions (e.g. temperature, grain size, sand type, salt concentrations etc) and various salts [1]. Nevertheless, salt precipitation in the rock formation pores under the presence of other miscible or immiscible substances with water has not been investigated in details yet. In the present study, salt (CaCO3) precipitation experiments were performed in small beds packed with sea sand mixed with a low amount of CaCO3 seed grains. The experiments were performed using pure solutions (NaHCO3, CaCl2.2H2O) and solutions mixed with Ethylene Glycol in sand beds. Additionally, precipitation experiments were performed using pure solutions in sand beds saturated with oil phase (n-dodecane) for a wide range of solution supersaturation. During the experiments the ionic strength was kept constant. pH and concentration values of calcium ion of the effluent were measured and the precipitated salt crystals were identified using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) method. At the end of each experiment Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was conducted using a sample of the precipitated sand to identify the morphology of the precipitated crystals and their cohesion with sand grains. Acknowledgments This research was partially funded by the European Union (European Social Fund-ESF) and Greek National Funds through the Operational program "Education and Lifelong Learning" under the action Aristeia II (Code No 4420). References

  19. The Use of Zeolit and Activated Carbon on Packing System of Corydoras aenus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Supriyono

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Problem frequently found by Indonesian exporter in sending ornamental fish including Corydoras aenus to overseas is the low survival rate that caused by decrease in water quality during transportation.  Suitable and efficient packing technology is very needed to send live fish for long time transportation.  Two third of packing plastic volume was filled by oxygen, and Corydoras aenus 20 fish/packPacking plastic was placed into styrofoam and ice was added to maintain at low temperature.  Zeolit and activated carbon was cover up by cloth and then placed into the pack.  Dosage treatment of zeolit and activated carbon was 20 gram zeolit, 15 gram zeolit and 5 gram activated carbon, 10 gram zeolit and 10 gram activated carbon, 5 gram zeolit and 15 gram activated carbon, 20 gram activated carbon, and no added zeolit and no activated carbon as control.  Fish condition was observed every 6 hours, while water quality measurement was performed every 24 hours for 120 hours.  The results of study showed that adding 20 gram zeolit without activated carbon in closed packing system of Corydoras aenus in 20oC could maintained in lower concentration of total nitrogen ammonia and unionized ammonia (NH3, reached of 7.83±0.13 mg/l and 0.046±0.003 mg/l, respectively.  The level of total nitrogen ammonia and unionized ammonia were relatively lower compared to mix of zeolit and activated carbon, and only activated carbon.  Survival rate of fish by this treatment was 100%, higher than other treatment (85-95%. Keywords: zeolit, activated carbon, packing, Corydoras   ABSTRAK Permasalahan yang sering dihadapi oleh para eksportir Indonesia dalam pengiriman ikan hias termasuk Corydoras aenus ke luar negeri adalah rendahnya survival rate diantaranya disebabkan oleh kualitas air yang memburuk selama pengangkutan. Teknologi pengepakan yang tepat dan efisien sangat dibutuhkan dalam rangka pengiriman ikan hidup untuk tempat tujuan yang membutuhkan waktu lama

  20. Classed identities in adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Jay, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    peer-reviewed The central argument of this thesis is that social class remains a persistent system of inequality in education, health, life chances and opportunities. Therefore class matters. But why is it that so little attention has been paid to class in the psychological literature? Three papers are presented here which draw together theoretical advances in psychological understandings of group processes and sociological understandings of the complexity of class. As western labour marke...

  1. Classes and Theories of Trees Associated with a Class Of Linear Orders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goranko, Valentin; Kellerman, Ruaan

    2011-01-01

    Given a class of linear order types C, we identify and study several different classes of trees, naturally associated with C in terms of how the paths in those trees are related to the order types belonging to C. We investigate and completely determine the set-theoretic relationships between...... these classes of trees and between their corresponding first-order theories. We then obtain some general results about the axiomatization of the first-order theories of some of these classes of trees in terms of the first-order theory of the generating class C, and indicate the problems obstructing such general...... results for the other classes. These problems arise from the possible existence of nondefinable paths in trees, that need not satisfy the first-order theory of C, so we have started analysing first order definable and undefinable paths in trees....

  2. Gas-solid trickle flow hydrodynamics in a packed column

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.; Kuczynski, M.

    1987-01-01

    The pressure gradient and the static and the dynamic hold-up have been measured for a system consisting of a Fluid Cracking Catalyst (FCC) of 30–150 × 10−6 m diameter, trickling over a packed bed and with a gas streaming in countercurrent flow. The experiments were carried out at ambient conditions

  3. Packing of Renal Fossa: Useful Technique for Intractable Bleeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is no documented study to indicate the role of prolonged packing of renal fossa (24 to 48 hours) to control bleeding in life threating haemorrhage following open pyelolithotomy without compromise in the renal functions. On the contrary emergency nephrectomy was performed for intractable bleeding during renal stone ...

  4. Packed Bed Reactor Technology for Chemical-Looping Combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorman, S.; Sint Annaland, van M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) has emerged as an alternative for conventional power production processes to intrinsically integrate power production and CO2 capture. In this work a new reactor concept for CLC is proposed, based on dynamically operated packed bed reactors. With analytical

  5. Molecular packing and area compressibility of lipid bilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, S.H.; King, G.I.

    1985-01-01

    Knowledge of the molecular packing of lipids and water in lipid bilayers is important for understanding bilayer mechanics and thermodynamics. Information on packing is most often obtained from x-ray or neutron diffraction measurements. Given the d spacing, composition, and partial specific volumes of the lipid and water, it is a simple matter to calculate the area per lipid molecule, bilayer thickness, and bilayer mass density. The partial specific volumes are commonly assumed to be those of bulk water and of lipid in excess water regardless of the degree of bilayer hydration. The authors present evidence here that these assumptions should be seriously questioned. At low hydrations, they find the head groups of egg and dioleoyl lecithin to be much less tightly packed than previously thought and the partial specific volume of water to be considerably smaller than 1 ml/g. Because the molecular packing affects the mechanical properties of bilayers, they use the results to reevaluate published experiments concerning the elastic area compressibility modulus of egg lecithin bilayers and the repulsive hydration force between bilayers

  6. Ceramic breeder pebble bed packing stability under cyclic loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chunbo, E-mail: chunbozhang@fusion.ucla.edu [Fusion Science and Technology Center, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1597 (United States); Ying, Alice; Abdou, Mohamed A. [Fusion Science and Technology Center, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1597 (United States); Park, Yi-Hyun [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The feasibility of obtaining packing stability for pebble beds is studied. • The responses of pebble bed to cyclic loads have been presented and analyzed in details. • Pebble bed packing saturation and its applications are discussed. • A suggestion is made regarding the improvement of pebbles filling technique. - Abstract: Considering the optimization of blanket performance, it is desired that the bed morphology and packing state during reactor operation are stable and predictable. Both experimental and numerical work are performed to explore the stability of pebble beds, in particular under pulsed loading conditions. Uniaxial compaction tests have been performed for both KIT’s Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} and NFRI’s Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebble beds at elevated temperatures (up to 750 °C) under cyclic loads (up to 6 MPa). The obtained data shows the stress-strain loop initially moves towards the larger strain and nearly saturates after a certain number of cyclic loading cycles. The characterized FEM CAP material models for a Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} pebble bed with an edge-on configuration are used to simulate the thermomechanical behavior of pebble bed under ITER pulsed operations. Simulation results have shown the cyclic variation of temperature/stress/strain/gap and also the same saturation trend with experiments under cyclic loads. Therefore, it is feasible for pebble bed to maintain its packing stability during operation when disregarding pebbles’ breakage and irradiation.

  7. Udder health in a Danish compost bedded pack barn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svennesen, Line; Enevoldsen, Carsten; Bjerg, Bjarne Schmidt

    Besides welfare advantages of the compost bedded pack system (CBP) there could be a negative effect of the organic bedding on udder health. Our objectives were to evaluate the effects of a CBP on udder health compared to a free stall system (FS) with sand bedded cubicles. Within the same Danish...

  8. Consumer preferences for front-of-pack calories labelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van E.; Trijp, van J.C.M.; Paeps, F.; Fernández-Celemín, L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective In light of the emerging obesity pandemic, front-of-pack calories labels may be an important tool to assist consumers in making informed healthier food choices. However, there is little prior research to guide key decisions on whether caloric content should be expressed in absolute terms

  9. Pure water syndrome: Bacteriological quality of Sachet- packed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pure water syndrome: Bacteriological quality of Sachet- packed drinking water ... of fecal contamination and inadequate water treatment or no treatment at all. ... of hygiene criteria were present in the range of 98 and 106 cfu/100ml of water ...

  10. Minimum Energy Dissipation under Cocurrent Flow in Packed Beds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Akramov, T.A.; Stavárek, Petr; Jiřičný, Vladimír; Staněk, Vladimír

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 18 (2011), s. 10824-10832 ISSN 0888-5885 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/09/0880 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : energy dissipation * current flow * packed bed Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.237, year: 2011

  11. Social Interactions Sparked by Pictorial Warnings on Cigarette Packs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marissa G. Hall

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Message Impact Framework suggests that social interactions may offer smokers the opportunity to process pictorial warnings on cigarette packs more deeply. We aimed to describe adult smokers’ social interactions about pictorial cigarette pack warnings in two longitudinal pilot studies. In Pilot Study 1, 30 smokers used cigarette packs with one of nine pictorial warnings for two weeks. In Pilot Study 2, 46 smokers used cigarette packs with one of five pictorial warnings for four weeks. Nearly all smokers (97%/96% in Pilot Study 1/2 talked about the warnings with other people, with the most common people being friends (67%/87% and spouses/significant others (34%/42%. Pilot Study 2 found that 26% of smokers talked about the warnings with strangers. Discussions about the health effects of smoking and quitting smoking were more frequent during the first week of exposure to pictorial warnings than in the week prior to beginning the study (both p < 0.05. Pictorial warnings sparked social interactions about the warnings, the health effects of smoking, and quitting smoking, indicating that pictorial warnings may act as a social intervention reaching beyond the individual. Future research should examine social interactions as a potential mediator of the impact of pictorial warnings on smoking behavior.

  12. Tobacco smuggling estimates based on pack examination in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana I Andreeva

    2017-05-01

    Cigarette pack examination as a part of tobacco surveillance allows estimating the proportion of cigarettes brought from other countries, part of which could be smuggled. This information can be used for counterbalancing the industry's statements, which usually overestimate the level of cigarette smuggling.

  13. An approximate version of the Tree Packing Conjecture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Böttcher, J.; Hladký, Jan; Piguet, Diana; Taraz, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 211, č. 1 (2016), s. 391-446 ISSN 0021-2172 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 ; RVO:67985807 Keywords : Ringel's conjecture * Gyarfas-Lehel conjecture * Tree packing Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.796, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11856-015-1277-2

  14. Microbiological Quality of Blister Pack Tablets in Community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A total of 66 items of 22 registered blister-packed tablet brands were purchased from community pharmacies in Amman. All the items were investigated for total bacterial count and the presence of specified microorganisms using compendial procedures. Results: Out of 66 items purchased, forty eight (72.7 ...

  15. Tile-Packing Tomography Is NP-hard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrobak, Marek; Dürr, Christoph; Guíñez, Flavio

    2010-01-01

    Discrete tomography deals with reconstructing finite spatial objects from their projections. The objects we study in this paper are called tilings or tile-packings, and they consist of a number of disjoint copies of a fixed tile, where a tile is defined as a connected set of grid points. A row...

  16. Model for lattice dynamics of hexagonal close packed metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, R K [Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research, Bombay (India); Kumar, S [Meerut Coll. (India). Dept. of Physics

    1977-11-19

    A lattice dynamical model, which satisfies the requirements of translational invariance as well as the static equilibrium of hexagonal close packed lattice, has been proposed and applied to study the phonon dispersion relations in magnesium. The results revealed by this model have been claimed to be better than earlier ones.

  17. Effects on Packed Cell Volume and Parasitic Worm Load from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Their packed cell volumes were estimated with centrifuge hematocrit and stool examined for parasitic worms with saline wet prep microscopy. A dose of Albendazole was administered to the study group. The data presented in Microsoft Excel spread sheet, were then analysed using SPSS version 17, T-test and Chi Square ...

  18. The use of particle packing models to design ecological concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennis, S.A.A.M.; Walraven, J.C.; Den Uijl, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Ecological concrete can be designed by replacing cement with fillers. With low amounts of cement it becomes increasingly important to control the water demand of concrete mixtures. In this paper a cyclic design method based on particle packing is presented and evaluated on the basis of experiments

  19. Dynamic Simulation of Random Packing of Polydispersive Fine Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Carlos Handrey Araujo; Marques, Samuel Apolinário

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we perform molecular dynamic (MD) simulations to study the two-dimensional packing process of both monosized and random size particles with radii ranging from 1.0 to 7.0 μm. The initial positions as well as the radii of five thousand fine particles were defined inside a rectangular box by using a random number generator. Both the translational and rotational movements of each particle were considered in the simulations. In order to deal with interacting fine particles, we take into account both the contact forces and the long-range dispersive forces. We account for normal and static/sliding tangential friction forces between particles and between particle and wall by means of a linear model approach, while the long-range dispersive forces are computed by using a Lennard-Jones-like potential. The packing processes were studied assuming different long-range interaction strengths. We carry out statistical calculations of the different quantities studied such as packing density, mean coordination number, kinetic energy, and radial distribution function as the system evolves over time. We find that the long-range dispersive forces can strongly influence the packing process dynamics as they might form large particle clusters, depending on the intensity of the long-range interaction strength.

  20. Mass transfer models analysis for the structured packings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suastegui R, A.O.

    1997-01-01

    The models that have been developing, to understand the mechanism of the mass transfer through the structured packings, present limitations for their application, existing then uncertainty in order to use them in the chemical industrial processes. In this study the main parameters used in the mass transfer are: the hydrodynamic of the bed of the column, the geometry of the bed, physical-chemical properties of the mixture and the flow regime of the operation between the flows liquid-gas. The sensibility of each one of these parameters generate an arduous work to develop right proposals and good interpretation of the phenomenon. With the purpose of showing the importance of these parameters mentioned in the mass transfer, this work is analyzed the process of absorption for the system water-air, using the models to the structured packings in packed columns. The models selected were developed by Bravo and collaborators in 1985 and 1992, in order to determine the parameters previous mentioned for the system water-air, using a structured packing built in the National Institute of Nuclear Research. In this work is showed the results of the models application and their discussion. (Author)

  1. Response of mountain meadows to grazing by recreational pack stock

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Cole; Jan W. van Wagtendonk; Mitchel P. McClaran; Peggy E. Moore; Neil K. McDougald

    2004-01-01

    Effects of recreational pack stock grazing on mountain meadows in Yosemite National Park were assessed in a 5-year study. Yosemite is a designated wilderness, to be managed such that its natural conditions are preserved. Studies were conducted in 3 characteristic meadow types: shorthair sedge (Carex filifolia Nutt.), Brewer’s reed grass (...

  2. Disk Density Tuning of a Maximal Random Packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebeida, Mohamed S; Rushdi, Ahmad A; Awad, Muhammad A; Mahmoud, Ahmed H; Yan, Dong-Ming; English, Shawn A; Owens, John D; Bajaj, Chandrajit L; Mitchell, Scott A

    2016-08-01

    We introduce an algorithmic framework for tuning the spatial density of disks in a maximal random packing, without changing the sizing function or radii of disks. Starting from any maximal random packing such as a Maximal Poisson-disk Sampling (MPS), we iteratively relocate, inject (add), or eject (remove) disks, using a set of three successively more-aggressive local operations. We may achieve a user-defined density, either more dense or more sparse, almost up to the theoretical structured limits. The tuned samples are conflict-free, retain coverage maximality, and, except in the extremes, retain the blue noise randomness properties of the input. We change the density of the packing one disk at a time, maintaining the minimum disk separation distance and the maximum domain coverage distance required of any maximal packing. These properties are local, and we can handle spatially-varying sizing functions. Using fewer points to satisfy a sizing function improves the efficiency of some applications. We apply the framework to improve the quality of meshes, removing non-obtuse angles; and to more accurately model fiber reinforced polymers for elastic and failure simulations.

  3. New after-loading intrauterine packing device: ten years experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sklaroff, D.M.; Baker, A.S.; Tasbas, M.

    1985-01-01

    A new variation of the uterine packing device for the treatment of endometrial carcinoma is described. It combines the advantages of the Holter technique with the after-loading method described by Simon. This device has been in use for more than 10 years and has been found most satisfactory

  4. Cannabis body packing : a case report | Ngatchou | Pan African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cannabis body packing : a case report. ... a diffuse abdominal plain to the emergency department. Abdominal X-ray demonstrated multiple foreign bodies along the intestinal tract, which were found to be cannabis packets. The patient was treated conservatively with a good result. The Pan African Medical Journal 2016;24.

  5. An on-line estimation of battery pack parameters and state-of-charge using dual filters based on pack model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xu; Wang, Yujie; Yang, Duo; Chen, Zonghai

    2016-01-01

    Accurate estimation of battery pack state-of-charge plays a very important role for electric vehicles, which directly reflects the behavior of battery pack usage. However, the inconsistency of battery makes the estimation of battery pack state-of-charge different from single cell. In this paper, to estimate the battery pack state-of-charge on-line, the definition of battery pack is proposed, and the relationship between the total available capacity of battery pack and single cell is put forward to analyze the energy efficiency influenced by battery inconsistency, then a lumped parameter battery model is built up to describe the dynamic behavior of battery pack. Furthermore, the extend Kalman filter-unscented Kalman filter algorithm is developed to identify the parameters of battery pack and forecast state-of-charge concurrently. The extend Kalman filter is applied to update the battery pack parameters by real-time measured data, while the unscented Kalman filter is employed to estimate the battery pack state-of-charge. Finally, the proposed approach is verified by experiments operated on the lithium-ion battery under constant current condition and the dynamic stress test profiles. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method can estimate the battery pack state-of-charge with high accuracy. - Highlights: • A novel space state equation is built to describe the pack dynamic behavior. • The dual filters method is used to estimate the pack state-of-charge. • Battery inconsistency is considered to analyze the pack usage efficiency. • The accuracy of the proposed method is verified under different conditions.

  6. Consumer preferences for front-of-pack calories labelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kleef, Ellen; van Trijp, Hans; Paeps, Frederic; Fernández-Celemín, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Objective In light of the emerging obesity pandemic, front-of-pack calories labels may be an important tool to assist consumers in making informed healthier food choices. However, there is little prior research to guide key decisions on whether caloric content should be expressed in absolute terms or relative to recommended daily intake, whether it should be expressed in per serving or per 100 g and whether the information should be further brought alive for consumers in terms of what the extra calorie intake implies in relation to activity levels. The present study aimed at providing more insight into consumers’ appreciation of front-of-pack labelling of caloric content of food products and their specific preferences for alternative execution formats for such information in Europe. Design For this purpose, eight executions of front-of-pack calorie flags were designed and their appeal and information value were extensively discussed with consumers through qualitative research in four different countries (Germany, The Netherlands, France and the UK). Results The results show that calories are well-understood and that participants were generally positive about front-of-pack flags, particularly when flags are uniform across products. The most liked flags are the simpler flags depicting only the number of calories per serving or per 100 g, while more complex flags including references to daily needs or exercise and the flag including a phrase referring to balanced lifestyle were least preferred. Some relevant differences between countries were observed. Although participants seem to be familiar with the notion of calories, they do not seem to fully understand how to apply them. Conclusion From the results, managerial implications for the design and implementation of front-of-pack calorie labelling as well as important directions for future research are discussed. PMID:17601362

  7. Singlet Fission in Rubrene Derivatives: Impact of Molecular Packing

    KAUST Repository

    Sutton, Christopher

    2017-03-13

    We examine the properties of six recently synthesized rubrene derivatives (with substitutions on the side phenyl rings) that show vastly different crystal structures. In order to understand how packing in the solid state affects the excited states and couplings relevant for singlet fission, the lowest excited singlet (S), triplet (T), multiexciton (TT), and charge-transfer (CT) states of the rubrene derivatives are compared to known singlet fission materials [tetracene, pentacene, 5,12-diphenyltetracene (DPT), and rubrene itself]. While a small difference of less than 0.2 eV is calculated for the S and TT energies, a range of 0.50 to 1.2 eV in the CT energies and nearly 3 orders of magnitude in the electronic couplings are computed for the rubrene derivatives in their crystalline packings, which strongly affects the role of the CT state in facilitating SF. To rationalize experimental observations of singlet fission occurring in amorphous phases of rubrene, DPT, and tetracene, we use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to assess the impact of molecular packing and orientations and to gain a better understanding of the parameters that control singlet fission in amorphous films compared to crystalline packings. The MD simulations point to a crystalline-like packing for thin films of tetracene; on the other hand, DPT, rubrene, and the rubrene derivatives all show various degrees of disorder with a number of sites that have larger electronic couplings than in the crystal, which can facilitate singlet fission in such thin films. Our analysis underlines the potential of these materials as promising candidates for singlet fission and helps understand how various structural motifs affect the critical parameters that control the ability of a system to undergo singlet fission.

  8. Consumer preferences for front-of-pack calories labelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kleef, Ellen; van Trijp, Hans; Paeps, Frederic; Fernández-Celemín, Laura

    2008-02-01

    In light of the emerging obesity pandemic, front-of-pack calories labels may be an important tool to assist consumers in making informed healthier food choices. However, there is little prior research to guide key decisions on whether caloric content should be expressed in absolute terms or relative to recommended daily intake, whether it should be expressed in per serving or per 100 g and whether the information should be further brought alive for consumers in terms of what the extra calorie intake implies in relation to activity levels. The present study aimed at providing more insight into consumers' appreciation of front-of-pack labelling of caloric content of food products and their specific preferences for alternative execution formats for such information in Europe. For this purpose, eight executions of front-of-pack calorie flags were designed and their appeal and information value were extensively discussed with consumers through qualitative research in four different countries (Germany, The Netherlands, France and the UK). The results show that calories are well-understood and that participants were generally positive about front-of-pack flags, particularly when flags are uniform across products. The most liked flags are the simpler flags depicting only the number of calories per serving or per 100 g, while more complex flags including references to daily needs or exercise and the flag including a phrase referring to balanced lifestyle were least preferred. Some relevant differences between countries were observed. Although participants seem to be familiar with the notion of calories, they do not seem to fully understand how to apply them. From the results, managerial implications for the design and implementation of front-of-pack calorie labelling as well as important directions for future research are discussed.

  9. Thermal conductivity model of vibro-packed fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeon Soo, Kim

    2001-01-01

    In an effort to dispose of excess weapons grade plutonium accumulated in the cold war era in the United States and the Russian Federation, one method currently under investigation is the conversion of the plutonium into mixed oxide (MOX) reactor fuel for LWRs and fast reactors in the Russian Federation. A fuel option already partly developed at the Research Institute of Atomic Reactors (RIAR) in Dimitrovgrad is that of vibro-packed MOX. Fuel rod fabrication using powder vibro-packing is attractive because it includes neither a process too complex to operate in glove boxes (or remotely), nor a waste-producing step necessary for the conventional pellet rod fabrication. However, because of its loose bonding between fuel particles at the beginning of life, vibro-packed MOX fuel has a somewhat less effective thermal conductivity than fully sintered pellet fuel, and undergoes more restructuring. Helium would also likely be pressurized in vibro-packed MOX fuel rods for LWRs to enhance initial fuel thermal conductivity. The combination of these two factors complicates development of an accurate thermal conductivity model. But clearly in order to predict fuel thermomechanical responses during irradiation of vibro-packed MOX fuel, fuel thermal conductivity must be known. The Vibropac fuel of interest in this study refers the fuel that is compacted with irregular fragments of mixed oxide fuel. In this paper, the thermal-conductivity models in the literature that dealt with relatively similar situations to the present case are examined. Then, the best model is selected based on accuracy of prediction and applicability. Then, the selected model is expanded to fit the various situations of interest. (author)

  10. Problems over Information Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Chikalov, Igor

    2011-01-01

    The problems of estimation of the minimum average time complexity of decision trees and design of efficient algorithms are complex in general case. The upper bounds described in Chap. 2.4.3 can not be applied directly due to large computational complexity of the parameter M(z). Under reasonable assumptions about the relation of P and NP, there are no polynomial time algorithms with good approximation ratio [12, 32]. One of the possible solutions is to consider particular classes of problems and improve the existing results using characteristics of the considered classes. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.

  11. Loosely coupled class families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2001-01-01

    are expressed using virtual classes seem to be very tightly coupled internally. While clients have achieved the freedom to dynamically use one or the other family, it seems that any given family contains a xed set of classes and we will need to create an entire family of its own just in order to replace one...... of the members with another class. This paper shows how to express class families in such a manner that the classes in these families can be used in many dierent combinations, still enabling family polymorphism and ensuring type safety....

  12. Valve stem packing seal test results for primary heat transport system conditions in Canadian nuclear generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D.F.; Farrell, J.M.; Coutinho, R.F.

    1978-06-01

    Valve stem packing tests were done to obtain performance data on packing already in CANDU-PHW reactor service and on alternative packings. Most of the tests were replicated. Results are presented for ten packings tested under two stem cycle modes; leakage, packing consolidation and packing friction were the main responses. Packing tests were performed with water at close to CANDU-PHW reactor primary heat transport (PHT) system conditions (288 deg C and 10 MPa), but without ionizing radiation. The test rigs had rising, rotating stems. Stuffing box dimensions were typical of a standard Velan valve; packings were spring loaded to control applied packing stress

  13. A mathematical model for supplying air-cooling for a building using a packed bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marewo, G.T. [Zimbabwe Univ., Mathematics Dept., Harare (Zimbabwe); Henwood, D.J. [School of Computing and Mathematical Sciences, Brighton (United Kingdom)

    2006-01-15

    The cooling system at the Harare International School uses a packed bed system for storing the coldness of the night-time to be used later for day-time air-conditioning. A two-phase mathematical model is described for the packed bed which includes heat dispersion in the fluid, and heat loss to the environment. This is in contrast to other studies, where at least one of these terms is neglected to simplify the mathematical model. A numerical method for obtaining a solution is proposed and implemented. Using measured inlet temperatures, the measured and predicted outlet temperatures of the bed show good trend agreement. The differences in detail are examined through sensitivity analyses for both the heat convection transfer and air velocity. It is apparent that adjusting these parameters can increase the agreement between the predicted and measured data. A parametric study for heat storage with various materials and bed sizes is given, which indicates how the code may be used as a tool for improving design and operational parameters. Practical application: A mathematical model of a packed bed is described; the bed is made up of fluid flowing over solid material with heat interchange between the two. The solid material is idealized as spheres and the fluid temperature is assumed uniform in a cross-section of the bed. The model includes heat interchange between the bed and its surrounding environment and allows for time varying fluid velocity. The input data is the inlet temperature to the bed, which may be measured. The comparison with measured data may be helpful to anyone attempting to develop and test a similar model. The sensitivity tests give an understanding of the significance of some of the parameters involved. The Appendix gives a mathematical statement of the problem and an outline of an approach to developing computer code for a numerical solution. (Author)

  14. ANALYSIS OF PACKERS\\' WORKLOAD ON THE PACKING LINE - A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Marek Lasota

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the elements of the logistics system is the subsystem of production, which is a system composed of physical elements such as machinery and equipment, tools, and (most importantly people. In addition, systems dependent on the human operator are particularly prone to problems related to: discomfort, ensuring production quality and increases in training costs and absenteeism. Material and methods: The study was conducted in an establishment in the furniture industry, in the product packing department. The system under assessment included a position located at the conveyor belt. The aim of the study was to evaluate the load and the risk of musculoskeletal discomfort (MSD's among workers and conduct an analysis of risk factors. For the evaluation method, the Ovako Working posture Analysing System (OWAS was used. The evaluated activities related to the sequential packing of furniture in positions located at the conveyor belt. Results: The result was 7 tasks qualifying for action category (AC 1, 4 tasks for AC 2 and 5 activities for AC 4. The main risk factors influencing the negative assessment of posture were keeping the back sloped and twisted, work in a standing position and shifting weight onto one leg. Conclusions and recommendations: On each of the evaluated positions where AC 4 occurred, employees back and legs were particularly vulnerable while retrieving elements. Corrective action in these positions should be carried out as soon as possible. Ergonomic intervention should be linked to: reorganizing positions with particular emphasis on retrieving items as well as the storage of packed products; introduction of employee rotation on such positions to ensure load variation of the musculoskeletal system. After making changes on the test positions, reassessment with the OWAS method is recommended in order to verify the effectiveness of the changes.  

  15. Approximations for Markovian multi-class queues with preemptive priorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Matthijs C.; van Harten, Aart; Sleptchenko, Andrei

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the approximation of performance measures in multi-class M/M/k queues with preemptive priorities for large problem instances (many classes and servers) using class aggregation and server reduction. We compared our approximations to exact and simulation results and found that our approach

  16. Supported Photocatalyst for Removal of Emerging Contaminants from Wastewater in a Continuous Packed-Bed Photoreactor Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Emma Borges

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Water pollution from emerging contaminants (ECs or emerging pollutants is an important environmental problem. Heterogeneous photocatalytic treatment, as advanced oxidation treatment of wastewater effluents, has been proposed to solve this problem. In this paper, a heterogeneous photocatalytic process was studied for emergent contaminants removal using paracetamol as a model contaminant molecule. TiO2 photocatalytic activity was evaluated using two photocatalytic reactor configurations: Photocatalyst solid suspension in wastewater in a stirred photoreactor and TiO2 supported on glass spheres (TGS configuring a packed bed photoreactor. The surface morphology and texture of the TGS were monitored by scanning electron microscope (SEM. The influence of photocatalyst amount and wastewater pH were evaluated in the stirred photoreactor and the influence of wastewater flowrate was tested in the packed bed photoreactor, in order to obtain the optimal operation conditions. Moreover, results obtained were compared with those obtained from photolysis and adsorption studies, using the optimal operation conditions. Good photocatalytic activities have been observed and leads to the conclusion that the heterogeneous photocatalytic system in a packed bed is an effective method for removal of emerging pollutants.

  17. Upwardly Mobile: Attitudes toward the Class Transition among First-Generation College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, Serena E.

    2016-01-01

    First-generation, working-class college students are on the path to upward mobility and may have social and psychological problems related to cultural differences between the working class and the middle class. In her study, Hurst (2007, 2010) reports that students of working-class origin often choose loyalty to one class. However, I revise…

  18. cellPACK: a virtual mesoscope to model and visualize structural systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Graham T; Autin, Ludovic; Al-Alusi, Mostafa; Goodsell, David S; Sanner, Michel F; Olson, Arthur J

    2015-01-01

    cellPACK assembles computational models of the biological mesoscale, an intermediate scale (10-100 nm) between molecular and cellular biology scales. cellPACK's modular architecture unites existing and novel packing algorithms to generate, visualize and analyze comprehensive three-dimensional models of complex biological environments that integrate data from multiple experimental systems biology and structural biology sources. cellPACK is available as open-source code, with tools for validation of models and with 'recipes' and models for five biological systems: blood plasma, cytoplasm, synaptic vesicles, HIV and a mycoplasma cell. We have applied cellPACK to model distributions of HIV envelope protein to test several hypotheses for consistency with experimental observations. Biologists, educators and outreach specialists can interact with cellPACK models, develop new recipes and perform packing experiments through scripting and graphical user interfaces at http://cellPACK.org/.

  19. Bistetracene Thin Film Polymorphic Control to Unravel the Effect of Molecular Packing on Charge Transport

    KAUST Repository

    Burnett, Edmund K.

    2018-02-26

    Polymorphism, the ability for a given material to adopt multiple crystalline packing states, is a powerful approach for investigating how changes in molecular packing influence charge transport within organic semiconductors. In this study, a new

  20. Bistetracene Thin Film Polymorphic Control to Unravel the Effect of Molecular Packing on Charge Transport

    KAUST Repository

    Burnett, Edmund K.; Ly, Jack; Niazi, Muhammad Rizwan; Zhang, Lei; McCuskey, Samantha R.; Amassian, Aram; Smilgies, Detlef-M.; Mannsfeld, Stefan C. B.; Briseno, Alejandro L.

    2018-01-01

    Polymorphism, the ability for a given material to adopt multiple crystalline packing states, is a powerful approach for investigating how changes in molecular packing influence charge transport within organic semiconductors. In this study, a new

  1. On conjugate points and the Leitmann equivalent problem approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagener, F.O.O.

    2009-01-01

    This article extends the Leitmann equivalence method to a class of problems featuring conjugate points. The class is characterised by the requirement that the set of indifference points of a given problem forms a finite stratification.

  2. Improvement of MARS code through the removal of bit-packed words and multiple use of DLLs (Dynamic Link Library)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, B. D.; Jung, J. J.; Ha, K. S.; Hwang, M. K.; Lee, Y. S.; Lee, W. J. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-10-01

    The readability of MARS code has been enhanced greatly by replacing the bit-packed word with several logical words and integer words and recoding the related subroutines, which have the complicated bit operations and packed words. Functional improvements of code has been achieved through the multiple uses of dynamic link libraries(DLL) for containment analysis module CONTEMPT4 and multidimensional kinetics analysis module MASTER. The establishment of integrated analysis system, MARS/CONTEMPT/MASTER, was validated through the verification calculation for a postulated problem. MARS user-friendly features are also improved by displaying the 2D contour map of 3 D module data on-line. In addition to the on-line-graphics, the MARS windows menus were upgraded to include the on-line-manual, pre-view of input and output, and link to MARS web site. As a result, the readability, applicability, and user-friendly features of MARS code has been greatly enhanced.

  3. Simulation of capillary infiltration into packing structures for the optimization of ceramic materials using the lattice Boltzmann method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Sergi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study uses the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM to simulate in 2D the capillary infiltration into porous structures obtained from the packing of particles. The experimental problem motivating the work is the densification of carbon preforms by reactive melt infiltration. The aim is to determine the optimization principles for the manufacturing of high-performance ceramics. Simulations are performed for packings with varying structural properties. The results suggest that the observed slow infiltrations can be ascribed to interface dynamics. Pinning represents the primary factor retarding fluid penetration. The mechanism responsible for this phenomenon is analyzed in detail. When surface growth is allowed, it is found that the phenomenon of pinning becomes stronger. Systems trying to reproduce typical experimental conditions are also investigated. It turns out that the standard for accurate simulations is challenging. The primary obstacle to overcome for enhanced accuracy seems to be the over-occurrence of pinning.

  4. Improvement of MARS code through the removal of bit-packed words and multiple use of DLLs (Dynamic Link Library)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, B. D.; Jung, J. J.; Ha, K. S.; Hwang, M. K.; Lee, Y. S.; Lee, W. J.

    1999-01-01

    The readability of MARS code has been enhanced greatly by replacing the bit-packed word with several logical words and integer words and recoding the related subroutines, which have the complicated bit operations and packed words. Functional improvements of code has been achieved through the multiple uses of dynamic link libraries(DLL) for containment analysis module CONTEMPT4 and multidimensional kinetics analysis module MASTER. The establishment of integrated analysis system, MARS/CONTEMPT/MASTER, was validated through the verification calculation for a postulated problem. MARS user-friendly features are also improved by displaying the 2D contour map of 3 D module data on-line. In addition to the on-line-graphics, the MARS windows menus were upgraded to include the on-line-manual, pre-view of input and output, and link to MARS web site. As a result, the readability, applicability, and user-friendly features of MARS code has been greatly enhanced

  5. Rice Husk Packed Bed Column Reactor To Remove Cadmium From Landfill Leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monik Kasman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The landfill leachate can be a major problem due to large variability of high organic, inorganic, heavy metal content and toxicity characteristics from landfill leachate such as  cadmium. Thus, this study was aimed to observe the application of rice husk packed bed column to reduce cadmium from landfill leachate. Experiment was conducted in gravity down flow system by pumping landfill leachate into packed bed column. The effect of influent flow rate to adsorption capacity was studied by varying flow rate (5 mL/min and 10 mL/min. The effluent-influent concentration ratio Ce/C0 (% as a function of throughput volume (L was used to represent the breakthrough curve in column systems. Result shows that the flow rate of 5 mL/min was favorable to achieve higher removal rates with the percentage of cadmium was 57 %. At breakthrough time, the cadmium effluent concentration reached on 0.01 mg/l for both of flow rate.ABSTRAKLindi yang dihasilkan dari TPA (Tempat Pembuangan Akhir menimbulkan permasalahan lingkungan karena kandungan pencemarnya meliputi material organik, material anorganik, logam dan material beracun. Salah satu logam berat yang terdapat dalam lindi tersebut adalah kadmium. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mereduksi kadmium dalam lindi dengan menggunakan sekam padi yang diinstal dalam packed bed column. Lindi dipompakan dari tangki penampung lindi ke dalam packed bed column dan dialirkan dari atas ke bawah kolom secara gravitasi. Fokus pada penelitian ini adalah pengaruh laju alir influen terhadap kapasitas adsorpsi. Dimana lindi dialirkan dengan laju alir 5 mL/menit dan 10 mL/menit. Kurva breakthrough (titik jenuh kolom dipresentasikan oleh hubungan antara rasio konsentrasi efluen-influen Ce/C0 (% dan jumlah aliran lindi yang diolah dalam kolom. Hasil eksperimen menunjukkan bahwa persentase reduksi tertinggi dicapai pada laju alir 5 mL/menit yaitu 57%. Waktu jenuh kedua laju alir (5 mL/menit dan 10 mL/menit tercapai saat konsentrasi efluen

  6. Magnetic resonance velocity imaging of liquid and gas two-phase flow in packed beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankey, M H; Holland, D J; Sederman, A J; Gladden, L F

    2009-02-01

    Single-phase liquid flow in porous media such as bead packs and model fixed bed reactors has been well studied by MRI. To some extent this early work represents the necessary preliminary research to address the more challenging problem of two-phase flow of gas and liquid within these systems. In this paper, we present images of both the gas and liquid velocities during stable liquid-gas flow of water and SF(6) within a packing of 5mm spheres contained within columns of diameter 40 and 27 mm; images being acquired using (1)H and (19)F observation for the water and SF(6), respectively. Liquid and gas flow rates calculated from the velocity images are in agreement with macroscopic flow rate measurements to within 7% and 5%, respectively. In addition to the information obtained directly from these images, the ability to measure liquid and gas flow fields within the same sample environment will enable us to explore the validity of assumptions used in numerical modelling of two-phase flows.

  7. Body packing and intra-vaginal body pushing of cocaine: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wankhade, Vishwajit Kishor; Chikhalkar, B G

    2018-03-01

    Drug trafficking is an international problem. The prevalence of drug trafficking and newer concealing methods has been ever increasing. Body packing is described as using the abdominal or pelvic cavity for concealing illegal drugs. Body pushers smuggle illicit drugs by inserting them into rectum or vagina. These cases are either presented to the emergency departments as Body Packer Syndrome or as asymptomatic cases for observation, detained for alleged possession of contraband substances. We report a unique case of an asymptomatic white female who was detained at Mumbai International Airport under suspicion and brought to hospital for observation. X ray and CT scan examination revealed 7 wrapped packets in gastrointestinal track and 1 large packet in vagina. A case of female body packer using multiple modalities of concealment especially in vagina is rare in India so it is becomes imperative to present this case in the light of body packing and body pushing of contraband substances. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Flow dynamics in distillation columns packed with Dixon rings as used in isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilath, C.; Cohen, H.; Wolf, D.

    1977-01-01

    Packed distillation columns are common in isotope separation. The pressure drop serves as an indication for the hydrodynamic state of the column. Models were formulated for flow and pressure drop dynamics in packed distillation columns. These models were confirmed on columns packed with Dixon rings and operated with water for separation of oxygen isotopes. Liquid holdup displacement is very important in isotope separation practice. Experiments proved that distillation columns packed with Dixon rings exhibit a behaviour close to plug flow. (author)

  9. Technical tutorial: How to pack a nose with bismuth iodoform paraffin paste gauze safely and effectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amen, F; Pace-Balzan, A

    2009-01-01

    The current primary treatment for epistaxis in accident and emergency departments is the insertion of Merocel packs. If these are properly inserted, but fail to control bleeding, it is necessary to insert a bismuth iodoform paraffin paste (BIPP) pack. A BIPP pack, when properly inserted, has the potential to stop most bleeds, but books and journals suggest a method of insertion that limits its effectiveness. A safer and more effective way of packing a nose with BIPP than the traditional method is described.

  10. Class, Culture and Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrits, Gitte Sommer

    2013-01-01

    Even though contemporary discussions of class have moved forward towards recognizing a multidimensional concept of class, empirical analyses tend to focus on cultural practices in a rather narrow sense, that is, as practices of cultural consumption or practices of education. As a result......, discussions within political sociology have not yet utilized the merits of a multidimensional conception of class. In light of this, the article suggests a comprehensive Bourdieusian framework for class analysis, integrating culture as both a structural phenomenon co-constitutive of class and as symbolic...... practice. Further, the article explores this theoretical framework in a multiple correspondence analysis of a Danish survey, demonstrating how class and political practices are indeed homologous. However, the analysis also points at several elements of field autonomy, and the concluding discussion...

  11. Class network routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanot, Gyan [Princeton, NJ; Blumrich, Matthias A [Ridgefield, CT; Chen, Dong [Croton On Hudson, NY; Coteus, Paul W [Yorktown Heights, NY; Gara, Alan G [Mount Kisco, NY; Giampapa, Mark E [Irvington, NY; Heidelberger, Philip [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D [Mount Kisco, NY; Takken, Todd E [Mount Kisco, NY; Vranas, Pavlos M [Bedford Hills, NY

    2009-09-08

    Class network routing is implemented in a network such as a computer network comprising a plurality of parallel compute processors at nodes thereof. Class network routing allows a compute processor to broadcast a message to a range (one or more) of other compute processors in the computer network, such as processors in a column or a row. Normally this type of operation requires a separate message to be sent to each processor. With class network routing pursuant to the invention, a single message is sufficient, which generally reduces the total number of messages in the network as well as the latency to do a broadcast. Class network routing is also applied to dense matrix inversion algorithms on distributed memory parallel supercomputers with hardware class function (multicast) capability. This is achieved by exploiting the fact that the communication patterns of dense matrix inversion can be served by hardware class functions, which results in faster execution times.

  12. Culture and social class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Yuri

    2017-12-01

    A large body of research in Western cultures has demonstrated the psychological and health effects of social class. This review outlines a cultural psychological approach to social stratification by comparing psychological and health manifestations of social class across Western and East Asian cultures. These comparisons suggest that cultural meaning systems shape how people make meaning and respond to material/structural conditions associated with social class, thereby leading to culturally divergent manifestations of social class. Specifically, unlike their counterparts in Western cultures, individuals of high social class in East Asian cultures tend to show high conformity and other-orientated psychological attributes. In addition, cultures differ in how social class impacts health (i.e. on which bases, through which pathways, and to what extent). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Natural and anthropogenic hydrocarbons in the Antarctic pack ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemirovskaya, I.A.; Novigatsky, A.N.

    2004-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted near the Russian Antarctic stations in May, 2001 in the Pridz Bay and coastal part of the Davies Sea to examine the content of dissolved and suspended forms of aliphatic hydrocarbons in melted snow samples, pack ice and ice cores. The site included clean control areas and polluted test areas. A spill was performed by covering the bare ice surface with marine diesel fuel. The different physical characteristics of clean and polluted ice were measured. This included radiation balance, reflected solar radiation, integral albedo radiation, surface temperature, seawater temperature, salinity at depth, and ice salinity. The study showed that accumulation of natural and anthropogenic hydrocarbon took place in the ice-water barrier zone, mostly in suspended form. It was concluded that for oil spills in pack Antarctic ice, the mechanism of filtration due to convection-diffusion plays an important role in the transformation of diesel fuel. 14 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  14. Evaluation of pulp and mortar to pack bitumen radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregorio, Marina da S.; Vieira, Vanessa M.; Tello, Cledola C.O.

    2013-01-01

    According to international experience, for the deposition of cement in surface repository, is necessary the use of cement mortar pastes to immobilize the product. Determining the most efficient folder or for the packed mortar, as well as its ideal formulation, is the goal of this study. To do various experiments with samples of cement paste and mortar, with presence of fluxing and / or clay were performed. Viscosity, density, setting time and compressive strength were evaluated. This study will be presented only the results found in testing of compressive strength to be an essential parameter in the transport, storage and disposal of the product. From the results found will be selected the best formulations for use in packed bitumen tailings from the National Radioactive Waste Repository

  15. Chromium Enrichment on P11 Ferritic Steel by Pack Cementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauzi F. A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The future thermal power plant is expected to operate at higher temperature to improve its efficiency and to reduce greenhouse gas emission. This target requires better corrosion properties of ferritic steels, which commonly used as materials for superheater and reheater of boiler tubes. In this work, chromium enrichment on the surface of ferritic steel is studied. The deposited chromium is expected to become a reservoir for the formation of chromia protective layer. Chromium was deposited on the substrate of steel by pack cementation process for two hours at the temperature of 850ºC, 950ºC and 1050ºC, respectively. XRD analysis indicated that chromium was successfully deposited at all temperatures. Somehow, SEM cross sectional image showed that continuous layer of chromium was not continuously formed at 850oC. Therefore, this research clarify that chromium enrichment by pack cementation may be conducted at the temperature above 950°C.

  16. Spontaneous formation of densely packed shear bands of rotating fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åström, J A; Timonen, J

    2012-05-01

    Appearance of self-similar space-filling ball bearings has been suggested to provide the explanation for seismic gaps, shear weakness, and lack of detectable frictional heat formation in mature tectonic faults (shear zones). As the material in a shear zone fractures and grinds, it could be thought to eventually form a conformation that allows fragments to largely roll against each other without much sliding. This type of space-filling "ball bearing" can be constructed artificially, but so far how such delicate structures may appear spontaneously has remained unexplained. It is demonstrated here that first-principles simulations of granular packing with fragmenting grains indeed display spontaneous formation of shear bands with fragment conformations very similar to those of densely packed ball bearings.

  17. Packing states of multilamellar vesicles in a nonionic surfactant system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, T.D.; Olsson, U.; Mortensen, K.

    2001-01-01

    -alpha(*) phase using the noninvasive small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) technique, one while heating and the other while cooling the sample. Data from the heating and cooling cycles were used to demonstrate reversibility of the system. Three states of packing can be identified from the scattering profiles......Lyotropic lamellar phases under shear flow have been shown to form multilamellar vesicles (MLVs), an onion-like structure. The size of the vesicles is governed by the shear imposed on the sample. Previously, we studied the structural transformation from multilamellar vesicles to lamellae to sponge...... under shear. Here, we focused only in the MLV region, L-alpha(*), of a temperature sensitive surfactant system (C12E4-water) to investigate the packing of multilamellar vesicles as a function of temperature under constant shear. Two sets of temperature scan experiments were performed in the L...

  18. PERFORMANCE OF A PACKED LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION COLUMN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İ. Metin HASDEMİR

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of feed ratios ((LE/LR on the performance of a packed liquid-liquid extraction column, with a diameter of 5.86 cm and a column height of 132 cm was investigated. The column is made of borosilicate glass and packed with 10 x 10 mm glass Raschig rings. In this study, a ternary system composed of water + propionic acid + trichloroethylene was used. The data used to triangular diagram were obtained experimentally. The overall mass transfer coefficients, the numbers of overall mass transfer units, the heights of mass transfer units, the numbers of theoretical stages and height equivalent to a theoretical stage (H. E. T. S. values were calculated and compared with each other.

  19. Design and Production of Damage-Resistant Tray Pack Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-01

    No COMMENT ,34.5 ýX .7.. . , . 35.0 x 36.0 x " 36.5 x • - . ,- 37.0 x 37.5 X 22 Ma after failure .4 J L,. Local Red stain...VACUUM-TRAY PACK SAMPLE 90#-BASELINE !4 TEST LEVEL PANEL VACUUM YES NO COMMENT 𔃾 I S2"X - 3" X 4ŕ x 4.5" X 27 Ma with Red spot @ S1 - wrinkle. * i...44 i 63 DATE 8-29-84 * SAMPLE # 3 TEST TYPE VACUUM-TRAY PACK SAMPLE 90#/0.050" REINFORCED TEST LEVEL PAN] VACUUM YES NO COMMENT i ", 2" X 2 1 V - I

  20. Operation of Packed-Bed Reactors Studied in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motil, Brian J.; Balakotaiah, Vemuri

    2004-01-01

    The operation of a packed bed reactor (PBR) involves gas and liquid flowing simultaneously through a fixed-bed of solid particles. Depending on the application, the particles can be various shapes and sizes but are generally designed to force the two fluid phases through a tortuous route of narrow channels connecting the interstitial space. The PBR is the most common type of reactor in industry because it provides for intimate contact and high rates of transport between the phases needed to sustain chemical or biological reactions. The packing may also serve as either a catalyst or as a support for growing biological material. Furthermore, this type of reactor is relatively compact and requires minimal power to operate. This makes it an excellent candidate for unit operations in support of long-duration human space activities.