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Sample records for class iii malocclusions

  1. Pseudo Class III malocclusion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Al-Hummayani, Fadia M

    2016-01-01

    .... This case report represents a none traditional treatment modality to treat deep anterior crossbite in an adult pseudo class III malocclusion complicated by severely retruded, supraerupted upper and lower incisors...

  2. Timely management of developing class III malocclusion

    OpenAIRE

    M R Yelampalli; M R Rachala

    2012-01-01

    Timing of orthodontic treatment, especially for children with developing class III malocclusions, has always been somewhat controversial, and definitive treatment tends to be delayed for severe class III cases. Developing class III patients with moderate to severe anterior crossbite and deep bite may need early intervention in some selected cases. Class III malocclusion may develop in children as a result of an inherent growth abnormality, i.e. true class III malocclusion, or as a result of p...

  3. Genes, genetics, and Class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, F; Wong, R W K; Rabie, A B M

    2010-05-01

    To present current views that are pertinent to the investigation of the genetic etiology of Class III malocclusion. Class III malocclusion is thought to be a polygenic disorder that results from an interaction between susceptibility genes and environmental factors. However, research on family pedigrees has indicated that Class III malocclusion might also be a monogenic dominant phenotype. Recent studies have reported that genes that encode specific growth factors or other signaling molecules are involved in condylar growth under mechanical strain. These genes, which include Indian hedgehog homolog (IHH), parathyroid-hormone like hormone (PTHLH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and variations in their levels of expression play an important role in the etiology of Class III malocclusion. In addition, genome-wide scans have revealed chromosomal loci that are associated with Class III malocclusion. It is likely that chromosomal loci 1p36, 12q23, and 12q13 harbor genes that confer susceptibility to Class III malocclusion. In a case-control association study, we identified erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1 (EPB41) to be a new positional candidate gene that might be involved in susceptibility to mandibular prognathism. Most of the earlier studies on the genetic etiology of Class III malocclusion have focused on the patterns of inheritance of this phenotype. Recent investigations have focused on understanding the genetic variables that affect Class III malocclusion and might provide new approaches to uncovering the genetic etiology of this phenotype.

  4. Class III Malocclusion Surgical-Orthodontic Treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Furquim, Bruna Alves; de Freitas, Karina Maria Salvatore; Janson, Guilherme; Simoneti, Luis Fernando; de Freitas, Marcos Roberto; de Freitas, Daniel Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present case report is to describe the orthodontic-surgical treatment of a 17-year-and-9-month-old female patient with a Class III malocclusion, poor facial esthetics, and mandibular and chin protrusion...

  5. Timely management of developing class III malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M R Yelampalli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Timing of orthodontic treatment, especially for children with developing class III malocclusions, has always been somewhat controversial, and definitive treatment tends to be delayed for severe class III cases. Developing class III patients with moderate to severe anterior crossbite and deep bite may need early intervention in some selected cases. Class III malocclusion may develop in children as a result of an inherent growth abnormality, i.e. true class III malocclusion, or as a result of premature occlusal contacts causing forward functional shift of the mandible, which is known as pseudo class III malocclusion. These cases, if not treated at the initial stage of development, interfere with normal growth of the jaw bases and may result in severe facial deformities. The treatment should be carried out as early as possible for permitting normal growth of the skeletal bases. This paper deals with the selection of an appropriate appliance from the various current options available for early intervention in developing class III malocclusion through two case reports.

  6. Timely management of developing class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelampalli, M R; Rachala, M R

    2012-01-01

    Timing of orthodontic treatment, especially for children with developing class III malocclusions, has always been somewhat controversial, and definitive treatment tends to be delayed for severe class III cases. Developing class III patients with moderate to severe anterior crossbite and deep bite may need early intervention in some selected cases. Class III malocclusion may develop in children as a result of an inherent growth abnormality, i.e. true class III malocclusion, or as a result of premature occlusal contacts causing forward functional shift of the mandible, which is known as pseudo class III malocclusion. These cases, if not treated at the initial stage of development, interfere with normal growth of the jaw bases and may result in severe facial deformities. The treatment should be carried out as early as possible for permitting normal growth of the skeletal bases. This paper deals with the selection of an appropriate appliance from the various current options available for early intervention in developing class III malocclusion through two case reports.

  7. Class - III malocclusion: Genetics or environment? A twins study

    OpenAIRE

    Jena A; Duggal R; Mathur V; Parkash H

    2005-01-01

    Etiology of class-III malocclusion is generally believed to be genetic. A wide range of environmental factors have been suggested as contributing factors for the development of class-III malocclusion. Twin study is one of the most effective methods available for investigating genetically determined variables of malocclusion. Discordancy for class-III malocclusion is a frequent finding in dizygotic twins. However, class-III malocclusion discordancy in monozygotic twins is a rare finding. The p...

  8. Early cephalometric characteristics in Class III malocclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Farias,Vanessa Costa; Tesch,Ricardo de Souza; Denardin,Odilon Victor Porto; Ursi,Weber

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Early identification of craniofacial morphological characteristics allows orthopedic segmented interventions to attenuate dentoskeletal discrepancies, which may be partially disguised by natural dental compensation. To investigate the morphological characteristics of Brazilian children with Class III malocclusion, in stages I and II of cervical vertebrae maturation and compare them with the characteristics of Class I control patients. METHODS: Pre-orthodontic treatment records of 2...

  9. [Early treatment of Class III malocclusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gall, Michel; Philip, Camille; Salvadori, André

    2011-09-01

    Optimum treatment timing for orthodontic problems continues to be one of the more controversial topics in orthodontics. Especially regarding the correction of Class III malocclusion, there is little consensus as to proper timing or methods for correcting these problems. The orthopedic approach for growth modification is usually limited to children with growth remaining subjected to non hereditary pattern. If the skeletal malocclusion is within the range of an orthodontic treatment, fixed orthodontic appliances with dentoalveolar compensation mechanism can achieve a normal occlusion. Otherwise in patients with a severe skeletal discrepancy, it will be necessary to consider a combined surgical and orthodontic approach. The purpose of this study was to describe treatment planning according to the age and to the initial diagnosis. The management of skeletal Class III malocclusion is still a challenge to orthodontists especially because of relapse due to the late growth of the mandible. © EDP Sciences, SFODF, 2011.

  10. Class III Malocclusion Surgical-Orthodontic Treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Furquim, Bruna Alves; de Freitas, Karina Maria Salvatore; Janson, Guilherme; Simoneti, Luis Fernando; de Freitas, Marcos Roberto; de Freitas, Daniel Salvatore

    2014-01-01

      The aim of the present case report is to describe the orthodontic-surgical treatment of a 17-year-and-9-month-old female patient with a Class III malocclusion, poor facial esthetics, and mandibular and chin protrusion...

  11. Malocclusion class III treatment in teething decidua.

    OpenAIRE

    Chávez Sevillano, Manuel Gustavo; Departamento Académico de Estomatología Pediátrica, sección Ortodoncia. Facultad de Odontología UNMSM. Lima – Perú.

    2014-01-01

    According as age increases, growth decreases and Class III skeletal patterns become more stable. The objective of Class III malocclusion’s treatment in primary dentition is to get a favorable environment to achieve a better dentofacial development. This article’s objective is to give a theorical summary about treatment of Class III malocclusions in primary dentition, and to present a case report. A medida que aumenta la edad, la cuantía de crecimiento disminuye y las clases III esquelética...

  12. Early cephalometric characteristics in Class III malocclusion

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    Vanessa Costa Farias

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Early identification of craniofacial morphological characteristics allows orthopedic segmented interventions to attenuate dentoskeletal discrepancies, which may be partially disguised by natural dental compensation. To investigate the morphological characteristics of Brazilian children with Class III malocclusion, in stages I and II of cervical vertebrae maturation and compare them with the characteristics of Class I control patients. METHODS: Pre-orthodontic treatment records of 20 patients with Class III malocclusion and 20 control Class I patients, matched by the same skeletal maturity index and sex, were selected. The craniofacial structures and their relationships were divided into different categories for analysis. Angular and linear measures were adopted from the analyses previously described by Downs, Jarabak, Jacobson and McNamara. The differences found between the groups of Class III patients and Class I control group, both subdivided according to the stage of cervical vertebrae maturation (I or II, were assessed by analysis of variance (ANOVA, complemented by Bonferroni's multiple mean comparisons test. RESULTS: The analysis of variance showed statistically significant differences in the different studied groups, between the mean values found for some angular (SNA, SNB, ANB and linear variables (Co - Gn, N - Perp Pog, Go - Me, Wits, S - Go, Ar - Go. CONCLUSION: Assessed children displaying Class III malocclusion show normal anterior base of skull and maxilla, and anterior positioning of the mandible partially related to increased posterior facial height with consequent mandibular counterclockwise rotation.

  13. CEPHALOMETRIC FEATURES OF CLASS III MALOCCLUSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegan, Georgeta; Dascălu, Cristina; Mavru, R B; Anistoroaei, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to identify quantitative and relational characteristics of bone, dental and soft tissue structures for Class III malocclusion, according to gender and age range. 60 conventional lateral cephalograms were divided into two groups according to ANB angle: the group of cases with skeletal Class III (n = 36) and a control group with skeletal Class I (n = 24). There were performed 53 digital cephalometric measurements according to Steiner, Tweed and Jarabak analyzes. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov, t-student and Levene tests were used to find the characteristics of Class III, using SPSS 16.0 for Windows. We found 14 parameters that distinguished the two classes disorders (the angles SNB, SND, FMA, IMPA, MeGoOcP, Mand 1-MeGo, NSAr, ArGoMe, NGoMe and SNPog; the distances Ao-Bo and lu-NPog; Holdaway and AFH ratios) and 3 parameters for the Class III age ranges (NGoAr angle, Ls-NsPog' distance and S-Ar:Ar-Go ratio) (p ≤ 0.05). There were found no significant differences between genders for skeletal Class III. Emphasizing the cephalometric characteristics of Class III malocclusion, with the overall growth together with dental and occlusion development, requires early orthodontic therapy.

  14. ORTHODONTIC TREATMENT ALTERNATIVE TO A CLASS III SUBDIVISION MALOCCLUSION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, Guilherme; de Souza, José Eduardo Prado; Barros, Sérgio Estelita Cavalcante; Andrade, Pedro; Nakamura, Alexandre Yudi

    2009-01-01

    Class III malocclusions are considered one of the most complex and difficult orthodontic problems to diagnose and treat. Skeletal and/or dental asymmetries in patients presenting with Class III malocclusions can worsen the prognosis. Recognizing the dentoalveolar and skeletal characteristics of subdivision malocclusions and their treatment possibilities is essential for a favorable nonsurgical correction. Therefore, this article presents a nonsurgical asymmetric extraction approach to Class III subdivision malocclusion treatment which can significantly improve the occlusal and facial discrepancies. PMID:19668997

  15. Treatment planning in Class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Grant T

    2004-01-01

    In Class III malocclusion, the overjet is reduced and may be reversed, with one or more incisor teeth in lingual crossbite. In the early mixed dentition, and in older patients with mild skeletal discrepancies, orthodontic treatment usually involves proclining the maxilliary anterior teeth into positive overjet. When the permanent dentition has established, orthodontic therapy is usually aimed at compensating for the underlying mild-moderate Class III skeletal discrepancy by proclining and retroclining the maxillary and mandibular incisors, respectively. In contrast, adolescent and non-growing patients with severe Class III skeletal discrepancies require a combination of orthodontic treatment and orthognathic surgery to correct the underlying skeletal pattern. Adolescent patients with moderately severe skeletal discrepancies require careful treatment planning because they are often at the limits of orthodontic compensation, and further mandibular growth may prevent a stable Class I occlusion from being maintained with growth. In this situation, treatment should be limited to aligning the maxillary arch, accepting that orthognathic surgery will be required to correct the underlying Class III skeletal discrepancy when skeletal growth has been completed. This article will inform dental professionals about the aetiology, assessment, diagnosis and treatment of patients with Class III malocclusions. Specifically, the types of orthodontic treatment that can be completed at the various stages of dental development and skeletal growth will be discussed.

  16. Class - III malocclusion: Genetics or environment? A twins study

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    Jena A

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Etiology of class-III malocclusion is generally believed to be genetic. A wide range of environmental factors have been suggested as contributing factors for the development of class-III malocclusion. Twin study is one of the most effective methods available for investigating genetically determined variables of malocclusion. Discordancy for class-III malocclusion is a frequent finding in dizygotic twins. However, class-III malocclusion discordancy in monozygotic twins is a rare finding. The purpose of this study of monozygotic twins is to assess the genetic and environmental components of variation within the cranio-dento-facial complex.

  17. Expansion/Facemask Treatment of an Adult Class III Malocclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Gregory W.; Kravitz, Neal D.

    2014-01-01

    The orthodontic treatment of class III malocclusion with a maxillary deficiency is often treated with maxillary protraction with or without expansion. Skeletal and dental changes have been documented which have combined for the protraction of the maxilla and the correction of the class III malocclusion. Concerning the ideal time to treat a developing class III malocclusion, studies have reported that, although early treatment may be the most effective, face mask therapy can provide a viable o...

  18. Cranial-Base Morphology in Children with Class III Malocclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Hong-Po Chang; Tsau-Mau Chou

    2005-01-01

    The association between cranial-base morphology and Class III malocclusion is not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the morphologic characteristics of the cranial base in children with Class III malocclusion. Lateral cephalograms from 100 children with Class III malocclusion were compared with those from 100 subjects with normal occlusion. Ten landmarks on the cranial base were identified and digitized. Cephalometric assessment using seven angular and 18 linear me...

  19. Contemporary solutions for managing Class III malocclusion

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    Nathamuni Rengarajan Krishnaswamy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although patients with Class III malocclusions constitute a small percentage of the average orthodontic practice, providing them with optimal treatment is a daunting task. The treatment approach is dependent upon the growth status of the individual and the severity of the skeletal dysplasia. For growing individuals, facemask therapy to protract the maxilla is ineffective because of its dependence on dental anchorage to bring forth skeletal correction. Orthodontic camouflage in nongrowing mild skeletal Class III individuals is met with limited success because of the anatomical boundaries and the conventional biomechanics. Orthognathic surgery to correct the maxillomandibular relations is time-consuming, and the facial esthetics is compromised during the orthodontic decompensation period. Contemporary solutions to overcome these limitations are now viable with the use of temporary anchorage devices and by performing surgery prior to orthodontic decompensation. The rationale for employing these contemporary approaches will be discussed in this study with illustrative cases.

  20. Cranial-base morphology in children with class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hong-Po; Hsieh, Shu-Hui; Tseng, Yu-Chuan; Chou, Tsau-Mau

    2005-04-01

    The association between cranial-base morphology and Class III malocclusion is not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the morphologic characteristics of the cranial base in children with Class III malocclusion. Lateral cephalograms from 100 children with Class III malocclusion were compared with those from 100 subjects with normal occlusion. Ten landmarks on the cranial base were identified and digitized. Cephalometric assessment using seven angular and 18 linear measurements was performed by univariate and multivariate analyses. The results revealed that the greatest between-group differences occurred in the posterior cranial-base region. It was concluded that shortening and angular bending of the cranial base, and a diminished angle between the cranial base and mandibular ramus, may lead to Class III malocclusion associated with Class III facial morphology. The association between cranial-base morphology and other types of malocclusion needs clarification. Further study of regional changes in the cranial base, with geometric morphometric analysis, is warranted.

  1. Class III Malocclusion Surgical-Orthodontic Treatment

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    Bruna Alves Furquim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present case report is to describe the orthodontic-surgical treatment of a 17-year-and-9-month-old female patient with a Class III malocclusion, poor facial esthetics, and mandibular and chin protrusion. She had significant anteroposterior and transverse discrepancies, a concave profile, and strained lip closure. Intraorally, she had a negative overjet of 5 mm and an overbite of 5 mm. The treatment objectives were to correct the malocclusion, and facial esthetic and also return the correct function. The surgical procedures included a Le Fort I osteotomy for expansion, advancement, impaction, and rotation of the maxilla to correct the occlusal plane inclination. There was 2 mm of impaction of the anterior portion of the maxilla and 5 mm of extrusion in the posterior region. A bilateral sagittal split osteotomy was performed in order to allow counterclockwise rotation of the mandible and anterior projection of the chin, accompanying the maxillary occlusal plane. Rigid internal fixation was used without any intermaxillary fixation. It was concluded that these procedures were very effective in producing a pleasing facial esthetic result, showing stability 7 years posttreatment.

  2. Conservative compensatory Angle Class III malocclusion treatment

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    Marcio Costa Sobral

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Angle's Class III malocclusion is a dental discrepancy in a sagittal view that may appear or not with an important skeletal discrepancy. Facial esthetics may be affected by this skeletal discrepancy and it is one of the most common complaints of patients who seek orthodontic treatment. Class III treatment, in adults, may be done by compensatory tooth movement, in simple cases, or through an association between orthodontics and orthognathic surgery, in more severe cases. OBJECTIVE: This article describes a non-extraction compensatory Class III treatment case, applying the Tweed-Merrifield mechanical principles with headgear (J-Hook in the mandibular arch. This case was presented at the V Brazilian Association of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (ABOR Meeting, it was evaluated by members of Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and obtained third place in the general classification.INTRODUÇÃO: a má oclusão de Classe III se caracteriza por uma desarmonia dentária anteroposterior, podendo estar ou não acompanhada por discrepâncias esqueléticas. A estética facial pode se apresentar comprometida, em maior ou menor grau, a depender da magnitude da discrepância, constituindo um dos principais fatores motivadores da procura por tratamento ortodôntico. O tratamento da Classe III em pacientes adultos pode ser realizado mediante compensação dentária, nos casos mais simples, ou, em situações mais severas, mediante a associação entre Ortodontia e Cirurgia Ortognática. OBJETIVO: o presente artigo objetiva relatar um caso clínico caracterizado por uma má oclusão de Classe III de Angle, tratado de forma compensatória, com extração dos terceiros molares inferiores, mediante a utilização de aparelhagem extrabucal na arcada inferior (J-hook, aplicando-se princípios da técnica de Tweed-Merrifield. Esse caso foi apresentado no 5º Congresso da Associação Brasileira de Ortodontia e Ortopedia Facial (ABOR, na categoria

  3. Expansion/Facemask Treatment of an Adult Class III Malocclusion

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    Gregory W. Jackson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The orthodontic treatment of class III malocclusion with a maxillary deficiency is often treated with maxillary protraction with or without expansion. Skeletal and dental changes have been documented which have combined for the protraction of the maxilla and the correction of the class III malocclusion. Concerning the ideal time to treat a developing class III malocclusion, studies have reported that, although early treatment may be the most effective, face mask therapy can provide a viable option for older children as well. But what about young adults? Can the skeletal and dental changes seen in expansion/facemask therapy in children and adolescents be demonstrated in this age group as well, possibly eliminating the need for orthodontic dental camouflage treatment or orthognathic surgery? A case report is presented of an adult class III malocclusion with a Class III skeletal pattern and maxillary retrusion. Treatment was with nonextraction, comprehensive edgewise mechanics with slow maxillary expansion with a bonded expander and protraction facemask.

  4. Expansion/Facemask Treatment of an Adult Class III Malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Gregory W; Kravitz, Neal D

    2014-01-01

    The orthodontic treatment of class III malocclusion with a maxillary deficiency is often treated with maxillary protraction with or without expansion. Skeletal and dental changes have been documented which have combined for the protraction of the maxilla and the correction of the class III malocclusion. Concerning the ideal time to treat a developing class III malocclusion, studies have reported that, although early treatment may be the most effective, face mask therapy can provide a viable option for older children as well. But what about young adults? Can the skeletal and dental changes seen in expansion/facemask therapy in children and adolescents be demonstrated in this age group as well, possibly eliminating the need for orthodontic dental camouflage treatment or orthognathic surgery? A case report is presented of an adult class III malocclusion with a Class III skeletal pattern and maxillary retrusion. Treatment was with nonextraction, comprehensive edgewise mechanics with slow maxillary expansion with a bonded expander and protraction facemask.

  5. Class III malocclusion with severe anteroposterior discrepancy

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    Susana Maria Deon Rizzatto

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at reporting the clinical case of a patient with Class III skeletal malocclusion with severe maxillary deficiency, producing a reduced midface associated with severe mandibular prognathism. The pre-surgical orthodontic preparation was composed mainly by dentoalveolar expansion and repositioning of the incisors in the lower arch. Then, a combined maxillary and mandibular orthognathic surgery was performed. The treatment objectives were achieved, with significant improvement in facial esthetics and occlusion, followed by post-treatment stability. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Facial Orthopedics (BBO, as part of the requirements for obtaining the title of Diplomate by BBO.O objetivo deste artigo é relatar o caso clínico de um paciente portador de má oclusão de Classe III esquelética com acentuada deficiência maxilar, causando redução do terço médio da face, associada a severo prognatismo mandibular. O preparo ortodôntico pré-cirúrgico foi composto, principalmente, pela expansão dentoalveolar da maxila e o reposicionamento dos incisivos na arcada inferior. Depois, foi realizada a cirurgia ortognática combinada maxilomandibular. Os objetivos do tratamento foram atingidos, com significativa melhora da oclusão e da estética facial, seguida de estabilidade pós-tratamento. Esse caso foi apresentado à Diretoria do Board Brasileiro de Ortodontia e Ortopedia Facial (BBO, como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do título de Diplomado pelo BBO.

  6. Non-surgical treatment of skeletal class III malocclusion.

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    Kapadia, Romina M; Shah, Adit P; Diyora, Shamil D; Rathva, Vandana J

    2014-04-10

    The incidence of skeletal class III malocclusion has a mean of 3% in the Caucasian population, 5% in African-American adolescents and about 14% in the Asian population. In India, the incidence of class III malocclusion is reported to be 3.4%. A patient having class III malocclusion shows findings ranging from edge-to-edge bite to large reverse overjet, with extreme variations of underlying skeletal jaw bases and craniofacial form. This is a case report of a 20-year-old man having skeletal class III malocclusion with concave profile, anterior crossbite and a negative overjet of 3 mm treated non-surgically with extraction of only one lower left first premolar.

  7. Components of adult class III malocclusion in an Iranian population

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    Roodabeh Koodaryan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Class III malocclusions are considered complex and difficult orthodontic problems to diagnose and treat. The purpose of this study was to investigate the morphologic characteristics of the craniofacial complex of adults with Class III malocclusion in an Iranian population. Materials and methods. Lateral cephalometric radiographs of 50 patients with Class III malocclusion (20 males and 30 females; age range of 18-27 years were selected on the basis of molar relationship, concave profile and an overjet of ≤ 0 mm. The standard values of 19 soft tissue measurements were determined using McNamara, Burstone and Viazis methods. Results. Adults with Class III malocclusion exhibited distinct craniofacial morphologic characteristics manifested by a combination of retrusion of maxilla and protrusion of mandible. Conclusion. The most prevalent component was mandibular prognathism, normal maxilla and LAFH on the basis of the component analysis.

  8. Diagnosis and Treatment of Pseudo-Class III Malocclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Ariel Reyes; Luis Serret; Marcos Peguero; Orlando Tanaka

    2014-01-01

    Pseudo-Class III malocclusion is characterized by the presence of an anterior crossbite due to a forward functional displacement of the mandible; in most cases, the maxillary incisors present some degree of retroclination, and the mandibular incisors are proclined. Various types of appliances have been described in the literature for the early treatment of pseudo-Class III malocclusion. The objectives of this paper are to demonstrate the importance of making the differential diagnosis between...

  9. Early treatment protocol for skeletal Class III malocclusion.

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    Oltramari-Navarro, Paula Vanessa Pedron; de Almeida, Renato Rodrigues; Conti, Ana Cláudia de Castro Ferreira; Navarro, Ricardo de Lima; de Almeida, Marcio Rodrigues; Fernandes, Leandra Sant'Anna Ferreira Parron

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal Class III malocclusion, with its unpredictable and unfavorable nature, has been characterized by a growth pattern with doubtful prognosis regarding orthodontic mechanics, even when performed early. For a long time, Class III malocclusion was regarded as a synonym of mandibular prognathism, regardless of the affected skeletal structures. Mandibular growth, essentially determined by genetic factors, could barely be controlled by early orthodontic interventions. Therefore, the treatment choice was to wait for the patient to grow, and then make an orthodontic intervention associated with an orthognathic surgery. Maxillary involvement in the etiology of Class III malocclusion was conclusive to change orthodontic therapeutics. Maxillary intramembranous growth has a better response to orthopedic treatment, based on growth control and redirection, thus contributing for early intervention success. In several cases, excellent results have been achieved with rapid maxillary expansion and protraction. The aim of this study was to describe and discuss the treatment of a patient with Class III malocclusion, whose treatment planning comprised two phases: interceptive (mechanical orthopedic appliances) and comprehensive (fixed orthodontic appliance). The results of this case showed that Class III malocclusion should be intercepted as early as possible to permit growth redirection, mainly when the maxilla is the primary etiologic factor or dental and/or functional factors are involved. Diagnosis, treatment planning and prognosis depend on patient age, growth potential and severity of malocclusion. Early intervention, adequate indication of appliances, and patient compliance are key factors for good outcomes.

  10. Cranial-Base Morphology in Children with Class III Malocclusion

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    Hong-Po Chang

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The association between cranial-base morphology and Class III malocclusion is not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the morphologic characteristics of the cranial base in children with Class III malocclusion. Lateral cephalograms from 100 children with Class III malocclusion were compared with those from 100 subjects with normal occlusion. Ten landmarks on the cranial base were identified and digitized. Cephalometric assessment using seven angular and 18 linear measurements was performed by univariate and multivariate analyses. The results revealed that the greatest between-group differences occurred in the posterior cranial-base region. It was concluded that shortening and angular bending of the cranial base, and a diminished angle between the cranial base and mandibular ramus, may lead to Class III malocclusion associated with Class III facial morphology. The association between cranialbase morphology and other types of malocclusion needs clarification. Further study of regional changes in the cranial base, with geometric morphometric analysis, is warranted.

  11. Diagnosis and Treatment of Pseudo-Class III Malocclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Ariel; Serret, Luis; Peguero, Marcos; Tanaka, Orlando

    2014-01-01

    Pseudo-Class III malocclusion is characterized by the presence of an anterior crossbite due to a forward functional displacement of the mandible; in most cases, the maxillary incisors present some degree of retroclination, and the mandibular incisors are proclined. Various types of appliances have been described in the literature for the early treatment of pseudo-Class III malocclusion. The objectives of this paper are to demonstrate the importance of making the differential diagnosis between a skeletal and a pseudo-Class III malocclusion and to describe the correction of an anterior crossbite. The association of maxillary expansion and a 2 × 4 appliance can successfully be used to correct anterior crossbites. PMID:25525526

  12. Diagnosis and Treatment of Pseudo-Class III Malocclusion

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    Ariel Reyes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudo-Class III malocclusion is characterized by the presence of an anterior crossbite due to a forward functional displacement of the mandible; in most cases, the maxillary incisors present some degree of retroclination, and the mandibular incisors are proclined. Various types of appliances have been described in the literature for the early treatment of pseudo-Class III malocclusion. The objectives of this paper are to demonstrate the importance of making the differential diagnosis between a skeletal and a pseudo-Class III malocclusion and to describe the correction of an anterior crossbite. The association of maxillary expansion and a 2 × 4 appliance can successfully be used to correct anterior crossbites.

  13. Considerations before orthodontic camouflage treatment in skeletal class III malocclusion

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    Marcella Budhiawan

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal Class III malocclusions are caused by maxillary deficiency, mandibular protrusion, or a combination of the two. This patient, in this case, may have a sunken in face, strong chin appearance. Most persons with Class III malocclusions, which is a dentofacial deformity, show combinations of skeletal and dentoalveolar components. Orthodontic therapy is usually aimed at compensating for the underlying mild-moderate skeletal Class III discrepancy and patients with severe skeletal Class III discrepancies require a combination of orthodontic treatment and orthognathic surgery to correct the underlying skeletal pattern. By considering many factors, the orthodontic treatment can be done on mild to severe skeletal Class III. These factors are facial profile, dental relationship and skeletal pattern. Those factors should be considered a starting point in making a treatment decision. They give the limitation of orthodontic treatment in terms of whether the occlusion could be corrected, or whether the deformity could be camouflage.

  14. Exclusion of Class III malocclusion candidate loci in Brazilian families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, R M; Hartsfield, J K; Falcão-Alencar, G; Koller, D L; Pereira, R W; Mah, J; Ferrari, I; Oliveira, S F

    2011-10-01

    The role played by genetic components in the etiology of the Class III phenotype, a class of dental malocclusion, is not yet understood. Regions that may be related to the development of Class III malocclusion have been suggested previously. The aim of this study was to search for genetic linkage with 6 microsatellite markers (D1S234, D4S3038, D6S1689, D7S503, D10S1483, and D19S566), near previously proposed candidate regions for Class III. We performed a two-point parametric linkage analysis for 42 affected individuals from 10 Brazilian families with a positive Class III malocclusion segregation. Analysis of our data indicated that there was no evidence for linkage of any of the 6 microsatellite markers to a Class III locus at = zero, with data supporting exclusion for 5 of the 6 markers evaluated. The present work reinforces that Class III is likely to demonstrate locus heterogeneity, and there is a dependency of the genetic background of the population in linkage studies.

  15. Conservative treatment of Angle Class III malocclusion with anterior crossbite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aguiar, João Hélder Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Angle Class III malocclusion is characterized by anteroposterior dental discrepancy which might be associated or not with skeletal changes. Class III molar relationship is associated with vertical or lingually tipped mandibular incisors and a usually concave profile. These characteristics seriously affect facial esthetics and most frequently are the reason why patients seek orthodontic treatment. This case was presented to the committee of the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Facial Orthopedics (BBO) as part of the requisites to become a BBO Diplomate.

  16. Orthodontics-surgical combination therapy for Class III skeletal malocclusion

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    M S Ravi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The correction of skeletal Class III malocclusion with severe mandibular prognathism in an adult individual requires surgical and Othodontic combination therapy. The inter disciplinary approach is the treatment of choice in most of the skeletal malocclusions. A case report of an adult individual with Class III malocclusion, having mandibular excess in sagittal and vertical plane and treated with orthodontics,, bilateral sagittal split osteotomy and Le - Forte I osteotomy for the correction of skeletal, dental and soft tissue discrepancies is herewith presented. The surgical-orthodontic combination therapy has resulted in near-normal skeletal, dental and soft tissue relationship, with marked improvement in the facial esthetics in turn, has helped the patient to improve the self-confidence level.

  17. Classification and characterization of class III malocclusion in Chinese individuals.

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    Li, Cai; Cai, Ying; Chen, Sihui; Chen, Fengshan

    2016-11-07

    Class III malocclusion is a maxillofacial disorder that is characterised by a concave profile and can be attributed to both genetic inheritance and environmental factors. It is a clinical challenge due to our limited understanding of its aetiology. Revealing its prototypical diversity will contribute to our sequential exploration of the underlying aetiological information. The objective of this study was to characterize phenotypic variations of Class III malocclusion via a lateral cephalometric analysis in a community of Chinese individuals. One-hundred-and-forty-four individuals (58 males ≥18 and 86 females ≥16) with Class III malocclusion ranging from mild to severe were enrolled in this study. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis were performed using 61 lateral cephalometric measurements. Six principal components were discovered in the examined population and were responsible for 73.7 % of the variability. Four subtypes were revealed by cluster analysis. Subtype 1 included subjects with mild mandibular prognathism with a steep mandibular plane. Subjects in subtype 2 showed a combination of prognathic mandibular and retrusive maxillary with a flat or normal mandibular plane. Subtype 3 included individuals with purely severe mandibular prognathism and a normal mandibular plane. Individuals in subtype 4 had a mild maxillary deficiency and severe mandibular prognathism with the lowest mandibular plane angle. The six principal components extracted among the 61 variables improve our knowledge of lateral cephalometric analysis for diagnoses. We successfully identified four Class III malocclusion subtypes, indicating that cluster analysis could supplement the classification of Class III malocclusion among a Chinese population and may assist in our on-going genetic study.

  18. Conservative treatment of Angle Class III malocclusion with anterior crossbite

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    João Hélder Ferreira de Aguiar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Angle Class III malocclusion is characterized by anteroposterior dental discrepancy which might be associated or not with skeletal changes. Class III molar relationship is associated with vertical or lingually tipped mandibular incisors and a usually concave profile. These characteristics seriously affect facial esthetics and most frequently are the reason why patients seek orthodontic treatment. This case was presented to the committee of the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Facial Orthopedics (BBO as part of the requisites to become a BBO Diplomate.

  19. Oropharyngeal airway in children with Class III malocclusion evaluated by cone-beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Tomonori; Hayasaki, Haruaki; Takemoto, Yoshihiko; Kanomi, Ryuzo; Yamasaki, Youichi

    2009-09-01

    Upper airway size is increasingly recognized as an important factor in malocclusion. However, children with Class III malocclusion are somewhat neglected compared with those with a Class II skeletal pattern. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to establish the characteristic shape of the oropharyngeal airway (OA) in children with Class III malocclusion. The sample comprised 45 children (average age, 8.6 +/- 1.0 years) divided into 2 groups: 25 with Class I and 20 with Class III malocclusions. OA size of each group was evaluated by cone-beam computed tomography. Cluster analysis, based on OA shape, redivided the subjects into wide, square, and long types. The distributions of Class I and Class III subjects were compared among the types. The Class III group showed statistically larger OA area and width compared with the Class I group. Area was positively correlated with Class III severity. The square type included 84% of the Class I malocclusions but only 30% of the Class III malocclusions, indicating that the OA in Class III malocclusion tends to be flat. The Class III malocclusion is associated with a large and flat OA compared with the Class I malocclusion.

  20. Treatment of Class III Malocclusion: Atypical Extraction Protocol

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    Fernando Pedrin Carvalho Ferreira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of Angle Class III malocclusion is rather challenging, because the patient’s growth pattern determines the success of long-term treatment. Early diagnosis and treatment are still highly discussed issues in orthodontic literature. This type of early intervention has been indicated more frequently in order to eliminate primary etiological factors and prevent an already present malocclusion from becoming severe. However, when a patient is diagnosed in adulthood, manipulation of the bone bases becomes extremely limited, as there is no longer any potential for growth. Treatments are restricted to dental compensations when possible or orthognathic surgery. However, owing to the high cost and inherent risk of the surgical procedure, this treatment option is often denied by the patient; in such a case, the orthodontist has little choice but to perform, where possible, compensatory treatments to restore a functional occlusion and improve facial esthetics. This article reports a case of Class III malocclusion in a patient who opted for compensatory treatment with lower molar extraction that allowed for correction of the midline and the overjet. Good facial esthetics and functional normal occlusion were achieved at the end of the treatment.

  1. Oral Impacts on Quality of Life in Adult Patients with Class I, II and III Malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Omair; Bernabé, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    To compare the social impact of malocclusion on quality of life between adult patients with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusion. A total of 222 adult patients (139, 42 and 41 with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusion, respectively) were recruited voluntarily from those attending the Orthodontic Clinic of Khyber College of Dentistry in Pesh awar, Pakistan. Participants were asked to complete the Urdu version of the short form of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14), which was previously validated for this study. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to compare the seven OHIP-14 domains scores and the total score between patients with malocclusion Class I, II and III. Adults with Class III malocclusion had a significantly higher OHIP-14 total score than those with Class I malocclusion (a mean difference of 5 units between groups), but there were no differences between other Angle malocclusion groups. In addition, adults with Class III malocclusion reported greater impacts on the three OHIP-14 disability domains (physical, psychological and social) than those with Class I malocclusion. No significant interactions with sex and age were found. These findings suggest that adult patients with Class III malocclusion had a poorer quality of life than those with Class I malocclusion. Differences were mainly found in the physical, psychological and social disability domains of the OHIP-14 instrument.

  2. Pressure from the lips and the tongue in children with class III malocclusion*

    OpenAIRE

    Ruan, Wen-hua; Su, Ji-mei; Ye, Xiao-wei

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To discuss possible relationships between class III malocclusion and perioral forces by measuring the pressure from the lips and the tongue of children with class III malocclusion. Methods: Thirty-one children with class III malocclusion were investigated and their perioral forces were measured at rest and during swallowing under natural head position by a custom-made miniperioral force computer measuring system. Results: The resting pressures exerted on the labial side and palatin...

  3. Presence of third molar germs in orthodontic patients with class II/2 and class III malocclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mady Maricić, Barbara; Legović, Mario; Slaj, Martina; Lapter Varga, Marina; Zuvić Butorac, Marta; Kapović, Miljenko

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the presence of third molar germs in patients with Class II/2 and Class III malocclusions. The study comprised 146 examinees from Zagreb and Istria. Examinees with Class II/2 malocclusions amounted to 77 and those with Class III 69. With regard to development of dentition the examinees were divided into two groups: Group I subjects with early mixed dentition (23 subjects with Class II/2 and 21 subjects with Class III), and Group II subjects with late mixed dentition (54 subjects with Class II/2 and 48 subjects with Class III). Assessments were made from panoramic radiographs and lateral cephalograms. The Pearson chi2-test and Fisher's exact test was used to determine statistical significance in differences. Assessments showed that third molar germs were present significantly more often in the upper jaw in Class II/2 (58% vs. 44%) and in the lower jaw in Class III (83% vs. 69%). In subjects with Class II/2 all third molar germs were present statistically more often in late mixed dentition, which was also determined for maxillary third molar germs in Class III. The presence of mandibular third molar germs in Class III examinees was almost equal in both periods of mixed dentitions. The study confirmed correlation between the presence of third molar germs and sagital maxillomandibular relationship and encourages investigation of the differences in calcifications of all permanent teeth in such malocclusions.

  4. Orthosurgical management of an asymmetric case with class III malocclusion and transversal problem in the maxilla

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Perez Varela; Beatriz Iglesias Sanchez

    2016-01-01

    Class III malocclusions are considered to be one of the most difficult problems to treat. For us, the complex of these cases is the esthetic of the face and the smile because the treatment of the malocclusions without surgery produces a more retrusive face. We present a case report of an adult male patient with skeletal Class III malocclusion with compression in the maxilla and mandibular asymmetry, who has treated the orthosurgical approach. The result is acceptable in terms of occlusion-fun...

  5. Assessment of Upper and Lower Pharyngeal Airway Width in Skeletal Class I, II and III Malocclusions

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    Shalu Jain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a close relationship between the dimensions of airway and the sagittal skeletal malocclusion which makes it reasonable to expect that width of airway is a reflection of determining patency of airway in different skeletal malocclusion groups. So, aim of this study was to assess the upper and lower pharyngeal airway width in skeletal Class I, II and III malocclusion groups and also to evaluate sexual dimorphism in western Uttar Pradesh population. Materials and methods: A sample of 150 subjects in the age group of 18 to 25 years, from Western Uttar Pradesh adult population was selected on the basis of skeletal Class I, II and III malocclusion. Digital lateral cephalograms were taken in natural head position. Nine variables were selected which included four upper and five lower pharyngeal airway variables. Results: Upper and lower pharynx showed statistical significant difference among the skeletal Class I, II and III malocclusion and also between males and females. Conclusion: Wider upper and lower pharyngeal airway width was seen in males than in females in both skeletal Class I as well as Class III malocclusion groups respectively. Skeletal Class III malocclusion subjects had the widest airway width as compared to skeletal Class I malocclusion group. Skeletal Class II malocclusion, airway width was found to be narrowest.

  6. Early treatment of Class III malocclusion by RME and modified Tandem appliance

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    Juhi Ansar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with a skeletal Class III malocclusion and maxillary deficiency can be treated successfully using a combined protraction facemask and alternate rapid maxillary expansions and contractions (Alt-RAMEC. However, due to poor patient compliance during facemask therapy there has been growing interest in intraoral appliances for correcting Class III malocclusion. The tandem traction bow appliance (TTBA is an intraoral appliance which has been used successfully for the treatment of growing Class III patients. This case report describes the management of a 10-year-old boy with a Class III malocclusion and maxillary deficiency treated with modified TTBA appliance.

  7. Management of pseudo Class III malocclusion--synergistic approach with fixed and functional appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Tandon, Pradeep; Singh, Gyan P

    2013-01-01

    Class III malocclusion has been divided into two subtypes: skeletal and pseudo-Class III. A pseudo Class III malocclusion should be treated as early as possible to reduce the functional shift of the mandible and increase maxillary arch length. A case of pseudo-Class III malocclusion was presented here. A 11-year-old boy came with an anterior cross bite, the treatment was done with Fixed appliance (Roth prescription) and Reverse Twin block therapy. This case demonstrated that an anterior cross bite was corrected after 10 months of treatment.

  8. Early treatment of Class III malocclusion by RME and modified Tandem appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansar, Juhi; Maheshwari, Sandhya; Verma, Sanjeev Kumar; Singh, Raj Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Patients with a skeletal Class III malocclusion and maxillary deficiency can be treated successfully using a combined protraction facemask and alternate rapid maxillary expansions and contractions (Alt-RAMEC). However, due to poor patient compliance during facemask therapy there has been growing interest in intraoral appliances for correcting Class III malocclusion. The tandem traction bow appliance (TTBA) is an intraoral appliance which has been used successfully for the treatment of growing Class III patients. This case report describes the management of a 10-year-old boy with a Class III malocclusion and maxillary deficiency treated with modified TTBA appliance.

  9. Early treatment of class III malocclusion with facemask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Robert S D; Ryan, Fiona S

    2017-12-22

    Data sourcesThe Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Embase, Medline and the ClinicalTrials.gov databases.Study selectionRandomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) of children aged 7-12 years with class III malocclusion undergoing fixed or removable orthodontic treatment for early correction were included.Data extraction and synthesisTwo reviewers independently selected studies, abstracted data and assessed risk of bias. The Cochrane risk of bias tool was used for RCTs and the Downs and Black and the Newcastle-Ottawa scales for CCTs. The primary outcome was correction of reverse overjet. Mean differences (MD) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated and a random effects meta-analysis conducted.ResultsFifteen studies (nine RCTs, six CCTs) were included. Only three of the RCTs were considered to be at low risk of bias, all six CCTs were at high risk of bias.Three RCTs (141 patients) compared protraction facemask and untreated control. The results for reverse overjet (MD = 2.5 mm; 95% CI, 1.21-3.79) and ANB angle (MD = 3.90˚; 95% CI, 3.54-4.25) were statistically significant favouring the facemask group. All CCTs demonstrated a statistically significant benefit in favour of the use of each appliance. However, the studies had high risk of bias.ConclusionsThere is a moderate amount of evidence to show that early treatment with a facemask results in positive improvement for both skeletal and dental effects in the short term. However, there was lack of evidence on long-term benefits. There is some evidence with regard to the chincup, tandem traction bow appliance and removable mandibular retractor, but the studies had a high risk of bias. Further high-quality, long-term studies are required to evaluate the early treatment effects for Class III malocclusion patients.

  10. Cranial-base morphology in adults with skeletal Class III malocclusion.

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    Sanggarnjanavanich, Seetala; Sekiya, Toshiko; Nomura, Yoshiaki; Nakayama, Takahiro; Hanada, Nobuhiro; Nakamura, Yoshiki

    2014-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to clarify the characteristics of cranial-base morphology in adults with skeletal Class III malocclusion and investigate factors relating to the establishment of a skeletal Class III malocclusion. Initial lateral cephalograms of women were examined. Subjects with an ANB angle of 0° to 4°, normal overjet and overbite, and a Class I molar relationship were classified as Class I (n = 86). Those with an ANB angle less than -1°, a Wits appraisal less than 2 mm, a negative overjet, and a Class III molar relationship were the Class III group (n = 86) in this study. Angular, linear, and coordinate measurements were made. Multivariate analysis of variance and the Student t test were used to analyze significant differences between the 2 groups. Discriminant analysis, logistic regression analysis, and decision analysis were used to identify which cranial-base and maxillomandibular variables influenced the establishment of a skeletal Class III malocclusion. The Class III group had smaller values for NSBa, SeSBa, FH-SSe, and FH-SBa. Sphenoidale and basion were more inferior and anterior than those of the Class I group. There was no difference in the anterior and posterior cranial-base lengths between the groups. Greater mandibular length was the first major characteristic in the Class III group, followed by smaller values for SeSBa and NSBa. Cranial-base morphology in adults with a skeletal Class III malocclusion is different from that in a skeletal Class I malocclusion. Smaller cranial-base angles, steeper posterior cranial bases, more inferiorly positioned sphenoidale, and more anteriorly positioned basion are major characteristics of skeletal Class III malocclusions. These characteristics play important roles in the establishment of a skeletal Class III malocclusion. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Craniofacial changes in patients with Class III malocclusion treated with the RAMPA system.

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    Mitani, Yasushi; Banabilh, Saeed M; Singh, G Dave

    2010-01-01

    The underlying etiology of Class III malocclusion may be associated with cranial base morphology. The aim of this study is to test the efficacy of a Right-Angled Maxillary Protraction Appliance (RAMPA) System in Asian subjects with Class III malocclusions. 27 homologous landmarks were digitized from lateral cephalographs for 10 pre-pubertal Japanese children (mean age 95 months) with skeletal Class III malocclusion prior to and after RAMPA treatment. The mean, pre- and post-treatment craniofacial configurations were computed using Procrustes superimposition, and subjected to principal components analysis (PCA), and finite-element analysis (FEA). The mean treatment time was 22.5 months. All patients showed significant craniofacial change with correction of anterior and/or posterior crossbite. The mean, pre- and post-treatment craniofacial configurations were statistically different when tested using PCA (p Class III malocclusions.

  12. New model for surgical and nonsurgical therapy in adults with Class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochel, Janka; Emmerich, Stefanie; Meyer-Marcotty, Philipp; Stellzig-Eisenhauer, Angelika

    2011-02-01

    Not all adult Class III malocclusion patients are candidates for surgical correction. In patient assessment and selection, major issues remain regarding diagnosis and treatment planning. The purpose of this investigation was to ascertain whether adding a transverse parameter to a discriminant analysis could improve the classification of adults with Class III malocclusion into 2 groups of patients: those who can effectively be treated by orthodontic therapy and those who require orthognathic surgery. Cephalograms, plaster casts, and extraoral photos of 69 adults with Class III malocclusion were analyzed. A discriminant analysis was performed to identify the variables that best separate the 2 groups. Stepwise variable selection resulted in a new, highly significant (P Class III malocclusion patients with surgical requirements. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of the lateral pterygoid muscle in Class III malocclusion subjects].

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    Liu, Yue-hua; Yang, Xiao-jiang; Gao, Xiao-hui; Li, Yuan

    2012-01-01

    To analyze the relationship between Class III malocclusion and pathological changes in temporomandibular joint (TMJ) structures using magnetic resenonce imaging (MRI). Twenty-four Class III malocclusion adult patients and 10 normal control cases were included in the study. The characteristics of lateral pertygoid muscle (LPM) in the sample group and the control group were assessed. More pathological changes of LPM were found in Class III malocclusion adult patients (36 TMJ). The changes included hypertrophy, atrophy and contracture. And there was no relation between the pathological changes of LPM and the symptom of temporomandibular disorders (TMD). The frequency of pathological changes of LPM was greater in patients with Class III malocclusion than in the control group.

  14. Combination of expansion and orthognathic surgery in a severe hyperdivergent skeletal Class III malocclusion

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    Anadha Gujar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Class III malocclusions with a severe hyperdivergent growth pattern are very complex to plan and treat. This case report describes the treatment of an adult with a skeletal Class III malocclusion with a midface deficiency, severe bilateral posterior crossbite, and a severe hyperdivergent growth pattern by a combination of a bonded rapid maxillary expansion appliance and surgical procedure of Le Fort I osteotomy for maxillary advancement.

  15. Stability of bimaxillary surgery on Class III malocclusion treatment

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    Fernando Antonio Gonçalves

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the stability of bimaxillary surgery in patients with skeletal malocclusion, with the use of rigid internal fixation. METHODS: Lateral cephalograms from 20 patients, 11 males and 9 females, mean age of 26 years and 1 month, were evaluated before surgery, immediately post-operative and at least 6 months after surgery. Nineteen cephalometric measurements were evaluated, and the results were statistically analyzed by means of the Student's t test and the Kruskal-Wallis test. RESULTS: The Le Fort I maxillary advancement surgery showed almost no relapse. There was lack of stability of mandibular setback, with relapse of 37.33% on point B, due to counterclockwise rotation of the mandible between post-operative periods, occurred by better intercuspation after surgery and muscle adaptation. The results showed the same tendencies for both genders. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that on the bimaxillary surgery treatment of Class III malocclusion, the maxillary surgery was very stable, but the mandibular setback recurred. No statistical differences were found in surgical stability between genders.OBJETIVO: avaliar a estabilidade da cirurgia combinada de maxila e mandíbula em pacientes com má oclusão esquelética de Classe III com a utilização de fixação interna rígida. MÉTODOS: utilizaram-se telerradiografias obtidas em norma lateral de 20 pacientes, sendo 11 do sexo masculino e 9 do feminino, com média de idade de 26 anos e 1 mês, avaliados antes da cirurgia, no pós-operatório imediato e no mínimo 6 meses após a cirurgia. Avaliaram-se dezenove grandezas cefalométricas e os resultados foram analisados estatisticamente por meio do teste t de Student e da análise de Kruskal-Wallis. RESULTADOS: a cirurgia de avanço maxilar praticamente não apresentou recidiva. Ocorreu perda de estabilidade do recuo mandibular, com recidiva de 37,33% no ponto B, devido ao giro anti-horário da mandíbula entre os períodos p

  16. Prosthodontic treatment of an Angle III Class malocclusion: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuliš, Andreja; Kopač, Igor

    2017-07-20

    Patients with an Angle Class III malocclusion are generally treated by orthodontics with or without orthognathic surgery. A literature search revealed very few articles describing solely the prosthodontic treatment of a Class III malocclusion, as it is rarely used as a treatment modality in these cases. The purpose of this article is to show the effects and benefits of an increase in the vertical dimension of the occlusion (VDO) in patients with a Class III malocclusion. An increase in the VDO causes a clockwise rotation of the mandible, thereby increasing the reverse overjet. This phenomenon allows a prosthodontic treatment of the Class III malocclusion in some patients. Therefore, proper diagnostic procedures, careful planning, and a simulation of the final appearance by wax-up and mock-up are mandatory when choosing the modality of prosthodontic treatment. A case with a Class III malocclusion, treated solely by prosthodontic means, is presented. The implemented prosthodontic treatment included the correction of the crossbite and the occlusal plane, the reestablishment of the anterior and canine guidance as well as the provision of a stable occlusion and enhanced facial and dental esthetics. It is proposed that an increase of the VDO should be taken into consideration whenever a patient with a Class III malocclusion is prosthodontically treated.

  17. Treatment Options for Class III Malocclusion in Growing Patients with Emphasis on Maxillary Protraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azamian, Zeinab; Shirban, Farinaz

    2016-01-01

    It is very difficult to diagnose and treat Class III malocclusion. This type of malocclusion involves a number of cranial base and maxillary and mandibular skeletal and dental compensation components. In Class III malocclusion originating from mandibular prognathism, orthodontic treatment in growing patients is not a good choice and in most cases orthognathic surgery is recommended after the end of growth. Approximately 30-40% of Class III patients exhibit some degree of maxillary deficiency; therefore, devices can be used for maxillary protraction for orthodontic treatment in early mixed dentition. In cases in which dental components are primarily responsible for Class III malocclusion, early therapeutic intervention is recommended. An electronic search was conducted using the Medline database (Entrez PubMed), the Cochrane Collaboration Oral Health Group Database of Clinical Trials, Science Direct, and Scopus. In this review article, we described the treatment options for Class III malocclusion in growing patient with an emphasis on maxillary protraction. It seems that the most important factor for treatment of Class III malocclusion in growing patient is case selection.

  18. Effects of Class III malocclusion on young male adults' vocal tract development: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Steve An; Lam, Connie W-Y; Whitehill, Tara L; Samman, Nabil

    2011-03-01

    To compare the vocal tract configuration between male speakers with Class III malocclusion and their normally developing counterparts and to investigate the concomitant acoustic changes caused by the alterations in vocal tract configuration. Eight young male patients with Class III malocclusion and 8 normally developing counterparts participated in this study. Acoustic reflection technology was used to measure vocal tract dimensions in the 2 groups. A continuous speech sample and 4 sustained vowels (/a/, /æ/, /i/, and /u/) were recorded from each participant to obtain the fundamental frequency and the first 3 formant frequencies (F1, F2, and F3). The results showed significantly greater oral length and oral volume for young male patients with Class III malocclusion than their cohorts. The F1 of vowel /u/ was found to be significantly higher in male patients with Class III malocclusion than their cohorts. The vowel space of the 4 recorded vowels was reduced and the F1-F2 formant map for /u/ was relatively more scattered in male patients with Class III malocclusion than in the control speakers. This study has provided preliminary information on the effects of Class III malocclusion on vocal tract configuration and concomitant acoustic changes in young male patients. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Orthosurgical management of an asymmetric case with class III malocclusion and transversal problem in the maxilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Perez Varela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Class III malocclusions are considered to be one of the most difficult problems to treat. For us, the complex of these cases is the esthetic of the face and the smile because the treatment of the malocclusions without surgery produces a more retrusive face. We present a case report of an adult male patient with skeletal Class III malocclusion with compression in the maxilla and mandibular asymmetry, who has treated the orthosurgical approach. The result is acceptable in terms of occlusion-function, esthetic of the smile, and facial esthetics.

  20. Pressure from the lips and the tongue in children with class III malocclusion*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Wen-hua; Su, Ji-mei; Ye, Xiao-wei

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To discuss possible relationships between class III malocclusion and perioral forces by measuring the pressure from the lips and the tongue of children with class III malocclusion. Methods: Thirty-one children with class III malocclusion were investigated and their perioral forces were measured at rest and during swallowing under natural head position by a custom-made miniperioral force computer measuring system. Results: The resting pressures exerted on the labial side and palatine side of the upper left incisor, as well as the labial side and lingual side of the lower left incisor, were 0 g/cm2, 0 g/cm2, 0.57 g/cm2 and 0.23 g/cm2, respectively. Correspondingly, the swallowing forces were 2.87 g/cm2, 5.97 g/cm2, 4.09 g/cm2 and 7.89 g/cm2, respectively. No statistical difference between muscular pressure and gender existed. During swallowing, the lingual forces were significantly higher than the labial forces (Pchildren with class III malocclusion had lower perioral forces. The upper labial resting forces (Pclass III malocclusion and normal occlusion. Conclusion: Patients with class III malocclusion have lower perioral forces and this muscle hypofunction may be secondary to the spatial relations of the jaws. The findings support the spatial matrix hypothesis. PMID:17542055

  1. Pressure from the lips and the tongue in children with class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Wen-hua; Su, Ji-mei; Ye, Xiao-wei

    2007-05-01

    To discuss possible relationships between class III malocclusion and perioral forces by measuring the pressure from the lips and the tongue of children with class III malocclusion. Thirty-one children with class III malocclusion were investigated and their perioral forces were measured at rest and during swallowing under natural head position by a custom-made miniperioral force computer measuring system. The resting pressures exerted on the labial side and palatine side of the upper left incisor, as well as the labial side and lingual side of the lower left incisor, were 0 g/cm(2), 0 g/cm(2), 0.57 g/cm(2) and 0.23 g/cm(2), respectively. Correspondingly, the swallowing forces were 2.87 g/cm(2), 5.97 g/cm(2), 4.09 g/cm(2) and 7.89 g/cm(2), respectively. No statistical difference between muscular pressure and gender existed. During swallowing, the lingual forces were significantly higher than the labial forces (Pchildren with class III malocclusion had lower perioral forces. The upper labial resting forces (Pclass III malocclusion and normal occlusion. Patients with class III malocclusion have lower perioral forces and this muscle hypofunction may be secondary to the spatial relations of the jaws. The findings support the spatial matrix hypothesis.

  2. Self-esteem in adolescents with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusion in a Peruvian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florián-Vargas, Karla; Honores, Marcos J Carruitero; Bernabé, Eduardo; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    To compare self-esteem scores in 12 to 16-year-old adolescents with different Angle malocclusion types in a Peruvian sample. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 276 adolescents (159, 52 and 65 with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusions, respectively) from Trujillo, Peru. Participants were asked to complete the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) and were also clinically examined, so as to have Angle malocclusion classification determined. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare RSES scores among adolescents with Class I, II and III malocclusions, with participants' demographic factors being controlled. Mean RSES scores for adolescents with Class I, II and III malocclusions were 20.47 ± 3.96, 21.96 ± 3.27 and 21.26 ± 4.81, respectively. The ANCOVA test showed that adolescents with Class II malocclusion had a significantly higher RSES score than those with Class I malocclusion, but there were no differences between other malocclusion groups. Supplemental analysis suggested that only those with Class II, Division 2 malocclusion might have greater self-esteem when compared to adolescents with Class I malocclusion. This study shows that, in general, self-esteem did not vary according to adolescents' malocclusion in the sample studied. Surprisingly, only adolescents with Class II malocclusion, particularly Class II, Division 2, reported better self-esteem than those with Class I malocclusion. A more detailed analysis assessing the impact of anterior occlusal features should be conducted.

  3. Surgical treatment of dental and skeletal Class III malocclusion

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    Ione Helena Vieira Portella Brunharo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontic preparation for surgical treatment of skeletal Class III malocclusion involves joint planning with an oral and maxillofacial surgeon to address the functional and esthetic needs of the patient. In order to allow surgical manipulation of the jaws in the preoperative phase, the need to achieve a negative overjet through incisor decompensation often leads the orthodontist to extract the upper first premolars. This report illustrates an orthodontic preparation case where due to specific factors inherent in the patient's psychological makeup retroclination of the upper incisors and proclination of the mandibular incisors was achieved without removing any teeth. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Facial Orthopedics (BBO in partial fulfillment of the requirements for obtaining the BBO Diploma.O preparo ortodôntico para tratamento cirúrgico do padrão esquelético de Classe III envolve o planejamento em conjunto com o cirurgião bucomaxilofacial, com o objetivo de solucionar as necessidades funcionais e estéticas do paciente. A fim de permitir a manipulação cirúrgica das bases ósseas, a obtenção de overjet negativo por meio da descompensação dos incisivos, na fase pré-cirúrgica, leva, com frequência, o ortodontista a optar pela exodontia dos primeiros pré-molares superiores. O presente relato ilustra um caso de preparo ortodôntico no qual, devido a fatores específicos inerentes à questão psicológica da paciente, a retroinclinação dos incisivos superiores e vestibularização dos incisivos inferiores foi realizada sem a remoção de elementos dentários. Esse caso foi apresentado à diretoria do Board Brasileiro de Ortodontia e Ortopedia Facial (BBO como parte dos requisitos para a obtenção do título de Diplomado pelo BBO.

  4. A radiographic study of temporomandibular joints in skeletal class III malocclusion

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    Kim, Sung Eun; Kim, Kae Duk [Chosun University College of Medicine, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-06-15

    To investigate the differences between the position of the mandibular condyles in temporomandibular joints of patients presenting with normal occlusion and skeletal class III malocclusion. Forty-two subjects with normal occlusion and thirty-seven subjects exhibiting skeletal class III malocclusion prior to orthodontic treatment were included in the study. Transcranial radiographs of each subject were taken at centric occlusion and 1 inch mouth opening. The positional relationship between the mandibular condyles with articular fossae and articular eminences at two positional states were evaluated and analyzed statistically. The mandibular condyles of the skeletal class III malocclusion group were found to be located more anteriorly from the center of the articular fossae compared to the normal occlusion group in centric occlusion. The mandibular condyles of the skeletal Class III malocclusion group were located more superiorly from the middle of articular height than those of the normal occlusion group in centric occlusion. However, these differences were not statistically significant. At 1 inch mouth opening, the mandibular condyles of the skeletal class III malocclusion group were placed more posteriorly from the articular eminences than those of the normal occlusion group. The mean angle of the articular eminence posterior slope were 56.51 .deg. {+-} 6.29 .deg. in the normal occlusion group and 60.37 .deg. {+-} 6.26 .deg. in the skeletal Class III malocclusion group. The mandibular condyles of the skeletal Class III malocclusion group were placed more anteriorly at centric occlusion and more posteriorly at 1 inch mouth opening when compared with those of the normal occlusion group.

  5. Reverse twin block for interceptive management of developing class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Meenu; Singh, Harpreet; Kumar, Ashok; Sharma, Poonam

    2017-01-01

    Early correction of developing class III malocclusions remains a complex challenge. Treatment approaches for these young patients have been directed at growth modification. Encouraging outcomes have been reported with the use of Class III functional appliances including reverse twin block (RTB) appliance. The present paper tries to provide an insight into RTB appliance used for successful interceptive management of developing class III malocclusion in two children. RTBs were fabricated with bite registered in the position of maximum possible retrusion of mandible with interincisal clearance of 2 mm and vertical clearance of 5 mm in the buccal segments. Anterior crossbite was corrected, and there was a marked improvement in facial appearance of the children. RTB can be a viable and effective functional appliance treatment modality for early management of developing class III malocclusion.

  6. Reverse twin block for interceptive management of developing class III malocclusion

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    Meenu Mittal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Early correction of developing class III malocclusions remains a complex challenge. Treatment approaches for these young patients have been directed at growth modification. Encouraging outcomes have been reported with the use of Class III functional appliances including reverse twin block (RTB appliance. The present paper tries to provide an insight into RTB appliance used for successful interceptive management of developing class III malocclusion in two children. RTBs were fabricated with bite registered in the position of maximum possible retrusion of mandible with interincisal clearance of 2 mm and vertical clearance of 5 mm in the buccal segments. Anterior crossbite was corrected, and there was a marked improvement in facial appearance of the children. RTB can be a viable and effective functional appliance treatment modality for early management of developing class III malocclusion.

  7. Facemask Therapy and Lower Incisor Extraction in Mild Skeletal Class III Malocclusion

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    Poornima Ksheerasagara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Class III malocclusions may be made up of different combinations of skeletal and dentoalveolar components. Consideration of the various components is essential to understanding the underlying causes of the discrepancy which, in turn, is essential in choosing the appropriate treatment. Protraction of facemask therapy has been successful in the early treatment of Class III patients with maxillary deficiencies. However 25 to 33% of the treated patients reverted to an anterior crossbite when they reach their pubertal growth spurt. This case report describes management of mild Class III malocclusion with facemask therapy to address deficient maxilla and lower incisor extraction to relieve lower anterior crowing and proclination. Achieving positive over jet prevents relapse which are high in cases of Class III malocclusions with anterior edge to edge bite.

  8. Disc position in clinically asymptomatic, pretreatment adolescents with Class I, II, or III malocclusion : A retrospective magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökalp, Hatice

    2016-05-01

    To test the null hypothesis that children with Class I, II, and III malocclusions who have not undergone orthodontic therapy present with displaced discs. This study relied on retrospective material consisting of 76 unilateral left sagittal-oblique temporomandibular joint (TMJ) magnetic resonance imaging (MRIs) and lateral cephalometric radiographs taken in maximum intercuspal position in patients with clinically symptom-free and orthodontically untreated Class I (n = 30; 19 girls and 11 boys), Class II (n = 26; 10 girls and 16 boys), and Class III malocclusion (n = 20; 5 girls and 15 boys). The mean ages of patients with Class I, II, and III malocclusions were 10.55 ± 0.81, 11.71 ± 0.31, and 8.98 ± 1.80 years, respectively. Study groups were compared with one-way ANOVA analysis or Welch ANOVA test. Differences were evaluated via the Tukey HSD or Games-Howell test. Disc-condyle positions were almost within normal limits in Class I malocclusion. The disc was positioned anteriorly relative to the condyle (p Class II malocclusion (p Class III malocclusion. Disc-condyle positions were observed to be almost identical in all three malocclusion classes. Disc-condyle position was nearly normal in patients with Class I malocclusion. Nevertheless, a Class II malocclusion is more apt to reveal anterior disc displacement than a Class III malocclusion.

  9. Effectiveness of interceptive treatment of class III malocclusions with skeletal anchorage: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jorge Rodríguez de Guzmán-Barrera; Carla Sáez Martínez; Montserrat Boronat-Catalá; Jose María Montiel-Company; Vanessa Paredes-Gallardo; José Luís Gandía-Franco; José Manuel Almerich-Silla; Carlos Bellot-Arcís

    2017-01-01

      Recently, new strategies for treating class III malocclusions have appeared. Skeletal anchorage appears to reduce the dentoalveolar effects while maximising the orthopaedic effect in growing patients...

  10. Early treatment of Class III malocclusion with a tandem traction bow appliance

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    Sneha Basaveshwar Valgadde

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since Class III malocclusion is progressive in nature, the facial growth of Class III malocclusion worsens with age. Class III malocclusion is associated with a deviation in the sagittal relationship of the maxilla and the mandible, characterized by a deficient maxilla, retrognathic mandible, or a combination of both. The early orthopedic treatment of Class III malocclusions, at the end of primary dentition or the beginning of mixed dentition, prior to growth spurt, allows the accomplishment of successful results, providing facial balance, modifying the maxillofacial growth and development, and in many instances, preventing a future surgical treatment by increasing the stability. Many treatment approaches can be found in the literature regarding orthopedic and orthodontic treatment of Class III malocclusion, including intra- and extra-oral appliances. The major problem with extraoral anchorage has been of patient compliance due to its physical appearance. The case report presents an intraoral modified tandem appliance for maxillary protraction that has been used clinically to achieve successful results without relying much on patient co-operation.

  11. A missense mutation in DUSP6 is associated with Class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikopensius, T; Saag, M; Jagomägi, T; Annilo, T; Kals, M; Kivistik, P A; Milani, L; Metspalu, A

    2013-10-01

    Class III malocclusion is a common dentofacial phenotype with a variable prevalence according to ethnic background. The etiology of Class III malocclusion has been attributed mainly to interactions between susceptibility genes and environmental factors during the morphogenesis of the mandible and maxilla. Class III malocclusion shows familial recurrence, and family-based studies support a predominance of an autosomal-dominant mode of inheritance. We performed whole-exome sequencing on five siblings from an Estonian family affected by Class III malocclusion. We identified a rare heterozygous missense mutation, c.545C>T (p.Ser182Phe), in the DUSP6 gene, a likely causal variant. This variant co-segregated with the disease following an autosomal-dominant mode of inheritance with incomplete penetrance. Transcriptional activation of DUSP6 has been presumed to be regulated by FGF/FGFR and MAPK/ERK signaling during fundamental processes at early stages of skeletal development. Several candidate genes within a linkage region on chromosome 12q22-q23--harboring DUSP6--are implicated in the regulation of maxillary or mandibular growth. The current study reinforces that the 12q22-q23 region is biologically relevant to craniofacial development and may be genetically linked to the Class III malocclusion.

  12. [Morphological characteristics of mandibular symphysis in adult skeletal class II and class III malocclusions with abnormal vertical skeletal patterns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Na; Zhao, Zhi-he; Liao, Chun-hui; Zhao, Mei-ying

    2010-08-01

    To figure out the differences of the morphological characteristics of mandibular symphysis between Class II and Class III adult skeletal malocclusions with different abnormal vertical skeletal patterns. 109 Chinese female adults of skeletal Class II and Class III were chosen and divided into four groups according to vertical and sagittal skeletal pattern: Class II--vertical-growth-pattern group (n=30), Class III--vertical-growth-pattern group (n=25), Class II--horizontal-growth-pattern group (n=29), Class III--horizontal-growth-pattern (n=25). Lateral cephalograms were taken. The symphyseal widths and heights, along with lower incisor positions were evaluated. Observation and statistics analysis were done to clarify the morphological characteristics of the symphyseal region of different skeletal patterns. There were morphological differences of symphyseal region between Class II and Class III skeletal malocclusions, but not significant in width and total height. With a vertical-growth-pattern, Class II malocclusions had higher alveolus than Class III, but smaller chin prominence and lower basal bone (P pattern, Class II malocclusions had higher alveolus (P skeletal pattern, vertical-growth-pattern group had thinner but higher symphyseal region and bigger chin prominence (P pattern malocclusion was prone to have a cucurbit-morph chin, of which Id width was larger than basal width (P skeletal malocclusions with different abnormal vertical skeletal patterns. The influence of abnormal vertical skeletal pattern to symphyseal morphological characteristics is greater than that of abnormal sagittal skeletal pattern. There is a risk of orthodontic movement of low incisors in vertical-growth-pattern skeletal malocclusion.

  13. Phenotypic diversity in white adults with moderate to severe Class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Uribe, Lina M; Vela, Kaci C; Kummet, Colleen; Dawson, Deborah V; Southard, Thomas E

    2013-07-01

    Class III malocclusion is characterized by a composite of dentoskeletal patterns that lead to the forward positioning of the mandibular teeth in relation to the maxillary teeth and a concave profile. Environmental and genetic factors are associated with this condition, which affects 1% of the population in the United States and imposes significant esthetic and functional burdens on affected persons. The purpose of this study was to capture the phenotypic variation in a large sample of white adults with Class III malocclusion using multivariate reduction methods. Sixty-three lateral cephalometric variables were measured from the pretreatment records of 292 white subjects with Class II malocclusion (126 male, 166 female; ages, 16-57 years). Principal component analysis and cluster analysis were used to capture the phenotypic variation and identify the most homogeneous groups of subjects to reduce genetic heterogeneity. Principal component analysis resulted in 6 principal components that accounted for 81.2% of the variation. The first 3 components represented variation in mandibular horizontal and vertical positions, maxillary horizontal position, and mandibular incisor angulation. The cluster model identified 5 distinct subphenotypes of Class III malocclusion. A spectrum of phenotypic definitions was obtained replicating results of previous studies and supporting the validity of these phenotypic measures in future research of the genetic and environmental etiologies of Class III malocclusion. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Inheritance of craniofacial features in Colombian families with class III malocclusion

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    L Otero

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available L Otero, L Quintero, D Champsaur, E SimancaPontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá, ColombiaIntroduction: The inheritance of class III malocclusion has been well documented, but the inheritance of craniofacial structures in Colombian families with this malocclusion has been not yet reported.Patients and methods: The study sample of 25 families comprised 186 untreated orthodontic individuals from 8 to 60 years old. Pedigrees were drawn using Cyrillic software. Complete family histories for each proband were ascertained and the affection status of relatives was confirmed by lateral cephalograms and facial and dental photographs. Analysis of variance and odds ratio test for each parameter was performed to estimate inheritance from parents to offspring and to determine similar phenotypic features in relatives.Results: The analysis of the pedigrees suggests autosomal dominant inheritance. The craniofacial characteristics that showed more resemblance between parents and offspring were middle facial height, shorter anterior cranial base and mandibular prognathism. In contrast the protrusion of upper lip and maxillary retrusion were the phenotypic features that contributed to class III in the majority of families.Conclusion: Knowledge of the inheritance of craniofacial phenotypes in class III malocclusion will enable the design of new therapies to treat this malocclusion.Keywords: inheritance, craniofacial, phenotype, class III malocclusion

  15. Cephalometric Evaluation of Dentofacial Features of Class III Malocclusion in Adults of Mashhad, Iran

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    Maryam Pousti

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and aims. Class III malocclusions are considered as one of the most complex orthodontic problems to diagnose and treat. Numerous studies have been conducted to determine the morphologic characteristics of craniofacial complex in patients with this malocclusion. The aim of this study was to determine the dentofacial characteristics of Class III malocclusion in Mashhadian adults.

    Materials and Methods. This cross-sectional descriptive study consisted of 114 cephalograms including 57 individuals with Class III malocclusion (28 males and 29 females with mean age of 19.28 years as the case group, and 57 adults with uncrowded Class I occlusion (28 males and 29 females with mean age of 17.2 years as the control group. Cephalometric evaluation was performed by measuring nine angular and nine linear measurements and the dentofacial characteristics of two groups were compared by Student’s t-test.

    Results. SNA angle, the distance from A point to Nasion perpendicular and the maxillary effective length was significantly lower in Class III group, while SNB and SN-Pog angles were significantly higher compared to control group. Mandibular effective length did not differ in two groups. Maxillary incisor protrusion and mandibular incisor retrusion in Class III subjects was also observed. From the vertical aspect, only mandibular plane angle showed an increase in Class III group (P < 0.05.

    Conclusion. Maxillary deficiency, mandibular prognathism, maxillary incisors protrusion and mandibular incisors retrusion are present in individuals with Class III malocclusion, but mandibular effective length does not differ significantly from Class I patients.

  16. Management of skeletal Class III malocclusion with face mask therapy and comprehensive orthodontic treatment

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    Kirthika Muthukumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthopedic correction of skeletal Class III malocclusion in a growing patient is crucial as it can circumvent future surgical procedures. Further, as surgery is done only at a later stage, early treatment helps to avoid the detrimental effects produced by the facial disfigurement on the patient's social life. This case report describes the treatment of a child aged 9 years 6 months who had a skeletal Class III malocclusion. The treatment plan involved the use of a reverse pull headgear (facemask and multibracket appliance therapy resulting in successful correction of the malocclusion. The treatment results were highly satisfactory resulting in improved facial esthetics, a skeletal Class I with a Dental Class I molar and canine relationship, an ideal overjet and overbite. Thus, dentoalveolar camouflage, if done in properly selected cases, alleviates the need for surgical intervention. The patient is being monitored until the end of growth to ensure the stability of treatment results.

  17. Management of skeletal Class III malocclusion with face mask therapy and comprehensive orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukumar, Kirthika; Vijaykumar, N M; Sainath, M C

    2016-01-01

    Orthopedic correction of skeletal Class III malocclusion in a growing patient is crucial as it can circumvent future surgical procedures. Further, as surgery is done only at a later stage, early treatment helps to avoid the detrimental effects produced by the facial disfigurement on the patient's social life. This case report describes the treatment of a child aged 9 years 6 months who had a skeletal Class III malocclusion. The treatment plan involved the use of a reverse pull headgear (facemask) and multibracket appliance therapy resulting in successful correction of the malocclusion. The treatment results were highly satisfactory resulting in improved facial esthetics, a skeletal Class I with a Dental Class I molar and canine relationship, an ideal overjet and overbite. Thus, dentoalveolar camouflage, if done in properly selected cases, alleviates the need for surgical intervention. The patient is being monitored until the end of growth to ensure the stability of treatment results.

  18. Relationship between Class III malocclusion and hyoid bone displacement during swallowing: a cine-magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokce, Sila Mermut; Gokce, Hasan Suat; Gorgulu, Serkan; Karacay, Seniz; Akca, Eralp; Olmez, Huseyin

    2012-08-01

    The displacement of the hyoid bone (HB) is a critical biomechanical component of the swallowing function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the swallowing-induced vertical and horizontal displacements of the HB in subjects with 2 different magnitudes of skeletal Class III malocclusion, by means of real-time, balanced turbo-field-echo (B-TFE) cine-magnetic resonance imaging. The study population comprised 19 patients with mild skeletal Class III malocclusion, 16 with severe skeletal Class III malocclusion, and 20 with a skeletal Class I relationship. Before the commencement of the study, all subjects underwent cephalometric analysis to identify the nature of skeletal malformations. B-TFE images were obtained for the 4 consecutive stages of deglutition as each patient swallowed 10 mL of water, and the vertical and horizontal displacements of the HB were measured at each stage. At all stages of swallowing, the vertical position of the HB in the severe Class III malocclusion group was significantly lower than those in the mild Class III and Class I malocclusion groups. Similarly, the horizontal displacement of the HB was found to be significantly associated with the severity of malocclusion, i.e., the degree of Class III malocclusion, while the amount of anterior displacement of the HB decreased with an increase in the severity of the Class III deformity. Our findings indicate the existence of a relationship between the magnitude of Class III malocclusion and HB displacement during swallowing.

  19. Cephalometric characteristics of Korean children with Class III malocclusion in the deciduous dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyung-Jun; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Yoo, Seung Eun; Kwon, Jang-Hyuk; Park, Kitae

    2010-01-01

    To compare the cephalometric characteristics of children with Class III malocclusion to those of children with normal occlusion during the deciduous dentition phase. Cephalometric measurements of 27 children (mean age: 5.03 years) diagnosed with Class III malocclusion were compared with 32 children (mean age: 4.85 years) diagnosed with normal occlusion in the following four categories: sagittal skeletal analysis, vertical skeletal analysis, dentoalveolar analysis, and soft tissue analysis. Significant differences were seen in all categories except vertical skeletal analysis. Sagittal skeletal measurements included ANB (Class III group: -0.91 +/- 1.60; normal group: 5.28 +/- 1.29), facial convexity (Class III group: 0.47 +/- 4.32; normal group: 13.65 +/- 3.44), Wits appraisal (Class III group: -5.54 +/- 2.36; normal group: -0.84 +/- 1.91), and A to N-perpendicular (Class III group: -2.94 +/- 3.05; normal group: 0.78 +/- 2.53). Dentoalveolar measurements included U1 to NA (Class III group: 11.98 +/- 5.25; normal group: 8.12 +/- 5.43), IMPA (Class III group: 81.34 +/- 7.40; normal group: 86.57 +/- 5.67), and interincisal angle (Class III group: 152.65 +/- 8.82; normal group: 145.03 +/- 7.34). Soft tissue measurements included soft tissue convexity (Class III group: 2.47 +/- 4.20; normal group: 12.71 +/- 3.95), nasofacial angle (Class III group: 22.68 +/- 4.22; normal group: 26.24 +/- 3.84), and upper lip to esthetic plane (Class III group: -0.65 +/- 2.74; normal group: 3.07 +/- 1.90). There are significant differences between the craniofacial patterns of normal children and those of children with Class III malocclusion that can be identified with cephalometric analysis as early as the deciduous dentition phase.

  20. Glenoid fossa position in Class III malocclusion associated with mandibular protrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocenti, Cristina; Giuntini, Veronica; Defraia, Efisio; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2009-04-01

    Our aim in this study was to investigate the position of the glenoid fossa in subjects with Class III malocclusion associated with mandibular protrusion to better clarify the role of this craniofacial component in Class III skeletal disharmony. A sample of 30 subjects, aged 8 years +/- 6 months, with skeletal and dental Class III malocclusion associated with mandibular protrusion, normal skeletal vertical relationships, and normal mandibular dimensions, was compared with a control group of 33 subjects with skeletal and dental Class I relationships. The comparisons between the Class III group and the control group on the cephalometric measures for the assessment of glenoid fossa position were performed with the Mann-Whitney U test at P mandibular protrusion. An effective measurement to evaluate glenoid fossa position in craniofacial relationships is the cephalometric distance from the glenoid fossa to the frontomaxillary-nasal suture.

  1. The Effect of Chin-cup Therapy in Class III Malocclusion: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousoulea, Sophia; Tsolakis, Ioannis; Ferdianakis, Efstratios; Tsolakis, Apostolos I

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of Class III malocclusion has been challenging for orthodontists. Among a plethora of treatment modalities, the chin-cup is considered a traditional appliance for early orthopedic intervention. The present study aims to investigate the current scientific evidence regarding the effectiveness of chin-cup therapy in Class III malocclusion of prognathic growing patients. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using PubMed/Medline and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from January 1954 to October 2015. Articles were selected based on established inclusion/ exclusion criteria. The search strategy resulted in 3285 articles.14 studies were selected for the final analysis. They were all CCTs, 13 of retrospective and 1 of prospective design. Methodological quality was evaluated by a risk of bias assessment, as suggested by the Cochrane Risk of Bias Assessment Tool for Non-Randomized Studies on Interventions. The reported evidence presented favorable short-term outcomes both in hard and soft tissues improving the Class III profile, as well as desirable dento-alveolar changes, positively affecting the Class III malocclusion. There is considerable agreement between studies that chin-cup therapy can be considered for the short-term treatment of growing patients with Class III malocclusion, as indicated by favorable changes both in the hard and soft tissues. The existence of considerable risk of bias in all selected studies and the unclear long-term effectiveness of chin-cup therapy highlight the need for further investigation to draw reliable conclusions.

  2. Phenotypic Diversity in Caucasian Adults with Moderate to Severe Class III Malocclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Uribe, Lina M.; Vela, Kaci C.; Kummet, Colleen; Dawson, Deborah V.; Southard, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Class III malocclusion is characterized by a composite of dento-skeletal patterns that lead to the forward positioning of the mandibular teeth in relation to the maxillary teeth and a concave profile. Environmental and genetic factors are associated with this condition, which affects 1% of the US population and imposes significant esthetic and functional burdens on affected individuals. The purpose of this study was to capture the phenotypic variation present in a large sample of white adults with Class III malocclusion by using multivariate reduction methods. METHODS Sixty-three lateral cephalometric variables were measured from pre-treatment records of 292 Class II Caucasian adults (126 males, 166 females; ages 16-57 years). Principal component analysis and cluster analysis were used to capture the phenotypic variation and identify the most homogeneous groups of individuals to reduce genetic heterogeneity. RESULTS Principal component analysis resulted in 6 principal components that accounted for 81.2% of the variation. The first three components represented variations in mandibular horizontal and vertical position, maxillary horizontal position, and mandibular incisor angulation, respectively. The cluster model identified 5 distinct subphenotypes of Class III malocclusion. CONCLUSIONS A spectrum of phenotypic definitions was obtained replicating results of previous studies and supporting the validity of these phenotypic measures in future research of genetic and environmental etiology of Class III malocclusion. PMID:23810043

  3. Morphometric Analysis of the Mandible in Subjects with Class III Malocclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Jin-Yun Pan; Szu-Ting Chou; Hong-Po Chang; Pao-Hsin Liu

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the deformations that contribute to Class III mandibular configuration, employing geometric morphometric analysis. Lateral cephalograms of male and female groups of 100 young adults and 70 children with Class III malocclusion were compared to those of counterparts with normal occlusion. The sample included an equal number of both genders. The cephalographs were traced, and 12 homologous landmarks were identified and digitized. Average mandibular geometries were generated ...

  4. Self-esteem in adolescents with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusion in a Peruvian sample

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    Karla Florián-Vargas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To compare self-esteem scores in 12 to 16-year-old adolescents with different Angle malocclusion types in a Peruvian sample. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 276 adolescents (159, 52 and 65 with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusions, respectively from Trujillo, Peru. Participants were asked to complete the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES and were also clinically examined, so as to have Angle malocclusion classification determined. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA was used to compare RSES scores among adolescents with Class I, II and III malocclusions, with participants' demographic factors being controlled. Results: Mean RSES scores for adolescents with Class I, II and III malocclusions were 20.47 ± 3.96, 21.96 ± 3.27 and 21.26 ± 4.81, respectively. The ANCOVA test showed that adolescents with Class II malocclusion had a significantly higher RSES score than those with Class I malocclusion, but there were no differences between other malocclusion groups. Supplemental analysis suggested that only those with Class II, Division 2 malocclusion might have greater self-esteem when compared to adolescents with Class I malocclusion. Conclusion: This study shows that, in general, self-esteem did not vary according to adolescents' malocclusion in the sample studied. Surprisingly, only adolescents with Class II malocclusion, particularly Class II, Division 2, reported better self-esteem than those with Class I malocclusion. A more detailed analysis assessing the impact of anterior occlusal features should be conducted.

  5. Morphometric Analysis of the Mandible in Subjects with Class III Malocclusion

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    Jin-Yun Pan

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the deformations that contribute to Class III mandibular configuration, employing geometric morphometric analysis. Lateral cephalograms of male and female groups of 100 young adults and 70 children with Class III malocclusion were compared to those of counterparts with normal occlusion. The sample included an equal number of both genders. The cephalographs were traced, and 12 homologous landmarks were identified and digitized. Average mandibular geometries were generated by means of Procrustes analysis. Thin-plate spline analysis was then applied to mandibular configurations to determine local form differences in male and female groups of adults and children with normal occlusion and Class III malocclusion. The mandibular morphology was significantly different between these two groups of male and female adults, and children (p < 0.0001. This spline analysis revealed an anteroposterior elongation of the mandible along the condylion-gnathion axis, showing an extension in the regions of the mandibular condyle and ramus, and of the anteroinferior portion of the mandibular symphysis in Class III groups. More extension was evident in Class III adults. The deformations in subjects with Class III malocclusion may represent a developmental elongation of the mandible anteroposteriorly, which leads to the appearance of a prognathic mandibular profile.

  6. Orthodontic-surgical treatment of the skeletal class III malocclusion: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanović, Ljiljana S; Mileusnić, Ivan; Mileusnić, Budimir; Cutović, Tatjana

    2013-02-01

    Class III malocclusions are considered to be ones of the most difficult problems to treat. Their causes are multifactorial and include genetic and/or environmental factors. Class III malocclusions are generally classified into 2 categories: skeletal and dental. The diagnosis is important due to the different treatment approaches. Generally a dental class III can be treated with orthodontics alone, while a true skeletal class III requires a combination of orthodontics and surgery. We presented a female patient with skeletal Class III malocclusion. The treatment was complete with positive overbite and acceptable occlusion using a combination of fixed orthodontic appliance treatment as well as the surgical operation. The patient was happy with her new appearance and function. Class III discrepancy should be diagnosed and classified according to its etiology and treated with appropriate surgery, including, if necessary, not only mandibular, but also maxillary surgery, in order to achieve a normal facial appearance. In any case, as the field of orthodontics continues to develop technologically and philosophically, we can expect that advances in diagnosis and treatment planning are im minent and inevitable.

  7. Soft Tissue Characteristics and Gender Dimorphism in Class III Malocclusion: a Cephalometric Study in Adult Greeks

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    Kavvadia Smaragda

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Class III malocclusion case are considered complex problems associated with unacceptable esthetics. The purpose of the present study was to assess the characteristics of the soft tissue profile and investigate the possible gender differences in adult Greeks with Class III malocclusion. Material and Methods: The material of the study comprised of 57 pretreatment lateral cephalograms of adult patients with Class III malocclusion aged 18 to 39 years. Eleven variables were assessed. The variables were measured and the mean, minimum and maximum and standard deviations were calculated. Parametric and non-parametric tests were used to compare males and females patients. Results: The total sample was characterized by concave skeletal profile. Male patients exhibited greater nose prominence and superior sulcus depth, longer distance from subnasale to the harmony line, more concave profile, thicker upper lip and larger upper lip strain. Conclusions: Many significant differences were noted in soft tissue characteristics between males and females with skeletal Class III malocclusion, suggesting possible gender dimorphism.

  8. Prediction of the outcome of orthodontic treatment of Class III malocclusions--a systematic review

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    Fudalej, P.S.; Dragan, M.; Wedrychowska-Szulc, B.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to systematically review the orthodontic literature to assess the effectiveness of a prediction of outcome of orthodontic treatment in subjects with a Class III malocclusion. A structured search of electronic databases, as well as hand searching, retrieved 232

  9. Management of skeletal Class III malocclusion with reverse pull headgear in a growing individual

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    Ambreen Afzal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal Class III malocclusion is considered to be one of the most difficult orthodontic problems to treat. This malocclusion is associated with the retrognathic maxilla or prognathic mandible or sometimes a combination of both. The treatment of such cases requires an integrated approach and a comprehensive treatment plan including growth modification, dental camouflage, or orthognathic surgery. In a growing patient, orthopedic correction of skeletal Class III malocclusion with the help of a reverse pull headgear is crucial as it can reduce the chances of further surgical treatment to correct the skeletal discrepancy. This case report describes the management of skeletal Class III malocclusion in a 12-year-old female child with a retrognathic maxilla. The patient did not have any other genetic abnormality or significant known comorbidity. The treatment plan involved fixed orthodontic appliance therapy in combination with a reverse pull headgear for an orthopedic effect. This treatment was continued for 3 years, and well-aligned dental arches with a positive over jet were achieved at the conclusion of treatment. Using facemask therapy in conjunction with fixed orthodontic appliances has been a successful treatment option in growing children. Treatment should be carried out as early as possible to correct the skeletal discrepancy nonsurgically and achieve better results.

  10. Asymmetric class III malocclusion: association with cranial base deformation and occult torticollis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Joyce T; Teng, Edward; Heller, Justin B; Kawamoto, Henry K; Bradley, James P

    2012-09-01

    The etiology of Angle class III malocclusion with facial asymmetry has not been fully elucidated. To investigate the etiology, patients with asymmetric prognathism (n = 30) from a single institution were assessed for previously undiagnosed torticollis and cranial base asymmetry. Presence of torticollis was determined by measuring restricted head movement when turning the head against a wall and cranial base tilt with upward gaze. Cranial base asymmetry was evaluated by preoperative three-dimensional computed tomography scans. Thirty-one percent of patients with prognathism presented with concurrent facial asymmetry. In patients with asymmetric prognathism, cranial base tilt was present on upward gaze in all patients; mean angle between head and wall was 31 degrees greater than that in control patients, and a 22% to 36% difference in the angle was present when comparing one side with the other. Based on these findings, all patients with asymmetric prognathism were found to be affected by torticollis. By computed tomography scan, 85% of these torticollis patients showed slight anteromedial displacement of the glenoid fossa ipsilateral to torticollis, and 73% demonstrated temporal fossa shift of 4 mm or greater. The current study demonstrates a strong association between asymmetric class III malocclusion, torticollis, and cranial base asymmetry. We conclude that undiagnosed torticollis is a likely etiology for otherwise idiopathic cranial base asymmetry and that cranial base asymmetry in turn causes facial asymmetry and malocclusion. This study highlights the importance of evaluating cranial base asymmetry and torticollis in patients with class III malocclusion to allow for earlier treatment and improved outcomes.

  11. Early orthopedic correction of skeletal Class III malocclusion using combined reverse twin block and face mask therapy

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    Vinay Kumar Chugh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 6-year 8-month-old girl presented with a moderate Class III malocclusion characterized by mid-face deficiency and an anterior cross bite. In the first phase, the patient was treated with combination of reverse twin block and facemask therapy. In phase two, fixed appliances were placed in the permanent dentition. The post treatment results were good and a favorable growth tendency could be observed. The correction of the Class III malocclusion occurred by a combination of skeletal and dental improvements. This report shows successful correction of skeletal Class III malocclusion in the early transitional dentition using combination therapy.

  12. Early orthopedic correction of skeletal Class III malocclusion using combined reverse twin block and face mask therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chugh, Vinay Kumar; Tandon, Pradeep; Prasad, Veerendra; Chugh, Ankita

    2015-01-01

    A 6-year 8-month-old girl presented with a moderate Class III malocclusion characterized by mid-face deficiency and an anterior cross bite. In the first phase, the patient was treated with combination of reverse twin block and facemask therapy. In phase two, fixed appliances were placed in the permanent dentition. The post treatment results were good and a favorable growth tendency could be observed. The correction of the Class III malocclusion occurred by a combination of skeletal and dental improvements. This report shows successful correction of skeletal Class III malocclusion in the early transitional dentition using combination therapy.

  13. Orthodontic camouflage of skeletal Class III malocclusion with miniplate: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farret, Marcel Marchiori; Farret, Milton M Benitez; Farret, Alessandro Marchiori

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal Class III malocclusion is often referred for orthodontic treatment combined with orthognathic surgery. However, with the aid of miniplates, some moderate discrepancies become feasible to be treated without surgery. To report the case of a 24-year-old man with severe skeletal Angle Class III malocclusion with anterior crossbite and a consequent concave facial profile. The patient refused to undergo orthognathic surgery; therefore, orthodontic camouflage treatment with the aid of miniplates placed on the mandibular arch was proposed. After 18 months of treatment, a Class I molar and canine relationship was achieved, while anterior crossbite was corrected by retraction of mandibular teeth. The consequent decrease in lower lip fullness and increased exposure of maxillary incisors at smiling resulted in a remarkable improvement of patient's facial profile, in addition to an esthetically pleasing smile, respectively. One year later, follow-up revealed good stability of results.

  14. Angle Class III malocclusion with anteroposterior and vertical discrepancy in the final stage of growth

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    Marcelo B. P de Arruda

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Angle Class III malocclusion is characterized by an anteroposterior dental discrepancy with or without anteroposterior and vertical skeletal changes. Patients usually seek orthodontic treatment because facial appearance is compromised in most cases. The present study describes the clinical case of a 12-year and 6-month-old girl in her final stage of pubertal growth presenting Class III malocclusion with anteroposterior and vertical discrepancies. Initial treatment consisted of maxillary expansion using a Hass expander followed by the use of a Petit facemask for a minimum of 16 hours a day. During corrective treatment, Class III elastics were used to complement protraction. At the end of the treatment, skeletal discrepancy had improved, and the ANB angle increased from 0 to 2o. Angle Class III malocclusion, anterior crossbite and open bite were corrected. This case was presented to the Committee of the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Facial Orthopedics (BBO as part of the requisites to become a BBO Diplomate.

  15. Prevalence of class III malocclusion and crossbite among children and adolescents with craniomandibular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, Nenad; Drinkuth, Nicole; Toll, Douglas E

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have been devoted to the causes of craniomandibular dysfunction (CMD). This investigation addressed the effect of class III malocclusion and crossbite on CMD based on a sample of 115 prepubertal and adolescent patients of both sexes. Although class III malocclusion only accounted for 12.2% of the total sample, thus, being the smallest group, the percentage of crossbite (71.4%) among these patients was disproportionately higher than among the other classes. Of the total sample, the prevalence of crossbite was 30.4%. We compared these findings to a large-scale (n=4727) study by Thilander et al. (2002), who reported a strikingly high percentage of class I patients compared to our findings (72.7% versus 27.8%) and a lower percentage of crossbite cases (8.0% versus 30.4%). In accordance with the "orthodontic risk child" concept by Grabowski et al. (2007) and Stahl et al. (2007), we conclude that class III malocclusion and crossbite are keys in the pathogenesis of CMD.

  16. Early orthodontic treatment for Class III malocclusion: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woon, See Choong; Thiruvenkatachari, Badri

    2017-01-01

    Class III malocclusion affects between 5% and 15% of our population. The 2 most common dilemmas surrounding Class III treatment are the timing of treatment and the type of appliance. A number of appliances have been used to correct a Class III skeletal discrepancy, but there is little evidence available on their effectiveness in the long term. Similarly, early treatment of Class III malocclusion has been practiced with increasing interest. However, there has been no solid evidence on the benefits in the long term. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effectiveness of orthodontic/orthopedic methods used in the early treatment of Class III malocclusion in the short and long terms. Several sources were used to identify all relevant studies independently of language. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Embase (Ovid), and MEDLINE (Ovid) were searched to June 2016. The selection criteria included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and prospective controlled clinical trials (CCTs) of children between the ages of 7 and 12 years on early treatment with any type of orthodontic/orthopedic appliance compared with another appliance to correct Class III malocclusion or with an untreated control group. The primary outcome measure was correction of reverse overjet, and the secondary outcomes included skeletal changes, soft tissue changes, quality of life, patient compliance, adverse effect, Peer Assessment Rating score, and treatment time. The search results were screened for inclusion, and the data extracted by 2 independent authors. The data were analyzed using software (version 5.1, Review Manager; The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration; Copenhagen, Denmark). The mean differences with 95% confidence intervals were expressed for the continuous data. Random effects were carried out with high levels of clinical or statistical heterogeneity and fixed affects when the heterogeneity was low

  17. Correction of class III malocclusion using modified tandem appliance-two case reports

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    J Jeevarathan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal discrepancies in growing children can have great physical and psychological impact on their appearance. These deformities require orthopedic correction at an appropriate age to avoid future extensive management. Managing a midfacial deficiency or true mandibular prognathism is perhaps the most challenging situation for the clinician. Many orthopedic appliances like chin cup, facemask, and so on have been advocated to correct class III malocclusion. The major problems with these appliances are physical appearance, skin irritation from the anchorage pads and hence, less patient compliance. We present management of class III malocclusion in two children with modified tandem appliance (MTA, which is an intraoral appliance, with no extraoral anchorage, and has better patient compliance and cooperation.

  18. Correction of class III malocclusion using modified tandem appliance-two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarathan, J; Koora, Kiran; Sudhakar, V; Muthu, M S; Prabhu, Rathna V

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal discrepancies in growing children can have great physical and psychological impact on their appearance. These deformities require orthopedic correction at an appropriate age to avoid future extensive management. Managing a midfacial deficiency or true mandibular prognathism is perhaps the most challenging situation for the clinician. Many orthopedic appliances like chin cup, facemask, and so on have been advocated to correct class III malocclusion. The major problems with these appliances are physical appearance, skin irritation from the anchorage pads and hence, less patient compliance. We present management of class III malocclusion in two children with modified tandem appliance (MTA), which is an intraoral appliance, with no extraoral anchorage, and has better patient compliance and cooperation.

  19. A roentgenocephalometric study on the condylar displacement in angle's class I and III malocclusion

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    Lee, Jeong Hwa; Park, Chang Seo [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-11-15

    The purpose of this investigation was to know correlation of mean values between centric occlusion and centric relation by the cephalogram in Angle's Class I and III malocclusion subjects. 22 adults with Angle's Class I malocclusion (17 men and 5 women, 21 to 27 years of age) and 14 adult with Angle's class III malocclusion (10 men and 4 women, 21 to 27 years of age) were selected form the dental students in Yonsei University. Each subject was given two lateral cephalometric radiographics and cephalometric analysis was performed. All data form these analyses was recorded and statistically processed with CYBER computer system. The results were obtained as follows: 1. There was a strong positive correlation between centric occlusion and centric relation in all subjects with Angle's Class I and III malocclusion. 2. In Angle's Class I malocclusion, measurements in lower facial height revealed significant difference between centric occlusion and centric relation (p<0.05). 3.When the mandible was movement was 1.27 mm (0.2-2.8 mm) in Angle's Class I malocclusion, 1.70 mm(0.55-4.15 mm) in Angle's Class III malocclusion, and 1.44 mm (0.2- 4.15 mm) in all subjects.

  20. Treatment Effects of Occipitomental Anchorage Appliance of Maxillary Protraction Combined with Chincup Traction in Children with Class III Malocclusion

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    Hsiang-Chien Lin

    2007-05-01

    Conclusion: Our results suggest that the OMA orthopedic appliance can correct the mesial jaw relationship and negative incisal overjet. This appliance is effective for correcting skeletal Class III malocclusion with both midface deficiency and Mn prognathism in growing children.

  1. The effects of two methods of Class III malocclusion treatment on temporomandibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Hanefi; Alioğlu, Ceylan; Karayazgan, Banu; Tuncer, Necat; Kılıçoğlu, Hülya

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate, within a controlled clinical study, the effects of a Delaire-type facemask or a modified Jasper Jumper (JJ) used in the treatment of children with Class III malocclusions due to maxillary retrognathia on temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). Forty-six patients with Class III malocclusions referred for orthodontic treatment were divided into two groups, a test and a control. The test group comprised 33 randomly chosen patients (15 females, 18 males) aged 8-11 years. The control group included 13 patients (eight females, five males) with similar features. TMD assessment was performed before and after treatment using a two-axis questionnaire, the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMDs). Qualitative data were evaluated using chi-square and McNemar tests. No statistically significant differences related to the presence of TMD were observed pre- or post-treatment (P > 0.05). The most commonly encountered diagnosis was arthralgia in the JJ group both before and after treatment. Evaluation of joint and muscle regions showed decreased symptoms, apart from the diagnosed discomforts, in the JJ group (P Class III malocclusion treatment did not result in TMD.

  2. Modified tandem traction bow appliance compared with facemask therapy in treating Class III malocclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortop, Tuba; Kaygisiz, Emine; Gencer, Deniz; Yuksel, Sema; Atalay, Zeynep

    2014-07-01

    To compare the effects of the modified tandem traction bow appliance (MTTBA) and the facemask in treating patients with Class III malocclusion. The material consisted of the pre-post treatment\\pre-post observation lateral cephalograms of 65 subjects with skeletal and dental Class III malocclusion. In the first group 21 patients (mean age: 10 years, 6 months) were treated with a Delaire-type facemask (FM). In the second group 22 patients treated (mean age: 10 years) with MTTBA. The remaining 22 children (mean age: 9 years, 7 months) were observed without treatment for 11 months. Increase in SNA, N-FH ⊥ A, and ANB angles were significantly greater in the treatment groups compared to the control group. However, ANB angle showed a significantly greater increase in the FM group (2.8 ± 0.30°) than in the MTTBA group (2.0 ± 0.18°). The overjet and molar relation increased significantly in both treatment groups, but in the FM group (5.2 ± 0.40 mm) increase in overjet was significantly greater than in the MTTBA group (4.0 ± 0.27 mm). Mesial movement of upper molar and incisor were found to be greater in the FM group compared to the modified TTBA group. Both appliances were found to be effective in the treatment of Class III malocclusion. Their skeletal and dental effects showed differences due to their design.

  3. Augmented corticotomy-assisted surgical orthodontics decompensates lower incisors in Class III malocclusion patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Shen, Guofang; Fang, Bing; Yu, Hongbo; Wu, Yong; Sun, Liangyan

    2014-03-01

    To quantitatively evaluate lower incisor decompensation and the surrounding periodontal region after augmented corticotomy-assisted surgical orthodontics in patients with Class III malocclusion. This prospective study enrolled patients with severe Class III malocclusion who underwent augmented corticotomy in the lower anterior region before orthodontic surgery. Cone-beam computed tomograms and lateral cephalograms were obtained before treatment (T0), after presurgical orthodontic treatment (T1), and at removal of the orthodontic surgical appliances (T2). Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to compare variables at each time point: root length (RL), anterior vertical alveolar bone level at the labial side (AVBL), posterior vertical alveolar bone level at the lingual side (PVBL), labial alveolar bone thickness at the apex (LA), lingual alveolar bone thickness at the apex (LP), and angle of the incisor to the mandibular plane (L1-MP). In the 8 subjects studied, RL was maintained from T0 to T2 (P > .05), whereas AVBL and PVBL increased from T0 to T1 (P .05). LP decreased from T0 to T1 (P Class III malocclusion. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Transparent aligners: An invisible approach to correct mild skeletal class III malocclusion

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    A Arif Yezdani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report highlights the treatment of a mild skeletal class III malocclusion with an invisible thermoplastic retainer. A 15-year-old female patient presented with a mild skeletal class III malocclusion with a retrognathic maxilla, orthognathic mandible, a low mandibular plane angle with Angle′s class III malocclusion with maxillary lateral incisors in anterior cross-bite with crowding of maxillary anteriors, imbricated and rotated mandibular incisors and deep bite. Accurate upper and lower impressions and a bite registration were taken with polyvinyl siloxane rubber base impression material. This was then sent to the lab for the processing of a series of ClearPath aligners. The ClearPath virtual set-up sent from the lab provided the treatment plan and interproximal reduction estimation complete with posttreatment results. This enabled the clinician to actively participate in the treatment plan and provide the necessary suggestions. The ClearPath three-dimensional aligner was found to have effectively corrected the anterior cross-bite and crowding of the maxillary anteriors.

  5. Treatment Effects of Occipitomental Anchorage Appliance of Maxillary Protraction Combined with Chincup Traction in Children with Class III Malocclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiang-Chien Lin; Hong-Po Chang; Hsin-Fu Chang

    2007-01-01

    Little information related to the treatment effects of the occipitomental anchorage (OMA) appliance of maxillary (Mx) protraction combined with chincup traction is available. The aim of this study was to investigate the treatment effects of the OMA orthopedic appliance on patients with Class III malocclusion. Methods: Pretreatment and post-treatment cephalometric records of 20 consecutively treated patients with Class III malocclusions were evaluated and compared with a matched sample of u...

  6. Influence of the cranial base flexion on Class I, II and III malocclusions: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Kélei Cristina Mathias; Raveli, Taísa Boamorte; Vieira, Camila Ivini Viana; dos Santos-Pinto, Ary; Raveli, Dirceu Barnabé

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review on the morphological characteristics of the skull base (flexion, anterior length and posterior length) and the concomitant development of malocclusions, by comparing differences in dimorphism, ethnicity and age. Methods: The articles were selected by means of electronic search on BBO, MEDLINE and LILACS databases from 1966 to 2016. A qualitative evaluation of the methodologies used on the articles was also performed. Results: Although the literature on this topic is abundant, only 16 articles were selected for the present systematic review. The cranial base angle itself does not seem to play a significant role in the development of malocclusions. In fact, the cranial base angle is relatively stable at the ages of 5 to 15 years. Conclusions: A more obtuse angle at the skull base, in association or not with a greater anterior length of the cranial base, can contribute to the development of Class II division 1 malocclusions. On the other hand, a more acute angle at the skull base can contribute to a more anterior positioning of the mandible and to the development of Class III malocclusions. PMID:29160345

  7. Factors influencing orthodontic treatment time for non-surgical Class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichara, Lívia Monteiro; Aragón, Mônica Lídia Castro de; Brandão, Gustavo Antônio Martins; Normando, David

    2016-01-01

    To identify variables and their effect size on orthodontic treatment time of Class III malocclusion. Forty-five Class III malocclusion cases were selected from 2008 patients' records. Clinical charts, cephalometric radiographs, and pre and posttreatment dental casts were evaluated. Age, sex, PAR index at T1 and T2, overjet, missing teeth, extractions, number of treatment phases, missed appointments, appliance breakages, and cephalometric variables SNA, SNB, ANB, Wits, SnGoGn, CoA, CoGn, IMPA, 1.PP were investigated by multiple linear regression analysis and stepwise method at p2 (patients who missed more than 2 appointments), to detect the influence of this data on treatment time and the quality of the treatment (PAR T2). Average treatment time was 30.27 months. Multiple regression analysis showed that missed appointment (R2=0.4345) and appliance breakages (R2=0.0596) are the only variables able to significantly predict treatment duration. Treatment time for patients who missed more than 2 appointments was nearly one year longer. However, no significant influence on PAR T2 was observed for those patients. Orthodontic treatment duration in Class III patients is mainly influenced by factors related to patient compliance. Patients who missed more appointments did not show worse orthodontic finishing, but longer treatment. No occlusal, cephalometric, or demographic variable obtained before treatment was able to give some significant prediction about treatment time in Class III patients.

  8. Tooth size discrepancies in Class II division 1 and Class III malocclusion requiring surgical-orthodontic or orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwiney, Timothy P; Millett, Declan T; McIntyre, Grant T; Barry, Mark K; Cronin, Michael S

    2014-06-01

    To compare mean anterior (AR) and mean overall (OR) tooth size ratios, prevalence of clinically significant tooth size discrepancies (TSDs) and correlation between AR and OR in subjects with Class II division 1 and Class III malocclusion treated by surgical-orthodontic or orthodontic means. Retrospective, cross-sectional. State-funded and private clinics. From pre-treatment cohorts of 770 surgical and 610 non-surgical subjects, Class II division 1 and Class III malocclusion groups were identified with 60 surgical and 60 non-surgical subjects, comprising 30 males and 30 females, in each. AR and OR were calculated by landmarking digital models. Differences in AR and OR and their relationship were analysed using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a correlation coefficient, respectively. The proportions of the surgical and non-surgical groups with a TSD were assessed using logistic regression. Intra-examiner reproducibility involved re-landmarking 30 randomly selected image sets and differences in ARs and ORs were compared using a paired t-test. Random error was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Analyses were performed using SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA) at the 5% level of significance. There were no statistically significant differences associated with the measurement of either the mean AR (P = 0·913) or the mean OR (P = 0·874). ICC values were very high (AR = 0·95; OR = 0·90). Differences existed between both Class II and Class III surgical (AR: PClass II and Class III surgical groups (23·3%). In the cohort examined: AR and OR differed significantly for malocclusion groups. The prevalence of clinically significant TSDs did not differ significantly between surgical and non-surgical groups although the highest percentage of clinically significant TSDs was recorded for AR in Class II and Class III surgical cases. AR and OR were closely related. © 2014 British Orthodontic Society.

  9. Management of severe skeletal Class III malocclusion with bimaxillary orthognathic surgery

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    Jitesh Haryani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthognathic surgery in conjunction with fixed orthodontics is a common indication for interdisciplinary management of severe skeletal Class III malocclusion. A thorough analysis of pretreatment investigations and development of a surgical visual treatment objective is essential to plan the type of surgical technique required. Bimaxillary orthognathic surgery is the most common type of surgical procedure for severe skeletal discrepancies. The present case report is a combined ortho-surgical team management of a skeletally Class III patient. The severity of the case required bilateral upper first premolar extraction for dentoalveolar decompensation and simultaneous “Two-jaw surgery” with maxillary advancement of 4 mm and mandibular setback of 7 mm. Postsurgery, a pleasing good facial profile was achieved with Class II molar relation and positive overjet.

  10. Class III malocclusion with maxillary deficiency, mandibular prognathism and facial asymmetry

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    Guilherme de Araújo Almeida

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This article reports the clinical case of a female patient with history of unsuccessful orthodontic treatment. She presented with Class III malocclusion, mandibular and maxillary constriction, anterior crossbite and facial asymmetry resulting from laterognathism triggered by hyperactivity of the condyle revealed by vertical elongation of the right mandibular ramus. Patient's treatment consisted of orthodontic mechanics and two orthognathic surgical interventions with satisfactory and stable outcomes. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO, as part of the requirements for obtaining the BBO Diplomate title.

  11. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in children with Class III malocclusion: involvement of the PHOX2B gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavezzi, Anna Maria; Casale, Valentina; Oneda, Roberta; Gioventù, Silvia; Matturri, Luigi; Farronato, Giampietro

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study is to provide new molecular approaches to the children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome by evaluating the possible involvement of the PHOX2B gene, notoriously associated to congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS), in Class III malocclusion. Fifty subjects with Class III malocclusion, aged from 8 to 14 years, and with history of sleep apneic episodes, and 20 age-matched controls were submitted to genomic DNA examination from oral cells to specifically analyze the PHOX2B genotype. Point "silent" mutations affecting different nucleotides of the PHOX2B gene were observed in 32 % of patients with Class III malocclusion and never in controls (0 %). The genetic data obtained in this study in children with Class III malocclusion and sleep-related breathing disorders provide new information useful to the genetic characterization of this pathology. The PHOX2B gene silent mutations can lead to structural and functional modification of their product providing to a group of children with Class III malocclusion similar features to those of CCHS (sleep apnea episodes and craniofacial malformations).

  12. Maxillomandibular arch width differences at estimated centers of resistance: Comparison between normal occlusion and skeletal Class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Yun-Jin; Choi, Sung-Hwan; Keum, Byeong-Tak; Yu, Hyung-Seog; Hwang, Chung-Ju; Melsen, Birte; Lee, Kee-Joon

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the differences in maxillomandibular transverse measurements at either the crown or the estimated center of resistance (CR), and to compare values between normal occlusion and Class III malocclusion groups. Dental casts and computed tomography (CT) data from 30 individuals with normal occlusion and 30 with skeletal Class III malocclusions were evaluated. Using the casts, dental arch widths (DAWs) were measured from the cusp tips, and basal arch widths (BAWs-cast) were measured as the distance between the points at the mucogingival junction adjacent to the respective cusp tips. The BAWs determined from CT (BAWs-CT) images were measured from the estimated CRs of the teeth. None of the DAW measurements or maxillomandibular DAW differences showed statistically significant intergroup differences. In contrast, the maxillary BAWs-CT and BAWs-cast were lesser in the Class III malocclusion group than in the normal occlusion group. The mandibular BAWs-CT were significantly greater in the Class III malocclusion group than in the normal occlusion group. Moreover, the maxillomandibular BAW differences on both CT and cast showed significant intergroup differences in all transverse measurements. The maxillomandibular DAW differences showed no significant intergroup differences. In contrast, the maxillomandibular BAW differences on both CT and cast showed significant intergroup differences in all transverse measurements. The maxillomandibular BAW differences at the estimated CRs, measured using CT or casts, can reveal underlying transverse maxillary basal arch deficiencies in patients with skeletal Class III malocclusions.

  13. Diagnosis and conservative treatment of skeletal Class III malocclusion with anterior crossbite and asymmetric maxillary crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Linda L Y; Chang, Chris H; Roberts, W Eugene

    2016-04-01

    A man, aged 28 years 9 months, came for an orthodontic consultation for a skeletal Class III malocclusion (ANB angle, -3°) with a modest asymmetric Class II and Class III molar relationship, complicated by an anterior crossbite, a deepbite, and 12 mm of asymmetric maxillary crowding. Despite the severity of the malocclusion (Discrepancy Index, 37), the patient desired noninvasive camouflage treatment. The 3-Ring diagnosis showed that treatment without extractions or orthognathic surgery was a viable approach. Arch length analysis indicated that differential interproximal enamel reduction could resolve the crowding and midline discrepancy, but a miniscrew in the infrazygomatic crest was needed to retract the right buccal segment. The patient accepted the complex, staged treatment plan with the understanding that it would require about 3.5 years. Fixed appliance treatment with passive self-ligating brackets, early light short elastics, bite turbos, interproximal enamel reduction, and infrazygomatic crest retraction opened the vertical dimension of the occlusion, improved the ANB angle by 2°, and achieved excellent alignment, as evidenced by a Cast Radiograph Evaluation score of 28 and a Pink and White dental esthetic score of 3. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Surgical-orthodontic treatment of Class III malocclusion with agenesis of lateral incisor and unerupted canine.

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    Vieira, Bruno Boaventura; Sanguino, Ana Carolina Meng; Moreira, Marilia Rodrigues; Morizono, Elizabeth Norie; Matsumoto, Mírian Aiko Nakane

    2013-01-01

    Orthodontic-surgical treatment was performed in patient with skeletal Class III malocclusion due to exceeding mandibular growth. Patient also presented upper and lower dental protrusion, overjet of -3.0 mm, overbite of -1.0 mm, congenital absence of tooth #22, teeth #13 and supernumerary impaction, tooth #12 with conoid shape and partly erupted in supraversion, prolonged retention of tooth #53, tendency to vertical growth of the face and facial asymmetry. The discrepancy on the upper arch was -2.0 mm and -5.0 mm on the lower arch. The presurgical orthodontic treatment was performed with extraction of the teeth #35 and #45. On the upper arch, teeth #53, #12 and supernumerary were extracted to accomplish the traction of the impacted canine. The spaces of the lower extractions were closed with mesialization of posterior segment. After aligning and leveling the teeth, extractions spaces closure and correct positioning of teeth on the bone bases, the correct intercuspation of the dental arch, with molars and canines in Angle's Class I, coincident midline, normal overjet and overbite and ideal torques, were evaluated through study models. The patient was submitted to orthognathic surgery and then the postsurgical orthodontic treatment was finished. The Class III malocclusion was treated establishing occlusal and facial normal standards.

  15. Surgical-orthodontic treatment of Class III malocclusion with agenesis of lateral incisor and unerupted canine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Boaventura Vieira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Orthodontic-surgical treatment was performed in patient with skeletal Class III malocclusion due to exceeding mandibular growth. Patient also presented upper and lower dental protrusion, overjet of -3.0 mm, overbite of -1.0 mm, congenital absence of tooth #22, teeth #13 and supernumerary impaction, tooth #12 with conoid shape and partly erupted in supraversion, prolonged retention of tooth #53, tendency to vertical growth of the face and facial asymmetry. The discrepancy on the upper arch was -2.0 mm and -5.0 mm on the lower arch. METHODS: The pre-surgical orthodontic treatment was performed with extractions of the teeth #35 and #45. On the upper arch, teeth #53, #12 and supernumerary were extracted to accomplish the traction of the impacted canine. The spaces of the lower extractions were closed with mesialization of posterior segment. After aligning and leveling the teeth, extractions spaces closure and correct positioning of teeth on the bone bases, the correct intercuspation of the dental arch, with molars and canines in Angle's Class I, coincident midline, normal overjet and overbite and ideal torques, were evaluated through study models. The patient was submitted to orthognathic surgery and then the post-surgical orthodontic treatment was finished. RESULTS: The Class III malocclusion was treated establishing occlusal and facial normal standards.

  16. Two-phase treatment of patients with crossbite and tendency toward skeletal Class III malocclusion.

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    Bayerl, Maria de Lourdes Machado

    2014-01-01

    Angle Class III malocclusion is characterized by an inadequate anteroposterior dental relationship which may or may not be accompanied by skeletal changes. In general, patients are distressed by a significantly compromised facial aspect which, when associated with a deficient middle third, encourages patients to seek treatment. This article reports a two-phase treatment carried out in a female patient aged six years and six months with a tendency towards a Class III skeletal pattern. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Facial Orthopedics (BBO). It is representative of the category with Discrepancy Index (DI) equal or greater than 10, and fulfills part of the requirements for obtaining BBO Diploma.

  17. Base of the skull morphology and Class III malocclusion in patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate.

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    Tinano, Mariana Maciel; Martins, Milene Aparecida Torres Saar; Bendo, Cristiane Baccin; Mazzieiro, Ênio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the morphological differences in the base of the skull of individuals with cleft lip and palate and Class III malocclusion in comparison to control groups with Class I and Class III malocclusion. A total of 89 individuals (males and females) aged between 5 and 27 years old (Class I, n = 32; Class III, n = 29; and Class III individuals with unilateral cleft lip and palate, n = 28) attending PUC-MG Dental Center and Cleft Lip/Palate Care Center of Baleia Hospital and PUC-MG (CENTRARE) were selected. Linear and angular measurements of the base of the skull, maxilla and mandible were performed and assessed by a single calibrated examiner by means of cephalometric radiographs. Statistical analysis involved ANCOVA and Bonferroni correction. No significant differences with regard to the base of the skull were found between the control group (Class I) and individuals with cleft lip and palate (P > 0.017). The cleft lip/palate group differed from the Class III group only with regard to CI.Sp.Ba (P = 0.015). Individuals with cleft lip and palate had a significantly shorter maxillary length (Co-A) in comparison to the control group (P Class I or Class III and individuals with cleft lip and palate and Class III malocclusion.

  18. Factors influencing orthodontic treatment time for non-surgical Class III malocclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichara, Lívia Monteiro; de Aragón, Mônica Lídia Castro; Brandão, Gustavo Antônio Martins; Normando, David

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT To improve orthodontic treatment efficiency, orthodontists must know which variables could interfere with orthodontic treatment time. Objective: To identify variables and their effect size on orthodontic treatment time of Class III malocclusion. Material and Methods: Forty-five Class III malocclusion cases were selected from 2008 patients’ records. Clinical charts, cephalometric radiographs, and pre and posttreatment dental casts were evaluated. Age, sex, PAR index at T1 and T2, overjet, missing teeth, extractions, number of treatment phases, missed appointments, appliance breakages, and cephalometric variables SNA, SNB, ANB, Wits, SnGoGn, CoA, CoGn, IMPA, 1.PP were investigated by multiple linear regression analysis and stepwise method at p2 (patients who missed more than 2 appointments), to detect the influence of this data on treatment time and the quality of the treatment (PAR T2). Results: Average treatment time was 30.27 months. Multiple regression analysis showed that missed appointment (R2=0.4345) and appliance breakages (R2=0.0596) are the only variables able to significantly predict treatment duration. Treatment time for patients who missed more than 2 appointments was nearly one year longer. However, no significant influence on PAR T2 was observed for those patients. Conclusion: Orthodontic treatment duration in Class III patients is mainly influenced by factors related to patient compliance. Patients who missed more appointments did not show worse orthodontic finishing, but longer treatment. No occlusal, cephalometric, or demographic variable obtained before treatment was able to give some significant prediction about treatment time in Class III patients. PMID:27812612

  19. Kinematic analysis of mandibular motion before and after orthognathic surgery for skeletal Class III malocclusion: A pilot study.

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    Ugolini, Alessandro; Mapelli, Andrea; Segù, Marzia; Galante, Domenico; Sidequersky, Fernanda V; Sforza, Chiarella

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the study was to detect the changes in 3D mandibular motion after orthognathic surgery for skeletal Class III malocclusion. Using a 3D motion analyzer, free mandibular border movements were recorded in nine patients successfully treated for skeletal Class III malocclusion and in nine patients scheduled for orthognathic surgery. Data were compared using Mann-Whitney non-parametric U-test. The results showed no differences between the groups in the total amount of mouth opening, protrusion, and in lateral excursions, but the percentage of mandibular movement explained by condylar translation was significantly increased after surgery (20% vs. 23.6%). During opening, the post-surgery patients showed a more symmetrical mandibular interincisal point and condylar path than pre-surgery patients (p Class III malocclusion recover a good and symmetric temporomandibular joint function.

  20. Assessment of the Postoperative Stability of Mandibular Orthognathic Surgery for Correction of Class III Skeletal Malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchi, Giuliano Henrique Mião; Conci, Ricardo Augusto; Tomazi, Flavio Henrique Silveira; Berticelli, Rosana da Silva; Guarenti, Michel Martins; Fritscher, Guilherme Genehr; Heitz, Cláiton

    2017-01-01

    To assess the stability of mandible position after orthognathic surgery for correction of class III skeletal malocclusion. Twenty adult males, aged 18 to 40 years, with Angle class III skeletal malocclusion underwent preoperative orthodontic treatment for elimination of dental compensations followed by combined maxillomandibular surgery with rigid internal fixation. Lateral cephalograms from each patient, obtained in the natural head position before surgery, immediately after surgery, and at 6-month follow-up, were retrieved from the files of the Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul outpatient Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery clinic and compared. Comparison of craniometric landmark measurements showed that the precision of mandibular setback was compromised in the horizontal plane, with a mean mandibular relapse of 37.75% at point B and 45.85% at point Pg. Improved intercuspation and adaptation of the musculature to the new position of the jaws after orthognathic surgery lead to counterclockwise rotation of the mandible, ultimately displacing the mandible more anteriorly than desired.

  1. Prediction of long-term success of orthopedic treatment in skeletal Class III malocclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoon Jeong; Chang, Jeong Eun; Chung, Chooryung J; Tahk, Ji Hyun; Kim, Kyung-Ho

    2017-08-01

    We investigated the long-term success of orthopedic treatment in skeletal Class III malocclusions, established a model to predict its long-term success, and verified previously reported success rates and prediction models. Fifty-nine patients who underwent successful facemask treatment and were followed until growth completion were evaluated. After completion of growth, the patients were divided into successful and unsuccessful groups according to overjet, overbite, and facial profile. Pretreatment cephalometric measurements were compared between groups, and logistic regression analysis was used to identify the predictors of long-term success. Four previously published articles were selected to verify the success rate and predictability of the prediction models with regard to our patient sample. The treatment success rate was 62.7%. The AB-mandibular plane angle, Wits appraisal, and the articular angle were identified as predictors. The success rates differed according to success criteria and patient characteristics. The prediction models proposed by the 4 previous studies and our study showed similar predictabilities (61.0%-64.4%) for our patient sample. The predictability for the unsuccessful group was low. Our results suggest that no particular method or factor can predict the long-term success of orthopedic treatment for skeletal Class III malocclusion. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Computed tomography evaluation of the temporomandibular joint in Class II Division 1 and Class III malocclusion patients: condylar symmetry and condyle-fossa relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Andréia Fialho; Fraga, Marcelo Reis; Vitral, Robert Willer Farinazzo

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the condyle-fossa relationship, the concentric position of the condyles, and the dimensional and positional symmetries between the right and left condyles in Class II Division 1 and Class III malocclusion samples. Thirty subjects from 12 to 38 years of age with Class II Division 1 malocclusion and 16 subjects from 13 to 41 years of age with Class III malocclusion had computed tomography of the temporomandibular joints. The images obtained from the axial slices were evaluated for possible asymmetries in size and position between the condylar processes associated with these malocclusions. The images obtained from the sagittal slices were used to assess the depth of the mandibular fossa, the condyle-fossa relationship, and the concentric position of the condyles associated with these malocclusions. Paired Student t tests were applied, and Pearson product moment correlations were determined after measurements on both sides were obtained. In the Class II Division 1 sample, the distance of condylar process/midsagittal plane (P = 0.019) and posterior joint space (P = 0.049) showed statistically significant differences between the right and left sides. In the Class III sample, there was no statistically significant difference between sides. Statistically significant (P Class II Division 1 group and the Class III group. In the Class II Division 1 malocclusion sample, the distance of condylar process/midsagittal plane and posterior articular space had statistically significant differences between the right and left sides. In the Class III sample, there was no statistically significant difference between sides. Evaluation of the concentric position of the condyles in their mandibular fossae showed nonconcentric positioning for the right and left sides in both the Class II and Class III malocclusion groups.

  3. [Analysis of variation of sagittal position of the jaw bones in skeletal Class III malocclusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanović, Zdenka; Nikolić, Predrag; Nikodijević, Angelina; Milić, Jasmina; Duka, Milos

    2012-12-01

    Skeletal Class III malocclusion is a discrepancy in the sagittal jaw relationship, due to imbalances in their development and/or position, resulting in the dominant appearance of the lower jaw in facial profile. The aim of this study was to determine variations in the sagittal position of the jaw bones to the cranial base in subjects with skeletal Class III, for the earliest possible diagnosis of malocclusion. Fifty children and as many adults with skeletal Class III, both sexes, were examined and selected, based on the findings of sagittal interjaw relationship (ANB) children aged 6-12 years, and another group, of adults aged 18-26 years. We measured the angles of maxillary prognathism (SNA), mandibular prognathism (SNB) and ANB. Based on these results, within the respective groups subclassification into the subgroups was done, among which a significant difference measured values was evaluated. In both groups a significant correlation of the determined values was evaluated. An average SNA angle ranged 77.36 +/- 3.58 in children and 77.32 +/- 4.88 in adults, while an average SNB angle was 79.46 +/- 3.91 in the group of children and 81.12 +/- 3.76 in adults. An average ANB angle was -2.10 +/- 2.07 in children, and -4.00 +/- 2.34 in adults. In both groups, a significant correlation between the measured values and a significant difference in the values of all the measured parameters were found between patients from different subgroups (p children and adults. Sagittal position of the lower jaw in most of the adults was prognathic, while mandible prognathism in the children was less present.

  4. Treatment effects of occipitomental anchorage appliance of maxillary protraction combined with chincup traction in children with Class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsiang-Chien; Chang, Hong-Po; Chang, Hsin-Fu

    2007-05-01

    Little information related to the treatment effects of the occipitomental anchorage (OMA) appliance of maxillary (Mx) protraction combined with chincup traction is available. The aim of this study was to investigate the treatment effects of the OMA orthopedic appliance on patients with Class III malocclusion. Pretreatment and post-treatment cephalometric records of 20 consecutively treated patients with Class III malocclusions were evaluated and compared with a matched sample of untreated Class III control subjects. The OMA appliance is effective for correcting skeletal Class III malocclusion in growing children. The treatment effects of this orthopedic appliance were considered to be from both skeletal and dentoalveolar changes. The skeletal effects were mainly obtained by stimulating forward growth of the Mx complex with negligible rotation of the Mx plane and restraining forward advancement of the mandible (Mn) with backward and downward rotation of the Mn plane. The observed dentoalveolar effects were mostly due to the labial tipping movement of the Mx incisors. Our results suggest that the OMA orthopedic appliance can correct the mesial jaw relationship and negative incisal over jet. This appliance is effective for correcting skeletal Class III malocclusion with both midface deficiency and Mn prognathism in growing children.

  5. Comparison between dental and basal arch forms in normal occlusion and Class III malocclusions utilizing cone-beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, Kyung Eun; Park, Jae Hyun; Bayome, Mohamed; Nam, Young-Ok; Sameshima, Glenn T; Kook, Yoon-Ah

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the mandibular dental and basal arch forms in subjects with normal occlusion and compare them with those of Class III malocclusion using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). CBCT images of 32 normal occlusion (19 males, 13 females; 24.3 years) and 33 Class III malocclusion subjects (20 males, 13 females, 22.2 years) were selected. Facial axis and root center points were identified from the left to right mandibular first molars. Distances between the facial axis and root center points for each tooth were calculated, and 4 linear and 2 ratio variables were measured and calculated for each arch form. The variables were compared between groups by independent t-test. Pearson correlation coefficient was applied to assess the relationships between dental and basal variables within each group. The mandibular dental and basal intercanine widths were significantly greater in the Class III group than in normal occlusion subjects (p dental and basal intercanine widths as well as the dental and basal intermolar widths were strongly correlated in normal occlusion and moderately correlated in Class III malocclusion. The dental arch form demon strated a strong positive correlation with the basal arch form in the normal occlusion group and moderate correlation in the Class III malocclusion group. These results might be helpful for clinicians to have a better understanding of the importance of basal arch form in the alveolar bone.

  6. Lower incisor dentoalveolar compensation and symphysis dimensions among Class I and III malocclusion patients with different facial vertical skeletal patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Berlanga, Núria; Llopis-Perez, Jaume; Flores-Mir, Carlos; Puigdollers, Andreu

    2013-11-01

    To compare lower incisor dentoalveolar compensation and mandible symphysis morphology among Class I and Class III malocclusion patients with different facial vertical skeletal patterns. Lower incisor extrusion and inclination, as well as buccal (LA) and lingual (LP) cortex depth, and mandibular symphysis height (LH) were measured in 107 lateral cephalometric x-rays of adult patients without prior orthodontic treatment. In addition, malocclusion type (Class I or III) and facial vertical skeletal pattern were considered. Through a principal component analysis (PCA) related variables were reduced. Simple regression equation and multivariate analyses of variance were also used. Incisor mandibular plane angle (P malocclusion groups. Variations in the mandibular plane have a negative correlation with LA (Class I P  =  .03 and Class III P  =  .01) and a positive correlation with LH (Class I P  =  .01 and Class III P  =  .02) in both groups. Within the Class III group, there was a negative correlation between the mandibular plane and LP (P  =  .02). PCA showed that the tendency toward a long face causes the symphysis to elongate and narrow. In Class III, alveolar narrowing is also found in normal faces. Vertical facial pattern is a significant factor in mandibular symphysis alveolar morphology and lower incisor positioning, both for Class I and Class III patients. Short-faced Class III patients have a widened alveolar bone. However, for long-faced and normal-faced Class III, natural compensation elongates the symphysis and influences lower incisor position.

  7. SEGMENTAL LEFORT I OSTEOTOMY FOR TREATMENT OF A CLASS III MALOCCLUSION WITH TEMPOROMANDIBULAR DISORDER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, Marcos; Janson, Guilherme; Sant'Ana, Eduardo; Nakamura, Alexandre; de Freitas, Marcos Roberto

    2008-01-01

    This article reports the case of a 19-year-old young man with Class III malocclusion and posterior crossbite with concerns about temporomandibular disorder (TMD), esthetics and functional problems. Surgical-orthodontic treatment was carried out by decompensation of the mandibular incisors and segmentation of the maxilla in 4 pieces, which allowed expansion and advancement. Remission of the signs and symptoms occurred after surgical-orthodontic intervention. The maxillary dental arch presented normal transverse dimension. Satisfactory static and functional occlusion and esthetic results were achieved and remained stable. Three years after the surgical-orthodontic treatment, no TMD sign or symptom was observed and the occlusal results had not changed. When vertical or horizontal movements of the maxilla in the presence of moderate maxillary constriction are necessary, segmental LeFort I osteotomy can be an important part of treatment planning. PMID:19089265

  8. Surgery-first approach in correcting skeletal Class III malocclusion with mandibular asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hyeon-Shik; Oh, Min-Hee; Oh, Hee-Kyun; Oh, Heesoo

    2017-08-01

    This case report describes a surgical orthodontic case that used the recently introduced surgery-first approach to correct a severe skeletal Class III malocclusion. A 19-year-old woman presented with severe mandibular prognathism and facial asymmetry; she had been waiting for growth completion in order to pursue surgical correction. After prediction of the postsurgical tooth movement and surgical simulation, 2-jaw surgery that included maxillary advancement and differential mandibular setback was performed using a surgery-first approach. Immediate facial improvement was achieved and postsurgical orthodontic treatment was efficiently carried out. The total treatment time was 16 months. The patient's facial appearance improved significantly and a stable surgical orthodontic outcome was obtained. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Segmental LeFort I osteotomy for treatment of a class III malocclusion with temporomandibular disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Janson

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the case of a 19-year-old young man with Class III malocclusion and posterior crossbite with concerns about temporomandibular disorder (TMD, esthetics and functional problems. Surgical-orthodontic treatment was carried out by decompensation of the mandibular incisors and segmentation of the maxilla in 4 pieces, which allowed expansion and advancement. Remission of the signs and symptoms occurred after surgical-orthodontic intervention. The maxillary dental arch presented normal transverse dimension. Satisfactory static and functional occlusion and esthetic results were achieved and remained stable. Three years after the surgical-orthodontic treatment, no TMD sign or symptom was observed and the occlusal results had not changed. When vertical or horizontal movements of the maxilla in the presence of moderate maxillary constriction are necessary, segmental LeFort I osteotomy can be an important part of treatment planning.

  10. Clinical predictive factors for temporomandibular disorders following combined orthodontic and orthognathic surgical treatment in patients with Class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonarakis, Gregory S; Kalberer, Nicole; Courvoisier, Delphine S; Scolozzi, Paolo

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to identify clinical factors predisposing to the development or worsening of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) following orthodontic surgical treatment for Class III malocclusion. A retrospective cohort study was performed on 88 patients with Class III malocclusion having undergone a combined orthodontic and orthognathic surgical treatment. Temporomandibular joint and masticatory muscle examinations were available prior to treatment and one year post-operatively. Multivariate logistic regression was used to predict the development of post-operative TMDs, and linear regression was used to predict the worsening of TMDs using Helkimo indices. Patients with Class III malocclusion presenting with pre-treatment anamnestic TMJ clicking (OR = 5.8; p = 0.03) and undergoing bimaxillary osteotomy procedures (OR = 18.6; p = 0.04) were more at risk for the development of TMDs. TMDs must be evaluated, monitored, and managed with caution in patients with Class III malocclusion presenting with pre-treatment joint clicking and who are planned for bimaxillary osteotomies.

  11. [Treatment effects with expansion and multiloop edgewise arch wire technique on skeletal class III malocclusion with mandibular deviation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-mei; Yang, Li; Ji, Chang-rong

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the methods of treatment on Class III malocclusion with mandibular deviations, and clarify the principles of expansion and multiloop edgewise arch wire technique. 8 skeletal class III with mandibular deviations patients were selected (male 3, female 5, aged 12-18). They were all corrected with maxillary expansion and multiloop edgewise arch wire technique. In all cases, molar relationships were class I, the overbite and the overjet were normal, and the upper and lower midline were harmony. Mild and moderate skeletal class III with mandibular deviation can be corrected successfully by maxillary expansion and multiloop edgewise arch wire technique.

  12. [Cone-beam CT study for the oropharyngeal airway volume and hyoid position of adults Class III skeletal malocclusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-min; Wu, Jie; Men, Hai-yan; Li, Hong-fa

    2015-06-01

    Using cone-beam CT (CBCT) and Invivo5 software to measure the oropharyngeal airway volume and hyoid position of adults Class III skeletal malocclusion and analyze the influence of the maxillary or mandibular position, in order to evaluate oropharynx airway volume and hyoid position ,and provide guidance for reasonable and effective treatment. One hundred and eighty cases were randomly selected from CBCT data and divided into three groups. Invivo5 software was used to rebuild 3D image data and establish a 3D coordinate system, then to measure OPV and hyoid position. LSD t test was performed between each group with SPSS 19.0 software package. OPV for mandibular protrusion of Class III was significantly higher than maxillary retrusion of Class III and Class I (PClass I and maxillary retrusion of Class III; H-VPS had significant difference as follows: mandibular retrusion of Class III, maxillary retrusion of Class III,and Class I (PClass III was significantly higher than maxillary retrusion of Class III and Class I (PClass I and maxillary retrusion of Class III. The three-dimensional features of airway were different as adults have different types of skeletal malocclusion. The mandibular sagittal position and length had more significant influences on pharyngeal airway volume, shape, direction, and hyoid sagittal position compared with the maxilla. CBCT and Invivo5 are practical tools for evaluation of airway, which can provide clinical evaluation of the three-dimensional features of airway and hyoid position of different skeletal malocclusion, and provide guidance in the formulation of reasonable and effective treatment plan.

  13. Camouflage treatment of skeletal class III malocclusion with asymmetry using a bone-borne rapid maxillary expander.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yu-Jin; Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Kim, Seong-Hun; Nelson, Gerald

    2015-03-01

    This case report presents the successful use of palatal mini-implants for rapid maxillary expansion and mandibular distalization in a skeletal Class III malocclusion. The patient was a 13-year-old girl with the chief complaint of facial asymmetry and a protruded chin. Camouflage orthodontic treatment was chosen, acknowledging the possibility of need for orthognathic surgery after completion of her growth. A bone-borne rapid expander (BBRME) was used to correct the transverse discrepancy and was then used as indirect anchorage for distalization of the lower dentition with Class III elastics. As a result, a Class I occlusion with favorable inclination of the upper teeth was achieved without any adverse effects. The total treatment period was 25 months. Therefore, BBRME can be considered an alternative treatment in skeletal Class III malocclusion.

  14. The structural changes of upper airway and newly developed sleep breathing disorders after surgical treatment in class III malocclusion subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ui Lyong; Oh, Hoon; Min, Sang Ki; Shin, Ji Ho; Kang, Yong Seok; Lee, Won Wook; Han, Young Eun; Choi, Young Jun; Kim, Hyun Jik

    2017-06-01

    Bimaxillary surgery is the traditional treatment of choice for correcting class III malocclusion which is reported to cause an alteration of oropharyngeal structures and upper airway narrowing that might be a predisposing factor for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This study aimed to analyze sleep parameters in class III malocclusion subjects and ascertain the prevalence of snoring or OSA following bimaxillary surgery.A total of 22 patients with Le Fort I osteotomy and mandibular setback for class III malocclusion were prospectively enrolled. All patients received endoscopic examination, cephalometry, 3-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT), and sleep study twice at 1 month before and 3 months after surgery.The patient population consisted of 5 males and 17 females with a mean body mass index of 22.5 kg/m and mean age of 22.1 years. No patients complained of sleep-related symptoms, and the results of sleep study showed normal values before surgery. Three patients (13%) were newly diagnosed with mild or moderate OSA and 6 patients (27%) showed increased loudness of snoring (over 40 dB) after bimaxillary surgery. According to cephalometric analysis and 3D-CT results, the retropalatal and retroglossal areas were significantly narrowed in class III malocclusion patients, showing snoring and sleep apnea after surgery. In addition, the total volume of the upper airway was considerably reduced following surgery in the same patients.Postoperative narrowing of the upper airway and a reduction of total upper airway volume can be induced, and causes snoring and OSA in class III malocclusion subjects following bimaxillary surgery.

  15. Diagnosis of Class III malocclusion in 7- to 8-year-old children--a 3D evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krneta, Bojana; Zhurov, Alexei; Richmond, Stephen; Ovsenik, Maja

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize facial and jaw morphology of children with Class III malocclusion in early mixed dentition. This study was conducted on 7- to 8-year-old Caucasian children, 48 children with Class III malocclusion and 91 children with normal occlusion. Surface images of faces and study casts were obtained using laser scanning. Two average facial templates were constructed for the males and females in the control group. The facial images were superimposed on the corresponding average templates. Facial parameters, palatal volumes, and gingival surface areas were measured and group differences were quantified. The analysis of variance was used for statistical evaluation of the measured parameters. The results revealed shorter lower face height (P Class III group compared to the control group. There were no differences between the groups in upper face height, restricted areas of the upper and lower face, palatal volume, and gingival surface area of the mandible (P > 0.05). Regardless of the fact that the prevalence of Class III malocclusion is rather small, the sample size could be larger. Class III subjects show clinically relevant facial and jaws characteristics in pre-pubertal growth period. A comprehensive diagnosis should include transverse dimension analysis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Base of the skull morphology and Class III malocclusion in patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Maciel Tinano

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to determine the morphological differences in the base of the skull of individuals with cleft lip and palate and Class III malocclusion in comparison to control groups with Class I and Class III malocclusion. METHODS: A total of 89 individuals (males and females aged between 5 and 27 years old (Class I, n = 32; Class III, n = 29; and Class III individuals with unilateral cleft lip and palate, n = 28 attending PUC-MG Dental Center and Cleft Lip/Palate Care Center of Baleia Hospital and PUC-MG (CENTRARE were selected. Linear and angular measurements of the base of the skull, maxilla and mandible were performed and assessed by a single calibrated examiner by means of cephalometric radiographs. Statistical analysis involved ANCOVA and Bonferroni correction. RESULTS: No significant differences with regard to the base of the skull were found between the control group (Class I and individuals with cleft lip and palate (P > 0.017. The cleft lip/palate group differed from the Class III group only with regard to CI.Sp.Ba (P = 0.015. Individuals with cleft lip and palate had a significantly shorter maxillary length (Co-A in comparison to the control group (P < 0.001. No significant differences were found in the mandible (Co-Gn of the control group and individuals with cleft lip and palate (P = 1.000. CONCLUSION: The present findings suggest that there are no significant differences in the base of the skull of individuals Class I or Class III and individuals with cleft lip and palate and Class III malocclusion.

  17. Accuracy of two cephalometric analyses in the treatment of patients with skeletal class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, João Frank Carvalho; Carvalho, Sergio Henrique Gonçalves de; Oliveira, Luciana Soares de Andrade Freitas; Barbosa, Danilo Batista Martins; de Souza, Raphael Freitas; Sarmento, Viviane Almeida

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the treatment plan outlined from the diagnosis obtained by two different cephalometric analyses with the clinical decision made for surgical treatment of patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion. For this purpose, 82 skeletal Class III patients were evaluated, divided into three groups according to the surgical procedure performed for dentofacial deformity correction. Their preoperative cephalometric radiographs were submitted to McNamara and Steiner cephalometric analyses. The association of variables was evaluated by Kappa correlation (α=5%). The agreement between indication of surgical procedures performed based on clinical decision and surgical treatment indicated based on the evaluation of McNamara and Steiner cephalometric analyses were not significant (p=0.609 and p=0.544, respectively). McNamara and Steiner analyses showed reasonable agreement with each other as to the diagnosis, but did not agree with the clinical decision to treat skeletal CIII patients. Both tests were equally inaccurate in the indication of the surgical treatment.

  18. Assessment of temporomandibular disorder and occlusion in treated class III malocclusion patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karyna Valle-Corotti

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to compare the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders (TMD in individuals submitted to either orthodontic or ortho-surgical Class III malocclusion treatment and to assess the influence of occlusal aspects on TMD severity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The sample consisted of 50 individuals divided into two groups, according to the type of treatment (orthodontic or orthodontic with orthognathic surgery. The presence of signs and symptoms of TMD was evaluated by an anamnestic questionnaire and a clinical examination, including TMJ and muscle palpation, active mandibular range of motion, joint noises and occlusal examination. RESULTS: Based on the anamnestic questionnaire, 48% had no TMD, 42% had mild TMD and 10% had moderate TMD. The presence and severity of TMD did not show any relationship with the type of orthodontic treatment (p>0.05. The chi-square test showed a positive association (p<0.05 between TMD and non-working side occlusal interferences. CONCLUSION: Based on the methodology used and the results obtained, it may be concluded that Class III orthodontic treatment was not associated with the presence of TMD signs and symptoms and the non-working side contacts can be occlusal factors of risk. There was no significant difference in TMD prevalence between the studied groups (orthodontically treated patients and patients treated with orthodontics followed by orthognathic surgery.

  19. Analysis of variation of sagittal position of the jaw bones in skeletal class III malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Zdenka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Skeletal Class III malocclusion is a discrepancy in the sagittal jaw relationship, due to imbalances in their development and/or position, resulting in the dominant appearance of the lower jaw in facial profile. The aim of this study was to determine variations in the sagittal position of the jaw bones to the cranial base in subjects with skeletal Class III, for the earliest possible diagnosis of malocclusion. Methods. Fifty children and as many adults with skeletal Class III, both sexes, were examined and selected, based on the findings of sagittal interjaw relationship (ANB ≤ 0° from the cephalometric analysis of tele-x-ray profile head shots. The subjects were grouped according to age. The first group consisted of children aged 6-12 years, and another group, of adults aged 18-26 years. We measured the angles of maxillary prognathism (SNA, mandibular prognathism (SNB and ANB. Based on these results, within the respective groups subclassification into the subgroups was done, among which a significant difference measured values was evaluated. In both groups a significant correlation of the determined values was evaluated. Results. An average SNA angle ranged 77.36 ± 3.58 in children and 77.32 ± 4.88 in adults, while an average SNB angle was 79.46 ± 3.91 in the group of children and 81.12 ± 3.76 in adults. An average ANB angle was -2.10 ± 2.07 in children, and -4.00 ± 2.34 in adults. In both groups, a significant correlation between the measured values and a significant difference in the values of all the measured parameters were found between patients from different subgroups (p < 0.01. Conclusion. The most common morphological variation of sagittal position of the upper jaw is its retrognatism, which is equally present in both children and adults. Sagittal position of the lower jaw in most of the adults was prognathic, while mandible prognathism in the children was less present.

  20. Perceived changes by peer group of social impact associated with combined orthodontic-surgical correction of class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesani, Aliza; DiBiase, Andrew T; Cobourne, Martyn T; Newton, Timothy

    2014-09-01

    Whereas the psychosocial benefits of orthognathic treatment for the individual patient are established, there is little data relating to social perceptions in relation to changes in facial appearance as a result of combined orthodontic and orthognathic treatment. This study aimed to investigate the social impact of combined orthodontic-orthognathic surgical correction for class III malocclusion in Caucasian subjects. This cross-sectional study compared perceptions of facial appearance prior to and after orthognathic correction of class III malocclusion. Eighty undergraduate students were shown photographs of four Caucasian subjects (2 male and 2 female) pre- and post-orthognathic class III correction. Observers were asked to rate these subjects in relation to four different outcomes: (i) social competence (SC); (ii) intellectual ability (IA); (iii) psychological adjustment (PA); (iv) attractiveness. A mixed-model analysis of variance (ANOVA) was calculated to determine the effect of each variable. Statistically significant differences were found in ratings of the same face before and after treatment. After treatment, faces were rated as more psychologically adjusted, more sociable, more likely to be successful and more attractive; with the mean psychological adjustment rating being associated with the most change (before treatment=8.06 [SD 2.30]; after treatment=6.64 [SD 2.03], t=2.04, pclass III malocclusion in Caucasians, individuals are rated by young adults as being better adjusted both psychologically and socially, more likely to be successful and more attractive. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Perceptions of dental aesthetics of Class III and anterior open bite malocclusions: a comparison between 10- to 11-year-old schoolchildren and orthodontists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Ahmad Mohammad; Singh, Vinita; Rock, William

    2012-03-01

    To compare perceptions of dental aesthetics of Class III and anterior open bite (AOB) malocclusions between 10- to 11-year-old Birmingham schoolchildren and orthodontists. Thirty-one orthodontists practicing in Birmingham (UK) and 383 school children aged 10-11 years from a random and representative sample of seven primary schools in South Birmingham participated in the study. Participants were asked to assess five anterior photographs of the dentition representing varying degrees of aesthetic impairment of Class III and AOB malocclusions. Perceptions of dental aesthetics were determined using the aesthetic component (AC) of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN). Perceptions of dental aesthetics were similar among males and females (P > .05). Both groups allocated the highest median AC score to the photo representing severe Class III malocclusion and the lowest to the photo representing mild Class III and AOB malocclusion. Differences in perceived dental aesthetics were significant for photos representing severe Class III and moderate AOB malocclusions, with orthodontists perceiving greater aesthetic impairment for severe Class III and schoolchildren for moderate AOB, respectively (P aesthetic impairment compared to AOB malocclusions. Surprisingly, none of the median AC scores allocated to the five photos were in the "Definite need" for treatment category. The IOTN may not be sensitive to these types of malocclusions. This finding merits further investigation.

  2. Traction of impacted canines in a skeletal Class III malocclusion: A challenging orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, José Tarcísio Lima; Romano, Fábio Lourenço; Sasso Stuani, Maria Bernadete; Assed Carneiro, Fábio Carvalho; Nakane Matsumoto, Mírian Aiko

    2017-06-01

    This case report describes the successful traction of 2 severely impacted canines. The patient, a 7-year-old girl, had good general health, nasal breathing, crossbite of the lateral incisors and canines, and a Class I molar relationship. The panoramic radiograph showed that the permanent canines were positioned above the roots of the lateral incisors, with the right canine in an accentuated inclination. The cephalometric analysis showed a skeletal Class III malocclusion with a predominance of horizontal growth. The Haas appliance associated with maxillary protraction was used during the first stage of treatment for 14 months. The second stage included the extraction of the deciduous molars, distal movement of the permanent molars to create space, and traction of the canines, and was associated with complete orthodontic treatment. The patient showed good esthetic and functional results at the end of treatment, verified by the stability over a period of 8 years after retention. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Má oclusão Classe III de Angle com discrepância ântero-posterior acentuada Angle Class III malocclusion with severe anteroposterior disharmony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Alan Vieira Bittencourt

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A má oclusão Classe III de Angle é caracterizada por uma discrepância dentária ântero-posterior, que pode ou não estar acompanhada por alterações esqueléticas. Em geral, o aspecto facial fica bastante comprometido, sendo justamente esse fator, na maioria das vezes, que motiva o paciente a procurar pelo tratamento. Este caso foi apresentado à Diretoria do Board Brasileiro de Ortodontia e Ortopedia Facial (BBO, representando a categoria 4, ou seja, uma má oclusão com discrepância ântero-posterior acentuada, Classe III, com ANB menor ou igual a -2º, como parte dos requisitos para a obtenção do título de Diplomado pelo BBO.Angle Class III malocclusion is characterized by an anteroposterior dental discrepancy which may or may not be accompanied by skeletal changes. In general, distressed by a significantly compromised facial aspect, patients tend to seek treatment. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Facial Orthopedics (BBO, as representative of Category 4, i.e., a malocclusion with severe anteroposterior discrepancy, Class III, and ANB Angle equal to or smaller than -2º, as part of the requirements for obtaining the BBO Diploma.

  4. Temporomandibular disorders in growing patients after treatment of class II and III malocclusion with orthopaedic appliances: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Silva, Antonio; Carnevali-Arellano, Romano; Venegas-Aguilera, Matías; Tobar-Reyes, Julio; Palomino-Montenegro, Hernán

    2017-12-18

    To determine if the use of orthopaedic appliances in growing patients applied to correct Class II and III malocclusion is related to the development of temporomandibular disorders (TMD). A systematic review was conducted between 1960 and July 2017, based on electronic databases: PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, Medline, Scopus, EBSCOhost, Scielo, Lilacs and Bireme. Controlled clinical trials (CCTs) and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were identified. The articles were selected and analyzed by two authors independently. The quality of the evidence was determined according to the guidelines of the Cochrane Risk Bias Assessment Tool and the Cochrane Quality Study Guide. Seven articles were included, four CCTs and three RCTs. The studies were grouped according to malocclusion treatment in (a) class II appliances (n = 4) and (b) class III appliances (n = 3). The quality of evidence was low due to the high risk of bias, independent of the association reported. All studies concluded that the use of orthopaedic appliances would not contribute to the development of TMD. The quality of evidence available is insufficient to establish definitive conclusions, since the studies were very heterogeneous and presented a high risk of bias. However, it is suggested that the use of orthopaedic appliances to correct class II and III malocclusion in growing patients would not be considered as a risk factor for the development of TMD. High-quality RCTs are required to draw any definitive conclusions.

  5. Long-term skeletal and profile stability after surgical-orthodontic treatment of Class II and Class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lir, Ana de Lourdes Sá; de Moura, Walter Leal; Oliveira Ruellas, Antonio Carlos; Gomes Souza, Margareth Maria; Nojima, Lincoln Issamu

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this perspective research was to study the long-term stability of skeletal, dentoalveolar and soft tissue after orthognathic surgery in subjects presenting with Class II and Class III malocclusions. The available digitized cephalometric radiographs, including pretreatment (t0), presurgery (t1), a minimum of 12 months postsurgery (t2) and at least 3 years after the orthosurgery treatment (t3) were taken between 1998 and 2010. In Group 1 mandibular advancement and in Group 2 mandibular advancement and maxillary impaction surgery were performed for correction of Class II. In Group 3 maxillary advancement and in Group 4 surgical maxillary advancement with mandibular setback, for correction of Class III. In all the phases mandibular length was shorter in Group 1, and the inferior third of the face was longer in Group 2. Before the surgery there was greater maxillary deficiency in Group 3 than Group 4 and mandibular length was longer in Group 4. In Groups 1 and 2, at retention phase, relapse occurred due to the increase in mandibular plane, whereas the surgeries performed in Groups 3 and 4 remained stable. Copyright © 2012 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of morphological parameters on the development of gingival recession in class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmuz, Justyna; Jagielak, Maciej; Botzenhart, Ute; Seeliger, Julia; Gedrange, Tomasz; Dominiak, Marzena

    2016-07-01

    Cephalometric analysis, including both basic cranio- and gnathometric measurements and detailed evaluation of the construction of skeletal, muscular and mucosal systems combined with estimation of the risk of recession's occurrence, can be used to determine the direction of therapy and ensure appropriate aesthetic-functional effects of treatment. The objective of the present study was to compare the influence of the chosen morphologic parameters on the development of gingival recession in the front part of the jaw in patients with Angle class III. The research material was based on the medical documentation of 1800 patients. Sixty generally healthy patients qualified for the research with prognathism. On the basis of the side-head cephalograms, measurements were carried out to describe the bone structure in the front section of the lower jaw. The lower incisor teeth set-up was also analyzed. Gum recession of the lower incisor teeth was assessed on the basis of the inside-mouth photos of the patients with class III malocclusion. The occurrence of recession in a further 4 patients resulted from such a positioning of the lower teeth. In patients in the first group, treated with complex ortho-surgical treatment, the lower incisor teeth were adjusted much more vertically in the alveola and, thus, recession occurred only in one patient. Complex orthodontic-surgical therapy contributes to recession development to a lesser degree than the sham treatment and makes it a safe alternative therapy in patients with high diathesis for occurrence or progression of an existing recession. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Orthodontic correction of Class III malocclusion in a young patient with the use of a simple fixed appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Anterior crossbites are one of the most common orthodontic problems we observe in growing children. The first step in treating an anterior crossbite is to determine whether the crossbite is dental or skeletal in nature. To determine a precise diagnosis, a thorough clinical, radiographic and model analysis is required. This article shows the treatment of Class III malocclusion by correcting anterior dental crossbite with the use of a simple fixed appliance.

  8. Is alternate rapid maxillary expansion and constriction an effective protocol in the treatment of Class III malocclusion? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pithon, Matheus Melo; Santos, Nathalia de Lima; Santos, Camila Rangel Barreto Dos; Baião, Felipe Carvalho Souza; Pinheiro, Murilo Costa Rangel; Matos, Manoel; Souza, Ianderlei Andrade; Paula, Rafael Pereira de

    2016-01-01

    the treatment of Class III malocclusion in early age is one of the greatest challenges for orthodontists, and the establishment of more effective treatment method is a constant concern for these professionals. Thus, the objective of this systematic review is to verify the effectiveness of the therapy protocol for alternate rapid maxillary expansion and constriction (Alt-RAMEC) in the early treatment of Class III malocclusion. searches were performed in the following electronic databases: Cochrane Library, Medline (EBSCO and PubMed), SciELO, LILACS and Scopus. The following inclusion criteria were used: in vivo studies conducted with early intervention (patient in craniofacial development phase) with the use of the Alt-RAMEC protocol. Reviews, case reports, editorials, and studies with syndromic patients or under use of systemic drug were excluded. Duplicates were also excluded. The studies were assessed for methodological quality using the Cochrane tool for assessment of risk of bias, and classified as high or low risk of bias. 53 articles were found. Duplicates exclusion was thus performed and 35 articles remained. After inclusion analysis, only 5 matched the criteria. Two articles were classified as low risk of bias and three as high risk of bias. It was observed that the Alt-RAMEC enable protraction in less time and with better results, promoting greater effectiveness in the protraction treatment of Class III malocclusion. Although there is positive evidence of the effectiveness of early treatment with the Alt-RAMEC protocol in patients with Class III malocclusion, further studies are needed to confirm its effectiveness using long-term methodology.

  9. Comparison of the condyle-fossa relationship between skeletal class III malocclusion patients with and without asymmetry: a retrospective three-dimensional cone-beam computed tomograpy study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hyoun Oak Kim; Won Lee; Yoon-Ah Kook; Yoonji Kim

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether temporomandibular joint (TMJ) condyle-fossa relationships are bilaterally symmetric in class III malocclusion patients with and without asymmetry and compared to those with normal occlusion...

  10. Camouflage treatment of skeletal Class III malocclusion with multiloop edgewise arch wire and modified Class III elastics by maxillary mini-implant anchorage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shushu; Gao, Jinhui; Wamalwa, Peter; Wang, Yunji; Zou, Shujuan; Chen, Song

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of the multiloop edgewise arch wire (MEAW) technique with maxillary mini-implants in the camouflage treatment of skeletal Class III malocclusion. Twenty patients were treated with the MEAW technique and modified Class III elastics from the maxillary mini-implants. Twenty-four patients were treated with MEAW and long Class III elastics from the upper second molars as control. Lateral cephalometric radiographs were obtained and analyzed before and after treatment, and 1 year after retention. Satisfactory occlusion was established in both groups. Through principal component analysis, it could be concluded the anterior-posterior dental position, skeletal sagittal and vertical position, and upper molar vertical position changed within groups and between groups; vertical lower teeth position and Wits distance changed in the experimental group and between groups. In the experimental group, the lower incisors tipped lingually 2.7 mm and extruded 2.4 mm. The lingual inclination of the lower incisors increased 3.5°. The mandibular first molars tipped distally 9.1° and intruded 0.4 mm. Their cusps moved 3.4 mm distally. In the control group, the upper incisors proclined 3°, and the upper first molar extruded 2 mm. SN-MP increased 1.6° and S-Go/N-ME decreased 1. The MEAW technique combined with modified Class III elastics by maxillary mini-implants can effectively tip the mandibular molars distally without any extrusion and tip the lower incisors lingually with extrusion to camouflage skeletal Class III malocclusions. Clockwise rotation of the mandible and further proclination of upper incisors can be avoided. The MEAW technique and modified Class III elastics provided an appropriate treatment strategy especially for patients with high angle and open bite tendency.

  11. Skeletal stability of surgery-first bimaxillary orthognathic surgery for skeletal class III malocclusion, using standardized criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, K-H; Sandor, G K; Kim, Y-D

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the postoperative stability following bimaxillary surgery performed either with or without preoperative orthodontic treatment, in class III malocclusion patients. These patients were enrolled using standardized inclusion criteria. Forty patients with a class III malocclusion were included in this retrospective study. Inclusion criteria were class III malocclusion with and without premolar extraction, <3mm midline deviation, and <5mm arch width discordance. Patients were assigned to the conventional bimaxillary surgery group (n=20) or the surgery-first bimaxillary surgery group (n=20). Serial cephalometric radiographs obtained before surgery (T0), at 2 months after surgery (T1), and at 6 months after surgery (T2) were used to assess the variation in surgical change (T0 to T1) and postsurgical change (T1 to T2). Eight linear and three angular parameters were used to evaluate postoperative stability. With respect to postsurgical changes, significant differences were observed in the changes for the vertical reference plane to the posterior nasal spine, horizontal reference plane to B-point, and occlusal plane angle in both groups. No statistically significant differences in the relapse rates were observed between the two groups. No significant differences were observed between the two groups in terms of the postoperative stability. Copyright © 2015 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Conservative treatment for a growing patient with a severe, developing skeletal Class III malocclusion and open bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yue; Zhu, Ping; Le, Linda; Cai, Bin

    2014-06-01

    An 8-year-old Chinese girl sought treatment for a severe skeletal Class III malocclusion and open-bite skeletal pattern. Traditionally, patients with a skeletal Class III malocclusion are treated after they have stopped growing, and then they are treated with a combined orthodontic and orthognathic surgery approach. But the risks and expenses of this treatment plan are not acceptable to all patients. This young patient was treated with facemask therapy, a maxillary expansion device, and a molar occlusal splint for maxillary developmental stimulation with control of vertical jaw growth. After the completion of orthopedic therapy, 2 × 4 technology was used to adjust molar positions. A bonded tongue crib was used in the early permanent dentition to help the patient break her bad tongue habits. Straight-wire appliances were used for 16 months to adjust the occlusal relationship. This achieved significant improvement in anterior tooth relationships and facial profile esthetics. At the 2-year posttreatment follow-up, the results were satisfactory. The success of the sagittal relationship correction between the maxilla and the mandible for a skeletal Class III malocclusion depends on the coordination of transverse and vertical relationships combined with the growth potential of each patient. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Control of lower incisor inclination with a completely customized lingual appliance for dentoalveolar compensation of class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lossdörfer, Stefan; Schwestka-Polly, Rainer; Wiechmann, Dirk

    2013-09-01

    Bracket slots and orthodontic archwires offering high dimensional precision are needed for fully customized lingual appliances. We aimed to investigate whether high-precision appliances of this type enable dentoalveolar compensation of class III malocclusion so that lower incisor inclination at the end of treatment will closely match the anticipated situation as defined in a pretreatment setup. This retrospective study included a total of 34 consecutive patients who had worn a fully customized lingual appliance to achieve dentoalveolar compensation for class III malocclusion by intermaxillary elastics, or proximal enamel reduction, or extraction of teeth in one or both jaws. Casts fabricated at different points in time were three-dimensionally scanned to analyze how precisely the lower incisor inclinations envisioned in the setup were implemented in clinical practice. Aside from minor deviations of ±3.75°, the lower incisor inclinations were clinically implemented as planned even in patients with major sagittal discrepancies. Treatment goals predefined in a setup of dentoalveolar compensation for class III malocclusion can be very precisely achieved via a customized lingual appliance. Correct planning can prevent undesirable lingual tipping of the lower incisors. This finding should not encourage a more liberal use of dentoalveolar compensation, but it should heighten clinicians' awareness of how essential it is to sufficiently consider the individual anatomy of the dentoalveolar complex during treatment planning.

  14. Presurgical orthodontic decompensation alters alveolar bone condition around mandibular incisors in adults with skeletal Class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Boyang; Tang, Jun; Xiao, Ping; Ding, Ying

    2015-01-01

    This study is to use cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) to acquire accurate radiographic images for alveolar bone in lower incisors and the change after presurgical orthodontic treatment. Seventeen patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion, ten normal occlusion subjects, and fifteen patients treated with orthodontic treatment and orthognathic surgery were included. CBCT images were obtained. The labial and lingual inclinations of mandibular incisors, the thickness of alveolar bone, the vertical alveolar height and root length were measured. Alveolar bone thickness at the apex in patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion was thinner than normal subjects. The vertical alveolar bone heights at labial and lingual sides in patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion were both reduced compared with normal subjects, especially at the labial side. There were statistically significant correlations between lower incisor inclination and alveolar bone morphology. After orthodontics, the incisors root apex was closer to the lingual side of alveolar bone. The alveolar bone thickness at apex was not statistically changed. The vertical alveolar bone heights at the labial and lingual sides were both significantly reduced especially the lingual side after presurgical orthodontic treatment. The root length was not significantly changed. In conclusion, the alveolar bone thickness at apex is thinner and the vertical alveolar height is reduced at the labial side. Forward movement of lower incisors during presurgical orthodontic treatment can render the lower incisors root apex closer to the lingual side and the vertical alveolar height is reduced.

  15. The segmented arch approach: a method for orthodontic treatment of a severe Class III open-bite malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinar-Escalona, Eduardo; Barrera-Mora, José María; Llamas-Carreras, José María; Ruiz-Navarro, María Belén

    2013-02-01

    An open bite is a common malocclusion, and it is generally associated with several linked etiologic factors. When establishing the treatment plan, it is essential to consider every aspect of the various etiologic causes and their evolution; this will help to correct it. This article reports the case of a girl aged 10.7 years with a skeletal Class III malocclusion and an open bite. The treatment mechanics were based on compensatory dental changes performed to close the bite and correct the skeletal Class III malocclusion. The patient had a deep maxillary deficiency, and the lower facial third was severely enlarged. In this article, we aimed to describe a simple mechanical approach that will close the bite through changes in the occlusal plane (segmentation of arches). It is an extremely simple method that is easily tolerated by the patient. It not only closes the bite effectively but also helps to correct the unilateral or bilateral lack of occlusal interdigitation between the dental arches. A Class III patient with an anterior open bite is shown in this article to illustrate the effectiveness of these treatment mechanics. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Effect of maxillary protraction with or without rapid palatal expansion in treating early skeletal Class III malocclusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wen-Sheng; Lu, Hai-Yan; Dong, Fu-Sheng; Hu, Xiao-Ying; Li, Xing-Chao

    2009-04-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of treatment with maxillary protraction with or without rapid palatal expansion (RPE) for skeletal Class III malocclusion in mixed dentition. A total of 31 children with Class III malocclusion in mixed dentition were selected, and 15 (group A) received maxillary protraction treatment with RPE, the other 16 (group B) received maxillary protraction without RPE. Cephalometric films were taken before and after treatment, and traditional and Pancherz analysis were used. The average duration of treatment was 10.14 months in group A and 9.77 months in group B respectively (P>0.05). According to Pancherz analysis, maxillary basal bone moved forwards by 2.99 mm in group A and 3.33 mm in group B respectively (P>0.05), mandibular basal bone moved backwards by 0.07 mm in group A, while forwards by 0.80 mm in group B (P>0.05), the overjet increased by 4.51 mm in group A and 6.37 mm in group B respectively (P0.05). The effects were clinically satisfactory in the both groups. Lower molar moved forwards by 1.18 mm in basal bone in group A, while backwards by 1.20 mm in group B (PClass III malocclusion.

  17. [Stability of the anterior teeth and hard tissue of skeletal class III malocclusion after orthodontic surgery: systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueyan; Deng, Mengxuan; Yuan, Xiaoping

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to analyze the long-term stability of the anterior teeth and hard tissue of skeletal class III malocclusion after a three-year orthodontic surgery by systematic review. All studies about skeletal class III malocclusion with orthodontic-surgery were searched by computer-based retrieval and manual retrieval; the deadline is December 2013. The literature, filtered according to the inclusion criteria and exclusion criteria, was performed with quality. assessment. The same indicators of the anterior location and hard tissue stability were combined and evaluated with metaanalysis and descriptive analysis by Rev Man5.2. Four before-and-after comparison study articles with 180 cases were included. The grades of the four literature evaluation were A. The meta-analysis results showed that comparing the three-year post-orthodontic-surgery and post-orthodontic-surgery, the total weighted mean difference (WMD) of Ul-SN was 4.29 (P0.05). The measurement methods of A and B point position were different, hence the qualitative description were as follows: point A remained at a relatively stable position, and point B had some replacement compared with post-operative (Pclass III malocclusion after three-year orthodontic-surgery, the position of the lower anterior teeth could be kept stable, as well as the overbite and the overjet of the anterior teeth; only the upper inci- sor has a lip-inclined relapse. The maxillary could also be kept stable, and the mandibular had a little relapse.

  18. Miniscrew-assisted mandibular molar distalization in a patient with skeletal class-III malocclusion: A clinical case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammadreza Safavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In nongrowing patients with mild skeletal Class-III malocclusion, premolar extraction or molar distalization in the lower arch can be done as a part of camouflage treatment. Temporary anchorage devices are widely used for this purpose because they do not produce undesirable reciprocal effects and do not depend on the patient′s cooperation. However, most reported cases in this regard have used interradicular miniscrews in the mandibular arch and these have a risk of failure as they can loosen due to collision with adjacent roots. This article showcases mandibular molar distalization utilizing miniscrews, inserted at the retromolar area to correct a Class-III problem. A 24-year-old girl with a mild skeletal Class-III malocclusion and dental Class-III molar and canine relationship bilaterally was referred for orthodontic treatment. The treatment plan included distalization of the lower molars bilaterally followed by full fixed appliance therapy, after third molar extractions. For the lower molar distalization, the miniscrews were inserted at the retromolar pad. At the end of 21 months, a Class-I molar and canine relationship, normal overjet and overbite were obtained. The average amount of distalization of mandibular first molar was 3.2 mm at the crown level. In conclusion, placing miniscrews at the retromolar pad area for lower molar distalization was found to be a simple and effective method for correcting anterior cross bite and mandibular anterior crowding or protrusion, without the need for patient compliance.

  19. Management of the Class III malocclusion treated with maxillary expansion, facemask therapy and corrective orthodontic. A 15-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Rodrigues de ALMEIDA

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The facial growth of Class III malocclusion worsens with age, in this case, the early orthopedic treatment, providing facial balance, modifying the maxillofacial growth and development. A 7.6-year old boy presented with Class III malocclusion associated with anterior crossbite; the mandible was shifted to the right and the maxilla had a transversal deficiency. Rapid maxillary expansion followed by facemask therapy was performed, to correct the anteroposterior relationship and improve the facial profile. The patient was followed for a 15-year period, after completion of the treatment, and stability was observed. Growing patients should be monitored following their treatment, so as to prevent malocclusion relapse.

  20. Management of the Class III malocclusion treated with maxillary expansion, facemask therapy and corrective orthodontic. A 15-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Renato Rodrigues de; Alessio, Luiz Eduardo; Almeida-Pedrin, Renata Rodrigues de; Almeida, Marcio Rodrigues de; Pinzan, Arnaldo; Vieira, Luiz Sérgio

    2015-01-01

    The facial growth of Class III malocclusion worsens with age, in this case, the early orthopedic treatment, providing facial balance, modifying the maxillofacial growth and development. A 7.6-year old boy presented with Class III malocclusion associated with anterior crossbite; the mandible was shifted to the right and the maxilla had a transversal deficiency. Rapid maxillary expansion followed by facemask therapy was performed, to correct the anteroposterior relationship and improve the facial profile. The patient was followed for a 15-year period, after completion of the treatment, and stability was observed. Growing patients should be monitored following their treatment, so as to prevent malocclusion relapse.

  1. Comprehensive surgical. Orthodontic treatment of class III malocclusion in cleft patient involving minimally invasive surgery Case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojkovic, Goran; Stojkovic, Miodrag; Stojkovic, Jasna; Nikolic, Dejan; Stajcic, Zoran

    2016-12-19

    Surgical and orthodontic treatment of a teenage cleft patient. Authors describe the case of a 13 year old female cleft patient presented with class III malocclusion RESULT: The patient underwent comprehensive surgical secondary bone grafting and orthodontic treatment. Stable skeletal and occlusal class I relationship was achived and maintained in the post treatment observation period till the age of 16. Although several authors suggests primary gingivoperiosteoplasty, other advocates that such early intervention can cause later restrictions in maxillary growth. For alveolar reconstruction, maxillary growth and dental age were the main considerations in determining the timing of surgical intervention. This case showed that borderline cases of complex dentoalveolar and skeletal anomaly in cleft patients could be successfully treated with comprehensive secondary bone grafting and orthodontic treatment thus avoiding the need for orthognatic surgery. Alveolar bone grafting, Cleft, Malocclusion.

  2. Asymmetric molar distalization with miniscrews to correct a severe unilateral Class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qiao Ling; Conley, R Scott; Wu, Tuojiang; Li, Huang

    2016-05-01

    Asymmetries are among the most challenging problems in orthodontics. Proper diagnosis is critical to discern first whether the asymmetry is dental or skeletal. If it is dental, one must then determine whether one dental arch or both are at fault. Once diagnosed, the next challenge is determining not only an appropriate treatment plan, but also the appropriate mechanics plan. This aim of this article is to present a patient with a severe asymmetry to emphasize the importance of a problem-based differential diagnosis to develop both a sound treatment plan and a mechanics plan that successfully integrates miniscrews from the start of the process. An 18-year-old woman had a Class III subdivision left malocclusion, an asymmetric lower facial third, and a deviated midline. The treatment plan consisted of asymmetric distalization of the maxillary right and mandibular left posterior dentitions to create space to resolve the deviated midlines, correct the canted occlusal plane, and obtain an ideal occlusion. Active treatment with Clarity ceramic 0.022 × 0.028-in appliances (3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif), temporary anchorage devices, and a pendulum appliance lasted 22 months. The final result and the 2-year retention records demonstrate that a harmonious facial balance, an attractive smile, ideal occlusal relationships, and a stable outcome were achieved. This case report shows that with proper planning, asymmetric use of temporary anchorage devices in multiple posterior quadrants can be used to obtain molar distalization, and this approach is an effective alternative to dental extraction therapy. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Aesthetic and functional outcomes using a multiloop edgewise archwire for camouflage orthodontic treatment of a severe Class III open bite malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marañón-Vásquez, Guido Artemio; Soldevilla Galarza, Luciano Carlos; Tolentino Solis, Freddy Antonio; Wilson, Cliff; Romano, Fábio Lourenço

    2017-09-01

    Occasionally, orthodontists will be challenged to treat malocclusions and skeletal disharmonies, which by their complexity one might think that the only treatment alternative is the surgical-orthodontic approach. A male patient, aged 17 years old, was diagnosed with a skeletal Class III malocclusion, anterior open bite and negative overjet. An unpleasant profile was the patient's 'chief complaint' showing interest in facial aesthetics improvement. Nevertheless, the patient and his parents strongly preferred a non-surgical treatment approach. He was treated with a multiloop edgewise archwire to facilitate uprighting and distal en-masse movement of lower teeth, correct the Class III open bite malocclusion, change the inclination of the occlusal plane and obtain the consequent morphological-functional adaptation of the mandible. The Class III malocclusion was corrected and satisfactory changes in the patient's profile were obtained. Active treatment was completed in 2 years, and facial result remained stable at 2 years 6 months after debonding.

  4. Efficacy of orthopedic treatment with protraction facemask on skeletal Class III malocclusion: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordasco, G; Matarese, G; Rustico, L; Fastuca, S; Caprioglio, A; Lindauer, S J; Nucera, R

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to estimate the efficacy of protraction facemask on the correction of Class III malocclusion in the short term. A systematic review of articles was performed using different electronic databases (PubMed, Ovid, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, LILACS, and Google Scholar). Search terms comprised 'orthopedic treatment' and 'Class III malocclusion'. The selection criteria were set in order to include in this review only randomized clinical trials (RCTs) performed treating with facemask Class III growing patients. Studies' selection, data extraction, and risk of bias's assessment were executed independently by two authors using pre-defined data forms. All pooled analyses of data were based on random effects models. A pre-specified subgroup analysis was planned to evaluate the effect of preliminary rapid palatal expansion on facemask efficacy. Three RCTs met our inclusion criteria. In total, data from 155 patients (92 treated and 63 controls) were collected. The treated group showed the following significant changes: ANB° +3.66° [95%CI (2.58, 4.74)]; SNA° +2.10 [95%CI (1.14, 3.06)]; SNB° -1.54 [95%CI (-2.13, -0.95)]; SN-palatal plane -0.82° [95%CI (-1.62, -0.02)]; and SN-mandibular plane +1.51 [95%CI (0.61, 2.41)]. Heterogeneity varied from low to moderate (mean I(2) value: 41.4 ± 20.8). Facemask is effective correcting Class III malocclusion in the short term. The skeletal modifications induced by facemask are forward displacement of maxilla, backward displacement of mandible, clockwise rotation of the mandibular plane, and counterclockwise rotation of the maxillary plane. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Má oclusão Classe III de Angle com discrepância anteroposterior acentuada Angle Class III malocclusion with severe anteroposterior discrepancy

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    Carlos Alexandre Câmara

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O caso clínico apresentado refere-se ao tratamento de uma paciente com 36 anos, que apresentava uma má oclusão Classe III esquelética e dentária, com ausência dos caninos superiores. Foi realizado um tratamento ortodôntico-cirúrgico combinado, com avanço de maxila (Le Fort 1 e ajustes oclusais nos primeiros pré-molares superiores, que substituíram os caninos. Esse caso foi apresentado à Diretoria do Board Brasileiro de Ortodontia e Ortopedia Facial (BBO, representando a categoria 4, ou seja, uma má oclusão com discrepância anterossuperior acentuada, como parte dos requisitos para a obtenção do título de Diplomado pelo BBO.This case report describes the treatment of a 36-year-old patient who presented a skeletal and dental Class III malocclusion and missing upper canines. The patient was treated with orthosurgical maxillary advancement (Le Fort 1 and occlusal adjustment of the first premolars, which replaced the canines. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Facial Orthopedics (BBO, as representative of Category 4, i.e., malocclusion with severe anteroposterior discrepancy, as part of the requirements for obtaining the BBO Diploma.

  6. Correction of a Class III malocclusion with over 20 mm of space to close in the maxilla by using miniscrews for extra anchorage.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breuning, K.H.

    2008-01-01

    Unilateral closure of maxillary extraction spaces in patients with Class III malocclusion can be challenging. This case report describes the closure of first premolar and first molar extraction spaces in a patient with a Class III dental relationship. Two miniscrews were used for intraoral skeletal

  7. Lower lip deformity in patients with cleft and non-cleft Class III malocclusion before and after orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joo Seok; Koh, Kyung S; Choi, Jong Woo

    2015-10-01

    Orthognathic surgery does not yield the same cosmetic benefits in patients with Class III jaw deformities associated with clefts as for patients without clefts. Preoperative upper lip tightness caused by cleft lip repair may not fully explain this difference, suggesting that a lower lip deformity is present. The study compared the outcomes of orthognathic surgery in patients with cleft and non-cleft Class III malocclusion, focusing on lip relationship. The surgical records of 50 patients with Class III malocclusion, including 25 with and 25 without clefts, who had undergone orthognathic surgery, were retrospectively analyzed. Lateral cephalometric tracings, preoperatively and at 6 months postoperatively, were superimposed to analyze the soft tissue changes at seven reference points. At 6 months after surgery, there were no significant differences in skeletal location, whereas the soft tissues of the lower lip differed significantly between patients with and without cleft (p=0.002), indicating the persistence of a lower lip deformity in cleft patients. Moreover, the soft tissues of the lower lip receded in non-cleft patients and protruded in cleft patients after orthognathic surgery. Lower lip deformity and upper lip tightness may result in an unsatisfactory relationship between the upper and lower lips of patients with cleft-related jaw deformity after orthognathic surgery. Other factors were less important than the pathology of the lower lip. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of double-plate appliance/facemask combination and facemask therapy in treating class III malocclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gencer, Deniz; Kaygisiz, Emine; Yüksel, Sema; Tortop, Tuba

    2015-03-01

    To compare the treatment effects of double-plate appliance/facemask (DPA-FM) combined therapy and facemask (FM) therapy in treating Class III malocclusions. The material consisted of lateral cephalometric radiographs of 45 children with skeletal and dental Class III malocclusion. The first treatment group comprised 15 patients (mean age  =  11 years) treated with FM. The second treatment group comprised 15 patients (mean age  = 10 years 9 months) treated with DPA-FM. The third group comprised 15 patients (mean age  =  10 years 5 months) used as controls. The paired t-test was used to evaluate the treatment effects and changes during the treatment and observation period in each group. Differences between the groups were determined by variance analysis and the Duncan test. With the DPA-FM and FM appliances, the SNA and ANB angles increased significantly. These changes were statistically different compared with the control group. Lower facial height showed a greater increase in both treatment groups than in the control group. Molar relation showed a greater increase in the DPA-FM group than in the FM group. The increase in U6/ANS-PNS angle in the FM group was significantly different from the DPA-FM and control groups. The L1/NB angle and Pg-T increased significantly only in the FM group, but no significant difference was found between the treatment groups. In the treatment of Class III malocclusion, both appliances were effective. The significant sagittal changes in the lower incisors and pogonion in the FM group compared with the nonsignificant changes in the DPA-FM group might be due to the restriction effect of acrylic blocks in the DPA-FM group.

  9. Methodological quality and outcome of systematic reviews reporting on orthopaedic treatment for class III malocclusion: Overview of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamilian, Abdolreza; Cannavale, Rosangela; Piancino, Maria Grazia; Eslami, Sara; Perillo, Letizia

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this overview of systematic reviews was to investigate methodological quality and outcome of current systematic reviews (SRs) reporting on orthopaedic treatment for class III malocclusion. Computerized and manual searches were performed in Medline, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library, Embase, LILACS, SciELO, American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopaedics, Angle Orthodontist, European Journal of Orthodontics, Journal of Orthodontics, Conference abstracts and Grey literature. No restrictions were set on language or date of publication. The search covered the starting date of the relevant databases until 30 April 2015. MeSH terms and free-text terms included 'malocclusion', 'Angle class III', 'orthodontic appliances', 'functional', facemask, review and meta-analysis. Screening of eligible studies, assessment of the methodological quality of the SRs and data extraction were conducted in duplicate and independently by two reviewers. Methodological quality was assessed using AMSTAR (assessment of multiple systematic reviews). A total of 222 studies were retrieved and after removal of duplicates, irrelevant studies, literature reviews and surgical approach treatments, 14 SRs and/or meta-analyses were included for qualitative synthesis. Mean AMSTAR score was 7.7/11 with a range of 3-10. There was evidence to demonstrate that face mask therapy can move the maxilla forward whilst causing a backward rotation of the mandible and increased facial height. There was also some evidence of mandibular growth retardation with chin cup therapy. Orthopaedic appliances can improve a class III malocclusion in growing patients over the short-term; however, each appliance has a characteristic effect on the underlying skeletal pattern.

  10. Upper airway asymmetry in skeletal Class III malocclusions with mandibular deviation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    De-Hua Zheng; Xu-Xia Wang; Dan Ma; Yuan Zhou; Jun Zhang

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between bilateral differences of upper airway and mandibular morphologic patterns in subjects with skeletal Class III mandibular deviation...

  11. [The clinical study of protraction face mask combining with MEAW technique to correct skeletal Class III malocclusion in the early permanent tooth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hong-Hai; Zhang, Guo-Xing; Zhang, Zhi-Ming

    2008-06-01

    To investigate the clinical effects of combined multiloop Edgewise arch wire(MEAW) with protraction facemask to treat Class III malocclusion in early permanent dentition, and compare the changes of the periodental tissue and teeth between pre- and post- treatment to explore the mechenism of the method applied to correct Class III malocclusion. 23 cases with Class III malocclusion were selected, including 11 males and 12 females, aged from 12 to 14 years old. MEAW and protraction facemask were used to treat Class III malocclusion in early permanent dentition. Lateral cephalometric films were taken for comparison in three stages:before the treatment(T1), seven months (T2) after treatment and in the end of the treatment(T3).SPSS10.0 software package was used for statistical analysis. The alveolar bone changes mainly happaned in the T2 stage, SNA increased by 2.37 degrees in average, OP-MP increased by 4.85 degrees in average; Wits increased by 2. 50 degrees in average. The difference was significant(P<0.05). However there was no significant difference between T2 and T3 stage. In the T2 stage,the overjet and overbite increased 4.43mm and 2.66mm in average, and increase continued after treatment. It is suggested that MEAW with protraction facemask is an effective technique to treat Class III malocclusion in early permanent dentition by improving maxillary growth.

  12. Orthodontic treatment for prominent lower front teeth (Class III malocclusion) in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkinson, Simon; Harrison, Jayne E; Furness, Susan; Worthington, Helen V

    2013-09-30

    Prominent lower front teeth (termed reverse bite; under bite; Class III malocclusion) may be due to a combination of the jaw or tooth positions or both. The upper jaw (maxilla) can be too far back or the lower jaw (mandible) too far forward, or both. Prominent lower front teeth can also occur if the upper front teeth (incisors) are tipped back or the lower front teeth are tipped forwards, or both. Various treatment approaches have been described to correct prominent lower front teeth in children and adolescents. To assess the effects of orthodontic treatment for prominent lower front teeth in children and adolescents. We searched the following databases: Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (to 7 January 2013), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 12), MEDLINE via OVID (1946 to 7 January 2013), and EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 7 January 2013). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) recruiting children or adolescents or both (aged 16 years or less) receiving any type of orthodontic treatment to correct prominent lower front teeth (Class III malocclusion). Orthodontic treatments were compared with control groups who received either no treatment, delayed treatment or a different active intervention. Screening of references, identification of included and excluded studies, data extraction and assessment of the risk of bias of the included studies was performed independently and in duplicate by two review authors. The mean differences with 95% confidence intervals were calculated for continuous data. Meta-analysis was only undertaken when studies of similar comparisons reported comparable outcome measures. A fixed-effect model was used. The I2 statistic was used as a measure of statistical heterogeneity. Seven RCTs with a total of 339 participants were included in this review. One study was assessed as at low risk of bias, three studies were at high risk of bias, and in the remaining three studies risk of bias

  13. Orthodontic decompensation in skeletal Class III malocclusion: redefining the amount of movement assessed by Cone-Beam Computed Tomography

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    José Antonio Zuega Cappellozza

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT is essential for tridimensional planning of orthognathic surgery, as it allows visualization and evaluation of bone structures and mineralized tissues. Tomographic slices allow evaluation of tooth inclination and individualization of movement performed during preoperative decompensation. The aim of this paper was to assess maxillary and mandibular incisors inclination pre and post orthodontic decompensation in skeletal Class III malocclusion.Methods:The study was conducted on six individuals with skeletal Class III malocclusion, surgically treated, who had Cone-Beam Computed Tomographic scans obtained before and after orthodontic decompensation. On multiplanar reconstruction view, tomographic slices (axial, coronal and sagittal were obtained on the long axis of each incisor. The sagittal slice was used for measurement taking, whereas the references used to assess tooth inclination were the long axis of maxillary teeth in relation to the palatal plane and the long axis of mandibular teeth in relation to the mandibular plane.Results:There was significant variation in the inclination of incisors before and after orthodontic decompensation. This change was of greater magnitude in the mandibular arch, evidencing that natural compensation is more effective in this arch, thereby requiring more intensive decompensation.Conclusion:When routinely performed, the protocols of decompensation treatment in surgical individuals often result in intensive movements, which should be reevaluated, since the extent of movement predisposes to reduction in bone attachment levels and root length.

  14. A finite element analysis of the maxillary first molar PDL with maxillary protraction in a mixed dentition Class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, O M; Araújo, E A; Oliver, D R; Behrents, R G

    2015-11-01

    To analyze the stress distribution on the PDL of the maxillary first molar in a mixed dentition Class III malocclusion, using a Hyrax-type appliance and maxillary protraction. A Class III malocclusion in the mixed dentition was reconstructed based on CBCT images. The 3D FEM comprised the maxilla, alveolar bone, right first permanent molar teeth, and PDL and consisted of 1 133 497 nodes and 573 726 elements. Maxillary protraction force was applied to a hook positioned close to the deciduous canines with 600 g and at 15°, 30°, and 45° downward angles to the maxillary occlusal plane. Analysis was carried out from the top and buccal view of the sagittal plane. The magnitude of the stresses at 15°, 30°, and 45° of protraction angulation resulted in the highest stress magnitude being in the region between the distobuccal and palatal roots, as well as on the distal surface of the mesial root. The vector direction in this area showed traction and mesial movement. With 30° and 45° protraction angulations, the stress was located only between the distobuccal and palatal roots, and the vector direction was more extrusive at 15°. The suggested orthodontic movement is in the mesial direction with a small amount of extrusion with 15° angulation and greater extrusion with 30° and 45°. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Zygomatic miniplates for skeletal anchorage in orthopedic correction of Class III malocclusion: A controlled clinical trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Erdal Bozkaya; Alime Sema Yüksel; Süleyman Bozkaya

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of facemask therapy, which was anchored from the zygomatic buttresses of the maxilla by using two miniplates, in skeletal Class III patients with maxillary deficiency. Methods...

  16. Camouflage treatment of skeletal Class III malocclusion with conventional orthodontic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Hyun; Yu, Joseph; Bullen, Ryan

    2017-04-01

    Nonextraction camouflage treatment along with Class III elastics was used to treat a 39-year-old woman with a skeletal Class III pattern and a low mandibular plane angle and short lower anterior facial height. The total active treatment time was 26 months. Her occlusion, smile esthetics, and soft tissue profile were significantly improved after treatment. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A comparative study on the location of the mandibular foramen in CBCT of normal occlusion and skeletal class II and III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hae-Seo; Lee, Jae-Hoon

    2015-12-01

    During the orthognathic surgery, it is important to know the exact anatomical location of the mandibular foramen to achieve successful anesthesia of inferior alveolar nerve and to prevent damage to the nerves and vessels supplying the mandible. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) was used to determine the location of the mandibular foramen in 100 patients: 30 patients with normal occlusion (13 men, 17 women), 40 patients with skeletal class II malocclusion (15 men, 25 women), 30 patients with skeletal class III malocclusion (17 men, 13 women). The distance from the anterior border of the mandibular ramus to mandibular foramen did not differ significantly among the three groups, but in the group with skeletal class III malocclusion, this distance was an average of 1.43 ± 1.95 mm longer in the men than in the women (p class III malocclusion group, the mandibular foramen was higher than in the other two groups and was an average of 1.85 ± 3.23 mm higher in the men than in the women for all three groups combined (p class III malocclusion group, the ramus was longer than in the other groups and was an average of 7.9 ± 3.66 mm longer in the men than women. The location of the mandibular foramen was higher in the skeletal class III malocclusion group than in the other two groups, possibly because the ramus itself was longer in this group. This information should improve the success rate for inferior alveolar nerve anesthesia and decrease the complications that attend orthognathic surgery.

  18. Evaluation depth of the curve of Spee in class I, class II, and class III malocclusion: A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjna Nayar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Occlusal plane is an essential consideration when multiple long-span posterior restorations are designed. When restorations are added to an existing tooth arrangement characterized by rotated, tipped, or extruded teeth, excursive interferences may be incorporated, resulting in detrimental squeal. The curve of Spee, which exists in the ideal natural dentition, allows harmony to exist between the anterior tooth and condylar guidance. This curve exists in the sagittal plane and is the best viewed from a lateral aspect. It permits total posterior disclusion on mandibular protrusion, given proper anterior tooth guidance. It is unclear that whether the curve of Spee is a description of the occlusal surface of each arch separately or in maximal intercuspation. The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in the depth of curve of Spee between the class I, class II, class III and to investigate the relationship of depth of curve of Spee with over jet, over-bite.

  19. Facial and occlusal esthetic improvements of an adult skeletal Class III malocclusion using surgical, orthodontic, and implant treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Cardoso, Mauricio; de Avila, Erica Dorigatti; Guedes, Fabio Pinto; Battilani Filho, Valter Antonio Ban; Capelozza Filho, Leopoldino; Correa, Marcio Aurelio; Nary Filho, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this clinical report is to describe the complex treatment of an adult Class III malocclusion patient who was disappointed with the outcome of a previous oral rehabilitation. Interdisciplinary treatment planning was performed with a primary indication for implant removal because of marginal bone loss and gingival recession, followed by orthodontic and surgical procedures to correct the esthetics and skeletal malocclusion. The comprehensive treatment approach included: (1) implant removal in the area of the central incisors; (2) combined orthodontic decompensation with mesial displacement and forced extrusion of the lateral incisors; (3) extraction of the lateral incisors and placement of new implants corresponding to the central incisors, which received provisional crowns; (4) orthognathic surgery for maxillary advancement to improve occlusal and facial relationships; and finally, (5) orthodontic refinement followed by definitive prosthetic rehabilitation of the maxillary central incisors and reshaping of the adjacent teeth. At the three-year follow-up, clinical and radiographic examinations showed successful replacement of the central incisors and improved skeletal and esthetic appearances. Moreover, a Class II molar relationship was obtained with an ideal overbite, overjet, and intercuspation. In conclusion, we report the successful esthetic anterior rehabilitation of a complex case in which interdisciplinary treatment planning improved facial harmony, provided gingival architecture with sufficient width and thickness, and improved smile esthetics, resulting in enhanced patient comfort and satisfaction. This clinical case report might be useful to improve facial esthetics and occlusion in patients with dentoalveolar and skeletal defects. PMID:26877982

  20. Facial and occlusal esthetic improvements of an adult skeletal Class III malocclusion using surgical, orthodontic, and implant treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Cardoso, Mauricio; de Molon, Rafael Scaf; de Avila, Erica Dorigatti; Guedes, Fabio Pinto; Battilani Filho, Valter Antonio Ban; Capelozza Filho, Leopoldino; Correa, Marcio Aurelio; Nary Filho, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this clinical report is to describe the complex treatment of an adult Class III malocclusion patient who was disappointed with the outcome of a previous oral rehabilitation. Interdisciplinary treatment planning was performed with a primary indication for implant removal because of marginal bone loss and gingival recession, followed by orthodontic and surgical procedures to correct the esthetics and skeletal malocclusion. The comprehensive treatment approach included: (1) implant removal in the area of the central incisors; (2) combined orthodontic decompensation with mesial displacement and forced extrusion of the lateral incisors; (3) extraction of the lateral incisors and placement of new implants corresponding to the central incisors, which received provisional crowns; (4) orthognathic surgery for maxillary advancement to improve occlusal and facial relationships; and finally, (5) orthodontic refinement followed by definitive prosthetic rehabilitation of the maxillary central incisors and reshaping of the adjacent teeth. At the three-year follow-up, clinical and radiographic examinations showed successful replacement of the central incisors and improved skeletal and esthetic appearances. Moreover, a Class II molar relationship was obtained with an ideal overbite, overjet, and intercuspation. In conclusion, we report the successful esthetic anterior rehabilitation of a complex case in which interdisciplinary treatment planning improved facial harmony, provided gingival architecture with sufficient width and thickness, and improved smile esthetics, resulting in enhanced patient comfort and satisfaction. This clinical case report might be useful to improve facial esthetics and occlusion in patients with dentoalveolar and skeletal defects.

  1. Factors associated with long-term vertical skeletal changes induced by facemask therapy in patients with Class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Hee-Jong; Park, Hae-Jin; Kim, Yoon-Ji; Lee, Dong-Yul

    2017-11-13

    This study investigated the long-term vertical skeletal changes induced by facemask therapy in patients with Class III malocclusion and different vertical skeletal patterns. A total of 54 patients (20 boys and 34 girls; mean age, 7.7 ± 2.0 years) with Class III malocclusion who were successfully treated with facemask therapy were included in this study. Vertical skeletal changes (overbite depth indicator, angle between the Sella-Nasion (SN) plane and Gonion-Gnathion (GoGn) line, angle between the Frankfort horizontal (FH) plane and mandibular plane, gonial angle, and angle between the SN plane and palatal plane) were measured on lateral cephalograms from before treatment (T0) to after facemask therapy (T1) and from T0 to after retention (T2). Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to study the associations of the patients' skeletal patterns with the short-term (T0-T1) and long-term (T0-T2) vertical skeletal changes as a result of facemask therapy. The mean treatment period of facemask therapy (T0-T1) was 1.4 ± 0.6 years, and the mean retention period (T1-T2) was 6.9 ± 2.6 years. Age at T0 was significantly correlated with vertical skeletal changes from T0 to T1. Differences in the treatment results between sexes were not significant. The angle between point A-point B line and mandibular plane to mandibular plane angle at T0 and the angle between the FH plane and mandibular plane at T0 were significant predictors for short-term and long-term changes. Changes in the Sella-Nasion-point A from T0 to T1 and from T1 to T2 significantly affected vertical changes in the short term and long term, respectively. Vertical skeletal changes as a result of facemask therapy are significantly associated with severity of the skeletal Class III malocclusion and mandibular plane angulation before treatment and the amount of forward maxillary growth during the treatment and retention periods.

  2. Treatment of skeletal class III malocclusion using face mask therapy with alternate rapid maxillary expansion and constriction (Alt-RAMEC) protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, Anand Ramchandra; Kumari, N Retna; Vadakkepuriyal, Kannan; Santhkumar, Madhu

    2015-01-01

    Class III malocclusion is very common malocclusion and can be due to maxillary retrusion, mandibular prognathism, or combination. Ellis and McNamara found a combination of maxillary retrusion and mandibular protrusion to be the most common skeletal relationship (30%). The treatment should be carried out as early as possible for permitting normal growth of the skeletal bases. Reverse pull head gear combined with maxillary expansion can effectively correct skeletal Class III malocclusion due to maxillary deficiency in growing patient. An eight-year-old female patient with chief complaint of prognathic mandible and anterior crossbite was successfully treated in duration of 5 months with facemask and expansion therapy based on Alternate Rapid Maxillary Expansion and Constriction (Alt-RAMEC) protocol.

  3. Treatment of skeletal class III malocclusion using face mask therapy with alternate rapid maxillary expansion and constriction (Alt-RAMEC protocol

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    Anand Ramchandra Rathi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Class III malocclusion is very common malocclusion and can be due to maxillary retrusion, mandibular prognathism, or combination. Ellis and McNamara found a combination of maxillary retrusion and mandibular protrusion to be the most common skeletal relationship (30%. The treatment should be carried out as early as possible for permitting normal growth of the skeletal bases. Reverse pull head gear combined with maxillary expansion can effectively correct skeletal Class III malocclusion due to maxillary deficiency in growing patient. An eight-year-old female patient with chief complaint of prognathic mandible and anterior crossbite was successfully treated in duration of 5 months with facemask and expansion therapy based on Alternate Rapid Maxillary Expansion and Constriction (Alt-RAMEC protocol.

  4. The Removable Mandibular Retractor vs the Bone-anchored Intermaxillary Traction in the Correction of skeletal class III Malocclusion in children: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

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    Majanni, Abdulmalek Mr; Hajeer, Mohammad Y

    2016-05-01

    No randomized controlled trial has tried to compare early class III treatment outcomes between the removable mandibular retractor (RMR) and the bone-anchored intermaxillary traction (BAIMT). The objective of this study was to evaluate skeletal, dental, and soft-tissue changes following early class III treatment with these two treatment modalities. A parallel group randomized controlled trial was conducted on patients with class III malocclusion, treated at the University ofAl-Baath Dental School in Hamah, Syria. Ninety-three children with skeletal class III malocclusion were evaluated and 41 children fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Randomization was performed using computer-generated tables; allocation was concealed using sequentially numbered opaque and sealed envelopes. Thirty-eight participants were analyzed (mean age 11.46 ± 1.28 years). They were randomly distributed into two groups receiving either the RMR or the BAIMT technique with 19 children in each (1:1 allocation ratio). The primary outcome measure was the horizontal movement of points A, B, and Pogonion. Point A showed greater anterior movement in the BAIMT group (x = 1.69 mm) than in the RMR group (x = 1.05 mm; p class III malocclusion in growing patients. Bone-anchored intermaxillary elastics appears to be a promising solution for class III growing patients with mild to moderate degrees of skeletal discrepancy.

  5. Bone- and dentoalveolar-anchored dentofacial orthopedics for Class III malocclusion: new approaches, similar objectives? : a systematic review.

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    Morales-Fernández, Marta; Iglesias-Linares, Alejandro; Yañez-Vico, Rosa Maria; Mendoza-Mendoza, Asuncion; Solano-Reina, Enrique

    2013-05-01

    To analyze the scientific literature and compare in the results of conventional orthopedic appliances with those obtained from recent bone-anchored orthopedics for Class III malocclusion. The literature was systematically reviewed using PubMed/Medline, Scopus, and Scirus databases up to January 2012. Articles were selected by two different researchers (kappa index  =  0.83), based on established inclusion/exclusion criteria. Methodologic quality was classified as high, medium, or low quality. The search strategy identified 1020 titles. Thirty studies were selected after applying the criteria (high quality  =  9, medium quality  =  21). Protraction rates differed within a range of one- to twofold between bone-anchored and dentoalveolar therapies (P orthopedics (P orthopedics.

  6. IBO Case Report: Management of Skeletal Class III Malocclusion with Combined Rapid Maxillary Expansion: Facemask Therapy and 5-Year Follow-up

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    Ashok Surana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes the management of skeletal Class III malocclusion with maxillary deficiency in an adolescent girl, using combined rapid maxillary expansion-facemask approach, followed by comprehensive fixed appliance mechanotherapy. Excellent long-term stability is demonstrated up to 5 years post-treatment.

  7. Apriori feasibility testing of randomized clinical trial design in patients with cleft deformities and Class III malocclusion.

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    McIlvaine, Elizabeth; Borzabadi-Farahani, Ali; Lane, Christianne J; Azen, Stanley P; Yen, Stephen L-K

    2014-05-01

    To assess the feasibility of randomizing treatment (surgical vs. non-surgical) for correction of a Class III malocclusion (underbite) resulting from an earlier repair of cleft lip and palate. Surveys about willingness to accept randomized treatment during adolescence were mailed to the parents of cleft lip and palate patients under the care of Children's Hospital Los Angeles between 2005 and 2010. The inclusion criteria were patients with cleft lip and palate, Class III malocclusion due to maxillary deficiency, and absence of medical and cognitive contraindications to treatment. Out of 287 surveys, 82 (28%) were completed and returned; 47% of the subjects held a strong treatment preference (95% CI, 35-58%), while 30% were willing to accept randomization (95% CI, 20-41%). Seventy-eight percent would drop out of a randomized trial if dissatisfied with the assigned treatment (95% CI, 67-86%). The three most commonly cited reasons for being unwilling to accept random treatment assignment were 1) the desire for doctors to choose the best treatment, 2) the desire for parents to have input on treatment, and 3) the desire to correct the underbite as early as possible. Based on this study, parents and patients would be unwilling to accept a randomly assigned treatment and would not remain in an assigned group if treatment did not meet expectations. This highlight the limitations associated with randomization trials involving surgical modalities and provide justification for other research models (e.g., cohort studies) to compare two treatment options when randomization is not feasible. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Management of skeletal Class III malocclusion with unilateral crossbite on a growing patient using facemask-bonded rapid palatal expander and fixed appliances

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    Tinnie Effendy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Facemask (FM and bonded rapid palatal expander (RPE are part of growth modification treatments for correcting skeletal Class III pattern with retrognathic maxilla. This orthopaedic treatment is usually preceded by fixed appliances to achieve aesthetic dental alignment and improve interdigitation. This case report reviews treatment of Class III malocclusion with unilateral crossbite in a 12-year-old boy using FM and bonded RPE, followed by fixed appliances. Choice of FM and bonded RPE was in line with indication which was mild Class III malocclusion with retrognathic maxilla. Execution of treatment was made considering treatment biomechanics and patient cooperation. This orthopaedic treatment was followed by orthodontic treatment specifically aimed to correct unilateral crossbite, canine relationship yet to reach Class I, lower midline shift, as well as unintended dental consequences of using bonded RPE, namely posterior open bite and deepening curve of spee. Posttreatment facial profile and smile are more esthetic. Occlusion is significantly improved both functionally and aesthetically.

  9. [Study of anterior alveolar bone thickness in skeletal class III malocclusion patients with orthognathic surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Li, Xiao-tong

    2016-02-18

    To investigate the compensation of the anterior alveolar bone thickness in skeletal class III patients treated with orthodontic-surgical treatment. The samples consisted of 54 skeletal class III patients treated with orthodontic-surgical treatment. Lateral cephalograms were taken before treatment. Descriptive statistics were calculated for corresponding variables, and the differences between the samples and the norms from Peking University normal occlusion sample library were assessed by independent-sample t test. Correlation analyses were performed to find associations between skeletal characteristics and anterior alveolar bone thickness. According to skeletal anteroposterior discrepancy/vertical type (ANB, criteria=-4°; SN-MP, criteria=37.7°), the samples were allocated into group A (severe anteroposterior discrepancy/hypodivergent vertical type, n=11), group B (moderate anteroposterior discrepancy/hypodivergent vertical type, n=16), group C (severe anteroposterior discrepancy/hyperdivergent vertical type, n=14), and group D (moderate anteroposterior discrepancy/hyperdivergent vertical type, n=13),and one-way ANOVA with SNK multiple comparison test were performed. The anterior alveolar bone thickness of the skeletal class III patients were thinner compared with norm values (Pclass III patients are thinner compared with normal occlusion. Different skeletal anteroposterior discrepancy/vertical type results in differences in the anterior alveolar bone thickness, so decompensation should be treated differently and carefully.

  10. Three-dimensional changes in the temporomandibular joint after maxillary protraction in children with skeletal Class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunju; Son, Woo-Sung; Kwak, Chun; Kang, Eun-Hee; Kim, Seong-Sik; Park, Soo-Byung; Kim, Yong-Il

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated 3-dimensional changes in the temporomandibular joints of children with skeletal Class III malocclusion and maxillary deficiency after facemask therapy for maxillary protraction. Eighteen children with anterior crossbite and a Class III molar relationship underwent facemask therapy for maxillary protraction, after which they exhibited positive overjet and a Class II molar relationship. Three-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography images of the patients were obtained before (T1) and after (T2) facemask protraction, and the 3-dimensional coordinates of the anatomical landmarks in T1 and T2 images were compared. After facemask therapy, the mandibular condyles of the patients were displaced outside, upward, and backward. Additionally, the anterior and posterior walls of the glenoid fossa had negative values for anteroposterior change. Three-dimensional analysis of the temporomandibular joint showed that facemask therapy resulted in bone apposition (to the anterior wall) and bone resorption (of the posterior wall) in the glenoid fossa. This bone remodeling resulted in upward and backward displacement of the condyle.(J Oral Sci 58, 501-508, 2016).

  11. Treatment of class III malocclusion in primary and mixed dentition with rapid palatal expansion and facemask

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Soldevilla, Luciano; Dpto. Académico de Estomatología Pediátrica.Facultad de Odontología. Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos.; Aliaga Del Castillo, Arón; Dpto. Académico de Estomatología Pediátrica.Facultad de Odontología. Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos.

    2014-01-01

    We report the follow-up of a cross-bite clinical case which initially undertook the use of a Rigid acrylic-bonded palatal appliance that after stabilization treatment and coincident with the anterior tooth replacement, suffered a recurrence of anterior crossbite wich was corrected with the use of facemask. The purpose of correcting the crossbite at early ages allowed to drive improvements in the Class III skeletal pattern and reduces the amount of compensation to dental and skeletal discrepan...

  12. A new classification of mandibular asymmetry and evaluation of surgical-orthodontic treatment outcomes in Class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Jane; Yao, Chung-Chen; Chang, Zwei-Chieng; Lai, Hsiang-Hua; Lu, Shao-Chun; Kok, Sang-Heng

    2016-06-01

    Facial asymmetry is a common manifestation in patients with Class III malocclusion. The aims of this study were to classify mandibular asymmetry in Class III patients and to evaluate treatment outcomes according to different characteristics of asymmetry. Three dimensional cone-beam CT images of 38 patients were analyzed for menton deviation and discrepancies between bilateral structures of mandibular ramus and body. The patients were classified into 3 groups. Groups 1 and 2 exhibited a larger distance of ramus to midsagittal plane on menton-deviated side. In group 1, menton deviation was greater than ramus asymmetry and the condition was reversed for group 2. Group 3 had menton deviation contralateral to the side with larger transverse ramus distance. The features of asymmetry were delineated and the outcomes after surgical-orthodontic treatment were analyzed. Group 1 exhibited a roll rotation of mandibular structures. Mandibular deviation of group 2 patients was more of a horizontal shift nature rather than rotation. Group 3 patients displayed a yaw rotation of mandible to the side with lesser growth in body and ramus. After treatment, menton deviation and body asymmetry were significantly improved in all 3 groups, but the effect of therapy on ramus asymmetry was less predictable, especially for group 3. The classification system is simple and clinically useful and could form a base for future studies on facial asymmetry. Copyright © 2016 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Molar heights and incisor inclinations in adults with Class II and Class III skeletal open-bite malocclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriola-Guillén, Luis Ernesto; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this research was to compare maxillary and mandibular molar heights and incisor inclinations in patients with skeletal open-bite Class II, patients with skeletal open-bite Class III, and an untreated control group. Pretreatment lateral cephalograms of 70 orthodontic patients (34 men, 36 women) between 16 and 40 years of age were examined. The sample was divided into 3 groups according to facial growth pattern and overbite. The control group (n = 25) included normodivergent Class I subjects with adequate overbite; the skeletal open-bite Class II group (n = 25) and the skeletal open-bite Class III group (n = 20) included hyperdivergent Class II or Class III subjects with negative overbite. Measurements considered were ANB angle, palatal and mandibular plane angles, maxillary incisor palatal plane angulation, and mandibular incisor mandibular plane angulation, as well as the distance from the palatal or the mandibular plane to the mesial cusp of the molars. Multivariate analysis of covariance and multivariate analysis of variance tests were used to determine the differences between the groups, followed by the Tukey post-hoc test. Additionally, the Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskall-Wallis test were performed. Significant differences in molar height were found (P palatal plane angulation was greater in the skeletal open-bite Class III group by approximately 6°. Mandibular incisor to mandibular plane angulation was 10° more lingual in the skeletal open-bite Class III group (P <0.001). The skeletal open-bite groups had greater molar heights than did the control group. The skeletal open-bite Class II group had more eruption of the mandibular molars. The maxillary incisors were more proclined and the mandibular incisors were more lingual in the skeletal open-bite Class III group. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Nonsurgical correction of a Class III malocclusion in an adult by miniscrew-assisted mandibular dentition distalization.

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    Jing, Yan; Han, Xianglong; Guo, Yongwen; Li, Jingyu; Bai, Ding

    2013-06-01

    This article reports the successful use of miniscrews in the mandible to treat a 20-year-old Mongolian woman with a chief complaint of anterior crossbite. The patient had a skeletal Class III malocclusion with a mildly protrusive mandible, an anterior crossbite, and a deviated midline. In light of the advantages for reconstruction of the occlusal plane and distal en-masse movement of the mandibular arch, we used a multiloop edgewise archwire in the initial stage. However, the maxillary incisors were in excessive labioversion accompanied by little retraction of the mandibular incisors; these results were obviously not satisfying after 4 months of multiloop edgewise archwire treatment. Two miniscrews were subsequently implanted vertically in the external oblique ridge areas of the bilateral mandibular ramus as skeletal anchorage for en-masse distalization of the mandibular dentition. During treatment, the mandibular anterior teeth were retracted about 4.0 mm without negative lingual inclinations. The movement of the mandibular first molar was almost bodily translation. The maxillary incisors maintained good inclinations by rotating their brackets 180° along with the outstanding performance of the beta-titanium wire. The patient received a harmonious facial balance, an attractive smile, and ideal occlusal relationships. The outcome was stable after 1 year of retention. Our results suggest that the application of miniscrews in the posterior area of the mandible is an effective approach for Class III camouflage treatment. This technique requires minimal compliance and is particularly useful for correcting Class III patients with mild mandibular protrusion and minor crowding. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Periodontal consequences of mandibular incisor proclination during presurgical orthodontic treatment in Class III malocclusion patients.

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    Choi, Yoon Jeong; Chung, Chooryung J; Kim, Kyung-Ho

    2015-05-01

    To test the hypothesis that periodontal changes are similar between proclined and minimal-changed mandibular incisor position groups during presurgical orthodontic treatment for Class III orthognathic surgery. The following measurements were performed before and after presurgical orthodontic treatment of 75 patients (proclination group, 39 subjects; minimal-change group, 36 subjects): clinical crown length, sulcus and bone probing depths, and width of attached gingiva from clinical examination; infradentale-to-MP (perpendicular distance of infradentale to mandibular plane) from examination of lateral cephalograms; and the distance between the cementoenamel junction and alveolar crest from examination of periapical radiographs. Data were compared between the two groups, and a regression analysis was performed to investigate factors affecting the periodontal changes. In both groups, clinical crown length and bone probing depth increased during presurgical orthodontics (P Class III surgery patients seems to result in labial alveolar bone recession and a decrease in width of attached gingiva. However, the amount of the periodontal recession appeared to be clinically insignificant.

  16. Vertical and Transverse Management with Transpalatal Arches in an Adult with Class III Malocclusion

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    R. M. Yañez-Vico

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The transpalatal arch might be one of the most common intraoral auxiliary fixed appliances used in orthodontics in order to provide dental anchorage. The aim of the present case report is to describe a case in which an adult patient with a tendency to class III, palatal compression, and bilateral posterior crossbite was treated with double transpalatal bars in order to control the torque of both the first and the second molars. Double transpalatal arches on both first and second maxillary molars are a successful appliance in order to control the posterior sectors and improve the torsion of the molars. They allow the professional to gain overbite instead of losing it as may happen with other techniques and avoid enlarging of Wilson curve, obtaining a more stable occlusion without the need for extra help from bone anchorage.

  17. Oral health-related quality of life changes in patients with severe Class III malocclusion treated with the 2-jaw surgery-first approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feu, Daniela; de Oliveira, Branca Heloísa; Palomares, Nathalia Barbosa; Celeste, Roger Keller; Miguel, José Augusto Mendes

    2017-06-01

    In this nonrandomized prospective study, we compared the effects of the surgery-first approach with conventional 2-jaw orthognathic surgery on skeletal Class III patients' oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL), quality of the orthodontic outcome, and average treatment duration. The sample consisted of 16 patients with severe skeletal Class III malocclusion, who needed 2-jaw orthognathic surgery: 8 were treated with the surgery-first approach, and 8 were treated with the traditional orthodontic-surgical approach. OHRQoL was assessed by using the Orthognathic Quality of Life Questionnaire (OQLQ) and the Oral Health Impact Profile-short version (OHIP-14). Malocclusion severity and esthetic self-perception were assessed with the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need. Dental health status was determined using the Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth Index. Tests were repeated at 7 times: baseline, 1 month after appliance placement, and 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years after the beginning of the treatment; and for both groups, there was an also evaluation stage after the orthognathic surgery. After 2 years, the surgery-first group showed a significant decrease in malocclusion severity (P malocclusion severity increased significantly, thereby resulting in a not statistically significant worsening of their OHRQoL (OHIP-14, P = 0.89; OQLQ, P = 0.11). OHRQoL improved significantly in a linear trend of progressive improvements in all severe Class III patients who had the surgery-first approach after the surgical procedure through 2 years of follow-up, as their malocclusion and esthetic self-perception also improved. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Má oclusão Classe III, com mordida cruzada posterior unilateral e assimetria facial Class III malocclusion with unilateral posterior crossbite and facial asymmetry

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    Silvio Rosan de Oliveira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo relata o tratamento ortodôntico realizado em uma paciente adulta, com 36 anos de idade, portadora de um padrão esquelético e dentário de Classe III, com mordida cruzada posterior unilateral esquerda e assimetria mandibular, além de uma diferença relativamente grande entre máxima intercuspidação habitual (MIH e relação cêntrica (RC. O tratamento foi realizado com expansão dentária superior, contração dentária inferior e descruzamento anterior, eliminando a diferença entre MIH e RC. O resultado obtido foi pautado sobre um diagnóstico criterioso e um planejamento de compensação ortodôntica, sem intervenção cirúrgica nos maxilares, por solicitação da paciente. Este caso foi apresentado à Diretoria do Board Brasileiro de Ortodontia e Ortopedia Facial (BBO, representando a categoria 5, ou seja, má oclusão com problema transverso, apresentando pelo menos um quadrante em cruzamento, como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do título de Diplomado pelo BBO.This article reports on the orthodontic treatment performed on a 36-year-old female patient with skeletal and dental Class III pattern, presenting with a left unilateral posterior crossbite and mandibular asymmetry, and a relatively significant difference between maximum intercuspation (MIC and centric relation (CR. The treatment was performed with maxillary dental expansion, mandibular dental contraction and anterior crossbite correction, eliminating the difference between MIC and CR. Results were based on careful diagnosis and planning of orthodontic compensation without surgical intervention in the maxilla, at the request of the patient. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Facial Orthopedics (BBO as representative of Category 5, i.e., malocclusion with a transverse problem, presenting with a crossbite in at least one of the quadrants, as part of the requirements for obtaining the BBO Certificate.

  19. Longitudinal observation of mandibular motion pattern in patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion subsequent to orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen-Ching Ko, Ellen; Huang, Chiung Shing; Lo, Lun-Jou; Chen, Yu-Ray

    2012-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to delineate the characteristic patterns of 3-dimensional (3D) mandibular movement in patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion compared with normal individuals and to investigate the longitudinal changes in mandible and condylar motion after orthognathic surgery (OGS). The subjects in the present prospective study consisted of 2 groups. The OGS group included 24 patients with skeletal Class III who underwent OGS. The control group consisted of 25 patients who underwent orthodontic treatment only. The patient records included demographic data, lateral and posteroanterior cephalometric radiographs before treatment, and serial mandibular motion data. In the OGS group, the mandibular motion data were obtained before OGS (T1), 1 month after OGS (T2), and at least 6 months after OGS (T3). The differences in cephalometric measurements and mandibular movements between the 2 groups were compared. The Pearson correlation test was performed to assess the relationship between the cephalometric measurements and the mandibular movements. Serial changes in mandibular movement in the OGS group were also compared. The skeletal pattern in the OGS group demonstrated retrusive maxilla and a protrusive mandible, with a larger mandibular plane angle. For the incisal range of motion, the OGS group's maximal mouth opening was larger than the control group's by 6.9 mm. In the OGS group, the condylar range of motion in retrusion and the Bennett angle were asymmetric. Skeletal Class III patients tended to have a smaller range of condylar retrusion. At 1 month after OGS, the maximal incisal range of motion decreased from 57.23 to 25.61 mm. Other variables, including laterotrusion, movement velocity, and angle and distance of condylar movement in protrusion, reduced significantly. The Bennett angle demonstrated increased symmetry on both sides. Six months after OGS, the condylar motion in opening demonstrated improvements, but to a lesser extent than at

  20. [Research of cranio-occlusional change of skeletal class III malocclusion in permanent dentition treated by the multiloop edgewise arch wire technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chang-wei; Lin, Jiu-xiang; Xu, Bao-hua

    2004-06-01

    To analyze the mechanics in correction of skeletal class III malocclusion with Multiloop Edgewise Arch Wire (MEAW). 15 patients with skeletal class III malocclusion were treated with MEAW technique. Cephalometric analysis was performed with pre-treatment and post-treatment cephalograms. Paired t-test was conducted to assess the treatment effects. L6-XI decreased by 2.87 mm, L6/MP increased by 8.60 degrees, L1-XI decreased by 2.60 mm, OP/MP increased by 2.33 degrees. Skeleton changed a little. There was no significant change in the soft tissue. (1) Dento-alveolar compensation is the main change after the treatment by MEAW technique; (2) The improvement in molar relationship and overjet is achieved with upright and distal movement of the lower posterior teeth; (3) The lower anterior teeth moved lingually and protracted. Occlusal plane is flattened.

  1. Dentoskeletal parameters related to visual perception of facial asymmetry in patients with skeletal class III malocclusion after orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C-W; Wang, Y-C; Chen, Y-H; Ko, E W-C

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to explore the critical parameters determining the visual perception of postoperative facial symmetry. This study retrospectively included 24 patients with skeletal class III malocclusion and double-jaw orthognathic surgery (OgS). The patients were classified according to the outcome of subjective visual perception scores (SVPS) based on the postoperative frontal images by 10 orthodontists: symmetrical surgical outcome (S group, n=12) and facial asymmetry after surgery (A group, n=12). The 3D dentofacial measurements from cone beam computed tomography, were compared between the S and A groups. The relationship of all variables in all patients with the SVPS was explored by Spearman correlation coefficient. Significant differences were observed in the midline parameters in the mandible, the B point, gnathion and menton, and the mandibular border axis as well as in the discrepancy of the chin morphology between the two groups (P<0.05). The findings demonstrated that the midline parameter deviation, shape of the mandibular border, and the contour of menton morphology play the major role in the visual perceptions of postoperative asymmetry. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of cephalometric changes in patients with class III malocclusion in mixed dentition period following face mask therapy and slow maxillary expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Akhondi MS.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: Among different treatments of patients with Class III malocclusion , orthopedic protraction of maxilla has been known as an effective method in mixed dentition period. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cephalometric changes of Cl III patients in mixed dentition period following face mask therapy and slow maxillary expansion. "nMaterials and Methods: This was a before-after study which was conducted on 10 children in mixed dentition period, who had class III malocclusion and maxillary deficiency according to the Stiener and Mc Namara's analysis. The patients were all treated by protraction face mask and slow maxillary expansion. The cephalometric changes of maxilla , mandible and dental relations during the treatment were analyzed by Paired sample T Test. P<0.05 was considered as the level of significant. "nResults: The overjet increasement was 1.7mm. Co. ANS distance improvement was 5.6mm, Ptm.ANS distance increasing was 3mm, and ultimately improvement of Gf.s distance was 1.5mm which were all statistically significant (p<0.05. "nConclusion: Based on the results of this study, face mask therapy with slow maxillary expansion is able to improve the horizotal position of maxilla, in patients with Cl III malocclusion , in mixed dentition period.

  3. Má oclusão de Classe I de Angle, com tendência à classe III esquelética, tratada com controle de crescimento Angle Class I malocclusion, with class III skeletal tendency, treated with growth control

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    Ademir Roberto Brunetto

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A má oclusão de Classe III de Angle é caracterizada por uma relação dentária anteroposterior inadequada, que pode ou não estar acompanhada de alterações esqueléticas. Em geral, o aspecto facial fica bastante comprometido, principalmente quando associada à deficiência no terço médio da face, sendo esse, na maioria das vezes, o principal fator que motiva o paciente a procurar tratamento. Este caso foi apresentado à Diretoria do Board Brasileiro de Ortodontia e Ortopedia Facial (BBO, representando a categoria livre, como parte dos requisitos para a obtenção do título de Diplomado pelo BBO.Angle Class III malocclusion is characterized by an anteroposterior dental alteration, which might be accompanied by skeletal deformities. Usually, the facial aspect becomes aesthetically compromised, mostly when the middle third of the face is affected (this is the main reason why patients seek for treatment.This case was presented to the directorship of the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Facial Orthopedics (BBO, standing for the free category, as a part of the requirements to obtain the Board's Certificate.

  4. Tomographic Pharyngeal Dimensions in Individuals With Unilateral Cleft Lip/Palate and Class III Malocclusion Are Reduced When Compared With Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade-Suedam, Ivy Kiemle; Lima, Thiago Freire; Campos, Letícia Dominguez; Yaedú, Renato Yassutaka Faria; Filho, Hugo Nary; Trindade, Inge Elly Kiemle

    2017-09-01

      The objective of this study was to three-dimensionally evaluate the pharyngeal dimensions of individuals with complete nonsyndromic unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) using cone beam computed tomography.   This was a cross-sectional prospective study.   The study took place at the Laboratory of Physiology, Hospital for Rehabilitation of Craniofacial Anomalies, University of São Paulo, Bauru-SP, Brazil.   The control group (CON) consisted of 23 noncleft adults with class III malocclusion, and the cleft group (UCLP) consisted of 22 individuals with UCLP and class III malocclusion. Two subgroups of individuals with class III malocclusion as a result of maxillary retrusion with (UCLP'; n = 19) and without (CON'; n = 8) clefts were also assessed.   Pharyngeal volume, pharyngeal minimal cross-sectional area (CSA), location of CSA, pharyngeal length, sella-nasion-A point angle (SNA), sella-nasion-B point angle (SNB), and A point-nasion-B point angle (ANB), and body mass index were assessed using Dolphin software.   The pharyngeal dimensions of UCLP individuals are smaller when compared with controls.   Mean pharyngeal volume (standard deviation) for the UCLP patients (20.8 [3.9] cm3) and the UCLP' patients (20.3 [3.9] cm3) were significantly decreased when compared with the CON (28.2 [10.0] cm3) and CON' patients (29.1 [10.2] cm3), respectively. No differences were found in the pharyngeal minimal CSA, ANB, or pharyngeal length values between groups (CON versus UCLP and CON' versus UCLP'). CSAs were located mostly at the oropharynx, except in the UCLP' patients, which were mainly at the hypopharynx. Mean SNA in the UCLP (76.4° [4.6°]) and UCLP' groups (75.1° [3.1°]) were significantly smaller than those in the CON (82.8° [4.1°]) and CON' groups (78.6° [1.2°]). SNB values were statistically smaller only for the comparison of CON versus UCLP patients.   The pharynx of individuals with UCLP and class III malocclusion is volumetrically smaller

  5. Nasal changes after orthognathic surgery for patients with prognathism and Class III malocclusion: analysis using three-dimensional photogrammetry.

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    Worasakwutiphong, Saran; Chuang, Ya-Fang; Chang, Hsin-Wen; Lin, Hsiu-Hsia; Lin, Pei-Ju; Lo, Lun-Jou

    2015-02-01

    Orthognathic surgery alters the position of maxilla and mandible, and consequently changes the nasal shape. The nasal change remains a concern to Asian patients. The aim of this study was to measure the nasal changes using a novel three-dimensional photographic imaging method. A total of 38 patients with Class III malocclusion and prognathism were enrolled. All patients underwent two-jaw surgery with the standard technique. A nasal alar cinching suture was included at the end of procedure. Facial landmarks and nasal morphology were defined and measured from pre- and postoperative three-dimensional photographic images. Intra-rater errors on landmark identification were controlled. Patient's reports of perceptual nasal changes were recorded. The average width of the alar base and subalare remained similar after surgery. Alar width was increased by 0.74 mm. Nasal height and length remained the same. Nasolabial angle increased significantly. The area of nostril show revealed a significant increase and was correlated with a decrease of columella inclination. Nasal tip projection decreased significantly, by 1.99 mm. Preoperative nasal morphology was different between patients with and without cleft lip/palate, but most nasal changes were concordant. In the self-perception, 37% of patients reported improved nasal appearance, 58% reported no change, and 5% were not satisfied with the nasal changes. After the surgery, characteristic nasal changes occurred with an increase of nasolabial angle and nostril show, but a preserved nasal width. The majority of patients did not perceive adverse nasal changes. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Management of skeletal class III malocclusion with a palatally impacted cuspid

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    Chris HN Chang

    2012-01-01

    Maintain the A-P position of the maxilla.Extrude lower molars to open the VDO by clockwise rotation to effectively retract the mandible relative to the maxilla.Retract the mandibular incisors.Correct the anterior X-bite and align the midlinesEstablish a normal overjet and overbite in a mutually protected, Class I occlusion.Retract lower lip to improve facial balance 0.022-in Damon D3® (standard torque and Inspire Ice® brackets ( Ormco were used. The simplicity of mechanics is illustrated

  7. Short-term effects of a modified Alt-RAMEC protocol for early treatment of Class III malocclusion: a controlled study.

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    Masucci, C; Franchi, L; Giuntini, V; Defraia, E

    2014-11-01

    To assess the effects of a modified alternate rapid maxillary expansion and constriction (Alt-RAMEC) protocol in combination with facemask (FM) in Class III growing patients. Thirty one Class III patients (17 males, 14 females) were treated with a modified Alt-RAMEC/FM protocol at the Department of Orthodontics of the University of Florence. All patients were evaluated at the beginning (T1, mean age 6.4 ± 0.8 years) and at the end of orthopedic therapy (T2, mean age 8.1 ± 0.9 years), and they were compared to a matched sample of 31 Class III patients (16 males and 15 females) treated with rapid maxillary expansion and facemask (RME/FM) and to a matched control group of 21 subjects (9 males and 12 females) with untreated Class III malocclusion. The three groups were compared with anova with Benjamini-Hochberg correction for multiple tests. Both the Alt-RAMEC/FM and the RME/FM protocols showed significantly favorable effects leading to correction of the Class III malocclusion. The Alt-RAMEC/FM protocol produced a more effective advancement of the maxilla (SNA +1.2°) and greater intermaxillary changes (ANB +1.7°) vs. the RME/FM protocol. No significant differences were recorded as for mandibular skeletal changes and vertical skeletal relationships. The Alt-RAMEC/FM protocol induced more favorable skeletal short-term effects compared with RME/FM therapy in Class III growing patients. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Má oclusão Classe III de Angle, subdivisão direita, tratada sem exodontias e com controle de crescimento Angle Class III malocclusion, subdivision right, treated without extractions and with growth control

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    Sérgio Henrique Casarim Fernandes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A Classe III de Angle é uma má oclusão caracterizada por discrepâncias anteroposteriores dentárias e faciais, normalmente acompanhadas por alterações esqueléticas, com componente genético associado. O diagnóstico precoce e correto e o tratamento adequado são de suma importância para promover o controle do crescimento e evitar recidivas. Este artigo relata o tratamento, executado em duas fases, de uma paciente do sexo feminino de 12 anos de idade, apresentando uma má oclusão de Classe III de Angle, subdivisão direita, com mordida cruzada anterior em máxima intercuspidação habitual (MIH e topo em relação cêntrica (RC, apresentando, ainda, falta de espaço na maxila, que foi tratada sem exodontias e com controle de crescimento. Esse caso foi apresentado à Diretoria do Board Brasileiro de Ortodontia e Ortopedia Facial (BBO, representando a categoria 1, ou seja, uma má oclusão Classe III de Angle, tratada sem exodontias e com controle de crescimento, como parte dos requisitos para a obtenção do título de Diplomado pelo BBOAngle Class III malocclusion is characterized by anteroposterior dental and facial discrepancies usually accompanied by skeletal changes associated with a genetic component. Early, accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment are of paramount importance to promote growth control and prevent relapse. This article reports the two-phase treatment of a female patient, aged 12 years, with an Angle Class III, subdivision right malocclusion with anterior crossbite in maximum intercuspation (MIC and end-on bite in centric relation, further presenting with lack of maxillary space. The case was treated without extractions and with growth control. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Facial Orthopedics (BBO as representative of Category 1, i.e., Angle Class III malocclusion treated without tooth extractions, as part of the requirements for obtaining the BBO Diploma

  9. Impact on the upper airway space of different types of orthognathic surgery for the correction of skeletal class III malocclusion: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    He, Jinlong; Wang, Yunji; Hu, Hongtao; Liao, Qian; Zhang, Weiyi; Xiang, Xuerong; Fan, Xiaoping

    2017-02-01

    This study is aimed at assembling, through a systematic review and meta-analysis, scientific evidence related to the effects of mandibular setback (MdS) surgery and bimaxillary surgery for the correction of Class III malocclusion on the cross-sectional area (CSA) and volume of the upper airway as assessed using CT. An electronic search was conducted on Cochrane Library, EMBASE, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science up to June 20, 2016. The inclusion criteria were prospective or retrospective studies, with the aim of comparing the impact on the upper airway space of orthognathic surgery for the treatment of the skeletal class III malocclusion. The methodological index for non-randomized studies (MINORS) was chosen as the evaluation instrument and Revman5.3 was used for the meta-analysis. A total of 1213 studies were retrieved, of which only 18 met the eligibility criteria. The results of meta-analysis showed that the mean decrease in the upper airway volume after MdS surgery was 3.24 cm3 [95%CI (-5.25,-1.23), p = 0.85]; the mean decrease in minimum CSA after a combined surgery of maxillary advancement with mandibular setback (MdS + MxA) was 27.66 mm2 [95%CI (-52.81,-2.51), p = 0.51], but there was no significant decrease in upper airway volume (mean 0.86 cm3); comparison between MdS + MxA and isolated MdS showed significant differences in the CSA of the posterior nasal spine plane (PNS) and epiglottis plane (EP); statistically significant differences in nasopharynx volume (P class III malocclusion. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [The effect of two different methods of rapid maxillary expansion on treatment results of skeletal Class III malocclusion patients with maxillary protraction in early permanent dentition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi-hua; Xie, Xing-qian

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate and compare the effect of single rapid maxillary expansion and repetitive rapid expansion and constriction with maxillary protraction in treating early permanent skeletal Class III patients. Twenty children with skeletal Class III malocclusion were randomly divided into two groups.Ten patients received 1 week of rapid expansion,followed by maxillary protraction(group A) and the other ten patients received 5 weeks of repetitive rapid expansion and constriction followed by maxillary protraction (group B).Cephalometric analysis was performed before and after treatment. The data was analyzed with SPSS 13.0 software package for paired t test. Significant changes in cranio-maxillofacial structures were observed in both groups after 6 months of treatment.Point A moved forward. SNA, ANB, UL-EP, U1-PP, SN-MP, ANS-Me/N-Me, Wit's value increased. L1-MP, LL-EP decreased. Significant differences were found in SNA,ANB,UL-EP between the two groups(PClass III malocclusion patients.

  11. Strategic camouflage treatment of skeletal Class III malocclusion (mandibular prognathism) using bone-borne rapid maxillary expansion and mandibular anterior subapical osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yu-Jin; Lin, Lu; Kim, Seong-Hun; Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Nelson, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    This case report presents the camouflage treatment that successfully improved the facial profile of a patient with a skeletal Class III malocclusion using bone-borne rapid maxillary expansion and mandibular anterior subapical osteotomy. The patient was an 18-year-old woman with chief complaints of crooked teeth and a protruded jaw. Camouflage treatment was chosen because she rejected orthognathic surgery under general anesthesia. A hybrid type of bone-borne rapid maxillary expander with palatal mini-implants was used to correct the transverse discrepancy, and a mandibular anterior subapical osteotomy was conducted to achieve proper overjet with normal incisal inclination and to improve her lip and chin profile. As a result, a Class I occlusion with a favorable inclination of the anterior teeth and a good esthetic profile was achieved with no adverse effects. Therefore, the hybrid type of bone-borne rapid maxillary expander and a mandibular anterior subapical osteotomy can be considered effective camouflage treatment of a skeletal Class III malocclusion, providing improved inclination of the dentition and lip profile. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The association of tongue posture with the dentoalveolar maxillary and mandibular morphology in Class III malocclusion: a controlled study.

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    Primozic, Jasmina; Farcnik, Franc; Perinetti, Giuseppe; Richmond, Stephen; Ovsenik, Maja

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of tongue posture with the dentoalveolar maxillary and mandibular morphology in a group of Class III subjects in comparison to a group of Class I subjects. Twenty Class III subjects (9 males, 11 females, 19.2 ± 4.6 years) and 20 Class I subjects (6 males, 14 females, 17.4 ± 1.7 years) were included in the present study. Maxillary and mandibular morphology was defined by the intermolar and intercanine distances, at both the cusps and gingival levels, and by measuring surface area and volume of the palatal vault and mouth floor assessed on three-dimensional digital models. Tongue-to-palate distances were measured on lateral cephalograms. The groups were compared using the Mann-Whitney U-test and correlations between each morphological parameter and the tongue-to-palate distances were calculated using the Spearman correlation coefficient. The mandibular intermolar width at the gingival level was significantly greater in the Class III group (P Class III group (P Class III group (P = 0.01). The tongue-to-palate distances were generally greater, i.e. lower tongue posture, for the Class III subjects. Significant correlations were seen between tongue-to-palate distances in the posterior region with the area ratio (rho = 0.44, P Class III subjects and is associated with the dentoalveolar characteristics of the maxilla and mandible.

  13. Orthopedic treatment of Class III malocclusion with rapid maxillary expansion combined with a face mask: a cephalometric assessment of craniofacial growth patterns

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    Daniella Torres Tagawa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this prospective study was to assess potential changes in the cephalometric craniofacial growth pattern of 17 children presenting Angle Class III malocclusion treated with a Haas-type expander combined with a face mask. METHODS: Lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken at beginning (T1 and immediately after removal of the appliances (T2, average of 11 months of treatment. Linear and angular measurements were used to evaluate the cranial base, dentoskeletal changes and facial growth pattern. RESULTS: The length of the anterior cranial base experienced a reduction while the posterior cranial base assumed a more vertical position at T1. Some maxillary movement occurred, there was no rotation of the palatal plane, there was a slight clockwise rotation of the mandible, although not significant. The ANB angle increased, thereby improving the relationship between the jaws; dentoalveolar compensation was more evident in the lower incisors. Five out of 12 cases (29.41% showed the following changes: In one case the pattern became more horizontal and in four cases more vertical. CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded after a short-term assessment that treatment with rapid maxillary expansion (RME associated with a face mask was effective in the correction of Class III malocclusion despite the changes in facial growth pattern observed in a few cases.

  14. The Effects of Maxillary Protraction with or without Rapid Maxillary Expansion and Age Factors in Treating Class III Malocclusion: A Meta-Analysis

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    Zhang, Wei; Qu, Hong-Chen; Yu, Mo; Zhang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis of 12 studies to examine whether maxillary protraction face mask associated with rapid maxillary expansion (FM/RME) could be an effective treatment for Class III malocclusion and to evaluate the effect of timing on treatment response. Patients with a maxillary deficiency who were treated with FM with or without RME were compared with those who had an untreated Class III malocclusion. In both treatment groups, forward displacement of the maxilla and skeletal changes were found to be statistically significant. In addition, posterior rotation of the mandible and increased facial height were more evident in the FM group compared with the control group. However, no significant differences were observed between the early treatment groups and late treatment groups. The results indicated that both FM/RME and FM therapy produced favorable skeletal changes for correcting anterior crossbite, and the curative time was not affected by the presence of deciduous teeth, early mixed dentition or late mixed dentition in the patient. PMID:26068221

  15. The Effects of Maxillary Protraction with or without Rapid Maxillary Expansion and Age Factors in Treating Class III Malocclusion: A Meta-Analysis.

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    Wei Zhang

    Full Text Available We conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis of 12 studies to examine whether maxillary protraction face mask associated with rapid maxillary expansion (FM/RME could be an effective treatment for Class III malocclusion and to evaluate the effect of timing on treatment response. Patients with a maxillary deficiency who were treated with FM with or without RME were compared with those who had an untreated Class III malocclusion. In both treatment groups, forward displacement of the maxilla and skeletal changes were found to be statistically significant. In addition, posterior rotation of the mandible and increased facial height were more evident in the FM group compared with the control group. However, no significant differences were observed between the early treatment groups and late treatment groups. The results indicated that both FM/RME and FM therapy produced favorable skeletal changes for correcting anterior crossbite, and the curative time was not affected by the presence of deciduous teeth, early mixed dentition or late mixed dentition in the patient.

  16. Progressive changes in patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion treated by 2-jaw surgery with minimal and conventional presurgical orthodontics: A comparative study.

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    Zhou, Yang; Li, Zili; Wang, Xiaoxia; Zou, Bingshuang; Zhou, Yanheng

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we aimed to compare treatment efficacy and postsurgical stability between minimal presurgical orthodontics and conventional presurgical orthodontics for patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion. Forty patients received minimal presurgical orthodontics (n = 20) or conventional presurgical orthodontics (n = 20). Lateral cephalograms were obtained before treatment, before orthognathic surgery, and at 1 week, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months after surgery. Changes of overjet and mandibular incisal angle before surgery were greater in the conventional presurgical orthodontics group than in the minimal presurgical orthodontics group. Postsurgical horizontal changes in Points A and B, overjet, and mandibular incisal angle showed significant differences among the time points. Most of the horizontal and vertical relapses in the maxilla and the mandible occurred within the first 6 months in both groups. Minimal presurgical orthodontics and conventional presurgical orthodontics showed similar extents and directions of skeletal changes in patients with Class III malocclusion. However, orthodontists and surgeons should preoperatively consider the postsurgical counterclockwise rotation of the mandible when using minimal presurgical orthodontics. Close and frequent observations are recommended in the early postsurgical stages. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Three-dimensional evaluation of facial morphology in children aged 5-6 years with a Class III malocclusion.

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    Krneta, Bojana; Primožič, Jasmina; Zhurov, Alexei; Richmond, Stephen; Ovsenik, Maja

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate facial morphology in 25 Class III and 46 non-Class III children aged 5-6 years using three-dimensional (3D) laser imaging; 3D facial images were obtained, two average facial templates were constructed for the non-Class III male and female groups, each individual face was superimposed on the corresponding average template and group comparisons were evaluated (facial height, facial convexity, mandibular position and facial surface morphology). Differences between parameters were evaluated by using an analysis of variance and colour deviation maps. The results showed that Class III children had less mid-face prominence and a concave facial profile when compared to non-Class III children (P = 0.002 and P = 0.018). The position of the pg point in the z-axis just failed to reach statistical significance when comparing the two groups (P = 0.051). A vertical analysis showed no statistical significance between the groups, when evaluating middle (n-sn) and lower (sn-pg) facial height. Coincidence of the Class III faces to normal templates with a tolerance set as 0.5 mm was low (less than 30%). The soft tissue characteristics of a Class III face differ significantly from the non-Class III face in the mid-face region and in the facial profile. A 3D laser imaging method evaluated and identified morphological characteristics of Class III children in deciduous dentition, which could in the future become an important diagnostic tool in small children. The most important clinical advantage of this study is the non-invasiveness of the method.

  18. Dentoskeletal Effects of the Modified Tandem Appliance vs the Facemask Appliance in the Treatment of Skeletal Class III Malocclusion: A Single-center, Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husson, Amro H; Burhan, Ahmad S; Salma, Fadwa B; Nawaya, Fehmieh R

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to compare the skeletal and dentoalveolar effects of the modified tandem appliance (MTA) vs the facemask (FM) with rapid maxillary expansion. Thirty-two patients, aged 7 to 9 years were recruited. Eligibility criteria included skeletal class III malocclusion that resulted from the retrusion of the maxilla. Randomization was accomplished to divide the sample into two equal groups to be treated with either MTA or FM. Lateral cephalometric radiographs were obtained before treatment and after 2 mm positive overjet was achieved. Intragroup comparisons were performed using paired-sample t-test, and intergroup comparisons were performed using two-sample t-test at the p ≤ 0.05 level. Thirty-two patients (16 in each group) were available for statistical analysis. The pretreatment variables of both groups were similar. Both treatment therapies showed similar significant increase in the SNA and ANB angles, accompanied by slight decrease in the SNB angle. The increase in the SN:GoMe angle, Bjork's sum, and the overjet were significantly greater in the FM group. The forward movement of upper dentition was similar in both groups. Although the lower incisors retrusion was significantly greater in the FM group than in the MTA group, the uprighting of the lower molars was significantly greater in the MTA group. Both appliances showed similar effects apart from less clockwise rotation of the mandible, less retrusion of the lower incisors, and greater uprighting of the lower molars in the MTA group. Both the MTA and the FM groups are effective in treating class III malocclusion. The MTA group is more efficient in controlling the clockwise rotation and gaining some space in the lower arch.

  19. Morphological caracteristics of malocclusion class II

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    Pavlović J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Class II malocclusion are complex anomalies of the skeletal and dental systems. The aim of this study is that the rengenkefalometrics analysis closer determine the morphological characteristics of this malocclusion. For this study were used 30 patients aged 18-30, previously clinically diagnosed class II, before the planned orthodontic treatment. The results analisis lateral cephalometric radiographs were compared with the 30 patients with class I malocclusion. Analyzed three linear and two angular cranial base dimensions and nine angular and four linear measures from the facial skeleton. The Results show: No statistically significant differensis in cranial base angle (SNBa and anterior cranial base length (S-N between class II and control Class I. Angle maxillar prognathism ( SNA is no signifikant different between class I and Class II but SNB angle were signifikant smaller. The length of maxillary base (A'-SnP is longer and the length of mandibule (Pg'-MT1/MT is signifficantly smaller. The gonial angle (ArGo-Me was smaller with open articular angle (GoArSN. Morphological characteristics of class II malocclusion are , retrognathic and smaller mandibular ligth, normognathic and longer maxilla, open articular angle with vertical tendency of the craniofacial growth pattern.

  20. Compensation of skeletal Class III malocclusion by isolated extraction of mandibular teeth: Part 2: Skeletal, dentoalveolar and soft tissue parameters in comparison with nonextraction Class III therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Bernd; Gaida, Sarah; Dathe, Henning

    2016-03-01

    To retrospectively compare two compensatory approaches taken in skeletal Class III patients during the main treatment stage, including a study group of multiband treatment plus isolated extraction of mandibular teeth and a control group of multiband treatment without extraction of teeth. The extraction group included 22 (12 female, 10 male) patients receiving compensatory multiband treatment for a mean of 3.47 ± 1.14 years and 16.22 ± 1.92 years old at debonding. The nonextraction group included 24 (14 female, 10 male) patients undergoing multiband treatment for 2.76 ± 1.28 years and 15.38 ± 1.46 years old at debonding. Lateral cephalograms obtained at baseline and upon completion of active treatment were traced for skeletal, dentoalveolar, and soft tissue parameters. Welch and Wilcoxon tests were used to analyze intergroup differences (initial values, final values, initial-to-final changes) and within-group differences (p < 0.05). Upon completion of active treatment, the only significant intergroup differences were noted for U1NA and L1ML. Significant within-group changes over the courses of treatment were seen for SNB, MLNL, U1NA, U1NL, L1NB, L1ML, H-angle, ULipEL, and LLipEL (extraction group) or for SNB, ANB, individual ANB, Wits appraisal, U1NA, U1NL, H-angle, Naslab-a, ULipEL, and LLipEL (nonextraction group). Parameters that changed by significantly different amounts in both groups included Wits appraisal, L1NB, L1ML, and LLipEL. The added value of isolated extraction therapy basically lies in increasing the potential for retruding the lower incisor inclinations, so that compensatory treatment becomes an option even in selected patients presenting with adverse occlusal situations that would otherwise require orthognathic surgery. Given the successful outcomes in both groups, which had been established by Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) scores, it was possible to define the skeletal, dentoalveolar, and soft tissue characteristics of successful treatment more

  1. Biology of biomechanics: Finite element analysis of a statically determinate system to rotate the occlusal plane for correction of a skeletal Class III open-bite malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, W Eugene; Viecilli, Rodrigo F; Chang, Chris; Katona, Thomas R; Paydar, Nasser H

    2015-12-01

    In the absence of adequate animal or in-vitro models, the biomechanics of human malocclusion must be studied indirectly. Finite element analysis (FEA) is emerging as a clinical technology to assist in diagnosis, treatment planning, and retrospective analysis. The hypothesis tested is that instantaneous FEA can retrospectively simulate long-term mandibular arch retraction and occlusal plane rotation for the correction of a skeletal Class III malocclusion. Seventeen published case reports were selected of patients treated with statically determinate mechanics using posterior mandible or infrazygomatic crest bone screw anchorage to retract the mandibular arch. Two-dimensional measurements were made for incisor and molar movements, mandibular arch rotation, and retraction relative to the maxillary arch. A patient with cone-beam computed tomography imaging was selected for a retrospective FEA. The mean age for the sample was 23.3 ± 3.3 years; there were 7 men and 10 women. Mean incisor movements were 3.35 ± 1.55 mm of retraction and 2.18 ± 2.51 mm of extrusion. Corresponding molar movements were retractions of 4.85 ± 1.78 mm and intrusions of 0.85 ± 2.22 mm. Retraction of the mandibular arch relative to the maxillary arch was 4.88 ± 1.41 mm. Mean posterior rotation of the mandibular arch was -5.76° ± 4.77° (counterclockwise). The mean treatment time (n = 16) was 36.2 ± 15.3 months. Bone screws in the posterior mandibular region were more efficient for intruding molars and decreasing the vertical dimension of the occlusion to close an open bite. The full-cusp, skeletal Class III patient selected for FEA was treated to an American Board of Orthodontics Cast-Radiograph Evaluation score of 24 points in about 36 months by en-masse retraction and posterior rotation of the mandibular arch: the bilateral load on the mandibular segment was about 200 cN. The mandibular arch was retracted by about 5 mm, posterior rotation was about 16.5°, and molar intrusion was about 3

  2. [Effect of segmental Le Fort I osteotomy and bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy on the condyle position in skeletal class III malocclusion patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; Xie, Xiao-yan; Wang, Xing; Wang, Xiao-xia; Fu, Kai-yuan; Li, Zi-li

    2015-10-18

    To investigate the effect of segmental Le Fort I osteotomy and bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy (BSSRO) on the condyle position in skeletal class III malocclusion patients. In this retrospective study, 19 patients with skeletal class III malocclusion who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled. All the patients underwent the segmental Le Fort I osteotomy and BSSRO. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans were performed in the following phases: T1: within one week before the surgeries; T2: within one week post-surgery;T3:three months post-surgery; T4: 6 to 14 months post-surgery. The posterior spaces, anterior spaces and the superior spaces of the bilateral temporomandibular joints were measured according to the Kamelchuk method respectively. The fossa ratios of the condyle and the distribution of the condyle positions related to the glenoid fossa (anterior, concentric and posterior position)were calculated. The results were analyzed statistically. The posterior space, the anterior space and the superior space of bilateral temporomandibular joints in T2 phase[right: (2.78±1.23) mm, (2.47±0.89) mm, (3.07±0.85) mm; left: (2.93±0.83) mm, (2.69±1.14) mm, (3.44±1.16) mm] showed significantly larger spaces than those in T1 phase [right: (1.81±0.95) mm, (1.65±0.55) mm, (2.13±0.52) mm; left: (2.12± 1.05) mm, (1.79±0.59) mm, (2.15±0.93) mm],in T3 phase [right: (2.08±1.25) mm, (1.79±0.68) mm, (1.80±0.76) mm; left: (2.05±0.75) mm, (1.99±0.94) mm, (2.14±0.71) mm] and in T4 phase [right: (1.94±0.77) mm, (1.81±0.69) mm, (2.05±0.69) mm; left: (1.89±0.69) mm, (1.80±0.61) mm, (2.19±0.75) mm], P0.05).The fossa ratio and the condyle position related to the glenoid fossa had no significant difference in all the four phases (P>0.05).The results suggested that the condyle moved downward in T2 phase and changed to the original pre-surgery position in T3 phase, then keot stable in T4 phase. Segmental Le Fort I osteotomy and BSSRO caused significant and

  3. Stability of maxillary protraction therapy in children with Class III malocclusion: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Lin, Yifan; Guo, Runzhi; Hou, Liyu; Fu, Zhen; Li, Weiran

    2018-02-10

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the stability of treatment effects of maxillary protraction therapy in Class III children. Multiple electronic databases were searched from 01/1996 to 10/2016. Randomized clinical trials, controlled clinical trials, and cohort studies with untreated Class III controls and a follow-up over 2 years were considered for inclusion. The methodological quality of the studies and publication bias were evaluated. Mean differences and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of six variables (SNA, SNB, ANB, mandibular plane angle, overjet, and lower incisor angle) were calculated. Ten studies were included in the qualitative analysis, and four studies were included in the quantitative analysis. Compared with the control group, after treatment, the treated group showed significant changes: SNA +1.79° (95% CI: 1.23, 2.34), SNB -1.16° (95% CI -2.08, -0.24), ANB +2.92° (95% CI 2.40, 3.44), mandibular plane angle +1.41° (95% CI 0.63, 2.20), overjet +3.94 mm (95% CI 2.17, 5.71) and lower incisor angle -3.07° (95% CI -4.92, -1.22). During follow-up, the changes in five variables reflected significant relapse. Overall, the treated group showed significant changes only in ANB +1.66° (95% CI 0.97, 2.35) and overjet +2.41 mm (95% CI 1.60, 3.23). Maxillary protraction can be a short-term effective therapy and might improve sagittal skeletal and dental relationships in the medium term. But some skeletal and dental variables showed significant relapse during the follow-up period. Long-term studies are still required to further evaluate its skeletal benefits. The study evaluated the medium-term stability of skeletal and dental effects of maxillary protraction in Class III children and discussed whether the therapy can reduce the need for orthognathic surgery.

  4. Class II malocclusion occlusal severity description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Janson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: It is well known that the efficacy and the efficiency of a Class II malocclusion treatment are aspects closely related to the severity of the dental anteroposterior discrepancy. Even though, sample selection based on cephalometric variables without considering the severity of the occlusal anteroposterior discrepancy is still common in current papers. In some of them, when occlusal parameters are chosen, the severity is often neglected. The purpose of this study is to verify the importance given to the classification of Class II malocclusion, based on the criteria used for sample selection in a great number of papers published in the orthodontic journal with the highest impact factor. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A search was performed in PubMed database for full-text research papers referencing Class II malocclusion in the history of the American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (AJO-DO. RESULTS: A total of 359 papers were retrieved, among which only 72 (20.06% papers described the occlusal severity of the Class II malocclusion sample. In the other 287 (79.94% papers that did not specify the anteroposterior discrepancy severity, description was considered to be crucial in 159 (55.40% of them. CONCLUSIONS: Omission in describing the occlusal severity demands a cautious interpretation of 44.29% of the papers retrieved in this study.

  5. Skin irritation from a facial mask in Class III malocclusion: evaluation of individual silicone chin cups in a group of 100 children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ierardo, Gaetano; Luzzi, Valeria; Vozza, Iole; Polimeni, Antonella; Bossù, Maurizio

    2018-04-01

    Reverse headgear (a facial mask) is one of the most frequently used interceptive orthodontic devices in patients with Class III malocclusion. It is a simple device but may present some drawbacks related to pressure on the skin generated by the forehead and chin supports linked to the maxillary intraoral appliance by elastics. This can cause injury to the chin and lips. Patients between 7 and 8 years of age were selected from the Unit of Pediatric Dentistry. Orthopedic therapy with a rapid palatal expander and reverse headgear was prescribed for all subjects. The patients were divided into two groups: those who used a facial mask without a silicone chin cup and those who used a facial mask with a silicone chin cup. Two-hundred subjects including 90 male patients and 110 female patients were enrolled. The groups that used a facial mask with and without a silicone chin cup included 100 patients each. The percentage of subjects without irritation was significantly greater in the group with a silicone chin cup than in the group without a silicone chin cup. The authors propose a simple and effective solution to prevent skin irritation on the chin caused by a facial mask. A chin mask is a custom solution that can prevent injury to the chin during treatment when coupled with facial mask therapy.

  6. Three-dimensional evaluation of soft tissue changes after mandibular setback surgery in class III malocclusion patients according to extent of mandibular setback, vertical skeletal pattern, and genioplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minji; Lee, Dong-Yul; Lim, Yong-Kyu; Baek, Seung-Hak

    2010-05-01

    To investigate the 3-dimensional (3D) changes in the soft tissue after mandibular setback surgery (MSS). Thirty-three skeletal class III malocclusion (SCIII) patients treated with MSS (bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy) were subdivided according to extent of MSS, vertical skeletal pattern (VP), and vertical-reduction genioplasty. Lateral cephalograms and 3D facial scan images were taken before and 6 months after surgery. Linear and angular variables were measured with Rapidform 2006 (Inus Technology). After MSS, there were significant increases in the upper lip length and decreases in the lower lip length in the large setback, hypodivergent, and genioplasty groups. The mentolabial fold deepened less in the genioplasty group than in other groups. Although there was no skeletal advancement of the maxilla, the soft tissue convexity in the paranasal area increased more in the hyperdivergent group than in the hypodivergent group after MSS. The extent of MSS, VP, and genioplasty could be used as guidelines for 1- and 2-jaw surgeries in SCIII borderline cases. Copyright (c) 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of Incisor, Molar and Anterior Facial Height in Normal, Angle Class II Division 1 and Class III Malocclusion: A Cephalometric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A M Deoghare

    2012-01-01

    Results: After studying specific landmarks and planes in the cephalograms, it was concluded that anterior facial height is significantly small in Class II Div 1, compared to normal and Class III. A fair degree of constancy of upper and lower face heights has been found in the study. It was also found that the upper molar height is contributory to increase and decrease in vertical proportions of face. Lower molar height can be related to the degree of overbite in Class II Div 1 case.

  8. Early class III management in deciduous dentition using reverse twin block

    OpenAIRE

    S S Sargod; N Shetty; A Shabbir

    2013-01-01

    Class III malocclusion poses a challenging dilemma for the clinician because these children have of growth patterns that differ from that of children with class I malocclusion. The mandible grows more rapidly than the maxilla, exacerbating the class III malocclusion as the child go through adolescence. Ever since Clark described a version of the twin block, it has steadily gained popularity in the management of early class III malocclusion in children. However, not many cases are reported in ...

  9. The Clinical effectiveness of sequential treatment of skeletal class III ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To assess the dentofacial changes induced by the sequential treatment in the skeletal class III malocclusion with maxillary retrognathism. Study design: Controlled clinical trial assessing the effectiveness of sequential treatment of skeletal class III malocclusion. Materials and Methods: The treated group consisted of 30 ...

  10. Planas direct tracks in young patients with Class II malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribel, Marcos Nadler; Gribel, Bruno Frazão

    2005-01-01

    In Brazil, Class II malocclusions affect approximately one-third of children in the primary dentition period, and approximately two-thirds of the adolescent population. According to many authors, this type of malocclusion worsens with time, due to facial growth during childhood, both in terms of quantity and quality, and the facial pattern is established at an early age. The application of the Planas Direct Tracks concept and technique may represent an interesting tool for the correction and prevention of Class II malocclusion in an early treatment approach, working 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, applying oral functions and muscle activity to correct the malocclusion.

  11. Relation between Angle Class II malocclusion and deleterious oral habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Tarcísio Lima Ferreira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Oral habits may interfere on the growth and development of the stomatognathic system and orofacial myofunctional conditions, producing changes in the position of teeth in their dental arches. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to verify the presence of deleterious oral habits in individuals with malocclusion and see if there is a predominance of Class II malocclusion in these individuals. METHODS: The records of 140 patients treated at the Clinic of Preventive Orthodontics FORP-USP who had already completed treatment were randomly selected and analyzed. Their ages ranged from 6 to 10 years and 11 months. Associations were made between the presence or absence of deleterious oral habits, type and number of habits found in each individual and the type of malocclusion according to Angle classification. The statistical analysis used was the Chi-square test with a significance level of 5%. History of deleterious oral habits was found in 67.1% of individuals. RESULTS: The Class I malocclusion was most frequent (82.9%, followed by Class II malocclusion (12.1% and Class III (5%. CONCLUSION: There was a predominance of Class II malocclusion in individuals with a history of deleterious oral habits.INTRODUÇÃO: hábitos bucais podem interferir no crescimento e desenvolvimento do sistema estomatognático e nas condições miofuncionais bucofaciais, acarretando alterações no posicionamento dos dentes nas respectivas arcadas dentárias. OBJETIVO: o objetivo dessa pesquisa foi verificar a presença de hábitos bucais deletérios em indivíduos portadores de má oclusão e observar se existe predominância de má oclusão Classe II de Angle nesses indivíduos. MÉTODOS: foram selecionadas, aleatoriamente, e analisadas 140 fichas de pacientes atendidos na Clínica de Ortodontia Preventiva da FORP-USP, que já haviam recebido alta no tratamento. A faixa etária variou dos 6 anos a 10 anos e 11 meses. Foram realizadas associações entre

  12. Treatment of Class II Division 1 Malocclusion using Cervical Headgear

    OpenAIRE

    Priska Lestari Hendrawan; Krisnawati Krisnawati

    2013-01-01

    Class II division 1 malocclusions have many variation and treatment options. Choosing the right treatment begins with a correct diagnosis. The aim of this article is to describe treatment of Class II division 1 malocclusion in a growing patient using combined cervical headgear and non-extraction fixed orthodontic therapy. Class I molar and canine relationship was achieved with normal overbite and overjet. There is improvement in jaw relationship and facial profile. This correction was achieve...

  13. Three-Dimensional Evaluation of the Upper Airway Morphological Changes in Growing Patients with Skeletal Class III Malocclusion Treated by Protraction Headgear and Rapid Palatal Expansion: A Comparative Research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueling Chen

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphological changes of upper airway after protraction headgear and rapid maxillary expansion (PE treatment in growing patients with Class III malocclusion and maxillary skeletal deficiency compared with untreated Class III patients by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT.Thirty growing patients who have completed PE therapy were included in PE group. The control group (n = 30 was selected from the growing untreated patients with the same diagnosis. The CBCT scans of the pre-treatment (T1 and post-treatment (T2 of PE group and the control group were collected. Reconstruction and registration of the 3D models of T1 and T2 were completed. By comparing the data obtained from T1, T2 and control group, the morphological changes of the upper airway during the PE treatment were evaluated.Comparing with the data from T1 group, the subspinale (A of maxilla and the upper incisor (UI of the T2 group were moved in the anterior direction. The gnathion (Gn of mandible was moved in the posterior-inferior direction. The displacement of the hyoid bone as well as the length and width of dental arch showed significant difference. The volume and mean cross-sectional area of nasopharynx, velopharynx and glossopharynx region showed significant difference. The largest anteroposterior/the largest lateral (AP/LR ratios of the velopharynx and glossopharynx were increased, but the AP/LR ratio of the hypopharynx was decreased. In addition, the length and width of the maxillary dental arch, the displacement of the hyoid bone, the volume of nasopharynx and velopharynx, and the AP/LR ratio of the hypopharynx and velopharynx showed significant difference between the data from control and T2 group.The PE treatment of Class III malocclusion with maxillary skeletal hypoplasia leads to a significant increase in the volume of nasopharynx and velopharynx.

  14. Three-Dimensional Evaluation of the Upper Airway Morphological Changes in Growing Patients with Skeletal Class III Malocclusion Treated by Protraction Headgear and Rapid Palatal Expansion: A Comparative Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xueling; Liu, Dongxu; Liu, Ju; Wu, Zizhong; Xie, Yongtao; Li, Liang; Liu, Hong; Guo, Tiantian; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Shijie

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphological changes of upper airway after protraction headgear and rapid maxillary expansion (PE) treatment in growing patients with Class III malocclusion and maxillary skeletal deficiency compared with untreated Class III patients by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Thirty growing patients who have completed PE therapy were included in PE group. The control group (n = 30) was selected from the growing untreated patients with the same diagnosis. The CBCT scans of the pre-treatment (T1) and post-treatment (T2) of PE group and the control group were collected. Reconstruction and registration of the 3D models of T1 and T2 were completed. By comparing the data obtained from T1, T2 and control group, the morphological changes of the upper airway during the PE treatment were evaluated. Comparing with the data from T1 group, the subspinale (A) of maxilla and the upper incisor (UI) of the T2 group were moved in the anterior direction. The gnathion (Gn) of mandible was moved in the posterior-inferior direction. The displacement of the hyoid bone as well as the length and width of dental arch showed significant difference. The volume and mean cross-sectional area of nasopharynx, velopharynx and glossopharynx region showed significant difference. The largest anteroposterior/the largest lateral (AP/LR) ratios of the velopharynx and glossopharynx were increased, but the AP/LR ratio of the hypopharynx was decreased. In addition, the length and width of the maxillary dental arch, the displacement of the hyoid bone, the volume of nasopharynx and velopharynx, and the AP/LR ratio of the hypopharynx and velopharynx showed significant difference between the data from control and T2 group. The PE treatment of Class III malocclusion with maxillary skeletal hypoplasia leads to a significant increase in the volume of nasopharynx and velopharynx.

  15. Angle Class I malocclusion with anterior negative overjet

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    Paulo Ávila de Souza

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This clinical case report describes the orthodontic treatment of an 8-year and 9-month old female patient with Angle Class I malocclusion, anterior crossbite and canine Class III relationship. Orthodontic treatment was carried out in two stages. The first one was orthopedic, while the second one included the use of a fixed appliance and the need for space gain for reshaping of maxillary lateral incisors. The two-stage treatment combined with multidisciplinary Restorative Cosmetic Dentistry allowed excellent esthetic and functional outcomes to be achieved. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO as a requirement for the title of certified by the BBO.

  16. Skeletal class II malocclusion correction using the Bass appliance

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    Jigar Doshi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal class II malocclusion is best treated by growth modification using the myofunctional appliances or the orthopedic appliances or the combination of the both depending upon the type of malocclusion encountered during the growth period of an individual. Though all myofunctional appliances work on the same principle with few basic differences; the orthodontist has to make a choice among the plethora of the appliances at his disposal. The present article is a case report of class II malocclusion treatment using the Bass appliance for the growth modification, which was followed by fixed appliance for the occlusal detailing.

  17. Skeletal class II malocclusion correction using the Bass appliance

    OpenAIRE

    Jigar Doshi; Tarulatha Revanappa Shyagali; Kalyani M Trivedi

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal class II malocclusion is best treated by growth modification using the myofunctional appliances or the orthopedic appliances or the combination of the both depending upon the type of malocclusion encountered during the growth period of an individual. Though all myofunctional appliances work on the same principle with few basic differences; the orthodontist has to make a choice among the plethora of the appliances at his disposal. The present article is a case report of class II maloc...

  18. "Converting a bi-jaw surgery to a single-jaw surgery:" Posterior maxillary dentoalveolar intrusion with microimplants to avoid the need of a maxillary surgery in the surgical management of skeletal Class III vertical malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhisek Ghosh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of a vertical skeletal Class III malocclusion with mandibular prognathism revolves around the protocol of bi-jaw surgery (maxillary LeFort I impaction and mandibular bilateral sagittal split osteotomy with setback. The maxillary surgery not only provides increased stability to the ultimate surgical outcome but also increases the amount by which the mandibular set back can be done, therefore aiding in greater profile improvement. With the need of maxillary surgery almost inevitable in treating such situations, the complexity and the increased discomfort associated with such surgery can never be ignored. Is it at all possible to convert a bi-jaw surgery into a single-jaw surgery with the aid of microimplants? With increasing number of patients being treated with microimplants for anterior openbite and gummy smiles, our idea was to incorporate this novel protocol in treating Class III vertical situations and therefore avoid the need of a maxillary surgery in treating such a situation, together with achieving optimum treatment outcome.

  19. Study of variations of the Bolton index in the Moroccan population depending on angle malocclusion class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerouaoui, Mohamed Fadel; Bahije, Loubna; Zaoui, Fatima; Regragui, Salwa

    2014-06-01

    Many difficulties may arise during the finishing phase of orthodontic treatment on account of discrepancy between mandibular and maxillary tooth size. In 1958, Bolton devised the index that bears his name and enables possible tooth-size discrepancy to be diagnosed. Use of this index in practice has shown that it can vary depending on the different angle malocclusion classes. The aim of this work is to study variations of the Bolton index as a function of the malocclusion class in the Moroccan population, and to compare the results obtained with those of other populations. Ninety models were therefore selected in different groups of dental Class I, Class II and Class III malocclusions. The mesiodistal (MD) diameters of 12 maxillary and mandibular teeth were measured and the anterior and general Bolton indices were calculated. The results obtained show that there is no significant difference between the various groups of angle malocclusion classes, and that some other populations present results similar to those of the Moroccan sample. Copyright © 2014 CEO. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Post-Retention Changes in Class II Correction With the Forsus (trademark) Appliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Class I malocclusion , Class II malocclusion , and Class III malocclusion . In a Class II malocclusion , the lower molar is distally positioned relative... Class II malocclusion in children 8-10 years of age. Angle Orthod. 1981;51:177-202. 4) Jones G, Buschang PH, Kim KB, Oliver DR. Class II non...1 A. Class II Malocclusion

  1. Dental compensation for skeletal Class III malocclusion by isolated extraction of mandibular teeth. Part 1: Occlusal situation 12 years after completion of active treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Bernd; Schenk-Kazan, Sarah

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this work was to statistically evaluate the outcomes achieved by isolated extraction of mandibular teeth (second premolars or first molars) for Class III compensation. Part A of the study dealt with the quality of outcomes at the end of active treatment, using weighted Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) scores determined on the basis of casts for 25 (14 female and 11 male) consecutive patients aged 16 ± 1.7 years at the time of debonding. These results were compared to the scores in a randomly selected control group of 25 (14 female and 11 male) patients who were 14.7 ± 1.9 years old at debonding. Part B evaluated the long-term stability of the outcomes based on 12 (all of them female) patients available for examination after a mean of 11.8 years. The mean weighted PAR scores obtained in both study parts were analyzed for statistical differences using a two-tailed paired Student's t-test at a significance level of p ≤ 0.05. Mean weighted PAR scores of 4.76 ± 3.94 and 3.92 ± 3.44 were obtained in the Class III extraction group and the control group, respectively, at the end of active treatment. This difference was not significant (p = 0.49). Among the 12 longitudinal patients, the mean score increased from 4 ± 3.46 at debonding to 6.25 ± 3.67 by the end of the 11.8-year follow-up period. This difference was significant (p = 0.0008). Treatment of Class III anomalies by isolated extraction of lower premolars or molars can yield PAR scores similar to those achieved by standard therapies. These scores, while increasing significantly, remained at a clinically acceptable level over 11.8 years. Hence this treatment modality--intended for cases that border on requiring orthognathic surgery--may also be recommended from a long-term point of view.

  2. Correction of Class II malocclusion and soft tissue profile in an adult patient

    OpenAIRE

    Aditi Gaur; Sandhya Maheshwari; Sanjeev Kumar Verma

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of Class II malocclusion in nongrowing individuals is a challenging situation for the clinician. Class II malocclusion with bialveolar protrusion often dictates premolar extractions with maximum anchorage. The present article describes the case of an adult female with skeletal Class II malocclusion, bimaxillary protrusion, increased overjet, deep bite, lip protrusion, everted lower lip, deep mentolabial sulcus, and lip incompetence. To correct the malocclusion, all four first premol...

  3. Management of Class II malocclusion with ectopic maxillary canines

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    Rohan Mascarenhas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Correction of Class II relationship, deep bite and ectopically erupting canines is an orthodontic challenge for the clinician. A 13-year-old male patient presented with Class II malocclusion, ectopically erupting canines, and cross bite with maxillary left lateral incisor. He was treated with a combination of Headgear, Forsus TM fatigue resistant device [FFRD] with fixed mechanotherapy for the management of space deficiency and correction of Class II malocclusions. Headgear was used to distalize upper first molars and also to prevent further downward and forward growth of the maxilla. Then Forsus TM FFRD was used for the advancement of the mandible. The molar and canine relationship were corrected from a Class II to a Class I. The objectives were to establish good occlusion and enable eruption of unerupted canines. All these objectives were achieved and remained stable.

  4. Management of Class II malocclusion with ectopic maxillary canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Rohan; Parveen, Shahista; Ansari, Tariq Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Correction of Class II relationship, deep bite and ectopically erupting canines is an orthodontic challenge for the clinician. A 13-year-old male patient presented with Class II malocclusion, ectopically erupting canines, and cross bite with maxillary left lateral incisor. He was treated with a combination of Headgear, Forsus™ fatigue resistant device [FFRD] with fixed mechanotherapy for the management of space deficiency and correction of Class II malocclusions. Headgear was used to distalize upper first molars and also to prevent further downward and forward growth of the maxilla. Then Forsus™ FFRD was used for the advancement of the mandible. The molar and canine relationship were corrected from a Class II to a Class I. The objectives were to establish good occlusion and enable eruption of unerupted canines. All these objectives were achieved and remained stable.

  5. Interdisciplinary orthognathic treatment of high angle class III ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For Class III adult patients, combined treatment strategy must be followed which includes either further dentoalveolar compensation or orthognathic surgery following decompensation of the teeth. This case report presents the interdisciplinary approach of a skeletal Class III malocclusion with increased vertical facial ...

  6. A Cephalometric Study on the Relationship between the Occlusal Plane, Ala-Tragus and Camper’s Lines, in Patients with Angle’s Class III Malocclusion

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    F. Rostamkhani

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Considering the importance of the occlusal plane orientation in complete denture prostheses, a study was conducted on the relationship between this plane with ala-tragus and Camper’s lines in soft tissue among individuals with class IIImalocclusion, in Mashhad School of Dentistry.Purpose: The aim of the present study was to define the best soft tissue index by which the location and inclination of the occlusal plane in complete dentures could be established.Materials and methods: The participants consisted of 13 males with Angle’s class III occlusal relationship. Radiopaque markers were attached to the intended points on soft tissue and then standard lateral cephalograms were obtained from each subject.The angles between the following lines were measured: Occlusal line (OL, Camper's line (ala-porion, AT1 (ala-superior border of tragus, AT2 (ala- mid-tragus and AT3 (ala-inferior border of tragus.Results: The mean values and standard deviations calculated from the measured variables are as follows: OL-^AT1, 5.65 (3.95 degrees; OL- ^AT2, 3.19 (2.45 degrees;OL- ^AT3, 2.92 (2.42 degrees and OL- ^Camper, 8.5 (3.83 degrees. Comparison of the results by the ANOVA test exhibited a significant difference (F=3.7, P=0.05. Asthe OL^-AT3 angle had the lowest value, the occlusal line had a stronger tendency to be parallel to the AT3 line.Conclusion: According to the present study, the inferior border of the tragus is suggested as the posterior point for ala-tragus line orientation.

  7. Treatment of Class II Division 1 Malocclusion using Cervical Headgear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priska Lestari Hendrawan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Class II division 1 malocclusions have many variation and treatment options. Choosing the right treatment begins with a correct diagnosis. The aim of this article is to describe treatment of Class II division 1 malocclusion in a growing patient using combined cervical headgear and non-extraction fixed orthodontic therapy. Class I molar and canine relationship was achieved with normal overbite and overjet. There is improvement in jaw relationship and facial profile. This correction was achieved by downward displacement and inhibition of the forward growth of maxilla with favorable growth of mandible, upper molar distalization and retraction of upper incisors from cervical headgear use. There was neither downward rotation of the mandible nor maxillary first molar extrusion. Treatment time, favorable mandibular growth pattern and patient compliance proved to be determining factors in the success of this treatment.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v16i3.106

  8. Early class III management in deciduous dentition using reverse twin block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S S Sargod

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Class III malocclusion poses a challenging dilemma for the clinician because these children have of growth patterns that differ from that of children with class I malocclusion. The mandible grows more rapidly than the maxilla, exacerbating the class III malocclusion as the child go through adolescence. Ever since Clark described a version of the twin block, it has steadily gained popularity in the management of early class III malocclusion in children. However, not many cases are reported in the literature on its use in deciduous dentition. This article tries to provide an insight into the reverse twin block appliance and reports two cases of early class III malocclusion treated using reverse twin block.

  9. Difference in treatment outcome of British and Japanese surgical class III patients associated with mandibular setback

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Koyo; Nagata, Norio; IIDA, YOSHIRO; Iida, Kayo; KAGEYAMA, TORU; Ishii, Nobuyuki

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this clinical research was to examine the racial differences in skeletal morphology of skeletal Class III abnormalities and in the ortho-surgical treatment outcome of Class III malocclusion associated with mandibular setback sagittal osteotomy between Japanese and British Caucasian female adult Class III patients. The sample consisted of 35 Class III Japanese female surgical subjects in MDU Hospital and 30 Class III British subjects (23 female and 7 male). The operative procedu...

  10. Class I malocclusion with anterior crossbite and severe crowding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daltro Enéas Ritter

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning carried out with a 14-year and 5-month-old female patient with esthetic and functional complaints. She presented an Angle Class I malocclusion, anterior crossbite and severe crowding in both maxillary and mandibular arches, in addition to a lightly concave straight facial profile. Orthodontic treatment did not require extraction. Crossbite was corrected by protrusion of upper teeth, which contributed to alignment and leveling of teeth, in addition to improving the patient's facial profile. The case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO as a requirement for the BBO certification.

  11. Root resorption in Class II malocclusion treatment with Class II elastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, Guilherme; Niederberger, Ana; Garib, Daniela Gamba; Caldas, Waleska

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this investigation was to compare the amount of apical root resorption in nonextraction treatment of Class II malocclusions with and without Class II elastics. A sample of 54 patients with Class II Division 1 malocclusion, retrospectively selected, was divided into 2 groups. The elastic group consisted of 27 patients who were exclusively treated with fixed appliances associated with elastics, and the headgear group consisted of 27 patients treated with fixed appliances and extraoral headgear. The groups were matched regarding initial age, treatment time, amount of overjet, initial malocclusion severity, final occlusal status, and severity of Class II molar relationship. Posttreatment periapical radiographs of the maxillary and mandibular central and lateral incisors were used to evaluate root resorption. The amounts of resorption in the groups were compared with Mann-Whitney U tests. There was no statistically significant difference in the amounts of root resorption between the elastic and the headgear groups. Nonextraction treatment of Class II malocclusions with Class II elastics associated with fixed appliances causes similar root resorption as treatment with extraoral headgear and fixed appliances. Apical root resorption was predominantly mild and similar in the 2 groups. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Angle Class II malocclusion treated with extraction of permanent teeth

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    Gustavo Mattos Barreto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Angle Class II malocclusion associated with anterior open bite in adult patients demands a carefully elaborated orthodontic planning, aiming at restoring not only harmonious dental and facial esthetics, but also a balanced masticatory function. Orthognathic surgery or permanent teeth extraction are often the choice of treatment, therefore, treatment decision is related to all dental, skeletal and functional aspects. The present report discusses orthodontic compensation carried out by means of upper premolar extraction performed to correct the Class II canine relationship and, consequently, the anterior open bite, accepting that the upper incisors be retroclined. This clinical case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO as part of the requirements for obtaining the BBO Certification.

  13. Early Intervention in Skeletal Class II and dental Class II division I malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Iqbal Bhat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A Class II malocclusion may occur as a result of mandibular deficiency, maxillary excess, or a combination of both. However, the most common finding is mandibular skeletal retrusion. The use of functional jaw orthopedics, at the right time during growth, can ultimately result in malocclusion patients achieving an excellent functional occlusion, a broad beautiful smile, a full face with a beautiful jaw line, and profile. Functional jaw orthopedic (FJO appliances are designed to encourage adaptive skeletal growth by maintaining the mandible in a corrected forward position. The activator developed by Andresen is one of the most widely used for this purpose. A 12-year-old boy with skeletal Class II malocclusion and dental Class II div I malocclusion, a low mandibular plane angle was treated with growth modulation using an activator followed by molar distalization using fixed orthodontics for detailing of the occlusion. The major effects of the activator treatment in this case have been due to increase in condylar growth and also an increase in mandibular base length. Further, non-extraction fixed orthodontic treatment for proper interdigitation of the dentition also helped to maintain the stability of the satisfactory results achieved.

  14. Classification and treatment of Class II subdivision malocclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Sara E; Jackson, Stona R; Turpin, David L; Ramsay, Douglas S; Spiekerman, Charles; Huang, Greg J

    2014-04-01

    Patients with Class II subdivision malocclusions are a challenge for clinicians because reestablishing symmetry in 1 arch or both arches is often a treatment goal. In patients with mandibular skeletal asymmetry, surgery is often a treatment option. However, patients may be unwilling to undergo surgery, and other options might have to be considered. The aim of this study was to evaluate the etiologies and outcomes of Class II subdivision patients treated at the University of Washington graduate orthodontic clinic in Seattle from 1995 through 2011. A search of patients treated between 1995 and 2011 resulted in the identification of 110 consecutively treated Class II subdivision subjects with complete records. Ninety-eight subjects could be classified into 1 of 3 groups, based on midline position and dental or skeletal etiology. Initial and final models were used to measure the peer assessment rating scores, midlines, overjet, overbite, and molar positions. Initial and final cephalograms were traced and measured. Charts were reviewed for information regarding treatment. Twenty-five percent of the 98 subjects had their maxillary and mandibular midlines coincident with the facial midline; their asymmetries were due to a maxillary posterior dental asymmetry. Another 15% had maxillary midlines deviated from their facial midlines, caused by maxillary anterior and posterior dental asymmetry. About 50% of the subjects had mandibular midlines that were not coincident with their facial midlines, and most of them exhibited some degree of mandibular skeletal asymmetry. Over the past 15 years, treatment strategies used at the University of Washington indicated trends toward less surgery, fewer extractions, less use of headgear, and more reliance on fixed functional appliances. Ideal correction of midlines was not always achieved, especially in patients with mandibular skeletal asymmetry, with undercorrection occurring more commonly than overcorrection. Final peer assessment

  15. Correction of Class II malocclusion and soft tissue profile in an adult patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Gaur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of Class II malocclusion in nongrowing individuals is a challenging situation for the clinician. Class II malocclusion with bialveolar protrusion often dictates premolar extractions with maximum anchorage. The present article describes the case of an adult female with skeletal Class II malocclusion, bimaxillary protrusion, increased overjet, deep bite, lip protrusion, everted lower lip, deep mentolabial sulcus, and lip incompetence. To correct the malocclusion, all four first premolars were extracted. Direct anchorage from miniscrews was used for retraction of the anterior segment. The mandibular buccal segment was protracted into the extraction space using Class II mechanics. Ideal Class I canine and molar relation were achieved in 24 months. There was a significant improvement in facial profile and smile esthetics of the patient.

  16. Correction of Class II malocclusion and soft tissue profile in an adult patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Aditi; Maheshwari, Sandhya; Verma, Sanjeev Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of Class II malocclusion in nongrowing individuals is a challenging situation for the clinician. Class II malocclusion with bialveolar protrusion often dictates premolar extractions with maximum anchorage. The present article describes the case of an adult female with skeletal Class II malocclusion, bimaxillary protrusion, increased overjet, deep bite, lip protrusion, everted lower lip, deep mentolabial sulcus, and lip incompetence. To correct the malocclusion, all four first premolars were extracted. Direct anchorage from miniscrews was used for retraction of the anterior segment. The mandibular buccal segment was protracted into the extraction space using Class II mechanics. Ideal Class I canine and molar relation were achieved in 24 months. There was a significant improvement in facial profile and smile esthetics of the patient.

  17. Comparison of masticatory efficiency according to Angle's classification of malocclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jungin; Son, Woo-Sung; Kim, Seong-Sik; Park, Soo-Byung

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the differences in masticatory efficiency among patients with different Angle's classes of malocclusion and to assess the correlation between masticatory efficiency and the occlusal contact area. Methods The mixing ability index (MAI) was calculated for measuring masticatory efficiency of 61 adult patients according to Angle's classifications of malocclusion. The study included 25, 15, and 21 patients with Angle's Class I, II, and III malocclusions, respectively. Silicone interocclusal recording material was used to measure the occlusal contact area. Results Both the MAI and occlusal contact area showed the highest average values in the Class I malocclusion group, followed by the Class II and Class III malocclusion groups. No significant difference was observed in the MAI values between the Class I and Class II malocclusion groups (p > 0.05), whereas a significant difference was observed between the Class I and Class III malocclusion groups (p Class II and Class III malocclusion groups (p Class I malocclusion, followed by those with Angle's Class II and Angle's Class III malocclusions. Moreover, a weak positive correlation was observed between masticatory efficiency and the occlusal contact area. PMID:28523241

  18. Evaluation and Comparison of Intermaxillary Tooth Size Discrepancy among Class I, Class II Division 1, and Class III Subjects Using Bolton’s Analysis: An in vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna, A Lakshmi; Venkatramana, V; Aryasri, A Srikanth; Katta, Anil Kumar; Santhanakrishnan, K; Maheshwari, Uma

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluation and comparison of intermaxillary tooth size discrepancy among Class I, Class II division 1, and Class III subjects using Bolton’s analysis. Materials and Methods: The pre-treatment casts were selected from the records of patients attending the Department of Orthodontics of Meenakshi Ammal Dental College, Chennai. The sample consists of 180 pre-treatment casts with both sexes evenly distributed with 60 casts in each type of malocclusion, i.e., Class I, Class II div 1, and Class III malocclusion. The sample was selected according to angles classification. All patients were Indian nationals, between the age group of 12 to 20 years and Bolton’s analysis done on all the casts. Results: Statistically no significant difference in all types of malocclusion except anterior Bolton’s discrepancy in Class III. Conclusion: Mean Bolton’s anterior ratio for angles Class III subjects was significantly greater than for Class I and Class II subjects. When Bolton’s overall ratio was compared there was no statistically significant difference among Class I, Class II div 1, and Class III malocclusions. PMID:26435619

  19. Treatment of Angle Class II malocclusions with a newly modified bionator combined with headgear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chun Lin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The bionator is one of the most commonly used functional appliances in treating Angle Class II division 1 malocclusions. However, the original type of bionator often causes lower incisor flaring and is limited in cases with mild crowding. There is little published literature on treating Angle Class II division 2 malocclusions using bionators. Our group suggested some modifications to the original-type bionator, including addition of an anterior resin cap, upper and lower labial bows, an expansion screw and a posterior resin wedge, to attempt to overcome limitations of the original design. This article shows our results on two male patients, one with an Angle Class II division 1 malocclusion with a large overjet and the other with an Angle Class II division 2 malocclusion. The treatment was completed using a newly modified bionator with no other fixed appliance and resulted in a decrease in facial convexity, a reduced overjet and overbite, ideal interincisal relationships, and a harmonious profile.

  20. Treatment of a skeletal Class II malocclusion using fixed functional appliance with miniplate anchorage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Celikoglu, Mevlut; Unal, Tuba; Bayram, Mehmet; Candirli, Celal

    2014-01-01

    ...) has not yet been reported. Therefore, the aim of the present case report was to present the treatment of a patient with skeletal Class II malocclusion with mandibular retrusion using Forsus FRD with miniplate anchorage...

  1. Skeletal versus conventional intraoral anchorage for the treatment of class II malocclusion: dentoalveolar and skeletal effects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mariani, Lisa; Maino, Giuliano; Caprioglio, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    ... systems used in patients with class II malocclusion: the MGBM system (skeletal anchorage) and Pendulum (intraoral anchorage).The sample comprised 57 patients who were assigned to one of the two treatments...

  2. Occlusal rehabilitation of pseudo-class III patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Antônio Carlos; Ferreira, Cimara Fortes; Oderich, Elisa; Pedroso, Moira Leão; Wicks, Russell

    2015-01-01

    To treat a patient with anterior crossbite, the clinician should first assess if it is a genuine class III or a pseudo-class III malocclusion. Cephalometric analysis is important; however, registering a patient's centric relation (CR) is simple, quick, and costless and can play a decisive role in a differential diagnosis for this type of patient profile. This clinical report depicts a patient clinically diagnosed as class III. After mandible manipulation in CR, it was noted that the patient in question was a pseudo-class III. The treatment was based on the pseudo-class III diagnosis. Therefore, the patient was rehabilitated by occlusal adjustments and conventional and implant-supported prostheses and without the need for invasive orthognathic surgery. © 2014 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  3. Comparison of Activator-Headgear and Twin Block Treatment Approaches in Class II Division 1 Malocclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Spalj, Stjepan; Mroz Tranesen, Kate; Birkeland, Kari; Katic, Visnja; Pavlic, Andrej; Vandevska-Radunovic, Vaska

    2017-01-01

    The purpose was to compare the treatment effects of functional appliances activator-headgear (AH) and Twin Block (TB) on skeletal, dental, and soft-tissue structures in class II division 1 malocclusion with normal growth changes in untreated subjects. The sample included 50 subjects (56% females) aged 8?13 years with class II division 1 malocclusion treated with either AH (n = 25) or TB (n = 25) appliances. Pre- and posttreatment lateral cephalograms were evaluated and compared to 50 untreate...

  4. Treatment of Angle Class II malocclusions with a newly modified bionator combined with headgear

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Yen-Chun; Lin, Hsiang-Chien; Wang, Wei-Nan; Lee, Sheng-Yang; Tsai, Hung-Huey

    2009-01-01

    The bionator is one of the most commonly used functional appliances in treating Angle Class II division 1 malocclusions. However, the original type of bionator often causes lower incisor flaring and is limited in cases with mild crowding. There is little published literature on treating Angle Class II division 2 malocclusions using bionators. Our group suggested some modifications to the original-type bionator, including addition of an anterior resin cap, upper and lower labial bows, an expan...

  5. Functional jaw orthopedics for Class II malocclusion: Where do we stand today?FNx01

    OpenAIRE

    O P Kharbanda; S Chaurasia

    2015-01-01

    Class II malocclusion may present with skeletal features of mandibular retrognathism, midface protrusion, and dental features of distal step molar relation, an unusually large overjet and/or variable combination these features. With a variety of craniofacial morphology associated with Class II malocclusion, the type of functional appliance (FA) to choose and the timings of treatment are fundamental to treatment outcome and prognosis. Mandibular retrognathism has befallen to be the most univer...

  6. Class III molar finish as a different treatment approach to correct an adolescent Class II patient using headgear, forsus, and lower arch extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafees Koya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Various treatment strategies are adopted to correct a Class II malocclusion depending on the age, the amount of remaining growth and severity of malocclusion. Single arch extraction of the lowers is rarely done in a Class II malocclusion. The following case report describes an alternate treatment approach of an adolescent Class II patient treated with a combination of headgear, fixed functional appliance (forsus, and single arch extraction only in the lower arch. The case was finished in a Class III molar and a Class I canine relationship. The results were stable in 3 years follow-up.

  7. Early class III occlusal tendency in children and its selective management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapur A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Class III malocclusion may develop in children as a result of an inherent growth abnormality, i.e., true class III malocclusion, or as a result of premature occlusal contacts causing forward functional shift of the mandible, which is known as pseudo class III malocclusion. These cases, if not treated at the initial stage of development, interfere with normal growth of the skeletal bases and may result in severe facial deformities. The treatment should be carried out as early as possible with the aim of permitting normal growth. This paper deals with the selection of an appropriate treatment approach from the various current options available for early intervention in children developing class III occlusal tendencies; the different clinical features are depicted in the three case reports.

  8. Class III treatment using facial mask: Stability after 10 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Luiz Ramos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Early Class III malocclusion treatment may not have long-term stability due to mandibular growth. Although some features of this malocclusion point to a better prognosis, it is practically impossible for the orthodontist to foresee cases that require new intervention. Many patients need retreatment, whether compensatory or orthodontic-surgical. The present study reports the case of a Class III patient treated at the end of the mixed dentition with the use of a face mask followed by conventional fixed appliances. The case remains stable 10 years after treatment completion. It was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO as a requirement for the title of certified by the BBO.

  9. Factors affecting buccal corridor space in Angle′s Class II Division 1 malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Bhat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Buccal corridor space has been thought of primarily in terms of maxillary width, but there is also evidence that they are heavily influenced by the antero-posterior position of maxilla. The present study was undertaken with an aim of evaluating and comparing the dental and skeletal factors related to buccal corridor space in individuals having Class I and Class II Division 1 malocclusions. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 subjects of which 40 were males and 40 were females in the age group of 20-30 years were selected as per inclusion criteria and were grouped as Group I having Class I malocclusion and as Group II having Class II malocclusions based on angle ANB. 12 linear and 2 angular cephalometric measurements and 4 study cast measurements were used to correlate with the buccal corridor linear ratio (BCLR, calculated on smile photograph using the Adobe Photoshop 7.0 software (Adobe Systems Inc., San Jose, California, USA. The data obtained was statistically evaluated using independent t-test and multiple linear regression analysis. Result: Buccal corridor space is larger in individuals with Class II Division 1 malocclusion when compared with individuals with Class I malocclusions. There exists a significant difference in buccal corridor space between males and females. Conclusion: The present study helps in establishing the correlation between certain factors and the amount of buccal corridor space in individuals having skeletal Class II pattern.

  10. Class II Division 1 Malocclusion Treated with a Cervical-Pull Headgear: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ankit H

    2016-01-01

    Orthodontic treatment for skeletal Class II malocclusion was undertaken with the aim ofachieving orthopedic correction by modifying the growth pattern. A case of Class II, Division 1 malocclusion in the late mixed dentition was corrected to a Class I molar relationship by primarily using cervical-pull headgear. Cephalometric analysis indicated a reduction in the maxillo-mandibular discrepancy (ANB°) due to the correction of a skeletal Class II malocclusion to a Class I occlusion. The superimposition demonstrated that this was achieved by favorable growth of the mandible, control of maxillary first molars in an antero-posterior direction and retraction of maxillary incisors. Proclination of mandibular incisors was reduced. Significant improvement in the soft-tissue profile was noted.

  11. Angle Class I malocclusion treated with lower incisor extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Leal Tavares Barbosa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In planning orthodontic cases that include extractions as an alternative to solve the problem of negative space discrepancy, the critical decision is to determine which teeth will be extracted. Several aspects must be considered, such as periodontal health, orthodontic mechanics, functional and esthetic alterations, and treatment stability. Despite controversies, extraction of teeth to solve dental crowding is a therapy that has been used for decades. Premolar extractions are the most common, but there are situations in which atypical extractions facilitate mechanics, preserve periodontal health and favor maintenance of the facial profile, which tends to unfavorably change due to facial changes with age. The extraction of a lower incisor, in selected cases, is an effective approach, and literature describes greater post-treatment stability when compared with premolar extractions. This article reports the clinical case of a patient with Angle Class I malocclusion and upper and lower anterior crowding, a balanced face and harmonious facial profile. The presence of gingival and bone recession limited large orthodontic movements. The molars and premolars were well occluded, and the discrepancy was mainly concentrated in the anterior region of the lower dental arch. The extraction of a lower incisor in the most ectopic position and with compromised periodontium, associated with interproximal stripping in the upper and lower arches, was the alternative of choice for this treatment, which restored function, providing improved periodontal health, maintained facial esthetics and allowed finishing with a stable and balanced occlusion. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO, as part of the requirements for obtaining the BBO Diplomate title.

  12. Angle Class I malocclusion treated with lower incisor extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Vanessa Leal Tavares

    2013-01-01

    In planning orthodontic cases that include extractions as an alternative to solve the problem of negative space discrepancy, the critical decision is to determine which teeth will be extracted. Several aspects must be considered, such as periodontal health, orthodontic mechanics, functional and esthetic alterations, and treatment stability. Despite controversies, extraction of teeth to solve dental crowding is a therapy that has been used for decades. Premolar extractions are the most common, but there are situations in which atypical extractions facilitate mechanics, preserve periodontal health and favor maintenance of the facial profile, which tends to unfavorably change due to facial changes with age. The extraction of a lower incisor, in selected cases, is an effective approach, and literature describes greater post-treatment stability when compared with premolar extractions. This article reports the clinical case of a patient with Angle Class I malocclusion and upper and lower anterior crowding, a balanced face and harmonious facial profile. The presence of gingival and bone recession limited large orthodontic movements. The molars and premolars were well occluded, and the discrepancy was mainly concentrated in the anterior region of the lower dental arch. The extraction of a lower incisor in the most ectopic position and with compromised periodontium, associated with interproximal stripping in the upper and lower arches, was the alternative of choice for this treatment, which restored function, providing improved periodontal health, maintained facial esthetics and allowed finishing with a stable and balanced occlusion. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO), as part of the requirements for obtaining the BBO Diplomate title.

  13. Class II malocclusion treated with miniscrew anchorage: comparison with traditional orthodontic mechanics outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Shingo; Yamada, Kazuyo; Deguchi, Toru; Kyung, Hee-Moon; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko

    2009-03-01

    Anchorage control in patients with severe skeletal Class II malocclusion is a difficult problem in orthodontic treatment. In adults, treatment often requires premolar extractions and maximum anchorage. Recently, incisor retraction with miniscrew anchorage has become a new strategy for treating skeletal Class II patients. In this study, we compared treatment outcomes of patients with severe skeletal Class II malocclusion treated using miniscrew anchorage (n = 11) or traditional orthodontic mechanics of headgear and transpalatal arch (n = 11). Pretreatment and posttreatment lateral cephalograms were analyzed. Both treatment methods, miniscrew anchorage or headgear, achieved acceptable results as indicated by the reduction of overjet and the improvement of facial profile. However, incisor retraction with miniscrew anchorage did not require patient cooperation to reinforce the anchorage and provided more significant improvement of the facial profile than traditional anchorage mechanics (headgear combined with transpalatal arch). Orthodontic treatment with miniscrew anchorage is simpler and more useful than that with traditional anchorage mechanics for patients with Class II malocclusion.

  14. A comparative evaluation of dermatoglyphics in different classes of malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima Jindal

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: Dermatoglyphic analysis can be used as an indicator of malocclusion at an early age, thereby aiding the development of treatments aiming to establish favorable occlusion. Inheritance and twin studies, as well as those conducted in different ethnic groups, are required to examine these relationships further.

  15. A Retrospective Evaluation of the Class of Malocclusion amongst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uche

    2011-01-20

    Jan 20, 2011 ... The Aim of the present study was to evaluate the type of malocclusion amongst orthodontic patients in the UNTH, Enugu, and to determine the pattern of distribution of the anterior- posterior relationships of the jaws as described by. Angle. 1 amongst patients who attended the orthodontic unit of the UNTH ...

  16. A Retrospective Evaluation of the Class of Malocclusion amongst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the type of malocclusion amongst orthodontic patients in the UNTH. Methods: A retrospective evaluation of patients who attended the Orthodontic unit of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital from January 2008 to January 2010 was carried out to determine the type of ...

  17. Maxillary first molar extraction in Class II malocclusion : Follow-up studies on treatment effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livas, Christos

    2015-01-01

    This PhD research investigated treatment effects of extraction of one and two maxillary first molars in Class II subdivision and Class II/1 malocclusion cases respectively from a longer time perspective. Private practice records were scrutinized to evaluate aspects of a treatment technique combining

  18. Compensatory canine angulation in angle Class II and III patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Carlos Agner Busato

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurence of compensation in mesiodistal axial inclinations of canines in skeletal malocclusions patients. The sample consisted of 25 Angle Class II, division 1 malocclusion (group 1 and 19 Angle Class III malocclusion patients (group 2. After measurement of dental angulations through a method that associates plaster model photography and AutoCad software, comparisons between the groups were performed by T-test for independent samples. Results showed that there was no statistically significant difference (p < 0.05 between groups, when maxillary canine angulations were compared. Regarding the mandibular canines, there was a statistically significant difference in dental angulation, expressed by 3.2° for group 1 and 0.15° for group 2. An upright position tendency for mandibular canines was observed in the Angle Class III sample. This configures a pattern of compensatory coronary positioning, since the angulation of these teeth makes them occupy less space in the dental arch and consequently mandibular incisors can be in a more retracted position in the sagittal plane.

  19. Therapeutic approach to Class II, Division 1 malocclusion with maxillary functional orthopedics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristeu Corrêa de Bittencourt Neto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Interceptive treatment of Class II, Division 1 malocclusion is a challenge orthodontists commonly face due to the different growth patterns they come across and the different treatment strategies they have available.OBJECTIVE: To report five cases of interceptive orthodontics performed with the aid of Klammt's elastic open activator (KEOA to treat Class II, Division 1 malocclusion.METHODS: Treatment comprehends one or two phases; and the use of functional orthopedic appliances, whenever properly recommended, is able to minimize dentoskeletal discrepancies with consequent improvement in facial esthetics during the first stage of mixed dentition. The triad of diagnosis, correct appliance manufacture and patient's compliance is imperative to allow KEOA to contribute to Class II malocclusion treatment.RESULTS: Cases reported herein showed significant improvement in skeletal, dental and profile aspects, as evinced by cephalometric analysis and clinical photographs taken before, during and after interceptive orthodontics.

  20. Therapeutic approach to Class II, Division 1 malocclusion with maxillary functional orthopedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bittencourt Neto, Aristeu Corrêa; Saga, Armando Yukio; Pacheco, Ariel Adriano Reyes; Tanaka, Orlando

    2015-01-01

    Interceptive treatment of Class II, Division 1 malocclusion is a challenge orthodontists commonly face due to the different growth patterns they come across and the different treatment strategies they have available. To report five cases of interceptive orthodontics performed with the aid of Klammt's elastic open activator (KEOA) to treat Class II, Division 1 malocclusion. Treatment comprehends one or two phases; and the use of functional orthopedic appliances, whenever properly recommended, is able to minimize dentoskeletal discrepancies with consequent improvement in facial esthetics during the first stage of mixed dentition. The triad of diagnosis, correct appliance manufacture and patient's compliance is imperative to allow KEOA to contribute to Class II malocclusion treatment. Cases reported herein showed significant improvement in skeletal, dental and profile aspects, as evinced by cephalometric analysis and clinical photographs taken before, during and after interceptive orthodontics.

  1. Upper airway dimensions in Class II malocclusion. Effects of headgear treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirjavainen, Mirja; Kirjavainen, Turkka

    2007-11-01

    To study the effects of cervical headgear treatment of Class II division 1 malocclusion on upper airway structures in children. Forty children aged 9.1 (7.2-11.5) years with Class II division 1 malocclusion were treated using a cervical headgear as the only treatment appliance. The headgear consisted of a long outer bow bent 15 degrees upward and a large inner bow expanded 10 mm larger than the intermolar distance. Lateral cephalograms were taken before and after the treatment. Upper airway structures were estimated from the cephalograms. The results were compared to cross-sectional data of 80 age-matched controls with a Class I molar relationship. A Class I molar relationship was achieved in all treated children. The mean treatment time was 1.6 (0.3-3.1) years. The Class II malocclusion was accompanied by a similar or wider nasopharyngeal space than in the controls but narrower oro- and hypopharyngeal spaces. The retropalatal area was widened by the treatment (P Class II division 1 malocclusion is associated with a narrower upper airway structure even without retrognathia. Headgear treatment is associated with an increase in the retropalatal airway space.

  2. Correction of Angle Class II division 1 malocclusion with a mandibular protraction appliances and multiloop edgewise archwire technique

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benedito Freitas; Heloiza Freitas; Pedro César F dos Santos; Guilherme Janson

    2014-01-01

    .... After the diagnosis of severe Angle Class II division 1 malocclusion, a mandibular protraction appliance was placed to correct the Class II relationships and multiloop edgewise archwires were used for finishing...

  3. Very few indications justify early treatment for severe Class II malocclusions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, Yijin

    2004-01-01

    DESIGN: This was a single-centre two-phased, parallel, randomised clinical trial (RCT) conducted over a period of more than 10 years. INTERVENTION: Children were enrolled who had severe (=7 mm overjet) Class II malocclusions and who were developmentally at least a year before their peak pubertal

  4. Perception, knowledge and attitudes of Brazilian orthodontists on the treatment of Class II malocclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARMANDO K. KAIEDA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study aimed to assess the perception and knowledge of Brazilian orthodontists on the ideal moment to treat Class II malocclusions. Questionnaires with open, semi-open and close questions were sent by e-mail to 1653 Brazilian orthodontists. These orthodontists were registered in the Brazilian Association of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (ABOR. One-hundred and three (9.86% Orthodontists replied to the questionnaires. Most of them were males (60.5% with specialization as the highest level of professional qualification (59.9%. Most of the orthodontists (51% reported preference for treating Class II malocclusions in late mixed dentition, followed by the early mixed dentition (29%. The age range between 10 and 12 years old figured as the most prevalent in patients searching for treatment (42.7%. Most of the patients searching for treatment were females (69.7%. Preferences for functional orthopedic appliances were reported by 35% of the orthodontists. Brazilian orthodontists revealed a trend for treating patients with Class II malocclusions in the late mixed dentition. Female patients aged from 10 to 12 years old represented the majority of patients that search for orthodontic treatment. Functional orthopedic appliances were preferred by Brazilian orthodontists for treating Class II malocclusions.

  5. Influence of surgical orthodontic treatment on masticatory function in skeletal Class III patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, T; Yagi, T; Tomonari, H; Ikemori, T; Miyawaki, S

    2015-10-01

    Skeletal Class III patients exhibit malocclusion characterised by Angle Class III and anterior crossbite, and their occlusion shows total or partially lateral crossbite of the posterior teeth. Most patients exhibit lower bite force and muscle activity than non-affected subjects. While orthognathic surgery may help improve masticatory function in these patients, its effects have not been fully elucidated. The aims of the study were to evaluate jaw movement and the electromyographic (EMG) activity of masticatory muscles before and after orthognathic treatment in skeletal Class III patients in comparison with control subjects with normal occlusion. Jaw movement variables and EMG data were recorded in 14 female patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion and 15 female controls with good occlusion. Significant changes in jaw movement, from a chopping to a grinding pattern, were observed after orthognathic treatment (closing angle P masticatory chewing pattern and muscle activity. However, the chewing pattern remains incomplete compared with controls. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Effect of timing on the outcomes of 1-phase nonextraction therapy of Class II malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Tiziano; Franchi, Lorenzo; Kim, Ludia H

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this cephalometric study was to evaluate the role of timing in relation to skeletal maturity on the outcomes of nonextraction comprehensive Class II therapy. Three samples of patients with Class II Division 1 malocclusion were treated with headgear combined with fixed appliances and Class II elastics. Lateral cephalograms were taken of all subjects before therapy (T1) and at an average interval of 6 months after therapy (T2). The first sample (23 subjects) was treated before the pubertal growth spurt, the second sample (24 subjects) received therapy during the pubertal growth spurt, and the third sample (13 subjects) was treated at a postpubertal stage of development. The average T1 to T2 interval was approximately 30 months for all patients, with an average treatment duration of 24 months. Longitudinal observations of a group of 17 subjects with untreated Class II malocclusions were compared with the treated groups at the 3 skeletal maturation intervals with nonparametric statistics. Class II treatment before or during the pubertal growth spurt induced significant favorable skeletal changes (restricted maxillary advancement in prepubertal patients and enhanced mandibular growth in pubertal patients). Patients treated after the pubertal growth spurt had only significant dentoalveolar changes. The greatest amount of dentoskeletal correction of Class II malocclusion with 1-phase nonextraction treatment occurred in patients treated during the pubertal growth spurt.

  7. A cephalometric evaluation of tongue from the rest position to centric occlusion in the subjects with class II division 1 malocclusion and class I normal occlusion

    OpenAIRE

    Verma, Sanjeev K.; Tandon, Pradeep; Agrawal, D K; K C Prabhat

    2012-01-01

    Background: One of the common types of oro-dental morphopathologic relationship is the Class II Division 1 malocclusion. Therefore, the study of tongue position in Class II Division 1 may reveal a role of the tongue in the etiology or diagnosis of malocclusion. Aims: Present study was done with the aim to evaluate the tongue position radiographically in centric occlusion and rest position in the subjects with Angle's Class 1 normal occlusion and subjects with Angle's Class II Division 1 maloc...

  8. Comparison of Activator-Headgear and Twin Block Treatment Approaches in Class II Division 1 Malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stjepan Spalj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to compare the treatment effects of functional appliances activator-headgear (AH and Twin Block (TB on skeletal, dental, and soft-tissue structures in class II division 1 malocclusion with normal growth changes in untreated subjects. The sample included 50 subjects (56% females aged 8–13 years with class II division 1 malocclusion treated with either AH (n=25 or TB (n=25 appliances. Pre- and posttreatment lateral cephalograms were evaluated and compared to 50 untreated class II division 1 cases matched by age, gender, ANB angle, and skeletal maturity. A paired sample, independent samples tests and discriminant analysis were performed for intra- and intergroup analysis. Treatment with both appliances resulted in significant reduction of skeletal and soft-tissue facial convexity, the overjet, and the prominence of the upper lip in comparison to untreated individuals (p<0.001. Retroclination of maxillary incisors and proclination of mandibular incisors were seen, the latter being significantly more evident in the TB group (p<0.05. Increase of effective mandibular length was more pronounced in the TB group. In conclusion, both AH and TB appliances contributed successfully to the correction of class II division 1 malocclusion when compared to the untreated subjects with predominantly dentoalveolar changes.

  9. Comparison of Activator-Headgear and Twin Block Treatment Approaches in Class II Division 1 Malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalj, Stjepan; Mroz Tranesen, Kate; Birkeland, Kari; Katic, Visnja; Pavlic, Andrej; Vandevska-Radunovic, Vaska

    2017-01-01

    The purpose was to compare the treatment effects of functional appliances activator-headgear (AH) and Twin Block (TB) on skeletal, dental, and soft-tissue structures in class II division 1 malocclusion with normal growth changes in untreated subjects. The sample included 50 subjects (56% females) aged 8-13 years with class II division 1 malocclusion treated with either AH ( n = 25) or TB ( n = 25) appliances. Pre- and posttreatment lateral cephalograms were evaluated and compared to 50 untreated class II division 1 cases matched by age, gender, ANB angle, and skeletal maturity. A paired sample, independent samples tests and discriminant analysis were performed for intra- and intergroup analysis. Treatment with both appliances resulted in significant reduction of skeletal and soft-tissue facial convexity, the overjet, and the prominence of the upper lip in comparison to untreated individuals ( p < 0.001). Retroclination of maxillary incisors and proclination of mandibular incisors were seen, the latter being significantly more evident in the TB group ( p < 0.05). Increase of effective mandibular length was more pronounced in the TB group. In conclusion, both AH and TB appliances contributed successfully to the correction of class II division 1 malocclusion when compared to the untreated subjects with predominantly dentoalveolar changes.

  10. Functional treatment of skeletal Class II malocclusion using bone-anchored devices and intermaxillary elastics

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    Mahmood Reza Kalantar Motamedi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dentofacial functional appliances used for the treatment of skeletal Class II malocclusion are divided into two groups: Removable appliances and fixed (bonded appliances, each with certain advantages and disadvantages. Considering the problems related to functional appliances such as high volume in the oral cavity, patient noncompliance, esthetics, tissue irritation or ulceration, speech or breathing difficulties, etc., there is considerable demand to develop a new appliance that can overcome these issues. Thus, the aim of the current study is to present a hypothesis regarding a new functional treatment technique. The hypothesis: We hypothesize that by fixing mini-plates or -implants in the posterior region of the mandible and the anterior part of the infrazygomatic crest region of the maxilla using intermaxillary elastics, we can expect a forward growth of the mandible in a growing child. Using this technique, the force vector will be in the oblique (forward-upward direction. By installing mini-plates with a long connecting bar in the infrazygomatic crest region (with the orthodontic attachment head approximating the level of the occlusal plane, and mini-plates or -implants in the most posterior and superior regions of the mandible, such as the retromolar region, the force vector can be placed in the most horizontal direction possible. Evaluation of the hypothesis: In the literature, significant growth modification results were reported in skeletal Class III patients using intermaxillary elastics and bone-anchored devices fixed in both jaws, when compared with those in the nontreatment group. Therefore, in practice, intermaxillary elastics can produce enough traction to stimulate the bone to change and grow. Thus, we presume that inverting the direction of the force vector (i.e., posterior-anterior force may have similar growth effects on the mandibles of growing children.

  11. Class II, Division 1 Angle malocclusion with severe proclination of maxillary incisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanha, Kátia

    2016-01-01

    Protrusion of maxillary incisors is a common complaint among patients seeking orthodontic treatment. This report addresses the correction of Class II Angle malocclusion with excessively bucally proclined maxillary incisors, in an adolescent female patient, through the use of extraoral and fixed appliances. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO) as part of the requirements for obtaining the title of certified by the BBO. PMID:27007768

  12. Severe skeletal Class II Division 1 malocclusion in postpubertal girl treated using Forsus with miniplate anchorage

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Harshal Ashok; Kerudi, Veerendra V; Rudagi, BM; Sharan, Jitendra S; Tekale, Pawankumar Dnyandeo

    2017-01-01

    This case report outlines the treatment of a 17-year-old female with Class II Division 1 malocclusion with mandibular retrusion, deep bite, and convex facial profile. The Forsus fatigue resistance device with miniplate was used for this patient and it was very affecting tool in correcting both skeletal and dental parameters. The total active treatment time was 19 months. This method can serve as an alternate choice of treatment, especially those who refuse orthognathic surgery. Hence, Forsus ...

  13. Functional treatment of skeletal Class II malocclusion using bone-anchored devices and intermaxillary elastics

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood Reza Kalantar Motamedi; Alimohammad Kalantar Motamedi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Dentofacial functional appliances used for the treatment of skeletal Class II malocclusion are divided into two groups: Removable appliances and fixed (bonded) appliances, each with certain advantages and disadvantages. Considering the problems related to functional appliances such as high volume in the oral cavity, patient noncompliance, esthetics, tissue irritation or ulceration, speech or breathing difficulties, etc., there is considerable demand to develop a new appliance th...

  14. Functional jaw orthopedics for Class II malocclusion: Where do we stand today?FNx01

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O P Kharbanda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Class II malocclusion may present with skeletal features of mandibular retrognathism, midface protrusion, and dental features of distal step molar relation, an unusually large overjet and/or variable combination these features. With a variety of craniofacial morphology associated with Class II malocclusion, the type of functional appliance (FA to choose and the timings of treatment are fundamental to treatment outcome and prognosis. Mandibular retrognathism has befallen to be the most universal rationale for availing orthodontic treatment. Europeans have traditionally tried to grow locked mandible in young children efficiently by jaw propulsors, collectively termed as FAs. FAs have come a long way since the introduction of "bite-jumping" appliance by Norman Kingsley with gradual evolution of these appliances through monobloc, activator, Frankel, bionator, twin block appliance and fixed functional appliances which can now be attached to facial skeleton with implant anchorage. Although timing of treatment, mode of their action, treatment benefits and mechanism of craniofacial adaptation have been researched extensively, the subject of FA has always been a matter of discussion with conflicting views. This paper provides an up to date gist of functional jaw orthopedics for Class II malocclusion.

  15. Class II malocclusion with deep overbite: a sequential approach

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    Fernando Lima Martinelli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this case report was to evaluate the results of deep overbite correction by the segmented arch technique. METHODS: The first stage of the treatment was performed with this technique to intrude incisors and canines. A maxillary transpalatal bar and a mandibular lingual arch using 0.051-in archwire were employed associated to a facial bow, anchored primarily with occipital pull and, after molar relationship correction, changed to high pull. RESULTS: Upper incisors presented a great amount of intrusion and some palatal root inclination as programmed in the treatment plan. The skeletal mandibular response was favorable to achieve profile balance. Periapical radiograph showed rounded apex of incisor roots, expected in any orthodontic intrusion movement. CONCLUSION: The clinical results present the successful approach to deep overbite malocclusion.OBJETIVO: o objetivo desse relato de caso clínico foi avaliar os resultados da correção da sobremordida exagerada por meio da técnica do arco segmentado. MÉTODOS: na primeira etapa do tratamento, utilizou-se essa técnica para intrusão dos incisivos e caninos. Em seguida, foram confeccionados e instalados uma barra transpalatina superior e um arco lingual inferior, ambos com fio de 0,051" de espessura, sendo associados ao arco facial ancorado, primeiramente, em tração occipital e, após a correção da chave de oclusão, foi modificada para tração parietal. RESULTADOS: os incisivos superiores apresentaram grande quantidade de intrusão com discreta inclinação palatal das raízes, conforme determinado no plano de tratamento. A resposta mandibular foi favorável, possibilitando o alcance de perfil mais harmonioso. Nas radiografias periapicais, observou-se suave arredondamento apical nas raízes dos incisivos, compatível com movimento de intrusão. CONCLUSÃO: os resultados clínicos conferem sucesso na abordagem da correção da sobremordida exagerada.

  16. Orthodontic retreatment of a Class III patient with significant midline asymmetry and bilateral posterior crossbite

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    Ademir R. Brunetto

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Posterior crossbite might cause serious long-term functional problems if not early treated. Nevertheless, in older patients, treatment might include palatal expansion in order to correct such malocclusion. In view of the above, this article aims at reporting late correction of bilateral posterior crossbite associated with Angle Class III malocclusion, right subdivision, with consequent midline shift (good skeletal pattern. The case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO, with DI equal to or greater than 10, as a requirement for the title of certified by the BBO.

  17. Maxillary Canine Tooth Extraction for Class 2 Malocclusion in a Dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Molly

    2016-06-01

    Malocclusion in dogs is commonly diagnosed in puppies when the primary dentition is present. Interceptive orthodontic treatment may be elected to temporarily resolve painful contact points with the primary dentition. However, the adult dentition must be monitored closely and treated to achieve a lifelong, pain-free occlusion. This case report illustrates interceptive orthodontic treatment of deciduous and permanent dentition to treat a class 2 malocclusion in a dog. Extraction of the permanent maxillary canine tooth was elected to resolve abnormal contact from the mandibular canine in a single anesthetic episode. This treatment option allowed the patient to salvage the structure and function of the mandibular canine, avoid complications associated with mandibular canine extraction, and negate the need for lifelong follow-up of endodontic therapy.

  18. Treatment of Class II malocclusion with mandibular skeletal anchorage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, Ezgi; Malkoç, Siddik; Kirtay, Mustafa

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this case report was to present the dentofacial changes obtained with bone anchorage in a Class II patient with moderate to severe crowding. A boy, aged 14.5 years, with a dolichofacial type, convex profile, and skeletal and dental Class II relationships was examined. After evaluation, functional treatment with bone anchorage and 4 first premolar extractions was decided as the treatment approach. Miniplates were placed on the buccal shelves of the mandibular third molars. The hook of the anchor was revealed from the first molar level. After surgery, the 4 first premolars were extracted to retract the protrusive mandibular incisors. The maxillary and mandibular first molars were banded, and a lip bumper was inserted to apply elastics and to help distalize the maxillary first molars. Orthodontic forces of 300 to 500 g were applied immediately after placement, originating from the miniscrews to the hooks of the appliance to advance the mandible. After 20 months of treatment, the patient had a dental and skeletal Class I relationship, the mandible was advanced, the maxilla was restrained, and overjet was decreased. The combination of a bone anchor, Class II elastics, and an inner bow is a promising alternative to functional treatment, along with extractions, in Class II patients. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Dental and alveolar arch asymmetries in normal occlusion and Class II Division 1 and Class II subdivision malocclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Tancan; Kurt, Gokmen; Ramoglu, Sabri Ilhan

    2009-01-01

    To compare the degree of intra- and interarch dentoalveolar asymmetry among patients with a normal occlusion, Class II Division 1 malocclusion, and Class II subdivision malocclusion. The sample comprised dental casts of 150 (72 males [ages 22. 1 +/- 3.11 and 78 females [ages 21.1 +/- 2.1]) normal occlusion subjects, 106 (45 males [ages 17.8 +/- 1.8] and 61 females [ages 16.5 +/- 2.91) Class II Division 1 patients, and 40 (18 males [ages 15.8 +/- 2.8] and 22 females [ages 15.2 +/- 3.3]) Class II subdivision malocclusions. Maxillary and mandibular reference lines were constructed and used for the intraarch asymmetry measurements. Thirty-six width measurements were performed on the dental casts of each subject. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for comparisons of the groups, and Pearson's correlation coefficients were computed to determine the interarch associations. No statistically significant intra-arch asymmetry was found for maxillary and mandibular dental arch and alveolar width in any of the three groups. All variables were larger on the right side in the normal occlusion subjects. Further, the left side maxillary dental and alveolar arch width measurements were larger in the Class II Division 1 group. None of these differences, however, were statistically significant. In the Class II subdivision group, only the Class II sides' mandibular dental arch measurements were larger (P dental arch and alveolar width dimensions differed among the groups (P dental and alveolar landmarks were significantly correlated with the transverse dimensions. Although some landmarks in the current study showed statistically significant and insignificant differences, the mean arithmetic differences were small, inconsistent, and not likely clinically important.

  20. Treatment of Class II Malocclusion by Nonextraction Therapy using Microimplants and Pendex Appliance

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    Rajkumar S Alle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of Class II cases is always challenging. Treatment modalities involve growth modulation, expansion of the maxillary arch or extraction of premolars and retraction. The patient compliance is key factor in success of the treatment. In the present article a male patient with Class II malocclusion was treated using a Pendex appliance to simultaneously expand the upper arch and distalize the molars. The maxillary anteriors were retracted using microimplants. The results were satisfactory. This approach can be used in patients with mild skeletal discrepancy and with slight increase in the gingival display.

  1. A cephalometric evaluation of tongue from the rest position to centric occlusion in the subjects with class II division 1 malocclusion and class I normal occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sanjeev K; Tandon, Pradeep; Agrawal, D K; Prabhat, K C

    2012-04-01

    One of the common types of oro-dental morphopathologic relationship is the Class II Division 1 malocclusion. Therefore, the study of tongue position in Class II Division 1 may reveal a role of the tongue in the etiology or diagnosis of malocclusion. Present study was done with the aim to evaluate the tongue position radiographically in centric occlusion and rest position in the subjects with Angle's Class 1 normal occlusion and subjects with Angle's Class II Division 1 malocclusion and to find out any differences in tongue position between Angle's Class 1 normal occlusion and Angle's Class II Division 1 malocclusion group. The present study was conducted on lateral cephalogram of 40 subjects between the age ranges of 16 to 22 years. The samples were divided into the Angle's Class 1 normal occlusion group (Group I) and the Angle's Class II Division 1 malocclusion group (Group II) with the 20 in each groups. The study involved the evaluation of tongue position at rest position and centric occlusion on the lateral head cephalogram. This study for the evaluation of the tongue position from the rest position to the centric occlusion showed no statistically significant changes in both groups. However, there were greater changes in various parameters (From the rest position to the centric occlusion) in the subjects with Angle's Class II Division 1 malocclusion as compared to the subjects with the Angle's Class I normal occlusion group. FROM THE PRESENT STUDY FOLLOWING CONCLUSION CAN BE DRAWN: with the closure of mandible from the rest position to centric occlusion the tongue moved antero-superiorly in the tip region, superiorly in the dorsum region, and antero-superiorly in the posterior region in normal occlusion and postero-superiorly in Class II Division 1 malocclusion.

  2. Cervical vertebral column morphology related to craniofacial morphology and head posture in preorthodontic children with Class II malocclusion and horizontal maxillary overjet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arntsen, Torill; Sonnesen, Ane Liselotte

    2011-01-01

    In preorthodontic children with Class II malocclusion and horizontal maxillary overjet, cervical column morphology was examined and related to craniofacial morphology and head posture for the first time....

  3. Nonsurgical Treatment of a Class III Patient with Alt-RAMEC Protocol and Facemask Therapy

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    Saurabh Chaturvedi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Class III malocclusion has been the subject of interest in many investigations because of the challenges in its treatment. The skeletal manifestation can be due to mandibular anterior positioning (prognathism or growth excess (macrognathia, maxillary posterior positioning (retrognathism or growth deficiency (micrognathia, or a combination of mandibular and maxillary discrepancies. A 15-year-old Asian with a skeletal Class III malocclusion and a severe anterior crossbite was treated with Alt-RAMEC protocol designed to loosen the sutures that connect the maxilla to the surrounding bones via rapid expansion and contraction on an alternating weekly basis and facemask therapy. An Angle Class I molar relationship was achieved with canine protected occlusion and incisal guidance. A wrap-around retainer was placed on the maxillary arch and a lingual bonded retainer on the mandibular arch. Treatment time was 30 months.

  4. Relationship among malocclusion, number of occlusal pairs and mastication

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    Vanesa Rios-Vera

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the relationship among malocclusion, number of occlusal pairs, masticatory performance, masticatory time and masticatory ability in completely dentate subjects. Eighty healthy subjects (mean age = 19.40 ± 4.14 years were grouped according to malocclusion diagnosis (n = 16: Class I, Class Class II-2, Class III and Normocclusion (control. Number of occlusal pairs was determined clinically. Masticatory performance was evaluated by the sieving method, and the time used for the comminute test food was registered as the masticatory time. Masticatory ability was measured by a dichotomic self-perception questionnaire. Statistical analysis was done by one-way ANOVA, ANOVA on ranks, Chi-Square and Spearman tests. Class II-1 and III malocclusion groups presented a smaller number of occlusal pairs than Normocclusion (p < 0.0001, Class I (p < 0.001 and II-2 (p < 0.0001 malocclusion groups. Class I, and III malocclusion groups showed lower masticatory performance values compared to Normocclusion (p < 0.05 and Class II-2 (p < 0.05 malocclusion groups. There were no differences in masticatory time (p = 0.156 and ability (χ2 = 3.58/p= 0.465 among groups. Occlusal pairs were associated with malocclusion (rho = 0.444/p < 0.0001 and masticatory performance (rho = 0.393/p < 0.0001, but malocclusion was not correlated with masticatory performance (rho = 0.116/p= 0.306. In conclusion, masticatory performance and ability were not related to malocclusion, and subjects with Class I, II-1 and III malocclusions presented lower masticatory performance because of their smaller number of occlusal pairs.

  5. An Eectromyographic Ccomparison Between the Activities of Temporal and Masseter Muscles in Class III Skeletal

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    T Hossein-Zadeh-Nik

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Electromyographic (EMG investigations about the activities of the muscles have been the focus of attention for many years. In the field of orthodontics, investigators, among other things, tried to evaluate correlation between EMG activity, occlusal relationships and craniofacial morphology to analyze the effect of muscular activity, as an etiological factor in malocclusion. The purpose of the present investigation is to analyze the effect of EMG activity of temporal and masseter muscles quantitatively in skeletal class III malocclusion. 26 patients (9 to If years old, with class III malocclusion were selected and their EMG activity of temporal and masseter muscles in rest position, centric occlusion, clenching, mastication and swallowing were compared with 20 normal children at the same age range. Then the statistical correlation between 13 cephalometric parameters and EMG activities were analyzed and then the regression analysis was performed and the results were as follows:1- The mean amplitude of masseter and temporal muscles activity in rest position, centric occlusion, mastication, and clenching in class III samples were greater than normal group (PO.05.2- The mean duration of masseter and temporal muscles activity in rest position and centric occlusion in class III samples were more than normal group (PO.05.3- According to regression analysis, a linear correlation was observed between ANB angle and temporal muscle activity in rest and centric occlusion that was not observed in other cases.The findings of this study showed that difference in temporal muscle activity in class III malocclusion, in comparison with the normal group, is correlated with skeletal morphology of the face, but according to other investigations it is not ture for the masseter muscle.

  6. Treatment of Class II subdivision malocclusion with congenitally missing upper lateral incisors: A case report

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    Siddharth Mehta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontic treatment for patients with unilateral or bilateral congenitally missing lateral incisor poses a challenge mainly with regard to treatment planning. The use of a diagnostic setup is one of the most important aids in the decision-making process. Two alternatives, orthodontic space closure or space opening for prosthetic replacement exist. The present case report shows use of the microimplant for unilateral upper molar distalization and space closure in a Class-II division 1 subdivision malocclusion case with bilateral congenitally missing upper lateral incisors.

  7. Severe skeletal Class II Division 1 malocclusion in postpubertal girl treated using Forsus with miniplate anchorage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Harshal Ashok; Kerudi, Veerendra V; Rudagi, B M; Sharan, Jitendra S; Tekale, Pawankumar Dnyandeo

    2017-01-01

    This case report outlines the treatment of a 17-year-old female with Class II Division 1 malocclusion with mandibular retrusion, deep bite, and convex facial profile. The Forsus fatigue resistance device with miniplate was used for this patient and it was very affecting tool in correcting both skeletal and dental parameters. The total active treatment time was 19 months. This method can serve as an alternate choice of treatment, especially those who refuse orthognathic surgery. Hence, Forsus with miniplate might be useful in both growing and postpubertal patients.

  8. Treatment of a skeletal Class II malocclusion using fixed functional appliance with miniplate anchorage

    OpenAIRE

    Celikoglu, Mevlut; Unal, Tuba; Bayram, Mehmet; Candirli, Celal

    2014-01-01

    Based on our literature search, we found that the use of miniplate anchorage with Forsus fatigue-resistance device (FRD) has not yet been reported. Therefore, the aim of the present case report was to present the treatment of a patient with skeletal Class II malocclusion with mandibular retrusion using Forsus FRD with miniplate anchorage. Fixed appliances with 0.022-inch slots were attached to the maxillary teeth and after 8 months of the leveling and alignment of the upper arch, 0.019 × 0.02...

  9. Class II malocclusion treatment using high-pull headgear with a splint: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Helder B; Buschang, Peter H; dos Santos-Pinto, Ary

    2013-03-15

    To systematically review the scientific evidence regarding the effectiveness of high-pull headgear in growing Class II subjects. A literature survey was performed by electronic database search. The survey covered the period from January 1966 to December 2008 and used Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). Articles were initially selected based on their titles and abstracts; the full articles were then retrieved. The inclusion criteria included growing subjects with 8 to 15 years of age, Class II malocclusion treatment with high-pull headgear, and a control group with Class II malocclusion. References from selected articles were hand-searched for additional publications. Selected studies were evaluated methodologically. Four articles were selected; none were randomized controlled trials. All of the articles clearly formulated their objectives and used appropriate measures. The studies showed that high-pull headgear treatment improves skeletal and dental relationship, distal displacement of the maxilla, vertical eruption control and upper molars distalization. One of the studies showed a slight clockwise rotation of the palatal plane; the others showed no significant treatment effect. The mandible was not affected by the treatment. While there is still a lack of strong evidence demonstrating the effects of high-pull headgear with a splint, other studies indicate that the anteroposterior relations improve due to distalization of the maxilla and upper molars, with little or no treatment effects in the mandible. Greater attention to the design should be given to improve the quality of such trials.

  10. Class II malocclusion treatment using high-pull headgear with a splint: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder B. Jacob

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the scientific evidence pertaining to the effectiveness of high-pull headgear in growing Class II subjects. METHODS: A literature survey was performed by electronic database search. The survey covered the period from January 1966 to December 2008 and used Medical Subject Headings (MeSH. Articles were initially selected based on their titles and abstracts; the full articles were then retrieved. The inclusion criteria included growing subjects between 8 to 15 years of age, Class II malocclusion treatment with high-pull headgear, and a control group with Class II malocclusion. References from selected articles were hand-searched for additional publications. Selected studies were evaluated methodologically. RESULTS: Four articles were selected; none were randomized controlled trials. All of the articles clearly formulated their objectives and used appropriate measures. The studies showed that high-pull headgear treatment improves skeletal and dental relationship, distal displacement of the maxilla, vertical eruption control and upper molars distalization. One of the studies showed a slight clockwise rotation of the palatal plane; the others showed no significant treatment effect. The mandible was not affected by the treatment. CONCLUSION: While there is still a lack of strong evidence demonstrating the effects of high-pull headgear with a splint, other studies indicate that the AP relations improve due to distalization of the maxilla and upper molars, with little or no treatment effects in the mandible. Greater attention to the design should be given to improve the quality of such trials.

  11. Class II malocclusion treatment using Jasper Jumper appliance associated to intermaxillary elastics: a case report

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    Francyle Simões Herrera-Sanches

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Skeletal, dental and profile discrepancies can be amended by using functional orthodontic appliances. OBJECTIVE: This study is a report of the treatment of a patient, 11 years and 4 months old, with Class II, division 1, malocclusion, convex profile, protrusion of upper incisors, pronounced overjet and overbite, and mild crowding. METHODS: The patient was treated with a Jasper Jumper associated to fixed appliances for 6 months and Class II intermaxillary elastics (3/16in during the last 4 months. After debonding, a Hawley retainer was used during daytime and a modified Bionator for night use during one year. In the lower dental arch a bonded lingual retainer was used. This treatment combination improved the profile, as well as the overjet, overbite and molar relation. RESULTS: There was clockwise mandibular rotation and increase of lower anterior facial height. The lower incisors were protruded and extruded and the lower molars were extruded. The centric occlusal relation was checked and it was coincident to the maximum usual intercuspation. CONCLUSION: It was demonstrated that the Jasper Jumper is an efficient alternative to Class II malocclusion treatment, providing improvement in the facial profile, although the changes are more dentoalveolar than skeletal.

  12. Stability of molar relationship after non-extraction Class II malocclusion treatment

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    Darwin Vaz de Lima

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the stability of molar relationship after non-extraction treatment of Class II malocclusion. METHODS: The sample comprised 39 subjects (16 females, 23 males with initial Class II malocclusion treated with no extractions, using fixed appliances. Mean age at the beginning of treatment was 12.94 years, at the end of treatment was 15.14 years and at post-retention stage was 21.18 years. Mean treatment time was 2.19 years and mean time of post-treatment evaluation was 6.12 years. To verify the influence of the severity of initial Class II molar relationship in stability of molar relationship, the sample was divided into two groups, one presenting a ½-cusp or ¾-cusp Class II molar relationship, and the other with full-cusp Class II molar relationship. In dental casts from initial, final and postretention stages, molar, first and second premolars and canine relationships were measured. Data obtained were analyzed by dependent ANOVA, Tukey and Pearson's correlation tests, as well as independent t test between the two groups divided by severity of initial molar relationship. RESULTS: There was a non-statistically significant 0.12 mm relapse of molar relationship. The initial severity of Class II molar relationship was not correlated to relapse in the post-retention period. When compared, the two groups showed no difference in relapse of molar relationship. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that correction of Class II molar relationship is stable and initial severity does not influence relapse of molar relationship.

  13. Analysis of soft tissue thickness in persons with malocclusions of class II division 1 and class II division 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanić Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Different malocclusions indicate different thickness of facial soft tissue. Objective. The aim of the study was to establish the differences in the thickness of facial soft tissue profile in persons with dentoskeletal Class II/1 and II/2 relationship. Methods. In the study we used cephalometric rendgenograms profile analysis of 60 patients aged 12-18 years of the Dental Clinic in Niš who had not previously undergone orthodontical treatment. According to the dentoskeletal jaws relations the patients were divided into two groups with Class II division 1 and Class II class division 2. In all of them the standard dentoskeletal profile analysis by Steiner and soft tissue profile analysis by Burston was done. The obtained findings were statistically analyzed and the comparison between the studied groups was performed. Results. The results indicated the following: in the patients with Class II/1 relationship there was a significantly thinner upper lip (t=5.741; p<0.0001, thinner upper lip sulcus (t=3.858; p<0.001 and significantly thinner lower lip (t=2.009; p<0.05 in relation to the patients with Class II/2. Compensatory effect in the Class II/1 patients was more distinctive in females, as their soft tissue profiles were thicker. In Class II/2 patients this relationship was in favor of males. Conclusion. The facial soft tissue profile indicated significant differences in the thickness dependant on the type of malocclusion and gender. Because of their great variability and a significant participation in the formation of the profile, while planning orthodontic therapy, it is necessary to pay them full attention, with obligatory analysis of the dentoskeletal profile.

  14. Surgical Treatment of Class III Malocclusion: Monozygotic Twin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertaş, Ümit; Saruhan, Nesrin; Yalçin, Ertan

    2016-07-01

    Mandibular deformities present with infinite variation with different aesthetic and functional problems. Orthognathic surgery is required to achieve satisfactory results for functional and aesthetically in mandibular prognathism patient. Setback of the mandible to correct mandibular prognathism is a well-known procedure. The 2 most frequently used techniques are the intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy and the bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy (BSSRO). Bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy is an effective and commonly used method to correct mandibular prognathism. In this patient report, mandibular prognathism in female monozygotic twin patients was treated with BSSRO is presented.

  15. Morphometric Analysis of Mandibular Growth in Skeletal Class III Malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Zwei-Chieng Chang

    2006-01-01

    Conclusion: We conclude that thin-plate spline analysis and the finite element morphometric method are efficient for the localization and quantification of size and shape changes that occur during mandibular growth. Plots of maximum and minimum principal directions can provide useful information about the trends of growth changes.

  16. Relationships among nasal resistance, adenoids, tonsils, and tongue posture and maxillofacial form in Class II and Class III children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Tomonori; Sato, Hideo; Suga, Hokuto; Takemoto, Yoshihiko; Inada, Emi; Saitoh, Issei; Kakuno, Eriko; Kanomi, Ryuzo; Yamasaki, Youichi

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationships between upper airway factors (nasal resistance, adenoids, tonsils, and tongue posture) and maxillofacial forms in Class II and III children. Sixty-four subjects (mean age, 9.3 years) with malocclusion were divided into Class II and Class III groups by ANB angles. Nasal resistance was calculated using computational fluid dynamics from cone-beam computed tomography data. Adenoids, tonsils, and tongue posture were evaluated in the cone-beam computed tomography images. The groups were compared using Mann-Whitney U tests and Student t tests. The Spearman rank correlations test assessed the relationships between the upper airway factors and maxillofacial form. Nasal resistance of the Class II group was significantly larger than that of the Class III group (P = 0.005). Nasal resistance of the Class II group was significantly correlated with inferior tongue posture (P Class III group was significantly correlated with anterior tongue posture (P Class III group was significantly correlated with mandibular protrusion. The relationships of upper airway factors differ between Class II and Class III children. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The use of Twin Force functional fixed orthopedic appliance in the treatment of Class II division 1 malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Marcos Shinao; Rosário, Henrique Damian; El-Haje, Ossam; Alvim-Pereira, Fabiano; Paranhos, Luiz Renato

    2014-01-01

    Fixed protruding appliances are interesting tools for correction of Class II dental malocclusion in adult and growing patients. The appliances most commonly used for this purpose are: Herbst, Forsus and Jasper Jumper. The present clinical case report shows an alternative called Twin Force Bite Corrector which was used for 3 months by a patient aged 10 years and 6 months associated with the Andrews prescription fixed appliance (Abzil 3M). After treatment, malocclusion was found to be adjusted to Class I dental occlusion in a single stage.

  18. Evaluation of dentoskeletal effects of Farmand functional appliance (Fa II on class II malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassaei S.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Functional appliances refer to a variety of removable or fixed appliances designed to alter the mandibular position both sagitally and vertically, resulting in orthodontic and orthopedic changes. Despite the long history of functional appliances, there is still much controversy related to their effectiveness and mode of action. The aim of this study was to evaluate dental and skeletal effects of Fa II in patients with class II malocclusion due to mandibular deficiency.Materials and Methods: In this before-after clinical trial, 35 patients with class II div I malocclusion were selected. These samples were under treatment with Fa II appliance for 11 months. The range of age of females was 10-13 years and males 11-14 years. Combination analysis was used to determine skeletal and dental effects. Paired t-test was used to compare the differences of mean value pre and post treatment. P<0.05 was considered as the level of significance. Results: There was significant difference between pre and post treatment in respect to posterior and anterior facial height, eruption of upper and lower posterior teeth, eruption of upper anterior teeth, mandibular body length, ANB angle, IMPA and 1 to SN. No significant difference was observed between pre and post treatment regarding facial growth.Conclusion: Treatment with Fa II functional appliance leads to significant alterations in dental and skeletal elements of craniofacial complex and improvement of dental and jaws relationship.

  19. Class II malocclusion treatment with the Herbst appliance in patients after the growth peak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos de Castro Alvares

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate dentoskeletal effects in the treatment of Class II malocclusion performed with the Herbst appliance in patients at post-peak stage of growth. METHODS: The sample consisted of 16 patients with Class II malocclusion and average initial and final ages of 14.04 (ranging from 11.50 to 35.66 and 17.14 (ranging from 13.68 to 38.64 years, respectively, who were treated for an mean time of 2.52 years. Lateral cephalograms were obtained at treatment onset (T1 and completion (T2 to evaluate the effects of therapy. Initial dental casts were also used to evaluate the overjet and the anteroposterior severity of molar relationship at treatment onset. The cephalometric changes between initial and final stages were compared by means of the non-parametric Wilcoxon test. RESULTS: The results showed that the Herbst appliance did not promote significant changes in the maxillary component and the effective length of the mandible significantly increased without improving the maxillomandibular relationship. Changes in the maxillary and mandibular dentoalveolar components revealed that the maxillary incisors exhibited retrusion and lingual tipping, while the mandibular incisors presented increased protrusion and buccal tipping. The dental relationships exhibited significant improvements with the treatment. CONCLUSION: Based on the present results, it was concluded that the effects of treatment performed with the Herbst appliance in patients at post-peak stage of growth are predominantly of dentoalveolar nature.

  20. Clinical effects of fixed functional Herbst appliance in the treatment of class II/1 malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedeljković Nenad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sagittal mandible deficiency is the most common cause of skeletal Class II malocclusion. Treatment objective is to stimulate sagittal mandible growth. Fixed functional Herbst appliance use is beneficial for shortening the time required for treatment and does not depend on patient compliance. Case outline. A 13-year-old girl was referred to the Clinic of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry in Belgrade following previous unsuccessful treatment of her skeletal Class II malocclusion using an activator. The patient's poor cooperation had led to failure of the treatment. Patient was subjected to the Herbst treatment for 6 months followed by fixed appliance for another 8 months. Lateral cephalograms before and after the treatment was performed. The remodelation of condylar and fossal articulation was assessed by superimposition of pre- and post-treatment temporomandibular joint tomograms. The promotion of oral hygiene and fluoride use was performed because orthodontic treatment carries a high caries risk and risk for periodontal disease. Skeletal and dental changes were observed after treatment (correction [Max+Mand]: molar relation 7 mm, overjet 8 mm, skeletal relation 5 mm, molars 2 mm, incisors 3 mm. Combination of Herbst and fixed appliances was effective in the treatment of dental and skeletal irregularities for a short period of time. Conclusion . In the retention period, 14 months after treatment, occlusal stability exists. Follow-up care in oral prevention is based on regular recalls at the dental office and supervision at home by the parents.

  1. Treatment of a skeletal Class II malocclusion using fixed functional appliance with miniplate anchorage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celikoglu, Mevlut; Unal, Tuba; Bayram, Mehmet; Candirli, Celal

    2014-01-01

    Based on our literature search, we found that the use of miniplate anchorage with Forsus fatigue-resistance device (FRD) has not yet been reported. Therefore, the aim of the present case report was to present the treatment of a patient with skeletal Class II malocclusion with mandibular retrusion using Forsus FRD with miniplate anchorage. Fixed appliances with 0.022-inch slots were attached to the maxillary teeth and after 8 months of the leveling and alignment of the upper arch, 0.019 × 0.025-inch stainless steel archwire was inserted and cinched back. Two weeks after the placement of the miniplates bilaterally at the symphysis of the mandible, Forsus FRD was adjusted to the miniplates with a 35-mm length of rod chosen. Nine months after the skeletal anchored Forsus worn, Class I canine and molar relations were achieved and overjet was eliminated. PMID:24966783

  2. Treatment of a skeletal Class II malocclusion using fixed functional appliance with miniplate anchorage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celikoglu, Mevlut; Unal, Tuba; Bayram, Mehmet; Candirli, Celal

    2014-04-01

    Based on our literature search, we found that the use of miniplate anchorage with Forsus fatigue-resistance device (FRD) has not yet been reported. Therefore, the aim of the present case report was to present the treatment of a patient with skeletal Class II malocclusion with mandibular retrusion using Forsus FRD with miniplate anchorage. Fixed appliances with 0.022-inch slots were attached to the maxillary teeth and after 8 months of the leveling and alignment of the upper arch, 0.019 × 0.025-inch stainless steel archwire was inserted and cinched back. Two weeks after the placement of the miniplates bilaterally at the symphysis of the mandible, Forsus FRD was adjusted to the miniplates with a 35-mm length of rod chosen. Nine months after the skeletal anchored Forsus worn, Class I canine and molar relations were achieved and overjet was eliminated.

  3. Tratamento compensatorio da má oclusnao de classe lll: revisão de literatura

    OpenAIRE

    Dílio, Rogério Cássio [UNESP; Micheletti, Kelly Regina [UNESP; Cuoghi, Osmar Aparecido [UNESP; Bertoz, André Pinheiro de Magalhães [UNESP

    2014-01-01

    Class III malocclusion is less common occlusal relationship, covering less than 5% of the population. There are various forms of treatment in Class III malocclusion. Depending on how the form is expressed Class III and age of the patient, the therapy may be orthopedic and orthodontic surgical orthodontics. The objective was to review the literature of the last 10 years about ways to compensatory treatment of Class III malocclusion. Several articles were published between 04/2003 and 04/2013 i...

  4. Twenty -year post-treatment assessment of class II division 1 malocclusion treated with non-extraction approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Karad

    2013-01-01

    This article describes twenty-year post-treatment assessment of a class II division 1 malocclusion case, treated in the late mixed dentition stage, with the non-extraction treatment approach - molar-inserted headgear along with a fixed appliance therapy.

  5. Extraction of maxillary first molars improves second and third molar inclinations in Class II Division 1 malocclusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livas, C.; Halazonetis, D.J.; Booij, J.W.; Katsaros, C.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to assess the changes in inclination of the maxillary second (M2) and third (M3) molars after orthodontic treatment of Class II Division 1 malocclusion with extraction of maxillary first molars. METHODS: Two groups of subjects were studied. The experimental

  6. [Correction of a mandibular alveolar protrusion using maxillary miniscrew anchorage in the treatment of a Class II division 1 malocclusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiim, Frederic

    2011-12-01

    This article describes a relatively simple method of reducing a mandibular alveolar protrusion without compensatory extraction of mandibular bicuspids or advancement of anterior teeth in the treatment of a Class II division 1 malocclusion. The use of well-planned skeletal anchorage specifically adapted to each specific situation is also well elucidated.

  7. The Impact of Extraction vs Nonextraction Treatment on Soft Tissue Profile in Borderline Class I Malocclusion: A Cephalometric Study

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    Sneh Lata Verma

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Extraction treatment of Class I borderline malocclusions led to significant soft tissue changes in relation to the upper and lower lip position and thickness as well as the nasiolabial angle, whereas the nonextraction treatment resulted in significant upper lip retraction and lower lip protraction.

  8. Comparison of Complications in Removable Mandibular Acrylic Splint and Cantilever Herbst for Management of Class II Malocclusion: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanuru, R K; Bhasin, Vinny; Khatri, Amit; Dodda, K K; Singh, Era; Grover, Shekhar

    2017-05-01

    Numerous appliances are present for the management of class II malocclusion. We have conducted a study to compare the clinical complications during treatment with either a removable mandibular acrylic splint (RMS) or with a cantilever Herbst (HC) appliance for the management of class II malocclusion. This study consisted of records of 114 patients (61 males, 53 females), who were divided into two groups. Group I received RMS and group II received HC for the treatment of class II, Division 1 malocclusion. They were further subdivided according to the telescopic system used [Dentaurum type I or propulsor mandibular abzil (PMA)] and fixation mode (splint with crowns or GripTite bands). Patients' clinical records were assessed to identify clinical complications. The results of the study showed that the incidence of complications during treatment in both groups was statistically nonsignificant. The complications with either crown or band were also statistically nonsignificant. The Dentaurum group showed more susceptibility to complications than the PMA group. The PMA telescopic system is more efficient as compared with Dentaurum. Complication resulting from Herbst appliance is independent type of appliance used and mode of fixation. Herbst appliance is the treatment of choice for class II malocclusion.

  9. Assessment of Lingual Frenulum Lengths in Skeletal Malocclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meenakshi, Swarna; Jagannathan, Nithya

    2014-01-01

    Background: The orofacial musculature plays a pivotal role in maintaining a balance in positioning of the teeth and any imbalance which occurs in this , results in malocclusion. Lingual frenum is a soft tissue structure which tethers the ventral surface of the tongue to the floor of the mouth. Objective: This study was performed to analyze the lingual frenal lengths in skeletal class I, class II and Class III malocclusion and to correlate relationship between both. Materials and Methods: This study comprised of 30 subjects, with 10 in each group and an impression was made with the maximum mouth opening position and the tip of tongue touching the incisive papilla. The length of the lingual frenum was then measured from the casts. The maximum mouth opening position was also determined by measuring the interincisal distance with the maximum mouth opening position. Statistical analysis was done to analyze the relationship between both. Results: The lingual frenum was found to be longest in class III malocclusion, with a statistical significant value of p<0.01. The class II and class I malocclusion did not show much difference. The maximum mouth opening position was also increased in class III malocclusion, followed by class II and class I malocclusion, in a descending order. Conclusion: The lingual frenum exerts erratic forces and a long lingual frenum pushes the mandibular anteriors forwards, resulting in malocclusion. Hence, a relationship between the lingual frenum and malocclusion is essential, so that the erratic forces can be eliminated and excellent results can be achieved, following the correction of malocclusion. PMID:24783137

  10. Treatment outcome for a sample of patients with Class II division 1 malocclusion treated at a regional hospital orthodontic department.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burden, D J

    1998-01-01

    This retrospective study assessed the outcome of orthodontic treatment of 264 patients with Class II division 1 malocclusion (overjet greater than 6 mm). The sample comprised patients who had completed their fixed appliance orthodontic treatment at a regional hospital orthodontic unit in the Republic of Ireland. The PAR Index (Peer Assessment Rating) was used to evaluate treatment outcome using before and after treatment study casts. The results revealed that treatment for this particular type of malocclusion was highly effective with a very few patients failing to benefit from their orthodontic treatment.

  11. Prevalence of Malocclusion among School children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tope

    Angle's class II div 2 and 1.8% Angle's class III malocclusion. Increased overjet and overbite was observed in 24.7% and 9.8% respectively. Anterior open bite was present in 4.1% while crossbite was found anteriorly and posteriorly in 7% and 4.5% respectively. Crowding in the upper (11.1%) and lower anterior segment ...

  12. Class II malocclusion with accentuated occlusal plane inclination corrected with miniplate: a case report

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    Marcel Marchiori Farret

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: A canted occlusal plane presents an unesthetic element of the smile. The correction of this asymmetry has been typically considered difficult by orthodontists, as it requires complex mechanics and may sometimes even require orthognathic surgery. Objective: This paper outlines the case of a 29-year-old woman with Class II malocclusion, pronounced midline deviation and accentuated occlusal plane inclination caused by mandibular deciduous molar ankylosis. Methods: The patient was treated with a miniplate used to provide anchorage in order to intrude maxillary teeth and extrude mandibular teeth on one side, thus eliminating asymmetry. Class II was corrected on the left side by means of distalization, anchored in the miniplate as well. On the right side, maxillary first premolar was extracted and molar relationship was kept in Class II, while canines were moved to Class I relationship. The patient received implant-prosthetic rehabilitation for maxillary left lateral incisor and mandibular left second premolar. Results: At the end of treatment, Class II was corrected, midlines were matched and the canted occlusal plane was totally corrected, thereby improving smile function and esthetics.

  13. Class II malocclusion with accentuated occlusal plane inclination corrected with miniplate: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farret, Marcel Marchiori; Farret, Milton M. Benitez

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: A canted occlusal plane presents an unesthetic element of the smile. The correction of this asymmetry has been typically considered difficult by orthodontists, as it requires complex mechanics and may sometimes even require orthognathic surgery. Objective: This paper outlines the case of a 29-year-old woman with Class II malocclusion, pronounced midline deviation and accentuated occlusal plane inclination caused by mandibular deciduous molar ankylosis. Methods: The patient was treated with a miniplate used to provide anchorage in order to intrude maxillary teeth and extrude mandibular teeth on one side, thus eliminating asymmetry. Class II was corrected on the left side by means of distalization, anchored in the miniplate as well. On the right side, maxillary first premolar was extracted and molar relationship was kept in Class II, while canines were moved to Class I relationship. The patient received implant-prosthetic rehabilitation for maxillary left lateral incisor and mandibular left second premolar. Results: At the end of treatment, Class II was corrected, midlines were matched and the canted occlusal plane was totally corrected, thereby improving smile function and esthetics. PMID:27409658

  14. A modified orthodontic protocol for advanced periodontal disease in Class II division 1 malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, Marcos; Janson, Guilherme; Murillo-Goizueta, Oscar Edwin Francisco

    2011-04-01

    An interdisciplinary approach is often the best option for achieving a predictable outcome for an adult patient with complex clinical problems. This case report demonstrates the combined periodontal/orthodontic treatment for a 49-year-old woman presenting with a Class II Division 1 malocclusion with moderate maxillary anterior crowding, a 9-mm overjet, and moderate to severe bone loss as the main characteristics of the periodontal disease. The orthodontic treatment included 2 maxillary first premolar extractions through forced extrusion. Active orthodontic treatment was completed in 30 months. The treatment outcomes, including the periodontal condition, were stable 17 months after active orthodontic treatment. The advantages of this interdisciplinary approach are discussed. Periodontally compromised orthodontic patients can be satisfactorily treated, achieving most of the conventional orthodontic goals, if a combined orthodontic/periodontic approach is used. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cephalometric assessment of vertical control in the treatment of class II malocclusion with a combined maxillary splint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Uglik Garbui

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Vertical control is one of the primary objectives sought by orthodontists when treating malocclusions in hyperdivergent individuals. This investigation aimed at assessing vertical control, by cephalometric measurements, during the treatment of Angle Class II Division 1 malocclusion. Thirty cases, selected from the files of the São Leopoldo Mandic Dental Research Center, Brazil, of subjects with Angle Class II Division 1 malocclusion and facial hyperdivergence, were used in this study. The patients were treated using a combined extraoral appliance during a mean treatment time of 1.1 years. Pre- and posttreatment cephalometric measurements were compared to assess vertical control. The results were submitted to ANOVA (p = 5%. The ANOVA test revealed no statistically significant difference between the pretreatment and posttreatment values of OP (Occlusal plane angle and SN.MP. While there was a decrease in Y-axis, FMA, and PP.MP, there was an increase in SN.PP, Co-Go, AFH, PFH, and FHI. It was concluded that the divergence in the facial lower third of the patients did not increase, suggesting that the combined extraoral appliance with the line of force application directed to the resistance center of the maxilla was effective in treating Angle Class II malocclusion in hyperdivergent subjects.

  16. Cephalometric effects of the Jones Jig appliance followed by fixed appliances in Class II malocclusion treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara Paim Patel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to cephalometrically assess the skeletal and dentoalveolar effects of Class II malocclusion treatment performed with the Jones Jig appliance followed by fixed appliances. METHODS: The sample comprised 25 patients with Class II malocclusion treated with the Jones Jig appliance followed by fixed appliances, at a mean initial age of 12.90 years old. The mean time of the entire orthodontic treatment was 3.89 years. The distalization phase lasted for 0.85 years, after which the fixed appliance was used for 3.04 years. Cephalograms were used at initial (T1, post-distalization (T2 and final phases of treatment (T3. For intragroup comparison of the three phases evaluated, dependent ANOVA and Tukey tests were used. RESULTS: Jones Jig appliance did not interfere in the maxillary and mandibular component and did not change maxillomandibular relationship. Jones Jig appliance promoted distalization of first molars with anchorage loss, mesialization and significant extrusion of first and second premolars, as well as a significant increase in anterior face height at the end of treatment. The majority of adverse effects that occur during intraoral distalization are subsequently corrected during corrective mechanics. Buccal inclination and protrusion of mandibular incisors were identified. By the end of treatment, correction of overjet and overbite was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Jones Jig appliance promoted distalization of first molars with anchorage loss represented by significant mesial movement and extrusion of first and second premolars, in addition to a significant increase in anterior face height.

  17. Assessment of malocclusion in pre-school children in Benin City using the incisor classification of malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ize-Iyamu, I N; Umweni, A A

    2006-09-01

    This study was aimed at analysing the incisors as a means of classifying malocclusion in pre-school children Incisal classification is not common but is a simple and reliable means of assessing malocclusion, especially in pre-school children. The classification is mainly used to describe the incisal relationship of cases in verbal and written communication between clinicians. Angle's classification holds when the first permanent molars are in place, but in the pre-school child, between the ages of 2-4 years, the first permanent molars may not have erupted. The methods of classifying malocclusion in pre-school children carried out by Foster and Hamilton (1969) and Baume (1950) took into consideration other parameters without the use of the incisors as a means of classifying malocclusion. The incisor classification would then be a more reliable means of analyzing the malocclusion and evaluating the need for early management. A sample of 505 pre-school children between the ages of 2-4 years of age were randomly selected from day care centres and pre-schools in three local government areas of Benin City, Edo State. The incisors were examined and classified using the British Standard Classification of Malocclusion. The results showed that the incisal Class I malocclusion was seen in 90.6% Class II in 2.4% (class II div 1 in 1.8% and class II div 2 in 0.6%) and the incisal class III in 7% of the total sample studied. The 4-year-old age group exhibited a higher frequency of malocclusion in the Class I, Class II div 1 and Class III groups, and showed no significant decrease with age (P > 0.05). Girls showed a higher frequency for a tendency to malocclusion than boys. Our findings show that the most common type of malocclusion seen in pre-school children is the incisal class I, followed by the incisal class III with the class II having the smallest number. The assessment of malocclusion using the incisal classification was fast and easy to use, and was able to detect those

  18. Current trends in headgear use for the treatment of Class II malocclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tüfekçi, Eser; Allen, Samuel B; Best, Al M; Lindauer, Steven J

    2016-07-01

    To investigate American and Canadian orthodontists' opinions and perceptions on the use of headgear in the treatment of Class II malocclusions. An online survey was sent to randomly chosen orthodontists (n  =  1000). The study was completed by 948 orthodontists; 62% of the orthodontists indicated that they were using headgear in their practice. Those who were not using the appliance (38%) reported that this was mainly due to the availability of better Class II correctors in the market and lack of patient compliance. Of those who use headgear, 24% indicated that the emphasis on headgear use during their residency was an influential aspect of their decision making (P headgear reported that learning about other Class II correctors through continuing education courses was an important factor (P headgear users and nonusers in the year and location of practice. Compared with previous studies, this study showed a decline in the use of headgear among orthodontists. Despite a decline, more than half of the orthodontists (62%) believe headgear is a viable treatment. Availability of Class II correctors in the market and familiarity with these appliances though continuing education courses are the reasons for the remaining 38% of orthodontists to abandon use of the headgear.

  19. Cephalometric evaluation of Class II malocclusion treatment with cervical headgear and mandibular fixed appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, M R; Lima, D V; Freitas, K M S; Janson, G; Henriques, J F C

    2008-10-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the cephalometric changes in Class II patients treated exclusively with cervical headgear (CHG) in the maxillary arch and fixed appliances in the mandibular arch as compared with a control group. The sample comprised 82 lateral cephalograms obtained pre- (T1) and post- (T2) treatment/observation of 41 subjects, divided into two groups: group 1-25 Class II division 1 patients (20 females and five males), with a mean pre-treatment age of 10.4 years, treated for a mean period of 2.5 years and group 2-16 Class II untreated subjects (12 females and four males), with a mean initial age of 9.9 years, followed for a mean period of 2.2 years. Treatment changes between the groups were compared by means of t-tests. The results showed restriction of maxillary forward displacement and also a restriction in maxillary length growth, improvement in the maxillomandibular relationship, restriction of mandibular incisor vertical development, reduction in overjet and overbite, and improvement in molar relationship. It was concluded that this treatment protocol corrected the Class II malocclusion characteristics primarily through maxillary forward growth restriction.

  20. Computed tomography evaluation of the temporomandibular joint in Class I malocclusion patients: condylar symmetry and condyle-fossa relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Andréia Fialho; Fraga, Marcelo Reis; Vitral, Robert Willer Farinazzo

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the condyle-fossa relationship, the concentric position of the condyles, and the dimensional and positional symmetries between the right and left condyles in subjects with Class I malocclusion. Thirty subjects from 13 to 30 years of age with Class I malocclusion had computed tomography imaging of the temporomandibular joints. The images obtained from axial slices were evaluated for possible asymmetries in size and position between the condylar processes associated with this malocclusion. The images obtained from sagittal slices were used to assess the depth of the mandibular fossa, the condyle-fossa relationship, and the concentric position of the condyles of this malocclusion. Paired Student t tests were applied, and Pearson product moment correlations were determined after measurements on both sides were obtained. We found no statistically significant asymmetries between the condylar processes in this sample. No statistically significant asymmetries were found in the mandibular fossa depth, the anterior joint space, and the superior joint space. The posterior joint space showed statistically significant asymmetry (P temporomandibular joint. Evaluation of the concentric position of the condyles in their mandibular fossae showed nonconcentric positioning for the 2 sides.

  1. Tratamento ortopédico da Classe III em padrões faciais distintos Orthopedical treatment of Class III in different facial patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Vanessa Pedron Oltramari

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A má oclusão de Classe III, de origem essencialmente esquelética, produz uma acentuada deformidade facial. A Classe III pode ser interceptada durante a fase de crescimento e desenvolvimento craniofacial mediante o uso de aparelhos ortopédicos. O crescimento mandibular, predominantemente endocondral na cartilagem condilar, obedece essencialmente ao controle genético. Portanto, os efeitos dos aparelhos ortopédicos que visam restringir o crescimento da mandíbula mostram-se limitados, o que conduz ao pobre prognóstico de tratamento precoce da Classe III determinada pelo prognatismo mandibular. Felizmente, o componente esquelético maxilar responde melhor à aplicação de forças ortopédicas, já que o crescimento ósseo intramembranoso mostra-se mais susceptível a influências extrínsecas ou ambientais. Deste modo, a Classe III morfologicamente definida pelo retrognatismo maxilar, privilegia-se com o tratamento ortopédico. Este trabalho discute o tratamento interceptivo da Classe III por meio da tração reversa da maxila em pacientes com padrões faciais distintos, apresentando dois casos clínicos, e ainda ressalta os aspectos atinentes a sua estabilidade.The Class III malocclusion, essentially of skeletal origin, produces an accentuated facial deformity. These malocclusion can be intercepted during the growth phase and craniofacial development by the use of orthopedical appliances. The mandibular growth, predominantly endocondral at the condilar cartilage, follows a genetic control essentially. Therefore, the effect of orthopedical appliances that aim restriction in the jaw's growth are shown limited, what leads to a poor prognostic of precocious treatment of the Class III determined by a mandibular prognathism. Fortunately, the skeletal maxillary component answers better to the application of orthopedical forces, since the growth of intramembranous bone is shown more susceptible to extrinsic influences. This way, the Class III

  2. Effects of skeletally anchored Class II elastics: A pilot study and new approach for treating Class II malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbilek, Selin; Gungor, Ahmet Yalcin; Celik, Salih

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the skeletal, dentoalveolar, and soft tissue effects of skeletally anchored Class II elastics and compare them with a matched control group treated by a monobloc appliance for the correction of skeletal Class II malocclusion due to mandibular retrusion. Twelve patients (6 girls, 6 boys) were randomly divided into two groups. In the elastics group, six patients (12.9 ± 1.5 years of age; 3 boys, 3 girls) were treated with skeletally anchored Class II elastics. Two miniplates were placed bilaterally at the ramus of the mandible and the other two miniplates were placed at the aperture piriformis area of the maxilla. In the monobloc group (3 boys and 3 girls; mean age, 12.3 ± 1.6 years), patients used the monobloc appliance. The changes observed in each phase of treatment were evaluated using the Wilcoxon matched-pair sign test. Intergroup comparisons at the initial phase of treatment were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney U test. There were statistically significant group differences in Co-Gn, B-VRL, U1-PP, U1-VRL, Ls-VRL, with significant increases in these parameters in the elastics group (P mandibular incisors were protruded in the monobloc group (5.45 ± 1.23°), whereas they were retruded in the elastics group (-3.01 ± 1.66°; P anchorage. Favorable skeletal outcomes can be achieved by skeletal anchorage therapies which could be an alternative to treat skeletal Class II patients with mandibular deficiency.

  3. Treatment timing of MARA and fixed appliance therapy of Class II malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghislanzoni, Luis Tomas Huanca; Baccetti, Tiziano; Toll, Douglas; Defraia, Efisio; McNamara, James A; Franchi, Lorenzo

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of timing on Mandibular Anterior Repositioning Appliance (MARA) and fixed appliance treatment of Class II malocclusion in a prospective clinical trial. The treated sample consisted of 51 consecutively treated patients at prepubertal (n = 21), pubertal (n = 15), and postpubertal (n = 15) stages of development. Control groups for the three treated groups were generated from growth data of untreated Class II subjects. Lateral cephalograms were digitized and superimposed via cephalometric software at T1 (pre-treatment) and T2 (after comprehensive treatment). The T1-T2 changes in the treated groups were compared to those in their corresponding control groups with Mann-Whitney tests with Bonferroni correction. Mandibular elongation was greater at the pubertal stage (Co-Gn +2.6 mm, with respect to controls). Headgear effect on the maxilla was greater in the pre-peak sample (Co-A -1.9 mm, with respect to controls). Dentoalveolar compensations (proclination of lower incisors, extrusion and mesialization of lower molars, and reduction in the overbite) were significant in the pre-peak and post-peak groups. Optimal timing for Class II treatment with MARA appliance is at the pubertal growth spurt, with enhanced mandibular skeletal changes and minimal dentoalveolar compensations.

  4. The distribution of cervical vertebrae anomalies among dental malocclusions

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    Hasan Kamak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aims of our study were to investigate the distribution of cervical vertebrae anomalies (CVAs among dental Angle Class I, II, and III malocclusions in Turkish population and whether a correlation between CVA and dental malocclusion. Materials and Methods: The study was performed on lateral cephalometric radiographs which were taken at the Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Kirikkale University. The final sample of 318 orthodontic patients was included in the study. Dental malocclusions were performed according to Angle classification. CVAs were categorized: (1 fusion and (2 posterior arch deficiency (PAD. The Chi-square test was used to the analysis of the potential differences among dental malocclusions. Results: The final sample of 318 patients was examined. CVA was observed in 42 individuals (of 26 [8.17%] had fusion and 16 [5.03%] had PAD, with a frequency of 13.2%. Of the 26 fusion defect, 8 (30.7% had Angle Class I, 8 (30.7% had Angle Class II, and 10 (38.4% had Angle Class III malocclusion. Of the 16 PAD, 8 (50% had Angle Class I, 8 (50% had Angle Class II but no patients with Angle Class III malocclusion was observed. The distribution of dental malocclusions regarding CVA was not statistically significant (P = 0.076. Of these 42 individuals with CVA, 52.3% (15 fusions and 7 PAD were females and 47.7% (11 fusions and 9 PAD were males. Conclusion: In our study, the prevalence of fusion and PAD were found 8.1% and 5.0% in Turkish population, respectively. Besides, no statistically significant correlation between CVA and Angle Class I, II, and III malocclusions were found. Our findings support the studies showing no gender dimorphism.

  5. Maxillary sinus floor extension and posterior tooth inclination in adolescent patients with Class II Division 1 malocclusion treated with maxillary first molar extractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livas, Christos; Halazonetis, Demetrios J.; Booij, Johan Willem; Pandis, Nikolaos; Tu, Yu-Kang; Katsaros, Christos

    Introduction: Our objective was to investigate potential associations between maxillary sinus floor extension and inclination of maxillary second premolars and second molars in patients with Class II Division 1 malocclusion whose orthodontic treatment included maxillary first molar extractions.

  6. Evaluation of the effects of skeletal anchoraged Forsus FRD using miniplates inserted on mandibular symphysis: A new approach for the treatment of Class II malocclusion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Unal, Tuba; Celikoglu, Mevlut; Candirli, Celal

    2015-01-01

    ...) appliance with miniplate anchorage for the treatment of skeletal Class II malocclusion. The prospective clinical study group included 17 patients (11 girls and 6 boys; mean age 12.96 ± 1.23 years...

  7. Maxillary sinus floor extension and posterior tooth inclination in adolescent patients with Class II Division 1 malocclusion treated with maxillary first molar extractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livas, C.; Halazonetis, D.J.; Booij, J.W.; Pandis, N.; Tu, Y.K.; Katsaros, C.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Our objective was to investigate potential associations between maxillary sinus floor extension and inclination of maxillary second premolars and second molars in patients with Class II Division 1 malocclusion whose orthodontic treatment included maxillary first molar extractions.

  8. [Preliminary investigation about incisor inclination and dental compensation of normal occlusion and angle's class II division 1 malocclusion with different growth patterns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Li; Wu, Hao; Li, Ji

    2010-10-01

    To investigate characteristics of incisors inclination and dental compensation in normal occlusion and Angle's Class II division 1 malocclusion with different growth patterns. 158 cephalometric films of normal occlusion and 246 cephalometric films of Angle's Class II division 1 malocclusion were selected and the data of relevant variables were compiled to analyze the inclination of incisors. The upper and lower incisors were lingually inclined in normal occlusion with vertical growth pattern while labially inclined in horizontal growth pattern. Compared with the average value of normal occlusion with different growth patterns, the upper incisors of Class II division 1 malocclusion were relatively labially inclined in different growth patterns and the lower incisors were labially inclined in vertical and average growth patterns, while there were no obvious changes in horizontal growth pattern. When treating patients with Angle's Class II division 1 malocclusion, we should choose a specific method according to patients' growth patterns and characteristics of dental compensation.

  9. Stability of skeletal changes induced by growth modulation procedures in the treatment of skeletal Class II malocclusion

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    Prashantha Govinakovi Shivamurthy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Objective of this study, based on an evaluation of lateral cephalograms, was to evaluate the degree of skeletal changes produced by the various growth modulative procedures in the treatment of skeletal Class II malocclusion and to characterize the stability of these changes in the years after treatment. Materials and Methods: Total of 40 patients with Class II malocclusion was divided into three groups according to appliance used, i.e. removable or fixed functional appliances (n = 10, combination of functional appliance with headgear (n = 10, and only headgear (n = 10. In addition, almost a matched control group (n = 10 also characterized by skeletal Class II pattern and were under observation, for more than 2 years was also selected. Lateral cephalograms of each patient were taken at the start of treatment (T1, at its completion (T2, and long-term posttreatment (T3. Results: This study showed significant improvement in maxillomandibular relationship in treated group compared to control group, and the changes remained stable in posttreatment phase. Restriction of maxillary growth was evident in headgear and combination groups whereas significant forward movement of the mandible was seen in functional group. Conclusion: Analysis of lateral cephalograms indicates that growth modulation therapy in angle Class II malocclusion brings about desired skeletal changes which remain relatively stable over a long-term period.

  10. Association between Bolton discrepancy and Angle malocclusions

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    Rodrigo Hermont CANÇADO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess and compare the overall and anterior ratios of tooth size discrepancies in all Angle malocclusion groups. The following null hypothesis (H0 was tested: no difference between tooth size discrepancies (overall and anterior would be observed among Angle malocclusion groups. The sample comprised of 711 pre-orthodontic treatment study casts of Brazilian patients with a mean age of 17.42 years selected from private practices in Brazil. The casts were divided into 3 groups according to the type of malocclusion: Class I (n = 321, Class II (n = 324, and Class III patients (n = 66. The measurement of the greatest mesiodistal width of the teeth was performed using a centesimal precision digital caliper directly on the study casts, from the distal surface of the left first molar to the distal surface of the right first molar. The overall and anterior ratios between the maxillary and mandibular teeth were evaluated using Bolton’s method. The following statistical tests were applied: chi-square, independent t-test, and one-way ANOVA. Results showed that all Angle malocclusions groups exhibited a ratio compatible with those recommended by Bolton. With respect to the overall and anterior ratios among the malocclusion groups, no statistically significant differences were found. The null hypothesis was accepted because the results showed no differences in the overall and anterior ratios of tooth size discrepancies among different Angle malocclusion groups.

  11. Comparison of Movement of the Upper Dentition According to Anchorage Method: Orthodontic Mini-Implant versus Conventional Anchorage Reinforcement in Class I Malocclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ah-Young; Kim, Young Ho

    2010-01-01

    Objective. To compare the amounts of anchorage loss in the upper first molar (U6) and of retraction of the upper central incisor (U1) in cases with Class I malocclusion between orthodontic mini-implants (OMIs) and conventional anchorage reinforcements (CARs). Methods. The subjects were 40 female adult patients with Class I malocclusion who were treated with extraction of the first premolars and sliding mechanics. The subjects were divided into Groups 1 (N = 20, CAR) and 2 (N = 20, OMI) accord...

  12. [Soft tissue changes following the treatment of Class II division 1 malocclusion using Headgear-activator appliance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-Guo; Zuo, Yan-Ping; Yuan, Dong-Hui

    2010-12-01

    To investigate the soft tissue changes following the treatment of Class II division 1 malocclusion using Headgear-activator appliance. Fifty Class II division 1 malocclusion subjects who were at peak high velocity on the growth curve were divided into two groups. Standardized lateral cephalogram was taken for each patient in the two groups before and after treatment. SPSS11.0 software package was used to calculate the mean and standard deviation, matched t-test was used to evaluate the changes of the soft tissues. The angle of CmSnLs,LiB'Pg' and Z increased, the angle of H, LsNsLi and LsNsPg' decreased, there was statistically significant difference between the two groups. Using Headgear-activator appliances, soft tissue profile is effectively improved. Soft tissue chin is moved forward obviously. Lip protrusion is decreased.

  13. [A study of highpull extraoral traction on the treatment of growing patients with skeletal Class II malocclusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Qing-ling; Cai, Zhong

    2006-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of highpull extraoral traction on growing patients with skeletal Class II malocclusion. 11 pairs of cephalograms obtained before and after highpull extra-oral traction treatment were used in this study, treatment changes were measured with Pancherz analysis, and compared with the control group. Independent samples group t test with SPSS 11.0 software package was used for statistical analysis. highpull extra-oral traction had inhibitive effect on forward and downward maxillary growth. Changes on SNA, A-Olp between the two groups were statistically different (Ptraction had orthopedic effect on the correction of skeletal Class II malocclusion of growing patients, including inhibition of maxillary growth and allowance of fully expression of mandibular growth. Meanwhile, dental-alveolar changes on the vertical and sagittal plane were beneficial to further improvement of the dental and facial appearance of the patients.

  14. Variations in cyclic mandibular movements during treatment of Class II malocclusions with removable functional appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, Kirsten M; Nägerl, Hans; Hahn, Wolfram; Ihlow, Dankmar; Kubein-Meesenburg, Dietmar

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the study was to establish whether juveniles with a Class II malocclusion change the neuromuscular control of mandibular movements during the course of orthodontic treatment with removable functional appliances (RFAs). Neuromuscular control can be indirectly evaluated by recording cyclic planar mandibular movements which were freely carried out by the patients (28 girls, 14 boys, aged 11.1 ± 1.1 years at the start of treatment) and measured with an ultrasonic device before, during, and after Class II functional appliance therapy, with either an activator or a bite jumping plate. The cyclic movements represented simultaneous rotations of the mandible around a maxillary and mandibular fixed axis (MFHA) and could be characterized by μ(α)-diagrams (μ = swing angle of MFHA, α = mouth opening angle) and path length (L) of the MFHA. The μ(α)-diagrams clearly divided into four parts: movement representing protrusion, mouth opening, and two parts of backward closing as known from Posselt diagrams. Parameters from the Posselt and μ(α)-diagrams were checked by one-factor analysis of variance on a 5 per cent significance level for group dependency. For one-third of the patients investigated, no significant changes were seen in any parameter pre- or post-therapy. However, patients showing an initially large mouth opening capacity or a very short condylar path changed their neuromuscular control to that of Class I subjects. Analysis of μ(α)-diagrams provides the possibility of assessing changes in the neuromuscular control of the mandible during Class II treatment.

  15. Changes in soft tissue profile using functional appliances in the treatment of skeletal class II malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamenković Zorana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The effects of orthodontic treatment are considered to be successful if the facial harmony is achieved, while the structures of soft tissue profile are in harmony with skeletal structures of neurocranium and viscerocranium. In patients with skeletal distal bite caused by mandibular retrognathism, facial esthetics is disturbed often, in terms of pronounced convexity of the profile and change in the position and relationship of the lips. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine the extent of soft tissue profile changes in patients with skeletal Class II malocclusion treated with three different orthodontic appliances: Fränkel functional regulator type I (FR-I, Balters’ Bionator type I and Hotz appliance. Methods. The study included 60 patients diagnosed with skeletal Class II malocclusion caused by mandibular retrognathism, in the period of early mixed dentition. Each subgroup of 20 patients was treated with a variety of orthodontic appliances. On the lateral cephalogram, before and after treatment, the following parameters were analyzed: T angle, H angle, the height of the upper lip, the position of the upper and lower lip in relation to the esthetic line. Within the statistical analysis the mean, maximum, minimum, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, two-factor analysis of variance with repeated measures and the factor analysis of variance were calculated using ANOVA, Bonferroni test and Student’s t-test. Results. A significant decrease of angles T and H was noticed in the application of FR-I, from 21.60° to 17.15°, and from 16.45° to 13.40° (p<0.001. FR-I decreased the height of the upper lip from 26.15 mm to 25.85 mm, while Hotz appliance and Balters’ Bionator type I increased the height of the upper lip, thereby deteriorating esthetics of the patient. Conclusion. All used orthodontic appliances lead to changes in soft tissue profile in terms of improving facial esthetics, with the most distinctive

  16. Treatment of skeletal class II malocclusion with the combination of twin-block and combination-pull headgear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer S Patil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The patient was a girl with a Class II division 1 malocclusion, a large overjet, an excessively deep overbite, and a slightly increased mandibular plane angle. Treatment started with the Twin-block appliance combined with combination-pull headgear to promote growth of the mandible, restrain the maxilla in the anteroposterior plane, and improve her profile. This was later, followed by fixed appliance therapy.

  17. Treatment of skeletal class II malocclusion with the combination of twin-block and combination-pull headgear

    OpenAIRE

    Sameer S Patil; Sandesh S Baralay; Sheetal S Potnis

    2014-01-01

    The patient was a girl with a Class II division 1 malocclusion, a large overjet, an excessively deep overbite, and a slightly increased mandibular plane angle. Treatment started with the Twin-block appliance combined with combination-pull headgear to promote growth of the mandible, restrain the maxilla in the anteroposterior plane, and improve her profile. This was later, followed by fixed appliance therapy.

  18. Immediate skeletal and dentoalveolar effects of the crown- or banded type Herbst appliance on Class II division 1 malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Gregory A; Higgins, Duncan W; Major, Paul W; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2008-03-01

    To evaluate the relative skeletal and dental changes produced by the crown- or banded-type Herbst appliance in growing Class II division 1 malocclusion cases. Several electronic databases were searched with the help of a health sciences librarian, without language limitation. Abstracts that appeared to fulfill the initial selection criteria (Herbst use and clinical trial) were selected by consensus, and their original articles were then retrieved. Clinical trials were selected that used lateral cephalograms to assess immediate skeletal and dental changes from the use of either crown or banded Herbst appliances. Clinical trials that employed other simultaneous potentially growth-modifying appliances or surgery were excluded. A comparable untreated Class II division 1 malocclusion control group was required to factor out normal growth changes. References from the selected articles were also hand searched. Only three articles meet the selection criteria. Proclination and anterior movement of the lower incisors, overjet reduction, and improvement of first molar relationship thorough mesial movement of the first molars, reduction of ANB angle, and an increase in the mandibular plane angle were reported. There were mixed findings as to mandibular sagittal length and position and increases in lower face height, both anteriorly and posteriorly. No statistically significant changes were noted in the sagittal length or position of the skeletal maxilla. Dental changes have more impact than skeletal changes in the correction of Class II division 1 malocclusions with the crown or banded Herbst appliance.

  19. [A study on the extraoral cervical traction in the treatment of skeletal Class II division 1 malocclusion in mixed dentition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Liu, Hong-hu; Cao, Hui-ju

    2005-06-01

    To evaluate the effects of extraoral cervical traction on skeletal Class II division 1 malocclusion of early or late mixed dentition and discuss the optimal treatment timing. The sample consisted of two groups of skeletal Class II division 1 malocclusion. One group with 11 cases was treated started in early mixed dentition while the other with 15 cases in late mixed dentition. All cases were treated with extraoral cervical traction headgear. Cephalometric analysis was conducted to evaluate the treatment effects. Student's t test was applied for statistical analysis. SNA, ANB and the length of maxilla (A-Ptm) were reduced and the inclination of maxillary incisor was decreased in both two groups. When comparing the two groups, it was found that the reduction of SNA was more notable, which means the inhibition of the maxilla was more evident in late mixed dentition. The difference was statistically significant (Ptraction might be more effective in late mixed dentition to restrain maxillary growth in the treatment of skeletal Class II division 1 malocclusion.

  20. Changes in Cranial Base Morphology in Class I and Class II Division 1 Malocclusions

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, Anirudh; Pandey, Harsh; Bajaj, Kamal; Pandey, Lavesh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The cranial base plays a key role in craniofacial growth; it helps to integrate spatially and functionally different patterns of growth in various adjoining regions of the skull such as components of the brain, the nasal and oral cavity and the pharynx. The aim of this study was to evaluate the difference in cranial base flexure between skeletal and dental Class I and Class II division 1.

  1. Skeletal and dental Class II malocclusion, with anterior open bite and accentuated overjet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márlio Vinícius de Oliveira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Open bite is defined as a deficiency in normal vertical contact between antagonist teeth and may manifest in a limited region, or more rarely throughout the entire dental arch. If the lack of contact between teeth is located in the incisor and/or canine region when occlusion is in centric relation, it is called anterior open bite (AOB. Some studies have demonstrated that AOB is strongly associated with non-nutritional sucking habit. This article relates the treatment of a female African-Brazilian patient, with 20 years and 7 months of age, who presented Angle's Class II, division 1 malocclusion, AOB, accentuated overjet, lingual interposition during swallowing and difficulty with pronouncing some phonemes. Orthodontic treatment began by mounting an Edgewise Standard fixed appliance system, with a fixed palatal crib appliance and extraction of maxillary first premolars. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Facial Orthopedics (BBO, as part of the requisites to become a BBO Diplomate.

  2. Cephalometric assessment of maxillary length in Serbian children with skeletal class III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanović, Zdenka; Nikolić, Predrag; Nikodijević, Angelina; Milić, Jasmina; Stojanović, Branislav

    2013-07-01

    Malocclusion of skeletal class III is a complex irregularity of sagittal inter-jaw relationship, which is due to irregularities of sagittal position of one or both of the jaw bones, which is often associated with disproportionate ratio of their length. The aim of this study was to determine whether the length of the jaw of children with skeletal class III in the period of mixed dentition was changed. Fifty children with skeletal class III and the same number of those with skeletal class I, of both sexes, have been selected on the basis of cephalometric analysis of profile tele-x-ray of the head. All the children aged 6-12 had mixed dentition, and were divided according to sex and age into three subgroups within each group. The length of maxilla, mandible and cranial base were measured. Proportions among the lengths measured within each group were found and difference significance in the measured lengths and their proportions among groups and subgroups were evaluated. The children with skeletal class III, compared with the findings in the control group, had significantly lower values of maxillary length, total maxillary length, as well as lower values of their lengths in proportion to lengths of the front or the total length of cranial base and in proportion to mandibular lengths (p children with skeletal class III have significantly shorter maxilla than those with skeletal class I.

  3. [Distal movement of the mandibular dentition in the treatment of patients with Class III skeletal pattern].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Lan; Xu, Gengchi; Han, Yaohui; Ge, Zhenlin

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the outcome of patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion treated with extraction of mandibular third molars and distalization of molars using implant anchorage combined with MBT appliance. Fifteen patients (mean age 24.0 ± 5.8) with skeletal Class III malocclusion were selected. The mandibular third molars were extracted and the mandibular molars were moved distally using implant combined with MBT appliance. Cephalometric analysis was carried out before and after treatment. After active treatment, ANB, Wits distance, AB-NP and the distance between upper and lower lip position to SnPg' increased by 1.65° ± 1.04°, (4.39 ± 1.93) mm, 3.20° ± 1.61° and (1.13 ± 0.99) mm, respectively. The differences were statistically significant (P skeletal Class III patients in the permanent dentition could be treated successfully with extraction of mandibular third molars and distalization of mandibular molars using implant anchorage combined with MBT appliance. The soft-tissue profile was improved.

  4. Studying the Prevalence and Etiology of Class II Subdivision Malocclusion Utilizing Cone-Beam Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    Col, 1971. 26. Sato, H, Kawamura A, Yamaguchi M, Kasai K. Relationship between masticatory function and internal structure of the mandible based on...the maxillary arch with protrusive incisors accompanied by abnormal function of the lips and some form of nasal obstruction and mouth breathing. The...maxillary incisors. Angle believed the Division 2 malocclusion to be associated with normal nasal and lip function . A malocclusion is further classified

  5. Measuring Palatal Height in Normal Occlusion and Malocclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zarringhalam

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Due to the appearance of palatal height difference in orthodontic patients we decided to carry out this study.Purpose: The purpose of this research was to determine palatal height in persons with normal occlusion and different malocclusions (class I, II Div I and III and comp aring them with each other.Materials and Methods : In this cross sectional research, 240 subjects were selected. Sixty cases (30 girls and 30 boys with normal occlusion within 16-18 years old were selected inrandom cluster sampling from high schools in Mashhad. Examination technique was direct observation, lateral cephalometric radiography, impression and preparing study model for measuring. For every kind of malocclusion 60 young patients, 30 females and 30 males,within the range of 16-20 years old attended orthodontic treatment in private dental offices or Orthodontics Department of Mashhad Dental School .The examination technique was indirect observation, using lateral cephalometry selected of 5395 lateral cephalograms andrelated study models for measuring. Mean, min imum and maximum and height of the palate was initially determined and then normal occlusion was compared with every kind of malocclusion using SPSS statistical software. One way analysis of variance (ANOVA andt-test (independent groups, and also Duncan test were used for comparison.Results: The ANOVA test showed that there were no statistically significant differences between females in normal occlusion and different malocclusions (P=0.486. In boys the palatal height was significantly higher in class III males than class II and class Imalocclusions and the height of palate for normal boys is significantly higher than class I malocclusion (P<0.05. Comparison of other groups was not significantly different.In each group height of palate was significantly lower in females than males (P<0.001.Conclusion: From this research we concluded that palatal height is different in females and males

  6. Cervical headgear vs pendulum appliance for the treatment of moderate skeletal Class II malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossaz, Claude F; Byloff, Friedrich K; Kiliaridis, Stavros

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare 2 types of treatment for Class II malocclusion. One treatment required compliance by the patients, the other did not. The sample consisted of 60 children who were treated with either conventional cervical headgear combined with full fixed appliances (n = 30), or with a pendulum appliance followed by full fixed appliances (n = 30). At the start of treatment, the mean ages were 11 years 7 months for the headgear group and 11 years 6 months for the pendulum group. The total active treatment time was recorded for all patients, and lateral cephalograms were taken before treatment and after fixed appliance therapy. Angular, horizontal, and vertical changes were recorded to monitor the skeletal and dentoalveolar changes. The lengths of active treatment, the differences between the pretreatment and posttreatment data in both groups, and the differences in the therapeutic effects between the 2 groups were analyzed with the Student t test. The Pearson r correlation coefficient was applied to determine factors affecting the length of active treatment. Class II correction with headgear had more skeletal effect than with the pendulum. SNA angle reductions were 1.3 degrees in the headgear group and 0.3 degrees in the pendulum group The difference (1.0 degrees , P headgear group (difference 1.5 degrees , P headgear group (difference 1.6 mm, P <.05). No significant difference was found in molar extrusion between both types of treatment. The duration of active treatment was longer in the group that used the pendulum as the first phase (P <.005). The 4.6-month difference corresponded approximately to the length of pendulum wear (5.6 months).

  7. [Soft tissue changes of patients with skeletal class II malocclusion after orthodontic and surgical treatments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kaiyun; Zheng, Yi; Wang, Xin

    2002-02-01

    One of the prime concerns of both the orthodontist and the oral surgeon must be the final soft tissue profile and the esthetic appearance of the patient. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the amount, direction, and predictability of the soft tissue changes associated with simultaneous skeletal changes. The authors analyzed the recent 22 cases with skeletal class II maloclusion in Orthodontic Department, College of Stomatology, West China University of Medical Sciences with 7 male and 15 female from 20 to 30 years old. Each patient was taken standardized lateral cephalograms before the treatment and 6-12 months after the treatment. A total of 16 hard and soft tissue landmarks were evaluated in both horizontal and vertical directions. In the horizontal directions, the soft tissue maxillary landmarks (superior labial sulcus, labrale superius, and upper lip stomion) moved posterior with a range of 2.17 to 2.33 mm. The strongest correlations were found between the posterior movement of the upper incisal edge and the three soft tissue parameters: superior labial sulcus r = 0.78, labrale superius r = 0.81, upper lip stomion r = 0.75. The soft/hard tissue ratios of the mandible anterior movement is 0.83:1 between inferior labial sulcus and B point, and 0.95:1 for Pog' to Pog. In the vertical directions, all the soft tissue mandible landmarks (Pog', inferior labial sulcus, labrale inferius, lower lip stomion) moved upward more than 2 mm. And the soft/hard tissue ratio is from 1.07:1 to 1.34:1. The combined orthodontic and surgical treatment is an efficient way to cure skeletal class II malocclusion. All the patients regained satisfactory face appearance and profile. Although the soft tissue movement is less than the hard tissue in both jaws in the horizontal direction, the vertical movement of the mandibular soft tissue is greater than that of the underlying hard tissue.

  8. Orthodontic retreatment using anchorage with miniplate to camouflage a Class III skeletal pattern.

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    Farret, Marcel Marchiori

    2016-06-01

    This manuscript describes the treatment of a 27-year-old patient who was previously treated with two maxillary first premolar extractions. The patient had skeletal Class III malocclusion, Class III canine relationship, anterior crossbite, and a concave profile. As the patient refused orthognathic surgery, a miniplate was used on the right side of the lower arch as an anchorage unit after the extraction of mandibular first premolars, aiding the retraction of anterior teeth. At the end of treatment, anterior crossbite was corrected, in which first molars and canines were in a Class I relationship, and an excellent intercuspation was reached. Furthermore, patient's profile remarkably improved as a result of mandibular incisor retraction. A 30-month follow-up showed good stability of the results obtained. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO) as one of the requirements to become diplomate by the BBO.

  9. Orthodontic retreatment using anchorage with miniplate to camouflage a Class III skeletal pattern

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    Marcel Marchiori Farret

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This manuscript describes the treatment of a 27-year-old patient who was previously treated with two maxillary first premolar extractions. The patient had skeletal Class III malocclusion, Class III canine relationship, anterior crossbite, and a concave profile. As the patient refused orthognathic surgery, a miniplate was used on the right side of the lower arch as an anchorage unit after the extraction of mandibular first premolars, aiding the retraction of anterior teeth. At the end of treatment, anterior crossbite was corrected, in which first molars and canines were in a Class I relationship, and an excellent intercuspation was reached. Furthermore, patient's profile remarkably improved as a result of mandibular incisor retraction. A 30-month follow-up showed good stability of the results obtained. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO as one of the requirements to become diplomate by the BBO.

  10. [A change of paradigm in the treatment of Class II malocclusions in children and adolescents: the benefits of the Class II Corrector].

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    Amat, Philippe

    2017-09-01

    The treatment of class II malocclusions is the core of our clinical activity. What elements can clinician rely on to offer their patients, whether children or adolescents, a treatment of their class II malocclusion that is not only effective but also the most appropriate for each individual case? Which schedule and what therapeutic device should be used? Evidence-based orthodontics, along with a search for the best data on two-phase treatments, were used to judge the validity of the main objectives sought when correcting a Class II malocclusion in children or adolescents, including treatment of mandibular retrognathy. Published data show that the long-term effects of a first phase of treatment on the amount of mandibular growth are at best weak and clinically insignificant. This observation triggers a paradigm shift by refocusing patient treatment on the achievement of other therapeutic objectives. A new orthodontic appliance, the Clas II Corrector, is presented. Its advantages and its use are described and illustrated by means of clinical cases. Class II Corrector allows distalization of maxillary lateral areas, effectively limits undesirable dentoalveolar compensations and facilitates the rehabilitation of orofacial functions. In addition to its clinical efficacy, patients appreciate its small footprint, ease of wearing, and lack of impact on phonation. © EDP Sciences, SFODF, 2017.

  11. Skeletal Malocclusion: A Developmental Disorder With a Life-Long Morbidity

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    Joshi, Nishitha; Hamdan, Ahmad M.; Fakhouri, Walid D.

    2014-01-01

    The likelihood of birth defects in orofacial tissues is high due to the structural and developmental complexity of the face and the susceptibility to intrinsic and extrinsic perturbations. Skeletal malocclusion is caused by the distortion of the proper mandibular and/or maxillary growth during fetal development. Patients with skeletal malocclusion may suffer from dental deformities, bruxism, teeth crowding, trismus, mastication difficulties, breathing obstruction and digestion disturbance if the problem is left untreated. In this review, we focused on skeletal malocclusion that affects 27.9% of the US population with different severity levels. We summarized the prevalence of class I, II and III of malocclusion in different ethnic groups and discussed the most frequent medical disorders associated with skeletal malocclusion. Dental anomalies that lead to malocclusion such as tooth agenesis, crowding, missing teeth and abnormal tooth size are not addressed in this review. We propose a modified version of malocclusion classification for research purposes to exhibit a clear distinction between skeletal vs. dental malocclusion in comparison to Angle’s classification. In addition, we performed a cross-sectional analysis on orthodontic (malocclusion) data through the BigMouth Dental Data Repository to calculate potential association between malocclusion with other medical conditions. In conclusion, this review emphasizes the need to identify genetic and environmental factors that cause or contribute risk to skeletal malocclusion and the possible association with other medical conditions to improve assessment, prognosis and therapeutic approaches. PMID:25247012

  12. Characteristic of Malocclusion among Saudi Special Need Group Children.

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    Alkhadra, Thamer

    2017-10-01

    The present study analyzed the characteristics of malocclusions, occlusal traits among Special Health care Needs (SHCN) children with Down syndrome (DS) and autism disorder (AD) in Riyadh City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A total of 100 DS and 100 AD children from five rehabilitation centers in and around Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, were included in the study. Any children with history of ongoing medical treatment, extraction, or orthodontic treatment were excluded from the study. Out of the 200 patients examined, 131 were males and 69 were females and the age of the children ranged from 6 to 14 years. The children were examined for malocclusion characteristics using the Angle's classification of malocclusion, and also other occlusal traits, such as overjet, overbite, cross bite, and open bite were also determined. The data obtained were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 16 to generate descriptive statistics for each variable. The analyzed data of the right and left permanent molar relation showed higher incidence of class III malocclusion (66%) in DS children as compared with (3-4%) AD children. The AD children presented with higher percentage of class I malocclu-sion (40-41%) as compared with (10-14%) DS children. During examination of the primary molars, the analyzed data showed that left primary molar had more mesial shift in AD children as compared with DS children. Down syndrome children had high incidence of class III malocclusion and autistic children had high incidence of class I malocclusion. Overall, the DS children were more prone to malocclusion. This study provides database for health professionals in Saudi Arabia in regard to malocclusion of autis-tics and DS patients.

  13. Dentofacial effects of bone-anchored maxillary protraction: a controlled study of consecutively treated Class III patients.

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    De Clerck, Hugo; Cevidanes, Lucia; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2010-11-01

    In this cephalometric investigation, we analyzed the treatment effects of bone-anchored maxillary protraction (BAMP) with miniplates in the maxilla and mandible connected by Class III elastics in patients with Class III malocclusion. The treated sample consisted of 21 Class III patients consecutively treated with the BAMP protocol before the pubertal growth spurt (mean age, 11.10 ± 1.8 years) and reevaluated after BAMP therapy, about 1 year later. The treated group was compared with a matched control group of 18 untreated Class III subjects. Significant differences between the treated and control groups were assessed with independent-sample t tests (P maxillary structures of about 4 mm, and favorable mandibular changes exceeded 2 mm. Copyright © 2010 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Pendulum and modified pendulum appliances for maxillary molar distalization in Class II malocclusion - a systematic review.

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    Al-Thomali, Yousef; Basha, Sakeenabi; Mohamed, Roshan Noor

    2017-08-01

    The main purpose of the present systematic review was to evaluate the quantitative effects of the pendulum appliance and modified pendulum appliances for maxillary molar distalization in Class II malocclusion. Our systematic search included MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, Scopus and key journals and review articles; the date of the last search was 30 January 2017. We graded the methodological quality of the studies by means of the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies, developed for the Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP). In total, 203 studies were identified for screening, and 25 studies were eligible. The quality assessment rated four (16%) of the study as being of strong quality and 21 (84%) of these studies as being of moderate quality. The pendulum appliances showed mean molar distalization of 2-6.4 mm, distal tipping of molars from 6.67° to 14.50° and anchorage loss with mean premolar and incisor mesial movement of 1.63-3.6 mm and 0.9-6.5 mm, respectively. The bone anchored pendulum appliances (BAPAs) showed mean molar distalization of 4.8-6.4 mm, distal tipping of molars from 9° to 11.3° and mean premolar distalization of 2.7-5.4 mm. Pendulum and modified pendulum appliances are effective in molar distalization. Pendulum appliance with K-loop modification, implant supported pendulum appliance and BAPA significantly reduced anchorage loss of the anterior teeth and distal tipping of the molar teeth.

  15. Maxillary molar distalization: Pendulum and Fast-Back, comparison between two approaches for Class II malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprioglio, Alberto; Beretta, Matteo; Lanteri, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    To compare the dento-alveolar and skeletal effects produced by two different molar intraoral distalization appliances, Pendulum and Fast-Back, both followed by fixed appliances, in the treatment of Class II malocclusion. 41 patients for Pendulum (18 males and 23 females) and 35 for Fast-Back (14 males and 21 females) were selected, with a mean age at the start of treatment of 12.11 years in the Pendulum group and 13.3 for in the Fast-Back group. The durations of the distalization phase were 8 months in the Pendulum group and 9 months in the Fast-Back group, and the durations of the second phase of treatment with fixed appliances were 19 months in the Pendulum group and 20 months in the Fast-Back group. Lateral cephalograms were analyzed at 3 observation times: before treatment, after distalization and after comprehensive orthodontic treatment. During molar distalization the Pendulum subjects showed greater distal molar movement and less anchorage loss at both the premolars and maxillary incisors than the Fast-Back subjects. Pendulum and Fast-Back produced similar amounts of distal molar movement and overcorrection of molar relationship at the end of distalization though the Fast-Back induced a more bodily movement. Very little change occurred in the inclination of the mandibular plane at the end of the 2-phase treatment in both groups. At the end of treatment the maxillary first molars were on average 1mm more distal in the Pendulum group compared to the Fast-Back group, while the total molar correction was 3.2mm with 3.9° of distal inclination for the Pendulum and 2mm with 1.1° of mesial inclination for the Fast-Back. Both appliance were equally effective in inducing a satisfactory Class I relationship in 97.2% of the cases. The Pendulum and the Fast-Back induce similar dentoskeletal effects. The use of the two distalization devices, therefore, can be considered clinically equivalent. Copyright © 2011 Società Italiana di Ortodonzia SIDO. Published by Elsevier

  16. Changes of hyoid bone position following treatment of class II div1 malocclusion with Farmand functional appliance

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    Yassaei S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Unlike other bones of the head and neck, hyoid bone has no bony articulations. It is connected to mandible, cranium and pharynx through muscles and ligaments. During treatment with functional appliance in patients with class II div1 malocclusion, mandible is positioned in inferior and anterior direction. Regarding the relation between hyoid and mandibular bone, alterations of hyoid bone position can be a result of functional appliance therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes of hyoid bone position following treatment with Farmand functional appliance in patients with class II div 1 malocclusion. Materials and Methods: In this before-after clinical trial, 28 patients with class II div 1 malocclusion which were under treatment with Farmand functional appliance for 11 months were selected. Facial growth in vertical, normal or horizontal direction was determined by cephalometric measurement. Data were analyzed with Paired-t test to compare the differences of mean values pre and post treatment. Variance analysis was used to compare the three growth patterns. P<0.05 was considered as the limit of significance. Results: Hyoid bone shifted significantly forward in horizontal dimension (P<0.01 and non-significantly upward in vertical dimension. There was no significant difference among the three studied groups with respect to hyoid bone position alterations in horizontal dimension but significant difference was observed between horizontal and vertical growth pattern in vertical dimension (P<0.05. There was significant correlation between decrease of ANB angle and forward movement of hyoid bone. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, treatment with Farmand functional appliance (Fa II leads to significant alterations in the position and anterior displacement of the hyoid bone.

  17. Comparison of esthetic outcome after extraction or non-extraction orthodontic treatment in class II division 1 malocclusion patients

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    Sneh Lata Verma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The extraction of premolars as a practical form of orthodontic therapy has been accepted for many years, but there remains a controversy regarding the effect of premolar extraction to improve esthetics as well as dentoskeletal relationship. The esthetic impact of the soft-tissue profile might play a major role in deciding on premolar extraction or non-extraction treatment, particularly in borderline patients. This cephalometric study was undertaken to compare the post-treatment soft-tissue profiles of successfully managed Class II, Division 1 malocclusions treated with either all first premolar extractions or treatment with a non-extraction therapy. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 100 post-pubertal female patients of Class II Division I malocclusion. Group 1, treated with four first premolar extractions, consisted of 50 female patients with a mean age of 14 years 1 month. Group 2, treated without extractions, consisted of 50 patients with a mean age of 13 years 5 months. Pre-treatment and post-treatment lateral cephalometric radiographs were evaluated. The pre-treatment to post-treatment stage comparison and the intergroup comparison of the treatment changes were conducted between extraction and non-extraction groups of Class II malocclusion samples with t-tests. Results: The soft-tissue facial profiles of the extraction and non-extraction samples were the same following active treatment except for a more retruded lower lip and a more pronounced lower labial sulcus in those patients subjected to extraction. Conclusions: The extraction or non-extraction decision, if based on sound diagnostic criteria, seems to have no systematic detrimental effects on the facial profile.

  18. Orthodontists' perceptions of the need for orthognathic surgery in patients with Class II Division 1 malocclusion based on extraoral examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Trevor Martin; Boyd, Peter Terence; Munyombwe, Theresa; Littlewood, Simon John

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the influence of soft-tissue profile values on the decision of orthodontists to recommend orthognathic surgery for patients with Class II Division 1 malocclusion. A questionnaire containing 40 profile photographs of adults with Class II Division 1 malocclusion was sent to all 256 consultant orthodontists in the United Kingdom asking for a "yes" or "no" response to the question: "Based on the profile view of this patient, would you treat this patient using an orthognathic surgical approach?" A soft-tissue analysis was carried out on each photograph, and multi-level logistic regression was used to investigate factors that affect the decision to recommend surgery. The response rate was high: 208 of 256 questionnaires (81.3%). Intraexaminer reliability of the photographic analysis method with a Bland-Altman plot showed good (95% CI) limits of agreement for each measurement. Consultants who carried out more orthognathic surgery treatment were more likely to recommend surgery. Secondary analysis with a logistic regression model indicated that 80% of the consultants would recommend surgery if B-point was more than or equal to -14.1 mm posterior to the true vertical through subnasale (95% CI, -29.9 to -10.9 mm), the facial profile angle was less than or equal to 148.9° (95% CI, 6.7° to 151.1°), pogonion to true vertical through subnasale was more than or equal to -12.0 mm (95% CI, -48.7 to -8.6 mm). The facial profile angle and the positions of soft-tissue pogonion and B-point are useful clinical guides for planning treatment for adults with Class II Division 1 malocclusion. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Incisor inclination changes produced by two compliance-free Class II correction protocols for the treatment of mild to moderate Class II malocclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert A; Tieu, Long; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2013-05-01

    To compare the changes in incisor inclination between two compliance-free Class II correction protocols for the treatment of mild to moderate Class II malocclusions. Among Class II malocclusion patients a total of 38 consecutive patients treated with the Xbow appliance and later with full brackets (XB) were compared to 36 consecutive patients treated with Forsus connected to the archwire while on full brackets (FO). Evaluated cephalometric variables were overjet, overbite, skeletal Class II, lower incisor inclination, and upper incisor inclination. Factors that were analyzed were gender, treatment type, age at start of treatment (T1), and treatment length. Independent t-tests, χ(2), multiple analysis of variance, and Pearson correlations were applied. No differences in incisor inclination between both treatment protocols were identified. At T1 no statistical difference for any cephalometric variable was demonstrated with regard to gender and treatment type. Gender was also not associated with a different treatment time or age at T1. The mean treatment time was 24.2 months for XB and 30.2 months for the FO group (P  =  .037). XB patients averaged 10 fewer months of fixed edgewise appliances compared to FO patients. Neither gender nor treatment type had any influence on the changes of the evaluated dependent variables between T1 and the end of treatment. Lower incisors proclined more the longer the treatment (P  =  .005). Both overjet and upper incisor inclination were affected by age at T1 (P  =  .001 and P  =  .014, respectively). Both compliance-free Class II correction protocols for the treatment of mild to moderate Class II malocclusions appear to generate the same amount of incisor inclination. Large variability was identified.

  20. Improving Class II malocclusion as a side-effect of rapid maxillary expansion: a prospective clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Susan S; McNamara, James A; Baccetti, Tiziano; Franchi, Lorenzo

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this prospective clinical study was to evaluate the dentoalveolar and skeletal effects induced by rapid maxillary expansion (RME) therapy in mixed dentition patients with Class II Division 1 malocclusion compared with a matched untreated Class II Division 1 control group. The treatment sample consisted of cephalometric records of 50 patients with Class II malocclusion (19 boys, 31 girls) treated with an RME protocol including an acrylic splint expander. Some patients also had a removable mandibular Schwarz appliance or maxillary incisor bracketing as part of their treatment protocol. Postexpansion, the patients were stabilized with a removable maintenance plate or a transpalatal arch. The mean age at the start of treatment of the RME group was 8.8 years (T1), with a prephase 2 treatment cephalogram (T2) taken 4.0 years later. The control sample, derived from the records of 3 longitudinal growth studies, consisted of the cephalometric records of 50 Class II subjects (28 boys, 22 girls). The mean age of initial observation for the control group was 8.9 years, and the mean interval of observation was 4.1 years. All subjects in both groups were prepubertal at T1 and showed comparable prevalence rates for prepubertal or postpubertal stages at T2. Independent-sample Student t tests were used to examine between-group differences. Class II patients treated with the described bonded RME protocol showed statistically significant increases in mandibular length and advancement of pogonion relative to nasion perpendicular. The acrylic splint RME had significant effects on the anteroposterior relationship of the maxilla and the mandible, as shown by the improvements toward Class I in the maxillomandibular differential value, the Wits appraisal value, and the ANB angle. Patients treated with the bonded RME showed the greatest effects of therapy at the occlusal level, specifically highly significant improvement of Class II molar relationship and decrease in

  1. Long-term outcome of skeletal Class II Division 1 malocclusion treated with rapid palatal expansion and Kloehn cervical headgear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, Roberto M A Lima; Lima, Anna Letícia

    2003-08-01

    The treatment of a patient with a skeletal Class II Division 1 malocclusion, with excessive overjet, complete overbite, airway obstruction, and severe arch length deficiency in the mandibular dental arch, is presented. The maxilla was narrow compared with the mandible, and the posterior teeth were compensated, with the maxillary teeth inclined buccally and the mandibular teeth inclined lingually. The palatal vault was extremely high. Treatment included rapid palatal expansion to correct the transverse maxillary deficiency and Kloehn cervical headgear to correct the anteroposterior skeletal discrepancy. Long-term stability (12-year follow-up) is reported.

  2. Conservative treatment of a Class I malocclusion with 12 mm overjet, overbite and severe mandibular crowding

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    Marcos Alan Vieira Bittencourt

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: A female patient aged 12 years and 2 months had molars and canines in Class II relationship, severe overjet (12 mm, deep overbite (100%, excessive retroclination and extrusion of the lower incisors, upper incisor proclination, with mild midline diastema. Both dental arches appeared constricted and a lower arch discrepancy of less than -6.5 mm. Facially, she had a significant upper incisors display at rest, interposition and eversion of the lower lip, acute nasolabial angle and convex profile. OBJECTIVE: To report a clinical case consisting of Angle Class I malocclusion with deep overbite and overjet in addition to severe crowding treated with a conservative approach. METHODS: Treatment consisted of slight retraction of the upper incisors and intrusion and protrusion of the lower incisors until all crowding was eliminated. RESULTS: Adequate overbite and overjet were achieved while maintaining the Angle Class I canine and molar relationships and coincident midlines. The facial features were improved, with the emergence of a slightly convex profile and lip competence, achieved through a slight retraction of the upper lip and protrusion of the lower lip, while improving the nasolabial and mentolabial sulcus. CONCLUSIONS: This conservative approach with no extractions proved effective and resulted in a significant improvement of the occlusal relationship as well as in the patient's dental and facial aesthetics.INTRODUÇÃO: paciente do sexo feminino, 12 anos e 2 meses de idade, apresentava molares em relação de chave de oclusão e caninos em relação de Classe II de Angle, sobressaliência acentuada (12mm, sobremordida profunda (100%, excessiva retroinclinação e extrusão dos incisivos inferiores e projeção dos superiores, com leves diastemas interincisais. Ambas as arcadas apresentavam-se constritas e a discrepância dentária inferior era de -6,5mm. Do ponto de vista facial, apresentava grande exposição dos incisivos

  3. [Pancherz's analysis in evaluating the treatment effects of headgear-activator on skeletal Class II divison 1 malocclusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun-Mei; Chen, Hong-Yu; Zhang, Li

    2007-12-01

    To evaluate the effects of headgear-activator (HGAC) combination appliances on bone and dentition of juveniles with Class II division 1 malocclusion using Pancherz's analysis approach. Fifteen patients (8 males of 10-13 years old and 7 females of 9-12 years old, average age was 11.2 years old, ANB > or = 5 degrees, overjet > or =6 mm, Class II molar relation) were treated with HGAC appliance for more than 14 hours everyday and for total of 8-10 months cephalograms were taken before and after the treatment. The data was analyzed with Pancherz's analysis and pare t test (SPSS 11.5 software). After the therapy, SNA and ANB angles reduced, the change of SNB angle was trivial, pg/OLP was forward movement. The axial inclination of the lower incisors increased and of the upper incisor reduced. Overjet of the incisors was improved, in which skeletal factor was improved to 44.64% and dentition factor was 55.36%. The first molar on the mandible was forward movement. Molar relationship was also improved, in which skeletal factor was improved to 65.65%, and dentition factor was 34.35%. HGAC can efficaciously treat Class II division 1 malocclusion with maxillary protrusion, stimulate modification of the mandibular condyle and fossa, and promote the development of the mandibles. Dentition was improved more than skeletal on overjet, and skeletal was improved more than dentition on molar relationship.

  4. Correction of a skeletal Class II malocclusion with severe crowding by a specially designed rapid maxillary expander.

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    Wang, Honghong; Feng, Jing; Lu, Peijun; Shen, Gang

    2015-02-01

    To correct an Angle Class II malocclusion or to create spaces in the maxillary arch by nonextraction treatment, distal movement of the maxillary molars is required. Various modalities for distalizing the buccal segment have been reported. Conventional extraoral appliances can be used to obtain maximum anchorage. However, many patients reject headgear wear because of social and esthetic concerns, and the success of this treatment depends on patient compliance. Intraoral appliances, such as repelling magnets, nickel-titanium coils, pendulum appliance, Jones jig appliance, distal jet appliance, and modified Nance appliance, have been introduced to distalize the molars with little or no patient cooperation. However, intraoral appliances can result in anchorage loss of the anterior teeth and distal tipping of the maxillary molars. In this case report, we introduce a diversified rapid maxillary expansion appliance that was custom designed and fabricated for the treatment of a growing girl with a skeletal Class II malocclusion and severe crowding from a totally lingually positioned lateral incisor. The appliance concomitantly expanded the maxilla transversely and retracted the buccal segment sagittally, distalizing the maxillary molars to reach a Class I relationship and creating the spaces to displace the malpositioned lateral incisor. The uniqueness of this special diversified rapid maxillary expansion appliance was highlighted by a series of reconstructions and modifications at different stages of the treatment to reinforce the anchorage. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Sagittal and vertical changes after treatment of Class II Division 1 malocclusion according to the Cetlin method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, F; Monsurró, A; Perillo, L

    2000-08-01

    This cephalometric study was designed to evaluate the dentoskeletal anteroposterior and vertical changes produced by Cetlin therapy (lower lip bumper, ACCO, cervical headgear) to correct Class II Division 1 malocclusion in the late mixed dentition. All measurements were made on 2 lateral headfilms, at pretreatment and at 1 year after beginning treatment. The selected sample (n = 110; 67 boys and 43 girls; mean age, 10 to 11 years) and the control group (n = 100; 48 boys, 52 girls; mean age, 10 to 11 years) matched for number, age, and malocclusion. The average observation interval was 13 months. The final measurements between intervals were averaged and tested for significance by analysis of variance. A one-factor (group) repeated measure model and a two-factor (group and facial type) repeated measure model were fitted to each variable separately and significance values were set at P Class I molar relationship was achieved in all treated subjects primarily through distalization of upper first molars. A significant distal tipping was found in 70% of the treated cases. The results showed a significant forward growth limitation of the maxilla with the use of cervical headgear. No significant change of mandibular position was found in the treated group compared with the control group. Both bite opening and proclination of upper and lower front teeth occurred. Cetlin therapy is reliable and effective for space recovery and interceptive Class II Division 1 treatment. Additional therapy may be needed later.

  6. Changes in skeletal and dental relationship in Class II Division I malocclusion after rapid maxillary expansion: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratieri, Carolina; Alves, Matheus; Bolognese, Ana Maria; Nojima, Matilde C G; Nojima, Lincoln I

    2014-01-01

    To assess skeletal and dental changes immediately after rapid maxillary expansion (RME) in Class II Division 1 malocclusion patients and after a retention period, using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging. Seventeen children with Class II, Division 1 malocclusion and maxillary skeletal transverse deficiency underwent RME following the Haas protocol. CBCT were taken before treatment (T1), at the end of the active expansion phase (T2) and after a retention period of 6 months (T3). The scanned images were measured anteroposteriorly (SNA, SNB, ANB, overjet and MR) and vertically (N-ANS, ANS-Me, N-Me and overbite). Significant differences were identified immediately after RME as the maxilla moved forward, the mandible moved downward, overjet increased and overbite decreased. During the retention period, the maxilla relapsed backwards and the mandible was displaced forward, leaving patients with an overall increase in anterior facial height. RME treatment allowed more anterior than inferior positioning of the mandible during the retention period, thus significantly improving Class II dental relationship in 75% of the patients evaluated.

  7. Changes in skeletal and dental relationship in Class II Division I malocclusion after rapid maxillary expansion: a prospective study

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    Carolina Baratieri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess skeletal and dental changes immediately after rapid maxillary expansion (RME in Class II Division 1 malocclusion patients and after a retention period, using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT imaging. METHODS: Seventeen children with Class II, Division 1 malocclusion and maxillary skeletal transverse deficiency underwent RME following the Haas protocol. CBCT were taken before treatment (T1, at the end of the active expansion phase (T2 and after a retention period of 6 months (T3. The scanned images were measured anteroposteriorly (SNA, SNB, ANB, overjet and MR and vertically (N-ANS, ANS-Me, N-Me and overbite. RESULTS: Significant differences were identified immediately after RME as the maxilla moved forward, the mandible moved downward, overjet increased and overbite decreased. During the retention period, the maxilla relapsed backwards and the mandible was displaced forward, leaving patients with an overall increase in anterior facial height. CONCLUSION: RME treatment allowed more anterior than inferior positioning of the mandible during the retention period, thus significantly improving Class II dental relationship in 75% of the patients evaluated.

  8. Comparative cephalometric study of Class II malocclusion treatment with Pendulum and Jones jig appliances followed by fixed corrective orthodontics

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    Mayara Paim Patel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to cephalometrically compare the skeletal and dentoalveolar effects in the treatment of Class II malocclusion with Pendulum and Jones jig appliances, followed by fixed corrective orthodontics, and to compare such effects to a control group. METHODS: The sample was divided into three groups. Group 1: 18 patients treated with Pendulum, Group 2: 25 patients treated with Jones jig, and Group 3: 19 young subjects with untreated Class II malocclusions and initial mean age of 12.88 years. The chi-square test was applied to assess severity and gender distribution. Groups 1 and 2 were compared to the control group by means of the one-way ANOVA and Tukey tests in order to differentiate treatment changes from those occurred by craniofacial growth. RESULTS: There were no significant changes among the three groups with regard to the components of the maxilla and the mandible, maxillomandibular relationship, cephalometric and tegumental pattern. Buccal tipping of mandibular incisors was significantly greater in the experimental groups and increased mesial angulation of the maxillary second molars was found in the Jones jig group. In the experimental groups, dental relationship, overbite and overjet were corrected. CONCLUSION: It can be stated that the distalization achieved its purpose of correcting the Class II.

  9. Effects of the headgear-activator Teuscher appliance in the treatment of Class II Division 1 malocclusion: a geometric morphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, G D; Thind, B S

    2003-05-01

    To test the hypothesis that there are no gender differences in the outcomes of patients with class II malocclusion treated with the headgear-activator Teuscher appliance (HATA). Retrospective, longitudinal Puerto Rico and Scotland, UK. Thirty-one patients requiring correction of class II division 1 malocclusions. Male and female patients treated using HATA. Mean pre- and post-treatment parameters derived from cephalometry subjected to t-tests, and finite-element scaling analysis (FESA), which localizes and quantifies differences between mean pre- and post-treatment configurations. Post-treatment, cephalometry showed that for both males and females, angle SNA decreased, SNB increased, and lower facial heights increased significantly (p class II malocclusions using HATA exhibit antero-posterior restraint of the maxilla, improvements in the mandible maintaining facial height, and lip changes commensurate with improvements in the soft tissue profile.

  10. Short-term anteroposterior treatment effects of functional appliances and extraoral traction on class II malocclusion. A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonarakis, Gregory Stylianos; Kiliaridis, Stavros

    2007-09-01

    To evaluate the anteroposterior short-term skeletal and dental effects on Class II malocclusion in growing patients following treatment with functional appliances (activators or twin block), extraoral traction, or combination appliances (appliances with both functional and extraoral traction components), based on published data. A literature search was carried out identifying a total of nine prospective clinical trials. The data provided in the publications underwent meta-analysis using the random effects model with regard to SNA, SNB, ANB, and overjet. All appliance groups showed an improvement in sagittal intermaxillary relationships (decrease in ANB) when compared to untreated subjects. Activators and twin block appliances accomplish this mainly by acting on the mandible (increases in SNB) while twin block appliances also seem to act on the maxilla (decrease in SNA). Extraoral traction appliances achieve this by acting on the maxilla (decreases in SNA). Combination appliances mainly act on the mandible (increase in SNB). Activators, twin block, and combination appliances also reveal a decrease in overjet, which is not the case in the singular use of extraoral traction. Intermaxillary changes being present in all appliance groups, anteroposterior treatment response following the use of functional appliances and/or extraoral traction in growing class II malocclusion patients is most evident in one of the two jaws (mandible for activators and combination appliances and maxilla for extraoral traction) except for the twin block group, which shows changes on both jaws.

  11. Changes in lips, cheeks and tongue pressures after upper incisor protrusion in Class II division 2 malocclusion: a prospective study

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    Irmak Partal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The etiology of Class II division 2 (CII/2 malocclusion focuses on heredity; however lip, cheek, and tongue pressures that are associated with the environmental effect are considered to have an effect. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation between perioral pressures and the upper incisor inclination in CII/2 malocclusion. Methods Twenty patients (8 females, 12 males; mean age 10.29 ± 0.90 years with CII/2 malocclusion were included in the study group, and 15 patients (5 females, 10 males; mean age 10.56 ± 1.06 years with Class I malocclusion were included. The upper incisors were protruded with a utility arch (0.016 × 0.022 in. blue elgiloy wire. Perioral pressure assessment was made with the Iowa Oral Pressure Instrument. Upper lip pressure, lower lip pressure, vertical lip pressure, left-right buccal pressures, swallowing, and maximum tongue pressures were measured. Repeated measure ANOVA was used to test the intragroup differences. Intergroup comparisons were made using two-way repeated measure ANOVA with Bonferroni correction. Relationships between the variables were analyzed using rank correlation (Spearman’s rho. The significance for all statistical tests was predetermined at p < 0.05. Results A significant change occurred in the upper lip pressure, lower lip pressure, and vertical lip pressure; however, significant difference was not found between the groups. Upper lip pressure increased significantly in both groups. In the CII/2 group, lower lip pressure increased after protrusion and decreased after retention, while vertical lip pressure decreased and then increased significantly. Left buccal pressure changes between the groups were not parallel. Right buccal pressure, swallowing, and maximum tongue pressure changes were not statistically significant. Statistically significant correlation was found between U1-NA (mm and vertical lip pressure (r −0.467. Conclusions In the CII/2 group

  12. [A comparative study of the transverse dimensions of the dental arches between Class I dental occlusion and Class II1 and Class II2 malocclusions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halimi, A; Azeroual, M F; Abouqal, R; Zaoui, F

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this work was to compare transverse dimensions of the maxillary and mandibular arches in the canine and molar region between three groups of patients: the first group had an occlusion in class II division 1, the second one a dental class II division 2 and the third one, a class I bite. Our sample is composed of 94 patients, with an average age of 20 +/- 3 years: 31 patients presented a class I occlusion, 33 a class III1 and 30 cases presented a dental class II2. For this study, we measured, on the maxillary and mandibular dental casts of each patient, the intercanine and intermolar canine (central inter fossa). Comparison of variables was conducted using the variance analysis ANOVA; the selected post-hoc test is the Bonferrroni test. On the basis of our study, we can get the following results: Maxillary intercanine distance is narrower in class II1 compared to class II2 of 2 mm "p < 0.05". Mandibular intercanine distance is narrower in class III1 compared to class II2 of 1, 3 mm "p < 0.05". Maxillary intermolar distance (inter fossa) is narrower in class II1 compared to class I of 2, 2 mm "p < 0.05".

  13. Adult Class III treatment using a J-hook headgear to the mandibular arch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Yasuko; Kuroda, Shingo; Alexander, Richard G; Tanaka, Eiji

    2010-03-01

    To evaluate the treatment effects of high-pull J-hook headgear on the lower dental arch in nongrowing Class III patients. Fourteen nongrowing Class III patients having an Angle Class III malocclusion and ANB angle of less than 1.0 degree, were treated with high-pull J-hook headgear to the lower arch. Using lateral cephalograms and plaster models obtained before treatment (T1), after active treatment (T2), and after the retention period (T3), the treatment outcome was analyzed. The incisal edge of the lower central incisor moved a mean of 1.2 mm to the lingual and 1.7 mm to the occlusal between T1 and T2. The axis of the lower incisor inclined 4.0 degrees to the lingual. The lower first molar cusp moved 1.5 mm to the distal and the root apex moved 2.0 mm to the mesial. Molar angulations were tipped 9.8 degrees to the distal. The occlusal plane showed 4.5 degrees counterclockwise rotation. The mean intermolar width increased 1.5 mm on average. Comparison of the records between T2 and T3 showed minimal changes. Distal movement of the lower dental arch using J-hook headgear was clearly demonstrated, confirming that the application of high-pull J-hook headgear to the lower arch was effective for improvement of the Class III occlusion.

  14. Evaluation of temporomandibular disorders in Class III patients treated with mandibular cervical headgear and fixed appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Diego; Oberti, Giovanni; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2008-03-01

    Our aim in this study was to evaluate the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in Class III patients treated with mandibular cervical headgear (MCH) and fixed appliances. The sample of 75 patients included 25 patients with no previous orthodontic treatment, 25 Class I patients who had undergone orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances and without extractions, and 25 patients with dentoskeletal Class III disharmonies treated with MCH and fixed appliances. The Helkimo index was used to test the prevalence of TMD symptoms in the 3 groups. The prevalence rates of the Helkimo index in the 3 groups were compared with the z score on proportions. No statistically significant differences in the prevalence rates of the Helkimo index scores in the 3 groups were found (P = .367). Most subjects in the 3 groups had an Helkimo index of zero (66.7%). Subjects with Class III malocclusions treated with MCH and fixed appliances do not have greater prevalence of TMD symptoms than do Class I subjects treated with fixed appliances or untreated subjects.

  15. Prevalence of malocclusion in schoolchildren in the municipality of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Cassiano Arashiro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the prevalence and types of malocclusion in schoolchildren in the municipality of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil.Method: Six hundred and sixty schoolchildren at three schools in the municipality of Campinas were examined. The age bracket ranged from 6.5 up to18.1 years (mean ± s.d. = 12.2 ± 2.3 years The intraoral clinical exams were performed by four duly trained and calibrated dentists, consisted of visual inspection using only disposable wooden spatulas and millimetric probes, performed in rooms provided by the schools, with good conditions of visibility and natural lighting. The criteria adopted for classifying normal and malocclusion were those stipulated by Andrews1, Angle2 and Maia3. Results: The data obtained indicated that there was no statistically significant difference between the genders. Malocclusion was found in 87.4% of the schoolchildren examined, in agreement with the majority of Brazilian and International studies. Class I malocclusion was the most prevalent (39.7% among the schoolchildren examined, followed by Class II, with 36% of the cases, and there was higher prevalence of Class II division 1 (22.7% in comparison with Class II division 2 (13.3%. Class III malocclusion was present in 11.7% of the sample.Conclusion: There is high prevalence of malocclusion, irrespective of gender, in the studied population of schoolchildren. The most prevalent malocclusion was Class I, followed by Class I division 1.

  16. Cephalometric assessment of maxillary length in Serbian children with skeletal class III

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    Stojanović Zdenka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Malocclusion of skeletal class III is a complex irregularity of sagittal inter-jaw relationship, which is due to irregularities of sagittal position of one or both of the jaw bones, which is often associated with disproportionate ratio of their length. The aim of this study was to determine whether the length of the jaw of children with skeletal class III in the period of mixed dentition was changed. Methods. Fifty children with skeletal class III and the same number of those with skeletal class I, of both sexes, have been selected on the basis of cephalometric analysis of profile tele-x-ray of the head. All the children aged 6-12 had mixed dentition, and were divided according to sex and age into three subgroups within each group. The length of maxilla, mandible and cranial base were measured. Proportions among the lengths measured within each group were found and difference significance in the measured lengths and their proportions among groups and subgroups were evaluated. Results. The children with skeletal class III, compared with the findings in the control group, had significantly lower values of maxillary length, total maxillary length, as well as lower values of their lengths in proportion to lengths of the front or the total length of cranial base and in proportion to mandibular lengths (p < 0.05. Among the patients of different sexes, both in the test and the control group, a significant difference in the values of the measured lengths was found. Conclusion. The children with skeletal class III have significantly shorter maxilla than those with skeletal class I.

  17. Effects of combined orthodontic-orthognathic treatment for class II and III correction on posterior airway space : Comparison of mono- and bignathic osteotomies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourfar, Jan; Kinzinger, Gero Stefan Michael; Feifel, Hartmut; Vehr, Verena Maria; Lisson, Jörg Alexander

    2017-06-28

    Comparison of treatment effects on the posterior airway space (PAS) in patients treated with combined orthodontic-orthognathic surgical treatment. Pre- and postsurgical lateral cephalograms of 53 (34 females, 19 males) Caucasian patients were analyzed using a customized set of measurements. According to malocclusion (Class II or III) and surgical approach (either monognathic or bignathic), patients were allocated into four groups. PAS was assessed from cranial to caudal at six levels (P1-P6). Paired t tests were used for intragroup and t tests for independent samples for intergroup comparisons. Results were considered statistically significant at p Class II malocclusion, PAS retropalatally (P1 level) almost remained unchanged, whereas measurements at levels P2-P6 showed a mean increase ranging from approximately 2-5.5 mm. Significant changes were most pronounced in monognathic Class II patients (group 1) at levels P2-P4 with mean values ranging from approximately 3.7-5.5 mm. In patients treated for Class III malocclusion (groups 3 and 4), measurements at the P1 level almost remained unchanged in patients who underwent mandibular setback surgery (group 3), whereas the same measurements exhibited significant increase (>6 mm) in patients treated with bignathic surgery (group 4). Bignathic surgery led to smaller changes of pharyngeal depth in Class II and III patients than monognathic surgery. Alterations of the PAS due to orthognathic surgery should be considered during orthodontic and presurgical treatment planning.

  18. Duration of orthodontic treatment and mandibular lengthening by means of distraction or bilateral sagittal split osteotomy in patients with Angle Class II malocclusions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breuning, K.H.; van Strijen, P.J.; Prahl-Andersen, B.; Tuinzing, D.B.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the duration of treatment of patients with skeletal Angle Class II malocclusions treated with orthodontic appliances and surgical lengthening of the mandible to close residual overjets. Methods: In this retrospective study, the patients were divided into

  19. Dentoskeletal and soft-tissue changes with cervical headgear and mandibular protraction appliance therapy in the treatment of Class II malocclusions.

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    Siqueira, Danilo Furquim; de Almeira, Renato Rodrigues; Janson, Guilherme; Brandão, Analu Giampietro; Coelho Filho, Carlos Martins

    2007-04-01

    In this study, we cephalometrically compared changes in the dentoskeletal and soft tissues after orthodontic treatment of Class II Division 1 malocclusions between the cervical headgear (CHG) and the mandibular protraction appliance (MPA) followed by fixed appliances. The sample consisted of 50 patients divided into 2 groups of 25 patients each (13 male, 12 female). Group 1 patients were treated with CHG and fixed appliance, and group 2 patients were treated with the MPA and fixed appliances. The patients were matched according to sex, age, treatment time, and initial cephalometric variables. The groups were compared regarding pretreatment stage and treatment changes, with t tests, at P Class II relationship, decreased facial convexity, extrusion and distalization of the maxillary first molar, and extrusion of the mandibular incisors. The MPA group had statistically greater increases in maxillary length, mandibular protrusion, maxillary incisor retrusion, mesial displacement of the mandibular first molars, and protrusion of the lower lip. The changes in Class II malocclusion correction between the CHG and the MPA were that the CHG corrected the Class II malocclusion primarily through greater action on the maxillary skeletal and dentoalveolar structures as compared with the MPA, which corrected the malocclusion through greater action on the mandibular dentoalveolar structures.

  20. [Orthodontics in general practice 3. Angle Class II/1 malocclusion: one-phase treatment treatment preferred to two-phase treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, M.A.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    With regard to the optimal treatment timing for children with an Angle Class II division 1 malocclusion, there is an ongoing controversy on the effectiveness of a two-phase or a one-phase therapy. Two-phase treatment involves a first phase to correct the jaw relationship starting at the age of 7 to

  1. A comparison of the MARA and the AdvanSync functional appliances in the treatment of Class II malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jewair, Thikriat S; Preston, Charles B; Moll, Eva-Maria; Dischinger, Terry

    2012-09-01

    To determine the skeletal and dentoalveolar effects produced by the MARA and the AdvanSync functional appliances in the treatment of growing patients with Class II malocclusion. A retrospective study was conducted using lateral cephalograms of patients consecutively treated with MARA (n  =  40) and AdvanSync (n  =  30) during their skeletal growth spurt as evaluated by the improved cervical vertebral maturation method. A comparison was made with 24 untreated Class II control subjects obtained from the University of Michigan growth study and matched with the experimental groups for skeletal age, sex, and craniofacial morphology. Cephalograms were taken at three time points: (T1) pretreatment, (T2) postfunctional appliance treatment, and (T3) fixed orthodontic treatment completion. Treatment changes were evaluated between the time points using 35 variables. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Scheffe's post hoc test. At the postfunctional appliances' phase (T2-T1), both appliances showed significant increases in total mandibular length, ramus height, and anterior/posterior facial height. The AdvanSync resulted in significant restriction of maxillary growth, 1° more than MARA. This effect continued during the fixed orthodontic treatment stage (T3-T2). The net changes (T3-T1) revealed significant mandibular growth enhancement with MARA (+2.7mm) and significant headgear effect with AdvanSync. Both appliances caused 5° flaring in mandibular incisors as well as significant decreases in overjet and overbite. The treatment time for AdvanSync was 1 year less than MARA. The MARA and the AdvanSync resulted in normalization of the Class II malocclusion. The AdvanSync showed more headgear effect but less mandibular length enhancement than MARA did. Both appliances showed similar dentoalveolar changes.

  2. Effects of a novel magnetic orthopedic appliance (MOA-III) on the dentofacial complex in mild to moderate skeletal class III children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ning; Feng, Jing; Hu, Zheng; Chen, Rongjing; Shen, Gang

    2015-10-14

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes of skeletal and dental structures in mild to moderate skeletal Class III children following the use of a new magnetic orthopedic appliance (MOA-III). A total of 36 patients (14 boys and 22 girls, mean age 9 years and 5 months) who presented with a mild to moderate skeletal Class III jaw discrepancy were treated with MOA-III. Another group of 20 untreated patients (9 boys and 11 girls, mean age 9 years and 2 months) with the same level of deformity served as the control group. The average treatment time was 6.6 months. Radiographs were taken at the same time intervals for both groups. A paired t test was used to determine the significant differences before and after treatment, and a two-sample t test was used to analyze the differences between the treatment and control groups. The anterior crossbite in all subjects was corrected after MOA-III therapy. The maxillomandibular relationship showed favorable changes (ANB, Wits, overjet increased significantly, P  0.05). Significant upper incisor proclination and lower incisor retroclination were observed (UI-NA increased, P III appliance compared to the untreated group. The MOA-III was effective for the early treatment of a mild to moderate Class III malocclusion in children.

  3. Características cefalométricas de pacientes portadores de más oclusões Classe I e Classe II de Angle Cephalometric characteristics of patients with Angle Class I and Class II malocclusions

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    Rogério Lacerda dos Santos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: o presente estudo comparou algumas medidas cefalométricas relacionadas às características faciais em pacientes com má oclusão Classe I, Classe II 1ª divisão e Classe II 2ª divisão. METODOLOGIA: foram selecionadas 130 telerradiografias de pacientes leucodermas em fase inicial de tratamento ortodôntico, com idades entre 10 e 16 anos (média de 12,6 anos; e divididos em 3 grupos. As medidas cefalométricas utilizadas neste estudo foram: ANB, ı-SN, IMPA, AML, Ls-ı, Li-ī e EI. A análise de variância e o teste de Tukey foram realizados nas medidas ANB, IMPA, AML, ı-SN e Li-ī. Para as demais variáveis (EI e Ls-ı foi utilizado o teste de Kruskal Wallis e Dunn. RESULTADOS: os resultados mostraram que as medidas Ls-ı e EI tiveram diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os grupos I e II-1 e entre os grupos II-1 e II-2 (p AIM: The present study compared some cephalometric measurements related to facial characteristics in patients having Class I, Class II division 1, and Class II division 2 malocclusions. METHODS: One hundred and thirty teleradiographs of Caucasian patients aged 10-16 years (mean age of 12.6 years under initial orthodontic treatment were selected for study and divided into 3 groups. The cephalometric measurements used in the present study were the following: ANB, ı-SN, IMPA, AML, Ls-ı, Li-ī, and EI. Variance analysis and Tukey's test were carried out for ANB, IMPA, AML, ı-SN, and Li-ī measurements, whereas Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests were used for EI and Ls-ı. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences were found for EI and Ls-ı measurements when Group II-1 was compared to Group I and Group II-2 (p < 0.05. ANB and IMPA measurements also had statistically significant differences when Group I was compared to Group II-1 and Group II-2 (p < 0.05. The measurement ı-SN had statistically significant differences between the 3 groups (p < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: One can conclude that the measurement

  4. Early orthodontic treatment for Class II malocclusion reduces the chance of incisal trauma: Results of a Cochrane systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiruvenkatachari, Badri; Harrison, Jayne; Worthington, Helen; O'Brien, Kevin

    2015-07-01

    In this article, we summarize the most clinically relevant findings of our recently updated Cochrane systematic review into the treatment of Class II Division 1 malocclusion. A systematic review of the databases was performed to identify all randomized controlled trials evaluating early treatment with functional appliances to correct Class II Division 1 malocclusion. Three early treatment studies with data from 353 participants were included in this review. The results showed no significant difference for any outcomes, except new incidence of incisor trauma, which was significantly less for the early treatment group. The risk ratio analysis for new incisor trauma showed that providing early treatment reduced the risk of trauma by 33% and 41% in the functional and headgear groups, respectively. However, when the numbers needed to treat were calculated, early treatment with functional appliances prevents 1 incidence of incisal trauma for every 10 patients (95% CI, 5-174), and headgear treatment prevents 1 incidence of incisal trauma for every 6 patients (95% CI, 3-23). Orthodontic treatment for young children, followed by a later phase of treatment when the child is in early adolescence, appears to reduce the incidence of new incisal trauma significantly compared with treatment that is provided in 1 phase when the child is in early adolescence. However, these data should be interpreted with caution because of the high degree of uncertainty. There are no other advantages in providing 2-phase treatment compared with 1 phase in early adolescence. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Condylar volume and condylar area in class I, class II and class III young adult subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Saccucci Matteo; D’Attilio Michele; Rodolfino Daria; Festa Felice; Polimeni Antonella; Tecco Simona

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Aim Aim of this study was to compare the volume and the shape of mandibular condyles in a Caucasian young adult population, with different skeletal pattern. Material and methods 200 Caucasian patients (15–30 years old, 95 male and 105 females) were classified in three groups on the base of ANB angle: skeletal class I (65 patients), skeletal class II (70 patients) and skeletal class III (65 patients). Left and right TMJs of each subject were evaluated independently with CBCT (Iluma). ...

  6. Skeletal maturation of the cervical vertebrae: association with various types of malocclusion

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    Mônica Costa Armond

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The identification of the skeletal maturation stage of the cervical vertebrae has proven an important reference for orthodontic diagnosis. The aim of the present study was to determine the association between the skeletal maturation stage of the cervical vertebrae and types of malocclusion according to the age and gender of participants. A total of 361 individuals (168 males and 193 females between 8 and 14 years of age were selected from a convenience sample. Malocclusions were diagnosed through study models using the Angle classification. Maturation stages of the cervical vertebrae were determined using the method proposed by Hassel and Farman. Statistical analysis involved the chi-square test (p £ 0.05 and multiple logistic regression (forward stepwise procedure. Significant differences were observed between the stage of skeletal maturation of the cervical vertebrae and gender at ages 11, 12 and 14 years. Males with Class II malocclusion were twice as likely to be in Stage 1 or 2 of cervical vertebra maturation than individuals with Class I malocclusion (OR = 2.1 [CI 95%, 1.33-3.18]. There were no differences between individuals with Class I and Class III malocclusions. The association between skeletal maturation of the cervical vertebrae and type of malocclusion was significant, suggesting a skeletal component in the determination of Class II malocclusions.

  7. Factors influencing soft tissue profile changes following orthodontic treatment in patients with Class II Division 1 malocclusion

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    Suhatcha Maetevorakul

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have shown soft tissue profile changes after orthodontic treatment in Class II Division 1 patients. However, a few studies have described factors influencing the soft tissue changes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors influencing the soft tissue profile changes following orthodontic treatment in Class II Division 1 patients. Methods The subjects comprised 104 Thai patients age 8–16 years who presented Class II Division 1 malocclusions and were treated with different orthodontic modalities comprising cervical headgear, Class II traction and extraction of the four first premolars. The profile changes were evaluated from the lateral cephalograms before and after treatment by means of the X-Y coordinate system. Significant soft tissue profile changes were evaluated by paired t test at a 0.05 significance level. The correlations among significant soft tissue changes and independent variables comprising treatment modality, age, sex, pretreatment skeletal, dental and soft tissue morphology were evaluated by stepwise multiple regression analysis at a 0.05 significance level. Results The multiple regression analysis indicated that different treatment modalities, age, sex, pretreatment skeletal, dental and soft tissue morphology were related to the profile changes. The predictive power of these variables on the soft tissue profile changes ranged from 9.9 to 40.3 %. Conclusions Prediction of the soft tissue profile changes following treatment of Class II Division 1 malocclusion from initial patient morphology, age, sex and types of treatment was complicated and required several variables to explain their variations. Upper lip change in horizontal direction could be found only at the stomion superius and was less predictable than those of the lower lip. Variations in upper lip retraction at the stomion superius were explained by types of treatment (R 2 = 0.099, whereas protrusion of the lower

  8. Factors influencing soft tissue profile changes following orthodontic treatment in patients with Class II Division 1 malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maetevorakul, Suhatcha; Viteporn, Smorntree

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have shown soft tissue profile changes after orthodontic treatment in Class II Division 1 patients. However, a few studies have described factors influencing the soft tissue changes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors influencing the soft tissue profile changes following orthodontic treatment in Class II Division 1 patients. The subjects comprised 104 Thai patients age 8-16 years who presented Class II Division 1 malocclusions and were treated with different orthodontic modalities comprising cervical headgear, Class II traction and extraction of the four first premolars. The profile changes were evaluated from the lateral cephalograms before and after treatment by means of the X-Y coordinate system. Significant soft tissue profile changes were evaluated by paired t test at a 0.05 significance level. The correlations among significant soft tissue changes and independent variables comprising treatment modality, age, sex, pretreatment skeletal, dental and soft tissue morphology were evaluated by stepwise multiple regression analysis at a 0.05 significance level. The multiple regression analysis indicated that different treatment modalities, age, sex, pretreatment skeletal, dental and soft tissue morphology were related to the profile changes. The predictive power of these variables on the soft tissue profile changes ranged from 9.9 to 40.3%. Prediction of the soft tissue profile changes following treatment of Class II Division 1 malocclusion from initial patient morphology, age, sex and types of treatment was complicated and required several variables to explain their variations. Upper lip change in horizontal direction could be found only at the stomion superius and was less predictable than those of the lower lip. Variations in upper lip retraction at the stomion superius were explained by types of treatment (R(2) = 0.099), whereas protrusion of the lower lip at the labrale inferius was correlated with initial inclination of

  9. Complex networks for data-driven medicine: the case of Class III dentoskeletal disharmony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scala, A.; Auconi, P.; Scazzocchio, M.; Caldarelli, G.; McNamara, JA; Franchi, L.

    2014-11-01

    In the last decade, the availability of innovative algorithms derived from complexity theory has inspired the development of highly detailed models in various fields, including physics, biology, ecology, economy, and medicine. Due to the availability of novel and ever more sophisticated diagnostic procedures, all biomedical disciplines face the problem of using the increasing amount of information concerning each patient to improve diagnosis and prevention. In particular, in the discipline of orthodontics the current diagnostic approach based on clinical and radiographic data is problematic due to the complexity of craniofacial features and to the numerous interacting co-dependent skeletal and dentoalveolar components. In this study, we demonstrate the capability of computational methods such as network analysis and module detection to extract organizing principles in 70 patients with excessive mandibular skeletal protrusion with underbite, a condition known in orthodontics as Class III malocclusion. Our results could possibly constitute a template framework for organising the increasing amount of medical data available for patients’ diagnosis.

  10. Management of class II malocclusion in an adolescent patient with “The Poosh Appliance”: An in office fabricated fixed functional appliance

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    Poonam K Manik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Class II malocclusions with mandibular retrognathism are best managed with functional orthopedic appliances. Patients reporting before peak pubertal growth are treated with removable functional appliances. Young adults or Class II patients in late adolescence have been treated most effectively using fixed functional appliances (FFAs in combination with fixed orthodontic appliance. In such patients, some skeletal changes but largely dentoalveolar changes account for the treatment results. Most of the readily available FFAs have high cost or require laboratory fabrication. Both mandibular protraction appliance (MPA and churro jumper appliance are in-office-fabricated FFAs. The Poosh appliance is a newly designed in-office-fabricated FFA. It is a modification of the popular churro jumper appliance. This article presents the design, fabrication, and use of Poosh appliance in a 15-year-old male patient to manage Class II malocclusion successfully.

  11. Correlation of morphological variants of soft palate and types of malocclusion: A digital lateral cephalometric study

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    Deepak Samdani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: The morphology of soft palate has variable presentations on lateral cephalometry. The aim of our study was to investigate the correlation between various shapes of soft palate and types of malocclusion in different gender groups among North Indian individuals. Materials and Methods: The study sample comprised randomly selected 250 healthy North Indian individuals (125 males and 125 females seeking orthodontic treatment for malocclusion without any speech abnormality or any other syndromes or diseases and with age ranging from 14 to 28 years. Clinically, in all subjects, the type of malocclusion was examined and categorized according to Angle′s classification of malocclusion. The morphological variants of soft palate were also assessed on digital lateral cephalogram and were allocated to one of the six patterns as described by You et al. The differences in the proportion of each type were studied and variation of malocclusion and soft palate morphology between gender groups was also assessed. The results obtained were subjected to a statistical analysis to find the correlation between variants of the soft palate and types of malocclusion in different gender groups. Results: In our study, the frequency of rat tail (37.2% type of soft palate was seen in highest proportion, whereas the frequency of distorted S-shape (6.80% was least in both the genders. Angle′s class II malocclusion (51.2% was the most common, followed by class I (43.2%, whereas class III (5.6% was found to be the least prominent type in both the genders. Patients with Angle′s class I malocclusion were most frequently found to have rat tail type soft palate, those with Angle′s class II had leaf-shaped soft palate, and those with Angle′s class III had crooked shaped soft palate. Angle′s class II and class III malocclusions were significantly correlated with soft palate shapes, whereas Angle′s class I malocclusion was highly significantly correlated

  12. Comparison of Natural Head Position in Different Anteroposterior Malocclusions

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    Zohreh Hedayati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The facial esthetics after orthodontic treatment and orthognathic surgery may be affected by the patient’s natural head position. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the natural head position for the three skeletal classes of malocclusion.Materials and Methods: Our sample consisted of 102 lateral cephalometric radiographs of patients aged 15 to 18 years; class I (n=32, class II (n=40 and class III (n=30. Nine landmarks of the craniofacial skeleton and three landmarks of the cervical vertebrae were determined. Variables consisted of two angles for cervical posture (OPT/Hor and CVT/Hor, three angles for craniofacial posture (SN/Ver, PNS-ANS/Ver, and ML/Ver and five for craniofacial angulation (SN/OPT, SN/CVT, PNS-ANS/OPT, PNS-ANS/CVT, ML/CVT. The data were analyzed statistically using ANOVA and post hoc tests.Results: PNS-ANS/Ver and SN/Ver differed significantly (p<0.05 among the three groups. There were no significant differences between class I and class II malocclusions for the indicator angles of cranial posture except for ML/Ver. The SN/CVT was significantly different for class I compared to class III patients. A head posture camouflaging the underlying skeletal class III was observed in our population.Conclusion: A more forward head posture was observed in skeletal class III participants compared to skeletal class I and II and that class III patients tended to incline their head more ventral compared to class I participants. These findings may have implications for the amount of jaw movements during surgery particularly in patients with a class III malocclusion

  13. A retrospective cephalometric evaluation of dental changes with activator and activator headgear combination in the treatment of skeletal class II malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, Rajeev; Kumar, G Anil; Maheshwari, Amit; Kumar, Mukesh

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the dental changes brought about by activator and activator headgear combination (ACHG) and to determine whether we can achieve control over the lower incisor proclination which is a side effect of using functional appliances; or not, while treating cases of skeletal class II malocclusions. Lateral cephalograms of 45 skeletal class II division 1 patients were selected for the study. Fifteen of them were successfully treated with an Andresen activator and the other 15 with an activator headgear combination. Fifteen class II subjects who had declined treatment served as the control group. Cephalometric landmarks were marked by one author to avoid interobserver variability. The results revealed that both the activator and the activator headgear combination significantly (p headgear combination group. An activator headgear combination would offer itself as a better option compared with activator alone in the treatment of skeletal class II malocclusions especially in cases with proclined mandibular incisors. When one of the treatment goals is to achieve a greater control over mandibular incisor proclination in the treatment of Skeletal Class II malocclusions, employing a combination of activator and headgear may substantially improve clinical outcomes.

  14. Extraction treatment of a class II division 2 malocclusion with mandibular posterior discrepancy and changes in stomatognathic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Kunihiro; Tomonari, Hiroshi; Kitashima, Fumiaki; Miyawaki, Shouichi

    2015-03-01

    This case report describes the successful extraction treatment of a Class II division 2 malocclusion with mandibular posterior discrepancy and a congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisor on the left side. The posterior space in the mandibular arch was small, and the mandibular second molars were impacted, with distal tipping. The discrepancies in the maxillary and mandibular arches were resolved by extraction of the maxillary lateral incisor on the right side and the mandibular second premolars on both sides. The mesial movement of the mandibular first molars occurred appropriately, with the second molars moving into an upright position. A lip bumper was used with a preadjusted edgewise appliance in the maxillary dentition to reinforce molar anchorage and labial movement of the retroclined incisors. Despite the extraction treatment, a deep bite could be corrected without aggravation as a result of the lip bumper and utility arch in the mandibular dentition. Thus, an Angle Class I molar relationship and an ideal overbite were achieved. The occlusal contact area and masticatory muscle activities during maximum clenching increased after treatment. The maximum closing velocity and the maximum gape during chewing increased, and the chewing pattern changed from the chopping to grinding type. The findings in the present case suggest that the correction of a deep bite might be effective for improving stomatognathic function.

  15. Class II malocclusion with complex problems treated with a novel combination of lingual orthodontic appliances and lingual arches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagita, Takeshi; Nakamura, Masahiro; Kawanabe, Noriaki; Yamashiro, Takashi

    2014-07-01

    This case report describes a novel method of combining lingual appliances and lingual arches to control horizontal problems. The patient, who was 25 years of age at her first visit to our hospital with a chief complaint of crooked anterior teeth, was diagnosed with skeletal Class II and Angle Class II malocclusion with anterior deep bite, lateral open bite, premolar crossbite, and severe crowding in both arches. She was treated with premolar extractions and temporary anchorage devices. Conventionally, it is ideal to use labial brackets simultaneously with appliances, such as a lingual arch, a quad-helix, or a rapid expansion appliance, in patients with complex problems requiring horizontal, anteroposterior, and vertical control; however, this patient strongly requested orthodontic treatment with lingual appliances. A limitation of lingual appliances is that they cannot be used with other conventional appliances. In this report, we present the successful orthodontic treatment of a complex problem using modified lingual appliances that enabled combined use of a conventional lingual arch. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevalence of Malocclusion in Adolescence (12-17 Years in Najaf area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Merza Hasan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of present study is to detect the prevalence of malocclusion in specific group aged between 12-17 years school children in Al-Najaf city of Iraq. Patient and methods: Cross sectional study composed of two groups that classified according to the gender into male and female groups, the study was done in randomly selected secondary school for male and others for female in Al-Najaf city, in the period between October, 2015 and May, 2016. Ten schools were randomly selected 788 females and 584 males were clinicaly examined aged between 12-17 years old. Results: The result shows Class I malocclusion was 88.04% according to Angle’s classification, whereas 8.03% show Class II Div.1, 1.31 % exhibit Class II Div. 2 and Class III malocclusion were present in 2.3%. Crowding was present in about 57%, While Excessive overjet, Negative overjet, anterior crossbites, Posterior crossbites show 16.1%, 3.4%, 10.34%, 12.68% respectively, Deep overbite were in 6.4%,  Open bite in 2.9%, Median diastema were in 2.7%. Conclusion:  Angle’s Class I malocclusion show maximum prevalence, followed by Angle’s Class II/1 and Class III, while Angle’s Class II/2 malocclusion shows the lowest percent of prevalence in secondary school of Al-Najaf.

  17. Condylar volume and condylar area in class I, class II and class III young adult subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccucci, Matteo; D'Attilio, Michele; Rodolfino, Daria; Festa, Felice; Polimeni, Antonella; Tecco, Simona

    2012-12-14

    Aim of this study was to compare the volume and the shape of mandibular condyles in a Caucasian young adult population, with different skeletal pattern. 200 Caucasian patients (15-30 years old, 95 male and 105 females) were classified in three groups on the base of ANB angle: skeletal class I (65 patients), skeletal class II (70 patients) and skeletal class III (65 patients). Left and right TMJs of each subject were evaluated independently with CBCT (Iluma). TMJ evaluation included: condylar volume; condylar area; morphological index (MI). Condylar volumes were calculated by using the Mimics software. The condylar volume, the area and the morphological index (MI) were compared among the three groups, by using non-parametric tests. The Kruskal-Wallis test and the Mann Whitney test revealed that: no significant difference was observed in the whole sample between the right and the left condylar volume; subjects in skeletal class III showed a significantly higher condylar volume, respect to class I and class II subjects (p condylar volume was observed in class II subjects, respect to class I and class III (p condylar volume (699.8 ± 63.07 mm3 in males and 663.5 ± 81.3 mm3 in females; p condylar surface (423.24 ± 63.03 mm2 in males and 389.76 ± 61.15 mm2 in females; p condylar volume and to the mandibular condylar area in the Caucasian orthodontic population.

  18. The shape and size of the sella turcica in skeletal Class I, Class II, and Class III Saudi subjects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alkofide, Eman A

    2007-01-01

    ...; 60 Class I, 60 Class II, and 60 Class III. The sella turcica on each radiograph was analysed and measured to determine the shape of the sella, in addition to the linear dimensions of length, depth, and diameter...

  19. Condylar volume and condylar area in class I, class II and class III young adult subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saccucci Matteo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim Aim of this study was to compare the volume and the shape of mandibular condyles in a Caucasian young adult population, with different skeletal pattern. Material and methods 200 Caucasian patients (15–30 years old, 95 male and 105 females were classified in three groups on the base of ANB angle: skeletal class I (65 patients, skeletal class II (70 patients and skeletal class III (65 patients. Left and right TMJs of each subject were evaluated independently with CBCT (Iluma. TMJ evaluation included: condylar volume; condylar area; morphological index (MI. Condylar volumes were calculated by using the Mimics software. The condylar volume, the area and the morphological index (MI were compared among the three groups, by using non-parametric tests. Results The Kruskal-Wallis test and the Mann Whitney test revealed that: no significant difference was observed in the whole sample between the right and the left condylar volume; subjects in skeletal class III showed a significantly higher condylar volume, respect to class I and class II subjects (p 3 in males and 663.5 ± 81.3 mm3 in females; p 2 in males and 389.76 ± 61.15 mm2 in females; p  Conclusion Skeletal class appeared to be associated to the mandibular condylar volume and to the mandibular condylar area in the Caucasian orthodontic population.

  20. Influence of pre-orthodontic trainer treatment on the perioral and masticatory muscles in patients with Class II division 1 malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Tancan; Yagci, Ahmet; Kara, Sadik; Okkesim, Sukru

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this follow-up study was to evaluate the effects of Pre-Orthodontic Trainer (POT) appliance on the anterior temporal, mental, orbicularis oris, and masseter muscles through electromyography (EMG) evaluations in subjects with Class II division 1 malocclusion and incompetent lips. Twenty patients (mean age: 9.8 ± 2.2 years) with a Class II division 1 malocclusion were treated with POT (Myofunctional Research Co., Queensland, Australia). A group of 15 subjects (mean age: 9.2 ± 0.9 years) with untreated Class II division 1 malocclusions was used as a control. EMG recordings of treatment group were taken at the beginning and at the end of the POT therapy (mean treatment period: 7.43 ± 1.06 months). Follow-up records of the control group were taken after 8 months of the first records. Recordings were taken during different oral functions: clenching, sucking, and swallowing. Statistical analyses were undertaken with Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney U-tests. During the POT treatment, activity of anterior temporal, mental, and masseter muscles was decreased and orbicularis oris activity was increased during clenching and these differences were found statistically significant when compared to control. Orbicularis oris activity during sucking was increased in the treatment group (P muscle at clenching and orbicularis oris (P muscle at swallowing during observation period. Present findings indicated that treatment with POT appliance showed a positive influence on the masticatory and perioral musculature.

  1. Eysenck personality and psychosocial status of adult patients with malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Liu, Xiang; Zheng, Gen-Jian; Zhou, Lan; Lin, Dian-Yue; Wang, Xiao-Dan; He, Hong

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the personality and psychosocial status of adult malocclusion patients through the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) and the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90). The EPQ and the SCL-90 were administered to 348 adult respondents with Angle's Class I, II, III malocclusion and normal occlusion. Personality and psychosocial traits were analyzed and compared among the groups. Patients in Angle's Class I, II and III groups scored lower on the EPQ-E and higher on the EPQ-N than those in the normal occlusion group, whereas patients in the Class II group scored higher on the EPQ-P. The mean scores of Class I, II and III groups were significantly higher than those of the normal group on somatization, obsessive-compulsiveness, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, and paranoid ideation. All SCL-90 scores were significantly positively correlated with EPQ-N. Psychoticism and neuroticism scores of female respondents were higher than those of male respondents. The impact of education was greatest on the EPQ-P and the EPQ-E of adult personality, whereas the impact of deformity was greatest on the EPQ-N of adult personality. Personality and psychosocial status show differences in adult patients with Class I, II, III malocclusion and normal occlusion and can be influenced by gender, deformity, age and education. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Three-dimensional dental arch changes of patients submitted to orthodontic-surgical treatment for correction of Class II malocclusion

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    Adriano Porto Peixoto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This study assessed the three-dimensional changes in the dental arch of patients submitted to orthodontic-surgical treatment for correction of Class II malocclusions at three different periods. METHODS: Landmarks previously identified on upper and lower dental casts were digitized on a three-dimensional digitizer MicroScribe-3DX and stored in Excel worksheets in order to assess the width, length and depth of patient's dental arches. RESULTS: During orthodontic preparation, the maxillary and mandibular transverse dimensions measured at the premolar regions were increased and maintained throughout the follow-up period. Intercanine width was increased only in the upper arch during orthodontic preparation. Maxillary arch length was reduced during orthodontic finalization, only. Upper and lower arch depths were stable in the study periods. Differences between centroid and gingival changes suggested that upper and lower arch premolars buccaly proclined during the pre-surgical period. CONCLUSIONS: Maxillary and mandibular dental arches presented transverse expansion at premolar regions during preoperative orthodontic preparation, with a tendency towards buccal tipping. The transverse dimensions were not altered after surgery. No sagittal or vertical changes were observed during the follow-up periods.

  3. Rate of intrusion of maxillary incisors in Class II Div 1 malocclusion using skeletal anchorage device and Connecticut intrusion arch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prasanna; Datana, Sanjeev; Londhe, S M; Kadu, Abhijeet

    2017-01-01

    Nonsurgical correction of deep bite involves either extrusion of posterior teeth, intrusion of incisors, or combination of both. The introduction of skeletal anchorage device with microimplant provides near absolute anchorage without producing any untoward effects on anchor unit. Connecticut Intrusion Arch (CIA) provided an efficient system of intruding anterior segment without producing much adverse affects on anchor teeth. The study comprised of 30 patients of Class II Div 1 malocclusion with overbite of >6 mm and required therapeutic extractions of all first premolars, randomly distributed into two groups. Group 1 was treated using orthodontic microimplants, while Group 2 treated with CIA. Lateral cephalograms were taken pre-intrusion (T1) and post-intrusion at the end of six months (T2). The rate of intrusion was 0.51 and 0.34 mm/month for Group 1 and Group 2 respectively. The average amount of change in centroid point to PP distance and U1-SN angle was significantly higher in Group 1 compared to Group 2 (P  0.05). The amount of intrusion is significantly higher in SAD group. Although vertical molar positional change was higher in CIA group than the SAD group, it was not changed significantly in both treatment modalities. SAD group overall had better results and was easier in handling during intrusion.

  4. Efficacy of modified pendulum appliance for the correction of class II malocclusion: A clinical study

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Koul; Ayushi Singla; Anil Singla; Vivek Mahajan; Harupinder Singh Jaj; Priyanka Negi

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this prospective study was to analyze the efficiency of pendulum appliance for distalizing maxillary first molar while decreasing the anchorage loss by banding first and second premolar and making them one unit. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised of 20 patients (mean age 13 ± 2 years) who had skeletal Class I and Angle's Class II molar relation. Modified pendulum appliance was given to distalize maxillary first molar and to decrease the anchorage los...

  5. Camouflage of a high-angle skeletal Class II open-bite malocclusion in an adult after mini-implant failure during treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzotti Sant'Anna, Eduardo; Carneiro da Cunha, Amanda; Paludo Brunetto, Daniel; Franzotti Sant'Anna, Claudia

    2017-03-01

    The treatment of skeletal anterior open-bite malocclusion requires complex orthodontic planning that considers its multifactorial etiology, treatment limitations, and high relapse rates. This case report illustrates a successful treatment approach for a skeletal high-angle Class II malocclusion in an adult with a severe open bite. The treatment consisted of a high-pull headgear therapy after mini-implants failure during fixed orthodontic therapy. Adequate esthetics and function were achieved. Despite its low probability, the unexpected event of mini-implant loosening during complex treatments should be considered. Therefore, classic orthodontic mechanics should be established, especially when treating patients for whom invasive procedures such as miniplates or orthognathic surgery are not available options. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Extraction of maxillary first permanent molars in patients with Class II Division 1 malocclusion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stalpers, M.J.; Booij, J.W.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Katsaros, C.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Our objectives were to assess treatment outcomes in Class II Division 1 patients who were treated orthodontically with extraction of the maxillary first permanent molars and to describe the changes in their facial profiles. METHODS: This was a prospective, longitudinal, 1-group outcome

  7. Má oclusão Classe I de Angle com agenesia de incisivos laterais Angle Class I malocclusion and agenesis of lateral incisors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Catharino Menezes Franco

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O planejamento ortodôntico de pacientes com agenesia de incisivos laterais envolve considerações estéticas e funcionais de grande relevância para um resultado clínico satisfatório. Tanto o fechamento dos espaços correspondentes aos dentes ausentes quanto sua abertura ou manutenção oferecem vantagens e desvantagens que devem ser avaliadas de acordo com as características individuais do paciente. Fatores importantes que influenciam o planejamento são o padrão esquelético, o tipo de má oclusão e a coloração e forma dos caninos, dentre outros. Neste artigo, teve-se como objetivo relatar o tratamento de uma paciente com má oclusão Classe I de Angle, agenesia de incisivos laterais, sobressaliência e sobremordida diminuídas, tendência à mordida aberta e mordida cruzada.A abordagem clínica foi realizada com expansão maxilar, seguida de fechamento dos espaços, com auxílio de ancoragem esquelética extrabucal. Esse caso foi apresentado à diretoria do Board Brasileiro de Ortodontia e Ortopedia Facial (BBO, como parte dos requisitos para a obtenção do título de Diplomado pelo BBO.Orthodontic planning for patients with agenesis of lateral incisors should include extremely relevant esthetic and functional considerations so that a satisfactory clinical result is achieved. Both space closure and space opening and maintenance have advantages and disadvantages that should be evaluated according to the patient's individual characteristics. Some of the important factors that affect planning are the skeletal pattern, the type of malocclusion and the color and shape of canines. This study reports on the treatment of a patients with Class I malocclusion and agenesis of lateral incisors, overjet, decreased overbite, and a tendency to open bite and crossbite. The clinical approach included palatal expansion followed by space closure using extraoral anchorage. This case was presented to the Committee of the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics

  8. Two classes of region III flagellar genes in Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Kondoh, H; Ozeki, H.

    1981-01-01

    We infected various nonflagellated mutants of Escherichia coli with fla-transducing phages and followed the kinetics of the appearance of motility. Our analysis revealed two distinct classes of region III fla genes. Class II fla genes (hag, flaD) functioned 15 min later than class I fla genes (flaN, flaB, flaC, flaO, flaA, flbD, flaQ, flaP) in flagellar morphogenesis. We suggest that the two classes of fla genes are involved in two different stages, initiation (class I) and completion (class ...

  9. A benefit-risk assessment of class III antiarrhythmic agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elming, Hanne; Brendorp, Bente; Pehrson, Steen

    2004-01-01

    relief. Since many patients experience a decrease in physical performance as well as a diminished quality of life during arrhythmia there is still a need for antiarrhythmic drug therapy. The development of new antiarrhythmic agents has changed the focus from class I to class III agents since it became...... evident that with class I drug therapy the prevalence of mortality is considerably higher. This review focuses on the benefits and risks of known and newer class III antiarrhythmic agents. The benefits discussed include the ability to maintain sinus rhythm in persistent atrial fibrillation patients......, and reducing the need for implantable cardioverter defibrillator shock/antitachycardia therapy, since no class III antiarrhythmic agents have proven survival benefit. The risks discussed mainly focus on pro-arrhythmia as torsade de pointes ventricular tachycardia....

  10. Efficacy of modified pendulum appliance for the correction of class II malocclusion: A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Koul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this prospective study was to analyze the efficiency of pendulum appliance for distalizing maxillary first molar while decreasing the anchorage loss by banding first and second premolar and making them one unit. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised of 20 patients (mean age 13 ± 2 years who had skeletal Class I and Angle's Class II molar relation. Modified pendulum appliance was given to distalize maxillary first molar and to decrease the anchorage loss both first and second premolars were banded as a single unit by soldering a 19-gauge stainless steel wire. Then both skeletal and dental changes were measured on the pretreatment and posttreatment lateral cephalograms. Results: The maxillary molar was distalized, and a Class I molar relation was achieved in 3 ± 2 months. Maxillary first molar distalized by 4.48 mm in the region of dental crown by tipping distally an average of 8.5°. Both the premolars tipped distally significantly. Thus, by this modification, the anchor loss was minimized. Conclusion: It was concluded that the efficiency of pendulum appliance was increased by this modification, as the anchorage was increased, the space loss was minimized.

  11. Surgical correction of class II skeletal malocclusion in an adult patient

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    Ramakrishnan Balachander

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Correction of skeletal deformities in adult patients with orthodontics is limited. Orthognathic surgery is the best option for cases when camouflage treatment is questionable and growth modulation is not possible. This case report illustrates the benefit of the team approach in correcting vertical maxillary excess along with class II skeletal deformity. A cosmetic correction was achieved by superior repositioning of maxilla with LeFort I osteotomy and augmentation genioplasty, along with orthodontic treatment. The patient′s facial appearance was markedly improved along with functional and stable occlusion

  12. Size of lower jaw as an early indicator of skeletal class III development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Zdenka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Malocclusion of skeletal class III is a complex abnormality, with a characteristic sagital position of the lower jaw in front of the upper one. A higher level of prognatism of the lower jaw in relation to the upper one can be the consequence of its excessive length. The aim of this study was to find the differences in the length of the lower jaw in the children with skeletal class III and the children with normal sagital interjaw relation (skeletal class I in the period of mixed dentition. Methods. After clinical and x-ray diagnostics, profile tele-x-rays of the head were analyzed in 60 examinees with mixed dentition, aged from 6 to 12 years. The examinees were divided into two groups: group 1 - the children with skeletal class III and group 2 - the children with skeletal class I. The length of the lower jaw, upper jaw and cranial base were measured. The proportional relations between the lengths measured within each group were established and the level of difference in the lengths measured and their proportions between the groups were estimated. Results. No significant difference between the groups was found in the body length, ramus and the total length of the lower jaw. Proportional relation between the body length and the length of the lower jaw ramus and proportional relation between the forward cranial base and the lower jaw body were not significantly different. A significant difference was found in proportional relations of the total length of the lower jaw with the total lengths of cranial base and the upper jaw and proportional relation of the length of the lower and upper jaw body. Conclusion. Of all the analyzed parameters, the following were selected as the early indicators of the development of skeletal class III on the lower jaw: greater total length of the lower jaw, proportional to the total lengths of cranial base and the upper jaw, as well as greater length of the lower jaw body, proportional to the length of

  13. Management of crowded class 1 malocclusion with serial extractions: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Hayder A

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to show the value of serial extractions in a young patient with severe crowding. Serial extraction is a technique advocated for use by Kjellgren in 1948 due to a shortage of orthodontists at the time. This form of treatment was intended to facilitate the treatment of orthodontic cases by general dentists to minimize the demand upon the orthodontist. An eight-year-old Sudanese female did not like the appearance of her anterior teeth. Clinical examination revealed a Class I molar relationship, severe crowding of the maxillary and mandibular arches, minimum overjet, and minimum overbite. The patient's treatment included serial extractions. The treatment resulted in improved esthetics, good arch alignment, and occlusion while maintaining her Class I molar relationship, overjet, and overbite. This case demonstrated that despite the criticism some may direct toward this interceptive technique, good clinical results can be achieved in carefully selected cases. There are certain clinical situations when treatment planning the use of serial extractions can prove beneficial to young patients.

  14. Palatal dimension correlation in malocclusions for mixed Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Bhalla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To determine and compare the palatal dimensions in mixed Indian population with different malocclusions and to find correlation among them. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 152 study models of children aged 13-16 years consisting of 76 males and 76 females obtained from Govt. teaching institution divided into Angle′s Class I (40, Class II (80 and Class III (32 based on molar relationship and cephalometric evaluation. Ten palatal parameters were measured using Korkhaus gauge, which included arch width at the canine, 1 st premolar, 2 nd premolar and 1 st molar, arch length, palatal depth at canine, 1 st premolar, 2 nd premolar, and 1 st molar and arch perimeter. The mean and standard deviation were calculated, analysis of variance (ANOVA, independent student t test and Pearson′s correlation coefficient were used for the statistical analysis. Results: Angle′s Class I occlusion group showed widest intercanine width. Palatal depth was shallowest in Class II Div 2 malocclusion and Class III malocclusion group showed shortest arch length and arch perimeter. There was no difference in palatal dimensions in between gender. Various palatal parameters were co related to each other. Conclusions: Significant differences existed in most of palatal dimensions among different types of Angle′s occlusal relationships but no significant changes were observed among two genders. Many palatal dimension parameters were correlated to each other.

  15. Postura de cabeça nas deformidades dentofaciais classe II e classe III Head posture in the presence of class II and class III dentofacial deformities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Ralin de Carvalho Deda

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: este estudo investiga se existe diferença entre grupos com diferentes deformidades dentofaciais (padrão classe II e classe III e o grupo sem a deformidade em relação à postura de cabeça. MÉTODO: participaram deste estudo, voluntariamente, 25 pacientes (entre 16 e 40 anos. Dez pacientes com diagnóstico de deformidade dentofacial classe II e 15 pacientes com o diagnóstico de classe III esquelética e 15 voluntários sadios, com equivalência em sexo e idade ao grupo de deformidade, formando o grupo controle. Primeiramente foi realizada a inspeção da postura de cabeça. Logo em seguida foi realizada a avaliação postural de cabeça por meio da fotografia postural (fotogrametria. RESULTADOS: não houve diferença significante (p>0,05 entre os grupos em relação à avaliação postural utilizando-se a fotogrametria. Já em relação à avaliação postural pela inspeção clínica, observou-se uma postura anterior de cabeça nos indivíduos com a deformidade dentofacial padrão classe II, comparados ao padrão classe III (p = 0,001 e ao grupo controle (p = 0,001. Foi visto também que o grupo deformidade classe II apresentou um percentual inferior de indivíduos com posição neutra de cabeça comparado ao grupo deformidade classe III (p = 0,008 e ao grupo controle (p = 0,001. CONCLUSÃO: indivíduos com deformidade dentofacial classe II podem apresentar uma anteriorização de cabeça. Não há influência da deformidade no aumento ou na redução do ângulo cabeça-pescoço, analisado por meio da fotogrametria.PURPOSE: this study investigates whether there is a difference in head posture between groups with different dentofacial deformities (class II and class III and a group with no deformity. METHOD: 25 volunteers aged from 16 to 40 year old took part in the study. Ten patients had a diagnosis of class II dentofacial deformity, 15 had a diagnosis of class III skeletal deformity, and 15 healthy volunteers matched for sex and

  16. Prevalence of Malocclusion among 10-12-year-old Schoolchildren in Kozhikode District, Kerala: An Epidemiological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeseem, MT; Kumar, TV Anupam

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: A malocclusion is an irregularity of the teeth or a malrelationship of the dental arches beyond the range of what is accepted as normal. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of malocclusion in children aged 10-12 years in Kozhikode district of Kerala, South India. Materials and methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among schoolchildren aged 10-12 years in six schools in Kozhikode district of Kerala, South India. A total of 2,366 children satisfied the inclusion criteria. Occlusal characteristics like crossbite, open bite, deep bite, protrusion of teeth, midline deviations, midline diastema and tooth rotation were recorded. The data were tabulated and analyzed using Chi-square test. Results: The results revealed that the overall prevalence of malocclusion was 83.3%. Of this, 69.8% of the children had Angle’s class I malocclusion, 9.3% had class II malocclusion (division 1 = 8.85%, division 2 = 0.5%) and 4.1% had class III malocclusion; 23.2% showed an increased overjet (>3 mm), 0.4% reverse overjet, 35.6% increased overbite (>3 mm), 0.29% open bite, 7.2% crossbite with 4.6% crossbite of complete anterior teeth, 63.3% deviation of midline, 0.76% midline diastema and 3.25% rotated tooth. No significant differences in gender distributions of malocclusions were noted except for increased overjet and overbite. Conclusion: There is high prevalence of malocclusion among schoolchildren in Kozhikode district of Kerala. Early interception and early correction of these malocclusions will eliminate the potential irregularities and malpositions in the developing dentofacial complex. How to cite this article: Narayanan RK, Jeseem MT, Kumar TVA. Prevalence of Malocclusion among 10-12-year-old Schoolchildren in Kozhikode District, Kerala: An Epidemiological Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):50-55. PMID:27274156

  17. Treating Class II malocclusion in children. Vertical skeletal effects of high-pull or low-pull headgear during comprehensive orthodontic treatment and retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonarakis, G S; Kiliaridis, S

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate, in Class II malocclusion children, vertical skeletal changes occurring with high- and low-pull headgear during non-extraction comprehensive orthodontic treatment, and retention. Two groups of thirty Class II malocclusion children (mean age 10.8 years) who had undergone non-extraction comprehensive orthodontic treatment with either high- or low-pull headgear and fixed appliances. Retrospective longitudinal study, where pre-treatment, post-treatment and at least 2 year post-retention lateral cephalometric radiographs were analyzed. Comparisons were made concerning changes during treatment and retention in high- or low-pull headgear-treated children. Correlation analyses were carried out investigating changes in vertical cephalometric parameters and pre-treatment vertical facial pattern or type of headgear used. During treatment, sagittal relationships improved in all children and remained stable during retention. Vertically, in both high- and low-pull headgear groups, the intermaxillary angle as well as the maxillary and mandibular plane angles did not show statistically significant changes during treatment or retention, and large variation was seen between patients. When pooling the whole patient sample, change in the vertical facial pattern was independent of the pre-treatment vertical facial pattern or type of headgear used. When treating Class II malocclusion children non-extraction with high- or low-pull headgear and fixed appliances, changes in vertical skeletal relationships demonstrate wide variation, both during treatment and retention. Dentoalveolar changes brought about by these appliances may not be able to make a predictable difference in vertical skeletal patterns of growing patients. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Treatment of a case of skeletal class II malocclusion with temporomandibular joint disorder using miniscrew anchorage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaku, Masato; Koseki, Hiroyuki; Kawazoe, Aki; Abedini, Sara; Kojima, Shunichi; Motokawa, Masahide; Ohtani, Junji; Fujita, Tadashi; Kawata, Toshitsugu; Tanne, Kazuo

    2011-04-01

    At the present time, there are no reports in the literature on the treatment of temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD) by intrusion of molars using mini-screws. This case report describes the treatment for a female patient, aged 19 years seven months, with a TMD and an excessive lower anterior facial height. Overjet and overbite were +5.0 mm and +0.5 mm, respectively. The patient had a history of orthodontic treatment in which her first premolars were all extracted. During the first orthodontic treatment, a clockwise mandibular rotation was observed as a result of the increase of posterior dentoalveolar height. She had temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain during mouth opening and complained of difficulty in eating due to masticatory dysfunction. The pretreatment Schuller views of both TMJ showed a posterior condyle position. In order to correct the overjet, molar relationship and the mandibular condyle position, a miniscrew was inserted into the palatal region of the upper first molar to intrude the upper posterior teeth. As the upper molars were intruded, the overjet was decreased, and a class I molar relationship was achieved by a counterclockwise mandibular rotation. After one year of treatment, an acceptable occlusion was achieved, and the condyle moved into centric position in the glenoid fossa. The patient's teeth continued to be stable, and she had no pain in TMJ after a retention period of three years. The result of this treatment showed that molar intrusion using miniscrew anchorage is effective for treatment of a TMD patient with a posterior condyle position.

  19. Relationship of Anterior Alveolar Dimensions with Mandibular Divergence in Class I Malocclusion – A Cephalometric Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korath, Vinoth Abraham; Nagachandran; Vijayalakshmi, Devaki; Parameswaran, Ratna; Raman, Priya; Sunitha, Catherine; Khan, Nayeemullah

    2016-01-01

    Introduction One of the major limiting factors in retraction of proclined teeth is the width of the alveolus both in maxilla and mandible. Aim The objective of this study was to assess the maxillary and mandibular anterior alveolar dimensions and to correlate with mandibular divergence in Class I bi-dento-alveolar protrusion patients. Materials and Methods Pretreatment lateral cephalograms (n=88) were analysed using a composite analysis with cephalometric software. Both maxillary and mandibular anterior alveolar widths and heights were measured and correlated with mandibular divergence. One-way analysis (ANOVA) and Pearson correlation test were used to compare and establish the significance between groups. Results Segregation of the data based on variation in the bi-cortical widths and heights showed that lesser alveolar widths and greater alveolar heights were associated with the high angled subjects and greater alveolar widths and lesser heights were associated with low angled subjects. Conclusion Patients with hyperdivergent mandible exhibited thin anterior alveolar width and greater alveolar height whereas low angled subjects had wider alveolar width and lesser alveolar height. Orthodontic treatment plan for retraction of anterior teeth must be based on these differences caused by variations in mandibular divergence. PMID:27437356

  20. Mandibular condyle dimensions in Peruvian patients with Class II and Class III skeletal patterns.

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    Hugo Zegarra-Baquerizo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare condylar dimensions of young adults with Class II and Class III skeletal patterns using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT. Materials and methods: 124 CBCTs from 18-30 year-old patients, divided into 2 groups according to skeletal patterns (Class II and Class III were evaluated. Skeletal patterns were classified by measuring the ANB angle of each patient. The anteroposterior diameter (A and P of the right and left mandibular condyle was assessed from a sagittal view by a line drawn from point A (anterior to P (posterior. The coronal plane allowed the evaluation of the medio-lateral diameter by drawing a line from point M (medium to L (lateral; all distances were measured in mm. Results: In Class II the A-P diameter was 9.06±1.33 and 8.86±1.56 for the right and left condyles respectively, in Class III these values were 8.71±1.2 and 8.84±1.42. In Class II the M-L diameter was 17.94±2.68 and 17.67±2.44 for the right and left condyles respectively, in Class III these values were 19.16±2.75 and 19.16±2.54. Conclusion: Class III M-L dimensions showed higher values than Class II, whereas these differences were minimal in A-P.

  1. Radiographic cephalometry assessment of the linear and angular parameters on cranial base in children with skeletal class III

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    Stojanović Zdenka M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. In malocclusion of skeletal class III, mandible is located in front of maxilla in sagital plain, which is manifested by a lower value of the sagital inter-jaw angle than in skeletal class I, where the jaw sagital relation is normal. Apart from the deformities on mandible and/or maxilla, in skeletal class III deformities are also frequent on the cranial base. The aim of this research was to find the differences in the parameter values on the cranial base among the children with skeletal class III and the children with skeletal class I in the period of mixed dentition. Methods. After clinical examination and orthopan-tomography, profile radiography of the head was analyzed in 60 examinees, aged from 6−12 years. The examinees were divided into two groups: group 1 - the children with skeletal class III; group 2 - the children with skeletal class I. Both linear and angular parameters on the cranial base were measured, as well as the angles of maxillary and mandible prognatism and the angle of sagital inter-jaw relation. The level of difference in the parameter values between the groups was estimated and the degree of correlation of the main angle of the cranial base with the angles of sagital position of the jaws in each of the two groups was established. Results. A significant difference between the groups was found only in the average values of the angles of maxillary prognatism and sagital interjaw relation. In the group 1, the main angle of the cranial base was in a significant correlation with the angles of sagital positions of the jaws, while in the group 2, such significance was not found. Conclusion. There were no significant differences in the parameter values on the cranial base between the groups. There was a significant correlation of the main angle of the cranial base with the angles of sagital position of the jaws in the group 1 only. .

  2. Prevalence of malocclusion among Iranian children: A systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Maryam Akbari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The high prevalence of malocclusion is a public health problem in the world and the third priority in oral care. Numerous primary studies have presented reports on the prevalence of malocclusion among Iranian children. In combination, the results of these studies using meta-analysis are highly valuable for health policy-making. Similarly, this study aimed at determining the prevalence of different types of malocclusion among Iranian children. Materials and Methods: Using relevant keywords, national and international databases were explored. After narrowing down the search strategy and leaving out the duplicates, the remaining articles were screened based on titles and abstracts. To increase search sensitivity, reference lists of the papers were examined. To identify unpublished articles and documentations, a set of negotiations were done with the people involved and research centers. Finally, the heterogeneity index between the studies was determined using Cochran (Q and I2 tests. According to the results of heterogeneity, the random effects model was used to estimate the prevalence of malocclusion in Iran. Results: In total, 25 articles were included in the meta-analysis process. The prevalence of dental malocclusion was estimated in 28,693 Iranian children aged 3-18 years. The total prevalence of Class I, II, and III malocclusion was 54.6% (46.5-62.7, 24.7% (20.8-28.7, and 6.01% (4-7.1, respectively. The prevalence of Class I, II, and III malocclusion was 44.6% (32.9-56.2, 21.5% (18.01-25.1, and 4.5% (3.2-5.9 in boys and 48.8% (36.8-60.8, 21.5% (16.9-25.1, and 5.5% (3.9-7.1 in girls, respectively. Conclusion: This study showed a high prevalence of malocclusion among Iranian children. Also, the results indicated that the prevalence is higher in girls.

  3. Angulação dos caninos em indivíduos portadores de má oclusão de Classe I e de Classe III: análise comparativa através de um novo método utilizando imagens digitalizadas Canine angulation in Class I and Class III individuals: a comparative analysis with a new method using digital images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyana Ramos Azevedo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: determinar as angulações mesiodistais das coroas dos caninos em indivíduos portadores de má oclusão de Classe III, comparando-os a indivíduos Classe I. MÉTODOS: foram empregadas medidas tomadas em fotografias digitalizadas de modelos de gesso e transportadas para um programa gráfico para leitura das medidas (Image Tool. Tais procedimentos foram repetidos para avaliação do erro do método casual (fórmula de Dahlberg e para a análise da reprodutibilidade através da Correlação intraclasse. A amostra constituiu-se de 57 pacientes com dentição permanente completa e não tratados ortodonticamente, dividida em dois grupos, de acordo com a má oclusão apresentada: o grupo I foi constituído por 33 pacientes portadores de má oclusão de Classe I, sendo 16 do sexo masculino e 17 do feminino, com média de idades de 27 anos; o grupo II era representado por 24 pacientes portadores de má oclusão de Classe III, 20 do sexo masculino e 4 do feminino, com média de idades de 22 anos. RESULTADOS: o erro casual mostrou-se com uma variação de 1,54 a 1,96 graus para a angulação dos caninos. A análise estatística revelou que o método apresenta uma excelente reprodutibilidade (pOBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the mesiodistal angulation of canine crowns in individuals with Class III malocclusion in comparison with Class I individuals. METHODS: Measurements were taken from digital photographs of plaster models and imported into an imaging program (Image Tool. These procedures were repeated to assess random method error (Dahlberg's formula, and analyze reproducibility by intraclass correlation. The sample consisted of 57 patients with complete permanent dentition, untreated orthodontically and divided into two groups according to their malocclusion: Group I consisted of 33 patients with Class I malocclusion, 16 males and 17 females, mean age 27 years; Group II comprised 24 patients with Class III malocclusion, 20 males and

  4. Candidate Gene Analyses of Skeletal Variation in Malocclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Fontoura, C.S.G.; Miller, S.F.; Wehby, G.L.; Amendt, B.A.; Holton, N.E.; Southard, T.E.; Allareddy, V.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated associations between craniofacial candidate genes and skeletal variation in patients with malocclusion. Lateral cephalometric radiographs of 269 untreated adults with skeletal classes I, II, and III malocclusion were digitized with 14 landmarks. Two-dimensional coordinates were analyzed using Procrustes fit and principal component (PC) analysis to generate continuous malocclusion phenotypes. Skeletal class classifications (I, II, or III) were used as a categorical phenotype. Individuals were genotyped for 198 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 71 craniofacial genes and loci. Phenotype-genotype associations were tested via multivariate linear regression for continuous phenotypes and multinomial logistic regression for skeletal malocclusion class. PC analysis resulted in 4 principal components (PCs) explaining 69% of the total skeletal facial variation. PC1 explained 32.7% of the variation and depicted vertical discrepancies ranging from skeletal deep to open bites. PC1 was associated with a SNP near PAX5 (P = 0.01). PC2 explained 21.7% and captured horizontal maxillomandibular discrepancies. PC2 was associated with SNPs upstream of SNAI3 (P = 0.0002) and MYO1H (P = 0.006). PC3 explained 8.2% and captured variation in ramus height, body length, and anterior cranial base orientation. PC3 was associated with TWIST1 (P = 0.000076). Finally, PC4 explained 6.6% and detected variation in condylar inclination as well as symphysis projection. PC4 was associated with PAX7 (P = 0.007). Furthermore, skeletal class II risk increased relative to class I with the minor alleles of SNPs in FGFR2 (odds ratio [OR] = 2.1, P = 0.004) and declined with SNPs in EDN1 (OR = 0.5, P = 0.007). Conversely, skeletal class III risk increased versus class I with SNPs in FGFR2 (OR 2.2, P = 0.005) and COL1A1 (OR = 2.1, P = 0.008) and declined with SNPs in TBX5 (OR = 0.5, P = 0.014). PAX5, SNAI3, MYO1H, TWIST1, and PAX7 are associated with craniofacial skeletal variation

  5. Prevalence of gingival biotype and its relationship to dental malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawawi, Khalid H; Al-Harthi, Shaimaa M; Al-Zahrani, Mohammad S

    2012-06-01

    To study the prevalence of different gingival biotypes in a sample of patients and the association between gingival biotype and different dental malocclusions. Two hundred adult patients (100 males and 100 females) who presented for treatment at the Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia were recruited from February 2011 to February 2012. Gingival thickness was assessed for the maxillary central incisors using the transparency of periodontal probe technique. Angle's classification of malocclusion and smoking habit were also recorded. The mean age was 32.1 (+/-11.0) years. Thin gingival biotype was observed in 44.5% of the sample, of which 64% were females and 25% were males (p=0.001). Only 31.4% of current smokers had thin gingival biotype compared to 51.9% of subjects who never smoked (p=0.011). No significant association between dental malocclusions and the presence of thin gingival biotype was found (Class I = 42.9%, Class II = 44.1%, and Class III 53.9%, p=0.6). A high prevalence of thin gingival biotype especially among females was observed. Smokers had thicker gingival biotype. No relationship was found between gingival biotypes and Angle's classification of malocclusion.

  6. Alternative treatment for open bite Class III malocclusion in a child with Williams-Beuren syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Giovanni Modesto; Franco, Eduardo Jacomino; da Rocha, Denise Falcão Pinheiro; de Oliveira, Laudimar Alves; Amorim, Rivadávio Fernandes Batista

    2015-01-01

    Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a rare genetic condition that affects approximately 1 in every 20,000 - 50,000 live births. WBS children have specific skeletal deformities, dental malformations and rare lingual muscle dysfunction. The need for orthodontic and orthognathic therapy has arisen and has been considered a real clinical challenge even for experienced professionals, once it requires a complex and individualized treatment plan. This study reports a case of orthopedic expansion of the maxilla, in which a modified facial mask was used for protraction of the maxillary complex associated with clockwise rotation of the maxilla. In addition, special considerations about treatment time and orthopedic outcomes are discussed.

  7. Alternative treatment for open bite Class III malocclusion in a child with Williams-Beuren syndrome

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    Giovanni Modesto Vieira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS is a rare genetic condition that affects approximately 1 in every 20,000 - 50,000 live births. WBS children have specific skeletal deformities, dental malformations and rare lingual muscle dysfunction. The need for orthodontic and orthognathic therapy has arisen and has been considered a real clinical challenge even for experienced professionals, once it requires a complex and individualized treatment plan. This study reports a case of orthopedic expansion of the maxilla, in which a modified facial mask was used for protraction of the maxillary complex associated with clockwise rotation of the maxilla. In addition, special considerations about treatment time and orthopedic outcomes are discussed.

  8. Alternative treatment for open bite Class III malocclusion in a child with Williams-Beuren syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Giovanni Modesto; Franco, Eduardo Jacomino; da Rocha, Denise Falcão Pinheiro; de Oliveira, Laudimar Alves; Amorim, Rivadávio Fernandes Batista

    2015-01-01

    Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a rare genetic condition that affects approximately 1 in every 20,000 - 50,000 live births. WBS children have specific skeletal deformities, dental malformations and rare lingual muscle dysfunction. The need for orthodontic and orthognathic therapy has arisen and has been considered a real clinical challenge even for experienced professionals, once it requires a complex and individualized treatment plan. This study reports a case of orthopedic expansion of the maxilla, in which a modified facial mask was used for protraction of the maxillary complex associated with clockwise rotation of the maxilla. In addition, special considerations about treatment time and orthopedic outcomes are discussed. PMID:25741831

  9. [New class III antiarrhythmic drugs for treatment of atrial fibrillation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maĭkov, E B

    2012-01-01

    Last two decades have been dedicated to intensive search for new class III antiarrhythmic drugs, especially for atrial fibrillation. Here we present a review of the status this problem. Influence on transmembranous ion currents and mechanisms of antiarrhythmic action are described. Results of experimental and clinical studies are reviewed. Possible perspectives of newest atrial-selective medications are discussed. Russia's class III antiarrhythmic drugs are of special interest of the article. First data on efficacy and safety of newest agent niferidil are presented. This drug undergoes clinical testing at present time.

  10. A study on the prevalence of the idiopathic osteosclerosis in Korean malocclusion patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Youp; Park, In Woo; Jang, In San; Choi, Dong Soon; Cha, Bong Kuen [College of Dentisity, Gangneung Wonju National University, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    This retrospective study was performed to investigate the prevalence of the idiopathic osteosclerosis (IO) in Korean malocclusion patients according to age, sex, and the Angle's classification of malocclusion. This study consisted of 2,001 randomly selected patients from the Department of Orthodontics at the Gangneung-Wonju National University Dental Hospital, Korea. The prevalence of IO in Korean malocclusion patients was recorded using their panoramic radiographs, and the following parameters were surveyed; age, sex, and the Angle's classification of malocclusion. The chi-square test was analyzed to determine the statistical significance of differences in the prevalence of IO between age, sex, and the Angle's classification of malocclusion. The prevalence of IO in the jaws was 6.7% in a total of 2,001 examined orthodontic patients. The majority of IO was found in the mandible (96.58%). The 30-39 age group showed the highest prevalence of IO (9.60%). There was a higher prevalence in females (6.89%) than in males (6.45%). The prevalence of IO in Angle Class I group (7.07%) was the most frequent, followed by Angle Class II group (6.72%), and Angle Class III group (6.40%). However, there was no statistical significance in sex and Angle's classification of malocclusion. The prevalence of IO in malocclusion patients showed the differences between various age groups and most of them were found in the mandibular posterior area. However, sex and the type of malocclusion are not to be considered as a contributing factor of IO.

  11. Reassessing Pre-market Regulation of Class III Medical Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Zollinger, Geri

    2003-01-01

    Regulation of medical devices has evolved over the past twenty-five years. Initially, Congress created a regime where the safety and efficacy of all medical devices would be reviewed to varying degrees, depending on the risk posed by the device. Class III devices, the most dangerous class of devices, were to each have a safety and efficacy review. To permit new market entrants on similar grounds as those marketing devices prior to the 1976 Amendments, Congress also created a premarket notific...

  12. Comparison of Movement of the Upper Dentition According to Anchorage Method: Orthodontic Mini-Implant versus Conventional Anchorage Reinforcement in Class I Malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ah-Young; Kim, Young Ho

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To compare the amounts of anchorage loss in the upper first molar (U6) and of retraction of the upper central incisor (U1) in cases with Class I malocclusion between orthodontic mini-implants (OMIs) and conventional anchorage reinforcements (CARs). Methods. The subjects were 40 female adult patients with Class I malocclusion who were treated with extraction of the first premolars and sliding mechanics. The subjects were divided into Groups 1 (N = 20, CAR) and 2 (N = 20, OMI) according to anchorage method. Lateral cephalograms were taken before (T0) and after treatment (T1). Seven skeletal and dental variables and ten anchorage variables were measured. Mann-Whitney test was used for statistical analysis. Results. Group 2 showed significantly larger retraction of U1 (U1E-sag, 9.5 mm : 7.1 mm, P anchorage loss of U6 (U6M-sag, 0.2 mm : 2.2 mm, P anchorage of U6, greater retraction of U1, intrusion of U1 and U6 than CAR.

  13. Prevalence and determinant factors of malocclusion in population with special needs in South India

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    R Muppa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Malocclusion plays an important role in the overall oral health of an individual because it is associated with periodontal disease, temporomandibular disorders and may be complicated by an individual′s disparity. Careful attention to malocclusion in children with special needs leads to a considerable improvement in the quality-of-life. The objective of the present study was to analyze the prevalence of malocclusion and its association with determinant factors in individuals with special needs in South India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out that included 844 individuals with special needs and their mothers at eleven institutions in South India. Data were collected based on the questionnaire given to the mothers and dental examination carried out on the children. The nutritive and non-nutritive oral habits were obtained from the reports of the mothers. Clinical examination recorded the following: Class I, Class II, Class III, anterior crowding, anterior spacing, deep bite, open bite, and anterior cross bite. Statistical analyses of data were performed using Chi-square test. Results: Results at the end of the study revealed anterior crowding in 27.37% of the total sample size, deep bite in 20.5%, Class I in 14.34%, anterior spacing in 12.9%, Class II in 9.95%, Class III in 5.33%, anterior cross bite in 4.98% and open bite in 4.62%. Conclusion: The prevalence of malocclusion in individuals with special needs is associated with the type of disability and it is more in males than females. Mentally disabled individuals had higher frequencies of all types the malocclusion. Prevalence of anterior crowding was higher compared to other types of malocclusion followed by deep bite.

  14. Prevalence and determinant factors of malocclusion in population with special needs in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muppa, R; Bhupathiraju, P; Duddu, M K; Dandempally, A; Karre, D L

    2013-01-01

    Malocclusion plays an important role in the overall oral health of an individual because it is associated with periodontal disease, temporomandibular disorders and may be complicated by an individual's disparity. Careful attention to malocclusion in children with special needs leads to a considerable improvement in the quality-of-life. The objective of the present study was to analyze the prevalence of malocclusion and its association with determinant factors in individuals with special needs in South India. A cross-sectional study was carried out that included 844 individuals with special needs and their mothers at eleven institutions in South India. Data were collected based on the questionnaire given to the mothers and dental examination carried out on the children. The nutritive and non-nutritive oral habits were obtained from the reports of the mothers. Clinical examination recorded the following: Class I, Class II, Class III, anterior crowding, anterior spacing, deep bite, open bite, and anterior cross bite. Statistical analyses of data were performed using Chi-square test. Results at the end of the study revealed anterior crowding in 27.37% of the total sample size, deep bite in 20.5%, Class I in 14.34%, anterior spacing in 12.9%, Class II in 9.95%, Class III in 5.33%, anterior cross bite in 4.98% and open bite in 4.62%. The prevalence of malocclusion in individuals with special needs is associated with the type of disability and it is more in males than females. Mentally disabled individuals had higher frequencies of all types the malocclusion. Prevalence of anterior crowding was higher compared to other types of malocclusion followed by deep bite.

  15. 25 CFR 502.4 - Class III gaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... 1171(a)(1) and electronic or electromechanical facsimiles of any game of chance; (c) Any sports betting... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Class III gaming. 502.4 Section 502.4 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502...

  16. Indian Board of Orthodontics case report: Orthodontic management of a Class II malocclusion in a growing patient with bilateral maxillary molar distalization

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    Salil Sunil Nene

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available C.S., a 12-year, 1-month-old male patient, presented with the chief complaint of highly placed canines and irregular teeth. On examination and analysis of relevant records, he was diagnosed as an Angle's Class II malocclusion on an underlying Class I skeletal base, severely crowded maxillary arch with high labially placed canines, mild crowding in mandibular arch, retroclined lower incisors, an impacted mesiodens with convex profile, and acute nasolabial angle. He was treated with a nonextraction treatment plan that involved bilateral maxillary molar distalization using Hilgers pendulum appliance followed by fixed mechanotherapy. The posttreatment results were highly satisfactory showing improvement in facial esthetics and occlusal traits as well as good long-term stability as was evident in the 2-year, 6-month retention photographs.

  17. PATTERNS OF MORPHOLOGICAL INTEGRATION IN THE DENTAL ARCHES OF INDIVIDUALS WITH MALOCCLUSION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Steven F.; Vela, Kaci; Levy, Steven M.; Southard, Thomas E.; Gratton, David; Moreno Uribe, Lina M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In humans, there is a large range of variation in the form of the maxillary and mandibular dental arches. This variation can manifest as either prognathism or retrognathism in either or both arches, which can cause malocclusion and lead to abnormal masticatory function. This study aims to identify aspects of variation and morphological integration existing in the dental arches of individuals with different types of malocclusion. Methods Coordinate landmark data were collected along the gingival margins of 397 scanned dental casts and then analyzed using geometric morphometric techniques to explore arch form variation and patterns of morphological integration within each malocclusion type. Results Significant differences were identified between Class II forms (increased projection of upper arch relative to the lower arch) and Class III forms (lower arch projection beyond the upper arch) in symmetrical shape variation, including anteroposterior arch discrepancies and abnormal anterior arch divergence or convergence. Partial least squares analysis demonstrated that Class III dental arches have higher levels of covariance between upper and lower arches (RV=0.91) compared to the dental arches of Class II (RV=0.78) and Class I (RV=0.73. These high levels of covariance, however, are on the lower end of the overall range of possible masticatory blocks, indicating weaker than expected levels of integration. Conclusions This study provides evidence for patterns of variation in dental arch shape found in individuals with Class II and Class III malocclusions. Moreover, differences in integration found between malocclusion types have ramifications for how such pathologies should be studied and treated. PMID:27292446

  18. Assessment of the dentoskeletal changes following the use of twin-block functional appliance and inclined anterior bite plan in the patients with class II malocclusion div 1 in 11-14 years old

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    Allahyar Geramy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Cl II malocclusion is one of the most common abnormalities in human societies and using a simple, affordable and accessible treatment that can be provided by general practitioners or specialists, to prevent future malocclusion complications is vital. Cl II malocclusion treatment using functional appliances such as twin block and anterior inclined bite plan have less cost, side effects and complications compared to fixed orthodontic or orthosurgery. Until now, the dentoskeletal changes resulting from the application of twin block and anterior inclined bite plan in patients with Class II malocclusion has not been evaluated. The objective of the present study was to assess the dentoskeletal changes following the use of twin-block functional appliance and inclined anterior bite plan in the patients with class II malocclusion div 1 during mixed dentition. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective cohort trial, 60 patients with the definitive diagnosis of Class II div. 1 malocclusion having ANB>2 and FMA angel between 20 and 30 and without any previous treatment or syndrome who were treated with twin-block or inclined anterior bite plan appliance were selected and their lateral cephalometries were traced before and after treatment. Selected distance and angular landmarks were measured on the cephalograms with the good reliability (ICC=0.953 and the changes occurred in the landmarks were statistically analyzed using Student t test. Results: Due to the increased mandibular growth, most of the landmarks experienced significant changes following the treatment with twin-block and inclined bite plan (P0.05, however, SNA (P=0.04, overjet (P=0.007 and wits appraisal (P=0.004 changed differently after using the appliances. Conclusion: Despite with most similarities of both twin-block and anterior inclined bite plan to correct class II div. 1 malocclusion, Due to the advantages of anterior inclined bite plan such as less size, good

  19. Uso do aparelho de Thurow no tratamento da má oclusão esquelética de Classe II The use of Thurow's appliance in the treatment of skeletal class II malocclusion

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    Maíra Massuia de Souza

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar uma revisão de literatura em relação ao tratamento da má oclusão esquelética de Classe II com a utilização do splint maxilar removível associado à tração alta, realçando sua influência no crescimento ósseo e seus benefícios. Através do relato do caso clínico será mostrada a confecção e os efeitos do aparelho de Thurow quando utilizado no período da dentadura mista, para a correção da Classe II esqueléticaThe aim of this study was to review the literature concerning the treatment of Class II malocclusion with removable maxillary splint associated to the high traction, enhancing its influence in the bony growth and its benefits. This clinical case will show the fabrication and the effects of Thurow's appliance, when it's used in the mixed dentition for the correction skeletal class II malocclusion.

  20. Condylar and mandibular morphological criteria in the 2D and 3D MSCT imaging for patients with Class II division 1 subdivision malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisjane, Zane; Urtane, Ilga; Krumina, Gaida; Bieza, Anvita; Zepa, Katrina; Rogovska, Irena

    2007-01-01

    The condyle has a special multidirectional capacity for the growth and adaptive remodeling of temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Being part of TMJ structur