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Sample records for class iii adenylate

  1. Pseudo Class III malocclusion

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    Fadia M. Al-Hummayani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of deep anterior crossbite is technically challenging due to the difficulty of placing traditional brackets with fixed appliances. This case report represents a none traditional treatment modality to treat deep anterior crossbite in an adult pseudo class III malocclusion complicated by severely retruded, supraerupted upper and lower incisors. Treatment was carried out in 2 phases. Phase I treatment was performed by removable appliance “modified Hawley appliance with inverted labial bow,” some modifications were carried out to it to suit the presented case. Positive overbite and overjet was accomplished in one month, in this phase with minimal forces exerted on the lower incisors. Whereas, phase II treatment was performed with fixed appliances (braces to align teeth and have proper over bite and overjet and to close posterior open bite, this phase was accomplished within 11 month.

  2. Timely management of developing class III malocclusion

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    M R Yelampalli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Timing of orthodontic treatment, especially for children with developing class III malocclusions, has always been somewhat controversial, and definitive treatment tends to be delayed for severe class III cases. Developing class III patients with moderate to severe anterior crossbite and deep bite may need early intervention in some selected cases. Class III malocclusion may develop in children as a result of an inherent growth abnormality, i.e. true class III malocclusion, or as a result of premature occlusal contacts causing forward functional shift of the mandible, which is known as pseudo class III malocclusion. These cases, if not treated at the initial stage of development, interfere with normal growth of the jaw bases and may result in severe facial deformities. The treatment should be carried out as early as possible for permitting normal growth of the skeletal bases. This paper deals with the selection of an appropriate appliance from the various current options available for early intervention in developing class III malocclusion through two case reports.

  3. Finishing occlusion in Class II or Class III molar relation: therapeutic Class II and III.

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    Nangia, A; Darendeliler, M A

    2001-11-01

    The most frequent extraction regime consists of the removal of upper and lower premolars. Depending on anchorage requirements, camouflage treatment options, surgical intervention, or the absence of teeth in only one arch, it may become necessary to finalize the occlusion with a one-dental-unit discrepancy between the upper and lower dental arches. Guidelines are presented for finishing occlusions in Class II or Class III molar relation.

  4. Gait and Function in Class III Obesity

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    Catherine Ling

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Walking, more specifically gait, is an essential component of daily living. Walking is a very different activity for individuals with a Body Mass Index (BMI of 40 or more (Class III obesity compared with those who are overweight or obese with a BMI between 26–35. Yet all obesity weight classes receive the same physical activity guidelines and recommendations. This observational study examined the components of function and disability in a group with Class III obesity and a group that is overweight or has Class I obesity. Significant differences were found between the groups in the areas of gait, body size, health condition, and activity capacity and participation. The Timed Up and Go test, gait velocity, hip circumference, and stance width appear to be most predictive of activity capacity as observed during gait assessment. The findings indicate that Class III-related gait is pathologic and not a normal adaptation.

  5. Gender differences in Class III malocclusion.

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    Baccetti, Tiziano; Reyes, Brian C; McNamara, James A

    2005-07-01

    This study evaluated gender differences in the cephalometric records of a large-scale cross-sectional sample of Caucasian subjects with Class III malocclusion at different developmental ages. The purpose also was to provide average age-related and sex-related data for craniofacial measures in untreated Class III subjects that are used as reference in the diagnostic appraisal of the patient with Class III disharmony. The sample examined consisted of 1094 pretreatment lateral cephalometric records (557 female subjects and 537 male subjects) of Caucasian Class III individuals. The age range for female subjects was between three years six months and 57 years seven months. The male subject group ranged from three years three months to 48 years five months. Twelve age groups were identified. Skeletal maturity at different age periods also was determined using the stage of cervical vertebral maturation. Gender differences for all cephalometric variables were analyzed using parametric statistics. The findings of the study indicated that Class III malocclusion is associated with a significant degree of sexual dimorphism in craniofacial parameters, especially from the age of 13 onward. Male subjects with Class III malocclusion present with significantly larger linear dimensions of the maxilla, mandible, and anterior facial heights when compared with female subjects during the circumpubertal and postpubertal periods.

  6. 25 CFR 502.4 - Class III gaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Class III gaming. 502.4 Section 502.4 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.4 Class III gaming. Class III gaming means all forms of gaming that are not class I gaming or class...

  7. Correction of a severe Class III malocclusion.

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    Arslan, Seher Gündüz; Kama, Jalan Devecioglu; Baran, Sedat

    2004-08-01

    The success of early orthopedic treatment in patients with Class III anomalies depends on facial skeletal development and type of treatment. This case report describes the treatment of a 12.6-year-old girl who had a severe Class III malocclusion with a 6-mm anterior crossbite, a deep overbite, a narrow maxilla, and unerupted maxillary canines. The treatment plan included rapid palatal expansion to expand the maxilla, reverse headgear to correct the maxillary retrognathia, a removable anterior inclined bite plane to correct the anterior crossbite and the deep overbite, and fixed edgewise appliances to align the teeth. One canine was brought into alignment, but the other was placed in occlusion in its transposed position. Ideal overjet and overbite relationships were established, and the final esthetic result was pleasing.

  8. Contemporary solutions for managing Class III malocclusion

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    Nathamuni Rengarajan Krishnaswamy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although patients with Class III malocclusions constitute a small percentage of the average orthodontic practice, providing them with optimal treatment is a daunting task. The treatment approach is dependent upon the growth status of the individual and the severity of the skeletal dysplasia. For growing individuals, facemask therapy to protract the maxilla is ineffective because of its dependence on dental anchorage to bring forth skeletal correction. Orthodontic camouflage in nongrowing mild skeletal Class III individuals is met with limited success because of the anatomical boundaries and the conventional biomechanics. Orthognathic surgery to correct the maxillomandibular relations is time-consuming, and the facial esthetics is compromised during the orthodontic decompensation period. Contemporary solutions to overcome these limitations are now viable with the use of temporary anchorage devices and by performing surgery prior to orthodontic decompensation. The rationale for employing these contemporary approaches will be discussed in this study with illustrative cases.

  9. 25 CFR 522.12 - Revocation of class III gaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Revocation of class III gaming. 522.12 Section 522.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.12 Revocation of class III...

  10. Evolution of Class III treatment in orthodontics.

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    Ngan, Peter; Moon, Won

    2015-07-01

    Angle, Tweed, and Moyers classified Class III malocclusions into 3 types: pseudo, dentoalveolar, and skeletal. Clinicians have been trying to identify the best timing to intercept a Class III malocclusion that develops as early as the deciduous dentition. With microimplants as skeletal anchorage, orthopedic growth modification became more effective, and it also increased the scope of camouflage orthodontic treatment for patients who were not eligible for orthognathic surgery. However, orthodontic treatment combined with orthognathic surgery remains the only option for patients with a severe skeletal Class III malocclusion or a craniofacial anomaly. Distraction osteogenesis can now be performed intraorally at an earlier age. The surgery-first approach can minimize the length of time that the malocclusion needs to worsen before orthognathic surgery. Finally, the use of computed tomography scans for 3-dimensional diagnosis and treatment planning together with advances in imaging technology can improve the accuracy of surgical movements and the esthetic outcomes for these patients. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Class III malocclusion with severe anteroposterior discrepancy

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    Susana Maria Deon Rizzatto

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at reporting the clinical case of a patient with Class III skeletal malocclusion with severe maxillary deficiency, producing a reduced midface associated with severe mandibular prognathism. The pre-surgical orthodontic preparation was composed mainly by dentoalveolar expansion and repositioning of the incisors in the lower arch. Then, a combined maxillary and mandibular orthognathic surgery was performed. The treatment objectives were achieved, with significant improvement in facial esthetics and occlusion, followed by post-treatment stability. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Facial Orthopedics (BBO, as part of the requirements for obtaining the title of Diplomate by BBO.O objetivo deste artigo é relatar o caso clínico de um paciente portador de má oclusão de Classe III esquelética com acentuada deficiência maxilar, causando redução do terço médio da face, associada a severo prognatismo mandibular. O preparo ortodôntico pré-cirúrgico foi composto, principalmente, pela expansão dentoalveolar da maxila e o reposicionamento dos incisivos na arcada inferior. Depois, foi realizada a cirurgia ortognática combinada maxilomandibular. Os objetivos do tratamento foram atingidos, com significativa melhora da oclusão e da estética facial, seguida de estabilidade pós-tratamento. Esse caso foi apresentado à Diretoria do Board Brasileiro de Ortodontia e Ortopedia Facial (BBO, como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do título de Diplomado pelo BBO.

  12. Class III Malocclusion Surgical-Orthodontic Treatment

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    Bruna Alves Furquim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present case report is to describe the orthodontic-surgical treatment of a 17-year-and-9-month-old female patient with a Class III malocclusion, poor facial esthetics, and mandibular and chin protrusion. She had significant anteroposterior and transverse discrepancies, a concave profile, and strained lip closure. Intraorally, she had a negative overjet of 5 mm and an overbite of 5 mm. The treatment objectives were to correct the malocclusion, and facial esthetic and also return the correct function. The surgical procedures included a Le Fort I osteotomy for expansion, advancement, impaction, and rotation of the maxilla to correct the occlusal plane inclination. There was 2 mm of impaction of the anterior portion of the maxilla and 5 mm of extrusion in the posterior region. A bilateral sagittal split osteotomy was performed in order to allow counterclockwise rotation of the mandible and anterior projection of the chin, accompanying the maxillary occlusal plane. Rigid internal fixation was used without any intermaxillary fixation. It was concluded that these procedures were very effective in producing a pleasing facial esthetic result, showing stability 7 years posttreatment.

  13. Interdisciplinary orthognathic treatment of high angle class III ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For Class III adult patients, combined treatment strategy must be followed which includes either further dentoalveolar compensation or orthognathic surgery following decompensation of the teeth. This case report presents the interdisciplinary approach of a skeletal Class III malocclusion with increased vertical facial ...

  14. Expansion/Facemask Treatment of an Adult Class III Malocclusion.

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    Jackson, Gregory W; Kravitz, Neal D

    2014-01-01

    The orthodontic treatment of class III malocclusion with a maxillary deficiency is often treated with maxillary protraction with or without expansion. Skeletal and dental changes have been documented which have combined for the protraction of the maxilla and the correction of the class III malocclusion. Concerning the ideal time to treat a developing class III malocclusion, studies have reported that, although early treatment may be the most effective, face mask therapy can provide a viable option for older children as well. But what about young adults? Can the skeletal and dental changes seen in expansion/facemask therapy in children and adolescents be demonstrated in this age group as well, possibly eliminating the need for orthodontic dental camouflage treatment or orthognathic surgery? A case report is presented of an adult class III malocclusion with a Class III skeletal pattern and maxillary retrusion. Treatment was with nonextraction, comprehensive edgewise mechanics with slow maxillary expansion with a bonded expander and protraction facemask.

  15. Expansion/Facemask Treatment of an Adult Class III Malocclusion

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    Gregory W. Jackson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The orthodontic treatment of class III malocclusion with a maxillary deficiency is often treated with maxillary protraction with or without expansion. Skeletal and dental changes have been documented which have combined for the protraction of the maxilla and the correction of the class III malocclusion. Concerning the ideal time to treat a developing class III malocclusion, studies have reported that, although early treatment may be the most effective, face mask therapy can provide a viable option for older children as well. But what about young adults? Can the skeletal and dental changes seen in expansion/facemask therapy in children and adolescents be demonstrated in this age group as well, possibly eliminating the need for orthodontic dental camouflage treatment or orthognathic surgery? A case report is presented of an adult class III malocclusion with a Class III skeletal pattern and maxillary retrusion. Treatment was with nonextraction, comprehensive edgewise mechanics with slow maxillary expansion with a bonded expander and protraction facemask.

  16. Archform comparisons between skeletal class II and III malocclusions.

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    Wei Zou

    Full Text Available The purpose of this cross-sectional research was to explore the relationship of the mandibular dental and basal bone archforms between severe Skeletal Class II (SC2 and Skeletal Class III (SC3 malocclusions. We also compared intercanine and intermolar widths in these two malocclusion types. Thirty-three virtual pretreatment mandibular models (Skeletal Class III group and Thirty-five Skeletal Class II group pretreatment models were created with a laser scanning system. FA (the midpoint of the facial axis of the clinical crownand WALA points (the most prominent point on the soft-tissue ridgewere employed to produce dental and basal bone archforms, respectively. Gained scatter diagrams of the samples were processed by nonlinear regression analysis via SPSS 17.0. The mandibular dental and basal bone intercanine and intermolar widths were significantly greater in the Skeletal Class III group compared to the Skeletal Class II group. In both groups, a moderate correlation existed between dental and basal bone arch widths in the canine region, and a high correlation existed between dental and basal bone arch widths in the molar region. The coefficient of correlation of the Skeletal Class III group was greater than the Skeletal Class II group. Fourth degree, even order power functions were used as best-fit functions to fit the scatter plots. The radius of curvature was larger in Skeletal Class III malocclusions compared to Skeletal Class II malocclusions (rWALA3>rWALA2>rFA3>rFA2. In conclusion, mandibular dental and basal intercanine and intermolar widths were significantly different between the two groups. Compared with Skeletal Class II subjects, the mandibular archform was more flat for Skeletal Class III subjects.

  17. DIAGNOSTIC GUIDANCE AND EARLY INTERVENTION IN CLASS III MALOCCLUSION

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    Rinandri Charea Runizar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Timing of orthodontic treatment for Class III malocclusion has always been somewhat controversial. Many orthodontic pioneers like Angle, Tweed, and Graber have advocated early interception of class II malocclusion because this kind of skeletal discrepancy once established, would usually progress rapidly. What kind of early treatment would be appropriate for this malocclusion? Would this approach be effective and promises a stable result? Early orthodontic treatment is defined as a treatment that is initiated during the primary or mixed dentition stage to enhance skeletal and dental development. It is usually done in two phases. The first phase is intended to correct skeletal discrepancy by taking advantage of growth and development period. The second phase followed to improve occlusal relationship. Early treatment of Class III malocclusion is a possible alternative to improve skeletal discrepancy or at the very east may serve to prevent a worsening malocclusion. Principles of Class III early treatment depend on whether it is dental Class III, functional Class III, or skeletal Class III. Practitioners should consider positive and negative factors of a patient before initiating treatment. Likewise, they should understand factors that affect prognosis and stability of the results.

  18. Duration of the pubertal peak in skeletal Class I and Class III subjects.

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    Kuc-Michalska, Małgorzata; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2010-01-01

    To estimate and compare the duration of the pubertal growth peak in Class I and Class III subjects. The data examined consisted of pretreatment lateral cephalometric records of 218 skeletal Class I or Class III subjects (93 female and 125 male subjects) of white ancestry. The duration of the pubertal peak was calculated from the average chronological age intervals between stages CS3 and CS4 of the cervical vertebral maturation in Class I vs Class III groups (t-test). In skeletal Class I subjects, the pubertal peak had a mean duration of 11 months, whereas in Class III subjects it lasted 16 months. The average difference (5 months) was statistically significant (P < .001). The growth interval corresponding to the pubertal growth spurt (CS3-CS4) was longer in Class III subjects than in subjects with normal skeletal relationships; the larger increases in mandibular length during the pubertal peak reported in the literature for Class III subjects may be related to the longer duration of the pubertal peak.

  19. Mandibular condyle dimensions in Peruvian patients with Class II and Class III skeletal patterns.

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    Hugo Zegarra-Baquerizo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare condylar dimensions of young adults with Class II and Class III skeletal patterns using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT. Materials and methods: 124 CBCTs from 18-30 year-old patients, divided into 2 groups according to skeletal patterns (Class II and Class III were evaluated. Skeletal patterns were classified by measuring the ANB angle of each patient. The anteroposterior diameter (A and P of the right and left mandibular condyle was assessed from a sagittal view by a line drawn from point A (anterior to P (posterior. The coronal plane allowed the evaluation of the medio-lateral diameter by drawing a line from point M (medium to L (lateral; all distances were measured in mm. Results: In Class II the A-P diameter was 9.06±1.33 and 8.86±1.56 for the right and left condyles respectively, in Class III these values were 8.71±1.2 and 8.84±1.42. In Class II the M-L diameter was 17.94±2.68 and 17.67±2.44 for the right and left condyles respectively, in Class III these values were 19.16±2.75 and 19.16±2.54. Conclusion: Class III M-L dimensions showed higher values than Class II, whereas these differences were minimal in A-P.

  20. Effect of Class III bone anchor treatment on airway.

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    Nguyen, Tung; De Clerck, Hugo; Wilson, Michael; Golden, Brent

    2015-07-01

    To compare airway volumes and minimum cross-section area changes of Class III patients treated with bone-anchored maxillary protraction (BAMP) versus untreated Class III controls. Twenty-eight consecutive skeletal Class III patients between the ages of 10 and 14 years (mean age, 11.9 years) were treated using Class III intermaxillary elastics and bilateral miniplates (two in the infra-zygomatic crests of the maxilla and two in the anterior mandible). The subjects had cone beam computed tomographs (CBCTs) taken before initial loading (T1) and 1 year out (T2). Twenty-eight untreated Class III patients (mean age, 12.4 years) had CBCTs taken and cephalograms generated. The airway volumes and minimum cross-sectional area measurements were performed using Dolphin Imaging 11.7 3D software. The superior border of the airway was defined by a plane that passes through the posterior nasal spine and basion, while the inferior border included the base of the epiglottis to the lower border of C3. From T1 to T2, airway volume from BAMP-treated subjects showed a statistically significant increase (1499.64 mm(3)). The area in the most constricted section of the airway (choke point) increased slightly (15.44 mm(2)). The airway volume of BAMP patients at T2 was 14136.61 mm(3), compared with 14432.98 mm(3) in untreated Class III subjects. Intraexaminer correlation coefficients values and 95% confidence interval values were all greater than .90, showing a high degree of reliability of the measurements. BAMP treatment did not hinder the development of the oropharynx.

  1. Conservative treatment of Angle Class III malocclusion with anterior crossbite

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    João Hélder Ferreira de Aguiar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Angle Class III malocclusion is characterized by anteroposterior dental discrepancy which might be associated or not with skeletal changes. Class III molar relationship is associated with vertical or lingually tipped mandibular incisors and a usually concave profile. These characteristics seriously affect facial esthetics and most frequently are the reason why patients seek orthodontic treatment. This case was presented to the committee of the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Facial Orthopedics (BBO as part of the requisites to become a BBO Diplomate.

  2. 25 CFR 291.15 - How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect... ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.15 How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect? Class III gaming procedures remain in effect for the duration specified in the procedures or until...

  3. Non-extraction treatment of a Class III skeletal case.

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    Gonzalez, Bulmario

    2009-01-01

    Adult Class III Skeletal treatment options have generally included some form of surgery (Maxillary advancement in midface deficient cases and/or Mandibular set-back). This article discusses non-surgical treatment of an adult patient using the combined concepts of mandibular molar distalization enhanced with TADs and non-extraction camouflage dental correction through maxillary incisor protraction and mandibular incisor lingualization.

  4. A benefit-risk assessment of class III antiarrhythmic agents

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    Brendorp, Bente; Pedersen, Oledyg; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2002-01-01

    , which differentiates them from the others. However, all have potential serious adverse events. Proarrhythmia, especially torsade de pointes, is a common problem making the benefit-risk ratio of these drugs a key question. Class III drugs have been evaluated in different settings: primary and secondary...... prevention of ventricular arrhythmias and in treatment of atrial fibrillation or flutter. Based on existing evidence there is no routine indication for antiarrhythmic drug therapy other than beta-blockers in patients at high risk of sudden death. Subgroup analyses of trials with amiodarone and dofetilide......-intervals or - in the future - from genetic testing. Class III drugs are effective in converting atrial fibrillation to sinus rhythm and for the maintenance of sinus rhythm after conversion. This is currently by far the most important indication for this class of drugs. As defined by recent guidelines, amiodarone...

  5. Orthodontics-surgical combination therapy for Class III skeletal malocclusion

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    M S Ravi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The correction of skeletal Class III malocclusion with severe mandibular prognathism in an adult individual requires surgical and Othodontic combination therapy. The inter disciplinary approach is the treatment of choice in most of the skeletal malocclusions. A case report of an adult individual with Class III malocclusion, having mandibular excess in sagittal and vertical plane and treated with orthodontics,, bilateral sagittal split osteotomy and Le - Forte I osteotomy for the correction of skeletal, dental and soft tissue discrepancies is herewith presented. The surgical-orthodontic combination therapy has resulted in near-normal skeletal, dental and soft tissue relationship, with marked improvement in the facial esthetics in turn, has helped the patient to improve the self-confidence level.

  6. [Orthodontic treatment of Class III patients with mandibular asymmetry].

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    Duan, Yin-Zhong; Huo, Na; Chen, Lei; Chen, Xue-Peng; Lin, Yang

    2008-12-01

    To investigate the treatment outcome of Class III patients with dental, functional and mild skeletal mandibular asymmetry. Thirty-five patients (14 males and 21 females) with dental, functional and mild skeletal mandibular asymmetry were selected. The age range of the patients was 7 - 22 years with a mean age of 16.5 years. Dental mandibular asymmetry was treated with expansion of maxillary arch to help the mandible returning to normal position. Functional mandibular asymmetry was treated with activator or asymmetrical protraction and Class III elastics. Mild skeletal mandibular asymmetry was treated with camouflage treatment. Good occlusal relationships were achieved and facial esthetics was greatly improved after orthodontic treatment in patients with dental and functional mandibular asymmetry. However, patients with skeletal mandibular asymmetry should be treated with both extraction and genioplasty. Orthodontic treatment was suitable for patients with dental and functional mandibular asymmetry, while combined orthodontics and surgery could get good results in patients with skeletal mandibular asymmetry.

  7. Class III treatment using facial mask: Stability after 10 years

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    Adilson Luiz Ramos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Early Class III malocclusion treatment may not have long-term stability due to mandibular growth. Although some features of this malocclusion point to a better prognosis, it is practically impossible for the orthodontist to foresee cases that require new intervention. Many patients need retreatment, whether compensatory or orthodontic-surgical. The present study reports the case of a Class III patient treated at the end of the mixed dentition with the use of a face mask followed by conventional fixed appliances. The case remains stable 10 years after treatment completion. It was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO as a requirement for the title of certified by the BBO.

  8. A benefit-risk assessment of class III antiarrhythmic agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elming, Hanne; Brendorp, Bente; Pehrson, Steen

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of arrhythmia in the population is increasing as more people survive for longer with cardiovascular disease. It was once thought that antiarrhythmic therapy could save life, however, it is now evident that antiarrhythmic therapy should be administrated with the purpose of symptomat......, and reducing the need for implantable cardioverter defibrillator shock/antitachycardia therapy, since no class III antiarrhythmic agents have proven survival benefit. The risks discussed mainly focus on pro-arrhythmia as torsade de pointes ventricular tachycardia....

  9. Surgical-orthodontic correction of a Class III dentofacial deformity.

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    Devanna, Raghu; Kakkirala, Neelima

    2010-04-01

    This case report describes the surgical-orthodontic treatment of a 26-year-old post-pubertal male patient with a Class III dentofacial deformity. In the pre-surgical orthodontic phase of treatment, a reverse overjet of 5.5 mm was created and arch compatibility was obtained. A mandibualr set back with BSSO was performed during surgery to restore ideal overjet, overbite, occlusion and optimal esthetics. After 1 year of treatment, the results remained stable.

  10. Surgical-orthodontic correction of a Class III dentofacial deformity

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    Raghu Devanna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes the surgical-orthodontic treatment of a 26-year-old post-pubertal male patient with a Class III dentofacial deformity. In the pre-surgical orthodontic phase of treatment, a reverse overjet of 5.5 mm was created and arch compatibility was obtained. A mandibualr set back with BSSO was performed during surgery to restore ideal overjet, overbite, occlusion and optimal esthetics. After 1 year of treatment, the results remained stable.

  11. [Class III surgical patients facilitated by accelerated osteogenic orthodontic treatment].

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    Wu, Jia-qi; Xu, Li; Liang, Cheng; Zou, Wei; Bai, Yun-yang; Jiang, Jiu-hui

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the treatment time and the anterior and posterior teeth movement pattern as closing extraction space for the Class III surgical patients facilitated by accelerated osteogenic orthodontic treatment. There were 10 skeletal Class III patients in accelerated osteogenic orthodontic group (AOO) and 10 patients in control group. Upper first premolars were extracted in all patients. After leveling and alignment (T2), corticotomy was performed in the area of maxillary anterior teeth to accelerate space closing.Study models of upper dentition were taken before orthodontic treatment (T1) and after space closing (T3). All the casts were laser scanned, and the distances of the movement of incisors and molars were digitally measured. The distances of tooth movement in two groups were recorded and analyzed. The alignment time between two groups was not statistically significant. The treatment time in AOO group from T2 to T3 was less than that in the control group (less than 9.1 ± 4.1 months). The treatment time in AOO group from T1 to T3 was less than that in the control group (less than 6.3 ± 4.8 months), and the differences were significant (P 0.05). Accelerated osteogenic orthodontic treatment could accelerate space closing in Class III surgical patients and shorten preoperative orthodontic time. There were no influence on the movement pattern of anterior and posterior teeth during pre-surgical orthodontic treatment.

  12. Compensatory canine angulation in angle Class II and III patients

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    Mauro Carlos Agner Busato

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurence of compensation in mesiodistal axial inclinations of canines in skeletal malocclusions patients. The sample consisted of 25 Angle Class II, division 1 malocclusion (group 1 and 19 Angle Class III malocclusion patients (group 2. After measurement of dental angulations through a method that associates plaster model photography and AutoCad software, comparisons between the groups were performed by T-test for independent samples. Results showed that there was no statistically significant difference (p < 0.05 between groups, when maxillary canine angulations were compared. Regarding the mandibular canines, there was a statistically significant difference in dental angulation, expressed by 3.2° for group 1 and 0.15° for group 2. An upright position tendency for mandibular canines was observed in the Angle Class III sample. This configures a pattern of compensatory coronary positioning, since the angulation of these teeth makes them occupy less space in the dental arch and consequently mandibular incisors can be in a more retracted position in the sagittal plane.

  13. [Cephalometric analysis in cases with Class III malocclusions].

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    Rak, D

    1989-01-01

    Various orthodontic class III anomalies, classified into several experimental groups, and eugnathic occlusions serving as controls were studied by roentgencephalometry. The objective of the study was to detect possible distinctions in the quantitative values of two variables chosen and to select the variables which most significantly discriminate the group of class III orthodontic anomalies. Attempts were made to ascertain whether or not there were sex-related differences. The teleroentgenograms of 269 examines, aged 10-18 years, of both sexes were analyzed. The experimental group consisted of 89 examinees class III orthodontic anomalies. The control group consisted of 180 examines with eugnathic occlusion. Latero-lateral skull roentgenograms were taken observing the rules of roentgenocephalometry. Using acetate paper, the drawings of profile teleroentgenograms were elaborated and the reference points and lines were entered. A total of 38 variables were analyzed, of which there were 10 linear, 19 angular, and 8 variables were obtained by mathematical calculation; the age variable was also analyzed. In statistical analyses an electronic computer was used. The results are presented in tables and graphs. The results obtained showed that: --compared to the findings in the control group, the subjects in the experimental group displayed significant changes in the following craniofacial characteristics a negative difference in the position of the apical base of the jaw, manifest concavity of the osseous profile and diminished convexity of the profile of soft parts, retroinclination of the lower incisors, mandibular prognathism, increased mandibular angle and increased mandibular proportion compared to maxillary and the anterior cranial base; --with regard to the sex of the examinees, only four linear variables of significantly discriminating character were selected, so that in can be concluded that there were no significant sex differences among the morphological

  14. Class III camouflage treatment: what are the limits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Nikia R; Musich, David R; Martin, Chris; Razmus, Thomas; Gunel, Erdogan; Ngan, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the skeletal, dental, and soft-tissue changes in response to camouflage Class III treatment. Thirty patients (average age, 12.4 + or - 1.0 years) with skeletal Class III malocclusions who completed comprehensive nonextraction orthodontic treatment were studied. Skeletal, dental, and soft-tissue changes were determined by using published cephalometric analyses. The quality of orthodontic treatment was standardized by registering the peer assessment rating index on the pretreatment and posttreatment study models. The change in the level of gingival attachment with treatment was determined on the study casts. The results were compared with a group of untreated subjects. Data were analyzed with repeated measures analysis and paired t tests. The average change in the Wits appraisal was greater in the treated group (1.2 + or - 0.1 mm) than in the control group (-0.5 + or - 0.3 mm). The average peer assessment rating index score improved from 33.5 to 4.1. No significant differences were found for the level of gingival attachments between the treatment and control groups. The sagittal jaw relationship (ANB angle) did not improve with camouflage treatment. A wide range of tooth movements compensated for the skeletal changes in both groups. The upper and lower limits for incisal movement to compensate for Class III skeletal changes were 120 degrees to the sella-nasion line and 80 degrees to the mandibular plane, respectively. Greater increases in the angle of convexity were found in the treated group, indicating improved facial profiles. Greater increases in length of the upper lip were found in the treated group, corresponding to the changes in the hard tissues with treatment. Significant dental and soft-tissue changes can be expected in young Class III patients treated with camouflage orthodontic tooth movement. A wide range of skeletal dysplasias can be camouflaged with tooth movement without deleterious effects to the

  15. Vertical control in the Class III compensatory treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobral, Márcio Costa; Habib, Fernando A L; Nascimento, Ana Carla de Souza

    2013-01-01

    Compensatory orthodontic treatment, or simply orthodontic camouflage, consists in an important alternative to orthognathic surgery in the resolution of skeletal discrepancies in adult patients. It is important to point that, to be successfully performed, diagnosis must be detailed, to evaluate, specifically, dental and facial features, as well as the limitations imposed by the magnitude of the discrepancy. The main complaint, patient's treatment expectation, periodontal limits, facial pattern and vertical control are some of the items to be explored in the determination of the viability of a compensatory treatment. Hyperdivergent patients who present with a Class III skeletal discrepancy, associated with a vertical facial pattern, with the presence or tendency to anterior open bite, deserve special attention. In these cases, an efficient strategy of vertical control must be planned and executed. The present article aims at illustrating the evolution of efficient alternatives of vertical control in hiperdivergent patients, from the use, in the recent past, of extraoral appliances on the lower dental arch (J-hook), until nowadays, with the advent of skeletal anchorage. But for patients with a more balanced facial pattern, the conventional mechanics with Class III intermaxillary elastics, associated to an accentuated curve of Spee in the upper arch and a reverse curve of Spee in the lower arch, and vertical elastics in the anterior region, continues to be an excellent alternative, if there is extreme collaboration in using the elastics.

  16. Vertical control in the Class III compensatory treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Costa Sobral

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Compensatory orthodontic treatment, or simply orthodontic camouflage, consists in an important alternative to orthognathic surgery in the resolution of skeletal discrepancies in adult patients. It is important to point that, to be successfully performed, diagnosis must be detailed, to evaluate, specifically, dental and facial features, as well as the limitations imposed by the magnitude of the discrepancy. The main complaint, patient's treatment expectation, periodontal limits, facial pattern and vertical control are some of the items to be explored in the determination of the viability of a compensatory treatment. Hyperdivergent patients who carry a Class III skeletal discrepancy, associated with a vertical facial pattern, with the presence or tendency to anterior open bite, deserve special attention. In these cases, an efficient strategy of vertical control must be planned and executed. OBJECTIVE: The present article aims at illustrating the evolution of efficient alternatives of vertical control in hiperdivergent patients, from the use, in the recent past, of extra-oral appliances on the lower dental arch (J-hook, until nowadays, with the advent of skeletal anchorage. But for patients with a more balanced facial pattern, the conventional mechanics with Class III intermaxillary elastics, associated to an accentuated curve of Spee in the upper arch and a reverse Curve of Spee in the lower arch, and vertical elastics in the anterior region, continues to be an excellent alternative, if there is extreme collaboration in using the elastics.

  17. Class III camouflage using skeletal anchorage and Pendex appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, José Augusto M; Zanardi, Gustavo

    2011-01-01

    This case report describes the orthodontic treatment for a young female, aged 18 years 4 months, with a Class III malocclusion on the right side, with a combination of a posterior and anterior crossbite. Two rigid orthodontic mini-implants were placed in the retromolar region in order to move the entire lower arch distally with nickel-titanium coil springs. In addition, a Pendex appliance was used to create space and to improve the arch form and the transverse relationship. The active treatment period was 17 months. Normal overjet and overbite were obtained, and facial balance was improved. Although the cephalometric superimposition has demonstrated the effects of dental compensation, the final dental and facial results were satisfactory and stable after the second year in retention. Copyright © 2011 Società Italiana di Ortodonzia SIDO. Published by Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  18. Surgical-orthodontic treatment of a skeletal class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katiyar, Radha; Singh, G K; Mehrotra, Divya; Singh, Alka

    2010-07-01

    For patients whose orthodontic problems are so severe that neither growth modification nor camouflage offers a solution, surgery to realign the jaws or reposition dentoalveolar segments is the only possible treatment option left. One indication for surgery obviously is a malocclusion too severe for orthodontics alone. It is possible now to be at least semiquantitative about the limits of orthodontic treatment, in the context of producing normal occlusion as the diagrams of the "envelope of discrepancy" indicate. In this case report we present orthognathic treatment plan of an adult female patient with skeletal class III malocclusion. Patient's malocclusion was decompensated by orthodontic treatment just before the surgery and then normal jaw relationship achieved by bilateral sagittal split osteotomy.

  19. Surgical–orthodontic treatment of a skeletal class III malocclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katiyar, Radha; Singh, G. K.; Mehrotra, Divya; Singh, Alka

    2010-01-01

    For patients whose orthodontic problems are so severe that neither growth modification nor camouflage offers a solution, surgery to realign the jaws or reposition dentoalveolar segments is the only possible treatment option left. One indication for surgery obviously is a malocclusion too severe for orthodontics alone. It is possible now to be at least semiquantitative about the limits of orthodontic treatment, in the context of producing normal occlusion as the diagrams of the “envelope of discrepancy” indicate. In this case report we present orthognathic treatment plan of an adult female patient with skeletal class III malocclusion. Patient's malocclusion was decompensated by orthodontic treatment just before the surgery and then normal jaw relationship achieved by bilateral sagittal split osteotomy. PMID:22442586

  20. Evaluation depth of the curve of Spee in class I, class II, and class III malocclusion: A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjna Nayar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Occlusal plane is an essential consideration when multiple long-span posterior restorations are designed. When restorations are added to an existing tooth arrangement characterized by rotated, tipped, or extruded teeth, excursive interferences may be incorporated, resulting in detrimental squeal. The curve of Spee, which exists in the ideal natural dentition, allows harmony to exist between the anterior tooth and condylar guidance. This curve exists in the sagittal plane and is the best viewed from a lateral aspect. It permits total posterior disclusion on mandibular protrusion, given proper anterior tooth guidance. It is unclear that whether the curve of Spee is a description of the occlusal surface of each arch separately or in maximal intercuspation. The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in the depth of curve of Spee between the class I, class II, class III and to investigate the relationship of depth of curve of Spee with over jet, over-bite.

  1. Skeletal class III camouflage by mandibular incisor extraction: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Janardhanan Kumaresan; Tamizharasi Senthil Kumar; Senthil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Treatment planning in orthodontics plays a key role in determining the successful treatment of any kind of malocclusion. Skeletal class III malocclusions are generally difficult to treat because of the complex nature of the skeletal and dental manifestations they produce. Mild to moderate skeletal class III malocclusions sometimes have an acceptable facial profile where orthodontic camouflage is possible. In this case report, camouflage of a mild skeletal class III is done by the extraction o...

  2. 25 CFR 291.13 - When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe become effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe... ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.13 When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe become effective? Upon approval of Class III gaming procedures for the Indian tribe under either...

  3. The Effect of Excipients on the Permeability of BCS Class III Compounds and Implications for Biowaivers

    OpenAIRE

    Parr, Alan; Hidalgo, Ismael J.; Bode, Chris; Brown, William; Yazdanian, Mehran; Gonzalez, Mario A.; Sagawa, Kazuko; Miller, Kevin; Jiang, Wenlei; Stippler, Erika S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Currently, the FDA allows biowaivers for Class I (high solubility and high permeability) and Class III (high solubility and low permeability) compounds of the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS). Scientific evidence should be provided to support biowaivers for BCS Class I and Class III (high solubility and low permeability) compounds. Methods Data on the effects of excipients on drug permeability are needed to demonstrate that commonly used excipients do not affect the permea...

  4. Do Class III patients have a different growth spurt than the general population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun-Sik; Lee, Shin-Jae; An, Hongseok; Donatelli, Richard E; Kim, Soo-Hwan

    2012-11-01

    Understanding the timing and length of the growth spurt of Class III prognathic patients is fundamental to the strategy of interceptive orthopedic orthodontics as well as to the timing of orthognathic surgery. Consequently, this study was undertaken to determine whether there are any significant differences in the stature growth pattern of Class III subjects compared with non-Class III subjects and the general population. Twelve-year longitudinal stature growth data were collected for 402 randomly selected adolescents in the general population, 55 Class III mandibular prognathic patients, and 37 non-Class III patients. The growth data were analyzed by using the traditional linear interpolation method and nonlinear growth functions. The 6 stature growth parameters were measured: age at takeoff, stature at takeoff, velocity at takeoff, age at peak height velocity, stature at peak height velocity, and velocity at peak height velocity. Comparisons in the stature growth parameters and 15 cephalometric variables among the general population, Class III subjects, and non-Class III subjects were made with multivariate analysis. Patients with Class III prognathism did not have different growth parameters compared with Class II subjects or the general population. This study does not allow meaningful conclusions with regard to the relationship of mandibular size and stature growth pattern. The application of nonlinear growth curves vs the traditional linear interpolation method was also discussed. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Effect of Excipients on the Permeability of BCS Class III Compounds and Implications for Biowaivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Alan; Hidalgo, Ismael J; Bode, Chris; Brown, William; Yazdanian, Mehran; Gonzalez, Mario A; Sagawa, Kazuko; Miller, Kevin; Jiang, Wenlei; Stippler, Erika S

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the FDA allows biowaivers for Class I (high solubility and high permeability) and Class III (high solubility and low permeability) compounds of the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS). Scientific evidence should be provided to support biowaivers for BCS Class I and Class III (high solubility and low permeability) compounds. Data on the effects of excipients on drug permeability are needed to demonstrate that commonly used excipients do not affect the permeability of BCS Class III compounds, which would support the application of biowaivers to Class III compounds. This study was designed to generate such data by assessing the permeability of four BCS Class III compounds and one Class I compound in the presence and absence of five commonly used excipients. The permeability of each of the compounds was assessed, at three to five concentrations, with each excipient in two different models: Caco-2 cell monolayers, and in situ rat intestinal perfusion. No substantial increases in the permeability of any of the compounds were observed in the presence of any of the tested excipients in either of the models, with the exception of disruption of Caco-2 cell monolayer integrity by sodium lauryl sulfate at 0.1 mg/ml and higher. The results suggest that the absorption of these four BCS Class III compounds would not be greatly affected by the tested excipients. This may have implications in supporting biowaivers for BCS Class III compounds in general.

  6. Substrate specificity determinants of class III nucleotidyl cyclases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharambe, Nikhil G; Barathy, Deivanayaga V; Syed, Wajeed; Visweswariah, Sandhya S; Colaςo, Melwin; Misquith, Sandra; Suguna, Kaza

    2016-10-01

    The two second messengers in signalling, cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP, are produced by adenylyl and guanylyl cyclases respectively. Recognition and discrimination of the substrates ATP and GTP by the nucleotidyl cyclases are vital in these reactions. Various apo-, substrate- or inhibitor-bound forms of adenylyl cyclase (AC) structures from transmembrane and soluble ACs have revealed the catalytic mechanism of ATP cyclization reaction. Previously reported structures of guanylyl cyclases represent ligand-free forms and inactive open states of the enzymes and thus do not provide information regarding the exact mode of substrate binding. The structures we present here of the cyclase homology domain of a class III AC from Mycobacterium avium (Ma1120) and its mutant in complex with ATP and GTP in the presence of calcium ion, provide the structural basis for substrate selection by the nucleotidyl cyclases at the atomic level. Precise nature of the enzyme-substrate interactions, novel modes of substrate binding and the ability of the binding pocket to accommodate diverse conformations of the substrates have been revealed by the present crystallographic analysis. This is the first report to provide structures of both the nucleotide substrates bound to a nucleotidyl cyclase. Coordinates and structure factors have been deposited in the Protein Data Bank with accession numbers: 5D15 (Ma1120 CHD +ATP.Ca 2+ ), 5D0E (Ma1120 CHD +GTP.Ca 2+ ), 5D0H (Ma1120 CHD (KDA→EGY)+ATP.Ca 2+ ), 5D0G (Ma1120 CHD (KDA→EGY)+GTP.Ca 2+ ). Adenylyl cyclase (EC number: 4.6.1.1). © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  7. 77 FR 48167 - Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact; Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact; Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an approval of the gaming compact between...

  8. Expression of a cucumber class III chitinase and Nicotiana plumbaginifolia class I glucanase genes in transgenic potato plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moravcikova, J.; Matusikova, I.; Libantova, J.; Bauer, M.; Mlynarova, L.

    2004-01-01

    The genes encoding for a cucumber class III chitinase and Nicotiana plumbaginifolia class I glucanase were co-introduced into Slovak potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) breeding line 116/86 using Agrobacterium tumefaciens. For both transgenes the number of integrated copies and level of RNA expression

  9. The biowaiver extension for BCS class III drugs: the effect of dissolution rate on the bioequivalence of BCS class III immediate-release drugs predicted by computer simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsume, Yasuhiro; Amidon, Gordon L

    2010-08-02

    The Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) guidance issued by the FDA allows waivers for in vivo bioavailability and bioequivalence studies for immediate-release (IR) solid oral dosage forms only for BCS class I drugs. However, a number of drugs within BCS class III have been proposed to be eligible for biowaivers. The World Health Organization (WHO) has shortened the requisite dissolution time of BCS class III drugs on their Essential Medicine List (EML) from 30 to 15 min for extended biowaivers; however, the impact of the shorter dissolution time on AUC(0-inf) and C(max) is unknown. The objectives of this investigation were to assess the ability of gastrointestinal simulation software to predict the oral absorption of the BCS class I drugs propranolol and metoprolol and the BCS class III drugs cimetidine, atenolol, and amoxicillin, and to perform in silico bioequivalence studies to assess the feasibility of extending biowaivers to BCS class III drugs. The drug absorption from the gastrointestinal tract was predicted using physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties of test drugs provided by GastroPlus (version 6.0). Virtual trials with a 200 mL dose volume at different drug release rates (T(85%) = 15 to 180 min) were performed to predict the oral absorption (C(max) and AUC(0-inf)) of the above drugs. Both BCS class I drugs satisfied bioequivalence with regard to the release rates up to 120 min. The results with BCS class III drugs demonstrated bioequivalence using the prolonged release rate, T(85%) = 45 or 60 min, indicating that the dissolution standard for bioequivalence is dependent on the intestinal membrane permeability and permeability profile throughout the gastrointestinal tract. The results of GastroPlus simulations indicate that the dissolution rate of BCS class III drugs could be prolonged to the point where dissolution, rather than permeability, would control the overall absorption. For BCS class III drugs with intestinal absorption patterns

  10. 25 CFR 291.3 - When may an Indian tribe ask the Secretary to issue Class III gaming procedures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... III gaming procedures? 291.3 Section 291.3 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.3 When may an Indian tribe ask the Secretary to issue Class III gaming procedures? An Indian tribe may ask the Secretary to issue Class III...

  11. Cloning and functional characterization of a class III chitinase gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of the VvChiF III amino acid sequence showed that this gene corresponds to the Glyco-hydro-18 super family that consisting of a signal peptide with the length of 25 amino acids. Purified VvChiF III showed chitinase activity toward the soluble substrate, glycolchitin and antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea.

  12. Craniofacial changes in Class III malocclusion as related to skeletal and dental maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Tiziano; Reyes, Brian C; McNamara, James A

    2007-08-01

    In this large cross-sectional study, we aimed to analyze growth trends in white subjects with Class III malocclusion using both skeletal and dental maturation staging. The sample consisted of 1091 pretreatment lateral cephalometric records of Class III patients (560 female, 531 male). Cephalometric dentoskeletal measurements were compared at subsequent stages in cervical vertebral maturation and Hellman's categorization of dental development by means of ANOVA with Bonferroni post-hoc tests in both sexes separately. The findings indicated that, in Class III malocclusion, the pubertal peak in mandibular growth occurs between stages 3 and 4 of cervical vertebral maturation, with average increases in total mandibular length of about 8 and 5.5 mm in Class III boys and girls, respectively. Significant changes in total mandibular length occur until young adulthood (18 years on average), with increases between late maturation stages (4 through 6) that were twice as large as in subjects with normal occlusion for the Class III females, and 3 times as large as in subjects with normal occlusion for the Class III males. Growth trends toward accentuated Class III profile and increased vertical dimension of the face also become apparent at late developmental stages (corresponding with complete eruption of the second and third molars).

  13. Non-surgical Management of Skeletal Class III Malocclusion with Bilateral Posterior Crossbite: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Lalima; Nayan, Kamal

    2016-12-01

    A 16-year-old female patient with skeletal Class III malocclusion and bilateral posterior cross bite complaining of difficulty in chewing was treated orthodontically without surgery (camouflage treatment). The treatment comprised of fixed orthodontic treatment with MBT prescription (0.022˝×0.028˝ slot) using quad helix appliance for bilateral expansion of maxillary arch and Class III elastics for occlusal correction. Post-treatment records showed normal overbite and overjet with acceptable occlusion. So with this treatment strategy of expanding the maxillary arch using a quad helix appliance and use of Class III elastics, we achieved a good result with optimal occlusion.

  14. Skeletal class III camouflage by mandibular incisor extraction: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janardhanan Kumaresan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment planning in orthodontics plays a key role in determining the successful treatment of any kind of malocclusion. Skeletal class III malocclusions are generally difficult to treat because of the complex nature of the skeletal and dental manifestations they produce. Mild to moderate skeletal class III malocclusions sometimes have an acceptable facial profile where orthodontic camouflage is possible. In this case report, camouflage of a mild skeletal class III is done by the extraction of a single mandibular incisor, which helped in maintaining the profile of the patient and also in the correction of crowding in the mandibular anterior region.

  15. Glenoid fossa position in Class III malocclusion associated with mandibular protrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocenti, Cristina; Giuntini, Veronica; Defraia, Efisio; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2009-04-01

    Our aim in this study was to investigate the position of the glenoid fossa in subjects with Class III malocclusion associated with mandibular protrusion to better clarify the role of this craniofacial component in Class III skeletal disharmony. A sample of 30 subjects, aged 8 years +/- 6 months, with skeletal and dental Class III malocclusion associated with mandibular protrusion, normal skeletal vertical relationships, and normal mandibular dimensions, was compared with a control group of 33 subjects with skeletal and dental Class I relationships. The comparisons between the Class III group and the control group on the cephalometric measures for the assessment of glenoid fossa position were performed with the Mann-Whitney U test at P <0.05. Subjects with Class III malocclusion had a significantly more mesial position of the glenoid fossa, when compared with the control group as measured with 3 parameters. An anterior position of the glenoid fossa is a possible diagnostic anatomic feature of Class III malocclusion associated with mandibular protrusion. An effective measurement to evaluate glenoid fossa position in craniofacial relationships is the cephalometric distance from the glenoid fossa to the frontomaxillary-nasal suture.

  16. Policy and procedures for classification of Class III groundwater at UMTRA Project sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-03-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has recently proposed groundwater regulations for the US Department of Energy's )DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. These regulations allow the application of supplemental standards at UMTRA Project sites in specific situations. The designation of groundwater as Class III permits the application of supplemental standards. This document discusses a final UMTRA Project policy and procedures for identifying Class III groundwater, including identification of a review area, definition of water quality, quantification of aquifer yield, and identification of methods reasonably employed for public water supply systems. These items, either individually or collectively, need to be investigated in order to determine if groundwaters at UMTRA Project sites are Class III. This document provides a framework for the DOE to determine Class III groundwaters

  17. Early class III occlusal tendency in children and its selective management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapur A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Class III malocclusion may develop in children as a result of an inherent growth abnormality, i.e., true class III malocclusion, or as a result of premature occlusal contacts causing forward functional shift of the mandible, which is known as pseudo class III malocclusion. These cases, if not treated at the initial stage of development, interfere with normal growth of the skeletal bases and may result in severe facial deformities. The treatment should be carried out as early as possible with the aim of permitting normal growth. This paper deals with the selection of an appropriate treatment approach from the various current options available for early intervention in children developing class III occlusal tendencies; the different clinical features are depicted in the three case reports.

  18. Má oclusão Classe III de Angle com discrepância ântero-posterior acentuada Angle Class III malocclusion with severe anteroposterior disharmony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Alan Vieira Bittencourt

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A má oclusão Classe III de Angle é caracterizada por uma discrepância dentária ântero-posterior, que pode ou não estar acompanhada por alterações esqueléticas. Em geral, o aspecto facial fica bastante comprometido, sendo justamente esse fator, na maioria das vezes, que motiva o paciente a procurar pelo tratamento. Este caso foi apresentado à Diretoria do Board Brasileiro de Ortodontia e Ortopedia Facial (BBO, representando a categoria 4, ou seja, uma má oclusão com discrepância ântero-posterior acentuada, Classe III, com ANB menor ou igual a -2º, como parte dos requisitos para a obtenção do título de Diplomado pelo BBO.Angle Class III malocclusion is characterized by an anteroposterior dental discrepancy which may or may not be accompanied by skeletal changes. In general, distressed by a significantly compromised facial aspect, patients tend to seek treatment. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Facial Orthopedics (BBO, as representative of Category 4, i.e., a malocclusion with severe anteroposterior discrepancy, Class III, and ANB Angle equal to or smaller than -2º, as part of the requirements for obtaining the BBO Diploma.

  19. 25 CFR 291.12 - Who will monitor and enforce tribal compliance with the Class III gaming procedures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Class III gaming procedures? 291.12 Section 291.12 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.12 Who will monitor and enforce tribal compliance with the Class III gaming procedures? The Indian tribe and the State may have an agreement...

  20. Combination of expansion and orthognathic surgery in a severe hyperdivergent skeletal Class III malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anadha Gujar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Class III malocclusions with a severe hyperdivergent growth pattern are very complex to plan and treat. This case report describes the treatment of an adult with a skeletal Class III malocclusion with a midface deficiency, severe bilateral posterior crossbite, and a severe hyperdivergent growth pattern by a combination of a bonded rapid maxillary expansion appliance and surgical procedure of Le Fort I osteotomy for maxillary advancement.

  1. Camouflage treatment of skeletal Class III malocclusion with conventional orthodontic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Hyun; Yu, Joseph; Bullen, Ryan

    2017-04-01

    Nonextraction camouflage treatment along with Class III elastics was used to treat a 39-year-old woman with a skeletal Class III pattern and a low mandibular plane angle and short lower anterior facial height. The total active treatment time was 26 months. Her occlusion, smile esthetics, and soft tissue profile were significantly improved after treatment. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Strategies to finish orthodontic treatment with a Class III molar relationship: three patient reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farret, Milton M B; Farret, Marcel M; Farret, Alessandro M

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review treatment concepts for patients with congenitally missing teeth in the mandible, for patients in whom teeth in only the mandibular arch were extracted, or for patients with Class III camouflage treatment. The therapy result in these situations is a Class III molar relationship. With this type of intercuspation, esthetic and functional aspects must be observed. © 2009 BY QUINTESSENCE PUBLISHING CO, INC.

  3. Maxillary canine-first premolar bilateral transposition in a Class III patient: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potrubacz, Maciej Iancu; Tepedino, Michele; Chimenti, Claudio

    2016-05-01

    Tooth transposition is a rare dental anomaly that often represents a challenge for the clinician. The case of a girl with skeletal Class III malocclusion and concomitant maxillary canine-first premolar bilateral transposition, followed from 7 to 17 years of age, is presented. After a first phase of treatment aimed at resolving the Class III malocclusion, the transposition was maintained and the case finalized with a multibracket appliance.

  4. Orthodontic retreatment using anchorage with miniplate to camouflage a Class III skeletal pattern

    OpenAIRE

    Farret,Marcel Marchiori

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This manuscript describes the treatment of a 27-year-old patient who was previously treated with two maxillary first premolar extractions. The patient had skeletal Class III malocclusion, Class III canine relationship, anterior crossbite, and a concave profile. As the patient refused orthognathic surgery, a miniplate was used on the right side of the lower arch as an anchorage unit after the extraction of mandibular first premolars, aiding the retraction of anterior teeth. At the end...

  5. Orthodontic camouflage of skeletal Class III malocclusion with miniplate: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Farret, Marcel Marchiori; Farret, Milton M. Benitez; Farret, Alessandro Marchiori

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Skeletal Class III malocclusion is often referred for orthodontic treatment combined with orthognathic surgery. However, with the aid of miniplates, some moderate discrepancies become feasible to be treated without surgery. Objective: To report the case of a 24-year-old man with severe skeletal Angle Class III malocclusion with anterior crossbite and a consequent concave facial profile. Methods: The patient refused to undergo orthognathic surgery; therefore, orthodo...

  6. Management of skeletal Class III malocclusion with reverse pull headgear in a growing individual

    OpenAIRE

    Ambreen Afzal; Hasnain Sakrani; Norisha Ehsan Mahmood; Kamellia Mehershahi; Fatima Burney

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal Class III malocclusion is considered to be one of the most difficult orthodontic problems to treat. This malocclusion is associated with the retrognathic maxilla or prognathic mandible or sometimes a combination of both. The treatment of such cases requires an integrated approach and a comprehensive treatment plan including growth modification, dental camouflage, or orthognathic surgery. In a growing patient, orthopedic correction of skeletal Class III malocclusion with the help of a...

  7. A new modified tandem appliance for management of developing Class III malocclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Sukh, Ram; Singh, Gyan P; Tandon, Pradeep

    2013-01-01

    Most developing Class III patients display a retruded maxilla. Early intervention in mixed dentition is associated with better patient compliance and possibly a better orthopedic response, which can produce favorable results. The aim of this article is to present the fabrication of the new modified tandem appliance and its use in management of developing Class III malocclusion. The therapeutic results of a new modified tandem appliance are presented in an 8 year-old male patient with anterior...

  8. Morphometric Analysis of the Mandible in Subjects with Class III Malocclusion

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    Jin-Yun Pan

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the deformations that contribute to Class III mandibular configuration, employing geometric morphometric analysis. Lateral cephalograms of male and female groups of 100 young adults and 70 children with Class III malocclusion were compared to those of counterparts with normal occlusion. The sample included an equal number of both genders. The cephalographs were traced, and 12 homologous landmarks were identified and digitized. Average mandibular geometries were generated by means of Procrustes analysis. Thin-plate spline analysis was then applied to mandibular configurations to determine local form differences in male and female groups of adults and children with normal occlusion and Class III malocclusion. The mandibular morphology was significantly different between these two groups of male and female adults, and children (p < 0.0001. This spline analysis revealed an anteroposterior elongation of the mandible along the condylion-gnathion axis, showing an extension in the regions of the mandibular condyle and ramus, and of the anteroinferior portion of the mandibular symphysis in Class III groups. More extension was evident in Class III adults. The deformations in subjects with Class III malocclusion may represent a developmental elongation of the mandible anteroposteriorly, which leads to the appearance of a prognathic mandibular profile.

  9. Articulación de fones en individuos clase esqueletal I,II y III Speech patterns in skeletal class I, II and III subjects

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    Pía Villanueva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: determinar los patrones de articulación de fones consonánticos en sujetos de habla española chilena clases I, II y III esqueletal; comparar las diferencias fonéticas que existan entre clases esqueletales. MÉTODOS: se seleccionaron 54 individuos que cumplían con los criterios de inclusión determinados mediante un examen clínico intraoral y a través del análisis de Ricketts, y se conformaron los grupos de estudio de pacientes clases esqueletales I, II y III. Se les realizó un examen fonoarticulatorio estandarizado para determinar los fones modificados y el patrón articulatorio compensatorio realizado. RESULTADOS: se observaron cambios en el punto de articulación de fones consonánticos en las tres clases esqueletales, con diferencias significativas en los grupos de fones anteriores y medios entre pacientes clases I y II, sólo en el grupo de los fones anteriores entre pacientes I y III. Entre pacientes clases II y III no se observaron diferencias significativas. Se reportan modificaciones y compensaciones cualitativamente distintas entre las clases esqueletales. CONCLUSIONES: en relación a pacientes clase I, los pacientes clase II o III, presentan distinto grado de modificación en el punto de articulación de fones consonánticos. Las diferencias observadas se relacionan con los patrones esqueletales propios de cada clase.PURPOSE: to determine the consonant phonemes articulation patterns in Chilean skeletal class I, II and III Spanish speakers and compare their phonetic differences. METHODS: fifty-four skeletal class I, II and III subjects were selected, based on intraoral clinical examination and Ricketts cephalometric analysis, constituting the study groups. A standardized phonoarticulatory test was applied to each patient to determine the modified phonemes and their compensatory patterns. RESULTS: the findings indicate changes in articulation in all three groups. Significant differences were found in anterior and medium

  10. Crown-root morphology of lower incisors in patients with class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Shen, Guofang; Fang, Bing; Zhang, Li

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the crown-root morphology of lower incisors in patients with class III malocclusion using cone-beam computed tomography. Cone-beam computed tomography images were analyzed from 53 adult class I patients (group 1), 37 preadolescent class III patients (group 2), and 66 adult class III patients (group 3) comprising 3 divisions (divisions 1, 2, and 3 corresponded to mild, moderate, and severe class III malocclusions). The size and crown-root angulations of lower incisors in different groups and divisions were statistically appraised with group 1 used as the control group. No significant differences were found for the size of lower incisors among different groups and divisions (P > 0.05). Compared with group 1, the crown-root angulations of lower incisors in groups 2 and 3 were significantly larger (P lower incisors of division 3 rather than divisions 2 and 3 exhibited larger crown-root angulations (P lower incisors in class III patients during orthodontic and orthognathic treatment, especially in severe ones.

  11. A radiographic study of temporomandibular joints in skeletal class III malocclusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Eun; Kim, Kae Duk

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the differences between the position of the mandibular condyles in temporomandibular joints of patients presenting with normal occlusion and skeletal class III malocclusion. Forty-two subjects with normal occlusion and thirty-seven subjects exhibiting skeletal class III malocclusion prior to orthodontic treatment were included in the study. Transcranial radiographs of each subject were taken at centric occlusion and 1 inch mouth opening. The positional relationship between the mandibular condyles with articular fossae and articular eminences at two positional states were evaluated and analyzed statistically. The mandibular condyles of the skeletal class III malocclusion group were found to be located more anteriorly from the center of the articular fossae compared to the normal occlusion group in centric occlusion. The mandibular condyles of the skeletal Class III malocclusion group were located more superiorly from the middle of articular height than those of the normal occlusion group in centric occlusion. However, these differences were not statistically significant. At 1 inch mouth opening, the mandibular condyles of the skeletal class III malocclusion group were placed more posteriorly from the articular eminences than those of the normal occlusion group. The mean angle of the articular eminence posterior slope were 56.51 .deg. ± 6.29 .deg. in the normal occlusion group and 60.37 .deg. ± 6.26 .deg. in the skeletal Class III malocclusion group. The mandibular condyles of the skeletal Class III malocclusion group were placed more anteriorly at centric occlusion and more posteriorly at 1 inch mouth opening when compared with those of the normal occlusion group.

  12. A radiographic study of temporomandibular joints in skeletal class III malocclusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Eun; Kim, Kae Duk [Chosun University College of Medicine, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-06-15

    To investigate the differences between the position of the mandibular condyles in temporomandibular joints of patients presenting with normal occlusion and skeletal class III malocclusion. Forty-two subjects with normal occlusion and thirty-seven subjects exhibiting skeletal class III malocclusion prior to orthodontic treatment were included in the study. Transcranial radiographs of each subject were taken at centric occlusion and 1 inch mouth opening. The positional relationship between the mandibular condyles with articular fossae and articular eminences at two positional states were evaluated and analyzed statistically. The mandibular condyles of the skeletal class III malocclusion group were found to be located more anteriorly from the center of the articular fossae compared to the normal occlusion group in centric occlusion. The mandibular condyles of the skeletal Class III malocclusion group were located more superiorly from the middle of articular height than those of the normal occlusion group in centric occlusion. However, these differences were not statistically significant. At 1 inch mouth opening, the mandibular condyles of the skeletal class III malocclusion group were placed more posteriorly from the articular eminences than those of the normal occlusion group. The mean angle of the articular eminence posterior slope were 56.51 .deg. {+-} 6.29 .deg. in the normal occlusion group and 60.37 .deg. {+-} 6.26 .deg. in the skeletal Class III malocclusion group. The mandibular condyles of the skeletal Class III malocclusion group were placed more anteriorly at centric occlusion and more posteriorly at 1 inch mouth opening when compared with those of the normal occlusion group.

  13. A roentgenocephalometric study on the condylar displacement in angle's class I and III malocclusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Hwa; Park, Chang Seo

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to know correlation of mean values between centric occlusion and centric relation by the cephalogram in Angle's Class I and III malocclusion subjects. 22 adults with Angle's Class I malocclusion (17 men and 5 women, 21 to 27 years of age) and 14 adult with Angle's class III malocclusion (10 men and 4 women, 21 to 27 years of age) were selected form the dental students in Yonsei University. Each subject was given two lateral cephalometric radiographics and cephalometric analysis was performed. All data form these analyses was recorded and statistically processed with CYBER computer system. The results were obtained as follows: 1. There was a strong positive correlation between centric occlusion and centric relation in all subjects with Angle's Class I and III malocclusion. 2. In Angle's Class I malocclusion, measurements in lower facial height revealed significant difference between centric occlusion and centric relation (p<0.05). 3.When the mandible was movement was 1.27 mm (0.2-2.8 mm) in Angle's Class I malocclusion, 1.70 mm(0.55-4.15 mm) in Angle's Class III malocclusion, and 1.44 mm (0.2- 4.15 mm) in all subjects.

  14. Anteroposterior condylar position: a comparative study between subjects with normal occlusion and patients with Class I, Class II Division 1, and Class III malocclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Marcelo Reis; Rodrigues, Andréia Fialho; Ribeiro, Luiz Claudio; Campos, Marcio José da Silva; Vitral, Robert Willer Farinazzo

    2013-10-29

    The present study aimed to determine and compare the anteroposterior position of the condyle in the mandibular fossa between groups of asymptomatic subjects with normal occlusion and asymptomatic subjects with Class I, Class II Division 1, and Class III malocclusions. Thirty persons with normal occlusion, 30 with Class I malocclusion, 30 with Class II Division 1, and 30 with Class III had computed tomography scans of their temporomandibular joints. The anterior joint space/posterior joint space (AJS/PJS) ratio was determined for the right and left joints. The paired t test was used to analyze the AJS/PJS ratio between both sides for each group. The ANOVA test was applied to verify the differences between the groups for the measurements of the right and left sides. In case the ANOVA test confirmed significance, the Dunnett's t test was performed to compare the groups of malocclusion with that of normal occlusion. The paired t test between the AJS/PJS relationships in the right and left sides showed the following p values: Class I (0.168), Class II Division 1 (0.662), Class III (0.991), and normal occlusion (0.390). The ANOVA test showed a p value of 0.445 for the comparisons of the right side and 0.040 for the left side. The Dunnett's t test demonstrated a statistically significant difference between the Class II group and the normal occlusion group (p value of 0.026) in the joints of the left side. Bilateral symmetry and lack of condyle centralization were common characteristics among all groups. The greatest condylar decentralization was observed in the Class II group, whereas the least condylar decentralization was found in the normal occlusion group.

  15. Lower incisor dentoalveolar compensation and symphysis dimensions among Class I and III malocclusion patients with different facial vertical skeletal patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Berlanga, Núria; Llopis-Perez, Jaume; Flores-Mir, Carlos; Puigdollers, Andreu

    2013-11-01

    To compare lower incisor dentoalveolar compensation and mandible symphysis morphology among Class I and Class III malocclusion patients with different facial vertical skeletal patterns. Lower incisor extrusion and inclination, as well as buccal (LA) and lingual (LP) cortex depth, and mandibular symphysis height (LH) were measured in 107 lateral cephalometric x-rays of adult patients without prior orthodontic treatment. In addition, malocclusion type (Class I or III) and facial vertical skeletal pattern were considered. Through a principal component analysis (PCA) related variables were reduced. Simple regression equation and multivariate analyses of variance were also used. Incisor mandibular plane angle (P Class I P  =  .03 and Class III P  =  .01) and a positive correlation with LH (Class I P  =  .01 and Class III P  =  .02) in both groups. Within the Class III group, there was a negative correlation between the mandibular plane and LP (P  =  .02). PCA showed that the tendency toward a long face causes the symphysis to elongate and narrow. In Class III, alveolar narrowing is also found in normal faces. Vertical facial pattern is a significant factor in mandibular symphysis alveolar morphology and lower incisor positioning, both for Class I and Class III patients. Short-faced Class III patients have a widened alveolar bone. However, for long-faced and normal-faced Class III, natural compensation elongates the symphysis and influences lower incisor position.

  16. Early treatment of Class III malocclusion with a tandem traction bow appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sneha Basaveshwar Valgadde

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since Class III malocclusion is progressive in nature, the facial growth of Class III malocclusion worsens with age. Class III malocclusion is associated with a deviation in the sagittal relationship of the maxilla and the mandible, characterized by a deficient maxilla, retrognathic mandible, or a combination of both. The early orthopedic treatment of Class III malocclusions, at the end of primary dentition or the beginning of mixed dentition, prior to growth spurt, allows the accomplishment of successful results, providing facial balance, modifying the maxillofacial growth and development, and in many instances, preventing a future surgical treatment by increasing the stability. Many treatment approaches can be found in the literature regarding orthopedic and orthodontic treatment of Class III malocclusion, including intra- and extra-oral appliances. The major problem with extraoral anchorage has been of patient compliance due to its physical appearance. The case report presents an intraoral modified tandem appliance for maxillary protraction that has been used clinically to achieve successful results without relying much on patient co-operation.

  17. Long-term outcomes of Class III treatment with mandibular cervical headgear followed by fixed appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Tiziano; Rey, Diego; Oberti, Giovanni; Stahl, Franka; McNamara, James A

    2009-09-01

    To evaluate the stability of the outcomes of mandibular cervical headgear (MCH) and fixed appliance-treated Class III patients at a long-term posttreatment (5 years) observation, compared with well-matched untreated Class III controls, following a previous report on the short-term outcomes of this protocol. The treated group consisted of 20 patients with dentoskeletal Class III malocclusions treated with a two-phase protocol consisting of MCH and fixed appliances, while the control group comprised 18 untreated subjects with similar dentoskeletal Class III malocclusion. Lateral cephalograms of both patients and controls were analyzed at two time points: posttreatment (PT), after two-phase treatment; and long term (LT). All patients were at a postpubertal stage of skeletal maturity at PT, and they showed CS6 at LT, thus revealing completion of pubertal craniofacial growth. In the long term, the treatment group showed significantly smaller values for mandibular length (Co-Gn), SNB angle, maxillomandibular differential, and molar relation. When compared with the controls, the treated patients exhibited also greater values for ANB angle, Wits appraisal, and overjet at LT. No significant difference between the two groups was found for the changes occurring from PT to LT. Favorable dentoskeletal outcomes induced by MCH and fixed appliances remained stable in the long term; untreated Class III malocclusion did not show any tendency toward self-improvement during the postpubertal interval.

  18. Treatment of Class III malocclusion: the key role of the occlusal plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Jean-Louis; Matern, Olivier; Grollemund, Bruno; Bacon, William

    2010-01-01

    Patients with a Class III malocclusion generally present with a counterclockwise inclination of the occlusal plane, converging with Camper's line towards the front. This slope has an effect on mandibular movement (forward posture) and on chewing mechanisms in general. As dysfunctional mastication is likely to influence facial growth and inter-arch stability negatively, early orthopedic therapy of the occlusal unbalance concurrent with Class III malocclusion is justified. The aim of this article is to present a method of Class III treatment based on a correct re-orientation of the occlusal plane in order to achieve an optimal masticatory mechanism, essential for stability of early treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2010 Società Italiana di Ortodonzia (SIDO). Published by Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  19. Maxillary Transverse Comparison of Skeletal Class I and Class III Patient Populations Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    dental compensations 5. Have fully erupted canines (no...expansion. Compendium 1996;17:170-178. 2. Basaran G, Hamamci N, Hamamci O. Comparison of Dental Arch Widths in Different Types of Malocclusions . World... Dental and Alveolar Arch Widths in Normal Occlusion and Class III Malocclusion . Angle Orthod 2005; 75:809- 813.   36. Vanarsdall, Transverse dimension and long-term stability, Semin Orthod 1999;5:171–180.

  20. Semilongitudinal cephalometric study of craniofacial growth in untreated Class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Ann E Zionic; McNamara, James A; Franchi, Lorenzo; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2009-06-01

    Class III growth in white subjects is poorly characterized because of the low prevalence of the disharmony and the clinical tendency to treat this condition early. The purpose of this study was to investigate craniofacial growth changes by using longitudinal cephalometric records of white subjects with untreated Class III malocclusions to provide comparison data for studies of Class III treatment outcomes. Longitudinal records of 103 subjects were analyzed. Annual incremental growth changes in craniofacial variables from early childhood to late adolescence were examined for each sex. Inferential statistics were applied to changes in mandibular length, midfacial length, and lower anterior facial height of each sex (Wilcoxon tests) and between sexes (Mann-Whitney U tests). In the girls, the adolescent spurt in mandibular growth occurred between the ages of 10 and 12 years. In the boys, the adolescent mandibular growth spurt was between 12 and 15 years. Statistically significant growth changes in the average increments of growth of these linear measurements occurred in both sexes between 12 and 15 years. Adolescent peaks in midfacial growth were at prepubertal ages in both sexes. During childhood (5-7 years), much craniofacial growth occurred. Moreover, there was considerable mandibular growth relative to the maxilla in Class III subjects after the adolescent growth spurt. White Class III subjects showed definite worsening of the relative mandibular prognathism and sagittal skeletal discrepancy between the jaws with growth. The growth pattern of 3 fundamental cephalometric measurements (lower anterior face height, midfacial length, and mandibular length) exhibited differences between Class III male and female subjects in both the timing and the size of average growth increments in the adolescent growth spurt.

  1. Thin-plate spline analysis of the cranial base in subjects with Class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, G D; McNamara, J A; Lozanoff, S

    1997-08-01

    The role of the cranial base in the emergence of Class III malocclusion is not fully understood. This study determines deformations that contribute to a Class III cranial base morphology, employing thin-plate spline analysis on lateral cephalographs. A total of 73 children of European-American descent aged between 5 and 11 years of age with Class III malocclusion were compared with an equivalent group of subjects with a normal, untreated, Class I molar occlusion. The cephalographs were traced, checked and subdivided into seven age- and sex-matched groups. Thirteen points on the cranial base were identified and digitized. The datasets were scaled to an equivalent size, and statistical analysis indicated significant differences between average Class I and Class III cranial base morphologies for each group. Thin-plate spline analysis indicated that both affine (uniform) and non-affine transformations contribute toward the total spline for each average cranial base morphology at each age group analysed. For non-affine transformations, Partial warps 10, 8 and 7 had high magnitudes, indicating large-scale deformations affecting Bolton point, basion, pterygo-maxillare, Ricketts' point and articulare. In contrast, high eigenvalues associated with Partial warps 1-3, indicating localized shape changes, were found at tuberculum sellae, sella, and the frontonasomaxillary suture. It is concluded that large spatial-scale deformations affect the occipital complex of the cranial base and sphenoidal region, in combination with localized distortions at the frontonasal suture. These deformations may contribute to reduced orthocephalization or deficient flattening of the cranial base antero-posteriorly that, in turn, leads to the formation of a Class III malocclusion.

  2. Proteomics computational analyses suggest that baculovirus GP64 superfamily proteins are class III penetrenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Robert F

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the Baculoviridae encode two types of proteins that mediate virus:cell membrane fusion and penetration into the host cell. Alignments of primary amino acid sequences indicate that baculovirus fusion proteins of group I nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPV form the GP64 superfamily. The structure of these viral penetrenes has not been determined. The GP64 superfamily includes the glycoprotein (GP encoded by members of the Thogotovirus genus of the Orthomyxoviridae. The entry proteins of other baculoviruses, group II NPV and granuloviruses, are class I penetrenes. Results Class III penetrenes encoded by members of the Rhabdoviridae and Herpesviridae have an internal fusion domain comprised of beta sheets, other beta sheet domains, an extended alpha helical domain, a membrane proximal stem domain and a carboxyl terminal anchor. Similar sequences and structural/functional motifs that characterize class III penetrenes are located collinearly in GP64 of group I baculoviruses and related glycoproteins encoded by thogotoviruses. Structural models based on a prototypic class III penetrene, vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV G, were established for Thogoto virus (THOV GP and Autographa california multiple NPV (AcMNPV GP64 demonstrating feasible cysteine linkages. Glycosylation sites in THOV GP and AcMNPV GP64 appear in similar model locations to the two glycosylation sites of VSV G. Conclusion These results suggest that proteins in the GP64 superfamily are class III penetrenes.

  3. Management of skeletal Class III malocclusion with face mask therapy and comprehensive orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukumar, Kirthika; Vijaykumar, N M; Sainath, M C

    2016-01-01

    Orthopedic correction of skeletal Class III malocclusion in a growing patient is crucial as it can circumvent future surgical procedures. Further, as surgery is done only at a later stage, early treatment helps to avoid the detrimental effects produced by the facial disfigurement on the patient's social life. This case report describes the treatment of a child aged 9 years 6 months who had a skeletal Class III malocclusion. The treatment plan involved the use of a reverse pull headgear (facemask) and multibracket appliance therapy resulting in successful correction of the malocclusion. The treatment results were highly satisfactory resulting in improved facial esthetics, a skeletal Class I with a Dental Class I molar and canine relationship, an ideal overjet and overbite. Thus, dentoalveolar camouflage, if done in properly selected cases, alleviates the need for surgical intervention. The patient is being monitored until the end of growth to ensure the stability of treatment results.

  4. Management of skeletal Class III malocclusion with face mask therapy and comprehensive orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirthika Muthukumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthopedic correction of skeletal Class III malocclusion in a growing patient is crucial as it can circumvent future surgical procedures. Further, as surgery is done only at a later stage, early treatment helps to avoid the detrimental effects produced by the facial disfigurement on the patient's social life. This case report describes the treatment of a child aged 9 years 6 months who had a skeletal Class III malocclusion. The treatment plan involved the use of a reverse pull headgear (facemask and multibracket appliance therapy resulting in successful correction of the malocclusion. The treatment results were highly satisfactory resulting in improved facial esthetics, a skeletal Class I with a Dental Class I molar and canine relationship, an ideal overjet and overbite. Thus, dentoalveolar camouflage, if done in properly selected cases, alleviates the need for surgical intervention. The patient is being monitored until the end of growth to ensure the stability of treatment results.

  5. Management of Skeletal Class III Malocclusion with a Combined Approach of Facemask Therapy & Fixed Orthodontic Treatment - A Case Report

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    Shraddha Subhash Shetti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A case report of an adolescent girl with a skeletal Class III malocclusion is presented. The associated clinical features of skeletal Class III are presented and management of such condition is discussed. The need for early identification and intervention of the skeletal Class III malocclusion is universally accepted by dentofacial orthopaedicians. Early intervention is associated with a better orthopedic response. Thus, treatment in the mixed or early permanent dentition can produce favorable results. Overcorrection of skeletal class III is recommended because treated patients grow similar to untreated Class III patients after treatment. Functional orthopaedic treatment rendered at an appropriate age ensures desired results in most cases. The intent of this article is to discuss the non-surgical treatment of a skeletal class III malocclusion along with a rationale of orthodontic management of such patients.

  6. Orthodontic clockwise rotation of maxillomandibular complex for improving facial profile in late teenagers with Class III malocclusion: A preliminary report

    OpenAIRE

    Eric JW Liou; Yu-Chi Wang

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Orthodontic camouflage treatments improve occlusion but might worsen facial profile in patients with Class III malocclusion. It has been reported that surgical clockwise rotation of maxillomandibular complex (MMc) improves facial profile by reducing chin prominence and chin throat length in patients with Class III malocclusion. The purpose of this report was to illustrate two orthodontic techniques for clockwise rotation of the MMc in late teenagers with Class III malocclusion and ...

  7. Load Flow and Short Circuit Analysis of the Class III Power System of HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H. K.; Jung, H. S

    2005-12-15

    The planning, design, and operation of electric power system require engineering studies to assist in the evaluation of the system performance, reliability, safety and economics. The Class III power of HANARO supplies power for not only HANARO but also RIPF and IMEF. The starting current of most ac motors is five to ten times normal full load current. The loads of the Class III power are connected in consecutive orders at an interval for 10 seconds to avoid excessive voltage drop. This technical report deals with the load flow study and motor starting study for the Class III power of HANARO using ETAP(Electrical Transient Analyzer Program) to verify the capacity of the diesel generator. Short-circuit studies are done to determine the magnitude of the prospective currents flowing throughout the power system at various time intervals after a fault occurs. Short-circuit studies can be performed at the planning stage in order to help finalize the system layout, determine voltage levels, and size cables, transformers, and conductors. From this study, we verify the short circuit current capacity of air circuit breaker(ACB) and automatic transfer switch(ATS) of the Class III power.

  8. Inheritance of craniofacial features in Colombian families with class III malocclusion

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    L Otero

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available L Otero, L Quintero, D Champsaur, E SimancaPontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá, ColombiaIntroduction: The inheritance of class III malocclusion has been well documented, but the inheritance of craniofacial structures in Colombian families with this malocclusion has been not yet reported.Patients and methods: The study sample of 25 families comprised 186 untreated orthodontic individuals from 8 to 60 years old. Pedigrees were drawn using Cyrillic software. Complete family histories for each proband were ascertained and the affection status of relatives was confirmed by lateral cephalograms and facial and dental photographs. Analysis of variance and odds ratio test for each parameter was performed to estimate inheritance from parents to offspring and to determine similar phenotypic features in relatives.Results: The analysis of the pedigrees suggests autosomal dominant inheritance. The craniofacial characteristics that showed more resemblance between parents and offspring were middle facial height, shorter anterior cranial base and mandibular prognathism. In contrast the protrusion of upper lip and maxillary retrusion were the phenotypic features that contributed to class III in the majority of families.Conclusion: Knowledge of the inheritance of craniofacial phenotypes in class III malocclusion will enable the design of new therapies to treat this malocclusion.Keywords: inheritance, craniofacial, phenotype, class III malocclusion

  9. Forecasting craniofacial growth in individuals with class III malocclusion by computational modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auconi, Pietro; Scazzocchio, Marco; Defraia, Efisio; McNamara, James A; Franchi, Lorenzo

    2014-04-01

    To develop a mathematical model that adequately represented the pattern of craniofacial growth in class III subject consistently, with the goal of using this information to make growth predictions that could be amenable to longitudinal verification and clinical use. A combination of computational techniques (i.e. Fuzzy clustering and Network analysis) was applied to cephalometric data derived from 429 untreated growing female patients with class III malocclusion to visualize craniofacial growth dynamics and correlations. Four age groups of subjects were examined individually: from 7 to 9 years of age, from 10 to 12 years, from 13 to 14 years, and from 15 to 17 years. The connections between pathway components of class III craniofacial growth can be visualized from Network profiles. Fuzzy clustering analysis was able to define further growth patterns and coherences of the traditionally reported dentoskeletal characteristics of this structural imbalance. Craniofacial growth can be visualized as a biological, space-constraint-based optimization process; the prediction of individual growth trajectories depends on the rate of membership to a specific 'winner' cluster, i.e. on a specific individual growth strategy. The reliability of the information thus gained was tested to forecast craniofacial growth of 28 untreated female class III subjects followed longitudinally. The combination of Fuzzy clustering and Network algorithms allowed the development of principles for combining multiple auxological cephalometric features into a joint global model and to predict the individual risk of the facial pattern imbalance during growth.

  10. Identification of diverse archaeal proteins with class III signal peptides cleaved by distinct archaeal prepilin peptidases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szabó, Zalán; Oliveira Stahl, Adriana; Albers, Sonja-V.; Kissinger, Jessica C.; Driessen, Arnold J.M.; Pohlschröder, Mechthild; Pohlschroder, M.

    2007-01-01

    Most secreted archaeal proteins are targeted to the membrane via a tripartite signal composed of a charged N terminus and a hydrophobic domain, followed by a signal peptidase-processing site. Signal peptides of archaeal flagellins, similar to class III signal peptides of bacterial type IV pilins,

  11. Evaluation of temporomandibular disorders in Class III patients treated with mandibular cervical headgear and fixed appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Diego; Oberti, Giovanni; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2008-03-01

    Our aim in this study was to evaluate the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in Class III patients treated with mandibular cervical headgear (MCH) and fixed appliances. The sample of 75 patients included 25 patients with no previous orthodontic treatment, 25 Class I patients who had undergone orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances and without extractions, and 25 patients with dentoskeletal Class III disharmonies treated with MCH and fixed appliances. The Helkimo index was used to test the prevalence of TMD symptoms in the 3 groups. The prevalence rates of the Helkimo index in the 3 groups were compared with the z score on proportions. No statistically significant differences in the prevalence rates of the Helkimo index scores in the 3 groups were found (P = .367). Most subjects in the 3 groups had an Helkimo index of zero (66.7%). Subjects with Class III malocclusions treated with MCH and fixed appliances do not have greater prevalence of TMD symptoms than do Class I subjects treated with fixed appliances or untreated subjects.

  12. Guide to preemption of state-law claims against Class III PMA medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Daniel W

    2010-01-01

    There is a perception that the express preemption holding of the Supreme Court in Riegel v. Medtronic, 552 U.S. 312(2008), immunizes medical device manufacturers from common law personal injury actions involving Class III devices that received FDA clearance under a premarket approval application (PMA). In the aftermath of Riegel, many lawsuits involving Class III PMA devices have been dismissed by district courts applying the new heightened pleading standard of Bell Atlantic Corp. v. Twombly, 550 U.S. 544 (2007). Other lawsuits involving Class III PMA devices premised on fraud-on-FDA have been dismissed based on the implied preemption holding of the Supreme Court in Buckman v. Plaintiffs' Legal Comm., 531 U.S. 341 (2001). When these decisions are carefully analyzed together with Medtronic, Inc. v. Lohr, 518 U.S. 470 (1996), which found no preemption regarding a Class III device receiving FDA clearance through the 510(k) mechanism, it is apparent that the preemption defense does not apply universally to Class III PMA devices. The overall methodology for framing a non-preempted claim is to first identify conduct which violated the PMA or other specific requirements related to safety or efficacy. If such conduct can also be stated in terms of a breach of a parallel common law duty (e.g, failure to warn under strict liability or negligence, manufacturing defect or breach of warranty), then it would appear the claim is not preempted. Alternatively, regardless of a specific violation, common law remedies are not preempted by general CGMP requirements.

  13. Management of severe skeletal Class III malocclusion with bimaxillary orthognathic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitesh Haryani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthognathic surgery in conjunction with fixed orthodontics is a common indication for interdisciplinary management of severe skeletal Class III malocclusion. A thorough analysis of pretreatment investigations and development of a surgical visual treatment objective is essential to plan the type of surgical technique required. Bimaxillary orthognathic surgery is the most common type of surgical procedure for severe skeletal discrepancies. The present case report is a combined ortho-surgical team management of a skeletally Class III patient. The severity of the case required bilateral upper first premolar extraction for dentoalveolar decompensation and simultaneous “Two-jaw surgery” with maxillary advancement of 4 mm and mandibular setback of 7 mm. Postsurgery, a pleasing good facial profile was achieved with Class II molar relation and positive overjet.

  14. Orthodontic retreatment using anchorage with miniplate to camouflage a Class III skeletal pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farret, Marcel Marchiori

    2016-06-01

    This manuscript describes the treatment of a 27-year-old patient who was previously treated with two maxillary first premolar extractions. The patient had skeletal Class III malocclusion, Class III canine relationship, anterior crossbite, and a concave profile. As the patient refused orthognathic surgery, a miniplate was used on the right side of the lower arch as an anchorage unit after the extraction of mandibular first premolars, aiding the retraction of anterior teeth. At the end of treatment, anterior crossbite was corrected, in which first molars and canines were in a Class I relationship, and an excellent intercuspation was reached. Furthermore, patient's profile remarkably improved as a result of mandibular incisor retraction. A 30-month follow-up showed good stability of the results obtained. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO) as one of the requirements to become diplomate by the BBO.

  15. Orthodontic camouflage of skeletal Class III malocclusion with miniplate: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farret, Marcel Marchiori; Farret, Milton M Benitez; Farret, Alessandro Marchiori

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal Class III malocclusion is often referred for orthodontic treatment combined with orthognathic surgery. However, with the aid of miniplates, some moderate discrepancies become feasible to be treated without surgery. To report the case of a 24-year-old man with severe skeletal Angle Class III malocclusion with anterior crossbite and a consequent concave facial profile. The patient refused to undergo orthognathic surgery; therefore, orthodontic camouflage treatment with the aid of miniplates placed on the mandibular arch was proposed. After 18 months of treatment, a Class I molar and canine relationship was achieved, while anterior crossbite was corrected by retraction of mandibular teeth. The consequent decrease in lower lip fullness and increased exposure of maxillary incisors at smiling resulted in a remarkable improvement of patient's facial profile, in addition to an esthetically pleasing smile, respectively. One year later, follow-up revealed good stability of results.

  16. Orthodontic camouflage of skeletal Class III malocclusion with miniplate: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Marchiori Farret

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Skeletal Class III malocclusion is often referred for orthodontic treatment combined with orthognathic surgery. However, with the aid of miniplates, some moderate discrepancies become feasible to be treated without surgery. Objective: To report the case of a 24-year-old man with severe skeletal Angle Class III malocclusion with anterior crossbite and a consequent concave facial profile. Methods: The patient refused to undergo orthognathic surgery; therefore, orthodontic camouflage treatment with the aid of miniplates placed on the mandibular arch was proposed. Results: After 18 months of treatment, a Class I molar and canine relationship was achieved, while anterior crossbite was corrected by retraction of mandibular teeth. The consequent decrease in lower lip fullness and increased exposure of maxillary incisors at smiling resulted in a remarkable improvement of patient's facial profile, in addition to an esthetically pleasing smile, respectively. One year later, follow-up revealed good stability of results.

  17. Orthodontic retreatment using anchorage with miniplate to camouflage a Class III skeletal pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Marchiori Farret

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This manuscript describes the treatment of a 27-year-old patient who was previously treated with two maxillary first premolar extractions. The patient had skeletal Class III malocclusion, Class III canine relationship, anterior crossbite, and a concave profile. As the patient refused orthognathic surgery, a miniplate was used on the right side of the lower arch as an anchorage unit after the extraction of mandibular first premolars, aiding the retraction of anterior teeth. At the end of treatment, anterior crossbite was corrected, in which first molars and canines were in a Class I relationship, and an excellent intercuspation was reached. Furthermore, patient's profile remarkably improved as a result of mandibular incisor retraction. A 30-month follow-up showed good stability of the results obtained. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO as one of the requirements to become diplomate by the BBO.

  18. Two-Step Extraction of the Lower First Molar for Class III Treatment in Adult Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Kélei Cristina de Mathias; Paulin, Ricardo Fabris; Raveli, Taísa Barnabé; Raveli, Dirceu Barnabé; Santos-Pinto, Ary

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe a case report of Class III malocclusion treatment with lower first molar extraction. The 27-year-old Caucasian male patient presented a symmetric face with a straight profile, hyperdivergent growth pattern, molar and cuspid Class III relation, and an anterior crossbite as well as a mild crowding on cuspids area, in both upper and lower arches and a tendency to posterior crossbite. The treatment was performed by the use of Haas expansion appliance followed by an initial alignment and leveling of the upper and lower arches with a fixed edgewise appliance, extraction of lower teeth aiming the correction of the incisors proclination and end the treatment with a Class I molar relationship. It resulted in a significant change in the patient's profile, dentoalveolar Class III correction, upper arch expansion, leveling and alignment of the upper and lower arches, and improvement of tipping of the upper and lowers incisors. In cases of a dentoalveolar compensation in well positioned bone bases the treatment with fixed appliances is an alternative and extraction of lower teeth is considered.

  19. Skeletal, dental and soft tissue changes in Class III patients treated with fixed appliances and lower premolar extractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Alhaija, Elham S J; Al-Khateeb, Susan N

    2011-05-01

    Mild Class III malocciusions can be treated by upper incisor proclination and lower incisor retroclination following extraction of the lower first premolars. To compare the skeletal, dental and soft tissue changes in Class III patients treated with fixed appliances, Class III traction and lower first premolar extractions with the changes in a group of untreated Class III patients. The Treatment group consisted of 30 Class III patients (Mean age 13.69 +/- 1.48 years) who were treated by upper and lower fixed appliances, Class III intermaxillary traction and lower first premolar extractions for 2.88 +/- 1.12 years. The Control group consisted of 20 untreated Class III patients (Mean age 13.51 +/- 0.95) matched for age and gender. The T1 to T2 changes in the treated and untreated groups were compared using a paired t-test while differences between the two groups were compared with an independent t-test. During treatment, the upper incisors were proclined about 1 degree and the lower incisors were retroclined 8 degrees. Small, but statistically significant changes in SNB, Wits and the overlying soft tissues accompanied the changes in incisor inclination. At the end of treatment a positive overbite and overjet were achieved. The increase in lower facial height in the Treatment group was comparable with the change in the Control group. A range of mild to moderate Class III malocclusions can be treated by dentoalveolar compensation.

  20. A study of Class III treatment: orthodontic camouflage vs orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgalis, Katherine; Woods, Michael G

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the differences in pretreatment and post-treatment characteristics of Class III patients treated with orthodontic camouflage or orthognathic surgery, and to compare the range of skeletal, dental and soft tissue changes that are likely to occur with treatment, with particular reference to the influence of extractions on the resultant incisor angulations. Pretreatment and post-treatment cephalograms of 31 Class III orthodontically-camouflaged patients and 36 Class III surgical patients (without genioplasty) were obtained from one specialist practice. From the surgical group, 26 pre-surgical lateral cephalograms were also obtained. Inclusion criteria for the two groups were at least three of the following: (1) an ANB angle of 1 degree or less, (2) a Wits appraisal less than -4 mm, (3) an incisal overjet ≤ 0 mm, and (14) a Class III molar relationship. All lateral cephalograms were traced and digitised and a number of skeletal, dental and soft tissue variables were measured. The camouflage and surgical groups were also divided into premolar extraction and non-extraction subgroups to allow for a specific analysis of extraction effects. Before treatment, the surgical group demonstrated, on average, a more severe skeletal discrepancy and increased dental compensations, compared with the orthodontically camouflaged group. After treatment, the mean SNA angle was greater, the ANB angle was more positive, the Wits appraisal was closer to ideal and the lower incisors were less retroclined in the surgery group. There was a small mean reduction in horizontal chin projection in the surgery group compared with a small increase in the camouflage group. The mentolabial fold and the lower lip curve were deeper, on average, and the lips less retrusive after surgery. There was a mean increase in upper incisor proclination during treatment in both the surgical and camouflage groups with a greater increase in the camouflage group. There was a significant reduction in upper

  1. Components of soft tissue deformations in subjects with untreated angle's Class III malocclusions: thin-plate spline analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, G D; McNamara, J A; Lozanoff, S

    1998-01-01

    While the dynamics of maxillo-mandibular allometry associated with treatment modalities available for the management of Class III malocclusions currently are under investigation, developmental aberration of the soft tissues in untreated Class III malocclusions requires specification. In this study, lateral cephalographs of 124 prepubertal European-American children (71 with untreated Class III malocclusion; 53 with Class I occlusion) were traced, and 12 soft-tissue landmarks digitized. Resultant geometries were scaled to an equivalent size and mean Class III and Class I configurations compared. Procrustes analysis established statistical difference (P thin-plate spline (TPS) analysis indicated that both affine and non-affine transformations contribute towards the deformation (total spline) of the averaged Class III soft tissue configuration. For non-affine transformations, partial warp 8 had the highest magnitude, indicating large-scale deformations visualized as a combination of columellar retrusion and lower labial protrusion. In addition, partial warp 5 also had a high magnitude, demonstrating upper labial vertical compression with antero-inferior elongation of the lower labio-mental soft tissue complex. Thus, children with Class III malocclusions demonstrate antero-posterior and vertical deformations of the maxillary soft tissue complex in combination with antero-inferior mandibular soft tissue elongation. This pattern of deformations may represent gene-environment interactions, resulting in Class III malocclusions with characteristic phenotypes, that are amenable to orthodontic and dentofacial orthopedic manipulations.

  2. Optimization of ATP synthase function in mitochondria and chloroplasts via the adenylate kinase equilibrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abir U Igamberdiev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The bulk of ATP synthesis in plants is performed by ATP synthase, the main bioenergetics engine of cells, operating both in mitochondria and in chloroplasts. The reaction mechanism of ATP synthase has been studied in detail for over half a century; however, its optimal performance depends also on the steady delivery of ATP synthase substrates and the removal of its products. For mitochondrial ATP synthase, we analyze here the provision of stable conditions for (i the supply of ADP and Mg2+, supported by adenylate kinase (AK equilibrium in the intermembrane space, (ii the supply of phosphate via membrane transporter in symport with H+, and (iii the conditions of outflow of ATP by adenylate transporter carrying out the exchange of free adenylates. We also show that, in chloroplasts, AK equilibrates adenylates and governs Mg2+ contents in the stroma, optimizing ATP synthase and Calvin cycle operation, and affecting the import of inorganic phosphate in exchange with triose phosphates. It is argued that chemiosmosis is not the sole component of ATP synthase performance, which also depends on AK-mediated equilibrium of adenylates and Mg2+, adenylate transport and phosphate release and supply.

  3. Intravenous Vancomycin Associated With the Development of Nephrotoxicity in Patients With Class III Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yookyung Christy; Saw, Stephen; Soliman, Daniel; Bingham, Angela L; Pontiggia, Laura; Hunter, Krystal; Chuang, Linda; Siemianowski, Laura A; Ereshefsky, Benjamin; Hollands, James M

    2017-11-01

    A consensus statement recommends initial intravenous (IV) vancomycin dosing of 15-20 mg/kg every 8- 24 hours, with an optional 25- to 30-mg/kg loading dose. Although some studies have shown an association between weight and the development of vancomycin-associated nephrotoxicity, results have been inconsistent. To evaluate the correlation between incidence of nephrotoxicity associated with weight-based IV vancomycin dosing strategies in nonobese and obese patients. This retrospective cohort study evaluated hospitalized adult patients admitted who received IV vancomycin. Patients were stratified into nonobese (body mass index [BMI] obesity class I and II (BMI 30-39.9kg/m 2 ), and obesity class III (BMI≥40 kg/m 2 ) groups; patients who were overweight but not obese were excluded. Incidence of nephrotoxicity and serum vancomycin trough concentrations were evaluated. Of a total of 62 documented cases of nephrotoxicity (15.1%), 13 (8.7%), 23 (14.3%), and 26 (26.3%) cases were observed in nonobese, obesity class I and II, and obesity class III groups, respectively ( P=0.002). Longer durations of therapy ( P20 mg/L ( Pobesity were 3-times as likely to develop nephrotoxicity when compared with nonobese patients (odds ratio [OR]=2.99; CI=1.12-7.94) and obesity class I and II patients (OR=3.14; CI=1.27-7.75). Obesity and other factors are associated with a higher risk of vancomycin-associated nephrotoxicity.

  4. Evaluation of cervical posture of children in skeletal class I, II, and III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Attilio, Michele; Caputi, Sergio; Epifania, Ettore; Festa, Felice; Tecco, Simona

    2005-07-01

    Previous studies on the relationship between morphological structure of the face and cervical posture have predominantly focused on vertical dimensions of the face. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there are significant differences in cervical posture in subjects with a different sagittal morphology of the face, i.e., a different skeletal class. One hundred twenty (120) children (60 males and 60 females, average age 9.5 yrs., SD+/-0.5) were admitted for orthodontic treatment. Selection criteria was: European ethnic origin, date of birth, considerable skeletal growth potential remaining and an absence of temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMD). Lateral skull radiographs were taken in mirror position. Subjects were divided into three groups based on their skeletal class. The cephalometric tracings included postural variables. The most interesting findings were: 1. children in skeletal class III showed a significantly lower cervical lordosis angle (phead upon the spinal column compared to children in skeletal class I and skeletal class III (pposture of the neck seems to be strongly associated with the sagittal as well as the vertical structure of the face.

  5. Arts and Crafts Classes in Years I–III, Based on Methods Featuring Pupils’ Practical Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Piwowarska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    The issue to be analysed here concerns teachers’ planning of arts and crafts classes in Years I–III, with specific reference to methods featuring pupils’ practical activities. A theoretical part briefly presents the concepts involved in teaching a subject that was initially defined as drawing, then as arts and crafts education, and finally as arts and crafts classes. It points out the factors that influence the process of stimulating pupils’ artistic activities. The technique used in the cour...

  6. Camouflage of moderate Class III malocclusions with extraction of lower second molars and mandibular cervical headgear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Diego Rey; Oberti, Giovanni; Ealo, Martha; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2007-01-01

    Orthodontic camouflage in patients with slight or moderate skeletal Class III malocclusions, can be obtained through different treatment alternatives. The purpose of this paper is to present a treatment that has not been described in the literature and which consists of the extraction of lower second molars and distal movement of the posterior segments by means of mandibular cervical headgear (MCH) and fixed appliances as a camouflage alternative. The force applied by the MCH was 250 gr per side (14hr/day). The total treatment time was 1 1/2 years. the extraction of lower second molars along with the use of mandibular cervical headgear is a good treatment alternative for camouflage in moderate Class III patients in order to obtain good occlusal relationships without affecting facial esthetics or producing marked dental compensations.

  7. Corticotomy-assisted orthodontic camouflage in a class III adult patient with a severe transverse discrepancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracco, Antonio; Finotti, Marco; Bruno, Giovanni; de Stefani, Alberto

    2018-04-06

    A 25-year-old man presented with a maxillary transverse discrepancy, posterior cross bite, anterior open bite, molar and canine class III. Treatment included a corticotomy in the upper lateral and posterior teeth, a palatal expansor and a sectional archwire to assist the expansion. The following treatment phase included bonding with Incognito System lingual appliance, interproximal reduction to solve the crowding and bite blocks to control the verticality. Two months after the bonding intermaxillary class III elastics were used to solve the sagittal discrepancy and eight months after the bonding vertical elastics were used in order to solve the anterior open bite until the end of the treatment. A Boston splint was applied for the upper arch, an essix splint was applied for the lower arch. The patient compliance was an essential aspect in the success of the orthodontic treatment. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  8. THERAPEUTIC DIFFICULTIES IN ACHIEVEMENT OF OPTIMAL ROOT COVERAGE AND AESTHETIC IN CLASS III GINGIVAL RECESSION.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Popova

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The width of the attached gingiva is defined as a distance between the depth of the gingival sulcus or gingival/periodontal pocket to the mucogingival junction. Authors suggest that a minimal amount of attached gingiva is necessary to ensure the gingival health. When the buccal bone plate and gingival tissues are thin and the position of the tooth is too vestibular gingival margin often displaces apically, and gingival recession develops. In the presence of gingival recession and reduced vestibular depth oral hygiene procedures are embarrassed.The definition of class III gingival recession is marginal lack of tissue extended to/or beyond the mucogingival junction with bone and soft tissue loss interdentally or malpositioning of the tooth.Prognosis for class III and IV gingival recession is that only partial coverage can be expected after root coverage procedures - FGG (free gingival graft or connective tissue graft (CTG. Adjunctive surgical techniques would be helpful to achieve better aesthetic outcomes.

  9. A new modified tandem appliance for management of developing Class III malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Sukh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Most developing Class III patients display a retruded maxilla. Early intervention in mixed dentition is associated with better patient compliance and possibly a better orthopedic response, which can produce favorable results. The aim of this article is to present the fabrication of the new modified tandem appliance and its use in management of developing Class III malocclusion. The therapeutic results of a new modified tandem appliance are presented in an 8 year-old male patient with anterior cross bite and retrognathic maxilla at the mixed dentition stage. Anterior cross bite was corrected in 3 months and the positive overjet of 4 mm after continued use of the appliance for 1 year. There was a significant improvement in profile of the patient. The use of this appliance in this type of malocclusion enabled the correction of malocclusion in a few months and encouraging favorable skeletal growth in the future.

  10. A new modified tandem appliance for management of developing Class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukh, Ram; Singh, Gyan P; Tandon, Pradeep

    2013-10-01

    Most developing Class III patients display a retruded maxilla. Early intervention in mixed dentition is associated with better patient compliance and possibly a better orthopedic response, which can produce favorable results. The aim of this article is to present the fabrication of the new modified tandem appliance and its use in management of developing Class III malocclusion. The therapeutic results of a new modified tandem appliance are presented in an 8 year-old male patient with anterior cross bite and retrognathic maxilla at the mixed dentition stage. Anterior cross bite was corrected in 3 months and the positive overjet of 4 mm after continued use of the appliance for 1 year. There was a significant improvement in profile of the patient. The use of this appliance in this type of malocclusion enabled the correction of malocclusion in a few months and encouraging favorable skeletal growth in the future.

  11. Current and evolving approaches for improving the oral permeability of BCS Class III or analogous molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Vivek S; Gupta, Deepak; Yu, Monica; Nguyen, Phuong; Varghese Gupta, Sheeba

    2017-02-01

    The Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) classifies pharmaceutical compounds based on their aqueous solubility and intestinal permeability. The BCS Class III compounds are hydrophilic molecules (high aqueous solubility) with low permeability across the biological membranes. While these compounds are pharmacologically effective, poor absorption due to low permeability becomes the rate-limiting step in achieving adequate bioavailability. Several approaches have been explored and utilized for improving the permeability profiles of these compounds. The approaches include traditional methods such as prodrugs, permeation enhancers, ion-pairing, etc., as well as relatively modern approaches such as nanoencapsulation and nanosizing. The most recent approaches include a combination/hybridization of one or more traditional approaches to improve drug permeability. While some of these approaches have been extremely successful, i.e. drug products utilizing the approach have progressed through the USFDA approval for marketing; others require further investigation to be applicable. This article discusses the commonly studied approaches for improving the permeability of BCS Class III compounds.

  12. Escherichia coli class Ib ribonucleotide reductase contains a dimanganese(III)-tyrosyl radical cofactor in vivo†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotruvo, Joseph A.; Stubbe, JoAnne

    2011-01-01

    Escherichia coli class Ib ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) converts nucleoside 5′-diphosphates to deoxynucleoside 5′-diphosphates in iron-limited and oxidative stress conditions. We have recently demonstrated in vitro that this RNR is active with both diferric-tyrosyl radical (FeIII2-Y•) and dimanganese(III)-Y• (MnIII2-Y•) cofactors in the β2 subunit, NrdF [Cotruvo J.A., Jr. and Stubbe J., Biochemistry (2010) 49, 1297–1309]. Here we demonstrate, by purification of this protein from its endogenous levels in an E. coli strain deficient in its five known iron uptake pathways and grown under iron-limited conditions, that the MnIII2-Y• cofactor is assembled in vivo. This is the first definitive determination of the active cofactor of a class Ib RNR purified from its native organism without overexpression. From 88 g of cell paste, 150 μg of NrdF was isolated with ~95% purity, with 0.2 Y•/β2, 0.9 Mn/β2, and a specific activity of 720 nmol/min/mg. In these conditions, the class Ib RNR is the primary active RNR in the cell. Our results strongly suggest that E. coli NrdF is an obligate manganese protein in vivo and that the MnIII2-Y• cofactor assembly pathway we have identified in vitro involving the flavodoxin-like protein NrdI, present inside the cell at catalytic levels, is operative in vivo. PMID:21250660

  13. Combined orthodontic and surgical treatment of a severe skeletal Class III malocclusion: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nene, Salil; Gautam, Rajaganesh; Sharif, Kanaan; Gupta, Gaurav

    2012-01-01

    This report describes a combined orthodontic and surgical treatment approach for a severe skeletal Class III malocclusion in a young Indian woman with serious esthetic concerns. The case required significant surgical correction in the anteroposterior and vertical planes, involving surgeries in both the maxilla and the mandible. The case required the use of mini-implant anchorage in the presurgical phase as well as postorthodontic prosthodontic rehabilitation to replace missing posterior teeth to restore the occlusal table.

  14. Design specifications for ASME B and PV Code Section III nuclear class 1 piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    ASME B and PV Code Section III code regulations for nuclear piping requires that a comprehensive Design Specification be developed for ensuring that the design and installation of the piping meets all code requirements. The intent of this paper is to describe the code requirements, discuss the implementation of these requirements in a typical Class 1 piping design specification, and to report on recent piping failures in operating light water nuclear power plants in the US. (author)

  15. Factors influencing orthodontic treatment time for non-surgical Class III malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Monteiro Bichara

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT To improve orthodontic treatment efficiency, orthodontists must know which variables could interfere with orthodontic treatment time. Objective: To identify variables and their effect size on orthodontic treatment time of Class III malocclusion. Material and Methods: Forty-five Class III malocclusion cases were selected from 2008 patients’ records. Clinical charts, cephalometric radiographs, and pre and posttreatment dental casts were evaluated. Age, sex, PAR index at T1 and T2, overjet, missing teeth, extractions, number of treatment phases, missed appointments, appliance breakages, and cephalometric variables SNA, SNB, ANB, Wits, SnGoGn, CoA, CoGn, IMPA, 1.PP were investigated by multiple linear regression analysis and stepwise method at p2 (patients who missed more than 2 appointments, to detect the influence of this data on treatment time and the quality of the treatment (PAR T2. Results: Average treatment time was 30.27 months. Multiple regression analysis showed that missed appointment (R2=0.4345 and appliance breakages (R2=0.0596 are the only variables able to significantly predict treatment duration. Treatment time for patients who missed more than 2 appointments was nearly one year longer. However, no significant influence on PAR T2 was observed for those patients. Conclusion: Orthodontic treatment duration in Class III patients is mainly influenced by factors related to patient compliance. Patients who missed more appointments did not show worse orthodontic finishing, but longer treatment. No occlusal, cephalometric, or demographic variable obtained before treatment was able to give some significant prediction about treatment time in Class III patients.

  16. Compensatory orthodontic treatment of skeletal Class III malocclusion with anterior crossbite

    OpenAIRE

    José Valladares Neto

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This case report describes the orthodontic treatment of an adult patient with skeletal Class III malocclusion and anterior crossbite. A short cranial base led to difficulties in establishing a cephalometric diagnosis. The patient's main complaint comprised esthetics of his smile and difficulties in mastication. METHODS: The patient did not have the maxillary first premolars and refused orthognathic surgery. Therefore, the treatment chosen was orthodontic camouflage and extr...

  17. A pilot clinical study of Class III surgical patients facilitated by improved accelerated osteogenic orthodontic treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, JiaQi; Jiang, Jiu-Hui; Xu, Li; Liang, Cheng; Bai, YunYang; Zou, Wei

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate if the improved accelerated osteogenic orthodontics (IAOO) procedure could speed Class III surgical patients' preoperative orthodontic treatment duration and, if yes, to what extent. This study was also designed to determine whether or not an IAOO procedure affects the tooth-moving pattern during extraction space closure. The samples in this study consisted of 24 Class III surgical patients. Twelve skeletal Class III surgery patients served as an experimental group (group 1) and the others as a control group (group 2). Before treatment, the maxillary first premolars were removed. For group 1, after the maxillary dental arch was aligned and leveled (T2), IAOO procedures were performed in the maxillary alveolar bone. Except for this IAOO procedure in group 1, all 24 patients experienced similar combined orthodontic and orthognathic treatment. Study casts of the maxillary dentitions were made before orthodontic treatment (T1) and after extraction space closure (T3). All of the casts were laser scanned, and the amount of movement of the maxillary central incisor, canine, and first molar, as well as arch widths, were digitally measured and analyzed by using the three-dimensional model superimposition method. The time durations T3-T2 were significantly reduced in group 1 by 8.65 ± 2.67 months and for T3-T1 were reduced by 6.39 ± 2.00 months (P teeth movement in the sagittal, vertical, and transverse dimensions between the two groups (P > .05). The IAOO can reduce the surgical orthodontic treatment time for the skeletal Class III surgical patient by more than half a year on average. The IAOO procedures do not save anchorage.

  18. Augmented corticotomy-assisted surgical orthodontics decompensates lower incisors in Class III malocclusion patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Shen, Guofang; Fang, Bing; Yu, Hongbo; Wu, Yong; Sun, Liangyan

    2014-03-01

    To quantitatively evaluate lower incisor decompensation and the surrounding periodontal region after augmented corticotomy-assisted surgical orthodontics in patients with Class III malocclusion. This prospective study enrolled patients with severe Class III malocclusion who underwent augmented corticotomy in the lower anterior region before orthodontic surgery. Cone-beam computed tomograms and lateral cephalograms were obtained before treatment (T0), after presurgical orthodontic treatment (T1), and at removal of the orthodontic surgical appliances (T2). Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to compare variables at each time point: root length (RL), anterior vertical alveolar bone level at the labial side (AVBL), posterior vertical alveolar bone level at the lingual side (PVBL), labial alveolar bone thickness at the apex (LA), lingual alveolar bone thickness at the apex (LP), and angle of the incisor to the mandibular plane (L1-MP). In the 8 subjects studied, RL was maintained from T0 to T2 (P > .05), whereas AVBL and PVBL increased from T0 to T1 (P .05). LP decreased from T0 to T1 (P lower anterior region in patients with Class III malocclusion. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Treatment in Borderline Class III Malocclusion: Orthodontic Camouflage (Extraction) Versus Orthognathic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabie, A-Bakr M; Wong, Ricky W K; Min, G U

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the differences in morphological characteristics of borderline class III patients who had undergone camouflage orthodontic treatment or orthognathic surgery, and to compare the treatment effects between these two modalities. Cephalograms of 25 patients (13 orthodontic, 12 surgical) with class III malocclusion were analyzed. All had a pretreatment ANB angle greater than -5 masculine. Using discriminant analysis, only Holdaway angle was selected to differentiate patients in the pretreatment stage. Seventy-two per cent patients were correctly classified. In the orthodontic group, reverse overjet was corrected by retraction of the lower incisors and downward and backward rotation of the mandible. The surgical group was corrected by setback of the lower anterior dentoalveolus and uprighting of the lower incisors. No difference was found in posttreatment soft tissue measurements between the two groups. Twelve degree for the Holdaway angle can be a guideline in determining the treatment modalities for borderline class III patients, but the preferences of operators and patients are also important. (2) Both therapeutic options should highlight changes in the lower dentoalveolus and lower incisors. (3) Both treatment modalities can achieve satisfactory improvements to the people.

  20. Treatment of skeletal Class III malocclusions: orthognathic surgery or orthodontic camouflage? How to decide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyahia, Hicham; Azaroual, Mohamed Faouzi; Garcia, Claude; Hamou, Edith; Abouqal, Redouane; Zaoui, Fatima

    2011-06-01

    The choice of treatment in adult skeletal Class III occlusions often poses a particularly tricky problem for the orthodontist. Faced with the option of either orthodontic camouflage or orthognathic surgery, the clinician's clinical experience is of paramount importance, especially in borderline cases. The aim of our study was to uncover a guide model enabling the practitioner to distinguish between skeletal Class III cases which can be suitably treated with orthodontics and those requiring orthognathic surgery. The lateral headfilms of 47 adult patients exhibiting skeletal Class III occlusions were analyzed. The orthodontic group comprised 22 patients and the surgical group 25. Twenty-seven linear, proportional and angular measurements were scrutinized. Stepwise discriminant analysis was used to identify the dentoskeletal and esthetic variables which most distinguished the two groups. The Holdaway angle was chosen to differentiate between patients prior to treatment. This model enables us to classify 87.2% of patients correctly. Copyright © 2011 CEO. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Management of skeletal Class III malocclusion with reverse pull headgear in a growing individual

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    Ambreen Afzal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal Class III malocclusion is considered to be one of the most difficult orthodontic problems to treat. This malocclusion is associated with the retrognathic maxilla or prognathic mandible or sometimes a combination of both. The treatment of such cases requires an integrated approach and a comprehensive treatment plan including growth modification, dental camouflage, or orthognathic surgery. In a growing patient, orthopedic correction of skeletal Class III malocclusion with the help of a reverse pull headgear is crucial as it can reduce the chances of further surgical treatment to correct the skeletal discrepancy. This case report describes the management of skeletal Class III malocclusion in a 12-year-old female child with a retrognathic maxilla. The patient did not have any other genetic abnormality or significant known comorbidity. The treatment plan involved fixed orthodontic appliance therapy in combination with a reverse pull headgear for an orthopedic effect. This treatment was continued for 3 years, and well-aligned dental arches with a positive over jet were achieved at the conclusion of treatment. Using facemask therapy in conjunction with fixed orthodontic appliances has been a successful treatment option in growing children. Treatment should be carried out as early as possible to correct the skeletal discrepancy nonsurgically and achieve better results.

  2. Treatment and posttreatment effects of mandibular cervical headgear followed by fixed appliances in Class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Diego; Angel, David; Oberti, Giovanni; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2008-03-01

    In this cephalometric investigation, we compared the treatment and posttreatment effects on patients undergoing an initial phase of mandibular cervical headgear (MCH) therapy followed later by comprehensive edgewise therapy with untreated Class III controls. The treated sample consisted of 21 patients treated consecutively with MCH before the pubertal growth spurt (average age, 10 years 2 months at the beginning of treatment). At the final observation period (average age, 15 years 3 months), all patients were in decelerative growth phases as determined by the cervical vertebral maturation method. Active treatment and posttreatment effects were evaluated in the treated group with nonparametric statistical analysis for paired samples. The treated sample was compared with a nonparametric statistical test for independent samples with 20 untreated Class III subjects who were matched for malocclusion, sex, and stage of cervical vertebral maturation to the treatment group. MCH therapy followed by fixed appliances was shown to be an effective treatment for the correction of skeletal Class III malocclusion at postpubertal observation. The favorable skeletal effects consisted mainly of smaller increases in mandibular length and advancement with respect to the controls, with the final outcome of significant improvements in the sagittal skeletal (+4 mm for the Wits appraisal) and dental (+2.7 mm for overjet, -4.4 mm for molar relationship) parameters. This treatment protocol also induced significant downward rotation of the mandible (2.8 degrees ).

  3. The Position of Hyoici Bone in Skeletal Class I, II and III Patients

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    Ravanmehr H

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, the position of hyoid bone was compared in three skeletal groups of class I, II and III. The study was based on evaluating 77 lateral cephalometric radiographs, 40 girls and 37 boys, which were divided into 3 groups. Group 1, 2, and 3 consist of 26, 25, and 26 radiographs. 19 cephalometric landmarks and 10 planes were used in order to tracing the radiographs. In all patients, 9 skeletal and 4 cervical vertebrae parameters were measured to determine the hyoid bone. These parameters were compared between three skeletal groups regardless of sex and then, in another statistical analysis, parameters were compared based on patients sex. Statistical analysis showed that in class III patients, the hyoid bone was positioned more anteriorly than two other groups. Also in this group, the hyoid bone had less inclination and it was more horizontal in relation to mandibular plane. In skeletal class II patients this bone was positioned more superiorly than two other groups. Due to these findings it can be concluded that perimandibular muscles and bones could affect the growth of mandible. In addition, comparison of the parameters between two sexes revealed that the hyoid bone was positioned more anteriorly and inferiorly in boys. Also it was shown that in the girls, the position of hyoid bone was closer to the position of this bone in skeletal class I patients.

  4. [Size of lower jaw as an early indicator of skeletal class III development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanović, Zdenka; Nikodijević, Angelina; Udovicić, Bozidar; Milić, Jasmina; Nikolić, Predrag

    2008-08-01

    Malocclusion of skeletal class III is a complex abnormality, with a characteristic sagital position of the lower jaw in front of the upper one. A higher level of prognatism of the lower jaw in relation to the upper one can be the consequence of its excessive length. The aim of this study was to find the differences in the length of the lower jaw in the children with skeletal class III and the children with normal sagital interjaw relation (skeletal class I) in the period of mixed dentition. After clinical and x-ray diagnostics, profile tele-x-rays of the head were analyzed in 60 examinees with mixed dentition, aged from 6 to 12 years. The examinees were divided into two groups: group 1--the children with skeletal class III and group 2--the children with skeletal class I. The length of the lower jaw, upper jaw and cranial base were measured. The proportional relations between the lengths measured within each group were established and the level of difference in the lengths measured and their proportions between the groups were estimated. No significant difference between the groups was found in the body length, ramus and the total length of the lower jaw. Proportional relation between the body length and the length of the lower jaw ramus and proportional relation between the forward cranial base and the lower jaw body were not significantly different. A significant difference was found in proportional relations of the total length of the lower jaw with the total lengths of cranial base and the upper jaw and proportional relation of the length of the lower and upper jaw body. Of all the analyzed parameters, the following were selected as the early indicators of the development of skeletal class III on the lower jaw: greater total length of the lower jaw, proportional to the total lengths of cranial base and theupper jaw, as well as greater length of the lower jaw body, proportional to the length of the upper jaw body.

  5. Early orthodontic treatment for Class III malocclusion: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woon, See Choong; Thiruvenkatachari, Badri

    2017-01-01

    Class III malocclusion affects between 5% and 15% of our population. The 2 most common dilemmas surrounding Class III treatment are the timing of treatment and the type of appliance. A number of appliances have been used to correct a Class III skeletal discrepancy, but there is little evidence available on their effectiveness in the long term. Similarly, early treatment of Class III malocclusion has been practiced with increasing interest. However, there has been no solid evidence on the benefits in the long term. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effectiveness of orthodontic/orthopedic methods used in the early treatment of Class III malocclusion in the short and long terms. Several sources were used to identify all relevant studies independently of language. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Embase (Ovid), and MEDLINE (Ovid) were searched to June 2016. The selection criteria included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and prospective controlled clinical trials (CCTs) of children between the ages of 7 and 12 years on early treatment with any type of orthodontic/orthopedic appliance compared with another appliance to correct Class III malocclusion or with an untreated control group. The primary outcome measure was correction of reverse overjet, and the secondary outcomes included skeletal changes, soft tissue changes, quality of life, patient compliance, adverse effect, Peer Assessment Rating score, and treatment time. The search results were screened for inclusion, and the data extracted by 2 independent authors. The data were analyzed using software (version 5.1, Review Manager; The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration; Copenhagen, Denmark). The mean differences with 95% confidence intervals were expressed for the continuous data. Random effects were carried out with high levels of clinical or statistical heterogeneity and fixed affects when the heterogeneity was low

  6. Early orthopedic correction of skeletal Class III malocclusion using combined reverse twin block and face mask therapy

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    Vinay Kumar Chugh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 6-year 8-month-old girl presented with a moderate Class III malocclusion characterized by mid-face deficiency and an anterior cross bite. In the first phase, the patient was treated with combination of reverse twin block and facemask therapy. In phase two, fixed appliances were placed in the permanent dentition. The post treatment results were good and a favorable growth tendency could be observed. The correction of the Class III malocclusion occurred by a combination of skeletal and dental improvements. This report shows successful correction of skeletal Class III malocclusion in the early transitional dentition using combination therapy.

  7. Base of the skull morphology and Class III malocclusion in patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Maciel Tinano

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to determine the morphological differences in the base of the skull of individuals with cleft lip and palate and Class III malocclusion in comparison to control groups with Class I and Class III malocclusion. METHODS: A total of 89 individuals (males and females aged between 5 and 27 years old (Class I, n = 32; Class III, n = 29; and Class III individuals with unilateral cleft lip and palate, n = 28 attending PUC-MG Dental Center and Cleft Lip/Palate Care Center of Baleia Hospital and PUC-MG (CENTRARE were selected. Linear and angular measurements of the base of the skull, maxilla and mandible were performed and assessed by a single calibrated examiner by means of cephalometric radiographs. Statistical analysis involved ANCOVA and Bonferroni correction. RESULTS: No significant differences with regard to the base of the skull were found between the control group (Class I and individuals with cleft lip and palate (P > 0.017. The cleft lip/palate group differed from the Class III group only with regard to CI.Sp.Ba (P = 0.015. Individuals with cleft lip and palate had a significantly shorter maxillary length (Co-A in comparison to the control group (P < 0.001. No significant differences were found in the mandible (Co-Gn of the control group and individuals with cleft lip and palate (P = 1.000. CONCLUSION: The present findings suggest that there are no significant differences in the base of the skull of individuals Class I or Class III and individuals with cleft lip and palate and Class III malocclusion.

  8. Regulation of brain adenylate cyclase by calmodulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, J.K.

    1988-01-01

    This thesis examined the interaction between the Ca 2+ -binding protein, calmodulin (CaM), and the cAMP synthesizing enzyme, adenylate cyclase. The regulation of guanyl nucleotide-dependent adenylate cyclase by CaM was examined in a particulate fraction from bovine striatum. CaM stimulated basal adenylate cyclase activity and enhanced the stimulation of the enzyme by GTP and dopamine (DA). The potentiation of GTP- and DA-stimulated adenylate cyclase activities by CaM was more sensitive to the concentration of CaM than was the stimulation of basal activity. A photoreactive CaM derivative was developed in order to probe the interactions between CaM and the adenylate cyclase components of bovine brain. Iodo-[ 125 I]-CaM-diazopyruvamide ( 125 I-CAM-DAP) behaved like native CaM with respect to Ca 2+ -enhanced mobility on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels and Ca 2+ -dependent stimulation of adenylate cyclase. 125 I-CaM-DAP cross-linked to CaM-binding proteins in a Ca 2+ -dependent, concentration-dependent, and CaM-specific manner. Photolysis of 125 I-CaM-DAP and forskolin-agarose purified CaM-sensitive adenylate cyclase produced an adduct with a molecular weight of 140,000

  9. [Morphological analysis of alveolar bone of anterior mandible in high-angle skeletal class II and class III malocclusions assessed with cone-beam computed tomography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, J; Jiang, J H

    2018-02-18

    To evaluate the difference of features of alveolar bone support under lower anterior teeth between high-angle adults with skeletal class II malocclusions and high-angle adults presenting skeletal class III malocclusions by using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Patients who had taken the images of CBCT were selected from the Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology between October 2015 and August 2017. The CBCT archives from 62 high-angle adult cases without orthodontic treatment were divided into two groups based on their sagittal jaw relationships: skeletal class II and skeletal class III. vertical bone level (VBL), alveolar bone area (ABA), and the width of alveolar bone were measured respectively at the 2 mm, 4 mm, 6 mm below the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) level and at the apical level. After that, independent samples t-tests were conducted for statistical comparisons. The ABA of the mandibular alveolar bone in the area of lower anterior teeth was significantly thinner in the patients of skeletal class III than those of skeletal class II, especially in terms of the apical ABA, total ABA on the labial and lingual sides and the ABA at 6 mm below CEJ level on the lingual side (Pclass III than those of skeletal class II, especially regarding the apical level on the labial and lingual side and at the level of 4 mm, 6 mm below CEJ level on the lingual side (Pclass III adult patients with high-angle when compared with the sample of high-angle skeletal class II adult cases. We recommend orthodontists to be more cautious in treatment of high-angle skeletal class III patients, especially pay attention to control the torque of lower anterior teeth during forward and backward movement, in case that the apical root might be absorbed or fenestration happen in the area of lower anterior teeth.

  10. Regulation of MIR165/166 by class II and class III homeodomain leucine zipper proteins establishes leaf polarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merelo, Paz; Ram, Hathi; Caggiano, Monica Pia

    2016-01-01

    A defining feature of plant leaves is their flattened shape. This shape depends on an antagonism between the genes that specify adaxial (top) and abaxial (bottom) tissue identity; however, the molecular nature of this antagonism remains poorly understood. Class III homeodomain leucine zipper (HD-...... show that class III and class II HD-ZIP proteins act together to repress MIR165/166 via a conserved cis-element in their promoters. Organ morphology and tissue patterning in plants, therefore, depend on a bidirectional repressive circuit involving a set of miRNAs and its targets....

  11. Diagnosis and conservative treatment of skeletal Class III malocclusion with anterior crossbite and asymmetric maxillary crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Linda L Y; Chang, Chris H; Roberts, W Eugene

    2016-04-01

    A man, aged 28 years 9 months, came for an orthodontic consultation for a skeletal Class III malocclusion (ANB angle, -3°) with a modest asymmetric Class II and Class III molar relationship, complicated by an anterior crossbite, a deepbite, and 12 mm of asymmetric maxillary crowding. Despite the severity of the malocclusion (Discrepancy Index, 37), the patient desired noninvasive camouflage treatment. The 3-Ring diagnosis showed that treatment without extractions or orthognathic surgery was a viable approach. Arch length analysis indicated that differential interproximal enamel reduction could resolve the crowding and midline discrepancy, but a miniscrew in the infrazygomatic crest was needed to retract the right buccal segment. The patient accepted the complex, staged treatment plan with the understanding that it would require about 3.5 years. Fixed appliance treatment with passive self-ligating brackets, early light short elastics, bite turbos, interproximal enamel reduction, and infrazygomatic crest retraction opened the vertical dimension of the occlusion, improved the ANB angle by 2°, and achieved excellent alignment, as evidenced by a Cast Radiograph Evaluation score of 28 and a Pink and White dental esthetic score of 3. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Positive inotropic and lusitropic effect of RP 62719, a new class III antiarrhythmia agent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beregi, J P; Escande, D; Coudray, N; Chemla, D; Mestre, M; Péry, N; Lecarpentier, Y

    1994-02-01

    Antiarrhythmic drugs, especially the Class I family, exert a negative inotropic effect on the myocardium which is particularly undesirable in patients with depressed left ventricular function. Therefore, research has been directed to the development of new, more specific molecules of the Class III family. The authors studies the mechanical effects of RP 62719 on guinea pig left ventricular papillary muscle. This new molecule is a pure Class III antiarrhythmic, known to lengthen the duration of the cardiac action potential by selectively blocking the potassium current iK1 (inward rectifier K+ current). The mechanical parameters were determined during the phases of contraction and relaxation under isotonic and isometric conditions. At 0.2 and 2 microM concentrations, RP 62719 improved cardiac contraction under both isotonic and isometric conditions with an increase of about 30% of Vmax (p delta 1 (p force normalized per cross-sectional area [AF/S (p actions could provide significant therapeutic advantages especially in patients cardiac failure.

  13. Surgical-orthodontic treatment of Class III malocclusion with agenesis of lateral incisor and unerupted canine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Boaventura Vieira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Orthodontic-surgical treatment was performed in patient with skeletal Class III malocclusion due to exceeding mandibular growth. Patient also presented upper and lower dental protrusion, overjet of -3.0 mm, overbite of -1.0 mm, congenital absence of tooth #22, teeth #13 and supernumerary impaction, tooth #12 with conoid shape and partly erupted in supraversion, prolonged retention of tooth #53, tendency to vertical growth of the face and facial asymmetry. The discrepancy on the upper arch was -2.0 mm and -5.0 mm on the lower arch. METHODS: The pre-surgical orthodontic treatment was performed with extractions of the teeth #35 and #45. On the upper arch, teeth #53, #12 and supernumerary were extracted to accomplish the traction of the impacted canine. The spaces of the lower extractions were closed with mesialization of posterior segment. After aligning and leveling the teeth, extractions spaces closure and correct positioning of teeth on the bone bases, the correct intercuspation of the dental arch, with molars and canines in Angle's Class I, coincident midline, normal overjet and overbite and ideal torques, were evaluated through study models. The patient was submitted to orthognathic surgery and then the post-surgical orthodontic treatment was finished. RESULTS: The Class III malocclusion was treated establishing occlusal and facial normal standards.

  14. Má oclusão Classe III, com mordida cruzada posterior unilateral e assimetria facial Class III malocclusion with unilateral posterior crossbite and facial asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Rosan de Oliveira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo relata o tratamento ortodôntico realizado em uma paciente adulta, com 36 anos de idade, portadora de um padrão esquelético e dentário de Classe III, com mordida cruzada posterior unilateral esquerda e assimetria mandibular, além de uma diferença relativamente grande entre máxima intercuspidação habitual (MIH e relação cêntrica (RC. O tratamento foi realizado com expansão dentária superior, contração dentária inferior e descruzamento anterior, eliminando a diferença entre MIH e RC. O resultado obtido foi pautado sobre um diagnóstico criterioso e um planejamento de compensação ortodôntica, sem intervenção cirúrgica nos maxilares, por solicitação da paciente. Este caso foi apresentado à Diretoria do Board Brasileiro de Ortodontia e Ortopedia Facial (BBO, representando a categoria 5, ou seja, má oclusão com problema transverso, apresentando pelo menos um quadrante em cruzamento, como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do título de Diplomado pelo BBO.This article reports on the orthodontic treatment performed on a 36-year-old female patient with skeletal and dental Class III pattern, presenting with a left unilateral posterior crossbite and mandibular asymmetry, and a relatively significant difference between maximum intercuspation (MIC and centric relation (CR. The treatment was performed with maxillary dental expansion, mandibular dental contraction and anterior crossbite correction, eliminating the difference between MIC and CR. Results were based on careful diagnosis and planning of orthodontic compensation without surgical intervention in the maxilla, at the request of the patient. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Facial Orthopedics (BBO as representative of Category 5, i.e., malocclusion with a transverse problem, presenting with a crossbite in at least one of the quadrants, as part of the requirements for obtaining the BBO Certificate.

  15. [Orthodontic treatment of malocclusion Class III in patients aged 6-12 by Postnikov appliance, face mask and bracket system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postnikov, M A; Trunin, D A; Pankratova, N V; Nesterov, A M; Sadykov, M I; Ostankov, S A

    2018-01-01

    The diagnostics and treatment of malocclusion Class III in patients aged 6-12 is an vital problem in orthodontics. Method of orthodontic treatment of malocclusion Class III in patients with the help of improved and patented orthodontic construction - 'Postnikov appliance' - and face mask and bracket system is analysed in the article. Orthodontic treatment of malocclusion Class III was examined in 24 patients aged 6-12 by the suggested method. All patients were examined clinically and with the help af additional diagnostic methods: head cephalometry in lateral position with further data analysis in Dolphin Imaging (USA). The use of computer technologies in Dolphin Imaging helps to controll the process of correction of dentition correlation in different stages of treatment, to reduce the period of treatment of malocclusion Class III in patients aged 6-12 and to improve face esthetics and life quality ratio.

  16. Management of a severe Class III malocclusion with extreme dentoalveolar compensations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehra, Karan; Sharma, Vineet; Mitra, Rajat

    2012-01-01

    This case report describes the treatment of a 21-year-old woman with a severe Class III malocclusion, 9-mm anterior crossbite, extremely proclined maxillary anterior incisors associated with decreased buccolingual alveolar width, and a malformed supernumerary tooth. The treatment plan included fixed appliances to align and level the teeth, en masse retraction of maxillary anterior incisors after a labial and palatal corticotomy using temporary anchorage devices, high Le Fort I maxillary osteotomy for maxillary advancement, and bilateral sagittal split osteotomy for mandibular setback. Ideal overjet and overbite relationships were established, and the final esthetic result was pleasing. Occlusal stability was excellent in the 1-year follow-up.

  17. Treatment of Class III malocclusion in a young adult patient: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, B H Jyothi; Kumar, Prashanth; Ravi, S; Shivalinga, B M; Bhagyalaxmi; Pradeep; Kudagi, Vishal

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the treatment of a young adult male with a concave profile, skeletal class III malocclusion because of a prognathic mandible and proclined upper incisors. The therapy included stages: 1. Pre-surgical orthodontics involving leveling and aligning of upper and lower arches, protraction of lower molars and retraction of upper incisors; 2. Surgical phase involving BSSO with mandibular setback and 3. Post-surgical orthodontics for finishing and detailing. The treatment lasted 23 months and improved facial esthetics significantly The treatment resulted in a functional occlusion with a lack of lateral cuspid guidance that could be accepted considering the difficulty of the case. Over jet and overbite are within norms.

  18. Skeletal Class III and anterior open bite treatment with different retention protocols: a report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farret, Milton Meri Benitez; Farret, Marcel Marchiori; Farret, Alessandro Marchiori

    2012-09-01

    The treatment of skeletal class III and anterior open bite can be unstable and orthodontists frequently observe relapse. Here, we report on the management of three patients with skeletal class III profiles and open bites treated by orthodontic camouflage. Each received a retention protocol involving the use of two separate appliances during the night and day accompanied by myofunctional therapy. Long-term follow-up revealed a stable outcome.

  19. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide and migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zagami, Alessandro S; Edvinsson, Lars; Goadsby, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP) is found in human trigeminocervical complex and can trigger migraine. PACAP levels were measured using a sensitive radioimmunoassay. Stimulation of the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) in cat elevated PACAP levels in cranial blood. Patients...

  20. Skeletal Class III malocclusion with thin symphyseal bone: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikida, Eriko; Tanikawa, Chihiro

    2012-11-01

    To describe the management of a severe skeletal Class III patient with thin symphyseal bone and alveolar bone covering the mandibular incisors. A 24 year-old female presented with a skeletal Class III malocclusion characterised by thin alveolar bone in a mildly crowded, mandibular incisor region. Computerised tomography (CT) assisted in the determination of possible tooth movement within the anterior mandibular alveolar bone. The finalised treatment plan aimed to align the maxillary and mandibular dental arches following the extraction of the maxillary right first premolar and the mandibular right permanent lateral incisor. The surgical repositioning of the maxilla and mandible with a LeFort I osteotomy and a bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) would follow. After treatment, an acceptable facial profile and a solid intercuspation of the teeth were obtained. Significant root resorption was not observed. The occlusion remained stable with normal overjet and overbite after two years of retention. CT examination provided an assessment of the three-dimensional morphological characteristics of anterior alveolar bone which enabled an evaluation of possible tooth movement.

  1. Orthodontic camouflage in the case of a skeletal class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Pinho, Teresa M; Ustrell Torrent, Josep M; Correia Pinto, João G R

    2004-01-01

    To describe the clinical problem of a male patient, 15 years of age, who had a dolichofacial biotype and a Class III skeletal type at the beginning of treatment, manifesting itself at the dental level. To resolve the dental problems, orthodontic camouflage (dentoalveolar compensation) with the extraction of two mandibular premolars was performed. This procedure allowed a more harmonious occlusal relationship at the canine level and provided better occlusal stability of the final result. The procedure choice was based on the fact that some cephalometric values were favorable to attenuation of the skeletal Class III. For example, according to the analyses of Björk and Jarabak, these values are the total sum of 1, 2, 3 (sella angle, articular angle, and gonial angles) and the anterior/posterior facial height (S-Go/Na-Me). However, the same cephalometric data indicate a possible worsening of the existing open bite, which might be corrected with dental extractions and the use of intermaxillary elastics.

  2. Orthodontic decompensation in class III patients by means of distalization of upper molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos, Villegas B; Giovanni, Oberti; Diego, Rey; Angela, Sierra; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2009-01-01

    Pre-surgical orthodontic treatments have the objective of establishing harmony between the dental arches by moving the teeth to ideal positions in relation to their bony bases, in order to achieve adequate antero-posterior occlusal and transverse relationships at the moment of surgery. Among the typical requirements in terms of dental compensations presented by Class III patients that require surgery, the inclination of anterior teeth must be changed in most cases by proclination of the lower incisors and retroclination of upper incisors. To achieve the inclination of the upper incisors, many different alternatives have been proposed, such as inter-proximal reduction, extractions, or distalization of upper molars, which has not been widely reported in the literature as a means to decompensate Class III malocclusion prior to surgery. This article describes the Bone Supported Pendulum (BSP) as an efficient therapeutic option to distalize molars through the use of an appliance stabilized to the palate by mini-implants, thus avoiding extractions and providing good interdigitation and coordination of the dental arches.

  3. Mandibular cervical headgear vs rapid maxillary expander and facemask for orthopedic treatment of Class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Tiziano; Rey, Diego; Angel, David; Oberti, Giovanni; McNamara, James A

    2007-07-01

    To compare the effectiveness of the rapid maxillary expander and facemask (RME/ FM) and mandibular cervical headgear (MCH) protocols when followed by fixed appliances and evaluated at a postpubertal observation in patients with dentoskeletal Class III malocclusion. The sample treated with the RME/FM followed by fixed appliances included 32 patients (12 boys and 20 girls). The sample treated with the MCH followed by fixed appliances included 26 patients (eight boys and 18 girls). Cephalometric analysis was performed at T(1) (before treatment) and T(2) (after the first phase of orthopedic therapy and the second phase of fixed appliances). T(1)-T(2) changes were evaluated by means of t-tests. Midfacial length, mandibular length, and the sagittal position of the chin all showed significantly smaller increases in the MCH group than in the RME/FM group. The amount of increase in the overjet was also significantly smaller in the MCH group, whereas the amount of molar correction was greater. The upper incisors were significantly less proclined and the lower incisors were significantly less retroclined in the MCH group when compared with the RME/FM group. RME/FM therapy appears to be indicated in Class III patients with a component of maxillary retrusion, whereas MCH therapy is preferable in patients with mandibular prognathism.

  4. Risk of cesarean delivery among pregnant women with class III obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghesi, Yves; Labreuche, Julien; Duhamel, Alain; Pigeyre, Marie; Deruelle, Philippe

    2017-02-01

    To identify factors associated with cesarean delivery among women with class III obesity attempting vaginal delivery. In a retrospective study, medical charts were reviewed for women aged 18 years or older with a singleton pregnancy of at least 37 weeks and a body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters) of 40 or higher who were eligible to attempt vaginal delivery at a maternity hospital in Lille, France, between 1999 and 2012. Among 345 eligible women, 301 (87.2%) attempted vaginal delivery; 211 (70.1%) were successful and 90 (29.9%) delivered by cesarean. The frequency of nulliparity was higher among those undergoing cesarean after a trial of labor (64 [71.1%]) than among those who delivered vaginally (57 [27.0%]; Pcesarean (61 [67.8%] vs 96 [45.5%]; Pcesarean among women attempting vaginal delivery (odds ratio [OR] 2.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.25-4.22), whereas history of vaginal delivery was protective (OR 0.08, 95% CI 0.04-0.17). Nulliparous women with class III obesity attempting a vaginal delivery should be warned of the high risk of cesarean delivery, especially if they require induction. © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  5. Self-esteem in adolescents with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusion in a Peruvian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florián-Vargas, Karla; Honores, Marcos J Carruitero; Bernabé, Eduardo; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    To compare self-esteem scores in 12 to 16-year-old adolescents with different Angle malocclusion types in a Peruvian sample. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 276 adolescents (159, 52 and 65 with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusions, respectively) from Trujillo, Peru. Participants were asked to complete the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) and were also clinically examined, so as to have Angle malocclusion classification determined. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare RSES scores among adolescents with Class I, II and III malocclusions, with participants' demographic factors being controlled. Mean RSES scores for adolescents with Class I, II and III malocclusions were 20.47 ± 3.96, 21.96 ± 3.27 and 21.26 ± 4.81, respectively. The ANCOVA test showed that adolescents with Class II malocclusion had a significantly higher RSES score than those with Class I malocclusion, but there were no differences between other malocclusion groups. Supplemental analysis suggested that only those with Class II, Division 2 malocclusion might have greater self-esteem when compared to adolescents with Class I malocclusion. This study shows that, in general, self-esteem did not vary according to adolescents' malocclusion in the sample studied. Surprisingly, only adolescents with Class II malocclusion, particularly Class II, Division 2, reported better self-esteem than those with Class I malocclusion. A more detailed analysis assessing the impact of anterior occlusal features should be conducted.

  6. Long-term stability of an adult Class III open-bite malocclusion treated with multiloop edgewise archwire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Chun Kuo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes the treatment of a 17-year-old girl with an anterior open- bite and Class III malocclusion, who had a history of thumb-sucking habit in childhood. The multiloop edgewise archwire technique was used on the mandibular arch to facilitate uprighting of the mandibular posterior teeth, change the cant of occlusal plane, close the anterior open-bite, and correct the Class III malocclusion. At the end of treatment, Class I occlusion and correction of the anterior open-bite had been achieved. An examination 8 years 8 months after treatment revealed long-term stability of the treatment results.

  7. Picomolar-affinity binding and inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity by melatonin in Syrian hamster hypothalamus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niles, L.P.; Hashemi, F.

    1990-01-01

    1. The effect of melatonin on forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity was measured in homogenates of Syrian hamster hypothalamus. In addition, the saturation binding characteristics of the melatonin receptor ligand, [ 125 I]iodomelatonin, was examined using an incubation temperature (30 degree C) similar to that used in enzyme assays. 2. At concentrations ranging from 10 pM to 1 nM, melatonin caused a significant decrease in stimulated adenylate cyclase activity with a maximum inhibition of approximately 22%. 3. Binding experiments utilizing [ 125 I]iodomelatonin in a range of approximately 5-80 pM indicated a single class of high-affinity sites: Kd = 55 +/- 9 pM, Bmax = 1.1 +/- 0.3 fmol/mg protein. 4. The ability of picomolar concentrations of melatonin to inhibit forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity suggests that this affect is mediated by picomolar-affinity receptor binding sites for this hormone in the hypothalamus

  8. Camouflage treatment of skeletal class III malocclusion with asymmetry using a bone-borne rapid maxillary expander.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yu-Jin; Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Kim, Seong-Hun; Nelson, Gerald

    2015-03-01

    This case report presents the successful use of palatal mini-implants for rapid maxillary expansion and mandibular distalization in a skeletal Class III malocclusion. The patient was a 13-year-old girl with the chief complaint of facial asymmetry and a protruded chin. Camouflage orthodontic treatment was chosen, acknowledging the possibility of need for orthognathic surgery after completion of her growth. A bone-borne rapid expander (BBRME) was used to correct the transverse discrepancy and was then used as indirect anchorage for distalization of the lower dentition with Class III elastics. As a result, a Class I occlusion with favorable inclination of the upper teeth was achieved without any adverse effects. The total treatment period was 25 months. Therefore, BBRME can be considered an alternative treatment in skeletal Class III malocclusion.

  9. 40 CFR Figure C-2 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM2.5 Candidate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Figure C-2 to Subpart C of Part 53... Methods and Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Fig. C-2 Figure C-2 to Subpart C of Part 53—Illustration...

  10. Comparison of temporomandibular joint and ramus morphology between class II and class III cases before and after bi-maxillary osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iguchi, Ran; Yoshizawa, Kunio; Moroi, Akinori; Tsutsui, Takamitsu; Hotta, Asami; Hiraide, Ryota; Takayama, Akihiro; Tsunoda, Tatsuya; Saito, Yuki; Sato, Momoko; Baba, Nana; Ueki, Koichiro

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare changes in temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and ramus morphology between class II and III cases before and after sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO) and Le Fort I osteotomy. The subjects were 39 patients (78 sides) who underwent bi-maxillary surgery. They consisted of 2 groups (18 class II cases and 21 class III cases), and were selected randomly from among patients who underwent surgery between 2012 and 2016. The TMJ disc tissue and joint effusion were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the TMJ space, condylar height, ramus height, ramus inclination and condylar square were assessed by computed tomography (CT), pre- and post-operatively. The number of joints with anterior disc displacement in class II was significantly higher than that in class III (p bi-maxillary surgery. The findings of the numerical analysis also demonstrated that reduction of condylar volume occurred frequently in class II, although TMJ disc position classification did not change significantly, as previously reported. Copyright © 2017 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Prosthetic rehabilitation of severe Siebert′s Class III defect with modified Andrews bridge system

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    Manu Rathee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prosthetic dentistry involves the replacement of missing and contiguous tissues with artificial substitutes to restore and maintain the oral functions, appearance, and health of the patient. The treatment of edentulous areas with ridge defects poses a challenging task for the dentist. Management of such cases involves a wide range of treatment options comprising mainly of surgical interventions and non surgical techniques such as use of removable, fixed or fixed- removable partial dentures. But each treatment plan undertaken should be customized according to patient needs. A variety of factors such as quality and quantity of existing contiguous hard and soft tissues, systemic condition and economic status of the patient play an important role in treatment planning, clinical outcome and prognosis. This case report presents the restoration of a Seibert′s Class III ridge defect by an economical modification of Andrews Bridge in a 32 Year old patient.

  12. Compensatory orthodontic treatment of skeletal Class III malocclusion with anterior crossbite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares Neto, José

    2014-01-01

    This case report describes the orthodontic treatment of an adult patient with skeletal Class III malocclusion and anterior crossbite. A short cranial base led to difficulties in establishing a cephalometric diagnosis. The patient's main complaint comprised esthetics of his smile and difficulties in mastication. The patient did not have the maxillary first premolars and refused orthognathic surgery. Therefore, the treatment chosen was orthodontic camouflage and extraction of mandibular first premolars. For maxillary retraction, the vertical dimension was temporarily increased to avoid obstacles to orthodontic movement. At the end of the treatment, ideal overjet and overbite were achieved. Examination eight years after orthodontic treatment revealed adequate clinical stability. This case report was submitted to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Facial Orthopedics (BBO) as part of the requirements to become a BBO diplomate.

  13. Orthognathic Surgery for the Correction of Severe Skeletal Class III Malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafle, D; Upadhayaya, C; Chaurasia, N; Agarwal, A

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal Malocclusions results from the abnormal position of maxilla and mandible in relation with cranial base. These types of malocclusion are commonly treated by orthodontic teeth movement known as camouflage orthodontics. However severe skeletal malocclusions cannot be treated by orthodontics alone. Such cases need surgical intervention to align the position of the jaw along with orthodontic correction. This procedure is commonly known as Orthognathic Surgery. Orthognathic Surgery dates back to early eighteenth century but became popular on mid twentieth century. Though the prevalence of skeletal malocclusion is more than 1% the treatment facility was not available in Nepal till 2012. Here we present a case of Skeletal Class III malocclusion treated at Dhulikhel Hospital, Kathmandu University Hospital. For this case, double jaw surgery was performed by le-Fort I osteotomy and Bilateral Sagital Split Osteotomy. Orthognathic surgery has been routinely performed at this centre since then.

  14. Compensatory orthodontic treatment of skeletal Class III malocclusion with anterior crossbite

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    José Valladares Neto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This case report describes the orthodontic treatment of an adult patient with skeletal Class III malocclusion and anterior crossbite. A short cranial base led to difficulties in establishing a cephalometric diagnosis. The patient's main complaint comprised esthetics of his smile and difficulties in mastication. METHODS: The patient did not have the maxillary first premolars and refused orthognathic surgery. Therefore, the treatment chosen was orthodontic camouflage and extraction of mandibular first premolars. For maxillary retraction, the vertical dimension was temporarily increased to avoid obstacles to orthodontic movement. RESULTS: At the end of the treatment, ideal overjet and overbite were achieved. CONCLUSION: Examination eight years after orthodontic treatment revealed adequate clinical stability. This case report was submitted to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Facial Orthopedics (BBO as part of the requirements to become a BBO diplomate.

  15. Natural Mallow Fiber-Reinforced Epoxy Composite for Ballistic Armor Against Class III-A Ammunition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Lucio Fabio Cassiano; Holanda, Luane Isquerdo Ferreira; Louro, Luis Henrique Leme; Monteiro, Sergio Neves; Gomes, Alaelson Vieira; Lima, Édio Pereira

    2017-10-01

    Epoxy matrix composites reinforced with up to 30 vol pct of continuous and aligned natural mallow fibers were for the first time ballistic tested as personal armor against class III-A 9 mm FMJ ammunition. The ballistic efficiency of these composites was assessed by measuring the dissipated energy and residual velocity after the bullet perforation. The results were compared to those in similar tests of aramid fabric (Kevlar™) commonly used in vests for personal protections. Visual inspection and scanning electron microscopy analysis of impact-fractured samples revealed failure mechanisms associated with fiber pullout and rupture as well as epoxy cracking. As compared to Kevlar™, the mallow fiber composite displayed practically the same ballistic efficiency. However, there is a reduction in both weight and cost, which makes the mallow fiber composites a promising material for personal ballistic protection.

  16. Complex networks for data-driven medicine: the case of Class III dentoskeletal disharmony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scala, A; Auconi, P; Scazzocchio, M; Caldarelli, G; McNamara, JA; Franchi, L

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, the availability of innovative algorithms derived from complexity theory has inspired the development of highly detailed models in various fields, including physics, biology, ecology, economy, and medicine. Due to the availability of novel and ever more sophisticated diagnostic procedures, all biomedical disciplines face the problem of using the increasing amount of information concerning each patient to improve diagnosis and prevention. In particular, in the discipline of orthodontics the current diagnostic approach based on clinical and radiographic data is problematic due to the complexity of craniofacial features and to the numerous interacting co-dependent skeletal and dentoalveolar components. In this study, we demonstrate the capability of computational methods such as network analysis and module detection to extract organizing principles in 70 patients with excessive mandibular skeletal protrusion with underbite, a condition known in orthodontics as Class III malocclusion. Our results could possibly constitute a template framework for organising the increasing amount of medical data available for patients’ diagnosis. (paper)

  17. Dentofacial effects of bone-anchored maxillary protraction: a controlled study of consecutively treated Class III patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clerck, Hugo; Cevidanes, Lucia; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2010-11-01

    In this cephalometric investigation, we analyzed the treatment effects of bone-anchored maxillary protraction (BAMP) with miniplates in the maxilla and mandible connected by Class III elastics in patients with Class III malocclusion. The treated sample consisted of 21 Class III patients consecutively treated with the BAMP protocol before the pubertal growth spurt (mean age, 11.10 ± 1.8 years) and reevaluated after BAMP therapy, about 1 year later. The treated group was compared with a matched control group of 18 untreated Class III subjects. Significant differences between the treated and control groups were assessed with independent-sample t tests (P <0.05). Sagittal measurements of the maxilla showed highly significant improvements during active treatment (about 4 mm more than the untreated controls), with significant protraction effects at orbitale and pterygomaxillare. Significant improvements of overjet and molar relationship were recorded, as well as in the mandibular skeletal measures at Point B and pogonion. Vertical skeletal changes and modifications in incisor inclination were negligible, except for a significant proclination of the mandibular incisors in the treated group. Significant soft-tissue changes reflected the underlying skeletal modifications. Compared with growth of the untreated Class III subjects, the BAMP protocol induced an average increment on skeletal and soft-tissue advancement of maxillary structures of about 4 mm, and favorable mandibular changes exceeded 2 mm. Copyright © 2010 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A three-dimensional soft tissue analysis of Class III malocclusion: a case-controlled cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johal, Ama; Chaggar, Amrit; Zou, Li Fong

    2018-03-01

    The present study used the optical surface laser scanning technique to compare the facial features of patients aged 8-18 years presenting with Class I and Class III incisor relationship in a case-control design. Subjects with a Class III incisor relationship, aged 8-18 years, were age and gender matched with Class I control and underwent a 3-dimensional (3-D) optical surface scan of the facial soft tissues. Landmark analysis revealed Class III subjects displayed greater mean dimensions compared to the control group most notably between the ages of 8-10 and 17-18 years in both males and females, in respect of antero-posterior (P = 0.01) and vertical (P = 0.006) facial dimensions. Surface-based analysis, revealed the greatest difference in the lower facial region, followed by the mid-face, whilst the upper face remained fairly consistent. Significant detectable differences were found in the surface facial features of developing Class III subjects.

  19. Kinematic analysis of mandibular motion before and after orthognathic surgery for skeletal Class III malocclusion: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugolini, Alessandro; Mapelli, Andrea; Segù, Marzia; Galante, Domenico; Sidequersky, Fernanda V; Sforza, Chiarella

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the study was to detect the changes in 3D mandibular motion after orthognathic surgery for skeletal Class III malocclusion. Using a 3D motion analyzer, free mandibular border movements were recorded in nine patients successfully treated for skeletal Class III malocclusion and in nine patients scheduled for orthognathic surgery. Data were compared using Mann-Whitney non-parametric U-test. The results showed no differences between the groups in the total amount of mouth opening, protrusion, and in lateral excursions, but the percentage of mandibular movement explained by condylar translation was significantly increased after surgery (20% vs. 23.6%). During opening, the post-surgery patients showed a more symmetrical mandibular interincisal point and condylar path than pre-surgery patients (p < 0.01). Patients treated with orthognathic surgery for skeletal Class III malocclusion recover a good and symmetric temporomandibular joint function.

  20. Skeletal stability of surgery-first bimaxillary orthognathic surgery for skeletal class III malocclusion, using standardized criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, K-H; Sandor, G K; Kim, Y-D

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the postoperative stability following bimaxillary surgery performed either with or without preoperative orthodontic treatment, in class III malocclusion patients. These patients were enrolled using standardized inclusion criteria. Forty patients with a class III malocclusion were included in this retrospective study. Inclusion criteria were class III malocclusion with and without premolar extraction, stability. With respect to postsurgical changes, significant differences were observed in the changes for the vertical reference plane to the posterior nasal spine, horizontal reference plane to B-point, and occlusal plane angle in both groups. No statistically significant differences in the relapse rates were observed between the two groups. No significant differences were observed between the two groups in terms of the postoperative stability. Copyright © 2015 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Alteration of Occlusal Plane in Orthognathic Surgery: Clinical Features to Help Treatment Planning on Class III Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Amaral Alves Marlière

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentofacial deformities (DFD presenting mainly as Class III malocclusions that require orthognathic surgery as a part of definitive treatment. Class III patients can have obvious signs such as increasing the chin projection and chin throat length, nasolabial folds, reverse overjet, and lack of upper lip support. However, Class III patients can present different facial patterns depending on the angulation of occlusal plane (OP, and only bite correction does not always lead to the improvement of the facial esthetic. We described two Class III patients with different clinical features and inclination of OP and had undergone different treatment planning based on 6 clinical features: (I facial type; (II upper incisor display at rest; (III dental and gingival display on smile; (IV soft tissue support; (V chin projection; and (VI lower lip projection. These patients were submitted to orthognathic surgery with different treatment plannings: a clockwise rotation and counterclockwise rotation of OP according to their facial features. The clinical features and OP inclination helped to define treatment planning by clockwise and counterclockwise rotations of the maxillomandibular complex, and two patients undergone to bimaxillary orthognathic surgery showed harmonic outcomes and stables after 2 years of follow-up.

  2. Class III malocclusion treated with distalization of the mandibular dentition with miniscrew anchorage: A 2-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kun; Cao, Yang

    2015-12-01

    This case report describes the orthodontic camouflage treatment for a 16-year-old Chinese girl with a Class III malocclusion. The treatment included extractions of the mandibular second molars, fixed appliance therapy, and miniscrew-aided mandibular arch distalization. Pretreatment, posttreatment, and 2-year follow-up records are shown. The anterior negative overjet and the Class III molar and canine relationships were corrected. The patient's facial profile was greatly improved. The mandibular third molars erupted into the second molar spaces, with acceptable intercuspation with the maxillary dentition. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Miniscrew-assisted mandibular molar distalization in a patient with skeletal class-III malocclusion: A clinical case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammadreza Safavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In nongrowing patients with mild skeletal Class-III malocclusion, premolar extraction or molar distalization in the lower arch can be done as a part of camouflage treatment. Temporary anchorage devices are widely used for this purpose because they do not produce undesirable reciprocal effects and do not depend on the patient′s cooperation. However, most reported cases in this regard have used interradicular miniscrews in the mandibular arch and these have a risk of failure as they can loosen due to collision with adjacent roots. This article showcases mandibular molar distalization utilizing miniscrews, inserted at the retromolar area to correct a Class-III problem. A 24-year-old girl with a mild skeletal Class-III malocclusion and dental Class-III molar and canine relationship bilaterally was referred for orthodontic treatment. The treatment plan included distalization of the lower molars bilaterally followed by full fixed appliance therapy, after third molar extractions. For the lower molar distalization, the miniscrews were inserted at the retromolar pad. At the end of 21 months, a Class-I molar and canine relationship, normal overjet and overbite were obtained. The average amount of distalization of mandibular first molar was 3.2 mm at the crown level. In conclusion, placing miniscrews at the retromolar pad area for lower molar distalization was found to be a simple and effective method for correcting anterior cross bite and mandibular anterior crowding or protrusion, without the need for patient compliance.

  4. Self-esteem in adolescents with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusion in a Peruvian sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Florián-Vargas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To compare self-esteem scores in 12 to 16-year-old adolescents with different Angle malocclusion types in a Peruvian sample. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 276 adolescents (159, 52 and 65 with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusions, respectively from Trujillo, Peru. Participants were asked to complete the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES and were also clinically examined, so as to have Angle malocclusion classification determined. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA was used to compare RSES scores among adolescents with Class I, II and III malocclusions, with participants' demographic factors being controlled. Results: Mean RSES scores for adolescents with Class I, II and III malocclusions were 20.47 ± 3.96, 21.96 ± 3.27 and 21.26 ± 4.81, respectively. The ANCOVA test showed that adolescents with Class II malocclusion had a significantly higher RSES score than those with Class I malocclusion, but there were no differences between other malocclusion groups. Supplemental analysis suggested that only those with Class II, Division 2 malocclusion might have greater self-esteem when compared to adolescents with Class I malocclusion. Conclusion: This study shows that, in general, self-esteem did not vary according to adolescents' malocclusion in the sample studied. Surprisingly, only adolescents with Class II malocclusion, particularly Class II, Division 2, reported better self-esteem than those with Class I malocclusion. A more detailed analysis assessing the impact of anterior occlusal features should be conducted.

  5. Miniplate-Aided Mandibular Dentition Distalization as a Camouflage Treatment of a Class III Malocclusion in an Adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaki Hakami

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes orthodontic camouflage treatment for a 32-year-old African American male patient with Class III malocclusion. The treatment included nonextraction, nonsurgical orthodontic camouflage by en masse distalization of the mandibular teeth using skeletal anchorage devices. The total treatment time was 23 months. Normal overjet and overbite with Class I occlusion were obtained despite the compensated dentition to the skeletal malocclusion. His smile esthetics was significantly improved at the completion of his treatment.

  6. Miniplate-Aided Mandibular Dentition Distalization as a Camouflage Treatment of a Class III Malocclusion in an Adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakami, Zaki; Chen, Po Jung; Ahmida, Ahmad; Janakiraman, Nandakumar; Uribe, Flavio

    2018-01-01

    This case report describes orthodontic camouflage treatment for a 32-year-old African American male patient with Class III malocclusion. The treatment included nonextraction, nonsurgical orthodontic camouflage by en masse distalization of the mandibular teeth using skeletal anchorage devices. The total treatment time was 23 months. Normal overjet and overbite with Class I occlusion were obtained despite the compensated dentition to the skeletal malocclusion. His smile esthetics was significantly improved at the completion of his treatment.

  7. Orthodontic treatment for prominent lower front teeth (Class III malocclusion) in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkinson, Simon; Harrison, Jayne E; Furness, Susan; Worthington, Helen V

    2013-09-30

    Prominent lower front teeth (termed reverse bite; under bite; Class III malocclusion) may be due to a combination of the jaw or tooth positions or both. The upper jaw (maxilla) can be too far back or the lower jaw (mandible) too far forward, or both. Prominent lower front teeth can also occur if the upper front teeth (incisors) are tipped back or the lower front teeth are tipped forwards, or both. Various treatment approaches have been described to correct prominent lower front teeth in children and adolescents. To assess the effects of orthodontic treatment for prominent lower front teeth in children and adolescents. We searched the following databases: Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (to 7 January 2013), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 12), MEDLINE via OVID (1946 to 7 January 2013), and EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 7 January 2013). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) recruiting children or adolescents or both (aged 16 years or less) receiving any type of orthodontic treatment to correct prominent lower front teeth (Class III malocclusion). Orthodontic treatments were compared with control groups who received either no treatment, delayed treatment or a different active intervention. Screening of references, identification of included and excluded studies, data extraction and assessment of the risk of bias of the included studies was performed independently and in duplicate by two review authors. The mean differences with 95% confidence intervals were calculated for continuous data. Meta-analysis was only undertaken when studies of similar comparisons reported comparable outcome measures. A fixed-effect model was used. The I2 statistic was used as a measure of statistical heterogeneity. Seven RCTs with a total of 339 participants were included in this review. One study was assessed as at low risk of bias, three studies were at high risk of bias, and in the remaining three studies risk of bias

  8. Professionals' and laypersons' appreciation of various options for Class III surgical correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabré, M; Mossaz, C; Christou, P; Kiliaridis, S

    2010-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the assessments of maxillofacial surgeons, orthodontists, and laypersons on the predicted aesthetic outcome of various surgical options in Class III correction and the associations between certain initial cephalometric values and the judges' preferred option. Pre-surgical lateral headfilms and coloured profile photographs of 18 skeletal Class III Caucasian adult patients (10 males and 8 females) with a mean age of 24.5 years were used. The headfilms were hand traced and digitized. Conventional cephalometric analysis was performed. Computerized predictions of three surgical options, mandibular setback, Le Fort I advancement, and bimaxillary surgery, were made. For each case, the pre-surgical profile photograph with the three predictions was presented on a printed page. The questionnaire was sent to 51 maxillofacial surgeons (response rate 45.1 per cent), 78 orthodontists (response rate 71.8 per cent), and 61 laypersons (response rate 100 per cent) to aesthetically evaluate the pre-surgical photographs and the surgical predictions by placing a mark along a 10-graded visual analogue scale (VAS) using a standard profile for calibration. Confidence interval was calculated for each patient. An independent samples t-test was used to detect initial cephalometric values associated with the judges' preferred option and analysis of variance/Tukey's honestly significant differences to evaluate differences between judges. Intra-observer reliability was assessed with a paired t-test. All treatment predictions led to improved scoring of facial aesthetics with the exception of the setback option for three patients. For 14 patients, general agreement for the preferred option existed between the three groups of judges. Laypersons tended to give lower improvement scores than professionals. Overjet, nasofacial, and nasomental angles were important in decision making between the mandibular setback and Le Fort I options (the more negative

  9. Radiographic cephalometry assessment of the linear and angular parameters on cranial base in children with skeletal class III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Zdenka M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. In malocclusion of skeletal class III, mandible is located in front of maxilla in sagital plain, which is manifested by a lower value of the sagital inter-jaw angle than in skeletal class I, where the jaw sagital relation is normal. Apart from the deformities on mandible and/or maxilla, in skeletal class III deformities are also frequent on the cranial base. The aim of this research was to find the differences in the parameter values on the cranial base among the children with skeletal class III and the children with skeletal class I in the period of mixed dentition. Methods. After clinical examination and orthopan-tomography, profile radiography of the head was analyzed in 60 examinees, aged from 6−12 years. The examinees were divided into two groups: group 1 - the children with skeletal class III; group 2 - the children with skeletal class I. Both linear and angular parameters on the cranial base were measured, as well as the angles of maxillary and mandible prognatism and the angle of sagital inter-jaw relation. The level of difference in the parameter values between the groups was estimated and the degree of correlation of the main angle of the cranial base with the angles of sagital position of the jaws in each of the two groups was established. Results. A significant difference between the groups was found only in the average values of the angles of maxillary prognatism and sagital interjaw relation. In the group 1, the main angle of the cranial base was in a significant correlation with the angles of sagital positions of the jaws, while in the group 2, such significance was not found. Conclusion. There were no significant differences in the parameter values on the cranial base between the groups. There was a significant correlation of the main angle of the cranial base with the angles of sagital position of the jaws in the group 1 only. .

  10. Effect of thuringiensin on adenylate cyclase in rat cerebral cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, S.-F.; Yang Chi; Wang, S.-C.; Wang, J.-S.; Hwang, J.-S.; Ho, S.-P.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the effect of thuringiensin on the adenylate cyclase activity in rat cerebral cortex. The cyclic adenosine 3'5'-monophosphate (cAMP) levels were shown to be dose-dependently elevated 17-450% or 54-377% by thuringiensin at concentrations of 10 μM-100 mM or 0.5-4 mM, due to the activation of basal adenylate cyclase activity of rat cerebral cortical membrane preparation. Thuringiensin also activated basal activity of a commercial adenylate cyclase from Escherichia coli. However, the forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in rat cerebral cortex was inhibited by thuringiensin at concentrations of 1-100 μM, thus cAMP production decreased. Furthermore, thuringiensin or adenylate cyclase inhibitor (MDL-12330A) reduced the forskolin (10 μM)-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity at concentrations of 10 μM, 49% or 43% inhibition, respectively. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that thuringiensin could activate basal adenylate cyclase activity and increase cAMP concentrations in rat cerebral cortex or in a commercial adenylate cyclase. Comparing the dose-dependent effects of thuringiensin on the basal and forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity, thuringiensin can be regarded as a weak activator of adenylate cyclase or an inhibitor of forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase

  11. Perceived changes by peer group of social impact associated with combined orthodontic-surgical correction of class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesani, Aliza; DiBiase, Andrew T; Cobourne, Martyn T; Newton, Timothy

    2014-09-01

    Whereas the psychosocial benefits of orthognathic treatment for the individual patient are established, there is little data relating to social perceptions in relation to changes in facial appearance as a result of combined orthodontic and orthognathic treatment. This study aimed to investigate the social impact of combined orthodontic-orthognathic surgical correction for class III malocclusion in Caucasian subjects. This cross-sectional study compared perceptions of facial appearance prior to and after orthognathic correction of class III malocclusion. Eighty undergraduate students were shown photographs of four Caucasian subjects (2 male and 2 female) pre- and post-orthognathic class III correction. Observers were asked to rate these subjects in relation to four different outcomes: (i) social competence (SC); (ii) intellectual ability (IA); (iii) psychological adjustment (PA); (iv) attractiveness. A mixed-model analysis of variance (ANOVA) was calculated to determine the effect of each variable. Statistically significant differences were found in ratings of the same face before and after treatment. After treatment, faces were rated as more psychologically adjusted, more sociable, more likely to be successful and more attractive; with the mean psychological adjustment rating being associated with the most change (before treatment=8.06 [SD 2.30]; after treatment=6.64 [SD 2.03], t=2.04, pclass III malocclusion in Caucasians, individuals are rated by young adults as being better adjusted both psychologically and socially, more likely to be successful and more attractive. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 40 CFR 147.2200 - State-administered program-Class I, III, IV, and V wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION... administered by the Railroad Commission of Texas. A program revision application for Class III brine mining..._regulations/ibr_locations.html. (1) Texas Statutory and Regulatory Requirements Applicable to the Underground...

  13. Mandibular dimensions of subjects with asymmetric skeletal class III malocclusion and normal occlusion compared with cone-beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, HyoYeon; Bayome, Mohamed; Kim, Seong-Hun; Kim, Ki Beom; Behrents, Rolf G; Kook, Yoon-Ah

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to use cone-beam computed tomography to compare mandibular dimensions in subjects with asymmetric skeletal Class III malocclusion and those with normal occlusion. Cone-beam computed tomography scans of 38 subjects with normal occlusion and 28 patients with facial asymmetry were evaluated and digitized with Invivo software (Anatomage, San Jose, Calif). Three midsagittal and 13 right and left measurements were taken. The paired t test was used to compare the right and left sides in each group. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the midsagittal variables and the differences between the 2 sides of the group with normal occlusion with those of asymmetry patients. The posterior part of the mandibular body showed significant differences between the deviated and nondeviated sides in asymmetric Class III patients. The difference of the asymmetry group was significantly greater than that of the normal occlusion group for the mediolateral ramal and the anteroposterior condylar inclinations (P = 0.007 and P = 0.019, respectively). The asymmetric skeletal Class III group showed significant differences in condylar height, ramus height, and posterior part of the mandibular body compared with the subjects with normal occlusion. These results might be useful for diagnosis and treatment planning of asymmetric Class III patients. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Populus Class III HD ZIP, popREVOLUTA, influences cambium initiation and patterning of woody stems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcel Robischon; Juan Du; Eriko Miura; Andrew Groover

    2011-01-01

    The secondary growth of a woody stem requires the formation of a vascular cambium at an appropriate position and proper patterning of the vascular tissues derived from the cambium. Class III homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD ZIP) transcription factors have been implicated in polarity determination and patterning in lateral organs and primary vascular tissues and in the...

  15. Identification and cloning of class II and III chitinases from alkaline floral nectar of Rhododendron irroratum, Ericaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Hong-Guang; Milne, Richard I; Zhou, Hong-Xia; Chen, Xiang-Yang; Sun, Hang

    2016-10-01

    Class II and III chitinases belonging to different glycoside hydrolase families were major nectarins in Rhododendron irroratum floral nectar which showed significant chitinolytic activity. Previous studies have demonstrated antimicrobial activity in plant floral nectar, but the molecular basis for the mechanism is still poorly understood. Two chitinases, class II (Rhchi2) and III (Rhchi3), were characterized from alkaline Rhododendron irroratum nectar by both SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry. Rhchi2 (27 kDa) and Rhchi3 (29 kDa) are glycoside hydrolases (family 19 and 18) with theoretical pI of 8.19 and 7.04. The expression patterns of Rhchi2 and Rhchi3 were analyzed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Rhchi2 is expressed in flowers (corolla nectar pouches) and leaves while Rhchi3 is expressed in flowers. Chitinase in concentrated protein and fresh nectar samples was visualised by SDS-PAGE and chitinolytic activity in fresh nectar was determined spectrophotometrically via chitin-azure. Full length gene sequences were cloned with Tail-PCR and RACE. The amino acid sequence deduced from the coding region for these proteins showed high identity with known chitinases and predicted to be located in extracellular space. Fresh R. irroratum floral nectar showed significant chitinolytic activity. Our results demonstrate that class III chitinase (GH 18 family) also exists in floral nectar. The functional relationship between class II and III chitinases and the role of these pathogenesis-related proteins in antimicrobial activity in nectar is suggested.

  16. Treatment and post-treatment effects of facemask therapy on the sagittal pharyngeal dimensions in Class III subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Tiziano; Franchi, Lorenzo; Mucedero, Manuela; Cozza, Paola

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this cephalometric study was to analyse the treatment and post-treatment craniofacial effects of a facemask (FM) combined with a bite block (BB) with specific regard to the sagittal pharyngeal dimensions in subjects with a Class III malocclusion when compared with an untreated Class III control group. The FM/BB group (22 subjects, 12 females and 10 males) had a mean age pre-treatment (T1) of 8.9 +/- 1.5 years, at the end of active treatment (T2) of 10.5 +/- 1.3 years, and post-treatment (T3) of 12.6 +/- 1.9 years. The treated group was compared with a control group of 14 subjects (6 females and 8 males) with untreated Class III malocclusions that matched the FM/BB group as to age at T1, T2, and T3, observation periods and skeletal maturation. Comparisons of the T2-T1 and T3-T1 changes between the two groups were analysed with the Mann-Whitney test. Significant favourable skeletal changes in the maxilla and mandible were observed in the treated group both after Ts2 and T3. No significant short- or long-term changes in the sagittal oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal airway dimensions were induced by maxillary protraction in subjects with a Class III malocclusion when compared with untreated controls.

  17. Proteomics computational analyses suggest that the bornavirus glycoprotein is a class III viral fusion protein (γ penetrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Robert F

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Borna disease virus (BDV is the type member of the Bornaviridae, a family of viruses that induce often fatal neurological diseases in horses, sheep and other animals, and have been proposed to have roles in certain psychiatric diseases of humans. The BDV glycoprotein (G is an extensively glycosylated protein that migrates with an apparent molecular mass of 84,000 to 94,000 kilodaltons (kDa. BDV G is post-translationally cleaved by the cellular subtilisin-like protease furin into two subunits, a 41 kDa amino terminal protein GP1 and a 43 kDa carboxyl terminal protein GP2. Results Class III viral fusion proteins (VFP encoded by members of the Rhabdoviridae, Herpesviridae and Baculoviridae have an internal fusion domain comprised of beta sheets, other beta sheet domains, an extended alpha helical domain, a membrane proximal stem domain and a carboxyl terminal anchor. Proteomics computational analyses suggest that the structural/functional motifs that characterize class III VFP are located collinearly in BDV G. Structural models were established for BDV G based on the post-fusion structure of a prototypic class III VFP, vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV G. Conclusion These results suggest that G encoded by members of the Bornavirdae are class III VFPs (gamma-penetrenes.

  18. Assessment of pterygomaxillary separation in Le Fort I Osteotomy in class III patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueki, Koichiro; Hashiba, Yukari; Marukawa, Kohei; Okabe, Katsuhiko; Alam, Shamiul; Nakagawa, Kiyomasa; Yamamoto, Etsuhide

    2009-04-01

    To examine the separation of the pterygomaxillary region at the posterior nasal spine level after Le Fort I osteotomy in Class III patients. The study group consisted of 37 Japanese patients with mandibular prognathism and asymmetry, with maxillary retrognathism or asymmetry. A total of 74 sides were examined. Le Fort I osteotomy was performed without a pterygoid osteotome, with an ultrasonic curette used to remove interference at the pterygomaxillary region. Postoperative computed tomography (CT) was analyzed for all patients. The separation of the pterygomaxillary region and the location of the descending palatine artery were assessed. Although acceptable separation between the maxilla and pterygoid plates was achieved in all patients, an exact separation of the pterygomaxillary junction at the posterior nasal spine level was found in only 18 of 74 sides (24%). In 29 of 74 sides (39.2%), the separation occurred anterior to the descending palatine artery. In 29 of 74 sides (39.2%), complete separation between the maxilla and lateral and/or medial pterygoid plate was not achieved, but lower level separation of the maxilla and pterygoid plate was always complete. The maxillary segments could be moved to the postoperative ideal position in all cases. Le Fort I osteotomy without an osteotome does not always induce an exact separation at the pterygomaxillary junction at the posterior nasal spine level, but the ultrasonic bone curette can remove the interference between maxillary segment and pterygoid plates more safely.

  19. [Limiting factors in the class III camouflage treatment: a potential protocol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaques Asensi, José

    2016-06-01

    The Class III skeletal malocclusion has been traditionally treated with a combined approach of orthodontics and orthognathic surgery or with a strategy of orthodontic camouflage. Some severe cases can be identified as ideal candidates for a surgical treatment whereas some others can be handled with orthodontics alone, with a reasonable expectation of an acceptable result. However, the problem remains for the borderline patient. In fact, limited information is available in the literature regarding the identification of the factors that can help in establishing the limits for one treatment modality or the other. Furthermore, the quantification of some of these factors, for practical purposes, is practically missing or very seldom suggested. Therefore, the decision making process remains a subjective reflection based on the "good clinical sense" of the orthodontist or just reduced to an "educated guess". In order to add some information, hopefully useful in deciding the most suitable treatment option for the individual patient, we propose a clinical protocol based on four different factors. Namely: the skeletal discrepancy, the occlusal discrepancy, the periodontal condition and facial aesthetics. For each one of these factors several parameters will be evaluated and, for some of them, an attempt to provide some reference numerical values will be made. Finally, clinical examples will be presented to illustrate the concepts discussed and the treatment alternatives, final treatment plan and treatment outcome will be analyzed for each one of them. © EDP Sciences, SFODF, 2016.

  20. Ethnicity and skeletal Class III morphology: a pubertal growth analysis using thin-plate spline analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhamrah, B; Terada, K; Yamaki, M; Ali, I M; Hanada, K

    2001-01-01

    A longitudinal retrospective study using thin-plate spline analysis was used to investigate skeletal Class III etiology in Japanese female adolescents. Headfilms of 40 subjects were chosen from the archives of the Orthodontic department at Niigata University Dental Hospital, and were traced at IIIB and IVA Hellman dental ages. Twenty-eight homologous landmarks, representing hard and soft tissue, were digitized. These were used to reproduce a consensus for the profilogram, craniomaxillary complex, mandible, and soft tissue for each age and skeletal group. Generalized least-square analysis revealed a significant shape difference between age-matched groups (P spline and partial warps (PW)3 and 2 showed a maxillary retrusion at stage IIIB opposite an acute cranial base at stage IVA. Mandibular total spline and PW4, 5 showed changes affecting most landmarks and their spatial interrelationship, especially a stretch along the articulare-pogonion axis. In soft tissue analysis, PW8 showed large and local changes which paralleled the underlying hard tissue components. Allometry of the mandible and anisotropy of the cranial base, the maxilla, and the mandible asserted the complexity of craniofacial growth and the difficulty of predicting its outcome.

  1. Class III orthognathic surgical cases facilitated by accelerated osteogenic orthodontics: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, JiaQi; Xu, Li; Liang, Cheng; Jiang, JiuHui

    2015-11-01

    To describe a multidisciplinary treatment approach that includes corticotomy, orthodontic force and orthognathic surgery for the management of skeletal Class III surgical cases. The main advantage of the combined techniques is a reduction in treatment time for young adult patients. Accelerated Osteogenic Orthodontics (AOO) was delivered to three young adult patients during their pre-surgical orthodontic treatment. After aligning and levelling the dental arches, a piezosurgical corticotomy was performed to the buccal aspect of the alveolar bone. Bone graft materials were used to cover the decorticated area and soft tissue flaps were replaced. The mean time for extraction space closure was 5.4 ± 1.3 months and the mean time for pre-surgical orthodontic treatment was 12.0 ± 0.9 months. The average total treatment time was 20.4 ± 2.4 months. A pre-existing bony fenestration in the buccal cortex adjacent to the right lateral incisor root apex of Case 1 was corrected. The facial aesthetics of three patients improved following multidisciplinary treatment. This approach may be an efficient method for the orthognathic patient who desires a reduced treatment time, but further clinical research is required.

  2. Thin-plate spline analysis of mandibular morphological changes induced by early class III treatment: a long-term evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, Lorenzo; Pavoni, Chiara; Cerroni, Silvia; Cozza, Paola

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the long-term mandibular morphological changes induced by early treatment of class III malocclusion with rapid maxillary expansion (RME) and facial mask (FM). Twenty-five subjects [10 boys, 15 girls; mean age at T1 (start of treatment) 9.3±1.6 years] with class III disharmony were treated with RME and FM therapy followed by fixed appliances. The patients were re-evaluated at the end of growth (T2), about 8.5 years after the end of the treatment (mean age, 18.6±2.0 years). Sixteen subjects with untreated class III malocclusion comprised the control group. Mandibular shape changes were analysed on the lateral cephalograms of the subjects of both groups by means of thin-plate spline (TPS) analysis. Procrustes average mandibular configurations were subjected to TPS analysis by means of both cross-sectional between-group comparisons at T1 and at T2 and longitudinal within-group comparisons. Statistical analysis of shape differences was performed using a generalized Goodall F test. In the long term, the treated group exhibited a significant upward and forward direction of condylar growth. On the contrary, untreated class III subjects showed an upward and backward direction of condylar growth associated with a downward and forward deformation of the mandibular symphysis. Limitations are related to the small sample size of both treated and control groups and to the retrospective nature of the study. Early treatment of class III malocclusion with RME and FM is able to produce significant and favourable long-term mandibular shape changes characterized by an anterior morphogenetic rotation. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Má oclusão Classe III de Angle, subdivisão direita, tratada sem exodontias e com controle de crescimento Angle Class III malocclusion, subdivision right, treated without extractions and with growth control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Henrique Casarim Fernandes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A Classe III de Angle é uma má oclusão caracterizada por discrepâncias anteroposteriores dentárias e faciais, normalmente acompanhadas por alterações esqueléticas, com componente genético associado. O diagnóstico precoce e correto e o tratamento adequado são de suma importância para promover o controle do crescimento e evitar recidivas. Este artigo relata o tratamento, executado em duas fases, de uma paciente do sexo feminino de 12 anos de idade, apresentando uma má oclusão de Classe III de Angle, subdivisão direita, com mordida cruzada anterior em máxima intercuspidação habitual (MIH e topo em relação cêntrica (RC, apresentando, ainda, falta de espaço na maxila, que foi tratada sem exodontias e com controle de crescimento. Esse caso foi apresentado à Diretoria do Board Brasileiro de Ortodontia e Ortopedia Facial (BBO, representando a categoria 1, ou seja, uma má oclusão Classe III de Angle, tratada sem exodontias e com controle de crescimento, como parte dos requisitos para a obtenção do título de Diplomado pelo BBOAngle Class III malocclusion is characterized by anteroposterior dental and facial discrepancies usually accompanied by skeletal changes associated with a genetic component. Early, accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment are of paramount importance to promote growth control and prevent relapse. This article reports the two-phase treatment of a female patient, aged 12 years, with an Angle Class III, subdivision right malocclusion with anterior crossbite in maximum intercuspation (MIC and end-on bite in centric relation, further presenting with lack of maxillary space. The case was treated without extractions and with growth control. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Facial Orthopedics (BBO as representative of Category 1, i.e., Angle Class III malocclusion treated without tooth extractions, as part of the requirements for obtaining the BBO Diploma

  4. Non-surgical alternative in the treatment of skeletal Class III problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Y

    1995-01-01

    The dental profession is not static, but dynamic. New research findings, along with medical and technological advances, necessitate constant re-examination of treatment philosophies and techniques. What were acceptable treatment techniques in the past may not necessarily be the most effective and best techniques for our patients today. Currently, many practitioners feel that the only treatment for the correction of a skeletal Class III abnormality is via orthognathic surgery in older patients. In some cases it may be the only treatment option. But in most cases today, there are more conservative, non-surgical treatment alternatives in correcting Class III problems in younger aged children. In treating facial-skeletal problems, it must be emphasized that the human face is a biological masterpiece of form and function. Its importance has been documented in arts and sciences since the beginning of modern civilization. It is important enough so that individuals who are blessed with attractive features are afforded greater opportunities in our society. Attractive faces are associated with intelligence, honesty and good work ethics. With the advent of orthognathic surgery, functional appliance, functional regulator, and myofunctional therapy, the dental profession has the capability of leveling out the playing field for many individuals in our society. It does so by being able to correct problems closely associated with the human psyche--the human face. The ability to change facial features brings tremendous prestige to our profession. Along with this prestige comes greater responsibility. Our ability to change facial features entails greater understanding of facial balance and harmony. Ricketts states that the face must conform to stringent proportions known as the "divine proportion" in order for it to be esthetically pleasing. Also, our ability to move facial-skeletal structures entails greater understanding of the biomechanics of the human face. Without this

  5. Orthodontic camouflage versus orthognathic surgery for class III deformity: comparative cephalometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, P; Bellot-Arcís, C; Llamas, J M; Cibrian, R; Gandia, J L; Paredes-Gallardo, V

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare different cephalometric variables in adult patients with class III malocclusions before and after treatment, in order to determine which variables are indicative of orthodontic camouflage or orthognathic surgery. The cases of 156 adult patients were assessed: 77 treated with orthodontic camouflage and 79 treated with orthodontics and orthognathic surgery. The following cephalometric variables were measured on pre-treatment (T1) and post-treatment (T2) lateral cephalograms: sella-nasion-A-point (SNA), sella-nasion-B-point (SNB), and A-point-nasion-B-point (ANB) angles, Wits appraisal, facial axis angle, mandibular plane angle, upper and lower incisor inclination, and inter-incisal angle. There were statistically significant differences in cephalometric variables before and after treatment between the two groups. The percentage of normal pre-treatment measurements in the camouflage orthodontics group was 30.7%, which worsened slightly to 28.4% post-treatment. However in the group receiving surgery, this was 24.5% pre-treatment, improving to 33.5% after surgery. SNA, SNB, Wits appraisal, lower incisor inclination, and inter-incisal angle showed differences between the two groups before and after treatment. Wits appraisal, lower incisor inclination, and inter-incisal angle were indicative of one or other treatment. Upper and lower incisor decompensation in both groups did not reach ideal values, which impeded complete skeletal correction in 52% of surgical cases. Copyright © 2016 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Class III peroxidases in cellulose deficient cultured maize cells during cell wall remodelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Rubio, Romina; Acebes, José Luis; Encina, Antonio; Kärkönen, Anna

    2018-02-21

    Maize (Zea mays L.) suspension-cultured cells habituated to a cellulose biosynthesis inhibitor 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (DCB) have a modified cell wall, in which the reduction in the cellulose content is compensated by a network of highly cross-linked feruloylated arabinoxylans and the deposition of lignin-like polymers. For both arabinoxylan cross-linking and lignin polymerization, class III peroxidases (POXs) have been demonstrated to have a prominent role. For the first time, a comparative study of POX activity and isoforms in control and cellulose-impaired cells has been addressed, also taking into account their cellular distribution in different compartments. Proteins from the spent medium (SM), soluble cellular (SC), ionically (ICW) and covalently bound cell wall protein fractions were assayed for total and specific peroxidase activity by using coniferyl and sinapyl alcohol and ferulic acid as substrates. The isoPOX profile was obtained by isoelectric focusing. POX activity was higher in DCB-habituated than in non-habituated cells in all protein fractions at all cell culture stages. For all substrates assayed, SC and ICW fractions showed higher activity at the early-log growth phase than at the late-log phase. However, the highest POX activity in the spent medium was found at the late-log phase. According to the isoPOX profiles, the highest diversity of isoPOXs was detected in the ICW and SM protein fractions. The latter fraction contained isoPOXs with higher activity in DCB-habituated cells. Some of the isoPOXs detected could be involved in cross-linking of arabinoxylans and in the lignin-like polymer formation in DCB-habituated cells. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Localisation of deformations of the midfacial complex in subjects with class III malocclusions employing thin-plate spline analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, G D; McNamara, J A; Lozanoff, S

    1997-11-01

    This study determines deformations of the midface that contribute to a class III appearance, employing thinplate spline analysis. A total of 135 lateral cephalographs of prepubertal children of European-American descent with either class III malocclusions or a class I molar occlusion were compared. The cephalographs were traced and checked, and 7 homologous landmarks of the midface were identified and digitised. The data sets were scaled to an equivalent size and subjected to Procrustes analysis. These statistical tests indicated significant differences (P spline analysis indicated that both affine and nonaffine transformations contribute towards the total spline for the averaged midfacial configuration. For nonaffine transformations, partial warp 3 had the highest magnitude, indicating the large scale deformations of the midfacial configuration. These deformations affected the palatal landmarks, and were associated with compression of the midfacial complex in the anteroposterior plane predominantly. Partial warp 4 produced some vertical compression of the posterior aspect of the midfacial complex whereas partial warps 1 and 2 indicated localised shape changes of the maxillary alveolus region. large spatial-scale deformations therefore affect the midfacial complex in an anteroposterior axis, in combination with vertical compression and localised distortions. These deformations may represent a developmental diminution of the palatal complex anteroposteriorly that, allied with vertical shortening of midfacial height posteriorly, results in class III malocclusions with a retrusive midfacial profile.

  8. Temporomandibular disorders in growing patients after treatment of class II and III malocclusion with orthopaedic appliances: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Silva, Antonio; Carnevali-Arellano, Romano; Venegas-Aguilera, Matías; Tobar-Reyes, Julio; Palomino-Montenegro, Hernán

    2018-05-01

    To determine if the use of orthopaedic appliances in growing patients applied to correct Class II and III malocclusion is related to the development of temporomandibular disorders (TMD). A systematic review was conducted between 1960 and July 2017, based on electronic databases: PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, Medline, Scopus, EBSCOhost, Scielo, Lilacs and Bireme. Controlled clinical trials (CCTs) and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were identified. The articles were selected and analyzed by two authors independently. The quality of the evidence was determined according to the guidelines of the Cochrane Risk Bias Assessment Tool and the Cochrane Quality Study Guide. Seven articles were included, four CCTs and three RCTs. The studies were grouped according to malocclusion treatment in (a) class II appliances (n = 4) and (b) class III appliances (n = 3). The quality of evidence was low due to the high risk of bias, independent of the association reported. All studies concluded that the use of orthopaedic appliances would not contribute to the development of TMD. The quality of evidence available is insufficient to establish definitive conclusions, since the studies were very heterogeneous and presented a high risk of bias. However, it is suggested that the use of orthopaedic appliances to correct class II and III malocclusion in growing patients would not be considered as a risk factor for the development of TMD. High-quality RCTs are required to draw any definitive conclusions.

  9. Prognostic effect of symptomatic extracranial lesions on survival of recursive partitioning analysis Class III brain metastatic patients treated with stereotactic radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Jun Chen

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The presence of SELs was a negative prognosis factor for the survival of RPA Class III brain metastatic patients. If RPA Class III brain metastatic patients were without SELs, SRT may be a reasonable treatment option, but if they had SELs, SRT may not be a reasonable treatment due to the short overall survival time and KDT.

  10. Correction of a Class III malocclusion with over 20 mm of space to close in the maxilla by using miniscrews for extra anchorage.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breuning, K.H.

    2008-01-01

    Unilateral closure of maxillary extraction spaces in patients with Class III malocclusion can be challenging. This case report describes the closure of first premolar and first molar extraction spaces in a patient with a Class III dental relationship. Two miniscrews were used for intraoral skeletal

  11. Abordagem clínica não-cirúrgica no tratamento da má oclusão de Classe III Non-surgical approaches to Class III malocclusions treatment

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    Eustáquio A. Araújo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A abordagem clínica não-cirúrgica da Classe III coloca-se entre os grandes desafios da Ortodontia e vem, desde sempre, gerando controvérsia entre clínicos e pesquisadores. Alguns defendem a tese de que o crescimento e o desenvolvimento do complexo craniofacial são determinados geneticamente e, portanto, inalteráveis. Para esses, a correção da grande maioria de casos de Classe III passará por intervenções orto-cirúrgicas, devendo a terapia ser realizada assim que cessar o período mais ativo do crescimento. Por outro lado, há aqueles que, mesmo concordando com o peso da hereditariedade na etiologia da Classe III, acreditam ser possível modificar o padrão e a direção do crescimento e, através de uma abordagem não-cirúrgica, minimizar a má oclusão ou até mesmo tratá-la com sucesso. Em face da controvérsia, quais seriam as possibilidades ortodônticas? Inúmeros são os relatos de que uma intervenção adequada, em momento adequado, acompanhada de um estudo do padrão familiar, pode, muitas vezes, minimizar o desenvolvimento de uma Classe III. Procedimentos selecionados com critério podem reduzir a indicação de intervenções cirúrgicas e proporcionar resultados positivos e duradouros. Há evidências clínicas e científicas de que algumas decisões terapêuticas podem mudar o curso de muitos prognósticos sombrios.Orthodontic management of the Class III malocclusion has been a constant challenge to the orthodontic profession and remains a controversial issue among clinicians and researches. Some support the belief that growth and size of the craniofacial complex are genetically predetermined and cannot be changed. They assume that the great majority of Class III cases are "untreatable" and that they are due to surgical intervention after growth has been completed. Even agreeing that heredity plays a major role in this type os deviation, others support the contention that the pattern and direction of growth can be

  12. Dental compensation for moderate Class III with vertical growth pattern by extraction of the lower second molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Collin; Jacobs-Müller, Claudia; Hoffmann, Viviana; Meila, Dan; Erbe, Christina; Krieger, Elena; Wehrbein, Heiner

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of the effects and side effects of treatment of patients with moderate skeletal Class III and vertical growth pattern by means of extraction of the second molars in the lower jaw. A total of 20 patients with a mean age of 12.9 years were examined retrospectively. Inclusion criteria consisted of a Wits value of 0 to -5, a posterior growth pattern of the mandible (Hasund analysis), an overjet of -2 to 1 mm, and an overbite of 0 to -3 mm. Treatment was performed using a straight-wire appliance. As part of the treatment, the lower second molars were extracted and Class III elastics attached. Cephalograms and orthopantomograms taken before and after treatment were used for evaluation. Treatment resulted in a significant change in the mean overjet from 0.5 mm to 2.1 mm and the attainment of a positive mean overbite of -1.0 mm to 0.9 mm. The occlusal plane rotated anteriorly from 18.8° to 13.7°. The skeletal parameters showed a change in the Wits value from -3.3 mm to -1.4 mm and an anterior mandibular rotation (ML-NSL 35.5° vs. 32.0°). The soft tissues revealed an increase in the distance between the lower lip and the "esthetic line" to the posterior (-2.0 mm vs. -3.9 mm). Dental compensation of moderate skeletal Class III with a tendency to an anterior open bite with vertical growth pattern by extracting the lower second molars, combined with Class III elastics, resulted in an anterior rotation of the occlusal plane and mandible. Eighteen of 20 patients achieved a physiological overjet and positive overbite. A prerequisite for this therapy is the presence of lower wisdom teeth; a potential side effect is elongation of the upper second molars.

  13. [The application of Edgewise technique auxillary with extra oral anchorage and class III elastic in the treatment of bimaxillary protrusion.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H H; Weng, S E; Chen, R J

    1995-12-01

    In the treatment of growing bimaxillary protrusion patients,Edgewise technique auxillary with extra oral anchorage and class III elastic help to improve the patient's chin shape,recover his beauty of lower facial part and get a good occlusion along with the growing of mandible.The purpose of this study is:analysis the force system in the treatment and evaluate the result of the treatment with some typical cases.

  14. Orthodontic correction of Class III malocclusion in a young patient with the use of a simple fixed appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Anterior crossbites are one of the most common orthodontic problems we observe in growing children. The first step in treating an anterior crossbite is to determine whether the crossbite is dental or skeletal in nature. To determine a precise diagnosis, a thorough clinical, radiographic and model analysis is required. This article shows the treatment of Class III malocclusion by correcting anterior dental crossbite with the use of a simple fixed appliance.

  15. Comparison of incisor inclination in patients with Class III malocclusion treated with orthognathic surgery or orthodontic camouflage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troy, Beth A; Shanker, Shiva; Fields, Henry W; Vig, Katherine; Johnston, William

    2009-02-01

    Reports comparing Class III patients treated by camouflage and those treated by orthognathic surgery are not numerous. The purpose of this study was to compare the dental and skeletal values of Class III patients treated with these methods against normative data and over the course of treatment. Thirty-three surgical and 39 camouflage Class III patients were selected from a graduate orthodontic clinic and regional private practices, and lateral cephalograms were digitized. Skeletal and dental values were obtained, and mean and efficacy evaluations referenced to ethnic norms were calculated. At pretreatment, the surgery patients had more severe skeletal discrepancies and more compensated incisors. During presurgical orthodontic treatment, most of the surgery group's mandibular incisors were significantly decompensated, although half of the maxillary incisors remained compensated. The surgical move improved 90% of these patients but to only 60% to 65% of the norm. The camouflage group was compensated at pretreatment, and they became more compensated in the end. After treatment, there were no differences between the incisor positions of the 2 groups. There was no statistical difference in incisor inclination and position between the Class III surgical and camouflage groups after treatment; there was a significant difference in the pretreatment and posttreatment incisor inclination and position compared with normative values for both the surgical and the camouflage groups; the maxillary and mandibular incisors were not adequately decompensated in the surgical group, but significant improvement in mandibular incisor position and axial inclination was achieved presurgically. The outcome of the surgical correction was limited by the inadequate presurgical orthodontic incisor decompensation, and orthodontic compensation of incisors occurred postsurgically to achieve an optimal occlusal result.

  16. Miniscrew-assisted mandibular molar distalization in a patient with skeletal class-III malocclusion: A clinical case report

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Mohammadreza Safavi; Farnaz Younessian; Sarvraj Kohli

    2013-01-01

    In nongrowing patients with mild skeletal Class-III malocclusion, premolar extraction or molar distalization in the lower arch can be done as a part of camouflage treatment. Temporary anchorage devices are widely used for this purpose because they do not produce undesirable reciprocal effects and do not depend on the patient′s cooperation. However, most reported cases in this regard have used interradicular miniscrews in the mandibular arch and these have a risk of failure as they can loosen ...

  17. Oral Rehabilitation With Orthognathic Surgery After Dental Implant Placement for Class III Malocclusion With Skeletal Asymmetry and Posterior Bite Collapse.

    OpenAIRE

    Ohba, Seigo; Nakatani, Yuya; Kawasaki, Takako; Tajima, Nobutaka; Tobita, Takayoshi; Yoshida, Noriaki; Sawase, Takashi; Asahina, Izumi

    2015-01-01

    Increasing numbers of older patients are seeking orthognathic surgery to treat jaw deformity. However, orthodontic and orthognathic surgical treatment is difficult in cases without occlusal vertical stop. A 55-year-old man presented with Class III malocclusion and mandibular protrusion including esthetic problems and posterior bite collapse. He underwent dental implant treatment to reconstruct an occlusal vertical stop before orthognathic surgery. His occlusal function and esthetic problems i...

  18. Control of lower incisor inclination with a completely customized lingual appliance for dentoalveolar compensation of class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lossdörfer, Stefan; Schwestka-Polly, Rainer; Wiechmann, Dirk

    2013-09-01

    Bracket slots and orthodontic archwires offering high dimensional precision are needed for fully customized lingual appliances. We aimed to investigate whether high-precision appliances of this type enable dentoalveolar compensation of class III malocclusion so that lower incisor inclination at the end of treatment will closely match the anticipated situation as defined in a pretreatment setup. This retrospective study included a total of 34 consecutive patients who had worn a fully customized lingual appliance to achieve dentoalveolar compensation for class III malocclusion by intermaxillary elastics, or proximal enamel reduction, or extraction of teeth in one or both jaws. Casts fabricated at different points in time were three-dimensionally scanned to analyze how precisely the lower incisor inclinations envisioned in the setup were implemented in clinical practice. Aside from minor deviations of ±3.75°, the lower incisor inclinations were clinically implemented as planned even in patients with major sagittal discrepancies. Treatment goals predefined in a setup of dentoalveolar compensation for class III malocclusion can be very precisely achieved via a customized lingual appliance. Correct planning can prevent undesirable lingual tipping of the lower incisors. This finding should not encourage a more liberal use of dentoalveolar compensation, but it should heighten clinicians' awareness of how essential it is to sufficiently consider the individual anatomy of the dentoalveolar complex during treatment planning.

  19. Lower lip deformity in patients with cleft and non-cleft Class III malocclusion before and after orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joo Seok; Koh, Kyung S; Choi, Jong Woo

    2015-10-01

    Orthognathic surgery does not yield the same cosmetic benefits in patients with Class III jaw deformities associated with clefts as for patients without clefts. Preoperative upper lip tightness caused by cleft lip repair may not fully explain this difference, suggesting that a lower lip deformity is present. The study compared the outcomes of orthognathic surgery in patients with cleft and non-cleft Class III malocclusion, focusing on lip relationship. The surgical records of 50 patients with Class III malocclusion, including 25 with and 25 without clefts, who had undergone orthognathic surgery, were retrospectively analyzed. Lateral cephalometric tracings, preoperatively and at 6 months postoperatively, were superimposed to analyze the soft tissue changes at seven reference points. At 6 months after surgery, there were no significant differences in skeletal location, whereas the soft tissues of the lower lip differed significantly between patients with and without cleft (p=0.002), indicating the persistence of a lower lip deformity in cleft patients. Moreover, the soft tissues of the lower lip receded in non-cleft patients and protruded in cleft patients after orthognathic surgery. Lower lip deformity and upper lip tightness may result in an unsatisfactory relationship between the upper and lower lips of patients with cleft-related jaw deformity after orthognathic surgery. Other factors were less important than the pathology of the lower lip. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Skeletal anteroposterior discrepancy and vertical type effects on lower incisor preoperative decompensation and postoperative compensation in skeletal Class III patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hyo-Won; Baek, Seung-Hak

    2011-01-01

    To determine the initial compensation, preoperative decompensation, and postoperative compensation of the lower incisors according to the skeletal anteroposterior discrepancy and vertical type in skeletal Class III patients. The samples consisted of 68 skeletal Class III patients treated with two-jaw surgery and orthodontic treatment. Lateral cephalograms were taken before preoperative orthodontic treatment (T0) and before surgery (T1) and after debonding (T2). According to skeletal anteroposterior discrepancy/vertical type (ANB, criteria  =  -4°; SN-GoMe, criteria  =  35°) at the T0 stage, the samples were allocated into group 1 (severe anteroposterior discrepancy/hypodivergent vertical type, N  =  17), group 2 (moderate anteroposterior discrepancy/hypodivergent vertical type, N  =  17), group 3 (severe anteroposterior discrepancy/hyperdivergent vertical type, N  =  17), or group 4 (moderate anteroposterior discrepancy/hyperdivergent vertical type, N  =  17). After measurement of variables, one-way analysis of variance with Duncan's multiple comparison test, crosstab analysis, and Pearson correlation analysis were performed. At T0, groups 3 and 2 exhibited the most and least compensated lower incisors. In group 2, good preoperative decompensation and considerable postoperative compensation resulted in different values for T0, T1, and T2 (IMPA, T0 lower incisors in Class III patients.

  1. Assessment of pain and discomfort during early orthodontic treatment of skeletal Class III malocclusion using the Removable Mandibular Retractor Appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, M; Hajeer, M Y; Al-Jundi, A

    2013-06-01

    To determine the degree of pain and discomfort during the orthodontic treatment of skeletal Class III malocclusion using the Removable Mandibular Retractor (RMR). The sample consisted of 33 skeletal Class III patients (17 males and 16 females; average age: 7.5 ± 1.33 years) who had been assigned to the RMR treatment group in a randomised controlled trial comparing this treatment versus a control group of no treatment at the Orthodontic Department, University of Al-Baath Dental School in Syria. Pain and discomfort were assessed using standardised questionnaires at the following assessment times: 7 days (T1), 14 days (T2), 6 weeks (T3), 3 months (T4) and 6 months (T5) after appliance insertion. Levels of pain and discomfort decreased gradually by time in general. No significant changes in the levels of pain, tooth sensitivity and soft tissues tension were detected, whereas a significant decrease in the levels of pressure, impaired speech, impaired swallowing and lack of confidence in public was observed two weeks following appliance insertion. Mandibular constraint feeling required three months to decrease significantly. No difference was found between males and females with regard to acceptance. The RMR is well accepted by Class III patients in the early mixed dentition.

  2. Bone thickness of the infrazygomatic crest area in skeletal Class III growing patients: A computed tomographic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyub Soo; Choi, Hang Moon; Choi, Dong Soon; Jang, Insan; Cha, Bong Kuen [College of Dentistry and Research Institute of Oral Science, Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    This study was performed to investigate the bone thickness of the infrazygomatic crest area by computed tomography (CT) for placement of a miniplate as skeletal anchorage for maxillary protraction in skeletal Class III children. CT images of skeletal Class III children (7 boys, 9 girls, mean age: 11.4 years) were taken parallel to the Frankfurt horizontal plane. The bone thickness of the infrazygomatic crest area was measured at 35 locations on the right and left sides, perpendicular to the bone surface. The bone was thickest (5.0 mm) in the upper zygomatic bone and thinnest (1.1 mm) in the anterior wall of the maxillary sinus. Generally, there was a tendency for the bone to be thicker at the superior and lateral area of the zygomatic process of the maxilla. There was no clinically significant difference in bone thickness between the right and left sides; however, it was thicker in male than in female subjects. In the infrazygomatic crest area, the superior and lateral area of the zygomatic process of the maxilla had the most appropriate thickness for placement of a miniplate in growing skeletal Class III children with a retruded maxilla.

  3. Bone thickness of the infrazygomatic crest area in skeletal Class III growing patients: A computed tomographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyub Soo; Choi, Hang Moon; Choi, Dong Soon; Jang, Insan; Cha, Bong Kuen

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the bone thickness of the infrazygomatic crest area by computed tomography (CT) for placement of a miniplate as skeletal anchorage for maxillary protraction in skeletal Class III children. CT images of skeletal Class III children (7 boys, 9 girls, mean age: 11.4 years) were taken parallel to the Frankfurt horizontal plane. The bone thickness of the infrazygomatic crest area was measured at 35 locations on the right and left sides, perpendicular to the bone surface. The bone was thickest (5.0 mm) in the upper zygomatic bone and thinnest (1.1 mm) in the anterior wall of the maxillary sinus. Generally, there was a tendency for the bone to be thicker at the superior and lateral area of the zygomatic process of the maxilla. There was no clinically significant difference in bone thickness between the right and left sides; however, it was thicker in male than in female subjects. In the infrazygomatic crest area, the superior and lateral area of the zygomatic process of the maxilla had the most appropriate thickness for placement of a miniplate in growing skeletal Class III children with a retruded maxilla.

  4. Maintenance of class III trifurcated molars versus implant placement in regenerated extraction sockets: long-term results of 2 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafiropoulos, Gregory-George K; di Prisco, Manuela Occipite; Deli, Giorgio; Hoffmann, Oliver

    2011-03-01

    Studies to date have reached differing conclusions regarding the long-term prognosis of teeth with class III furcation involvement. Replacement of such teeth with implants could be an alternative. This report compares the treatment outcomes of 2 cases with similar disease progression: 1 treated by implant therapy and 1 maintained with nonsurgical periodontal treatment. Two patients with advanced chronic periodontitis and class III furcation involvement of all molars were treated. Case 1 received a conservative periodontal and antibiotic treatment, followed by 15 years of maintenance. In case 2, the molars were extracted and replaced with implants, and the implants were observed for 7 years. Clinical attachment level (CAL), probing attachment level (PAL), bleeding on probing, plaque index, and periodontal pathogens were recorded. Despite good compliance of case 1, periodontal pathogens were not eliminated and tissue destruction was not halted. The PAL outcomes of case 2 improved over time; mean PAL loss reached 0.35 mm/y in the first 3 years and then decreased to 0.01 mm/y. While CAL outcomes did not change in case 2, case 1 showed increased CAL loss after 8 years. Based on the limited findings of this case report, extraction of molars with class III furcation involvement and subsequent implant placement may render a better predictability of treatment outcomes than nonsurgical periodontal therapy in the cases of infection with periodontal pathogens.

  5. Orthodontic clockwise rotation of maxillomandibular complex for improving facial profile in late teenagers with Class III malocclusion: A preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric JW Liou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Orthodontic camouflage treatments improve occlusion but might worsen facial profile in patients with Class III malocclusion. It has been reported that surgical clockwise rotation of maxillomandibular complex (MMc improves facial profile by reducing chin prominence and chin throat length in patients with Class III malocclusion. The purpose of this report was to illustrate two orthodontic techniques for clockwise rotation of the MMc in late teenagers with Class III malocclusion and preliminarily evaluate their clinical effects. Patients and Methods: Six patients in late teenage with Class III malocclusion were included in this preliminary report. Bite raisers were first placed on the upper molars to open the bite and clockwise rotate the mandible. Intermaxillary elastics were then applied vertically between the upper and lower dentitions in 3 patients for bimaxillary extrusion (Technique-1 or between the upper dentition and the lower temporary anchorage devices (TADs in another 3 patients (Technique-2 for upper dentition extrusion and closure of the anterior open bite. The three-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography images taken before and after orthodontic treatment were superimposed to evaluate the treatment effects of MMc clockwise rotation for both techniques. Results: The Technique-1 extruded the upper and lower dentitions, rotated the mandible clockwise 2.01°, moved chin down 2.98 mm, and back −1.64 mm, although the mandible grew 2.47 mm during the treatment period. The Technique-2 extruded the upper dentition, rotated the mandible clockwise 0.90°, moved chin down 1.78 mm, but slightly forward 0.47 mm due to the mandible grew 2.50 mm and lower dentition was not extruded. Conclusions: The orthodontic clockwise rotation of MMc is an effective technique for orthognathic camouflage. The applications of bite raisers and bimaxillary dentition extrusion could be more effective than single dentition extrusion with TADs in the

  6. Regulation of the Tumor-Suppressor Function of the Class III Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Complex by Ubiquitin and SUMO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reidick, Christina [Biochemie Intrazellulärer Transportprozesse, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Bochum 44801 (Germany); El Magraoui, Fouzi; Meyer, Helmut E. [Biomedical Research, Human Brain Proteomics II, Leibniz-Institut für Analytische Wissenschaften-ISAS, Dortmund 44139 (Germany); Stenmark, Harald [Department of Biochemistry, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital, Montebello, Oslo 0310 (Norway); Platta, Harald W., E-mail: harald.platta@rub.de [Biochemie Intrazellulärer Transportprozesse, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Bochum 44801 (Germany)

    2014-12-23

    The occurrence of cancer is often associated with a dysfunction in one of the three central membrane-involution processes—autophagy, endocytosis or cytokinesis. Interestingly, all three pathways are controlled by the same central signaling module: the class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K-III) complex and its catalytic product, the phosphorylated lipid phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns3P). The activity of the catalytic subunit of the PI3K-III complex, the lipid-kinase VPS34, requires the presence of the membrane-targeting factor VPS15 as well as the adaptor protein Beclin 1. Furthermore, a growing list of regulatory proteins associates with VPS34 via Beclin 1. These accessory factors define distinct subunit compositions and thereby guide the PI3K-III complex to its different cellular and physiological roles. Here we discuss the regulation of the PI3K-III complex components by ubiquitination and SUMOylation. Especially Beclin 1 has emerged as a highly regulated protein, which can be modified with Lys11-, Lys48- or Lys63-linked polyubiquitin chains catalyzed by distinct E3 ligases from the RING-, HECT-, RBR- or Cullin-type. We also point out other cross-links of these ligases with autophagy in order to discuss how these data might be merged into a general concept.

  7. Regulation of the Tumor-Suppressor Function of the Class III Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Complex by Ubiquitin and SUMO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reidick, Christina; El Magraoui, Fouzi; Meyer, Helmut E.; Stenmark, Harald; Platta, Harald W.

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of cancer is often associated with a dysfunction in one of the three central membrane-involution processes—autophagy, endocytosis or cytokinesis. Interestingly, all three pathways are controlled by the same central signaling module: the class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K-III) complex and its catalytic product, the phosphorylated lipid phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns3P). The activity of the catalytic subunit of the PI3K-III complex, the lipid-kinase VPS34, requires the presence of the membrane-targeting factor VPS15 as well as the adaptor protein Beclin 1. Furthermore, a growing list of regulatory proteins associates with VPS34 via Beclin 1. These accessory factors define distinct subunit compositions and thereby guide the PI3K-III complex to its different cellular and physiological roles. Here we discuss the regulation of the PI3K-III complex components by ubiquitination and SUMOylation. Especially Beclin 1 has emerged as a highly regulated protein, which can be modified with Lys11-, Lys48- or Lys63-linked polyubiquitin chains catalyzed by distinct E3 ligases from the RING-, HECT-, RBR- or Cullin-type. We also point out other cross-links of these ligases with autophagy in order to discuss how these data might be merged into a general concept

  8. Retrospective 25-year follow-up of treatment outcomes in Angle Class III patients : Success versus failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendl, Brigitte; Kamenica, A; Droschl, H; Jakse, N; Weiland, F; Wendl, T; Wendl, M

    2017-03-01

    Despite recommendations for early treatment of hereditary Angle Class III syndrome, late pubertal growth may cause a relapse requiring surgical intervention. This study was performed to identify predictors of successful Class III treatment. Thirty-eight Class III patients treated with a chincup were retrospectively analyzed. Data were collected from the data archive, cephalograms, and casts, including pretreatment (T0) and posttreatment (T1) data, as well as long-term follow-up data collected approximately 25 years after treatment (T2). Each patient was assigned to a success or a failure group. Data were analyzed based on time (T0, T1, T2), deviations from normal (Class I), and prognathism types (true mandibular prognathism, maxillary retrognathism, combined pro- and retrognathism). Compared to Class I normal values, the data obtained in both groups yielded 11 significant parameters. The success group showed values closer to normal at all times (T0, T1, T2) and vertical parameters decreased from T0 to T2. The failure group showed higher values for vertical and horizontal mandibular growth, as well as dentally more protrusion of the lower anterior teeth and more negative overjet at all times. In adittion, total gonial and upper gonial angle were higher at T0 and T1. A prognostic score-yet to be evaluated in clinical practice-was developed from the results. The failure group showed greater amounts of horizontal development during the years between T1 and T2. Treatment of true mandibular prognathism achieved better outcomes in female patients. Cases of maxillary retrognathism were treated very successfully without gender difference. Failure was clearly more prevalent, again without gender difference, among the patients with combined mandibular prognathism and maxillary retrognathism. Crossbite situations were observed in 44% of cases at T0. Even though this finding had been resolved by T1, it relapsed in 16% of the cases by T2. The failure rate increased in cases of

  9. An Assessment of the Quality of Life of Patients With Class III Deformities Treated With Orthognathic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilinc, Adnan; Ertas, Umit

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate quality of life (QoL) from a broad perspective by a comparison of Turkish patients undergoing orthognathic surgery to correct Angle Class III skeletal deformity with a control group composed of participants without dentofacial deformity using general health, generic oral health, and condition-specific QoL approaches. Thirty patients who underwent orthognathic surgery to correct Class III relations (monomaxillary and bimaxillary groups) and 30 participants with Class I skeletal structure and good dentofacial harmony (control group) were evaluated. Condition-specific QoL through a 22-item Orthognathic Quality of Life Questionnaire (OQLQ), generic oral health-related QoL through a 14-item Short-Form Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14), and generic health-related QoL through a 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) were assessed. When the groups were compared, OQLQ scores showed a significant difference in the oral function domain only in the bimaxillary group (P orthognathic surgical patients appeared to be similar to that of participants without dentofacial deformities. Oral health-related QoL of orthognathic surgical patients seemed moderately similar to that of participants without dentofacial deformities. The combined use of these methods is helpful for evaluating QoL from a larger perspective. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Inclinação de cabeça durante a mastigação habitual nas deformidades dentofaciais classe II e III Head inclination during habitual chewing in the presence of class II and III dentofacial deformities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Ralin de Carvalho Deda

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: este estudo investiga a diferença entre grupos com deformidade dentofacial (padrão classe II e classe III, em relação à preferência mastigatória referida e inclinação de cabeça durante a mastigação, assim como predomínio intra-grupo de cada um desses aspectos, comparativamente a um grupo controle. MÉTODOS: participaram deste estudo, voluntariamente, 25 pacientes (entre 18 e 35 anos. Doze pacientes com diagnóstico de deformidade dentofacial classe II e 13 pacientes com o diagnóstico de classe III esquelética e 10 voluntários, com equivalência em sexo e idade ao grupo de deformidade, formando o grupo controle. Os voluntários da pesquisa foram questionados sobre a existência de um lado de preferência mastigatória. Em seguida foram filmados durante a mastigação habitual de um biscoito maizena e através das imagens captadas, a postura de cabeça pôde ser analisada. RESULTADOS: não houve diferença entre os grupos em relação à preferência mastigatória referida, entretanto os grupos com deformidades dentofaciais apresentaram predomínio significativo de preferência mastigatória referida. Os grupos com deformidade dentofacial apresentaram maior predomínio de inclinação de cabeça durante a mastigação quando comparados ao grupo controle. CONCLUSÃO: indivíduos com deformidade dentofacial podem apresentar uma preferência mastigatória e alteração de postura de cabeça durante a mastigação.PURPOSE: the study was conducted in order to investigate the difference among groups with class II and class III dentofacial deformities regarding reported chewing side preference and head inclination during chewing and to determine the intra-group predominance for these features when compared to a control group. METHODS: twenty-five volunteers aged from 15 to 34 years took part in the study, 12 of them with a diagnosis of class II dentofacial deformity, 13 with class III dentofacial deformity, and 10 control

  11. Nonsurgical correction of a Class III malocclusion in an adult by miniscrew-assisted mandibular dentition distalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yan; Han, Xianglong; Guo, Yongwen; Li, Jingyu; Bai, Ding

    2013-06-01

    This article reports the successful use of miniscrews in the mandible to treat a 20-year-old Mongolian woman with a chief complaint of anterior crossbite. The patient had a skeletal Class III malocclusion with a mildly protrusive mandible, an anterior crossbite, and a deviated midline. In light of the advantages for reconstruction of the occlusal plane and distal en-masse movement of the mandibular arch, we used a multiloop edgewise archwire in the initial stage. However, the maxillary incisors were in excessive labioversion accompanied by little retraction of the mandibular incisors; these results were obviously not satisfying after 4 months of multiloop edgewise archwire treatment. Two miniscrews were subsequently implanted vertically in the external oblique ridge areas of the bilateral mandibular ramus as skeletal anchorage for en-masse distalization of the mandibular dentition. During treatment, the mandibular anterior teeth were retracted about 4.0 mm without negative lingual inclinations. The movement of the mandibular first molar was almost bodily translation. The maxillary incisors maintained good inclinations by rotating their brackets 180° along with the outstanding performance of the beta-titanium wire. The patient received a harmonious facial balance, an attractive smile, and ideal occlusal relationships. The outcome was stable after 1 year of retention. Our results suggest that the application of miniscrews in the posterior area of the mandible is an effective approach for Class III camouflage treatment. This technique requires minimal compliance and is particularly useful for correcting Class III patients with mild mandibular protrusion and minor crowding. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mechanistic investigation of food effect on disintegration and dissolution of BCS class III compound solid formulations: the importance of viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwan, Asma; Amidon, Gordon L; Langguth, Peter

    2012-10-01

    A negative food effect, i.e. a decrease in bioavailability upon the co-administration of compounds together with food, has been attributed particularly with high solubility/low permeability compounds (BCS class III). Different mechanisms have been proposed including intestinal dilution leading to a lower concentration gradient across the intestinal wall as well as binding of the active pharmaceutical ingredient to food components in the intestine and thereby decreasing the fraction of the dose available for absorption. These mechanisms refer primarily to the compound and not to the dosage form. An increase in viscosity of the dissolution fluid will in particular affect the absorption of BCS type III compounds with preferential absorption in the upper small intestine if the API release is delayed from the dosage form. The present study demonstrated that the increase in viscosity of the dissolution medium, following ingestion of a solid meal, may drastically reduce disintegration and dissolution. For that purpose the viscosity of the standard FDA meal was determined and simulated by solutions of HPMC in buffer. As model formulations, three commercially available tablets containing trospium chloride, a BCS class III m-cholinoreceptor antagonist was used. Trospium chloride drug products have been described to undergo a negative food effect of more than 80% following ingestion with food. The tablets showed prolonged disintegration times and reduced dissolution rates in viscous media, which could be attributed to changes in the liquid penetration rates. The effect was particularly significant for film-coated tablets relative to uncoated dosage forms. The results show the necessity of considering media viscosity when designing in vitro models of drug release for BCS type III drug formulations. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Skeletal class III malocclusion treated using a non-surgical approach supplemented with mini-implants: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farret, Marcel Marchiori; Benitez Farret, Milton M

    2013-09-01

    We describe a 28-year-old man who sought orthodontic treatment complaining about the esthetics of his smile and difficulties associated with masticatory function. The patient had a straight facial profile, skeletal and dental class III relationship, anterior open bite and posterior crossbite. He refused orthognathic surgery and was therefore treated with camouflage orthodontics supplemented with the placement of one mini-implant in each side of the mandible to facilitate movement of the lower dentition distally, tooth-by-tooth. At the end of treatment, a class I molar relationship was obtained, with an ideal overjet and overbite and excellent intercuspation. Furthermore, the open bite and crossbite were corrected. Analysis 2 years after treatment revealed good stability of treatment outcome.

  14. Comprehensive surgical. Orthodontic treatment of class III malocclusion in cleft patient involving minimally invasive surgery Case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojkovic, Goran; Stojkovic, Miodrag; Stojkovic, Jasna; Nikolic, Dejan; Stajcic, Zoran

    2016-12-19

    Surgical and orthodontic treatment of a teenage cleft patient. Authors describe the case of a 13 year old female cleft patient presented with class III malocclusion RESULT: The patient underwent comprehensive surgical secondary bone grafting and orthodontic treatment. Stable skeletal and occlusal class I relationship was achived and maintained in the post treatment observation period till the age of 16. Although several authors suggests primary gingivoperiosteoplasty, other advocates that such early intervention can cause later restrictions in maxillary growth. For alveolar reconstruction, maxillary growth and dental age were the main considerations in determining the timing of surgical intervention. This case showed that borderline cases of complex dentoalveolar and skeletal anomaly in cleft patients could be successfully treated with comprehensive secondary bone grafting and orthodontic treatment thus avoiding the need for orthognatic surgery. Alveolar bone grafting, Cleft, Malocclusion.

  15. The influence of INS VNTR class III allele on auxological parameters, glucose, insulin, lipids, and adipocytokines secretion in prepubertal children born small for gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawerska, Renata; Szałapska, Małgorzata; Borowiec, Maciej; Antosik, Karolina; Młynarski, Wojciech; Lewiński, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    The insulin gene variable number of tandem repeats (INS VNTR) class III allele has been implicated in lower birth weight, obesity, and insulin resistance. We assessed its influence on birth weight in the Polish population and on the current body mass and metabolic profile in prepubertal children born small for gestational age (SGA). DNA for genotyping of INS VNTR was available for 123 subjects born SGA and 132 born appropriate for gestational age (AGA). We identified two alleles: class I and class III. Next, in 112 prepubertal (aged: 6.8 ± 1.38 years) SGA children, the auxological measurements, fasting serum C-peptide, triglycerides, cholesterol, ghrelin, leptin, adiponectin, resistin, cortisol, and insulin-like growth factor type I (IGF-I) concentrations, as well as glucose and insulin during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), were assessed and insulin resistance indices were calculated. The results were analysed depending on INS VNTR variants. The occurrence of individual INS VNTR variants were similar in the SGA and AGA groups. In prepubertal SGA children, we did not observe any statistical differences as regards birth weight, body mass, lipids, or adipocytokine concentrations among I/I, I/III, and III/III class groups. The concentration of insulin in 120' of OGTT was significantly higher in class III homozygous than in class I homozygous individuals. Variant INS VNTR class III was shown not to be associated in any essential way with birth weight in the Polish population. Among prepubertal SGA children, the presence of INS VNTR class III is related to higher insulin secretion during OGTT. (Endokrynol Pol 2016; 67 (6): 585-591).

  16. A class III chitinase without disulfide bonds from the fern, Pteris ryukyuensis: crystal structure and ligand-binding studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaoku, Yoshihito; Umemoto, Naoyuki; Ohnuma, Takayuki; Numata, Tomoyuki; Taira, Toki; Sakuda, Shohei; Fukamizo, Tamo

    2015-10-01

    We first solved the crystal structure of class III catalytic domain of a chitinase from fern (PrChiA-cat), and found a structural difference between PrChiA-cat and hevamine. PrChiA-cat was found to have reduced affinities to chitin oligosaccharides and allosamidin. Plant class III chitinases are subdivided into enzymes with three disulfide bonds and those without disulfide bonds. We here referred to the former enzymes as class IIIa chitinases and the latter as class IIIb chitinases. In this study, we solved the crystal structure of the class IIIb catalytic domain of a chitinase from the fern Pteris ryukyuensis (PrChiA-cat), and compared it with that of hevamine, a class IIIa chitinase from Hevea brasiliensis. PrChiA-cat was found to adopt an (α/β)8 fold typical of GH18 chitinases in a similar manner to that of hevamine. However, PrChiA-cat also had two large loops that extruded from the catalytic site, and the corresponding loops in hevamine were markedly smaller than those of PrChiA-cat. An HPLC analysis of the enzymatic products revealed that the mode of action of PrChiA-cat toward chitin oligosaccharides, (GlcNAc) n (n = 4-6), differed from those of hevamine and the other class IIIa chitinases. The binding affinities of (GlcNAc)3 and (GlcNAc)4 toward the inactive mutant of PrChiA-cat were determined by isothermal titration calorimetry, and were markedly lower than those toward other members of the GH18 family. The affinity and the inhibitory activity of allosamidin toward PrChiA-cat were also lower than those toward the GH18 chitinases investigated to date. Several hydrogen bonds found in the crystal structure of hevamine-allosamidin complex were missing in the modeled structure of PrChiA-cat-allosamidin complex. The structural findings for PrChiA-cat successfully interpreted the functional data presented.

  17. Changes in anteroposterior position and inclination of the maxillary incisors after surgical-orthodontic treatment of skeletal class III malocclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Bingshuang; Zhou, Yang; Lowe, Alan A; Li, Huiqi; Pliska, Benjamin

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the anteroposterior (AP) position and inclination of the maxillary incisors in subjects with class I normal occlusion and a harmonious profile with patients with skeletal class III malocclusions, and to investigate the changes in maxillary incisor inclination and AP position after surgical-orthodontic treatment in class III patients. Sixty-five subjects (35 female and 30 male; mean age: 21.8 ± 3.89 years) with normal profiles and class I skeletal and dental patterns were selected as a control sample. Sixty-seven patients (38 female and 29 male; mean age: 21.3 ± 3.31 years) with skeletal and dental class III malocclusions who sought surgical-orthodontic treatment were used as the study sample. Subjects were asked to smile and profile photographs were taken with the head in a natural position and the maxillary central incisors and the forehead in full view; cephalograms were taken and superimposed on the profile pictures according to the outline of the forehead and nose. Forehead inclination, maxillary incisor facial inclination and the AP position of the maxillary central incisor relative to the forehead (FAFFA) were measured on the integrated images and statistical analyses were performed. In both groups, there were no significant male/female differences in either the maxillary central incisor inclination or AP position. Female subjects had a significantly steeper forehead inclination compared with males (P 0.05). In the control group, 84.6% had the facial axial point (FA) of their maxillary central incisors positioned between lines through the forehead facial axis (FFA) point and the glabella. In the study group, however, 79.1% had the maxillary central incisors positioned posterior to the line through the FFA point and the difference with the control group was statistically significant (P 0.05). With the integrated radiograph-photograph method, the lateral cephalogram was reoriented, which makes it possible

  18. TGF-β-stimulated aberrant expression of class III β-tubulin via the ERK signaling pathway in cultured retinal pigment epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Eun Jee; Chun, Ji Na; Jung, Sun-Ah; Cho, Jin Won; Lee, Joon H.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► TGF-β induces aberrant expression of βIII in RPE cells via the ERK pathway. ► TGF-β increases O-GlcNAc modification of βIII in RPE cells. ► Mature RPE cells have the capacity to express a neuron-associated gene by TGF-β. -- Abstract: The class III β-tubulin isotype (β III ) is expressed exclusively by neurons within the normal human retina and is not present in normal retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells in situ or in the early phase of primary cultures. However, aberrant expression of class III β-tubulin has been observed in passaged RPE cells and RPE cells with dedifferentiated morphology in pathologic epiretinal membranes from idiopathic macular pucker, proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) has been implicated in dedifferentiation of RPE cells and has a critical role in the development of proliferative vitreoretinal diseases. Here, we investigated the potential effects of TGF-β on the aberrant expression of class III β-tubulin and the intracellular signaling pathway mediating these changes. TGF-β-induced aberrant expression and O-linked-β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNac) modification of class III β-tubulin in cultured RPE cells as determined using Western blotting, RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry. TGF-β also stimulated phosphorylation of ERK. TGF-β-induced aberrant expression of class III β-tubulin was significantly reduced by pretreatment with U0126, an inhibitor of ERK phosphorylation. Our findings indicate that TGF-β stimulated aberrant expression of class III β-tubulin via activation of the ERK signaling pathway. These data demonstrate that mature RPE cells have the capacity to express a neuron-associated gene in response to TGF-β stimulation and provide useful information towards understanding the pathogenesis of proliferative vitreoretinal diseases.

  19. TGF-{beta}-stimulated aberrant expression of class III {beta}-tubulin via the ERK signaling pathway in cultured retinal pigment epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Eun Jee [Department of Ophthalmology, National Health Insurance Corporation Ilsan Hospital, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Ji Na; Jung, Sun-Ah [Konyang University Myunggok Medical Research Institute, Kim' s Eye Hospital, Konyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jin Won [Department of Biology, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joon H., E-mail: joonhlee@konyang.ac.kr [Konyang University Myunggok Medical Research Institute, Kim' s Eye Hospital, Konyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TGF-{beta} induces aberrant expression of {beta}III in RPE cells via the ERK pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TGF-{beta} increases O-GlcNAc modification of {beta}III in RPE cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mature RPE cells have the capacity to express a neuron-associated gene by TGF-{beta}. -- Abstract: The class III {beta}-tubulin isotype ({beta}{sub III}) is expressed exclusively by neurons within the normal human retina and is not present in normal retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells in situ or in the early phase of primary cultures. However, aberrant expression of class III {beta}-tubulin has been observed in passaged RPE cells and RPE cells with dedifferentiated morphology in pathologic epiretinal membranes from idiopathic macular pucker, proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF-{beta}) has been implicated in dedifferentiation of RPE cells and has a critical role in the development of proliferative vitreoretinal diseases. Here, we investigated the potential effects of TGF-{beta} on the aberrant expression of class III {beta}-tubulin and the intracellular signaling pathway mediating these changes. TGF-{beta}-induced aberrant expression and O-linked-{beta}-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNac) modification of class III {beta}-tubulin in cultured RPE cells as determined using Western blotting, RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry. TGF-{beta} also stimulated phosphorylation of ERK. TGF-{beta}-induced aberrant expression of class III {beta}-tubulin was significantly reduced by pretreatment with U0126, an inhibitor of ERK phosphorylation. Our findings indicate that TGF-{beta} stimulated aberrant expression of class III {beta}-tubulin via activation of the ERK signaling pathway. These data demonstrate that mature RPE cells have the capacity to express a neuron-associated gene in response to TGF-{beta} stimulation and provide useful information

  20. Orthodontic decompensation in skeletal Class III malocclusion: redefining the amount of movement assessed by Cone-Beam Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Zuega Cappellozza

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT is essential for tridimensional planning of orthognathic surgery, as it allows visualization and evaluation of bone structures and mineralized tissues. Tomographic slices allow evaluation of tooth inclination and individualization of movement performed during preoperative decompensation. The aim of this paper was to assess maxillary and mandibular incisors inclination pre and post orthodontic decompensation in skeletal Class III malocclusion.Methods:The study was conducted on six individuals with skeletal Class III malocclusion, surgically treated, who had Cone-Beam Computed Tomographic scans obtained before and after orthodontic decompensation. On multiplanar reconstruction view, tomographic slices (axial, coronal and sagittal were obtained on the long axis of each incisor. The sagittal slice was used for measurement taking, whereas the references used to assess tooth inclination were the long axis of maxillary teeth in relation to the palatal plane and the long axis of mandibular teeth in relation to the mandibular plane.Results:There was significant variation in the inclination of incisors before and after orthodontic decompensation. This change was of greater magnitude in the mandibular arch, evidencing that natural compensation is more effective in this arch, thereby requiring more intensive decompensation.Conclusion:When routinely performed, the protocols of decompensation treatment in surgical individuals often result in intensive movements, which should be reevaluated, since the extent of movement predisposes to reduction in bone attachment levels and root length.

  1. The effect of orthognathic surgery on the lip lines while smiling in skeletal class III patients with facial asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Moon-Key; An, Sang-In; Lee, Ji-Yeon

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between improvements in lip asymmetry at rest and while smiling after orthognathic surgery in patients with skeletal class III malocclusion. This study included 21 patients with skeletal class III malocclusion and facial asymmetry. We used preoperative and postoperative CT data and photographs to measure the vertical distance of the lips when smiling. The photographs were calibrated based on these distances and the CT image. We compared preoperative and postoperative results with the t test and correlations between measurements at rest and when smiling by regression analyses. There were significant correlations between the postoperative changes in canting of the mouth corners at rest, canting of the canines, canting of the first molars, the slope of the line connecting the canines, and the slope of the line connecting first molars. The magnitude of the postoperative lip line improvement while smiling was not significantly correlated with changes in the canting and slopes of the canines, molars, and lip lines at rest. It remains difficult to predict lip line changes while smiling compared with at rest after orthognathic surgery in patients with mandibular prognathism, accompanied by facial asymmetry.

  2. Cytosolic adenylate changes during exercise in prawn muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thebault, M.T.; Raffin, J.P.; Pichon, R.

    1994-01-01

    31 P NMR and biochemical analysis were used to assess the effect of heavy exercise on cytosolic adenylate levels in Palaemon serratus abdominal muscle. At rest, the MgATP level corresponded to 85.5% of the total ATP content. The cytosolic adenylate concentrations of the prawn muscle are considerably different from that of vertebrates. The percentage of ADP bound to myofilaments was lower in the prawn muscle. Consequently, the level of free cytosolic AMP was greatly higher (thirty fold higher) than in vertebrate muscle. During vigorous work, the concentration of MgATP dropped and the cytosolic AMP accumulated, while the cytosolic adenine nucleotide pool decreased significantly. The phosphorylation potential value and the ATP/ADP ratio, calculated from the cytosolic adenylate, dropped acutely during the whole period of muscular contractions. On the contrary, the adenylate energy charge calculated from the cytosolic adenylate decreased slightly. Therefore, even in muscle displaying no AMP deamination, the adenylate charge is stabilized during exercise by the dynamic changes between cytosolic and bound adenylate species. (author). 21 refs., 2 tabs

  3. Assessment of the changes in quality of life of patients with class II and III deformities during and after orthodontic-surgical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baherimoghaddam, T; Tabrizi, R; Naseri, N; Pouzesh, A; Oshagh, M; Torkan, S

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to assess and compare the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of patients with class II and III deformities during and after orthodontic-surgical treatment. Thirty class III and 28 class II patients were evaluated at baseline (T0), just prior to surgery (T1), at 6 months after surgery (T2), and at 12 months after debonding (T3). OHRQoL was assessed using the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14). Friedman two-way analysis of variance and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test were performed to compare the relative changes in OHRQoL during treatment. Significant changes in the overall OHIP-14 scores were observed during and after orthodontic-surgical treatment in both groups. During the pre-surgical stage, psychological discomfort and psychological disability decreased in class III patients, and class II patients experienced a significant deterioration in psychological discomfort during the same period. Six months after surgery, patients in both groups showed improvements in psychological discomfort, social disability, and handicap. Physical disability and functional limitation showed further improvement at 12 months after debonding in class II patients. This study reaffirms that orthodontic-surgical treatment has a significant effect on the OHRQoL of class III and class II patients. Copyright © 2015 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cardiac resynchronization induces major structural and functional reverse remodeling in patients with New York Heart Association class I/II heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    St John Sutton, Martin; Ghio, Stefano; Plappert, Ted

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) improves LV structure, function, and clinical outcomes in New York Heart Association class III/IV heart failure with prolonged QRS. It is not known whether patients with New York Heart Association class I/II systolic heart failure exhibit left...... ventricular (LV) reverse remodeling with CRT or whether reverse remodeling is modified by the cause of heart failure. METHODS AND RESULTS: Six hundred ten patients with New York Heart Association class I/II heart failure, QRS duration > or =120 ms, LV end-diastolic dimension > or =55 mm, and LV ejection...... reduction in LV end-diastolic and end-systolic volume indexes and a 3-fold greater increase in LV ejection fraction in patients with nonischemic causes of heart failure. CONCLUSIONS: CRT in patients with New York Heart Association I/II resulted in major structural and functional reverse remodeling at 1 year...

  5. Management of skeletal class III malocclusion with a palatally impacted cuspid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris HN Chang

    2012-01-01

    Maintain the A-P position of the maxilla.Extrude lower molars to open the VDO by clockwise rotation to effectively retract the mandible relative to the maxilla.Retract the mandibular incisors.Correct the anterior X-bite and align the midlinesEstablish a normal overjet and overbite in a mutually protected, Class I occlusion.Retract lower lip to improve facial balance 0.022-in Damon D3® (standard torque and Inspire Ice® brackets ( Ormco were used. The simplicity of mechanics is illustrated

  6. Management of skeletal Class III malocclusion with unilateral crossbite on a growing patient using facemask-bonded rapid palatal expander and fixed appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinnie Effendy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Facemask (FM and bonded rapid palatal expander (RPE are part of growth modification treatments for correcting skeletal Class III pattern with retrognathic maxilla. This orthopaedic treatment is usually preceded by fixed appliances to achieve aesthetic dental alignment and improve interdigitation. This case report reviews treatment of Class III malocclusion with unilateral crossbite in a 12-year-old boy using FM and bonded RPE, followed by fixed appliances. Choice of FM and bonded RPE was in line with indication which was mild Class III malocclusion with retrognathic maxilla. Execution of treatment was made considering treatment biomechanics and patient cooperation. This orthopaedic treatment was followed by orthodontic treatment specifically aimed to correct unilateral crossbite, canine relationship yet to reach Class I, lower midline shift, as well as unintended dental consequences of using bonded RPE, namely posterior open bite and deepening curve of spee. Posttreatment facial profile and smile are more esthetic. Occlusion is significantly improved both functionally and aesthetically.

  7. Evaluation of conservatisms and environmental effects in ASME Code, Section III, Class 1 fatigue analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deardorff, A.F.; Smith, J.K.

    1994-08-01

    This report documents the results of a study regarding the conservatisms in ASME Code Section 3, Class 1 component fatigue evaluations and the effects of Light Water Reactor (LWR) water environments on fatigue margins. After review of numerous Class 1 stress reports, it is apparent that there is a substantial amount of conservatism present in many existing component fatigue evaluations. With little effort, existing evaluations could be modified to reduce the overall predicted fatigue usage. Areas of conservatism include design transients considerably more severe than those experienced during service, conservative grouping of transients, conservatisms that have been removed in later editions of Section 3, bounding heat transfer and stress analysis, and use of the ''elastic-plastic penalty factor'' (K 3 ). Environmental effects were evaluated for two typical components that experience severe transient thermal cycling during service, based on both design transients and actual plant data. For all reasonable values of actual operating parameters, environmental effects reduced predicted margins, but fatigue usage was still bounded by the ASME Section 3 fatigue design curves. It was concluded that the potential increase in predicted fatigue usage due to environmental effects should be more than offset by decreases in predicted fatigue usage if re-analysis were conducted to reduce the conservatisms that are present in existing component fatigue evaluations

  8. Forskolin- and dihydroalprenolol (DHA) binding sites and adenylate cyclase activity in heart of rats fed diets containing different oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, S.Q.; Ren, Y.F.; Alam, B.S.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to determine if dietary lipids can induce changes in the adenylate cyclase system in rat heart. Three groups of male young Sprague-Dawley rats were fed for 6 weeks diets containing 10% corn oil (I), 8% coconut oil + 2% corn oil (II) or 10% menhaden oil (III). Adenylate cyclase activity (basal, fluoride-, isoproterenol-, and forskolin-stimulated) was higher in heart homogenates of rats in group III than in the other two groups. Concentration of the [ 3 H]-forskolin binding sites in the cardiac membranes were significantly higher in rats fed menhaden oil. The values (pmol/mg protein) were 4.8 +/- 0.2 (I), 4.5 +/- 0.7 (II) and 8.4 +/- 0.5 (III). There was no significant difference in the affinity of the forskolin binding sites among the 3 dietary groups. When measured at different concentrations of forskolin, the adenylate cyclase activity in cardiac membranes of rats fed menhaden oil was higher than in the other 2 groups. Concentrations of the [ 3 H]DHA binding sites were slightly higher but their affinity was lower in cardiac membranes of rats fed menhaden oil. The results suggest that diets containing fish oil increase the concentration of the forskolin binding sites and may also affect the characteristics of the β-adrenergic receptor in rat heart

  9. Structural studies of Schistosoma mansoni adenylate kinases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, I.A.; Pereira, H.M.; Garrat, R.C.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Parasitic diseases are a major cause of death in developing countries, however receive little or no attention from pharmaceutical companies for the development of novel therapies. In this respect, the Center for Structural Molecular Biology (CBME) of the Institute of Physics of Sao Carlos (IFSC / USP) has developed expertise in all stages of the development of active compounds against target enzymes from parasitic diseases. The present work focuses on the adenylate kinase enzymes (ADK's) from Schistosoma mansoni. These enzymes are widely distributed and catalyze the reaction of phosphoryl exchange between nucleotides in the reaction 2ADP to ATP + AMP, which is critical for the cells life cycle. Due to the particular property of the reaction catalyzed, the ADK's are recognized as reporters of the cells energetic state, translating small changes in the balance between ATP and ADP into a large change in concentration of AMP. The genome of S. mansoni was recently sequenced by the Sanger Center in England. On performing searches for genes encoding adenylate kinases we found two such genes. The corresponding gene products were named ADK1 (197 residues) and ADK2 (239 residues), and the two sequences share only 28 percent identity. Both have been cloned into the pET-28a(+)vector, expressed in E. coli and purified. Preliminary tests of activity have been performed only for ADK1 showing it to be catalytically active. Crystallization trials were performed for both proteins and thus far, crystals of ADK1 have been obtained which diffract to 2.05 at the LNLS beamline MX2 and the structure solved by molecular replacement. Understanding, at the atomic level, the function of these enzymes may help in the development of specific inhibitors and may provide tools for developing diagnostic tests for schistosomiasis. (author)

  10. Social class, political power, and the state: their implications in medicine--part III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, V

    1977-01-01

    This is the third part of an article on the distribution of power and the nature of the state in Western industrialized societies and their implications in medicine. Parts I and II were published in the preceding issue of this Journal. Part I presented a critique of contemporary theories of the Western system of power; discussed the countervailing pluralist and power of elite theories, as well as those of bureaucratic and professional control; and concluded with an examination of the Marxist theories of economic determinism, structural determinism, and corporate statism. Part II presented a Marxist theory of the role, nature, and characteristics of state intervention. Part III focuses on the mode of that intervention and the reasons for its growth, with an added analysis of the attributes of state intervention in the health sector, and of the dialectical relationship between its growth and the current fiscal crisis of the state. In all three parts, the focus is on Western European countries and on North America, with many examples and categories from the area of medicine.

  11. Frontal Changes in the Lower Face After Clockwise Rotation of the Maxillomandibular Complex Without Perisurgical Orthodontic Treatment in Angle Class I and Skeletal Class III Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Woo; Cho, Jeongmok; Kim, Kikap; Ahn, Seung Hyun

    2017-06-01

    Orthognathic surgery has become more popular to slenderize a wide lower face and to improve facial esthetics in Asian patients with normal occlusion. Clockwise rotation (CR) of the maxillomandibular complex (MMC) steepens the mandibular plane. This study performed a quantitative analysis on the influence of CR on slenderness of the lower face from the frontal view. This retrospective study included 36 female patients with Angle Class I occlusion and skeletal Class III pattern. The subjects underwent CR of the MMC without perioperative orthodontic treatment and change in the occlusion only for the purpose of esthetic improvement. Linear and angular variables were measured on a cephalogram and three-dimensional computed tomography (3D CT) obtained before and at least 6 months after surgery. Data were analyzed using paired t tests and Spearman correlations. Univariate regression analysis was used to predict the postoperative change according to the amount of posterior impaction. The mean posterior impaction was 3.81 mm. All mandibular plane angle (MPA) measurements were increased (ranged from 5.69° to 13.12°, p lower face becomes narrower and more slender as the MMC rotates in a clockwise direction. Orthognathic surgery with CR has the advantage of increasing the MPAs and obtaining natural soft tissue contouring while minimizing the amount of bone resection. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266c .

  12. Oral Rehabilitation With Orthognathic Surgery After Dental Implant Placement for Class III Malocclusion With Skeletal Asymmetry and Posterior Bite Collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohba, Seigo; Nakatani, Yuya; Kawasaki, Takako; Tajima, Nobutaka; Tobita, Takayoshi; Yoshida, Noriaki; Sawase, Takashi; Asahina, Izumi

    2015-08-01

    Increasing numbers of older patients are seeking orthognathic surgery to treat jaw deformity. However, orthodontic and orthognathic surgical treatment is difficult in cases without occlusal vertical stop. A 55-year-old man presented with Class III malocclusion and mandibular protrusion including esthetic problems and posterior bite collapse. He underwent dental implant treatment to reconstruct an occlusal vertical stop before orthognathic surgery. His occlusal function and esthetic problems improved after surgery, and his skeletal and occlusal stability has been maintained for 6 years. Dental implant placement at appropriate positions could help to determine the position of the proximal segment at orthognathic surgery and could shorten the time required to restore esthetic and occlusal function. This case demonstrates how skeletal and dental stability can be maintained long after surgery in a patient with jaw deformity and posterior bite collapse.

  13. Combined Orthodontic-surgical Treatment for Skeletal Class III Malocclusion with Multiple Impacted Permanent and Supernumerary Teeth: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Dai Juan And Feng

    2014-01-01

    In this report we describe a combined orthodontic and surgical treatment for a 14-year-old boy with severe skeletal class III deformity and dental problem. His upper posterior primary teeth in the left side were over-retained and 6 maxillary teeth (bilateral central incisors and canines, left first and second premolars) were impacted, together with 5 supernumerary teeth in both arches. The treatment protocol involved extraction of all the supernumerary and deciduous teeth, surgical exposure and orthodontic traction of the impacted teeth, a bimaxillary orthognathic approach including Lefort I osteotomy. Bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy (BSSRO) and genioplasty was performed to correct skeletal problem. After treatment, all of the impacted teeth were brought to proper alignment in the maxillary arch. A satisfied profile and good posterior occlusion was achieved. Treatment mechanics and consideration during different stages are discussed.

  14. Soft tissue thin-plate spline analysis of pre-pubertal Korean and European-Americans with untreated Angle's Class III malocclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, G D; McNamara, J A; Lozanoff, S

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess soft tissue facial matrices in subjects of diverse ethnic origins with underlying dentoskeletal malocclusions. Pre-treatment lateral cephalographs of 71 Korean and 70 European-American children aged between 5 and 11 years with Angle's Class III malocclusions were traced, and 12 homologous, soft tissue landmarks digitized. Comparing mean Korean and European-American Class III soft tissue profiles, Procrustes analysis established statistical difference (P thin-plate spline analysis indicated that both affine and non-affine transformations contribute towards the total spline (deformation) of the averaged Class III soft tissue configurations. For non-affine transformations, partial warp (PW) 8 had the highest magnitude, indicating large-scale deformations visualized as labio-mental protrusion, predominantly. In addition, PW9, PW4, and PW5 also had high magnitudes, demonstrating labio-mental vertical compression and antero-posterior compression of the lower labio-mental soft tissues. Thus, Korean children with Class III malocclusions demonstrate antero-posterior and vertical deformations of the labio-mental soft tissue complex with respect to their European-American counterparts. Morphological heterogeneity of the soft tissue integument in subjects of diverse ethnic origin may obscure the underlying skeletal morphology, but the soft tissue integument appears to have minimal ontogenetic association with Class III malocclusions.

  15. Novel three dimensional position analysis of the mandibular foramen in patients with skeletal class III mandibular prognathism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Sang Hoon; Kim, Yeon Ho; Won, Yu Jin; Kim, Moon Key

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the relative position of the mandibular foramina (MnFs) in patients diagnosed with skeletal class III malocclusion. Computed tomography (CT) images were collected from 85 patients. The vertical lengths of each anatomic point from the five horizontal planes passing through the MnF were measured at the coronoid process, sigmoid notch, condyle, and the gonion. The distance from the anterior ramus point to the posterior ramus point on the five horizontal planes was designated the anteroposterior horizontal distance of the ramus for each plane. The perpendicular distance from each anterior ramus point to each vertical plane through the MnF was designated the horizontal distance from the anterior ramus to the Mn F. The horizontal and vertical positions were examined by regression analysis. Regression analysis showed the heights of the coronoid process, sigmoid notch, and condyle for the five horizontal planes were significantly related to the height of the MnF, with the highest significance associated with the MnF-mandibular plane (coefficients of determination (R2): 0.424, 0.597, and 0.604, respectively). The horizontal anteroposterior length of the ramus and the distance from the anterior ramus point to the MnF were significant by regression analysis. The relative position of the MnF was significantly related to the vertical heights of the sigmoid notch, coronoid process, and condyle as well as to the horizontal anteroposterior length of the ascending ramus. These findings should be clinically useful for patients with skeletal class III mandibular prognathism

  16. Condition-specific Quality of Life Assessment at Each Stage of Class III Surgical Orthodontic Treatment -A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachiki, Chie; Nishii, Yasushi; Takaki, Takashi; Sueishi, Kenji

    2018-01-01

    Surgical orthodontic treatment has been reported to improve oral health-related quality of life (OHRQL). Such treatment comprises three stages: pre-surgical orthodontic treatment; orthognathic surgery; and post-surgical orthodontic treatment. Most studies have focused on change in OHRQL between before and after surgery. However, it is also necessary to evaluate OHRQL at the pre-surgical orthodontic treatment stage, as it may be negatively affected by dental decompensation compared with at pre-treatment. The purpose of this prospective study was to investigate the influence of surgical orthodontic treatment on QOL by assessing change in condition-specific QOL at each stage of treatment in skeletal class III cases. Twenty skeletal class III patients requiring surgical orthodontic treatment were enrolled in the study. Each patient completed the Orthognathic Quality of Life Questionnaire (OQLQ), which was developed for patients with dentofacial deformity. Its items are grouped into 4 domains: "social aspects of dentofacial deformity"; "facial esthetics"; "oral function"; and "awareness of dentofacial esthetics". The questionnaire was completed at the pre-treatment, pre-surgical orthodontic treatment, and post-surgical orthodontic treatment stages. The results revealed a significant worsening in scores between at pre-treatment and pre-surgical orthodontic treatment in the domains of facial esthetics and oral function (ppre-surgical orthodontic and post-surgical orthodontic treatment in all domains except awareness of dentofacial esthetics (ppre-surgical orthodontic treatment stage. Significant correlations were also observed between improvement in upper and lower lip difference, soft tissue pogonion protrusion, and ANB angle and improvement in OQLQ scores at the post-surgical orthodontic treatment stage. These results indicate that morphologic change influences OHRQL in patients undergoing surgical orthodontic treatment not only after surgery, but also during pre

  17. Novel three dimensional position analysis of the mandibular foramen in patients with skeletal class III mandibular prognathism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sang Hoon; Kim, Yeon Ho; Won, Yu Jin; Kim, Moon Key [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, National Health Insurance Service Ilsan Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    To analyze the relative position of the mandibular foramina (MnFs) in patients diagnosed with skeletal class III malocclusion. Computed tomography (CT) images were collected from 85 patients. The vertical lengths of each anatomic point from the five horizontal planes passing through the MnF were measured at the coronoid process, sigmoid notch, condyle, and the gonion. The distance from the anterior ramus point to the posterior ramus point on the five horizontal planes was designated the anteroposterior horizontal distance of the ramus for each plane. The perpendicular distance from each anterior ramus point to each vertical plane through the MnF was designated the horizontal distance from the anterior ramus to the Mn F. The horizontal and vertical positions were examined by regression analysis. Regression analysis showed the heights of the coronoid process, sigmoid notch, and condyle for the five horizontal planes were significantly related to the height of the MnF, with the highest significance associated with the MnF-mandibular plane (coefficients of determination (R2): 0.424, 0.597, and 0.604, respectively). The horizontal anteroposterior length of the ramus and the distance from the anterior ramus point to the MnF were significant by regression analysis. The relative position of the MnF was significantly related to the vertical heights of the sigmoid notch, coronoid process, and condyle as well as to the horizontal anteroposterior length of the ascending ramus. These findings should be clinically useful for patients with skeletal class III mandibular prognathism.

  18. Comparative study of design of piping supports class 1, 2 and 3 considering german code KTA and ASME III - NF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faloppa, Altair A.; Fainer, Gerson; Mattar Neto, Miguel; Elias, Marcos V.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is developing a comparative study of the design criteria for class 1, 2, 3 piping supports considering the American Code ASME Section III - NF and the German Code KTA 3205.1 to the Primary Circuit, KTA 3205.2 to the others systems and KTA 3205.3 series-production standards supports of a PWR nuclear power plant. An additional purpose of the paper is a general analysis of the main design concepts of the American Code ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, Division 1 and German Nuclear Design Code KTA that was performed in order to aid the comparative study proposed. The relevance of this study is to show the differences between codes ASME and KTA since they were applied in the design of the Nuclear Power Plants Angra 1 and Angra 2, and to the design of Angra 3, which is at the moment under construction. It is also considered their use in the design of nuclear installations such as RMB - Reator MultiProposito Brasileiro and LABGENE - Laboratorio de Geracao Nucleoeletrica. (author)

  19. Facial and occlusal esthetic improvements of an adult skeletal Class III malocclusion using surgical, orthodontic, and implant treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Cardoso, Mauricio; de Avila, Erica Dorigatti; Guedes, Fabio Pinto; Battilani Filho, Valter Antonio Ban; Capelozza Filho, Leopoldino; Correa, Marcio Aurelio; Nary Filho, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this clinical report is to describe the complex treatment of an adult Class III malocclusion patient who was disappointed with the outcome of a previous oral rehabilitation. Interdisciplinary treatment planning was performed with a primary indication for implant removal because of marginal bone loss and gingival recession, followed by orthodontic and surgical procedures to correct the esthetics and skeletal malocclusion. The comprehensive treatment approach included: (1) implant removal in the area of the central incisors; (2) combined orthodontic decompensation with mesial displacement and forced extrusion of the lateral incisors; (3) extraction of the lateral incisors and placement of new implants corresponding to the central incisors, which received provisional crowns; (4) orthognathic surgery for maxillary advancement to improve occlusal and facial relationships; and finally, (5) orthodontic refinement followed by definitive prosthetic rehabilitation of the maxillary central incisors and reshaping of the adjacent teeth. At the three-year follow-up, clinical and radiographic examinations showed successful replacement of the central incisors and improved skeletal and esthetic appearances. Moreover, a Class II molar relationship was obtained with an ideal overbite, overjet, and intercuspation. In conclusion, we report the successful esthetic anterior rehabilitation of a complex case in which interdisciplinary treatment planning improved facial harmony, provided gingival architecture with sufficient width and thickness, and improved smile esthetics, resulting in enhanced patient comfort and satisfaction. This clinical case report might be useful to improve facial esthetics and occlusion in patients with dentoalveolar and skeletal defects. PMID:26877982

  20. Aesthetic and functional outcomes using a multiloop edgewise archwire for camouflage orthodontic treatment of a severe Class III open bite malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marañón-Vásquez, Guido Artemio; Soldevilla Galarza, Luciano Carlos; Tolentino Solis, Freddy Antonio; Wilson, Cliff; Romano, Fábio Lourenço

    2017-09-01

    Occasionally, orthodontists will be challenged to treat malocclusions and skeletal disharmonies, which by their complexity one might think that the only treatment alternative is the surgical-orthodontic approach. A male patient, aged 17 years old, was diagnosed with a skeletal Class III malocclusion, anterior open bite and negative overjet. An unpleasant profile was the patient's 'chief complaint' showing interest in facial aesthetics improvement. Nevertheless, the patient and his parents strongly preferred a non-surgical treatment approach. He was treated with a multiloop edgewise archwire to facilitate uprighting and distal en-masse movement of lower teeth, correct the Class III open bite malocclusion, change the inclination of the occlusal plane and obtain the consequent morphological-functional adaptation of the mandible. The Class III malocclusion was corrected and satisfactory changes in the patient's profile were obtained. Active treatment was completed in 2 years, and facial result remained stable at 2 years 6 months after debonding.

  1. Ehrlichia secretes Etf-1 to induce autophagy and capture nutrients for its growth through RAB5 and class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mingqun; Liu, Hongyan; Xiong, Qingming; Niu, Hua; Cheng, Zhihui; Yamamoto, Akitsugu; Rikihisa, Yasuko

    2016-11-01

    Ehrlichia chaffeensis is an obligatory intracellular bacterium that causes a potentially fatal emerging zoonosis, human monocytic ehrlichiosis. E. chaffeensis has a limited capacity for biosynthesis and metabolism and thus depends mostly on host-synthesized nutrients for growth. Although the host cell cytoplasm is rich with these nutrients, as E. chaffeensis is confined within the early endosome-like membrane-bound compartment, only host nutrients that enter the compartment can be used by this bacterium. How this occurs is unknown. We found that ehrlichial replication depended on autophagy induction involving class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PtdIns3K) activity, BECN1 (Beclin 1), and ATG5 (autophagy-related 5). Ehrlichia acquired host cell preincorporated amino acids in a class III PtdIns3K-dependent manner and ehrlichial growth was enhanced by treatment with rapamycin, an autophagy inducer. Moreover, ATG5 and RAB5A/B/C were routed to ehrlichial inclusions. RAB5A/B/C siRNA knockdown, or overexpression of a RAB5-specific GTPase-activating protein or dominant-negative RAB5A inhibited ehrlichial infection, indicating the critical role of GTP-bound RAB5 during infection. Both native and ectopically expressed ehrlichial type IV secretion effector protein, Etf-1, bound RAB5 and the autophagy-initiating class III PtdIns3K complex, PIK3C3/VPS34, and BECN1, and homed to ehrlichial inclusions. Ectopically expressed Etf-1 activated class III PtdIns3K as in E. chaffeensis infection and induced autophagosome formation, cleared an aggregation-prone mutant huntingtin protein in a class III PtdIns3K-dependent manner, and enhanced ehrlichial proliferation. These data support the notion that E. chaffeensis secretes Etf-1 to induce autophagy to repurpose the host cytoplasm and capture nutrients for its growth through RAB5 and class III PtdIns3K, while avoiding autolysosomal killing.

  2. Structural Studies of Archaealthermophilic Adenylate Kinase; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konisky, J.

    2002-01-01

    Through this DOE-sponsored program Konisky has studied the evolution and molecular biology of microbes that live in extreme environments. The emphasis of this work has been the determination of the structural features of thermophilic enzymes that allow them to function optimally at near 100 C. The laboratory has focused on a comparative study of adenylate kinase (ADK), an enzyme that functions to interconvert adenine nucleotides. Because of the close phylogenetic relatedness of members of the Methanococci, differences in the structure of their ADKs will be dominated by structural features that reflect contributions to their optimal temperature for activity, rather than differences due to phylogenetic divergence. We have cloned, sequenced and modeled the secondary structure for several methanococcal ADKs. Using molecular modeling threading approaches that are based on the solved structure for the porcine ADK, we have also proposed a general low resolution three dimensional structure for each of the methanococcal enzymes. These analyses have allowed us to propose structural features that confer hyperthermoactivity to those enzymes functioning in the hyperthermophilic members of the Methanococci. Using protein engineering methodologies, we have tested our hypotheses by examining the effects of selective structural changes on thermoactivity. Despite possessing between 68-81% sequence identity, the methanococcal AKs had significantly different stability against thermal denaturation, with melting points ranging from 69-103 C. The construction of several chimerical AKs by linking regions of the MVO and MJA AKs demonstrated the importance of cooperative interactions between amino- and carboxyl-terminal regions in influencing thermostability. Addition of MJA terminal fragments to the MVO AK increased thermal stability approximately 20 C while maintaining 88% of the mesophilic sequence. Further analysis using structural models suggested that hydrophobic interactions are

  3. 40 CFR Figure C-3 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM10−2.5 Candidate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM10â2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Figure C-3 to Subpart C of Part... Candidate Methods and Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Fig. C-3 Figure C-3 to Subpart C of Part 53...

  4. Cyclometalated N-heterocyclic carbene iridium(iii) complexes with naphthalimide chromophores: a novel class of phosphorescent heteroleptic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanoë, Pierre-Henri; Chan, Jonny; Groué, Antoine; Gontard, Geoffrey; Jutand, Anny; Rager, Marie-Noelle; Armaroli, Nicola; Monti, Filippo; Barbieri, Andrea; Amouri, Hani

    2018-03-06

    A series of cyclometalated N-heterocyclic carbene complexes of the general formula [Ir(C^N) 2 (C^C:)] has been prepared. Two sets of compounds were designed, those where (C^C:) represents a bidentate naphthalimide-substituted imidazolylidene ligand and (C^N) = ppy (3a), F2ppy (4a), bzq (5a) and those where (C^C:) represents a naphthalimide-substituted benzimidazolylidene ligand and (C^N) = ppy (3b), F2ppy (4b), bzq (5b). The naphthalimide-imidazole and naphthalimide-benzimidazole ligands 1a,b and the related imidazolium and benzimidazolium salts 2a,b were also prepared and fully characterized. The N-heterocyclic carbene Ir(iii) complexes have been characterized by NMR spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and elemental analysis. Moreover, the molecular structures of one imidazolium salt and four Ir(iii) complexes were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The structures provide us with valuable information, most notably the orientation of the naphthalimide chromophore with respect to the N-heterocyclic carbene moiety. All compounds are luminescent at room temperature and in a frozen solvent at 77 K, exhibiting a broad emission band that extends beyond 700 nm. The presence of the naphthalimide moiety changes the character of the lowest excited state from 3 MLCT to 3 LC, as corroborated by DFT and TD-DFT calculations. Remarkably, replacing imidazole with a benzimidazole unit improves the quantum yields of these compounds by decreasing the k nr values which is an important feature for optimized emission performance. These studies provide valuable insights about a novel class of N-heterocyclic carbene-based luminescent complexes containing organic chromophores and affording metal complexes emitting across the red-NIR range.

  5. Role of Class III phosphoinositide 3-kinase in the brain development: possible involvement in specific learning disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaguma, Yutaka; Matsumoto, Ayumi; Noda, Mariko; Tabata, Hidenori; Maeda, Akihiko; Goto, Masahide; Usui, Daisuke; Jimbo, Eriko F; Kikkawa, Kiyoshi; Ohtsuki, Mamitaro; Momoi, Mariko Y; Osaka, Hitoshi; Yamagata, Takanori; Nagata, Koh-Ichi

    2016-10-01

    Class III phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PIK3C3 or mammalian vacuolar protein sorting 34 homolog, Vps34) regulates vesicular trafficking, autophagy, and nutrient sensing. Recently, we reported that PIK3C3 is expressed in mouse cerebral cortex throughout the developmental process, especially at early embryonic stage. We thus examined the role of PIK3C3 in the development of the mouse cerebral cortex. Acute silencing of PIK3C3 with in utero electroporation method caused positional defects of excitatory neurons during corticogenesis. Time-lapse imaging revealed that the abnormal positioning was at least partially because of the reduced migration velocity. When PIK3C3 was silenced in cortical neurons in one hemisphere, axon extension to the contralateral hemisphere was also delayed. These aberrant phenotypes were rescued by RNAi-resistant PIK3C3. Notably, knockdown of PIK3C3 did not affect the cell cycle of neuronal progenitors and stem cells at the ventricular zone. Taken together, PIK3C3 was thought to play a crucial role in corticogenesis through the regulation of excitatory neuron migration and axon extension. Meanwhile, when we performed comparative genomic hybridization on a patient with specific learning disorders, a 107 Kb-deletion was identified on 18q12.3 (nt. 39554147-39661206) that encompasses exons 5-23 of PIK3C3. Notably, the above aberrant migration and axon growth phenotypes were not rescued by the disease-related truncation mutant (172 amino acids) lacking the C-terminal kinase domain. Thus, functional defects of PIK3C3 might impair corticogenesis and relate to the pathophysiology of specific learning disorders and other neurodevelopmental disorders. Acute knockdown of Class III phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PIK3C3) evokes migration defects of excitatory neurons during corticogenesis. PIK3C3-knockdown also disrupts axon outgrowth, but not progenitor proliferation in vivo. Involvement of PIK3C3 in neurodevelopmental disorders might be an interesting future

  6. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class III genetics in two Amerindian tribes from southern Brazil: the Kaingang and the Guarani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weg-Remers, S; Brenden, M; Schwarz, E; Witzel, K; Schneider, P M; Guerra, L K; Rehfeldt, I R; Lima, M T; Hartmann, D; Petzl-Erler, M L; de Messias, I J; Mauff, G

    1997-10-01

    Population genetic studies of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class III region, comprising C2, BF and C4 phenotypes, and molecular genetic data are rarely available for populations other than Caucasoids. We have investigated three Amerindian populations from Southern Brazil: 131 Kaingang from Ivaí (KIV), 111 Kaingang (KRC) and 100 Guarani (GRC) from Rio das Cobras. Extended MHC haplotypes were derived after standard C2, BF, C4 phenotyping and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis with TaqI, together with HLA data published previously by segregation analysis. C2 and BF frequencies corresponded to other Amerindian populations. C4B*Q0 frequency was high in the GRC (0.429) but low in the Kaingang. Unusual C4 alleles were found, viz. C4A*58, A*55 and C4B*22 (presumably non-Amerindian) and aberrant C4A*3 of Amerindian origin occurring with a frequency of 0.223 in the GRC. C4A*3 bands of homo- and heterozygous individuals carrying this variant were Rodgers 1 positive and Chido 1,3 positive, showed a C4A specific lysis type and a C4A like alpha-chain. Polymerase chain reaction studies and sequencing showed that this is based on a C4A*3 duplication with a regular C4A*3 and a partially converted C4A*0304 carrying the C4B specific epitopes Ch 6 and Ch 1,3. Associations of class III haplotypes with particular RFLP patterns were similar to those reported for Caucasoids. The previously described association between combined C4A and CYP21P deletions and the 6.4 kb TaqI fragment was not seen in these Amerindians. This fragment occurred within a regular two locus gene structure in the Kaingang, representing a "short" gene at C4 locus I. C4 and CYP21 duplications were frequently observed. The distribution of extended MHC haplotypes provides evidence for a close relationship between the KIV and KRC and a larger genetic distance between the two Kaingang groups and the GRC.

  7. Adenylate cyclase regulates elongation of mammalian primary cilia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou, Young; Ruan, Yibing; Cheng, Min; Moser, Joanna J.; Rattner, Jerome B.; Hoorn, Frans A. van der

    2009-01-01

    The primary cilium is a non-motile microtubule-based structure that shares many similarities with the structures of flagella and motile cilia. It is well known that the length of flagella is under stringent control, but it is not known whether this is true for primary cilia. In this study, we found that the length of primary cilia in fibroblast-like synoviocytes, either in log phase culture or in quiescent state, was confined within a range. However, when lithium was added to the culture to a final concentration of 100 mM, primary cilia of synoviocytes grew beyond this range, elongating to a length that was on average approximately 3 times the length of untreated cilia. Lithium is a drug approved for treating bipolar disorder. We dissected the molecular targets of this drug, and observed that inhibition of adenylate cyclase III (ACIII) by specific inhibitors mimicked the effects of lithium on primary cilium elongation. Inhibition of GSK-3β by four different inhibitors did not induce primary cilia elongation. ACIII was found in primary cilia of a variety of cell types, and lithium treatment of these cell types led to their cilium elongation. Further, we demonstrate that different cell types displayed distinct sensitivities to the lithium treatment. However, in all cases examined primary cilia elongated as a result of lithium treatment. In particular, two neuronal cell types, rat PC-12 adrenal medulla cells and human astrocytes, developed long primary cilia when lithium was used at or close to the therapeutic relevant concentration (1-2 mM). These results suggest that the length of primary cilia is controlled, at least in part, by the ACIII-cAMP signaling pathway.

  8. Adenylate cyclase regulates elongation of mammalian primary cilia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou, Young; Ruan, Yibing; Cheng, Min; Moser, Joanna J. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, 3330 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 4N1 (Canada); Rattner, Jerome B. [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, 3330 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 4N1 (Canada); Hoorn, Frans A. van der, E-mail: fvdhoorn@ucalgary.ca [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, 3330 Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 4N1 (Canada)

    2009-10-01

    The primary cilium is a non-motile microtubule-based structure that shares many similarities with the structures of flagella and motile cilia. It is well known that the length of flagella is under stringent control, but it is not known whether this is true for primary cilia. In this study, we found that the length of primary cilia in fibroblast-like synoviocytes, either in log phase culture or in quiescent state, was confined within a range. However, when lithium was added to the culture to a final concentration of 100 mM, primary cilia of synoviocytes grew beyond this range, elongating to a length that was on average approximately 3 times the length of untreated cilia. Lithium is a drug approved for treating bipolar disorder. We dissected the molecular targets of this drug, and observed that inhibition of adenylate cyclase III (ACIII) by specific inhibitors mimicked the effects of lithium on primary cilium elongation. Inhibition of GSK-3{beta} by four different inhibitors did not induce primary cilia elongation. ACIII was found in primary cilia of a variety of cell types, and lithium treatment of these cell types led to their cilium elongation. Further, we demonstrate that different cell types displayed distinct sensitivities to the lithium treatment. However, in all cases examined primary cilia elongated as a result of lithium treatment. In particular, two neuronal cell types, rat PC-12 adrenal medulla cells and human astrocytes, developed long primary cilia when lithium was used at or close to the therapeutic relevant concentration (1-2 mM). These results suggest that the length of primary cilia is controlled, at least in part, by the ACIII-cAMP signaling pathway.

  9. Monospecific antibody against Bordetella pertussis Adenylate Cyclase protects from Pertussis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmeen Faiz Kazi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Acellular pertussis vaccines has been largely accepted world-wide however, there are reports about limitedantibody response against these vaccines suggesting that multiple antigens should be included in acellular vaccinesto attain full protection. The aim of present study was to evaluate the role of Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase as aprotective antigen.Materials and methods: Highly mono-specific antibody against adenylate cyclase (AC was raised in rabbits usingnitrocellulose bound adenylate cyclase and the specificity was assessed by immuoblotting. B.pertussis 18-323, wasincubated with the mono-specific serum and without serum as a control. Mice were challenged intra-nasally and pathophysiolgicalresponses were recorded.Results: The production of B.pertussis adenylate cyclase monospecific antibody that successfully recognized on immunoblotand gave protection against fatality (p< 0.01 and lung consolidation (p <0.01. Mouse weight gain showedsignificant difference (p< 0.05.Conclusion: These preliminary results highlight the role of the B.pertussis adenylate cyclase as a potential pertussisvaccine candidate. B.pertussis AC exhibited significant protection against pertussis in murine model. J Microbiol InfectDis 2012; 2(2: 36-43Key words: Pertussis; monospecific; antibody; passive-protection

  10. Enactment of KEPIC MNH Based on 2007 ASME BPVC Section III Division 1, Subsection NH: Class 1 Components in Elevated Temperature Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Gyeong Hoi; Kim, J. B.; Lee, H. Y.; Park, C. G.

    2008-11-01

    This report is a draft of an enactment of KEPIC MNH based on 2007 ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, Division 1 Subsection NH for Class 1 Components in Elevated Temperature Service and contains of ASME Article NH-3000 design, the mandatory appendix I-14, and non-mandatory appendices T and X

  11. Enactment of KEPIC MNH Based on 2007 ASME BPVC Section III Division 1, Subsection NH: Class 1 Components in Elevated Temperature Service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Gyeong Hoi; Kim, J. B.; Lee, H. Y.; Park, C. G

    2008-11-15

    This report is a draft of an enactment of KEPIC MNH based on 2007 ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, Division 1 Subsection NH for Class 1 Components in Elevated Temperature Service and contains of ASME Article NH-3000 design, the mandatory appendix I-14, and non-mandatory appendices T and X.

  12. IBO Case Report: Management of Skeletal Class III Malocclusion with Combined Rapid Maxillary Expansion: Facemask Therapy and 5-Year Follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Surana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes the management of skeletal Class III malocclusion with maxillary deficiency in an adolescent girl, using combined rapid maxillary expansion-facemask approach, followed by comprehensive fixed appliance mechanotherapy. Excellent long-term stability is demonstrated up to 5 years post-treatment.

  13. Preventing an identity crisis: unexpected co-expression of class III beta-tubulin and glial fibrillary acidic protein in human fetal astrocytes in culture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Katsetos, C.D.; Dráberová, Eduarda; Del Valle, L.; Bertrand, L.; Agamanolis, D.P.; de Chadarévian, J.-P.; Legido, A.; Dráber, Pavel

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 11 (2007), s. 107-107 ISSN 0364-5134 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC545; GA ČR GA204/05/2375 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : class III beta-tubulin * fetal glia Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  14. Skeletal changes, dental and face of class III skeletal malocclusion treated with philosophy MEAW (Multiloop Edgewise Arch Wire: a descriptive retrospective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángela Anyur García Bernal

    2013-07-01

    Plano (PP increase of 114,3°a 115,4° and the occlusal plane inclination increased from 17,8°a 24,7°. The average treatment time was 19,4 months. Conclusions: MEAW philosophy is a therapeutic alternative camouflage in the treatment of skeletal Class III malocclusions.

  15. A three-dimensional analysis of skeletal and dental characteristics in skeletal class III patients with facial asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jinfeng; Hu, Yun; Huang, Mingna; Chen, Jun; Ding, Xiaoqian; Zheng, Leilei

    2018-03-15

    To evaluate the skeletal and dental characteristics in skeletal class III patients with facial asymmetry and to analyse the relationships among various parts of the stomatognathic system to provide a theoretical basis for clinical practice. Asymmetric cone-beam computed tomography data acquired from 56 patients were evaluated using Mimics 10.0 and 3-Matic software. Skeletal and dental measurements were performed to assess the three-dimensional differences between two sides. Pearson correlation analysis was used to determine the correlations among measurements. Linear measurements, such as ramal height, mandible body length, ramal height above the sigmoid notch (RHASN), maxillary height, condylar height, buccal and total cancellous bone thickness, and measurements of condylar size, were significantly larger on the nondeviated side than on the deviated side (P orthodontic camouflage has limitations and potential risks. A combination of orthodontics and orthognathic surgery may be the advisable choice in patients with a menton deviation greater than 4 mm. An important association between vertical skeletal disharmony and dental compensation was also observed.

  16. PCSK1 rs6232 Is Associated with Childhood and Adult Class III Obesity in the Mexican Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos-Comparán, Marisela; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Larrieta-Carrasco, Elena; León-Mimila, Paola; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Jacobo-Albavera, Leonor; Liceaga-Fuentes, Adriana E.; Campos-Pérez, Francisco J.; López-Contreras, Blanca E.; Tusié-Luna, Teresa; del Río-Navarro, Blanca E.; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Background Common variants rs6232 and rs6235 in the PCSK1 gene have been associated with obesity in European populations. We aimed to evaluate the contribution of these variants to obesity and related traits in Mexican children and adults. Methodology/Principal Findings Rs6232 and rs6235 were genotyped in 2382 individuals, 1206 children and 1176 adults. Minor allele frequencies were 0.78% for rs6232 and 19.99% for rs6235. Rs6232 was significantly associated with childhood obesity and adult class III obesity (OR = 3.01 95%CI 1.64–5.53; P = 4×10−4 in the combined analysis). In addition, this SNP was significantly associated with lower fasting glucose levels (P = 0.01) and with increased insulin levels and HOMA-B (P = 0.05 and 0.01, respectively) only in non-obese children. In contrast, rs6235 showed no significant association with obesity or with glucose homeostasis parameters in any group. Conclusion/Significance Although rs6232 is rare in the Mexican population, it should be considered as an important risk factor for extreme forms of obesity. PMID:22737226

  17. More on fatigue verification of Class 1 nuclear power piping according to ASME BPV III NB-3600

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Lingfu; Dahlström, Lars; Jansson, Lennart G.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, fatigue verification of Class 1 nuclear power piping according to ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, NB-3600, and relevant issues that are often discussed in connection to the power uprate of several Swedish BWR reactors in recent years, are dealt with. Key parameters involved in the fatigue verification, i.e. the alternating stress intensity S alt , the penalty factor K e and the cumulative damage factor U, and relevant computational procedures applicable for the assessment of low-cycle fatigue failure using strain-controlled data, are particularly addressed. A so-called simplified elastic-plastic discontinuity analysis for alternative verification when basic fatigue requirements found unsatisfactory, and the procedures provided in NB-3600 for evaluating the alternating stress intensity S alt , are reviewed in detail. Our emphasis is placed on other procedures alternative to the simplified elastic-plastic discontinuity analysis. A more in-depth discussion is given to an alternative suggested earlier by the authors using nonlinear finite element analyses. This paper is a continuation of our work presented in ICONE16/17/18, which attempted to categorize design rules in the code into linear design rules and non-linear design rules and to clarify corresponding design requirements and finite element analyses, in particular, those non-linear ones. (author)

  18. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Exhibits Deficient Biofilm Formation in the Absence of Class II and III Ribonucleotide Reductases Due to Hindered Anaerobic Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Anna; Pedraz, Lucas; Astola, Josep; Torrents, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    Chronic lung infections by the ubiquitous and extremely adaptable opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa correlate with the formation of a biofilm, where bacteria grow in association with an extracellular matrix and display a wide range of changes in gene expression and metabolism. This leads to increased resistance to physical stress and antibiotic therapies, while enhancing cell-to-cell communication. Oxygen diffusion through the complex biofilm structure generates an oxygen concentration gradient, leading to the appearance of anaerobic microenvironments. Ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) are a family of highly sophisticated enzymes responsible for the synthesis of the deoxyribonucleotides, and they constitute the only de novo pathway for the formation of the building blocks needed for DNA synthesis and repair. P. aeruginosa is one of the few bacteria encoding all three known RNR classes (Ia, II, and III). Class Ia RNRs are oxygen dependent, class II are oxygen independent, and class III are oxygen sensitive. A tight control of RNR activity is essential for anaerobic growth and therefore for biofilm development. In this work we explored the role of the different RNR classes in biofilm formation under aerobic and anaerobic initial conditions and using static and continuous-flow biofilm models. We demonstrated the importance of class II and III RNR for proper cell division in biofilm development and maturation. We also determined that these classes are transcriptionally induced during biofilm formation and under anaerobic conditions. The molecular mechanism of their anaerobic regulation was also studied, finding that the Anr/Dnr system is responsible for class II RNR induction. These data can be integrated with previous knowledge about biofilms in a model where these structures are understood as a set of layers determined by oxygen concentration and contain cells with different RNR expression profiles, bringing us a step closer to the understanding of this

  19. The central regulation of plant physiology by adenylates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geigenberger, Peter; Riewe, David; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2010-02-01

    There have been many recent developments concerning the metabolic, transport and signalling functions of adenylates in plants, suggesting new roles for these compounds as central regulators of plant physiology. For example, altering the expression levels of enzymes involved in the equilibration, salvaging, synthesis and transport of adenylates leads to perturbations in storage, growth and stress responses, implying a role for adenylates as important signals. Furthermore, sensing of the internal energy status involves SNF1-related kinases, which control the expression and phosphorylation of key metabolic enzymes. ATP also acts as an apoplastic signalling molecule to control cell growth and pathogen responses. These new results could shed light on the emerging question of whether energy homeostasis in plant cells differs from mechanisms found in microbes and mammals. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Adenylate cyclase from rabbit heart: substrate binding site].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfil'eva, E A; Khropov, Iu V; Khachatrian, L; Bulargina, T V; Baranova, L A

    1981-08-01

    The effects of 17 ATP analogs on the solubilized rabbit heart adenylate cyclase were studied. The triphosphate chain, position 8 of the adenine base and the ribose residue of the ATP molecule were modified. Despite the presence of the alkylating groups in two former types of the analogs tested, no covalent blocking of the active site of the enzyme was observed. Most of the compounds appeared to be competitive reversible inhibitors. The kinetic data confirmed the importance of the triphosphate chain for substrate binding in the active site of adenylate cyclase. (Formula: See Text) The inhibitors with different substituents in position 8 of the adenine base had a low affinity for the enzyme. The possible orientation of the triphosphate chain and the advantages of anti-conformation of the ATP molecule for their binding in the active site of adenylate cyclase are discussed.

  1. Recurrent adenylation domain replacement in the microcystin synthetase gene cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laakso Kati

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microcystins are small cyclic heptapeptide toxins produced by a range of distantly related cyanobacteria. Microcystins are synthesized on large NRPS-PKS enzyme complexes. Many structural variants of microcystins are produced simulatenously. A recombination event between the first module of mcyB (mcyB1 and mcyC in the microcystin synthetase gene cluster is linked to the simultaneous production of microcystin variants in strains of the genus Microcystis. Results Here we undertook a phylogenetic study to investigate the order and timing of recombination between the mcyB1 and mcyC genes in a diverse selection of microcystin producing cyanobacteria. Our results provide support for complex evolutionary processes taking place at the mcyB1 and mcyC adenylation domains which recognize and activate the amino acids found at X and Z positions. We find evidence for recent recombination between mcyB1 and mcyC in strains of the genera Anabaena, Microcystis, and Hapalosiphon. We also find clear evidence for independent adenylation domain conversion of mcyB1 by unrelated peptide synthetase modules in strains of the genera Nostoc and Microcystis. The recombination events replace only the adenylation domain in each case and the condensation domains of mcyB1 and mcyC are not transferred together with the adenylation domain. Our findings demonstrate that the mcyB1 and mcyC adenylation domains are recombination hotspots in the microcystin synthetase gene cluster. Conclusion Recombination is thought to be one of the main mechanisms driving the diversification of NRPSs. However, there is very little information on how recombination takes place in nature. This study demonstrates that functional peptide synthetases are created in nature through transfer of adenylation domains without the concomitant transfer of condensation domains.

  2. Nasal changes after orthognathic surgery for patients with prognathism and Class III malocclusion: analysis using three-dimensional photogrammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worasakwutiphong, Saran; Chuang, Ya-Fang; Chang, Hsin-Wen; Lin, Hsiu-Hsia; Lin, Pei-Ju; Lo, Lun-Jou

    2015-02-01

    Orthognathic surgery alters the position of maxilla and mandible, and consequently changes the nasal shape. The nasal change remains a concern to Asian patients. The aim of this study was to measure the nasal changes using a novel three-dimensional photographic imaging method. A total of 38 patients with Class III malocclusion and prognathism were enrolled. All patients underwent two-jaw surgery with the standard technique. A nasal alar cinching suture was included at the end of procedure. Facial landmarks and nasal morphology were defined and measured from pre- and postoperative three-dimensional photographic images. Intra-rater errors on landmark identification were controlled. Patient's reports of perceptual nasal changes were recorded. The average width of the alar base and subalare remained similar after surgery. Alar width was increased by 0.74 mm. Nasal height and length remained the same. Nasolabial angle increased significantly. The area of nostril show revealed a significant increase and was correlated with a decrease of columella inclination. Nasal tip projection decreased significantly, by 1.99 mm. Preoperative nasal morphology was different between patients with and without cleft lip/palate, but most nasal changes were concordant. In the self-perception, 37% of patients reported improved nasal appearance, 58% reported no change, and 5% were not satisfied with the nasal changes. After the surgery, characteristic nasal changes occurred with an increase of nasolabial angle and nostril show, but a preserved nasal width. The majority of patients did not perceive adverse nasal changes. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Positive inotropic effects of RP 62719, a new pure class III antiarrhythmic agent, on guinea pig myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beregi, J P; Escande, D; Coudray, N; Mery, P; Mestre, M; Chemla, D; Lecarpentier, Y

    1992-12-01

    The mechanical effects of RP 62719 [(-)1-[-2-(3,4-dihydro-2H-1- benzopyran-4-yl)ethyl]-4-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-piperidine] were tested in vitro on guinea pig left ventricular papillary muscle. RP 62719 is a novel pure class III antiarrhythmic agent known to prolong the cardiac action potential duration by selectively blocking the inward rectifying K+ current. Mechanical parameters were determined from contraction and relaxation phases under isotonic and isometric conditions. At a concentration of 0.02 microM, RP 62719 did not produce significant effects on inotropy or lusitropy. At 0.2 and 2 microM, the drug improved contraction under both heavy and low loading conditions, as evidenced by a 30% increase in maximum unloaded shortening velocity (Vmax, P delta L, P force normalized per cross-sectional area (AF/s, P force derivative per mm2 (+dF/s, P force derivative per mm2 (-dF/s, P < .001). At a higher concentration (20 microM), effects of RP 62719 on inotropy and lusitropy were less marked, thus accounting for the bell-shaped form of the dose-response curve. An increase in the extracellular Ca++ concentration from 2.5 to 3.75 mM improved inotropy to a similar extent (+30-50%) as did 2 microM RP 62719. However, lusitropy and mechanical coupling between contraction and relaxation were not modified in the same proportion under RP 62719 and under 3.75 mM Ca++.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Accuracy of Dolphin visual treatment objective (VTO prediction software on class III patients treated with maxillary advancement and mandibular setback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Peterman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dolphin® visual treatment objective (VTO prediction software is routinely utilized by orthodontists during the treatment planning of orthognathic cases to help predict post-surgical soft tissue changes. Although surgical soft tissue prediction is considered to be a vital tool, its accuracy is not well understood in tow-jaw surgical procedures. The objective of this study was to quantify the accuracy of Dolphin Imaging’s VTO soft tissue prediction software on class III patients treated with maxillary advancement and mandibular setback and to validate the efficacy of the software in such complex cases. Methods This retrospective study analyzed the records of 14 patients treated with comprehensive orthodontics in conjunction with two-jaw orthognathic surgery. Pre- and post-treatment radiographs were traced and superimposed to determine the actual skeletal movements achieved in surgery. This information was then used to simulate surgery in the software and generate a final soft tissue patient profile prediction. Prediction images were then compared to the actual post-treatment profile photos to determine differences. Results Dolphin Imaging’s software was determined to be accurate within an error range of +/− 2 mm in the X-axis at most landmarks. The lower lip predictions were most inaccurate. Conclusions Clinically, the observed error suggests that the VTO may be used for demonstration and communication with a patient or consulting practitioner. However, Dolphin should not be useful for precise treatment planning of surgical movements. This program should be used with caution to prevent unrealistic patient expectations and dissatisfaction.

  5. Reductions in knee joint forces with weight loss are attenuated by gait adaptations in class III obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVita, Paul; Rider, Patrick; Hortobágyi, Tibor

    2016-03-01

    A consensus exists that high knee joint forces are a precursor to knee osteoarthritis and weight loss reduces these forces. Because large weight loss also leads to increased step length and walking velocity, knee contact forces may be reduced less than predicted by the magnitude of weight loss. The purpose was to determine the effects of weight loss on knee muscle and joint loads during walking in Class III obese adults. We determined through motion capture, force platform measures and biomechanical modeling the effects of weight loss produced by gastric bypass surgery over one year on knee muscle and joint loads during walking at a standard, controlled velocity and at self-selected walking velocities. Weight loss equaling 412 N or 34% of initial body weight reduced maximum knee compressive force by 824 N or 67% of initial body weight when walking at the controlled velocity. These changes represent a 2:1 reduction in knee force relative to weight loss when walking velocity is constrained to the baseline value. However, behavioral adaptations including increased stride length and walking velocity in the self-selected velocity condition attenuated this effect by ∼50% leading to a 392 N or 32% initial body weight reduction in compressive force in the knee joint. Thus, unconstrained walking elicited approximately 1:1 ratio of reduction in knee force relative to weight loss and is more indicative of walking behavior than the standard velocity condition. In conclusion, massive weight loss produces dramatic reductions in knee forces during walking but when patients stride out and walk faster, these favorable reductions become substantially attenuated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Biowaiver extension potential to BCS Class III high solubility-low permeability drugs: bridging evidence for metformin immediate-release tablet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ching-Ling; Yu, Lawrence X; Lee, Hwei-Ling; Yang, Chyun-Yu; Lue, Chang-Sha; Chou, Chen-Hsi

    2004-07-01

    The biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) allows biowaiver for rapid dissolving immediate-release (IR) products of Class I drugs (high solubility and high permeability). The possibility of extending biowaivers to Class III high solubility and low permeability drugs is currently under scrutiny. In vivo bioequivalence data of different formulations of Class III drugs would support such an extension. The objective of this work was to demonstrate the bioequivalence of two marketed IR tablet products of a Class III drug, metformin hydrochloride, that are rapidly dissolving and have similar in vitro dissolution profiles. The effect of race on the systemic exposure of metformin was also explored. A randomized, open-label, two-period crossover study was conducted in 12 healthy Chinese male volunteers. Each subject received a single-dose of 500 mg of each product after an overnight fasting. The plasma concentrations of metformin were followed for 24 h. No significant formulation effect was found for the bioequivalence metrics: areas under concentration-time curve (AUC0-t, AUC0-infinity) and maximal concentration (Cmax). The 90% confidence intervals for the ratio of means were found within the acceptance range of 80-125% for the log-transformed data. Based on these results, it was concluded that the two IR products are bioequivalent. The pharmacokinetic parameters of metformin in Chinese for both products were similar and were in good agreement with those reported for metformin IR tablets in other ethnic populations. This study serves as an example for supporting biowaiver for BCS Class III drugs.

  7. Biochemical Characterization of Putative Adenylate Dimethylallyltransferase and Cytokinin Dehydrogenase from Nostoc sp. PCC 7120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frébortová, Jitka; Greplová, Marta; Seidl, Michael F; Heyl, Alexander; Frébort, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    Cytokinins, a class of phytohormones, are adenine derivatives common to many different organisms. In plants, these play a crucial role as regulators of plant development and the reaction to abiotic and biotic stress. Key enzymes in the cytokinin synthesis and degradation in modern land plants are the isopentyl transferases and the cytokinin dehydrogenases, respectively. Their encoding genes have been probably introduced into the plant lineage during the primary endosymbiosis. To shed light on the evolution of these proteins, the genes homologous to plant adenylate isopentenyl transferase and cytokinin dehydrogenase were amplified from the genomic DNA of cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 and expressed in Escherichia coli. The putative isopentenyl transferase was shown to be functional in a biochemical assay. In contrast, no enzymatic activity was detected for the putative cytokinin dehydrogenase, even though the principal domains necessary for its function are present. Several mutant variants, in which conserved amino acids in land plant cytokinin dehydrogenases had been restored, were inactive. A combination of experimental data with phylogenetic analysis indicates that adenylate-type isopentenyl transferases might have evolved several times independently. While the Nostoc genome contains a gene coding for protein with characteristics of cytokinin dehydrogenase, the organism is not able to break down cytokinins in the way shown for land plants.

  8. Systemic treatment after whole-brain radiotherapy may improve survival in RPA class II/III breast cancer patients with brain metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Chen, Jian; Yu, Xiaoli; Ma, Jinli; Cai, Gang; Yang, Zhaozhi; Cao, Lu; Chen, Xingxing; Guo, Xiaomao; Chen, Jiayi

    2013-09-01

    Whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) is the most widely used treatment for brain metastasis (BM), especially for patients with multiple intracranial lesions. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of systemic treatments following WBRT in breast cancer patients with BM who had different clinical characteristics, based on the classification of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) and the breast cancer-specific Graded Prognostic Assessment (Breast-GPA). One hundred and one breast cancer patients with BM treated between 2006 and 2010 were analyzed. The median interval between breast cancer diagnosis and identification of BM in the triple-negative patients was shorter than in the luminal A subtype (26 vs. 36 months, respectively; P = 0.021). Univariate analysis indicated that age at BM diagnosis, Karnofsky performance status/recursive partitioning analysis (KPS/RPA) classes, number of BMs, primary tumor control, extracranial metastases and systemic treatment following WBRT were significant prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) (P RPA classes and systemic treatments following WBRT remained the significant prognostic factors for OS. For RPA class I, the median survival with and without systemic treatments following WBRT was 25 and 22 months, respectively (P = 0.819), while for RPA class II/III systemic treatments significantly improved OS from 7 and 2 months to 11 and 5 months, respectively (P RPA class II/III patients.

  9. Class III malocclusion with complex problems of lateral open bite and severe crowding successfully treated with miniscrew anchorage and lingual orthodontic brackets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagita, Takeshi; Kuroda, Shingo; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko; Yamashiro, Takashi

    2011-05-01

    In this article, we report the successful use of miniscrews in a patient with an Angle Class III malocclusion, lateral open bite, midline deviation, and severe crowding. Simultaneously resolving such problems with conventional Class III treatment is difficult. In this case, the treatment procedure was even more challenging because the patient preferred to have lingual brackets on the maxillary teeth. As a result, miniscrews were used to facilitate significant asymmetric tooth movement in the posterior and downward directions; this contributed to the camouflage of the skeletal mandibular protrusion together with complete resolution of the severe crowding and lateral open bite. Analysis of the jaw motion showed that irregularities in chewing movement were also resolved, and a stable occlusion was achieved. Improvements in the facial profile and dental arches remained stable at the 18-month follow-up. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Thin-plate spline analysis of treatment effects of rapid maxillary expansion and face mask therapy in early Class III malocclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, T; Franchi, L; McNamara, J A

    1999-06-01

    An effective morphometric method (thin-plate spline analysis) was applied to evaluate shape changes in the craniofacial configuration of a sample of 23 children with Class III malocclusions in the early mixed dentition treated with rapid maxillary expansion and face mask therapy, and compared with a sample of 17 children with untreated Class III malocclusions. Significant treatment-induced changes involved both the maxilla and the mandible. Major deformations consisted of forward displacement of the maxillary complex from the pterygoid region and of anterior morphogenetic rotation of the mandible, due to a significant upward and forward direction of growth of the mandibular condyle. Significant differences in size changes due to reduced increments in mandibular dimensions were associated with significant shape changes in the treated group.

  11. Treatment of skeletal class III malocclusion using face mask therapy with alternate rapid maxillary expansion and constriction (Alt-RAMEC protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Ramchandra Rathi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Class III malocclusion is very common malocclusion and can be due to maxillary retrusion, mandibular prognathism, or combination. Ellis and McNamara found a combination of maxillary retrusion and mandibular protrusion to be the most common skeletal relationship (30%. The treatment should be carried out as early as possible for permitting normal growth of the skeletal bases. Reverse pull head gear combined with maxillary expansion can effectively correct skeletal Class III malocclusion due to maxillary deficiency in growing patient. An eight-year-old female patient with chief complaint of prognathic mandible and anterior crossbite was successfully treated in duration of 5 months with facemask and expansion therapy based on Alternate Rapid Maxillary Expansion and Constriction (Alt-RAMEC protocol.

  12. Class III beta-tubulin is constitutively coexpressed with glial fibrillary acidic protein and nestin in midgestational human fetal astrocytes: implications for phenotypic identity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dráberová, Eduarda; Del Valle, L.; Gordon, J.; Marková, Vladimíra; Šmejkalová, Barbora; Bertrand, L.; de Chadarévian, J.-P.; Agamanolis, D.P.; Legido, A.; Khalili, K.; Dráber, Pavel; Katsetos, C.D.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 4 (2008), s. 341-354 ISSN 0022-3069 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC545; GA ČR GA204/05/2375 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : astrocytes * class III beta-tubulin * fetal glia Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.140, year: 2008

  13. Expression of class III beta tubulin in cervical cancer patients administered preoperative radiochemotherapy: correlation with response to treatment and clinical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrandina, Gabriella; Martinelli, Enrica; Zannoni, Gian Franco; Distefano, Mariagrazia; Paglia, Amelia; Ferlini, Cristiano; Scambia, Giovanni

    2007-02-01

    Alterations of the beta subunit of tubulin have been reported to be predictive of resistance to radiation and antitubulin agents in several solid tumors. The aim of the study was to investigate the clinical role of beta III tubulin expression as prognostic factor for survival and as a predictive parameter of response to preoperative radiochemotherapy in a single institutional series of locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC) patients. The study included 98 LACC patients admitted to the Gynecologic Oncology Unit, Catholic University of Rome and Campobasso between January 1998 and January 2005. Immunohistochemistry was performed by using the polyclonal rabbit anti-beta III tubulin antibody (Covance, Princeton, NJ, USA). The value of 10% immunostained tumor cells was arbitrarily chosen as cut-off value to distinguish cases with high versus low beta III tubulin content. In the whole series, beta III tubulin immunoreaction was detectable in 66/98 cases (67.3%), and the percentage of positively stained cells ranged from 0 to 100% (median=10%). The percentages of cases with high beta III tubulin expression were shown not to be differently distributed according to clinico-pathological characteristics. There was no statistically significant difference in the distribution of cases with high beta III tubulin expression according to clinical and pathological response to treatment. During the follow-up period, recurrence and death of disease occurred in 15 and 13 cases, respectively. There was no difference in disease-free and overall survival in cases with high versus low beta III tubulin expression. The assessment of class III beta tubulin status seems of little usefulness in order to identify LACC patients with poor chance of response to concomitant radiochemotherapy and unfavorable prognosis.

  14. Efeito da expansão palatina sobre o processo pterigoide, sincondrose esfeno-occipital e sela turca em crânios com relação esquelética classe II e classe III pela análise de elementos finitos (AEF) = Effect of the palatal expansion on the pterygoid process, spheno-occipital synchondrosis and sella turcica in skulls with class II and class III skeletal relationship by finite element analysis (FEA)

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Gustavo Chávez Sevillano

    2015-01-01

    Resumo: A Técnica de Expansão Palatina é usada frequentemente para corrigir a mordida cruzada posterior, atresia transversal maxilar e aumentar o perímetro da arcada dentária. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar pela análise de elementos finitos o efeito simulado da expansão palatina sobre o processo pterigoide, sincondrose esfeno-occipital e sela turca em dois crânios com relação esquelética tipo Classe II e Classe III, identificando a distribuição das tensões mecânicas nessas estruturas ana...

  15. Lip line changes in Class III facial asymmetry patients after orthodontic camouflage treatment, one-jaw surgery, and two-jaw surgery: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gung-Chol; Yoo, Jo-Kwang; Kim, Seong-Hun; Moon, Cheol-Hyun

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the effects of orthodontic camouflage treatment (OCT), one-jaw surgery, and two-jaw surgery on the correction of lip line cant (LLC) and to examine factors affecting the correction of LLC in Class III craniofacial asymmetry patients. A sample of 30 Class III craniofacial asymmetry patients was divided into OCT (n = 10), one-jaw surgery (n = 10), and two-jaw surgery (n = 10) groups such that the pretreatment LLC was similar in each group. Pretreatment and posttreatment cone-beam computed tomography scans were used to measure dental and skeletal parameters and LLC. Pretreatment and posttreatment measurements were compared within groups and between groups. Pearson's correlation tests and multiple regression analyses were performed to investigate factors affecting the amount and rate of LLC correction. The average LLC correction was 1.00° in the one-jaw surgery group, and in the two-jaw surgery group, it was 1.71°. In the OCT group it was -0.04°, which differed statistically significantly from the LLC correction in the other two groups. The amount and rate of LLC correction could be explained by settling of skeletal discrepancies or LLC at pretreatment with goodness of fit percentages of approximately 82% and 41%, respectively. Orthognathic surgery resulted in significant correction of LLC in Class III craniofacial asymmetry patients, while OCT did not.

  16. [Preliminary evaluation on 3-demension changes of facial soft tissue with structure light scanning technique before and after orthognathic surgery of Class III deformities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ju-xiang; Jiang, Jiu-hui; Zhao, Yi-jiao; Wang, Yong; Li, Ze; Wang, Ning-ning; Feng, Zhi-min

    2015-02-18

    To evaluate facial soft tissue 3-deminsion changes of skeletal Class III malocclusion patients after orthognathic surgery using structure light scanning technique. Eight patients [3 males and 5 females, aged (27.08 ± 4.42) years] with Class III dentoskeletal relationship who underwent a bimaxillary orthognathic surgical procedure involving advancement of the maxilla by Le Fort I osteotomy and mandibular setback by bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy (BSSO) and genioplasty to correct deformity were included. 3D facial images were obtained by structure light scanner for all the patients 2 weeks preoperatively and 6 months postoperatively. The facial soft tissue changes were evaluated in 3-dimension. The linear distances and angulation changes for facial soft tissue landmarks were analyzed. The soft tissue volumetric changes were assessed too. There were significant differences in the sagittal and vertical changes of soft tissue landmarks. The greatest amount of soft tissue change was close to lips. There were more volumetric changes in the chin than in the maxilla, and fewer in the forehead. After biomaxillary surgery, there were significant facial soft tissue differences mainly in the sagittal and vertical dimension for skeletal Class III patients. The structure light 3D scanning technique can be accurately used to estimate the soft tissue changes in patients who undergo orthognathic surgery.

  17. [Exploration for micro-osteotomy assisted orthodontic treatment of skeletal Class III malocclusions with alveolar hypoplasia in the lower anterior region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Shen, Guo-fang; Fang, Bing; Sun, Liang-yan; Wu, Yong; Jiang, Ling-yong; Zhu, Min

    2012-10-01

    To investigate the changes of periodontal conditions after micro-osteotomy assisted lower incisor decompensation for skeletal Class III malocclusions with alveolar hypoplasia in the lower anterior region. The sample consisted of 22 cases diagnosed as skeletal Class III malocclusions with alveolar hypoplasia in the lower anterior region, selected from consecutive patients of Department of Oral & Cranio-maxillofacial Science of Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital during 2009-2012. The samples were divided into 2 groups; G1 comprised 10 patients who accepted micro-osteotomy assisted lower incisor decompensation; G2 comprised 12 patients who chose traditional pre-surgical decomposition. The changes of periodontal conditions of both groups were evaluated with the help of cone-beam CT(CBCT). Data was processed using SAS8.02 software package. For subjects in G1, during the micro-osteotomy assisted pre-surgical orthodontics, no significant difference was found in the amount of root resorption of lower incisors.But labial and lingual vertical alveolar bone loss were 2.60 mm and 2.22 mm; alveolar bone thickness increased by 3.05 mm on the labial side and decreased by 0.88 mm on the lingual side (Ppre-surgical orthodontics was much safer than traditional orthodontics for skeletal Class III malocclusions with alveolar hypoplasia in the lower anterior region.

  18. Evaluation of cephalometric changes in patients with class III malocclusion in mixed dentition period following face mask therapy and slow maxillary expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Akhondi MS.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: Among different treatments of patients with Class III malocclusion , orthopedic protraction of maxilla has been known as an effective method in mixed dentition period. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cephalometric changes of Cl III patients in mixed dentition period following face mask therapy and slow maxillary expansion. "nMaterials and Methods: This was a before-after study which was conducted on 10 children in mixed dentition period, who had class III malocclusion and maxillary deficiency according to the Stiener and Mc Namara's analysis. The patients were all treated by protraction face mask and slow maxillary expansion. The cephalometric changes of maxilla , mandible and dental relations during the treatment were analyzed by Paired sample T Test. P<0.05 was considered as the level of significant. "nResults: The overjet increasement was 1.7mm. Co. ANS distance improvement was 5.6mm, Ptm.ANS distance increasing was 3mm, and ultimately improvement of Gf.s distance was 1.5mm which were all statistically significant (p<0.05. "nConclusion: Based on the results of this study, face mask therapy with slow maxillary expansion is able to improve the horizotal position of maxilla, in patients with Cl III malocclusion , in mixed dentition period.

  19. [Evaluation of the correction of the skeletal class III malocclusion by distalization of the whole mandible dentition with micro-implant anchorage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-18

    To evaluate the clinical effect of distalizing mandibular dentition with micro-implant in patients with skeletal class III malocclusion. In the study, 20 patients with skeletal class IIImalocclusion were selected. They are consist of 8 males and 12 female with an age range from 16 to 38 years old and an average age of (21.5±5.6) years.They were treated with straight wire technique and the implant were inserted into the mandibular external oblique line to distlize the lower dentition to a class I molar relationships. Cephalometrics films were taken before and after treatment. The changes of hard tissue and soft tissue were analyzed by evaluating 26 measurement measurements. Class I molar relationships were achieved, and the profile were improved after treatment. ANB increased by (0.80±1.02) °,Wits increased by (1.67±1.74) mm,after treatment (Plower dentition were significantly retracted after treatment with L1-NB distance decreased by(2.64±1.50) mm, Plower first molars were retracted by (3.26±1.95) mm and (0.79±1.27) mm respectively (Plower second molars were retracted by (3.06±1.80) mm (Plower lip to esthetic plane were decreased by (1.70±1.59) mm on average (Pclass III malocclusion, the lower teeth were retracted by controlled tipping movement.

  20. Association between class III obesity (BMI of 40-59 kg/m2 and mortality: a pooled analysis of 20 prospective studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cari M Kitahara

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of class III obesity (body mass index [BMI]≥40 kg/m2 has increased dramatically in several countries and currently affects 6% of adults in the US, with uncertain impact on the risks of illness and death. Using data from a large pooled study, we evaluated the risk of death, overall and due to a wide range of causes, and years of life expectancy lost associated with class III obesity.In a pooled analysis of 20 prospective studies from the United States, Sweden, and Australia, we estimated sex- and age-adjusted total and cause-specific mortality rates (deaths per 100,000 persons per year and multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios for adults, aged 19-83 y at baseline, classified as obese class III (BMI 40.0-59.9 kg/m2 compared with those classified as normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m2. Participants reporting ever smoking cigarettes or a history of chronic disease (heart disease, cancer, stroke, or emphysema on baseline questionnaires were excluded. Among 9,564 class III obesity participants, mortality rates were 856.0 in men and 663.0 in women during the study period (1976-2009. Among 304,011 normal-weight participants, rates were 346.7 and 280.5 in men and women, respectively. Deaths from heart disease contributed largely to the excess rates in the class III obesity group (rate differences = 238.9 and 132.8 in men and women, respectively, followed by deaths from cancer (rate differences = 36.7 and 62.3 in men and women, respectively and diabetes (rate differences = 51.2 and 29.2 in men and women, respectively. Within the class III obesity range, multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios for total deaths and deaths due to heart disease, cancer, diabetes, nephritis/nephrotic syndrome/nephrosis, chronic lower respiratory disease, and influenza/pneumonia increased with increasing BMI. Compared with normal-weight BMI, a BMI of 40-44.9, 45-49.9, 50-54.9, and 55-59.9 kg/m2 was associated with an estimated 6.5 (95% CI: 5.7-7.3, 8

  1. 40 CFR 53.35 - Test procedure for Class II and Class III methods for PM2.5 and PM-2.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... purposes of this outlier test only. (i) Calculate the quantities 2 × R1,j/(R1,j + R2,j) and 2 × R1,j/(R1,j... of the interval, (0.93, 1.07), then R2,j is an outlier. (iii) Calculate the quantities 2 × R3,j/(R3,j... site B shall be in a western city characterized by a high ratio of PM10−2.5 to PM2.5, with exposure to...

  2. Adenylate cyclase toxin-hemolysin relevance for pertussis vaccines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šebo, Peter; Osička, Radim; Mašín, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 10 (2014), s. 1215-1227 ISSN 1476-0584 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-14547S; GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/11/0580; GA ČR GAP302/12/0460 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : adenylate cyclase toxin * antigen delivery * Bordetella pertussis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.210, year: 2014

  3. The U.S. Army War College - An Analysis of Class and Seminar Composition and the Impacts of OPMS III

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boltz, Cliff

    2003-01-01

    .... This paper provides insights into the characteristics of the current and recent resident USAWC classes by examining the mix of branches and functional areas among the Army Active Competitive Category (ACC) officers...

  4. Strategic camouflage treatment of skeletal Class III malocclusion (mandibular prognathism) using bone-borne rapid maxillary expansion and mandibular anterior subapical osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yu-Jin; Lin, Lu; Kim, Seong-Hun; Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Nelson, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    This case report presents the camouflage treatment that successfully improved the facial profile of a patient with a skeletal Class III malocclusion using bone-borne rapid maxillary expansion and mandibular anterior subapical osteotomy. The patient was an 18-year-old woman with chief complaints of crooked teeth and a protruded jaw. Camouflage treatment was chosen because she rejected orthognathic surgery under general anesthesia. A hybrid type of bone-borne rapid maxillary expander with palatal mini-implants was used to correct the transverse discrepancy, and a mandibular anterior subapical osteotomy was conducted to achieve proper overjet with normal incisal inclination and to improve her lip and chin profile. As a result, a Class I occlusion with a favorable inclination of the anterior teeth and a good esthetic profile was achieved with no adverse effects. Therefore, the hybrid type of bone-borne rapid maxillary expander and a mandibular anterior subapical osteotomy can be considered effective camouflage treatment of a skeletal Class III malocclusion, providing improved inclination of the dentition and lip profile. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Differential expression of gamma-tubulin and class III beta-tubulin in medulloblastomas and human medulloblastoma cell lines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Caracciolo, V.; D´Agostino, L.; Dráberová, Eduarda; Sládková, Vladimíra; Crozier-Fitzgerald, C.; Agamanolis, D.P.; De Chadarévian, J.P.; Legido, A.; Giordano, A.; Dráber, Pavel; Katsetos, C.D.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 223, č. 2 (2010), s. 519-529 ISSN 0021-9541 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200520701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : gamma-tubulin * beta III-tubulin * meduloblastoma Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.986, year: 2010

  6. Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Assessment of Lower Facial Asymmetry in Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate and Non-Cleft Patients with Class III Skeletal Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yifan; Chen, Gui; Fu, Zhen; Ma, Lian; Li, Weiran

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate, using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), both the condylar-fossa relationships and the mandibular and condylar asymmetries between unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) patients and non-cleft patients with class III skeletal relationship, and to investigate the factors of asymmetry contributing to chin deviation. The UCLP and non-cleft groups consisted of 30 and 40 subjects, respectively, in mixed dentition with class III skeletal relationships. Condylar-fossa relationships and the dimensional and positional asymmetries of the condyles and mandibles were examined using CBCT. Intra-group differences were compared between two sides in both groups using a paired t-test. Furthermore, correlations between each measurement and chin deviation were assessed. It was observed that 90% of UCLP and 67.5% of non-cleft subjects had both condyles centered, and no significant asymmetry was found. The axial angle and the condylar center distances to the midsagittal plane were significantly greater on the cleft side than on the non-cleft side (P=0.001 and P=0.028, respectively) and were positively correlated with chin deviation in the UCLP group. Except for a larger gonial angle on the cleft side, the two groups presented with consistent asymmetries showing shorter mandibular bodies and total mandibular lengths on the cleft (deviated) side. The average chin deviation was 1.63 mm to the cleft side, and the average absolute chin deviation was significantly greater in the UCLP group than in the non-cleft group (P=0.037). Compared with non-cleft subjects with similar class III skeletal relationships, the subjects with UCLP showed more severe lower facial asymmetry. The subjects with UCLP presented with more asymmetrical positions and rotations of the condyles on axial slices, which were positively correlated with chin deviation.

  7. Epigenetic Metabolite Acetate Inhibits Class I/II Histone Deacetylases, Promotes Histone Acetylation, and Increases HIV-1 Integration in CD4+ T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolduc, Jean-François; Hany, Laurent; Barat, Corinne; Ouellet, Michel; Tremblay, Michel J

    2017-08-15

    In this study, we investigated the effect of acetate, the most concentrated short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) in the gut and bloodstream, on the susceptibility of primary human CD4 + T cells to HIV-1 infection. We report that HIV-1 replication is increased in CD3/CD28-costimulated CD4 + T cells upon acetate treatment. This enhancing effect correlates with increased expression of the early activation marker CD69 and impaired class I/II histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity. In addition, acetate enhances acetylation of histones H3 and H4 and augments HIV-1 integration into the genome of CD4 + T cells. Thus, we propose that upon antigen presentation, acetate influences class I/II HDAC activity that transforms condensed chromatin into a more relaxed structure. This event leads to a higher level of viral integration and enhanced HIV-1 production. In line with previous studies showing reactivation of latent HIV-1 by SCFAs, we provide evidence that acetate can also increase the susceptibility of primary human CD4 + T cells to productive HIV-1 infection. IMPORTANCE Alterations in the fecal microbiota and intestinal epithelial damage involved in the gastrointestinal disorder associated with HIV-1 infection result in microbial translocation that leads to disease progression and virus-related comorbidities. Indeed, notably via production of short-chain fatty acids, bacteria migrating from the lumen to the intestinal mucosa could influence HIV-1 replication by epigenetic regulatory mechanisms, such as histone acetylation. We demonstrate that acetate enhances virus production in primary human CD4 + T cells. Moreover, we report that acetate impairs class I/II histone deacetylase activity and increases integration of HIV-1 DNA into the host genome. Therefore, it can be postulated that bacterial metabolites such as acetate modulate HIV-1-mediated disease progression. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  8. Comparison of changes in the transverse dental axis between patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion and facial asymmetry treated by orthognathic surgery with and without presurgical orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Han-Sol; Choi, Sung-Hwan; Cha, Jung-Yul; Lee, Kee-Joon; Yu, Hyung-Seog

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate transverse skeletal and dental changes, including those in the buccolingual dental axis, between patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion and facial asymmetry after bilateral intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy with and without presurgical orthodontic treatment. This retrospective study included 29 patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion and facial asymmetry including menton deviation > 4 mm from the midsagittal plane. To evaluate changes in transverse skeletal and dental variables (i.e., buccolingual inclination of the upper and lower canines and first molars), the data for 16 patients who underwent conventional orthognathic surgery (CS) were compared with those for 13 patients who underwent preorthodontic orthognathic surgery (POGS), using three-dimensional computed tomography at initial examination, 1 month before surgery, and at 7 days and 1 year after surgery. The 1-year postsurgical examination revealed no significant changes in the postoperative transverse dental axis in the CS group. In the POGS group, the upper first molar inclined lingually on both sides (deviated side, -1.8° ± 2.8°, p = 0.044; nondeviated side, -3.7° ± 3.3°, p = 0.001) and the lower canine inclined lingually on the nondeviated side (4.0° ± 5.4°, p = 0.022) during postsurgical orthodontic treatment. There were no significant differences in the skeletal and dental variables between the two groups at 1 year after surgery. POGS may be a clinically acceptable alternative to CS as a treatment to achieve stable transverse axes of the dentition in both arches in patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion and facial asymmetry.

  9. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.

    2001-11-04

    The objective of this Class III project was demonstrate that reservoir characterization and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by CO2 flood can increase production from slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico. Phase 1 of the project, reservoir characterization, focused on Geraldine Ford and East Ford fields, which are Delaware Mountain Group fields that produce from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The demonstration phase of the project was a CO2 flood conducted in East Ford field, which is operated by Orla Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit.

  10. Treatment of an adult with a normodivergent, mild skeletal Class III pattern, and a Bolton′s discrepancy using a single mandibular incisor extraction plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunjay Suri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 34½-year-old pathologist with active social and professional interaction sought orthodontic solutions for severe esthetic and functional impairment. She felt due to spaced and protruding maxillary incisors, but had not got treatment previously as she did not want to wear metallic appliances. The diagnosis revealed a skeletal Class III normodivergent pattern with relative mandibular excess tooth material. Treatment with multibracket fixed appliances using ceramic brackets, extraction of a mandibular central incisor, maxillary incisor crown recontouring with interproximal reduction, and using gentle space closure mechanics ameliorated the problems and provided an esthetically pleasing, functionally adequate occlusion with good intercuspation.

  11. Application for Permit to Operate a Class III Solid Waste Disposal Site at the Nevada Test Site - U10c Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Programs

    2010-08-05

    The NTS is located approximately 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. NNSA/NSO is the federal lands management authority for the NTS and NSTec is the Management & Operations contractor. Access on and off the NTS is tightly controlled, restricted, and guarded on a 24-hour basis. The NTS is posted with signs along its entire perimeter. NSTec is the operator of all solid waste disposal sites on the NTS. The U10C Disposal Site is located in the northwest corner of Area 9 at the NTS (Figure 1) and is located in a subsidence crater created by two underground nuclear events, one in October 1962 and another in April 1964. The disposal site opened in 1971 for the disposal of rubbish, refuse, pathological waste, asbestos-containing material, and industrial solid waste. A Notice of Intent form to operate the disposal site as a Class II site was submitted to the state of Nevada on January 26, 1994, and was acknowledged in a letter to the DOE on February 8, 1994. It operated as a state of Nevada Class II Solid Waste Disposal Site (SWDS) until it closed on October 5, 1995, for retrofit as a Class III SWDS. The retrofit consisted of the installation of a minimum four-foot compacted soil layer to segregate the different waste types and function as a liner to inhibit leachate and water flow into the lower waste zone. Five neutron monitoring tubes were installed in this layer to monitor possible leachate production and water activity. Upon acceptance of the installed barrier and approval of an Operating Plan by NDEP/BFF, the site reopened in January 1996 as a Class III SWDS for the disposal of industrial solid waste and other inert waste.

  12. MINIFILAMENT ERUPTION AS THE SOURCE OF A BLOWOUT JET, C-CLASS FLARE, AND TYPE-III RADIO BURST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Junchao; Jiang, Yunchun; Yang, Jiayan; Li, Haidong; Xu, Zhe, E-mail: hjcsolar@ynao.ac.cn [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 396 Yangfangwang, Guandu District, Kunming, 650216 (China); Center for Astronomical Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing, 100012 (China)

    2017-01-20

    We report a strong minifilament eruption associated with Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite C1.6 flare and WIND type-III radio burst. The minifilament, which lies at the periphery of active region 12259, is detected by H α images from the New Vacuum Solar Telescope. The minifilament undergoes a partial and then a full eruption. Simultaneously, two co-spatial jets are successively observed in extreme ultraviolet images from the Solar Dynamic Observatory . The first jet exhibits a typical fan-spine geometry, suggesting that the co-spatial minifilament is possibly embedded in magnetic fields with a fan-spine structure. However, the second jet displays blowout morphology when the entire minifilament erupts upward, leaving behind a hard X-ray emission source in the base. Differential emission measure analyses show that the eruptive region is heated up to about 4 MK during the fan-spine jet, while up to about 7 MK during the blowout jet. In particular, the blowout jet is accompanied by an interplanetary type-III radio burst observed by WIND /WAVES in the frequency range from above 10 to 0.1 MHz. Hence, the minifilament eruption is correlated with the interplanetary type-III radio burst for the first time. These results not only suggest that coronal jets can result from magnetic reconnection initiated by erupting minifilaments with open fields, but also shed light on the potential influence of minifilament eruption on interplanetary space.

  13. Characterization of beta-adrenergic receptors and adenylate cyclase activity in rat brown fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baresi, L.A.; Morley, J.E.; Scarpace, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    Catecholamines stimulate thermogenesis in rat brown fat through a mechanism which involves binding to the beta-adrenergic receptor (BAR), stimulation of adenylate cyclase (AC) and culminating with uncoupling of mitochondrial respiration from ATP synthesis. The authors characterized BAR, AC and cytochrome (cyt) c oxidase in CDF (F-344) interscapular brown fat. Scatchard analysis of [ 125 ]Iodopindolol binding yields a straight line consistent with a single class of antagonist binding sites with 41.8 +/- 12.0 fmol BAR/mg protein and a K/sub d/ of 118 +/- 15 pM. Binding was both specific and stereospecific. Competition with 1-propranolol (K/sub d/ = 6.7 nM) was 15 times more potent than d-propranolol (K/sub d/ = 103 nM). Competition with isoproterenol (K/sub d/ = 79 nM) was 10 times more potent than epinephrine (K/sub d/ = 820 nM) which was 35 times more potent than norepinephrine (K/sub d/ = 2.9 x 10 -5 M) suggesting predominate beta 2 -type BAR. Cyt c oxidase activity was assessed in brown fat mitochrondrial preparations. The ratio of BAR to cyt c activity was 959 +/- 275 nmol BAR/mol cyc c/min. Isoproterenol (0.1 mM) stimulated AC activity was 24 times GTP (0.1 mM) stimulated AC (98.5 vs 40.7 pmol cAMP/min/mg). NaF-stimulated AC was nine times basal activity (90.5 vs 11.3 pmol cAMP/min/mg). These data demonstrate the presence of a beta- 2 -type BAR coupled to adenylate cyclase in rat brown fat

  14. 40 CFR 147.2650 - State-administered program-Class I, II, III, IV, and V wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION... Underground Injection Control Program for all classes of wells in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, other than...), approved by the EPA pursuant to the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) section 1422. This program consists of...

  15. The Effect of early physiotherapy on the recovery of mandibular function after orthognathic surgery for Class III correction: part I--jaw-motion analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Terry Te-Yi; Ko, Ellen Wen-Ching; Huang, Chiung Shing; Chen, Yu-Ray

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to compare the mandibular range of motion in Class III patients with and without early physiotherapy after orthognathic surgery (OGS). This study consisted of 63 Class III patients who underwent 2-jaw OGS. The experimental group comprised 31 patients who received early systematic physical rehabilitation. The control group consisted of 32 patients who did not have physical rehabilitation. Twelve variables of 3-dimensional (3D) jaw-motion analysis (JMA) were recorded before surgery (T1) and 6 weeks (T2) and 6 months (T3) after surgery. A 2-sample t test was conducted to compare the JMA results between the two groups at different time points. At T2, the JMA data were measured to be 77.5%-145.7% of presurgical values in the experimental group, and 60.3%-90.6% in the control group. At T3, the measurements were 112.2%-179.2% of presurgical values in the experimental group, and 77.6%-157.2% in the control group. The patients in the experimental group exhibited more favorable recovery than did those in the control group, from T1 to T2 and T1 to T3. However, after termination of physiotherapy, no significant difference in the extent of recovery was observed between groups up to 6 months after OGS. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Progressive changes in patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion treated by 2-jaw surgery with minimal and conventional presurgical orthodontics: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yang; Li, Zili; Wang, Xiaoxia; Zou, Bingshuang; Zhou, Yanheng

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we aimed to compare treatment efficacy and postsurgical stability between minimal presurgical orthodontics and conventional presurgical orthodontics for patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion. Forty patients received minimal presurgical orthodontics (n = 20) or conventional presurgical orthodontics (n = 20). Lateral cephalograms were obtained before treatment, before orthognathic surgery, and at 1 week, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months after surgery. Changes of overjet and mandibular incisal angle before surgery were greater in the conventional presurgical orthodontics group than in the minimal presurgical orthodontics group. Postsurgical horizontal changes in Points A and B, overjet, and mandibular incisal angle showed significant differences among the time points. Most of the horizontal and vertical relapses in the maxilla and the mandible occurred within the first 6 months in both groups. Minimal presurgical orthodontics and conventional presurgical orthodontics showed similar extents and directions of skeletal changes in patients with Class III malocclusion. However, orthodontists and surgeons should preoperatively consider the postsurgical counterclockwise rotation of the mandible when using minimal presurgical orthodontics. Close and frequent observations are recommended in the early postsurgical stages. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Ribonucleotide reductase class III, an essential enzyme for the anaerobic growth of Staphylococcus aureus, is a virulence determinant in septic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirdis, Ebru; Jonsson, Ing-Marie; Kubica, Malgorzata; Potempa, Jan; Josefsson, Elisabet; Masalha, Mahmud; Foster, Simon J; Tarkowski, Andrzej

    2007-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the most common cause of joint infections. It also contributes to several other diseases such as pneumonia, osteomyelitis, endocarditis, and sepsis. Bearing in mind that S. aureus becomes rapidly resistant to new antibiotics, many studies survey the virulence factors, with the aim to find alternative prophylaxis/treatment regimens. One potential virulence factor is the bacterial ability to survive at different oxygen tensions. S. aureus expresses ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs), which help it to grow under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, by reducing ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides. In this study, we investigated the role of RNR class III, which is required for anaerobic growth, as a virulence determinant in the pathogenesis of staphylococcal arthritis. The wild-type S. aureus strain and its isogenic mutant nrdDG mutant were inoculated intravenously into mice. Mice inoculated with the wild-type strain displayed significantly more severe arthritis, with significantly more synovitis and destruction of the bone and cartilage versus mutant strain inoculated mice. Further, the persistence of bacteria in the kidneys was significantly more pronounced in the group inoculated with the wild-type strain. Together these results indicate that RNR class III is an important virulence factor for the establishment of septic arthritis.

  18. Orthopedic treatment of Class III malocclusion with rapid maxillary expansion combined with a face mask: a cephalometric assessment of craniofacial growth patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Torres Tagawa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this prospective study was to assess potential changes in the cephalometric craniofacial growth pattern of 17 children presenting Angle Class III malocclusion treated with a Haas-type expander combined with a face mask. METHODS: Lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken at beginning (T1 and immediately after removal of the appliances (T2, average of 11 months of treatment. Linear and angular measurements were used to evaluate the cranial base, dentoskeletal changes and facial growth pattern. RESULTS: The length of the anterior cranial base experienced a reduction while the posterior cranial base assumed a more vertical position at T1. Some maxillary movement occurred, there was no rotation of the palatal plane, there was a slight clockwise rotation of the mandible, although not significant. The ANB angle increased, thereby improving the relationship between the jaws; dentoalveolar compensation was more evident in the lower incisors. Five out of 12 cases (29.41% showed the following changes: In one case the pattern became more horizontal and in four cases more vertical. CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded after a short-term assessment that treatment with rapid maxillary expansion (RME associated with a face mask was effective in the correction of Class III malocclusion despite the changes in facial growth pattern observed in a few cases.

  19. Effects of orthognathic surgery for class III malocclusion on signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders and on pressure pain thresholds of the jaw muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farella, M; Michelotti, A; Bocchino, T; Cimino, R; Laino, A; Steenks, M H

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to determine the effects of orthognathic surgery on signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and on pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) of the jaw muscles. Fourteen consecutive class III patients undergoing pre-surgical orthodontic treatment were treated by combined Le Fort I osteotomy and bilateral sagittal ramus osteotomy. The clinical examination included the assessment of signs and symptoms of TMD and the assessment of PPTs of the masseter and temporalis muscles. Anamnestic, clinical and algometric data were collected during five sessions over a 1-year period. Seven out of 14 patients presented with disc displacement with reduction at baseline, whereas four patients (two of them were new cases) did so at the end of follow up (p>0.05). None of the patients were diagnosed with myofascial pain of the jaw muscles at the beginning or end of follow up. PPTs of the masseter and temporalis muscles did not change significantly from baseline values throughout the whole study period. The occurrence of signs and symptoms of TMD fluctuates with an unpredictable pattern after orthognathic surgery for class III malocclusions.

  20. Root cementum modulates periodontal regeneration in Class III furcation defects treated by the guided tissue regeneration technique: a histometric study in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Patricia F; Gurgel, Bruno C V; Pimentel, Suzana P; Sallum, Enilson A; Sallum, Antonio W; Casati, Márcio Z; Nociti, Francisco H

    2006-06-01

    Because the possibility of root cementum preservation as an alternative approach for the treatment of periodontal disease has been demonstrated, this study aimed to histometrically evaluate the effect of root cementum on periodontal regeneration. Bilateral Class III furcation defects were created in dogs, and each dog was randomly assigned to receive one of the following treatments: control (group A): scaling and root planing with the removal of root cementum; or test (group B): removal of soft microbial deposits by polishing the root surface with rubber cups and polishing paste, aiming at maximum cementum preservation. Guided tissue regeneration (GTR) was applied to both groups. Four months after treatment, a superior length of new cementum (3.59 +/- 1.67 mm versus 6.20 +/- 2.26 mm; P = 0.008) and new bone (1.86 +/- 1.76 mm versus 4.62 +/- 3.01 mm; P = 0.002) and less soft tissue along the root surface (2.77 +/- 0.79 mm versus 1.10 +/- 1.48 mm; P = 0.020) was observed for group B. Additionally, group B presented a larger area of new bone (P = 0.004) and a smaller area of soft tissue (P = 0.008). Within the limits of this study, root cementum may modulate the healing pattern obtained by guided tissue regeneration in Class III furcation defects.

  1. Occlusal plane change after intrusion of maxillary posterior teeth by microimplants to avoid maxillary surgery with skeletal Class III orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyo-Sang; Kim, Ji-Yeun; Kwon, Tae-Geon

    2010-11-01

    To increase stability and mandibular setback movement, surgical maxillary impaction is normally performed with mandibular setback surgery in treating adult skeletal Class III patients. This article demonstrates the use of microimplants for anchorage to intrude molars and the resultant rotation of the maxillary occlusal plane clockwise to increase the surgical mandibular setback and reduce the posterior vertical dimension instead of maxillary surgical impaction. A 21-year-old man with mandibular prognathism was treated with mandibular setback surgery that included orthodontic treatment for decompensation. Microimplants placed into the palatal alveolar bone between the maxillary first and second molars were used to intrude the maxillary posterior teeth and change the occlusal plane clockwise. This produced 4 mm more of distal movement of the chin during mandibular setback surgery compared with the surgical prediction with no change in the occlusal plane. These results were similar to those of 2-jaw surgery with maxillary posterior impaction. The intrusion of the maxillary posterior teeth with microimplants might prevent the need for maxillary surgery in adult skeletal Class III patients. Copyright © 2010 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Monolayer group-III monochalcogenides by oxygen functionalization: a promising class of two-dimensional topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Si; Liu, Cheng-Cheng; Zhao, Jijun; Yao, Yugui

    2018-03-01

    Monolayer group-III monochalcogenides (MX, M = Ga, In; X = S, Se, Te), an emerging category of two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors, hold great promise for electronics, optoelectronics and catalysts. By first-principles calculations, we show that the phonon dispersion and Raman spectra, as well as the electronic and topological properties of monolayer MX can be tuned by oxygen functionalization. Chemisorption of oxygen atoms on one side or both sides of the MX sheet narrows or even closes the band gap, enlarges work function, and significantly reduces the carrier effective mass. More excitingly, InS, InSe, and InTe monolayers with double-side oxygen functionalization are 2D topological insulators with sizeable bulk gap up to 0.21 eV. Their low-energy bands near the Fermi level are dominated by the px and py orbitals of atoms, allowing band engineering via in-plane strains. Our studies provide viable strategy for realizing quantum spin Hall effect in monolayer group-III monochalcogenides at room temperature, and utilizing these novel 2D materials for high-speed and dissipationless transport devices.

  3. Human adenylate kinases – classification, structure, physiological and pathological importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Wujak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adenylate kinase (AK, EC 2.7.4.3 is a ubiquitous phosphotransferase which catalyzes the reversible transfer of high-energy β – and γ-phosphate groups between nucleotides. All classified AKs show a similar structure: they contain a large central CORE region, nucleoside monophosphate and triphosphate binding domains (NMPbd and NTPbd and the LID domain. Analysis of amino acid sequence similarity revealed the presence of as many as nine human AK isoenzymes, which demonstrate different organ-tissue and intercellular localization. Among these kinases, only two, AK1 and AK2, fulfill the structural and functional criterion by the highest affinity for adenine nucleotides and the utilization of only AMP or dAMP as phosphate acceptors. Human AK isoenzymes are involved in nucleotide homeostasis and monitor disturbances of cell energy charge. Participating in large regulatory protein complexes, AK supplies high energy substrates for controlling the functions of channels and transporters as well as ligands for extracellular P2 nucleotide receptors. In pathological conditions AK can take over the function of other kinases, such as creatine kinase in oxygen-depleted myocardium. Directed mutagenesis and genetic studies of diseases (such as aleukocytosis, hemolytic anemia, primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD link the presence and activity of AK with etiology of these disturbances. Moreover, AK participates in regulation of differentiation and maturation of cells as well as in apoptosis and oncogenesis. Involvement of AK in a wide range of processes and the correlation between AK and etiology of diseases support the medical potential for the use of adenylate kinases in the diagnosis and treatment of certain diseases. This paper summarizes the current knowledge on the structure, properties and functions of human adenylate kinase.

  4. Third Acivity of Bordetella Adenylate Cyclase (AC) Toxin-Hemolysin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fišer, Radovan; Mašín, Jiří; Basler, Marek; Krůšek, Jan; Špuláková, V.; Konopásek, Ivo; Šebo, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 282, č. 5 (2007), s. 2808-2820 ISSN 0021-9258 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0506; GA AV ČR IAA5020406 Grant - others:XE(XE) LSHB-CT-2003-503582; Univerzita Karlova(CZ) 146/2005/B-BIO Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK ; V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : bordetella * adenylate cyclase toxin * enzymatic aktivity Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 5.581, year: 2007

  5. Measurement of Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase Adenylation Domain Activity Using a Continuous Hydroxylamine Release Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Benjamin P; Wilson, Daniel J; Aldrich, Courtney C

    2016-01-01

    Adenylation is a crucial enzymatic process in the biosynthesis of nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) derived natural products. Adenylation domains are considered the gatekeepers of NRPSs since they select, activate, and load the carboxylic acid substrate onto a downstream peptidyl carrier protein (PCP) domain of the NRPS. We describe a coupled continuous kinetic assay for NRPS adenylation domains that substitutes the PCP domain with hydroxylamine as the acceptor molecule. The pyrophosphate released from the first-half reaction is then measured using a two-enzyme coupling system, which detects conversion of the chromogenic substrate 7-methylthioguanosine (MesG) to 7-methylthioguanine. From profiling substrate specificity of unknown or engineered adenylation domains to studying chemical inhibition of adenylating enzymes, this robust assay will be of widespread utility in the broad field NRPS enzymology.

  6. Effects of lifestyle interventions that include a physical activity component in class II and III obese individuals: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Baillot

    Full Text Available In class II and III obese individuals, lifestyle intervention is the first step to achieve weight loss and treat obesity-related comorbidities before considering bariatric surgery. A systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression were performed to assess the impact of lifestyle interventions incorporating a physical activity (PA component on health outcomes of class II and III obese individuals.An electronic search was conducted in 4 databases (Medline, Scopus, CINAHL and Sportdiscus. Two independent investigators selected original studies assessing the impact of lifestyle interventions with PA components on anthropometric parameters, cardiometabolic risk factors (fat mass, blood pressure, lipid and glucose metabolism, behaviour modification (PA and nutritional changes, and quality of life in adults with body mass index (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2. Estimates were pooled using a random-effect model (DerSimonian and Laird method. Heterogeneity between studies was assessed by the Cochran's chi-square test and quantified through an estimation of the I².Of the 3,170 identified articles, 56 met our eligibility criteria, with a large majority of uncontrolled studies (80%. The meta-analysis based on uncontrolled studies showed significant heterogeneity among all included studies. The pooled mean difference in weight loss was 8.9 kg (95% CI, 10.2-7.7; p < 0.01 and 2.8 kg/m² in BMI loss (95% CI, 3.4-2.2; p < 0.01. Long-term interventions produced superior weight loss (11.3 kg compared to short-term (7.2 kg and intermediate-term (8.0 kg interventions. A significant global effect of lifestyle intervention on fat mass, waist circumference, blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides and fasting insulin was found (p<0.01, without significant effect on HDL-C and fasting blood glucose.Lifestyle interventions incorporating a PA component can improve weight and various cardiometabolic risk factors in class II and III obese individuals. However, further

  7. Dental compensation for skeletal Class III malocclusion by isolated extraction of mandibular teeth. Part 1: Occlusal situation 12 years after completion of active treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Bernd; Schenk-Kazan, Sarah

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this work was to statistically evaluate the outcomes achieved by isolated extraction of mandibular teeth (second premolars or first molars) for Class III compensation. Part A of the study dealt with the quality of outcomes at the end of active treatment, using weighted Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) scores determined on the basis of casts for 25 (14 female and 11 male) consecutive patients aged 16 ± 1.7 years at the time of debonding. These results were compared to the scores in a randomly selected control group of 25 (14 female and 11 male) patients who were 14.7 ± 1.9 years old at debonding. Part B evaluated the long-term stability of the outcomes based on 12 (all of them female) patients available for examination after a mean of 11.8 years. The mean weighted PAR scores obtained in both study parts were analyzed for statistical differences using a two-tailed paired Student's t-test at a significance level of p ≤ 0.05. Mean weighted PAR scores of 4.76 ± 3.94 and 3.92 ± 3.44 were obtained in the Class III extraction group and the control group, respectively, at the end of active treatment. This difference was not significant (p = 0.49). Among the 12 longitudinal patients, the mean score increased from 4 ± 3.46 at debonding to 6.25 ± 3.67 by the end of the 11.8-year follow-up period. This difference was significant (p = 0.0008). Treatment of Class III anomalies by isolated extraction of lower premolars or molars can yield PAR scores similar to those achieved by standard therapies. These scores, while increasing significantly, remained at a clinically acceptable level over 11.8 years. Hence this treatment modality--intended for cases that border on requiring orthognathic surgery--may also be recommended from a long-term point of view.

  8. Adenylate cyclase regulation in intact cultured myocardial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, J.D.; Roberts, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    To examine the coupling of cardiac cell-surface β-adrenergic receptors to adenylate cyclase activation and contractile response, the authors studied this receptor-effector response system in monolayers of spontaneously contracting chick embryo ventricular cells under physiological conditions. The hydrophilic ligand 3 H-CGP12177 identified uniformly high-agonist affinity β-adrenergic receptors. Isoproterenol-stimulated cyclic AMP (cAMP) accumulation with 50% effective concentration at (EC 50 ) = 12.1 nM and augmented contractile response with EC 50 = 6 nM under identical conditions. One micromolar isoproterenol induced receptor loss from the cell surface with t/sub 1/2/ = 13.2 min; under identical conditions cAMP content declined with t/sub 1/2/ = 13.5 min and contractile response with t/sub 1/2/ = 20.7 min. After agonist removal cAMP response recovered with t/sub 1/2/ = 15.7 min and receptors with t/sub 1/2/ = 24.7 min. Sixty minutes after agonist removal there was recovery of 52% of maximal cAMP responsiveness and 82% of the initial number of receptors; receptor occupancy was associated with 78% of initial contractile response. Agonist affinity for cell-surface receptors was changed only modestly by agonist exposure. They conclude that for this system there is relatively close coupling between high-affinity receptors, adenylate cyclase stimulation, and contractile response

  9. Effect of transcutaneous electrical stimulation treatment on lower urinary tract symptoms after class III radical hysterectomy in cervical cancer patients: study protocol for a multicentre, randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiu-Li; Wang, Hai-Bo; Wang, Zhi-Qi; Cao, Ting-Ting; Yang, Xin; Han, Jing-Song; Wu, Yang-Feng; Reilly, Kathleen H; Wang, Jian-Liu

    2017-06-15

    Class III radical hysterectomy (RH III)_plus pelvic lymphadenectomy is the standard surgery for early stage cervical cancer (CC) patients, the 5 year survival rate is about 90%, but pelvic floor disorders especially bladder dysfunction are common due to damaged vessels and nerve fibers following surgery. Transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TENS) treatment has been used to treat bladder disorders for many years, but its effect on cervical cancer patients, the best treatment time point and stimulated protocol, had never been assessed. The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of TENS treatment on lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) after RH III in CC patients. The study will be conducted as a clinical, multicentre, randomised controlled trial with balanced randomisation (1:1). The planned sample size is 208 participants (at 1:1 ratio, 104 subjects in each group). At 5-7 days after RH III, patients are screened according to operative and pathological findings. Enrolled participants are randomised into an intervention group (TENS plus conventional clinical care) or control group (conventional clinical care), with stratification by menopausal status (menopause vs. non-menopause) and surgical modality (laparoscopic RH or abdominal RH). Participants in both groups will be followed up at 14 days, 21 days, 28 days, 3 months, 6 months, 12 months, 18 months and 24 months after surgery. The primary endpoint is improvement rate of urination function which is defined as recovery (residual urine ≤50 ml) or improvement (residual urine 50-100 ml). Secondary endpoints include urodynamic parameter, urinary incontinence, anorectal function, pelvic function, quality of life (QOL), disease-free survival and adverse events. Primary endpoint analyses will be carried out by Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel tests taking into center effect. To our knowledge this is the first trial to investigate the effect of TENS treatment on bladder function recovery after RH III among

  10. Comparative study of postoperative stability between conventional orthognathic surgery and a surgery-first orthognathic approach after bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy for skeletal class III correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Deuk-Hyun; Kim, Su-Gwan; Oh, Ji-Su; You, Jae-Seek; Jung, Seo-Yun; Kim, Won-Gi; Yu, Kyung-Hwan

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the postoperative stability of conventional orthognathic surgery to a surgery-first orthognathic approach after bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy (BSSRO). The study included 20 patients who underwent BSSRO for skeletal class III conventional orthognathic surgery and 20 patients who underwent a surgery-first orthognathic approach. Serial lateral cephalograms were analyzed to identify skeletal changes before surgery (T0), immediately after surgery (T1), and after surgery (T2, after 1 year or at debonding). The amount of relapse of the mandible in the conventional orthognathic surgery group from T1 to T2 was 2.23±0.92 mm ( P surgery-first orthognathic approach group from T1 to T2 was 3.49±1.71 mm ( P surgery-first orthognathic approach. Therefore, careful planning and skeletal stability should be considered in orthognathic surgery.

  11. Study on Tensile Fatigue Behavior of Thermal Butt Fusion in Safety Class III High-Density Polyethylene Buried Piping in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Sung; Lee, Young Ju; Oh, Young Jin

    2015-01-01

    High-density polyethylene (HDPE) piping, which has recently been applied to safety class III piping in nuclear power plants, can be butt-joined through the thermal fusion process, which heats two fused surfaces and then subject to axial pressure. The thermal fusion process generates bead shapes on the butt fusion. The stress concentrations caused by the bead shapes may reduce the fatigue lifetime. Thus, investigating the effect of the thermal butt fusion beads on fatigue behavior is necessary. This study examined the fatigue behavior of thermal butt fusion via a tensile fatigue test under stress-controlled conditions using finite element elastic stress analysis. Based on the results, the presence of thermal butt fusion beads was confirmed to reduce the fatigue lifetime in the low-cycle fatigue region while having a negligible effect in the medium- and high-cycle fatigue regions

  12. Study on Tensile Fatigue Behavior of Thermal Butt Fusion in Safety Class III High-Density Polyethylene Buried Piping in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Sung; Lee, Young Ju [Sunchon National University, Suncheon (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Young Jin [KEPCO E and C, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    High-density polyethylene (HDPE) piping, which has recently been applied to safety class III piping in nuclear power plants, can be butt-joined through the thermal fusion process, which heats two fused surfaces and then subject to axial pressure. The thermal fusion process generates bead shapes on the butt fusion. The stress concentrations caused by the bead shapes may reduce the fatigue lifetime. Thus, investigating the effect of the thermal butt fusion beads on fatigue behavior is necessary. This study examined the fatigue behavior of thermal butt fusion via a tensile fatigue test under stress-controlled conditions using finite element elastic stress analysis. Based on the results, the presence of thermal butt fusion beads was confirmed to reduce the fatigue lifetime in the low-cycle fatigue region while having a negligible effect in the medium- and high-cycle fatigue regions.

  13. New Sequence Variants in HLA Class II/III Region Associated with Susceptibility to Knee Osteoarthritis Identified by Genome-Wide Association Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Masahiro; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kou, Ikuyo; Rodriguez-Fontenla, Cristina; Gomez-Reino, Juan J.; Furuichi, Tatsuya; Dai, Jin; Sudo, Akihiro; Uchida, Atsumasa; Fukui, Naoshi; Kubo, Michiaki; Kamatani, Naoyuki; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Malizos, Konstantinos N.; Tsezou, Aspasia; Gonzalez, Antonio; Nakamura, Yusuke; Ikegawa, Shiro

    2010-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common disease that has a definite genetic component. Only a few OA susceptibility genes that have definite functional evidence and replication of association have been reported, however. Through a genome-wide association study and a replication using a total of ∼4,800 Japanese subjects, we identified two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs7775228 and rs10947262) associated with susceptibility to knee OA. The two SNPs were in a region containing HLA class II/III genes and their association reached genome-wide significance (combined P = 2.43×10−8 for rs7775228 and 6.73×10−8 for rs10947262). Our results suggest that immunologic mechanism is implicated in the etiology of OA. PMID:20305777

  14. Floral nectar of the obligate outcrossing Canavalia gladiata (Jacq.) DC. (Fabaceae) contains only one predominant protein, a class III acidic chitinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, X L; Milne, R I; Zhou, H X; Fang, J Y; Zha, H G

    2017-09-01

    Floral nectar can affect the fitness of insect-pollinated plants, through both attraction and manipulation of pollinators. Self-incompatible insect-pollinated plants receive more insect visits than their self-compatible relatives, and the nectar of such species might face increased risk of infestation by pathogens carried by pollinators than self-compatible plants. Proteins in nectar (nectarins) play an important role in protecting the nectar, but little is known regarding nectarins in self-incompatible species. The nectarins from a self-incompatible and insect-pollinated leguminous crop, Canavalia gladiata, were separated using two-dimensional electrophoresis and analysed using mass spectrometry. The predominant nectarin gene was cloned and the gene expression pattern investigated using quantitative real-time PCR. Chitinolytic activity in the nectar was tested with different substrates. The C. gladiata nectar proteome only has one predominant nectarin, an acidic class III chitinase (CaChi3). The full-length CaChi3 gene was cloned, coding for a protein of 298 amino acids with a predicted signal peptide. CaChi3 is very similar to members of the class III chitinase family, whose evolution is dominated by purifying selection. CaChi3 was expressed in both nectary and leaves. CaChi3 has thermostable chitinolytic activity according to glycol-chitin zymography or a fluorogenic substratem but has no lysozyme activity. Chitinase might be a critical protein component in nectar. The extremely simple nectar proteome in C. gladiata disproves the hypothesis that self-incompatible species always have more complex nectar proteomes. Accessibility of nectar might be a significant determinant of the evolutionary pressure to develop nectar defence mechanisms. © 2017 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  15. Food restriction modulates β-adrenergic-sensitive adenylate cyclase in rat liver during aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    Adenylate cyclase activities were studied in rat liver during postmaturational aging of male Fischer 344 rats fed ad libitum or restricted to 60% of the ad libitum intake. Catecholamine-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity increased by 200-300% between 6 and 24-27 mo of age in ad libitum-fed rats, whereas in food-restricted rats catecholamine response increased by only 58-84% between 6 and 30 mo. In ad libitum-fed rats, glucagon-stimulated enzyme activity also increased by 40% between 6 and 12 mo and in restricted rats a similar age-related increase was delayed until 18 mo. β-Adrenergic receptor density increased by 50% between 6 and 24 mo in livers from ad libitum-fed but not food-restricted rats and showed a highly significant correlation with maximal isoproterenol-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity over the postmaturational life span. Age-related increases in unstimulated (basal) adenylate cyclase activity and nonreceptor-mediated enzyme activation were retarded by food restriction. The results demonstrate that food restriction diminishes a marked age-related increase in β-adrenergic-sensitive adenylate cyclase activity of rat liver. Alterations of adrenergic-responsive adenylate cyclase with age and the modulatory effects of food restriction appear to be mediated by changes in both receptor and nonreceptor components of adenylate cyclase

  16. Short-term HIIT and Fat max training increase aerobic and metabolic fitness in men with class II and III obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzi, Stefano; Codecasa, Franco; Cornacchia, Mauro; Maestrini, Sabrina; Capodaglio, Paolo; Brunani, Amelia; Fanari, Paolo; Salvadori, Alberto; Malatesta, Davide

    2015-10-01

    To compare the effects of two different 2-week-long training modalities [continuous at the intensity eliciting the maximal fat oxidation (Fatmax) versus high-intensity interval training (HIIT)] in men with class II and III obesity. Nineteen men with obesity (BMI ≥ 35 kg · m(-2)) were assigned to Fatmax group (GFatmax) or to HIIT group (GHIIT). Both groups performed eight cycling sessions matched for mechanical work. Aerobic fitness and fat oxidation rates (FORs) during exercise were assessed prior and following the training. Blood samples were drawn to determine hormones and plasma metabolites levels. Insulin resistance was assessed by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR). Aerobic fitness and FORs during exercise were significantly increased in both groups after training (P ≤ 0.001). HOMA2-IR was significantly reduced only for GFatmax (P ≤ 0.001). Resting non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and insulin decreased significantly only in GFatmax (P ≤ 0.002). Two weeks of HIIT and Fatmax training are effective for the improvement of aerobic fitness and FORs during exercise in these classes of obesity. The decreased levels of resting NEFA only in GFatmax may be involved in the decreased insulin resistance only in this group. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  17. BtcA, A class IA type III chaperone, interacts with the BteA N-terminal domain through a globular/non-globular mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Guttman

    Full Text Available Bordetella pertussis, the etiological agent of "whooping cough" disease, utilizes the type III secretion system (T3SS to deliver a 69 kDa cytotoxic effector protein, BteA, directly into the host cells. As with other T3SS effectors, prior to its secretion BteA binds BtcA, a 13.9 kDa protein predicted to act as a T3SS class IA chaperone. While this interaction had been characterized for such effector-chaperone pairs in other pathogens, it has yet to be fully investigated in Bordetella. Here we provide the first biochemical proof that BtcA is indeed a class IA chaperone, responsible for the binding of BteA's N-terminal domain. We bring forth extensive evidence that BtcA binds its substrate effector through a dual-interface binding mechanism comprising of non-globular and bi-globular interactions at a moderate micromolar level binding affinity. We demonstrate that the non-globular interactions involve the first 31 N-terminal residues of BteA287 and their removal leads to destabilization of the effector-chaperone complex and lower binding affinities to BtcA. These findings represent an important first step towards a molecular understanding of BteA secretion and cell entry.

  18. Pituitary adenylate cyclase 1 receptor internalization and endosomal signaling mediate the pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide-induced increase in guinea pig cardiac neuron excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriam, Laura A; Baran, Caitlin N; Girard, Beatrice M; Hardwick, Jean C; May, Victor; Parsons, Rodney L

    2013-03-06

    After G-protein-coupled receptor activation and signaling at the plasma membrane, the receptor complex is often rapidly internalized via endocytic vesicles for trafficking into various intracellular compartments and pathways. The formation of signaling endosomes is recognized as a mechanism that produces sustained intracellular signals that may be distinct from those generated at the cell surface for cellular responses including growth, differentiation, and survival. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP; Adcyap1) is a potent neurotransmitter/neurotrophic peptide and mediates its diverse cellular functions in part through internalization of its cognate G-protein-coupled PAC1 receptor (PAC1R; Adcyap1r1). In the present study, we examined whether PAC1R endocytosis participates in the regulation of neuronal excitability. Although PACAP increased excitability in 90% of guinea pig cardiac neurons, pretreatment with Pitstop 2 or dynasore to inhibit clathrin and dynamin I/II, respectively, suppressed the PACAP effect. Subsequent addition of inhibitor after the PACAP-induced increase in excitability developed gradually attenuated excitability with no changes in action potential properties. Likewise, the PACAP-induced increase in excitability was markedly decreased at ambient temperature. Receptor trafficking studies with GFP-PAC1 cell lines demonstrated the efficacy of Pitstop 2, dynasore, and low temperatures at suppressing PAC1R endocytosis. In contrast, brefeldin A pretreatments to disrupt Golgi vesicle trafficking did not blunt the PACAP effect, and PACAP/PAC1R signaling still increased neuronal cAMP production even with endocytic blockade. Our results demonstrate that PACAP/PAC1R complex endocytosis is a key step for the PACAP modulation of cardiac neuron excitability.

  19. Prokaryotic adenylate cyclase toxin stimulates anterior pituitary cells in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronin, M.J.; Evans, W.S.; Rogol, A.D.; Weiss, A.A.; Thorner, M.O.; Orth, D.N.; Nicholson, W.E.; Yasumoto, T.; Hewlett, E.L.

    1986-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis synthesis a variety of virulence factors including a calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase (AC) toxin. Treatment of anterior pituitary cells with this AC toxin resulted in an increase in cellular cAMP levels that was associated with accelerated exocytosis of growth hormone (GH), prolactin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and luteinizing hormone (LH). The kinetics of release of these hormones, however, were markedly different; GH and prolactin were rapidly released, while LH and ACTH secretion was more gradually elevated. Neither dopamine agonists nor somatostatin changes the ability of AC toxin to generate cAMP (up to 2 h). Low concentrations of AC toxin amplified the secretory response to hypophysiotrophic hormones. The authors conclude that bacterial AC toxin can rapidly elevate cAMP levels in anterior pituitary cells and that it is the response that explains the subsequent acceleration of hormone release

  20. Biology of biomechanics: Finite element analysis of a statically determinate system to rotate the occlusal plane for correction of a skeletal Class III open-bite malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, W Eugene; Viecilli, Rodrigo F; Chang, Chris; Katona, Thomas R; Paydar, Nasser H

    2015-12-01

    In the absence of adequate animal or in-vitro models, the biomechanics of human malocclusion must be studied indirectly. Finite element analysis (FEA) is emerging as a clinical technology to assist in diagnosis, treatment planning, and retrospective analysis. The hypothesis tested is that instantaneous FEA can retrospectively simulate long-term mandibular arch retraction and occlusal plane rotation for the correction of a skeletal Class III malocclusion. Seventeen published case reports were selected of patients treated with statically determinate mechanics using posterior mandible or infrazygomatic crest bone screw anchorage to retract the mandibular arch. Two-dimensional measurements were made for incisor and molar movements, mandibular arch rotation, and retraction relative to the maxillary arch. A patient with cone-beam computed tomography imaging was selected for a retrospective FEA. The mean age for the sample was 23.3 ± 3.3 years; there were 7 men and 10 women. Mean incisor movements were 3.35 ± 1.55 mm of retraction and 2.18 ± 2.51 mm of extrusion. Corresponding molar movements were retractions of 4.85 ± 1.78 mm and intrusions of 0.85 ± 2.22 mm. Retraction of the mandibular arch relative to the maxillary arch was 4.88 ± 1.41 mm. Mean posterior rotation of the mandibular arch was -5.76° ± 4.77° (counterclockwise). The mean treatment time (n = 16) was 36.2 ± 15.3 months. Bone screws in the posterior mandibular region were more efficient for intruding molars and decreasing the vertical dimension of the occlusion to close an open bite. The full-cusp, skeletal Class III patient selected for FEA was treated to an American Board of Orthodontics Cast-Radiograph Evaluation score of 24 points in about 36 months by en-masse retraction and posterior rotation of the mandibular arch: the bilateral load on the mandibular segment was about 200 cN. The mandibular arch was retracted by about 5 mm, posterior rotation was about 16.5°, and molar intrusion was about 3

  1. Adenylate Cyclases of Trypanosoma brucei, Environmental Sensors and Controllers of Host Innate Immune Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Didier

    2018-04-25

    Trypanosoma brucei , etiological agent of Sleeping Sickness in Africa, is the prototype of African trypanosomes, protozoan extracellular flagellate parasites transmitted by saliva ( Salivaria ). In these parasites the molecular controls of the cell cycle and environmental sensing are elaborate and concentrated at the flagellum. Genomic analyses suggest that these parasites appear to differ considerably from the host in signaling mechanisms, with the exception of receptor-type adenylate cyclases (AC) that are topologically similar to receptor-type guanylate cyclase (GC) of higher eukaryotes but control a new class of cAMP targets of unknown function, the cAMP response proteins (CARPs), rather than the classical protein kinase A cAMP effector (PKA). T. brucei possesses a large polymorphic family of ACs, mainly associated with the flagellar membrane, and these are involved in inhibition of the innate immune response of the host prior to the massive release of immunomodulatory factors at the first peak of parasitemia. Recent evidence suggests that in T. brucei several insect-specific AC isoforms are involved in social motility, whereas only a few AC isoforms are involved in cytokinesis control of bloodstream forms, attesting that a complex signaling pathway is required for environmental sensing. In this review, after a general update on cAMP signaling pathway and the multiple roles of cAMP, I summarize the existing knowledge of the mechanisms by which pathogenic microorganisms modulate cAMP levels to escape immune defense.

  2. Adenylate Cyclases of Trypanosoma brucei, Environmental Sensors and Controllers of Host Innate Immune Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Salmon

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma brucei, etiological agent of Sleeping Sickness in Africa, is the prototype of African trypanosomes, protozoan extracellular flagellate parasites transmitted by saliva (Salivaria. In these parasites the molecular controls of the cell cycle and environmental sensing are elaborate and concentrated at the flagellum. Genomic analyses suggest that these parasites appear to differ considerably from the host in signaling mechanisms, with the exception of receptor-type adenylate cyclases (AC that are topologically similar to receptor-type guanylate cyclase (GC of higher eukaryotes but control a new class of cAMP targets of unknown function, the cAMP response proteins (CARPs, rather than the classical protein kinase A cAMP effector (PKA. T. brucei possesses a large polymorphic family of ACs, mainly associated with the flagellar membrane, and these are involved in inhibition of the innate immune response of the host prior to the massive release of immunomodulatory factors at the first peak of parasitemia. Recent evidence suggests that in T. brucei several insect-specific AC isoforms are involved in social motility, whereas only a few AC isoforms are involved in cytokinesis control of bloodstream forms, attesting that a complex signaling pathway is required for environmental sensing. In this review, after a general update on cAMP signaling pathway and the multiple roles of cAMP, I summarize the existing knowledge of the mechanisms by which pathogenic microorganisms modulate cAMP levels to escape immune defense.

  3. Accelerated evolution of the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide precursor gene during human origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yin-Qiu; Qian, Ya-Ping; Yang, Su

    2005-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide abundantly expressed in the central nervous system and involved in regulating neurogenesis and neuronal signal transduction. The amino acid sequence of PACAP is extremely conserved across vertebrate species, indicating a...

  4. In vitro Comparative Evaluation of Various Restorative Materials used for restoring Class III Cavities in Deciduous Anterior Teeth: A Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyank, Harsh; Verma, Ankita; Gupta, Komal; Chaudhary, Esha; Khandelwal, Deepak; Nihalani, Shweta

    2016-12-01

    Beauty standards in today's modernized world scenario are formed by well-aligned and well-designed bright white teeth. One of the major reasons behind patients reporting to dental clinics is pain. Caries in the anterior primary teeth forms one of the major concerns from a restorative point of view. Very few studies are quoted in literature which stresses on the follow-up of anterior restorations in primary teeth. Hence, we evaluated and compared the efficacy of composite resin and resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RGIC) for class III restorations in primary anterior teeth. The present study was conducted in the pediatric dental wing and included a total of 80 patients aged 3 to 5½ years who reported with the chief complaint of carious lesions in the primary anterior teeth. Patients having minimal of a pair of similar appearing small carious lesions on the same proximal surfaces of the deciduous maxillary incisors were included for the study. All the patients were randomly divided into two groups: One in which RGIC restoration was done and other in which composite restoration was done. Cavity preparation was done and filling of the cavity with the restorative materials was carried out. Assessment of the restorations was done at 4, 8, and 12 months time following criteria given by Ryge et al. All the results were analyzed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Mann-Whitney test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to evaluate the level of significance; p value less than 0.05 was considered as significant. For composite and RGIC restorations, the mean score for anatomic shape was 1.21 and 1.10 respectively. While comparing the clinical parameters, nonsignificant results were obtained between composite and RGIC restorative materials at 4-, 8-, and 12-month interval. On comparing the clinical parameters for individual restorative materials at different time intervals, statistically significant results were obtained only for

  5. Interactions between lysergic acid diethylamide and dopamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase systems in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungen, K V; Roberts, S; Hill, D F

    1975-08-22

    Investigations were carried out on the interactions of the hallucinogenic drug, D-lysergic acid diethylamide (D-LSD), and other serotonin antagonists with catecholamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase systems in cell-free preparations from different regions of rat brain. In equimolar concentration, D-LSD, 2-brono-D-lysergic acid diethylamide (BOL), or methysergide (UML) strongly blocked maximal stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity by either norepinephrine or dopamine in particulate preparations from cerebral cortices of young adult rats. D-LSD also eliminated the stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity of equimolar concentrations of norepinephrine or dopamine in particulate preparations from rat hippocampus. The effects of this hallucinogenic agent on adenylate cyclase activity were most striking in particulate preparations from corpus striatum. Thus, in 10 muM concentration, D-LSD not only completely eradicated the response to 10 muM dopamine in these preparations but also consistently stimulated adenylate cyclase activity. L-LSD (80 muM) was without effect. Significant activation of striatal adenylate cyclase was produced by 0.1 muM D-LSD. Activation of striatal adenylate cyclase of either D-LSD or dopamine was strongly blocked by the dopamine-blocking agents trifluoperazine, thioridazine, chlorpromazine, and haloperidol. The stimulatory effects of D-LSD and dopamine were also inhibited by the serotonin-blocking agents, BOL, 1-methyl-D-lysergic acid diethylamide (MLD), and cyproheptadine, but not by the beta-adrenergic-blocking agent, propranolol. However, these serotonin antagonists by themselves were incapable of stimulating adenylate cyclase activity in the striatal preparations. Several other hallucinogens, which were structurally related to serotonin, were also inactive in this regard, e.g., mescaline, N,N-dimethyltryptamine, psilocin and bufotenine. Serotonin itself produced a small stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity in striatal preparations and

  6. Developmental changes of beta-adrenergic receptor-linked adenylate cyclase of rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, M.S.; Boland, S.R.; Schmidt, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    beta-Adrenergic agonist-sensitive adenylate cyclase activity and binding of the beta-adrenergic antagonist(-)-[ 125 I]iodopindolol were studied in rat liver during development of male Fischer 344 rats ages 6-60 days. In liver homogenates maximum adenylate cyclase response to beta-adrenergic agonist (10(-5) M isoproterenol or epinephrine) decreased by 73% (P less than 0.01) between 6 and 60 days, with most of the decrease (56%; P less than 0.01) occurring by 20 days. beta-adrenergic receptor density (Bmax) showed a corresponding decrease of 66% (P less than 0.01) by 20 days without subsequent change. Binding characteristics of stereospecificity, pharmacological specificity, saturability with time, and reversibility were unchanged with age. GTP-, fluoride-, forskolin-, and Mn2+-stimulated adenylate cyclase activities also decreased during development, suggesting a decrease of activity of the catalytic component and/or guanine nucleotide regulatory component of adenylate cyclase. These results indicate that the developmental decrease of beta-adrenergic agonist-sensitive adenylate cyclase activity may result from decreased numbers of beta-adrenergic receptors. Developmental alterations of nonreceptor components of the enzyme may also contribute to changes of catecholamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase

  7. Differences in three-dimensional soft tissue changes after upper, lower, or both jaw orthognathic surgery in skeletal class III patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdenik, M; Ihan Hren, N

    2014-11-01

    The decision is not always straightforward as to which orthognathic procedure is best for a good aesthetic result; three-dimensional imaging has brought new insight into this topic. The aim of this prospective study was to verify objectively whether postoperative changes occur within those regions not directly affected by surgical movements of the underlying jaw bones. The study included 83 young adults with skeletal class III deformities. They were classified into three groups according to the type of surgery: bilateral sagittal split osteotomy set-back of the mandible (BSSO), Le Fort I advancement of the maxilla, or a combination of both. Pre- and postoperative optical scans were registered as regional best-fits on the areas of the foreheads and both orbits. The shell to shell differences were measured and the average distances between the observed regions were calculated. As expected, changes were greatest in the regions where the underlying bones had been moved, but regardless of the operation performed, changes were found over the whole face. Changes in the nose, cheek, and upper lip regions in the BSSO group and in the lower lip and chin region in the Le Fort I group confirmed the concept of the facial soft tissue mask acting as one unit. Copyright © 2014 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A novel TaqI polymorphism in the coding region of the ovine TNXB gene in the MHC class III region: morphostructural and physiological influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Oyeyemi O; Adefenwa, Mufliat A; Agaviezor, Brilliant O; Ikeobi, Christian O N; Wheto, Matthew; Okpeku, Moses; Amusan, Samuel A; Yakubu, Abdulmojeed; De Donato, Marcos; Peters, Sunday O; Imumorin, Ikhide G

    2014-02-01

    The tenascin-XB (TNXB) gene has antiadhesive effects, functions in matrix maturation in connective tissues, and localizes to the major histocompatibility complex class III region. We hypothesized that it may influence adaptive physiological response through an effect on blood vessel function. We identified a novel g.1324 A→G polymorphism at a TaqI recognition site in a 454 bp fragment of ovine TNXB and genotyped it in 150 Nigerian sheep using PCR-RFLP. The missense mutation changes glutamic acid (GAA) to glycine (GGA). Among SNP genotypes, significant differences (P bone length. Interaction effects of breed, SNP genotype, and geographic location had a significant effect (P < 0.05) on chest girth. The SNP genotype was significantly (P < 0.05) associated with physiological traits of pulse rate and skin temperature. The observed effect of this novel polymorphism may be mediated through its role in connective tissue biology, requiring further association and functional studies.

  9. [Alveolar bone thickness and root length changes in the treatment of skeletal Class III patients facilitated by improved corticotomy: a cone-beam CT analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiaqi; Jiang, Jiuhui; Xu, Li; Liang, Cheng; Li, Cuiying; Xu, Xiao

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the alveolar bone thickness and root length changes of anterior teeth with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). CBCT scans were taken for 12 skeletal Class III patients who accepted the improved corticotomy (IC) procedures during pre-surgical orthodontics. The CBCT data in T1 (the maxillary dental arch was aligned and leveled) and T2 (extraction space closure) were superimposed and the alveolar bone thickness at root apex level and root length measurements were done. From T1 to T2, the buccal alveolar bone thickness for the upper lateral incisors increased from (1.89±0.83) to (2.47±1.02) mm (P<0.05), and for central incisors and for canines from (2.32±0.71) to (2.68±1.48) mm and from (2.28±1.08) to (2.41±1.40) mm, respectively. According to Sharpe Grading System, the root resorption grade for 69 teeth of 72 was located in Grade 1, two teeth in Grade 2, one tooth in Grade 3. The improved corticotomy had the potential to increase the buccal alveolar bone thickness and the root resorption in most teeth was in Grade 1 according to Sharpe grading system.

  10. The Use of Invisalign® System in the Management of the Orthodontic Treatment before and after Class III Surgical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, Renato; Signorino, Fabrizio; Poli, Pier Paolo; Manzini, Pietro; Panisi, Irene

    2016-01-01

    The approach to skeletal dysmorphisms in the maxillofacial area usually requires an orthodontic treatment by means of fixed appliances, both before and after the surgical phase. Since its introduction, Invisalign system has become a popular treatment choice for the clinicians because of the aesthetics and comfort of the removable clear aligners compared with the traditional appliances. Therefore, the aim of the present report was to illustrate the management of a malocclusion by means of Invisalign system associated with the traditional surgical technique. The present paper shows a case of a 23-year-old male patient characterized by a Class III malocclusion with lateral deviation of the mandible to the left side and cross-bite on teeth 2.2, 2.3, and 2.4. Invisalign system was used during the pre- and postsurgical phases rather than fixed appliances. The posttreatment cephalometric analysis emphasized the stability of the dental and skeletal symmetry corrections, occlusion and functional balance, over a 6-year follow-up. The results achieved at the end of the treatment showed how Invisalign can be effective in the management of the orthodontic phases in orthognathic surgery. The follow-up after 6 years emphasizes the stability of the treatment over time.

  11. The Use of Invisalign® System in the Management of the Orthodontic Treatment before and after Class III Surgical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Pagani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The approach to skeletal dysmorphisms in the maxillofacial area usually requires an orthodontic treatment by means of fixed appliances, both before and after the surgical phase. Since its introduction, Invisalign system has become a popular treatment choice for the clinicians because of the aesthetics and comfort of the removable clear aligners compared with the traditional appliances. Therefore, the aim of the present report was to illustrate the management of a malocclusion by means of Invisalign system associated with the traditional surgical technique. The present paper shows a case of a 23-year-old male patient characterized by a Class III malocclusion with lateral deviation of the mandible to the left side and cross-bite on teeth 2.2, 2.3, and 2.4. Invisalign system was used during the pre- and postsurgical phases rather than fixed appliances. The posttreatment cephalometric analysis emphasized the stability of the dental and skeletal symmetry corrections, occlusion and functional balance, over a 6-year follow-up. The results achieved at the end of the treatment showed how Invisalign can be effective in the management of the orthodontic phases in orthognathic surgery. The follow-up after 6 years emphasizes the stability of the treatment over time.

  12. Efficiency of a new strategy involving a new class of natural hetero-ligand iron(III) chelates (Fe(III)-NHL) to improve fruit tree growth in alkaline/calcareous soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Marta; Ortuño, María F; Pérez-Sarmiento, Francisco; Bacaicoa, Eva; Baigorri, Roberto; Conejero, Wenceslao; Torrecillas, Arturo; García-Mina, José M

    2012-12-01

    Iron (Fe) chlorosis is a serious problem affecting the yield and quality of numerous crops and fruit trees cultivated in alkaline/calcareous soils. This paper describes the efficiency of a new class of natural hetero-ligand Fe(III) chelates (Fe-NHL) to provide available Fe for chlorotic lemon trees grown in alkaline/calcareous soils. These chelates involve the participation in the reaction system of a partially humified lignin-based natural polymer and citric acid. First results showed that Fe-NHL was adsorbed on the soil matrix while maintaining available Fe for plants in alkaline/calcareous solution. The effects of using three different sources as Fe fertilisers were also compared: two Fe-NHL formulations (NHL1, containing 100% of Fe as Fe-NHL, and NHL2, containing 80% of Fe as Fe-NHL and 20% of Fe as Fe-ethylenediamine-N,N'-bis-(o-hydroxyphenylacetic) acid (Fe-EDDHA)) and Fe-EDDHA. Both Fe-NHL formulations increased fruit yield without negative effects on fruit quality in comparison with Fe-EDDHA. In the absence of the Fe-starter fraction (NHL1), trees seemed to optimise Fe assimilation and translocation from Fe-NHL, directing it to those parts of the plant more involved in development. The field assays confirmed that Fe-NHL-based fertilisers are able to provide Fe to chlorotic trees, with results comparable to Fe-EDDHA. Besides, this would imply a more sustainable and less expensive remediation than synthetic chelates. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Adenylate Cyclase Toxin promotes bacterial internalisation into non phagocytic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, César; Etxaniz, Asier; Uribe, Kepa B; Etxebarria, Aitor; González-Bullón, David; Arlucea, Jon; Goñi, Félix M; Aréchaga, Juan; Ostolaza, Helena

    2015-09-08

    Bordetella pertussis causes whooping cough, a respiratory infectious disease that is the fifth largest cause of vaccine-preventable death in infants. Though historically considered an extracellular pathogen, this bacterium has been detected both in vitro and in vivo inside phagocytic and non-phagocytic cells. However the precise mechanism used by B. pertussis for cell entry, or the putative bacterial factors involved, are not fully elucidated. Here we find that adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT), one of the important toxins of B. pertussis, is sufficient to promote bacterial internalisation into non-phagocytic cells. After characterization of the entry route we show that uptake of "toxin-coated bacteria" proceeds via a clathrin-independent, caveolae-dependent entry pathway, allowing the internalised bacteria to survive within the cells. Intracellular bacteria were found inside non-acidic endosomes with high sphingomyelin and cholesterol content, or "free" in the cytosol of the invaded cells, suggesting that the ACT-induced bacterial uptake may not proceed through formation of late endolysosomes. Activation of Tyr kinases and toxin-induced Ca(2+)-influx are essential for the entry process. We hypothesize that B. pertussis might use ACT to activate the endocytic machinery of non-phagocytic cells and gain entry into these cells, in this way evading the host immune system.

  14. Thermostability promotes the cooperative function of split adenylate kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Peter Q; Liu, Shirley; Thompson, Jeremy C; Silberg, Jonathan J

    2008-05-01

    Proteins can often be cleaved to create inactive polypeptides that associate into functional complexes through non-covalent interactions, but little is known about what influences the cooperative function of the ensuing protein fragments. Here, we examine whether protein thermostability affects protein fragment complementation by characterizing the function of split adenylate kinases from the mesophile Bacillus subtilis (AKBs) and the hyperthermophile Thermotoga neapolitana (AKTn). Complementation studies revealed that the split AKTn supported the growth of Escherichia coli with a temperature-sensitive AK, but not the fragmented AKBs. However, weak complementation occurred when the AKBs fragments were fused to polypeptides that strongly associate, and this was enhanced by a Q16L mutation that thermostabilizes the full-length protein. To examine how the split AK homologs differ in structure and function, their catalytic activity, zinc content, and circular dichroism spectra were characterized. The reconstituted AKTn had higher levels of zinc, greater secondary structure, and >10(3)-fold more activity than the AKBs pair, albeit 17-fold less active than full-length AKTn. These findings provide evidence that the design of protein fragments that cooperatively function can be improved by choosing proteins with the greatest thermostability for bisection, and they suggest that this arises because hyperthermophilic protein fragments exhibit greater residual structure compared to their mesophilic counterparts.

  15. Effects of PTH and Ca2+ on renal adenyl cyclase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, S.T.; Neuman, W.F.

    1978-01-01

    The effects of calcium ion on the adenylate cyclase system was studied in isolated, renal basal-lateral plasma membranes of the rat. Bovine parathyroid hormone (bPTH) and a guanyl triphosphate analogue, Gpp(NH)p were used to stimulate cyclase activity. Under conditions of maximal stimulation, calcium ions inhibited cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) formation, the formation rate falling exponentially with the calcium concentration. Fifty percent inhibition of either bPTH- or Gpp(NH)p-stimulated activity was given by approximately 50 μM Ca 2+ . Also the Hill coefficient for the inhibition was close to unity in both cases. The concentration of bPTH giving half-maximal stimulation of cAMP formation (1.8 x 10 -8 M) was unchanged by the presence of calcium. These data suggest that calcium acts at some point other than the initial hormone-receptor interaction, presumably decreasing the catalytic efficiency of the enzymic moiety of the membrane complex

  16. Overproduction, Purification and Characterization of Adenylate Deaminase from Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shubo; Qian, Yi; Liang, Yunlong; Chen, Xinkuan; Zhao, Mouming; Guo, Yuan; Pang, Zongwen

    2016-12-01

    Adenylate deaminase (AMPD, EC 3.5.4.6) is an aminohydrolase that widely used in the food and medicine industries. In this study, the gene encoding Aspergillus oryzae AMPD was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Induction with 0.75 mM isopropyl β-D-l-thiogalactopyranoside resulted in an enzyme activity of 1773.9 U/mL. Recombinant AMPD was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity using nickel affinity chromatography, and its molecular weight was calculated as 78.6 kDa. Purified AMPD exhibited maximal activity at 35 °C, pH 6.0 and 30 mM K + , with apparent K m and V max values of 2.7 × 10 -4  M and 77.5 μmol/mg/min under these conditions. HPLC revealed that recombinant AMPD could effectively catalyse the synthesis of inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMP) with minimal by-products, indicating high specificity and suggesting that it could prove useful for IMP production.

  17. The effect of early physiotherapy on the recovery of mandibular function after orthognathic surgery for class III correction. Part II: electromyographic activity of masticatory muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ellen Wen-Ching; Teng, Terry Te-Yi; Huang, Chiung Shing; Chen, Yu-Ray

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of early physical rehabilitation by comparing the differences of surface electromyographic (sEMG) activity in the masseter and anterior temporalis muscles after surgical correction of skeletal class III malocclusion. The prospective study included 63 patients; the experimental groups contained 31 patients who received early systematic physical rehabilitation; the control group (32 patients) did not receive physiotherapy. The amplitude of sEMG in the masticatory muscles reached 72.6-121.3% and 37.5-64.6% of pre-surgical values in the experimental and control groups respectively at 6 weeks after orthognathic surgery (OGS). At 6 months after OGS, the sEMG reached 135.1-233.4% and 89.6-122.5% of pre-surgical values in the experimental and control groups respectively. Most variables in the sEMG examination indicated that recovery of the masticatory muscles in the experimental group was better than the control group as estimated in the early phase (T1 to T2) and the total phase (T1 to T3); there were no significant differences between the mean recovery percentages in the later phase (T2 to T3). Early physical rehabilitative therapy is helpful for early recovery of muscle activity in masticatory muscles after OGS. After termination of physical therapy, no significant difference in recovery was indicated in patients with or without early physiotherapy. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Functional and structural comparison of pyrrolnitrin- and iprodione-induced modifications in the class III histidine-kinase Bos1 of Botrytis cinerea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Fillinger

    Full Text Available Dicarboximides and phenylpyrroles are commonly used fungicides against plant pathogenic ascomycetes. Although their effect on fungal osmosensing systems has been shown in many studies, their modes-of-action still remain unclear. Laboratory- or field-mutants of fungi resistant to either or both fungicide categories generally harbour point mutations in the sensor histidine kinase of the osmotic signal transduction cascade.In the present study we compared the mechanisms of resistance to the dicarboximide iprodione and to pyrrolnitrin, a structural analogue of phenylpyrrole fungicides, in Botrytis cinerea. Pyrrolnitrin-induced mutants and iprodione-induced mutants of B. cinerea were produced in vitro. For the pyrrolnitrin-induced mutants, a high level of resistance to pyrrolnitrin was associated with a high level of resistance to iprodione. For the iprodione-induced mutants, the high level of resistance to iprodione generated variable levels of resistance to pyrrolnitrin and phenylpyrroles. All selected mutants showed hypersensitivity to high osmolarity and regardless of their resistance levels to phenylpyrroles, they showed strongly reduced fitness parameters (sporulation, mycelial growth, aggressiveness on plants compared to the parental phenotypes. Most of the mutants presented modifications in the osmosensing class III histidine kinase affecting the HAMP domains. Site directed mutagenesis of the bos1 gene was applied to validate eight of the identified mutations. Structure modelling of the HAMP domains revealed that the replacements of hydrophobic residues within the HAMP domains generally affected their helical structure, probably abolishing signal transduction. Comparing mutant phenotypes to the HAMP structures, our study suggests that mutations perturbing helical structures of HAMP2-4 abolish signal-transduction leading to loss-of-function phenotype. The mutation of residues E529, M427, and T581, without consequences on HAMP structure

  19. Foot-and-mouth disease virus induces autophagosomes during cell entry via a class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-independent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Stephen; Brooks, Elizabeth; Burman, Alison; Hawes, Philippa; Roberts, Rebecca; Netherton, Christopher; Monaghan, Paul; Whelband, Matthew; Cottam, Eleanor; Elazar, Zvulun; Jackson, Terry; Wileman, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    Autophagy is an intracellular pathway that can contribute to innate antiviral immunity by delivering viruses to lysosomes for degradation or can be beneficial for viruses by providing specialized membranes for virus replication. Here, we show that the picornavirus foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) induces the formation of autophagosomes. Induction was dependent on Atg5, involved processing of LC3 to LC3II, and led to a redistribution of LC3 from the cytosol to punctate vesicles indicative of authentic autophagosomes. Furthermore, FMDV yields were reduced in cells lacking Atg5, suggesting that autophagy may facilitate FMDV infection. However, induction of autophagosomes by FMDV appeared to differ from starvation, as the generation of LC3 punctae was not inhibited by wortmannin, implying that FMDV-induced autophagosome formation does not require the class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) activity of vps34. Unlike other picornaviruses, for which there is strong evidence that autophagosome formation is linked to expression of viral nonstructural proteins, FMDV induced autophagosomes very early during infection. Furthermore, autophagosomes could be triggered by either UV-inactivated virus or empty FMDV capsids, suggesting that autophagosome formation was activated during cell entry. Unlike other picornaviruses, FMDV-induced autophagosomes did not colocalize with the viral 3A or 3D protein. In contrast, ∼50% of the autophagosomes induced by FMDV colocalized with VP1. LC3 and VP1 also colocalized with the cellular adaptor protein p62, which normally targets ubiquitinated proteins to autophagosomes. These results suggest that FMDV induces autophagosomes during cell entry to facilitate infection, but not to provide membranes for replication.

  20. Application for a Permit to Operate a Class III Solid Waste Disposal Site at the Nevada Test Site Area 5 Asbestiform Low-Level Solid Waste Disposal Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The NTS solid waste disposal sites must be permitted by the state of Nevada Solid Waste Management Authority (SWMA). The SWMA for the NTS is the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Federal Facilities (NDEP/BFF). The U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) as land manager (owner), and National Security Technologies (NSTec), as operator, will store, collect, process, and dispose all solid waste by means that do not create a health hazard, a public nuisance, or cause impairment of the environment. NTS disposal sites will not be included in the Nye County Solid Waste Management Plan. The NTS is located approximately 105 kilometers (km) (65 miles (mi)) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is the federal lands management authority for the NTS, and NSTec is the Management and Operations contractor. Access on and off the NTS is tightly controlled, restricted, and guarded on a 24-hour basis. The NTS has signs posted along its entire perimeter. NSTec is the operator of all solid waste disposal sites on the NTS. The Area 5 RWMS is the location of the permitted facility for the Solid Waste Disposal Site (SWDS). The Area 5 RWMS is located near the eastern edge of the NTS (Figure 2), approximately 26 km (16 mi) north of Mercury, Nevada. The Area 5 RWMS is used for the disposal of low-level waste (LLW) and mixed low-level waste. Many areas surrounding the RWMS have been used in conducting nuclear tests. A Notice of Intent to operate the disposal site as a Class III site was submitted to the state of Nevada on January 28, 1994, and was acknowledged as being received in a letter to the NNSA/NSO on August 30, 1994. Interim approval to operate a Class III SWDS for regulated asbestiform low-level waste (ALLW) was authorized on August 12, 1996 (in letter from Paul Liebendorfer to Runore Wycoff), with operations to be conducted in accordance with the ''Management Plan

  1. Adenylate Kinase and AMP Signaling Networks: Metabolic Monitoring, Signal Communication and Body Energy Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Terzic

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Adenylate kinase and downstream AMP signaling is an integrated metabolic monitoring system which reads the cellular energy state in order to tune and report signals to metabolic sensors. A network of adenylate kinase isoforms (AK1-AK7 are distributed throughout intracellular compartments, interstitial space and body fluids to regulate energetic and metabolic signaling circuits, securing efficient cell energy economy, signal communication and stress response. The dynamics of adenylate kinase-catalyzed phosphotransfer regulates multiple intracellular and extracellular energy-dependent and nucleotide signaling processes, including excitation-contraction coupling, hormone secretion, cell and ciliary motility, nuclear transport, energetics of cell cycle, DNA synthesis and repair, and developmental programming. Metabolomic analyses indicate that cellular, interstitial and blood AMP levels are potential metabolic signals associated with vital functions including body energy sensing, sleep, hibernation and food intake. Either low or excess AMP signaling has been linked to human disease such as diabetes, obesity and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Recent studies indicate that derangements in adenylate kinase-mediated energetic signaling due to mutations in AK1, AK2 or AK7 isoforms are associated with hemolytic anemia, reticular dysgenesis and ciliary dyskinesia. Moreover, hormonal, food and antidiabetic drug actions are frequently coupled to alterations of cellular AMP levels and associated signaling. Thus, by monitoring energy state and generating and distributing AMP metabolic signals adenylate kinase represents a unique hub within the cellular homeostatic network.

  2. Effect of age and posture on human lymphocyte adenylate cyclase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, S L; Robbins, A S; Rubenstein, L Z; Tuck, M L; Scarpace, P J

    1988-03-01

    1. A number of age-related changes have been reported in the catecholamine-adrenoceptor-adenylate cyclase system. Most of the data available on these alterations come from resting subjects; the response to acute stress may provide additional insights into the age effect on these responses. 2. We measured supine and 10 min upright plasma noradrenaline and lymphocyte adenylate cyclase activity in ten healthy elderly subjects (age 66-80 years) and seven healthy young subjects (age 27-34 years). 3. Isoprenaline stimulation of lymphocyte adenylate cyclase activity was not significantly different between supine and upright positions or between elderly and young subjects. There was a marked increase in forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in the upright posture in both elderly and young subjects. The increment over supine levels was 70% in the elderly (P less than 0.025) and 73% in the young (P less than 0.05). This enhanced forskolin activity was not seen in two young subjects who became syncopal. 4. These data suggest that enhanced forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity occurs after 10 min of upright posture in both elderly and young subjects, and may be relevant to immediate blood pressure regulation. We were unable to demonstrate any age-related differences in these acute adrenergic responses.

  3. A New Class III Antiarrhythmic Drug Niferidil Prolongs Action Potentials in Guinea Pig Atrial Myocardium via Inhibition of Rapid Delayed Rectifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramochkin, Denis V; Kuzmin, Vladislav S; Rosenshtraukh, Leonid V

    2017-12-01

    A new class III antiarrhythmic drug niferidil (RG-2) has been introduced as a highly effective therapy for cases of persistent atrial fibrillation, but ionic mechanisms of its action are poorly understood. In the present study, the effects of niferidil on action potential (AP) waveform and potassium currents responsible for AP repolarization were investigated in guinea pig atrial myocardium. APs were recorded with sharp glass microelectrodes in multicellular atrial preparations. Whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to measure K + currents in isolated myocytes. In multicellular atrial preparations, 10 -8  M niferidil effectively prolonged APs by 15.2 ± 2.8% at 90% repolarization level. However, even the highest tested concentrations, 10 -6  M and 10 -5  M failed to prolong APs more than 32.5% of control duration. The estimated concentration of niferedil for half-maximal AP prolongation was 1.13 × 10 -8  M. Among the potassium currents responsible for AP repolarization phase, I K1 was found to be almost insensitive to niferidil. However, another inward rectifier, I KACh , was effectively suppressed by micromolar concentrations of niferidil with IC 50  = 9.2 × 10 -6  M. I KATP was much less sensitive to the drug with IC 50  = 2.26 × 10 -4  M. The slow component of delayed rectifier, I Ks , also demonstrated low sensitivity to niferidil-the highest used concentration, 10 -4  M, decreased peak I Ks density to 46.2 ± 5.5% of control. Unlike I Ks , the rapid component of delayed rectifier, I Kr , appeared to be extremely sensitive to niferidil. The IC 50 was 1.26 × 10 -9  M. I Kr measured in ventricular myocytes was found to be less sensitive to niferidil with IC 50  = 3.82 × 10 -8  M. Niferidil prolongs APs in guinea pig atrial myocardium via inhibition of I Kr .

  4. Dopamine inhibition of anterior pituitary adenylate cyclase is mediated through the high-affinity state of the D2 receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgundvaag, B.; George, S.R.

    1985-01-01

    The diterpinoid forskolin stimulated adenylate cyclase activity (measured by conversion of [ 3 H]-ATP to [ 3 H]-cAMP) in anterior pituitary from male and female rats. Inhibition of stimulated adenylate cyclase activity by potent dopaminergic agonists was demonstrable only in female anterior pituitary. The inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity displayed a typically dopaminergic rank order of agonist potencies and could be completely reversed by a specific dopamine receptor antagonist. The IC 50 values of dopamine agonist inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity correlated with equal molarity with the dissociation constant of the high-affinity dopamine agonist-detected receptor binding site and with the IC 50 values for inhibition of prolactin secretion. These findings support the hypothesis that it is the high-affinity form of the D 2 dopamine receptor in anterior pituitary which is responsible for mediating the dopaminergic function of attenuating adenylate cyclase activity. 12 references, 4 figures, 1 table

  5. Adenylate Nucleotides and 2,3-Biphosphoglycerate Concentration in Erythrocytes of Growing Wielkopolska Stallions

    OpenAIRE

    M. Suska; E. Skotnicka; W. Dudzińska; W. Orowicz; M. Brzezinska

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between the concentrations of adenylate nucleotides (ATP, ADP, AMP), total nucleotide pool (TAN), adenylate energy charge (AEC) and 2,3-biphosphoglycerate (2,3-BPG) in the erythrocytes of young horses in the period of their rapid growth and development. The studies were conducted on 10 young Wielkopolska breed stallions for two years; Group A: 1-month-old, Group B: 3-month-old, Group C: 6-month-old, Group D: 1-year-old, and Group E: 2-yea...

  6. Adenylate kinase amplification of ATP bioluminescence for hygiene monitoring in the food and beverage industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbitt, A J; Bennion, N; Forsythe, S J

    2000-06-01

    Fourteen food residues, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus on stainless steel surfaces were detected using a combined assay with adenylate kinase as a cellular marker and ATP bioluminescence. The limit of sensitivity ranged from 0.02 to 708 microg for minced meat and broccoli, respectively. Both methods gave the same detection limit (105 cfu) for E. coli and Staph. aureus on stainless steel surfaces. The combined adenylate kinase-ATP assay is applicable to monitor the hygiene of work surfaces, especially those prone to contamination by meat and vegetable residues.

  7. Effects of ionizing radiation and cysteamine (MEA) on activity of mouse spleen adenyl cyclase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltysiak-Pawluczuk, D.; Bitny-Szlachto, S.

    1976-01-01

    In mice X-irradiated with doses of 200 R and 400 R, there was a substantial increase in spleen adenyl cyclase activity; there was similar activation by MEA. In mice given MEA before irradiation, an additive effect of radiation and the radioprotective drug was observed. On the other hand, a dose of 800 R given either alone or after pre-treatment with MEA failed to elicit any change in cyclase activity. The results indicate the importance of the adenyl cyclase system in the response of cells to irradiation and action of MEA. (author)

  8. Activation of the pacidamycin PacL adenylation domain by MbtH-like proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjun; Heemstra, John R; Walsh, Christopher T; Imker, Heidi J

    2010-11-23

    Nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) assembly lines are major avenues for the biosynthesis of a vast array of peptidyl natural products. Several hundred bacterial NRPS gene clusters contain a small (∼70-residue) protein belonging to the MbtH family for which no function has been defined. Here we show that two strictly conserved Trp residues in MbtH-like proteins contribute to stimulation of amino acid adenylation in some NRPS modules. We also demonstrate that adenylation can be stimulated not only by cognate MbtH-like proteins but also by homologues from disparate natural product pathways.

  9. Estudo cefalométrico das alterações no perfil facial em pacientes Classe III dolicocefálicos submetidos à cirurgia ortognática bimaxilar Cephalometric study of the facial profile changes in Class III patients submitted to bimaxillary orthognathic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hewerson Santos Tavares

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo avaliou as modificações no perfil facial de 15 pacientes portadores de má oclusão Classe III esquelética que foram submetidos a tratamento ortodôntico pré-cirúrgico e cirurgia ortognática bimaxilar estabilizada com fixação rígida. Oito pacientes foram submetidos à mentoplastia. Foram utilizadas telerradiografias pré-cirúrgicas (T1 e pós-cirúrgicas (T2 com um intervalo mínimo de 6 meses. Foram analisados deslocamentos horizontais e verticais em pontos do tecido ósseo e tecido mole. Foi realizada uma comparação entre os casos tratados com e sem mentoplastia (teste t mostrando não haver diferenças entre os grupos. A regressão linear múltipla evidenciou uma correlação significante no sentido horizontal para os pontos Pg e Pgm e vertical para os pontos Me e Mem. Foi encontrada baixa correlação para movimentos no sentido horizontal nos pontos Sena e A, e para os pontos Pn, Sn e Ph. No sentido vertical, os deslocamentos mais evidentes foram entre os pontos Pg, Gn e Me e Sena e A, porém com correlações de baixa intensidade.The present study evaluated the facial profile modifications in 15 skeletal Class III patients that were submitted to presurgical orthodontic treatment and orthognathic bimaxillary surgery stabilized with a rigid fixation. Eight of the patients have undergone to genioplastic surgery. Presurgical (T1 and late postsurgical (T2 radiographs taken apart with a minimum of 6 month interval had been used. The horizontal and vertical displacement of skeletal and soft tissue profile points were analyzed. The comparison of the cases submitted or not to a genioplastic surgery (t Test showed no differences for the displacement of the skeletal and soft tissue points. The multiple linear regression analysis showed a significant correlation for horizontal movements of the Pg and Pgm points and for vertical movements of the Me and Mem points. A low correlation was found for the horizontal movements of

  10. Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin: a unique combination of a pore-forming moiety with a cell-invading adenylate cyclase enzyme

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mašín, Jiří; Osička, Radim; Bumba, Ladislav; Šebo, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 8 (2015) ISSN 2049-632X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP302/12/0460; GA ČR GA15-09157S; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-11851S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : adenylate cyclase toxin * membrane penetration * pore-formation Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.483, year: 2015

  11. Ribonucleotide Reductases from Bifidobacteria Contain Multiple Conserved Indels Distinguishing Them from All Other Organisms: In Silico Analysis of the Possible Role of a 43 aa Bifidobacteria-Specific Insert in the Class III RNR Homolog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Alnajar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bifidobacteria comprises an important group/order of bacteria whose members have widespread usage in the food and health industry due to their health-promoting activity in the human gastrointestinal tract. However, little is known about the underlying molecular properties that are responsible for the probiotic effects of these bacteria. The enzyme ribonucleotide reductase (RNR plays a key role in all organisms by reducing nucleoside di- or tri- phosphates into corresponding deoxyribose derivatives required for DNA synthesis, and RNR homologs belonging to classes I and III are present in either most or all Bifidobacteriales. Comparative analyses of these RNR homologs have identified several novel sequence features in the forms of conserved signature indels (CSIs that are exclusively found in bifidobacterial RNRs. Specifically, in the large subunit of the aerobic class Ib RNR, three CSIs have been identified that are uniquely found in the Bifidobacteriales homologs. Similarly, the large subunit of the anaerobic class III RNR contains five CSIs that are also distinctive characteristics of bifidobacteria. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that these CSIs were introduced in a common ancestor of the Bifidobacteriales and retained by all descendants, likely due to their conferring advantageous functional roles. The identified CSIs in the bifidobacterial RNR homologs provide useful tools for further exploration of the novel functional aspects of these important enzymes that are exclusive to these bacteria. We also report here the results of homology modeling studies, which indicate that most of the bifidobacteria-specific CSIs are located within the surface loops of the RNRs, and of these, a large 43 amino acid insert in the class III RNR homolog forms an extension of the allosteric regulatory site known to be essential for protein function. Preliminary docking studies suggest that this large CSI may be playing a role in enhancing the stability of the RNR

  12. Identification of Adenyl Cyclase Activity in a Disease Resistance Protein in Arabidopsis thaliana

    KAUST Repository

    Hussein, Rana

    2012-01-01

    center motif. In an attempt to prove that this candidate has adenyl cyclases activity in vitro, the coding sequence of the putative AC catalytic domain of this protein was cloned and expressed in E. coli and the recombinant protein was purified

  13. Adenylate kinase I does not affect cellular growth characteristics under normal and metabolic stress conditions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, W.C.C. de; Oerlemans, F.T.J.J.; Wieringa, B.

    2004-01-01

    Adenylate kinase (AK)-catalyzed phosphotransfer is essential in the maintenance of cellular energetic economy in cells of fully differentiated tissues with highly variable energy demand, such as muscle and brain. To investigate if AK isoenzymes have a comparable function in the energy-demand

  14. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide stimulates renin secretion via activation of PAC1 receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hautmann, Matthias; Friis, Ulla G; Desch, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Besides of its functional role in the nervous system, the neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is involved in the regulation of cardiovascular function. Therefore, PACAP is a potent vasodilator in several vascular beds, including the renal vasculature. Because...

  15. LH-RH binding to purified pituitary plasma membranes: absence of adenylate cyclase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, R N; Shakespear, R A; Marshall, J C

    1978-06-01

    Purified bovine pituitary plasma membranes possess two specific LH-RH binding sites. The high affinity site (2.5 X 10(9) l/mol) has low capacity (9 X 10(-15) mol/mg membrane protein) while the low affinity site 6.1 X 10(5) l/mol) has a much higher capacity (1.1 X 10(-10) mol/mg). Specific LH-RH binding to plasma membranes is increased 8.5-fold during purification from homogenate whilst adenylate cyclase activity is enriched 7--8-fold. Distribution of specific LH-RH binding to sucrose density gradient interface fractions parallels that of adenylate cyclase activity. Mg2+ and Ca2+ inhibit specific [125I]LH-RH binding at micromolar concentrations. Synthetic LH-RH, up to 250 microgram/ml, failed to stimulate adenylase cyclase activity of the purified bovine membranes. Using a crude 10,800 g rat pituitary membrane preparation, LH-RH similarly failed to activate adenylate cyclase even in the presence of guanyl nucleotides. These data confirm the presence of LH-RH receptor sites on pituitary plasma membranes and suggest that LH-RH-induced gonadotrophin release may be mediated by mechanisms other than activation of adenylate cyclase.

  16. Modulation of receptors and adenylate cyclase activity during sucrose feeding, food deprivation, and cold exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarpace, P.J.; Baresi, L.A.; Morley, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) serves as a regulator of body temperature and weight maintenance. Thermogenesis can be stimulated by catecholamine activation of adenylate cyclase through the β-adrenergic receptor. To investigate the effects of sucrose feeding, food deprivation, and cold exposure on the β-adrenergic pathway, adenylate cyclase activity and β-adrenergic receptors were assessed in rat BAT after 2 wk of sucrose feeding, 2 days of food deprivation, or 2 days of cold exposure. β-Adrenergic receptors were identified in BAT using [ 125 I]iodocyanopindolol. Binding sites had the characteristics of mixed β 1 - and β 2 -type adrenergic receptors at a ratio of 60/40. After sucrose feeding or cold exposure, there was the expected increase in BAT mitochondrial mass as measured by total cytochrome-c oxidase activity but a decrease in β-adrenergic receptor density due to a loss of the β 1 -adrenergic subtype. This BAT β-adrenergic receptor downregulation was tissue specific, since myocardial β-adrenergic receptors were unchanged with either sucrose feeding or cold exposure. Forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity increased in BAT after sucrose feeding or cold exposure but not after food deprivation. These data suggest that in BAT, sucrose feeding or cold exposure result in downregulation of β-adrenergic receptors and that isoproterenol-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity was limited by receptor availability

  17. Design and Synthesis of Fluorescent Acyclic Nucleoside Phosphonates as Potent Inhibitors of Bacterial Adenylate Cyclases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Břehová, Petra; Šmídková, Markéta; Skácel, Jan; Dračínský, Martin; Mertlíková-Kaiserová, Helena; Velasquez, M. P. S.; Watts, V. J.; Janeba, Zlatko

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 22 (2016), s. 2534-2546 ISSN 1860-7179 R&D Projects: GA MV VG20102015046; GA MŠk LO1302 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : adenylate cyclase toxin * acyclic nucleoside phosphonates * anthranilic acid Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.225, year: 2016

  18. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide reduces A-type K+ currents and caspase activity in cultured adult mouse olfactory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, P; Lucero, M T

    2005-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide has been shown to reduce apoptosis in neonatal cerebellar and olfactory receptor neurons, however the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated. In addition, the neuroprotective effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide have not been examined in adult tissues. To study the effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide on neurons in apoptosis, we measured caspase activation in adult olfactory receptor neurons in vitro. Interestingly, we found that the protective effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide were related to the absence of a 4-aminopyridine (IC50=144 microM) sensitive rapidly inactivating potassium current often referred to as A-type current. In the presence of 40 nM pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 38, both A-type current and activated caspases were significantly reduced. A-type current reduction by pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide was blocked by inhibiting the phospholipase C pathway, but not the adenylyl cyclase pathway. Our observation that 5 mM 4-aminopyridine mimicked the caspase inhibiting effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide indicates that A-type current is involved in apoptosis. This work contributes to our growing understanding that potassium currents are involved with the activation of caspases to affect the balance between cell life and death.

  19. Structural and Functional Studies of Fatty Acyl Adenylate Ligases from E. coli and L. pneumophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z.; Swaminathan, S.; Zhou, R.; Sauder, J. M.; Tonge, P. J.; Burley, S. K.

    2011-02-18

    Fatty acyl-AMP ligase (FAAL) is a new member of a family of adenylate-forming enzymes that were recently discovered in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. They are similar in sequence to fatty acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) ligases (FACLs). However, while FACLs perform a two-step catalytic reaction, AMP ligation followed by CoA ligation using ATP and CoA as cofactors, FAALs produce only the acyl adenylate and are unable to perform the second step. We report X-ray crystal structures of full-length FAAL from Escherichia coli (EcFAAL) and FAAL from Legionella pneumophila (LpFAAL) bound to acyl adenylate, determined at resolution limits of 3.0 and 1.85 {angstrom}, respectively. The structures share a larger N-terminal domain and a smaller C-terminal domain, which together resemble the previously determined structures of FAAL and FACL proteins. Our two structures occur in quite different conformations. EcFAAL adopts the adenylate-forming conformation typical of FACLs, whereas LpFAAL exhibits a unique intermediate conformation. Both EcFAAL and LpFAAL have insertion motifs that distinguish them from the FACLs. Structures of EcFAAL and LpFAAL reveal detailed interactions between this insertion motif and the interdomain hinge region and with the C-terminal domain. We suggest that the insertion motifs support sufficient interdomain motions to allow substrate binding and product release during acyl adenylate formation, but they preclude CoA binding, thereby preventing CoA ligation.

  20. Associação entre doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica e marcadores de lesão/função hepática com componentes da síndrome metabólica em indivíduos obesos classe III Association between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and liver function/injury markers with metabolic syndrome components in class III obese individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Villaça Chaves

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar a associação entre doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica (DHGNA e os marcadores de lesão e função hepática com os componentes da síndrome metabólica (SM em indivíduos obesos classe III. MÉTODOS: A população estudada foi constituída por 144 pacientes com obesidade classe III (IMC > a 40 kg/m². A SM foi identificada segundo o critério do NCEP ATP III, por meio da determinação do perfil lipídico, glicemia e insulina basal. Foram quantificados ainda os marcadores de função e lesão hepática. A resistência à insulina (RI foi verificada pelo índice HOMA-IR e o diagnóstico da DHGNA por ressonância magnética. Os cálculos estatísticos foram realizados pelo programa estatístico SPSS na versão 13.0. A associação foi verificada pelo teste Mann-Whitney e qui-quadrado, com nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: Foi encontrada associação significativa entre o diagnóstico de SM e DHGNA (χ² = 6,84; p = 0,01. Quanto aos componentes diagnósticos para SM, constatou-se associação positiva e significativa entre HDL-c (p = 0,05, circunferência da cintura (p OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and liver function/injury markers with components of metabolic syndrome (MS in class III obese individuals. METHODS: The study population consisted of 144 patients with class III obesity (body mass index [BMI] > 40 kg/m². MS was diagnosed according to the National Cholesterol Education Program - Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III criteria, by determining the lipid profile, blood glucose and basal insulin. Liver function/injury markers were also quantified. Insulin resistance (IR was measured by HOMA-IR and NAFLD diagnosis was established by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Statistical calculations were performed by SPSS version 13.0. The association was assessed by the Mann-Whitney and Chi-square tests, with a level of significance set at 5

  1. Three-Dimensional Evaluation of the Upper Airway Morphological Changes in Growing Patients with Skeletal Class III Malocclusion Treated by Protraction Headgear and Rapid Palatal Expansion: A Comparative Research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueling Chen

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphological changes of upper airway after protraction headgear and rapid maxillary expansion (PE treatment in growing patients with Class III malocclusion and maxillary skeletal deficiency compared with untreated Class III patients by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT.Thirty growing patients who have completed PE therapy were included in PE group. The control group (n = 30 was selected from the growing untreated patients with the same diagnosis. The CBCT scans of the pre-treatment (T1 and post-treatment (T2 of PE group and the control group were collected. Reconstruction and registration of the 3D models of T1 and T2 were completed. By comparing the data obtained from T1, T2 and control group, the morphological changes of the upper airway during the PE treatment were evaluated.Comparing with the data from T1 group, the subspinale (A of maxilla and the upper incisor (UI of the T2 group were moved in the anterior direction. The gnathion (Gn of mandible was moved in the posterior-inferior direction. The displacement of the hyoid bone as well as the length and width of dental arch showed significant difference. The volume and mean cross-sectional area of nasopharynx, velopharynx and glossopharynx region showed significant difference. The largest anteroposterior/the largest lateral (AP/LR ratios of the velopharynx and glossopharynx were increased, but the AP/LR ratio of the hypopharynx was decreased. In addition, the length and width of the maxillary dental arch, the displacement of the hyoid bone, the volume of nasopharynx and velopharynx, and the AP/LR ratio of the hypopharynx and velopharynx showed significant difference between the data from control and T2 group.The PE treatment of Class III malocclusion with maxillary skeletal hypoplasia leads to a significant increase in the volume of nasopharynx and velopharynx.

  2. Proporção divina em indivíduos oclusões classes I, II e III esqueléticas em radiografias cefalométricas laterais

    OpenAIRE

    Tomaz Toniello, Priscila; Chicarelli da Silva, Mariliani; Vessoni Iwaki, Lilian Cristina; Arias Provenzano, María Gisette; Mitsunari Takeshita, Wilton

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: o conceito inicial de beleza remete a um conjunto que engloba harmonia e equilíbrio das proporções faciais estabelecidas pelas estruturas esqueléticas, dentárias e de tecidos moles. Objetivo: o objetivo deste estudo foi analisara proporção divina em radiografias cefalométricas laterais de 93 indivíduos brasileiros adultos, acima de 18 anos, de ambos os gêneros, com classes I, II e III esqueléticas, não submetidos a tratamento ortodôntico, por meio do software de cefalometria "Aure...

  3. Mutating the Conserved Q-loop Glutamine 1291 Selectively Disrupts Adenylate Kinase-dependent Channel Gating of the ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) Adenylate Kinase Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) and Reduces Channel Function in Primary Human Airway Epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qian; Ernst, Sarah E; Ostedgaard, Lynda S; Shah, Viral S; Ver Heul, Amanda R; Welsh, Michael J; Randak, Christoph O

    2015-05-29

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and two other non-membrane-bound ABC proteins, Rad50 and a structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) protein, exhibit adenylate kinase activity in the presence of physiologic concentrations of ATP and AMP or ADP (ATP + AMP ⇆ 2 ADP). The crystal structure of the nucleotide-binding domain of an SMC protein in complex with the adenylate kinase bisubstrate inhibitor P(1),P(5)-di(adenosine-5') pentaphosphate (Ap5A) suggests that AMP binds to the conserved Q-loop glutamine during the adenylate kinase reaction. Therefore, we hypothesized that mutating the corresponding residue in CFTR, Gln-1291, selectively disrupts adenylate kinase-dependent channel gating at physiologic nucleotide concentrations. We found that substituting Gln-1291 with bulky side-chain amino acids abolished the effects of Ap5A, AMP, and adenosine 5'-monophosphoramidate on CFTR channel function. 8-Azidoadenosine 5'-monophosphate photolabeling of the AMP-binding site and adenylate kinase activity were disrupted in Q1291F CFTR. The Gln-1291 mutations did not alter the potency of ATP at stimulating current or ATP-dependent gating when ATP was the only nucleotide present. However, when physiologic concentrations of ADP and AMP were added, adenylate kinase-deficient Q1291F channels opened significantly less than wild type. Consistent with this result, we found that Q1291F CFTR displayed significantly reduced Cl(-) channel function in well differentiated primary human airway epithelia. These results indicate that a highly conserved residue of an ABC transporter plays an important role in adenylate kinase-dependent CFTR gating. Furthermore, the results suggest that adenylate kinase activity is important for normal CFTR channel function in airway epithelia. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Investigation of the pathophysiological mechanisms of migraine attacks induced by pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide-38

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Hougaard, Anders; Schytz, Henrik W

    2014-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide-38 (PACAP38) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide are structurally and functionally closely related but show differences in migraine-inducing properties. Mechanisms responsible for the difference in migraine induction are unknown. Here, for the ...

  5. The role of the C8 proton of ATP in the catalysis of shikimate kinase and adenylate kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenyon Colin P

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been demonstrated that the adenyl moiety of ATP plays a direct role in the regulation of ATP binding and/or phosphoryl transfer within a range of kinase and synthetase enzymes. The role of the C8-H of ATP in the binding and/or phosphoryl transfer on the enzyme activity of a number of kinase and synthetase enzymes has been elucidated. The intrinsic catalysis rate mediated by each kinase enzyme is complex, yielding apparent KM values ranging from less than 0.4 μM to more than 1 mM for ATP in the various kinases. Using a combination of ATP deuterated at the C8 position (C8D-ATP as a molecular probe with site directed mutagenesis (SDM of conserved amino acid residues in shikimate kinase and adenylate kinase active sites, we have elucidated a mechanism by which the ATP C8-H is induced to be labile in the broader kinase family. We have demonstrated the direct role of the C8-H in the rate of ATP consumption, and the direct role played by conserved Thr residues interacting with the C8-H. The mechanism by which the vast range in KM might be achieved is also suggested by these findings. Results We have demonstrated the mechanism by which the enzyme activities of Group 2 kinases, shikimate kinase (SK and adenylate kinase 1 (AK1, are controlled by the C8-H of ATP. Mutations of the conserved threonine residues associated with the labile C8-H cause the enzymes to lose their saturation kinetics over the concentration range tested. The relationship between the role C8-H of ATP in the reaction mechanism and the ATP concentration as they influence the saturation kinetics of the enzyme activity is also shown. The SDM clearly identified the amino acid residues involved in both the catalysis and regulation of phosphoryl transfer in SK and AK1 as mediated by C8H-ATP. Conclusions The data outlined serves to demonstrate the “push” mechanism associated with the control of the saturation kinetics of Group 2 kinases mediated by ATP C8-H. It

  6. A randomized clinical multicentre trial comparing enamel matrix derivative and membrane treatment of buccal class II furcation involvement in mandibular molars. Part III: patient factors and treatment outcome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, T.; Richter, S; Meyle, J.; Gonzales, J.R.; Heinz, B.; Arjomand, M.; Sculean, A.; Reich, E.; Jepsen, K.J.; Jepsen, S.; Boedeker, R.H.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of effects of patient factors on the outcome of regenerative treatment of buccal mandibular class II furcation defects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty-one patients were recruited. In the intention-to-treat population 21 patients were allocated into the sequence left treatment with

  7. Natural separation of the acyl-CoA ligase reaction results in a non-adenylating enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nan; Rudolf, Jeffrey D; Dong, Liao-Bin; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Hatzos-Skintges, Catherine; Endres, Michael; Chang, Chin-Yuan; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Phillips, George N; Shen, Ben

    2018-06-04

    Acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) ligases catalyze the activation of carboxylic acids via a two-step reaction of adenylation followed by thioesterification. Here, we report the discovery of a non-adenylating acyl-CoA ligase PtmA2 and the functional separation of an acyl-CoA ligase reaction. Both PtmA1 and PtmA2, two acyl-CoA ligases from the biosynthetic pathway of platensimycin and platencin, are necessary for the two steps of CoA activation. Gene inactivation of ptmA1 and ptmA2 resulted in the accumulation of free acid and adenylate intermediates, respectively. Enzymatic and structural characterization of PtmA2 confirmed its ability to only catalyze thioesterification. Structural characterization of PtmA2 revealed it binds both free acid and adenylate substrates and undergoes the established mechanism of domain alternation. Finally, site-directed mutagenesis restored both the adenylation and complete CoA activation reactions. This study challenges the currently accepted paradigm of adenylating enzymes and inspires future investigations on functionally separated acyl-CoA ligases and their ramifications in biology.

  8. "Converting a bi-jaw surgery to a single-jaw surgery:" Posterior maxillary dentoalveolar intrusion with microimplants to avoid the need of a maxillary surgery in the surgical management of skeletal Class III vertical malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhisek Ghosh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of a vertical skeletal Class III malocclusion with mandibular prognathism revolves around the protocol of bi-jaw surgery (maxillary LeFort I impaction and mandibular bilateral sagittal split osteotomy with setback. The maxillary surgery not only provides increased stability to the ultimate surgical outcome but also increases the amount by which the mandibular set back can be done, therefore aiding in greater profile improvement. With the need of maxillary surgery almost inevitable in treating such situations, the complexity and the increased discomfort associated with such surgery can never be ignored. Is it at all possible to convert a bi-jaw surgery into a single-jaw surgery with the aid of microimplants? With increasing number of patients being treated with microimplants for anterior openbite and gummy smiles, our idea was to incorporate this novel protocol in treating Class III vertical situations and therefore avoid the need of a maxillary surgery in treating such a situation, together with achieving optimum treatment outcome.

  9. In vivo adenylate cyclase activity in ultraviolet- and gamma-irradiated Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, A.; Bhattacharya, A.K.

    1988-01-01

    The incorporation of [ 14 C]adenine into the cyclic AMP fraction by whole cells of Escherichia coli B/r was taken as a measure of the in vivo adenylate cyclase activity. This activity was significantly inhibited by irradiation of the cells either with 60 Co γ-rays or with UV light from a germicidal lamp, suggesting inhibition of cyclic AMP synthesis. The incubation of cells after irradiation with lower doses (50-100 Gy) of γ-rays produced a significant increase of in vivo adenylate cyclase activity, whereas there was no significant change after high doses (150 Gy and above). Dark incubation of cells after irradiation with UV light (54 J m -2 ) led to recovery of enzyme activity to the level measured in unirradiated cells. Thus it appears that the catabolite repression of L-arabinose isomerase induced by UV light, as well as γ-irradiation, is due to reduced cyclic AMP synthesis in irradiated cells. (author)

  10. In vivo adenylate cyclase activity in ultraviolet- and gamma-irradiated Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, A; Bhattacharya, A K

    1988-06-01

    The incorporation of [14C]adenine into the cyclic AMP fraction by whole cells of Escherichia coli B/r was taken as a measure of the in vivo adenylate cyclase activity. This activity was significantly inhibited by irradiation of the cells either with 60Co gamma-rays or with UV light from a germicidal lamp, suggesting inhibition of cyclic AMP synthesis. The incubation of cells after irradiation with lower doses (50-100 Gy) of gamma-rays produced a significant increase of in vivo adenylate cyclase activity, whereas there was no significant change after higher doses (150 Gy and above). Dark incubation of cells after irradiation with UV light (54 J m-2) led to recovery of enzyme activity to the level measured in unirradiated cells. Thus it appears that the catabolite repression of L-arabinose isomerase induced by UV light, as well as gamma-irradiation, is due to reduced cyclic AMP synthesis in irradiated cells.

  11. Interaction of Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin with complement receptor 3 involves multivalent glycan binding

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hasan, Shakir; Osičková, Adriana; Bumba, Ladislav; Novák, Petr; Šebo, Peter; Osička, Radim

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 589, č. 3 (2015), s. 374-379 ISSN 0014-5793 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/11/0580; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-09157S; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-11851S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Adenylate cyclase toxin * CD11b/CD18 * Complement receptor type 3 Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.519, year: 2015

  12. Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin is a unique ligand of the integrin complement receptor 3

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Osička, Radim; Osičková, Adriana; Hasan, Shakir; Bumba, Ladislav; Černý, Jiří; Šebo, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 4, DEC 9 (2015) ISSN 2050-084X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/11/0580; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-11851S; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:86652036 Keywords : E. coli * adenylate cyclase toxin * biochemistry Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 8.282, year: 2015

  13. Adenylate Cyclase Toxin Subverts Phagocyte Function by RhoA Inhibition and Unproductive Ruffling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kamanová, Jana; Kofroňová, Olga; Mašín, Jiří; Genth, H.; Vojtová, Jana; Linhartová, Irena; Benada, Oldřich; Just, I.; Šebo, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 181, č. 8 (2008), s. 5587-5597 ISSN 0022-1767 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0506; GA MŠk 2B06161; GA ČR GA310/08/0447 Grant - others:XE(XE) LSHB-CT-2003-503582 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : bordetella * adenylate cyclase toxin * rhoa Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 6.000, year: 2008

  14. Synthesis of alpha-Branched Acyclic Nucleoside Phosphonates as Potential Inhibitors of Bacterial Adenylate Cyclases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frydrych, Jan; Skácel, Jan; Šmídková, Markéta; Mertlíková-Kaiserová, Helena; Dračínský, Martin; Gnanasekaran, Ramachandran; Lepšík, Martin; Soto-Velasquez, M.; Watts, V. J.; Janeba, Zlatko

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 2 (2018), s. 199-206 ISSN 1860-7179 R&D Projects: GA MV VG20102015046; GA ČR(CZ) GBP208/12/G016; GA MŠk LO1302 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : acyclic nucleoside phosphonates * adenylate cyclase toxin * bisamidates * Bordetella pertussis * prodrugs Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Organic chemistry Impact factor: 3.225, year: 2016

  15. Quantification of potassium levels in cells treated with Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wald, Tomáš; Petry-Podgorska, Inga; Fišer, Radovan; Matoušek, Tomáš; Dědina, Jiří; Osička, Radim; Šebo, Peter; Mašín, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 450, APR 2014 (2014), s. 57-62 ISSN 0003-2697 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/11/0580; GA ČR GA13-14547S; GA ČR GAP302/12/0460 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:68081715 Keywords : Potassium * Adenylate cyclase toxin * RTX Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.219, year: 2014

  16. Different strictuctural requirements for adenylate cyclase toxin interactions with erythrocyte and liposome membranes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mašín, Jiří; Konopásek, I.; Svobodová, J.; Šebo, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 1660, - (2004), s. 144-154 ISSN 0005-2736 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IPP1050128; GA AV ČR IAA5020907 Grant - others:GA Howard Hughes Medical Institut(US) 55000334; GA(XE) QLK2-CT-1999-00556 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : bordetella pertussis * adenylate cyclase toxin * membrane interaction Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.441, year: 2004

  17. Class III antiarrhythmic agents in cardiac failure: lessons from clinical trials with a focus on the Grupo de Estudio de la Sobrevida en la Insuficiencia Cardiaca en Argentina (GESICA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doval, H C

    1999-11-04

    The results of previous clinical trials, in a variety of clinical settings, showed that class I agents may consistently increase mortality in sharp contrast to the effects of beta blockers. Attention has therefore shifted to class III compounds for potential beneficial effects on long-term mortality among patients with underlying cardiac disease. Clinical trials with d-sotalol, the dextro isomer (devoid of beta blockade) of sotalol, showed increased mortality in patients with low ejection fraction after myocardial infarction and in those with heart failure; whereas in the case of dofetilide, the impact on mortality was neutral. Because of the complex effects of its actions as an alpha-adrenergic blocker and a class III agent, the impact on mortality of amiodarone in patients with heart failure is of particular interest. A meta-analysis of 13 clinical trials revealed significant reductions in all-cause and cardiac mortality among patients with heart failure or previous myocardial infarction. Among these were 5 controlled clinical trials that investigated the effects of amiodarone on mortality among patients with heart failure. None of these trials was large relative to the beta-blocker trials in the postinfarction patients. However, the larger 2 of the 5 amiodarone trials produced discordant effects on mortality, neutral in one and significantly positive in the other. Some of the differences may be accounted for by the differences in eligibility criteria and baseline characteristics. Future trials that may be undertaken to resolve the discrepancies may need to allow for the newer findings on the effects of concomitant beta blockers, implantable devices, and possibly, spironolactone. All these modalities of treatment have been shown in controlled clinical trials to augment survival in patients with impaired ventricular function or manifest heart failure. Additional trials, some of which are currently in progress, compare amiodarone with implantable devices and other

  18. Age-associated alterations in hepatic β-adrenergic receptor/adenylate cyclase complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, S.M.; Herring, P.A.; Arinze, I.J.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of age on catecholamine regulation of hepatic glycogenolysis and on hepatic adenylate cyclase was studied in male rats up to 24 mo of age. Epinephrine and norepinephrine stimulated glycogenolysis in isolated hepatocytes at all age groups studied. Isoproterenol, however, stimulated glycogenolysis only at 24 mo. In isolated liver membranes, usual activators of adenylate cyclase increased the activity of the enzyme considerably more in membranes from 24-mo-old rats than in membranes from either 3- or 22-mo-old rats. The Mn 2+ -dependent activity of the cyclase was increased by 2.9-fold in 3-mo-old animals and ∼ 5.7-fold in 24-mo-old rats, indicating a substantial age-dependent increase in the intrinsic activity of the catalytic unit. The density of the β-adrenergic receptor, as measured by the binding of [ 125 I]-iodocyanopindolol to plasma membranes, was 5-8 fmol/mg protein in rats aged 3-12 mo but increased to 19 fmol/mg protein in 24-mo-old rats. Computer-aided analysis of isoproterenol competition of the binding indicated a small age-dependent increase in the proportion of β-receptors in the high-affinity state. These observations suggest that β-receptor-mediated hepatic glycogenolysis in the aged rat is predicated upon increases in the density of β-receptors as well as increased intrinsic activity of the catalytic unit of adenylate cyclase

  19. The effects of sex and neonatal stress on pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosca, E V; Rousseau, J P; Gulemetova, R; Kinkead, R; Wilson, R J A

    2015-02-01

    What is the central question of this study? Does sex or neonatal stress affect the expression of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide or its receptors? What is the main finding and its importance? Neonatal-maternal separation stress has little long-lasting effect on the expression of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide or its receptors, but sex differences exist in these genes between males and females at baseline. Sex differences in classic stress hormones have been studied in depth, but pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP), recently identified as playing a critical role in the stress axes, has not. Here we studied whether baseline levels of PACAP differ between sexes in various stress-related tissues and whether neonatal-maternal separation stress has a sex-dependent effect on PACAP gene expression in stress pathways. Using quantitative RT-PCR, we found sex differences in PACAP and PACAP receptor gene expression in several respiratory and/or stress-related tissues, while neonatal-maternal separation stress did little to affect PACAP signalling in adult animals. We propose that sex differences in PACAP expression are likely to contribute to differences between males and females in responses to stress. © 2015 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  20. A Simple Luminescent Adenylate-Cyclase Functional Assay for Evaluation of Bacillus anthracis Edema Factor Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma’ayan Israeli

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Edema Factor (EF, the toxic sub-unit of the Bacillus anthracis Edema Toxin (ET is a calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase whose detrimental activity in the infected host results in severe edema. EF is therefore a major virulence factor of B. anthracis. We describe a simple, rapid and reliable functional adenylate-cyclase assay based on inhibition of a luciferase-mediated luminescence reaction. The assay exploits the efficient adenylate cyclase-mediated depletion of adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP, and the strict dependence on ATP of the light-emitting luciferase-catalyzed luciferin-conversion to oxyluciferin, which can be easily visualized. The assay exhibits a robust EF-dose response decrease in luminescence, which may be specifically reverted by anti-EF antibodies. The application of the assay is exemplified in: (a determining the presence of EF in B. anthracis cultures, or its absence in cultures of EF-defective strains; (b evaluating the anti-EF humoral response in experimental animals infected/vaccinated with B. anthracis; and (c rapid discrimination between EF producing and non-producing bacterial colonies. Furthermore, the assay may be amenable with high-throughput screening for EF inhibitory molecules.

  1. Adenylate cyclase toxin promotes internalisation of integrins and raft components and decreases macrophage adhesion capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Martín

    Full Text Available Bordetella pertussis, the bacterium that causes whooping cough, secretes an adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT that must be post-translationally palmitoylated in the bacterium cytosol to be active. The toxin targets phagocytes expressing the CD11b/CD18 integrin receptor. It delivers a catalytic adenylate cyclase domain into the target cell cytosol producing a rapid increase of intracellular cAMP concentration that suppresses bactericidal functions of the phagocyte. ACT also induces calcium fluxes into target cells. Biochemical, biophysical and cell biology approaches have been applied here to show evidence that ACT and integrin molecules, along with other raft components, are rapidly internalized by the macrophages in a toxin-induced calcium rise-dependent process. The toxin-triggered internalisation events occur through two different routes of entry, chlorpromazine-sensitive receptor-mediated endocytosis and clathrin-independent internalisation, maybe acting in parallel. ACT locates into raft-like domains, and is internalised, also in cells devoid of receptor. Altogether our results suggest that adenylate cyclase toxin, and maybe other homologous pathogenic toxins from the RTX (Repeats in Toxin family to which ACT belongs, may be endowed with an intrinsic capacity to, directly and efficiently, insert into raft-like domains, promoting there its multiple activities. One direct consequence of the integrin removal from the cell surface of the macrophages is the hampering of their adhesion ability, a fundamental property in the immune response of the leukocytes that could be instrumental in the pathogenesis of Bordetella pertussis.

  2. Adenylate cyclase toxin promotes internalisation of integrins and raft components and decreases macrophage adhesion capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, César; Uribe, Kepa B; Gómez-Bilbao, Geraxane; Ostolaza, Helena

    2011-02-23

    Bordetella pertussis, the bacterium that causes whooping cough, secretes an adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) that must be post-translationally palmitoylated in the bacterium cytosol to be active. The toxin targets phagocytes expressing the CD11b/CD18 integrin receptor. It delivers a catalytic adenylate cyclase domain into the target cell cytosol producing a rapid increase of intracellular cAMP concentration that suppresses bactericidal functions of the phagocyte. ACT also induces calcium fluxes into target cells. Biochemical, biophysical and cell biology approaches have been applied here to show evidence that ACT and integrin molecules, along with other raft components, are rapidly internalized by the macrophages in a toxin-induced calcium rise-dependent process. The toxin-triggered internalisation events occur through two different routes of entry, chlorpromazine-sensitive receptor-mediated endocytosis and clathrin-independent internalisation, maybe acting in parallel. ACT locates into raft-like domains, and is internalised, also in cells devoid of receptor. Altogether our results suggest that adenylate cyclase toxin, and maybe other homologous pathogenic toxins from the RTX (Repeats in Toxin) family to which ACT belongs, may be endowed with an intrinsic capacity to, directly and efficiently, insert into raft-like domains, promoting there its multiple activities. One direct consequence of the integrin removal from the cell surface of the macrophages is the hampering of their adhesion ability, a fundamental property in the immune response of the leukocytes that could be instrumental in the pathogenesis of Bordetella pertussis.

  3. Relação entre o estado nutricional de vitamina a e a regressão da esteatose hepática após gastroplastia em Y- de- Roux para tratamento da obesidade classe III Relationship of the nutritional status of vitamin a and the regression of hepatic steatosis after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery for treatment of class III obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gustavo de Oliveira e Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: A vitamina A participa de várias funções primordiais no organismo humano e as suas concentrações séricas podem estar diminuídas nas doenças crônicas não transmissíveis. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a relação entre o estado nutricional da vitamina A, e a regressão da esteatose hepática em indivíduos submetidos à gastroplastia em Y-de-Roux para tratamento da obesidade classe III. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 30 pacientes obesos classe III, de ambos os sexos, com esteatose hepática, submetidos à gastroplastia em Y-de-Roux. Seis meses após a operação, os pacientes foram submetidos à ultrassonografia abdominal e distribuídos em dois grupos: grupo 1 - pacientes com esteatose detectada na ultrassonografia e grupo 2 - pacientes sem esteatose detectada na ultrassonografia. No pré-operatório e seis meses após a operação foram realizadas análises antropométricas e exames bioquímicos: insulina basal, glicemia, Homeostasis Model Assessment Index (HOMA IR, colesterol, HDL, LDL, triglicerídeos, AST, ALT, Gama-GT, albumina, bilirrubina total, retinol, e beta caroteno. RESULTADOS: A média de perda de peso foi de 35,05 + 10,47 (pBACKGROUND: Vitamin A participates in several essentials functions in the human body and their serum concentrations may be decreased in non-transmissible diseases. AIM: To assess the relationship of the nutritional status of Vitamin A through the serum concentrations of retinol and beta carotene, with regression of hepatic steatosis in individuals who undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery for treatment of class III obesity. METHODS: Were included 30 individuals, male and female, submitted to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for treatment of class III obesity, who were diagnosed through an abdominal ultrasonography as presenting hepatic steatosis. From the result of an ultrasonography screened six months after the surgical procedure those subjects were divided into two groups: group 1 - patients with steatosis

  4. A comprehensive survey of 3′ animal miRNA modification events and a possible role for 3′ adenylation in modulating miRNA targeting effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Burroughs, A. Maxwell; Ando, Yoshinari; de Hoon, Michiel J.L.; Tomaru, Yasuhiro; Nishibu, Takahiro; Ukekawa, Ryo; Funakoshi, Taku; Kurokawa, Tsutomu; Suzuki, Harukazu; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Daub, Carsten O.

    2010-01-01

    Animal microRNA sequences are subject to 3′ nucleotide addition. Through detailed analysis of deep-sequenced short RNA data sets, we show adenylation and uridylation of miRNA is globally present and conserved across Drosophila and vertebrates. To better understand 3′ adenylation function, we deep-sequenced RNA after knockdown of nucleotidyltransferase enzymes. The PAPD4 nucleotidyltransferase adenylates a wide range of miRNA loci, but adenylation does not appear to affect miRNA stability on a...

  5. III. SINIF ÜÇ OLGUNUN TEDAVİSİNDE YÜZ MASKESİ UYGULAMASI (Olgu Bildirimi)-FACE MASK IN THE TREATMENT OF THE THREE CLASS III CASES (A Case Report)

    OpenAIRE

    Saraç, Müyesser; Kılıçoğlu, Hülya; Kırlıç, Yıldız

    2013-01-01

    ÖZETBu olgu bildirisinde, tedavisinde Delaire yüz maskesi uygulanan, iskele tsel ve dîşsel III. sınıf maloklüzyonu olan üç olgunun tedavi sonuçlarına ilişkin değerlendirmeler yapılmıştır. Gelişim döneminde olan iki olguda, yüz maskesinin ortopedik etkisi ile iskeletsel uyumsuzluk düzelmiştir. Gelişimini tamamlamış olan üçüncü olguda yüz maskesi, ortognatik cerrahi uygulamasından sonra postoperatif dönemde ağız içi fiksasyon ile beraber, ağız dışı fiksasyon amacı İle kullanılmış ve nüksün önle...

  6. Mechanistic Insights from the Crystal Structure of Bacillus subtilis o-Succinylbenzoyl-CoA Synthetase Complexed with the Adenylate Intermediate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yaozong; Jiang, Yiping; Guo, Zhihong

    2016-12-06

    o-Succinylbenzoyl-CoA (OSB-CoA) synthetase, or MenE, catalyzes an essential step in vitamin K biosynthesis and is a valuable drug target. Like many other adenylating enzymes, it changes its structure to accommodate substrate binding, catalysis, and product release along the path of a domain alternation catalytic mechanism. We have determined the crystal structure of its complex with the adenylation product, o-succinylbenzoyl-adenosine monophosphate (OSB-AMP), and captured a new postadenylation state. This structure presents unique features such as a strained conformation for the bound adenylate intermediate to indicate that it represents the enzyme state after completion of the adenylation reaction but before release of the C domain in its transition to the thioesterification conformation. By comparison to the ATP-bound preadenylation conformation, structural changes are identified in both the reactants and the active site to allow inference about how these changes accommodate and facilitate the adenylation reaction and to directly support an in-line backside attack nucleophilic substitution mechanism for the first half-reaction. Mutational analysis suggests that the conserved His196 plays an important role in desolvation of the active site rather than stabilizing the transition state of the adenylation reaction. In addition, comparison of the new structure with a previously determined OSB-AMP-bound structure of the same enzyme allows us to propose a release mechanism of the C domain in its alteration to form the thioesterification conformation. These findings allow us to better understand the domain alternation catalytic mechanism of MenE as well as many other adenylating enzymes.

  7. Structural basis of the interaction of MbtH-like proteins, putative regulators of nonribosomal peptide biosynthesis, with adenylating enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Dominik A; Boll, Björn; Zocher, Georg; Stehle, Thilo; Heide, Lutz

    2013-01-18

    The biosynthesis of nonribosomally formed peptides (NRPs), which include important antibiotics such as vancomycin, requires the activation of amino acids through adenylate formation. The biosynthetic gene clusters of NRPs frequently contain genes for small, so-called MbtH-like proteins. Recently, it was discovered that these MbtH-like proteins are required for some of the adenylation reactions in NRP biosynthesis, but the mechanism of their interaction with the adenylating enzymes has remained unknown. In this study, we determined the structure of SlgN1, a 3-methylaspartate-adenylating enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of the hybrid polyketide/NRP antibiotic streptolydigin. SlgN1 contains an MbtH-like domain at its N terminus, and our analysis defines the parameters required for an interaction between MbtH-like domains and an adenylating enzyme. Highly conserved tryptophan residues of the MbtH-like domain critically contribute to this interaction. Trp-25 and Trp-35 form a cleft on the surface of the MbtH-like domain, which accommodates the alanine side chain of Ala-433 of the adenylating domain. Mutation of Ala-433 to glutamate abolished the activity of SlgN1. Mutation of Ser-23 of the MbtH-like domain to tyrosine resulted in strongly reduced activity. However, the activity of this S23Y mutant could be completely restored by addition of the intact MbtH-like protein CloY from another organism. This suggests that the interface found in the structure of SlgN1 is the genuine interface between MbtH-like proteins and adenylating enzymes.

  8. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation, and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.; Zirczy, Helena H.

    2000-05-24

    The objective of this Class 3 project was to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. Phase 1 of the project, reservoir characterization, was completed this year, and Phase 2 began. The project is focused on East Ford field, a representative Delaware Mountain Group field that produces from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The field, discovered in 1960, is operated by Oral Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit. A CO{sub 2} flood is being conducted in the unit, and this flood is the Phase 2 demonstration for the project.

  9. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.; Mendez, Daniel L.

    2001-05-08

    The objective of this Class 3 project was demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstone's of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover oil more economically through geologically based field development. This project was focused on East Ford field, a Delaware Mountain Group field that produced from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The field, discovered in 9160, is operated by Oral Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit. A CO2 flood was being conducted in the unit, and this flood is the Phase 2 demonstration for the project.

  10. Sinus lifting before Le Fort I maxillary osteotomy: a suitable method for oral rehabilitation of edentulous patients with skelettal class-III conditions: review of the literature and report of a case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional rehabilitation of patients afflicted with severe mandibular and maxillary alveolar atrophy might be challenging especially in malformed patients. Methods Treatment planning using sinus lifting and implant placement before Le Fort I maxillary osteotomy in a patient with severe mandibular and posterior maxillary alveolar atrophy and skelettal class-III conditions due to cleft palate are described. Results A full functional and esthetic rehabilitation of the patient was achieved by a stepwise surgical approach performed through sinus lifting as the primary approach followed by implant placement and subsequent Le Fort I maxillary osteotomy to correct the maxillo-mandibular relation. Conclusion Stabilisation of the maxillary complex by a sinus lifting procedure in combination with computer aided implant placement as preorthodontic planning procedure before Le Fort I maxillary osteotomy seems to be suitable in order to allow ideal oral rehabilitation especially in malformed patients.

  11. Relationship between time to clinical response and outcomes among Pneumonia Outcomes Research Team (PORT) risk class III and IV hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia who received ceftriaxone and azithromycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zasowski, Evan; Butterfield, Jill M; McNutt, Louise-Ann; Cohen, Jason; Cosler, Leon; Pai, Manjunath P; Gottwald, Joseph; Chen, Wen Zhen; Lodise, Thomas P

    2014-07-01

    Recent Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidance endorses the use of an early clinical response endpoint as the primary outcome for community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) trials. While antibiotics will now be approved for CABP, in practice they will primarily be used to treat patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). More importantly, it is unclear how achievement of the new FDA CABP early response endpoint translates into clinically applicable real-world outcomes for patients with CAP. To address this, a retrospective cohort study was conducted among adult patients who received ceftriaxone and azithromycin for CAP of Pneumonia Outcomes Research Team (PORT) risk class III and IV at an academic medical center. The clinical response was defined as clinical stability for 24 h with improvement in at least one pneumonia symptom and with no symptom worsening. A classification and regression tree (CART) was used to determine the delay in response time, measured in days, associated with the greatest risk of a prolonged hospital length of stay (LOS) and adverse outcomes (in-hospital mortality or 30-day CAP-related readmission). A total of 250 patients were included. On average, patients were discharged 2 days following the achievement of a clinical response. In the CART analysis, adverse clinical outcomes were higher among day 5 nonresponders than those who responded by day 5 (22.4% versus 6.9%, P = 0.001). The findings from this study indicate that time to clinical response, as defined by the recent FDA guidance, is a reasonable prognostic indicator of real-world effectiveness outcomes among hospitalized PORT risk class III and IV patients with CAP who received ceftriaxone and azithromycin. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Magnitude of Alloresponses to MHC Class I/II Expressing Human Cardiac Myocytes is Limited by their Intrinsic Ability to Process and Present Antigenic Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aftab A. Ansari

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation we have explored the relationship between the weak allogenicity of cardiac myocytes and their capacity to present allo-antigens by examining the ability of a human cardiac myocyte cell line (W-1 to process and present nominal antigens. W-1 cells (HLA-A*0201 and HLA-DR β1*0301 pulsed with the influenza A matrix 1 (58-66 peptide (M1 were able to serve as targets for the HLA-A*0201 restricted CTL line PG, specific for M1-peptide. However, PG-CTLs were unable to lyse W-1 target cells infected with a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the M1 protein (M1-VAC. Pretreatment of these M1-VAC targets with IFN-γ partially restored their ability to process and present the M1 peptide. However, parallel studies demonstrated that IFN-γ pretreated W-1's could not process tetanus toxin (TT or present the TT(830-843 peptide to HLA-DR3 restricted TT-primed T cells. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR measurements revealed significantly lower constitutive levels of expression for MHC class I, TAP-1/2, and LMP-2/7 genes in W-1s that could be elevated by pretreatment with IFN-γ to values equal to or greater than those expressed in EBV-PBLs. However, mRNA levels for the genes encoding MHC class II, Ii, CIITA, and DMA/B were markedly lower in both untreated and IFN-γ pretreated W-1s relative to EBV-PBLs. Furthermore, pulse-chase analysis of the corresponding genes revealed significantly lower protein levels and longer half-life expression in W-1s relative to EBV-PBLs. These results suggest that weak allogenicity of cardiac myocytes may be governed by their limited expression of MHC genes and gene products critical for antigen processing and presentation.

  13. Mycobacterium tuberculosis class II apurinic/apyrimidinic-endonuclease/3'-5' exonuclease III exhibits DNA regulated modes of interaction with the sliding DNA β-clamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanam, Taran; Rai, Niyati; Ramachandran, Ravishankar

    2015-10-01

    The class-II AP-endonuclease (XthA) acts on abasic sites of damaged DNA in bacterial base excision repair. We identified that the sliding DNA β-clamp forms in vivo and in vitro complexes with XthA in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A novel 239 QLRFPKK245 motif in the DNA-binding domain of XthA was found to be important for the interactions. Likewise, the peptide binding-groove (PBG) and the C-terminal of β-clamp located on different domains interact with XthA. The β-clamp-XthA complex can be disrupted by clamp binding peptides and also by a specific bacterial clamp inhibitor that binds at the PBG. We also identified that β-clamp stimulates the activities of XthA primarily by increasing its affinity for the substrate and its processivity. Additionally, loading of the β-clamp onto DNA is required for activity stimulation. A reduction in XthA activity stimulation was observed in the presence of β-clamp binding peptides supporting that direct interactions between the proteins are necessary to cause stimulation. Finally, we found that in the absence of DNA, the PBG located on the second domain of the β-clamp is important for interactions with XthA, while the C-terminal domain predominantly mediates functional interactions in the substrate's presence. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Using Recent Advances in 2D Seismic Technology and Surface Geochemistry to Economically Redevelop a Shallow Shelf Carbonate Reservoir: Vernon Field, Isabella County, M, Class III; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, James R.; Bornhorst, T.J.; Chittick, S.D.; Harrison, William B.; Tayjor, W. Quinlan

    2001-01-01

    In this project a consortium consisting of Cronus Exploration (Traverse City, MI), Michigan Technological University (Houghton, MI) and Western Michigan University (Kalamazoo, MI) proposed to develop and execute an economical and environmentally sensitive plan for recovery of hydrocarbons from an abandoned shallow-shelf carbonate field that is typical of many fields in the U.S. Midwest. This is a 5-year project that will use surface geochemistry as a tool to reduce risk in locating and producing hydrocarbons in Class II fields. The project will develop new techniques for measuring hydrocarbon gases in the soil horizon to locate new and bypassed oil in the shallow-shelf carbonate environments typified by the Dundee and Trenton Formations of the Michigan Basin (Fisher et. al., 1988). In Phase I of the project, the consortium proposes to re-develop the Vernon Oil field located in Vernon Twp, Isabella County, Michigan and produce both bypassed hydrocarbons from the original field and to locate and produce extensions of the original field

  15. Mesophilic and hyperthermophilic adenylate kinases differ in their tolerance to random fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segall-Shapiro, Thomas H; Nguyen, Peter Q; Dos Santos, Edgardo D; Subedi, Saurav; Judd, Justin; Suh, Junghae; Silberg, Jonathan J

    2011-02-11

    The extent to which thermostability influences the location of protein fragmentation sites that allow retention of function is not known. To evaluate this, we used a novel transposase-based approach to create libraries of vectors that express structurally-related fragments of Bacillus subtilis adenylate kinase (BsAK) and Thermotoga neapolitana adenylate kinase (TnAK) with identical modifications at their termini, and we selected for variants in each library that complement the growth of Escherichia coli with a temperature-sensitive adenylate kinase (AK). Mutants created using the hyperthermophilic TnAK were found to support growth with a higher frequency (44%) than those generated from the mesophilic BsAK (6%), and selected TnAK mutants complemented E. coli growth more strongly than homologous BsAK variants. Sequencing of functional clones from each library also identified a greater dispersion of fragmentation sites within TnAK. Nondisruptive fission sites were observed within the AMP binding and core domains of both AK homologs. However, only TnAK contained sites within the lid domain, which undergoes dynamic fluctuations that are critical for catalysis. These findings implicate the flexible lid domain as having an increased sensitivity to fission events at physiological temperatures. In addition, they provide evidence that comparisons of nondisruptive fission sites in homologous proteins could be useful for finding dynamic regions whose conformational fluctuations are important for function, and they show that the discovery of protein fragments that cooperatively function in mesophiles can be aided by the use of thermophilic enzymes as starting points for protein design. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Engineering the Substrate Specificity of the DhbE Adenylation Domain by Yeast Cell Surface Display

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Keya; Nelson, Kathryn M.; Bhuripanyo, Karan; Grimes, Kimberly D.; Zhao, Bo; Aldrich, Courtney C.; Yin, Jun

    2013-01-01

    The adenylation (A) domains of nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) activate aryl acids or amino acids to launch their transfer through the NRPS assembly line for the biosynthesis of many medicinally important natural products. In order to expand the substrate pool of NRPSs, we developed a method based on yeast cell surface display to engineer the substrate specificities of the A-domains. We acquired A-domain mutants of DhbE that have 11- and 6-fold increases in kcat/Km with nonnative sub...

  17. Alteration in adenylate cyclase response to aminergic stimulation following neonatal x-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronister, R.B.; Palmer, G.C.; Gerbrandt, L.

    1980-01-01

    X-irradiation of the rat neonatal hippocampus produces severe alterations in the architectonic features of the mature hippocampus. The most prominent alteration is a marked depletion of the granule cells of the dentate gyrus, with a subsequent realignment of CA 4 cells. The present data also show that norepinephrine (NE), dopamine and histamine stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity is severely attenuated in the hippocampi of irradiated animals. This failure suggests that the NE fibers of irradiated subjects, although normal in content of NE, are not functional in some of their NE-effector actions

  18. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide: occurrence and relaxant effect in female genital tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenstrup, B R; Alm, P; Hannibal, J

    1995-01-01

    The distribution, localization, and smooth muscle effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) were studied in the human female genital tract. The concentrations of PACAP-38 and PACAP-27 were measured by radioimmunoassays, and both peptides were found throughout the genital...... was observed. The findings suggest a smooth muscle regulatory role of PACAP in the human female reproductive tract....... tract. The highest concentrations of PACAP-38 were detected in the ovary, the upper part of vagina, and the perineum. The concentrations of PACAP-27 were generally low, in some regions below the detection limit and in other regions 1 to 5% of the PACAP-38 concentrations. Immunocytochemistry revealed...

  19. Structure-Function Relationships Underlying the Capacity of Bordetella Adenylate Cyclase Toxin to Disarm Host Phagocytes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Jakub; Černý, Ondřej; Osičková, Adriana; Linhartová, Irena; Mašín, Jiří; Bumba, Ladislav; Šebo, Peter; Osička, Radim

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 10 (2017), s. 1-28, č. článku 300. E-ISSN 2072-6651 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-09157S; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-05919S; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015064; GA MZd(CZ) NV16-28126A Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : adenylate cyclase toxin * Bordetella * cAMP Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 3.030, year: 2016

  20. Segments Crucial for Membrane Translocation and Pore-forming Activity of Bordetella Adenylate Cyclase Toxin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Basler, Marek; Knapp, O.; Mašín, Jiří; Fišer, R.; Maier, E.; Benz, R.; Šebo, Peter; Osička, Radim

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 282, č. 17 (2007), s. 12419-12429 ISSN 0021-9258 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0506; GA AV ČR IAA5020406 Grant - others:XE(XE) European Union 6th FP contract LSHB-CT-2003-503582 THERAVAC Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : bordetella * adenylate cyclase toxin * ac membrane translocation Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 5.581, year: 2007

  1. Comparison of the in vivo and in vitro activities of adenylate cyclase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra(NCTC 7417)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padh, Harish; Venkitsubramanian, T.A.

    1979-01-01

    The incorporation of [ 14 C] adenine into the adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP) fraction by whole cells of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was taken as a measure of the in vivo activity of adenylate cyclase. The in vivo activity of adenylate cyclase was significantly inhibited by glucose, thus suggesting that the low level of cyclic AMP in the presence of glucose is due to the inhibited synthesis of cyclic AMP. In vitro activity of adenylate cyclase had optimum pH of 8.5 and Km of 1.33 mM for ATP. Glucose and other sugars did not show significant inhibition of in vitro activity. The results suggest that the adenylate cyclase activity becomes less sensitive to glucose when the bacterial cells are disrupted, an analogy with eukaryotic adenylate cyclase which loses sensitivity to hormones when the cells are disrupted. (auth.)

  2. Role of MbtH-like Proteins in the Adenylation of Tyrosine during Aminocoumarin and Vancomycin Biosynthesis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, Björn; Taubitz, Tatjana; Heide, Lutz

    2011-01-01

    MbtH-like proteins consist of ∼70 amino acids and are encoded in the biosynthetic gene clusters of non-ribosomally formed peptides and other secondary metabolites derived from amino acids. Recently, several MbtH-like proteins have been shown to be required for the adenylation of amino acid in non-ribosomal peptide synthesis. We now investigated the role of MbtH-like proteins in the biosynthesis of the aminocoumarin antibiotics novobiocin, clorobiocin, and simocyclinone D8 and of the glycopeptide antibiotic vancomycin. The tyrosine-adenylating enzymes CloH, SimH, and Pcza361.18, involved in the biosynthesis of clorobiocin, simocyclinone D8, and vancomycin, respectively, required the presence of MbtH-like proteins in a 1:1 molar ratio, forming heterotetrameric complexes. In contrast, NovH, involved in novobiocin biosynthesis, showed activity in the absence of MbtH-like proteins. Comparison of the active centers of CloH and NovH showed only one amino acid to be different, i.e. Leu-383 versus Met-383. Mutation of this amino acid in CloH (L383M) indeed led to MbtH-independent adenylating activity. All investigated tyrosine-adenylating enzymes exhibited remarkable promiscuity for MbtH-like proteins from different pathways and organisms. YbdZ, the MbtH-like protein from the expression host Escherichia coli, was found to bind to adenylating enzymes during expression and to influence their biochemical properties markedly. Therefore, the use of ybdZ-deficient expression hosts is important in biochemical studies of adenylating enzymes. PMID:21890635

  3. Adenylate cyclase regulation in the spermatogenic cell plasma membrane: Modulating effects of TPA and TCDD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beebe, L.E.

    1989-01-01

    This research was designed to compare the effects of TPA, a phorbol ester, and TCDD in a spermatogenic cell population, a target of TCDD toxicity. Membrane-bound adenylate cyclase activity was used an index of membrane function, and was quantified by the amount of 32 P-cAMP formed from 32 P-ATP following chromatographic separation. Exposure to male germ cells in-vitro to TPA and TCDD followed by direct measurement of enzyme activity was used to investigate the potential of each agent to perturb membrane function. TPA and TCDD consistently inhibited adenylate cyclase activity at the levels of G s -catalytic unit coupling and hormone-receptor activation, as measured by the stimulation of enzyme activity by concomitant addition of forskolin and GTP and FSH and GTP, respectively. The effect on coupling required at least 60 minutes of exposure to TPA or TCDD. Concentration-response curves demonstrated a progressive desensitization with increasing TPA concentration, while TCDD exhibited consistent inhibition over the same concentration range

  4. In vivo adenylate cyclase activity in ultraviolet- and gamma-irradiated Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, A; Bhattacharya, A K

    1988-06-01

    The incorporation of (/sup 14/C)adenine into the cyclic AMP fraction by whole cells of Escherichia coli B/r was taken as a measure of the in vivo adenylate cyclase activity. This activity was significantly inhibited by irradiation of the cells either with /sup 60/Co ..gamma..-rays or with UV light from a germicidal lamp, suggesting inhibition of cyclic AMP synthesis. The incubation of cells after irradiation with lower doses (50-100 Gy) of ..gamma..-rays produced a significant increase of in vivo adenylate cyclase activity, whereas there was no significant change after high doses (150 Gy and above). Dark incubation of cells after irradiation with UV light (54 J m/sup -2/) led to recovery of enzyme activity to the level measured in unirradiated cells. Thus it appears that the catabolite repression of L-arabinose isomerase induced by UV light, as well as ..gamma..-irradiation, is due to reduced cyclic AMP synthesis in irradiated cells.

  5. Application of adenylate energy charge to problems of environmental impact assessment in aquatic organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanovici, A. M.

    1980-03-01

    Various physiological and biochemical methods have been proposed for assessing the effects of environmental perturbation on aquatic organisms. The success of these methods as diagnostic tools has, however, been limited. This paper proposes that adenylate energy charge overcomes some of these limitations. The adenylate energy charge (AEC) is calculated from concentrations of adenine nucleotides ([ATP+½ADP]/[ATP+ADP+AMP]), and is a reflection of metabolic potential available to an organism. Several features of this method are: correlation of specific values with physiological condition or growth state, a defined range of values, fast response times and high precision. Several examples from laboratory and field experiments are given to demonstrate these features. The test organisms used (mollusc species) were exposed to a variety of environmental perturbations, including salinity reduction, hydrocarbons and low doses of heavy metal. The studies performed indicate that the energy charge may be a useful measure in the assessment of environmental impact. Its use is restricted, however, as several limitations exist which need to be fully evaluated. Further work relating values to population characteristics of multicellular organisms needs to be completed before the method can become a predictive tool for management.

  6. Adenylate cyclase activity in fish gills in relation to salt adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guibbolini, M.E.; Lahlou, B.

    1987-01-01

    The influence of salt adaptation on specific adenylate cyclase activity (measured by conversion of [α- 32 P] - ATP into [α- 32 P] - cAMP) was investigated in gill plasma membranes of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) adapted to various salinities (deionized water, DW; fresh water, FW; 3/4 sea water, 3/4 SW; sea water, SW) and in sea water adapted- mullet (Mugil sp.). Basal activity declined by a factor of 2 in trout with increasing external salinity (pmoles cAMP/mg protein/10 min: 530 in DW, 440 in FW, 340 in 3/4 SW; 250 in SW) and was very low in SW adapted-mullet: 35. The Km for ATP was similar (0.5 mM) in both FW adapted- and SW adapted- trout in either the absence (basal activity) or in the presence of stimulating agents (isoproterenol; NaF) while the Vm varied. Analysis of stimulation ratios with respect to basal levels of the enzyme showed that hormones and pharmacological substances (isoproterenol, NaF) display a greater potency in high salt than in low salt adapted- fish gills. In contrast, salt adaptation did not have any effect on the regulation of adenylate cyclase by PGE 1 . These results are interpreted in relation to the general process of osmoregulation. 27 references, 6 figures

  7. Mechanism of adenylate kinase: Site-directed mutagenesis versus x-ray and NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Mingdaw; Yan, Honggao

    1991-01-01

    Controversy is an integral part of scientific research and is often a precursor to the truth. However, this lesson has been learned in a very hard way in the case of the structure-function relationship of adenylate kinase (AK), which catalyzes the interconversion between MgATP+AMP and MgADP+ADP. While this small kinase has been considered a model kinase and the enzyme-substrate interaction of AK was among the first investigated by X-ray crystallography and NMR the substrate binding sites deduced from the early studies by these two powerful techniques (termed the X-ray model and the NMR model, respectively) were dramatically different. Ironically, both models have had substantial impact on researchers in related fields. The problems have finally been dealt with since 1987 by the interplay between site-directed mutagenesis, X-ray, and NMR. The purpose of this review is not only to summarize the current knowledge in the structure-function relationship of adenylate kinase but also to accurately document and critically analyze historical developments in the hope that history will not be repeated

  8. Identification of Adenyl Cyclase Activity in a Disease Resistance Protein in Arabidopsis thaliana

    KAUST Repository

    Hussein, Rana

    2012-11-01

    Cyclic nucleotide, cAMP, is an important signaling molecule in animals and plants. However, in plants the enzymes that synthesize this second messenger, adenyl cyclases (ACs), remain elusive. Given the physiological importance of cAMP in signaling, particularly in response to biotic and abiotic stresses, it is thus important to identify and characterize ACs in higher plants. Using computational approaches, a disease resistance protein from Arabidopsis thaliana, At3g04220 was found to have an AC catalytic center motif. In an attempt to prove that this candidate has adenyl cyclases activity in vitro, the coding sequence of the putative AC catalytic domain of this protein was cloned and expressed in E. coli and the recombinant protein was purified. The nucleotide cyclase activity of the recombinant protein was examined using cyclic nucleotide enzyme immunoassays. In parallel, the expression of At3g04220 was measured in leaves under three different stress conditions in order to determine under which conditions the disease resistance protein could function. Results show that the purified recombinant protein has Mn2+ dependent AC activity in vitro, and the expression analysis supports a role for At3g04220 and cAMP in plant defense.

  9. Effects of sevoflurane on adenylate cyclase and phosphodiesterases activity in brain of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Changdong; Yang Jianping; Dai Tijun

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of sevoflurane on c adenylate cyclase (AC) and phosphodiesterases (PDE) activity in the cerebrocortex, hippocampus and brain stem of rats, and to examine the role of cAMP in sevoflurane anesthesia. Methods: Fourty SD rats were delaminately designed and allocated randomly to 5 groups inhaling 1.5% sevoflurane i.e., no recovery (recovery group, n=8) and one hour after righting reflexrecovery (aware group, n=8). The brain tissues were rapidly dissected into cerebrocortex and hippocampus and brain stem.Then the adenylate cyclase and phosphodiesterases activity were assessed. Results: So far as the activity of AC is concerned, compared with the control group, the activity of AC in the cerebrocortex, hippocampus and brain stem brain stem of induction group and anesthesia group, the cerebrocortex, and hippocampus in the recovery group were significantly increased; compared with those in the anesthesia group, the activity of AC in the cerebrocortex, hippocampus and brain stem of aware group were significantly decreased (P<0.05); For the activity of PDE, compared with the control group, the activity of PDE in the cerebrocortex, hippocampus and brain stem in the induction group and anesthesia group was significantly decreased, compared with that in anesthesia group, the activity of PDE in the cerebrocortex, hippocampus and brain stem of recovery group and aware group was significantly increased (P<0.05). Conclusion: cAMP may play an important role in sevoflurane anesthesia. (authors)

  10. The role of transcriptional regulation in maintaining the availability of mycobacterial adenylate cyclases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. Casey

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium species have a complex cAMP regulatory network indicated by the high number of adenylate cyclases annotated in their genomes. However the need for a high level of redundancy in adenylate cyclase genes remains unknown. We have used semiquantitiative RT-PCR to examine the expression of eight Mycobacterium smegmatis cyclases with orthologs in the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis, where cAMP has recently been shown to be important for virulence. All eight cyclases were transcribed in all environments tested, and only four demonstrated environmental-mediated changes in transcription. M. smegmatis genes MSMEG_0545 and MSMEG_4279 were upregulated during starvation conditions while MSMEG_0545 and MSMEG_4924 were downregulated in H2O2 and MSMEG_3780 was downregulated in low pH and starvation. Promoter fusion constructs containing M. tuberculosis H37Rv promoters showed consistent regulation compared to their M. smegmatis orthologs. Overall our findings indicate that while low levels of transcriptional regulation occur, regulation at the mRNA level does not play a major role in controlling cellular cyclase availability in a given environment.

  11. Effect of drugs on lipid methylation, receptor-adenylate cyclase coupling and cyclic AMP secretion in Dictyostelium discoideum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Waarde, Aren; Van Haastert, P.J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Intercellular communication in Dictyostelium discoldeum takes place by means of cyclic AMP-induced cyclic AMP-synthesis and secretion. Since phospholipid methylation has been suggested to play a role in receptor-adenylate cyclase coupling, we examined the effects of transmethylation inhibitors on

  12. Irradiation inactivation studies of the dopamine D1 receptor and dopamine-stimulated adenylate cyclase in rat striatum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, P.H.; Nielson, M.

    1987-01-01

    In frozen rat striatal tissue, exposed to 10 MeV electrons from a linear accelerator, the sizes of the dopamine (DA) D 1 receptor and the DA sensitive adenylate cyclase complex were determined using target size analysis. The number of D 1 receptors (labelled by [ 3 H]SCH 23390)declined monoexponentially with increasing radiation intensity, yielding a molecular weight (mol. wt.) of 80kDa. Also the activity of the catalytic unit (C) of the adenylate cyclase (as measured by forskolin stimulation), decreased monoexponentially however with a mol. wt. of 145 kDa. Both basal, DA- and flouride (F - ) stimulated activity declined in a concave downward fashion with a limiting mol. wt. of 134, 138 and 228 kDa respectively. It was estimated that the basal and DA - stimulated activity originated from an enzyme complex with a mol. wt. of 325 kDa a value close to the combined size of R G S + C. These data suggest that F - stimulation of the adenylate cyclase, which occurs by a G S activation, does not cause disassociation of G S into the α S and βγ subunits. Further, the AA-regulated adenylate cyclase apparently exists as a complex consisting of RG S and C; the mechanisms of hormonal activation is dissociation of C from this complex

  13. Amidate Prodrugs of 9-[2-(Phosphonomethoxy)Ethyl]Adenine as Inhibitors of Adenylate Cyclase Toxin from Bordetella pertussis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmídková, Markéta; Dvořáková, Alexandra; Tloušťová, Eva; Česnek, Michal; Janeba, Zlatko; Mertlíková-Kaiserová, Helena

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 2 (2014), s. 664-671 ISSN 0066-4804 R&D Projects: GA MV VG20102015046 Grant - others:OPPC(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/24016 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : Bordetella pertussis * adenylate cyclase toxin * ACT * inhibitors * PMEA * amidate prodrugs Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.476, year: 2014

  14. The pimeloyl-CoA synthetase BioW defines a new fold for adenylate-forming enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada, Paola; Manandhar, Miglena; Dong, Shi-Hui; Deveryshetty, Jaigeeth; Agarwal, Vinayak; Cronan, John E.; Nair, Satish K.

    2017-04-17

    Reactions that activate carboxylates through acyl-adenylate intermediates are found throughout biology and include acyl- and aryl-CoA synthetases and tRNA synthetases. Here we describe the characterization of Aquifex aeolicus BioW, which represents a new protein fold within the superfamily of adenylating enzymes. Substrate-bound structures identified the enzyme active site and elucidated the mechanistic strategy for conjugating CoA to the seven-carbon α,ω-dicarboxylate pimelate, a biotin precursor. Proper position of reactive groups for the two half-reactions is achieved solely through movements of active site residues, as confirmed by site-directed mutational analysis. The ability of BioW to hydrolyze adenylates of noncognate substrates is reminiscent of pre-transfer proofreading observed in some tRNA synthetases, and we show that this activity can be abolished by mutation of a single residue. These studies illustrate how BioW can carry out three different biologically prevalent chemical reactions (adenylation, thioesterification, and proofreading) in the context of a new protein fold.

  15. Energetics and Structural Characterization of the large-scale Functional Motion of Adenylate Kinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formoso, Elena; Limongelli, Vittorio; Parrinello, Michele

    2015-02-01

    Adenylate Kinase (AK) is a signal transducing protein that regulates cellular energy homeostasis balancing between different conformations. An alteration of its activity can lead to severe pathologies such as heart failure, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. A comprehensive elucidation of the large-scale conformational motions that rule the functional mechanism of this enzyme is of great value to guide rationally the development of new medications. Here using a metadynamics-based computational protocol we elucidate the thermodynamics and structural properties underlying the AK functional transitions. The free energy estimation of the conformational motions of the enzyme allows characterizing the sequence of events that regulate its action. We reveal the atomistic details of the most relevant enzyme states, identifying residues such as Arg119 and Lys13, which play a key role during the conformational transitions and represent druggable spots to design enzyme inhibitors. Our study offers tools that open new areas of investigation on large-scale motion in proteins.

  16. Distribution and protective function of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP in the retina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoya eNakamachi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP, which is found in 27- or 38-amino acid forms, belongs to the VIP/glucagon/secretin family. PACAP and its three receptor subtypes are expressed in neural tissues, with PACAP known to exert a protective effect against several types of neural damage. The retina is considered to be part of the central nervous system, and retinopathy is a common cause of profound and intractable loss of vision. This review will examine the expression and morphological distribution of PACAP and its receptors in the retina, and will summarize the current state of knowledge regarding the protective effect of PACAP against different kinds of retinal damage, such as that identified in association with diabetes, ultraviolet light, hypoxia, optic nerve transection, and toxins. This article will also address PACAP-mediated protective pathways involving retinal glial cells.

  17. Effect of hypolipidemic drugs on basal and stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bershtein, L.M.; Kovaleva, I.G.; Rozenberg, O.A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper studies adenylate cyclase acticvity in Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells during administration of drugs with a hypolipidemic action. Seven to eight days before they were killed, male mice ingested the antidiabetic biguanide phenformin, and the phospholipid-containing preparation Essentiale in drinking water. The cAMP formed was isolated by chromatography on Silufol plates after incubation of the enzyme preparation with tritium-ATP, or was determined by the competitive binding method with protein. It is shown that despite the possible differences in the concrete mechanism of action of the hypolipidemic agents chosen for study on the cyclase system, the use of such agents, offers definite prospects for oriented modification of the hormone sensitivity of tumor cells

  18. Selective splitting of 3'-adenylated dinucleoside polyphosphates by specific enzymes degrading dinucleoside polyphosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guranowski, Andrzej; Sillero, Antonio; Günther Sillero, María Antonia

    2003-01-01

    Several 3'-[(32)P]adenylated dinucleoside polyphosphates (Np(n)N'p*As) were synthesized by the use of poly(A) polymerase (Sillero MAG et al., 2001, Eur J Biochem.; 268: 3605-11) and three of them, ApppA[(32)P]A or ApppAp*A, AppppAp*A and GppppGp*A, were tested as potential substrates of different dinucleoside polyphosphate degrading enzymes. Human (asymmetrical) dinucleoside tetraphosphatase (EC 3.6.1.17) acted almost randomly on both AppppAp*A, yielding approximately equal amounts of pppA + pAp*A and pA + pppAp*A, and GppppGp*, yielding pppG + pGp*A and pG + pppGp*A. Narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) tetraphosphatase acted preferentially on the dinucleotide unmodified end of both AppppAp*A (yielding 90% of pppA + pAp*A and 10 % of pA + pppAp*A) and GppppGp*A (yielding 89% pppG + pGp*A and 11% of pG + pppGp*A). (Symmetrical) dinucleoside tetraphosphatase (EC 3.6.1.41) from Escherichia coli hydrolyzed AppppAp*A and GppppGp*A producing equal amounts of ppA + ppAp*A and ppG + ppGp*A, respectively, and, to a lesser extent, ApppAp*A producing pA + ppAp*A. Two dinucleoside triphosphatases (EC 3.6.1.29) (the human Fhit protein and the enzyme from yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus)) and dinucleoside tetraphosphate phosphorylase (EC 2.7.7.53) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae did not degrade the three 3'-adenylated dinucleoside polyphosphates tested.

  19. Radiation inactivation of multimeric enzymes: application to subunit interactions of adenylate cyclase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verkman, A.S.; Skorecki, K.L.; Ausiello, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation inactivation has been applied extensively to determine the molecular weight of soluble enzyme and receptor systems from the slope of a linear ln (activity) vs. dose curve. Complex nonlinear inactivation curves are predicted for multimeric enzyme systems, composed of distinct subunits in equilibrium with multimeric complexes. For the system A1 + A2----A1A2, with an active A1A2 complex (associative model), the ln (activity) vs. dose curve is linear for high dissociation constant, K. If a monomer, A1, has all the enzyme activity (dissociative model), the ln (activity) vs. dose curve has an activation hump at low radiation dose if the inactive subunit, A2, has a higher molecular weight than A1 and has upward concavity when A2 is smaller than A1. In general, a radiation inactivation model for a multistep mechanism for enzyme activation fulfills the characteristics of an associative or dissociative model if the reaction step forming active enzyme is an associative or dissociative reaction. Target theory gives the molecular weight of the active enzyme subunit or complex from the limiting slope of the ln (activity) vs. dose curve at high radiation dose. If energy transfer occurs among subunits in the multimer, the ln (activity) vs. dose curve is linear for a single active component and is concave upward for two or more active components. The use of radiation inactivation as a method to determine enzyme size and multimeric subunit assembly is discussed with specific application to the hormone-sensitive adenylate cyclase system. It is shown that the complex inactivation curves presented in the accompanying paper can be used select the best mechanism out of a series of seven proposed mechanisms for the activation of adenylate cyclase by hormone

  20. Docosahexaenoic acid alters Gsα localization in lipid raft and potentiates adenylate cyclase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhuoran; Tan, Zhoubin; Li, Yan; Luo, Hongyan; Hu, Xinwu; Tang, Ming; Hescheler, Jürgen; Mu, Yangling; Zhang, Lanqiu

    2015-01-01

    Supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), recently has become popular for the amelioration of depression; however the molecular mechanism of DHA action remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism underlying the antidepressant effect of DHA by evaluating Gsα localization in lipid raft and the activity of adenylate cyclase in an in vitro glioma cell model. Lipid raft fractions from C6 glioma cells treated chronically with DHA were isolated by sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation. The content of Gsα in lipid raft was analyzed by immunoblotting and colocalization of Gsα with lipid raft was subjected to confocal microscopic analysis. The intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) level was determined by cAMP immunoassay kit. DHA decreased the amount of Gsα in lipid raft, whereas whole cell lysate Gsα was not changed. Confocal microscopic analysis demonstrated that colocalization of Gsα with lipid raft was decreased, whereas DHA increased intracellular cAMP accumulation in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, we found that DHA increased the lipid raft level, instead of disrupting it. The results of this study suggest that DHA may exert its antidepressant effect by translocating Gsα from lipid raft and potentiating the activity of adenylate cyclase. Importantly, the reduced Gsα in lipid raft by DHA is independent of disruption of lipid raft. Overall, the study provides partial preclinical evidence supporting a safe and effective therapy using DHA for depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Chronic changes in pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide and related receptors in response to repeated chemical dural stimulation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xun; Ran, Ye; Su, Min; Liu, Yinglu; Tang, Wenjing; Dong, Zhao; Yu, Shengyuan

    2017-01-01

    Background Preclinical experimental studies revealed an acute alteration of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide in response to a single activation of the trigeminovascular system, which suggests a potential role of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide in the pathogenesis of migraine. However, changes in pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide after repeated migraine-like attacks in chronic migraine are not clear. Therefore, the present study investigated chronic changes in pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide and related receptors in response to repeated chemical dural stimulations in the rat. Methods A rat model of chronic migraine was established by repeated chemical dural stimulations using an inflammatory soup for a different numbers of days. The pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide levels were quantified in plasma, the trigeminal ganglia, and the trigeminal nucleus caudalis using radioimmunoassay and Western blotting in trigeminal ganglia and trigeminal nucleus caudalis tissues. Western blot analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction were used to measure the protein and mRNA expression of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide-related receptors (PAC1, VPAC1, and VPAC2) in the trigeminal ganglia and trigeminal nucleus caudalis to identify changes associated with repetitive applications of chemical dural stimulations. Results All rats exhibited significantly decreased periorbital nociceptive thresholds to repeated inflammatory soup stimulations. Radioimmunoassay and Western blot analysis demonstrated significantly decreased pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide levels in plasma and trigeminal ganglia after repetitive chronic inflammatory soup stimulation. Protein and mRNA analyses of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide-related receptors demonstrated significantly increased PAC1 receptor protein and mRNA expression in the trigeminal ganglia, but not

  2. A cost-effective method for Illumina small RNA-Seq library preparation using T4 RNA ligase 1 adenylated adapters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yun-Ru

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deep sequencing is a powerful tool for novel small RNA discovery. Illumina small RNA sequencing library preparation requires a pre-adenylated 3’ end adapter containing a 5’,5’-adenyl pyrophosphoryl moiety. In the absence of ATP, this adapter can be ligated to the 3’ hydroxyl group of small RNA, while RNA self-ligation and concatenation are repressed. Pre-adenylated adapters are one of the most essential and costly components required for library preparation, and few are commercially available. Results We demonstrate that DNA oligo with 5’ phosphate and 3’ amine groups can be enzymatically adenylated by T4 RNA ligase 1 to generate customized pre-adenylated adapters. We have constructed and sequenced a small RNA library for tomato (Solanum lycopersicum using the T4 RNA ligase 1 adenylated adapter. Conclusion We provide an efficient and low-cost method for small RNA sequencing library preparation, which takes two days to complete and costs around $20 per library. This protocol has been tested in several plant species for small RNA sequencing including sweet potato, pepper, watermelon, and cowpea, and could be readily applied to any RNA samples.

  3. Dependent Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasiunas, Vaidas; Mezini, Mira; Ostermann, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    of dependent classes and a machine-checked type soundness proof in Isabelle/HOL [29], the first of this kind for a language with virtual classes and path-dependent types. [29] T.Nipkow, L.C. Poulson, and M. Wenzel. Isabelle/HOL -- A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order Logic, volume 2283 of LNCS, Springer, 2002......Virtual classes allow nested classes to be refined in subclasses. In this way nested classes can be seen as dependent abstractions of the objects of the enclosing classes. Expressing dependency via nesting, however, has two limitations: Abstractions that depend on more than one object cannot...... be modeled and a class must know all classes that depend on its objects. This paper presents dependent classes, a generalization of virtual classes that expresses similar semantics by parameterization rather than by nesting. This increases expressivity of class variations as well as the flexibility...

  4. Initiation of proteolysis of yeast fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase by pH-control of adenylate cyclase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzer, H.; Purwin, C.; Pohlig, G.; Scheffers, W.A.; Nicolay, K.

    1986-01-01

    Addition of fermentable sugars or uncouplers such as CCCP to resting yeast cells grown on glucose initiates phosphorylation of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase). There is good evidence that phosphorylation marks FBPase for proteolytic degradation. 31 P-NMR measurements of the cytosolic pH of yeast cells demonstrated a decrease of the cytosolic pH from 7.0 to 6.5 after addition of glucose or CCCP to starved yeast. Activity of adenylate cyclase in permeabilized yeast cells increases 2-3-fold when the pH is lowered from 7.0 to 6.5. It is concluded that pH controlled activation of adenylate cyclase causes the previously described increase in cyclic AMP which leads to phosphorylation of FBPase and finally to proteolysis of FBPase

  5. Heterosubtypic protection against influenza A induced by adenylate cyclase toxoids delivering conserved HA2 subunit of hemagglutinin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Staneková, Z.; Adkins, Irena; Kosová, Martina; Janulíková, J.; Šebo, Peter; Varečková, E.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 1 (2013), s. 24-35 ISSN 0166-3542 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/08/0447; GA ČR GP310/09/P582 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxoid * Influenza A infection * Cross-protection Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 3.434, year: 2013

  6. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) in the circulation after sumatriptan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Møller; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Petersen, Jesper Troensegaard

    2013-01-01

    The origin of migraine pain is still elusive, but increasingly researchers focus on the neuropeptides in the perivascular space of cranial vessels as important mediators of nociceptive input during migraine attacks. The parasympathetic neurotransmitters, pituitary adenylate cyclase activating...... peptide-38 (PACAP38) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) may be released from parasympathetic fibres and activate sensory nerve fibres during migraine attacks. Triptans are effective and well tolerated in acute migraine management but the exact mechanism of action is still debated. Triptans might...

  7. Activity of adenylate cyclase in plasma membranes of pulmonary tissue remote times following nonlethal gamma-irradiation of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slozhenkina, L.V.; Ruda, V.P.; Ushakova, T.E.; Kuzin, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    Basal and stimulated activity of adenylate cyclase (cyclizing ATP-pyrophosphate lyase, E.C. 4.6.1.1., AC) in plasma membranes of pumonary tissye was being studied during a year after fractionated irradiation of rats (2 Gyx3). Basal and hormone-stimulated activity of AC was shown to vary significantly from normal 6 and 12 months after irradiation. The exposed membranes responded differently to AC activation by isoproterenol and F -

  8. Pore formation by the Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin in lipid bilayer membranes: Role of voltage and pH

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Knapp, O.; Maier, E.; Mašín, Jiří; Šebo, Peter; Benz, R.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 1778, č. 1 (2008), s. 260-269 ISSN 0005-2736 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA5020406 Grant - others:XE(XE) QLK2-CT-1999-00556 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : adenylate cyclase toxin * act * voltage Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.180, year: 2008

  9. Hypoxia-inducible factor-2α (HIF-2α), but not HIF-1α, is essential for hypoxic induction of class III β-tubulin expression in human glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordji, Karim; Grandval, Alexandra; Cuhna-Alves, Leilane; Lechapt-Zalcman, Emmanuèle; Bernaudin, Myriam

    2014-12-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the deadliest form of primary brain cancer. Several reports have indicated aberrant levels of βIII-tubulin (βIII-t) in human GBM. βIII-t overexpression was linked to increasing malignancy in glial tumors and described to determine the onset of resistance to chemotherapy. Furthermore, a linkage was suggested between the induction of βIII-t expression and hypoxia, a hallmark of GBM. We investigated the role of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α and HIF-2α in the regulation of the βIII-t gene (TUBB3) in GBM cells cultured in either normoxia or hypoxia. We report for the first time that HIF-2α, but not HIF-1α, is involved in hypoxia-induced βIII-t expression in GBM cells. By gene-reporter experiments and site-directed mutagenesis, we found that two overlapping hypoxia response elements located in the 3' UTR of the gene were involved in the activation of TUBB3. This occurred through an enhanced binding of HIF-2α to the 3' region, as revealed by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Conversely, the promoter of TUBB3 was shown to be inactive. In addition, we observed that HIF-1α exhibits a repressive effect on βIII-t expression in cells cultured in normoxia. These results show that both HIF-α isoforms have opposing effects on βIII-t expression in GBM cells. Finally, we observed that hypoxia-induced βIII-t expression is well correlated with the kinetics of HIF-2α protein stabilization. The evidence for a direct linkage between HIF-2α and increased expression of βIII-t by hypoxia suggests that an anti-HIF-2α strategy (i.e. by downregulating βIII-t) could be of potential interest for improving the treatment of GBM. © 2014 FEBS.

  10. Characterization of a novel serotonin receptor coupled to adenylate cyclase in the hybrid neuroblastoma cell line NCB. 20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    Pharmacological characterization of the serotonin activation of adenylate cyclase in membrane preparation using over 40 serotonergic and non-serotonergic compounds demonstrated that the receptor mediating the response was distinct from previously described mammalian serotonin receptors. Agonist activity was only observed with tryptamine and ergoline derivatives. Potent antagonism was observed with several ergoline derivatives and with compounds such as mianserin and methiothepine. A comparison of the rank order of potency of a variety of compounds for the NCB.20 cell receptor with well characterized mammalian and non-mammalian serotonin receptors showed a pharmacological similarity, but not identity, with the mammalian 5-HT{sub 1C} receptor, which modulates phosphatidylinositol metabolism, and with serotonin receptors in the parasitic trematodes Fasciola hepatica and Schistosoma mansoni, which are coupled to adenylate cyclase. Equilibrium binding analysis utilizing ({sup 3}H)serotonin, ({sup 3}H)lysergic acid diethylamide or ({sup 3}H)dihydroergotamine demonstrated that there are no abundant high affinity serotonergic sites, which implies that the serotonin activation of adenylate cyclase is mediated by receptors present in low abundance. Incubation of intact NCB.20 cells with serotinin resulted in a time and concentration dependent desensitization of the serotonin receptor.

  11. Adenylate control contributes to thermal acclimation of sugar maple fine-root respiration in experimentally warmed soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvi, Mickey P; Burton, Andrew J

    2018-03-01

    We investigated the occurrence of and mechanisms responsible for acclimation of fine-root respiration of mature sugar maple (Acer saccharum) after 3+ years of experimental soil warming (+4 to 5 °C) in a factorial combination with soil moisture addition. Potential mechanisms for thermal respiratory acclimation included changes in enzymatic capacity, as indicated by root N concentration; substrate limitation, assessed by examining nonstructural carbohydrates and effects of exogenous sugar additions; and adenylate control, examined as responses of root respiration to a respiratory uncoupling agent. Partial acclimation of fine-root respiration occurred in response to soil warming, causing specific root respiration to increase to a much lesser degree (14% to 26%) than would be expected for a 4 to 5 °C temperature increase (approximately 55%). Acclimation was greatest when ambient soil temperature was warmer or soil moisture availability was low. We found no evidence that enzyme or substrate limitation caused acclimation but did find evidence supporting adenylate control. The uncoupling agent caused a 1.4 times greater stimulation of respiration in roots from warmed soil. Sugar maple fine-root respiration in warmed soil was at least partially constrained by adenylate use, helping constrain respiration to that needed to support work being performed by the roots. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Tye7 regulates yeast Ty1 retrotransposon sense and antisense transcription in response to adenylic nucleotides stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servant, Géraldine; Pinson, Benoit; Tchalikian-Cosson, Aurélie; Coulpier, Fanny; Lemoine, Sophie; Pennetier, Carole; Bridier-Nahmias, Antoine; Todeschini, Anne Laure; Fayol, Hélène; Daignan-Fornier, Bertrand; Lesage, Pascale

    2012-07-01

    Transposable elements play a fundamental role in genome evolution. It is proposed that their mobility, activated under stress, induces mutations that could confer advantages to the host organism. Transcription of the Ty1 LTR-retrotransposon of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is activated in response to a severe deficiency in adenylic nucleotides. Here, we show that Ty2 and Ty3 are also stimulated under these stress conditions, revealing the simultaneous activation of three active Ty retrotransposon families. We demonstrate that Ty1 activation in response to adenylic nucleotide depletion requires the DNA-binding transcription factor Tye7. Ty1 is transcribed in both sense and antisense directions. We identify three Tye7 potential binding sites in the region of Ty1 DNA sequence where antisense transcription starts. We show that Tye7 binds to Ty1 DNA and regulates Ty1 antisense transcription. Altogether, our data suggest that, in response to adenylic nucleotide reduction, TYE7 is induced and activates Ty1 mRNA transcription, possibly by controlling Ty1 antisense transcription. We also provide the first evidence that Ty1 antisense transcription can be regulated by environmental stress conditions, pointing to a new level of control of Ty1 activity by stress, as Ty1 antisense RNAs play an important role in regulating Ty1 mobility at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional stages.

  13. Reversible switching of fluorophore property based on intrinsic conformational transition of adenylate kinase during its catalytic cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Akira; Hirota, Shun; Matsuo, Takashi

    2013-07-17

    Adenylate kinase shows a conformational transition (OPEN and CLOSED forms) during substrate binding and product release to mediate the phosphoryl transfer between ADP and ATP/AMP. The protein motional characteristics will be useful to construct switching systems of fluorophore properties caused by the catalytic cycle of the enzyme. This paper demonstrates in situ reversible switching of a fluorophore property driven by the conformational transition of the enzyme. The pyrene-conjugated mutant adenylate kinase is able to switch the monomer/excimer emission property of pyrene on addition of ADP or P(1)P(5)-di(adenosine-5')pentaphosphate (Ap5A, a transition state analog). The observation under the dilute condition (~0.1 μM) indicates that the emission spectral change was caused by the motion of a protein molecule and not led by protein-protein interactions through π-π stacking of pyrene rings. The switching can be reversibly conducted by using hexokinase-coupling reaction. The fashion of the changes in emission intensities at various ligand concentrations is different between ADP, Mg(2+)-bound ADP, and Mg(2+)-bound Ap5A. The emission property switching is repeatable by a sequential addition of a substrate in a one-pot process. It is proposed that the property of a synthetic molecule on the enzyme surface is switchable in response to the catalytic cycle of adenylate kinase.

  14. Characterization of a novel serotonin receptor coupled to adenylate cyclase in the hybrid neuroblastoma cell line NCB.20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    Pharmacological characterization of the serotonin activation of adenylate cyclase in membrane preparation using over 40 serotonergic and non-serotonergic compounds demonstrated that the receptor mediating the response was distinct from previously described mammalian serotonin receptors. Agonist activity was only observed with tryptamine and ergoline derivatives. Potent antagonism was observed with several ergoline derivatives and with compounds such as mianserin and methiothepine. A comparison of the rank order of potency of a variety of compounds for the NCB.20 cell receptor with well characterized mammalian and non-mammalian serotonin receptors showed a pharmacological similarity, but not identity, with the mammalian 5-HT 1C receptor, which modulates phosphatidylinositol metabolism, and with serotonin receptors in the parasitic trematodes Fasciola hepatica and Schistosoma mansoni, which are coupled to adenylate cyclase. Equilibrium binding analysis utilizing [ 3 H]serotonin, [ 3 H]lysergic acid diethylamide or [ 3 H]dihydroergotamine demonstrated that there are no abundant high affinity serotonergic sites, which implies that the serotonin activation of adenylate cyclase is mediated by receptors present in low abundance. Incubation of intact NCB.20 cells with serotinin resulted in a time and concentration dependent desensitization of the serotonin receptor

  15. Segmental dependent transport of low permeability compounds along the small intestine due to P-glycoprotein: the role of efflux transport in the oral absorption of BCS class III drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, Arik; Amidon, Gordon L

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of P-gp efflux in the in vivo intestinal absorption process of BCS class III P-gp substrates, i.e. high-solubility low-permeability drugs. The in vivo permeability of two H (2)-antagonists, cimetidine and famotidine, was determined by the single-pass intestinal perfusion model in different regions of the rat small intestine, in the presence or absence of the P-gp inhibitor verapamil. The apical to basolateral (AP-BL) and the BL-AP transport of the compounds in the presence or absence of various efflux transporters inhibitors (verapamil, erythromycin, quinidine, MK-571 and fumitremorgin C) was investigated across Caco-2 cell monolayers. P-gp expression levels in the different intestinal segments were confirmed by immunoblotting. Cimetidine and famotidine exhibited segmental dependent permeability through the gut wall, with decreased P(eff) in the distal ileum in comparison to the proximal regions of the intestine. Coperfusion of verapamil with the drugs significantly increased the permeability in the ileum, while no significant change in the jejunal permeability was observed. Both drugs exhibited significantly greater BL-AP than AP-BL Caco-2 permeability, indicative of net mucosal secretion. Concentration dependent decrease of this secretion was obtained by the P-gp inhibitors verapamil, erythromycin and quinidine, while no effect was evident by the MRP2 inhibitor MK-571 and the BCRP inhibitor FTC, indicating that P-gp is the transporter mediates the intestinal efflux of cimetidine and famotidine. P-gp levels throughout the intestine were inversely related to the in vivo permeability of the drugs from the different segments. The data demonstrate that for these high-solubility low-permeability P-gp substrates, P-gp limits in vivo intestinal absorption in the distal segments of the small intestine; however P-gp plays a minimal role in the proximal intestinal segments due to significant lower P-gp expression levels

  16. Regulation of follitropin-sensitive adenylate cyclase by stimulatory and inhibitory forms of the guanine nucleotide regulatory protein in immature rat Sertoli cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.P.

    1987-01-01

    Studies have been designed to examine the role of guanine nucleotides in mediating FSH-sensitive adenylate cyclase activity in Sertoli cell plasma membranes. Analysis of [ 3 H]GDP binding to plasma membranes suggested a single high affinity site with a K d = 0.24 uM. Competition studies indicated that GTP γ S was 7-fold more potent than GDP β S. Bound GDP could be released by FSH in the presence of GTP γ S, but not by FSH alone. Adenylate cyclase activity was enhanced 5-fold by FSH in the presence of GTP. Addition of GDP β S to the activated enzyme (FSH plus GTP) resulted in a time-dependent decay to basal activity within 20 sec. GDP β S competitively inhibited GTP γ S-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity with a K i = 0.18 uM. Adenylate cyclase activity was also demonstrated to be sensitive to the nucleotide bound state. In the presence of FSH, only the GTP γ S-bound form persisted even if GDP β S previously occupied all available binding sites. Two membrane proteins, M r = 43,000 and 48,000, were ADP·ribosylated using cholera toxin and labeling was enhanced 2 to 4-fold by GTP γ S but not by GDP β S. The M r = 43,000 and 48,000 proteins represented variant forms of G S . A single protein of M r = 40,000 (G i ) was ADP-ribosylated by pertussis toxin in vitro. GTP inhibited forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity with an IC 50 = 0.1 uM. The adenosine analog, N 6 ·phenylisopropyl adenosine enhanced GTP inhibition of forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity by an additional 15%. GTP-dependent inhibition of forskolin-sensitive adenylate cyclase activity was abolished in membranes prepared from Sertoli cells treated in culture with pertussis toxin

  17. Richard III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Palle Schantz

    2017-01-01

    Kort analyse af Shakespeares Richard III med fokus på, hvordan denne skurk fremstilles, så tilskuere (og læsere) langt henad vejen kan føle sympati med ham. Med paralleller til Netflix-serien "House of Cards"......Kort analyse af Shakespeares Richard III med fokus på, hvordan denne skurk fremstilles, så tilskuere (og læsere) langt henad vejen kan føle sympati med ham. Med paralleller til Netflix-serien "House of Cards"...

  18. The adenylate energy charge as a new and useful indicator of capture stress in chondrichthyans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, Leonardo; Walker, Terence I; Reina, Richard D

    2016-02-01

    Quantifying the physiological stress response of chondrichthyans to capture has assisted the development of fishing practices conducive to their survival. However, currently used indicators of stress show significant interspecific and intraspecific variation in species' physiological responses and tolerances to capture. To improve our understanding of chondrichthyan stress physiology and potentially reduce variation when quantifying the stress response, we investigated the use of the adenylate energy charge (AEC); a measure of available metabolic energy. To determine tissues sensitive to metabolic stress, we extracted samples of the brain, heart, liver, white muscle and blood from gummy sharks (Mustelus antarcticus) immediately following gillnet capture and after 3 h recovery under laboratory conditions. Capture caused significant declines in liver, white muscle and blood AEC, whereas no decline was detected in the heart and brain AEC. Following 3 h of recovery from capture, the AEC of the liver and blood returned to "unstressed" levels (control values) whereas white muscle AEC was not significantly different to that immediately after capture. Our results show that the liver is most sensitive to metabolic stress and white muscle offers a practical method to sample animals non-lethally for determination of the AEC. The AEC is a highly informative indicator of stress and unlike current indicators, it can directly measure the change in available energy and thus the metabolic stress experienced by a given tissue. Cellular metabolism is highly conserved across organisms and, therefore, we think the AEC can also provide a standardised form of measuring capture stress in many chondrichthyan species.

  19. Deciphering hierarchical features in the energy landscape of adenylate kinase folding/unfolding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J. Nicholas; Pirchi, Menahem; Haran, Gilad; Komatsuzaki, Tamiki

    2018-03-01

    Hierarchical features of the energy landscape of the folding/unfolding behavior of adenylate kinase, including its dependence on denaturant concentration, are elucidated in terms of single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) measurements in which the proteins are encapsulated in a lipid vesicle. The core in constructing the energy landscape from single-molecule time-series across different denaturant concentrations is the application of rate-distortion theory (RDT), which naturally considers the effects of measurement noise and sampling error, in combination with change-point detection and the quantification of the FRET efficiency-dependent photobleaching behavior. Energy landscapes are constructed as a function of observation time scale, revealing multiple partially folded conformations at small time scales that are situated in a superbasin. As the time scale increases, these denatured states merge into a single basin, demonstrating the coarse-graining of the energy landscape as observation time increases. Because the photobleaching time scale is dependent on the conformational state of the protein, possible nonequilibrium features are discussed, and a statistical test for violation of the detailed balance condition is developed based on the state sequences arising from the RDT framework.

  20. Adenylate kinase I does not affect cellular growth characteristics under normal and metabolic stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Wieke; Oerlemans, Frank; Wieringa, Bé

    2004-07-01

    Adenylate kinase (AK)-catalyzed phosphotransfer is essential in the maintenance of cellular energetic economy in cells of fully differentiated tissues with highly variable energy demand, such as muscle and brain. To investigate if AK isoenzymes have a comparable function in the energy-demand management of proliferating cells, AK1 and AK1beta were expressed in mouse neuroblastoma N2a cells and in human colon carcinoma SW480 cells. Glucose deprivation, galactose feeding, and metabolic inhibitor tests revealed a differential energy dependency for these two cell lines. N2a cells showed a faster proliferation rate and strongest coupling to mitochondrial activity, SW480 proliferation was more dependent on glycolysis. Despite these differences, ectopic expression of AK1 or AK1beta did not affect their growth characteristics under normal conditions. Also, no differential effects were seen under metabolic stress upon treatment with mitochondrial and glycolytic inhibitors in in vitro culture or in solid tumors grown in vivo. Although many intimate connections have been revealed between cell death and metabolism, our results suggest that AK1- or AK1beta-mediated high-energy phosphoryl transfer is not a modulating factor in the survival of tumor cells during episodes of metabolic crisis.

  1. Glomerular Podocytes Express Type 1 Adenylate Cyclase: Inactivation Results in Susceptibility to Proteinuria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhijie; He, Liqun; Takemoto, Minoru; Jalanko, Hannu; Chan, Guy C.; Storm, Daniel R.; Betsholtz, Christer; Tryggvason, Karl; Patrakka, Jaakko

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims The organization of actin cytoskeleton in podocyte foot processes plays a critical role in the maintenance of the glomerular filtration barrier. The cAMP pathway is an important regulator of the actin network assembly in cells. However, the role of the cAMP pathway in podocytes is not well understood. Type 1 adenylate cyclase (Adcy1), previously thought to be specific for neuronal tissue, is a member of the family of enzymes that catalyses the formation of cAMP. In this study, we characterized the expression and role of Adcy1 in the kidney. Methods Expression of Adcy1 was studied by RT-PCR, Northern blotting and in situ hybridization. The role of Adcy1 in podocytes was investigated by analyzing Adcy1 knockout mice (Adcy1–/–). Results and Conclusion: Adcy1 is expressed in the kidney specifically by podocytes. In the kidney, Adcy1 does not have a critical role in normal physiological functioning as kidney histology and function are normal in Adcy1–/– mice. However, albumin overload resulted in severe albuminuria in Adcy1–/– mice, whereas wild-type control mice showed only mild albumin leakage to urine. In conclusion, we have identified Adcy1 as a novel podocyte signaling protein that seems to have a role in compensatory physiological processes in the glomerulus. PMID:21196775

  2. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP participates in adipogenesis by activating ERK signaling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Arsenijevic

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP belongs to the secretin/glucagon/vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP family. Its action can be mediated by three different receptor subtypes: PAC1, which has exclusive affinity for PACAP, and VPAC1 and VPAC2 which have equal affinity for PACAP and VIP. We showed that all three receptors are expressed in 3T3-L1 cells throughout their differentiation into adipocytes. We established the activity of these receptors by cAMP accumulation upon induction by PACAP. Together with insulin and dexamethasone, PACAP induced adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cell line. PACAP increased cAMP production within 15 min upon stimulation and targeted the expression and phosphorylation of MAPK (ERK1/2, strengthened by the ERK1/2 phosphorylation being partially or completely abolished by different combinations of PACAP receptors antagonists. We therefore speculate that ERK1/2 activation is crucial for the activation of CCAAT/enhancer- binding protein β (C/EBPβ.

  3. Adenyl cyclases and cAMP in plant signaling - Past and present

    KAUST Repository

    Gehring, Christoph A.

    2010-06-25

    In lower eukaryotes and animals 3\\'-5\\'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and adenyl cyclases (ACs), enzymes that catalyse the formation of cAMP from ATP, have long been established as key components and second messengers in many signaling pathways. In contrast, in plants, both the presence and biological role of cAMP have been a matter of ongoing debate and some controversy. Here we shall focus firstly on the discovery of cellular cAMP in plants and evidence for a role of this second messenger in plant signal transduction. Secondly, we shall review current evidence of plant ACs, analyse aspects of their domain organisations and the biological roles of candidate molecules. In addition, we shall assess different approaches based on search motifs consisting of functionally assigned amino acids in the catalytic centre of annotated and/or experimentally tested nucleotide cyclases that can contribute to the identification of novel candidate molecules with AC activity such as F-box and TIR proteins. 2010 Gehring; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  4. Recombinant adenylate kinase 3 from liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis for histochemical analysis and serodiagnosis of clonorchiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Soon Bin; Kim, Paul; Woo, Hae Sun; Kim, Tae Yun; Kim, Ju Yeong; Lee, Hye Min; Jang, Yun Soo; Kim, Eun-Min; Yong, Tai-Soon; Seong, Baik Lin

    2018-03-27

    Due to the lack of an effective prophylactic intervention and diagnosis, human liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis continues to afflict a large human population, causing a chronic inflammatory bile duct disease. With an aim to identify target antigens for sensitive serodiagnosis, adenylate kinase 3 of C. sinensis (CsAK3) was successfully expressed in soluble form in Escherichia coli by fusion to an RNA-interacting domain derived from human Lys-tRNA synthetase and purified by Ni2+-affinity chromatography. Anti-CsAK3 serum was raised by immunization of mice, and Western blotting confirmed that CsAK3 was expressed in adult-stage C. sinensis. Histochemical analysis showed that CsAK3 was localized to the subtegumental tissue of C. sinensis and was excreted into the bile duct of the host. When tested against sera from various parasite-infected patients by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the recombinant CsAK3 elicited a specific response to C. sinensis-infected sera. The results suggest that CsAK3, either alone or in combination with other antigens, could be used for improving the clinical diagnosis of clonorchiasis.

  5. Adenyl cyclases and cAMP in plant signaling - Past and present

    KAUST Repository

    Gehring, Christoph A

    2010-01-01

    In lower eukaryotes and animals 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and adenyl cyclases (ACs), enzymes that catalyse the formation of cAMP from ATP, have long been established as key components and second messengers in many signaling pathways. In contrast, in plants, both the presence and biological role of cAMP have been a matter of ongoing debate and some controversy. Here we shall focus firstly on the discovery of cellular cAMP in plants and evidence for a role of this second messenger in plant signal transduction. Secondly, we shall review current evidence of plant ACs, analyse aspects of their domain organisations and the biological roles of candidate molecules. In addition, we shall assess different approaches based on search motifs consisting of functionally assigned amino acids in the catalytic centre of annotated and/or experimentally tested nucleotide cyclases that can contribute to the identification of novel candidate molecules with AC activity such as F-box and TIR proteins. 2010 Gehring; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  6. Effects of forskolin on cerebral blood flow: implications for a role of adenylate cyclase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wysham, D.G.; Brotherton, A.F.; Heistad, D.D.

    1986-01-01

    We have studied cerebral vascular effects of forskolin, a drug which stimulates adenylate cyclase and potentiates dilator effects of adenosine in other vascular beds. Our goals were to determine whether forskolin is a cerebral vasodilator and whether it potentiates cerebral vasodilator responses to adenosine. We measured cerebral blood flow with microspheres in anesthetized rabbits. Forskolin (10 micrograms/kg per min) increased blood flow (ml/min per 100 gm) from 39 +/- 5 (mean +/- S.E.) to 56 +/- 9 (p less than 0.05) in cerebrum, and increased flow to myocardium and kidney despite a decrease in mean arterial pressure. Forskolin did not alter cerebral oxygen consumption, which indicates that the increase in cerebral blood flow is a direct vasodilator effect and is not secondary to increased metabolism. We also examined effects of forskolin on the response to infusion of adenosine. Cerebral blood flow was measured during infusion of 1-5 microM/min adenosine into one internal carotid artery, under control conditions and during infusion of forskolin at 3 micrograms/kg per min i.v. Adenosine alone increased ipsilateral cerebral blood flow from 32 +/- 3 to 45 +/- 5 (p less than 0.05). Responses to adenosine were not augmented during infusion of forskolin. We conclude that forskolin is a direct cerebral vasodilator and forskolin does not potentiate cerebral vasodilator responses to adenosine

  7. Engineering the substrate specificity of the DhbE adenylation domain by yeast cell surface display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Keya; Nelson, Kathryn M; Bhuripanyo, Karan; Grimes, Kimberly D; Zhao, Bo; Aldrich, Courtney C; Yin, Jun

    2013-01-24

    The adenylation (A) domains of nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) activate aryl acids or amino acids to launch their transfer through the NRPS assembly line for the biosynthesis of many medicinally important natural products. In order to expand the substrate pool of NRPSs, we developed a method based on yeast cell surface display to engineer the substrate specificities of the A-domains. We acquired A-domain mutants of DhbE that have 11- and 6-fold increases in k(cat)/K(m) with nonnative substrates 3-hydroxybenzoic acid and 2-aminobenzoic acid, respectively and corresponding 3- and 33-fold decreases in k(cat)/K(m) values with the native substrate 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, resulting in a dramatic switch in substrate specificity of up to 200-fold. Our study demonstrates that yeast display can be used as a high throughput selection platform to reprogram the "nonribosomal code" of A-domains. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Adenyl cyclase activator forskolin protects against Huntington's disease-like neurodegenerative disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidharth Mehan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Long term suppression of succinate dehydrogenase by selective inhibitor 3-nitropropionic acid has been used in rodents to model Huntington's disease where mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damages are primary pathological hallmarks for neuronal damage. Improvements in learning and memory abilities, recovery of energy levels, and reduction of excitotoxicity damage can be achieved through activation of Adenyl cyclase enzyme by a specific phytochemical forskolin. In this study, intraperitoneal administration of 10 mg/kg 3-nitropropionic acid for 15 days in rats notably reduced body weight, worsened motor cocordination (grip strength, beam crossing task, locomotor activity, resulted in learning and memory deficits, greatly increased acetylcholinesterase, lactate dehydrogenase, nitrite, and malondialdehyde levels, obviously decreased adenosine triphosphate, succinate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and reduced glutathione levels in the striatum, cortex and hippocampus. Intragastric administration of forskolin at 10, 20, 30 mg/kg dose-dependently reversed these behavioral, biochemical and pathological changes caused by 3-nitropropionic acid. These results suggest that forskolin exhibits neuroprotective effects on 3-nitropropionic acid-induced Huntington's disease-like neurodegeneration.

  9. Modulation of the Conformational Dynamics of Apo-Adenylate Kinase through a π-Cation Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Ritaban; Manna, Rabindra Nath; Chakraborty, Sandipan; Jana, Biman

    2017-06-15

    Large-scale conformational transition from open to closed state of adenylate kinase (ADK) is essential for its catalytic cycle. Apo-ADK undergoes conformational transition in a way that closely resembles an open-to-closed conformational transition. Here, equilibrium simulations, free-energy simulations, and quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) calculations in combination with several bioinformatics approaches have been used to explore the molecular origin of this conformational transition in apo-ADK. In addition to its conventional open state, Escherichia coli apo-ADK adopts conformations that resemble a closed-like intermediate, the "half-open-half-closed" (HOHC) state, and a π-cation interaction can account for the stability of this HOHC state. Energetics and the electronic properties of this π-cation interaction have been explored using QM/MM calculations. Upon rescinding the π-cation interaction, the conformational landscape of the apo-ADK changes completely. The apo-ADK population is shifted completely toward the open state. This π-cation interaction is highly conserved in bacterial ADK; the cationic guanidinium moiety of a conserved ARG interacts with the delocalized π-electron cloud of either PHE or TYR. Interestingly, this study demonstrates the modulation of a principal protein dynamics by a conserved specific π-cation interaction across different organisms.

  10. Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide Reverses Ammonium Metavanadate-Induced Airway Hyperresponsiveness in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounira Tlili

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The rate of atmospheric vanadium is constantly increasing due to fossil fuel combustion. This environmental pollution favours vanadium exposure in particular to its vanadate form, causing occupational bronchial asthma and bronchitis. Based on the well admitted bronchodilator properties of the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP, we investigated the ability of this neuropeptide to reverse the vanadate-induced airway hyperresponsiveness in rats. Exposure to ammonium metavanadate aerosols (5 mg/m3/h for 15 minutes induced 4 hours later an array of pathophysiological events, including increase of bronchial resistance and histological alterations, activation of proinflammatory alveolar macrophages, and increased oxidative stress status. Powerfully, PACAP inhalation (0.1 mM for 10 minutes alleviated many of these deleterious effects as demonstrated by a decrease of bronchial resistance and histological restoration. PACAP reduced the level of expression of mRNA encoding inflammatory chemokines (MIP-1α, MIP-2, and KC and cytokines (IL-1α and TNF-α in alveolar macrophages and improved the antioxidant status. PACAP reverses the vanadate-induced airway hyperresponsiveness not only through its bronchodilator activity but also by counteracting the proinflammatory and prooxidative effects of the metal. Then, the development of stable analogs of PACAP could represent a promising therapeutic alternative for the treatment of inflammatory respiratory disorders.

  11. Albumin, in the Presence of Calcium, Elicits a Massive Increase in Extracellular Bordetella Adenylate Cyclase Toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonyar, Laura A; Gray, Mary C; Christianson, Gregory J; Mehrad, Borna; Hewlett, Erik L

    2017-06-01

    Pertussis (whooping cough), caused by Bordetella pertussis , is resurging in the United States and worldwide. Adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) is a critical factor in establishing infection with B. pertussis and acts by specifically inhibiting the response of myeloid leukocytes to the pathogen. We report here that serum components, as discovered during growth in fetal bovine serum (FBS), elicit a robust increase in the amount of ACT, and ≥90% of this ACT is localized to the supernatant, unlike growth without FBS, in which ≥90% is associated with the bacterium. We have found that albumin, in the presence of physiological concentrations of calcium, acts specifically to enhance the amount of ACT and its localization to the supernatant. Respiratory secretions, which contain albumin, promote an increase in amount and localization of active ACT that is comparable to that elicited by serum and albumin. The response to albumin is not mediated through regulation of ACT at the transcriptional level or activation of the Bvg two-component system. As further illustration of the specificity of this phenomenon, serum collected from mice that lack albumin does not stimulate an increase in ACT. These data, demonstrating that albumin and calcium act synergistically in the host environment to increase production and release of ACT, strongly suggest that this phenomenon reflects a novel host-pathogen interaction that is central to infection with B. pertussis and other Bordetella species. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  12. Cutting Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Andrew

    1976-01-01

    Provides critical reviews of three books, "The Political Economy of Social Class", "Ethnicity: Theory and Experience," and "Ethnicity in the United States," focusing on the political economy of social class and ethnicity. (Author/AM)

  13. PARDISEKO III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, H.; Sack, C.

    1975-05-01

    This report gives a detailed description of the latest version of the PARDISEKO code, PARDISEKO III, with particular emphasis on the numerical and programming methods employed. The physical model and its relation to nuclear safety as well as a description and the results of confirming experiments are treated in detail in the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre report KFK-1989. (orig.) [de

  14. A comprehensive survey of 3' animal miRNA modification events and a possible role for 3' adenylation in modulating miRNA targeting effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burroughs, A Maxwell; Ando, Yoshinari; de Hoon, Michiel J L; Tomaru, Yasuhiro; Nishibu, Takahiro; Ukekawa, Ryo; Funakoshi, Taku; Kurokawa, Tsutomu; Suzuki, Harukazu; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Daub, Carsten O

    2010-10-01

    Animal microRNA sequences are subject to 3' nucleotide addition. Through detailed analysis of deep-sequenced short RNA data sets, we show adenylation and uridylation of miRNA is globally present and conserved across Drosophila and vertebrates. To better understand 3' adenylation function, we deep-sequenced RNA after knockdown of nucleotidyltransferase enzymes. The PAPD4 nucleotidyltransferase adenylates a wide range of miRNA loci, but adenylation does not appear to affect miRNA stability on a genome-wide scale. Adenine addition appears to reduce effectiveness of miRNA targeting of mRNA transcripts while deep-sequencing of RNA bound to immunoprecipitated Argonaute (AGO) subfamily proteins EIF2C1-EIF2C3 revealed substantial reduction of adenine addition in miRNA associated with EIF2C2 and EIF2C3. Our findings show 3' addition events are widespread and conserved across animals, PAPD4 is a primary miRNA adenylating enzyme, and suggest a role for 3' adenine addition in modulating miRNA effectiveness, possibly through interfering with incorporation into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), a regulatory role that would complement the role of miRNA uridylation in blocking DICER1 uptake.

  15. A comprehensive survey of 3′ animal miRNA modification events and a possible role for 3′ adenylation in modulating miRNA targeting effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burroughs, A. Maxwell; Ando, Yoshinari; de Hoon, Michiel J.L.; Tomaru, Yasuhiro; Nishibu, Takahiro; Ukekawa, Ryo; Funakoshi, Taku; Kurokawa, Tsutomu; Suzuki, Harukazu; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Daub, Carsten O.

    2010-01-01

    Animal microRNA sequences are subject to 3′ nucleotide addition. Through detailed analysis of deep-sequenced short RNA data sets, we show adenylation and uridylation of miRNA is globally present and conserved across Drosophila and vertebrates. To better understand 3′ adenylation function, we deep-sequenced RNA after knockdown of nucleotidyltransferase enzymes. The PAPD4 nucleotidyltransferase adenylates a wide range of miRNA loci, but adenylation does not appear to affect miRNA stability on a genome-wide scale. Adenine addition appears to reduce effectiveness of miRNA targeting of mRNA transcripts while deep-sequencing of RNA bound to immunoprecipitated Argonaute (AGO) subfamily proteins EIF2C1–EIF2C3 revealed substantial reduction of adenine addition in miRNA associated with EIF2C2 and EIF2C3. Our findings show 3′ addition events are widespread and conserved across animals, PAPD4 is a primary miRNA adenylating enzyme, and suggest a role for 3′ adenine addition in modulating miRNA effectiveness, possibly through interfering with incorporation into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), a regulatory role that would complement the role of miRNA uridylation in blocking DICER1 uptake. PMID:20719920

  16. Heterologous desensitization of adenylate cyclase from pigeon erythrocytes under the action of the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, K.M.; Bulargina, T.V.; Severin, E.S.

    1985-01-01

    Preincubation of the plasma membranes from pigeon erythrocytes with the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase leads to desensitization of adenylate cyclase of the erythrocytes. The adenylate cyclase activity, measured in the presence of 10 μM isoproterenol and 50 μM GTP-γ-S, is decreased by 40% in 10 min of incubation, while the activity in the presence of 50 μM GTP-γ-S is decreased by 35% in 20 min. The decrease in the adenylate cyclase activity is due to an increase in the lag phase of activation of the enzyme in the presence of a GTP analog stable to hydrolysis and a decrease in the activity in the steady-state phase of activation. Heterologous desensitization of adenylate cyclase under the action of cAMP-dependent protein kinase is coupled with a decrease in the number of β-adrenoreceptors capable of passing into a state of high affinity for antagonists in the absence of guanylic nucleotides. The influence of the catalytic subunit on adenylate cyclase entirely models the process of desensitization of the enzyme absorbed in the influence of isoproterenol or cAMP on erythrocytes

  17. Human DNA ligase III bridges two DNA ends to promote specific intermolecular DNA end joining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukshal, Vandna; Kim, In-Kwon; Hura, Gregory L.; Tomkinson, Alan E.; Tainer, John A.; Ellenberger, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian DNA ligase III (LigIII) functions in both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA metabolism. In the nucleus, LigIII has functional redundancy with DNA ligase I whereas LigIII is the only mitochondrial DNA ligase and is essential for the survival of cells dependent upon oxidative respiration. The unique LigIII zinc finger (ZnF) domain is not required for catalytic activity but senses DNA strand breaks and stimulates intermolecular ligation of two DNAs by an unknown mechanism. Consistent with this activity, LigIII acts in an alternative pathway of DNA double strand break repair that buttresses canonical non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and is manifest in NHEJ-defective cancer cells, but how LigIII acts in joining intermolecular DNA ends versus nick ligation is unclear. To investigate how LigIII efficiently joins two DNAs, we developed a real-time, fluorescence-based assay of DNA bridging suitable for high-throughput screening. On a nicked duplex DNA substrate, the results reveal binding competition between the ZnF and the oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding domain, one of three domains constituting the LigIII catalytic core. In contrast, these domains collaborate and are essential for formation of a DNA-bridging intermediate by adenylated LigIII that positions a pair of blunt-ended duplex DNAs for efficient and specific intermolecular ligation. PMID:26130724

  18. Fermilab III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The total ongoing plans for Fermilab are wrapped up in the Fermilab III scheme, centrepiece of which is the proposal for a new Main Injector. The Laboratory has been awarded a $200,000 Illinois grant which will be used to initiate environmental assessment and engineering design of the Main Injector, while a state review panel recommended that the project should also benefit from $2 million of funding

  19. Fermilab III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1990-09-15

    The total ongoing plans for Fermilab are wrapped up in the Fermilab III scheme, centrepiece of which is the proposal for a new Main Injector. The Laboratory has been awarded a $200,000 Illinois grant which will be used to initiate environmental assessment and engineering design of the Main Injector, while a state review panel recommended that the project should also benefit from $2 million of funding.

  20. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide modulates catecholamine storage and exocytosis in PC12 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Dong

    Full Text Available A number of efforts have been made to understand how pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP functions as a neurotrophic and neuroprotective factor in Parkinson's disease (PD. Recently its effects on neurotransmission and underlying mechanisms have generated interest. In the present study, we investigate the effects of PACAP on catecholamine storage and secretion in PC12 cells with amperometry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. PACAP increases quantal release induced by high K+ without significantly regulating the frequency of vesicle fusion events. TEM data indicate that the increased volume of the vesicle is mainly the result of enlargement of the fluidic space around the dense core. Moreover, the number of docked vesicles isn't modulated by PACAP. When cells are acutely treated with L-DOPA, the vesicular volume and quantal release both increase dramatically. It is likely that the characteristics of amperometric spikes from L-DOPA treated cells are associated with increased volume of individual vesicles rather than a direct effect on the mechanics of exocytosis. Treatment with PACAP versus L-DOPA results in different profiles of the dynamics of exocytosis. Release via the fusion pore prior to full exocytosis was observed with the same frequency following treatment with PACAP and L-DOPA. However, release events have a shorter duration and higher average current after PACAP treatment compared to L-DOPA. Furthermore, PACAP reduced the proportion of spikes having rapid decay time and shortened the decay time of both fast and slow spikes. In contrast, the distributions of the amperometric spike decay for both fast and slow spikes were shifted to longer time following L-DOPA treatment. Compared to L-DOPA, PACAP may produce multiple favorable effects on dopaminergic neurons, including protecting dopaminergic neurons against neurodegeneration and potentially regulating dopamine storage and release, making it a promising

  1. Pituitary Adenylate-Cyclase Activating Polypeptide Regulates Hunger- and Palatability-Induced Binge Eating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew M. Hurley

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available While pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP signaling in the hypothalamic ventromedial nuclei (VMN has been shown to regulate feeding, a challenge in unmasking a role for this peptide in obesity is that excess feeding can involve numerous mechanisms including homeostatic (hunger and hedonic-related (palatability drives. In these studies, we first isolated distinct feeding drives by developing a novel model of binge behavior in which homeostatic-driven feeding was temporally separated from feeding driven by food palatability. We found that stimulation of the VMN, achieved by local microinjections of AMPA, decreased standard chow consumption in food-restricted rats (e.g., homeostatic feeding; surprisingly, this manipulation failed to alter palatable food consumption in satiated rats (e.g., hedonic feeding. In contrast, inhibition of the nucleus accumbens (NAc, through local microinjections of GABA receptor agonists baclofen and muscimol, decreased hedonic feeding without altering homeostatic feeding. PACAP microinjections produced the site-specific changes in synaptic transmission needed to decrease feeding via VMN or NAc circuitry. PACAP into the NAc mimicked the actions of GABA agonists by reducing hedonic feeding without altering homeostatic feeding. In contrast, PACAP into the VMN mimicked the actions of AMPA by decreasing homeostatic feeding without affecting hedonic feeding. Slice electrophysiology recordings verified PACAP excitation of VMN neurons and inhibition of NAc neurons. These data suggest that the VMN and NAc regulate distinct circuits giving rise to unique feeding drives, but that both can be regulated by the neuropeptide PACAP to potentially curb excessive eating stemming from either drive.

  2. Effects of Catalytic Action and Ligand Binding on Conformational Ensembles of Adenylate Kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuk, Emre; Badger, John; Wang, Yu Jing; Bardhan, Jaydeep; Chishti, Yasmin; Akcakaya, Murat; Brooks, Dana H; Erdogmus, Deniz; Minh, David D L; Makowski, Lee

    2017-08-29

    Crystal structures of adenylate kinase (AdK) from Escherichia coli capture two states: an "open" conformation (apo) obtained in the absence of ligands and a "closed" conformation in which ligands are bound. Other AdK crystal structures suggest intermediate conformations that may lie on the transition pathway between these two states. To characterize the transition from open to closed states in solution, X-ray solution scattering data were collected from AdK in the apo form and with progressively increasing concentrations of five different ligands. Scattering data from apo AdK are consistent with scattering predicted from the crystal structure of AdK in the open conformation. In contrast, data from AdK samples saturated with Ap5A do not agree with that calculated from AdK in the closed conformation. Using cluster analysis of available structures, we selected representative structures in five conformational states: open, partially open, intermediate, partially closed, and closed. We used these structures to estimate the relative abundances of these states for each experimental condition. X-ray solution scattering data obtained from AdK with AMP are dominated by scattering from AdK in the open conformation. For AdK in the presence of high concentrations of ATP and ADP, the conformational ensemble shifts to a mixture of partially open and closed states. Even when AdK is saturated with Ap5A, a significant proportion of AdK remains in a partially open conformation. These results are consistent with an induced-fit model in which the transition of AdK from an open state to a closed state is initiated by ATP binding.

  3. Comprehensive behavioral analysis of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP knockout mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoko eHattori

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP is a neuropeptide acting as a neurotransmitter, neuromodulator, or neurotrophic factor. PACAP is widely expressed throughout the brain and exerts its functions through the PACAP-specific receptor (PAC1. Recent studies reveal that genetic variants of the PACAP and PAC1 genes are associated with mental disorders, and several behavioral abnormalities of PACAP knockout (KO mice are reported. However, an insufficient number of backcrosses was made using PACAP KO mice on the C57BL/6J background due to their postnatal mortality. To elucidate the effects of PACAP on neuropsychiatric function, the PACAP gene was knocked out in F1 hybrid mice (C57BL/6J x 129SvEv for appropriate control of the genetic background. The PACAP KO mice were then subjected to a behavioral test battery. PACAP deficiency had no significant effects on neurological screen. As shown previously, the mice exhibited significantly increased locomotor activity in a novel environment and abnormal anxiety-like behavior, while no obvious differences between genotypes were shown in home cage activity. In contrast to previous reports, the PACAP KO mice showed normal prepulse inhibition and slightly decreased depression-like behavior. Previous study demonstrates that the social interaction in a resident-intruder test was decreased in PACAP KO mice. On the other hand, we showed that PACAP KO mice exhibited increased social interaction in Crawley’s three-chamber social approach test, although PACAP KO had no significant impact on social interaction in a home cage. PACAP KO mice also exhibited mild performance deficit in working memory in an eight-arm radial maze and the T-maze, while they did not show any significant abnormalities in the left-right discrimination task in the T-maze. These results suggest that PACAP has an important role in the regulation of locomotor activity, social behavior, anxiety-like behavior and, potentially

  4. Homologous desensitization of adenylate cyclase: the role of β-adrenergic receptor phosphorylation and dephosphorylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibley, D.R.; Strasser, R.H.; Daniel, K.; Lefkowitz, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    The authors utilized the frog erythrocyte (FE) as a β-adreneric receptor (βAR) model system in which to study homologous desensitization. Preincubation with isoproterenol (ISO) leads to a 50% decline in ISO-stimulated adenylate cyclase (AC) activity without significant changes in basal, PGE 1 -, NaF-, GppNHp-, forskolin-, or MnCl 2 -stimulated AC activities. ISO treatment also induces the sequestration of βAR from the cell surface as evidenced by a 35% decline in [ 3 H]CGP-12177 binding sites on the surface of intact FE. Treatment of intact FE with ISO also promotes βAR phosphorylation to 2 mol PO 4 /mol of βAR. At 25 0 C, the time courses of ISO-induced AC desensitization, βAR sequestration and βAR phosphorylation are identical occurring without a lag and exhibiting a t 1/2 of 30 min and a maximal response at 2.5 hrs. The sequestered βAR can be partially recovered upon cell lysis in a light membrane fraction (LMF), separable from the plasma membranes using sucrose gradients or differential centrifugation. βAR phosphorylation is reversed in the sequestered LMF exhibiting a PO 4 /βAR stoichiometry of 0.7 mol/mol - similar to that observed under basal conditions. These data suggest that phosphorylation of βAR in the plasma membrane promotes their translocation away from the cell surface into a sequestered membrane domain where the phosphorylation is reversed, thus, enabling the return of βAR back to the cell surface and recoupling with AC

  5. 31P NMR Spectroscopy Revealed Adenylate kinase-like Activity and Phosphotransferase-like Activity from F1-ATPase of Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Won

    2011-01-01

    Adenylate kinase-like activity and phosphotransferase-like activity from F 1 -ATPase of Escherichia coli was revealed by 31 P NMR spectroscopy. Incubation of F 1 -ATPase with ADP in the presence of Mg 2+ shows the appearance of 31 P resonances from AMP and Pi, suggesting generation of AMP and ATP by adenylate kinase-like activity and the subsequent hydrolysis to Pi. Incubation of F1-ATPase with ADP in the presence of methanol shows additional peak from methyl phosphate, suggesting phosphotransferase-like activity of F 1 -ATPase. Both adenylate kinase-like activity and phosphotransferase-like activity has not been reported from F 1 -ATPase of Escherichia coli. 31 P NMR could be a valuable tool for the investigation of phosphorous related enzyme

  6. Effect of cardiopulmonary bypass on beta adrenergic receptor-adenylate cyclase system on surfaces of peripheral lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, A; Tian, Y; Jin, S

    2000-01-01

    The experimental results showed that the level of CAMP, the ratio of cAPM to cGMP, IL-2R expression and IL-2 production in vitro in lymphocytes immediate and 2 weeks after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were significantly lower than those before anesthetics in the patients undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB. These findings suggested that CPB could cause serious damage to adrenergic beta receptor-adenylate cyclase system on circulating lymphocytes surfaces, which might be one of the mechanisms resulting in immunosuppression after open heart surgery with CPB.

  7. Mutation in the β-hairpin of the Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin modulates N-lobe conformation in calmodulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Springer, Tzvia I.; Goebel, Erich; Hariraju, Dinesh; Finley, Natosha L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin modulates bi-lobal structure of CaM. • The structure and stability of the complex rely on intermolecular associations. • A novel mode of CaM-dependent activation of the adenylate cyclase toxin is proposed. - Abstract: Bordetella pertussis, causative agent of whooping cough, produces an adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA) that is an important virulence factor. In the host cell, the adenylate cyclase domain of CyaA (CyaA-ACD) is activated upon association with calmodulin (CaM), an EF-hand protein comprised of N- and C-lobes (N-CaM and C-CaM, respectively) connected by a flexible tether. Maximal CyaA-ACD activation is achieved through its binding to both lobes of intact CaM, but the structural mechanisms remain unclear. No high-resolution structure of the intact CaM/CyaA-ACD complex is available, but crystal structures of isolated C-CaM bound to CyaA-ACD shed light on the molecular mechanism by which this lobe activates the toxin. Previous studies using molecular modeling, biochemical, and biophysical experiments demonstrate that CyaA-ACD’s β-hairpin participates in site-specific interactions with N-CaM. In this study, we utilize nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to probe the molecular association between intact CaM and CyaA-ACD. Our results indicate binding of CyaA-ACD to CaM induces large conformational perturbations mapping to C-CaM, while substantially smaller structural changes are localized primarily to helices I, II, and IV, and the metal-binding sites in N-CaM. Site-specific mutations in CyaA-ACD’s β-hairpin structurally modulate N-CaM, resulting in conformational perturbations in metal binding sites I and II, while no significant structural modifications are observed in C-CaM. Moreover, dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis reveals that mutation of the β-hairpin results in a decreased hydrodynamic radius (R h ) and reduced thermal stability in the mutant complex. Taken together

  8. Mutation in the β-hairpin of the Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin modulates N-lobe conformation in calmodulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, Tzvia I.; Goebel, Erich; Hariraju, Dinesh [Department of Microbiology, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056 (United States); Finley, Natosha L., E-mail: finleynl@miamioh.edu [Department of Microbiology, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056 (United States); Cell, Molecular, and Structural Biology Program, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056 (United States)

    2014-10-10

    Highlights: • Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin modulates bi-lobal structure of CaM. • The structure and stability of the complex rely on intermolecular associations. • A novel mode of CaM-dependent activation of the adenylate cyclase toxin is proposed. - Abstract: Bordetella pertussis, causative agent of whooping cough, produces an adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA) that is an important virulence factor. In the host cell, the adenylate cyclase domain of CyaA (CyaA-ACD) is activated upon association with calmodulin (CaM), an EF-hand protein comprised of N- and C-lobes (N-CaM and C-CaM, respectively) connected by a flexible tether. Maximal CyaA-ACD activation is achieved through its binding to both lobes of intact CaM, but the structural mechanisms remain unclear. No high-resolution structure of the intact CaM/CyaA-ACD complex is available, but crystal structures of isolated C-CaM bound to CyaA-ACD shed light on the molecular mechanism by which this lobe activates the toxin. Previous studies using molecular modeling, biochemical, and biophysical experiments demonstrate that CyaA-ACD’s β-hairpin participates in site-specific interactions with N-CaM. In this study, we utilize nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to probe the molecular association between intact CaM and CyaA-ACD. Our results indicate binding of CyaA-ACD to CaM induces large conformational perturbations mapping to C-CaM, while substantially smaller structural changes are localized primarily to helices I, II, and IV, and the metal-binding sites in N-CaM. Site-specific mutations in CyaA-ACD’s β-hairpin structurally modulate N-CaM, resulting in conformational perturbations in metal binding sites I and II, while no significant structural modifications are observed in C-CaM. Moreover, dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis reveals that mutation of the β-hairpin results in a decreased hydrodynamic radius (R{sub h}) and reduced thermal stability in the mutant complex. Taken

  9. Liaison of 3H 5-HT and adenyl cyclasic activation induced by the 5-HT in preparations of brain glial membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillion, Gilles; Beaudoin, Dominique; Rousselle, J.-C.; Jacob, Joseph

    1980-01-01

    Purified glial membrane preparations have been isolated from horse brain striatum. Tritiated 5-HT bound to these membranes with a high affinity (K(D)=10 nM); the corresponding bindings is reversible and appears specific of the serotoninergic structure. In parallel, 5-HT activates an adenylate cyclase with a low affinity (K(D)=1 μM). The sites involved in this binding and in this adenylate cyclase activation appear different from the serotoninergic sites reported in the neuronal membrane preparations [fr

  10. Tratamento compensatorio da má oclusnao de classe lll: revisão de literatura

    OpenAIRE

    Dílio, Rogério Cássio [UNESP; Micheletti, Kelly Regina [UNESP; Cuoghi, Osmar Aparecido [UNESP; Bertoz, André Pinheiro de Magalhães [UNESP

    2014-01-01

    Class III malocclusion is less common occlusal relationship, covering less than 5% of the population. There are various forms of treatment in Class III malocclusion. Depending on how the form is expressed Class III and age of the patient, the therapy may be orthopedic and orthodontic surgical orthodontics. The objective was to review the literature of the last 10 years about ways to compensatory treatment of Class III malocclusion. Several articles were published between 04/2003 and 04/2013 i...

  11. Adrenalectomy mediated alterations in adrenergic activation of adenylate cyclase in rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Refai, M.; Chan, T.

    1986-01-01

    Adrenalectomy caused a large increase in the number of β-adrenergic binding sites on liver plasma membranes as measured by 125 I-iodocyanopindolol (22 and 102 fmol/mg protein for control and adrenalectomized (ADX) rats). Concomitantly an increase in the number of binding sites for 3 H-yohimbine was also observed (104 and 175 fmol/mg protein for control and adx membranes). Epinephrine-stimulated increase in cyclic AMP accumulation in isolated hepatocytes were greater in cells from ADX rats. This increase in β-adrenergic mediated action was much less than what may be expected as a result of the increase in the β-adrenergic binding in ADX membranes. In addition phenoxybenzamine (10 μM) further augmented this action of epinephrine in both control and ADX cells. To test the hypothesis that the increase in the number of the inhibitory α 2 -adrenergic receptors in adrenalectomy is responsible for the muted β-adrenergic response, the authors injected rats with pertussis toxin (PT). This treatment may cause the in vivo ribosylation of the inhibitory binding protein (Ni). Adenylate cyclase (AC) activity in liver plasma membranes prepared from treated and untreated animals was measured. In contrast with control rats, treatment of ADX rats with PT resulted in a significant increase in the basal activity of AC (5.5 and 7.7 pmol/mg protein/min for untreated and treated rats respectively). Isoproterenol (10 μM), caused AC activity to increase to 6.5 and 8.4 pmol/mg protein/min for membranes obtained from ADX untreated and ADX treated rats respectively. The α-adrenergic antagonists had no significant effect on the β-adrenergic-mediated activation of AC in liver plasma membranes from PT treated control and ADX rats. The authors conclude that the β-adrenergic activation of AC is attenuated by Ni protein both directly and as a result of activation of α-adrenergic receptors

  12. Cardiac effects of r-79595 and its isomers (r-80122 and r-80123) in an acute heart-failure model - a new class of cardiotonic agents with highly selective phosphodiesterase-iii inhibitory properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHNEIDER, J; BECK, E; HEERS, C; CONRAD, C; DECOURCELLES, DD; WILFFERT, B; Peters, Thies

    1992-01-01

    R 79595 (N-cyclohexyl-N-methyl-2-[[[phenyl (1,2,3,5-tetrahydro-2 oxoimidazo [2,1-b]-quinazolin-7-yl) methylene] amin] oxy] acetamide) and its isomers represent a novel class of compounds with phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitory and cardiotonic (positive inotropic) actions. The cardiac effects of this

  13. Word classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2007-01-01

    in grammatical descriptions of some 50 languages, which together constitute a representative sample of the world’s languages (Hengeveld et al. 2004: 529). It appears that there are both quantitative and qualitative differences between word class systems of individual languages. Whereas some languages employ...... a parts-of-speech system that includes the categories Verb, Noun, Adjective and Adverb, other languages may use only a subset of these four lexical categories. Furthermore, quite a few languages have a major word class whose members cannot be classified in terms of the categories Verb – Noun – Adjective...... – Adverb, because they have properties that are strongly associated with at least two of these four traditional word classes (e.g. Adjective and Adverb). Finally, this article discusses some of the ways in which word class distinctions interact with other grammatical domains, such as syntax and morphology....

  14. Class size versus class composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Sam

    Raising schooling quality in low-income countries is a pressing challenge. Substantial research has considered the impact of cutting class sizes on skills acquisition. Considerably less attention has been given to the extent to which peer effects, which refer to class composition, also may affect...... bias from omitted variables, the preferred IV results indicate considerable negative effects due to larger class sizes and larger numbers of overage-for-grade peers. The latter, driven by the highly prevalent practices of grade repetition and academic redshirting, should be considered an important...

  15. Down-regulation of Cell Surface Cyclic AMP Receptors and Desensitization of Cyclic AMP-stimulated Adenylate Cyclase by Cyclic AMP in Dictyostelium discoideum. Kinetics and Concentration Dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haastert, Peter J.M. van

    1987-01-01

    cAMP binds to Dictyostelium discoideum surface receptors and induces a transient activation of adenylate cyclase, which is followed by desensitization. cAMP also induces a loss of detectable surface receptors (down-regulation). Cells were incubated with constant cAMP concentrations, washed free of

  16. Comparative analysis of oligonucleotide primers for high-throughput screening of genes encoding adenylation domains of nonribosomal peptide synthetases in actinomycetes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bakal, Tomáš; Goo, K.-S.; Najmanová, Lucie; Plháčková, Kamila; Kadlčík, Stanislav; Ulanová, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 108, č. 5 (2015), s. 1267-1274 ISSN 0003-6072 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Nonribosomal peptide synthetase * Adenylation domain * Actinomycetes Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.944, year: 2015

  17. Bisamidate Prodrugs of 2-Substituted 9-[2-(Phosphonomethoxy)ethyl]adenine (PMEA, adefovir) as Selective Inhibitors of Adenylate Cyclase Toxin from Bordetella pertussis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Česnek, Michal; Jansa, Petr; Šmídková, Markéta; Mertlíková-Kaiserová, Helena; Dračínský, Martin; Brust, T. F.; Pávek, P.; Trejtnar, F.; Watts, V. J.; Janeba, Zlatko

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 8 (2015), s. 1351-1364 ISSN 1860-7179 R&D Projects: GA MV VG20102015046 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : adenylate cyclase toxin * bisamidates * Bordetella pertussis * nucleosides * phosphonates Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.980, year: 2015

  18. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide induces vascular relaxation and inhibits non-vascular smooth muscle activity in the rabbit female genital tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenstrup, B R; Ottesen, B; Jørgensen, M

    1994-01-01

    In vitro effects of two bioactive forms of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP): PACAP-38 and PACAP-27 were studied on rabbit vascular and non-vascular smooth muscle. Segments of the ovarian artery and muscle strips from the fallopian tube were used. Two series of experiment...

  19. Social Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aktor, Mikael

    2018-01-01

    . Although this social structure was ideal in nature and not equally confirmed in other genres of ancient and medieval literature, it has nevertheless had an immense impact on Indian society. The chapter presents an overview of the system with its three privileged classes, the Brahmins, the Kṣatriyas......The notions of class (varṇa) and caste (jāti) run through the dharmaśāstra literature (i.e. Hindu Law Books) on all levels. They regulate marriage, economic transactions, work, punishment, penance, entitlement to rituals, identity markers like the sacred thread, and social interaction in general...

  20. Birthing Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... management options. Breastfeeding basics. Caring for baby at home. Birthing classes are not just for new parents, though. ... midwife. Postpartum care. Caring for your baby at home, including baby first aid. Lamaze One of the most popular birthing techniques in the U.S., Lamaze has been around ...

  1. Phorbol esters alter adenylate cyclase responses to vasoactive intestinal peptide and forskolin in the GH cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, S.; Florio, T.; Cronin, M.

    1986-05-01

    Activation of protein kinase C with phorbol ester modifies cyclic AMP production in several anterior pituitary cell systems. In the GH cell line from a rat pituitary tumor, exposure to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA: 100 nM) for 30 minutes significantly reduces vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP: 100 nM) stimulated adenylate cyclase (AC) activity in subsequent membrane preparations to 62 + 4% of control (n = 6 independent studies). In contrast, these same membrane preparations respond to forskolin (1 ..mu..M) with significantly more activity, 130 +/- 6% of controls (n = 6 independent studies). Finally, phorbol ester does not block an inhibitory hormone input into the AC system; somatostatin (100 nM) reduction of VIP-stimulated AC activity is not significantly different in membrane preparations from PMA treated and control cells (n = 3 independent studies). These other findings lead the authors to propose that protein kinase C can modify several sites in the AC complex in anterior pituitary cells.

  2. Incorporation of adenylate cyclase into membranes of giant liposomes using membrane fusion with recombinant baculovirus-budded virus particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Takaaki; Kamiya, Koki; Tomita, Masahiro; Yoshimura, Tetsuro; Tsumoto, Kanta

    2014-06-01

    Recombinant transmembrane adenylate cyclase (AC) was incorporated into membranes of giant liposomes using membrane fusion between liposomes and baculovirus-budded virus (BV). AC genes were constructed into transfer vectors in a form fused with fluorescent protein or polyhistidine at the C-terminus. The recombinant BVs were collected by ultracentrifugation and AC expression was verified using western blotting. The BVs and giant liposomes generated using gentle hydration were fused under acidic conditions; the incorporation of AC into giant liposomes was demonstrated by confocal laser scanning microscopy through the emission of fluorescence from their membranes. The AC-expressing BVs were also fused with liposomes containing the substrate (ATP) with/without a specific inhibitor (SQ 22536). An enzyme immunoassay on extracts of the sample demonstrated that cAMP was produced inside the liposomes. This procedure facilitates direct introduction of large transmembrane proteins into artificial membranes without solubilization.

  3. The Arabidopsis thalianaK+-uptake permease 7 (AtKUP7) contains a functional cytosolic adenylate cyclase catalytic centre

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Younis, Inas

    2015-11-27

    Adenylate Cyclases (ACs) catalyze the formation of the second messenger cyclic adenosine 3′, 5′-monophosphate (cAMP) from adenosine 5’-triphosphate (ATP). Although cAMP is increasingly recognized as an important signaling molecule in higher plants, ACs have remained somewhat elusive. Here we used a search motif derived from experimentally tested guanylyl cyclases (GCs), substituted the residues essential for substrate specificity and identified the Arabidopsis thaliana K+-uptake permease 7 (AtKUP7) as one of several candidate ACs. Firstly, we show that a recombinant N-terminal, cytosolic domain of AtKUP71-100 is able to complement the AC-deficient mutant cyaA in Escherichia coli and thus restoring the fermentation of lactose, and secondly, we demonstrate with both enzyme immunoassays and mass spectrometry that a recombinant AtKUP71-100 generates cAMP in vitro.

  4. Invasion of Dendritic Cells, Macrophages and Neutrophils by the Bordetella Adenylate Cyclase Toxin: A Subversive Move to Fool Host Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedele, Giorgio; Schiavoni, Ilaria; Adkins, Irena; Klimova, Nela; Sebo, Peter

    2017-09-21

    Adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA) is released in the course of B. pertussis infection in the host's respiratory tract in order to suppress its early innate and subsequent adaptive immune defense. CD11b-expressing dendritic cells (DC), macrophages and neutrophils are professional phagocytes and key players of the innate immune system that provide a first line of defense against invading pathogens. Recent findings revealed the capacity of B. pertussis CyaA to intoxicate DC with high concentrations of 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), which ultimately skews the host immune response towards the expansion of Th17 cells and regulatory T cells. CyaA-induced cAMP signaling swiftly incapacitates opsonophagocytosis, oxidative burst and NO-mediated killing of bacteria by neutrophils and macrophages. The subversion of host immune responses by CyaA after delivery into DC, macrophages and neutrophils is the subject of this review.

  5. Invasion of Dendritic Cells, Macrophages and Neutrophils by the Bordetella Adenylate Cyclase Toxin: A Subversive Move to Fool Host Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Fedele

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA is released in the course of B. pertussis infection in the host’s respiratory tract in order to suppress its early innate and subsequent adaptive immune defense. CD11b-expressing dendritic cells (DC, macrophages and neutrophils are professional phagocytes and key players of the innate immune system that provide a first line of defense against invading pathogens. Recent findings revealed the capacity of B. pertussis CyaA to intoxicate DC with high concentrations of 3′,5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, which ultimately skews the host immune response towards the expansion of Th17 cells and regulatory T cells. CyaA-induced cAMP signaling swiftly incapacitates opsonophagocytosis, oxidative burst and NO-mediated killing of bacteria by neutrophils and macrophages. The subversion of host immune responses by CyaA after delivery into DC, macrophages and neutrophils is the subject of this review.

  6. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide in stress-related disorders: data convergence from animal and human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammack, Sayamwong E; May, Victor

    2015-08-01

    The maladaptive expression and function of several stress-associated hormones have been implicated in pathological stress and anxiety-related disorders. Among these, recent evidence has suggested that pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) has critical roles in central neurocircuits mediating stress-related emotional behaviors. We describe the PACAPergic systems, the data implicating PACAP in stress biology, and how altered PACAP expression and signaling may result in psychopathologies. We include our work implicating PACAP signaling within the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in mediating the consequences of stressor exposure and relatedly, describe more recent studies suggesting that PACAP in the central nucleus of the amygdala may impact the emotional aspects of chronic pain states. In aggregate, these results are consistent with data suggesting that PACAP dysregulation is associated with posttraumatic stress disorder in humans. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF INHALED NITRIC OXIDE USE IN PATIENTS WITH PULMONARY HYPERTENSION AND CHRONIC HEART FAILURE III-IV FUNCTIONAL CLASS, SURVIVED LEFT VENTRICULAR MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION: RESULTS OF NON-RANDOMIZED COMAPARIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Pavlenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim – assessment of the influence of inhaled nitric oxide (NO on the course of pulmonary hypertension (PH in patients with chronic heartfailure (CHF III–IV functional class (FC, myocardial infarction (MI.Materials and methods. Results of comparative non-randomized study that included 45 patients (26 men and 19 women aged 51 to 98 years with PH III–IV functional class, left ventricular myocardial infarction. In the study, patients underwent physical examination and Doppler echocardiography, and assessed FC LH (carried out with six-minute walking test, to determine the degree of dyspnea by Borg.Results. Symptoms of CHF and PH regressed in both groups of patients against the background of the therapy. Conclusion. It is established that the use of inhaled NO is a safe therapy and helps to reduce mean pulmonary arterial pressure (PAPmean in patients with PH and CHF III–IV FC, myocardial infarction. The method of inhaled NO is simple and easy to use.

  8. EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF INHALED NITRIC OXIDE USE IN PATIENTS WITH PULMONARY HYPERTENSION AND CHRONIC HEART FAILURE III-IV FUNCTIONAL CLASS, SURVIVED LEFT VENTRICULAR MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION: RESULTS OF NON-RANDOMIZED COMAPARIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Pavlenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim – assessment of the influence of inhaled nitric oxide (NO on the course of pulmonary hypertension (PH in patients with chronic heartfailure (CHF III–IV functional class (FC, myocardial infarction (MI.Materials and methods. Results of comparative non-randomized study that included 45 patients (26 men and 19 women aged 51 to 98 years with PH III–IV functional class, left ventricular myocardial infarction. In the study, patients underwent physical examination and Doppler echocardiography, and assessed FC LH (carried out with six-minute walking test, to determine the degree of dyspnea by Borg.Results. Symptoms of CHF and PH regressed in both groups of patients against the background of the therapy. Conclusion. It is established that the use of inhaled NO is a safe therapy and helps to reduce mean pulmonary arterial pressure (PAPmean in patients with PH and CHF III–IV FC, myocardial infarction. The method of inhaled NO is simple and easy to use.

  9. Roles of Protein Kinase A and Adenylate Cyclase in Light-Modulated Cellulase Regulation in Trichoderma reesei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, André; Tisch, Doris; Seidl-Seiboth, Verena; Kubicek, Christian P.

    2012-01-01

    The cyclic AMP (cAMP) pathway represents a central signaling cascade with crucial functions in all organisms. Previous studies of Trichoderma reesei (anamorph of Hypocrea jecorina) suggested a function of cAMP signaling in regulation of cellulase gene expression. We were therefore interested in how the crucial components of this pathway, adenylate cyclase (ACY1) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA), would affect cellulase gene expression. We found that both ACY1 and PKA catalytic subunit 1 (PKAC1) are involved in regulation of vegetative growth but are not essential for sexual development. Interestingly, our results showed considerably increased transcript abundance of cellulase genes in darkness compared to light (light responsiveness) upon growth on lactose. This effect is strongly enhanced in mutant strains lacking PKAC1 or ACY1. Comparison to the wild type showed that ACY1 has a consistently positive effect on cellulase gene expression in light and darkness, while PKAC1 influences transcript levels of cellulase genes positively in light but negatively in darkness. A function of PKAC1 in light-modulated cellulase gene regulation is also reflected by altered complex formation within the cel6a/cbh2 promoter in light and darkness and in the absence of pkac1. Analysis of transcript levels of cellulase regulator genes indicates that the regulatory output of the cAMP pathway may be established via adjustment of XYR1 abundance. Consequently, both adenylate cyclase and protein kinase A are involved in light-modulated cellulase gene expression in T. reesei and have a dampening effect on the light responsiveness of this process. PMID:22286997

  10. Análise do perfil facial esquelético e de tecidos moles pré e pós-cirurgia ortognática em pacientes Classe II e III, e sua relação com a proporção áurea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Ângelo WALEWSKI

    Full Text Available Resumo Introdução A proporção áurea, representada pela razão matemática 1:1.618, tem sido investigada na especialidade Ortodontia e no procedimento de Cirurgia Ortognática, a fim de ser estabelecida como um guia de sucesso clínico relacionado à estética facial. Objetivo Verificar a estética dos perfis faciais de pacientes Classes II e III de Angle, antes e após tratamento ortodôntico-cirúrgico, além de correlacionar 13 razões dentoesqueléticas e cinco razões de tecidos moles à proporção áurea. Material e método Um total de 94 radiografias cefalométricas laterais foram analisadas, em que 13 razões dentoesqueléticas e cinco razões em tecidos moles foram medidas e comparadas ao número áureo. Adicionalmente, uma análise subjetiva da estética facial pré e pós-tratamento foi realizada por 270 examinadores. Resultado As razões dentoesqueléticas 1, 3, 6, 7, 8 e 9 aproximaram-se do número áureo após a cirurgia ortognática, nos pacientes Classe III. Para o perfil mole, apenas a razão 4 se aproximou ao número áureo, em ambos os pacientes Classe II e III. Em relação à avaliação subjetiva da estética, 91,49% dos perfis faciais foram considerados mais harmônicos após o tratamento. Conclusão Frente à metodologia usada, pode-se concluir que a proporção áurea exerce pouca influência na avaliação da estética facial, não servindo como um guia para o planejamento e o tratamento ortodôntico-ortognático.

  11. Coding Class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Hansbøl, Mikala

    Denne rapport rummer evaluering og dokumentation af Coding Class projektet1. Coding Class projektet blev igangsat i skoleåret 2016/2017 af IT-Branchen i samarbejde med en række medlemsvirksomheder, Københavns kommune, Vejle Kommune, Styrelsen for IT- og Læring (STIL) og den frivillige forening...... Coding Pirates2. Rapporten er forfattet af Docent i digitale læringsressourcer og forskningskoordinator for forsknings- og udviklingsmiljøet Digitalisering i Skolen (DiS), Mikala Hansbøl, fra Institut for Skole og Læring ved Professionshøjskolen Metropol; og Lektor i læringsteknologi, interaktionsdesign......, design tænkning og design-pædagogik, Stine Ejsing-Duun fra Forskningslab: It og Læringsdesign (ILD-LAB) ved Institut for kommunikation og psykologi, Aalborg Universitet i København. Vi har fulgt og gennemført evaluering og dokumentation af Coding Class projektet i perioden november 2016 til maj 2017...

  12. Biochemical characterization of putative adenylate dimethylallyltransferase and cytokinin dehydrogenase from Nostoc sp. PCC 7120

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frébortová, Jitka; Greplová, Marta; Seidl, Michael F.; Heyl, Alexander; Frébort, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    Cytokinins, a class of phytohormones, are adenine derivatives common to many different organisms. In plants, these play a crucial role as regulators of plant development and the reaction to abiotic and biotic stress. Key enzymes in the cytokinin synthesis and degradation in modern land plants are

  13. Effect of different forms of adenylate cyclase toxin of Bordetella pertussis on protection afforded by an acellular pertussis vaccine in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Gordon Y C; Xing, Dorothy; Prior, Sandra; Corbel, Michael J; Parton, Roger; Coote, John G

    2006-12-01

    Four recombinant forms of the cell-invasive adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA) of Bordetella pertussis were compared for the ability to enhance protection against B. pertussis in mice when coadministered with an acellular pertussis vaccine (ACV). The four forms were as follows: fully functional CyaA, a CyaA form lacking adenylate cyclase enzymatic activity (CyaA*), and the nonacylated forms of these toxins, i.e., proCyaA and proCyaA*, respectively. None of these forms alone conferred significant (P > 0.05) protection against B. pertussis in a murine intranasal challenge model. Mice immunized with ACV alone showed significant (P protection was only significant (P protection provided by CyaA* was due to an augmentation of both Th1 and Th2 immune responses to B. pertussis antigens.

  14. Pressure stabilization is not a general property of thermophilic enzymes: the adenylate kinases of Methanococcus voltae, Methanococcus maripaludis, Methanococcus thermolithotrophicus, and Methanococcus jannaschii.

    OpenAIRE

    Konisky, J; Michels, P C; Clark, D S

    1995-01-01

    The application of 50-MPa pressure did not increase the thermostabilities of adenylate kinases purified from four related mesophilic and thermophilic marine methanogens. Thus, while it has been reported that some thermophilic enzymes are stabilized by pressure (D. J. Hei and D. S. Clark, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60:932-939, 1994), hyperbaric stabilization is not an intrinsic property of all enzymes from deep-sea thermophiles.

  15. A homolog of the vertebrate pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide is both necessary and instructive for the rapid formation of associative memory in an invertebrate

    OpenAIRE

    Pirger, Zsolt; László, Zita; Kemenes, Ildikó; Tóth, Gábor; Reglődi, Dóra; Kemenes, György

    2010-01-01

    Similar to other invertebrate and vertebrate animals, cAMP dependent signaling cascades are key components of long-term memory (LTM) formation in the snail Lymnaea stagnalis, an established experimental model for studying evolutionarily conserved molecular mechanisms of long-term associative memory. Although a great deal is already known about the signaling cascades activated by cAMP, the molecules involved in the learning-induced activation of adenylate cyclase (AC) in Lymnaea remained unkno...

  16. Cannabinoid inhibition of adenylate cyclase-mediated signal transduction and interleukin 2 (IL-2) expression in the murine T-cell line, EL4.IL-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condie, R; Herring, A; Koh, W S; Lee, M; Kaminski, N E

    1996-05-31

    Cannabinoid receptors negatively regulate adenylate cyclase through a pertussis toxin-sensitive GTP-binding protein. In the present studies, signaling via the adenylate cyclase/cAMP pathway was investigated in the murine thymoma-derived T-cell line, EL4.IL-2. Northern analysis of EL4.IL-2 cells identified the presence of 4-kilobase CB2 but not CB1 receptor-subtype mRNA transcripts. Southern analysis of genomic DNA digests for the CB2 receptor demonstrated identical banding patterns for EL4.IL-2 cells and mouse-derived DNA, both of which were dissimilar to DNA isolated from rat. Treatment of EL4.IL-2 cells with either cannabinol or Delta9-THC disrupted the adenylate cyclase signaling cascade by inhibiting forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation which consequently led to a decrease in protein kinase A activity and the binding of transcription factors to a CRE consensus sequence. Likewise, an inhibition of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)/ionomycin-induced interleukin 2 (IL-2) protein secretion, which correlated to decreased IL-2 gene transcription, was induced by both cannabinol and Delta9-THC. Further, cannabinoid treatment also decreased PMA/ionomycin-induced nuclear factor binding to the AP-1 proximal site of the IL-2 promoter. Conversely, forskolin enhanced PMA/ionomycin-induced AP-1 binding. These findings suggest that inhibition of signal transduction via the adenylate cyclase/cAMP pathway induces T-cell dysfunction which leads to a diminution in IL-2 gene transcription.

  17. Complete protection against P. berghei malaria upon heterologous prime/boost immunization against circumsporozoite protein employing Salmonella type III secretion system and Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxoid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tartz, S.; Rüssmann, H.; Kamanová, Jana; Šebo, Peter; Sturm, A.; Heussler, V.; Fleischer, B.; Jacobs, T.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 47 (2008), s. 5935-5943 ISSN 0264-410X R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06161 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : circumsporozoite protein * vaccine * salmonella Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.298, year: 2008

  18. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa Chp Chemosensory System Regulates Intracellular cAMP Levels by Modulating Adenylate Cyclase Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulcher, Nanette B.; Holliday, Phillip M.; Klem, Erich; Cann, Martin J.; Wolfgang, Matthew C.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Multiple virulence systems in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa are regulated by the second messenger signaling molecule adenosine 3’, 5’-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP). Production of cAMP by the putative adenylate cyclase enzyme CyaB represents a critical control point for virulence gene regulation. To identify regulators of CyaB, we screened a transposon insertion library for mutants with reduced intracellular cAMP. The majority of insertions resulting in reduced cAMP mapped to the Chp gene cluster encoding a putative chemotaxis-like chemosensory system. Further genetic analysis of the Chp system revealed that it has both positive and negative effects on intracellular cAMP and that it regulates cAMP levels by modulating CyaB activity. The Chp system was previously implicated in the production and function of type IV pili (TFP). Given that cAMP and the cAMP-dependent transcriptional regulator Vfr control TFP biogenesis gene expression, we explored the relationship between cAMP, the Chp system and TFP regulation. We discovered that the Chp system controls TFP production through modulation of cAMP while control of TFP-dependent twitching motility is cAMP-independent. Overall, our data define a novel function for a chemotaxis-like system in controlling cAMP production and establish a regulatory link between the Chp system, TFP and other cAMP-dependent virulence systems. PMID:20345659

  19. The effects of isatin (indole-2, 3-dione on pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide-induced hyperthermia in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tóth Gábor

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have demonstrated that centrally administered natriuretic peptides and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide-38 (PACAP-38 have hyperthermic properties. Isatin (indole-2, 3-dione is an endogenous indole that has previously been found to inhibit hyperthermic effects of natriuretic peptides. In this study the aim was to investigate the effects of isatin on thermoregulatory actions of PACAP-38, in rats. Results One μg intracerebroventricular (icv. injection of PACAP-38 had hyperthermic effect in male, Wistar rats, with an onset of the effect at 2 h and a decline by the 6th h after administration. Intraperitoneal (ip. injection of different doses of isatin (25-50 mg/kg significantly decreased the hyperthermic effect of 1 μg PACAP-38 (icv., whereas 12.5 mg/kg isatin (ip. had no inhibiting effect. Isatin alone did not modify the body temperature of the animals. Conclusion The mechanisms that participate in the mediation of the PACAP-38-induced hyperthermia may be modified by isatin. The capability of isatin to antagonize the hyperthermia induced by all members of the natriuretic peptide family and by PACAP-38 makes it unlikely to be acting directly on receptors for natriuretic peptides or on those for PACAP in these hyperthermic processes.

  20. Complexes of Escherichia coli adenylate kinase and nucleotides: 1H NMR studies of the nucleotide sites in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetter, I.R.; Reinstein, J.; Roesch, P.

    1990-01-01

    One- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies, in particular substrate-protein nuclear Overhauser effect (NOESY) measurements, as well as nucleotide and P 1 ,P 5 -bis-(5'-adenosyl) pentaphosphate (AP 5 A) titrations and studies of the temperature-dependent unfolding of the tertiary structure of Escherichia coli adenylate kinase (AK EC ) were performed. These experiments and comparison with the same type of experiments performed with the porcine enzyme led them to the following conclusions: (1) at pH 8