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Sample records for class ii restorations

  1. Interfacial Chemistry of Moisture-Aged Class II Composite Restorations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Paulette; Wang, Yong; Bohaty, Brenda

    2007-01-01

    Under in vivo conditions, the adhesive/dentin bond at the gingival margin of class II composite restorations can be the first defense against substances that may penetrate and ultimately undermine the composite restoration. Deterioration of this bond during aqueous aging is an area of intense investigation, but to date, the majority of our techniques have provided only an indirect assessment of the degrading components. The purpose of this study was to analyze the in situ molecular structure of adhesive/dentin interfaces in class II composite restorations, following aging in aqueous solutions. Class II preparations were cut from 12 unerupted human third molars, with a water-cooled, high-speed, dental handpiece. The prepared teeth were randomly selected for restoration with single bond (SB) and Z100 (3M). Teeth were restored, as per the manufacturer’s directions, under environmental conditions that simulated humidity and temperature characteristics of the oral cavity. Restored teeth were kept in sterile Delbecco’s phosphate saline for 48 h or 90 days. The samples were sectioned occlusogingivally and micro-Raman spectra were acquired at ~1.5 μm spatial resolution across the composite/adhesive/dentin interfaces at the gingival margins. Samples were wet throughout spectral acquisition. The relative intensity of bands associated with the adhesive in the interfacial region decreased dramatically after aqueous storage. This decrease in concert with the similar depth of dentin demineralization provides direct spectroscopic evidence of leaching of adhesive monomer from the interface during the 90 days of storage. SB adhesive infiltrated 4 –5 μm of 12-μm demineralized dentin at the gingival margin. After 90 days of aqueous storage, SB adhesive infiltration was reduced to ~2 μm, leaving ~10 μm of demineralized dentin collagen exposed at the gingival margin. The unprotected collagen at the gingival margin of the aged class II composite restorations was disorganized

  2. Glass ionomer-silver cermet Class II tunnel-restorations for primary molars.

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    Croll, T P

    1988-01-01

    Tunnel preparations preserve the anatomical marginal ridge and minimize the loss of healthy tooth structure adjacent to the carious lesion. When the practitioner has developed proficiency in restoring class II carious lesions with tunnel restorations, less treatment time is required than with traditional class II preparations. The technique for restoring a primary first molar with a class II carious lesion, using a tunnel preparation and Ketac-Silver restorative material is described.

  3. The effectiveness of different polymerization protocols for class II composite resin restorations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, L.C.G. de; Opdam, N.J.M.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Roeters, F.J.M.; Wolke, J.G.C.; Geitenbeek, B.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of reduced light exposure times on Vickers hardness (VH) of class II composite resin restorations. METHODS: Class II restorations were made in vitro in three 2mm thick increments in a human molar. Two composite resins (Clearfil AP-X; Esthet-X) were polymerized

  4. Durability of a low shrinkage TEGDMA/HEMA-free resin composite system in Class II restorations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan WV; Pallesen, Ulla

    2017-01-01

    with a mean age of 53 years (range 29-82). Each participant received at random two, as similar as possible, Class II restorations. In the first cavity of each pair the TEGDMA/HEMA-free resin composite system was placed with its 3-step etch-and-rinse adhesive (cmf-els). In the second cavity a 1-step HEMA......Objective: The objective of this randomized controlled prospective trial was to evaluate the durability of a low shrinkage and TEGDMA/HEMA-free resin composite system in posterior restorations in a 6-year follow up. Material and methods: 139 Class II restorations were placed in 67 patients......-free self-etch adhesive was used (AdheSe One F). The restorations were evaluated using slightly modified USPHS criteria at baseline and then yearly during 6 years. Caries risk and parafunctional habits of the participants were estimated. Results: Three molar teeth showed mild post-operative sensitivity...

  5. Evaluation of proximal contact tightness of Class II resin composite restorations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saber, M.H.; Loomans, B.A.C.; Zohairy, A. El; Dorfer, C.E.; El-Badrawy, W.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the current study was to compare in-vitro the proximal contact tightness (PCT) of Class II resin composite restorations (RCR) placed with different established and new placement techniques. METHODS: 105 ivorine lower left first molars with standardized MO cavities were

  6. The effect of proximal contour on marginal ridge fracture of Class II composite resin restorations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, B.A.C.; Roeters, F.J.M.; Opdam, N.J.M.; Kuijs, R.H.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the marginal ridge fracture strength of Class II composite resin restorations placed with a straight or contoured matrix band using composite resins with different modulus of elasticity. METHODS: In 60 artificial first molars standardized MO-preparations were ground. Two

  7. Coronal microleakage of four temporary restorative materials in Class II-type endodontic access preparations

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    Sang-Mi Yun

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the microleakage of 4 temporary materials in teeth with Class II-type endodontic access preparations by using a glucose penetration model. Materials and Methods Glucose reaction test was performed to rule out the presence of any reaction between glucose and temporary material. Class II-type endodontic access preparations were made in extracted human premolars with a single root (n = 10. Each experimental group was restored with Caviton (GC, Spacer (Vericom, IRM (Dentsply-Caulk, or Fuji II(GC. Microleakage of four materials used as temporary restorative materials was evaluated by using a glucose penetration model. Data were analyzed by the one-way analysis of variance followed by a multiple-comparison Tukey test. The interface between materials and tooth were examined under a scanning electron microscope (SEM. Results There was no significant reaction between glucose and temporary materials used in this study. Microleakage was significantly lower for Caviton and Spacer than for Fuji II and IRM. SEM observation showed more intimate adaptation of tooth-restoration interfaces in Caviton and Spacer than in IRM and Fuji II. Conclusions Compared to IRM and Fuji II, Caviton and Spacer can be considered better temporary sealing materials in Class II-type endodontic access cavities.

  8. Survival of self-etch adhesive Class II composite restorations using ART and conventional cavity preparations in primary molars.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eden, E.; Topaloglu-Ak, A.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.; Hof, M.A. van 't

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To test the null-hypothesis that there was no difference in the survival percentages of Class II composite restorations in primary teeth produced through either ART or conventional approaches after 2 years. METHODS: 157 children with 325 Class II cavitated dentin lesions were included in a

  9. Effect of gingival fluid on marginal adaptation of Class II resin-based composite restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahr, A; Schön, F; Haller, B

    2000-10-01

    To evaluate in vitro the marginal quality of Class II composite restorations at the gingival enamel margins as affected by contamination of the cavities with gingival fluid (GF) during different steps of resin bonding procedures. 70 Class II cavities were prepared in extracted human molars and restored with composite using a multi-component bonding system (OptiBond FL/Herculite XRV; OPTI) or a single-bottle adhesive (Syntac Sprint/Tetric Ceram; SYN). The cavities were contaminated with human GF: C1 after acid etching, C2 after application of the primer (OPTI) or light-curing of the primer-adhesive (SYN), and C3 after light-curing of the resin adhesive (OPTI). Uncontaminated cavities were used as the control (C0). The restored teeth were subjected to thermocycling (TC) and replicated for SEM analysis of marginal gap formation. Microleakage at the gingival margins was determined by dye penetration with basic fuchsin. non-parametric tests (Kruskal-Wallis test, Mann-Whitney test with Bonferroni correction). In both bonding systems, contamination with GF after acid etching (C1) did not impair the marginal quality; the mean percentages of continuous margin/mean depths of dye penetration were: OPTI: C0: 88.5%/0.10 mm, C1: 95.6%/0.04 mm; SYN: C0: 90.9%/0.08 mm, C1: 97.0%/0.05 mm. Marginal adaptation was adversely affected when GF contamination was performed after

  10. Lateral-access Class II restoration using resin-modified glass-ionomer or silver-cermet cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croll, T P

    1995-02-01

    Direct-access preparation of a carious proximal surface is perhaps the most conservative approach to restoration. Physical properties and handling characteristics of silver amalgam and of resin composite and lack of fluoride ion release make these materials unsuitable for direct buccal- or lingual-access proximal restoration. Insufficient strengths and radiolucency of self-hardening glass-ionomer cements preclude their use for Class II restorations. However, glass-ionomer silver-cermet cement and some resin-modified glass-ionomer materials are proving useful for non-stress-bearing Class II restorations and may have applications in preventive dentistry. This article describes lateral-access Class II restoration with modified glass-ionomer cements. Emphasis is placed on careful handling of materials, maintenance of an ideal operative field, and conservation of tooth structure.

  11. A Randomized 10-year Prospective Follow-up of Class II Nanohybrid and Conventional Hybrid Resin Composite Restorations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan Wv; Pallesen, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the 10-year durability of a nanohybrid resin composite in Class II restorations in a randomized controlled intraindividual comparison with its conventional hybrid resin composite predecessor. Materials and Methods: Each of 52 participants received at least two Class II...... restorations that were as similar as possible. The cavities were chosen at random to be restored with a nanohybrid resin composite (Excite/Tetric EvoCeram (TEC); n = 61) and a conventional hybrid (Excite/Tetric Ceram (TC); n = 61). The restorations were evaluated with slightly modified USPHS criteria...... investigated resin composites. Conclusion: The nanohybrid and the conventional hybrid resin composite showed good clinical effectiveness in extensive Class II restorations during the 10-year study....

  12. Fracture Resistance of Pulpotomized Primary Molar Restored with Extensive Class II Amalgam Restorations

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    F. Mazhari

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate fracture resistance of pulpoto-mized primary molar teeth restored with extensive multisurface amalgam restorations.Materials and Methods: Eighty extracted carious human primary molar teeth were se-lected forpresent study. Teeth were divided in to eight groups of ten. Mesio- or disto-occlusal and Mesio-occluso-distal cavities with different cavity wall thickness (1.5 or 2.5mm were prepared in both first and second primary molar teeth. After restoring teeth with amalgam, all specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 7 days. Then samples were thermocycled for 1000 cycles from 5°C to 55°C. The specimens then were subjected to a compressive load in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm min-1. ANOVA and t-test were used for statistical analysis.Results: Mean fracture resistance of first and second molar teeth were 975.5 N (SD=368.8 and 1049.2 N (SD=540.1 respectively. In the first molar group, fracture resis-tance of two-surface cavities was significantly more than three-surface cavities (P<0.001, however this difference was not statistically significant in the second molar group. In both first and second molar group, fracture resistance incavities with 2.5 mm wall thickness, was significantly more than the group with 1.5 mm wall thickness.Conclusion: The mean fracture resistance in pulpotomized primary molar restored with amalgam restorations was higher than reported maximum bite force in primary teeth even in extensive multi-surface restorations. Therefore, the teeth with large proximal carious lesions in schoolchildren could be restored with amalgam.

  13. Cervical microleakage in Class II cavities restored with the Sonicsys approx system.

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    Rominu, Mihai; Florita, Zeno; Lakatos, Sorin; Rominu, Roxana Otilia

    2009-04-01

    To investigate the cervical microleakage in Class II cavities restored with Sonicsys approx ceramic inserts and four resin-based materials. Forty noncarious and crack-free mandibular third molars were used. These teeth were randomly assigned to four groups each containing 10 teeth. No control group was created. On each tooth, one mesial boxlike cavity was prepared using the active head Sonicsys approx no. 3. The cervical margin of each cavity was in enamel about 1 mm coronal to the cementoenamel junction. According to manufacturer's instructions, the prepared cavities were restored using a Sonicsys approx ceramic inserts no.3 and four resin-based materials as follows: group 1, Tetric Flow; group 2, Admira Flow; group 3, Nexus 2; group 4, X-Flow. After finishing and polishing, all specimens were stored in distilled water for 7 days at 37 degrees C, thermocycled 1,000 cycles between 5 degrees and 55 degrees C, and stored for 24 hours in basic fuchsine 2%. All specimens were then embedded in clear acrylic resin and sectioned along a mesial-distal plane through the middle of the cervical margin. The cervical areas of the resulting sections were examined using an optical microscope to assess the dye penetration. The registered scores were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Microleakage was detected in each experimental group. Kruskal-Wallis test revealed statistically significant differences among groups (P = .009, alpha = .01). The Mann-Whitney U test showed significant differences between Admira Flow group and Tetric Flow (P = .011, alpha = .05), Nexus 2 (P = .001, alpha = .01), and X-Flow (P = .004, alpha = .01), respectively. Within the limitations of this study, the extent of microleakage in the cervical area (enamel) of Class II cavities restored with Sonicsys approx ceramic inserts depends on the material used for luting. The highest leakage occurred when Admira flow was used.

  14. Finite Element Analysis of the Effect of Proximal Contour of Class II Composite Restorations on Stress Distribution

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    Hossein Abachizadeh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of proximal contour of class II composite restorations placed with straight or contoured matrix band using composite resins with different modulus of elasticity on stress distribution by finite element method. Methods: In order to evaluate the stress distribution of class II composite restorations using finite element method, upper right first molar and second premolar were modeled. Proximal boxes were designed and restored with universal Z250 and packable P60 composite resins (3M ESPE using two matrix systems: flat Tofflemire matrix and precurved sectional matrix. Finally models were evaluated under loads of 200 and 400 Newton at 90 degrees angle and the results were graphically illustrated in the form of Von Misses stresses. Results: In general the stress obtained under 400 Newton load was significantly greater than the stress of models under 200 Newton load. Von Misses stress distribution pattern of two different Z250 and P60 composites were very similar in all modes of loading and proximal contour. In all analyzed models there was a significant difference between models restored with Tofflemire matrix with flat contour and models restored with sectional matrix with curved contour. This difference was greater in first molar than second premolar. Conclusion: Use of a contoured matrix band results in less stress in class II composite resin restorations.

  15. The effect of additional enamel etching and a flowable composite to the interfacial integrity of Class II adhesive composite restorations.

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    Belli, S; Inokoshi, S; Ozer, F; Pereira, P N; Ogata, M; Tagami, J

    2001-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the interfacial integrity of Class II resin composite restorations. The influence of a flowable composite and additional enamel etching was also evaluated. Deep, saucer-shaped Class II cavities were prepared in the mesial and distal proximal surfaces of 25 extracted human molars and assigned to five treatment groups. The gingival margins were extended to approximately 1 mm above the CEJ in 40 cavities and below the CEJ in 10 cavities. The prepared cavities were then restored with a self-etching primer system (Clearfil Liner Bond II) and a hybrid resin composite (Clearfil AP-X), with and without a flowable composite (Protect Liner F) and additional enamel etching with 37% phosphoric acid gel (K-etchant). After finishing, polishing and thermocycling (4 and 60 degrees C, x300), the samples were longitudinally sectioned through the restorations and resin-tooth interfaces were observed directly under a laser scanning microscope. Statistical analysis indicated that the use of a flowable composite produced significantly more (p = 0.04) gap-free resin-dentin interfaces than teeth restored without the flowable composite. However, both flowable composite and enamel etching could not prevent gap formation at enamel-resin interfaces and crack formation on enamel walls.

  16. Two years survival rate of class II composite resin restorations prepared by ART with and without a chemomechanical caries removal gel in primary molars.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Topaloglu-Ak, A.; Eden, E.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.; Oncag, O.

    2009-01-01

    The aim was to test the null hypotheses that there is no difference: (1) in carious lesion development at the restoration margin between class II composite resin restorations in primary molars produced through the atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) with and without a chemomechanical caries

  17. Factors affecting marginal integrity of class II bulk-fill composite resin restorations

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    Savadi Oskoee, Siavash; Bahari, Mahmoud; Jafari Navimipour, Elmira; Ajami, Amir Ahmad; Ghiasvand, Negar; Savadi Oskoee, Ayda

    2017-01-01

    Background. Bulk-fill composite resins are a new type of resin-based composite resins, claimed to have the capacity to be placed in thick layers, up to 4 mm. This study was carried out to evaluate factors affecting gap formation in Cl II cavities restored using the bulk-fill technique. Methods. A total of 60 third molars were used in this study. Two Cl II cavities were prepared in each tooth, one on the mesial aspect 1 mm coronal to the CEJ and one on the distal aspect 1 mm apical to the CEJ. The teeth were divided into 4 groups: A: The cavities were restored using the bulk-fill technique with Filtek P90 composite resin and its adhesive system and light-cured with quartz tungsten halogen (QTH) light-curing unit. B: The cavities were restored similar to that in group A but light-cured with an LED light-curing unit. C: The cavities were restored using the bulk-fill technique with X-tra Fil composite resin and Clearfil SE Bond adhesive system and light-cured with a QTH curing unit. D: The cavities were restored similar to that in group C but light-cured with an LED light-curing unit. The gaps were examined under a stereomicroscope at ×60. Data were analyzed with General Linear Model test. In cases of statistical significance (Pcomposite resin type and margin location (Pcomposite resin type were not significant; however, the cumulative effect of composite rein type*gingival margin was significant (P=0.04) Conclusion. X-tra Fil composite exhibited smaller gaps compared with Filtek P90 composite with both light-curing units. Both composite resins exhibited smaller gaps at enamel margins. PMID:28748051

  18. Comparative evaluation of microleakage in class II cavities restored with Ceram X and Filtek P-90: An in vitro study

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    Poonam Bogra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Polymerization shrinkage in composite resins is responsible for microleakage. Methacrylate-based composite resins have linear reactive groups resulting in high polymerization shrinkage. A recently introduced composite resin Filtek P90 is based on siloxanes and oxiranes which polymerize by cationic "ring opening" polymerization resulting in reduced polymerization shrinkage. Objectives: Aim of this study was to compare microleakage in class II cavities restored with a nanoceramic restorative (Ceram X and a silorane composite (Filtek P90. Materials and Methods: Standardized class II box type cavities were prepared on mesial (Groups Ia and IIa and distal (Groups Ib and IIb surfaces of twenty extracted permanent molar teeth with gingival floor ending 1 mm coronal and apical to the cementoenamel junction, respectively. The teeth in Group Ia and Ib were restored with Ceram X and Group IIa and IIb with Filtek P90. The specimens were thermocycled and microleakage evaluated. Statistical Analysis Used: The data were statistically analyzed using Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test at the 0.05 level of significance. Results: Mean microleakage score of group la and lb was 1 ± 2.260 and 2.8 ± 1.229, respectively. And that of group Ila and llb was 0.2 ± .869 and 0.3 ± .588, respectively. When groups I and II were compared, results were statistically significant (P<0.05. Conclusion: It was concluded that silorane-based composite may be a better substitute for methacrylate-based composites.

  19. EFFECT OF PLACEMENT TECHNIQUES, FLOWABLE COMPOSITE , LINER AND FIBRE INSERTS ON MARGINAL MICROLEAKAGE OF CLASS II COMPOSITE RESTORATIONS

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    Anupriya

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM : T he aim of this study was to evaluate effect of placement techniques, flow able composite, and fiber inserts in marginal adaptation of class II composite restorations. MATERIALS AND METHODS : 120 class II box cavities were prepared on both mesial and distal surfaces of extracted human molars. The prepared teeth were randomly assigned to 6 groups : 1 bulk insertion . ( S ingle increment, 2 O blique incremental placement technique, 3 Centripetal incremental placement technique . 4 S plit horizontal incremental placement technique . 5 flow able composite as gingival increment 6 ribbond fiber insert in gingival increment . The preparations were restored with a total etch adhesive (Adper Single Bond, 3M ESPE and nano composite (Z350, 3M ESPE. Specimens were isola ted with nail varnish except for a 2 - mm - wide rim around the restoration and thermocycled (1,000 thermal cycles, 5°C/55°C; 30 - second dwell time. The specimens were immersed in a solution of 2% methylene blue dye for 24 hours. The teeth were sectioned longi tudinally, observed under stereomicroscope and evaluated for microleakage using an ordinal scale of 0 to 4. The microleakage scores obtained from gingival walls were analyzed with Kruskal - Wallis and Mann Whitney nonparametric tests. RESULTS: Among all plac ement techniques split incremental technique showed least microleakage scores . The group that used flowable composite liner did not show significant reduction in microleakage and group with fiber inserts showed significant decrease in microleakage scores. CONCLUSION : None of the techniques eliminated marginal microleakage in class II composite restorations . However, the split incremental technique and group with fiber inserts showed significantly lower microleakage at gingival margin when compared to other groups

  20. Class II glass ionomer/silver cermet restorations and their effect on interproximal growth of mutans streptococci.

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    Berg, J H; Farrell, J E; Brown, L R

    1990-02-01

    The release of fluoride from glass ionomer materials is one of the most important features of this newly implemented material, and the remineralization effects of this phenomenon have been documented (Hicks and Silverstone 1986). This paper examines the effects of glass ionomer/silver cermet restorations on the plaque levels of interproximal mutans streptococci. Fifteen patients with Class II lesions in primary molars were selected for study. Interproximal plaque samples were obtained from each of the lesion sites and from one caries-free site approximal to a primary molar. One lesion was restored with composite resin to serve as a treated control to the glass ionomer/silver cermet (Ketac Silver, ESPE/Premier Sales Corp., Norristown, Pennsylvania) test site. A sound (unaltered) interproximal site served as the untreated control site. Plaque samples were collected before and at one week, one month, and three months post-treatment. Samples were serially diluted to enable colony counts of mutans streptococci. One week post-treatment counts showed that the glass ionomer/silver cermet restorations significantly reduced (P less than 0.05) the approximal plaque levels of mutans streptococci. Conversely, the untreated and treated control sites did not exhibit reductions in approximal plaque levels of mutans streptococci. These results indicate that glass ionomer restorations may be inhibitory to the growth of mutans streptococci in dental plaque approximal to this restorative material in the primary dentition.

  1. Influence of Cavity Margin Design and Restorative Material on Marginal Quality and Seal of Extended Class II Resin Composite Restorations In Vitro.

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    Soliman, Sebastian; Preidl, Reinhard; Karl, Sabine; Hofmann, Norbert; Krastl, Gabriel; Klaiber, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the influence of three cavity designs on the marginal seal of large Class II cavities restored with low-shrinkage resin composite limited to the enamel. One hundred twenty (120) intact human molars were randomly divided into 12 groups, with three different cavity designs: 1. undermined enamel, 2. box-shaped, and 3. proximal bevel. The teeth were restored with 1. an extra-low shrinkage (ELS) composite free of diluent monomers, 2. microhybrid composite (Herculite XRV), 3. nanohybrid composite (Filtek Supreme XTE), and 4. silorane-based composite (Filtek Silorane). After artificial aging by thermocycling and storage in physiological saline, epoxy resin replicas were prepared. To determine the integrity of the restorations' approximal margins, two methods were sequentially employed: 1. replicas were made of the 120 specimens and examined using SEM, and 2. the same 120 specimens were immersed in AgNO3 solution, and the dye penetration depth was observed with a light microscope. Statistical analysis was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis and the Dunn-Bonferroni tests. After bevel preparation, SEM observations showed that restorations did not exhibit a higher percentage of continuous margin (SEM-analysis; p>0.05), but more leakage was found than with the other cavity designs (pcomposite restorations and is no longer recommended. However, undermined enamel should be removed to prevent enamel fractures.

  2. Management of large class II lesions in molars: how to restore and when to perform surgical crown lengthening?

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    Ana Belén Dablanca-Blanco

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The restoration of endodontic tooth is always a challenge for the clinician, not only due to excessive loss of tooth structure but also invasion of the biological width due to large decayed lesions. In this paper, the 7 most common clinical scenarios in molars with class II lesions ever deeper were examined. This includes both the type of restoration (direct or indirect and the management of the cavity margin, such as the need for deep margin elevation (DME or crown lengthening. It is necessary to have the DME when the healthy tooth remnant is in the sulcus or at the epithelium level. For caries that reaches the connective tissue or the bone crest, crown lengthening is required. Endocrowns are a good treatment option in the endodontically treated tooth when the loss of structure is advanced.

  3. The Effect of a Glass Ceramic Insert in Sandwich Technique on Microleakage in Class II Composite Resin Restorations

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    Hila Hajizadeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of glass ceramic insert in the sandwich technique to reduce microleakage in class II composite resin restorations. Methods: Sixty sound human upper second premolars were selected and randomly divided into six groups (n=10. Class II box-only cavities were prepared in distal aspects of each tooth with gingival margin located approximately 0.5 mm below the CEJ. Group A (Control was restored incrementally with Tetric Ceram and a total-etch bonding technique. Group B and C were restored with sandwich technique using a compomer (Compoglass F or flowable composite resin (Tetric Flow as the lining material at gingival floor, respectively. Group D, E and F were represented in the same way as group A, B and C and a glass ceramic insert was added to the composite bulk. The specimens were thermo-mechanically cycled, and then immersed in 0.5 % basic fuschin for 24 hours. Dye penetration was detected using a sectioning technique. Results: No significant difference was found between total-etch bonding and sandwich techniques. The placement of an insert caused an increase in   microleakage in all groups significantly (P < 0.05. Group D (no liner/ with glass insert showed the highest amount of microleakage and Group A (no liner/ without glass insert resulted in the lowest amount of total microleakage. Conclusion: Placement of glass ceramic insert could not decrease gingival leakage. According to the limitation of this study a composite resin restorations with incremental technique is recommended

  4. Class II glass ionomer cermet tunnel, resin sandwich and amalgam restorations over 2 years.

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    Wilkie, R; Lidums, A; Smales, R

    1993-08-01

    This study compared the clinical behavior of a glass ionomer (polyalkenoate) silver cermet, a posterior resin composite used with the "tunnel" technique, a posterior resin composite used with the "closed sandwich" technique, and a high-copper amalgam for restoring small, proximal surface carious lesions. Two dentists placed 86 restorations in the posterior permanent teeth of 26 adults treated at a dental hospital. Restorations were assessed at 6-month intervals over 2 years for gingivitis adjacent to them, the tightness of proximal contacts, occlusal wear, surface voids, roughness and cracking, surface and marginal staining, and marginal fracture. Small filling defects, surface voids and occlusal wear were obvious with the cermet material, with surface crazing and cracking present in 48% of the tunnel restorations. Two of the posterior resin composites, but none of the amalgam restorations, also failed. The cermet cannot be recommended as a long-term permanent restorative material in situations where it is likely to be subjected to heavy occlusal stresses and abrasive wear.

  5. Three-year randomized controlled clinical study of a one step universal adhesive and a two-step self-etch adhesive in Class II resin composite restorations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan WV; Pallesen, Ulla

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate in a randomized clinical evaluation the 3-year clinical durability of a one-step universal adhesive bonding system and compare it intraindividually with a 2-step self-etch adhesive in Class II restorations. Materials and Methods: Each of 57 participants (mean age 58.3 yr......) received at least two, as similar as possible, extended Class II restorations. The cavities in each of the 60 individual pairs of cavities were randomly distributed to the 1-step universal adhesive (All Bond Universal: AU) and the control 2-step self-etch adhesive (Optibond XTR: OX). A low shrinkage resin......) success rates (p>0.05). Annual failure rates were 1.8% and 2.6%, respectively.The main reason for failure was resin composite fracture. Conclusion: Class II resin composite restorations placed with a one-step universal adhesive showed good short time effectiveness....

  6. Clinical Effect of Dental Adhesive on Marginal Integrity in Class I And Class II Resin-Composite Restorations

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    Manchorova-Veleva Neshka A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dental adhesives are believed to influence marginal adaptation and marginal discoloration when used under posterior resin-based composite restorations. Studies on the latest adhesive systems reveal that the group of the three-step etch-and-rinse adhesive (3-E&RA and the one-step self-etch adhesive (1-SEA have entirely different bonding mechanisms, as well as different bond strength and resistance to chemical, thermal and mechanical factors. STUDY OBJECTIVES: A hypothesis that a 1-SEA would result in greater enamel marginal discoloration and poorer marginal adaptation than a 3-E&RA was tested. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred restorations were placed with a 1-SEA and 100 restorations with a 3-E&RA. Teeth were restored with Filtek Supreme nanofilled resin-composite and were evaluated for marginal adaptation and marginal discoloration at baseline, and 6 months, 12 months, and 36 months postoperatively. RESULTS: The statistical analysis revealed significant differences in marginal integrity between test groups. The 1-SEA resulted in greater enamel marginal discoloration and poorer marginal adaptation than the 3-E&RA at any recall time. CONCLUSIONS: Marginal adaptation and marginal discoloration depend on the type of dentin adhesive used. The restorations with Filtek Supreme and Scotchbond MP are better than the restorations with Adper Prompt L-Pop with regard to the marginal adaptation and marginal discoloration at 6-, 12- and 36-month evaluations.

  7. Comparison of proximal contacts of class II resin composite restorations in vitro.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, B.A.C.; Opdam, N.J.M.; Roeters, F.J.M.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Burgersdijk, R.C.W.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the tightness of the proximal contact when placing posterior resin composite restorations with circumferential and sectional matrix systems in an in vitro model using a special measuring device (Tooth Pressure Meter). A manikin model was used with an artificial first molar in

  8. A randomized controlled 27 years follow up of three resin composites in Class II restorations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Ulla; van Dijken, Jan WV

    2015-01-01

    .1%), followed by occlusal wear (21.6%) and material fracture (18.9%). Non-acceptable color match was seen in 24 (28.3%) of the restorations (AII 2, CP 16, O 6). Cox regression-analysis showed significant influence of the covariates tooth type, caries risk, and bruxing activity of the participants. Conclusions...

  9. A randomized controlled 30 years follow up of three conventional resin composites in Class II restorations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Ulla; van Dijken, Jan WV

    2015-01-01

    % of the material fractures occurred in participants with active para-functional habits. The overall success rate at 30 years was 63%, with an annual failure rateof 1.1%. 68–81% of the restorations showed non-acceptable color match. No statistical sig-nificant difference in survival rate was found between the three...

  10. A six-year prospective randomized study of a nano-hybrid and a conventional hybrid resin composite in Class II restorations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan W V; Pallesen, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this 6 year prospective randomized equivalence trial was to evaluate the long-term clinical performance of a new nano-hybrid resin composite (RC) in Class II restorations in an intraindividual comparison with its well-established conventional hybrid RC predecessor....

  11. Sealing ability of a new calcium silicate based material as a dentin substitute in class II sandwich restorations: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raji Viola Solomon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Class ll sandwich restorations are routinely performed where conventional Glass ionomer cement (GIC or Resin-modified GIC (RMGIC is used as a base or dentin substitute and a light curing composite resin restorative material is used as an enamel substitute. Various authors have evaluated the microleakage of composite resin restorations where glass ionomer cement has been used as a base in class II sandwich restorations, but a literature survey reveals limited studies on the microleakage analysis of similar restorations with biodentine as a dentin substitute, as an alternative to glass ionomer cement. The aim of this study is: To evaluate the marginal sealing efficacy of a new calcium-silicate-based material (Biodentine as a dentin substitute, at the cervical margins, in posterior class II sandwich restorations.To compare and evaluate the microleakage at the biodentine/composite interface with the microleakage at the resin-modified GIC/composite interface, in posterior class II open sandwich restorations. To compare the efficacy between a water-based etch and rinse adhesive (Scotch bond multipurpose and an acetone-based etch and rinse adhesive (Prime and bond NT, when bonding biodentine to the composite. To evaluate the enamel, dentin, and interfacial microleakage at the composite and biodentine/RMGIC interfaces. Materials and Methods: Fifty class II cavities were prepared on the mesial and distal surfaces of 25 extracted human maxillary third molars, which were randomly divided into five groups of ten cavities each: (G1 Biodentine group, (G2 Fuji II LC GIC group, (G3 Biodentine as a base + prime and bond NT + Tetric N-Ceram composite, (G4 Biodentine + scotchbond multi-purpose + Tetric N-Ceram composite, (G5 Fuji II LC as a base + prime and bond NT+ Tetric-N Ceram composite. The samples were then subjected to thermocycling, 2500× (5°C to 55°C, followed by the dye penetration test. Scores are given from 0 to 3 based on the depth of

  12. Effect of fiber inserts on gingival margin microleakage of Class II bulk-fill composite resin restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiei, Fereshteh; Doozandeh, Maryam; Karimi, Vahid

    2018-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of fiber inserts combined with composite resins on enamel and dentin margin microleakage. The fiber inserts were used with high- (x-tra fil) and low-viscosity (x-tra base) bulk-fill composite resins and as well as conventional composite resins (Grandio and Grandio Flow). In 96 sound, recently extracted molars, 2 standardized Class II cavities were prepared. The teeth were randomly divided into 8 groups of 12 teeth each, based on composite resin type and presence or absence of fiber inserts: groups 1 and 2, x-tra fil with and without fiber inserts, respectively; groups 3 and 4, x-tra base with and without fiber inserts; groups 5 and 6, Grandio with and without fiber inserts; and groups 7 and 8, Grandio Flow liner (gingival floor)/Grandio (remainder of cavity) with and without fiber inserts. In all the groups, a 2-step etch-and-rinse adhesive was used. The specimens were processed in a dye penetration technique to determine microleakage percentages. Data were analyzed with analysis of variance, Tukey, and t tests. There was significantly less leakage at the enamel margins than the dentin margins. Fiber reinforcement significantly decreased enamel microleakage in all the groups, with no significant differences among the groups. Concerning dentin microleakage, there were no significant differences among the 4 groups without fiber inserts, while a significant difference was detected in groups 2 (x-tra fil plus fiber) and 8 (Grandio Flow plus fiber/Grandio). Fibers significantly improved dentin sealing in groups 2 and 8. These findings suggest that a fiber insert reinforcing bulk-fill and conventional composite resins might improve enamel sealing in shallow Class II cavi-ties. The effect of fiber reinforcement on the dentin margins of deep cavities depended on the viscosity of the composite resins; fiber reinforcement was effective for flowable bulk-fill and conventional composite resin restorations.

  13. HLA Class II Defects in Burkitt Lymphoma: Bryostatin-1-Induced 17 kDa Protein Restores CD4+ T-Cell Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azim Hossain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available While the defects in HLA class I-mediated Ag presentation by Burkitt lymphoma (BL have been well documented, CD4+ T-cells are also poorly stimulated by HLA class II Ag presentation, and the reasons underlying this defect(s have not yet been fully resolved. Here, we show that BL cells are deficient in their ability to optimally stimulate CD4+ T cells via the HLA class II pathway. The observed defect was not associated with low levels of BL-expressed costimulatory molecules, as addition of external co-stimulation failed to result in BL-mediated CD4+ T-cell activation. We further demonstrate that BL cells express the components of the class II pathway, and the defect was not caused by faulty Ag/class II interaction, because antigenic peptides bound with measurable affinity to BL-associated class II molecules. Treatment of BL with broystatin-1, a potent modulator of protein kinase C, led to significant improvement of functional class II Ag presentation in BL. The restoration of immune recognition appeared to be linked with an increased expression of a 17 kDa peptidylprolyl-like protein. These results demonstrate the presence of a specific defect in HLA class II-mediated Ag presentation in BL and reveal that treatment with bryostatin-1 could lead to enhanced immunogenicity.

  14. Comparison of microleakage in Class II cavities restored with silorane-based and methacrylate-based composite resins using different restorative techniques over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Kazem; Mousavinasab, Seyed-Mostafa; Samani, Mahsa Sahraneshin

    2015-01-01

    Despite the growing tendency toward tooth-colored restorations in dentistry, polymerization shrinkage and subsequent marginal microleakage remains a problem. The aim of this in vitro study was to compare microleakage between silorane-based and methacrylate-based composite resins at different time intervals and with different restorative techniques. In this in vitro study, 108 sound extracted human molar teeth were used. Mesial and distal proximal class II boxes with dimensions of 1.5 mm depth and 4 mm width were prepared. The gingival margins of all cavities were 1 mm below the cement enamel junction. The teeth were randomly divided into three groups based on test materials. In the first group, the teeth were restored by a nanocomposite (Filtek Z350XT, 3MESPE) and SE Bond adhesive (Kuraray, Japan), in the second group, the teeth were restored with a silorane-based (Filtek P90, 3MESPE) and Filtek P90 Adhesive (3M ESPE, USA) and in the third group, the teeth were restored with a microhybrid posterior composite resin (Filtek P60, 3MESPE) and SE Bond adhesive (Kuraray, Japan). Half of the proximal cavities in each of these three groups were restored in two horizontal layers and the other half in four horizontal layers. After a period of aging (24-h, 3-month and 6-month) in water and then application of 500 thermal cycles, the teeth were immersed for 24-h in 0.5% fuchsin and evaluated under a stereomicroscope at ×36 magnification to evaluate leakage in gingival margin. Data was statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests. P ≤ 0.05 was considered as significant. In Z350XT statistically significant differences were observed in microleakage in comparison of 24-h and 6-month intervals (P = 0.01) that was higher in 6-month. Comparison of microleakage in P90 and P60 composite resins was also statistically significant and was less in P90. Microleakage was not significantly different between P90 and Z350XT at 24-h. However, this difference was

  15. The effect of gingival wall location on the marginal seal of class ii restorations prepared with a flowable bulk-fill resin-based composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, P; Candotto, V; Ben-Amar, A; Eger, M; Matalon, S; Lauritano, D; Ormianer, Z

    2018-01-01

    SureFil SDR is a flowable resin-based composite that allows a single incremental bulk placement. The marginal seal of SureFil SDR at the gingival margins of class II restorations located apical to the cemento-enamel-junction (CEJ) has not been adequately evaluated compared to those located occlusal to the CEJ. Forty class II cavities were prepared in human molars. The gingival margins of 20 preparations were located 0.5 mm occlusal to the CEJ, and the other 20 preparations were located 0.5 mm apical to the CEJ. The cavities surfaces were bonded with XenoV dental adhesive and filled with SDR in one bulk increment up to 4 mm, after which they were covered with CeramX. The teeth were subjected to thermo-and load-cycling, and their gingival margins were exposed to 0.5% basic-fuchsin solution. The specimens were sectioned mesio-distally and scored for microleakage. A Wilcoxon test for pairwise comparison was performed to determine significance. Dye penetration was observed in 30% of the 20 restorations with cavo-surface margins located occlusal to the CEJ and in 55% of the 20 restorations with cavo-surface margins located apical to the CEJ. The bulk-fill flowable resin base SureFil SDR with XenoV dental adhesive provided a better marginal seal in class II restorations with gingival margins above the CEJ compared to restorations with gingival margins below the CEJ. SDR should not be recommended for class II cavity preparations with gingival margins located below the CEJ.

  16. A comparative evaluation of microleakage of restorations using silorane-based dental composite and methacrylate-based dental composites in Class II cavities: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jambai Sampath Kumar Sivakumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the microleakage of restorations using low shrinkage silorane-based dental composite and methacrylate-based dental composites in Class II cavity at the occlusal and gingival margins. Materials and Methods: Sixty mandibular molars were collected and divided into three experimental groups and one negative control group. Class II slot cavity was prepared on the mesial surface. Experimental groups were restored with Group I: silorane-based microhybrid composite, Group II: methacrylate-based nanohybrid composite, and Group III: Methacrylate-based microhybrid composite, respectively. Group IV: negative control. The samples were thermocycled, root apices were sealed with sticky wax and coated with nail varnish except 1 mm around the restoration. This was followed by immersion in 2% Rhodamine-B dye solution under vacuum at room temperature for 24 h. Then, the samples were sectioned longitudinally in the mesiodistal direction and evaluated under stereomicroscope ×40 magnification. Scoring was done according to the depth of dye penetration in to the cavity. Statistical analysis of the data was done. Results: The results were that no statistically significant difference in the microleakage at the occlusal margin for all the restorative materials, whereas at the gingival margin, silorane-based microhybrid composite showed less microleakage than the methacrylate-based nano- and micro-hybrid composites. Conclusion: In general, silorane-based microhybrid composite had less microleakage among the other materials used in this in vitro study.

  17. Mechanical behavior of bulk direct composite versus block composite and lithium disilicate indirect Class II restorations by CAD-FEM modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausiello, Pietro; Ciaramella, Stefano; Fabianelli, Andrea; Gloria, Antonio; Martorelli, Massimo; Lanzotti, Antonio; Watts, David C

    2017-06-01

    To study the influence of resin based and lithium disilicate materials on the stress and strain distributions in adhesive class II mesio-occlusal-distal (MOD) restorations using numerical finite element analysis (FEA). To investigate the materials combinations in the restored teeth during mastication and their ability to relieve stresses. One 3D model of a sound lower molar and three 3D class II MOD cavity models with 95° cavity-margin-angle shapes were modelled. Different material combinations were simulated: model A, with a 10μm thick resin bonding layer and a resin composite bulk filling material; model B, with a 70μm resin cement with an indirect CAD-CAM resin composite inlay; model C, with a 70μm thick resin cement with an indirect lithium disilicate machinable inlay. To simulate polymerization shrinkage effects in the adhesive layers and bulk fill composite, the thermal expansion approach was used. Shell elements were employed for representing the adhesive layers. 3D solid CTETRA elements with four grid points were employed for modelling the food bolus and tooth. Slide-type contact elements were used between the tooth surface and food. A vertical occlusal load of 600 N was applied, and nodal displacements on the bottom cutting surfaces were constrained in all directions. All the materials were assumed to be isotropic and elastic and a static linear analysis was performed. Displacements were different in models A, B and C. Polymerization shrinkage hardly affected model A and mastication only partially affected mechanical behavior. Shrinkage stress peaks were mainly located marginally along the enamel-restoration interface at occlusal and mesio-distal sites. However, at the internal dentinal walls, stress distributions were critical with the highest maximum stresses concentrated in the proximal boxes. In models B and C, shrinkage stress was only produced by the 70μm thick resin layer, but the magnitudes depended on the Young's modulus (E) of the inlay

  18. Microinfiltração em restaurações de resina de classe II usando diferentes técnícas restauradoras = Microleakage in class II composite restorations using different restorative techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramos, Oscar Luis Vasquez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar a infiltração marginal de restaurações classe II com margens cervicais em dentina utilizando diferentes técnicas restauradoras. Foram utilizados quarenta e oito molares humanos hígidos com cavidades proximais padronizadas nas faces mesial e distal com margens cervicais em dentina. Ambas, cavidades e restaurações, foram realizadas pelo mesmo operador. As cavidades foram restauradas através da técnica incremental modificada de Pollack (1988. Os dentes foram aleatoriamente divididos em quatro grupos (n = 12 e restaurados como segue: Grupo 1 (controle - Z-250 (3M/ESPE; Grupo 2 - Vitremer (3M/ESPE + Z-250; Grupo 3 - F2000 (3M/ESPE + Z-250; Grupo 4 - Flow-it (3M/ESPE + Z-250. O sistema adesivo Single Bond (3M/ESPE foi aplicado seguindo as instruções do fabricante. Após acabamento e polimento, os dentes foram termociclados por 500 ciclos, entre 5 e 55°C, e impermeabilizados com esmalte de unha, sendo imersos em corante azul de metileno a 1% por 12 horas. Os espécimes foram seccionados e a infiltração avaliada de acordo com ranking padronizado (0-3, por três avaliadores previamente calibrados. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise estatística utilizando o teste não paramétrico de Kruskal-Wallis (p < 0. 05. A penetração do corante atingiu o grau máximo na maioria dos espécimes. O grupo 1 apresentou menores valores de infiltração diferindo estatisticamente dos outros grupos. Os grupos 2 e 3 apresentaram valores intermediários, enquanto o grupo 4 teve os valores mais altos, sem, porém, ser estatisticamente diferente do grupo 3. Nenhum grupo foi capaz de selar completamente a interface adesiva

  19. Compressive fracture resistance of the marginal ridge in large Class II tunnels restored with cermet and composite resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrnford, L E; Fransson, H

    1994-01-01

    Compressive fracture resistance of the marginal ridge was studied in large tunnel preparations, before and after restoration with cermet (Ketac Silver, ESPE), a universal hybrid composite (Superlux, DMG) and an experimental composite. Each group was represented by six tunnels in extracted upper premolars. The tunnels were prepared by the use of round burs up to size #6. Remaining ridge width was 1.5 mm and ridge height 1.7 mm in the contact area. The ridge was loaded to fracture by a rod placed perpendicular to the ridge. Generally this resulted in a shear fracture of the restoration. There was no significant reinforcement of the ridge by the cermet whereas the composites both reinforced by the same magnitude, averaging 62%. It was concluded that the ridge could be considered a "megafiller" where contact need to be preserved and contour protected against proximal and occlusal wear of the restoration. Clinically there would therefore be good reasons to save even ridge areas with very low inherent strength. Based on the present study composite resin might therefore be the filling material of choice for such tunnel preparations.

  20. Effect of resin coating and occlusal loading on microleakage of Class II computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing fabricated ceramic restorations: a confocal microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitayama, Shuzo; Nasser, Nasser A; Pilecki, Peter; Wilson, Ron F; Nikaido, Toru; Tagami, Junji; Watson, Timothy F; Foxton, Richard M

    2011-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of resin coating and occlusal loading on microleakage of class II computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) ceramic restorations. Molars were prepared for an mesio-occlusal-distal (MOD) inlay and were divided into two groups: non-coated (controls); and resin-coated, in which the cavity was coated with a combination of a dentin bonding system (Clearfil Protect Bond) and a flowable resin composite (Clearfil Majesty Flow). Ceramic inlays were fabricated using the CAD/CAM technique (CEREC 3) and cemented with resin cement (Clearfil Esthetic Cement). After 24 h of water storage, the restored teeth in each group were divided into two subgroups: unloaded or loaded with an axial force of 80 N at a rate of 2.5 cycles/s for 250,000 cycles while stored in water. After immersion in 0.25% Rhodamine B solution, the teeth were sectioned bucco-lingually at the mesial and distal boxes. Tandem scanning confocal microscopy (TSM) was used for evaluation of microleakage. The locations of the measurements were assigned to the cavity walls and floor. Loading did not have a significant effect on microleakage in either the resin-coated or non-coated group. Resin coating significantly reduced microleakage regardless of loading. The cavity floor exhibited greater microleakage compared to the cavity wall. TSM observation also revealed that microleakage at the enamel surface was minimal regardless of resin coating. In contrast, non-coated dentin showed extensive leakage, whereas resin-coated dentin showed decreased leakage. Resin coating with a combination of a dentin-bonding system and a flowable resin composite may be indicated prior to impression-taking when restoring teeth with CAD/CAM ceramic inlays in order to reduce microleakage at the tooth-resin interface.

  1. Randomized 3-year Clinical Evaluation of Class I and II Posterior Resin Restorations Placed with a Bulk-fill Resin Composite and a One-step Self-etching Adhesive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan Wv; Pallesen, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the 3-year clinical durability of the flowable bulk-fill resin composite SDR in Class I and Class II restorations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-eight pairs of Class I and 62 pairs of Class II restorations were placed in 44 male and 42 female patients (mean age 52.4 years......). Each patient received at least two extended Class I or Class II restorations that were as similar as possible. In all cavities, a one-step self-etching adhesive (XenoV+) was applied. One of the cavities of each pair was randomly assigned to receive the flowable bulk-fill resin composite SDR...... in increments up to 4 mm as needed to fill the cavity 2 mm short of the occlusal cavosurface. The occlusal part was completed with an ormocer-based nanohybrid resin composite (Ceram X mono+). In the other cavity, only the resin composite CeramX mono+ was placed in 2 mm increments. The restorations were...

  2. Four-year clinical evaluation of Class II nano-hybrid resin composite restorations bonded with a one-step self-etch and a two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan W V; Pallesen, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this prospective clinical trial was to evaluate the 4-year clinical performance of an ormocer-based nano-hybrid resin composite (Ceram X; Dentsply/DeTrey) in Class II restorations placed with a one-step self-etch (Xeno III; Dentsply/DeTrey) and two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive (I...

  3. Class I and Class II restorations of resin composite: an FE analysis of the influence of modulus of elasticity on stresses generated by occlusal loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, Erik; Peutzfeldt, Anne

    2008-01-01

    the restoration was left nonbonded. The resin composite was modelled with a modulus of elasticity of 5, 10, 15 or 20 GPa and loaded occlusally with 100 N. By means of the soft-ware program ABAQUS the von Mises stresses in enamel and dentin were calculated. RESULTS: In the bonded scenario, the maximum stresses...

  4. Eight-year randomized clinical evaluation of Class II nanohybrid resin composite restorations bonded with a one-step self-etch or a two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan WV; Pallesen, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    (13.5 %) and nine in the two-step etch-and-rinse group (13.0 %). This resulted in nonsignificant different annual failure rates of 1.69 and 1.63 %, respectively. Fracture of restoration was the main reason for failure. Conclusion: Good clinical performance was shown during the 8-year evaluation....... Results: One hundred and fifty-eight restorations were evaluated after 8 years. Three participants with five restorations (three Xeno III, two Excite) were registered as dropouts. Twenty-one failed restorations (13.3 %) were observed during the follow-up. Twelve in the one-step self-etch adhesive group...... and no significant difference in overall clinical performance between the two adhesives. Fracture was the main reason for failure. Clinical relevance: The one-step self-etch adhesive showed a good long-term clinical effectiveness in combination with the nanohybrid resin composite in Class II restorations....

  5. In vitro quantitative evaluation of marginal microleakage in class II restorations confected with a glass ionomer cement and two composite resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BIJELLA Maria Fernanda Borro

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated, in vitro, marginal microleakage in class II restorations confected with the glass ionomer cement Vitremer and with the composite resins Ariston pHc and P-60. The aims of the study were to assess the effect of thermocycling on those materials and to evaluate two methods utilized in the analysis of dye penetration. Sixty premolars divided in three groups were utilized; the teeth had proximal cavities whose cervical walls were located 1 mm below the cementoenamel junction. Half of the test specimens from each group underwent thermocycling; the other half remained in deionized water, at 37ºC. The specimens were immersed, for 24 hours, in a basic 0.5% fuchsin solution at 37ºC. For the analysis of microleakage, the specimens were sectioned in a mesio-distal direction, and the observation was carried out with the software Imagetools. The results were evaluated through the 2-way ANOVA and through the Tukey?s test. All groups presented marginal microleakage. The smallest values were obtained with Vitremer, followed by those obtained with the composite resins P-60 and Ariston pHc. There was no statistically significant difference caused by thermocycling, and the method of maximum infiltration was the best for detecting the extension of microleakage.

  6. In vitro evaluation of marginal microleakage of class II bonded amalgam restorations using a dentin adhesive and a glass ionomer cement Avaliação in vitro da microinfiltração marginal em restaurações de amálgama tipo classe II usando adesivo dentinário e cimento de ionômero de vidro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmêr Silvestre PEREIRA JÚNIOR

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vitro the effectiveness of the dentin bonding system All Bond 2 associated with Resinomer (Bisco, and of Vitrebond (3M glass ionomer cement fresh-mixed, both used in the bonded amalgam technique, to prevent short-term microleakage in class II cavities restored with Dispersalloy (Dentsply, an admixed alloy. The control group utilized the Copalite (Cooley & Cooley varnish. Forty five sound human extracted premolars were used. Class II cavity preparations were made on the mesial and distal surfaces of non-carious teeth, with the gingival margins wall established 1mm under the cementum enamel junction. The specimens were divided randomly into three groups with thirty cavities in each group. The teeth were stored in distilled water for 24 hours and were thermocyled through 500 cycles in distilled water between 5°C and 55°C with a dwell time of 15 seconds. The apices and roots of the teeth were sealed. They were placed in a 37°C bath of 0.5% basic fuchsin dye for 24 hours. The teeth were washed in tap water for 24 hours and cut. The microleakage scores per restoration were averaged and three values of various test groups were subjected to the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn test at a significance level of p O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar in vitro a efetividade na prevenção da microinfiltração do sistema adesivo All Bond 2 associado ao Resinomer (Bisco, e do cimento de ionômero de vidro Vitrebond (3M, sem polimerização, em amálgama adesivo classe II, restauradas com Dispersalloy (Dentsply. No grupo controle utilizou-se o verniz cavitário Copalite (Cooley & Cooley. Para tanto, 45 pré-molares humanos íntegros e extraídos, com finalidade ortodôntica, receberam cavidades classe II, sendo uma na face mesial e outra na face distal de cada dente, com a parede cervical localizada a 1mm além da junção cemento-esmalte, sendo 30 cavidades em cada grupo. Após as restaurações os dentes foram estocados

  7. MHC class II expression in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yayi; Rozeboom, Leslie; Rivard, Christopher J; Ellison, Kim; Dziadziuszko, Rafal; Yu, Hui; Zhou, Caicun; Hirsch, Fred R

    2017-10-01

    Immunotherapy is an exciting development in lung cancer research. In this study we described major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class II protein expression in lung cancer cell lines and patient tissues. We studied MHC Class II (DP, DQ, DR) (CR3/43, Abcam) protein expression in 55 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines, 42 small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines and 278 lung cancer patient tissues by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Seven (12.7%) NSCLC cell lines were positive for MHC Class II. No SCLC cell lines were found to be MHC Class II positive. We assessed 139 lung cancer samples available in the Hirsch Lab for MHC Class II. There was no positive MHC Class II staining on SCLC tumor cells. MHC Class II expression on TILs in SCLC was significantly lower than that on TILs in NSCLC (P<0.001). MHC Class II was also assessed in an additional 139 NSCLC tumor tissues from Medical University of Gdansk, Poland. Patients with positive staining of MHC Class II on TILs had longer regression-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) than those whose TILs were MHC Class II negative (2.980 years, 95% CI 1.628-4.332 vs. 1.050 years, 95% CI 0.556-1.554, P=0.028) (3.230 years, 95% CI 2.617-3.843 vs. 1.390 years, 95% CI 0.629-2.151, P=0.014). MHC Class II was expressed both in NSCLC cell lines and tissues. However, MHC Class II was not detected in SCLC cell lines or tissue tumor cells. MHC Class II expression was lower on SCLC TILs than on NSCLC TILs. Loss of expression of MHC Class II on SCLC tumor cells and reduced expression on SCLC TILs may be a means of escaping anti-cancer immunity. Higher MHC Class II expression on TILs was correlated with better prognosis in patients with NSCLC. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Finishing occlusion in Class II or Class III molar relation: therapeutic Class II and III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nangia, A; Darendeliler, M A

    2001-11-01

    The most frequent extraction regime consists of the removal of upper and lower premolars. Depending on anchorage requirements, camouflage treatment options, surgical intervention, or the absence of teeth in only one arch, it may become necessary to finalize the occlusion with a one-dental-unit discrepancy between the upper and lower dental arches. Guidelines are presented for finishing occlusions in Class II or Class III molar relation.

  9. Sears Point Tidal Marsh Restoration Project: Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the SFBWQP Sears Point Tidal Marsh Restoration Project: Phase II, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  10. South Bay Salt Pond Tidal Wetland Restoration Phase II Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the SFBWQP South Bay Salt Pond Tidal Wetland Restoration Phase II Planning project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic re

  11. South Bay Salt Pond Restoration, Phase II at Ravenswood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project: Phase II Construction at Ravenswood, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  12. Morphological caracteristics of malocclusion class II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Class II malocclusion are complex anomalies of the skeletal and dental systems. The aim of this study is that the rengenkefalometrics analysis closer determine the morphological characteristics of this malocclusion. For this study were used 30 patients aged 18-30, previously clinically diagnosed class II, before the planned orthodontic treatment. The results analisis lateral cephalometric radiographs were compared with the 30 patients with class I malocclusion. Analyzed three linear and two angular cranial base dimensions and nine angular and four linear measures from the facial skeleton. The Results show: No statistically significant differensis in cranial base angle (SNBa and anterior cranial base length (S-N between class II and control Class I. Angle maxillar prognathism ( SNA is no signifikant different between class I and Class II but SNB angle were signifikant smaller. The length of maxillary base (A'-SnP is longer and the length of mandibule (Pg'-MT1/MT is signifficantly smaller. The gonial angle (ArGo-Me was smaller with open articular angle (GoArSN. Morphological characteristics of class II malocclusion are , retrognathic and smaller mandibular ligth, normognathic and longer maxilla, open articular angle with vertical tendency of the craniofacial growth pattern.

  13. Evaluation depth of the curve of Spee in class I, class II, and class III malocclusion: A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjna Nayar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Occlusal plane is an essential consideration when multiple long-span posterior restorations are designed. When restorations are added to an existing tooth arrangement characterized by rotated, tipped, or extruded teeth, excursive interferences may be incorporated, resulting in detrimental squeal. The curve of Spee, which exists in the ideal natural dentition, allows harmony to exist between the anterior tooth and condylar guidance. This curve exists in the sagittal plane and is the best viewed from a lateral aspect. It permits total posterior disclusion on mandibular protrusion, given proper anterior tooth guidance. It is unclear that whether the curve of Spee is a description of the occlusal surface of each arch separately or in maximal intercuspation. The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in the depth of curve of Spee between the class I, class II, class III and to investigate the relationship of depth of curve of Spee with over jet, over-bite.

  14. Marginal Leakage of Class V Composite Resin Restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Khoroushi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available >Introduction: Marginal leakage is one of the significant causes of restoration failure. This in-vitro study was conducted to compare cone beam computed tomography (CBCT and dye-penetration methods for determining marginal leakage at gingival surface of class V resin composite restorations.Materials and Methods: Class V cavities were prepared on the buccal surfaces of nineteen caries-free extracted human molar teeth. Cavities were conditioned and filled. The teeth were immersed in a 50% w/w aqueous silver nitrate solution for 24 h and were taken out and rinsed with distilled water. Then, they were put into a developing solution. Whole specimens were first viewed with CBCT and were then sectioned and evaluated by stereomicroscope.Results: Measurement of agreement between CBCT and stereomicroscope revealed that 15 (78.9% teeth had score 0, 1 (5.3% tooth had score 1, and 1 (5.3% tooth had score 2 in both techniques. Measurement of agreement between CBCT and stereomicroscope techniques, in the detection of marginal leakage, was 89.5% (Kappa coefficient = 0.627, P = 0.00. The Wilcoxon paired rank test revealed no significant difference between the results of CBCT and stereomicroscope in measuring the leakage at gingival margin (P = 0.157.Conclusion: Considering the limitations of the study, there was no significant difference between the results of CBCT and stereomicroscope in measuring the leakage at gingival margin of class V composite restorations. CBCT can be used noninvasively to detect the marginal leakage of gingival wall of class V composite restorations using aqueous silver nitrate solution as a tracer.

  15. MHC Class II epitope predictive algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten; Lund, Ole; Buus, S

    2010-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) molecules sample peptides from the extracellular space, allowing the immune system to detect the presence of foreign microbes from this compartment. To be able to predict the immune response to given pathogens, a number of methods have been...... developed to predict peptide-MHC binding. However, few methods other than the pioneering TEPITOPE/ProPred method have been developed for MHC-II. Despite recent progress in method development, the predictive performance for MHC-II remains significantly lower than what can be obtained for MHC-I. One reason...

  16. Shark class II invariant chain reveals ancient conserved relationships with cathepsins and MHC class II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criscitiello, Michael F; Ohta, Yuko; Graham, Matthew D; Eubanks, Jeannine O; Chen, Patricia L; Flajnik, Martin F

    2012-03-01

    The invariant chain (Ii) is the critical third chain required for the MHC class II heterodimer to be properly guided through the cell, loaded with peptide, and expressed on the surface of antigen presenting cells. Here, we report the isolation of the nurse shark Ii gene, and the comparative analysis of Ii splice variants, expression, genomic organization, predicted structure, and function throughout vertebrate evolution. Alternative splicing to yield Ii with and without the putative protease-protective, thyroglobulin-like domain is as ancient as the MHC-based adaptive immune system, as our analyses in shark and lizard further show conservation of this mechanism in all vertebrate classes except bony fish. Remarkable coordinate expression of Ii and class II was found in shark tissues. Conserved Ii residues and cathepsin L orthologs suggest their long co-evolution in the antigen presentation pathway, and genomic analyses suggest 450 million years of conserved Ii exon/intron structure. Other than an extended linker preceding the thyroglobulin-like domain in cartilaginous fish, the Ii gene and protein are predicted to have largely similar physiology from shark to man. Duplicated Ii genes found only in teleosts appear to have become sub-functionalized, as one form is predicted to play the same role as that mediated by Ii mRNA alternative splicing in all other vertebrate classes. No Ii homologs or potential ancestors of any of the functional Ii domains were found in the jawless fish or lower chordates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Structural properties of MHC class II ligands, implications for the prediction of MHC class II epitopes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper Winther Jørgensen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Major Histocompatibility class II (MHC-II molecules sample peptides from the extracellular space allowing the immune system to detect the presence of foreign microbes from this compartment. Prediction of MHC class II ligands is complicated by the open binding cleft of the MHC class II molecule, allowing binding of peptides extending out of the binding groove. Furthermore, only a few HLA-DR alleles have been characterized with a sufficient number of peptides (100-200 peptides per allele to derive accurate description of their binding motif. Little work has been performed characterizing structural properties of MHC class II ligands. Here, we perform one such large-scale analysis. A large set of SYFPEITHI MHC class II ligands covering more than 20 different HLA-DR molecules was analyzed in terms of their secondary structure and surface exposure characteristics in the context of the native structure of the corresponding source protein. We demonstrated that MHC class II ligands are significantly more exposed and have significantly more coil content than other peptides in the same protein with similar predicted binding affinity. We next exploited this observation to derive an improved prediction method for MHC class II ligands by integrating prediction of MHC- peptide binding with prediction of surface exposure and protein secondary structure. This combined prediction method was shown to significantly outperform the state-of-the-art MHC class II peptide binding prediction method when used to identify MHC class II ligands. We also tried to integrate N- and O-glycosylation in our prediction methods but this additional information was found not to improve prediction performance. In summary, these findings strongly suggest that local structural properties influence antigen processing and/or the accessibility of peptides to the MHC class II molecule.

  18. Angle Class II malocclusion treated with extraction of permanent teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Mattos Barreto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Angle Class II malocclusion associated with anterior open bite in adult patients demands a carefully elaborated orthodontic planning, aiming at restoring not only harmonious dental and facial esthetics, but also a balanced masticatory function. Orthognathic surgery or permanent teeth extraction are often the choice of treatment, therefore, treatment decision is related to all dental, skeletal and functional aspects. The present report discusses orthodontic compensation carried out by means of upper premolar extraction performed to correct the Class II canine relationship and, consequently, the anterior open bite, accepting that the upper incisors be retroclined. This clinical case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO as part of the requirements for obtaining the BBO Certification.

  19. Post-Retention Changes in Class II Correction With the Forsus (trademark) Appliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    level of significance was defined when p≤0.02. Error of Measurement Study In dentistry , when interpreting the results of a study, the investigator...Class II malocclusion in children 8-10 years of age. Angle Orthod. 1981;51:177-202. 4) Jones G, Buschang PH, Kim KB, Oliver DR. Class II non...2: Dahlberg’s error, Bland-Altman method, and Kappa coefficient. Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics 2013;38;3;182-185. 39) Springate, SD. The

  20. Fracture resistance of class IV fiber-reinforced composite resin restorations: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P S Praveen Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate fracture resistance of incisal edge fractures (Class IV restored with a Glass Fiber-reinforced Composite (FRC. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four extracted sound maxillary central incisors were randomly divided into two groups. Group I (control contained untreated teeth. Samples in experimental groups II were prepared by cutting the incisal (one-third part of the crown horizontally and was subjected to enamel preparations, then restored with a Glass FRC. Fracture resistance was evaluated as Newton's for samples tested in a Hounsfield universal testing machine. Failure modes were examined microscopically. Results: Mean peak failure load (Newton's observed in Glass Fiber-reinforced Nanocomposite was 863.50 ± 76.12. The experimental group showed similar types of failure modes with the majority occurring as cohesive and mixed type. 58% of the teeth in Glass FRC group fractured below the cementoenamel junction. Conclusion: Using Fiber reinforced composite substructure under conventional composites in Class IV restorations, the fracture resistance of the restored incisal edge could be increased.

  1. Microleakage of hydrophilic adhesive systems in Class V composite restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, C M; Hara, A T; Pimenta, L A; Rodrigues, A L

    2001-02-01

    To investigate the microleakage of four hydrophilic adhesive systems: one "multiple-bottles" (Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus); two "one-bottle" (Single Bond, Stae); and one self-etching (Etch & Prime 3.0). 120 bovine incisor teeth were divided into four groups (n = 30) and Class V cavities were prepared at the cemento-enamel junction. The cavities were restored with the adhesive systems and with Z100 composite. The teeth were thermocycled 1,000 times between 5+/-2 degrees C and 55+/-2 degrees C with a dwell time of 1 min, and then placed in a 2% methylene blue dye (pH 7.0) for 4 hrs, washed and sectioned vertically through the center of the restorations. The qualitative evaluation was made by three examiners who distributed pre-established scores (0-4) for each tooth using a stereomicroscope at x30 magnification. In enamel margins little microleakage was observed and the Kruskal-Wallis analysis did not show differences. In dentin margins the Kruskal-Wallis and multiple comparison analyses were applied: microleakage was significantly greater with Stae (median 3) and Scotchbond MP Plus (median 4). Single Bond (median 1) and Etch & Prime 3.0 (median 2) showed the best results in dentin margins, and the statistical analysis did not demonstrate differences in microleakage among these groups.

  2. Glass-ionomer-silver-cermet interim Class I restorations for permanent teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croll, T P; Killian, C M

    1992-11-01

    Glass-ionomer-silver-cermet cement has proved to be a worthy alternative to silver amalgam for restoring certain Class I lesions in primary teeth. Such restorations are now known to last up to 8 years without need for repair or replacement. Cermet cement has also been used for interim restoration of permanent teeth in special cases, with ideal results. The procedure for placing a glass-ionomer-silver-cermet cement Class I restoration is described.

  3. Autoimmunity and inflammation are independent of class II transactivator type PIV-dependent class II major histocompatibility complex expression in peripheral tissues during collagen-induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldburger, Jean-Marc; Palmer, Gaby; Seemayer, Christian; Lamacchia, Celine; Finckh, Axel; Christofilopoulos, Panayiotis; Baeten, Dominique; Reith, Walter; Gabay, Cem

    2011-11-01

    To determine the regulation of class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) expression in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) in order to investigate their role as nonprofessional antigen-presenting cells in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Expression of class II MHC, class II MHC transactivator (CIITA), and Ciita isoforms PI, PIII, and PIV was examined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry in human synovial tissues, arthritic mouse joints, and human and murine FLS. CIA was induced in mice in which isoform PIV of Ciita was knocked out (PIV(-/-) ), in PIV(-/-) mice transgenic for CIITA in the thymus (K14 CIITA), and in their control littermates. HLA-DRA, total CIITA, and CIITA PIII messenger RNA levels were significantly increased in synovial tissue samples from patients with rheumatoid arthritis compared with the levels in tissue from patients with osteoarthritis. Human FLS expressed surface class II MHC via CIITA PIII and PIV, while class II MHC expression in murine FLS was entirely mediated by PIV. Mice with a targeted deletion of CIITA PIV lack CD4+ T cells and were protected against CIA. The expression of CIITA was restored in the thymus of PIV(-/-) K14 CIITA-transgenic mice, which had a normal CD4+ T cell repertoire and normal surface levels of class II MHC on professional antigen-presenting cells, but did not induce class II MHC on FLS. Synovial inflammation and immune responses against type II collagen were similar in PIV(-/-) K14 CIITA-transgenic mice and control mice with CIA, but bone erosion was significantly reduced in the absence of PIV. Overexpression of class II MHC is tightly correlated with CIITA expression in arthritic synovium and in FLS. Selective targeting of Ciita PIV in peripheral tissues abrogates class II MHC expression by murine FLS but does not protect against inflammation and autoimmune responses in CIA. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  4. 25 CFR 502.3 - Class II gaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Class II gaming. 502.3 Section 502.3 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.3 Class II gaming. Class II gaming means: (a) Bingo or lotto (whether or not electronic, computer...

  5. MHC class II molecules and tumour immunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oven, I.

    2005-01-01

    Background. Tumour immunotherapy attempts to use the specificity and capability of the immune system to kill malignant cells with a minimum damage to normal tissue. Increasing knowledge of the identity of tumour antigens should help us design more effective therapeutic vaccines. Increasing evidence has demonstrated that MHC class II molecules and CD4+ T cells play important roles in generating and maintaining antitumour immune responses in animal models. These data suggest that it may be necessary to involve both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells for more effective antitumour therapy. Novel strategies have been developed for enhancing T cell responses against cancer by prolonging antigen presentation of dendritic cells to T cells, by the inclusion of MHC class II-restricted tumour antigens and by genetically modifying tumour cells to present antigen to T lymphocytes directly. Conclusions. Vaccines against cancers aim to induce tumour-specific effector T cells that can reduce tumour mass and induce development of tumour-specific T cell memory, that can control tumour relapse. (author)

  6. MHC class II molecules regulate growth in human T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M; Odum, Niels; Bendtzen, K

    1994-01-01

    MHC-class-II-positive T cells are found in tissues involved in autoimmune disorders. Stimulation of class II molecules by monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) or bacterial superantigens induces protein tyrosine phosphorylation through activation of protein tyrosine kinases in T cells, and class II signals...... lines tested. Only one of three CD4+, CD45RAhigh, ROhigh T cells responded to class II costimulation. There was no correlation between T cell responsiveness to class II and the cytokine production profile of the T cell in question. Thus, T cell lines producing interferon (IFN)-gamma but not IL-4 (TH1...... modulate several T cell responses. Here, we studied further the role of class II molecules in the regulation of T cell growth. Costimulation of class II molecules by immobilized HLA-DR mAb significantly enhanced interleukin (IL)-2-supported T cell growth of the majority of CD4+, CD45RAlow, ROhigh T cell...

  7. Comparison the effect of two types of light curing units with different modes on microleakage of composite filling in Cl II restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmail Yassini

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: The results showed that both light curing devices were effective and no significant difference between different modes of LED light curing device on microleakage of class II composite restorations was found.

  8. The systems biology of MHC class II antigen presentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Major histocompatibility class II molecules (MHC class II) are one of the key regulators of adaptive immunity because of their specific expression by professional antigen presenting cells (APC). They present peptides derived from endocytosed material to T helper lymphocytes. Consequently, MHC class

  9. The effect of rebonding on microleakage of class V aesthetic restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhardt, Maria Carolina Guilherme; Magalhães, Cláudia Silami; Serra, Mônica Campos

    2002-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the effect of rebonding on microleakage of a resin composite, a condensable resin and two polyacid-modified resin composite restorations. Standardized cylindrical Class V dentin cavities were prepared on the buccal root surfaces of 240 extracted bovine incisive teeth. The prepared teeth were randomly assigned to four groups of 60 teeth and restored with the following restorative systems: I--(ZS) Z100/Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus; II--(SS) Solitaire/Solid Bond; III--(FS) Freedom/Stae; IV--(FSB) F200/Single Bond. Thirty teeth of each group were rebonded with a low-viscosity resin (Fortify/BISCO), according to the manufacturer's instructions. The remaining teeth received no treatment. All teeth were thermocycled for 5,000 cycles and brushed by hand three times a day for 10 days using a toothbrush and a slurry of dentifrice and water. Specimens were stained in a 2% methylene blue solution and longitudinally sectioned with diamond disks. Microleakage was scored on a scale of 0 to 3. The Kruskal-Wallis test showed statistically significant differences among the groups (h=156.54; alpha<0.05). Pairwise comparison by means of the least significant difference showed that (SS) and (FS) with or without rebonding were not statistically different from each other. These groups showed the highest microleakage differences from (ZS) and (FSB) with or without rebonding. (ZS) with rebonding showed the lowest microleakage that was not statistically different from (ZS) without rebonding and (FSB) with rebonding.

  10. Early Intervention in Skeletal Class II and dental Class II division I malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Iqbal Bhat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A Class II malocclusion may occur as a result of mandibular deficiency, maxillary excess, or a combination of both. However, the most common finding is mandibular skeletal retrusion. The use of functional jaw orthopedics, at the right time during growth, can ultimately result in malocclusion patients achieving an excellent functional occlusion, a broad beautiful smile, a full face with a beautiful jaw line, and profile. Functional jaw orthopedic (FJO appliances are designed to encourage adaptive skeletal growth by maintaining the mandible in a corrected forward position. The activator developed by Andresen is one of the most widely used for this purpose. A 12-year-old boy with skeletal Class II malocclusion and dental Class II div I malocclusion, a low mandibular plane angle was treated with growth modulation using an activator followed by molar distalization using fixed orthodontics for detailing of the occlusion. The major effects of the activator treatment in this case have been due to increase in condylar growth and also an increase in mandibular base length. Further, non-extraction fixed orthodontic treatment for proper interdigitation of the dentition also helped to maintain the stability of the satisfactory results achieved.

  11. Effect of dual-cure composite resin as restorative material on marginal adaptation of class 2 restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolotto, Tissiana; Melian, Karla; Krejci, Ivo

    2013-10-01

    The present study attempted to find a simple direct adhesive restorative technique for the restoration of Class 2 cavities. A self-etch adhesive system with a dual-cured core buildup composite resin (paste 1 + paste 2) was evaluated in its ability to restore proximo-occlusal cavities with margins located on enamel and dentin. The groups were: A, cavity filling (cf) with paste 1 (light-curing component) by using a layering technique; B, cf by mixing both pastes, bulk insertion, and dual curing; and C, cf by mixing both pastes, bulk insertion, and chemical curing. Two control groups (D, negative, bulk; and E, positive, layering technique) were included by restoring cavities with a classic three-step etch-and-rinse adhesive and a universal restorative composite resin. SEM margin analysis was performed before and after thermomechanical loading in a chewing simulator. Percentages (mean ± SD) of "continuous margins" were improved by applying the material in bulk and letting it self cure (54 ± 6) or dual cure (59 ± 9), and no significant differences were observed between these two groups and the positive control (44 ± 19). The present study showed that the dual-cured composite resin tested has the potential to be used as bulk filling material for Class 2 restorations. When used as filling materials, dual-cure composite resins placed in bulk can provide marginal adaptation similar to light-cured composites applied with a complex stratification technique.

  12. Retention of class V restorations placed by dental students: a retrospective evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Úrsula Aparecida Escalero; Department of Restorative Dentistry – Araçatuba Dental School – UNESP – Univ Estadual Paulista – Araçatuba – São Paulo – Brazil.; da Silva, Emílie; Department of Restorative Dentistry – Araçatuba Dental School – UNESP – Univ Estadual Paulista – Araçatuba – São Paulo – Brazil.; Okida, Ricardo; Department of Restorative Dentistry – Araçatuba Dental School – UNESP – Univ Estadual Paulista – Araçatuba – São Paulo – Brazil.; Sundefeld, Maria; Department of Biostatistics – Araçatuba Dental School – UNESP – Univ Estadual Paulista – Araçatuba – São Paulo – Brazil.; Fagundes, Ticiane Cestari; Department of Restorative Dentistry – Araçatuba Dental School – UNESP – Univ Estadual Paulista – Araçatuba – São Paulo – Brazil.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical performance of class V restorations made by undergraduate students and determine the factors that might influence retention of restorations. Material and Methods: A survey of the clinical records created between 2007 and 2009 was used to collect data on patients with dental restorations. The USPHS (United States Public Health Service) criteria were used to perform evaluations by direct clinical observation. Statistical analyses wer...

  13. Class II correction prior to orthodontics with the carriere distalizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Class II correction is a challenge in orthodontics with many existing devices being complex, too compliance-driven, or too prone to breakage. The Carriere Distalizer allows for straightforward Class II correction prior to orthodontics (fixed or clear aligners) at a time when no other mechanics interfere, and compliance is at its best.

  14. Mathematics behind a Class of Image Restoration Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminita STATE

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The restoration techniques are usually oriented toward modeling the type of degradation in order to infer the inverse process for recovering the given image. This approach usually involves the option for a criterion to numerically evaluate the quality of the resulted image and consequently the restoration process can be expressed in terms of an optimization problem. Most of the approaches are essentially based on additional hypothesis concerning the statistical properties of images. However, in real life applications, there is no enough information to support a certain particular image model, and consequently model-free developments have to be used instead. In our approaches the problem of image denoising/restoration is viewed as an information transmission/processing system, where the signal representing a certain clean image is transmitted through a noisy channel and only a noise-corrupted version is available. The aim is to recover the available signal as much as possible by using different noise removal techniques that is to build an accurate approximation of the initial image. Unfortunately, a series of image qualities, as for instance clarity, brightness, contrast, are affected by the noise removal techniques and consequently there is a need to partially restore them on the basis of information extracted exclusively from data. Following a brief description of the image restoration framework provided in the introductory part, a PCA-based methodology is presented in the second section of the paper. The basics of a new informational-based development for image restoration purposes and scatter matrix-based methods are given in the next two sections. The final section contains concluding remarks and suggestions for further work.

  15. Internal and Marginal Fit of Modern Indirect Class II Composite Inlays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp C. Pott

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This in vitro study investigates the marginal and internal fit of indirect class II composite restorations. Two different processes for chair-side restorations were compared. In group A, the restorations were fabricated using CAD/CAM technology (Cerec, Sirona, Germany, Bernsheim and in group B they were made by hand (GrandioSO Inlay System, VOCO GmbH, Germany, Cuxhaven. Methods: For a metal tooth with a MOD cavity each 10 restorations were made for groups A and B. For each restoration, a replica of the cement-gap made from light body silicone was produced by placing the restoration into the cavity of the metal tooth. For this purpose, a special restoration-positioning machine was developed. Each replica was sectioned off in the longitudinal axis (L and in the cross axis (C. The thickness of the replicas was measured in both directions, using picture analysis software under a light reflection microscope. To evaluate the fit of the restorations, a special fitting parameter was calculated. Statistical analysis was performed with the t test. Results: The fitting-parameter in group B (L: 97.6µm±73.0µm; C: 71.8µm±46.4µm was significantly lower than that of group A (L: 155.1µm±102.3.0µm; C: 168.2µm±91.9µm (P

  16. Detection of marginal leakage of Class V restorations in vitro by micro-computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X Y; Li, S B; Gu, L J; Li, Y

    2014-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the efficacy of micro-computed tomography (CT) in marginal leakage detection of Class V restorations. Standardized Class V preparations with cervical margins in dentin and occlusal margins in enamel were made in 20 extracted human molars and restored with dental bonding agents and resin composite. All teeth were then immersed in 50% ammoniacal silver nitrate solution for 12 hours, followed by a developing solution for eight hours. Each restoration was scanned by micro-CT, the depth of marginal silver leakage in the central scanning section was measured, and the three-dimensional images of the silver leakage around each restoration were reconstructed. Afterward, all restorations were cut through the center and examined for leakage depth using a microscope. The silver leakage depth of each restoration obtained by the micro-CT and the microscope were compared for equivalency. The silver leakage depth in cervical walls observed by micro-CT and microscope showed no significant difference; however, in certain cases the judgment of leakage depth in the occlusal wall in micro-CT image was affected by adjacent enamel structure, providing less leakage depth than was observed with the microscope (pleakage around the Class V restorations with clear borders only in the dentin region. It can be concluded that micro-CT can detect nondestructively the leakage around a resin composite restoration in two and three dimensions, with accuracy comparable to that of the conventional microscope method in the dentin region but with inferior accuracy in the enamel region.

  17. Equilibrium restoration in a class of tolerant strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Balanquit, Romeo

    2010-01-01

    This study shows that in a two-player infinitely repeated game where one is impatient, Pareto-superior subgame perfect equilibrium can still be achieved. An impatient player in this paper is depicted as someone who can truly destroy the possibility of attaining any feasible and individually rational outcome that is supported in equilibrium in repeated games, as asserted by the Folk Theorem. In this scenario, the main ingredient for the restoration of equilibrium is to introduce the notion of ...

  18. Archform comparisons between skeletal class II and III malocclusions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zou

    Full Text Available The purpose of this cross-sectional research was to explore the relationship of the mandibular dental and basal bone archforms between severe Skeletal Class II (SC2 and Skeletal Class III (SC3 malocclusions. We also compared intercanine and intermolar widths in these two malocclusion types. Thirty-three virtual pretreatment mandibular models (Skeletal Class III group and Thirty-five Skeletal Class II group pretreatment models were created with a laser scanning system. FA (the midpoint of the facial axis of the clinical crownand WALA points (the most prominent point on the soft-tissue ridgewere employed to produce dental and basal bone archforms, respectively. Gained scatter diagrams of the samples were processed by nonlinear regression analysis via SPSS 17.0. The mandibular dental and basal bone intercanine and intermolar widths were significantly greater in the Skeletal Class III group compared to the Skeletal Class II group. In both groups, a moderate correlation existed between dental and basal bone arch widths in the canine region, and a high correlation existed between dental and basal bone arch widths in the molar region. The coefficient of correlation of the Skeletal Class III group was greater than the Skeletal Class II group. Fourth degree, even order power functions were used as best-fit functions to fit the scatter plots. The radius of curvature was larger in Skeletal Class III malocclusions compared to Skeletal Class II malocclusions (rWALA3>rWALA2>rFA3>rFA2. In conclusion, mandibular dental and basal intercanine and intermolar widths were significantly different between the two groups. Compared with Skeletal Class II subjects, the mandibular archform was more flat for Skeletal Class III subjects.

  19. Mandibular condyle dimensions in Peruvian patients with Class II and Class III skeletal patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Zegarra-Baquerizo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare condylar dimensions of young adults with Class II and Class III skeletal patterns using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT. Materials and methods: 124 CBCTs from 18-30 year-old patients, divided into 2 groups according to skeletal patterns (Class II and Class III were evaluated. Skeletal patterns were classified by measuring the ANB angle of each patient. The anteroposterior diameter (A and P of the right and left mandibular condyle was assessed from a sagittal view by a line drawn from point A (anterior to P (posterior. The coronal plane allowed the evaluation of the medio-lateral diameter by drawing a line from point M (medium to L (lateral; all distances were measured in mm. Results: In Class II the A-P diameter was 9.06±1.33 and 8.86±1.56 for the right and left condyles respectively, in Class III these values were 8.71±1.2 and 8.84±1.42. In Class II the M-L diameter was 17.94±2.68 and 17.67±2.44 for the right and left condyles respectively, in Class III these values were 19.16±2.75 and 19.16±2.54. Conclusion: Class III M-L dimensions showed higher values than Class II, whereas these differences were minimal in A-P.

  20. The CLASS blazar survey - II. Optical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caccianiga, A; Marcha, MJ; Anton, S; Mack, KH; Neeser, MJ

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the optical properties of the objects selected in the CLASS blazar survey. Because an optical spectrum is now available for 70 per cent of the 325 sources present in the sample, a spectral classification, based on the appearance of the emission/absorption lines, is possible. A

  1. Evolution of major histocompatibility complex class I and class II genes in the brown bear

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins constitute an essential component of the vertebrate immune response, and are coded by the most polymorphic of the vertebrate genes. Here, we investigated sequence variation and evolution of MHC class I and class II DRB, DQA and DQB genes in the brown bear Ursus arctos to characterise the level of polymorphism, estimate the strength of positive selection acting on them, and assess the extent of gene orthology and trans-species polymorphism in Ursidae. Results We found 37 MHC class I, 16 MHC class II DRB, four DQB and two DQA alleles. We confirmed the expression of several loci: three MHC class I, two DRB, two DQB and one DQA. MHC class I also contained two clusters of non-expressed sequences. MHC class I and DRB allele frequencies differed between northern and southern populations of the Scandinavian brown bear. The rate of nonsynonymous substitutions (dN) exceeded the rate of synonymous substitutions (dS) at putative antigen binding sites of DRB and DQB loci and, marginally significantly, at MHC class I loci. Models of codon evolution supported positive selection at DRB and MHC class I loci. Both MHC class I and MHC class II sequences showed orthology to gene clusters found in the giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca. Conclusions Historical positive selection has acted on MHC class I, class II DRB and DQB, but not on the DQA locus. The signal of historical positive selection on the DRB locus was particularly strong, which may be a general feature of caniforms. The presence of MHC class I pseudogenes may indicate faster gene turnover in this class through the birth-and-death process. South–north population structure at MHC loci probably reflects origin of the populations from separate glacial refugia. PMID:23031405

  2. Evolution of major histocompatibility complex class I and class II genes in the brown bear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuduk Katarzyna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Major histocompatibility complex (MHC proteins constitute an essential component of the vertebrate immune response, and are coded by the most polymorphic of the vertebrate genes. Here, we investigated sequence variation and evolution of MHC class I and class II DRB, DQA and DQB genes in the brown bear Ursus arctos to characterise the level of polymorphism, estimate the strength of positive selection acting on them, and assess the extent of gene orthology and trans-species polymorphism in Ursidae. Results We found 37 MHC class I, 16 MHC class II DRB, four DQB and two DQA alleles. We confirmed the expression of several loci: three MHC class I, two DRB, two DQB and one DQA. MHC class I also contained two clusters of non-expressed sequences. MHC class I and DRB allele frequencies differed between northern and southern populations of the Scandinavian brown bear. The rate of nonsynonymous substitutions (dN exceeded the rate of synonymous substitutions (dS at putative antigen binding sites of DRB and DQB loci and, marginally significantly, at MHC class I loci. Models of codon evolution supported positive selection at DRB and MHC class I loci. Both MHC class I and MHC class II sequences showed orthology to gene clusters found in the giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca. Conclusions Historical positive selection has acted on MHC class I, class II DRB and DQB, but not on the DQA locus. The signal of historical positive selection on the DRB locus was particularly strong, which may be a general feature of caniforms. The presence of MHC class I pseudogenes may indicate faster gene turnover in this class through the birth-and-death process. South–north population structure at MHC loci probably reflects origin of the populations from separate glacial refugia.

  3. Evolution of major histocompatibility complex class I and class II genes in the brown bear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuduk, Katarzyna; Babik, Wiesław; Bojarska, Katarzyna; Sliwińska, Ewa B; Kindberg, Jonas; Taberlet, Pierre; Swenson, Jon E; Radwan, Jacek

    2012-10-02

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins constitute an essential component of the vertebrate immune response, and are coded by the most polymorphic of the vertebrate genes. Here, we investigated sequence variation and evolution of MHC class I and class II DRB, DQA and DQB genes in the brown bear Ursus arctos to characterise the level of polymorphism, estimate the strength of positive selection acting on them, and assess the extent of gene orthology and trans-species polymorphism in Ursidae. We found 37 MHC class I, 16 MHC class II DRB, four DQB and two DQA alleles. We confirmed the expression of several loci: three MHC class I, two DRB, two DQB and one DQA. MHC class I also contained two clusters of non-expressed sequences. MHC class I and DRB allele frequencies differed between northern and southern populations of the Scandinavian brown bear. The rate of nonsynonymous substitutions (dN) exceeded the rate of synonymous substitutions (dS) at putative antigen binding sites of DRB and DQB loci and, marginally significantly, at MHC class I loci. Models of codon evolution supported positive selection at DRB and MHC class I loci. Both MHC class I and MHC class II sequences showed orthology to gene clusters found in the giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca. Historical positive selection has acted on MHC class I, class II DRB and DQB, but not on the DQA locus. The signal of historical positive selection on the DRB locus was particularly strong, which may be a general feature of caniforms. The presence of MHC class I pseudogenes may indicate faster gene turnover in this class through the birth-and-death process. South-north population structure at MHC loci probably reflects origin of the populations from separate glacial refugia.

  4. Bulk-filled posterior resin restorations based on stress-decreasing resin technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan W.V.; Pallesen, Ulla

    2017-01-01

    Class I restorations could be evaluated. Six failed Class II molar restorations, three in each group, were observed, resulting in a success rate of 93.9% for all restorations and an annual failure rate (AFR) of 1.0% for both groups. The AFR for Class II and Class I restorations in both groups was 1...

  5. Features of target cell lysis by class I and class II MHC restricted cytolytic T lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maimone, M.M.; Morrison, L.A.; Braciale, V.L.; Braciale, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    The lytic activity of influenza virus-specific muvine cytolytic T lymphocyte (CTL) clones that are restricted by either H-2K/D (class I) or H-2I (class II) major histocompatibility (MHC) locus products was compared on an influenza virus-infected target cell expressing both K/D and I locus products. With the use of two in vitro measurements of cytotoxicity, conventional 51 Cr release, and detergent-releasable radiolabeled DNA (as a measure of nuclear disintegration in the early post-lethal hit period), the authors found no difference between class I and class II MHC-restricted CTL in the kinetics of target cell destruction. In addition, class II MHC-restricted antiviral CTL failed to show any lysis of radiolabeled bystander cells. Killing of labeled specific targets by these class II MHC-restricted CTL was also efficiently inhibited by unlabeled specific competitor cells in a cold target inhibition assay. In sum, these data suggest that class I and class II MHC-restricted CTL mediate target cell destruction by an essentially similar direct mechanism

  6. Thin-plate spline analysis of craniofacial growth in Class I and Class II subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, Lorenzo; Baccetti, Tiziano; Stahl, Franka; McNamara, James A

    2007-07-01

    To compare the craniofacial growth characteristics of untreated subjects with Class II division 1 malocclusion with those of subjects with normal (Class I) occlusion from the prepubertal through the postpubertal stages of development. The Class II division 1 sample consisted of 17 subjects (11 boys and six girls). The Class I sample also consisted of 17 subjects (13 boys and four girls). Three craniofacial regions (cranial base, maxilla, and mandible) were analyzed on the lateral cephalograms of the subjects in both groups by means of thin-plate spline analysis at T1 (prepubertal) and T2 (postpubertal). Both cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons were performed on both size and shape differences between the two groups. The results showed an increased cranial base angulation as a morphological feature of Class II malocclusion at the prepubertal developmental phase. Maxillary changes in either shape or size were not significant. Subjects with Class II malocclusion exhibited a significant deficiency in the size of the mandible at the completion of active craniofacial growth as compared with Class I subjects. A significant deficiency in the size of the mandible became apparent in Class II subjects during the circumpubertal period and it was still present at the completion of active craniofacial growth.

  7. Marginal microleakage of class V composite restorations before and after AFP gel application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davari Abdolrahim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available   Background and Aims: The most effective preventing tooth decay method is fluoride compounds applications. Some studies suggested that APF gels caused changes on the superficial physical properties of composite. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the marginal microleakage of class V composite restorations before and after AFP gel application.   Materials and Methods: The class V cavities in buccal surfaces of 45 molar teeth were made in such a way that occlusal margin was placed in enamel and cervical margin in cement. In group 1, at first fluoride-therapy and then cavity preparation and restoration by composite resin was done. In group 2, at first the class V cavities were prepared and restored, then fluoride-therapy was carried out. In group 3, cavities were prepared and restored with no fluoride-therapy. The dye penetration rate in occlusal and cervical margins was examined by stereomicroscope. Data were statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney test.   Results: There was no statistically significant difference between groups ( P=0.975.   Conclusion: Fluoride-therapy using AFP gel before and after class V composite restorations, had no significant effect on the microleakage of dentin and enamel margins.

  8. A retrospective study of Class II mixed-dentition treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Heesoo; Baumrind, Sheldon; Korn, Edward L; Dugoni, Steven; Boero, Roger; Aubert, Maryse; Boyd, Robert

    2017-01-01

    To consider the effectiveness of early treatment using one mixed-dentition approach to the correction of moderate and severe Class II malocclusions. Three groups of Class II subjects were included in this retrospective study: an early treatment (EarlyTx) group that first presented at age 7 to 9.5 years (n = 54), a late treatment (LateTx) group whose first orthodontic visit occurred between ages 12 and 15 (n = 58), and an untreated Class II (UnTx) group to assess the pretreatment comparability of the two treated groups (n = 51). Thirteen conventional cephalometric measurements were reported for each group and Class II molar severity was measured on the study casts of the EarlyTx and LateTx groups. Successful Class II correction was observed in approximately three quarters of both the EarlyTx group and the LateTx group at the end of treatment. EarlyTx patients had fewer permanent teeth extracted than did the LateTx patients (5.6% vs 37.9%, P < .001) and spent less time in full-bonded appliance therapy in the permanent dentition than did LateTx patients (1.7 ± 0.8 vs 2.6 ± 0.7years, P < .001). When supervision time is included, the EarlyTx group had longer total treatment time and averaged more visits than did the LateTx group (53.1 ± 18. 8 vs 33.7 ± 8.3, P < .0001). Fifty-five percent of the LateTx extraction cases involved removal of the maxillary first premolars only and were finished in a Class II molar relationship. EarlyTx comprehensive mixed-dentition treatment was an effective modality for early correction of Class II malocclusions.

  9. The relationship between Class I and Class II methanol masers at high angular resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, T. P.; Ellingsen, S. P.; Voronkov, M. A.; Cimò, G.

    2018-06-01

    We have used the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) to make the first high-resolution observations of a large sample of class I methanol masers in the 95-GHz (80-71A+) transition. The target sources consist of a statistically complete sample of 6.7-GHz class II methanol masers with an associated 95-GHz class I methanol maser, enabling a detailed study of the relationship between the two methanol maser classes at arcsecond angular resolution. These sources have been previously observed at high resolution in the 36- and 44-GHz transitions, allowing comparison between all three class I maser transitions. In total, 172 95-GHz maser components were detected across the 32 target sources. We find that at high resolution, when considering matched maser components, a 3:1 flux density ratio is observed between the 95- and 44-GHz components, consistent with a number of previous lower angular resolution studies. The 95-GHz maser components appear to be preferentially located closer to the driving sources and this may indicate that this transition is more strongly inverted nearby to background continuum sources. We do not observe an elevated association rate between 95-GHz maser emission and more evolved sources, as indicated by the presence of 12.2-GHz class II masers. We find that in the majority of cases where both class I and class II methanol emission is observed, some component of the class I emission is associated with a likely outflow candidate.

  10. A cephalometric analysis of Class II dentate subjects to establish a formula to determine the occlusal plane in Class II edentate subjects: A neo adjunct

    OpenAIRE

    Nikita Sinha; K Mahendranadh Reddy; Nidhi Gupta; Y M Shastry

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Occlusal plane (OP) differs considerably in participants with skeletal Class I and Class II participants. In this study, cephalometrics has been used to help in the determination of orientation of the OP utilizing the nonresorbable bony anatomic landmarks in skeletal Class II participants and an attempt has been made to predict and examine the OP in individuals with skeletal class II jaw relationship. Materials and Methods: One hundred dentulous participants with skeletal Class II...

  11. [Detection of marginal leakage of Class V restorations in vitro by micro-CT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Lin-juan; Zhao, Xin-yi; Li, Shi-bao

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the reliability and superiority of micro-CT in marginal leakage assessment of Class V restorations. Class V preparations with gingival margins in dentin and occlusal in enamel were made in sixteen extracted non-carious human molars and restored with dental bonding agents and composite resin. All teeth were then immersed in 50% ammonia-silver nitrate solution for 12 hours, followed by developing solution for 8 hours. Each restoration was scanned by a micro-CT and silver leakage was measured and three-dimensional image of the silver leakage alone cavity wall were reconstructed. Afterward, all restorations were sectioned and examined for leakage depth using a microscope. The silver leakage depth of each restoration obtained by micro-CT and microscope were compared for equivalency. The silver leakage depths in gingival wall obtained with micro-CT (0.78 mm) and microscope (0.74 mm) showed no significant difference (P > 0.05), while the judgment of leakage depths in occlusal wall in micro-CT image (0.40 mm) was affected by adjacent enamel structure, giving less leakage depths compared to microscope (0.72 mm)(P leakages showed channels on their way to spreading. Micro-CT can detect precisely the silver leakage in the dentin wall of a restoration and display its three-dimensional shape fully. Enamel structure affects the detection of the silver leakage next to it.

  12. Marginal adaptation of large adhesive class IV composite restorations before and after artificial aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ardu, S.; Stavridakis, M.; Feilzer, A.J.; Krejci, I.; Lefever, D.; Dietschi, D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To test the marginal adaptation of Class IV restorations made of different composite materials designed for anterior use. Materials and Methods: Forty-two extracted caries-free human maxillary central incisors were randomly divided into 7 experimental groups - one per composite tested - for

  13. Camouflage of Severe Skeletal Class II Gummy Smile Patient Treated Nonsurgically with Mini Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Qamruddin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal class II has always been a challenge in orthodontics and often needs assistance of surgical orthodontics in nongrowing patients when it presents with severe discrepancy. Difficulty increases more when vertical dysplasia is also associated with sagittal discrepancy. The advent of mini implants in orthodontics has broadened the spectrum of camouflage treatment. This case report presents a 16-year-old nongrowing girl with severe class II because of retrognathic mandible, and anterior dentoalveolar protrusion sagittally and vertically resulted in severe overjet of 13 mm and excessive display of incisors and gums. Both maxillary central incisors were trimmed by general practitioner few years back to reduce visibility. Treatment involved use of micro implant for retraction and intrusion of anterior maxillary dentoalveolar segment while lower incisors were proclined to obtain normal overjet, and overbite and pleasing soft tissue profile. Smile esthetics was further improved with composite restoration of incisal edges of both central incisors.

  14. 78 FR 20236 - Self-Regulation of Class II Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... self- regulation. (2) Will coordinate an on-site review and verification of the information submitted... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Part 518 RIN 3141-AA44 Self... petitions seeking the issuance of a certificate for tribal self-regulation of Class II gaming. DATES...

  15. 77 FR 4714 - Self-Regulation of Class II Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ...: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: This action proposes to amend the NIGC's self-regulation regulations to tailor the self-regulating qualifying criteria to a tribe's regulation of class II gaming activity and more clearly define and streamline the self-regulation certification process. By tailoring the...

  16. Improved prediction of MHC class I and class II epitopes using a novel Gibbs sampling approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten; Lundegaard, Claus; Worning, Peder

    2004-01-01

    Prediction of which peptides will bind a specific major histocompatibility complex (MHC) constitutes an important step in identifying potential T-cell epitopes suitable as vaccine candidates. MHC class II binding peptides have a broad length distribution complicating such predictions. Thus......, identifying the correct alignment is a crucial part of identifying the core of an MHC class II binding motif. In this context, we wish to describe a novel Gibbs motif sampler method ideally suited for recognizing such weak sequence motifs. The method is based on the Gibbs sampling method, and it incorporates...

  17. The effect of rebonding and liner type on microleakage of Class V amalgam restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moosavi H.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Application of varnish and dentin bonding agents can effectively reduce microleakage under amalgam restorations. Also rebonding may show some effects on microleakage and its complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of liner/ adhesives on microleakage of Class V amalgam restoration with or without rebonding. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study Class V cavities were prepared on sixty sound human maxillary premolars with the gingival floor 1mm below the CEJ. Cases were divided into six groups of ten teeth each. Specimens in group 1 and 2 were lined with Copalite and Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (SBMP respectively. In the third group (control no liner was applied. The teeth were then restored with spherical amalgam. Specimens in group 4 to 6 received the same treatments but after filling, the interfaces of restorations and teeth were etched with 37% phosphoric acid gel, rinsed and dried. Adhesive resin of SBMP was applied over amalgam and tooth margins and polymerized (rebonding. Specimens were thermocycled, exposed to dye and sectioned. Microleakage was graded (0-3 using a stereomicroscope at X40 magnification. Data were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon pair wise statistical tests. P<0.05 was considered as the limit of significance. Results: The groups lined with SBMP showed the lowest and the groups without liner the highest microleakage (p= 0.001. Significant difference was observed in microleakage mean rank of enamel and dentin margins (p=0.048. Rebonding with resin did not improve the seal (p> 0.05. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, total etch adhesive system had significant effect on microleakage of Class V amalgam restorations especially in cervical margin. Rebonding did not show a significant effect on microleakage.

  18. Treatment strategy for guided tissue regeneration in various class II furcation defect: Case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpendra Kumar Verma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal regeneration is a main aspect in the treatment of teeth affected by periodontitis. Periodontal regeneration in furcation areas is quite challenging, especially when it is in interproximal region. There are several techniques used alone or in combination considered to achieve periodontal regeneration, including the bone grafts or substitutes, guided tissue regeneration (GTR, root surface modification, and biological mediators. Many factors may account for variability in response to regenerative therapy in class II furcation. This case series describes the management of class II furcation defect in a mesial interproximal region of a maxillary tooth and other with a buccal class II furcation of mandibular tooth, with the help of surgical intervention including the GTR membrane and bone graft materials. This combined treatment resulted in healthy periodontium with a radiographic evidence of alveolar bone gain in both cases. This case series demonstrates that proper diagnosis, followed by removal of etiological factors and utilizing the combined treatment modalities will restore health and function of the tooth with the severe attachment loss.

  19. Relation between Angle Class II malocclusion and deleterious oral habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Tarcísio Lima Ferreira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Oral habits may interfere on the growth and development of the stomatognathic system and orofacial myofunctional conditions, producing changes in the position of teeth in their dental arches. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to verify the presence of deleterious oral habits in individuals with malocclusion and see if there is a predominance of Class II malocclusion in these individuals. METHODS: The records of 140 patients treated at the Clinic of Preventive Orthodontics FORP-USP who had already completed treatment were randomly selected and analyzed. Their ages ranged from 6 to 10 years and 11 months. Associations were made between the presence or absence of deleterious oral habits, type and number of habits found in each individual and the type of malocclusion according to Angle classification. The statistical analysis used was the Chi-square test with a significance level of 5%. History of deleterious oral habits was found in 67.1% of individuals. RESULTS: The Class I malocclusion was most frequent (82.9%, followed by Class II malocclusion (12.1% and Class III (5%. CONCLUSION: There was a predominance of Class II malocclusion in individuals with a history of deleterious oral habits.INTRODUÇÃO: hábitos bucais podem interferir no crescimento e desenvolvimento do sistema estomatognático e nas condições miofuncionais bucofaciais, acarretando alterações no posicionamento dos dentes nas respectivas arcadas dentárias. OBJETIVO: o objetivo dessa pesquisa foi verificar a presença de hábitos bucais deletérios em indivíduos portadores de má oclusão e observar se existe predominância de má oclusão Classe II de Angle nesses indivíduos. MÉTODOS: foram selecionadas, aleatoriamente, e analisadas 140 fichas de pacientes atendidos na Clínica de Ortodontia Preventiva da FORP-USP, que já haviam recebido alta no tratamento. A faixa etária variou dos 6 anos a 10 anos e 11 meses. Foram realizadas associações entre

  20. MHC Class II haplotypes of Colombian Amerindian tribes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunis, Juan J.; Yunis, Edmond J.; Yunis, Emilio

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed 1041 individuals belonging to 17 Amerindian tribes of Colombia, Chimila, Bari and Tunebo (Chibcha linguistic family), Embera, Waunana (Choco linguistic family), Puinave and Nukak (Maku-Puinave linguistic families), Cubeo, Guanano, Tucano, Desano and Piratapuyo (Tukano linguistic family), Guahibo and Guayabero (Guayabero Linguistic Family), Curripaco and Piapoco (Arawak linguistic family) and Yucpa (Karib linguistic family). for MHC class II haplotypes (HLA-DRB1, DQA1, DQB1). Approximately 90% of the MHC class II haplotypes found among these tribes are haplotypes frequently encountered in other Amerindian tribes. Nonetheless, striking differences were observed among Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking tribes. The DRB1*04:04, DRB1*04:11, DRB1*09:01 carrying haplotypes were frequently found among non-Chibcha speaking tribes, while the DRB1*04:07 haplotype showed significant frequencies among Chibcha speaking tribes, and only marginal frequencies among non-Chibcha speaking tribes. Our results suggest that the differences in MHC class II haplotype frequency found among Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking tribes could be due to genetic differentiation in Mesoamerica of the ancestral Amerindian population into Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking populations before they entered into South America. PMID:23885196

  1. Spectral energy distribution analysis of class I and class II FU Orionis stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gramajo, Luciana V.; Gómez, Mercedes [Observatorio Astronómico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Argentina, Laprida 854, 5000 Córdoba (Argentina); Rodón, Javier A., E-mail: luciana@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: mercedes@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: jrodon@eso.org [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile)

    2014-06-01

    FU Orionis stars (FUors) are eruptive pre-main sequence objects thought to represent quasi-periodic or recurring stages of enhanced accretion during the low-mass star-forming process. We characterize the sample of known and candidate FUors in a homogeneous and consistent way, deriving stellar and circumstellar parameters for each object. We emphasize the analysis in those parameters that are supposed to vary during the FUor stage. We modeled the spectral energy distributions of 24 of the 26 currently known FUors, using the radiative transfer code of Whitney et al. We compare our models with those obtained by Robitaille et al. for Taurus class II and I sources in quiescence periods by calculating the cumulative distribution of the different parameters. FUors have more massive disks: we find that ∼80% of the disks in FUors are more massive than any Taurus class II and I sources in the sample. Median values for the disk mass accretion rates are ∼10{sup –7} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} versus ∼10{sup –5} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} for standard young stellar objects (YSOs) and FUors, respectively. While the distributions of envelope mass accretion rates for class I FUors and standard class I objects are similar, FUors, on average, have higher envelope mass accretion rates than standard class II and class I sources. Most FUors (∼70%) have envelope mass accretion rates above 10{sup –7} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. In contrast, 60% of the classical YSO sample has an accretion rate below this value. Our results support the current scenario in which changes experimented by the circumstellar disk explain the observed properties of these stars. However, the increase in the disk mass accretion rate is smaller than theoretically predicted, although in good agreement with previous determinations.

  2. MHC class II-derived peptides can bind to class II molecules, including self molecules, and prevent antigen presentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosloniec, E F; Vitez, L J; Buus, S

    1990-01-01

    the alpha k-3 peptide binds slightly less well. These combined data, suggesting that class II-derived peptides can bind to MHC class II molecules, including the autologous molecule from which they are derived, have important implications for the molecular basis of alloreactivity and autoreactivity. Further...... found in the first and third polymorphic regions (PMR) of the A alpha k chain (alpha k-1 and alpha k-3) were capable of inhibiting the presentation of three different HEL-derived peptide antigens to their appropriate T cells. In addition, the alpha k-1 peptide inhibited the presentation of the OVA(323......-339) immunodominant peptide to the I-Ad-restricted T cell hybridomas specific for it. Prepulsing experiments demonstrated that the PMR peptides were interacting with the APC and not with the T cell hybridomas. These observations were confirmed and extended by the demonstration that the alpha k-1 and alpha k-3...

  3. Effect of mechanical load cycling on the microleakage of three different glass ionomer restorations in class V cavities

    OpenAIRE

    Baharan Ranjbar Omidi; Ladan Madani; Aida Mirnejad Joybari; Ensyeh Rashvand; Sonia Oveisi

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Microleakage is an important problem with direct restorations and familiarity with contributing factors is of utmost importance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microleakage of three glass ionomer restorations in class V cavities.   Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, class V cavity preparations were made on the buccal and lingual/ palatal surfaces of 30 human premolars (60 cavities). The specimens were divided into three group (n=10, 20 cavities). Re...

  4. Class II HLA interactions modulate genetic risk for multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilthey, Alexander T; Xifara, Dionysia K; Ban, Maria; Shah, Tejas S; Patsopoulos, Nikolaos A; Alfredsson, Lars; Anderson, Carl A; Attfield, Katherine E; Baranzini, Sergio E; Barrett, Jeffrey; Binder, Thomas M C; Booth, David; Buck, Dorothea; Celius, Elisabeth G; Cotsapas, Chris; D’Alfonso, Sandra; Dendrou, Calliope A; Donnelly, Peter; Dubois, Bénédicte; Fontaine, Bertrand; Fugger, Lars; Goris, An; Gourraud, Pierre-Antoine; Graetz, Christiane; Hemmer, Bernhard; Hillert, Jan; Kockum, Ingrid; Leslie, Stephen; Lill, Christina M; Martinelli-Boneschi, Filippo; Oksenberg, Jorge R; Olsson, Tomas; Oturai, Annette; Saarela, Janna; Søndergaard, Helle Bach; Spurkland, Anne; Taylor, Bruce; Winkelmann, Juliane; Zipp, Frauke; Haines, Jonathan L; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Spencer, Chris C A; Stewart, Graeme; Hafler, David A; Ivinson, Adrian J; Harbo, Hanne F; Hauser, Stephen L; De Jager, Philip L; Compston, Alastair; McCauley, Jacob L; Sawcer, Stephen; McVean, Gil

    2016-01-01

    Association studies have greatly refined the understanding of how variation within the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes influences risk of multiple sclerosis. However, the extent to which major effects are modulated by interactions is poorly characterized. We analyzed high-density SNP data on 17,465 cases and 30,385 controls from 11 cohorts of European ancestry, in combination with imputation of classical HLA alleles, to build a high-resolution map of HLA genetic risk and assess the evidence for interactions involving classical HLA alleles. Among new and previously identified class II risk alleles (HLA-DRB1*15:01, HLA-DRB1*13:03, HLA-DRB1*03:01, HLA-DRB1*08:01 and HLA-DQB1*03:02) and class I protective alleles (HLA-A*02:01, HLA-B*44:02, HLA-B*38:01 and HLA-B*55:01), we find evidence for two interactions involving pairs of class II alleles: HLA-DQA1*01:01–HLA-DRB1*15:01 and HLA-DQB1*03:01–HLA-DQB1*03:02. We find no evidence for interactions between classical HLA alleles and non-HLA risk-associated variants and estimate a minimal effect of polygenic epistasis in modulating major risk alleles. PMID:26343388

  5. Evaluation of dentoskeletal effects of Farmand functional appliance (Fa II) on class II malocclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Yassaei S.; Aghili H.; Razeghi D.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aim: Functional appliances refer to a variety of removable or fixed appliances designed to alter the mandibular position both sagitally and vertically, resulting in orthodontic and orthopedic changes. Despite the long history of functional appliances, there is still much controversy related to their effectiveness and mode of action. The aim of this study was to evaluate dental and skeletal effects of Fa II in patients with class II malocclusion due to mandibular deficiency.Mate...

  6. Influence of dental bleaching on marginal leakage of Class V restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Cristina Ramos Dorini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Evaluate the in vitro effect of bleaching performed in the dental office and waiting time on the degree of microleakage in class V cavities with margins in enamel, restored with resin composite. Methods: Forty-five human third molars were used, in which the vestibular faces were bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide activated with LED and the palatine faces were not bleached (control. The teeth were randomly divided into 3 groups with 15 teeth in each: Group 1, restored immediately after bleaching; Group 2, seven days after bleaching; and Group 3, fourteen days after bleaching. After cavity preparation, 35% phosphoric acid, Adper Single Bond 2 adhesive (3M ESPE, St. Paul, Mn, USA, and resin composite Filtek Z250 (3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA were applied. The teeth were thermal cycled and sealed with red nail polish on the bleached faces and blue on the non bleached faces, except for 1mm around the restored region. The samples were classified according to the following scores: 0 = no leakage, 1 = minimum leakage (less than 1 / 3 the length of the wall, 2 = moderate leakage (1/3 to 2/3 of the wall and 3 = extensive leakage (over 2/3 of the wall. The data were submitted to the Kruskal-Wallis test at a level of significance of 5%. Results: The restorative procedure immediately after bleaching resulted in statistically higher microleakage values (p 0.05. Conclusion: Based on the results, it is advisable to wait at least 7 days after bleaching to make the definitive restoration.

  7. In vitro Comparative Evaluation of Various Restorative Materials used for restoring Class III Cavities in Deciduous Anterior Teeth: A Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyank, Harsh; Verma, Ankita; Gupta, Komal; Chaudhary, Esha; Khandelwal, Deepak; Nihalani, Shweta

    2016-12-01

    Beauty standards in today's modernized world scenario are formed by well-aligned and well-designed bright white teeth. One of the major reasons behind patients reporting to dental clinics is pain. Caries in the anterior primary teeth forms one of the major concerns from a restorative point of view. Very few studies are quoted in literature which stresses on the follow-up of anterior restorations in primary teeth. Hence, we evaluated and compared the efficacy of composite resin and resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RGIC) for class III restorations in primary anterior teeth. The present study was conducted in the pediatric dental wing and included a total of 80 patients aged 3 to 5½ years who reported with the chief complaint of carious lesions in the primary anterior teeth. Patients having minimal of a pair of similar appearing small carious lesions on the same proximal surfaces of the deciduous maxillary incisors were included for the study. All the patients were randomly divided into two groups: One in which RGIC restoration was done and other in which composite restoration was done. Cavity preparation was done and filling of the cavity with the restorative materials was carried out. Assessment of the restorations was done at 4, 8, and 12 months time following criteria given by Ryge et al. All the results were analyzed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Mann-Whitney test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to evaluate the level of significance; p value less than 0.05 was considered as significant. For composite and RGIC restorations, the mean score for anatomic shape was 1.21 and 1.10 respectively. While comparing the clinical parameters, nonsignificant results were obtained between composite and RGIC restorative materials at 4-, 8-, and 12-month interval. On comparing the clinical parameters for individual restorative materials at different time intervals, statistically significant results were obtained only for

  8. MHC Class II and Non-MHC Class II Genes Differentially Influence Humoral Immunity to Bacillus anthracis Lethal Factor and Protective Antigen

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    Judith A. James

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthrax Lethal Toxin consists of Protective Antigen (PA and Lethal Factor (LF, and current vaccination strategies focus on eliciting antibodies to PA. In human vaccination, the response to PA can vary greatly, and the response is often directed toward non-neutralizing epitopes. Variable vaccine responses have been shown to be due in part to genetic differences in individuals, with both MHC class II and other genes playing roles. Here, we investigated the relative contribution of MHC class II versus non-MHC class II genes in the humoral response to PA and LF immunization using three immunized strains of inbred mice: A/J (H-2k at the MHC class II locus, B6 (H-2b, and B6.H2k (H-2k. IgG antibody titers to LF were controlled primarily by the MHC class II locus, whereas IgG titers to PA were strongly influenced by the non-MHC class II genetic background. Conversely, the humoral fine specificity of reactivity to LF appeared to be controlled primarily through non-MHC class II genes, while the specificity of reactivity to PA was more dependent on MHC class II. Common epitopes, reactive in all strains, occurred in both LF and PA responses. These results demonstrate that MHC class II differentially influences humoral immune responses to LF and PA.

  9. [Cephalometric analysis in individuals with Class II/2 malocclusions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rak, D

    1990-06-01

    Various orthodontic anomalies class II/2, classified into several experimental groups, and eugnathic occlusion serving as controls, were studied by roentgencephalometry. The objective of the study was to detect possible distinctions in the quantitative values of the chosen variables and to select those which discriminate the group of class II/2 orthodontic anomalies most significantly. Attempts were made to ascertain whether or not there were sex-related differences. The teleroentgenograma of 241 examines, aged 10 to 18 years, of both sexes, were analyzed. The experimental group consisted of 61 examinees class II/2 orthodontic anomalies. The control group consisted of 180 examinees with eugnathic occlusion. Latero-lateral skull roentgenograms were taken according to the rules of roentgencephalometry. Using acetate paper, the drawings of profile teleroentgenograms were elaborated and the reference points and lineas were entered. A total of 38 variables were analyzed, of which 10 were linear, 19 angular, 8 variables were obtained by mathematical calculations, and the age variable was also analyzed. For statistical analyses and electronic computer was used. The results are presented in tables and graphs. The results obtained have shown: that, when compared to the findings in the control group, the subjects in the experimental groups manifested significant changes in the following craniofacial characteristics: retroposition and retroinclination of the upper incisors; increased difference of the position of the apical basis of the jaw; marked convexity of the osseous profile; mandibular retrognathism and increased proportion of the maxillary compared to mandibular base; that, with regard to the sex of the examines, only linear variables of significantly discriminating character were selected. Thus it could be concluded that there were no significant sex differences among the morphological characteristics of the viscerocranium.

  10. Compensatory canine angulation in angle Class II and III patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Carlos Agner Busato

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurence of compensation in mesiodistal axial inclinations of canines in skeletal malocclusions patients. The sample consisted of 25 Angle Class II, division 1 malocclusion (group 1 and 19 Angle Class III malocclusion patients (group 2. After measurement of dental angulations through a method that associates plaster model photography and AutoCad software, comparisons between the groups were performed by T-test for independent samples. Results showed that there was no statistically significant difference (p < 0.05 between groups, when maxillary canine angulations were compared. Regarding the mandibular canines, there was a statistically significant difference in dental angulation, expressed by 3.2° for group 1 and 0.15° for group 2. An upright position tendency for mandibular canines was observed in the Angle Class III sample. This configures a pattern of compensatory coronary positioning, since the angulation of these teeth makes them occupy less space in the dental arch and consequently mandibular incisors can be in a more retracted position in the sagittal plane.

  11. Haemophilus ducreyi Cutaneous Ulcer Strains Diverged from Both Class I and Class II Genital Ulcer Strains: Implications for Epidemiological Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharanesh Gangaiah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Haemophilus ducreyi has emerged as a major cause of cutaneous ulcers (CU in yaws-endemic regions of the tropics in the South Pacific, South East Asia and Africa. H. ducreyi was once thought only to cause the genital ulcer (GU disease chancroid; GU strains belong to 2 distinct classes, class I and class II. Using whole-genome sequencing of 4 CU strains from Samoa, 1 from Vanuatu and 1 from Papua New Guinea, we showed that CU strains diverged from the class I strain 35000HP and that one CU strain expressed β-lactamase. Recently, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention released the genomes of 11 additional CU strains from Vanuatu and Ghana; however, the evolutionary relationship of these CU strains to previously-characterized CU and GU strains is unknown.We performed phylogenetic analysis of 17 CU and 10 GU strains. Class I and class II GU strains formed two distinct clades. The class I strains formed two subclades, one containing 35000HP and HD183 and the other containing the remainder of the class I strains. Twelve of the CU strains formed a subclone under the class I 35000HP subclade, while 2 CU strains formed a subclone under the other class I subclade. Unexpectedly, 3 of the CU strains formed a subclone under the class II clade. Phylogenetic analysis of dsrA-hgbA-ncaA sequences yielded a tree similar to that of whole-genome phylogenetic tree.CU strains diverged from multiple lineages within both class I and class II GU strains. Multilocus sequence typing of dsrA-hgbA-ncaA could be reliably used for epidemiological investigation of CU and GU strains. As class II strains grow relatively poorly and are relatively more susceptible to vancomycin than class I strains, these findings have implications for methods to recover CU strains. Comparison of contemporary CU and GU isolates would help clarify the relationship between these entities.

  12. Haemophilus ducreyi Cutaneous Ulcer Strains Diverged from Both Class I and Class II Genital Ulcer Strains: Implications for Epidemiological Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangaiah, Dharanesh; Spinola, Stanley M

    2016-12-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi has emerged as a major cause of cutaneous ulcers (CU) in yaws-endemic regions of the tropics in the South Pacific, South East Asia and Africa. H. ducreyi was once thought only to cause the genital ulcer (GU) disease chancroid; GU strains belong to 2 distinct classes, class I and class II. Using whole-genome sequencing of 4 CU strains from Samoa, 1 from Vanuatu and 1 from Papua New Guinea, we showed that CU strains diverged from the class I strain 35000HP and that one CU strain expressed β-lactamase. Recently, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention released the genomes of 11 additional CU strains from Vanuatu and Ghana; however, the evolutionary relationship of these CU strains to previously-characterized CU and GU strains is unknown. We performed phylogenetic analysis of 17 CU and 10 GU strains. Class I and class II GU strains formed two distinct clades. The class I strains formed two subclades, one containing 35000HP and HD183 and the other containing the remainder of the class I strains. Twelve of the CU strains formed a subclone under the class I 35000HP subclade, while 2 CU strains formed a subclone under the other class I subclade. Unexpectedly, 3 of the CU strains formed a subclone under the class II clade. Phylogenetic analysis of dsrA-hgbA-ncaA sequences yielded a tree similar to that of whole-genome phylogenetic tree. CU strains diverged from multiple lineages within both class I and class II GU strains. Multilocus sequence typing of dsrA-hgbA-ncaA could be reliably used for epidemiological investigation of CU and GU strains. As class II strains grow relatively poorly and are relatively more susceptible to vancomycin than class I strains, these findings have implications for methods to recover CU strains. Comparison of contemporary CU and GU isolates would help clarify the relationship between these entities.

  13. Orthodontic camouflage via total arch movement in a Class II with idiopathic condylar resorption

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    Ji-Sung Jang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic condylar resorption (ICR, also known as idiopathic condylysis or condylar atrophy, is multifactorial pathology leading to severe mandibular retrognathism. The etiology has been shown to be multifactorial, such as avascular necrosis, traumatic injuries, hormone and autoimmune disease and it is largely difficult to distinguish the exact cause in each individual. In spite of the remarkable morphological alteration, surgical intervention is not readily recruited due to the possibility of recurrence of resorption. In order to restore balanced facial profile and occlusion. In this report, we present a camouflage treatment for skeletal Class II with ICR and facial asymmetry involving total arch movement, for the improvement facial profile and reconstruction of occlusion.

  14. Homotypic aggregation of human cell lines by HLA class II-, class Ia- and HLA-G-specific monoclonal antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odum, Niels; Ledbetter, J A; Martin, P

    1991-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules have been implicated in cell adhesion in two ways. In addition to the well-established role of class II antigens in low-affinity adhesion provided by interactions between class II and CD4, recent data indicated that class II may also induce...... adhesion between T and B cells by activating the CD18/CD11a (LFA-1) adhesion pathway. Here we report that monoclonal antibodies (mAb) against HLA-DR (L243, p4.1, HB10a, VI15) and certain broad class II reacting mAb (TU35, TU39), but not anti-DQ (TU22, Leu-10) mAb, induced homotypic aggregation of human...... class II-positive monocytic (I937) and T leukemic (HUT78) tumor cell lines and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) transformed B-lymphoid cell lines (EBV-LCL). Class II-negative cell lines (U-937 and the EBV-LCL mutant line 616) were not induced to aggregate. An HLA-G-transfected EBV-LCL, 221-AGN...

  15. Evaluation of dentoskeletal effects of Farmand functional appliance (Fa II on class II malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassaei S.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Functional appliances refer to a variety of removable or fixed appliances designed to alter the mandibular position both sagitally and vertically, resulting in orthodontic and orthopedic changes. Despite the long history of functional appliances, there is still much controversy related to their effectiveness and mode of action. The aim of this study was to evaluate dental and skeletal effects of Fa II in patients with class II malocclusion due to mandibular deficiency.Materials and Methods: In this before-after clinical trial, 35 patients with class II div I malocclusion were selected. These samples were under treatment with Fa II appliance for 11 months. The range of age of females was 10-13 years and males 11-14 years. Combination analysis was used to determine skeletal and dental effects. Paired t-test was used to compare the differences of mean value pre and post treatment. P<0.05 was considered as the level of significance. Results: There was significant difference between pre and post treatment in respect to posterior and anterior facial height, eruption of upper and lower posterior teeth, eruption of upper anterior teeth, mandibular body length, ANB angle, IMPA and 1 to SN. No significant difference was observed between pre and post treatment regarding facial growth.Conclusion: Treatment with Fa II functional appliance leads to significant alterations in dental and skeletal elements of craniofacial complex and improvement of dental and jaws relationship.

  16. Protective influences on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by MHC class I and class II alleles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustafa, M; Vingsbo, C; Olsson, T

    1994-01-01

    are resistant. Interestingly, rats with the MHC u haplotype develop an immune response to the MBP 63-88, but do not get EAE. In this study we have used intra-MHC recombinant rat strains to compare the influences of the MHC u with the a haplotype. We discovered the following: 1) The class II region of the MHC...... a haplotype permits EAE and a Th1 type of immune response as measured by IFN-gamma production after in vitro challenge of in vivo-primed T cells with MBP 63-88. 2) The class II region of the u haplotype is associated with a disease-protective immune response characterized by production of not only IFN......Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is influenced by polymorphism of the MHC. We have previously found that Lewis rats with certain MHC haplotypes are susceptible to disease induced with the myelin basic protein (MBP) peptide 63-88, whereas Lewis rats with other MHC haplotypes...

  17. Circumvention of MHC class II restriction by genetic immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, K; Lu, C; Chang, H D; Croft, M; Zanetti, M; Gerloni, M

    2001-11-12

    The fate of T cell responses to peptide-based vaccination is subject to constraints by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), MHC restriction. Using as a model system of T and B cell epitopes from the circumsporozoite protein of Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite, we show that vaccination by somatic transgene immunization readily primes Balb/c mice (H-2(d)) a strain previously reported to be non-responder to immunization with a synthetic peptide vaccine encompassing these epitopes. Following genetic vaccination Balb/c mice developed a primary T cell response comparable to that of the responder strain C57Bl/6 (H-2(b)). Following booster immunization on day 45 Balb/c mice responded with a typical T cell memory response. Priming induced the formation of specific antibodies, which rose sharply after booster immunization. These findings suggests that genetic immunization can circumvent MHC class II restriction.

  18. Surgical Orthodontic Treatment of Severe Skeletal Class II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsulaimani, Fahad F.; Al-Sebaei, Maisa O.; Afify, Ahmed R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an adult Saudi male patient who presented with a severe skeletal class II deformity. The case was managed with a combination of presurgical orthodontic treatment followed by a double jaw orthognathic surgery and then another phase of orthodontic treatment for final occlusal detailing. Extraction of the four first premolars was done during the presurgical orthodontic phase of treatment to decompensate upper and lower incisors and to give room for surgical setback of the maxillary anterior segment. Double jaw surgery was performed: bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy for 8 mm mandibular advancement combined with three-piece Le Fort I maxillary osteotomy, 6 mm setback of the anterior segment, 8 mm impaction of the maxilla, and 5 mm advancement genioplasty. Although the anteroposterior discrepancy and the facial convexity were so severe, highly acceptable results were obtained, both esthetically as well as occlusally. PMID:23573428

  19. Hyoid bone position and head posture comparison in skeletal Class I and Class II subjects: A retrospective cephalometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawankumar Dnyandeo Tekale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the hyoid bone position and the head posture using lateral cephalograms in subjects with skeletal Class I and skeletal Class II pattern and to investigate the gender differences. Materials and Methods: The study used lateral cephalograms of 40 subjects (20 skeletal Class I pattern; 20 skeletal Class II pattern. Lateral cephalograms were traced and analyzed for evaluation of the hyoid bone position and the head posture using 34 parameters. Independent sample t-test was performed to compare the differences between the two groups and between genders in each group. Statistical tests were performed using NCSS 2007 software (NCSST, Kaysville, Utah, USA. Results: The linear measurements between the hyoid bone (H and cervical spine (CV2ia, the nasion-sella line, palatal line nasion line, the anterior nasal spine (ANS to perpendicular projection of H on the NLP (NLP- Nasal Linear Projection (H-NLP/ANS as well as the posterior cranial points (Bo, Ar and S points were found to be less in skeletal Class II subjects. The measurement H-CV2ia was found to be less in males with skeletal Class I pattern and H-CV4ia was found to be less in males with skeletal Class II pattern. The natural head posture showed no significant gender differences. Conclusion: The position of hyoid bone was closer to the cervical vertebra horizontally in skeletal Class II subjects when compared with skeletal Class I subjects. In males, the hyoid bone position was closer to the cervical vertebra horizontally both in skeletal Class I and skeletal Class II subjects.

  20. MHC class II expression through a hitherto unknown pathway supports T helper cell-dependent immune responses: implications for MHC class II deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch, Thorsten; Polic, Bojan; Clausen, Björn E; Weiss, Susanne; Akilli-Ozturk, Ozlem; Chang, Cheong-Hee; Flavell, Richard; Schulz, Ansgar; Jonjic, Stipan; Waisman, Ari; Förster, Irmgard

    2006-02-15

    MHC class II (MHCII) deficiency or bare lymphocyte syndrome (BLS) is a severe immunodeficiency characterized by deficient T helper (Th)-cell-dependent immunity. The disease is caused by defects of the MHCII promoter complex resulting in low or absent MHCII expression. We demonstrate in a murine model of MHCII deficiency (RFX5- or CIITA-deficient mice) that residual MHCII expression by professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) is sufficient to support activation of adoptively transferred Th cells. Furthermore, upon transplantation of WT thymic epithelium, we observed development of endogenous Th cells with restoration of Th-cell-dependent antibody responses and immunity to cytomegalovirus infection, thus opening the possibility of an alternative treatment regimen for BLS. Residual MHCII expression was further induced by the presence of Th cells and also other stimuli. Analysis of CIITA/RFX5 double-deficient animals revealed that this inducible MHCII expression is genetically independent of the known promoter complex and thus constitutes an alternative MHCII expression pathway. In these experiments, we also detected a novel repressive function of the RFX complex in the absence of CIITA.

  1. Comparison of second molar eruption patterns in patients with skeletal Class II and skeletal Class I malocclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brin, Ilana; Camasuvi, Semin; Dali, Nasser; Aizenbud, Dror

    2006-12-01

    The eruptive positions of the second molars in Class I and Class II malocclusions were studied. Pretreatment records of 221 patients with a mean age of 11.3 years were evaluated. About 19% of them had skeletal Class I, 31% had skeletal maxillary Class II, and 50% had skeletal mandibular Class II malocclusions. The mean values of the dental and chronologic ages of the subjects were similar. The eruptive positions in relation to a reference line, the developmental stages of the patients' second molars and dental ages were recorded from the panoramic roentgenograms. The distribution of the various developmental stages in each malocclusion group was similar, and no association between skeletal malocclusion and dental developmental stage of the second molars was encountered. The eruptive position of the maxillary second molars was more occlusal only in the oldest maxillary Class II group, above 12 years of age (P = .02). These results support, in part, previous reports suggesting that the maxillary second molars may erupt earlier in patients with skeletal maxillary Class II malocclusions.

  2. Identifying Effective Enzyme Activity Targets for Recombinant Class I and Class II Collagenase for Successful Human Islet Isolation

    OpenAIRE

    Balamurugan, Appakalai N.; Green, Michael L.; Breite, Andrew G.; Loganathan, Gopalakrishnan; Wilhelm, Joshua J.; Tweed, Benjamin; Vargova, Lenka; Lockridge, Amber; Kuriti, Manikya; Hughes, Michael G.; Williams, Stuart K.; Hering, Bernhard J.; Dwulet, Francis E.; McCarthy, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Isolation following a good manufacturing practice-compliant, human islet product requires development of a robust islet isolation procedure where effective limits of key reagents are known. The enzymes used for islet isolation are critical but little is known about the doses of class I and class II collagenase required for successful islet isolation.

  3. Different Roles Of Class-I And Class-II Clostridium-histolyticum Collagenase In Rat Pancreatic-islet Isolation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, G. H. J.; Vos-Scheperkeuter, Greetje; Lin, Hun-Chi; van Schilfaarde, R

    Crude Clostridium histolyticum collagenase was purified by gel filtration and fractionated by anion exchange chromatography into class I with high collagen digestion activity (CDA) and low FALGPA (2-furanacryloyl-L-leucylglycyl-L-prolyI-L-alanine )hydrolysis activity (FHA), class II with low CDA and

  4. Sibling rivalry: competition between MHC class II family members inhibits immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzin, Lisa K; Cresswell, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Peptide loading of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules in the endosomes and lysosomes of antigen-presenting cells is catalyzed by human leukocyte antigen-DM (HLA-DM) and modulated by HLA-DO. In a structural study in this issue, Guce et al. show that HLA-DO is an MHC class II mimic and functions as a competitive and essentially irreversible inhibitor of HLA-DM activity, thereby inhibiting MHC class II antigen presentation.

  5. Clinical assessment of class II resin-based composites versus preformed metal crowns performed on primary molars in patients at high risk of caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyahya, A; Khanum, A; Qudeimat, M

    2018-02-01

    To compare class II resin composite with preformed metal crowns (PMC) in the treatment of proximal dentinal caries in high caries-risk patients. The charts (270) of paediatric patients with proximal caries of their primary molars were reviewed. Success or failure of a procedure was assessed using the dental notes. Survival analysis was used to calculate the mean survival time (MST) for both procedures. The influence of variables on the mean survival time was investigated. A total of 593 class II resin composites and 243 PMCs were placed in patients ranging between 4-13 years of age. The failure percentage of class II resin composites was 22.6% with the majority having been due to recurrent caries, while the failure percentage of PMCs was 15.2% with the majority due to loss of the crown. There was no significant difference between the MST of class II resin composites and PMCs, 41.3 and 45.6 months respectively (p value = 0.06). In class II resin composites, mesial restorations were associated with lower MST compared to distal restorations (p-value composites and PMCs were comparable when performed on high caries-risk patients.

  6. OGLE II Eclipsing Binaries In The LMC: Analysis With Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devinney, Edward J.; Prsa, A.; Guinan, E. F.; DeGeorge, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Eclipsing Binaries (EBs) via Artificial Intelligence (EBAI) Project is applying machine learning techniques to elucidate the nature of EBs. Previously, Prsa, et al. applied artificial neural networks (ANNs) trained on physically-realistic Wilson-Devinney models to solve the light curves of the 1882 detached EBs in the LMC discovered by the OGLE II Project (Wyrzykowski, et al.) fully automatically, bypassing the need for manually-derived starting solutions. A curious result is the non-monotonic distribution of the temperature ratio parameter T2/T1, featuring a subsidiary peak noted previously by Mazeh, et al. in an independent analysis using the EBOP EB solution code (Tamuz, et al.). To explore this and to gain a fuller understanding of the multivariate EBAI LMC observational plus solutions data, we have employed automatic clustering and advanced visualization (CAV) techniques. Clustering the OGLE II data aggregates objects that are similar with respect to many parameter dimensions. Measures of similarity for example, could include the multidimensional Euclidean Distance between data objects, although other measures may be appropriate. Applying clustering, we find good evidence that the T2/T1 subsidiary peak is due to evolved binaries, in support of Mazeh et al.'s speculation. Further, clustering suggests that the LMC detached EBs occupying the main sequence region belong to two distinct classes. Also identified as a separate cluster in the multivariate data are stars having a Period-I band relation. Derekas et al. had previously found a Period-K band relation for LMC EBs discovered by the MACHO Project (Alcock, et al.). We suggest such CAV techniques will prove increasingly useful for understanding the large, multivariate datasets increasingly being produced in astronomy. We are grateful for the support of this research from NSF/RUI Grant AST-05-75042 f.

  7. Características cefalométricas de pacientes portadores de más oclusões Classe I e Classe II de Angle Cephalometric characteristics of patients with Angle Class I and Class II malocclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Lacerda dos Santos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: o presente estudo comparou algumas medidas cefalométricas relacionadas às características faciais em pacientes com má oclusão Classe I, Classe II 1ª divisão e Classe II 2ª divisão. METODOLOGIA: foram selecionadas 130 telerradiografias de pacientes leucodermas em fase inicial de tratamento ortodôntico, com idades entre 10 e 16 anos (média de 12,6 anos; e divididos em 3 grupos. As medidas cefalométricas utilizadas neste estudo foram: ANB, ı-SN, IMPA, AML, Ls-ı, Li-ī e EI. A análise de variância e o teste de Tukey foram realizados nas medidas ANB, IMPA, AML, ı-SN e Li-ī. Para as demais variáveis (EI e Ls-ı foi utilizado o teste de Kruskal Wallis e Dunn. RESULTADOS: os resultados mostraram que as medidas Ls-ı e EI tiveram diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os grupos I e II-1 e entre os grupos II-1 e II-2 (p AIM: The present study compared some cephalometric measurements related to facial characteristics in patients having Class I, Class II division 1, and Class II division 2 malocclusions. METHODS: One hundred and thirty teleradiographs of Caucasian patients aged 10-16 years (mean age of 12.6 years under initial orthodontic treatment were selected for study and divided into 3 groups. The cephalometric measurements used in the present study were the following: ANB, ı-SN, IMPA, AML, Ls-ı, Li-ī, and EI. Variance analysis and Tukey's test were carried out for ANB, IMPA, AML, ı-SN, and Li-ī measurements, whereas Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests were used for EI and Ls-ı. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences were found for EI and Ls-ı measurements when Group II-1 was compared to Group I and Group II-2 (p < 0.05. ANB and IMPA measurements also had statistically significant differences when Group I was compared to Group II-1 and Group II-2 (p < 0.05. The measurement ı-SN had statistically significant differences between the 3 groups (p < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: One can conclude that the measurement

  8. A Genome-wide multidimensional RNAi screen reveals pathways controlling MHC class II antigen presentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul, Petra; van den Hoorn, Tineke; Jongsma, Marlieke L. M.; Bakker, Mark J.; Hengeveld, Rutger; Janssen, Lennert; Cresswell, Peter; Egan, David A.; van Ham, Marieke; ten Brinke, Anja; Ovaa, Huib; Beijersbergen, Roderick L.; Kuijl, Coenraad; Neefjes, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    MHC class II molecules (MHC-II) present peptides to T helper cells to facilitate immune responses and are strongly linked to autoimmune diseases. To unravel processes controlling MHC-II antigen presentation, we performed a genome-wide flow cytometry-based RNAi screen detecting MHC-II expression and

  9. Evaluation of internal adaptation of Class V resin composite restorations using three techniques of polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Pereira

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the internal adaptation of Class V composite restorations to the cavity walls using three different techniques of polymerization. METHODS: Standard cavities were prepared on the buccal and lingual surfaces of 24 extracted human third molars with margins located above and below the cementoenamel junction. Restorations were placed in one increment using two restorative systems: 3M Filtek A110/ Single Bond (M and 3M Filtek Z250/ Single Bond (H in the same tooth, randomly in the buccal and lingual surfaces. Resin composites were polymerized using three techniques: Group 1 - Conventional (60 s - 600 mW/cm²; Group 2 - Soft-start (20 s - 200 mW/cm² , 40 s - 600 mW/cm²; Group 3 - Pulse Activation (3 s - 200 mW/cm², 3-min hiatus, 57 s - 600 mW/cm². Buccolingual sections were polished, impressions taken and replicated. Specimens were assessed under scanning electron microscopy up to X1000 magnification. Scores were given for presence or absence of gaps (0 - no gap; 1 - gap in one wall; 2 - gap in two walls; 3 - gap in three walls. RESULTS: The mean scores of the groups were (±SD were: G1M-3.0 (± 0.0; G2M-2.43 (± 0.8; G3M- 1.71 (± 0.9; G1H- 2.14 (± 1.2; G2H- 2.00 (± 0.8; G3H- 1.67 (± 1.1. Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Dunnet's tests. No statistically significant difference (p>0.05 was found among groups. Gaps were observed in all groups. CONCLUSIONS: The photocuring technique and the type of resin composite had no influence on the internal adaptation of the material to the cavity walls. A positive effect was observed when the slow polymerization techniques were used.

  10. MHC class II polymorphisms, autoreactive T-cells and autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue eTsai

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Major histocompatibility complex (MHC genes, also known as human leukocyte antigen genes (HLA in humans, are the prevailing contributors of genetic susceptibility to autoimmune diseases such as Type 1 Diabetes (T1D, Multiple Sclerosis (MS, and Rheumatoid arthritis (RA, among others (Todd and Wicker, 2001;MacKay et al., 2002;Hafler et al., 2007. Although the pathways through which MHC molecules afford autoimmune risk or resistance remain to be fully mapped out, it is generally accepted that they do so by shaping the central and peripheral T cell repertoires of the host towards autoimmune proclivity or resistance, respectively. Disease-predisposing MHC alleles would both spare autoreactive thymocytes from central tolerance and bias their development towards a pathogenic phenotype. Protective MHC alleles, on the other hand, would promote central deletion of autoreactive thymocytes and skew their development towards non-pathogenic phenotypes. This interpretation of the data is at odds with two other observations: that in MHC-heterozygous individuals, resistance is dominant over susceptibility; and that it is difficult to understand how deletion of one or a few clonal autoreactive T cell types would suffice to curb autoimmune responses driven by hundreds if not thousands of autoreactive T cell specificities. This review provides an update on current advances in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying MHC class II-associated autoimmune disease susceptibility and/or resistance and attempts to reconcile these seemingly opposing concepts.

  11. Gravitational Waves in Locally Rotationally Symmetric (LRS Class II Cosmologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bradley

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work we consider perturbations of homogeneous and hypersurface orthogonal cosmological backgrounds with local rotational symmetry (LRS, using a method based on the 1 + 1 + 2 covariant split of spacetime. The backgrounds, of LRS class II, are characterised by that the vorticity, the twist of the 2-sheets, and the magnetic part of the Weyl tensor all vanish. They include the flat Friedmann universe as a special case. The matter contents of the perturbed spacetimes are given by vorticity-free perfect fluids, but otherwise the perturbations are arbitrary and describe gravitational, shear, and density waves. All the perturbation variables can be given in terms of the time evolution of a set of six harmonic coefficients. This set decouples into one set of four coefficients with the density perturbations acting as source terms, and another set of two coefficients describing damped source-free gravitational waves with odd parity. We also consider the flat Friedmann universe, which has been considered by several others using the 1 + 3 covariant split, as a check of the isotropic limit. In agreement with earlier results we find a second-order wavelike equation for the magnetic part of the Weyl tensor which decouples from the density gradient for the flat Friedmann universes. Assuming vanishing vector perturbations, including the density gradient, we find a similar equation for the electric part of the Weyl tensor, which was previously unnoticed.

  12. Performance assessment for the class L-II disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This draft radiological performance assessment (PA) for the proposed Class L-II Disposal Facility (CIIDF) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) has been prepared to demonstrate compliance with the requirements of the US Department of Energy Order 5820.2A. This PA considers the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) over the operating life of the facility and the long-term performance of the facility in providing protection to public health and the environment. The performance objectives contained in the order require that the facility be managed to accomplish the following: (1) Protect public health and safety in accordance with standards specified in environmental health orders and other DOE orders. (2) Ensure that external exposure to the waste and concentrations of radioactive material that may be released into surface water, groundwater, soil, plants, and animals results in an effective dose equivalent (EDE) that does not exceed 25 mrem/year to a member of the public. Releases to the atmosphere shall meet the requirements of 40 CFR Pt. 61. Reasonable effort should be made to maintain releases of radioactivity in effluents to the general environment as low as reasonably achievable. (1) Ensure that the committed EDEs received by individual who inadvertently may intrude into the facility after the loss of active institutional control (100 years) will not exceed 100 mrem/year for continuous exposure of 500 mrem for a single acute exposure. (4) Protect groundwater resources, consistent with federal, state, and local requirements.

  13. Maxillary and mandibular contribution to the establishment of class II malocclusion in an adult Lebanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hajj, Nadine; Bassil-Nassif, Nayla; Tauk, Alain; Mouhanna-Fattal, Carole; Bouserhal, Joseph P

    2017-12-01

    The main aim of this study was to describe the contribution of the maxilla and the mandible to the establishment of a Class II skeletal malocclusion in an adult Lebanese population. Secondary aims were to detect the presence of sex-based dimorphism and to study the influence of the vertical dimension on the Class II skeletal pattern. A sample of 90 adults in skeletal Class II was recruited and equally distributed according to sex and vertical typology. The study describes the skeletal and dentoalveolar cephalometric characteristics of the Class II sample, essentially according to Coben's cephalometric analysis. The total effective depth of the cranial base and the anterior cranial base angle (SN-BaH) were both greater in the Class II sample. In females, the effective depth of the maxilla (Ptm-A) was larger than normal while SNB was smaller. The parameters describing the size and shape of the body of the mandible were significantly different from those of normal subjects. The upper incisors were in a retrusive position, while the axis of the lower incisors was located normally. The mandibular molars had a more distal sagittal position. Hyperdivergent subjects had more significant posterior alveolar growth, a more retrusive mandibular position and smaller mandibular dimensions than the other two vertical sub-groups. The cranial base contributes to the establishment of a Class II malocclusion, and mandibular retrusion cannot be considered as a characteristic shared by all skeletal Class II subjects. Lessening of the absolute length of the mandibular body is the second most frequent etiological factor noted in the Class II sample studied. Most individuals in skeletal Class II have an associated dental Class II malocclusion, and the vertical dimension has an influence on the Class II skeletal pattern. Copyright © 2017 CEO. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Diagnostic performance of increased overjet in Class II division 1 malocclusion and incisor trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Tiziano; Giuntini, Veronica; Vangelisti, Andrea; Darendeliler, M Ali; Franchi, Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were: 1) to evaluate the associations between an increased overjet (IO) and other dentoskeletal characteristics of Class II division 1 malocclusions in the mixed dentition; 2) to assess whether Class II division 1 malocclusions or rather an increased overjet per se is a risk factor for upper incisor trauma (UIT). A sample of 900 mixed dentition subjects, was observed by clinical inspection, analysis of dental casts, and lateral cephalograms. The diagnostic performance of IO (overjet ≥ 7 mm) was evaluated in relation to other Class II dentoskeletal features (Class II molar and canine relationships, and skeletal Class II relationships). Secondly, the diagnostic performance of IO and of the other Class II dentoskeletal components was tested with regard to the prevalence of UIT. Diagnostic performance was assessed by odds ratio and positive likelihood ratio. The diagnostic performance of IO with regard to the other dentoskeletal components of Class II malocclusions was not significant. The only Class II features associated significantly with an increased risk of UIT was IO. When used as an isolated occlusal feature, IO is not a valid diagnostic indicator for Class II division 1 malocclusions. An increased overjet per se, and not Class II malocclusions, appears to be a significant risk factor for UIT. These findings recommend discrimination between clinical conditions showing an isolated IO from comprehensive Class II malocclusions during diagnosis, analysis of treatment outcomes, and evaluation of the risk of upper incisor trauma. Copyright © 2010 Società Italiana di Ortodonzia SIDO. Published by Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  15. Anteroposterior condylar position: a comparative study between subjects with normal occlusion and patients with Class I, Class II Division 1, and Class III malocclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Marcelo Reis; Rodrigues, Andréia Fialho; Ribeiro, Luiz Claudio; Campos, Marcio José da Silva; Vitral, Robert Willer Farinazzo

    2013-10-29

    The present study aimed to determine and compare the anteroposterior position of the condyle in the mandibular fossa between groups of asymptomatic subjects with normal occlusion and asymptomatic subjects with Class I, Class II Division 1, and Class III malocclusions. Thirty persons with normal occlusion, 30 with Class I malocclusion, 30 with Class II Division 1, and 30 with Class III had computed tomography scans of their temporomandibular joints. The anterior joint space/posterior joint space (AJS/PJS) ratio was determined for the right and left joints. The paired t test was used to analyze the AJS/PJS ratio between both sides for each group. The ANOVA test was applied to verify the differences between the groups for the measurements of the right and left sides. In case the ANOVA test confirmed significance, the Dunnett's t test was performed to compare the groups of malocclusion with that of normal occlusion. The paired t test between the AJS/PJS relationships in the right and left sides showed the following p values: Class I (0.168), Class II Division 1 (0.662), Class III (0.991), and normal occlusion (0.390). The ANOVA test showed a p value of 0.445 for the comparisons of the right side and 0.040 for the left side. The Dunnett's t test demonstrated a statistically significant difference between the Class II group and the normal occlusion group (p value of 0.026) in the joints of the left side. Bilateral symmetry and lack of condyle centralization were common characteristics among all groups. The greatest condylar decentralization was observed in the Class II group, whereas the least condylar decentralization was found in the normal occlusion group.

  16. A cephalometric analysis of Class II dentate subjects to establish a formula to determine the occlusal plane in Class II edentate subjects: A neo adjunct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Nikita; Reddy, K Mahendranadh; Gupta, Nidhi; Shastry, Y M

    2017-01-01

    Occlusal plane (OP) differs considerably in participants with skeletal Class I and Class II participants. In this study, cephalometrics has been used to help in the determination of orientation of the OP utilizing the nonresorbable bony anatomic landmarks in skeletal Class II participants and an attempt has been made to predict and examine the OP in individuals with skeletal class II jaw relationship. One hundred dentulous participants with skeletal Class II malocclusion who came to the hospital for correcting their jaw relationship participated in the study. Their right lateral cephalogram was taken using standardized procedures, and all the tracings were manually done by a single trained examiner. The cephalograms which were taken for the diagnostic purpose were utilized for the study, and the patient was not exposed to any unnecessary radiation. The numerical values obtained from the cephalograms were subjected to statistical analysis. Pearson's correlation of orientation of the OP in Class II edentulous participants. Pearson's correlation coefficient and linear regression analysis were performed, and a high correlation was found between A2 and (A2 + B2)/(B2 + C2) with " r " value of 0.5. A medium correlation was found between D2 and (D2 + E2)/(E2 + F2) with " r " value of 0.42. The formula obtained for posterior reference frame through linear regression equation was y = 0.018* × +0.459 and the formula obtained for anterior reference frame was y1 = 0.011* × 1 + 0.497. It was hypothesized that by substituting these formulae in the cephalogram obtained from the Class II edentate individual, the OP can be obtained and verified. It was concluded that cephalometrics can be useful in examining the orientation of OP in skeletal Class II participants.

  17. Reasons for failure and replacement of class I and class II amalgam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the reasons for failure of amalgam restorations in a teaching hospital. Method: A structured questionnaire was used to obtain information from patients presenting with failed amalgam restorations in the conservative clinic of a teaching hospital. The questionnaire was administered by ...

  18. 40 CFR 82.19 - Apportionment of baseline consumption allowances for class II controlled substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... allowances for class II controlled substances. 82.19 Section 82.19 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Consumption Controls § 82.19 Apportionment of baseline consumption allowances for class II controlled... Ineos Fluor Americas HCFC-22 2,546,305 Kivlan & Company HCFC-22 2,081,018 MDA Manufacturing HCFC-22 2...

  19. 40 CFR 82.17 - Apportionment of baseline production allowances for class II controlled substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... allowances for class II controlled substances. 82.17 Section 82.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Consumption Controls § 82.17 Apportionment of baseline production allowances for class II controlled... 1,759,681 MDA Manufacturing HCFC-22 2,383,835 Solvay Solexis HCFC-142b 6,541,764 [ 74 FR 66446, Dec...

  20. 40 CFR 147.2201 - State-administered program-Class II wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Application to Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Resource Operations, sections .051.02.02.000 to .051.02.02.080... wells 147.2201 Section 147.2201 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Texas § 147.2201 State-administered program—Class II wells The UIC program for Class II wells in the...

  1. 77 FR 58473 - Minimum Technical Standards for Class II Gaming Systems and Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... to all equipment, including computer, electronic, or other technologic aids used with Class II games..., computer, or other technologic aids in connection with the play of Class II games. This part establishes... gaming system, causes a discontinuance of game play or other component functions. Financial instrument...

  2. Long-term evaluation of Class II subdivision treatment with unilateral maxillary first molar extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livas, Christos; Pandis, Nikolaos; Booij, Johan Willem; Katsaros, Christos; Ren, Yijin

    Objective: To evaluate the long-term effects of asymmetrical maxillary first molar (M1) extraction in Class II subdivision treatment. Materials and Methods: Records of 20 Class II subdivision whites (7 boys, 13 girls; mean age, 13.0 years; SD, 1.7 years) consecutively treated with the Begg technique

  3. 40 CFR 147.2551 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., “Re: Application for Primacy in the Regulation of Class II Injection Wells,” March 8, 1982; (5) Letter... Class II Injection Wells under Section 1425 of the Safe Drinking Water Act,” November 1981; (2) Letter...) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS...

  4. 40 CFR 147.3400 - Navajo Indian lands-Class II wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to Operate an Underground Injection Control Program under the Safe Drinking Water Act”, October 11... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Navajo Indian Lands § 147.3400 Navajo Indian lands—Class II wells. The UIC program for Class II injection wells...

  5. Maxillary first molar extraction in Class II malocclusion : Follow-up studies on treatment effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livas, Christos

    2015-01-01

    This PhD research investigated treatment effects of extraction of one and two maxillary first molars in Class II subdivision and Class II/1 malocclusion cases respectively from a longer time perspective. Private practice records were scrutinized to evaluate aspects of a treatment technique combining

  6. The Effect of MHC Class II Transactivator on the Growth and Metastasis of Breast Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    F. Manca, and R. S. Accolla. 1998. HLA class II expression in uninducible hepatocarcinoma cells after transfection of AIR-1 gene product CIITA...Cestari, A. D’Agostino, ’ A M Megiovanni, F. Manca, and R. S. Accolla. 1998. HLA class II expression in uninducible hepatocarcinoma cells after

  7. Polymerization shrinkage of different types of composite resins and microleakage with and without liner in class II cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, E; Ozgunaltay, G

    2014-01-01

    To determine the volumetric polymerization shrinkage of four different types of composite resin and to evaluate microleakage of these materials in class II (MOD) cavities with and without a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) liner, in vitro. One hundred twenty-eight extracted human upper premolar teeth were used. After the teeth were divided into eight groups (n=16), standardized MOD cavities were prepared. Then the teeth were restored with different resin composites (Filtek Supreme XT, Filtek P 60, Filtek Silorane, Filtek Z 250) with and without a RMGIC liner (Vitrebond). The restorations were finished and polished after 24 hours. Following thermocycling, the teeth were immersed in 0.5% basic fuchsin for 24 hours, then midsagitally sectioned in a mesiodistal plane and examined for microleakage using a stereomicroscope. The volumetric polymerization shrinkage of materials was measured using a video imaging device (Acuvol, Bisco, Inc). Data were statistically analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests. All teeth showed microleakage, but placement of RMGIC liner reduced microleakage. No statistically significant differences were found in microleakage between the teeth restored without RMGIC liner (p>0.05). Filtek Silorane showed significantly less volumetric polymerization shrinkage than the methacrylate-based composite resins (pcomposite resin restorations resulted in reduced microleakage. The volumetric polymerization shrinkage was least with the silorane-based composite.

  8. H pylori receptor MHC class II contributes to the dynamic gastric epithelial apoptotic response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, David A; Suarez, Giovanni; Beswick, Ellen J; Sierra, Johanna C; Reyes, Victor E

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of MHC class II in the modulation of gastric epithelial cell apoptosis induced by H pylori infection. METHODS: After stimulating a human gastric epithelial cell line with bacteria or agonist antibodies specific for MHC class II and CD95, the quantitation of apoptotic and anti-apoptotic events, including caspase activation, BCL-2 activation, and FADD recruitment, was performed with a fluorometric assay, a cytometric bead array, and confocal microscopy, respectively. RESULTS: Pretreatment of N87 cells with the anti-MHC class II IgM antibody RFD1 resulted in a reduction in global caspase activation at 24 h of H pylori infection. When caspase 3 activation was specifically measured, crosslinking of MHC class II resulted in a marked reduced caspase activation, while simple ligation of MHC class II did not. Crosslinking of MHC class II also resulted in an increased activation of the anti-apoptosis molecule BCL-2 compared to simple ligation. Confocal microscope analysis demonstrated that the pretreatment of gastric epithelial cells with a crosslinking anti-MHC class II IgM blocked the recruitment of FADD to the cell surface. CONCLUSION: The results presented here demonstrate that the ability of MHC class II to modulate gastric epithelial apoptosis is at least partially dependent on its crosslinking. Furthermore, while previous research has demonstrated that MHC class II signaling can be pro-apoptotic during extended ligation, we have shown that the crosslinking of this molecule has anti-apoptotic effects during the earlier time points of H pylori infection. This effect is possibly mediated by the ability of MHC class II to modulate the activation of the pro-apoptotic receptor Fas by blocking the recruitment of the accessory molecule FADD, and this delay in apoptosis induction could allow for prolonged cytokine secretion by H pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells. PMID:16981259

  9. DNA alkylating agents alleviate silencing of class II transactivator gene expression in L1210 lymphoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Shawn P; Holtz, Renae; Lewandowski, Nicole; Tomasi, Thomas B; Fuji, Hiroshi

    2002-09-15

    MHC class II (Ia) Ag expression is inversely correlated with tumorigenicity and directly correlated with immunogenicity in clones of the mouse L1210 lymphoma (1 ). Understanding the mechanisms by which class II Ag expression is regulated in L1210 lymphoma may facilitate the development of immunotherapeutic approaches for the treatment of some types of lymphoma and leukemia. This study demonstrates that the variation in MHC class II Ag expression among clones of L1210 lymphoma is due to differences in the expression of the class II transactivator (CIITA). Analysis of stable hybrids suggests that CIITA expression is repressed by a dominant mechanism in class II-negative L1210 clones. DNA-alkylating agents such as ethyl methanesulfonate and the chemotherapeutic drug melphalan activate CIITA and class II expression in class II negative L1210 cells, and this effect appears to be restricted to transformed cell lines derived from the early stages of B cell ontogeny. Transient transfection assays demonstrated that the CIITA type III promoter is active in class II(-) L1210 cells, despite the fact that the endogenous gene is not expressed, which suggests that these cells have all of the transacting factors necessary for CIITA transcription. An inverse correlation between methylation of the CIITA transcriptional regulatory region and CIITA expression was observed among L1210 clones. Furthermore, 5-azacytidine treatment activated CIITA expression in class II-negative L1210 cells. Collectively, our results suggest that 1) CIITA gene expression is repressed in class II(-) L1210 cells by methylation of the CIITA upstream regulatory region, and 2) treatment with DNA-alkylating agents overcomes methylation-based silencing of the CIITA gene in L1210 cells.

  10. Sealing of minimally invasive Class II fillings (slot) using an adhesive patch: sealant margin extension for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidlin, Patrick R; Seemann, Rainer; Filli, Tilla; Attin, Thomas; Imfeld, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    A laboratory study was performed to assess the potential of an adhesive patch to seal small, unbeveled, Class II, box-only (slot) composite fillings. After minimal access cavity preparation with an 80 pm diamond bur, 40 box-only Class II cavities were prepared mesially and distally in 20 extracted human molars using a u-shaped PCS insert (EMS). One cavity per tooth was adhesively filled with a hybrid composite material in one increment. A patch, acting as an adhesive matrice, was applied to the other cavity of each tooth to seal the restoration. The margin of the patch was located in areas easily accessible to oral hygiene measures and self-cleaning. All the teeth were subjected to thermo-mechanical stress in a computer-controlled masticator device. In 10 teeth, caries was induced in a microbial-based artificial mouth model and quantitatively determined by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Microleakage was assessed in the other 10 teeth in two planar sections after immersion in 0.5% basic fuchsin solution. The results showed no demineralization at the filling margins protected with the patch. Microleakage was observed in one sample only and was limited to the enamel. In contrast, the margins of fillings without the patch application showed a mean demineralization depth of 146 +/- 42 microm and dye penetration into the dentin in five sections. This innovative approach to sealing restorative margins with an adhesive patch results in less leakage and filling margin demineralization and merits further investigation.

  11. The effect of mechanical load cycling and polishing time on microleakage of class V glass-ionomer and composite restorations: A scanning electron microscopy evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoreh Mirzaie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Microleakage is one of the challenging concerns in direct filling restorations. Understanding of its related factors is important in clinical practice. The aim of this study was scanning electron microscopy (SEM evaluation of marginal integrity in three types of tooth-colored restorative materials in class V cavity preparations and the effect of load cycling and polishing time on the microleakage. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro experimental study, class V cavity preparations were prepared on the buccal and lingual surfaces of 60 bovine incisors. The specimens were divided into three groups each containing 20 teeth: group 1: Filtek Z350, Group 2: Fuji IX/G Coat Plus, Group 3: Fuji II LC/GC varnish. In each group, 2 subgroups (n = 20 were established based on finishing time (immediate or delayed by 24 h. All specimens were thermocycled (×2,000, 5-50°C. In each sub groups, half of the teeth were load cycled. Epoxy resin replicas of 24 specimens were evaluated under field emission-SEM and interfacial gaps were measured. All teeth were then immersed in 0.5% basic fuchsin dye for 24 h, sectioned and observed under stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis′ test and Mann-Whitney U test and a comparison between incisal and cervical microleakage was made with Wilcoxon test. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Load cycling and filling material had a significant effect on microleakage, but polishing time did not. Cervical microleakage in Z350/load cycle/immediate polish and Fuji IX/load cycle/immediate or delayed polish and Fuji IX/no load cycle/immediate polish were significantly higher than incisal microleakage. Conclusion: It was concluded that the cervical sealing ability of Fuji IX under load cycling was better than Fuji II LC. Under load cycling and immediate polishing Z350 showed better marginal integrity than both Fuji II LC and Fuji IX. The immediate polishing didn′t cause a statistically

  12. Marginal microleakage of class V resin-based composite restorations bonded with six one-step self-etch systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Sánchez-Ayala

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the microleakage of class V restorations bonded with various one-step self-etching adhesives. Seventy class V resin-based composite restorations were prepared on the buccal and lingual surfaces of 35 premolars, by using: Clearfil S 3 Bond, G-Bond, iBond, One Coat 7.0, OptiBond All-In-One, or Xeno IV. The Adper Single Bond etch-and-rinse two-step adhesive was employed as a control. Specimens were thermocycled for 500 cycles in separate water baths at 5°C and 55°C and loaded under 40 to 70 N for 50,000 cycles. Marginal microleakage was measured based on the penetration of a tracer agent. Although the control showed no microleakage at the enamel margins, there were no differences between groups (p = 0.06. None of the adhesives avoided microleakage at the dentin margins, and they displayed similar performances (p = 0.76. When both margins were compared, iBond® presented higher microleakage (p < 0.05 at the enamel margins (median, 1.00; Q3–Q1, 1.25–0.00 compared to the dentin margins (median, 0.00; Q3–Q1, 0.25–0.00. The study adhesives showed similar abilities to seal the margins of class V restorations, except for iBond®, which presented lower performance at the enamel margin.

  13. MHC Class II and Non-MHC Class II Genes Differentially Influence Humoral Immunity to Bacillus anthracis Lethal Factor and Protective Antigen

    OpenAIRE

    Garman, Lori; Dumas, Eric K.; Kurella, Sridevi; Hunt, Jonathan J.; Crowe, Sherry R.; Nguyen, Melissa L.; Cox, Philip M.; James, Judith A.; Farris, A. Darise

    2012-01-01

    Anthrax Lethal Toxin consists of Protective Antigen (PA) and Lethal Factor (LF), and current vaccination strategies focus on eliciting antibodies to PA. In human vaccination, the response to PA can vary greatly, and the response is often directed toward non-neutralizing epitopes. Variable vaccine responses have been shown to be due in part to genetic differences in individuals, with both MHC class II and other genes playing roles. Here, we investigated the relative contribution of MHC class I...

  14. Use of cyanoacrylate as barrier in guided tissue regeneration in class II furcation defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen L Mueller Storrer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The guided bone regeneration (GBR is a technique that uses resorbable and non-resorbable membranes in association with other filling biomaterials. GBR is one of the optional treatments for therapy of class II furcation defects. The current case report evaluates clinically and radiographically the use of the cyanoacrylate membrane (Glubran ®2 associated with organic bovine bone (GenOx for the treatment of vestibular class II furcation defect on the lower left molar. Conclusion: The GBR is an option in the treatment of vestibular class II furcation defects and cyanoacrylate surgical glue, acting as a mechanic barrier and providing an efficient stability for the graft.

  15. MHC class II tetramers made from isolated recombinant α and β chains refolded with affinity-tagged peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braendstrup, Peter; Justesen, Sune Frederik Lamdahl; Osterbye, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Targeting CD4+ T cells through their unique antigen-specific, MHC class II-restricted T cell receptor makes MHC class II tetramers an attractive strategy to identify, validate and manipulate these cells at the single cell level. Currently, generating class II tetramers is a specialized undertaking...... effectively limiting their use and emphasizing the need for improved methods of production. Using class II chains expressed individually in E. coli as versatile recombinant reagents, we have previously generated peptide-MHC class II monomers, but failed to generate functional class II tetramers. Adding...... a monomer purification principle based upon affinity-tagged peptides, we here provide a robust method to produce class II tetramers and demonstrate staining of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells. We also provide evidence that both MHC class II and T cell receptor molecules largely accept affinity-tagged peptides...

  16. Posterior bulk-filled resin composite restorations.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan WV; Pallesen, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    up to 4mm as needed to fill the cavity 2mm short of the occlusal cavosurface. The occlusal part was completed with the nano-hybrid resin composite (Ceram X mono+). In the other cavity, the resin composite-only (Ceram X mono+) was placed in 2mm increments. The restorations were evaluated using...... Class II, 4 SDR-CeramX mono+ and 6 CeramXmono+-only restorations. The main reasons for failurewere tooth fracture (6) and secondary caries (4). The annual failure rate (AFR) for all restorations (Class I and II) was for the bulk-filled-1.1% and for the resin composite-only restorations 1...

  17. Pharyngeal airway dimensions in skeletal class II: A cephalometric growth study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uslu-Akcam, Ozge

    2017-01-01

    This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal dimensions of individuals with skeletal class II, division 1 and division 2 patterns during the pre-peak, peak, and post-peak growth periods for comparison with a skeletal class I control group. Totally 124 lateral cephalograms (47 for skeletal class I; 45 for skeletal class II, division 1; and 32 for skeletal class II, division 2) in pre-peak, peak, and post-peak growth periods were selected from the department archives. Thirteen landmarks, 4 angular and 4 linear measurements, and 4 proportional calculations were obtained. The ANOVA and Duncan test were applied to compare the differences among the study groups during the growth periods. Statistically significant differences were found between the skeletal class II, division 2 group and other groups for the gonion-gnathion/sella-nasion angle. The sella-nasion-B-point angle was different among the groups, while the A-point-nasion-B-point angle was significantly different for all 3 groups. The nasopharyngeal airway space showed a statistically significant difference among the groups throughout the growth periods. The interaction among the growth periods and study groups was statistically significant regarding the upper oropharyngeal airway space measurement. The lower oropharyngeal airway space measurement showed a statistically significant difference among the groups, with the smallest dimension observed in the skeletal class II, division 2 group. The naso-oropharyngeal airway dimensions showed a statistically significant difference among the class II, division 1; class II, division 2; and class I groups during different growth periods

  18. Pharyngeal airway dimensions in skeletal class II: A cephalometric growth study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uslu-Akcam, Ozge [Clinic of Orthodontics, Ministry of Health, Tepebasi Oral and Dental Health Hospital, Ankara (Turkmenistan)

    2017-03-15

    This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal dimensions of individuals with skeletal class II, division 1 and division 2 patterns during the pre-peak, peak, and post-peak growth periods for comparison with a skeletal class I control group. Totally 124 lateral cephalograms (47 for skeletal class I; 45 for skeletal class II, division 1; and 32 for skeletal class II, division 2) in pre-peak, peak, and post-peak growth periods were selected from the department archives. Thirteen landmarks, 4 angular and 4 linear measurements, and 4 proportional calculations were obtained. The ANOVA and Duncan test were applied to compare the differences among the study groups during the growth periods. Statistically significant differences were found between the skeletal class II, division 2 group and other groups for the gonion-gnathion/sella-nasion angle. The sella-nasion-B-point angle was different among the groups, while the A-point-nasion-B-point angle was significantly different for all 3 groups. The nasopharyngeal airway space showed a statistically significant difference among the groups throughout the growth periods. The interaction among the growth periods and study groups was statistically significant regarding the upper oropharyngeal airway space measurement. The lower oropharyngeal airway space measurement showed a statistically significant difference among the groups, with the smallest dimension observed in the skeletal class II, division 2 group. The naso-oropharyngeal airway dimensions showed a statistically significant difference among the class II, division 1; class II, division 2; and class I groups during different growth periods.

  19. Appalachian Rivers II Conference: Technology for Monitoring, Assessing, and Restoring Streams, Rivers, and Watersheds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None available

    1999-07-29

    On July 28-29, 1999, the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) and the WMAC Foundation co-sponsored the Appalachian Rivers II Conference in Morgantown, West Virginia. This meeting brought together over 100 manufacturers, researchers, academicians, government agency representatives, watershed stewards, and administrators to examine technologies related to watershed assessment, monitoring, and restoration. Sessions included presentations and panel discussions concerning watershed analysis and modeling, decision-making considerations, and emerging technologies. The final session examined remediation and mitigation technologies to expedite the preservation of watershed ecosystems.

  20. Evaluating the Reasons of Amalgam Restoration Replacement in Esthetic and Restorative Department of Babol Dental School in 2013-14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Abolghasemzade

    2015-08-01

    Results: Within 263 patients, there were 81(30.8% men and 182(69.2% women. Most patients aged 30-40(42.2%, and were reported to suffer from class Ι dental occlusion(92.4%.The mean DMF was 9.7±2.4 . Lower molars were demonstrated as the most frequent teeth group for replacing amalgam restorations as well as causing secondary caries. Furthermore, secondary caries involved the major causes of amalgam restoration replacement. The most prevalent class for amalgam restoration replacement was class II restorations. It should be noted that secondary caries were most prevalent within class II MO / DO(25 cases(44.6%. Conclusion: The study findings revealed that the most common cause of the restoration replacement involved the secondary caries which was most observed in the Class II restorations.

  1. Functional recombinant MHC class II molecules and high-throughput peptide-binding assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Sune; Harndahl, Mikkel; Lamberth, Kasper

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Molecules of the class II major histocompability complex (MHC-II) specifically bind and present exogenously derived peptide epitopes to CD4+ T helper cells. The extreme polymorphism of the MHC-II hampers the complete analysis of peptide binding. It is also a significant hurdle......-II molecules and accompanying HTS peptide-binding assay were successfully developed for nine different MHC-II molecules including the DPA1*0103/DPB1*0401 (DP401) and DQA1*0501/DQB1*0201, where both alpha and beta chains are polymorphic, illustrating the advantages of producing the two chains separately....... CONCLUSION: We have successfully developed versatile MHC-II resources, which may assist in the generation of MHC class II -wide reagents, data, and tools....

  2. ZAP-70 and p72syk are signaling response elements through MHC class II molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanner, S B; Grosmaire, L S; Blake, J

    1995-01-01

    Ligation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigens expressed on antigen-activated human CD4+ T-lymphocytes induces early signal transduction events including the activation of tyrosine kinases, the tyrosine phosphorylation of phospholipase-C gamma 1 and the mobilization...... of intracellular calcium. Similar responses have been observed in B-cells following stimulation of MHC class II molecules, including the increased production of intracellular cAMP. In this report, we demonstrate that the ZAP-70 tyrosine kinase is a responsive signaling element following cross-linking of HLA...... by herbimycin A. MHC class II ligation on B-lymphocytes resulted in cell death, which was both qualitatively distinct from Fas-induced apoptosis and partially protected by herbimycin A pretreatment. Thus, ligation of MHC class II molecules expressed on human lymphocytes stimulates the ZAP-70/p72syk family...

  3. Hall effects on hydromagnetic Couette flow of Class-II in a rotating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... Couette flow of class-II of a viscous, incompressible and electrically conducting fluid with ... Numerical solution of energy equation and numerical values of rate of heat transfer at ...

  4. Modified geometry three-layered tablet as a platform for class II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modified geometry three-layered tablet as a platform for class II drugs zero-order release system. Abdullah Monahi Albogami, Mustafa E. Omer, Abdulkareem M. Al Bekairy, Abdulmalik Alkatheri, Alaa Eldeen B. Yassin ...

  5. Immunogenicity of HLA Class I and II Double Restricted Influenza A-Derived Peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sara Ram; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Buus, Søren

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify influenza A-derived peptides which bind to both HLA class I and -II molecules and by immunization lead to both HLA class I and class II restricted immune responses. Eight influenza A-derived 9-11mer peptides with simultaneous binding to both HLA-A*02...... four of the double binding peptides did result in HLA-A*02:01 restricted responses only. According to their cytokine profile, the CD4 T cell responses were of the Th2 type. In influenza infected mice, we were unable to detect natural processing in vivo of the double restricted peptides and in line...... with this, peptide vaccination did not decrease virus titres in the lungs of intranasally influenza challenged mice. Our data show that HLA class I and class II double binding peptides can be identified by bioinformatics and biochemical technology. By immunization, double binding peptides can give rise...

  6. 25 CFR 547.6 - What are the minimum technical standards for enrolling and enabling Class II gaming system...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and enabling Class II gaming system components? 547.6 Section 547.6 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM TECHNICAL STANDARDS FOR GAMING EQUIPMENT USED... enabling Class II gaming system components? (a) General requirements. Class II gaming systems shall provide...

  7. Provision of Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) restorations to Chinese pre-school children--a 30-month evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, E C; Holmgren, C J

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of this study were: to provide restorations using the ART approach to pre-school children in Southern China in a kindergarten environment, using a high-strength glass-ionomer restorative material; to assess the acceptability of this approach and to evaluate on a longitudinal basis the restorations placed. A total of 170 ART restorations were placed in 95 children, aged 5.1 +/- 0.7 years, by seven final-year dental students using standard ART procedures and hand instruments. The restorations were evaluated every six months thereafter by two calibrated independent examiners using explorers and mouth-mirrors. 93% of the children reported that they did not feel pain during treatment and 86% were willing to receive ART restorations again. The cumulative 12- and 30-month survival rates of Class I restorations were 91% and 79%, respectively. The corresponding figures for Class V restorations were 79% and 70%, while those for Class II restorations were 75% and 51%. The failure rates of Class III and IV restorations were high with more than half of them scored as missing within the first year. The ART approach was shown to be acceptable to Chinese pre-school children for providing restorative dental care outside the traditional clinical setting. The success rates were high for Class I and V restorations in primary teeth, modest for Class II, and low for Class III and IV restorations.

  8. Major histocompatibility complex class II compatibility, but not class I, predicts mate choice in a bird with highly developed olfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandh, Maria; Westerdahl, Helena; Pontarp, Mikael; Canbäck, Björn; Dubois, Marie-Pierre; Miquel, Christian; Taberlet, Pierre; Bonadonna, Francesco

    2012-11-07

    Mate choice for major histocompatibility complex (MHC) compatibility has been found in several taxa, although rarely in birds. MHC is a crucial component in adaptive immunity and by choosing an MHC-dissimilar partner, heterozygosity and potentially broad pathogen resistance is maximized in the offspring. The MHC genotype influences odour cues and preferences in mammals and fish and hence olfactory-based mate choice can occur. We tested whether blue petrels, Halobaena caerulea, choose partners based on MHC compatibility. This bird is long-lived, monogamous and can discriminate between individual odours using olfaction, which makes it exceptionally well suited for this analysis. We screened MHC class I and II B alleles in blue petrels using 454-pyrosequencing and quantified the phylogenetic, functional and allele-sharing similarity between individuals. Partners were functionally more dissimilar at the MHC class II B loci than expected from random mating (p = 0.033), whereas there was no such difference at the MHC class I loci. Phylogenetic and non-sequence-based MHC allele-sharing measures detected no MHC dissimilarity between partners for either MHC class I or II B. Our study provides evidence of mate choice for MHC compatibility in a bird with a high dependency on odour cues, suggesting that MHC odour-mediated mate choice occurs in birds.

  9. Stability of class II subdivision malocclusion treatment with 3 and 4 premolar extractions

    OpenAIRE

    Janson, Guilherme; Araki, Janine; Estelita, S?rgio; Camardella, Leonardo T

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to compare the occlusal stability of class II subdivision malocclusion treatment with 3 and 4 first premolar extractions. A sample of 156 dental casts from 52 patients with class II subdivision malocclusion was divided into two groups according to the extraction protocol. Group 1 comprised 24 patients treated with 3 premolar extractions and group 2 included 28 patients treated with 4 premolar extractions. Methods Peer assessment rating (PAR) indexes we...

  10. MHC class II expression through a hitherto unknown pathway supports T helper cell-dependent immune responses: implications for MHC class II deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buch, Thorsten; Polic, Bojan; Clausen, Björn E.; Weiss, Susanne; Akilli-Ozturk, Ozlem; Chang, Cheong-Hee; Flavell, Richard; Schulz, Ansgar; Jonjic, Stipan; Waisman, Ari; Förster, Irmgard

    2006-01-01

    MHC class II (MHCII) deficiency or bare lymphocyte syndrome (BLS) is a severe immunodeficiency characterized by deficient T helper (Th)-cell-dependent immunity. The disease is caused by defects of the MHCII promoter complex resulting in low or absent MHCII expression. We demonstrate in a murine

  11. 49 CFR 238.317 - Class II brake test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....315(a)(1); (3) When previously tested units (i.e., cars that received a Class I brake test within the... hours) are added to the train; (4) When cars or equipment are removed from the train; and (5) When an... locomotives that utilize an electric signal to communicate a service brake application and only a pneumatic...

  12. 78 FR 37114 - Self-Regulation of Class II Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... Commission) is revising its rules concerning the issuance of certificates for tribal self-regulation of Class... Office of Self Regulation's recommendation and report; and to correct referencing errors in two of its... certificate of self- regulation. 25 U.S.C. 2710(c). The Act authorizes the Commission to ``promulgate such...

  13. [Effect of saliva contamination on microleakage around class-5 cavities restored with three different types of adhesive materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovan, Gianina; Stoleriu, Simona; Andrian, S; Dia, V; Căruntu, Irina Draga

    2004-01-01

    The recent improvement of adhesive materials should decrease the risk related to saliva contamination. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of saliva contamination on the microleakage within class V cavities restored with three different types of materials: conventional glass ionomer cement, composite resin and compomer. 30 human extracted teeth were randomly divided in 3 equal groups. In each group, class V cavities were prepared on both facial and lingual surfaces (but joint for glass ionomer cement and bevelled incisal margin for composite resin and compomer). The lingual cavities were contaminated with saliva prior to restoration, while the facial cavities were not contaminated, serving as control. After water storage for 24 hours, teeth were immersed in 1% methylene blue solution for 24 hours. The axial sections were viewed under an optical microscope and the extent of dye penetration along cervical, axial and incisal margins was measured in millimetres. Statistic analysis showed that under salivary contamination, microleakage increased along the cervical margin of restoration for all three tested materials. Saliva contamination resulted in microleakage within the axial wall of the cavity only for the conventional glass ionomer cement. These data indicate that composite resin and compomer used together with new adhesives seem to be less sensitive to saliva contamination compared to conventional materials. However, under saliva contamination, cervical microleakage cannot be completely prevented and proper isolation should still be mandatory.

  14. The effect of repeated preheating of dimethacrylate and silorane-based composite resins on marginal gap of class V restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh Oskoee, Parnian; Pournaghi Azar, Fatemeh; Jafari Navimipour, Elmira; Ebrahimi Chaharom, Mohammad Esmaeel; Naser Alavi, Fereshteh; Salari, Ashkan

    2017-01-01

    Background. One of the problems with composite resin restorations is gap formation at resin‒tooth interface. The present study evaluated the effect of preheating cycles of silorane- and dimethacrylate-based composite resins on gap formation at the gingival margins of Class V restorations. Methods. In this in vitro study, standard Class V cavities were prepared on the buccal surfaces of 48 bovine incisors. For restorative procedure, the samples were randomly divided into 2 groups based on the type of composite resin (group 1: di-methacrylate composite [Filtek Z250]; group 2: silorane composite [Filtek P90]) and each group was randomly divided into 2 subgroups based on the composite temperature (A: room temperature; B: after 40 preheating cycles up to 55°C). Marginal gaps were measured using a stereomicroscope at ×40 and analyzed with two-way ANOVA. Inter- and intra-group comparisons were analyzed with post-hoc Tukey tests. Significance level was defined at P composite resin type, preheating and interactive effect of these variables on gap formation were significant (Pcomposite resins (Pcomposite resins at room temperature compared to composite resins after 40 preheating cycles (Pcomposite re-sins. Preheating of silorane-based composites can result in the best marginal adaptation.

  15. Effect of timing on the outcomes of 1-phase nonextraction therapy of Class II malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Tiziano; Franchi, Lorenzo; Kim, Ludia H

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this cephalometric study was to evaluate the role of timing in relation to skeletal maturity on the outcomes of nonextraction comprehensive Class II therapy. Three samples of patients with Class II Division 1 malocclusion were treated with headgear combined with fixed appliances and Class II elastics. Lateral cephalograms were taken of all subjects before therapy (T1) and at an average interval of 6 months after therapy (T2). The first sample (23 subjects) was treated before the pubertal growth spurt, the second sample (24 subjects) received therapy during the pubertal growth spurt, and the third sample (13 subjects) was treated at a postpubertal stage of development. The average T1 to T2 interval was approximately 30 months for all patients, with an average treatment duration of 24 months. Longitudinal observations of a group of 17 subjects with untreated Class II malocclusions were compared with the treated groups at the 3 skeletal maturation intervals with nonparametric statistics. Class II treatment before or during the pubertal growth spurt induced significant favorable skeletal changes (restricted maxillary advancement in prepubertal patients and enhanced mandibular growth in pubertal patients). Patients treated after the pubertal growth spurt had only significant dentoalveolar changes. The greatest amount of dentoskeletal correction of Class II malocclusion with 1-phase nonextraction treatment occurred in patients treated during the pubertal growth spurt.

  16. Factors affecting buccal corridor space in Angle′s Class II Division 1 malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Bhat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Buccal corridor space has been thought of primarily in terms of maxillary width, but there is also evidence that they are heavily influenced by the antero-posterior position of maxilla. The present study was undertaken with an aim of evaluating and comparing the dental and skeletal factors related to buccal corridor space in individuals having Class I and Class II Division 1 malocclusions. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 subjects of which 40 were males and 40 were females in the age group of 20-30 years were selected as per inclusion criteria and were grouped as Group I having Class I malocclusion and as Group II having Class II malocclusions based on angle ANB. 12 linear and 2 angular cephalometric measurements and 4 study cast measurements were used to correlate with the buccal corridor linear ratio (BCLR, calculated on smile photograph using the Adobe Photoshop 7.0 software (Adobe Systems Inc., San Jose, California, USA. The data obtained was statistically evaluated using independent t-test and multiple linear regression analysis. Result: Buccal corridor space is larger in individuals with Class II Division 1 malocclusion when compared with individuals with Class I malocclusions. There exists a significant difference in buccal corridor space between males and females. Conclusion: The present study helps in establishing the correlation between certain factors and the amount of buccal corridor space in individuals having skeletal Class II pattern.

  17. Facial attractiveness of skeletal class I and class II malocclusion as perceived by laypeople, patients and clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Michela; Cioffi, Iacopo; D'antò, Vincenzo; Valletta, Alessandra; Valletta, Rosa; Amato, Massimo

    2018-06-01

    Physical attractiveness is dependent on facial appearance. The facial profile plays a crucial role in facial attractiveness and can be improved with orthodontic treatment. The aesthetic assessment of facial appearance may be influenced by the cultural background and education of the assessor and dependent upon the experience level of dental professionals. This study aimed to evaluate how the sagittal jaw relationship in Class I and Class II individuals affects facial attractiveness, and whether the assessor's professional education and background affect the perception of facial attractiveness. Facial silhouettes simulating mandibular retrusion, maxillary protrusion, mandibular retrusion combined with maxillary protrusion, bimaxillary protrusion and severe bimaxillary protrusion in class I and class II patients were assessed by five groups of people with different backgrounds and education levels (i.e., 23 expert orthodontists, 21 orthodontists, 15 maxillofacial surgeons, 19 orthodontic patients and 28 laypeople). Straight facial profiles were judged to be more attractive than convex profiles due to severe mandibular retrusion and to mandibular retrusion combined with maxillary protrusion (all Pattractive by clinicians than by patients and laypeople (all Pattractive than Class I profiles. The assessment of facial attractiveness is dependent on the assessor's education and background. Laypeople and patients are considerably less sensitive to abnormal sagittal jaw relationships than orthodontists.

  18. Randomized Clinical Trial of a Self-Adhering Flowable Composite for Class I Restorations: 2-Year Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sabbagh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To compare the clinical performances of a self-adhering resin composite and a conventional flowable composite with a self-etch bonding system on permanent molars. The influence of using rubber dam versus cotton roll isolation was also investigated. Materials and Methods. Patients aged between 6 and 12 years and presenting at least two permanent molars in need of small class I restorations were selected. Thirty-four pairs of restorations were randomly placed by the same operator. Fifteen patients were treated under rubber dam and nineteen using cotton rolls isolation and saliva ejector. They were evaluated according to the modified USPHS criteria at baseline, 6 months, and 1 and 2 years by two independent evaluators. Results. All patients attended the two-year recall. For all measured variables, there was no significant difference between rubber dam and cotton after 2 years of restoration with Premise Flowable or Vertise Flow (p value > 0.05. The percentage of restorations scored alpha decreased significantly over time with Premise Flowable and Vertise Flow for marginal adaptation and surface texture as well as marginal discoloration while it did not vary significantly for color matching. After 2 years, Vertise Flow showed a similar behaviour to the Premise Flowable used with a self-adhesive resin system.

  19. Backbone Brackets and Arginine Tweezers delineate Class I and Class II aminoacyl tRNA synthetases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, V. Joachim; Schroeder, Michael; Labudde, Dirk

    2018-01-01

    The origin of the machinery that realizes protein biosynthesis in all organisms is still unclear. One key component of this machinery are aminoacyl tRNA synthetases (aaRS), which ligate tRNAs to amino acids while consuming ATP. Sequence analyses revealed that these enzymes can be divided into two complementary classes. Both classes differ significantly on a sequence and structural level, feature different reaction mechanisms, and occur in diverse oligomerization states. The one unifying aspect of both classes is their function of binding ATP. We identified Backbone Brackets and Arginine Tweezers as most compact ATP binding motifs characteristic for each Class. Geometric analysis shows a structural rearrangement of the Backbone Brackets upon ATP binding, indicating a general mechanism of all Class I structures. Regarding the origin of aaRS, the Rodin-Ohno hypothesis states that the peculiar nature of the two aaRS classes is the result of their primordial forms, called Protozymes, being encoded on opposite strands of the same gene. Backbone Brackets and Arginine Tweezers were traced back to the proposed Protozymes and their more efficient successors, the Urzymes. Both structural motifs can be observed as pairs of residues in contemporary structures and it seems that the time of their addition, indicated by their placement in the ancient aaRS, coincides with the evolutionary trace of Proto- and Urzymes. PMID:29659563

  20. Modes of salmonid MHC class I and II evolution differ from the primate paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shum, B.P.; Guethlein, L.; Flodin, L.R.; Adkison, M.A.; Hedrick, R.P.; Nehring, R.B.; Stet, R.J.M.; Secombes, C.; Parham, P.

    2001-01-01

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) represent two salmonid genera separated for 15-20 million years. cDNA sequences were determined for the classical MHC class I heavy chain gene UBA and the MHC class II β-chain gene DAB from 15 rainbow and 10 brown trout. Both genes

  1. Alveolar bone thickness and lower incisor position in skeletal Class I and Class II malocclusions assessed with cone-beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baysal, Asli; Ucar, Faruk Izzet; Buyuk, Suleyman Kutalmis; Ozer, Torun; Uysal, Tancan

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate lower incisor position and bony support between patients with Class II average- and high-angle malocclusions and compare with the patients presenting Class I malocclusions. CBCT records of 79 patients were divided into 2 groups according to sagittal jaw relationships: Class I and II. Each group was further divided into average- and high-angle subgroups. Six angular and 6 linear measurements were performed. Independent samples t-test, Kruskal-Wallis, and Dunn post-hoc tests were performed for statistical comparisons. Labial alveolar bone thickness was significantly higher in Class I group compared to Class II group (p = 0.003). Lingual alveolar bone angle (p = 0.004), lower incisor protrusion (p = 0.007) and proclination (p = 0.046) were greatest in Class II average-angle patients. Spongious bone was thinner (p = 0.016) and root apex was closer to the labial cortex in high-angle subgroups when compared to the Class II average-angle subgroup (p = 0.004). Mandibular anterior bony support and lower incisor position were different between average- and high-angle Class II patients. Clinicians should be aware that the range of lower incisor movement in high-angle Class II patients is limited compared to average- angle Class II patients.

  2. Effect of monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) to class I and class II HLA antigens on lectin- and MoAb OKT3-induced lymphocyte proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Y; Zicht, R; Ferrone, S; Bonnard, G D; Herberman, R B

    1985-04-01

    We have examined the effect of several monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) to monomorphic determinants of class II HLA antigens, and MoAb to monomorphic determinants of class I HLA antigens and to beta-2-microglobulin (beta 2-mu) on lectin- and MoAb OKT3-induced proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC) and cultured T cells (CTC). Some, but not all, anti-class II HLA MoAb inhibited the proliferative response of PBMNC to MoAb OKT3 and pokeweed mitogen (PWM). The degree of inhibitory effect varied considerably. This effect was not limited to anti-class II HLA MoAb since anti-class I HLA MoAb and anti-beta 2-mu MoAb also inhibited MoAb OKT3- or PWM-induced proliferative responses. In contrast, the response of PBMNC to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (Con A) was not blocked by any anti-class II HLA MoAb. However, some anti-class II HLA MoAb also inhibited the proliferative response of CTC plus allogeneic peripheral blood adherent accessory cells (AC) to PHA or Con A as well as to MoAb OKT3 or PWM. This may be attributable to the substantially greater class II HLA antigen expression by CTC than by fresh lymphocytes. Pretreatment of either CTC or AC with anti-class II HLA MoAb inhibited OKT3-induced proliferation. In contrast, pretreatment of CTC, but not AC, with anti-class I HLA MoAb inhibited the proliferative response of CTC to OKT3. Pretreatment of CTC with anti-class I HLA MoAb inhibited PHA-, Con A and PWM-induced proliferation, to a greater degree than the anti-class II HLA MoAb. It appears as if lymphocyte activation by different mitogens exhibits variable requirements for the presence of cells expressing major histocompatibility determinants. Binding of Ab to membrane markers may interfere with lymphocyte-AC cooperation, perhaps by inhibiting binding of mitogens to their receptors or by interfering with lymphocyte and AC function. We also have examined the role of class II HLA antigens on CTC by depleting class II HLA-positive cells

  3. 40 CFR 82.70 - Nonessential Class II products and exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... provide for motor vehicle safety in accordance with Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards until January 1... 21 CFR 2.125(e); (ii) Lubricants, coatings or cleaning fluids for electrical or electronic equipment...; (iii) Lubricants, coatings or cleaning fluids used for aircraft maintenance, which contain class II...

  4. Evaluation of Diode laser (940 nm irradiation effect on microleakage in class V composite restoration before and after adhesive application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    loghman rezaei

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays, the main focus of dental studies is on adhesive dental materials; since clinical long-term success of bonded restorations depended more on marginal microleakage minimization. So, the aim of this study was Evaluation of Diode laser irradiation effect on microleakage in class V composite restoration before and after adhesive application. Materials and methods: In this in vitro-experimental study, standard class V cavity was prepared on lingual and buccal surfaces of 60 premolar teeth. For evaluation of microleakage, 60 teeth were divided randomly into four groups A, B, C, D (n=15: A primer + adhesive (Clearfil TM SE Bond, B primer + Diode laser + adhesive (940nm wave-length, 21J total energy, 0.7W power, 30s irradiation time C primer + adhesive + Diode laser D primer + Diode laser + adhesive + Diode laser. Then, restoration was completed by Z250 composite. For data analyzing, we used SPSS 16 software. For statistical analysis, we used Non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis & Mann-Whitney tests at 0.05% significance level.  Results: According to non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test, microleakage scores had not significant difference before and after laser irradiation on gingival margins (p=0.116. But, in occlusal margins the results were significant among the groups (p=0.015. Also according to non-parametric Mann-Whitney tests among the occlusal microleakage scores, group B and D (Diode laser irradiation after primer and Diode laser irradiation after primer and adhesive showed significant results. Conclusion: This study findings showed that in 6th generation adhesives, Diode laser irradiation on self-etch primer before bonding have significant effect on reduction of occlusal marginal microleakage in class V cavities although there was no significant positive effect of Diode laser on gingival margins.

  5. Glenoid fossa position in Class II malocclusion associated with mandibular retrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuntini, Veronica; De Toffol, Laura; Franchi, Lorenzo; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2008-09-01

    To assess the position of the glenoid fossa in subjects with Class II malocclusion associated with mandibular retrusion and normal mandibular size in the mixed dentition. A sample of 30 subjects (16 male, 14 female), age 9 years +/- 6 months, with skeletal and dental Class II malocclusion associated with mandibular retrusion, normal skeletal vertical relationships, and normal mandibular dimensions, was compared with a matched group of 37 subjects (18 male, 19 female) with skeletal and dental Class I relationships. The comparisons between the Class II group and the control group on the cephalometric measures for the assessment of glenoid fossa position were performed by means of a nonparametric test for independent samples (Mann-Whitney U-test, P < .05). Subjects with Class II malocclusion presented with a significantly more distal position of the glenoid fossa, when compared with the control group as measured by means of three parameters (GF-S on FH, GF-Ptm on FH, and GF-FMN). A posteriorly displaced glenoid fossa is a possible diagnostic feature of Class II malocclusion associated with mandibular retrusion. An effective cephalometric measurement to evaluate glenoid fossa position is the distance from the glenoid fossa to the frontomaxillonasal suture (GF-FMN).

  6. Successful treatment of Class II malocclusion with bidental protrusion using standard edgewise prescription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Ayaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report deals with the successful orthodontic treatment of a 14-year-old female patient having Class II malocclusion with bidental protrusion using standard edgewise prescription. She reported with forwardly placed upper front teeth and difficulty in closing lips. She had prognathic maxilla, retrognathic mandible, and full cusp Class II molar and canine relation bilaterally with overjet of 7 mm. She was in cervical vertebrae maturation indicator Stage IV. The case was treated by fixed extraction mechanotherapy. Interarch Class II mechanics was used to retract the upper incisor and to mesialize the lower molars. Simultaneously, Class I mechanics was used to upright lower incisors. Tip back bend, curve of Spee, and extra palatal root torque were incorporated in upper archwire to maintain molars in upright position and prevent extrusion and deepening of bite, respectively. There was satisfactory improvement in facial profile at the end of 24 months. After a follow-up of 6 months, occlusion was stable.

  7. Evaluation of microleakage occurred in class V restoration prepared with Er:YAG laser and also with high speed, restored using composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junqueira, Angelo Maercio Finochio

    2002-01-01

    The microleakage is one of the great problems found in restoring dentistry. In spite of adhesive system evolution, several materials have been studied intending to minimize or to eliminate the microleakage occurred between the tooth and restorative material. The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the marginal microleakage in class V cavities prepared by Er:YAG laser or high speed and restored with composite resin. One of the groups received the sodium bicarbonate jet while the other group have not received. Twenty teeth third extracted molars were sectioned in the sense medial-distal being obtained forty samples that were divided in four groups: Group I (G1): prepared with Er:YAG laser (2940 nm), E= 350 mJ/p, F=2 Hz, fluency of 112,5 J/cm 2 . Preparing occlusion margin slice with 250 mJ/p, F=2 Hz, fluency of 80,3 J/cm 2 . The prepared total area was irradiated with E=80 mJ/p, F=2 Hz and fluency of 25,75 J/cm 2 . Every prepared area was finally submitted to sodium bicarbonate jet. Group 2 (G2): it was employed the same parameters used on group 1, except the sodium carbonate jet application. Group 3 (G3): the cavities' prepare were executed with high speed rotation using diamond cylindrical point. The slice confection has been made with the same point with 45 degrees inclined, utilizing also the sodium carbonate jet in all prepared area. Group 4 (G4): it was executed similarly prepared to group 3, without the sodium bicarbonate jet. In all the groups the cavities were washed with water spray and drought with air jet. Dentin and enamel surfaces have been conditioned with phosphoric acid at 35%. All the samples of all groups were restored using the single bond system adhesive and composite resin Z250, kept at 37 deg C in stove during 24 hours, thermally stressed, immersed in silver nitrate solution at 50% for 24 hours while kept in darkness. The specimens were soaked in photo developing solution and exposed to fluorescent light for 6 hours

  8. Expression of major histocompatibility complex class II and costimulatory molecules in oral carcinomas in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroel-Dorrego, Mariana; Speight, Paul M; Barrett, A William

    2005-01-01

    Recognition in the 1980 s that keratinocytes can express class II molecules of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) first raised the possibility that these cells might have an immunological function, and may even act as antigen presenting cells (APC). For effective T lymphocyte activation, APC require, in addition to MHC II, appropriate costimulatory signals. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of MHC class II and the co-stimulatory molecules CD40, CD80 and CD86 in keratinocytes derived from healthy oral mucosa and oral carcinomas. Using flow cytometry, it was confirmed that oral keratinocytes, switch on, expression of MHC class II molecules after stimulation with IFNgamma in vitro. All keratinocyte lines expressed CD40 constitutively; by contrast, CD80 and CD86 were universally absent. Loss of CD80 and CD86 may be one means whereby tumours escape immunological surveillance.

  9. Epigenetic priming restores the HLA class-I antigen processing machinery expression in Merkel cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Cathrin; Fan, Kaiji; Paschen, Annette

    2017-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive, yet highly immunogenic skin cancer. The latter is due to its viral or UV-associated carcinogenesis. For tumor progression MCC has to escape the host's immuno-surveillance, e.g. by loss of HLA class-I expression. Indeed, a reduced HLA class...

  10. Testes de toxicidade aguda através de bioensaios no extrato solubilizado dos resíduos classe II A - não inertes e classe II B - inertes Acute toxicity tests by bioassays applied to the solubilized extracts of solid wastes class II A - non inerts and class II B - inerts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nébora Liz Vendramin Brasil Rodrigues

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A grande diversidade de substâncias potencialmente tóxicas contribuem para a deterioração do meio ambiente. O objetivo deste trabalho foi propor a utilização de bioensaios, através de testes de toxicidade aguda com Daphnia magna e Vibrio fischeri, como mais um parâmetro a ser analisado no extrato solubilizado dos resíduos que, segundo a NBR 10004/04 fossem classificados como classe II A - não inertes ou classe II B - inertes. Realizaram-se, também, testes de toxicidade no drenado dos aterros classe II A e II B. Verificou-se que a toxicidade foi constatada nos extratos solubilizados dos 18 resíduos analisados e que, apenas três das amostras estariam próprias para lançamento, ou seja os resíduos 04, 14 e 15. Já, a toxicidade encontrada no drenado dos aterros, ficou muito superior do que a toxicidade de cada extrato solubilizado analisado separadamente.A great diversity of substances potencially toxic contributes to the deterioration of the environment. The aim of this research was to propose the use of bioassays using Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri, as another parameter to be analyzed in the solubilized extraction of waste according to NBR 10004/04 and classified as class II A - non inerts or class II B - inerts. Besides, another test was performed to measure the level of toxicity in the drainage of the landfill class II A and II B. It was verified that the toxicity found in the solubilized extracts of the 18 wastes analysed.Only 3 wastes (04, 14 and 15 were within the emission limits. On the other hand the toxicity found in the drainage of the landfill, from which all the samples came from, was much higher than the individual one.

  11. Treatment of periodontal abcess with Class II furcation involvement

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    Nur Rahmah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of periodontal abscess with furcation involvement has its own challenges in achieving the success of periodontal treatment. Teeth with periodontal abscesses often indicate the presence of furcation involvement. Most periodontal abscess occurs in approximately 92.5% molar. Furcation involvement on tooth abscesses had a greater challenge to the success of periodontal therapy. A male patient aged 36 years came to the clinic with active periodontal disease. On examination, the teeth are sensitive to percussion and 2o mobility. There is 13 mm deep pockets around the roots of teeth. On radiographic examination, appears severe bone destruction in the root area and furcation. Oral hygiene status was fair. Patients had a history of systemic disease type II diabetes mellitus. The periodontal abscess with furcation involvement with systemic disease type II diabetes mellitus can be treated with open flap and debridement so it can achieve a better prognosis. Systemic disease do not become a hindrance in periodontal treatment as long as the disease is controlled. Prognosis of teeth with abscess depend on the nature and extent of bone loss. Chronic periodontal abscess has a slow progressive bone destruction.

  12. Occlusal stability of adult Class II Division 1 treatment with the Herbst appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Niko Christian; von Bremen, Julia; Ruf, Sabine

    2010-08-01

    During recent years, some articles have been published on Herbst appliance treatment in adult patients, an approach that has been shown to be most effective in Class II treatment in both early and late adulthood. However, no results on stability have yet been published. Our objective was to analyze the short-term occlusal stability of Herbst therapy in adults with Class II Division 1 malocclusions. The subjects comprised 26 adults with Class II Division 1 malocclusions exhibiting a Class II molar relationship > or =0.5 cusp bilaterally or > or =1.0 cusp unilaterally and an overjet of > or =4.0 mm. The average treatment time was 8.8 months (Herbst phase) plus 14.7 months (subsequent multi-bracket phase). Study casts from before and after treatment and after an average retention period of 32 months were analyzed. After retention, molar relationships were stable in 77.6% and canine relationships in 71.2% of the teeth. True relapses were found in 8.2% (molar relationships) and 1.9% (canine relationships) of the teeth. Overjet was stable in 92.3% and overbite in 96.0% of the patients; true relapse did not occur. Herbst treatment showed good occlusal stability 2.5 years after treatment in adults with Class II Division 1 malocclusions. Copyright (c) 2010 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Dentofacial growth changes in subjects with untreated Class II malocclusion from late puberty through young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Tiziano; Stahl, Franka; McNamara, James A

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal study was to compare dentofacial growth changes in untreated subjects with Class II Division 1 malocclusion with those in subjects with normal (Class I) occlusion from late puberty through young adulthood. The Class II Division 1 sample consisted of 23 subjects (10 male, 13 female). The Class I sample included 30 subjects (13 male, 17 female). The lateral cephalograms of the subjects in both groups were analyzed at 2 consecutive stages of development: T1, postpubertal observation (cervical vertebral maturation stage 6), and T2, young adulthood stage. The average time between T1 and T2 was 3.5 years. The statistical comparisons of the growth changes in the 2 groups were performed with Mann-Whitney U tests. From late puberty through young adulthood, dentofacial growth in subjects with untreated Class II malocclusion does not show significant differences when compared with that observed in untreated subjects with normal occlusion. These findings show that Class II dentoskeletal disharmony does not exhibit significant growth change from late puberty through young adulthood.

  14. Treatment outcome of bimaxillary surgery for asymmetric skeletal class II deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun-Fang; Liao, Yu-Fang; Chen, Yin-An; Chen, Yu-Ray

    2018-05-04

    Facial asymmetry is one of the main concerns in patients with a dentofacial deformity. The aims of the study were to (1) evaluate the changes in facial asymmetry after bimaxillary surgery for asymmetric skeletal class II deformity and (2) compare preoperative and postoperative facial asymmetry of class II patients with normal controls. The facial asymmetry was assessed for 30 adults (21 women and 9 men, mean age: 29.3 years) who consecutively underwent bimaxillary surgery for asymmetric skeletal class II deformity using cone-beam computed tomography before and at least 6 months after surgery. Thirty soft tissue and two dental landmarks were identified on each three-dimensional facial image, and the asymmetry index of each landmark was calculated. Results were compared with those of 30 normal control subjects (21 women and 9 men, mean age: 26.2 years) with skeletal class I structure. Six months after surgery, the asymmetric index of the lower face and total face decreased significantly (17.8 ± 29.4 and 16.6 ± 29.5 mm, respectively, both p class II patients had residual chin asymmetry. The postoperative total face asymmetric index was positively correlated with the preoperative asymmetric index (r = 0.37, p class II deformity resulted in a significant improvement in lower face asymmetry. However, approximately 50% of the patients still had residual chin asymmetry. The total face postoperative asymmetry was moderately related to the initial severity of asymmetry. These findings could help clinicians better understand orthognathic outcomes on different facial regions for patients with asymmetric class II deformity.

  15. Association of maternal anti-HLA class II antibodies with protection from allergy in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M; Jeal, H; Harris, J M; Smith, J D; Rose, M L; Taylor, A N; Cullinan, P

    2013-09-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the birth order effect in allergy may be established during the prenatal period and that the protective effect may originate in the mother. HLA class II disparity between mother and foetus has been associated with significantly increased Th1 production. In this study, we investigated whether production of HLA antibodies 4 years after pregnancy with index child is associated with allergic outcomes in offspring at 8 years. Anti-HLA class I and II antibodies were measured in maternal serum (n = 284) and levels correlated to numbers of pregnancies and birth order, and allergic outcomes in offspring at 8 years of age. Maternal anti-HLA class I and II antibodies were significantly higher when birth order, and the number of pregnancies were larger. Anti-HLA class II, but not class I antibodies were associated with significantly less atopy and seasonal rhinitis in the offspring at age 8 years. Mothers with nonatopic (but not atopic) offspring had a significant increase in anti-HLA class I and II antibodies with birth order. This study suggests that the 'birth order' effect in children may be due to parity-related changes in the maternal immune response to foetal antigens. We have observed for the first time an association between maternal anti-HLA class II antibodies and protection from allergy in the offspring. Further work is required to determine immunologically how HLA disparity between mother and father can protect against allergy. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Ubiquitination regulates MHC class II-peptide complex retention and degradation in dendritic cells

    OpenAIRE

    Walseng, Even; Furuta, Kazuyuki; Bosch, Berta; Weih, Karis A.; Matsuki, Yohei; Bakke, Oddmund; Ishido, Satoshi; Roche, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    The expression and turnover of MHC class II-peptide complexes (pMHC-II) on the surface of dendritic cells (DCs) is essential for their ability to activate CD4 T cells efficiently. The half-life of surface pMHC-II is significantly greater in activated (mature) DCs than in resting (immature) DCs, but the molecular mechanism leading to this difference remains unknown. We now show that ubiquitination of pMHC-II by the E3 ubiquitin ligase membrane-associated RING-CH 1 (March-I) regulates surface e...

  17. Efficacy of Hydrophobic Layer On Sealing Ability of Dentin Adhesive Systems in Class V Composite Resin Restorations

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    Fatemeh Maleknejad

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Adhesive permeability is hindered by application of an additional layer of hydrophobic resin, which increases its concentration within the hydrophilic layer, reduces its affinity to water, and enhances its physical properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a hydrophobic layer on the microleakage of class V composite restorations using different adhesives. Materials and methods. The adhesives including total-etch Scotchbond MP and Single Bond, and the self-etch Clearfil SE Bond and Clearfil S3 Bond were applied to 80 class V cavities in vitro on the buccal surface in CEJ and then were followed by hydrophobic resin (Margin Bond in half of the cavities in each group (n=10. After restoration with microhybrid composite, Z100 and immersion in fuchsine, the degree of microleakage was assessed. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis, Man-Whitney, and Wilcoxon tests. Results. The hydrophobic layer significantly reduced the microleakage of Clearfil SE Bond and Clearfil S3 Bond only in dentin (p0.05. Conclusion. Within the limitation of this study, only Clearfil S3 Bond could demonstrate the identical values of microleakage in enamel and dentinal margins.

  18. In vitro Comparison of Microleakage of Nanofilled and Flowable Composites in Restoring Class V Cavities in Primary Molars

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    Rahil Ahmadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Composite resins undergo microleakage due to polymerization shrinkage particularly when located in cementum or dentin. The purpose of this study was to compare the microleakage of flowable and nanofilled composites in Class V cavities extending on to the root in primary molars. Materials and Methods: Forty eight class V cavities in the cervical part of buccal and lingual surfaces of 24 intact mandibular second primary molars were prepared, with occlusal margins on enamel and gingival margins on cementum. After restoring cavities randomly with nanofilled or flowable composite by incremental technique, specimens were stored in distilled water for 24 hours, thermocycled, immersed in a basic Fuchsin solution for 24 hours and sectioned buccolingually. Microleakage was evaluated according to the depth of dye penetration along the restoration wall using a stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed by Mann- Whitney U test at a significance level of 0.05.Results Microleakage of flowable and nanofilled composites at the cervical margin showed no statistically significant difference, however occlusal margin in nanofilled composite exhibited significantly less microleakage than flowable composite (p=0.013.Conclusion: In contrast to occlusal margin, there was no statistically significant difference in microleakage between the 2 composites on the gingival margin. Microleakage on the gingival wall was greater compared to occlusal wall for both composites.

  19. Sealing of adhesive systems in ferric sulfate-contaminated dentinal margins in class V composite resin restorations

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    Niloofar Shadman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hemostatic agents are applied to prepare an isolated bleeding-free condition during dental treatments and can influence adhesive restorations. This study evaluated the effect of a hemostatic agent (ViscoStat on microleakage of contaminated dentinal margin of class V composite resin restorations with three adhesives. Methods. Sixty freshly extracted human molars were selected and class V cavities (3×3×1.5 mm were prepared on buccal and lingual surfaces. Gingival margins of the cavities were placed below the cementoenamel junction. The teeth were divided into six groups randomly. The adhesives were Excite, AdheSE and AdheSE One. In three groups, the gingival walls of the cavities were contaminated with ViscoStat and then rinsed. The cavities were restored with composite resin and light-cured. After storage in distilled water (37°C for 24 hours and polishing, the samples were thermocycled and sealed with nail varnish. Then they were stored in 1% basic fuchsin for 24 hours, rinsed and mounted in self-cured acryl resin, followed by sectioning buccolingually. Dye penetration was observed under a stereomicroscope and scored. Data were statistically analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. P 0.05. In the contaminated groups, Excite had significantly less microleakage than the others (P = 0.003. AdheSE and AdheSE One did not exhibit significant difference in microleakage (P > 0.05. Conclusion. ViscoStat hemostatic agent increased dentinal microleakage in AdheSE and AdheSE One adhesives with no effect on Excite.

  20. Vaccination against lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection in MHC class II-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Peter Johannes; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2011-01-01

    response could be elicited in MHC class II-deficient mice by vaccination with adenovirus encoding lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) glycoprotein tethered to MHC class II-associated invariant chain. Moreover, the response induced conferred significant cytolytic CD8(+) T cell-mediated protection...... against challenge with a high dose of the invasive clone 13 strain of LCMV. In contrast, vaccination with adenovirus encoding unlinked LCMV glycoprotein induced weak virus control in the absence of CD4(+) T cells, and mice may die of increased immunopathology associated with incomplete protection. Acute...... mortality was not observed in any vaccinated mice following infection with the less-invasive Traub strain. However, LCMV Traub infection caused accelerated late mortality in unvaccinated MHC class II-deficient mice; in this case, we observed a strong trend toward delayed mortality in vaccinated mice...

  1. DNA sequence of the Peromyscus leucopus MHC class II gene Aa (MhcPeleAa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crew, M.D.; Bates, L.M. [Univ. of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The genus Peromyscus has been extensively studied by populations biologists and ecologists for over eighty years, with P. leucopus (the white-footed mouse) being one of the most intensively investigated species. Polymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes have proven useful in population genetic studies and might be helpful in understanding the population dynamics of Peromyscus species which are ubiquitously distributed over North and Central America. Polymorphism of P. leucopus MHC (MhcPele) class II genes was evident by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses using human and mouse probes and Pele class II loci exhibited degrees of polymorphism similar to H2 class II genes (A-like>E-like). 8 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Evaluation of the effect of different food media on the marginal integrity of class v compomer, conventional and resin-modified glass-ionomer restorations: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinakaran, Shiji

    2015-03-01

    Cervical lesions of anterior and posterior teeth are a common finding in routine dental practice. They are of much concern to the patient, if present in esthetically sensitive regions. Adhesive tooth-colored restorative materials are generally recommended for treating such lesions. The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the effect of various food media (lime juice, tea, coffee, and Coca-Cola) on the marginal integrity of Class V compomer (Dyract(®)), conventional glass-ionomer (Fuji II) and resin-modified glass-ionomer (Fuji II LC improved) restorations along their cemental and enamel margins with saline as control media. After restoration of prepared Class V cavities in human premolars with the three different materials (n = 8), they were immersed in the test media for 7 days and then stained with methylene blue dye. Buccolingual sections were prepared and examined under stereomicroscope and scores (0-2) were given. Data were analyzed statistically using one-way analysis of variance in SPSS version 16.0. P Coca-Cola) compared to saline. Enamel margins showed more marginal adaptation than cemental margins.

  3. The Influence of Class II Division 2 Malocclusions on the Harmony of the Human Face Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perović, Tatjana

    2017-11-24

    BACKGROUND Persons with class II division 2 malocclusion are characterized by a very specific dento-skeletal and soft-tissue profile (a profile in which a protruding nose and chin, retruding lips, concave and shortened lower third of the face, and gummy smile are dominant), which is the opposite of the currently modern profiles (convex profile of protruding lips and small chin). The aim of this research was to determine the differences in parameters of harmonies of facial profiles between persons with class II division 2 malocclusions and class I, and to establish the significance of those differences. MATERIAL AND METHODS For this study, 50 patients with class II division 2 malocclusions and 50 patients with class I were selected; profile photos were recorded and a photometric analysis was done: a type of profile according to Schwarz, the shape of a nose, the prominence of chin, biometrical field, the position of lips in relation to the tangent Sn-Pg, S-line (Steiner), E-line (Riketts) and a facial angle according to Arnett. RESULTS The significant differences in profiles of persons with class II division 2 compared to class I were: position and prominence of the chin, the position of the lower and upper lip in relation to the S-line, and smaller value of a facial angle in relation to persons with class I. CONCLUSIONS The differences seen in skeletal profiles were not associated with significant differences in the profiled facial contours of the examined groups. The compensatory role of the fullness of soft tissues of the lips is probably the reason why there were not significant deviations in all the examined parameters.

  4. Class II malocclusion with accentuated occlusal plane inclination corrected with miniplate: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farret, Marcel Marchiori; Farret, Milton M. Benitez

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: A canted occlusal plane presents an unesthetic element of the smile. The correction of this asymmetry has been typically considered difficult by orthodontists, as it requires complex mechanics and may sometimes even require orthognathic surgery. Objective: This paper outlines the case of a 29-year-old woman with Class II malocclusion, pronounced midline deviation and accentuated occlusal plane inclination caused by mandibular deciduous molar ankylosis. Methods: The patient was treated with a miniplate used to provide anchorage in order to intrude maxillary teeth and extrude mandibular teeth on one side, thus eliminating asymmetry. Class II was corrected on the left side by means of distalization, anchored in the miniplate as well. On the right side, maxillary first premolar was extracted and molar relationship was kept in Class II, while canines were moved to Class I relationship. The patient received implant-prosthetic rehabilitation for maxillary left lateral incisor and mandibular left second premolar. Results: At the end of treatment, Class II was corrected, midlines were matched and the canted occlusal plane was totally corrected, thereby improving smile function and esthetics. PMID:27409658

  5. Class II malocclusion with accentuated occlusal plane inclination corrected with miniplate: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Marchiori Farret

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: A canted occlusal plane presents an unesthetic element of the smile. The correction of this asymmetry has been typically considered difficult by orthodontists, as it requires complex mechanics and may sometimes even require orthognathic surgery. Objective: This paper outlines the case of a 29-year-old woman with Class II malocclusion, pronounced midline deviation and accentuated occlusal plane inclination caused by mandibular deciduous molar ankylosis. Methods: The patient was treated with a miniplate used to provide anchorage in order to intrude maxillary teeth and extrude mandibular teeth on one side, thus eliminating asymmetry. Class II was corrected on the left side by means of distalization, anchored in the miniplate as well. On the right side, maxillary first premolar was extracted and molar relationship was kept in Class II, while canines were moved to Class I relationship. The patient received implant-prosthetic rehabilitation for maxillary left lateral incisor and mandibular left second premolar. Results: At the end of treatment, Class II was corrected, midlines were matched and the canted occlusal plane was totally corrected, thereby improving smile function and esthetics.

  6. Treatment of Class II Malocclusion by Nonextraction Therapy using Microimplants and Pendex Appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkumar S Alle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of Class II cases is always challenging. Treatment modalities involve growth modulation, expansion of the maxillary arch or extraction of premolars and retraction. The patient compliance is key factor in success of the treatment. In the present article a male patient with Class II malocclusion was treated using a Pendex appliance to simultaneously expand the upper arch and distalize the molars. The maxillary anteriors were retracted using microimplants. The results were satisfactory. This approach can be used in patients with mild skeletal discrepancy and with slight increase in the gingival display.

  7. Combined orthodontic and surgical correction of adult skeletal class II with hyperdivergent jaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Jiku; Bagchi, Paulami; Gupta, Swati; Gupta, Hemant; Autar, Ram

    2012-01-01

    A case of severe Class II skeletal malocclusion with anterior open bite having vertical growth pattern and matching soft tissue profile is presented. Considering age of the patient and the severity of the malocclusion, it was decided to combine orthodontic treatment with surgery. A 0.022 Roth Pre-adjusted Edgewise Appliance was chosen for the orthodontic correction and Le-Fort 1 differential vertical impaction of maxilla with mandibular autorotation and augmentation genioplasty was considered as the treatment plan. The main aim was to reduce the gummy smile and correct the class II profile.

  8. HLA Class I and Class II Alleles and Haplotypes Confirm the Berber Origin of the Present Day Tunisian Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhafidh Hajjej

    Full Text Available In view of its distinct geographical location and relatively small area, Tunisia witnessed the presence of many civilizations and ethnic groups throughout history, thereby questioning the origin of present-day Tunisian population. We investigated HLA class I and class II gene profiles in Tunisians, and compared this profile with those of Mediterranean and Sub-Sahara African populations. A total of 376 unrelated Tunisian individuals of both genders were genotyped for HLA class I (A, B and class II (DRB1, DQB1, using reverse dot-blot hybridization (PCR-SSO method. Statistical analysis was performed using Arlequin software. Phylogenetic trees were constructed by DISPAN software, and correspondence analysis was carried out by VISTA software. One hundred fifty-three HLA alleles were identified in the studied sample, which comprised 41, 50, 40 and 22 alleles at HLA-A,-B,-DRB1 and -DQB1 loci, respectively. The most frequent alleles were HLA-A*02:01 (16.76%, HLA-B*44:02/03 (17.82%, HLA-DRB1*07:01 (19.02%, and HLA-DQB1*03:01 (17.95%. Four-locus haplotype analysis identified HLA-A*02:01-B*50:01-DRB1*07:01-DQB1*02:02 (2.2% as the common haplotype in Tunisians. Compared to other nearby populations, Tunisians appear to be genetically related to Western Mediterranean population, in particular North Africans and Berbers. In conclusion, HLA genotype results indicate that Tunisians are related to present-day North Africans, Berbers and to Iberians, but not to Eastern Arabs (Palestinians, Jordanians and Lebanese. This suggests that the genetic contribution of Arab invasion of 7th-11th century A.D. had little impact of the North African gene pool.

  9. Marginal microleakage evaluation in class V composite restorations of deciduous teeth prepared conventionally and using Er:YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulga, Neusa Vieira Galvao

    2001-01-01

    The evaluation of marginal microleakage in class V restorations of deciduous teeth prepared using Er:laser and comparison to the ones observed when conventionally prepared, using two photopolimerizable materials, composite resin and glass ionomer cement, was the subject of this study. Twenty eight complete deciduous teeth were divided into four groups Group 1 (G1) prepared with high speed drill + composite resin; Group 2 (G2) prepared with high speed drill + glass ionomer cement; Group 3 (G3) prepared using Er:YAG laser (2.94 μm), 300 mJ, 3 Hz, handpiece 2051, energy density 86 mJ/cm 2 + composite resin; Group 4 (G4) prepared using Er:YAG laser (2.94 μm), 300 mJ, 3 Hz, handpiece 2051, energy density 86 J / cm 2 + glass ionomer cement. After the preparation and restoration the specimens where stored at 37 deg C for 24 hours, thermally stressed, immersed in 50% aqueous solution of silver nitrate for 24 hours while kept in the dark. The specimens were rinsed in water, soaked in photodeveloping solution and exposed to fluorescent light for 6 hours. After this process the samples were sectioned and observed by stereomicroscopy. For comparison the groups were divided into occlusive and cervical microleakage. The results were analysed under the Kruskal-Wallis test. For the occlusive microleakage the statistical significance was 5% among the groups and the average comparison showed higher microleakage for G1 (M=35.1) than for G2 (M=24.0) as well as compared to G3 (M=22.3). The other groups did not present statistical differences among them. For the cervical microleakage the Kruskal-Wallis test did not present any statistical difference. Comparing the occlusive and cervical microleakage data, for every group, using the Wilcoxon test, no statistical differences were observed. Concluding, this study showed the Er:YAG laser to be effective for class V restorations and to result in a smaller microleakage degree using the composite resin. These results indicate the viability

  10. Improved methods for predicting peptide binding affinity to MHC class II molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kamilla Kjærgaard; Andreatta, Massimo; Marcatili, Paolo

    2018-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) molecules are expressed on the surface of professional antigen presenting cells where they display peptides to T helper cells, which orchestrate the onset and outcome of many host immune responses. Understanding which peptides will be presented b...... are publicly available at www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/NetMHCII-2.3 and www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/NetMHCIIpan-3.2. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  11. MHC class II molecules deliver costimulatory signals in human T cells through a functional linkage with IL-2-receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odum, Niels; Kanner, S B; Ledbetter, J A

    1993-01-01

    MHC class II-positive T cells are found in tissues involved in autoimmune and infectious disorders. Because stimulation of class II molecules by mAb or bacterial superantigens induces protein tyrosine phosphorylation through activation of PTK3 in T cells, we hypothesized that class II signals play...... tyrosine phosphorylation of specific substrates including PLC-gamma 1. Combined stimulation of IL-2R and class II molecules had an additive effect on tyrosine phosphorylation. Pretreatment of T cells with a protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor, herbimycin A, inhibited IL-2 and class II-induced proliferation...... a regulatory function in T cell activation. Here, we show that cross-linking HLA-DR and -DP but not -DQ molecules by immobilized mAb enhanced proliferative T cell responses to IL-2. In contrast, class II stimulation had no effect on IL-4-induced proliferation. The costimulatory effect was most pronounced...

  12. Distribution of class ii major histocompatibility complex antigenexpressing cells in human dental pulp with carious lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Haniastuti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental caries is a bacterial infection which causes destruction of the hard tissues of the tooth. Exposure of the dentin to the oral environment as a result of caries inevitably results in a cellular response in the pulp. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC is a group of genes that code for cell-surface histocompatibility antigens. Cells expressing class II MHC molecules participate in the initial recognition and the processing of antigenic substances to serve as antigen-presenting cells. Purpose: The aim of the study was to elucidate the alteration in the distribution of class II MHC antigen-expressing cells in human dental pulp as carious lesions progressed toward the pulp. Methods: Fifteen third molars with caries at the occlusal site at various stages of decay and 5 intact third molars were extracted and used in this study. Before decalcifying with 10% EDTA solution (pH 7.4, all the samples were observed by micro-computed tomography to confirm the lesion condition three-dimensionally. The specimens were then processed for cryosection and immunohistochemistry using an anti-MHC class II monoclonal antibody. Results: Class II MHC antigen-expressing cells were found both in normal and carious specimens. In normal tooth, the class II MHC-immunopositive cells were observed mainly at the periphery of the pulp tissue. In teeth with caries, class II MHC-immunopositive cells were located predominantly subjacent to the carious lesions. As the caries progressed, the number of class II MHC antigen-expressing cells was increased. Conclusion: The depth of carious lesions affects the distribution of class II MHC antigen-expressing cells in the dental pulp.Latar belakang: Karies merupakan penyakit infeksi bakteri yang mengakibatkan destruksi jaringan keras gigi. Dentin yang terbuka akibat karies akan menginduksi respon imun seluler pada pulpa. Kompleks histokompatibilitas utama (MHC merupakan sekumpulan gen yang mengkode histokompatibilitas

  13. Microleakage comparison of three types of adhesive systems versus GIC-based adhesive in class V composite restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Sadeghi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: New dentin bonding agents and techniques have been developed to reduce microleakage and create higher bond strength. This in-vitro study compared the microleakage of three resin-based adhesives versus a GIC-based adhesive on class V composite restorations.  Materials and Methods: Class V cavities were prepared on the buccal surfaces of 72 sound premolars, randomly assigned to six groups (n=12 and treated as follows: without any treatment (negative control group; total-etch (OptiBond Solo Plus; two-step self-etch (OptiBond XTR; one-step self-etch (OptiBond All-in-One and GIC-based adhesive (Fuji bond LC with pre-cure and co-cure techniques. The treated cavities were filled with a micro-hybrid resin composite (Point 4, Kerr. Following finishing and polishing procedures, the specimens were placed in 100% humidity, stored in distilled water, thermocycled and then immersed in a methylene blue, sectioned, evaluated for microleakage and scored on a 0 to 3 ordinal scale.  Results: None of the adhesives tested were capable of completely eliminating marginal microleakage. There were statistically significant differences among the test groups at occlusal margins; but at cervical margins were not. The Fuji Bond LC with co-cure and control groups had significantly greater microleakage scores at the occlusal margins. At the cervical margins, the bonded restorations with OptiBond XTR and OptiBond All-in-One adhesives presented significantly lower microleakage scores. Also, there were no significant differences between the resin adhesive groups both at occlusal and cervical margins. The microleakage scores at the cervical margins were markedly higher than the occlusal margins in the groups bonded with OptiBond Solo Plus and Fuji Bond LC with pre-cure. The differences between Fuji Bond LC adhesive with pre-cure and co-cure techniques were significant. Conclusion: This study encourages application of the Fuji bond LC adhesive with pre

  14. Long-term effects of Class II orthodontic treatment on oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, N C; Saffar, M; Hudel, H; Evälahti, M; Heikinheimo, K; Rice, D P C; Ruf, S

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the long-term (≥15 years) benefit of orthodontic Class II treatment (Tx) on oral health (OH). All patients (Department of Orthodontics, University of Giessen, Giessen, Germany) who underwent Class II correction (Herbst-multibracket Tx, end of active Tx ≥ 15 years ago) and agreed to participate in a recall (clinical examination, interview, impressions, and photographs) were included. Records after active Tx were used to assess the long-term OH effects. Data were compared to corresponding population-representative age-cohorts as well as to untreated Class I controls without orthodontic Tx need during adolescence. Of 152 treated Class II patients, 75 could be located and agreed to participate at 33.7 ± 3.0 years of age (pre-Tx age: 14.0 ± 2.7 years). The majority (70.8%) were fully satisfied with their teeth and with their masticatory system. The Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth Index (DMFT) was 7.1 ± 4.8 and, thus, almost identical to that of the untreated Class I controls (7.9 ± 3.6). In contrast, the DMFT in the population-representative age-cohort was 56% higher. The determined mean Community Periodontal Index (CPI) maximum score (1.6 ± 0.6) was also comparable to the untreated Class I controls (1.7 ± 0.9) but in the corresponding population-representative age-cohort it was 19-44% higher. The extent of lower incisor gingival recessions did not differ significantly between the treated Class II participants and the untreated Class I controls (0.1 ± 0.2 vs. 0.0 ± 0.1 mm). Patients with orthodontically treated severe Class II malocclusions had a lower risk for oral health impairment than the general population. The risk corresponded to that of untreated Class I controls (without orthodontic Tx need during adolescence).

  15. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA): a screening study to measure class II skeletal pattern, TMJ PDS and use of systemic corticosteroids.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mandall, Nicky A

    2010-03-01

    To screen patients with oligoarticular and polyarticular forms of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) to determine (i) the severity of their class II skeletal pattern; (ii) temporomandibular joint signs and symptoms and (iii) use of systemic corticosteroids.

  16. The effect of surface sealants with different filler content on microleakage of Class V resin composite restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepdeniz, Ozge Kam; Temel, Ugur Burak; Ugurlu, Muhittin; Koskan, Ozgur

    2016-01-01

    Microleakage is still one of the most cited reasons for failure of resin composite restorations. Alternative methods to prevent microleakage have been investigated increasingly. The aim of this study is to evaluate the microleakage in Class V resin composite restorations with or without application of surface sealants with different filler content. Ninety-six cavities were prepared on the buccal and lingual surfaces with the coronal margins located in enamel and the cervical margins located in dentin. The cavities restored with an adhesive system (Clearfil SE Bond, Kuraray, Tokyo, Japan) and resin composite (Clearfil Majesty ES-2, Kuraray, Tokyo, Japan). Teeth were stored in distilled water for 24 h and separated into four groups according to the surface sealants (Control, Fortify, Fortify Plus, and G-Coat Plus). The teeth were thermocycled (500 cycles, 5-55° C), immersed in basic fuchsine, sectioned, and analyzed for dye penetration using stereomicroscope. The data were submitted to statistical analysis by Kruskal-Wallis and Bonferroni-Dunn test. The results of the study indicated that there was minimum leakage at the enamel margins of all groups. Bonferroni-Dunn tests revealed that Fortify and GC-Coat groups showed significantly less leakage than the Control group and the Fortify Plus group at dentin margins in lingual surfaces (P < 0.05). The all surface sealants used in this study eliminated microleakage at enamel margins. Moreover, unfilled or nanofilled surface sealants were the most effective in decreasing the degree of marginal microleakage at dentin margins. However, viscosity and penetrability of the sealants could be considered for sealing ability besides composition.

  17. Comparison of interradicular distances and cortical bone thickness in Thai patients with class I and class II skeletal patterns using cone-beam computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khumsarn, Nattida; Patanaporn, Virush; Janhom, Apirum; Jotikasthira, Dhirawat

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated and compared interradicular distances and cortical bone thickness in Thai patients with Class I and Class II skeletal patterns, using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Pretreatment CBCT images of 24 Thai orthodontic patients with Class I and Class II skeletal patterns were included in the study. Three measurements were chosen for investigation: the mesiodistal distance between the roots, the width of the buccolingual alveolar process, and buccal cortical bone thickness. All distances were recorded at five different levels from the cementoenamel junction (CEJ). Descriptive statistical analysis and t-tests were performed, with the significance level for all tests set at p<0.05. Patients with a Class II skeletal pattern showed significantly greater maxillary mesiodistal distances (between the first and second premolars) and widths of the buccolingual alveolar process (between the first and second molars) than Class I skeletal pattern patients at 10 mm above the CEJ. The maxillary buccal cortical bone thicknesses between the second premolar and first molar at 8 mm above the CEJ in Class II patients were likewise significantly greater than in Class I patients. Patients with a Class I skeletal pattern showed significantly wider mandibular buccolingual alveolar processes than did Class II patients (between the first and second molars) at 4, 6, and 8 mm below the CEJ. In both the maxilla and mandible, the mesiodistal distances, the width of the buccolingual alveolar process, and buccal cortical bone thickness tended to increase from the CEJ to the apex in both Class I and Class II skeletal patterns

  18. Comparison of interradicular distances and cortical bone thickness in Thai patients with class I and class II skeletal patterns using cone-beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khumsarn, Nattida [Dental Division of Lamphun Hospital, Lamphun (Thailand); Patanaporn, Virush; Janhom, Apirum; Jotikasthira, Dhirawat [Faculty of Dentistry, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (Thailand)

    2016-06-15

    This study evaluated and compared interradicular distances and cortical bone thickness in Thai patients with Class I and Class II skeletal patterns, using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Pretreatment CBCT images of 24 Thai orthodontic patients with Class I and Class II skeletal patterns were included in the study. Three measurements were chosen for investigation: the mesiodistal distance between the roots, the width of the buccolingual alveolar process, and buccal cortical bone thickness. All distances were recorded at five different levels from the cementoenamel junction (CEJ). Descriptive statistical analysis and t-tests were performed, with the significance level for all tests set at p<0.05. Patients with a Class II skeletal pattern showed significantly greater maxillary mesiodistal distances (between the first and second premolars) and widths of the buccolingual alveolar process (between the first and second molars) than Class I skeletal pattern patients at 10 mm above the CEJ. The maxillary buccal cortical bone thicknesses between the second premolar and first molar at 8 mm above the CEJ in Class II patients were likewise significantly greater than in Class I patients. Patients with a Class I skeletal pattern showed significantly wider mandibular buccolingual alveolar processes than did Class II patients (between the first and second molars) at 4, 6, and 8 mm below the CEJ. In both the maxilla and mandible, the mesiodistal distances, the width of the buccolingual alveolar process, and buccal cortical bone thickness tended to increase from the CEJ to the apex in both Class I and Class II skeletal patterns.

  19. Predictors of favorable soft tissue profile outcomes following Class II Twin-block treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Eun; Mah, Su-Jung; Kim, Tae-Woo; Kim, Su-Jung; Park, Ki-Ho; Kang, Yoon-Goo

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine cephalometric factors that help predict favorable soft-tissue profile outcomes following treatment with the Class II Twin-block appliance. Pre- and post-treatment lateral cephalograms of 45 patients treated with the Class II Twin-block appliance were retrospectively analyzed. Profile silhouettes were drawn from the cephalograms and evaluated by three orthodontists in order to determine the extent of improvement. Samples were divided into a favorable group (upper 30% of visual analogue scale [VAS] scores, n = 14) and an unfavorable group (lower 30% of VAS scores, n = 14). Skeletal and soft-tissue measurements were performed on the cephalograms and an intergroup comparison was conducted. An independent t -test revealed that the following pre-treatment values were lower in the favorable group compared to the unfavorable group: lower incisor to mandibular plane angle, lower incisor to pogonion distance, point A-nasion-point B angle, sella-nasion line (SN) to maxillary plane angle, SN to mandibular plane angle, gonial angle, and symphysis inclination. The favorable group had a larger incisor inclination to occlusal plane. Moreover, the favorable group showed larger post-treatment changes in gonial angle, B point projection, and pogonion projection than did the unfavorable group. Class II malocclusion patients with a low divergent skeletal pattern and reduced lower incisor protrusions are likely to show more improvement in soft-tissue profile outcomes following Class II Twin-block treatment.

  20. MHC class II B diversity in blue tits : A preliminary study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rivero-de Aguilar, Juan; Schut, Elske; Merino, Santiago; Martinez, Javier; Komdeur, Jan; Westerdahl, Helena

    In this study, we partly characterize major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II B in the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus). A total of 22 individuals from three different European locations: Spain, The Netherlands, and Sweden were screened for MHC allelic diversity. The MHC genes were

  1. 78 FR 14013 - Medical Devices; Exemption From Premarket Notification; Class II Devices; Wheelchair Elevator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ... Elevator AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final order. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug... requirements for wheelchair elevator devices commonly known as inclined platform lifts and vertical platform... wheelchair elevators, class II devices, from premarket notification and establishes conditions for exemption...

  2. Variation in MHC class II B genes in marbled murrelets: implications for delineating conservation units

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Vásquez-Carrillo; V. Friesen; L. Hall; M.Z. Peery

    2013-01-01

    Conserving genetic variation is critical for maintaining the evolutionary potential and viability of a species. Genetic studies seeking to delineate conservation units, however, typically focus on characterizing neutral genetic variation and may not identify populations harboring local adaptations. Here, variation at two major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II...

  3. 37 GHz METHANOL MASERS : HORSEMEN OF THE APOCALYPSE FOR THE CLASS II METHANOL MASER PHASE?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingsen, S. P.; Breen, S. L.; Sobolev, A. M.; Voronkov, M. A.; Caswell, J. L.; Lo, N.

    2011-01-01

    We report the results of a search for class II methanol masers at 37.7, 38.3, and 38.5 GHz toward a sample of 70 high-mass star formation regions. We primarily searched toward regions known to show emission either from the 107 GHz class II methanol maser transition, or from the 6.035 GHz excited OH transition. We detected maser emission from 13 sources in the 37.7 GHz transition, eight of these being new detections. We detected maser emission from three sources in the 38 GHz transitions, one of which is a new detection. We find that 37.7 GHz methanol masers are only associated with the most luminous 6.7 and 12.2 GHz methanol maser sources, which in turn are hypothesized to be the oldest class II methanol sources. We suggest that the 37.7 GHz methanol masers are associated with a brief evolutionary phase (of 1000-4000 years) prior to the cessation of class II methanol maser activity in the associated high-mass star formation region.

  4. Building Students' Reasoning Skills by Promoting Student-Led Discussions in an Algebra II Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJarnette, Anna F.; González, Gloriana

    2013-01-01

    Current research and professional organizations call for greater emphasis on reasoning and sense making in algebra (Chazan, 2000; Cuoco, Goldenberg, & Mark, 1996; Harel & Sowder, 2005; National Council of Teachers of Mathematics [NCTM], 2009, 2010). This paper illustrates how students in an Algebra II class had opportunities to develop…

  5. Oral HPV infection and MHC class II deficiency (A study of two cases with atypical outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guirat-Dhouib Naouel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Major histocompatibility complex class II deficiency, also referred to as bare lymphocyte syndrome is a rare primary Immunodeficiency disorder characterized by a profondly deficient human leukocyte antigen class II expression and a lack of cellular and humoral immune responses to foreign antigens. Clinical manifestations include extreme susceptibility to viral, bacterial, and fungal infections. The infections begin in the first year of life and involve usually the respiratory system and the gastrointestinal tract. Severe malabsorption with failure to thrive ensues, often leading to death in early childhood. Bone marrow transplantation is the curative treatment. Case reports Here we report two cases with a late outcome MHC class II deficiency. They had a long term history of recurrent bronchopulmonary and gastrointestinal infections. Bone marrow transplantation could not be performed because no compatible donor had been identified. At the age of 12 years, they developed oral papillomatous lesions related to HPV (human papillomavirus. The diagnosis of HPV infection was done by histological examination. HPV typing performed on the tissue obtained at biopsy showed HPV type 6. The lesions were partially removed after two months of laser treatment. Conclusions Viral infections are common in patients with MHC class II and remain the main cause of death. Besides warts caused by HPV infection do not exhibit a propensity for malignant transformation; they can cause great psychosocial morbidity.

  6. 75 FR 55269 - Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Parts 542 and 543 RIN 3141-AA-37 Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission. ACTION: Delay of effective date of final rule; request for comments. SUMMARY: The National Indian Gaming...

  7. 76 FR 53817 - Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Parts 542 and 543 Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission, Interior. ACTION: Final rule; delay of effective date and request for comments. SUMMARY: The National Indian Gaming...

  8. 77 FR 60625 - Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Parts 542 and 543 RIN 3141-AA-37 Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission. ACTION: Final rule; delay of effective date; suspension. SUMMARY: The National Indian Gaming Commission...

  9. Citrullination only infrequently impacts peptide binding to HLA class II MHC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidney, John; Becart, Stephane; Zhou, Mimi

    2017-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that HLA class II alleles associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) preferentially present self-antigens altered by post-translational modification, such as citrullination. To understand the role of citrullination we tested four RA-associated citrullinated epitopes and th...

  10. HLA-class II alleles in patients with drug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuranov, A B; Kozhamkulov, U A; Vavilov, M N; Belova, E S; Bismilda, V L; Alenova, A H; Ismailov, S S; Momynaliev, K T

    2014-02-01

    The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system has a major role in the regulation of the immune response as it is involved in the defense against pathogens. Some studies have reported that HLA class II genes play a strong role in severe cases of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in several populations. Thus the aim of the study was to compare the HLA-class II alleles of patients with drug resistant tuberculosis with those of healthy controls from the same ethnic group in Kazakhstan. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the correlation of HLA-class II alleles by patients with drug resistant tuberculosis and the healthy controls of the same ethnic group in Kazakhstan. The HLA-class II alleles of 76 patients with tuberculosis (TB) and 157 healthy volunteers were investigated using sequence-based typing (SBT)-method. HLA-DQA1*03:02 HLA-DRB1*08:01 and DRB1*08:03 occurred more frequently (P = 0.05) in patients with drug resistant tuberculosis than in controls. We observed a possible association between certain HLA alleles and TB that are specific for the Kazakh population. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings using a larger number of patients with drug resistant tuberculosis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Evidence for multiple major histocompatibility class II X-box binding proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Celada, A; Maki, R

    1989-01-01

    The X box is a loosely conserved DNA sequence that is located upstream of all major histocompatibility class II genes and is one of the cis-acting regulatory elements. Despite the similarity between all X-box sequences, each promoter-proximal X box in the mouse appears to bind a separate nuclear factor.

  12. Tolerance to MHC class II disparate allografts through genetic modification of bone marrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindra, Peter T.; Tripathi, Sudipta; Tian, Chaorui; Iacomini, John; Bagley, Jessamyn

    2012-01-01

    Induction of molecular chimerism through genetic modification of bone marrow is a powerful tool for the induction of tolerance. Here we demonstrate for the first time that expression of an allogeneic MHC class II gene in autologous bone marrow cells, resulting in a state of molecular chimerism, induces tolerance to MHC class II mismatched skin grafts, a stringent test of transplant tolerance. Reconstitution of recipients with syngeneic bone marrow transduced with retrovirus encoding H-2I-Ab (I-Ab) resulted the long-term expression of the retroviral gene product on the surface of MHC class II-expressing bone marrow derived cell types. Mechanistically, tolerance was maintained by the presence of regulatory T cells, which prevented proliferation and cytokine production by alloreactive host T cells. Thus, the introduction of MHC class II genes into bone marrow derived cells through genetic engineering results in tolerance. These results have the potential to extend the clinical applicability of molecular chimerism for tolerance induction. PMID:22833118

  13. The impact of functional jaw orthopedics in subjects with unfavorable Class II skeletal patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Tiziano; McNamara, James A

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the outcomes of functional jaw orthopedics (FJO) followed by fixed appliances in Class II patients showing cephalometric signs predictive of unfavorable responsiveness to orthopedic treatment. A total of 48 treated subjects (20 males, 28 females) with unfavorable Class II malocclusions were treated with FJO at the adolescent growth spurt, followed by fixed appliances. Treatment outcomes were compared with the growth changes in a matched control group of untreated subjects with "unfavorable" Class II malocclusions. A significant prevalence rate of successful outcome was recorded within the treated group (64.5%). When compared with the untreated controls, both the overall treated group and the successful treated subgroup revealed a significant reduction in maxillary growth and sagittal position, along with a significant enhancement in mandibular length, sagittal advancement of the mandible, and significant improvements in the maxillo-mandibular relationships. Both overjet and molar relation showed significant favorable changes in the treated group. FJO at the pubertal spurt followed by fixed appliances is a viable therapeutical option in patients with "unfavorable" Class II malocclusions, although skeletal changes are of minor entity. Copyright © 2010 Società Italiana di Ortodonzia SIDO. Published by Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  14. HLA class II linkage disequilibrium and haplotype evolution in the Cayapa Indians of Ecuador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trachtenberg, E.A.; Erlich, H.A. [Roche Molecular Systems, Alameda, CA (United States); Klitz, W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    DNA-based typing of the HLA class II loci in a sample of the Cayapa Indians of Ecuador reveals several lines of evidence that selection has operated to maintain and to diversify the existing level of polymorphism in the class II region. As has been noticed for other Native American groups, the overall level of polymorphism at the DRB1, DQA1, DQB1, and DPB1 loci is reduced relative to that found in other human populations. Nonetheless, the relative eveness in the distribution of allele frequencies at each of the four loci points to the role of balancing selection in the maintenance of the polymorphism. The DQA1 and DQB1 loci, in particular, have near-maximum departures from the neutrality model, which suggests that balancing selection has been especially strong in these cases. Several novel DQA1-DQB1 haplotypes and the discovery of a new DRB1 allele demonstrate an evolutionary tendency favoring the diversification of class II alleles and haplotypes. The recombination interval between the centromeric DPB1 locus and the other class II loci will, in the absence of other forces such as selection, reduce disequilibrium across this region. However, nearly all common alleles were found to be part of DR-DP haplotypes in strong disequilibrium, consistent with the recent action of selection acting on these haplotypes in the Cayapa. 50 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. DNA polymorphism of HLA class II genes in pauciarticular juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morling, N; Friis, J; Fugger, L

    1991-01-01

    We investigated the DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II genes: HLA-DRB, -DQA, -DQB, DPA, and -DPB in 54 patients with pauciarticular juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (PJRA) and in healthy Danes. The frequencies of DNA fragments a...

  16. 40 CFR 147.50 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Carry Out Underground Injection Control Program Relating to Class II Wells as Described in Federal Safe... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Alabama... application: (a) Incorporation by reference. The requirements set forth in the State statutes and regulations...

  17. A treatment method for Class II Division 1 patients with extraction of permanent maxillary first molars.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, J.W.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Katsaros, C.

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the years, various treatment modalities have been presented for the treatment of Class II Division 1 malocclusions. The goal of this paper is to present a treatment approach that involves the extraction of the maxillary first molars followed by use of fixed appliances with low-friction

  18. Predicting peptides binding to MHC class II molecules using multi-objective evolutionary algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Lin

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peptides binding to Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC class II molecules are crucial for initiation and regulation of immune responses. Predicting peptides that bind to a specific MHC molecule plays an important role in determining potential candidates for vaccines. The binding groove in class II MHC is open at both ends, allowing peptides longer than 9-mer to bind. Finding the consensus motif facilitating the binding of peptides to a MHC class II molecule is difficult because of different lengths of binding peptides and varying location of 9-mer binding core. The level of difficulty increases when the molecule is promiscuous and binds to a large number of low affinity peptides. In this paper, we propose two approaches using multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEA for predicting peptides binding to MHC class II molecules. One uses the information from both binders and non-binders for self-discovery of motifs. The other, in addition, uses information from experimentally determined motifs for guided-discovery of motifs. Results The proposed methods are intended for finding peptides binding to MHC class II I-Ag7 molecule – a promiscuous binder to a large number of low affinity peptides. Cross-validation results across experiments on two motifs derived for I-Ag7 datasets demonstrate better generalization abilities and accuracies of the present method over earlier approaches. Further, the proposed method was validated and compared on two publicly available benchmark datasets: (1 an ensemble of qualitative HLA-DRB1*0401 peptide data obtained from five different sources, and (2 quantitative peptide data obtained for sixteen different alleles comprising of three mouse alleles and thirteen HLA alleles. The proposed method outperformed earlier methods on most datasets, indicating that it is well suited for finding peptides binding to MHC class II molecules. Conclusion We present two MOEA-based algorithms for finding motifs

  19. Oligoclonal band phenotypes in MS differ in their HLA class II association, while specific KIR ligands at HLA class I show association to MS in general

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavsen, Marte W; Viken, Marte K; Celius, Elisabeth G

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients have been reported to have different HLA class II allele profiles depending on oligoclonal bands (OCBs) in the cerebrospinal fluid, but HLA class I alleles and killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) ligands have not been studied. We investigated the associ......Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients have been reported to have different HLA class II allele profiles depending on oligoclonal bands (OCBs) in the cerebrospinal fluid, but HLA class I alleles and killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) ligands have not been studied. We investigated...

  20. Self-esteem in adolescents with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusion in a Peruvian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florián-Vargas, Karla; Honores, Marcos J Carruitero; Bernabé, Eduardo; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    To compare self-esteem scores in 12 to 16-year-old adolescents with different Angle malocclusion types in a Peruvian sample. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 276 adolescents (159, 52 and 65 with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusions, respectively) from Trujillo, Peru. Participants were asked to complete the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) and were also clinically examined, so as to have Angle malocclusion classification determined. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare RSES scores among adolescents with Class I, II and III malocclusions, with participants' demographic factors being controlled. Mean RSES scores for adolescents with Class I, II and III malocclusions were 20.47 ± 3.96, 21.96 ± 3.27 and 21.26 ± 4.81, respectively. The ANCOVA test showed that adolescents with Class II malocclusion had a significantly higher RSES score than those with Class I malocclusion, but there were no differences between other malocclusion groups. Supplemental analysis suggested that only those with Class II, Division 2 malocclusion might have greater self-esteem when compared to adolescents with Class I malocclusion. This study shows that, in general, self-esteem did not vary according to adolescents' malocclusion in the sample studied. Surprisingly, only adolescents with Class II malocclusion, particularly Class II, Division 2, reported better self-esteem than those with Class I malocclusion. A more detailed analysis assessing the impact of anterior occlusal features should be conducted.

  1. Subclassification of Recursive Partitioning Analysis Class II Patients With Brain Metastases Treated Radiosurgically

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Masaaki, E-mail: BCD06275@nifty.com [Katsuta Hospital Mito GammaHouse, Hitachi-naka (Japan); Department of Neurosurgery, Tokyo Women' s Medical University Medical Center East, Tokyo (Japan); Sato, Yasunori [Clinical Research Center, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba (Japan); Serizawa, Toru [Tokyo Gamma Unit Center, Tsukiji Neurologic Clinic, Tokyo (Japan); Kawabe, Takuya [Katsuta Hospital Mito GammaHouse, Hitachi-naka (Japan); Department of Neurosurgery, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyoto (Japan); Higuchi, Yoshinori [Department of Neurosurgery, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba (Japan); Nagano, Osamu [Gamma Knife House, Chiba Cardiovascular Center, Ichihara (Japan); Barfod, Bierta E. [Katsuta Hospital Mito GammaHouse, Hitachi-naka (Japan); Ono, Junichi [Gamma Knife House, Chiba Cardiovascular Center, Ichihara (Japan); Kasuya, Hidetoshi [Department of Neurosurgery, Tokyo Women' s Medical University Medical Center East, Tokyo (Japan); Urakawa, Yoichi [Katsuta Hospital Mito GammaHouse, Hitachi-naka (Japan)

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: Although the recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class is generally used for predicting survival periods of patients with brain metastases (METs), the majority of such patients are Class II and clinical factors vary quite widely within this category. This prompted us to divide RPA Class II patients into three subclasses. Methods and Materials: This was a two-institution, institutional review board-approved, retrospective cohort study using two databases: the Mito series (2,000 consecutive patients, comprising 787 women and 1,213 men; mean age, 65 years [range, 19-96 years]) and the Chiba series (1,753 patients, comprising 673 female and 1,080 male patients; mean age, 65 years [range, 7-94 years]). Both patient series underwent Gamma Knife radiosurgery alone, without whole-brain radiotherapy, for brain METs during the same 10-year period, July 1998 through June 2008. The Cox proportional hazard model with a step-wise selection procedure was used for multivariate analysis. Results: In the Mito series, four factors were identified as favoring longer survival: Karnofsky Performance Status (90% to 100% vs. 70% to 80%), tumor numbers (solitary vs. multiple), primary tumor status (controlled vs. not controlled), and non-brain METs (no vs. yes). This new index is the sum of scores (0 and 1) of these four factors: RPA Class II-a, score of 0 or 1; RPA Class II-b, score of 2; and RPA Class II-c, score of 3 or 4. Next, using the Chiba series, we tested whether our index is valid for a different patient group. This new system showed highly statistically significant differences among subclasses in both the Mito series and the Chiba series (p < 0.001 for all subclasses). In addition, this new index was confirmed to be applicable to Class II patients with four major primary tumor sites, that is, lung, breast, alimentary tract, and urogenital organs. Conclusions: Our new grading system should be considered when designing future clinical trials involving brain MET

  2. Influence of incorrect application of a water-based adhesive system on the marginal adaptation of Class V restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschke, A; Blunck, U; Roulet, J F

    2000-10-01

    To determine the influence of incorrectly performed steps during the application of the water-based adhesive system OptiBond FL on the marginal adaptation of Class V composite restorations. In 96 extracted human teeth Class V cavities were prepared. Half of the margin length was situated in dentin. The teeth were randomly divided into 12 groups. The cavities were filled with Prodigy resin-based composite in combination with OptiBond FL according to the manufacturer's instructions (Group O) and including several incorrect application steps: Group A: prolonged etching (60 s); Group B: no etching of dentin; Group C: excessive drying after etching; Group D: short rewetting after excessive drying; Group E: air drying and rewetting; Group F: blot drying; Group G: saliva contamination; Group H: application of primer and immediate drying; group I: application of only primer; group J: application of only adhesive; Group K: no light curing of the adhesive before the application of composite. After thermocycling, replicas were taken and the margins were quantitatively analyzed in the SEM. Statistical analysis of the results was performed using non-parametric procedures. With exception of the "rewetting groups" (D and E) and the group with saliva contamination (G), all other application procedures showed a significantly higher amount of marginal openings in dentin compared to the control group (O). Margin quality in enamel was only affected when the primer was not applied.

  3. Identifying Effective Enzyme Activity Targets for Recombinant Class I and Class II Collagenase for Successful Human Islet Isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balamurugan, Appakalai N; Green, Michael L; Breite, Andrew G; Loganathan, Gopalakrishnan; Wilhelm, Joshua J; Tweed, Benjamin; Vargova, Lenka; Lockridge, Amber; Kuriti, Manikya; Hughes, Michael G; Williams, Stuart K; Hering, Bernhard J; Dwulet, Francis E; McCarthy, Robert C

    2016-01-01

    Isolation following a good manufacturing practice-compliant, human islet product requires development of a robust islet isolation procedure where effective limits of key reagents are known. The enzymes used for islet isolation are critical but little is known about the doses of class I and class II collagenase required for successful islet isolation. We used a factorial approach to evaluate the effect of high and low target activities of recombinant class I (rC1) and class II (rC2) collagenase on human islet yield. Consequently, 4 different enzyme formulations with divergent C1:C2 collagenase mass ratios were assessed, each supplemented with the same dose of neutral protease. Both split pancreas and whole pancreas models were used to test enzyme targets (n = 20). Islet yield/g pancreas was compared with historical enzymes (n = 42). Varying the Wunsch (rC2) and collagen degradation activity (CDA, rC1) target dose, and consequently the C1:C2 mass ratio, had no significant effect on tissue digestion. Digestions using higher doses of Wunsch and CDA resulted in comparable islet yields to those obtained with 60% and 50% of those activities, respectively. Factorial analysis revealed no significant main effect of Wunsch activity or CDA for any parameter measured. Aggregate results from 4 different collagenase formulations gave 44% higher islet yield (>5000 islet equivalents/g) in the body/tail of the pancreas (n = 12) when compared with those from the same segment using a standard natural collagenase/protease mixture (n = 6). Additionally, islet yields greater than 5000 islet equivalents/g pancreas were also obtained in whole human pancreas. A broader C1:C2 ratio can be used for human islet isolation than has been used in the past. Recombinant collagenase is an effective replacement for the natural enzyme and we have determined that high islet yield can be obtained even with low doses of rC1:rC2, which is beneficial for the survival of islets.

  4. The properties of the single chicken MHC classical class II alpha chain (B-LA) gene indicate an ancient origin for the DR/E-like isotype of class II molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomonsen, Jan; Marston, Denise; Avila, David

    2003-01-01

    for the cloning and sequencing of the cDNA. We found only one class II alpha chain transcript, which bears the major features of a classical class II alpha sequence, including the critical peptide-binding residues. The chicken sequence is more similar to human DR than to the DQ, DP, DO or DM isotypes, most...... the mammalian DR and E isotypes in three properties: the presence of the critical peptide-binding residues, the low level of polymorphism and sequence diversity, and the recombinational separation from the class II beta chain genes. These results indicate that the sequence features of this lineage are both......In mammals, there are MHC class II molecules with distinctive sequence features, such as the classical isotypes DR, DQ and DP. These particular isotypes have not been reported in non-mammalian vertebrates. We have isolated the class II (B-L) alpha chain from outbred chickens as the basis...

  5. MHC class II+ (HLA-DP-like) cells in the cow reproductive tract: II. Immunolocalization of MHC class II+ cells in oviduct and vagina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, U; Kum, S; Sandikçi, M; Eren, V; Ilhan, F

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine and examine the distribution of major frequency MHC II+ cells in the oviduct and vagina of cows during the oestrous and dioestrus phases. Right oviduct (ampulla, isthmus) and vaginal samples taken from a total of twenty seven multiparous cows were used. Tissue samples were processed to obtain both cryostat and paraffin sections. Sections were stained immunocytochemically using StreptABC method using a specific monoclonal antibody to MHC II+ cell population. Intra-epithelial and subepithelial areas along with lamina propria, muscularis mucosae and serosa of both ampulla and isthmus and intra-epithelial/subepithelial areas and mucosae of vagina were examined for the presence of MHC II+ cells. The density of immune positive cells was determined using a subjective scoring system. MHC II+ cells were demonstrated in all areas examined in both oestrus and dioestrus. In oestrus, the density of MHC II+ cells decreased in subepithelial areas (in between the epithelial cells and the basal membrane) of isthmus, whereas the density of immune positive cells was increased in muscularis mucosae of isthmus (P < 0.05), lamina propria and muscularis mucosae of ampulla (P < 0.05) as well as in the mucosae of vagina (P II+ cells observed in the oviduct and vagina increases in the majority of areas examined due to the effect of oestrogen.

  6. Schwann cells promote post-traumatic nerve inflammation and neuropathic pain through MHC class II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartlehnert, Maike; Derksen, Angelika; Hagenacker, Tim; Kindermann, David; Schäfers, Maria; Pawlak, Mathias; Kieseier, Bernd C; Meyer Zu Horste, Gerd

    2017-10-02

    The activation of T helper cells requires antigens to be exposed on the surface of antigen presenting cells (APCs) via MHC class II (MHC-II) molecules. Expression of MHC-II is generally limited to professional APCs, but other cell types can express MHC-II under inflammatory conditions. However, the importance of these conditional APCs is unknown. We and others have previously shown that Schwann cells are potentially conditional APCs, but the functional relevance of MHC-II expression by Schwann cells has not been studied in vivo. Here, we conditionally deleted the MHC-II β-chain from myelinating Schwann cells in mice and investigated how this influenced post-traumatic intraneural inflammation and neuropathic pain using the chronic constriction injury (CCI) model. We demonstrate that deletion of MHC-II in myelinating Schwann cells reduces thermal hyperalgesia and, to a lesser extent, also diminishes mechanical allodynia in CCI in female mice. This was accompanied by a reduction of intraneural CD4+ T cells and greater preservation of preferentially large-caliber axons. Activation of T helper cells by MHC-II on Schwann cells thus promotes post-traumatic axonal loss and neuropathic pain. Hence, we provide experimental evidence that Schwann cells gain antigen-presenting function in vivo and modulate local immune responses and diseases in the peripheral nerves.

  7. Class II young adult treatment with Twin Force Bite corrector: 10-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozge Uslu-Akcam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most preferred compliance free fixed functional appliances in nongrowing patients is Twin Force Bite corrector (TFBC. The aim of this case report is to evaluate the effectiveness of TFBC in the treatment of an adult Class II case. A 16-year 1-month-old boy having skeletal and dental Class II relationship was selected. Roth 0.018 × 0.025 inch slots brackets were attached; a fixed lingual arch in the mandibular dental arch and a Nance appliance in the maxillary dental arch were used to increase anchorage. The TFBC therapy used for sagittal activation and stimulation of forward mandibular growth lasted for 3 months. The post-TFBC treatment lasted 6 months and the total treatment time was 9 months. Treatment of a young adult Class II malocclusion with TFBC resulted in a Class I molar occlusion, an ideal overjet, overbite, and incisor angulation in a short time and maintained in the 10-year follow-up.

  8. Ablation of phosphoinositide-3-kinase class II alpha suppresses hepatoma cell proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Stanley K.L. [Singapore Immunology Network A-STAR (Singapore); Neo, Soek-Ying, E-mail: neo_soek_ying@sics.a-star.edu.sg [Singapore Immunology Network A-STAR (Singapore); Yap, Yann-Wan [Singapore Immunology Network A-STAR (Singapore); Karuturi, R. Krishna Murthy; Loh, Evelyn S.L. [Genome Institute of Singapore A-STAR (Singapore); Liau, Kui-Hin [Department of General Surgery, Tan Tock Seng Hospital (Singapore); Ren, Ee-Chee, E-mail: ren_ee_chee@immunol.a-star.edu.sg [Singapore Immunology Network A-STAR (Singapore); Department of Microbiology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2009-09-18

    Cancer such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is characterized by complex perturbations in multiple signaling pathways, including the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K/AKT) pathways. Herein we investigated the role of PI3K catalytic isoforms, particularly class II isoforms in HCC proliferation. Among the siRNAs tested against the eight known catalytic PI3K isoforms, specific ablation of class II PI3K alpha (PIK3C2{alpha}) was the most effective in impairing cell growth and this was accompanied by concomitant decrease in PIK3C2{alpha} mRNA and protein levels. Colony formation ability of cells deficient for PIK3C2{alpha} was markedly reduced and growth arrest was associated with increased caspase 3 levels. A small but significant difference in gene dosage and expression levels was detected between tumor and non-tumor tissues in a cohort of 19 HCC patients. Taken together, these data suggest for the first time that in addition to class I PI3Ks in cancer, class II PIK3C2{alpha} can modulate HCC cell growth.

  9. Orthodontic treatment of nongrowing patient with class II division 2 malocclusion by Herbst appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedeljković Nenad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Inheritance is most casual etiological factor of Class II division 2 malocclusion. This kind of malocclusion is very difficult for treatment specially in older patients. Case report. In the female patient, 20 years old, at the beginning of the treatment at the School of Dentistry in Belgrade, lateral cephalogram showed skeletal and dentoalveolar Class II division 2 malocclusion. She was in the Herbst treatment for 8 months and 12 months more with a fixed multibracket appliance. The measurements were performed on lateral cephalograms before and after the treatment: ii, is, mi, ms, Pg and ss. The distance from these points to occlusal perpendicular line (Olp were measured and compared from cephalogram before to cephalogram after the treatment. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ tomograms were compared from before and after the treatment by superimposition. Correction was found in molar and incisor relation, overjet and overbite. There were found sagital skeletal changes and soft tissue profile improvement. Conclusion. Herbst appliance is effective in the treatment of Class II malocclusions, even in adult patients. Dental and skeletal changes as a result of Herbst treatment could be good choice instead of camouflage orthodontics or surgical decision.

  10. Skeletal and dental changes induced by bionator in early treatment of class II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirceu Barnabé Raveli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to investigate the amount of skeletal and dentoalveolar changes after early treatment of Class II, Division 1 malocclusion with bionator appliance in prepubertal growing patients. Forty Class II patients were divided in two groups. Treated group consisted of 20 subjects treated consecutively with bionator. Mean age at the start of treatment (T0 was 9.1 years, while it was 10.6 years at the end of treatment (T1. Mean treatment time was 17.7 months. Pretreatment and post-treatment cephalometric records of treated group were evaluated and compared with a control group consisted of 20 patients with untreated Class II malocclusion. Intergroup comparisons were performed using Student’s t-tests and chi-square test with Yates’ correction at a significance level of 5 per cent. Bionator appliance was effective in generating differential growth between the jaws. Cephalometric skeletal measurements ANB, WITS, Lafh, Co-A and dental L6-Mp, U1.Pp, IsIi, OB, OJ showed statistically significantly different from the control. Bionator induced more dentoalveolar changes than skeletal during treatment in prepubertal stage.

  11. Cephalometric assessment of lips in skeletal class ii patients by steiner's line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokhari, F.; Amin, F.; Asad, S.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Steiner's (S) Line has been used as reference line to assess anteroposterior position of lips cephalometrically and has been an effective diagnostic aid in this era of soft tissue paradigm. Norms for Sline has been established for different populations and it has been used widely to assess treatment outcomes in Skeletal Class II malocclusion, however anteroposterior position of lips and determinants of lip position in Skeletal Class II has not been explored. Study Design: This Prospective study was aimed to find out the anteroposterior position of lips on cephalograph using S-line in patients with retrognathic pro-file and to establish correlation between determinants of lip prominence. Data was collected using nonprobability convenience sampling technique following the selection criteria. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 65 subjects, with retrognathic profile as judged by orthodontists in consensus and confirmed by lateral cephalogram (ANB > 4 degree). S-Line was drawn on lateral cephalograph to assess the prominence of upper Lip and lower lip. SPSS 17.0 was used for statistical evaluation. Results: Antero-posterior position of upper and lower lip in patients with retrognathic profile with reference to S-line was 1.96 +- 2.6 mm and 3.09 +- 3.16 mm respectively. Moreover it was found that statistically significant correlation existed between lower lip prominence as assessed by S-line and upper lip prominence using the same reference line (r = 0.411), Lower incisor inclination (r = 0.535) and Skeletal Class II as assessed by ANB angle (r = 0.27). Upper lip prominence as assessed S-line was found to be statistically significantly correlated with lower incisor inclination and lower lip prominence. Discussion: Results were compliant with the previous studies.Conclusion: In the present study both upper and lower lips were more prominent in Skeletal Class II patients as compared to Steiner's norms for skeletal class I. (author)

  12. Influence of unilateral maxillary first molar extraction treatment on second and third molar inclination in Class II subdivision patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livas, Christos; Pandis, Nikolaos; Booij, Johan Willem; Halazonetis, Demetrios J.; Katsaros, Christos; Ren, Yijin

    Objective: To assess the maxillary second molar (M2) and third molar (M3) inclination following orthodontic treatment of Class II subdivision malocclusion with unilateral maxillary first molar (M1) extraction. Materials and Methods: Panoramic radiographs of 21 Class II subdivision adolescents (eight

  13. 75 FR 69089 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-D-0514] Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document... Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of the guidance entitled ``Class II Special Controls Guidance...

  14. 77 FR 16123 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    ... Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document... Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 866 Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Nucleic Acid-Based In Vitro Diagnostic Devices for the...

  15. 76 FR 29251 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls; Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2006-D-0094] Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls; Guidance Document... of the guidance entitled ``Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II...

  16. 25 CFR 547.12 - What are the minimum technical standards for downloading on a Class II gaming system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... on a Class II gaming system? 547.12 Section 547.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM TECHNICAL STANDARDS FOR GAMING EQUIPMENT USED WITH THE PLAY... gaming system? This section provides standards for downloading on a Class II gaming system. (a) Downloads...

  17. 25 CFR 547.7 - What are the minimum technical hardware standards applicable to Class II gaming systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... applicable to Class II gaming systems? 547.7 Section 547.7 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM TECHNICAL STANDARDS FOR GAMING EQUIPMENT USED WITH THE PLAY... gaming systems? (a) General requirements. (1) The Class II gaming system shall operate in compliance with...

  18. Opposing motor activities of dynein and kinesin determine retention and transport of MHC class II-containing compartments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubbolts, R.; Fernandez-Borja, M.; Jordens, I.; Reits, E.; Dusseljee, S.; Echeverri, C.; Vallee, R. B.; Neefjes, J.

    1999-01-01

    MHC class II molecules exert their function at the cell surface by presenting to T cells antigenic fragments that are generated in the endosomal pathway. The class II molecules are targetted to early lysosomal structures, termed MIIC, where they interact with antigenic fragments and are subsequently

  19. 454 sequencing reveals extreme complexity of the class II Major Histocompatibility Complex in the collared flycatcher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustafsson Lars

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of their functional significance, the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC class I and II genes have been the subject of continuous interest in the fields of ecology, evolution and conservation. In some vertebrate groups MHC consists of multiple loci with similar alleles; therefore, the multiple loci must be genotyped simultaneously. In such complex systems, understanding of the evolutionary patterns and their causes has been limited due to challenges posed by genotyping. Results Here we used 454 amplicon sequencing to characterize MHC class IIB exon 2 variation in the collared flycatcher, an important organism in evolutionary and immuno-ecological studies. On the basis of over 152,000 sequencing reads we identified 194 putative alleles in 237 individuals. We found an extreme complexity of the MHC class IIB in the collared flycatchers, with our estimates pointing to the presence of at least nine expressed loci and a large, though difficult to estimate precisely, number of pseudogene loci. Many similar alleles occurred in the pseudogenes indicating either a series of recent duplications or extensive concerted evolution. The expressed alleles showed unambiguous signals of historical selection and the occurrence of apparent interlocus exchange of alleles. Placing the collared flycatcher's MHC sequences in the context of passerine diversity revealed transspecific MHC class II evolution within the Muscicapidae family. Conclusions 454 amplicon sequencing is an effective tool for advancing our understanding of the MHC class II structure and evolutionary patterns in Passeriformes. We found a highly dynamic pattern of evolution of MHC class IIB genes with strong signals of selection and pronounced sequence divergence in expressed genes, in contrast to the apparent sequence homogenization in pseudogenes. We show that next generation sequencing offers a universal, affordable method for the characterization and, in perspective

  20. MHC polymorphism and disease resistance in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar); facing pathogens with single expressed major histocompatibility class I and class II loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimholt, U.; Larsen, S.; Nordmo, R.; Midtlyng, P.; Kjoeglum, S.; Storset, A.; Saebo, S.; Stet, R.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Few studies have yet addressed the functional aspects of MHC molecules in fish. To lay the foundation for this, we evaluated the association between disease resistance and MHC class I and class II polymorphism in Atlantic salmon. Standardized disease challenge trials were performed on a semi-wild

  1. Characterization of EBV gB indicates properties of both class I and class II viral fusion proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backovic, Marija; Leser, George P.; Lamb, Robert A.; Longnecker, Richard; Jardetzky, Theodore S.

    2007-01-01

    To gain insight into Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) glycoprotein B (gB), recombinant, secreted variants were generated. The role of putative transmembrane regions, the proteolytic processing and the oligomerization state of the gB variants were investigated. Constructs containing 2 of 3 C-terminal hydrophobic regions were secreted, indicating that these do not act as transmembrane anchors. The efficiency of cleavage of the gB furin site was found to depend on the nature of C-terminus. All of the gB constructs formed rosette structures reminiscent of the postfusion aggregates formed by other viral fusion proteins. However, substitution of putative fusion loop residues, WY 112-113 and WLIY 193-196 , with less hydrophobic amino acids from HSV-1 gB, produced trimeric protein and abrogated the ability of the EBV gB ectodomains to form rosettes. These data demonstrate biochemical features of EBV gB that are characteristic of other class I and class II viral fusion proteins, but not of HSV-1 gB

  2. Isolation and characterization of major histocompatibility complex class II B genes in cranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohyama, Tetsuo I; Akiyama, Takuya; Nishida, Chizuko; Takami, Kazutoshi; Onuma, Manabu; Momose, Kunikazu; Masuda, Ryuichi

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we isolated and characterized the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II B genes in cranes. Genomic sequences spanning exons 1 to 4 were amplified and determined in 13 crane species and three other species closely related to cranes. In all, 55 unique sequences were identified, and at least two polymorphic MHC class II B loci were found in most species. An analysis of sequence polymorphisms showed the signature of positive selection and recombination. A phylogenetic reconstruction based on exon 2 sequences indicated that trans-species polymorphism has persisted for at least 10 million years, whereas phylogenetic analyses of the sequences flanking exon 2 revealed a pattern of concerted evolution. These results suggest that both balancing selection and recombination play important roles in the crane MHC evolution.

  3. Incisor root resorption in class II division 2 patients in relation to orthodontic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faxén Sepanian, Varro; Sonnesen, Liselotte

    2018-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The aims were 1. to analyse differences in the occurrence of orthodontic induced inflammatory root resorption (OIIRR) of the upper and lower incisors in Angle Class II division 2 patients, between patients treated with fixed appliance only (one-phase treatment group......-four subjects treated for Class II division 2 malocclusion were divided into two groups: 46 patients in the one-phase treatment group (28 girls, 18 boys, mean age 14.4) and 28 patients in the two-phase treatment group (18 girls, 10 boys, mean age 12.4) where 336 and 201 incisors were analysed respectively...... group showed significantly more OIIRR for lower central incisors (P = 0.002) compared to the two-phase treatment group. For the both groups combined, boys showed more OIIRR than girls (P = 0.002) and patients with agenesis showed more OIIRR than patients without agenesis (P = 0.019) for the lower...

  4. Efficacy of MTA and CEM Cement with Collagen Membranes for Treatment of Class II Furcation Defects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Ollah Ghanbari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the efficacy of MTA and CEM cement in Class II furcation defects in human mandibular molars.Forty furcation defects were treated in 16 patients with chronic periodontitis. The clinical parameters of probing depth (PD, vertical and horizontal clinical attachment levels (VCAL and HCAL, open vertical and horizontal furcation depths (OVFD and OHFD, and gingival margin level (GML were measured at baseline and at 3- and 6-month (re-entry surgery postoperatively. Data were analyzed at a significance level of P<0.05.Use of MTA and CEM caused significant decreases in PD, VCAL, HCAL, OVFD and OHFD at re-entry, with no statistically significant differences between the two treatment options in soft and hard tissue parameters.Both treatment modalities caused significant gains in attachment levels and bone fills, proving efficacy for treatment of Class II furcation involvements.

  5. The roles of MHC class II genes and post-translational modification in celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollid, Ludvig M

    2017-08-01

    Our increasing understanding of the etiology of celiac disease, previously considered a simple food hypersensitivity disorder caused by an immune response to cereal gluten proteins, challenges established concepts of autoimmunity. HLA is a chief genetic determinant, and certain HLA-DQ allotypes predispose to the disease by presenting posttranslationally modified (deamidated) gluten peptides to CD4 + T cells. The deamidation of gluten peptides is mediated by transglutaminase 2. Strikingly, celiac disease patients generate highly disease-specific autoantibodies to the transglutaminase 2 enzyme. The dual role of transglutaminase 2 in celiac disease is hardly coincidental. This paper reviews the genetic mapping and involvement of MHC class II genes in disease pathogenesis, and discusses the evidence that MHC class II genes, via the involvement of transglutaminase 2, influence the generation of celiac disease-specific autoantibodies.

  6. Characterisation of four major histocompatibility complex class II genes of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Quintin; Jobbins, Sarah E; Belov, Katherine; Higgins, Damien P

    2013-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules have an integral role in the adaptive immune response, as they bind and present antigenic peptides to T helper lymphocytes. In this study of koalas, species-specific primers were designed to amplify exon 2 of the MHC class II DA and DB genes, which contain much of the peptide-binding regions of the α and β chains. A total of two DA α1 domain variants and eight DA β1 (DAB), three DB α1 and five DB β1 variants were amplified from 20 koalas from two free-living populations from South East Queensland and the Port Macquarie region in northern New South Wales. We detected greater variation in the β1 than in the α1 domains as well as evidence of positive selection in DAB. The present study provides a springboard to future investigation of the role of MHC in disease susceptibility in koalas.

  7. Expansion design for a radioactive sources handling laboratory type II class B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez S, P. S.; Monroy G, F.; Alanis, J.

    2013-10-01

    The Radioactive Wastes Research Laboratory (RWRL) of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (Mexico), at the moment has three sections: instrumental analysis, radioactive material processes, counting and a license type II class C, to manipulate radioactive material. This license limits the open sources handling to 300 kBq for radionuclides of very high radio-toxicity as the Ra-226, for what is being projected the license extension to type II class B, to be able to manage until 370 MBq of this radionuclides type, and the Laboratory, since the location where is the RWRL have unused area. This work presents a proposal of the RWRL expansion, taking into account the current laboratory sections, as well as the established specifications by the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (CNSNS). The current planes of the RWRL and the expansion proposal of the laboratory are presented. (Author)

  8. Prediction of the binding affinities of peptides to class II MHC using a regularized thermodynamic model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittelmann Hans D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The binding of peptide fragments of extracellular peptides to class II MHC is a crucial event in the adaptive immune response. Each MHC allotype generally binds a distinct subset of peptides and the enormous number of possible peptide epitopes prevents their complete experimental characterization. Computational methods can utilize the limited experimental data to predict the binding affinities of peptides to class II MHC. Results We have developed the Regularized Thermodynamic Average, or RTA, method for predicting the affinities of peptides binding to class II MHC. RTA accounts for all possible peptide binding conformations using a thermodynamic average and includes a parameter constraint for regularization to improve accuracy on novel data. RTA was shown to achieve higher accuracy, as measured by AUC, than SMM-align on the same data for all 17 MHC allotypes examined. RTA also gave the highest accuracy on all but three allotypes when compared with results from 9 different prediction methods applied to the same data. In addition, the method correctly predicted the peptide binding register of 17 out of 18 peptide-MHC complexes. Finally, we found that suboptimal peptide binding registers, which are often ignored in other prediction methods, made significant contributions of at least 50% of the total binding energy for approximately 20% of the peptides. Conclusions The RTA method accurately predicts peptide binding affinities to class II MHC and accounts for multiple peptide binding registers while reducing overfitting through regularization. The method has potential applications in vaccine design and in understanding autoimmune disorders. A web server implementing the RTA prediction method is available at http://bordnerlab.org/RTA/.

  9. The application of NISA II FEM package in seismic qualification of small class IE electric motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fancev, T.; Saban, I.; Grgic, D.

    1995-01-01

    According to the IEEE standards 323/1974 and 344/1975, seismic qualification of class IE equipment is appropriate combination of test and analysis methods. Complex equipment and assemblies are usually tested through seismic testing. The analysis is recommended for simple equipment that can be easily modeled to correctly predict its response. This article deals with the application of NISA II FEM package in 3D FE modeling and mode shape calculations of small power low voltage electric motors. (author)

  10. Orthodontic Class II:1 treatment-efficiency and outcome quality of Herbst-multibracket appliance therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, N; Ruehl, J; Ruf, S

    2017-12-08

    The aim of this retrospective investigation was to assess the efficiency and outcome quality of Class II:1 treatment (Tx). The investigation is based on the evaluation of all Class II:1 patients that ever (1986-2014) started Tx with a Herbst appliance and subsequently a multibracket appliance (MBA) at the study center. Study casts from before Tx, after Herbst-MBA Tx, and (if available) after ≥ 24 months of retention were evaluated using the Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) index, the Ahlgren scale, and standard occlusal variables. In total, 526 Class II:1 patients with a mean pre-Tx age of 14.4 years (range 9.8-44.4) had received Herbst-MBA Tx; 18 patients discontinued Tx before completion. For 240 patients, data from ≥ 24 months of retention were available. The pre-Tx PAR score of 32.4 ± 8.83 was reduced to 8.0 ± 4.51 during Tx. A slight increase to 8.8 ± 5.11 occurred during retention. The percentage of patients which could be assigned to the category "greatly improved" was 62% after Tx and 57% after retention; only 2-3% had to be assigned to the category "worse/no different." The outcome ratings according to the Ahlgren scale revealed 17% excellent, 35% good, 45% satisfactory, and 3% unsuccessful results. Class II:1 Tx using Herbst-MBA is an efficient approach in orthodontic care. During a mean active Tx period of 2 years, high-quality results can be obtained in the majority of patients. The present investigation is the first to investigate a large unselected cohort of consecutive Herbst-MBA patients to determine representative data on the efficiency and the outcome quality of this Tx approach.

  11. JC Polyomavirus Infection Is Strongly Controlled by Human Leucocyte Antigen Class II Variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundqvist, Emilie; Buck, Dorothea; Warnke, Clemens

    2014-01-01

    sequence-specific oligonucleotide (PCR-SSO) method. An initial GWAS screen displayed a strong HLA class II region signal. The HLA-DRB1*15 haplotype was strongly negatively associated to JCV sero-status in Scandinavian MS cases (OR = 0.42, p = 7×10(-15)) and controls (OR = 0.53, p = 2×10(-5)). In contrast...

  12. A caspase-2-RFXANK interaction and its implication for MHC class II expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Jeremy; Li, Xinge; Akpinar, Birce; Salvatori, Roger; Ott, Martin; Zhivotovsky, Boris; Olsson, Magnus

    2018-01-23

    Despite recent achievements implicating caspase-2 in tumor suppression, the enzyme stands out from the apoptotic caspase family as a factor whose function requires further clarification. To specify enzyme characteristics through the definition of interacting proteins in apoptotic or non-apoptotic settings, a yeast 2-hybrid (Y2H) screen was performed using the full-length protein as bait. The current report describes the analysis of a captured prey and putative novel caspase-2 interacting factor, the regulatory factor X-associated ankyrin-containing protein (RFXANK), previously associated with CIITA, the transactivator regulating cell-type specificity and inducibility of MHC class II gene expression. The interaction between caspase-2 and RFXANK was verified by co-immunoprecipitations using both exogenous and endogenous proteins, where the latter approach suggested that binding of the components occurs in the cytoplasm. Cellular co-localization was confirmed by transfection of fluorescently conjugated proteins. Enhanced caspase-2 processing in RFXANK-overexpressing HEK293T cells treated with chemotherapeutic agents further supported Y2H data. Yet, no distinct differences with respect to MHC class II expression were observed in plasma membranes of antigen-presenting cells derived from wild type and caspase-2 -/- mice. In contrast, increased levels of the total MHC class II protein was evident in protein lysates from caspase-2 RNAi-silenced leukemia cell lines and B-cells isolated from gene-targeted mice. Together, these data identify a novel caspase-2-interacting factor, RFXANK, and indicate a potential non-apoptotic role for the enzyme in the control of MHC class II gene regulation.

  13. Treatment of Class II subdivision malocclusion with congenitally missing upper lateral incisors: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Siddharth Mehta; Ashima Valiathan; Arun Urala

    2014-01-01

    Orthodontic treatment for patients with unilateral or bilateral congenitally missing lateral incisor poses a challenge mainly with regard to treatment planning. The use of a diagnostic setup is one of the most important aids in the decision-making process. Two alternatives, orthodontic space closure or space opening for prosthetic replacement exist. The present case report shows use of the microimplant for unilateral upper molar distalization and space closure in a Class-II division 1 subdivi...

  14. Influence of the HLA class II polymorphism in chronic Chagas' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Mestre, M T; Layrisse, Z; Montagnani, S; Acquatella, H; Catalioti, F; Matos, M; Balbas, O; Makhatadze, N; Dominguez, E; Herrera, F; Madrigal, A

    1998-04-01

    Chagas' disease or American trypanosomiasis due to Trypanosoma cruzi has existed at least since the time of the Inca empire and contributes significantly to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in several countries of this continent. Due to the fundamental role of human class II molecules polymorphic residues in the control of the immune response, a study was designed to define by DNA typing HLA class II alleles in a sample of 67 serologically positive individuals with and without cardiomyopathy and in 156 healthy controls of similar ethnic origin. Genomic DNA extraction, PCR amplification of the HLA-DRB1 and DQB1 second exon regions and hybridization to labelled specific probes were carried out following the 11th International Histocompatibility Workshop reference protocol. Comparison of DRB1 and DQB1 allele frequencies among the patients and control subjects showed a decreased frequency of DRB1*14 and DQB1*0303 in the patients, suggesting independent protective effects to the chronic infection in this population. Allele frequencies comparison between patients with and without cardiomyopathy showed a higher frequency of DRB1*01, DRB1*08 and DQB1*0501 and a decreased frequency of DRB1*1501 in the patients with arrhythmia and congestive heart failure. The results suggest that HLA Class II genes may be associated with the development of a chronic infection and with heart damage in Chagas' disease.

  15. Expansion design for a Laboratory of Radioactive Sources Handling type II, class B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez S, P. S.

    2014-01-01

    This work presents the expansion design of the Radioactive Wastes Research Laboratory (RWRL) installation authorized by the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (Mexico) as type II class C, to manage 40 different radionuclides, approximately. The RWRL has 4 areas at the present time: a laboratory of instrumental analysis, one of radioactive material processes, other of counting and a chemical reagents stock, which is not integrated to the operation license of the RWRL. With the purpose of expanding the operation license of the RWRL to an installation type II class B, to manage until 370 MBq of high radio toxicity radionuclides, is presented in this work an expansion proposal of the RWRL. The expansion proposal is based in: (1) the Mexican Nuclear Standard NOM-027-Nucl-1996 for installations type II class B, (2) the current distribution of water, light, electricity, extraction, gas, air and vacuum services of RWRL, and (3) the available areas inside the building that the RWRL occupies. The proposal contemplates the creation of additional new areas for RWRL: 3 laboratories, 2 dressing rooms, 2 bathrooms and 2 warehouses, one for radioactive materials and another for reagents chemical radiologically inactive. Architectural, electric, hydraulic, extraction and gas planes corresponding to the expansion of RWRL were realized. Inside the proposal the budget required to carry out the mentioned expansion is also presented. (Author)

  16. Class II malocclusion treatment using high-pull headgear with a splint: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder B. Jacob

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the scientific evidence pertaining to the effectiveness of high-pull headgear in growing Class II subjects. METHODS: A literature survey was performed by electronic database search. The survey covered the period from January 1966 to December 2008 and used Medical Subject Headings (MeSH. Articles were initially selected based on their titles and abstracts; the full articles were then retrieved. The inclusion criteria included growing subjects between 8 to 15 years of age, Class II malocclusion treatment with high-pull headgear, and a control group with Class II malocclusion. References from selected articles were hand-searched for additional publications. Selected studies were evaluated methodologically. RESULTS: Four articles were selected; none were randomized controlled trials. All of the articles clearly formulated their objectives and used appropriate measures. The studies showed that high-pull headgear treatment improves skeletal and dental relationship, distal displacement of the maxilla, vertical eruption control and upper molars distalization. One of the studies showed a slight clockwise rotation of the palatal plane; the others showed no significant treatment effect. The mandible was not affected by the treatment. CONCLUSION: While there is still a lack of strong evidence demonstrating the effects of high-pull headgear with a splint, other studies indicate that the AP relations improve due to distalization of the maxilla and upper molars, with little or no treatment effects in the mandible. Greater attention to the design should be given to improve the quality of such trials.

  17. Treatment timing of MARA and fixed appliance therapy of Class II malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghislanzoni, Luis Tomas Huanca; Baccetti, Tiziano; Toll, Douglas; Defraia, Efisio; McNamara, James A; Franchi, Lorenzo

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of timing on Mandibular Anterior Repositioning Appliance (MARA) and fixed appliance treatment of Class II malocclusion in a prospective clinical trial. The treated sample consisted of 51 consecutively treated patients at prepubertal (n = 21), pubertal (n = 15), and postpubertal (n = 15) stages of development. Control groups for the three treated groups were generated from growth data of untreated Class II subjects. Lateral cephalograms were digitized and superimposed via cephalometric software at T1 (pre-treatment) and T2 (after comprehensive treatment). The T1-T2 changes in the treated groups were compared to those in their corresponding control groups with Mann-Whitney tests with Bonferroni correction. Mandibular elongation was greater at the pubertal stage (Co-Gn +2.6 mm, with respect to controls). Headgear effect on the maxilla was greater in the pre-peak sample (Co-A -1.9 mm, with respect to controls). Dentoalveolar compensations (proclination of lower incisors, extrusion and mesialization of lower molars, and reduction in the overbite) were significant in the pre-peak and post-peak groups. Optimal timing for Class II treatment with MARA appliance is at the pubertal growth spurt, with enhanced mandibular skeletal changes and minimal dentoalveolar compensations.

  18. Methylation of class II transactivator gene promoter IV is not associated with susceptibility to Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lincoln Matthew R

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple sclerosis (MS is a complex trait in which alleles at or near the class II loci HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 contribute significantly to genetic risk. The MHC class II transactivator (MHC2TA is the master controller of expression of class II genes, and methylation of the promoter of this gene has been previously been shown to alter its function. In this study we sought to assess whether or not methylation of the MHC2TA promoter pIV could contribute to MS disease aetiology. Methods In DNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a sample of 50 monozygotic disease discordant MS twins the MHC2TA promoter IV was sequenced and analysed by methylation specific PCR. Results No methylation or sequence variation of the MHC2TA promoter pIV was found. Conclusion The results of this study cannot support the notion that methylation of the pIV promoter of MHC2TA contributes to MS disease risk, although tissue and timing specific epigenetic modifications cannot be ruled out.

  19. Stability of class II subdivision malocclusion treatment with 3 and 4 premolar extractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, Guilherme; Araki, Janine; Estelita, Sérgio; Camardella, Leonardo T

    2014-12-30

    The purpose of this study was to compare the occlusal stability of class II subdivision malocclusion treatment with 3 and 4 first premolar extractions. A sample of 156 dental casts from 52 patients with class II subdivision malocclusion was divided into two groups according to the extraction protocol. Group 1 comprised 24 patients treated with 3 premolar extractions and group 2 included 28 patients treated with 4 premolar extractions. Peer assessment rating (PAR) indexes were measured on the dental casts obtained before (T1) and after treatment (T2) and at a mean of 6.9 years after the end of treatment (T3). The groups were matching regarding sex distribution, pretreatment, posttreatment and long-term posttreatment ages, and treatment and long-term posttreatment times. They were also comparable concerning the initial malocclusion severity and the occlusal results at the end of treatment. Stability evaluation was calculated by subtracting the posttreatment from the long-term posttreatment index values (T3 - T2). T tests were used to compare the amount and percentage of long-term posttreatment changes. There were no intergroup differences regarding the amount and percentage of long-term posttreatment changes. Treatment of class II subdivision malocclusion with 3 and 4 premolar extractions have a similar long-term posttreatment occlusal stability.

  20. The same ELA class II risk factors confer equine insect bite hypersensitivity in two distinct populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Lisa S; Swinburne, June E; Meadows, Jennifer R S; Broström, Hans; Eriksson, Susanne; Fikse, W Freddy; Frey, Rebecka; Sundquist, Marie; Tseng, Chia T; Mikko, Sofia; Lindgren, Gabriella

    2012-03-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is a chronic allergic dermatitis common in horses. Affected horses mainly react against antigens present in the saliva from the biting midges, Culicoides ssp, and occasionally black flies, Simulium ssp. Because of this insect dependency, the disease is clearly seasonal and prevalence varies between geographical locations. For two distinct horse breeds, we genotyped four microsatellite markers positioned within the MHC class II region and sequenced the highly polymorphic exons two from DRA and DRB3, respectively. Initially, 94 IBH-affected and 93 unaffected Swedish born Icelandic horses were tested for genetic association. These horses had previously been genotyped on the Illumina Equine SNP50 BeadChip, which made it possible to ensure that our study did not suffer from the effects of stratification. The second population consisted of 106 unaffected and 80 IBH-affected Exmoor ponies. We show that variants in the MHC class II region are associated with disease susceptibility (p (raw) = 2.34 × 10(-5)), with the same allele (COR112:274) associated in two separate populations. In addition, we combined microsatellite and sequencing data in order to investigate the pattern of homozygosity and show that homozygosity across the entire MHC class II region is associated with a higher risk of developing IBH (p = 0.0013). To our knowledge this is the first time in any atopic dermatitis suffering species, including man, where the same risk allele has been identified in two distinct populations.

  1. The Position of Hyoici Bone in Skeletal Class I, II and III Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravanmehr H

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, the position of hyoid bone was compared in three skeletal groups of class I, II and III. The study was based on evaluating 77 lateral cephalometric radiographs, 40 girls and 37 boys, which were divided into 3 groups. Group 1, 2, and 3 consist of 26, 25, and 26 radiographs. 19 cephalometric landmarks and 10 planes were used in order to tracing the radiographs. In all patients, 9 skeletal and 4 cervical vertebrae parameters were measured to determine the hyoid bone. These parameters were compared between three skeletal groups regardless of sex and then, in another statistical analysis, parameters were compared based on patients sex. Statistical analysis showed that in class III patients, the hyoid bone was positioned more anteriorly than two other groups. Also in this group, the hyoid bone had less inclination and it was more horizontal in relation to mandibular plane. In skeletal class II patients this bone was positioned more superiorly than two other groups. Due to these findings it can be concluded that perimandibular muscles and bones could affect the growth of mandible. In addition, comparison of the parameters between two sexes revealed that the hyoid bone was positioned more anteriorly and inferiorly in boys. Also it was shown that in the girls, the position of hyoid bone was closer to the position of this bone in skeletal class I patients.

  2. [Morphological analysis of alveolar bone of anterior mandible in high-angle skeletal class II and class III malocclusions assessed with cone-beam computed tomography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, J; Jiang, J H

    2018-02-18

    To evaluate the difference of features of alveolar bone support under lower anterior teeth between high-angle adults with skeletal class II malocclusions and high-angle adults presenting skeletal class III malocclusions by using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Patients who had taken the images of CBCT were selected from the Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology between October 2015 and August 2017. The CBCT archives from 62 high-angle adult cases without orthodontic treatment were divided into two groups based on their sagittal jaw relationships: skeletal class II and skeletal class III. vertical bone level (VBL), alveolar bone area (ABA), and the width of alveolar bone were measured respectively at the 2 mm, 4 mm, 6 mm below the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) level and at the apical level. After that, independent samples t-tests were conducted for statistical comparisons. The ABA of the mandibular alveolar bone in the area of lower anterior teeth was significantly thinner in the patients of skeletal class III than those of skeletal class II, especially in terms of the apical ABA, total ABA on the labial and lingual sides and the ABA at 6 mm below CEJ level on the lingual side (Pclass III than those of skeletal class II, especially regarding the apical level on the labial and lingual side and at the level of 4 mm, 6 mm below CEJ level on the lingual side (Pclass III adult patients with high-angle when compared with the sample of high-angle skeletal class II adult cases. We recommend orthodontists to be more cautious in treatment of high-angle skeletal class III patients, especially pay attention to control the torque of lower anterior teeth during forward and backward movement, in case that the apical root might be absorbed or fenestration happen in the area of lower anterior teeth.

  3. Stability of Class II fixed functional appliance therapy—a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bremen, Julia; Ruf, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objectives: To systematically search for scientific evidence concerning the stability of treatment (Tx) results achieved by means of Class II fixed functional appliance therapy and to assess possible differences between appliances. Search Methods: An electronic search of databases and orthodontic journals was carried out (until December 2013), with supplemental hand searching. In addition to the names of all identified appliances, the term fixed functional was used in combination with each of the following search terms: long-term, post-Tx, relapse, retention, stability. Selection Criteria: To be included in the review, the articles had to contain clear data on: Class II Tx with a fixed functional appliance (>5 patients), post-Tx period ≥ 1 year, assessment of ANB angle, Wits appraisal, molar relationship, soft-tissue profile convexity excluding the nose, overjet and/or overbite. Data Collection and Analysis: The literature search revealed 20 scientific investigations which corresponded to only two of the 76 identified appliances (Herbst and Twin Force Bite Corrector). As only one publication was found for the Twin Force Bite Corrector, a meta-analysis could only be performed for Herbst Tx. The data were extracted, pooled and weighted according to the number of patients in each study. Results: The mean values for post-Tx relapse (percentages relative to the Tx changes) were: ANB angle 0.2 degrees (12.4 per cent), Wits appraisal 0.5mm (19.5 per cent), sagittal molar relationship 1.2mm/0.1 cusp widths (21.8 per cent /6.5 per cent); soft-tissue profile convexity excluding nose less than 0.1 degrees (1.0 per cent), overjet 1.8mm (26.2 per cent), overbite Class II:1 1.4mm (44.7 per cent), overbite Class II:2 1.0mm (22.2 per cent). Conclusions: The scientific evidence concerning the stability of Tx results is inexistent for most fixed functional appliances for Class II correction except for Herbst appliance Tx. Even if the evidence level of most included studies

  4. Wind River Watershed Restoration Project, Segment II, 2000-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bair, Brian; Olegario, Anthony; Powers, Paul

    2002-06-01

    This document represents work conducted as part of the Wind River Watershed Restoration Project during its second year of funding through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The project is a comprehensive effort involving public and private entities seeking to restore water quality and fishery resources in the basin through cooperative actions. Project elements include coordination, watershed assessment, restoration, monitoring, and education. Entities involved with implementing project components are the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), USDA Forest Service (USFS), U.S. Geological Survey - Columbia River Research Lab (USGS-CRRL), and WA Department of Fish & Wildlife (WDFW).

  5. Fluorides leaching from restorative materials and the effect on adjacent teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Vibeke; Poulsen, Agneta; Teglers, Poul Thorpen

    2010-01-01

    Placing a Class II restoration in a tooth changes the local environment, including that for the adjacent tooth. Apart from the change to a less- or non-cariogenic environment for the restored tooth, the effect of leachable components from a restoration in the adjacent tooth should be taken into c...

  6. Comparison of temporomandibular joint and ramus morphology between class II and class III cases before and after bi-maxillary osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iguchi, Ran; Yoshizawa, Kunio; Moroi, Akinori; Tsutsui, Takamitsu; Hotta, Asami; Hiraide, Ryota; Takayama, Akihiro; Tsunoda, Tatsuya; Saito, Yuki; Sato, Momoko; Baba, Nana; Ueki, Koichiro

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare changes in temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and ramus morphology between class II and III cases before and after sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO) and Le Fort I osteotomy. The subjects were 39 patients (78 sides) who underwent bi-maxillary surgery. They consisted of 2 groups (18 class II cases and 21 class III cases), and were selected randomly from among patients who underwent surgery between 2012 and 2016. The TMJ disc tissue and joint effusion were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the TMJ space, condylar height, ramus height, ramus inclination and condylar square were assessed by computed tomography (CT), pre- and post-operatively. The number of joints with anterior disc displacement in class II was significantly higher than that in class III (p bi-maxillary surgery. The findings of the numerical analysis also demonstrated that reduction of condylar volume occurred frequently in class II, although TMJ disc position classification did not change significantly, as previously reported. Copyright © 2017 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Interdisciplinary treatment for a compensated Class II partially edentulous malocclusion: Orthodontic creation of a posterior implant site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Grace; Chang, Chris; Roberts, W Eugene

    2018-03-01

    A 36-year-old woman with good periodontal health sought treatment for a compensated Class II partially edentulous malocclusion associated with a steep mandibular plane (SN-MP, 45°), 9 missing teeth, a 3-mm midline discrepancy, and compromised posterior occlusal function. She had multiple carious lesions, a failing fixed prostheses in the mandibular right quadrant replacing the right first molar, and a severely atrophic edentulous ridge in the area around the mandibular left first and second molars. After restoration of the caries, the mandibular left third molar served as anchorage to correct the mandibular arch crowding. The mandibular left second premolar was retracted with a light force of 2 oz (about 28.3 cN) on the buccal and lingual surfaces to create an implant site between the premolars. Modest lateral root resorption was noted on the distal surface of the mandibular left second premolar after about 7 mm of distal translation in 7 months. Six months later, implants were placed in the mandibular left and right quadrants; the spaces were retained with the fixed appliance for 5 months and a removable retainer for 1 month. Poor cooperation resulted in relapse of the mandibular left second premolar back into the implant site, and it was necessary to reopen the space. When the mandibular left fixture was uncovered, a 3-mm deep osseous defect on the distobuccal surface was found; it was an area of relatively immature bundle bone, because the distal aspect of the space was reopened after the relapse. Subsequent bone grafting resulted in good osseous support of the implant-supported prosthesis. The relatively thin band of attached gingiva on the implant at the mandibular right first molar healed with a recessed contour that was susceptible to food impaction. A free gingival graft restored soft tissue form and function. This severe malocclusion with a discrepancy index value of 28 was treated to an excellent outcome in 38 months of interdisciplinary treatment

  8. The Dimanganese(II) Site of Bacillus subtilis Class Ib Ribonucleotide Reductase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boal, Amie K.; Cotruvo, Jr., Joseph A.; Stubbe, JoAnne; Rosenzweig, Amy C. (MIT); (NWU)

    2014-10-02

    Class Ib ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) use a dimanganese-tyrosyl radical cofactor, Mn{sub 2}{sup III}-Y{sm_bullet}, in their homodimeric NrdF ({beta}2) subunit to initiate reduction of ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides. The structure of the Mn{sub 2}{sup II} form of NrdF is an important component in understanding O{sub 2}-mediated formation of the active metallocofactor, a subject of much interest because a unique flavodoxin, NrdI, is required for cofactor assembly. Biochemical studies and sequence alignments suggest that NrdF and NrdI proteins diverge into three phylogenetically distinct groups. The only crystal structure to date of a NrdF with a fully ordered and occupied dimanganese site is that of Escherichia coli Mn{sub 2}{sup II}-NrdF, prototypical of the enzymes from actinobacteria and proteobacteria. Here we report the 1.9 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of Bacillus subtilis Mn{sub 2}{sup II}-NrdF, representative of the enzymes from a second group, from Bacillus and Staphylococcus. The structures of the metal clusters in the {beta}2 dimer are distinct from those observed in E. coli Mn{sub 2}{sup II}-NrdF. These differences illustrate the key role that solvent molecules and protein residues in the second coordination sphere of the Mn{sub 2}{sup II} cluster play in determining conformations of carboxylate residues at the metal sites and demonstrate that diverse coordination geometries are capable of serving as starting points for Mn{sub 2}{sup III}-Y{sm_bullet} cofactor assembly in class Ib RNRs.

  9. Self-esteem in adolescents with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusion in a Peruvian sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Florián-Vargas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To compare self-esteem scores in 12 to 16-year-old adolescents with different Angle malocclusion types in a Peruvian sample. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 276 adolescents (159, 52 and 65 with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusions, respectively from Trujillo, Peru. Participants were asked to complete the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES and were also clinically examined, so as to have Angle malocclusion classification determined. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA was used to compare RSES scores among adolescents with Class I, II and III malocclusions, with participants' demographic factors being controlled. Results: Mean RSES scores for adolescents with Class I, II and III malocclusions were 20.47 ± 3.96, 21.96 ± 3.27 and 21.26 ± 4.81, respectively. The ANCOVA test showed that adolescents with Class II malocclusion had a significantly higher RSES score than those with Class I malocclusion, but there were no differences between other malocclusion groups. Supplemental analysis suggested that only those with Class II, Division 2 malocclusion might have greater self-esteem when compared to adolescents with Class I malocclusion. Conclusion: This study shows that, in general, self-esteem did not vary according to adolescents' malocclusion in the sample studied. Surprisingly, only adolescents with Class II malocclusion, particularly Class II, Division 2, reported better self-esteem than those with Class I malocclusion. A more detailed analysis assessing the impact of anterior occlusal features should be conducted.

  10. Additional file 4: of MHC class II expression and potential antigen-presenting cells in the retina during experimental autoimmune uveitis

    OpenAIRE

    Lipski, Deborah; Dewispelaere, RÊmi; Foucart, Vincent; Caspers, Laure; Defrance, Matthieu; Bruyns, Catherine; Willermain, François

    2017-01-01

    Figure S4. MHC class II expression in the retina during classical EAU. Three weeks after immunization, eye cryosections were prepared and stained for MHC class II (green) and IBA1 (red) or endoglin (magenta) detection. Cell nuclei were stained with Hoechst (blue). Each picture was chosen as representative of an experiment conducted on six or more animals. A. MHC class II and IBA1 expression. B. MHC class II and endoglin expression. (PPTX 7276 kb)

  11. 40 CFR Figure C-2 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM2.5 Candidate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Figure C-2 to Subpart C of Part 53... Methods and Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Fig. C-2 Figure C-2 to Subpart C of Part 53—Illustration...

  12. Cephalometric effects of the use of 10-hour Force Theory for Class II treatment

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    Marise de Castro Cabrera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the cephalometric effects promoted by the orthodontic treatment of Class II malocclusion patients with the use of the 10-Hour Force Theory, that consists in the use of fixed appliances with 8 hours a day using a cervical headgear appliance and 16 hours a day using Class II elastics, 8 hours on the first mandibular molar and 8 hours in the second mandibular molar. METHODS: Sample comprised 31 patients with mean initial age of 14.90 years, final mean age of 17.25 years and mean treatment time of 2.35 years. The lateral cephalograms in pre-treatment and post-treatment stages were evaluated. Evaluation of cephalometric changes between initial and final treatment phases was performed by paired t test. RESULTS: The cases treated with the 10-Hour Force Theory presented a slight restriction of anterior displacement of the maxilla, increase in the effective length of the mandible, significant improvement of the maxillomandibular relationship, significant increase in anterior lower face height, distal tipping of the maxillary premolar crowns, extrusion and distal tipping of the roots of maxillary molars, significant proclination and protrusion of mandibular incisors, significant extrusion and mesialization of mandibular molars, besides a significant correction of the molar relationship, overjet and overbite. CONCLUSION: The use of the 10-Hour Force Theory in treatment of Class II malocclusion provided satisfactory results.OBJETIVO: esse estudo objetivou avaliar os efeitos cefalométricos promovidos pelo tratamento ortodôntico de pacientes com má oclusão de Classe II com o uso da Teoria de Força das 10 Horas, que consiste no uso de aparelho ortodôntico fixo, 8 horas diárias de uso de aparelho extrabucal cervical e 16 horas de uso de elásticos de Classe II, sendo 8 horas com apoio no primeiro molar inferior e 8 horas com apoio no segundo molar inferior. MÉTODOS: a amostra consistiu de 31 pacientes, com idade m

  13. Surgical treatment of class II malocclusion in the orthodontic boundaries: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandeca, Matheus Coelho; Porto, Alessandra Nogueira; Valieri, Sidnei; Valieri, Matheus; Borges, Alvaro H; Mattos, Fernanda Zanol

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to report a clinical case of treatment of Class II division I malocclusion with facial aesthetic impairment, whose therapeutic approach comprised the association of orthodontic treatment with orthognathic surgery. The treatment for the present case consisted of decompensation oflower incisors and extraction oftwo lower premolars, in order to obtain horizontal discrepancy allowing the surgery for mandibular advancement. At the end of treatment, we could clinically observe a Class I molar/canine relationship, normal overbite and overjet, presence of lip seal, type I facial profile with considerable aesthetic improvement. We can conclude that the ortho-surgical treatment is a therapeutic alternative providing the best prognosis in terms of aesthetic correction in patients with unpleasant facial profile.

  14. Bilateral sagittal split osteotomy: Surgery first approach for correction of skeletal Class II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revathi Peddu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the skeletal malocclusions which require orthognathic surgeries are treated by traditional approach which requires time-consuming and unesthetic presurgical orthodontic phase. Surgery first approach (SFA avoids these disadvantages of the traditional approach. A 24-year-old female patient with skeletal and dental class II malocclusion due to retrognathic mandible was treated with SFA. Bilateral sagittal split osteotomy with mandibular advancement was done immediately after initial alignment and closure of the existing spaces in the maxillary arch. Angle's class I molar and canine relation was achieved after surgery. Bonding of the mandibular arch was done after 1 month of orthognathic surgery and treatment was completed within 13 months. A wrap-around retainer was placed in upper arch, and bonded lingual retainer was given in the lower arch.

  15. β class II tubulin predominates in normal and tumor breast tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dozier, James H; Hiser, Laree; Davis, Jennifer A; Thomas, Nancy Stubbs; Tucci, Michelle A; Benghuzzi, Hamed A; Frankfurter, Anthony; Correia, John J; Lobert, Sharon

    2003-01-01

    Antimitotic chemotherapeutic agents target tubulin, the major protein in mitotic spindles. Tubulin isotype composition is thought to be both diagnostic of tumor progression and a determinant of the cellular response to chemotherapy. This implies that there is a difference in isotype composition between normal and tumor tissues. To determine whether such a difference occurs in breast tissues, total tubulin was fractionated from lysates of paired normal and tumor breast tissues, and the amounts of β-tubulin classes I + IV, II, and III were measured by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Only primary tumor tissues, before chemotherapy, were examined. Her2/neu protein amplification occurs in about 30% of breast tumors and is considered a marker for poor prognosis. To gain insight into whether tubulin isotype levels might be correlated with prognosis, ELISAs were used to quantify Her2/neu protein levels in these tissues. β-Tubulin isotype distributions in normal and tumor breast tissues were similar. The most abundant β-tubulin isotypes in these tissues were β-tubulin classes II and I + IV. Her2/neu levels in tumor tissues were 5–30-fold those in normal tissues, although there was no correlation between the Her2/neu biomarker and tubulin isotype levels. These results suggest that tubulin isotype levels, alone or in combination with Her2/neu protein levels, might not be diagnostic of tumorigenesis in breast cancer. However, the presence of a broad distribution of these tubulin isotypes (for example, 40–75% β-tubulin class II) in breast tissue, in conjunction with other factors, might still be relevant to disease progression and cellular response to antimitotic drugs

  16. The effectiveness of the Herbst appliance for patients with Class II malocclusion: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin; Zhu, Yafen; Long, Hu; Zhou, Yang; Jian, Fan; Ye, Niansong; Gao, Meiya

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective: To systematically investigate review in literature the effects of the Herbst appliance for patients with Class II malocclusion patients. Method: We performed a comprehensive literature survey on PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, CENTRAL, SIGLE, and ClinicalTrial.gov up to December 2014. The selection criteria: randomized controlled trials or clinical controlled trials; using any kind of Herbst appliances to correct Class II division 1 malocclusions; skeletal and/or dental changes evaluated through lateral cephalograms. And the exclusion criteria: syndromic patients; individual case reports and series of cases; surgical interventions. Article screening, data extraction, assessment of risk of bias, and evaluation of evidence quality through GRADE were conducted independently by two well-trained orthodontic doctors. Consensus was made via group discussion of all authors when there is inconsistent information from the two. After that, sensitivity analysis and subgroup analysis were performed to evaluate the robustness of the meta-analysis. Results: Twelve clinical controlled trials meet the above-mentioned criteria, and were included in this analysis. All included studies have eleven measures taken during both active treatment effect and long term effect periods, including four angular ones (i.e., SNA, SNB, ANB, mandibular plane angle) and seven linear ones (i.e. Co-Go, Co-Gn, overjet, overbite, molar relationship, A point-OLp, Pg-OLp) during active treatment effect period were statistically pooled. Meta-analysis and sensitivity analysis demonstrated that all these measures showed consistent results except for SNA, ANB, and overbite. Subgroup analysis showed significant changes in SNA, overbite, and Pg-OLp. Publication bias was detected in SNB, mandibular plane angle, and A point-OLp. Conclusion: The Herbst appliance is effective for patients with Class II malocclusion in active treatment period. Especially, there are obvious changes on dental

  17. Antigen presentation and MHC class II expression by human esophageal epithelial cells: role in eosinophilic esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Daniel J; Pooni, Aman; Mak, Nanette; Hurlbut, David J; Basta, Sameh; Justinich, Christopher J

    2011-02-01

    Professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) play a crucial role in initiating immune responses. Under pathological conditions, epithelial cells at mucosal surfaces act as nonprofessional APCs, thereby regulating immune responses at the site of exposure. Epithelial cells in the esophagus may contribute to the pathogenesis of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) by presenting antigens on the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II. Our goal was to demonstrate the ability of esophageal epithelial cells to process and present antigens on the MHC class II system and to investigate the contribution of epithelial cell antigen presentation to EoE. Immunohistochemistry detected HLA-DR, CD80, and CD86 expression and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay detected interferon-γ (IFNγ) in esophageal biopsies. Antigen presentation was studied using the human esophageal epithelial cell line HET-1A by reverse transcriptase-PCR, flow cytometry, and confocal microscopy. T helper cell lymphocyte proliferation was assessed by flow cytometry and IL-2 secretion. IFNγ and MHC class II were increased in mucosa of patients with EoE. IFNγ increased mRNA of HLA-DP, HLA-DQ, HLA-DR, and CIITA in HET-1A cells. HET-1A engulfed cell debris and processed ovalbumin. HET-1A cells expressed HLA-DR after IFNγ treatment. HET-1A stimulated T helper cell activation. In this study, we demonstrated the ability of esophageal epithelial cells to act as nonprofessional APCs in the presence of IFNγ. Esophageal epithelial cell antigen presentation may contribute to the pathophysiology of eosinophilic esophagitis. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. MHC Class II and CD9 in Human Eosinophils Localize to Detergent-Resistant Membrane Microdomains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuthota, Praveen; Melo, Rossana C. N.; Spencer, Lisa A.

    2012-01-01

    Eosinophils function in murine allergic airways inflammation as professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs). In murine professional APC cell types, optimal functioning of MHC Class II depends on its lateral association in plasma membranes and colocalization with the tetraspanin CD9 into detergent-resistant membrane microdomains (DRMs). With human eosinophils, we evaluated the localization of MHC Class II (HLA-DR) to DRMs and the functional significance of such localization. In granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor–stimulated human eosinophils, antibody cross-linked HLA-DR colocalized by immunofluorescence microscopy focally on plasma membranes with CD9 and the DRM marker ganglioside GM1. In addition, HLA-DR coimmunoprecipitates with CD9 after chemical cross-linking of CD9. HLA-DR and CD9 were localized by Western blotting in eosinophil DRM subcellular fractions. DRM disruption with the cholesterol-depleting agent methyl-β-cyclodextrin decreased eosinophil surface expression of HLA-DR and CD9. We show that CD9 is abundant on the surface of eosinophils, presenting the first electron microscopy data of the ultrastructural immunolocalization of CD9 in human eosinophils. Disruption of HLA-DR–containing DRMs decreased the ability of superantigen-loaded human eosinophils to stimulate CD4+ T-cell activation (CD69 expression), proliferation, and cytokine production. Our results, which demonstrate that eosinophil MHC Class II localizes to DRMs in association with CD9 in a functionally significant manner, represent a novel insight into the organization of the antigen presentation complex of human eosinophils. PMID:21885678

  19. MHC Class II and CD9 in human eosinophils localize to detergent-resistant membrane microdomains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuthota, Praveen; Melo, Rossana C N; Spencer, Lisa A; Weller, Peter F

    2012-02-01

    Eosinophils function in murine allergic airways inflammation as professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs). In murine professional APC cell types, optimal functioning of MHC Class II depends on its lateral association in plasma membranes and colocalization with the tetraspanin CD9 into detergent-resistant membrane microdomains (DRMs). With human eosinophils, we evaluated the localization of MHC Class II (HLA-DR) to DRMs and the functional significance of such localization. In granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-stimulated human eosinophils, antibody cross-linked HLA-DR colocalized by immunofluorescence microscopy focally on plasma membranes with CD9 and the DRM marker ganglioside GM1. In addition, HLA-DR coimmunoprecipitates with CD9 after chemical cross-linking of CD9. HLA-DR and CD9 were localized by Western blotting in eosinophil DRM subcellular fractions. DRM disruption with the cholesterol-depleting agent methyl-β-cyclodextrin decreased eosinophil surface expression of HLA-DR and CD9. We show that CD9 is abundant on the surface of eosinophils, presenting the first electron microscopy data of the ultrastructural immunolocalization of CD9 in human eosinophils. Disruption of HLA-DR-containing DRMs decreased the ability of superantigen-loaded human eosinophils to stimulate CD4(+) T-cell activation (CD69 expression), proliferation, and cytokine production. Our results, which demonstrate that eosinophil MHC Class II localizes to DRMs in association with CD9 in a functionally significant manner, represent a novel insight into the organization of the antigen presentation complex of human eosinophils.

  20. Class II malocclusion treatment using combined Twin Block and fixed orthodontic appliances – A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Anezi, Saud A.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of the Twin Block functional orthodontic appliances is mostly dento-alveolar with small skeletal effect. There are certain clinical indications where functional appliances can be used successfully in class II malocclusion e.g. in a growing patient. The use of these appliances is greatly dependent on the patient’s compliance and they simplify the fixed appliance phase. In this case, a 13-year old adolescent was treated with Twin Block appliance followed by fixed appliance to detail the occlusion. The design and treatment effects were demonstrated in this case report. PMID:24151413

  1. DNA polymorphism of HLA class II genes in primary biliary cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morling, Niels; Dalhoff, K; Fugger, L

    1992-01-01

    We investigated the DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism of the major histocompatibility complex class II genes: HLA-DRB, -DQA, -DQB, DPA, -DPB, the serologically defined HLA-A, B, C, DR antigens, and the primed lymphocyte typing defined HLA-DP antigens in 23 Danish patients with primary...... than 0.05, 'corrected' P greater than 0.05). No DNA fragments specific for DRB1*0301 (DR3) could be identified. The frequencies in PBC of other genetic markers including DRw8, DRB1*08, HLA-DP antigens, DPA, and DPB genes did not differ significantly from those in controls. The associations between PBC...

  2. Treatment of Class II subdivision malocclusion with congenitally missing upper lateral incisors: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Mehta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontic treatment for patients with unilateral or bilateral congenitally missing lateral incisor poses a challenge mainly with regard to treatment planning. The use of a diagnostic setup is one of the most important aids in the decision-making process. Two alternatives, orthodontic space closure or space opening for prosthetic replacement exist. The present case report shows use of the microimplant for unilateral upper molar distalization and space closure in a Class-II division 1 subdivision malocclusion case with bilateral congenitally missing upper lateral incisors.

  3. [Improving the effectiveness of functional jaw orthopedics in Class II malocclusion by appropriate treatment timing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Tiziano

    2010-12-01

    Time can be considered the fourth dimension in dento-facial orthopedics. Treatment timing can play a significant role in the outcomes of treatment aimed to produce an orthopedic effect in the craniofacial structures. The results of methodologically-sound cephalometric studies of both the past and the recent history of orthodontics clearly indicate that optimal treatment timing for Class II skeletal disharmony with a functional appliance (e.g. twin block) is during or slightly after the peak in mandibular growth as revealed by a reliable biologic indicator of individual skeletal maturity such as the cervical vertebral maturation method. © EDP Sciences, SFODF, 2010.

  4. DNA typing of HLA class II genes in native inhabitants of Chukotka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krylov, M.Yu.; Erdesz, S.; Alexeeva, L.I. [Institute of Rheumatology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-06-01

    Polymorphism of HLA class II genes was studied in native Chukotka inhabitants with the use of DNA oligotyping. The characteristics of the distribution of allelic variants of the loci HLA-DRB1, -DQA1, -DQB1, and -DPB1 were revealed; they were similar to those of other Subarctic Mongoloid populations and different from those for comparable populations of other climatic and geographic zones. Our data suggest that the specific features found for the distributions of some alleles of the loci examined are related to the geographic variation in the HLA gene system studied. 20 refs., 4 tabs.

  5. Evolução dos preparos das cavidades de classe II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ONO Mary Miyuki

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A evolução dos preparos de classe II com a introdução de novos materiais e a conscientização da importância da preservação de estrutura dental sadia são abordadas nos preparos do tipo Almqvist, Roggenkamp e túnel, em que se observa a necessidade de menor desgaste da estrutura dentária, com aumento da resistência à fratura, melhor estética e melhor retenção

  6. Surgical correction of class II skeletal malocclusion in an adult patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishnan Balachander

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Correction of skeletal deformities in adult patients with orthodontics is limited. Orthognathic surgery is the best option for cases when camouflage treatment is questionable and growth modulation is not possible. This case report illustrates the benefit of the team approach in correcting vertical maxillary excess along with class II skeletal deformity. A cosmetic correction was achieved by superior repositioning of maxilla with LeFort I osteotomy and augmentation genioplasty, along with orthodontic treatment. The patient′s facial appearance was markedly improved along with functional and stable occlusion

  7. Post-treatment occlusal changes in Class II division 2 subjects treated with the Herbst appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Niko; Ruf, Sabine

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to analyse and compare the post-treatment occlusal changes of Class II division 2 treatment with the Herbst appliance in early adolescent, late adolescent, and adult subjects. The subjects were 37 Class II division 2 patients (19 females and 18 males) treated at the Orthodontic Department, University of Giessen, Germany. All were in the late mixed or permanent dentition and exhibited a Class II molar relationship > or =0.5 cusp width (CW) bilaterally or > or =1.0 CW unilaterally, an overbite (OB) >3.0 mm, and two upper central incisors retroclined. The subjects were divided into three skeletal maturity groups based on evaluation of hand wrist radiographs: early adolescent (n = 10, stages MP3-E to MP3-FG at start of treatment, age range: 11.3-13.2 years), late adolescent (n = 14, stages MP3-G to MP3-I at start of treatment, age range: 14.1-16.4 years), and adult (n = 13, stages R-I to R-J at the start of treatment, age range: 16.3-25.6 years). Study casts from before treatment (T1), after Herbst-Tip-Edge-Multibracket appliance treatment (T2), and after an average retention time of 27 months (T3) were analysed. Statistical analysis was undertaken using t-tests for paired and unpaired samples. For the whole sample, the molar relationship at T3 was stable in 82.4 per cent, the canine relationship in 82.9 per cent, and OB in 75.7 per cent of the cases. In the different skeletal maturity groups, the stability of the molars, canines, and overbite was as follows: early adolescents: 95.0, 100.0, and 70.0 per cent, respectively; late adolescents: 92.9, 74.1, and 85.7 per cent, respectively; and adults 61.5, 80.8, 69.2 per cent, respectively. Occlusal correction of Class II division 2 malocclusions with Herbst treatment was relatively stable 2 years post-treatment. The outcome of treatment of adolescents was more stable than that of adults.

  8. Microsatellite and HLA class II oligonucleotide typing in a population of Yanomami Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roewer, L; Nagy, M; Schmidt, P; Epplen, J T; Herzog-Schröder, G

    1993-01-01

    We have used three different microsatellites (on chromosome 12 and Y) together with HLA class II oligonucleotide typing (DQA and DQB) to analyze families of Yanomami indians settling in villages in Southern Venezuela. There exist complex networks of biological relationship between villages as a result of wife exchange, village fissioning and changing patterns of alliances associated with inter-village warfare. Social status in this society is largely determined by the kinship system. Polygyny is common, especially among headmen, with additional wives, frequently being chosen among the sisters of the first wife. Our preliminary results mainly obtained from inhabitants of the village HAP show the expected allele distribution in populations with a high degree of consanguinity: (i) deficiency of observed heterozygotes at the autosomal loci and (ii) almost all men carry the same Y chromosomal allele. Nevertheless in the Yanomami village two thirds of the described autosomal microsatellite alleles were identified. Several paternities were clarified.

  9. Improved methods for predicting peptide binding affinity to MHC class II molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kamilla Kjaergaard; Andreatta, Massimo; Marcatili, Paolo; Buus, Søren; Greenbaum, Jason A; Yan, Zhen; Sette, Alessandro; Peters, Bjoern; Nielsen, Morten

    2018-01-06

    Major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) molecules are expressed on the surface of professional antigen-presenting cells where they display peptides to T helper cells, which orchestrate the onset and outcome of many host immune responses. Understanding which peptides will be presented by the MHC-II molecule is therefore important for understanding the activation of T helper cells and can be used to identify T-cell epitopes. We here present updated versions of two MHC-II-peptide binding affinity prediction methods, NetMHCII and NetMHCIIpan. These were constructed using an extended data set of quantitative MHC-peptide binding affinity data obtained from the Immune Epitope Database covering HLA-DR, HLA-DQ, HLA-DP and H-2 mouse molecules. We show that training with this extended data set improved the performance for peptide binding predictions for both methods. Both methods are publicly available at www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/NetMHCII-2.3 and www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/NetMHCIIpan-3.2. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Cytotoxic T cell recognition of an endogenous class I HLA peptide presented by a class II HLA molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, B P; Madrigal, A; Parham, P

    1990-09-01

    Human leukocytes were stimulated in vitro with peptides corresponding in sequence to the highly variable helix of the alpha 1 domain of various HLA-B and -C molecules. A CD4+ CD8- cytotoxic T cell line, CTL-AV, that is specific for the HLA-B7 peptide presented by HLA-DR11.1 was obtained. The HLA-DR11.2 molecule, which only differs at three residues from HLA-DR11.1, did not present the HLA-B7 peptide to CTL-AV. Peptides from the alpha 1 domain helix of other HLA-A and HLA-B molecules, but not HLA-C molecules, competed with the HLA-B7 peptide for binding to HLA-DR11.1. A cell line (WT50) that coexpresses HLA-B7 and HLA-DR11.1 was killed by CTL-AV in the absence of any added HLA-B7 peptide. The processing and presentation of HLA-B7 in these cells appears to be through the endogenous, and not the exogenous, pathway of antigen presentation. Thus, Brefeldin A inhibits presentation and chloroquine does not. Furthermore, introduction of purified HLA-B7 molecules into HLA-DR11.1+, HLA-B7- cells by cytoplasmic loading via osmotic lysis of pinosomes, but not by simple incubation, rendered them susceptible to CTL-AV killing. These results provide an example of class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) presentation of a constitutively synthesized self protein that uses the endogenous pathway of antigen presentation. They also emphasize the capacity for presentation of MHC peptides by MHC molecules.

  11. Regulation of MIR165/166 by class II and class III homeodomain leucine zipper proteins establishes leaf polarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merelo, Paz; Ram, Hathi; Caggiano, Monica Pia

    2016-01-01

    A defining feature of plant leaves is their flattened shape. This shape depends on an antagonism between the genes that specify adaxial (top) and abaxial (bottom) tissue identity; however, the molecular nature of this antagonism remains poorly understood. Class III homeodomain leucine zipper (HD-...... show that class III and class II HD-ZIP proteins act together to repress MIR165/166 via a conserved cis-element in their promoters. Organ morphology and tissue patterning in plants, therefore, depend on a bidirectional repressive circuit involving a set of miRNAs and its targets....

  12. Prediction of individual mandibular changes induced by functional jaw orthopedics followed by fixed appliances in Class II patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, Lorenzo; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2006-11-01

    To identify pretreatment cephalometric variables for the prediction of individual mandibular outcomes of functional jaw orthopedics (FJO) followed by fixed appliances in Class II patients treated at the peak in mandibular growth. The study was performed on 51 subjects (24 females, 27 males) with Class II malocclusion. First-phase therapy was accomplished with a twin block in 16 subjects, a stainless steel crown Herbst in 15 subjects, and an acrylic splint Herbst in 20 subjects. Lateral cephalograms were available at the start of treatment with FJO and at the completion of fixed appliance therapy. All subjects received FJO at the peak in mandibular growth (CS 3 at T1). Individual responsiveness to Class II treatment including FJO was defined on the basis of the T2-T1 increment in total mandibular length (Co-Gn) when compared with untreated Class II subjects. Discriminant analysis identified a single predictive parameter (Co-Go-Me degrees) with a classification power of 80%. Pretreatment vertical and sagittal parameters were not able to improve the prediction based upon the mandibular angle. A Class II patient at the peak in skeletal maturation (CS 3) with a pretreatment Co-Go-Me degrees smaller than 125.5 degrees is expected to respond favorably to treatment including FJO. A Class II patient at CS 3 with a pretreatment value for Co-Go-Me degrees greater than 125.5 degrees is expected to respond poorly to treatment including FJO.

  13. Gingival and dental parameters in the evaluation of aesthetic characteristics of fixed restorations (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obradović-Đuričić Kosovka

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a continuing evaluation of dental and facial parameters in the estimation of aesthetic characteristic of fixed restorations. First of all, attention is paid to the phenomenon describing the tooth tissue's characteristics (transiucency, opalescence, and transparency. The paper also discusses tooth color as a special occurrence, the position of the lower lip line as well as the symmetry of the smile. In addition to these fundamental objective criteria, the paper also deals with subjective criteria (tooth arrangement and position, variation in tooth form, and relative crown length, which play a part in the successful aesthetic integration of fixed restorations.

  14. Improved color matching of metal ceramic restorations. Part II: Procedures for visual communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, J A; Torres, T J

    1987-12-01

    Most ceramic restorations are fabricated in a location remote from the dental office. Successful fabrication of matching life-like ceramic restorations necessitates a collaborative effort between the dentist and the ceramist. To meet the demands for visual communication of shade and surface texture, the following steps are recommended. 1. A means of communicating and recording surface texture that facilitates blending the restorations with the natural dentition should be used. 2. The system should use an esthetics prescription form that functions with the Shade Indicator Chart system to relate the shade of opaque, body, and incisal porcelains and their arrangement to the ceramist. 3. An easily made identification mold to form shade tabs is needed. 4. Identification shade tabs should be made to verify and document shade formulations selected with the Shade Indicator Chart system. 5. Methods for precisely mapping and reproducing individual characterization patterns are needed. This information permits the visualization of the end result, allowing the artistic expression of the ceramist to create vital-appearing restorations intrinsically and in harmony with the natural dentition.

  15. 25 CFR 547.10 - What are the minimum standards for Class II gaming system critical events?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...: Event Definition and action to be taken (i) Player interface power off during play This condition is reported by the affected component(s) to indicate power has been lost during game play. (ii) Player... INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM TECHNICAL STANDARDS FOR GAMING EQUIPMENT USED WITH THE PLAY OF CLASS II...

  16. Morphological changes of the facial skeleton in Class II/1 patients treated with orthodontic functional appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Festila

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate, using lateral cephalometry, the skeletal changes in maxillary bones induced through functional jaw orthopedic therapy. 30 patients with class II division 1 malocclusion and average age of 10.4 years were included in the study. Material and Methods: Cephalometric data were analyzed with the following methods: Burstone, McNamara, Rickets, Tweed and Wits and treatment changes were evaluated overlapping the lateral cephalograms on cranial base with sella registered. Results: The results showed reduced over-jet in average with 2.46 mm, mandibular advancement with a mean value of 2.72 mm and increasing of the total mandibular length with a mean value of 4.17 mm. Although we found an inhibiting in the anterior development of the maxilla with an average of 1.57 degree, the decrease of the anterior-posterior discrepancy was due especially to the mandible. Conclusions: It can be concluded that functional appliances were effective in correcting class II malocclusion. Changes of the position and mandible′s length determined improved facial profile but did not correct it completely because of the chin that moved not only anterior but also downward, as a result of vertical ramus growth.

  17. DNA polymorphism of HLA class II genes in pauciarticular juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morling, N; Friis, J; Fugger, L

    1991-01-01

    associated with the following HLA class II genes were increased in PJRA when compared to normal controls: DRB1*08 (DRw8) (35.2% vs 10.3%, RR = 4.6, p less than 10(-3), DRB3*01/02/03 (DRw52) (76.3% vs 48.1%, RR 3.5, p less than 10(-3)), DQA1*0401 (41.0% vs 7.4%, RR = 7.9, p less than 10(-3)), DQA1*0501 (55...... of DNA fragments associated with the following HLA class II genes were decreased in PJRA although not statistically significantly so after 'correction' of p values: DRB1*04 (14.8% vs 40.2%, RR = 0.27; p less than 10(-3)), DRB1*07 (0% vs 25.9%, RR = 0.04, p less than 10(-3)), DRB4*0101 (DRw53) (25.9% vs...... 53.6%, RR = 0.31, p less than 10(-3)), DQA1*0102 (11.6% vs 36.0%, RR = 0.25, p less than 10(-4)), and DQA1*0201 (2.6% vs 34.2%, RR = 0.05, p less than 10(-2)).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  18. Cephalomteric changes in airway dimensions with twin block therapy in growing Class II patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinoth, Santhana Krishnan; Thomas, Ashwin Varghese; Nethravathy, Ramya

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Myofunctional appliances are commonly used for correction of skeletal Class II malrelationship. These appliances influence craniofacial and nasopharyngeal dimensions. Objectives: The present study was done to evaluate changes in airway with twin block therapy. Materials and Methods: Cephalometric assessment of airway was done in 25 growing children in the age group of 11-13 years with Class II skeletal pattern. All the patients were treated with twin block appliance. Pre and post treatment lateral cephalograms were taken to evaluate the changes in different airway and craniofacial dimensions during the treatment period. The average treatment duration was 14.5 months. Results: Airway: A significant increase was observed in upper and lower pharyngeal width and area of bony nasopharynx. Craniofacial dimension: There was a significant increase in effective mandibular length, ramal length and mandibular plane angle. There was an increase in SNB angle, which resulted in decreased ANB angle. Conclusion: There was a definite improvement in airway dimension following twin block therapy PMID:23946570

  19. Cephalometric effects of the Jones Jig appliance followed by fixed appliances in Class II malocclusion treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mayara Paim; Henriques, José Fernando Castanha; Freitas, Karina Maria Salvatore; Grec, Roberto Henrique da Costa

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to cephalometrically assess the skeletal and dentoalveolar effects of Class II malocclusion treatment performed with the Jones Jig appliance followed by fixed appliances. The sample comprised 25 patients with Class II malocclusion treated with the Jones Jig appliance followed by fixed appliances, at a mean initial age of 12.90 years old. The mean time of the entire orthodontic treatment was 3.89 years. The distalization phase lasted for 0.85 years, after which the fixed appliance was used for 3.04 years. Cephalograms were used at initial (T1), post-distalization (T2) and final phases of treatment (T3). For intragroup comparison of the three phases evaluated, dependent ANOVA and Tukey tests were used. Jones Jig appliance did not interfere in the maxillary and mandibular component and did not change maxillomandibular relationship. Jones Jig appliance promoted distalization of first molars with anchorage loss, mesialization and significant extrusion of first and second premolars, as well as a significant increase in anterior face height at the end of treatment. The majority of adverse effects that occur during intraoral distalization are subsequently corrected during corrective mechanics. Buccal inclination and protrusion of mandibular incisors were identified. By the end of treatment, correction of overjet and overbite was observed. Jones Jig appliance promoted distalization of first molars with anchorage loss represented by significant mesial movement and extrusion of first and second premolars, in addition to a significant increase in anterior face height.

  20. Islamic Educational Transformation through Inmate Social Interaction at Palu Correctional Facility Class II A, Central Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation system adopted by correctional facility is based on Pancasila. All incarcerated men are rehabilitated there with the goal to make them repent, be law-abiding citizens, and uphold moral values. Correctional facility comes as a rehabilitation place to improve social interaction so that inmates can be received by their social environment once they are released from prison. At this point, the researcher focuses on Islamic educational transformation through inmate social interaction training program at Palu correctional facility class II A. This research uses descriptive quantitative design with social legal approach to observe patterns of inmate social interaction. The result of research points out that Islamic educational transformation which is packed into rehabilitation programs and correctional educational activities is remarkably emphasized in inmate social interaction. In this case, Islamic educational transformation applied in Palu correctional facility class II A is defined as ultimum remidium, correctional activities emphasizing on process-based approach. Rehabilitation process given to inmates is able to improve insight and awareness of ethical and moral values in their social interaction. Therefore, when returning to society they can be accepted by social environtment as good responsible people.

  1. Correlations between dentoskeletal variables and deep bite in Class II Division 1 individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Silva Marques

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the cephalometric pattern of Class II Division 1 individuals with deep bite, and to determine possible correlations between dentoskeletal variables and deep bite. Comparisons were also made between genders and cases that were to be treated both with and without premolar extraction. A total of 70 lateral cephalograms were used, from both male (n = 35 and female (n = 35 individuals with an average age of 11.6 years, who simultaneously presented with ANB > 5º and overbite > 4 mm. Statistical analysis involved parametric (t-test and non-parametric (Mann-Whitney tests for independent samples, as well as the Spearman correlation test (p < 0.05. The values of Go-Me, Ar-Pog, PM-1 and PM-CMI were higher in males (p < 0.05. However, no significant differences were found among the averages of the cephalometric measurements when the sample was divided by treatment with and without extraction. Deep bite was positively correlated to the PM-1 and SNA measurements, and negatively correlated to the Go-Me, Ar-Pog, SNB and SNGoMe measurements. The main factors associated with the determination of deep bite in Angle's Class II Division 1 cases were: greater lower anterior dentoalveolar growth and/or lower incisor extrusion, horizontal growth pattern, maxillary protrusion and mandibular retrusion.

  2. Human leukocyte antigen class II susceptibility conferring alleles among non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tipu, H.N.; Ahmed, T.A.; Bashir, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    To determine the frequency of Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) class II susceptibility conferring alleles among type 2 Diabetes mellitus patients, in comparison with healthy controls. Cross-sectional comparative study. Patients with non-insulin dependent Diabetes mellitus meeting World Health Organization criteria were studied. These were compared with age and gender matched healthy control subjects. For each subject (patients as well as controls), DNA was extracted from ethylene diamine tetra-acetate sample and HLA class II DRB1 typing was carried out at allele group level (DRB1*01-DRB1*16) by sequence specific primers. Human leukocyte antigen DRB1 type was determined by agarose gel electrophoresis and results were recorded. Frequencies were determined as number of an allele divided by total number of alleles per group; p-value was computed using Pearson's chi-square test. Among the 100 patients, there were 63 males and 37 females with 68 controls. A total of 13 different HLA DRB1 alleles were detected, with DRB1*15 being the commonest in both the groups. The allele DRB1*13 had statistically significant higher frequency in patient group as compared to controls (p 0.005). HLA DRB1*13 was found with a significantly increased frequency in non-insulin dependent Diabetes mellitus. (author)

  3. Ultrahigh-energy Cosmic Rays from Fanaroff Riley class II radio galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachen, Joerg; Biermann, Peter L.

    1992-08-01

    The hot spots of very powerful radio galaxies (Fanaroff Riley class II) are argued to be the sources of the ultrahigh energy component in Cosmic Rays. We present calculations of Cosmic Ray transport in an evolving universe, taking the losses against the microwave background properly into account. As input we use the models for the cosmological radio source evolution derived by radioastronomers (mainly Peacock 1985). The model we adopt for the acceleration in the radio hot spots has been introduced by Biermann and Strittmatter (1987), and Meisenheimer et al. (1989) and is based on first order Fermi theory of particle acceleration at shocks (see, e.g., Drury 1983). As an unknown the actual proportion of energy density in protons enters, which together with structural uncertainties in the hot spots should introduce no more than one order of magnitude in uncertainty: We easily reproduce the observed spectra of high energy cosmic rays. It follows that scattering of charged energetic particles in intergalactic space must be sufficiently small in order to obtain contributions from sources as far away as even the nearest Fanaroff Riley class II radio galaxies. This implies a strong constraint on the turbulent magnetic field in intergalactic space.

  4. Stability of Class II treatment with the Bionator followed by fixed appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisconi, Manoela Fávaro; Henriques, José Fernando Castanha; Janson, Guilherme; Freitas, Karina Maria Salvatore de; Santos, Patrícia Bittencourt Dutra dos

    2013-01-01

    This prospective study assessed the stability of Class II treatment with the Bionator, followed by fixed appliances, 10 years after treatment. The experimental group comprised 23 patients of both sexes (10 boys, 13 girls) at a mean initial age of 11.74 years (late mixed or early permanent dentitions), treated for a mean period of 3.55 years who were evaluated at three stages: initial (T1), final (T2) and long-term posttreatment (T3). A total of 69 lateral cephalograms were evaluated and 69 dental casts were measured using the PAR index. The difference between initial and final PAR indexes, the percentage of occlusal improvement obtained with therapy and the percentage of relapse were calculated, using the PAR index. The variables were compared by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey tests. The significant improvement in apical base relationship, the palatal inclination of the maxillary incisors and the labial inclination of the mandibular incisors, and the significant improvement in molar relationship and reduction of overjet and overbite, obtained with treatment, remained stable in the long-term posttreatment period. There was also significant improvement in the occlusal relationships which remained stable in the long-term posttreatment period. The percentage of occlusal improvement obtained was of 81.78% and the percentage of relapse was of 4.90%. Treatment of Class II division 1 malocclusions with the Bionator associated with fixed appliances showed to be stable in the long-term posttreatment period.

  5. Clinical effects of fixed functional Herbst appliance in the treatment of class II/1 malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedeljković Nenad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sagittal mandible deficiency is the most common cause of skeletal Class II malocclusion. Treatment objective is to stimulate sagittal mandible growth. Fixed functional Herbst appliance use is beneficial for shortening the time required for treatment and does not depend on patient compliance. Case outline. A 13-year-old girl was referred to the Clinic of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry in Belgrade following previous unsuccessful treatment of her skeletal Class II malocclusion using an activator. The patient's poor cooperation had led to failure of the treatment. Patient was subjected to the Herbst treatment for 6 months followed by fixed appliance for another 8 months. Lateral cephalograms before and after the treatment was performed. The remodelation of condylar and fossal articulation was assessed by superimposition of pre- and post-treatment temporomandibular joint tomograms. The promotion of oral hygiene and fluoride use was performed because orthodontic treatment carries a high caries risk and risk for periodontal disease. Skeletal and dental changes were observed after treatment (correction [Max+Mand]: molar relation 7 mm, overjet 8 mm, skeletal relation 5 mm, molars 2 mm, incisors 3 mm. Combination of Herbst and fixed appliances was effective in the treatment of dental and skeletal irregularities for a short period of time. Conclusion . In the retention period, 14 months after treatment, occlusal stability exists. Follow-up care in oral prevention is based on regular recalls at the dental office and supervision at home by the parents.

  6. The Carolina Bay Restoration Project - Status Report II 2000-2004.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, Christopher

    2006-07-13

    A Wetlands Mitigation Bank was established at SRS in 1997 as a compensatory alternative for unavoidable wetland losses. Prior to restoration activities, 16 sites included in the project were surveyed for the SRS Site Use system to serve as a protective covenant. Pre-restoration monitoring ended in Fall 2000, and post restoration monitoring began in the Winter/Spring of 2001. The total interior harvest in the 16 bays after harvesting the trees was 19.6 ha. The margins in the opencanopy, pine savanna margin treatments were thinned. Margins containing areas with immature forested stands (bay 5184 and portions of bay 5011) were thinned using a mechanical shredder in November 2001. Over 126 hectares were included in the study areas (interior + margin). Planting of two tree species and the transplanting of wetland grass species was successful. From field surveys, it was estimated that approximately 2700 Nyssa sylvatica and 1900 Taxodium distichum seedlings were planted in the eight forested bays resulting in an average planting density of ≈ 490 stems ha-1. One hundred seedlings of each species per bay (where available) were marked to evaluate survivability and growth. Wetland grass species were transplanted from donor sites on SRS to plots that ranged in size from 100 – 300 m2, depending on wetland size. On 0.75 and 0.6 meter centers, respectively, 2198 plugs of Panicum hemitomon and 3021 plugs Leersia hexandra were transplanted. New shoots originating from the stumps were treated with a foliar herbicide (Garlon® 4) during the summer of 2001 using backpack sprayers. Preliminary information from 2000-2004 regarding the hydrologic, vegetation and faunal response to restoration is presented in this status report. Post restoration monitoring will continue through 2005. A final report to the Mitigation Bank Review Team will be submitted in mid-2006.

  7. New design of MHC class II tetramers to accommodate fundamental principles of antigen presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landais, Elise; Romagnoli, Pablo A; Corper, Adam L; Shires, John; Altman, John D; Wilson, Ian A; Garcia, K Christopher; Teyton, Luc

    2009-12-15

    Direct identification and isolation of Ag-specific T cells became possible with the development of MHC tetramers, based on fluorescent avidins displaying biotinylated peptide-MHC complexes. This approach, extensively used for MHC class I-restricted T cells, has met very limited success with class II peptide-MHC complex tetramers (pMHCT-2) for the detection of CD4(+)-specific T cells. In addition, a very large number of these reagents, although capable of specifically activating T cells after being coated on solid support, is still unable to stain. To try to understand this puzzle and design usable tetramers, we examined each parameter critical for the production of pMHCT-2 using the I-A(d)-OVA system as a model. Through this process, the geometry of peptide-MHC display by avidin tetramers was examined, as well as the stability of rMHC molecules. However, we discovered that the most important factor limiting the reactivity of pMHCT-2 was the display of peptides. Indeed, long peptides, as presented by MHC class II molecules, can be bound to I-A/HLA-DQ molecules in more than one register, as suggested by structural studies. This mode of anchorless peptide binding allows the selection of a broader repertoire on single peptides and should favor anti-infectious immune responses. Thus, beyond the technical improvements that we propose, the redesign of pMHCT-2 will give us the tools to evaluate the real size of the CD4 T cell repertoire and help us in the production and testing of new vaccines.

  8. Comparative evaluation of different periods of enamel microabrasion on the microleakage of class V resin-modified glass ionomer and compomer restorations: An In vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Disha; Mahajan, Mrinalini

    2017-01-01

    The design of the class V cavity presents a clinical challenge in the field of adhesive dentistry as the margin placement is partially in enamel and partly in dentin, and the trouble associated with this design is the microleakage at the dentinal margin. When these restorations undergo microabrasion due to cosmetic reasons, this trouble aggravates to the significant levels. The aim of this study was the measurement of microleakage of class V glass ionomer restorations over two different periods of enamel microabrasion. This in vitro experimental study was conducted on 120 class V cavities which had been prepared on the buccal and lingual surfaces of 60 sound human premolars. One-half of the cavities were restored with the resin-modified glass ionomer cement (GIC) (60 cavities) and another half with the compomer (60 cavities). Finishing and polishing were performed. Then, the teeth were classified into six groups (n = 20). Microabrasion treatment was performed with Opaluster (Ultradent Product Inc., South Jordan, UT, USA) for 0 (control no treatment), 60 and 120 s. Then, teeth were thermocycled between 5°C and 55°C, immersed in rhodamine B solution (24 h), and sectioned longitudinally in buccolingual direction. Dye penetration was examined with stereomicroscope (×10). Microleakage scores were statistically analyzed. The mean occlusal margin scores and gingival margin scores were compared between all the groups using the Kruskal-Wallis test, Mann-Whitney U-test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and post hoc comparison. There was a significant difference between Group 1a, Group 2a, Group 1b, Group 2b, Group 1c, and Group 2c. Statistical analysis used in this study was Kruskal-Wallis test, Mann-Whitney U-test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and post hoc comparison. The least microleakage scores were observed in occlusal margins of control groups (without microabrasion). Moreover, in both restorations, the microleakage scores in occlusal margins were higher than gingival

  9. Comparative evaluation of different periods of enamel microabrasion on the microleakage of class V resin-modified glass ionomer and compomer restorations: An In vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Disha Bansal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The design of the class V cavity presents a clinical challenge in the field of adhesive dentistry as the margin placement is partially in enamel and partly in dentin, and the trouble associated with this design is the microleakage at the dentinal margin. When these restorations undergo microabrasion due to cosmetic reasons, this trouble aggravates to the significant levels. Aims: The aim of this study was the measurement of microleakage of class V glass ionomer restorations over two different periods of enamel microabrasion. Settings and Design: This in vitro experimental study was conducted on 120 class V cavities which had been prepared on the buccal and lingual surfaces of 60 sound human premolars. One-half of the cavities were restored with the resin-modified glass ionomer cement (GIC (60 cavities and another half with the compomer (60 cavities. Finishing and polishing were performed. Subjects and Methods: Then, the teeth were classified into six groups (n = 20. Microabrasion treatment was performed with Opaluster (Ultradent Product Inc., South Jordan, UT, USA for 0 (control no treatment, 60 and 120 s. Then, teeth were thermocycled between 5°C and 55°C, immersed in rhodamine B solution (24 h, and sectioned longitudinally in buccolingual direction. Dye penetration was examined with stereomicroscope (×10. Microleakage scores were statistically analyzed. The mean occlusal margin scores and gingival margin scores were compared between all the groups using the Kruskal–Wallis test, Mann–Whitney U-test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and post hoc comparison. There was a significant difference between Group 1a, Group 2a, Group 1b, Group 2b, Group 1c, and Group 2c. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis used in this study was Kruskal–Wallis test, Mann–Whitney U-test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and post hoc comparison. Results: The least microleakage scores were observed in occlusal margins of control groups (without

  10. Integrating MRP (materiel requirements planning) II and JIT to achieve world-class status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titone, R C

    1994-05-01

    The concepts and principles of using manufacturing resource planning (MRP II) for planning are not new. Their success has been proven in numerous manufacturing companies in America. The concepts and principles of using just-in-time (JIT) inventory for execution, while more recent, have also been available for some time, and their success in Japan well documented. However, it is the effective integration of these two powerful tools that open the way to achieving world-class manufacturing status. This article will utilize a newly developed world-class manufacturing model, which will review the aspects of planning, beginning with a business plan through the production planning process and culminating with a master schedule that drives a materiel/capacity plan. The importance and interrelationship of these functions are reviewed. The model then illustrates the important aspects of executing these plans beginning with people issues, through total quality control (TQC) and pull systems. We will then utilize this new functional model to demonstrate the relationship between these various functions and the importance of integrating them with a total comprehensive manufacturing strategy that will lead to world-class manufacturing and profits.

  11. An Evaluation of Mandibular Dental and Basal Arch Dimensions in Class I and Class II Division 1 Adult Syrian Patients using Cone-beam Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hilal, Layal H; Sultan, Kinda; Hajeer, Mohammad Y; Mahmoud, Ghiath; Wanli, Abdulrahman A

    2018-04-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is (1) to inspect any difference in mandibular arch widths between males and females in class I and class II division 1 (class malocclusions using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), (2) to compare the mandibular dental and basal widths between the two groups, and (3) to investigate any possible correlation between dental and basal arch widths in both groups. Materials and methods: The CBCT images of 68 patients aged between 18 and 25 years consisted of 34 class I (17 males and 17 females) and 34 class (17 males and 17 females) who were recruited at the Department of Orthodontics, University of Damascus Dental School (Syria). Using on-demand three-dimensional (3D) on axial views, facial axis points for dental measurements and basal bone center (BBC) points for basal measurements were identified on lower canines and first molars. Dental and basal intercanine width (ICW) and intermolar width (IMW) were measured. Results: Independent t-test showed a statistically significant difference between males and females in several variables in both groups and a statistically significant difference between class I and class groups in the basal ICW for both genders and in the dental ICW for females only (p class I group, Pearson's correlation coefficients between dental and basal measurements showed a strong correlation in the IMW for both genders (r > 0.73; p class group, a moderate correlation in females' IMW (r = 0.67; p Class I patients had larger ICW than class II-1 patients in all measurements and had narrower IMW than class in most measurements for both genders. There were moderate-to-strong correlations between dental and basal dimensions. BBC points might be landmarks that accurately represent the basal bone arch. Clinical significance: CBCT-based assessments of dental and basal arch dimensions provide a great opportunity to accurately evaluate these aspects, to enhance clinicians' decisions regarding proper tooth movements, and to achieve

  12. NN-align. An artificial neural network-based alignment algorithm for MHC class II peptide binding prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lund Ole

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The major histocompatibility complex (MHC molecule plays a central role in controlling the adaptive immune response to infections. MHC class I molecules present peptides derived from intracellular proteins to cytotoxic T cells, whereas MHC class II molecules stimulate cellular and humoral immunity through presentation of extracellularly derived peptides to helper T cells. Identification of which peptides will bind a given MHC molecule is thus of great importance for the understanding of host-pathogen interactions, and large efforts have been placed in developing algorithms capable of predicting this binding event. Results Here, we present a novel artificial neural network-based method, NN-align that allows for simultaneous identification of the MHC class II binding core and binding affinity. NN-align is trained using a novel training algorithm that allows for correction of bias in the training data due to redundant binding core representation. Incorporation of information about the residues flanking the peptide-binding core is shown to significantly improve the prediction accuracy. The method is evaluated on a large-scale benchmark consisting of six independent data sets covering 14 human MHC class II alleles, and is demonstrated to outperform other state-of-the-art MHC class II prediction methods. Conclusion The NN-align method is competitive with the state-of-the-art MHC class II peptide binding prediction algorithms. The method is publicly available at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/NetMHCII-2.0.

  13. Treatment stability in patients with Class II malocclusion treated with 2 maxillary premolar extractions or without extractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, Guilherme; Camardella, Leonardo Tavares; Araki, Janine Della Valle; de Freitas, Marcos Roberto; Pinzan, Arnaldo

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the occlusal stability of Class II malocclusion treatment with and without extraction of 2 maxillary premolars. A sample of 59 records from patients with complete Class II malocclusion was used. This sample was divided into 2 groups with the following characteristics: group 1, comprising 29 patients treated without extractions, and group 2, comprising 30 patients treated with extraction of 2 maxillary premolars. Dental cast measurements were obtained before and after treatment and at a minimum of 2.4 years after treatment. The pretreatment, posttreatment, and postretention occlusal statuses were evaluated with the peer assesment rating index. The occlusal indexes at the postretention stage and the posttreatment changes and percentages of posttreatment changes were compared with t tests. The nonextraction and the 2 maxillary premolar extraction treatment protocols of complete Class II malocclusions had no statistically significant differences in occlusal stability. Finishing Class II malocclusion treatment with the molars in a Class II relationship has similar occlusal stability as finishing with the molars in a Class I relationship. Copyright (c) 2010 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Relationship Between Class I and II Integrons and Antibiotic Resistance Among Escherichia coli Isolates From Urinary Tract Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Nojoomi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the aim of this study was determination of antibiotic resistance profile, investigation of class I and II integrons among Escherichia coli (E. coli isolates from urinary tract infections. This study was conducted for the investigation of the prevalence of class I and II Integrons among E. coli Isolates from urinary tract infections. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 E. coli clinical isolates were collected from urinary tract infections in Borujerd city, Iran, from… to …. All the isolates were identified with standard laboratory procedures as described everywhere. The antibiotic susceptibility profile was conducted against adopted antibiotic disks following CLSI 2016 guidelines. All the isolates were enrolled in the PCR technique for the presence of class I and II integrons. Results: the highest resistance was against amoxicillin (72%, ciprofloxacin (69%, nalidixic acid (55% and tetracycline (51%. The prevalence of class I and II integrons was 31% and 21%, respectively. A significant relation was observed between resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (p<0.001, nalidixic acid (p<0.01 and tetracycline (p<0.005 with the presence of class I integron. The rate of class I integron in the E. coli isolates was high, possibly playing a role in the spread of multidrug resistant isolates. Conclusion: considering the significant relation observed between the presence of class I integron among multidrug-resistant isolates, establishment implementation of proper procedures to control and suitable treatment strategies in hospitals seems essential for the prevention of more spread of these isolates.

  15. Effects of major histocompatibility complex class II knockout on mouse bone mechanical properties during development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simske, Steven J.; Bateman, Ted A.; Smith, Erin E.; Ferguson, Virginia L.; Chapes, Stephen K.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the effect of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) knockout on the development of the mouse peripheral skeleton. These C2D mice had less skeletal development at 8, 12 and 16 weeks of age compared to wild-type C57BL/6J (B6) male mice. The C2D mice had decreased femur mechanical, geometric and compositional measurements compared to wild type mice at each of these ages. C2D femur stiffness (S), peak force in 3-pt bending (Pm), and mineral mass (Min-M) were 74%, 64% and 66%, respectively, of corresponding B6 values at 8 weeks of age. Similar differences were measured at 12 weeks (for which C2D femoral S, Pm and Min-M were 71%, 72% and 73%, respectively, of corresponding B6 values) and at 16 weeks (for which C2D femoral S, Pm and Min-M were 80%, 66% and 61%, respectively, of corresponding B6 values). MHC II knockout delays the development of adult bone properties and is accompanied by lower body mass compared to wild-type controls.

  16. Characterization of class II alpha genes and DLA-D region allelic associations in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, U M; Storb, R F

    1988-10-01

    Human major histocompatibility complex (HLA) cDNA probes were used to analyze the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the alpha genes of the DLA-D region in dogs. Genomic DNA from peripheral blood leucocytes of 23 unrelated DLA-D homozygous dogs representing nine DLA-D types (defined by mixed leucocyte reaction) was digested with restriction enzymes (BamHI, EcoRI, Hind III, Pvu II, Taq I, Rsa I, Msp I, Pst I and Bgl II), separated by agarose gel electrophoresis and transferred onto Biotrace membrane. The Southern blots were successively hybridized with radiolabelled HLA cDNA probes corresponding to DQ, DP, DZ and DR alpha genes. Clear evidence was obtained for the canine homologues of DQ and DR alpha genes with simple bi- or tri-allelic polymorphism respectively. Evidence for a single, nonpolymorphic DP alpha gene was also obtained. However, the presence of a DZ alpha gene could not be clearly demonstrated in canine genomic DNA. This report extends our previous RFLP analysis documenting polymorphism of DLA class II beta genes in the same panel of homozygous typing cell dogs, and provides the basis for DLA-D genotyping at a population level. This study also characterizes the RFLP-defined preferential allelic associations across the DLA-D region in nine different homozygous typing cell specificities.

  17. The role of CD4+ T cells in cell-mediated immunity to LCMV: studies in MHC class I and class II deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Marker, O; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    1994-01-01

    Parameters of the virus-specific T-cell response were analysed in order to dissect the contribution of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to cell-mediated immunity to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. In MHC class II deficient mice, initial T-cell responsiveness was not impaired, but virus clearance...... was delayed, and virus-specific Td activity declined more rapidly. Furthermore, class I restricted Tc memory appeared to be impaired in these mice. To directly evaluate the role of CD4+ cells in virus clearance and T-cell mediated inflammation, MHC class I deficient mice were also studied. No virus...... exudate. This low-grade response was associated with some degree of virus control as organ titres were lower in these animals than in matched T-cell deficient nu/nu mice or class I deficient mice treated with anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody. This confirms that CD4+ cells are not needed to induce a virus...

  18. JC polyomavirus infection is strongly controlled by human leucocyte antigen class II variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Sundqvist

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available JC polyomavirus (JCV carriers with a compromised immune system, such as in HIV, or subjects on immune-modulating therapies, such as anti VLA-4 therapy may develop progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML which is a lytic infection of oligodendrocytes in the brain. Serum antibodies to JCV mark infection occur only in 50-60% of infected individuals, and high JCV-antibody titers seem to increase the risk of developing PML. We here investigated the role of human leukocyte antigen (HLA, instrumental in immune defense in JCV antibody response. Anti-JCV antibody status, as a surrogate for JCV infection, were compared to HLA class I and II alleles in 1621 Scandinavian persons with MS and 1064 population-based Swedish controls and associations were replicated in 718 German persons with MS. HLA-alleles were determined by SNP imputation, sequence specific (SSP kits and a reverse PCR sequence-specific oligonucleotide (PCR-SSO method. An initial GWAS screen displayed a strong HLA class II region signal. The HLA-DRB1*15 haplotype was strongly negatively associated to JCV sero-status in Scandinavian MS cases (OR = 0.42, p = 7×10(-15 and controls (OR = 0.53, p = 2×10(-5. In contrast, the DQB1*06:03 haplotype was positively associated with JCV sero-status, in Scandinavian MS cases (OR = 1.63, p = 0.006, and controls (OR = 2.69, p = 1×10(-5. The German dataset confirmed these findings (OR = 0.54, p = 1×10(-4 and OR = 1.58, p = 0.03 respectively for these haplotypes. HLA class II restricted immune responses, and hence CD4+ T cell immunity is pivotal for JCV infection control. Alleles within the HLA-DR1*15 haplotype are associated with a protective effect on JCV infection. Alleles within the DQB1*06:03 haplotype show an opposite association. These associations between JC virus antibody response and human leucocyte antigens supports the notion that CD4+ T cells are crucial in the immune defence to JCV and

  19. Articulación de fones en individuos clase esqueletal I,II y III Speech patterns in skeletal class I, II and III subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pía Villanueva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: determinar los patrones de articulación de fones consonánticos en sujetos de habla española chilena clases I, II y III esqueletal; comparar las diferencias fonéticas que existan entre clases esqueletales. MÉTODOS: se seleccionaron 54 individuos que cumplían con los criterios de inclusión determinados mediante un examen clínico intraoral y a través del análisis de Ricketts, y se conformaron los grupos de estudio de pacientes clases esqueletales I, II y III. Se les realizó un examen fonoarticulatorio estandarizado para determinar los fones modificados y el patrón articulatorio compensatorio realizado. RESULTADOS: se observaron cambios en el punto de articulación de fones consonánticos en las tres clases esqueletales, con diferencias significativas en los grupos de fones anteriores y medios entre pacientes clases I y II, sólo en el grupo de los fones anteriores entre pacientes I y III. Entre pacientes clases II y III no se observaron diferencias significativas. Se reportan modificaciones y compensaciones cualitativamente distintas entre las clases esqueletales. CONCLUSIONES: en relación a pacientes clase I, los pacientes clase II o III, presentan distinto grado de modificación en el punto de articulación de fones consonánticos. Las diferencias observadas se relacionan con los patrones esqueletales propios de cada clase.PURPOSE: to determine the consonant phonemes articulation patterns in Chilean skeletal class I, II and III Spanish speakers and compare their phonetic differences. METHODS: fifty-four skeletal class I, II and III subjects were selected, based on intraoral clinical examination and Ricketts cephalometric analysis, constituting the study groups. A standardized phonoarticulatory test was applied to each patient to determine the modified phonemes and their compensatory patterns. RESULTS: the findings indicate changes in articulation in all three groups. Significant differences were found in anterior and medium

  20. The E5 protein of human papillomavirus type 16 perturbs MHC class II antigen maturation in human foreskin keratinocytes treated with interferon-γ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Benyue; Li Ping; Wang Exing; Brahmi, Zacharie; Dunn, Kenneth W.; Blum, Janice S.; Roman, Ann

    2003-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigens are expressed on human foreskin keratinocytes (HFKs) following exposure to interferon gamma. The expression of MHC class II proteins on the cell surface may allow keratinocytes to function as antigen-presenting cells and induce a subsequent immune response to virus infection. Invariant chain (Ii) is a chaperone protein which plays an important role in the maturation of MHC class II molecules. The sequential degradation of Ii within acidic endocytic compartments is a key process required for the successful loading of antigenic peptide onto MHC class II molecules. Since human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 E5 can inhibit the acidification of late endosomes in HFKs, the E5 protein may be able to affect proper peptide loading onto the MHC class II molecule. To test this hypothesis, HFKs were infected with either control virus or a recombinant virus expressing HPV16 E5 and the infected cells were subsequently treated with interferon-γ. ELISAs revealed a decrease of MHC class II expression on the surface of E5-expressing cells compared with control virus-infected cells after interferon treatment. Western blot analysis showed that, in cells treated with interferon gamma, E5 could prevent the breakdown of Ii and block the formation of peptide-loaded, SDS-stable mature MHC class II dimers, correlating with diminished surface MHC class II expression. These data suggest that HPV16 E5 may be able to decrease immune recognition of infected keratinocytes via disruption of MHC class II protein function

  1. Treatment with salvianolic acid B restores endothelial function in angiotensin II-induced hypertensive mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Wei Chih; Liu, Jian; Lau, Chi Wai; Murugan, Dharmani Devi; Mustafa, Mohd Rais; Huang, Yu

    2017-07-15

    Salvianolic acid B (Sal B) is one of the most abundant phenolic acids derived from the root of Danshen with potent anti-oxidative properties. The present study examined the vasoprotective effect of Sal B in hypertensive mice induced by angiotensin II (Ang II). Sal B (25mg/kg/day) was administered via oral gavage for 11days to Ang II (1.2mg/kg/day)-infused C57BL/6J mice (8-10weeks old). The vascular reactivity (both endothelium-dependent relaxations and contractions) in mouse arteries was examined by wire myography. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), protein level and localization of angiotensin AT 1 receptors and the proteins involved in ROS formation were evaluated using dihydroethidium (DHE) fluorescence, lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting, respectively. The changes of ROS generating proteins were also assessed in vitro in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) exposed to Ang II with and without co-treatment with Sal B (0.1-10nM). Oral administration of Sal B reversed the Ang II-induced elevation of arterial systolic blood pressure in mice, augmented the impaired endothelium-dependent relaxations and attenuated the exaggerated endothelium-dependent contractions in both aortas and renal arteries of Ang II-infused mice. In addition, Sal B treatment normalized the elevated levels of AT 1 receptors, NADPH oxidase subunits (NOx-2 and NOx-4) and nitrotyrosine in arteries of Ang II-infused mice or in Ang II-treated HUVECs. In summary, the present study provided additional evidence demonstrating that Sal B treatment for 11days reverses the impaired endothelial function and with a marked inhibition of AT 1 receptor-dependent vascular oxidative stress. This vasoprotective and anti-oxidative action of Sal B most likely contributes to the anti-hypertensive action of the plant-derived compound. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Role of major histocompatibility complex class II in the development of autoimmune type 1 diabetes and thyroiditis in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, N; Hidaka, S; Tanabe, S; Ohya, M; Ishima, M; Takagi, Y; Masui, N; Seino, S

    2012-01-01

    Although the MHC class II ‘u' haplotype is strongly associated with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in rats, the role of MHC class II in the development of tissue-specific autoimmune diseases including T1D and autoimmune thyroiditis remains unclear. To clarify this, we produced a congenic strain carrying MHC class II ‘a' and ‘u' haplotypes on the Komeda diabetes-prone (KDP) genetic background. The u/u homozygous animals developed T1D similar to the original KDP rat; a/u heterozygous animals did develop T1D but with delayed onset and low frequency. In contrast, none of the a/a homozygous animals developed T1D; about half of the animals with a/u heterozygous or a/a homozygous genotypes showed autoimmune thyroiditis. To investigate the role of genetic background in the development of thyroiditis, we also produced a congenic strain carrying Cblb mutation of the KDP rat on the PVG.R23 genetic background (MHC class II ‘a' haplotype). The congenic rats with homozygous Cblb mutation showed autoimmune thyroiditis without T1D and slight to severe alopecia, a clinical symptom of hypothyroidism such as Hashimoto's thyroiditis. These data indicate that MHC class II is involved in the tissue-specific development of autoimmune diseases, including T1D and thyroiditis. PMID:21918539

  3. Inhibitors of type II NADH:menaquinone oxidoreductase represent a class of antitubercular drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Edward A.; Yano, Takahiro; Li, Lin-Sheng; Avarbock, David; Avarbock, Andrew; Helm, Douglas; McColm, Andrew A.; Duncan, Ken; Lonsdale, John T.; Rubin, Harvey

    2005-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is an obligate aerobe that is capable of long-term persistence under conditions of low oxygen tension. Analysis of the Mtb genome predicts the existence of a branched aerobic respiratory chain terminating in a cytochrome bd system and a cytochrome aa3 system. Both chains can be initiated with type II NADH:menaquinone oxidoreductase. We present a detailed biochemical characterization of the aerobic respiratory chains from Mtb and show that phenothiazine analogs specifically inhibit NADH:menaquinone oxidoreductase activity. The emergence of drug-resistant strains of Mtb has prompted a search for antimycobacterial agents. Several phenothiazines analogs are highly tuberculocidal in vitro, suppress Mtb growth in a mouse model of acute infection, and represent lead compounds that may give rise to a class of selective antibiotics. PMID:15767566

  4. Alkali/Surfactant/Polymer Flooding in the Daqing Oilfield Class II Reservoirs Using Associating Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru-Sen Feng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrophobically modified associating polyacrylamide (HAPAM has good compatibility with the Daqing heavy alkylbenzene sulfonate surfactant. The HAPAM alkali/surfactant/polymer (ASP system can generate ultralow interfacial tension in a wide range of alkali/surfactant concentrations and maintain stable viscosity and interfacial tension for 120 days. The HAPAM ASP system has good injectivity for the Daqing class II reservoirs (100–300 × 10−3 μm2 and can improve oil recovery by more than 25% on top of water flooding. In the presence of both the alkali and the surfactant, the surfactant interacts with the associating groups of the polymer to form more micelles, which can significantly enhance the viscosity of the ASP system. Compared with using HPAM (Mw = 2.5 MDa, using HAPAM can reduce the polymer use by more than 40%.

  5. Orthodontic Protocol Using Mini-Implant for Class II Treatment in Patient with Special Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Pedrin Carvalho Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving facial and dental appearance and social interaction are the main factors for special needs (SN patients to seek orthodontic treatment. The cooperation of SN patients and their parents is crucial for treatment success. Objective. To show through a case report the satisfactory results, both functional and esthetic, in patients with intellectual disability, congenital nystagmus, and severe scoliosis. Materials Used. Pendulum device with mini-implants as anchorage unit. Results. Improvement of facial and dental esthetics, correction of Class II malocclusion, and no root resorption shown in the radiographic follow-up. Conclusion. Knowing the limitations of SN patients, having a trained team, motivating and counting on the cooperation of parents and patients, and employing quick and low-cost orthodontic therapy have been shown to be the essential factors for treatment success.

  6. Cephalometric-radiographic study, in lateral norm, considering the established standards of white Brazilian teenagers who presented normal occlusions and mal-occlusions of Class I and Class II, 1st Division and the ones from Ricketts' analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bismarck, V.E.

    1986-01-01

    In the present work, our purpose was make a cephalometric-radiographic study, comparing white Brazilian teenagers who presented normal occlusion and the ones who presented malocclusions of Class I and Class II, according to RICKETT'S analysis (1960). (author) [pt

  7. Má oclusão Classe II de Angle tratada sem extrações e com controle de crescimento Angle Class II malocclusion treated without extractions and with growth control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Artese

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A má oclusão Classe II de Angle é caracterizada por uma discrepância dentária anteroposterior, que geralmente está acompanhada por alterações esqueléticas. O tratamento ortodôntico precoce permite a correção da discrepância esquelética por controle de crescimento (primeira fase, o que favorece a correção do posicionamento dentário, mais tardiamente (segunda fase. Este relato descreve o tratamento de um caso de má oclusão Classe II, divisão 2, de Angle, em duas fases, e foi apresentado à Diretoria do Board Brasileiro de Ortodontia e Ortopedia Facial (BBO, como parte dos requisitos para a obtenção do título de Diplomado pelo BBO. O caso foi avaliado como representante da Categoria 1, ou seja, má oclusão Classe II de Angle tratada sem extrações dentárias e com controle de crescimento.Angle Class II malocclusion is characterized by an anteroposterior dental discrepancy which is generally accompanied by skeletal disharmonies. Early orthodontic treatment allows the correction of skeletal discrepancies using growth control (first phase which favors later correction of tooth positioning (second phase. This case report describes an Angle Class II, division 2, malocclusion treated in two phases and was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Facial Orthopedics (BBO as part of the requirements for BBO certification. It was evaluated as a Category 1 case, i.e., Class II malocclusion treated without extractions, with growth control.

  8. Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) Program - RDX Type II Class 5 Standard, Data Set 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstrom, Mary M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brown, Geoffrey W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Preston, Daniel N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pollard, Colin J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Warner, Kirstin F. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Sorenson, Daniel N. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Remmers, Daniel L. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Moran, Jesse S. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Shelley, Timothy J. [Air Force Research Lab. (AFRL), Tyndall AFB, FL (United States); Reyes, Jose A. [Applied Research Associates, Inc., Tyndall AFB, FL (United States); Hsu, Peter C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Whipple, Richard E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reynolds, John G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-04-11

    This document describes the results of the first reference sample material—RDX Type II Class 5—examined in the proficiency study for small-scale safety and thermal (SSST) testing of explosive materials for the Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) Program. The IDCA program is conducting proficiency testing on homemade explosives (HMEs). The reference sample materials are being studied to establish the accuracy of traditional explosives safety testing for each performing laboratory. These results will be used for comparison to results from testing HMEs. This effort, funded by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), ultimately will put the issues of safe handling of these materials in perspective with standard military explosives. The results of the study will add SSST testing results for a broad suite of different HMEs to the literature, potentially suggest new guidelines and methods for HME testing, and possibly establish what are the needed accuracies in SSST testing to develop safe handling practices. Described here are the results for impact, friction, electrostatic discharge, and scanning calorimetry analysis of a reference sample of RDX Type II Class 5. The results from each participating testing laboratory are compared using identical test material and preparation methods wherever possible. Note, however, the test procedures differ among the laboratories. These results are then compared to historical data from various sources. The performers involved are Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Air Force Research Laboratory/ RXQL (AFRL), Indian Head Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center, (IHD-NSWC), and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). These tests are conducted as a proficiency study in order to establish some consistency in test protocols, procedures, and experiments and to understand how to compare results when test protocols are not identical.

  9. As implicações da classe II de angle e da desproporção esquelética tipo classe II no aspecto miofuncional The implications of class II angle and class II type skeletal disproportion on the myofunctional aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Lisbôa Mezzomo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available TEMA: esse trabalho foi baseado na temática de que existe uma associação entre as más oclusões devido a alterações do crescimento craniofacial, e, por conseguinte, a existência de alterações miofuncionais. OBJETIVOS: estudar a associação entre as más oclusões tipo classe II desencadeadas por alterações do crescimento craniofacial e as disfunções do sistema estomatognático (alterações miofuncionais: fala, mastigação, deglutição e fonação. CONCLUSÃO: pode-se concluir que alterações estruturais da face podem ter influência na funcionalidade das mesmas, portanto, enfatiza-se a importância do trabalho multidisciplinar entre os profissionais envolvidos em cada uma dessas aéreas para que o prognóstico desses casos seja pertinente de relevantes melhoras.BACKGROUND: this work has been based on the theme that there is an association between malocclusion due to change in craniofacial growth, and therefore, the existence of malfunctioning abnormalities. PURPOSE: to study the strong association among the malocclusion class II triggered by changes in craniofacial growth and dysfunctions of the stomatognathic system (myofunctional disorders - speech, chewing, swallowing and phonation. CONCLUSION: it may be concluded that structural changes of the face may affect its, and therefore, the importance of multidisciplinary work among professionals involved in each of those areas, is emphasized, so that the prognosis of these cases may have relevant and important improvements.

  10. Genetic factors and multiple sclerosis in the Moroccan population: a role for HLA class II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouadghiri, S; El Alaoui Toussi, K; Brick, C; Ait Benhaddou, E H; Benseffaj, N; Benomar, A; El Yahyaoui, M; Essakalli, M

    2013-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system that mainly affects young adults. The association between susceptibility to MS and HLA class II genes, in particular the DRB1*15 allele, has been reported in diverse ethnic groups. The aim of our study was to investigate the distribution of HLA-DRB1* and -DQB1* alleles in Moroccan population and their implication in the susceptibility to the disease. Fifty-seven MS patients were compared to 172 healthy controls unrelated to one another and matched by age, sex and ethnic origin. HLA class II (DRB1* and DQB1*) typing was performed by PCR-SSP and/or Luminex (PCR-SSO). Allelic and haplotypic frequencies, P-values, odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using the software SPSS. A significant increase of DRB1*15 allele frequency (17.6% vs 8.4%, OR=2.67, 95% CI=1.36-5.23, P=0.004) and HLA-DRB1*15-DQB1*06 haplotype (8.8% vs 4.08%, OR=2.78, 95% CI=1.41-5.48, P=0.002) were observed in Moroccan MS patients. No association of the DR15 allele with sex or age at onset was appreciated. Concerning HLA-DQB1* alleles, no significant difference between patients and controls was found. Our results reveal a role for HLA-DRB1*15 allele molecules in the predisposition of Moroccan patients to MS. Although this study should be confirmed on a larger sample size, it analyzes for the first time the possible role of a genetic marker for susceptibility to MS in Moroccan population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Stability of Class II treatment with the Bionator followed by fixed appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoela Favaro FRANCISCONI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This prospective study assessed the stability of Class II treatment with the Bionator, followed by fixed appliances, 10 years after treatment. Material and Methods: The experimental group comprised 23 patients of both sexes (10 boys, 13 girls at a mean initial age of 11.74 years (late mixed or early permanent dentitions, treated for a mean period of 3.55 years who were evaluated at three stages: initial (T1, final (T2 and long-term posttreatment (T3. A total of 69 lateral cephalograms were evaluated and 69 dental casts were measured using the PAR index. The difference between initial and final PAR indexes, the percentage of occlusal improvement obtained with therapy and the percentage of relapse were calculated, using the PAR index. The variables were compared by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by Tukey tests. Results: The significant improvement in apical base relationship, the palatal inclination of the maxillary incisors and the labial inclination of the mandibular incisors, and the significant improvement in molar relationship and reduction of overjet and overbite, obtained with treatment, remained stable in the long-term posttreatment period. There was also significant improvement in the occlusal relationships which remained stable in the long-term posttreatment period. The percentage of occlusal improvement obtained was of 81.78% and the percentage of relapse was of 4.90%. Conclusions: Treatment of Class II division 1 malocclusions with the Bionator associated with fixed appliances showed to be stable in the long-term posttreatment period.

  12. Adiponectin mediated MHC class II mismatched cardiac graft rejection in mice is IL-4 dependent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daxu Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adiponectin regulates glucose and fatty-acid metabolism but its role in chronic graft rejection mediated by Th2 cytokines remains ill-defined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Wild type and adiponectin-null mice were used as graft recipients in mouse MHC class II disparate cardiac transplantation (bm12 toB6 and the graft rejection was monitored. In adiponectin-null mice we observed that the cellular infiltrate of eosinophils, CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells was reduced in grafts compared to the controls as was collagen deposition and vessel occlusion. A similar outcome was observed for skin transplants except that neutrophil infiltration was increased. Low levels of IL-4 were detected in the grafts and serum. The effect of adiponectin signaling on IL-4 expression was further investigated. Treatment with AMPK and p38 MAPK inhibitors blocked adiponectin enhanced T cell proliferation in mixed lymphocyte reactions. Inhibition of AMPK reduced eosinophil infiltration in skin grafts in wild type recipients and in contrast AMPK activation increased eosinophils in adiponectin-null recipients. The addition of adiponectin increased IL-4 production by the T cell line EL4 with augmented nuclear GATA-3 and phospho-STAT6 expression which were suppressed by knockdown of adiponectin receptor 1 and 2. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate a direct effect of adiponectin on IL-4 expression which contributes to Th2 cytokine mediated rejection in mouse MHC class II histoincompatible transplants. These results add to our understanding of the interrelationship of metabolism and immune regulation and raise the possibility that AMPK inhibitors may be beneficial in selected types of rejection.

  13. Outcome quality and long-term (≥15 years) stability after Class II:2 Herbst-multibracket appliance treatment in comparison to untreated Class I controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Niko C; Saffar, Mitra; Hudel, Helge; Evälahti, Marjut; Heikinheimo, Kaisa; Rice, David P; Ruf, Sabine

    2017-12-09

    To investigate the outcome quality and the long-term (≥15 years) post-treatment (Tx) changes after Class II:2 Herbst-multibracket appliance (MBA) Tx. In this longitudinal observational study, a recall of Class II:2 patients who had been treated by a Herbst-MBA during adolescence was conducted. Study models from before and after active Tx, after retention and after recall were assessed using standard occlusal variables and the peer assessment rating index (PAR). These data were compared to historical untreated Class I controls. Twenty out of 33 patients (61%) could be located and participated at age 33.9 ± 2.7 years. When comparing their data to the 13 patients who did not participate, the pre- and post-Tx occlusal findings did not differ systematically; however, the PAR scores of the non-participants were by 3.3-8.2 points higher at all times and the non-participants were 2.1-2.5 years older. Pre-Tx at age 14.4 ± 2.7 years, the participants showed the following mean values: PAR = 15.0 ± 7.0, Class II molar relationship (MR) = 0.8 ± 0.3 cusp widths (cw), overbite = 5.3 ± 1.3 mm. After Tx, a PAR score of 2.9 ± 1.3 and a super Class I MR (-0.1 ± 0.1 cw) with normal overbite (1.2 ± 0.8 mm) existed. At recall, a PAR score increase to 5.9 ± 3.6 points had occurred, mainly caused by an increase of overbite to 2.5 ± 1.5 mm. The average MR remained Class I (0.0 ± 0.2 cw). For all variables, the untreated controls exhibited similar findings. The occlusal outcome of Class II:2 Herbst-MBA Tx exhibited very good long-term stability. While mild post-Tx changes occurred, the long-term findings are similar to untreated Class I controls. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  14. NetMHCIIpan-3.0, a common pan-specific MHC class II prediction method including all three human MHC class II isotypes, HLA-DR, HLA-DP and HLA-DQ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karosiene, Edita; Rasmussen, Michael; Blicher, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) molecules play an important role in cell-mediated immunity. They present specific peptides derived from endosomal proteins for recognition by T helper cells. The identification of peptides that bind to MHCII molecules is therefore of great importa......MHCIIpan-3.0 method is the first pan-specific predictor covering all HLA class II molecules with known sequences including HLA-DR, HLA-DP, and HLA-DQ. The NetMHCpan-3.0 method is available at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/NetMHCIIpan-3.0....

  15. Immunomodulation of glioma cells after gene therapy: induction of major histocompatibility complex class I but not class II antigen in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsa, A T; Chi, J H; Hurley, P T; Jeyapalan, S A; Bruce, J N

    2001-09-01

    Acquired immunity has been demonstrated in Fischer rats bearing syngeneic 9L tumors after herpes simplex virus (HSV) thymidine kinase (TK) gene transfection and ganciclovir treatment. The nature of this immunity in rats and its relevance to the HSV TK/ganciclovir protocol for human subjects remain to be determined. In this study, levels of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class I and II antigen expression were measured before and after HSV TK transfection, in an effort to document immunomodulatory changes caused by gene therapy. Tumor cells from the 9L gliosarcoma cell line, three primary human glioma cultures, and the human glioma cell line U87 MG were transduced with HSV TK vector-containing supernatant from fibroblast-producing cells (titer of 5 x 10(6) colony-forming units/ml) and selected in G418 medium for neomycin resistance. Clones were pooled or individually selected for cell-killing assays with ganciclovir, to confirm TK expression (10(3) cells/well in a 96-well dish). Northern analyses using MHC Class I and Class II complementary deoxyribonucleic acid probes were performed on blots containing total ribonucleic acid from wild-type tumor cells and HSV TK transfectants. A beta-actin complementary deoxyribonucleic acid probe served as an internal control. Cell surface expression was confirmed with flow cytometry. The induction of MHC Class I was tested for cycloheximide and genistein sensitivity. All cell cultures exhibited increases in MHC Class I but not MHC Class II expression, as determined by Northern analysis densitometry and flow cytometry. Cycloheximide treatment did not diminish the up-regulation of MHC Class I after retroviral transfection, implicating a signal transduction pathway that does not require ongoing protein synthesis. Genistein pretreatment of cell cultures did diminish the up-regulation of MHC Class I, implicating a tyrosine kinase in the signaling cascade. Induction of MHC Class I in rat and human glioma cells after HSV TK

  16. Spectropolarimetric Inversions of the Ca II 8542 Å Line in an M-class Solar Flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuridze, D.; Henriques, V. M. J.; Mathioudakis, M.; Rouppe van der Voort, L.; de la Cruz Rodríguez, J.; Carlsson, M.

    2018-06-01

    We study the M1.9-class solar flare SOL2015-09-27T10:40 UT using high-resolution full Stokes imaging spectropolarimetry of the Ca II 8542 Å line obtained with the CRISP imaging spectropolarimeter at the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope. Spectropolarimetric inversions using the non-LTE code NICOLE are used to construct semiempirical models of the flaring atmosphere to investigate the structure and evolution of the flare temperature and magnetic field. A comparison of the temperature stratification in flaring and nonflaring areas reveals strong heating of the flare ribbon during the flare peak. The polarization signals of the ribbon in the chromosphere during the flare maximum become stronger when compared to its surroundings and to pre- and post-flare profiles. Furthermore, a comparison of the response functions to perturbations in the line-of-sight magnetic field and temperature in flaring and nonflaring atmospheres shows that during the flare, the Ca II 8542 Å line is more sensitive to the lower atmosphere where the magnetic field is expected to be stronger. The chromospheric magnetic field was also determined with the weak-field approximation, which led to results similar to those obtained with the NICOLE inversions.

  17. MHC class II diversity of koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) populations across their range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Q; Jaratlerdsiri, W; Griffith, J E; Gongora, J; Higgins, D P

    2014-10-01

    Major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) genes code for proteins that bind and present antigenic peptides and trigger the adaptive immune response. We present a broad geographical study of MHCII DA β1 (DAB) and DB β1 (DBB) variants of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus; n=191) from 12 populations across eastern Australia, with a total of 13 DAB and 7 DBB variants found. We identified greater MHCII variation and, possibly, additional gene copies in koala populations in the north (Queensland and New South Wales) relative to the south (Victoria), confirmed by STRUCTURE analyses and genetic differentiation using analysis of molecular variance. The higher MHCII diversity in the north relative to south could potentially be attributed to (i) significant founder effect in Victorian populations linked to historical translocation of bottlenecked koala populations and (ii) increased pathogen-driven balancing selection and/or local genetic drift in the north. Low MHCII genetic diversity in koalas from the south could reduce their potential response to disease, although the three DAB variants found in the south had substantial sequence divergence between variants. This study assessing MHCII diversity in the koala with historical translocations in some populations contributes to understanding the effects of population translocations on functional genetic diversity.

  18. Superantigen and HLA-DR ligation induce phospholipase-C gamma 1 activation in class II+ T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanner, S B; Odum, Niels; Grosmaire, L

    1992-01-01

    Bacterial enterotoxin superantigens bind directly to HLA class II molecules (HLA-DR) expressed on both APC and activated human T cells, and simultaneously bind to certain V beta chains of the TCR. In this report, we compared early T cell signaling events in human alloantigen-stimulated T cells when...... activated by HLA-DR ligation through antibody cross-linking or by direct enterotoxin superantigen binding. Both types of stimuli induced tyrosine phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C gamma 1 (PLC gamma 1) and an increase in intracellular calcium concentration; however......, superantigen-induced signaling was stronger than class II ligation alone. Antibody-mediated ligation of HLA-DR with CD3 resulted in augmented PLC gamma 1 activation and increased calcium mobilization, consistent with a mechanism of superantigen activity through a combination of class II and CD3/Ti signals...

  19. Restoring silvopastures with oak saplings: Effects of mulch and diameter class on survival, growth, and annual leaf-nutrient patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. N. Jimenez; J. R. Pinto; M. A. Ripoll; A. Sanchez-Miranda; F. B. Navarro

    2014-01-01

    In Southwestern Spain, multifunctional silvopastoral systems consisting of pastureland and open oak woodlands are known as Dehesas. These, and other similar systems of the Mediterranean basin, are currently threatened by increasing intensive land use. As a consequence, oak regeneration is declining and is in need of adequate management and active restoration....

  20. Characterization and evolution of MHC class II B genes in Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaberman, Scott; Moreno, Maria A; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2009-08-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules play a key role in the adaptive immune system of vertebrates. Class II B genes appear to evolve in a very different manner in mammals and birds. Orthology is commonly observed among mammal loci, while genes tend to cluster phylogenetically within bird species. Here we present class II B data from a representative of another major group of amniotes, the squamates (i.e. lizards, snakes, amphisbaenians), with the ultimate goal of placing mammalian and avian MHC evolution into a broader context. In this study, eight class II B cDNA sequences were obtained from the Galápagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) which were divided into five locus groups, Amcr-DAB1 through -DAB5, based on similarities along most of the coding and noncoding portions of the transcribed gene. All marine iguana sequences were monophyletic with respect to class II genes from other vertebrates indicating that they originated from a common ancestral locus after squamates split from other reptiles. The beta-1 domain, which is involved in antigen binding, exhibited signatures of positive selection as well as interlocus gene conversion in both long and short tracts-a pattern also observed in birds and fish, but not in mammals. On the other hand, the beta-2 domain was divergent between gene groups, which is characteristic of mammals. Based on these results, we preliminarily show that squamate class II B genes have been shaped by a unique blend of evolutionary forces that have been observed in differing degrees in other vertebrates.

  1. Characterization of MHC class I and II genes in a subantarctic seabird, the blue petrel, Halobaena caerulea (Procellariiformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandh, Maria; Lannefors, Mimi; Bonadonna, Francesco; Westerdahl, Helena

    2011-10-01

    The great polymorphism observed in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes is thought to be maintained by pathogen-mediated selection possibly combined with MHC-disassortative mating, guided by MHC-determined olfactory cues. Here, we partly characterize the MHC class I and II B of the blue petrel, Halobaena caerulea (Procellariiformes), a bird with significant olfactory abilities that lives under presumably low pathogen burdens in Subantarctica. Blue petrels are long-lived, monogamous birds which suggest the necessity of an accurate mate choice process. The species is ancestral to songbirds (Passeriformes; many MHC loci), although not to gamefowls (Galliformes; few MHC loci). Considering the phylogenetic relationships and the low subantarctic pathogen burden, we expected few rather than many MHC loci in the blue petrel. However, when we analysed partial MHC class I and class II B cDNA and gDNA sequences we found evidence for as many as at least eight MHC class I loci and at least two class II B loci. These class I and II B sequences showed classical MHC characteristics, e.g. high nucleotide diversity, especially in putative peptide-binding regions where signatures of positive selection was detected. Trans-species polymorphism was found between MHC class II B sequences of the blue petrel and those of thin-billed prion, Pachyptila belcheri, two species that diverged ∼25 MYA. The observed MHC allele richness in the blue petrel may well serve as a basis for mate choice, especially since olfactory discrimination of MHC types may be possible in this species.

  2. Subcellular localization of class II HDAs in Arabidopsis thaliana: nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HDA15 is driven by light.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malona V Alinsug

    Full Text Available Class II histone deacetylases in humans and other model organisms undergo nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. This unique functional regulatory mechanism has been well elucidated in eukaryotic organisms except in plant systems. In this study, we have paved the baseline evidence for the cytoplasmic and nuclear localization of Class II HDAs as well as their mRNA expression patterns. RT-PCR analysis on the different vegetative parts and developmental stages reveal that Class II HDAs are ubiquitously expressed in all tissues with minimal developmental specificity. Moreover, stable and transient expression assays using HDA-YFP/GFP fusion constructs indicate cytoplasmic localization of HDA5, HDA8, and HDA14 further suggesting their potential for nuclear transport and deacetylating organellar and cytoplasmic proteins. Organelle markers and stains confirm HDA14 to abound in the mitochondria and chloroplasts while HDA5 localizes in the ER. HDA15, on the other hand, shuttles in and out of the nucleus upon light exposure. In the absence of light, it is exported out of the nucleus where further re-exposition to light treatments signals its nuclear import. Unlike HDA5 which binds with 14-3-3 proteins, HDA15 fails to interact with these chaperones. Instead, HDA15 relies on its own nuclear localization and export signals to navigate its subcellular compartmentalization classifying it as a Class IIb HDA. Our study indicates that nucleocytoplasmic shuttling is indeed a hallmark for all eukaryotic Class II histone deacetylases.

  3. [Pre-surgical orthodontic treatment of skeletal class II patients with gingival smile corrected by anterior maxillary segmental osteotomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaobing; Xiao, Liwei; Chen, Song; Chen, Yangxi

    2002-11-01

    To discuss the pre-surgical orthodontic treatment of skeletal class II patients with gingiva smile corrected by AMSO. We analyzed the clinical features of 20 skeletal class II patients treated by AMSO combined with Orthodontic treatment and evaluated the effects of AMSO by means of cephalometric analysis. After the AMSO treatment, ANB angle, the height of anterior maxilla, the protrusion of the upper anterior teeth, and the of A point had reduced significantly (P orthodontically to make arch relationship. Extract the upper bicuspid half a year before the surgery was recommended. When necessary, genioplasty could be performed.

  4. Identification of MHC class II restricted T‐cell‐mediated reactivity against MHC class I binding Mycobacterium tuberculosis peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Mingjun; Tang, Sheila Tuyet; Stryhn, Anette

    2011-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are known to play an important role in the control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection so identification of CTL epitopes from M. tuberculosis is of importance for the development of effective peptide...

  5. An Approach for a Synthetic CTL Vaccine Design against Zika Flavivirus Using Class I and Class II Epitopes Identified by Computer Modeling

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    Edecio Cunha-Neto

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The threat posed by severe congenital abnormalities related to Zika virus (ZKV infection during pregnancy has turned development of a ZKV vaccine into an emergency. Recent work suggests that the cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL response to infection is an important defense mechanism in response to ZKV. Here, we develop the rationale and strategy for a new approach to developing cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL vaccines for ZKV flavivirus infection. The proposed approach is based on recent studies using a protein structure computer model for HIV epitope selection designed to select epitopes for CTL attack optimized for viruses that exhibit antigenic drift. Because naturally processed and presented human ZKV T cell epitopes have not yet been described, we identified predicted class I peptide sequences on ZKV matching previously identified DNV (Dengue class I epitopes and by using a Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC binding prediction tool. A subset of those met the criteria for optimal CD8+ attack based on physical chemistry parameters determined by analysis of the ZKV protein structure encoded in open source Protein Data File (PDB format files. We also identified candidate ZKV epitopes predicted to bind promiscuously to multiple HLA class II molecules that could provide help to the CTL responses. This work suggests that a CTL vaccine for ZKV may be possible even if ZKV exhibits significant antigenic drift. We have previously described a microsphere-based CTL vaccine platform capable of eliciting an immune response for class I epitopes in mice and are currently working toward in vivo testing of class I and class II epitope delivery directed against ZKV epitopes using the same microsphere-based vaccine.

  6. Characterization of major histocompatibility complex class I, and class II DRB loci of captive and wild Indian leopards (Panthera pardus fusca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Drashti R; Mitra, Siuli; Bhadouriya, Snehalata; Rao, Tirupathi; Kunteepuram, Vaishnavi; Gaur, Ajay

    2017-12-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC), in vertebrate animals, is a multi-genic protein complex that encodes various receptors. During a disease, MHC interacts with the antigen and triggers a cascade of adaptive immune responses to overcome a disease outbreak. The MHC is very important region from immunological point of view, but it is poorly characterized among Indian leopards. During this investigation, we examined genetic diversity for MHC class I (MHC-I) and MHC class II-DRB (MHC-II) among wild and captive Indian leopards. This study estimated a pool of 9 and 17 alleles for MHC-I and MHC-II, respectively. The wild group of individuals showed higher nucleotide diversity and amino acid polymorphism compared to the captive group. A phylogenetic comparison with other felids revealed a clustering in MHC-I and interspersed presence in MHC-II sequences. A test for selection also revealed a deviation from neutrality at MHC-II DRB loci and higher non-synonymous substitution rate (dN) among the individuals from wild group. Further, the wild individuals showed higher dN for both MHC I and II genes compared to the group that was bred under captive conditions. These findings suggest the role of micro-evolutionary forces, such as pathogen-mediated selection, to cause MHC variations among the two groups of Indian leopards, because the two groups have been bred in two different environments for a substantial period of time. Since, MHC diversity is often linked with the quality of immunological health; the results obtained from this study fill the gap of knowledge on disease predisposition among wild and captive Indian leopards.

  7. Dynamic range of Nef-mediated evasion of HLA class II-restricted immune responses in early HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahiti, Macdonald; Brumme, Zabrina L; Jessen, Heiko; Brockman, Mark A; Ueno, Takamasa

    2015-07-31

    HLA class II-restricted CD4(+) T lymphocytes play an important role in controlling HIV-1 replication, especially in the acute/early infection stage. But, HIV-1 Nef counteracts this immune response by down-regulating HLA-DR and up-regulating the invariant chain associated with immature HLA-II (Ii). Although functional heterogeneity of various Nef activities, including down-regulation of HLA class I (HLA-I), is well documented, our understanding of Nef-mediated evasion of HLA-II-restricted immune responses during acute/early infection remains limited. Here, we examined the ability of Nef clones from 47 subjects with acute/early progressive infection and 46 subjects with chronic progressive infection to up-regulate Ii and down-regulate HLA-DR and HLA-I from the surface of HIV-infected cells. HLA-I down-regulation function was preserved among acute/early Nef clones, whereas both HLA-DR down-regulation and Ii up-regulation functions displayed relatively broad dynamic ranges. Nef's ability to down-regulate HLA-DR and up-regulate Ii correlated positively at this stage, suggesting they are functionally linked in vivo. Acute/early Nef clones also exhibited higher HLA-DR down-regulation and lower Ii up-regulation functions compared to chronic Nef clones. Taken together, our results support enhanced Nef-mediated HLA class II immune evasion activities in acute/early compared to chronic infection, highlighting the potential importance of these functions following transmission. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Positive selection on MHC class II DRB and DQB genes in the bank vole (Myodes glareolus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherman, Kristin; Råberg, Lars; Westerdahl, Helena

    2014-05-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class IIB genes show considerable sequence similarity between loci. The MHC class II DQB and DRB genes are known to exhibit a high level of polymorphism, most likely maintained by parasite-mediated selection. Studies of the MHC in wild rodents have focused on DRB, whilst DQB has been given much less attention. Here, we characterised DQB genes in Swedish bank voles Myodes glareolus, using full-length transcripts. We then designed primers that specifically amplify exon 2 from DRB (202 bp) and DQB (205 bp) and investigated molecular signatures of natural selection on DRB and DQB alleles. The presence of two separate gene clusters was confirmed using BLASTN and phylogenetic analysis, where our seven transcripts clustered according to either DQB or DRB homologues. These gene clusters were again confirmed on exon 2 data from 454-amplicon sequencing. Our DRB primers amplify a similar number of alleles per individual as previously published DRB primers, though our reads are longer. Traditional d N/d S analyses of DRB sequences in the bank vole have not found a conclusive signal of positive selection. Using a more advanced substitution model (the Kumar method) we found positive selection in the peptide binding region (PBR) of both DRB and DQB genes. Maximum likelihood models of codon substitutions detected positively selected sites located in the PBR of both DQB and DRB. Interestingly, these analyses detected at least twice as many positively selected sites in DQB than DRB, suggesting that DQB has been under stronger positive selection than DRB over evolutionary time.

  9. Recent Progress in the Chemical Synthesis of Class II and S-Glycosylated Bacteriocins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Bédard

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A wide variety of antimicrobial peptides produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB have been identified and studied in the last decades. Known as bacteriocins, these ribosomally synthesized peptides inhibit the growth of a wide range of bacterial species through numerous mechanisms and show a great variety of spectrum of activity. With their great potential as antimicrobial additives and alternatives to traditional antibiotics in food preservation and handling, animal production and in veterinary and medical medicine, the demand for bacteriocins is rapidly increasing. Bacteriocins are most often produced by fermentation but, in several cases, the low isolated yields and difficulties associated with their purification seriously limit their use on a large scale. Chemical synthesis has been proposed for their production and recent advances in peptide synthesis methodologies have allowed the preparation of several bacteriocins. Moreover, the significant cost reduction for peptide synthesis reagents and building blocks has made chemical synthesis of bacteriocins more attractive and competitive. From a protein engineering point of view, the chemical approach offers many advantages such as the possibility to rapidly perform amino acid substitution, use unnatural or modified residues, and make backbone and side chain modifications to improve potency, modify the activity spectrum or increase the stability of the targeted bacteriocin. This review summarized synthetic approaches that have been developed and used in recent years to allow the preparation of class IIa bacteriocins and S-linked glycopeptides from LAB. Synthetic strategies such as the use of pseudoprolines, backbone protecting groups, microwave irradiations, selective disulfide bridge formation and chemical ligations to prepare class II and S-glycosylsated bacteriocins are discussed.

  10. DLA Class II Alleles Are Associated with Risk for Canine Symmetrical Lupoid Onychodystropy (SLO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbe, Maria; Ziener, Martine Lund; Aronsson, Anita; Harlos, Charlotte; Sundberg, Katarina; Norberg, Elin; Andersson, Lisa; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Hedhammar, Åke; Andersson, Göran; Lingaas, Frode

    2010-01-01

    Symmetrical lupoid onychodystrophy (SLO) is an immune-mediated disease in dogs affecting the claws with a suggested autoimmune aethiology. Sequence-based genotyping of the polymorphic exon 2 from DLA-DRB1, -DQA1, and -DQB1 class II loci were performed in a total of 98 SLO Gordon setter cases and 98 healthy controls. A risk haplotype (DRB1*01801/DQA1*00101/DQB1*00802) was present in 53% of cases and 34% of controls and conferred an elevated risk of developing SLO with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.1. When dogs homozygous for the risk haplotype were compared to all dogs not carrying the haplotype the OR was 5.4. However, a stronger protective haplotype (DRB1*02001/DQA1*00401/DQB1*01303, OR = 0.03, 1/OR = 33) was present in 16.8% of controls, but only in a single case (0.5%). The effect of the protective haplotype was clearly stronger than the risk haplotype, since 11.2% of the controls were heterozygous for the risk and protective haplotypes, whereas this combination was absent from cases. When the dogs with the protective haplotype were excluded, an OR of 2.5 was obtained when dogs homozygous for the risk haplotype were compared to those heterozygous for the risk haplotype, suggesting a co-dominant effect of the risk haplotype. In smaller sample sizes of the bearded collie and giant schnauzer breeds we found the same or similar haplotypes, sharing the same DQA1 allele, over-represented among the cases suggesting that the risk is associated primarily with DLA-DQ. We obtained conclusive results that DLA class II is significantly associated with risk of developing SLO in Gordon setters, thus supporting that SLO is an immune-mediated disease. Further studies of SLO in dogs may provide important insight into immune privilege of the nail apparatus and also knowledge about a number of inflammatory disorders of the nail apparatus like lichen planus, psoriasis, alopecia areata and onycholysis. PMID:20808798

  11. DLA class II alleles are associated with risk for canine symmetrical lupoid onychodystrophy [corrected](SLO.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Wilbe

    Full Text Available Symmetrical lupoid onychodystrophy (SLO is an immune-mediated disease in dogs affecting the claws with a suggested autoimmune aethiology. Sequence-based genotyping of the polymorphic exon 2 from DLA-DRB1, -DQA1, and -DQB1 class II loci were performed in a total of 98 SLO Gordon setter cases and 98 healthy controls. A risk haplotype (DRB1*01801/DQA1*00101/DQB1*00802 was present in 53% of cases and 34% of controls and conferred an elevated risk of developing SLO with an odds ratio (OR of 2.1. When dogs homozygous for the risk haplotype were compared to all dogs not carrying the haplotype the OR was 5.4. However, a stronger protective haplotype (DRB1*02001/DQA1*00401/DQB1*01303, OR = 0.03, 1/OR = 33 was present in 16.8% of controls, but only in a single case (0.5%. The effect of the protective haplotype was clearly stronger than the risk haplotype, since 11.2% of the controls were heterozygous for the risk and protective haplotypes, whereas this combination was absent from cases. When the dogs with the protective haplotype were excluded, an OR of 2.5 was obtained when dogs homozygous for the risk haplotype were compared to those heterozygous for the risk haplotype, suggesting a co-dominant effect of the risk haplotype. In smaller sample sizes of the bearded collie and giant schnauzer breeds we found the same or similar haplotypes, sharing the same DQA1 allele, over-represented among the cases suggesting that the risk is associated primarily with DLA-DQ. We obtained conclusive results that DLA class II is significantly associated with risk of developing SLO in Gordon setters, thus supporting that SLO is an immune-mediated disease. Further studies of SLO in dogs may provide important insight into immune privilege of the nail apparatus and also knowledge about a number of inflammatory disorders of the nail apparatus like lichen planus, psoriasis, alopecia areata and onycholysis.

  12. Changes in soft tissue profile using functional appliances in the treatment of skeletal class II malocclusion

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    Stamenković Zorana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The effects of orthodontic treatment are considered to be successful if the facial harmony is achieved, while the structures of soft tissue profile are in harmony with skeletal structures of neurocranium and viscerocranium. In patients with skeletal distal bite caused by mandibular retrognathism, facial esthetics is disturbed often, in terms of pronounced convexity of the profile and change in the position and relationship of the lips. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine the extent of soft tissue profile changes in patients with skeletal Class II malocclusion treated with three different orthodontic appliances: Fränkel functional regulator type I (FR-I, Balters’ Bionator type I and Hotz appliance. Methods. The study included 60 patients diagnosed with skeletal Class II malocclusion caused by mandibular retrognathism, in the period of early mixed dentition. Each subgroup of 20 patients was treated with a variety of orthodontic appliances. On the lateral cephalogram, before and after treatment, the following parameters were analyzed: T angle, H angle, the height of the upper lip, the position of the upper and lower lip in relation to the esthetic line. Within the statistical analysis the mean, maximum, minimum, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, two-factor analysis of variance with repeated measures and the factor analysis of variance were calculated using ANOVA, Bonferroni test and Student’s t-test. Results. A significant decrease of angles T and H was noticed in the application of FR-I, from 21.60° to 17.15°, and from 16.45° to 13.40° (p<0.001. FR-I decreased the height of the upper lip from 26.15 mm to 25.85 mm, while Hotz appliance and Balters’ Bionator type I increased the height of the upper lip, thereby deteriorating esthetics of the patient. Conclusion. All used orthodontic appliances lead to changes in soft tissue profile in terms of improving facial esthetics, with the most distinctive

  13. Trans-species polymorphism and selection in the MHC class II DRA genes of domestic sheep.

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    Keith T Ballingall

    Full Text Available Highly polymorphic genes with central roles in lymphocyte mediated immune surveillance are grouped together in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC in higher vertebrates. Generally, across vertebrate species the class II MHC DRA gene is highly conserved with only limited allelic variation. Here however, we provide evidence of trans-species polymorphism at the DRA locus in domestic sheep (Ovis aries. We describe variation at the Ovar-DRA locus that is far in excess of anything described in other vertebrate species. The divergent DRA allele (Ovar-DRA*0201 differs from the sheep reference sequences by 20 nucleotides, 12 of which appear non-synonymous. Furthermore, DRA*0201 is paired with an equally divergent DRB1 allele (Ovar-DRB1*0901, which is consistent with an independent evolutionary history for the DR sub-region within this MHC haplotype. No recombination was observed between the divergent DRA and B genes in a range of breeds and typical levels of MHC class II DR protein expression were detected at the surface of leukocyte populations obtained from animals homozygous for the DRA*0201, DRB1*0901 haplotype. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis groups Ovar-DRA*0201 with DRA sequences derived from species within the Oryx and Alcelaphus genera rather than clustering with other ovine and caprine DRA alleles. Tests for Darwinian selection identified 10 positively selected sites on the branch leading to Ovar-DRA*0201, three of which are predicted to be associated with the binding of peptide antigen. As the Ovis, Oryx and Alcelaphus genera have not shared a common ancestor for over 30 million years, the DRA*0201 and DRB1*0901 allelic pair is likely to be of ancient origin and present in the founding population from which all contemporary domestic sheep breeds are derived. The conservation of the integrity of this unusual DR allelic pair suggests some selective advantage which is likely to be associated with the presentation of pathogen antigen to T

  14. Fracture frequency and longevity of fractured resin composite, polyacid-modified resin composite, and resin-modified glass ionomer cement class IV restorations: an up to 14 years of follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan W V; Pallesen, Ulla

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the fracture frequency and longevity of fractured class IV resin composite (RC), polyacid-modified resin composite (compomer; PMRC), and resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) restorations in a longitudinal long-term follow-up. Eighty-five class IV RC (43...

  15. Microleakage of class V cavities restored with nanofilled resin modified glass ionomer and conventional glass ionomer with self etch adhesive and self etch primer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansore Mirzaie

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Microleakage is a criterion proposed for assessing the success of any restorative material. Complete seal is difficult especially for dentin margins compared to enamel margins. The aim of this study was to assess the microleakage at the enamel and dentin margins of class V cavities restored by two GIs and two self-etch adhesive systems. Materials and Methods: This study was done on forty third molars. Class V cavities (3×2×2mm were prepared on the buccal and lingual surfaces of teeth using high speed handpiece with 0.8 mm diamond fissure burr. The occlusal margins of the cavities in the enamel and gingival marginswere placed 1 mm below the CEJ. The teeth were divided into 4 groups and the bondings were cured for 20 sec and the teeth were restored. The specimens were kept in distilled water at the temperature of 37°C for 24 hrs. The teeth were thermo cycled and cut in buccolingual direction using diamond disc under water. The dye penetration was evaluated using a stereomicroscope and the leakage was scored. The scores were compared using Kruskal-Wallis test while the paired comparisons were done using Bonferroni correction. P≤0.05 was regarded as significant results. Results: Microleakage scores were similar at the occlusal and gingival walls of all test groups. At the gingival walls, the least microleakage scores were observed. “Fuji IX + SE bond” group showed significant differences with the “Fuji IX + G bond” and “Nanoglass + G bond” groups (P≤0.05. At the occlusal walls, the least scores were observed in the “Fuji IX+SE bond” specimens which were significantly different from the other groups (P≤0.05. Conclusion: Self-Cure glass ionomers yielded less microleakage scores compared to the different types of light-cures due to the less polymerization shrinkage.

  16. Fatigue resistance of teeth restored with cuspal-coverage composite restorations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennis, W.M.M.; Kuijs, R.H.; Kreulen, C.M.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study assessed the influence of palatal cuspal coverage on the in vitro fatigue resistance and failure mode of Class II resin composite restorations including replacement of the buccal cusp in premolars. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A master model was made of a maxillary premolar with an MOD

  17. Clinical, immunological and genetic features in eleven Algerian patients with major histocompatibility complex class II expression deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djidjik Réda

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Presenting processed antigens to CD4+ lymphocytes during the immune response involves major histocompatibility complex class II molecules. MHC class II genes transcription is regulated by four transcription factors: CIITA, RFXANK, RFX5 and RFXAP. Defects in these factors result in major histocompatibility complex class II expression deficiency, a primary combined immunodeficiency frequent in North Africa. Autosomal recessive mutations in the RFXANK gene have been reported as being the principal defect found in North African patients with this disorder. In this paper, we describe clinical, immunological and genetic features of 11 unrelated Algerian patients whose monocytes display a total absence of MHC class II molecules. They shared mainly the same clinical picture which included protracted diarrhoea and respiratory tract recurrent infections. Genetic analysis revealed that 9 of the 11 patients had the same RFXANK founder mutation, a 26 bp deletion (named I5E6-25_I5E6+1, also known as 752delG26. Immunological and genetic findings in our series may facilitate genetic counselling implementation for Algerian consanguineous families. Further studies need to be conducted to determine 752delG26 heterozygous mutation frequency in Algerian population.

  18. 77 FR 37058 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA 2012-D-0304] Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance... Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the...

  19. 76 FR 20992 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-D-0189] Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Low Level Laser System for Aesthetic Use; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS...

  20. 75 FR 70271 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-D-0515] Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document...: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is...

  1. 75 FR 68364 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2008-D-0275] Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Full-Field Digital Mammography System; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. [[Page...

  2. 76 FR 16425 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-D-0028] Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Ovarian Adnexal Mass Assessment Score Test System; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS...

  3. 76 FR 6622 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-D-0645] Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Contact Cooling System for Aesthetic Use; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION...

  4. 76 FR 22906 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2006-D-0094] Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Topical Oxygen Chamber for Extremities; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION...

  5. 76 FR 28688 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 866 [Docket No. FDA-2011-D-0102] Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: In Vitro Diagnostic Devices for Bacillus Species Detection AGENCY: Food and...

  6. 76 FR 43332 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-D-0500] Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Focused Ultrasound Stimulator System for Aesthetic Use; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...

  7. 76 FR 43690 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2007-D-0149] (Formerly 2007D-0309) Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Electrocardiograph Electrodes; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug...

  8. 77 FR 14403 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2012-D-0167] Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Norovirus Serological Reagents; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice...

  9. 76 FR 48870 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... selection inclusion and exclusion criteria section. The revisions define and differentiate the required... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-D-0428] Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document...

  10. 75 FR 59726 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... method comparison section and the sample selection inclusion and exclusion criteria section. The... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-D-0428] Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

  11. 25 CFR 547.9 - What are the minimum technical standards for Class II gaming system accounting functions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... gaming system accounting functions? 547.9 Section 547.9 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION... accounting functions? This section provides standards for accounting functions used in Class II gaming systems. (a) Required accounting data.The following minimum accounting data, however named, shall be...

  12. A research for Class II defect Bored Pile’s Accept Criteria: A case of Penang Second Marine bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kang

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this preliminary research is to study the accept criteria of class II bored pile with subtle defect. According to a detailed comparison of the existed different standards, Chinese ones are more applicable especially for the large diameter bored piles. Through the concrete coring at pile No P25-03 of this case and the comparison to the actual calculation, the Class II pile’s defects were very minor. Comparison was also made for the effects on pile structural capacities before and after repair of the defects. the feasible repair proposal may bring forward to more defects to the piles. The Class II piles don’t need any further repairation when piles have typical of similar character and sonic logging test result with P25-03‘s one. For other Class II piles with some differences in characters, verification is needed through further concrete coring on the pile. The recommendation of this research could be adopted for the similar huge marine structures which installed large diameter bored piles.

  13. NN-align. An artificial neural network-based alignment algorithm for MHC class II peptide binding prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten; Lund, Ole

    2009-01-01

    this binding event. RESULTS: Here, we present a novel artificial neural network-based method, NN-align that allows for simultaneous identification of the MHC class II binding core and binding affinity. NN-align is trained using a novel training algorithm that allows for correction of bias in the training data...

  14. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Jjj of... - Class II Emission Limits for Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion Unitsa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Small Municipal Waste Combustion Unitsa 4 Table 4 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Pt. 62, Subpt. JJJ, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62—Class II Emission Limits for Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion Unitsa ER31JA03.009...

  15. Negative relationships between cellular immune response, Mhc class II heterozygosity and secondary sexual trait in the montane water vole

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Charbonnel, N.; Bryja, Josef; Galan, M.; Deter, J.; Tollenaere, C.; Chaval, Y.; Morand, S.; Cosson, J.-F.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 3 (2010), s. 279-290 ISSN 1752-4571 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 10284 - EDEN Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : abundance cycles * Dqa and Drb * immunocompetence handicap * Mhc class II genes * parasite-mediated balancing selection * sexual selection Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.145, year: 2010

  16. Effectiveness of comprehensive fixed appliance treatment used with the Forsus Fatigue Resistant Device in Class II patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, Lorenzo; Alvetro, Lisa; Giuntini, Veronica; Masucci, Caterina; Defraia, Efisio; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2011-07-01

    To assess the dental, skeletal, and soft tissue effects of comprehensive fixed appliance treatment combined with the Forsus Fatigue Resistant Device (FRD) in Class II patients. Thirty-two Class II patients (mean age 12.7 ± 1.2 years) were treated consecutively with the FRD protocol and compared with a matched sample of 27 untreated Class II subjects (mean age 12.8 ± 1.3 years). Lateral cephalograms were taken before therapy and at the completion of comprehensive therapy. The mean duration of comprehensive treatment was 2.4 ± 0.4 years. Statistical comparisons were carried out with the Student's t-test (P < .05). The success rate was 87.5%. The FRD group showed a significant restraint in the sagittal skeletal position of the maxilla (also at the soft tissue level), a significant increase in mandibular length, and a significant improvement in maxillo-mandibular sagittal skeletal relationships. The treated group exhibited a significant reduction in overjet and a significant increase in molar relationship. The lower incisors were significantly proclined and intruded, while the lower first molars moved significantly in a mesial and vertical direction. The FRD protocol is effective in correcting Class II malocclusion with a combination of skeletal (mainly maxillary) and dentoalveolar (mainly mandibular) modifications.

  17. 75 FR 54637 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... conferencing and electronic submissions, Mammography Matters, and other device-oriented information. The CDRH... approval) into class II (special controls). DATES: Submit written or electronic comments on this guidance... electronic access to the guidance. Submit electronic comments on the guidance to http://www.regulations.gov...

  18. Stability of skeletal changes induced by growth modulation procedures in the treatment of skeletal Class II malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashantha Govinakovi Shivamurthy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Objective of this study, based on an evaluation of lateral cephalograms, was to evaluate the degree of skeletal changes produced by the various growth modulative procedures in the treatment of skeletal Class II malocclusion and to characterize the stability of these changes in the years after treatment. Materials and Methods: Total of 40 patients with Class II malocclusion was divided into three groups according to appliance used, i.e. removable or fixed functional appliances (n = 10, combination of functional appliance with headgear (n = 10, and only headgear (n = 10. In addition, almost a matched control group (n = 10 also characterized by skeletal Class II pattern and were under observation, for more than 2 years was also selected. Lateral cephalograms of each patient were taken at the start of treatment (T1, at its completion (T2, and long-term posttreatment (T3. Results: This study showed significant improvement in maxillomandibular relationship in treated group compared to control group, and the changes remained stable in posttreatment phase. Restriction of maxillary growth was evident in headgear and combination groups whereas significant forward movement of the mandible was seen in functional group. Conclusion: Analysis of lateral cephalograms indicates that growth modulation therapy in angle Class II malocclusion brings about desired skeletal changes which remain relatively stable over a long-term period.

  19. MHC class II genes in the European badger (Meles meles) : Characterization, patterns of variation, and transcription analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sin, Yung Wa; Dugdale, Hannah L.; Newman, Chris; Macdonald, David W.; Burke, Terry

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) comprises many genes, some of which are polymorphic with numerous alleles. Sequence variation among alleles is most pronounced in exon 2 of the class II genes, which encodes the alpha 1 and beta 1 domains that form the antigen-binding site (ABS) for the

  20. Long-term outcomes of mandibular kinematics following class II malocclusion therapy with removable functional appliance therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsen, Sabine S; Wolf, Michael; Müßig, Dieter

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate mandibular kinematics in class I adults following class II therapy with removable functional appliances (RFAs) during the growth period in comparison with orthodontically untreated class I and II individuals. Condylar (CRoM) and incisal range of motion (InRoM), velocity during opening and closing, and the mandibular rotation angle were recorded using an ultrasound-based jaw-tracking system in 36 test patients (mean age = 28.03 ± 6.58 years). Significant group effects were found for CRoM towards the posterior in the right joint (p = 0.002) and InRoM towards the anterior (p = 0.043). The post hoc Tukey test indicates a significantly longer CRoM (posterior) for the right condyle in class II (p = 0.003) and RFA individuals (p = 0.023). The kinematic data imply greater dentoalveolar effects due to RFA therapy than adaptive remodeling of the temporomandibular joint. The class I relationship in the RFA group following treatment indicates stable long-term outcomes.

  1. A clinical evaluation of a bioresorbable membrane and porous hydroxyapatite in the treatment of human molar class II furcations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Gita Malathi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ultimate goal of periodontal therapy is predictable regeneration of a functional attachment apparatus destroyed as a result of periodontitis. Reconstructive procedures have been used with varying success during the past decades to accomplish this goal. Aim: To evaluate whether the use of porous hydroxyapatite alone or a bioresorbable membrane alone would enhance the clinical results in the treatment of class II furcation defects in human lower molars. Materials and Methods: Fifteen patients with chronic periodontitis, aged between 39 and 49 years, with a pair of similar bilateral class II furcation defects (classification of Hamp et al. in mandibular first molars were selected. A split-mouth design was incorporated and the selected 30 furcation defects were assigned to one of the two treatment groups, i.e., Group I treated with a bioresorbable membrane from bovine-derived collagen guided tissue regeneration membrane and Group II treated using porous hydroxyapatite bone graft material on the contralateral sides. Evaluation of clinical parameters, probing depths and attachment levels, and radiographs was done preoperatively and 6 months postoperatively. Results: Both the groups showed statistically significant mean reduction in probing depths and gain in clinical attachment levels and linear bone fill. Comparison between Group I and Group II showed insignificant difference. Conclusion: Within the limits of this study, both the treatment modalities are beneficial for the treatment of human mandibular class II furcation defects.

  2. MHC class II B diversity in blue tits: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Juan Rivero-de; Schut, Elske; Merino, Santiago; Martínez, Javier; Komdeur, Jan; Westerdahl, Helena

    2013-07-01

    In this study, we partly characterize major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II B in the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus). A total of 22 individuals from three different European locations: Spain, The Netherlands, and Sweden were screened for MHC allelic diversity. The MHC genes were investigated using both PCR-based methods and unamplified genomic DNA with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and southern blots. A total of 13 different exon 2 sequences were obtained independently from DNA and/or RNA, thus confirming gene transcription and likely functionality of the genes. Nine out of 13 alleles were found in more than one country, and two alleles appeared in all countries. Positive selection was detected in the region coding for the peptide binding region (PBR). A maximum of three alleles per individual was detected by sequencing and the RFLP pattern consisted of 4-7 fragments, indicating a minimum number of 2-4 loci per individual. A phylogenetic analysis, demonstrated that the blue tit sequences are divergent compared to sequences from other passerines resembling a different MHC lineage than those possessed by most passerines studied to date.

  3. Two class II D-tagatose-bisphosphate aldolases from enteric bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkkötter, Andreas; Shakeri-Garakani, Ansiah; Lengeler, Joseph W

    2002-05-01

    Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Klebsiella pneumoniaeand Klebsiella oxytocawere found to contain two D-tagatose 1,6-bisphosphate (TagBP)-specific aldolases involved in catabolism of galactitol (genes gatY gatZ) and of N-acetyl-galactosamine and D-galactosamine (genes kbaY kbaZ,also called agaY agaZ). The two aldolases were closely related (> or = 53.8% identical amino acids) and could substitute for each other in vivo. The catalytic subunits GatY or KbaY alone were sufficient to show aldolase activity. Although substantially shorter than other aldolases (285 amino acids, instead of 358 and 349 amino acids), these subunits contained most or all of the residues that have been identified as essential in substrate/product recognition and catalysis for class II aldolases. In contrast to these, both aldolases required subunits GatZ or KbaZ (420 amino acids) for full activity and for good in vivo and in vitro stability. The Z subunits alone did not show any aldolase activity. Close relatives of these new TagBP aldolases were found in several gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, e.g., Streptomyces coelicolor.

  4. Medical devices; exemption from premarket notification; class II devices; wheelchair elevator. Final order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is publishing an order granting a petition requesting exemption from premarket notification requirements for wheelchair elevator devices commonly known as inclined platform lifts and vertical platform lifts. These devices are used to provide a means for a person with a mobility impairment caused by injury or other disease to move from one level to another, usually in a wheelchair. This order exempts wheelchair elevators, class II devices, from premarket notification and establishes conditions for exemption for this device that will provide a reasonable assurance of the safety and effectiveness of the device without submission of a premarket notification (510(k)). This exemption from 510(k), subject to these conditions, is immediately in effect for wheelchair elevators. All other devices classified under FDA's wheelchair elevator regulations, including attendant-operated stair climbing devices for wheelchairs and portable platform lifts, continue to require submission of 510(k)s. FDA is publishing this order in accordance with the section of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act) permitting the exemption of a device from the requirement to submit a 510(k).

  5. Outcomes of different Class II treatments : Comparisons using the American Board of Orthodontics Model Grading System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinci Cansunar, Hatice; Uysal, Tancan

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of three different Class II treatment modalities followed by fixed orthodontic therapy, using the American Board of Orthodontics Model Grading System (ABO-MGS). As a retrospective study, files of patients treated at postgraduate orthodontic  clinics in different cities in Turkey was randomly selected. From 1684 posttreatment records, 669 patients were divided into three groups: 269 patients treated with extraction of two upper premolars, 198 patients treated with cervical headgear, and 202 patients treated with functional appliances. All the cases were evaluated by one researcher using ABO-MGS. The χ (2), Z test, and multivariate analysis of variance were used for statistical evaluation (p < 0.05). No significant differences were found among the groups in buccolingual inclination, overjet, occlusal relationship, and root angulation. However, there were significant differences in alignment, marginal ridge height, occlusal contact, interproximal contact measurements, and overall MGS average scores. The mean treatment time between the extraction and functional appliance groups was significantly different (p = 0.017). According to total ABO-MGS scores, headgear treatment had better results than functional appliances. The headgear group had better tooth alignment than the extraction group. Headgear treatment resulted in better occlusal contacts than the functional appliances and had lower average scores for interproximal contact measurements. Functional appliances had the worst average scores for marginal ridge height. Finally, the functional appliance group had the longest treatment times.

  6. Transport of Streptococcus pneumoniae capsular polysaccharide in MHC Class II tubules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Li Stephen

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial capsular polysaccharides are virulence factors and are considered T cell-independent antigens. However, the capsular polysaccharide Sp1 from Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 1 has been shown to activate CD4(+ T cells in a major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II-dependent manner. The mechanism of carbohydrate presentation to CD4(+ T cells is unknown. We show in live murine dendritic cells (DCs that Sp1 translocates from lysosomal compartments to the plasma membrane in MHCII-positive tubules. Sp1 cell surface presentation results in reduction of self-peptide presentation without alteration of the MHCII self peptide repertoire. In DM-deficient mice, retrograde transport of Sp1/MHCII complexes resulting in T cell-dependent immune responses to the polysaccharide in vitro and in vivo is significantly reduced. The results demonstrate the capacity of a bacterial capsular polysaccharide antigen to use DC tubules as a vehicle for its transport as an MHCII/saccharide complex to the cell surface for the induction of T cell activation. Furthermore, retrograde transport requires the functional role of DM in self peptide-carbohydrate exchange. These observations open new opportunities for the design of vaccines against microbial encapsulated pathogens.

  7. Design of Peptide Immunotherapies for MHC Class-II-Associated Autoimmune Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masha Fridkis-Hareli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune disorders, that occur when autoreactive immune cells are induced to activate their responses against self-tissues, affect one percent of the world population and represent one of the top 10 leading causes of death. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC is a principal susceptibility locus for many human autoimmune diseases, in which self-tissue antigens providing targets for pathogenic lymphocytes are bound to HLA molecules encoded by disease-associated alleles. In spite of the attempts to design strategies for inhibition of antigen presentation targeting the MHC-peptide/TCR complex via generation of blocking antibodies, altered peptide ligands (APL, or inhibitors of costimulatory molecules, potent therapies with minimal side effects have yet to be developed. Copaxone (glatiramer acetate, GA is a random synthetic amino acid copolymer that reduces the relapse rate by about 30% in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS patients. Based on the elucidated binding motifs of Copaxone and of the anchor residues of the immunogenic myelin basic protein (MBP peptide to HLA-DR molecules, novel copolymers have been designed and proved to be more effective in suppressing MS-like disease in mice. In this report, we describe the rationale for design of second-generation synthetic random copolymers as candidate drugs for a number of MHC class-II-associated autoimmune disorders.

  8. Lipid Based Formulations of Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS Class II Drugs: Strategy, Formulations, Methods and Saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šoltýsová I.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Active ingredients in pharmaceuticals differ by their physico-chemical properties and their bioavailability therefore varies. The most frequently used and most convenient way of administration of medicines is oral, however many drugs are little soluble in water. Thus they are not sufficiently effective and suitable for such administration. For this reason a system of lipid based formulations (LBF was developed. Series of formulations were prepared and tested in water and biorelevant media. On the basis of selection criteria, there were selected formulations with the best emulsification potential, good dispersion in the environment and physical stability. Samples of structurally different drugs included in the Class II of the Biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS were obtained, namely Griseofulvin, Glibenclamide, Carbamazepine, Haloperidol, Itraconazol, Triclosan, Praziquantel and Rifaximin, for testing of maximal saturation in formulations prepared from commercially available excipients. Methods were developed for preparation of formulations, observation of emulsification and its description, determination of maximum solubility of drug samples in the respective formulation and subsequent analysis. Saturation of formulations with drugs showed that formulations 80 % XA and 20 % Xh, 35 % XF and 65 % Xh were best able to dissolve the drugs which supports the hypothesis that it is desirable to identify limited series of formulations which could be generally applied for this purpose.

  9. Selection on MHC class II supertypes in the New Zealand endemic Hochstetter's frog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillie, Mette; Grueber, Catherine E; Sutton, Jolene T; Howitt, Robyn; Bishop, Phillip J; Gleeson, Dianne; Belov, Katherine

    2015-04-13

    The New Zealand native frogs, family Leiopelmatidae, are among the most archaic in the world. Leiopelma hochstetteri (Hochstetter's frog) is a small, semi-aquatic frog with numerous, fragmented populations scattered across New Zealand's North Island. We characterized a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II B gene (DAB) in L. hochstetteri from a spleen transcriptome, and then compared its diversity to neutral microsatellite markers to assess the adaptive genetic diversity of five populations ("evolutionarily significant units", ESUs). L. hochstetteri possessed very high MHC diversity, with 74 DAB alleles characterized. Extremely high differentiation was observed at the DAB locus, with only two alleles shared between populations, a pattern that was not reflected in the microsatellites. Clustering analysis on putative peptide binding residues of the DAB alleles indicated four functional supertypes, all of which were represented in 4 of 5 populations, albeit at different frequencies. Otawa was an exception to these observations, with only two DAB alleles present. This study of MHC diversity highlights extreme population differentiation at this functional locus. Supertype differentiation was high among populations, suggesting spatial and/or temporal variation in selection pressures. Low DAB diversity in Otawa may limit this population's adaptive potential to future pathogenic challenges.

  10. Evaluation of criticality criteria for fissile class II packages in transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.T.

    1976-01-01

    The nuclear criticality safety of packages in transportation is explored systematically by a surface density representation of reflected array criticality of air-spaced units. Typical perturbations to arrays are shown to be related analytically to the corresponding reactivity changes they produce. The reactivity change associated with the removal of three reflecting surfaces from a totally water reflected array is shown to depend upon the fissile material loading of the packages. For U(93.2) metal, the expected reactivity loss can range from 2 to 21%. Replacement of a three-sided reflector of water on a critical array by one of concrete results in a reactivity increase ranging from 0 to 6%. Mass limits established by criticality data for reflected arrays of air-spaced units can provide a minimum, uniform margin of safety, expressible in terms of reactivity, to more reliably specify subcriticality in transport. Mass limits less than those defined by air-spaced units in water-reflected arrays are unnecessary for Fissile Class II packages. (author)

  11. Association analysis of class II cytokine and receptor genes in vitiligo patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traks, Tanel; Karelson, Maire; Reimann, Ene; Rätsep, Ranno; Silm, Helgi; Vasar, Eero; Kõks, Sulev; Kingo, Külli

    2016-05-01

    The loss of melanocytes in vitiligo is mainly attributed to defective autoimmune mechanisms and lately autoinflammatory mediators have become more emphasized. Among these, a number of class II cytokines and their receptors have displayed altered expression patterns in vitiligo. Thus, we selected 30 SNPs from the regions of respective genes to be genotyped in Estonian case-control sample (109 and 328 individuals, respectively). For more precise analyses, patients were divided into subgroups based on vitiligo progression activity, age of onset, sex, occurrence of vitiligo among relatives, extent of depigmented areas, appearance of Köbner's phenomenon, existence of halo nevi, occurrence of spontaneous repigmentation, and amount of thyroid peroxidase antibodies. No associations appeared in whole vitiligo group. In subgroups, several allelic and haplotype associations were found. The strongest involved SNPs rs12301088 (near IL26 gene), that was associated with familial vitiligo and existence of halo nevi, and rs2257167 (IFNAR1 gene), that was associated with female vitiligo. Additionally, haplotypes consisting of rs12301088 and rs12321603 alleles (IL26-IL22 genes), that were associated with familial vitiligo and existence of halo nevi. In conclusion, several genetic associations with vitiligo subphenotypes were revealed and functional explanations to these remain to be determined in respective studies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. HLA class II influences humoral autoimmunity in patients with type 2 autoimmune hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djilali-Saiah, Idriss; Fakhfakh, Amin; Louafi, Hamida; Caillat-Zucman, Sophie; Debray, Dominique; Alvarez, Fernando

    2006-12-01

    Type 2 autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is characterized by the presence of anti-liver kidney microsome (anti-LKM-1) and/or anti-liver cytosol type 1 (anti-LC1) autoantibodies. However, the correlation between these autoantibodies and the genetic background has not been studied. Frequencies of HLA class II alleles were compared between the 60 Caucasian children with type 2 AIH and 313 control subjects. The anti-LKM1 antibody reactivity directed against antigenic sites of CYP2D6 was analysed by ELISA. HLA-DQB1 *0201 allele was found to be the primary genetic determinant of susceptibility to type 2 AIH by conferring the highest odd-ratio (OR = 6.4). HLA-DRB1 *03 allele was significantly increased (P LKM1 and anti-LC1 autoantibodies as well as in those with only anti-LC1(+) compared to those with anti-LKM1(+) alone. In contrast, HLA-DRB1 *07 allele was significantly associated (P LKM1(+) alone compared to groups with both anti-LKM and anti-LC1 or with LC1+ alone. Children with the DRB1 *07 allele develop anti-LKM1 autoantibodies having a more restricted specificity (2 epitopes) than to those having HLA-DRB1 *03 allele (5 epitopes). The HLA-DR locus is involved in autoantibody expression, while the DQ locus appears to be a critical determinant for the development of type 2 AIH.

  13. Class I and II histone deacetylase expression in human chronic periodontitis gingival tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantley, M D; Dharmapatni, A A S S K; Algate, K; Crotti, T N; Bartold, P M; Haynes, D R

    2016-04-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are being considered to treat chronic inflammatory diseases at low doses. Currently HDACi that are more specific are being developed to target particular HDACs; therefore, this study aimed to determine levels and distribution of class I and II HDAC in human gingival samples obtained from patients with chronic periodontitis. Gingival biopsies were obtained from patients with and without (mild inflammation, no bone loss) periodontitis. Total RNA was isolated for real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction to determine expression of HDACs 1-10. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine protein distribution of HDACs 1, 5, 8 and 9. Factor VIII, CD3 and tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) were detected in serial sections to identify blood vessels, lymphocytes, pre-osteoclasts and osteoclasts cells respectively. Tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) expression was also assessed. mRNA for HDAC 1, 5, 8 and 9 were significantly upregulated in chronic periodontitis gingival tissues compared to non-periodontitis samples (p chronic periodontitis samples (p chronic periodontitis gingival tissues. HDAC 1, 5, 8 and 9 expression was higher in gingival tissues from patients with chronic periodontitis compared to non-periodontitis samples. Results suggest that these HDACs could therefore be targeted with specific acting HDACi. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Treatment and post-treatment effects of functional therapy on the sagittal pharyngeal dimensions in Class II subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavoni, Chiara; Cretella Lombardo, Elisabetta; Franchi, Lorenzo; Lione, Roberta; Cozza, Paola

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the craniofacial changes induced by functional appliances with special regard to the oro and nasopharyngeal sagittal airway dimensions in subjects with dentoskeletal Class II malocclusions when compared with an untreated Class II control group immediately after therapy and at long-term observation. A group of 40 patients (21 females and 19 males) with Class II malocclusion treated consecutively either with a Bionator or an Activator followed by fixed appliances was compared with a matched control group of 31 subjects (16 females and 15 males) with untreated Class II malocclusion. The treated sample was evaluated at T1, start of treatment (mean age: 9.9 ± 1.4 years); T2, end of functional treatment and prior to fixed appliances (mean age: 11.9 ± 1.3 years); and T3, long-term observation at the end of growth (mean age: 18.2 ± 2.1 years). Statistical comparisons were performed with independent sample t tests at T1 (baseline characteristics) and for the T1-T2, T2-T3, and T1-T3 changes. During active treatment the treated group showed a significant increment in lower airway dimension (PNS-AD1), as well as a significant improvement in the upper airway dimension (PNS-AD2). A significant decrease in the upper adenoid size (AD2-H) was also found. In the longterm evaluation, a significant increase in both lower and upper airway thickness (PNS-AD1; PNS-AD2) and a significant decrease in the upper adenoid thickness were still present in the treated group. The treatment with functional appliances produced significant favorable changes during active treatment in the oro- and nasopharyngeal sagittal airway dimensions in dentoskeletal Class II subjects when compared with untreated controls, and these changes were stable in the long-term. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Depth of Cure of Proximal Composite Restorations using a New Perforated Metal Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    on the clinical performance of posterior composite restorations after 4 years. In the study by Hofmann and Hunecke,17 the effect of light curing...or translucent matrices for class II composite restorations: 4-year clinical follow-up findings. Clin Oral Invest 2011 (15):39-47. 17 Hofmann N

  16. Wild-type phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthase (PRS from Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a bacterial class II PRS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardala Breda

    Full Text Available The 5-phospho-α-D-ribose 1-diphosphate (PRPP metabolite plays essential roles in several biosynthetic pathways, including histidine, tryptophan, nucleotides, and, in mycobacteria, cell wall precursors. PRPP is synthesized from α-D-ribose 5-phosphate (R5P and ATP by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis prsA gene product, phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthase (MtPRS. Here, we report amplification, cloning, expression and purification of wild-type MtPRS. Glutaraldehyde cross-linking results suggest that MtPRS predominates as a hexamer, presenting varied oligomeric states due to distinct ligand binding. MtPRS activity measurements were carried out by a novel coupled continuous spectrophotometric assay. MtPRS enzyme activity could be detected in the absence of P(i. ADP, GDP and UMP inhibit MtPRS activity. Steady-state kinetics results indicate that MtPRS has broad substrate specificity, being able to accept ATP, GTP, CTP, and UTP as diphosphoryl group donors. Fluorescence spectroscopy data suggest that the enzyme mechanism for purine diphosphoryl donors follows a random order of substrate addition, and for pyrimidine diphosphoryl donors follows an ordered mechanism of substrate addition in which R5P binds first to free enzyme. An ordered mechanism for product dissociation is followed by MtPRS, in which PRPP is the first product to be released followed by the nucleoside monophosphate products to yield free enzyme for the next round of catalysis. The broad specificity for diphosphoryl group donors and detection of enzyme activity in the absence of P(i would suggest that MtPRS belongs to Class II PRS proteins. On the other hand, the hexameric quaternary structure and allosteric ADP inhibition would place MtPRS in Class I PRSs. Further data are needed to classify MtPRS as belonging to a particular family of PRS proteins. The data here presented should help augment our understanding of MtPRS mode of action. Current efforts are toward experimental structure

  17. Wild-Type Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate Synthase (PRS) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A Bacterial Class II PRS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breda, Ardala; Martinelli, Leonardo K. B.; Bizarro, Cristiano V.; Rosado, Leonardo A.; Borges, Caroline B.; Santos, Diógenes S.; Basso, Luiz A.

    2012-01-01

    The 5-phospho-α-D-ribose 1-diphosphate (PRPP) metabolite plays essential roles in several biosynthetic pathways, including histidine, tryptophan, nucleotides, and, in mycobacteria, cell wall precursors. PRPP is synthesized from α-D-ribose 5-phosphate (R5P) and ATP by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis prsA gene product, phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthase (MtPRS). Here, we report amplification, cloning, expression and purification of wild-type MtPRS. Glutaraldehyde cross-linking results suggest that MtPRS predominates as a hexamer, presenting varied oligomeric states due to distinct ligand binding. MtPRS activity measurements were carried out by a novel coupled continuous spectrophotometric assay. MtPRS enzyme activity could be detected in the absence of Pi. ADP, GDP and UMP inhibit MtPRS activity. Steady-state kinetics results indicate that MtPRS has broad substrate specificity, being able to accept ATP, GTP, CTP, and UTP as diphosphoryl group donors. Fluorescence spectroscopy data suggest that the enzyme mechanism for purine diphosphoryl donors follows a random order of substrate addition, and for pyrimidine diphosphoryl donors follows an ordered mechanism of substrate addition in which R5P binds first to free enzyme. An ordered mechanism for product dissociation is followed by MtPRS, in which PRPP is the first product to be released followed by the nucleoside monophosphate products to yield free enzyme for the next round of catalysis. The broad specificity for diphosphoryl group donors and detection of enzyme activity in the absence of Pi would suggest that MtPRS belongs to Class II PRS proteins. On the other hand, the hexameric quaternary structure and allosteric ADP inhibition would place MtPRS in Class I PRSs. Further data are needed to classify MtPRS as belonging to a particular family of PRS proteins. The data here presented should help augment our understanding of MtPRS mode of action. Current efforts are toward experimental structure determination of Mt

  18. Deciphering the fine nucleotide diversity of full HLA class I and class II genes in a well-documented population from sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeury, T; Creary, L E; Brunet, L; Galan, M; Pasquier, M; Kervaire, B; Langaney, A; Tiercy, J-M; Fernández-Viña, M A; Nunes, J M; Sanchez-Mazas, A

    2018-01-01

    With the aim to understand how next-generation sequencing (NGS) improves both our assessment of genetic variation within populations and our knowledge on HLA molecular evolution, we sequenced and analysed 8 HLA loci in a well-documented population from sub-Saharan Africa (Mandenka). The results of full-gene NGS-MiSeq sequencing compared with those obtained by traditional typing techniques or limited sequencing strategies showed that segregating sites located outside exon 2 are crucial to describe not only class I but also class II population diversity. A comprehensive analysis of exons 2, 3, 4 and 5 nucleotide diversity at the 8 HLA loci revealed remarkable differences among these gene regions, notably a greater variation concentrated in the antigen recognition sites of class I exons 3 and some class II exons 2, likely associated with their peptide-presentation function, a lower diversity of HLA-C exon 3, possibly related to its role as a KIR ligand, and a peculiar molecular diversity of HLA-A exon 2, revealing demographic signals. Based on full-length HLA sequences, we also propose that the most frequent DRB1 allele in the studied population, DRB1*13:04, emerged from an allelic conversion involving 3 potential alleles as donors and DRB1*11:02:01 as recipient. Finally, our analysis revealed a high occurrence of the DRB1*13:04-DQA1*05:05:01-DQB1*03:19 haplotype, possibly resulting from a selective sweep due to protection to Onchorcerca volvulus, a prevalent pathogen in West Africa. This study unveils highly relevant information on the molecular evolution of HLA genes in relation to their immune function, calling for similar analyses in other populations living in contrasting environments. © 2017 The Authors HLA: Immune Response Genetics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Identification and cloning of class II and III chitinases from alkaline floral nectar of Rhododendron irroratum, Ericaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Hong-Guang; Milne, Richard I; Zhou, Hong-Xia; Chen, Xiang-Yang; Sun, Hang

    2016-10-01

    Class II and III chitinases belonging to different glycoside hydrolase families were major nectarins in Rhododendron irroratum floral nectar which showed significant chitinolytic activity. Previous studies have demonstrated antimicrobial activity in plant floral nectar, but the molecular basis for the mechanism is still poorly understood. Two chitinases, class II (Rhchi2) and III (Rhchi3), were characterized from alkaline Rhododendron irroratum nectar by both SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry. Rhchi2 (27 kDa) and Rhchi3 (29 kDa) are glycoside hydrolases (family 19 and 18) with theoretical pI of 8.19 and 7.04. The expression patterns of Rhchi2 and Rhchi3 were analyzed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Rhchi2 is expressed in flowers (corolla nectar pouches) and leaves while Rhchi3 is expressed in flowers. Chitinase in concentrated protein and fresh nectar samples was visualised by SDS-PAGE and chitinolytic activity in fresh nectar was determined spectrophotometrically via chitin-azure. Full length gene sequences were cloned with Tail-PCR and RACE. The amino acid sequence deduced from the coding region for these proteins showed high identity with known chitinases and predicted to be located in extracellular space. Fresh R. irroratum floral nectar showed significant chitinolytic activity. Our results demonstrate that class III chitinase (GH 18 family) also exists in floral nectar. The functional relationship between class II and III chitinases and the role of these pathogenesis-related proteins in antimicrobial activity in nectar is suggested.

  20. Temporomandibular disorders in growing patients after treatment of class II and III malocclusion with orthopaedic appliances: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Silva, Antonio; Carnevali-Arellano, Romano; Venegas-Aguilera, Matías; Tobar-Reyes, Julio; Palomino-Montenegro, Hernán

    2018-05-01

    To determine if the use of orthopaedic appliances in growing patients applied to correct Class II and III malocclusion is related to the development of temporomandibular disorders (TMD). A systematic review was conducted between 1960 and July 2017, based on electronic databases: PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, Medline, Scopus, EBSCOhost, Scielo, Lilacs and Bireme. Controlled clinical trials (CCTs) and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were identified. The articles were selected and analyzed by two authors independently. The quality of the evidence was determined according to the guidelines of the Cochrane Risk Bias Assessment Tool and the Cochrane Quality Study Guide. Seven articles were included, four CCTs and three RCTs. The studies were grouped according to malocclusion treatment in (a) class II appliances (n = 4) and (b) class III appliances (n = 3). The quality of evidence was low due to the high risk of bias, independent of the association reported. All studies concluded that the use of orthopaedic appliances would not contribute to the development of TMD. The quality of evidence available is insufficient to establish definitive conclusions, since the studies were very heterogeneous and presented a high risk of bias. However, it is suggested that the use of orthopaedic appliances to correct class II and III malocclusion in growing patients would not be considered as a risk factor for the development of TMD. High-quality RCTs are required to draw any definitive conclusions.

  1. Expansion design for a radioactive sources handling laboratory type II class B; Diseno de ampliacion para un laboratorio de manejo de fuentes radiactivas tipo II clase B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez S, P. S. [Universidad Mexiquense del Bicentenario, Av. Industria Poniente s/n, Parque Industrial Dona Rosa, 52000 Lerma, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Monroy G, F.; Alanis, J., E-mail: salvador-21@live.com.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Touca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    The Radioactive Wastes Research Laboratory (RWRL) of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (Mexico), at the moment has three sections: instrumental analysis, radioactive material processes, counting and a license type II class C, to manipulate radioactive material. This license limits the open sources handling to 300 kBq for radionuclides of very high radio-toxicity as the Ra-226, for what is being projected the license extension to type II class B, to be able to manage until 370 MBq of this radionuclides type, and the Laboratory, since the location where is the RWRL have unused area. This work presents a proposal of the RWRL expansion, taking into account the current laboratory sections, as well as the established specifications by the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (CNSNS). The current planes of the RWRL and the expansion proposal of the laboratory are presented. (Author)

  2. Bio-oss in Treatment of Furcation Class II Deffects and Comparison with Coronally Positioned Flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ak.Khoshkhoo Nejad

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Among periodontal defects, the furcation involvement represents one of the most chalenging scenarios due to the difficulty of achieving a predictable improvement regardless of the type of periodontal therapy. Moreover, the presence of furcation involvement has been demonstrated to considerably affect tooth prognosis. Thus, treatment of furcation defects is a challenge in clinical periodontics. The aim of periodontal treatment is not only to control infection but also to regenerate periodontal tissues lost as a consequence of periodontal disease.Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare Bio-oss (Bo, an anorganic bovine bone Xenograft, in combination with coronally positioned flap to open flap debridment surgery with coronally positiond flap alone in human mandibular class II furcation defects.Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial and interventional study 24 furcations, which provided 12 pairs of similar periodontal defects were evaluated. Each defect was randomly assigned to treatment with Bio-Oss in combination coronally positioned flap or open flap debridment and coronally positioned flap alone. Following basic therapy, baseline measurements were recorded including probing depth (PDD, clinical attachment level (CAL,gingival recession (REC, keratinized gingiva (KG and closed horizontal probing depth(CHPD. After 6 months, all sites were re-entered and hard tissue measurements were recorded.Hard tissue measurements were performed during surgery to determine open horizontal probing depth (OHPD and open vertical probing depth (OVPD. The data was analyzed using t-test paired sample.Results: Vertical probing depth reduction of 3.17±1.32 mm and horizontal probing depth reduction of 4.42±1.02 mm were noted for the BO group, with 2.87±0.83 mm and 2.31±0.49 mm reductions, respectively, noted for CPF alone. Both surgical procedures resulted in statistically significant probing depth reduction and gain clinical

  3. Enamel matrix protein derivative plus synthetic bone substitute for the treatment of mandibular Class II furcation defects: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Lucas Araujo; Santamaria, Mauro; Casati, Marcio; Silverio, Karina; Nociti-Junior, Francisco; Sallum, Enilson

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study is to report on the treatment of mandibular Class II furcation defects with enamel matrix protein derivative (EMD) combined with a βTCP/HA (β-tricalcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite) alloplastic material. Thirteen patients were selected. All patients were nonsmokers, systemically healthy, and diagnosed with chronic periodontitis; had not taken medications known to interfere with periodontal tissue health and healing; presented one Class II mandibular furcation defect with horizontal probing equal to or greater than 4 mm at buccal site. The clinical parameters evaluated were probing depth (PD), relative gingival margin position (RGMP), relative vertical clinical attachment level (RVCAL), and relative horizontal clinical attachment level (RHCAL). A paired Student t test was used to detect differences between the baseline and 6-month measurements, with the level of significance of .05. After 6 months, the treatment produced a statistically significant reduction in PD and a significant gain in RVCAL and RHCAL, but no observable change in RGMP. RVCAL ranged from 13.77 (± 1.31) at baseline to 12.15 (± 1.29) after 6 months, with a mean change of -1.62 ± 1.00 mm (P < .05). RHCAL ranged from 5.54 (± 0.75) to 2.92 (± 0.92), with a mean change of -2.62 ± 0.63 mm (P < .05). After 6 months, 76.92% of the patients improved their diagnosis to Class I furcation defects while 23.08% remained as Class II. The present study has shown that positive clinical results may be expected from the combined treatment of Class II furcation defects with EMD and βTCP/HA, especially considering the gain of horizontal attachment level. Despite this result, controlled clinical studies are needed to confirm our outcomes.

  4. Marginal microleakage evaluation in class V composite restorations of deciduous teeth prepared conventionally and using Er:YAG laser; Avaliacao da microinfiltracao marginal em cavidades classe V de dentes deciduos preparados com laser Er:YAG e alta rotacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulga, Neusa Vieira Galvao

    2001-07-01

    The evaluation of marginal microleakage in class V restorations of deciduous teeth prepared using Er:laser and comparison to the ones observed when conventionally prepared, using two photopolimerizable materials, composite resin and glass ionomer cement, was the subject of this study. Twenty eight complete deciduous teeth were divided into four groups Group 1 (G1) prepared with high speed drill + composite resin; Group 2 (G2) prepared with high speed drill + glass ionomer cement; Group 3 (G3) prepared using Er:YAG laser (2.94 {mu}m), 300 mJ, 3 Hz, handpiece 2051, energy density 86 mJ/cm{sup 2} + composite resin; Group 4 (G4) prepared using Er:YAG laser (2.94 {mu}m), 300 mJ, 3 Hz, handpiece 2051, energy density 86 J / cm{sup 2} + glass ionomer cement. After the preparation and restoration the specimens where stored at 37 deg C for 24 hours, thermally stressed, immersed in 50% aqueous solution of silver nitrate for 24 hours while kept in the dark. The specimens were rinsed in water, soaked in photodeveloping solution and exposed to fluorescent light for 6 hours. After this process the samples were sectioned and observed by stereomicroscopy. For comparison the groups were divided into occlusive and cervical microleakage. The results were analysed under the Kruskal-Wallis test. For the occlusive microleakage the statistical significance was 5% among the groups and the average comparison showed higher microleakage for G1 (M=35.1) than for G2 (M=24.0) as well as compared to G3 (M=22.3). The other groups did not present statistical differences among them. For the cervical microleakage the Kruskal-Wallis test did not present any statistical difference. Comparing the occlusive and cervical microleakage data, for every group, using the Wilcoxon test, no statistical differences were observed. Concluding, this study showed the Er:YAG laser to be effective for class V restorations and to result in a smaller microleakage degree using the composite resin. These results indicate

  5. MHC class II super-enhancer increases surface expression of HLA-DR and HLA-DQ and affects cytokine production in autoimmune vitiligo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavalli, G.; Hayashi, M.; Jin, Y.; Yorgov, D.; Santorico, S.A.; Holcomb, C.; Rastrou, M.; Erlich, H.; Tengesdal, I.W.; Dagna, L.; Neff, C.P.; Palmer, B.E.; Spritz, R.A.; Dinarello, C.A.

    2016-01-01

    Genetic risk for autoimmunity in HLA genes is most often attributed to structural specificity resulting in presentation of self-antigens. Autoimmune vitiligo is strongly associated with the MHC class II region. Here, we fine-map vitiligo MHC class II genetic risk to three SNPs only 47 bp apart,

  6. Cervical vertebral column morphology related to craniofacial morphology and head posture in preorthodontic children with Class II malocclusion and horizontal maxillary overjet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arntsen, Torill; Sonnesen, Ane Liselotte

    2011-01-01

    In preorthodontic children with Class II malocclusion and horizontal maxillary overjet, cervical column morphology was examined and related to craniofacial morphology and head posture for the first time.......In preorthodontic children with Class II malocclusion and horizontal maxillary overjet, cervical column morphology was examined and related to craniofacial morphology and head posture for the first time....

  7. The Ia.2 Epitope Defines a Subset of Lipid Raft Resident MHC Class II Molecules Crucial to Effective Antigen Presentation1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busman-Sahay, Kathleen; Sargent, Elizabeth; Harton, Jonathan A.; Drake, James R.

    2016-01-01

    Previous work has established that binding of the 11-5.2 anti-I-Ak mAb, which recognizes the Ia.2 epitope on I-Ak class II molecules, elicits MHC class II signaling, whereas binding of two other anti-I-Ak mAb that recognize the Ia.17 epitope fail to elicit signaling. Using a biochemical approach, we establish that the Ia.2 epitope recognized by the widely used 11-5.2 mAb defines a subset of cell surface I-Ak molecules predominantly found within membrane lipid rafts. Functional studies demonstrate that the Ia.2 bearing subset of I-Ak class II molecules is critically necessary for effective B cell–T cell interactions especially at low antigen doses, a finding consistent with published studies on the role of raft-resident class II molecules in CD4 T cell activation. Interestingly, B cells expressing recombinant I-Ak class II molecules possessing a β chain-tethered HEL peptide lack the Ia.2 epitope and fail to partition into lipid rafts. Moreover, cells expressing Ia.2 negative tethered peptide-class II molecules are severely impaired in their ability to present both tethered peptide or peptide derived from exogenous antigen to CD4 T cells. These results establish the Ia.2 epitope as defining a lipid raft-resident MHC class II confomer vital to the initiation of MHC class II restricted B cell–T cell interactions. PMID:21543648

  8. RESTAURACIÓN DE SERVICIO MULTIOBJETIVO EN REDES DE DISTRIBUCIÓN UTILIZANDO NSGA-II MULTIOBJECTIVE SERVICE RESTORATION IN POWER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS USING NSGA-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Mendoza Baeza

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta un modelo que permite resolver el problema de la restauración del servicio en las redes eléctricas de distribución de media tensión. El algoritmo fue desarrollado en ambiente MATLAB y es capaz de encontrar aquel conjunto de topologías que minimizan dos objetivos en forma simultánea bajo el concepto de dominancia de Pareto. La búsqueda de estas soluciones eficientes se logra utilizando una técnica evolutiva de optimización multiobjetivo denominada NSGA-II, la cual es combinada con una poderosa estrategia de codificación de individuos y operadores especialmente desarrollados para los problemas de configuración de redes eléctricas. Los principales resultados de este trabajo se centran en la capacidad del algoritmo para encontrar el conjunto de soluciones eficientes y el reducido tiempo de simulación requerido. Esta herramienta permite que los despachadores del sistema puedan tomar rápidas decisiones, incluso bajo condiciones de múltiples fallas en la red.A model to solve the service restoration problem in medium voltage distribution networks is developed in this work. The algorithm was developed in MATLAB and is able to find a set of topologies that minimize two objectives under the concept of Pareto dominance. The search of efficient solutions is attained using the evolutive multiobjective optimization technique called NSGA-II together with a powerful codification strategy and genetic operators specially developed for the configuration of the electric network. The main results of this work focused on the ability of the algorithm to find the set of efficient solutions and reduced simulation time. This tool enables system dispatchers to make quick decisions, even under conditions of multiple failures in the network.

  9. Human cytomegalovirus alters localization of MHC class II and dendrite morphology in mature Langerhans cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Andrew W; Hertel, Laura; Louie, Ryan K; Burster, Timo; Lacaille, Vashti; Pashine, Achal; Abate, Davide A; Mocarski, Edward S; Mellins, Elizabeth D

    2006-09-15

    Hemopoietic stem cell-derived mature Langerhans-type dendritic cells (LC) are susceptible to productive infection by human CMV (HCMV). To investigate the impact of infection on this cell type, we examined HLA-DR biosynthesis and trafficking in mature LC cultures exposed to HCMV. We found decreased surface HLA-DR levels in viral Ag-positive as well as in Ag-negative mature LC. Inhibition of HLA-DR was independent of expression of unique short US2-US11 region gene products by HCMV. Indeed, exposure to UV-inactivated virus, but not to conditioned medium from infected cells, was sufficient to reduce HLA-DR on mature LC, implicating particle binding/penetration in this effect. Reduced surface levels reflected an altered distribution of HLA-DR because total cellular HLA-DR was not diminished. Accumulation of HLA-DR was not explained by altered cathepsin S activity. Mature, peptide-loaded HLA-DR molecules were retained within cells, as assessed by the proportion of SDS-stable HLA-DR dimers. A block in egress was implicated, as endocytosis of surface HLA-DR was not increased. Immunofluorescence microscopy corroborated the intracellular retention of HLA-DR and revealed markedly fewer HLA-DR-positive dendritic projections in infected mature LC. Unexpectedly, light microscopic analyses showed a dramatic loss of the dendrites themselves and immunofluorescence revealed that cytoskeletal elements crucial for the formation and maintenance of dendrites are disrupted in viral Ag-positive cells. Consistent with these dendrite effects, HCMV-infected mature LC exhibit markedly reduced chemotaxis in response to lymphoid chemokines. Thus, HCMV impedes MHC class II molecule trafficking, dendritic projections, and migration of mature LC. These changes likely contribute to the reduced activation of CD4+ T cells by HCMV-infected mature LC.

  10. Shared HLA Class II in Six Autoimmune Diseases in Latin America: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Cruz-Tapias

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and genetic susceptibility of autoimmune diseases (ADs may vary depending on latitudinal gradient and ethnicity. The aims of this study were to identify common human leukocyte antigen (HLA class II alleles that contribute to susceptibility to six ADs in Latin Americans through a meta-analysis and to review additional clinical, immunological, and genetic characteristics of those ADs sharing HLA alleles. DRB1∗03:01 (OR: 4.04; 95%CI: 1.41–11.53 was found to be a risk factor for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, Sjögren's syndrome (SS, and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D. DRB1∗04:05 (OR: 4.64; 95%CI: 2.14–10.05 influences autoimmune hepatitis (AIH, rheumatoid arthritis (RA, and T1D; DRB1∗04:01 (OR: 3.86; 95%CI: 2.32–6.42 is a susceptibility factor for RA and T1D. Opposite associations were found between multiple sclerosis (MS and T1D. DQB1∗06:02 and DRB1∗15 alleles were risk factors for MS but protective factors for T1D. Likewise, DQB1∗06:03 allele was a risk factor for AIH but a protective one for T1D. Several common autoantibodies and clinical associations as well as additional shared genes have been reported in these ADs, which are reviewed herein. These results indicate that in Latin Americans ADs share major loci and immune characteristics.

  11. Human immune responses to H. pylori HLA Class II epitopes identified by immunoinformatic methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songhua Zhang

    Full Text Available H. pylori persists in the human stomach over decades and promotes several adverse clinical sequelae including gastritis, peptic ulcers and gastric cancer that are linked to the induction and subsequent evasion of chronic gastric inflammation. Emerging evidence indicates that H. pylori infection may also protect against asthma and some other immune-mediated conditions through regulatory T cell effects outside the stomach. To characterize the complexity of the CD4+ T cell response generated during H. pylori infection, computational methods were previously used to generate a panel of 90 predicted epitopes conserved among H. pylori genomes that broadly cover HLA Class II diversity for maximum population coverage. Here, these sequences were tested individually for their ability to induce in vitro responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by interferon-γ ELISpot assay. The average number of spot-forming cells/million PBMCs was significantly elevated in H. pylori-infected subjects over uninfected persons. Ten of the 90 peptides stimulated IFN-γ secretion in the H. pylori-infected group only, whereas two out of the 90 peptides elicited a detectable IFN-γ response in the H. pylori-uninfected subjects but no response in the H. pylori-infected group. Cytokine ELISA measurements performed using in vitro PBMC culture supernatants demonstrated significantly higher levels of TNF-α, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, and TGF-β1 in the H. pylori-infected subjects, whereas IL-17A expression was not related to the subjects H. pylori-infection status. Our results indicate that the human T cell responses to these 90 peptides are generally increased in actively H. pylori-infected, compared with H. pylori-naïve, subjects. This information will improve understanding of the complex immune response to H. pylori, aiding rational epitope-driven vaccine design as well as helping identify other H. pylori epitopes with potentially immunoregulatory effects.

  12. Evaluation of Class II treatment by cephalometric regional superpositions versus conventional measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efstratiadis, Stella; Baumrind, Sheldon; Shofer, Frances; Jacobsson-Hunt, Ulla; Laster, Larry; Ghafari, Joseph

    2005-11-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to evaluate cephalometric changes in subjects with Class II Division 1 malocclusion who were treated with headgear (HG) or Fränkel function regulator (FR) and (2) to compare findings from regional superpositions of cephalometric structures with those from conventional cephalometric measurements. Cephalographs were taken at baseline, after 1 year, and after 2 years of 65 children enrolled in a prospective randomized clinical trial. The spatial location of the landmarks derived from regional superpositions was evaluated in a coordinate system oriented on natural head position. The superpositions included the best anatomic fit of the anterior cranial base, maxillary base, and mandibular structures. Both the HG and the FR were effective in correcting the distoclusion, and they generated enhanced differential growth between the jaws. Differences between cranial and maxillary superpositions regarding mandibular displacement (Point B, pogonion, gnathion, menton) were noted: the HG had a more horizontal vector on maxillary superposition that was also greater (.0001 < P < .05) than the horizontal displacement observed with the FR. This discrepancy appeared to be related to (1) the clockwise (backward) rotation of the palatal and mandibular planes observed with the HG; the palatal plane's rotation, which was transferred through the occlusion to the mandibular plane, was factored out on maxillary superposition; and (2) the interaction between the inclination of the maxillary incisors and the forward movement of the mandible during growth. Findings from superpositions agreed with conventional angular and linear measurements regarding the basic conclusions for the primary effects of HG and FR. However, the results suggest that inferences of mandibular displacement are more reliable from maxillary than cranial superposition when evaluating occlusal changes during treatment.

  13. Detection of autoreactive CD4 T cells using major histocompatibility complex class II dextramers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuszynski Charles

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tetramers are useful tools to enumerate the frequencies of antigen-specific T cells. However, unlike CD8 T cells, CD4 T cells - especially self-reactive cells - are challenging to detect with major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II tetramers because of low frequencies and low affinities of their T cell receptors to MHC-peptide complexes. Here, we report the use of fluorescent multimers, designated MHC dextramers that contain a large number of peptide-MHC complexes per reagent. Results The utility of MHC dextramers was evaluated in three autoimmune disease models: 1 proteolipid protein (PLP 139-151-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in SJL/J (H-2s mice; 2 myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG 35-55-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in C57Bl/6 (H-2b mice; and 3 cardiac myosin heavy chain (Myhc-α 334-352-induced experimental autoimmune myocarditis in A/J (H-2a mice. Flow cytometrically, we demonstrate that IAs/PLP 139-151, IAb/MOG 35-55 and IAk/Myhc-α 334-352 dextramers detect the antigen-sensitized cells with specificity, and with a detection sensitivity significantly higher than that achieved with conventional tetramers. Furthermore, we show that binding of dextramers, but not tetramers, is less dependent on the activation status of cells, permitting enumeration of antigen-specific cells ex vivo. Conclusions The data suggest that MHC dextramers are useful tools to track the generation and functionalities of self-reactive CD4 cells in various experimental systems.

  14. GPS-MBA: computational analysis of MHC class II epitopes in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ruikun; Liu, Zexian; Ren, Jian; Ma, Chuang; Gao, Tianshun; Zhou, Yanhong; Yang, Qing; Xue, Yu

    2012-01-01

    As a severe chronic metabolic disease and autoimmune disorder, type 1 diabetes (T1D) affects millions of people world-wide. Recent advances in antigen-based immunotherapy have provided a great opportunity for further treating T1D with a high degree of selectivity. It is reported that MHC class II I-A(g7) in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse and human HLA-DQ8 are strongly linked to susceptibility to T1D. Thus, the identification of new I-A(g7) and HLA-DQ8 epitopes would be of great help to further experimental and biomedical manipulation efforts. In this study, a novel GPS-MBA (MHC Binding Analyzer) software package was developed for the prediction of I-A(g7) and HLA-DQ8 epitopes. Using experimentally identified epitopes as the training data sets, a previously developed GPS (Group-based Prediction System) algorithm was adopted and improved. By extensive evaluation and comparison, the GPS-MBA performance was found to be much better than other tools of this type. With this powerful tool, we predicted a number of potentially new I-A(g7) and HLA-DQ8 epitopes. Furthermore, we designed a T1D epitope database (TEDB) for all of the experimentally identified and predicted T1D-associated epitopes. Taken together, this computational prediction result and analysis provides a starting point for further experimental considerations, and GPS-MBA is demonstrated to be a useful tool for generating starting information for experimentalists. The GPS-MBA is freely accessible for academic researchers at: http://mba.biocuckoo.org.

  15. Pendulum and modified pendulum appliances for maxillary molar distalization in Class II malocclusion - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Thomali, Yousef; Basha, Sakeenabi; Mohamed, Roshan Noor

    2017-08-01

    The main purpose of the present systematic review was to evaluate the quantitative effects of the pendulum appliance and modified pendulum appliances for maxillary molar distalization in Class II malocclusion. Our systematic search included MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, Scopus and key journals and review articles; the date of the last search was 30 January 2017. We graded the methodological quality of the studies by means of the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies, developed for the Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP). In total, 203 studies were identified for screening, and 25 studies were eligible. The quality assessment rated four (16%) of the study as being of strong quality and 21 (84%) of these studies as being of moderate quality. The pendulum appliances showed mean molar distalization of 2-6.4 mm, distal tipping of molars from 6.67° to 14.50° and anchorage loss with mean premolar and incisor mesial movement of 1.63-3.6 mm and 0.9-6.5 mm, respectively. The bone anchored pendulum appliances (BAPAs) showed mean molar distalization of 4.8-6.4 mm, distal tipping of molars from 9° to 11.3° and mean premolar distalization of 2.7-5.4 mm. Pendulum and modified pendulum appliances are effective in molar distalization. Pendulum appliance with K-loop modification, implant supported pendulum appliance and BAPA significantly reduced anchorage loss of the anterior teeth and distal tipping of the molar teeth.

  16. Expansion design for a Laboratory of Radioactive Sources Handling type II, class B; Diseno de ampliacion para un Laboratorio de Manejo de Fuentes Radiactivas tipo II, clase B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez S, P. S.

    2014-07-01

    This work presents the expansion design of the Radioactive Wastes Research Laboratory (RWRL) installation authorized by the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (Mexico) as type II class C, to manage 40 different radionuclides, approximately. The RWRL has 4 areas at the present time: a laboratory of instrumental analysis, one of radioactive material processes, other of counting and a chemical reagents stock, which is not integrated to the operation license of the RWRL. With the purpose of expanding the operation license of the RWRL to an installation type II class B, to manage until 370 MBq of high radio toxicity radionuclides, is presented in this work an expansion proposal of the RWRL. The expansion proposal is based in: (1) the Mexican Nuclear Standard NOM-027-Nucl-1996 for installations type II class B, (2) the current distribution of water, light, electricity, extraction, gas, air and vacuum services of RWRL, and (3) the available areas inside the building that the RWRL occupies. The proposal contemplates the creation of additional new areas for RWRL: 3 laboratories, 2 dressing rooms, 2 bathrooms and 2 warehouses, one for radioactive materials and another for reagents chemical radiologically inactive. Architectural, electric, hydraulic, extraction and gas planes corresponding to the expansion of RWRL were realized. Inside the proposal the budget required to carry out the mentioned expansion is also presented. (Author)

  17. Prediction of MHC class II binding affinity using SMM-align, a novel stabilization matrix alignment method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Morten; Lundegaard, Claus; Lund, Ole

    2007-07-04

    Antigen presenting cells (APCs) sample the extra cellular space and present peptides from here to T helper cells, which can be activated if the peptides are of foreign origin. The peptides are presented on the surface of the cells in complex with major histocompatibility class II (MHC II) molecules. Identification of peptides that bind MHC II molecules is thus a key step in rational vaccine design and developing methods for accurate prediction of the peptide:MHC interactions play a central role in epitope discovery. The MHC class II binding groove is open at both ends making the correct alignment of a peptide in the binding groove a crucial part of identifying the core of an MHC class II binding motif. Here, we present a novel stabilization matrix alignment method, SMM-align, that allows for direct prediction of peptide:MHC binding affinities. The predictive performance of the method is validated on a large MHC class II benchmark data set covering 14 HLA-DR (human MHC) and three mouse H2-IA alleles. The predictive performance of the SMM-align method was demonstrated to be superior to that of the Gibbs sampler, TEPITOPE, SVRMHC, and MHCpred methods. Cross validation between peptide data set obtained from different sources demonstrated that direct incorporation of peptide length potentially results in over-fitting of the binding prediction method. Focusing on amino terminal peptide flanking residues (PFR), we demonstrate a consistent gain in predictive performance by favoring binding registers with a minimum PFR length of two amino acids. Visualizing the binding motif as obtained by the SMM-align and TEPITOPE methods highlights a series of fundamental discrepancies between the two predicted motifs. For the DRB1*1302 allele for instance, the TEPITOPE method favors basic amino acids at most anchor positions, whereas the SMM-align method identifies a preference for hydrophobic or neutral amino acids at the anchors. The SMM-align method was shown to outperform other

  18. Prediction of MHC class II binding affinity using SMM-align, a novel stabilization matrix alignment method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lund Ole

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antigen presenting cells (APCs sample the extra cellular space and present peptides from here to T helper cells, which can be activated if the peptides are of foreign origin. The peptides are presented on the surface of the cells in complex with major histocompatibility class II (MHC II molecules. Identification of peptides that bind MHC II molecules is thus a key step in rational vaccine design and developing methods for accurate prediction of the peptide:MHC interactions play a central role in epitope discovery. The MHC class II binding groove is open at both ends making the correct alignment of a peptide in the binding groove a crucial part of identifying the core of an MHC class II binding motif. Here, we present a novel stabilization matrix alignment method, SMM-align, that allows for direct prediction of peptide:MHC binding affinities. The predictive performance of the method is validated on a large MHC class II benchmark data set covering 14 HLA-DR (human MHC and three mouse H2-IA alleles. Results The predictive performance of the SMM-align method was demonstrated to be superior to that of the Gibbs sampler, TEPITOPE, SVRMHC, and MHCpred methods. Cross validation between peptide data set obtained from different sources demonstrated that direct incorporation of peptide length potentially results in over-fitting of the binding prediction method. Focusing on amino terminal peptide flanking residues (PFR, we demonstrate a consistent gain in predictive performance by favoring binding registers with a minimum PFR length of two amino acids. Visualizing the binding motif as obtained by the SMM-align and TEPITOPE methods highlights a series of fundamental discrepancies between the two predicted motifs. For the DRB1*1302 allele for instance, the TEPITOPE method favors basic amino acids at most anchor positions, whereas the SMM-align method identifies a preference for hydrophobic or neutral amino acids at the anchors. Conclusion

  19. HLA non-class II genes may confer type I diabetes susceptibility in a Mapuche (Amerindian) affected family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Bravo, Francisco; Martinez-Laso, Jorge; Martin-Villa, Jose M; Moscoso, Juan; Moreno, Almudena; Serrano-Vela, Juan I; Zamora, Jorge; Asenjo, Silvia; Gleisner, Andrea; Arnaiz-Villena, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    A rare case of type I diabetes is studied in an Amerindian (Mapuche) family from Chile, analyzing glutamic acid decarboxylase, islet-cell autoantibodies and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes. The affected sib is the only one that has one specific HLA haplotype combination that differs from the other sibs only in the HLA class I genes. It is concluded that HLA diabetes susceptibility factors may be placed outside the class II region or even that susceptibility factors do not exist in the HLA region in this Amerindian family.

  20. Analysis on the nitrogen drilling accident of Well Qionglai 1 (II: Restoration of the accident process and lessons learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingfeng Meng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available All the important events of the accident of nitrogen drilling of Well Qionglai 1 have been speculated and analyzed in the paper I. In this paper II, based on the investigating information, the well log data and some calculating and simulating results, according to the analysis method of the fault tree of safe engineering, the every possible compositions, their possibilities and time schedule of the events of the accident of Well Qionglai 1 have been analyzed, the implications of the logging data have been revealed, the process of the accident of Well Qionglai 1 has been restored. Some important understandings have been obtained: the objective causes of the accident is the rock burst and the induced events form rock burst, the subjective cause of the accident is that the blooie pipe could not bear the flow burden of the clasts from rock burst and was blocked by the clasts. The blocking of blooie pipe caused high pressure in wellhead, the high pressure made the blooie pipe burst, natural gas came out and flared fire. This paper also thinks that the rock burst in gas drilling in fractured tight sandstone gas zone is objective and not avoidable, but the accidents induced from rock burst can be avoidable by improving the performance of the blooie pipe, wellhead assemblies and drilling tool accessories aiming at the downhole rock burst.

  1. Pistas planas en el tratamiento de la clase II: Presentación de un caso Flat strips in the treatment of class II malocclusion.: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulenia Cruz Rivas

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available La maloclusión clase II división 1 es una de las anomalías que se presentan en las consultas de Ortodoncia con mayor frecuencia. Para solucionar esta problemática se han descrito diversos tratamientos. Se muestra un caso tratado mediante ortopedia funcional, específicamente con pistas planas de clase II, aparato funcional ideado por Pedro Planas , basado en la rehabilitación neuroclusal . Los resultados demuestran la efectividad de dicho aparato, pues se aprecian cambios a favor de la armonía esqueletal , la estética y la función, así como las modificaciones transversales que fueron alentadores. Dentro de los cambios esqueletales , se observó la apertura del eje facial y el aumento de la altura facial anteroinferior .Division 1 class II malocclusion is one of the abnormalities that are present in the Orthodontics offices more frequently. Different treatments have been described to solve this problem. A case treated by functional orthopedics, specifically with class II flat strips, an appliance created by Pedro Planas that is based on neuroocclusal rehabilitation, is reported. The results show the effectiveness of this appliance, since changes in favor of skeletal harmony, aesthetics and function are observed, and the transversal modifications are encouraging. The opening of the facial axis and the increase of the anteroinferior facial height are observed among the skeletal changes.

  2. Prediction of MHC class II binding affinity using SMM-align, a novel stabilization matrix alignment method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten; Lundegaard, Claus; Lund, Ole

    2007-01-01

    the correct alignment of a peptide in the binding groove a crucial part of identifying the core of an MHC class II binding motif. Here, we present a novel stabilization matrix alignment method, SMM-align, that allows for direct prediction of peptide:MHC binding affinities. The predictive performance...... of the method is validated on a large MHC class II benchmark data set covering 14 HLA-DR (human MHC) and three mouse H2-IA alleles. RESULTS: The predictive performance of the SMM-align method was demonstrated to be superior to that of the Gibbs sampler, TEPITOPE, SVRMHC, and MHCpred methods. Cross validation...... between peptide data set obtained from different sources demonstrated that direct incorporation of peptide length potentially results in over-fitting of the binding prediction method. Focusing on amino terminal peptide flanking residues (PFR), we demonstrate a consistent gain in predictive performance...

  3. Enterocin 96, a Novel Class II Bacteriocin Produced by Enterococcus faecalis WHE 96, Isolated from Munster Cheese▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Esther; Wagner, Camille; Marchioni, Eric; Aoude-Werner, Dalal; Ennahar, Saïd

    2009-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis WHE 96, a strain isolated from soft cheese based on its anti-Listeria activity, produced a 5,494-Da bacteriocin that was purified to homogeneity by ultrafiltration and cation-exchange and reversed-phase chromatographies. The amino acid sequence of this bacteriocin, named enterocin 96, was determined by Edman degradation, and its structural gene was sequenced, revealing a double-glycine leader peptide. After a comparison with other bacteriocins, it was shown that enterocin 96 was a new class II bacteriocin that showed very little similarity with known structures. Enterocin 96 was indeed a new bacteriocin belonging to class II bacteriocins. The activity spectrum of enterocin 96 covered a wide range of bacteria, with strong activity against most gram-positive strains but very little or no activity against gram-negative strains. PMID:19411428

  4. Enterocin 96, a novel class II bacteriocin produced by Enterococcus faecalis WHE 96, isolated from Munster cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Esther; Wagner, Camille; Marchioni, Eric; Aoude-Werner, Dalal; Ennahar, Saïd

    2009-07-01

    Enterococcus faecalis WHE 96, a strain isolated from soft cheese based on its anti-Listeria activity, produced a 5,494-Da bacteriocin that was purified to homogeneity by ultrafiltration and cation-exchange and reversed-phase chromatographies. The amino acid sequence of this bacteriocin, named enterocin 96, was determined by Edman degradation, and its structural gene was sequenced, revealing a double-glycine leader peptide. After a comparison with other bacteriocins, it was shown that enterocin 96 was a new class II bacteriocin that showed very little similarity with known structures. Enterocin 96 was indeed a new bacteriocin belonging to class II bacteriocins. The activity spectrum of enterocin 96 covered a wide range of bacteria, with strong activity against most gram-positive strains but very little or no activity against gram-negative strains.

  5. Structural myocardial changes in chronic heart failure of II functional class based on overweight and abdominal obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Z. Netyazhenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. 153 patients with CHF of II functional class, with normal weight, overweight and abdominal obesity I-III degrees Examined. Studied structural myocardial changes at CHF depending on the degree of excess weight. Structural changes of the heart, the extent and type of myocardial hypertrophy of left ventricle depending on the availability of overweight and obesity were revealed. Actuality. Chronic heart failure (CHF is characterized by a high mortality rate and frequency of hospitalization of patients, a significant decline in their quality of life and significant financial burden. CHF is a medical and social problem that a certain dominant in the near future all over the world, because the average life expectancy of patients with the diagnosis ranges from 1,7 to 7 years and the long-term observation is evidence of the increased risk of death, that 5 year more than four times the initial value. The main etiological factors of occurrence, progression and adverse exit of CHF are age, coronary heart disease (CHD, arterial hypertension, valvular heart disease, diabetes and obesity. In general, structural changes of heart in obesity can be divided into the following main components: left ventricle hypertrophy, changes in the structural composition of cardiac tissue, heart obesity, change of the sizes of the right ventricle and left atrium (PL, valvular heart disease. Research objective: to establish the structural changes of CHF of II functional class depending on the availability of overweight and abdominal type of obesity various degrees. Material and methods: 153 patients with CHF of II functional class were examined. Etiological factors of development CHF were hypertensive disease, chronic forms of CAD and the combination of these pathologies. The diagnosis of CHF installed according to WHO criteria, the European society of cardiology and the Association of cardiologists of Ukraine, and classified according to functional classification of

  6. Work Analysis of the nuclear power plant control room operators (II): The classes of situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alengry, P.

    1989-03-01

    This report presents a work analysis of nuclear power plant control room operators focused on the classes of situation they can meet during their job. Each class of situation is first described in terms of the process variables states. We then describe the goals of the operators and the variables they process in each class of situation. We report some of the most representative difficulties encountered by the operators in each class of situation. Finally, we conclude on different topics: the nature of the mental representations, the temporal dimension, the monitoring activity, and the role of the context in the work of controlling a nuclear power plant [fr

  7. 40 CFR Table F-1 to Subpart F of... - Performance Specifications for PM2.5 Class II Equivalent Samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... METHODS Procedures for Testing Performance Characteristics of Class II Equivalent Methods for PM2.5 Pt. 53... Solid VOAG produced aerosol at 2 km/hr and 24 km/hr Dp50 = 2.5 µm ± 0.2 µm Numerical Analysis Results... fractionator under static conditions Dp50 = 2.5 µm ± 0.2 µm Numerical Analysis Results: 95% ≤ Rc ≤ 105%. § 53...

  8. [Orthopedic treatment of dento-skeletal Class II by the association minivis + Forsus(TM): a clinical case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, Pierre

    2014-06-01

    The use of customized combination mechanics with two auxillaries such as mini screws and Forsus(TM) Springs that up to now have been used independently, achieved unexpected results in the correction of a non-surgical skeletal Class II malocclusion. The use of mini implants to control the canting of the occlusal plane that is frequently reported during the use of hyperpropulsors with fixed appliances made it possible to achieve a better mandibular outcome. © EDP Sciences, SFODF, 2014.

  9. Three-dimensional dental arch changes of patients submitted to orthodontic-surgical treatment for correction of Class II malocclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Peixoto,Adriano Porto; Pinto,Ary dos Santos; Garib,Daniela Gamba; Gonçalves,João Roberto

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This study assessed the three-dimensional changes in the dental arch of patients submitted to orthodontic-surgical treatment for correction of Class II malocclusions at three different periods. METHODS: Landmarks previously identified on upper and lower dental casts were digitized on a three-dimensional digitizer MicroScribe-3DX and stored in Excel worksheets in order to assess the width, length and depth of patient's dental arches. RESULTS: During orthodontic preparation, the m...

  10. Class II malocclusion with mutilated anterior segment: Treated with a rare approach-creating an apparent midline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Kshetrapal

    2013-01-01

    The following case report shows a 15-year-old male patient with Class II malocclusion who had missing central incisor and canine in the upper right quadrant, which were extracted around 4 years back. The case was treated by space closure involving movement of left central incisor into right central incisor position and conversion of the left lateral incisor into left central incisor. Overall an esthetic result was achieved saving the patient from the need for a prosthesis.

  11. Long-term skeletal and dental effects and treatment timing for functional appliances in Class II malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, Lorenzo; Pavoni, Chiara; Faltin, Kurt; McNamara, James A; Cozza, Paola

    2013-03-01

    To analyze the long-term skeletal and dentoalveolar effects and to evaluate treatment timing of Class II treatment with functional appliances followed by fixed appliances. A group of 40 patients (22 females and 18 males) with Class II malocclusion consecutively treated either with a Bionator or an Activator followed by fixed appliances was compared with a control group of 20 subjects (9 females and 11 males) with untreated Class II malocclusion. Lateral cephalograms were available at the start of treatment (mean age 10 years), end of treatment with functional appliances (mean age 12 years), and long-term observation (mean age 18.6 years). The treated sample also was divided into two groups according to skeletal maturity. The early-treatment group was composed of 20 subjects (12 females and 8 males) treated before puberty, while the late-treatment group included 20 subjects (10 females and 10 males) treated at puberty. Statistical comparisons were performed with analysis of variance followed by Tukey's post hoc tests. Significant long-term mandibular changes (Co-Gn) in the treated group (3.6 mm over the controls) were associated with improvements in the skeletal sagittal intermaxillary relationship, overjet, and molar relationship (∼3.0-3.5 mm). Treatment during the pubertal peak was able to produce significantly greater increases in total mandibular length (4.3 mm) and mandibular ramus height (3.1 mm) associated with a significant advancement of the bony chin (3.9 mm) when compared with treatment before puberty. Treatment of Class II malocclusion with functional appliances appears to be more effective at puberty.

  12. HLA Class II Allele, Haplotype, and Genotype Associations with Type 1 Diabetes in Benin: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaossarath A. Fagbemi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Several studies have reported the implication of HLA-DR/DQ loci in the susceptibility to type 1 diabetes (T1D. Since no such study has yet been performed in Benin, this pilot one aimed at assessing HLA class II allele, haplotype, and genotype associations with T1D. Material and Methods. Class II HLA genotyping was performed in 51 patients with T1D and 51 healthy unrelated controls by means of the PCR-SSP method. The diagnosis of T1D was set up according to American Diabetes Association criteria. Odds ratio (OR and its 95% confidence interval (95% CI were calculated to assess the associations between T1D and HLA alleles, haplotypes, and genotypes. Results. Participants were aged 1–24 years. T1D was significantly associated with DR3, DQA1∗05:01, DQB1∗02:01, and DR3-DR4. No significant associations were observed with DR4, DQB1∗03:02, and DQB1∗06:02. Conclusion. Certain HLA class II alleles, haplotypes, and genotypes were related to T1D and may be used as genetic susceptibility markers to T1D in Benin.

  13. Dissemination of Multidrug-Resistant, Class I and II Integrons and Molecular Typing of CTX-M-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akya, Alisha; Elahi, Azam; Chegenelorestani, Roya; Rezaee, Mahya

    2018-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae ( K. pneumoniae ) is an important opportunistic pathogen causes serious community and hospital-acquired infections, which is highly resistant to antibiotics. We aimed to determine the frequency of multidrug resistant (MDR) and molecular typing of clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae . One hundred isolates of K. pneumoniae were collected from clinical samples in three general hospitals in Kermanshah. The antimicrobial susceptibility and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) production of isolates were determined using disk diffusion and combined disk methods, respectively. The bla CTX-M gene, class I and II integrons were detected using polymerase chain reaction. The bla CTX-M positive isolates were selected for genotyping using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). MDR phenotype was observed in 56% of isolates. The 40% of isolates were ESBL positive and 35 isolates contained bla CTX-M . Class I and II of integrons were detected in 50 (89.2%) and 39 (69.6%) of MDR isolates, respectively. PFGE patterns of K. pneumoniae bla CTX-M positive isolates indicated 19 clusters (X 1-19 ) with different genotype patterns. The study findings highlight the concern of circulating MDR strains of K. pneumoniae with bla CTX-M and class I and II integrons in Kermanshah hospitals. The presence of integrons among isolates may facilitate the spread of new resistance genes in this bacterium. Therefore, surveillance for the spread of MDR strains of this bacterium is recommended in hospitals.

  14. Tubulation of Class II MHC Compartments Is Microtubule Dependent and Involves Multiple Endolysosomal Membrane Proteins in Primary Dendritic Cells1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Jatin M.; Kim, You-Me; Artavanis-Tsakonas, Katerina; Love, J. Christopher; Van der Veen, Annemarthe G.; Ploegh, Hidde L.

    2009-01-01

    Immature dendritic cells (DCs) capture exogenous Ags in the periphery for eventual processing in endolysosomes. Upon maturation by TLR agonists, DCs deliver peptide-loaded class II MHC molecules from these compartments to the cell surface via long tubular structures (endolysosomal tubules). The nature and rules that govern the movement of these DC compartments are unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that the tubules contain multiple proteins including the class II MHC molecules and LAMP1, a lysosomal resident protein, as well as CD63 and CD82, members of the tetraspanin family. Endolysosomal tubules can be stained with acidotropic dyes, indicating that they are extensions of lysosomes. However, the proper trafficking of class II MHC molecules themselves is not necessary for endolysosomal tubule formation. DCs lacking MyD88 can also form endolysosomal tubules, demonstrating that MyD88-dependent TLR activation is not necessary for the formation of this compartment. Endolysosomal tubules in DCs exhibit dynamic and saltatory movement, including bidirectional travel. Measured velocities are consistent with motor-based movement along microtubules. Indeed, nocodazole causes the collapse of endolysosomal tubules. In addition to its association with microtubules, endolysosomal tubules follow the plus ends of microtubules as visualized in primary DCs expressing end binding protein 1 (EB1)-enhanced GFP. PMID:17513769

  15. Dentoskeletal and Soft Tissue Effects in the Treatment of Class II Malocclusion with Klammt's Elastic Open Activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamassu-Lemes, Sheila Marques; Fuziy, Acácio; Costa, André Luiz Ferreira; Carvalho, Paulo Eduardo Guedes; Nahás-Scocate, Ana Carla Raphaelli

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dentoskeletal and soft tissue effects resulting from treatment with Klammt's elastic open activator (EOA) functional orthopedic appliance in patients with Class II malocclusion characterized by mandibular deficiency. Teleradiographs were evaluated in the lateral aspect of the initial (T1) and final (T2) orthopedic phases for 16 patients with Class II, Division 1 malocclusion. The age range was from 9 to 11.2 years, with a mean age of 9.9 years. The cephalometric points were demarcated, and cephalometric measurements were obtained by the same investigator to avoid interobserver variability. The EOA promoted increased lower anterior facial height (LAFH), increased effective mandibular length, clockwise rotation of the mandible, retrusion and verticalization of the upper incisors, proclination and protrusion of the lower incisors, extrusion of the upper molars, mesial movement of the lower molars and anterior projection of the lower lip. Skeletal changes characterized by an increase in mandibular length and dentoalveolar changes with an emphasis on the verticalization and retrusion of the upper incisors, proclination of the lower incisors and mesial positioning of the lower molars were key to improving the occlusal relationship and esthetic facial factors. The EOA is well indicated in patients with Class II malocclusion due to mandibular deficiency with increased overbite, proclined upper incisors and verticalized lower incisors.

  16. Structure-based prediction and identification of 4-epimerization activity of phosphate sugars in class II aldolases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seon-Hwa; Hong, Seung-Hye; An, Jung-Ung; Kim, Kyoung-Rok; Kim, Dong-Eun; Kang, Lin-Woo; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2017-05-16

    Sugar 4-epimerization reactions are important for the production of rare sugars and their derivatives, which have various potential industrial applications. For example, the production of tagatose, a functional sweetener, from fructose by sugar 4-epimerization is currently constrained because a fructose 4-epimerase does not exist in nature. We found that class II D-fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FbaA) catalyzed the 4-epimerization of D-fructose-6-phosphate (F6P) to D-tagatose-6-phosphate (T6P) based on the prediction via structural comparisons with epimerase and molecular docking and the identification of the condensed products of C3 sugars. In vivo, the 4-epimerization activity of FbaA is normally repressed. This can be explained by our results showing the catalytic efficiency of D-fructose-6-phosphate kinase for F6P phosphorylation was significantly higher than that of FbaA for F6P epimerization. Here, we identified the epimerization reactions and the responsible catalytic residues through observation of the reactions of FbaA and L-rhamnulose-1-phosphate aldolases (RhaD) variants with substituted catalytic residues using different substrates. Moreover, we obtained detailed potential epimerization reaction mechanism of FbaA and a general epimerization mechanism of the class II aldolases L-fuculose-1-phosphate aldolase, RhaD, and FbaA. Thus, class II aldolases can be used as 4-epimerases for the stereo-selective synthesis of valuable carbohydrates.

  17. Characterization and evaluation of graphene oxide scaffold for periodontal wound healing of class II furcation defects in dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Kohei; Miyaji, Hirofumi; Nishida, Erika; Miyata, Saori; Kato, Akihito; Tateyama, Akito; Furihata, Tomokazu; Shitomi, Kanako; Iwanaga, Toshihiko; Sugaya, Tsutomu

    2018-01-01

    The 3-dimensional scaffold plays a key role in volume and quality of repair tissue in periodontal tissue engineering therapy. We fabricated a novel 3D collagen scaffold containing carbon-based 2-dimensional layered material, named graphene oxide (GO). The aim of this study was to characterize and assess GO scaffold for periodontal tissue healing of class II furcation defects in dog. GO scaffolds were prepared by coating the surface of a 3D collagen sponge scaffold with GO dispersion. Scaffolds were characterized using cytotoxicity and tissue reactivity tests. In addition, GO scaffold was implanted into dog class II furcation defects and periodontal healing was investigated at 4 weeks postsurgery. GO scaffold exhibited low cytotoxicity and enhanced cellular ingrowth behavior and rat bone forming ability. In addition, GO scaffold stimulated healing of dog class II furcation defects. Periodontal attachment formation, including alveolar bone, periodontal ligament-like tissue, and cementum-like tissue, was significantly increased by GO scaffold implantation, compared with untreated scaffold. The results suggest that GO scaffold is biocompatible and possesses excellent bone and periodontal tissue formation ability. Therefore, GO scaffold would be beneficial for periodontal tissue engineering therapy.

  18. Tubulation of class II MHC compartments is microtubule dependent and involves multiple endolysosomal membrane proteins in primary dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Jatin M; Kim, You-Me; Artavanis-Tsakonas, Katerina; Love, J Christopher; Van der Veen, Annemarthe G; Ploegh, Hidde L

    2007-06-01

    Immature dendritic cells (DCs) capture exogenous Ags in the periphery for eventual processing in endolysosomes. Upon maturation by TLR agonists, DCs deliver peptide-loaded class II MHC molecules from these compartments to the cell surface via long tubular structures (endolysosomal tubules). The nature and rules that govern the movement of these DC compartments are unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that the tubules contain multiple proteins including the class II MHC molecules and LAMP1, a lysosomal resident protein, as well as CD63 and CD82, members of the tetraspanin family. Endolysosomal tubules can be stained with acidotropic dyes, indicating that they are extensions of lysosomes. However, the proper trafficking of class II MHC molecules themselves is not necessary for endolysosomal tubule formation. DCs lacking MyD88 can also form endolysosomal tubules, demonstrating that MyD88-dependent TLR activation is not necessary for the formation of this compartment. Endolysosomal tubules in DCs exhibit dynamic and saltatory movement, including bidirectional travel. Measured velocities are consistent with motor-based movement along microtubules. Indeed, nocodazole causes the collapse of endolysosomal tubules. In addition to its association with microtubules, endolysosomal tubules follow the plus ends of microtubules as visualized in primary DCs expressing end binding protein 1 (EB1)-enhanced GFP.

  19. Platelet-rich plasma in the treatment of Class II furcation defects: a histometrical study in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrícia Ferreira Suaid

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to evaluate the potential adjunctive benefits of platelet-rich plasma (PRP when used with guided-tissue regeneration (GTR and bioactive glass (BG in the treatment of Class II furcation lesions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Bilateral Class II furcation lesions were surgically created and allowed to become chronic in the mandibular third premolars of 9 dogs. The defects were randomly assigned to: A GTR+BG and B GTR+BG+PRP. Similar defects were created in the maxillary third premolars and received the same treatments after 45 days. Dogs were sacrificed 90 days after the first treatment. The histometric parameters evaluated were: connective tissue adaptation, new cementum, new bone, mineralized bone area, non-mineralized bone area, and residual BG particle area. RESULTS: Data analysis showed a superior length of new cementum and a greater mineralized bone area for group B in both periods (p<0.05. The non-mineralized bone area was greater in the control group (p<0.05 in both periods. CONCLUSION: Within the limits of this study, it can be concluded that the use of PRP in the treatment of Class II furcation defects may enhance the amount of new cementum and provide a more mineralized bone in a shorter period of time.

  20. Clinical, Immunological, and Molecular Findings in Five Patients with Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Deficiency from India

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    Jahnavi Aluri

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive form of primary immunodeficiency disorder (PID characterized by the deficiency of MHC class II molecules. This deficiency affects the cellular and humoral immune response by impairing the development of CD4+ T helper (Th cells and Th cell-dependent antibody production by B cells. Affected children typically present with severe respiratory and gastrointestinal tract infections. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT is the only curative therapy available for treating these patients. This is the first report from India wherein we describe the clinical, immunological, and molecular findings in five patients with MHC class II deficiency. Our patients presented with recurrent lower respiratory tract infection as the most common clinical presentation within their first year of life and had a complete absence of human leukocyte antigen-antigen D-related (HLA-DR expression on B cells and monocytes. Molecular characterization revealed novel mutations in RFAXP, RFX5, and CIITA genes. Despite genetic heterogeneity, these patients were clinically indistinguishable. Two patients underwent HSCT but had a poor survival outcome. Detectable level of T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs were measured in our patients, highlighting that this form of PID may be missed by TREC-based newborn screening program for severe combined immunodeficiency.

  1. The great diversity of major histocompatibility complex class II genes in Philippine native cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshima, S.N.; Miyasaka, T.; Polat, M.; Kikuya, M.; Matsumoto, Y.; Mingala, C.N.; Villanueva, M.A.; Salces, A.J.; Onuma, M.; Aida, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine leukocyte antigens (BoLA) are extensively used as markers for bovine disease and immunological traits. However, none of the BoLA genes in Southeast Asian breeds have been characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-sequence-based typing (SBT). Therefore, we sequenced exon 2 of the BoLA class II DRB3 gene from 1120 individual cows belonging to the Holstein, Sahiwal, Simbrah, Jersey, Brahman, and Philippine native breeds using PCR-SBT. Several cross-breeds were also examined. BoLA-DRB3 PCR-SBT identified 78 previously reported alleles and five novel alleles. The number of BoLA-DRB3 alleles identified in each breed from the Philippines was higher (71 in Philippine native cattle, 58 in Brahman, 46 in Holstein × Sahiwal, and 57 in Philippine native × Brahman) than that identified in breeds from other countries (e.g., 23 alleles in Japanese Black and 35 in Bolivian Yacumeño cattle). A phylogenetic tree based on the DA distance calculated from the BoLA-DRB3 allele frequency showed that Philippine native cattle from different Philippine islands are closely related, and all of them are closely similar to Philippine Brahman cattle but not to native Japanese and Latin American breeds. Furthermore, the BoLA-DRB3 allele frequency in Philippine native cattle from Luzon Island, located in the Northern Philippines was different from that in cattle from Iloilo, Bohol, and Leyte Islands, which are located in the Southern Philippines. Therefore, we conclude that Philippine native cattle can be divided into two populations, North and South areas. Moreover, a neutrality test revealed that Philippine native cattle from Leyte showed significantly greater genetic diversity, which may be maintained by balancing selection. This study shows that Asian breeds have high levels of BoLA-DRB3 polymorphism. This finding, especially the identification of five novel BoLA-DRB3 alleles, will be helpful for future SBT studies of BoLA-DRB3 alleles in East Asian cattle. PMID:25606401

  2. Technical framework for groundwater restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    This document provides the technical framework for groundwater restoration under Phase II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. A preliminary management plan for Phase II has been set forth in a companion document titled ''Preplanning Guidance Document for Groundwater Restoration''. General principles of site characterization for groundwater restoration, restoration methods, and treatment are discussed in this document to provide an overview of standard technical approaches to groundwater restoration

  3. Inactivation of the Class II PI3K-C2β Potentiates Insulin Signaling and Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Alliouachene

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to the class I phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks, the organismal roles of the kinase activity of the class II PI3Ks are less clear. Here, we report that class II PI3K-C2β kinase-dead mice are viable and healthy but display an unanticipated enhanced insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, as well as protection against high-fat-diet-induced liver steatosis. Despite having a broad tissue distribution, systemic PI3K-C2β inhibition selectively enhances insulin signaling only in metabolic tissues. In a primary hepatocyte model, basal PI3P lipid levels are reduced by 60% upon PI3K-C2β inhibition. This results in an expansion of the very early APPL1-positive endosomal compartment and altered insulin receptor trafficking, correlating with an amplification of insulin-induced, class I PI3K-dependent Akt signaling, without impacting MAPK activity. These data reveal PI3K-C2β as a critical regulator of endosomal trafficking, specifically in insulin signaling, and identify PI3K-C2β as a potential drug target for insulin sensitization.

  4. A Synthesis of Behavioral and Communication Approaches to Child Rearing for Parenting Skills Classes. Practicum II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Marvin

    This report describes the design, implementation and evaluation of a class on effective parenting skills that combined behavioral and communication based (client-centered and Adlerian) approaches to child rearing. Seventeen parents of elementary school age children attended the class; twelve parents attended five or more sessions. The class…

  5. Evaluation of fly ash concrete durability containing class II durability aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    Fly ash was used in this evaluation study to replace 15% of the cement in : Class C-3 concrete paving mixes. One Class "c" ash from Iowa approved : sources was examined in each mix. Substitution rate was based on 1 to 1 : basis, for each pound of cem...

  6. MHC class II deficiency: Report of a novel mutation and special review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhi, S; Shabani, M; Aryan, Z; Zoghi, S; Krolo, A; Boztug, K; Rezaei, N

    The MHC II deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive primary immunodeficiency syndrome with increased susceptibility to respiratory and gastrointestinal infections, failure to thrive and early mortality. This syndrome is caused by mutations in transcription regulators of the MHC II gene and results in development of blind lymphocytes due to the lack of indicatory MHC II molecules. Despite homogeneity of clinical manifestations of patients with MHC II deficiency, the genetic defects underlying this disease are heterogeneous. Herein, we report an Iranian patient with MHC II deficiency harbouring a novel mutation in RFXANK and novel misleading clinical features. He had ataxic gait and dysarthria from 30 months of age. Epidemiology, clinical and immunological features, therapeutic options and prognosis of patients with MHC II are reviewed in this paper. Copyright © 2017 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Ability of Rf5 and Rf6 to Restore Fertility of Chinsurah Boro II-type Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Oryza Sativa (ssp. Japonica) Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Honggen; Che, Jianlan; Ge, Yongshen; Pei, Yan; Zhang, Lijia; Liu, Qiaoquan; Gu, Minghong; Tang, Shuzhu

    2017-12-01

    Three-line Oryza sativa (ssp. japonica) hybrids have been developed mainly using Chinsurah Boro II (BT)-type cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS). The Rf1 gene restores the fertility of BT-type CMS lines, and is the only fertility restorer gene (Rf) that has been used to produce three-line japonica hybrids. Using more Rf genes to breed BT-type restorer lines may broaden the genetic diversity of the restorer lines, and represents a viable approach to improve the heterosis level of BT-type japonica hybrids. We identified two major Rf genes from '93-11' that are involved in restoring the fertility of BT-type CMS plants. These genes were identified from resequenced chromosome segment substitution lines derived from a cross between the japonica variety 'Nipponbare' and the indica variety '93-11'. Molecular mapping results revealed that these genes were Rf5 and Rf6, which are the Rf genes that restore fertility to Honglian-type CMS lines. The BT-type F 1 hybrids with either Rf5 or Rf6 exhibited normal seed setting rates, but F 1 plants carrying Rf6 showed more stable seed setting rates than those of plants carrying Rf5 under heat-stress conditions. Furthermore, the seed setting rates of F 1 hybrids carrying both Rf5 and Rf6 were more stable than that of F 1 plants carrying only one Rf gene. Rf6 is an important genetic resource for the breeding of BT-type japonica restorer lines. Our findings may be useful for breeders interested in developing BT-type japonica hybrids.

  8. Chronic infusion of enalaprilat into hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus attenuates angiotensin II-induced hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy by restoring neurotransmitters and cytokines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Yu-Ming; Zhang, Dong-Mei; Yu, Xiao-Jing; Yang, Qing; Qi, Jie; Su, Qing; Suo, Yu-Ping; Yue, Li-Ying; Zhu, Guo-Qing; Qin, Da-Nian

    2014-01-01

    The renin–angiotensin system (RAS) in the brain is involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. We hypothesized that inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) attenuates angiotensin II (ANG II)-induced hypertension via restoring neurotransmitters and cytokines. Rats underwent subcutaneous infusions of ANG II or saline and bilateral PVN infusions of ACE inhibitor enalaprilat (ENL, 2.5 μg/h) or vehicle for 4 weeks. ANG II infusion resulted in higher mean arterial pressure and cardiac hypertrophy as indicated by increased whole heart weight/body weight ratio, whole heart weight/tibia length ratio, left ventricular weight/tibia length ratio, and mRNA expressions of cardiac atrial natriuretic peptide and beta-myosin heavy chain. These ANG II-infused rats had higher PVN levels of glutamate, norepinephrine, tyrosine hydroxylase, pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs) and the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and lower PVN levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid, interleukin (IL)-10 and the 67-kDa isoform of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD67), and higher plasma levels of PICs, norepinephrine and aldosterone, and lower plasma IL-10, and higher renal sympathetic nerve activity. However, PVN treatment with ENL attenuated these changes. PVN microinjection of ANG II induced increases in IL-1β and IL-6, and a decrease in IL-10 in the PVN, and pretreatment with angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-R) antagonist losartan attenuated these changes. These findings suggest that ANG II infusion induces an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters and an imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the PVN, and PVN inhibition of the RAS restores neurotransmitters and cytokines in the PVN, thereby attenuating ANG II-induced hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy. - Highlights: • Chronic ANG II infusion results in sympathetic hyperactivity and cardiac hypertrophy. • PVN inhibition of ACE

  9. Chronic infusion of enalaprilat into hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus attenuates angiotensin II-induced hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy by restoring neurotransmitters and cytokines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Yu-Ming, E-mail: ykang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Zhang, Dong-Mei [Department of Physiology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); Yu, Xiao-Jing; Yang, Qing; Qi, Jie; Su, Qing [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Suo, Yu-Ping [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shanxi Provincial People' s Hospital, Taiyuan 030012 (China); Yue, Li-Ying [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Zhu, Guo-Qing [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease and Molecular Intervention, Department of Physiology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Qin, Da-Nian, E-mail: dnqin@stu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041 (China)

    2014-02-01

    The renin–angiotensin system (RAS) in the brain is involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. We hypothesized that inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) attenuates angiotensin II (ANG II)-induced hypertension via restoring neurotransmitters and cytokines. Rats underwent subcutaneous infusions of ANG II or saline and bilateral PVN infusions of ACE inhibitor enalaprilat (ENL, 2.5 μg/h) or vehicle for 4 weeks. ANG II infusion resulted in higher mean arterial pressure and cardiac hypertrophy as indicated by increased whole heart weight/body weight ratio, whole heart weight/tibia length ratio, left ventricular weight/tibia length ratio, and mRNA expressions of cardiac atrial natriuretic peptide and beta-myosin heavy chain. These ANG II-infused rats had higher PVN levels of glutamate, norepinephrine, tyrosine hydroxylase, pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs) and the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and lower PVN levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid, interleukin (IL)-10 and the 67-kDa isoform of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD67), and higher plasma levels of PICs, norepinephrine and aldosterone, and lower plasma IL-10, and higher renal sympathetic nerve activity. However, PVN treatment with ENL attenuated these changes. PVN microinjection of ANG II induced increases in IL-1β and IL-6, and a decrease in IL-10 in the PVN, and pretreatment with angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-R) antagonist losartan attenuated these changes. These findings suggest that ANG II infusion induces an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters and an imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the PVN, and PVN inhibition of the RAS restores neurotransmitters and cytokines in the PVN, thereby attenuating ANG II-induced hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy. - Highlights: • Chronic ANG II infusion results in sympathetic hyperactivity and cardiac hypertrophy. • PVN inhibition of ACE

  10. Modeling of hydroecological feedbacks predicts distinct classes of landscape pattern, process, and restoration potential in shallow aquatic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Laurel G.; Harvey, Judson W.

    2011-01-01

    It is widely recognized that interactions between vegetation and flow cause the emergence of channel patterns that are distinct from the standard Schumm classification of river channels. Although landscape pattern is known to be linked to ecosystem services such as habitat provision, pollutant removal, and sustaining biodiversity, the mechanisms responsible for the development and stability of different landscape patterns in shallow, vegetated flows have remained poorly understood. Fortunately, recent advances have made possible large-scale models of flow through vegetated environments that can be run over a range of environmental variables and over timescales of millennia. We describe a new, quasi-3D cellular automata model that couples simulations of shallow-water flow, bed shear stresses, sediment transport, and vegetation dynamics in an efficient manner. That efficiency allowed us to apply the model widely in order to determine how different hydroecological feedbacks control landscape pattern and process in various types of wetlands and floodplains. Distinct classes of landscape pattern were uniquely associated with specific types of allogenic and autogenic drivers in wetland flows. Regular, anisotropically patterned wetlands were dominated by allogenic processes (i.e., processes driven by periodic high water levels and flow velocities that redistribute sediment), relative to autogenic processes (e.g., vegetation production, peat accretion, and gravitational erosion). These anistropically patterned wetlands are therefore particularly prone to hydrologic disturbance. Other classes of wetlands that emerged from simulated interactions included maze-patterned, amorphous, and topographically noisy marshes, open marsh with islands, banded string-pool sequences perpendicular to flow, parallel deep and narrow channels flanked by marsh, and ridge-and-slough patterned marsh oriented parallel to flow. Because vegetation both affects and responds to the balance between the

  11. Estudo cefalométrico comparativo dos espaços naso e bucofaríngeo nas más oclusões Classe I e Classe II, Divisão 1, sem tratamento ortodôntico, com diferentes padrões de crescimento A Comparative cephalometric study of the naso and oropharyngeal space in malocclusions Class I and Class II Division 1, without orthodontic treatment with different growth patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadyr M. Penteado Virmond Alcazar

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available A finalidade deste estudo foi comparar os espaços aéreos naso e bucofaríngeo em indivíduos com má oclusão Classe I e Classe II, divisão 1, segundo Angle, do gênero masculino e feminino, com idade média de 11 anos e 6 meses, com padrão de crescimento normal e vertical, não tratados ortodonticamente. A amostra desse estudo foi dividida em dois grupos: 40 pacientes apresentando Classe I e 40 pacientes com Classe II, divisão 1, cada grupo subdividido de acordo com o padrão de crescimento facial: normal e vertical. Os espaços aéreos naso e bucofaríngeo foram avaliados segundo a análise de McNamara Jr., pelas medidas NFa-NFp e BFa-BFp. A análise dos resultados obtidos revelou que, a medida do espaço bucofaríngeo para Classe I com padrão de crescimento vertical e para o espaço nasofaríngeo para Classe II com padrão normal de crescimento apresentaram-se semelhantes à medida padrão da amostra de McNamara Jr.. As outras medidas apresentaram-se estatisticamente menores. Na comparação entre os grupos, o espaço nasofaríngeo no grupo Classe I com padrão de crescimento vertical, apresentou-se menor do que nos grupos Classe I e grupo Classe II divisão 1, ambos com padrão de crescimento normal. O espaço bucofaríngeo não sofreu alteração significante de um grupo para outro. Em relação à hipertrofia da tonsila faringeana, apenas o grupo Classe I com padrão de crescimento vertical apresentou obstrução; para hipertrofia das tonsilas palatinas, apenas o grupo Classe I com padrão de crescimento vertical e Classe II com padrão de crescimento normal apresentou hipertrofia das tonsilas palatinas.The aim of this study is to compare the naso and oropharyngeal air space in people with malocclusion class I and class II division 1, according to Angle, with mean age from 8 to 15 years old with normal and vertical growth pattern not treated orthodontically. This study was divided into two groups: 40 patients with class I, and 40

  12. Craniofacial analysis of the Tweed Foundation in Angle Class II, division 1 malocclusion Análise craniofacial da Fundação Tweed na maloclusão Classe II, divisão 1 de Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César Tukasan

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This study has defined the cephalometric values of the Craniofacial Analysis of the Tweed Foundation for a sample of Brazilian subjects. The sample consisted of 211 cephalometric radiographs from subjects aged 12-15, which were divided into two groups: Class II group, with 168 lateral teleradiographs (cephalograms of white Brazilian subjects, with Angle Class II, division 1 malocclusion, of both genders (82 males and 86 females; and the Control Group, with 43 lateral teleradiographs (cephalograms of subjects whose occlusion was clinically excellent, and also of both genders (21 males and 22 females. The teleradiographs were selected from the files of the Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry of Piracicaba, State University of Campinas, previously to the orthodontic treatment. The results demonstrated no sexual dimorphism for each group, as attested by the Student's t-test. The exploratory analysis (± 0.5 standard deviation enabled the tolerance limits to be determined and a Craniofacial Analysis Table to be constructed using the respective cephalometric intervals. In addition, the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant according to the maxilla position. The maxilla was in a good position in relation to the cranial base. On the other hand, the mandible was retruded in relation to the cranial base in the Class II cases. The skeletal pattern was not defined because only the Facial Height Index (FHI showed a vertical pattern in Class II subjects, while the Y Axis, SN.PlO, SN.GoMe and FMA values did not show any statistically significant difference between the groups. The Class II division 1 subjects showed lower incisors more labially tipped and a convex facial profile.A pesquisa definiu os valores cefalométricos da Análise Craniofacial da Fundação Tweed em amostra de brasileiros. O estudo constava de 211 telerradiografias tomadas previamente ao tratamento ortodôntico de indivíduos na faixa etária de 12

  13. Changes of hyoid bone position following treatment of class II div1 malocclusion with Farmand functional appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassaei S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Unlike other bones of the head and neck, hyoid bone has no bony articulations. It is connected to mandible, cranium and pharynx through muscles and ligaments. During treatment with functional appliance in patients with class II div1 malocclusion, mandible is positioned in inferior and anterior direction. Regarding the relation between hyoid and mandibular bone, alterations of hyoid bone position can be a result of functional appliance therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes of hyoid bone position following treatment with Farmand functional appliance in patients with class II div 1 malocclusion. Materials and Methods: In this before-after clinical trial, 28 patients with class II div 1 malocclusion which were under treatment with Farmand functional appliance for 11 months were selected. Facial growth in vertical, normal or horizontal direction was determined by cephalometric measurement. Data were analyzed with Paired-t test to compare the differences of mean values pre and post treatment. Variance analysis was used to compare the three growth patterns. P<0.05 was considered as the limit of significance. Results: Hyoid bone shifted significantly forward in horizontal dimension (P<0.01 and non-significantly upward in vertical dimension. There was no significant difference among the three studied groups with respect to hyoid bone position alterations in horizontal dimension but significant difference was observed between horizontal and vertical growth pattern in vertical dimension (P<0.05. There was significant correlation between decrease of ANB angle and forward movement of hyoid bone. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, treatment with Farmand functional appliance (Fa II leads to significant alterations in the position and anterior displacement of the hyoid bone.

  14. Antibodies against major histocompatibility complex class II antigens directly inhibit the growth of T cells infected with Theileria parva without affecting their state of activation

    OpenAIRE

    Eichhorn, M; Prospero, T D; Heussler, Volker; Dobbelaere, D A

    1993-01-01

    We have analyzed the effect of antibodies (Abs) directed against major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II Abs on the proliferation of Theileria parva-infected (Tpi) T cells. Anti-MHC class II Abs exert a direct effect on Tpi T cells causing an acute block in their proliferation. The inhibition does not involve apoptosis and is also entirely reversible. The rapid arrest of DNA synthesis caused by anti- MHC class II Abs is not due to interference with the state of activation of the T cel...

  15. Human leukocyte antigen class I, class II, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha polymorphisms in a healthy elder Mexican Mestizo population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llorente Luis

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is strong evidence that an individual's genetic background is an important predisposing factor to longevity. In the present study we analysed the frequency of HLA class I, class II, as well as the TNF-α -308 polymorphism that may be related to an increased life span in Mexican Mestizo healthy elders. Results HLA typing was performed by polymerase chain reaction sequence specific oligonucleotide (PCR SSO reverse dot blot. The TNF-α -308 polymorphism was assessed by PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism. A significant increased frequency of HLA-DRB1*11 was found in elderly women whereas this allele was not present in elderly males. The TNF2 allele was also increased in the elder group when compared to young controls. The frequencies of the remaining alleles tested were not statistically different among groups. Conclusion These data suggest an ethnicity independent tendency of HLA-DRB1*11 in elder females to increase life span and a possible role of the TNF2 allele with the successful remodelling of senescent immune system.

  16. Distribution of CD163-positive cell and MHC class II-positive cell in the normal equine uveal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Yuto; Matsuda, Kazuya; Okamoto, Minoru; Takehana, Kazushige; Hirayama, Kazuko; Taniyama, Hiroyuki

    2016-02-01

    Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in the uveal tract participate in ocular immunity including immune homeostasis and the pathogenesis of uveitis. In horses, although uveitis is the most common ocular disorder, little is known about ocular immunity, such as the distribution of APCs. In this study, we investigated the distribution of CD163-positive and MHC II-positive cells in the normal equine uveal tract using an immunofluorescence technique. Eleven eyes from 10 Thoroughbred horses aged 1 to 24 years old were used. Indirect immunofluorescence was performed using the primary antibodies CD163, MHC class II (MHC II) and CD20. To demonstrate the site of their greatest distribution, positive cells were manually counted in 3 different parts of the uveal tract (ciliary body, iris and choroid), and their average number was assessed by statistical analysis. The distribution of pleomorphic CD163- and MHC II-expressed cells was detected throughout the equine uveal tract, but no CD20-expressed cells were detected. The statistical analysis demonstrated the distribution of CD163- and MHC II-positive cells focusing on the ciliary body. These results demonstrated that the ciliary body is the largest site of their distribution in the normal equine uveal tract, and the ciliary body is considered to play important roles in uveal and/or ocular immune homeostasis. The data provided in this study will help further understanding of equine ocular immunity in the normal state and might be beneficial for understanding of mechanisms of ocular disorders, such as equine uveitis.

  17. Orthodontic treatment for prominent upper front teeth (Class II malocclusion) in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Klaus Bsl; Thiruvenkatachari, Badri; Harrison, Jayne E; O'Brien, Kevin D

    2018-03-13

    Prominent upper front teeth are a common problem affecting about a quarter of 12-year-old children in the UK. The condition develops when permanent teeth erupt. These teeth are more likely to be injured and their appearance can cause significant distress. Children are often referred to an orthodontist for treatment with dental braces to reduce the prominence of their teeth. If a child is referred at a young age, the orthodontist is faced with the dilemma of whether to treat the patient early or to wait and provide treatment in adolescence. To assess the effects of orthodontic treatment for prominent upper front teeth initiated when children are seven to 11 years old ('early treatment' in two phases) compared to in adolescence at around 12 to 16 years old ('late treatment' in one phase); to assess the effects of late treatment compared to no treatment; and to assess the effects of different types of orthodontic braces. Cochrane Oral Health's Information Specialist searched the following databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (to 27 September 2017), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library, 2017, Issue 8), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 27 September 2017), and Embase Ovid (1980 to 27 September 2017). The US National Institutes of Health Ongoing Trials Registry (ClinicalTrials.gov) and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform were searched for ongoing trials. No restrictions were placed on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. Randomised controlled trials of orthodontic treatments to correct prominent upper front teeth (Class II malocclusion) in children and adolescents. We included trials that compared early treatment in children (two-phase) with any type of orthodontic braces (removable, fixed, functional) or head-braces versus late treatment in adolescents (one-phase) with any type of orthodontic braces or head-braces, and trials that compared any

  18. Inclinação de cabeça durante a mastigação habitual nas deformidades dentofaciais classe II e III Head inclination during habitual chewing in the presence of class II and III dentofacial deformities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Ralin de Carvalho Deda

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: este estudo investiga a diferença entre grupos com deformidade dentofacial (padrão classe II e classe III, em relação à preferência mastigatória referida e inclinação de cabeça durante a mastigação, assim como predomínio intra-grupo de cada um desses aspectos, comparativamente a um grupo controle. MÉTODOS: participaram deste estudo, voluntariamente, 25 pacientes (entre 18 e 35 anos. Doze pacientes com diagnóstico de deformidade dentofacial classe II e 13 pacientes com o diagnóstico de classe III esquelética e 10 voluntários, com equivalência em sexo e idade ao grupo de deformidade, formando o grupo controle. Os voluntários da pesquisa foram questionados sobre a existência de um lado de preferência mastigatória. Em seguida foram filmados durante a mastigação habitual de um biscoito maizena e através das imagens captadas, a postura de cabeça pôde ser analisada. RESULTADOS: não houve diferença entre os grupos em relação à preferência mastigatória referida, entretanto os grupos com deformidades dentofaciais apresentaram predomínio significativo de preferência mastigatória referida. Os grupos com deformidade dentofacial apresentaram maior predomínio de inclinação de cabeça durante a mastigação quando comparados ao grupo controle. CONCLUSÃO: indivíduos com deformidade dentofacial podem apresentar uma preferência mastigatória e alteração de postura de cabeça durante a mastigação.PURPOSE: the study was conducted in order to investigate the difference among groups with class II and class III dentofacial deformities regarding reported chewing side preference and head inclination during chewing and to determine the intra-group predominance for these features when compared to a control group. METHODS: twenty-five volunteers aged from 15 to 34 years took part in the study, 12 of them with a diagnosis of class II dentofacial deformity, 13 with class III dentofacial deformity, and 10 control

  19. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of a class II phospholipase D from Loxosceles intermedia venom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, Anwar; Giuseppe, Priscila Oliveira de; Murakami, Mario Tyago; Trevisan-Silva, Dilza; Wille, Ana Carolina Martins; Chaves-Moreira, Daniele; Gremski, Luiza Helena; Silveira, Rafael Bertoni da; Sennf-Ribeiro, Andrea; Chaim, Olga Meiri; Veiga, Silvio Sanches; Arni, Raghuvir Krishnaswamy

    2011-01-01

    Wild-type and H12A-mutant class II phospholipase D from L. intermedia venom were crystallized; the crystals diffracted to maximum resolutions of 1.95 and 1.60 Å, respectively. Phospholipases D are the major dermonecrotic component of Loxosceles venom and catalyze the hydrolysis of phospholipids, resulting in the formation of lipid mediators such as ceramide-1-phosphate and lysophosphatidic acid which can induce pathological and biological responses. Phospholipases D can be classified into two classes depending on their catalytic efficiency and the presence of an additional disulfide bridge. In this work, both wild-type and H12A-mutant forms of the class II phospholipase D from L. intermedia venom were crystallized. Wild-type and H12A-mutant crystals were grown under very similar conditions using PEG 200 as a precipitant and belonged to space group P12 1 1, with unit-cell parameters a = 50.1, b = 49.5, c = 56.5 Å, β = 105.9°. Wild-type and H12A-mutant crystals diffracted to maximum resolutions of 1.95 and 1.60 Å, respectively

  20. Assessment of the changes in quality of life of patients with class II and III deformities during and after orthodontic-surgical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baherimoghaddam, T; Tabrizi, R; Naseri, N; Pouzesh, A; Oshagh, M; Torkan, S

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to assess and compare the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of patients with class II and III deformities during and after orthodontic-surgical treatment. Thirty class III and 28 class II patients were evaluated at baseline (T0), just prior to surgery (T1), at 6 months after surgery (T2), and at 12 months after debonding (T3). OHRQoL was assessed using the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14). Friedman two-way analysis of variance and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test were performed to compare the relative changes in OHRQoL during treatment. Significant changes in the overall OHIP-14 scores were observed during and after orthodontic-surgical treatment in both groups. During the pre-surgical stage, psychological discomfort and psychological disability decreased in class III patients, and class II patients experienced a significant deterioration in psychological discomfort during the same period. Six months after surgery, patients in both groups showed improvements in psychological discomfort, social disability, and handicap. Physical disability and functional limitation showed further improvement at 12 months after debonding in class II patients. This study reaffirms that orthodontic-surgical treatment has a significant effect on the OHRQoL of class III and class II patients. Copyright © 2015 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. CIITA promoter I CARD-deficient mice express functional MHC class II genes in myeloid and lymphoid compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinzow-Kramer, W M; Long, A B; Youngblood, B A; Rosenthal, K M; Butler, R; Mohammed, A-U-R; Skountzou, I; Ahmed, R; Evavold, B D; Boss, J M

    2012-06-01

    Three distinct promoters control the master regulator of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II expression, class II transactivator (CIITA), in a cell type-specific manner. Promoter I (pI) CIITA, expressed primarily by dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages, expresses a unique isoform that contains a caspase-recruitment domain (CARD). The activity and function of this isoform are not understood, but are believed to enhance the function of CIITA in antigen-presenting cells. To determine whether isoform I of CIITA has specific functions, CIITA mutant mice were created in which isoform I was replaced with isoform III sequences. Mice in which pI and the CARD-encoding exon were deleted were also created. No defect in the formation of CD4 T cells, the ability to respond to a model antigen or bacterial or viral challenge was observed in mice lacking CIITA isoform I. Although CIITA and MHC-II expression was decreased in splenic DCs, pI knockout animals expressed CIITA from downstream promoters, suggesting that control of pI activity is mediated by unknown distal elements that could act at pIII, the B-cell promoter. Thus, no critical function is linked to the CARD domain of CIITA isoform I with respect to basic immune system development, function and challenge.

  2. Evaluation of cervical posture of children in skeletal class I, II, and III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Attilio, Michele; Caputi, Sergio; Epifania, Ettore; Festa, Felice; Tecco, Simona

    2005-07-01

    Previous studies on the relationship between morphological structure of the face and cervical posture have predominantly focused on vertical dimensions of the face. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there are significant differences in cervical posture in subjects with a different sagittal morphology of the face, i.e., a different skeletal class. One hundred twenty (120) children (60 males and 60 females, average age 9.5 yrs., SD+/-0.5) were admitted for orthodontic treatment. Selection criteria was: European ethnic origin, date of birth, considerable skeletal growth potential remaining and an absence of temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMD). Lateral skull radiographs were taken in mirror position. Subjects were divided into three groups based on their skeletal class. The cephalometric tracings included postural variables. The most interesting findings were: 1. children in skeletal class III showed a significantly lower cervical lordosis angle (phead upon the spinal column compared to children in skeletal class I and skeletal class III (pposture of the neck seems to be strongly associated with the sagittal as well as the vertical structure of the face.

  3. Maxillary sinus floor extension and posterior tooth inclination in adolescent patients with Class II Division 1 malocclusion treated with maxillary first molar extractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livas, Christos; Halazonetis, Demetrios J.; Booij, Johan Willem; Pandis, Nikolaos; Tu, Yu-Kang; Katsaros, Christos

    Introduction: Our objective was to investigate potential associations between maxillary sinus floor extension and inclination of maxillary second premolars and second molars in patients with Class II Division 1 malocclusion whose orthodontic treatment included maxillary first molar extractions.

  4. Maxillary sinus floor extension and posterior tooth inclination in adolescent patients with Class II Division 1 malocclusion treated with maxillary first molar extractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livas, C.; Halazonetis, D.J.; Booij, J.W.; Pandis, N.; Tu, Y.K.; Katsaros, C.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Our objective was to investigate potential associations between maxillary sinus floor extension and inclination of maxillary second premolars and second molars in patients with Class II Division 1 malocclusion whose orthodontic treatment included maxillary first molar extractions.

  5. Royal Wine Corporation d/b/a/ Royal Kedem (Herzog Wine Cellars), Oxnard, CA; Proposed Settlement of Clean Water Act Class II Administrative Penalty and Opportunity to Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Notice of Proposed Settlement of Clean Water Act Class II Administrative Penalty and Opportunity to Comment In the Matter of Royal Wine Corporation d/b/a/ Royal Kedem (Herzog Wine Cellars), Oxnard, California.

  6. A Readily Accessible Class of Chiral Cp Ligands and their Application in RuII -Catalyzed Enantioselective Syntheses of Dihydrobenzoindoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shou-Guo; Park, Sung Hwan; Cramer, Nicolai

    2018-05-04

    Chiral cyclopentadienyl (Cp x ) ligands have a large application potential in enantioselective transition-metal catalysis. However, the development of concise and practical routes to such ligands remains in its infancy. We present a convenient and efficient two-step synthesis of a novel class of chiral Cp x ligands with tunable steric properties that can be readily used for complexation, giving Cp x Rh I , Cp x Ir I , and Cp x Ru II complexes. The potential of this ligand class is demonstrated with the latter in the enantioselective cyclization of azabenzonorbornadienes with alkynes, affording dihydrobenzoindoles in up to 98:2 e.r., significantly outperforming existing binaphthyl-derived Cp x ligands. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Two residues determine the product profile of the class II diterpene synthases TPS14 and TPS21 of Tripterygium wilfordii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Nikolaj Lervad; Nissen, Jakob N.; Hamberger, Björn Robert

    2017-01-01

    residue gave mixed product profiles. Two mutants, TwTPS14:Y265H and TwTPS21:A325V, also produced ent-copalyl diphosphate, highlighting the evolutionary potential of enzymes of this family to drive rapid diversification of plant diterpene biosynthesis through neo-functionalization. Our study contributes......The medicinal plant Tripterygium wilfordii (Celastraceae) contains a pair of class II diterpene synthases (diTPS) of specialized labdane-type metabolism that, despite remarkably close homology, form strikingly different products. TwTPS21 catalyzes bicyclization of the linear C20 precursor......-directed mutagenesis, we generated a panel of six variants, where one, or both positions were exchanged between the enzymes. In coupled heterologous assays with a corresponding class I diTPS, TwTPS2, complete product interchange was observed in variants with both reciprocal mutations, while substitutions of either...

  8. Comparison of esthetic outcome after extraction or non-extraction orthodontic treatment in class II division 1 malocclusion patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sneh Lata Verma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The extraction of premolars as a practical form of orthodontic therapy has been accepted for many years, but there remains a controversy regarding the effect of premolar extraction to improve esthetics as well as dentoskeletal relationship. The esthetic impact of the soft-tissue profile might play a major role in deciding on premolar extraction or non-extraction treatment, particularly in borderline patients. This cephalometric study was undertaken to compare the post-treatment soft-tissue profiles of successfully managed Class II, Division 1 malocclusions treated with either all first premolar extractions or treatment with a non-extraction therapy. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 100 post-pubertal female patients of Class II Division I malocclusion. Group 1, treated with four first premolar extractions, consisted of 50 female patients with a mean age of 14 years 1 month. Group 2, treated without extractions, consisted of 50 patients with a mean age of 13 years 5 months. Pre-treatment and post-treatment lateral cephalometric radiographs were evaluated. The pre-treatment to post-treatment stage comparison and the intergroup comparison of the treatment changes were conducted between extraction and non-extraction groups of Class II malocclusion sa