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Sample records for class ii molecule

  1. MHC class II molecules regulate growth in human T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M; Odum, Niels; Bendtzen, K;

    1994-01-01

    lines tested. Only one of three CD4+, CD45RAhigh, ROhigh T cells responded to class II costimulation. There was no correlation between T cell responsiveness to class II and the cytokine production profile of the T cell in question. Thus, T cell lines producing interferon (IFN)-gamma but not IL-4 (TH1......MHC-class-II-positive T cells are found in tissues involved in autoimmune disorders. Stimulation of class II molecules by monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) or bacterial superantigens induces protein tyrosine phosphorylation through activation of protein tyrosine kinases in T cells, and class II signals...... modulate several T cell responses. Here, we studied further the role of class II molecules in the regulation of T cell growth. Costimulation of class II molecules by immobilized HLA-DR mAb significantly enhanced interleukin (IL)-2-supported T cell growth of the majority of CD4+, CD45RAlow, ROhigh T cell...

  2. Activation of MyD88 Signaling upon Staphylococcal Enterotoxin Binding to MHC Class II Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    Activation of MyD88 Signaling upon Staphylococcal Enterotoxin Binding to MHC Class II Molecules Teri L. Kissner, Gordon Ruthel, Shahabuddin Alam...mediated signaling, which activates pro-inflammatory cytokine responses. Recently we reported that staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEA or SEB), which...upon Staphylococcal Enterotoxin Binding to MHC Class II Molecules. PLoS ONE 6(1): e15985. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0015985 Editor: Jacques Zimmer

  3. Rheumatoid Rescue of Misfolded Cellular Proteins by MHC Class II Molecules: A New Hypothesis for Autoimmune Diseases.

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    Arase, Hisashi

    2016-01-01

    Misfolded proteins localized in the endoplasmic reticulum are degraded promptly and thus are not transported outside cells. However, misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum are rescued from protein degradation upon association with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules and are transported to the cell surface by MHC class II molecules without being processed to peptides. Studies on the misfolded proteins rescued by MHC class II molecules have revealed that misfolded proteins associated with MHC class II molecules are specific targets for autoantibodies produced in autoimmune diseases. Furthermore, a strong correlation has been observed between autoantibody binding to misfolded proteins associated with MHC class II molecules and the autoimmune disease susceptibility conferred by each MHC class II allele. These new insights into MHC class II molecules suggest that misfolded proteins rescued from protein degradation by MHC class II molecules are recognized as "neo-self" antigens by immune system and are involved in autoimmune diseases as autoantibody targets.

  4. Mechanistic understanding and significance of small peptides interaction with MHC class II molecules for therapeutic applications.

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    Afridi, Saifullah; Hoessli, Daniel C; Hameed, Muhammad Waqar

    2016-07-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules are expressed by antigen-presenting cells and stimulate CD4(+) T cells, which initiate humoral immune responses. Over the past decade, interest has developed to therapeutically impact the peptides to be exposed to CD4(+) T cells. Structurally diverse small molecules have been discovered that act on the endogenous peptide exchanger HLA-DM by different mechanisms. Exogenously delivered peptides are highly susceptible to proteolytic cleavage in vivo; however, it is only when successfully incorporated into stable MHC II-peptide complexes that these peptides can induce an immune response. Many of the small molecules so far discovered have highlighted the molecular interactions mediating the formation of MHC II-peptide complexes. As potential drugs, these small molecules open new therapeutic approaches to modulate MHC II antigen presentation pathways and influence the quality and specificity of immune responses. This review briefly introduces how CD4(+) T cells recognize antigen when displayed by MHC class II molecules, as well as MHC class II-peptide-loading pathways, structural basis of peptide binding and stabilization of the peptide-MHC complexes. We discuss the concept of MHC-loading enhancers, how they could modulate immune responses and how these molecules have been identified. Finally, we suggest mechanisms whereby MHC-loading enhancers could act upon MHC class II molecules.

  5. Expression of major histocompatibility complex class II and costimulatory molecules in oral carcinomas in vitro.

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    Villarroel-Dorrego, Mariana; Speight, Paul M; Barrett, A William

    2005-01-01

    Recognition in the 1980 s that keratinocytes can express class II molecules of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) first raised the possibility that these cells might have an immunological function, and may even act as antigen presenting cells (APC). For effective T lymphocyte activation, APC require, in addition to MHC II, appropriate costimulatory signals. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of MHC class II and the co-stimulatory molecules CD40, CD80 and CD86 in keratinocytes derived from healthy oral mucosa and oral carcinomas. Using flow cytometry, it was confirmed that oral keratinocytes, switch on, expression of MHC class II molecules after stimulation with IFNgamma in vitro. All keratinocyte lines expressed CD40 constitutively; by contrast, CD80 and CD86 were universally absent. Loss of CD80 and CD86 may be one means whereby tumours escape immunological surveillance.

  6. Cellular misfolded proteins rescued from degradation by MHC class II molecules are possible targets for autoimmune diseases.

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    Arase, Noriko; Arase, Hisashi

    2015-11-01

    The major function of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules is the presentation of peptide antigens to helper T cells. However, when misfolded proteins are associated with MHC class II molecules in the endoplasmic reticulum, they are transported to the cell surface by MHC class II molecules without processing to peptides. Of note, misfolded proteins complexed with MHC class II molecules are specifically recognized by autoantibodies produced in patients with autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and antiphospholipid syndrome. Furthermore, autoantibody binding to misfolded proteins complexed with MHC class II molecules is associated with the susceptibility to autoimmune diseases conferred by each MHC class II allele. Therefore, misfolded proteins rescued from degradation by MHC class II molecules may be recognized as 'neo-self' antigens by the immune system and be involved in the pathogenicity of autoimmune diseases.

  7. Predicting peptides binding to MHC class II molecules using multi-objective evolutionary algorithms

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    Feng Lin

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peptides binding to Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC class II molecules are crucial for initiation and regulation of immune responses. Predicting peptides that bind to a specific MHC molecule plays an important role in determining potential candidates for vaccines. The binding groove in class II MHC is open at both ends, allowing peptides longer than 9-mer to bind. Finding the consensus motif facilitating the binding of peptides to a MHC class II molecule is difficult because of different lengths of binding peptides and varying location of 9-mer binding core. The level of difficulty increases when the molecule is promiscuous and binds to a large number of low affinity peptides. In this paper, we propose two approaches using multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEA for predicting peptides binding to MHC class II molecules. One uses the information from both binders and non-binders for self-discovery of motifs. The other, in addition, uses information from experimentally determined motifs for guided-discovery of motifs. Results The proposed methods are intended for finding peptides binding to MHC class II I-Ag7 molecule – a promiscuous binder to a large number of low affinity peptides. Cross-validation results across experiments on two motifs derived for I-Ag7 datasets demonstrate better generalization abilities and accuracies of the present method over earlier approaches. Further, the proposed method was validated and compared on two publicly available benchmark datasets: (1 an ensemble of qualitative HLA-DRB1*0401 peptide data obtained from five different sources, and (2 quantitative peptide data obtained for sixteen different alleles comprising of three mouse alleles and thirteen HLA alleles. The proposed method outperformed earlier methods on most datasets, indicating that it is well suited for finding peptides binding to MHC class II molecules. Conclusion We present two MOEA-based algorithms for finding motifs

  8. Limitations of Ab Initio Predictions of Peptide Binding to MHC Class II Molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Hao; Lund, Ole; Nielsen, Morten;

    2010-01-01

    on the highly conserved 3D structure of peptide:MHC complexes. While several such methods have been described before, most are not publicly available and have not been independently tested for their performance. We here implemented and evaluated three prediction methods for MHC class II molecules: statistical...... methods prediction performance showed that these are significantly better than random, but still substantially lower than the best performing sequence based class II prediction methods available. While the approaches presented here were developed independently, we have chosen to present our results...

  9. Immunological Functions of the Membrane Proximal Region of MHC Class II Molecules [version 1; referees: 3 approved

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    Jonathan Harton

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II molecules present exogenously derived antigen peptides to CD4 T cells, driving activation of naïve T cells and supporting CD4-driven immune functions. However, MHC class II molecules are not inert protein pedestals that simply bind and present peptides. These molecules also serve as multi-functional signaling molecules delivering activation, differentiation, or death signals (or a combination of these to B cells, macrophages, as well as MHC class II-expressing T cells and tumor cells. Although multiple proteins are known to associate with MHC class II, interaction with STING (stimulator of interferon genes and CD79 is essential for signaling. In addition, alternative transmembrane domain pairing between class II α and β chains influences association with membrane lipid sub-domains, impacting both signaling and antigen presentation. In contrast to the membrane-distal region of the class II molecule responsible for peptide binding and T-cell receptor engagement, the membrane-proximal region (composed of the connecting peptide, transmembrane domain, and cytoplasmic tail mediates these “non-traditional” class II functions. Here, we review the literature on the function of the membrane-proximal region of the MHC class II molecule and discuss the impact of this aspect of class II immunobiology on immune regulation and human disease.

  10. Characterization of structural features controlling the receptiveness of empty class II MHC molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rupp, Bernd; Günther, Sebastian; Makhmoor, Talat;

    2011-01-01

    MHC class II molecules (MHC II) play a pivotal role in the cell-surface presentation of antigens for surveillance by T cells. Antigen loading takes place inside the cell in endosomal compartments and loss of the peptide ligand rapidly leads to the formation of a non-receptive state of the MHC...... known MHC molecules. This shift causes a narrowing of the two helices flanking the binding site and results in a closure, which is further stabilized by the formation of a critical hydrogen bond between residues aQ9 and ßN82. Mutagenesis experiments confirmed that replacement of either one of the two......-receptiveness. Manipulation of peptide loading efficiency for improved peptide vaccination strategies could be one of the applications profiting from the structural knowledge provided by this study....

  11. MHC class II molecules deliver costimulatory signals in human T cells through a functional linkage with IL-2-receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odum, Niels; Kanner, S B; Ledbetter, J A;

    1993-01-01

    tyrosine phosphorylation of specific substrates including PLC-gamma 1. Combined stimulation of IL-2R and class II molecules had an additive effect on tyrosine phosphorylation. Pretreatment of T cells with a protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor, herbimycin A, inhibited IL-2 and class II-induced proliferation...

  12. Induction of tolerance against the arthritogenic antigen with type-II collagen peptide-linked soluble MHC class II molecules

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    Park, Yoon-Kyung; Jung, Sundo; Park, Se-Ho

    2016-01-01

    In murine collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), self-reactive T cells can recognize peptide antigens derived from type-II collagen (CII). Activation of T cells is an important mediator of autoimmune diseases. Thus, T cells have become a focal point of study to treat autoimmune diseases. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of recombinant MHC class II molecules in the regulation of antigen-specific T cells by using a self peptide derived from CII (CII260-274; IAGFKGEQGPKGEPG) linked to mouseI-Aq in a murine CIA model. We found that recombinant I-Aq/CII260-274 molecules could be recognized by CII-specific T cells and inhibit the same T cells in vitro. Furthermore, the development of CIA in mice was successfully prevented by in vivo injection of recombinant I-Aq/CII260-274 molecules. Thus, treatment with recombinant soluble MHC class II molecules in complex with an immunodominant self-peptide might offer a potential therapeutic for chronic inflammation in autoimmune disease such as rheumatoid arthritis. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(6): 331-336 PMID:26779996

  13. Signalling via MHC class II molecules modifies the composition of GEMs in APC.

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    Setterblad, N; Becart, S; Charron, D; Mooney, N

    2001-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules are responsible for peptide presentation to helper T lymphocytes and as such play an essential role in the immune response. These molecules transmit intracellular signals leading to diverse consequences in B lymphocytes including proliferation and apoptosis. Recent studies have revealed that glycolipid enriched membrane microdomains (GEMs) behave as signalling platforms for a variety of lymphocyte receptors. We have quantified human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DR molecules localized in GEMs in human B lymphocytes. Use of a model imitating the interaction of HLA-DR with a T-cell receptor (TCR) modified the constituents of the HLA-DR-enriched GEMs. Confocal microscopy demonstrated a recruitment of HLA-DR and the ganglioside GM1 at the site of HLA-DR interaction with the stimulating ligand. Moreover, cholesterol depletion efficiently impaired this recruitment. Co-localizing proteins detected in HLA-DR-enriched GEMs include protein kinase C (PKC)-delta and actin. These data reveal that MHC class II antigens are localized in GEMs in mature human B lymphocytes and indicates that the formation of the immunological synapse regulates the composition of HLA-DR enriched GEMs in the antigen presenting cell (APC).

  14. Toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 binds to major histocompatibility complex class II molecules

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    Scholl, P.; Diez, A.; Mourad, W.; Parsonnet, J.; Geha, R.S.; Chatila, T. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (USA))

    1989-06-01

    Toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1) is a 22-kDa exotoxin produced by strains of Staphylococcus aureus and implicated in the pathogenesis of toxic shock syndrome. In common with other staphylococcal exotoxins, TSST-1 has diverse immunological effects. These include the induction of interleukin 2 receptor expression, interleukin 2 synthesis, proliferation of human T lymphocytes, and stimulation of interleukin 1 synthesis by human monocytes. In the present study, the authors demonstrate that TSST-1 binds with saturation kinetics and with a dissociation constant of 17-43 nM to a single class of binding sites on human mononuclear cells. There was a strong correlation between the number of TSST-1 binding sites and the expression of major histocompatibility complex class II molecules. Affinity chromatography of {sup 125}I-labeled cell membranes over TSST-1-agarose resulted in the recovery of two bands of 35 kDa and 31 kDa that comigrated, respectively, with the {alpha} and {beta} chains of HLA-DR and that could be immunoprecipitated with anti-HLA-DR monoclonal antibodies. Binding of TSST-1 was demonstrated to HLA-DR and HLA-DQ L-cell transfectants. These results indicate that major histocompatibility complex class II molecules represent the major binding site for TSST-1 on human cells.

  15. Characterization of structural features controlling the receptiveness of empty class II MHC molecules.

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    Bernd Rupp

    Full Text Available MHC class II molecules (MHC II play a pivotal role in the cell-surface presentation of antigens for surveillance by T cells. Antigen loading takes place inside the cell in endosomal compartments and loss of the peptide ligand rapidly leads to the formation of a non-receptive state of the MHC molecule. Non-receptiveness hinders the efficient loading of new antigens onto the empty MHC II. However, the mechanisms driving the formation of the peptide inaccessible state are not well understood. Here, a combined approach of experimental site-directed mutagenesis and computational modeling is used to reveal structural features underlying "non-receptiveness." Molecular dynamics simulations of the human MHC II HLA-DR1 suggest a straightening of the α-helix of the β1 domain during the transition from the open to the non-receptive state. The movement is mostly confined to a hinge region conserved in all known MHC molecules. This shift causes a narrowing of the two helices flanking the binding site and results in a closure, which is further stabilized by the formation of a critical hydrogen bond between residues αQ9 and βN82. Mutagenesis experiments confirmed that replacement of either one of the two residues by alanine renders the protein highly susceptible. Notably, loading enhancement was also observed when the mutated MHC II molecules were expressed on the surface of fibroblast cells. Altogether, structural features underlying the non-receptive state of empty HLA-DR1 identified by theoretical means and experiments revealed highly conserved residues critically involved in the receptiveness of MHC II. The atomic details of rearrangements of the peptide-binding groove upon peptide loss provide insight into structure and dynamics of empty MHC II molecules and may foster rational approaches to interfere with non-receptiveness. Manipulation of peptide loading efficiency for improved peptide vaccination strategies could be one of the applications profiting

  16. Efficient vaccine against pandemic influenza: combining DNA vaccination and targeted delivery to MHC class II molecules.

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    Grødeland, Gunnveig; Bogen, Bjarne

    2015-06-01

    There are two major limitations to vaccine preparedness in the event of devastating influenza pandemics: the time needed to generate a vaccine and rapid generation of sufficient amounts. DNA vaccination could represent a solution to these problems, but efficacy needs to be enhanced. In a separate line of research, it has been established that targeting of vaccine molecules to antigen-presenting cells enhances immune responses. We have combined the two principles by constructing DNA vaccines that encode bivalent fusion proteins; these target hemagglutinin to MHC class II molecules on antigen-presenting cells. Such DNA vaccines rapidly induce hemagglutinin-specific antibodies and T cell responses in immunized mice. Responses are long-lasting and protect mice against challenge with influenza virus. In a pandemic situation, targeted DNA vaccines could be produced and tested within a month. The novel DNA vaccines could represent a solution to pandemic preparedness in the advent of novel influenza pandemics.

  17. The immune function of MHC class II molecules mutated in the putative superdimer interface.

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    Hayball, John D; Lake, Richard A

    2005-05-01

    Analysis of the crystal structure of human class II (HLA-DR1) molecules suggests that the alphabeta heterodimer may be further ordered as a dimer of heterodimers (superdimer), leading to the hypothesis that T cell receptor dimerisation is a mechanism for initiating signaling events preceding T cell activation. The interface between pairs of molecules is stabilised by both salt bridges, polar and hydrophobic interactions. The residues that form the superdimer interface occur in three areas distinct from the antigen-binding groove. They can be defined as follows: region 1, beta-beta contacts in the helix of the beta1 domain; region 2, alpha-alpha contacts near the alpha 1/alpha2 domain junction and region 3; alpha-beta contacts in the alpha2/beta2 domains adjacent to the plasma membrane. To determine whether salt bridges and polar interactions formed within these regions are involved in the immune function of the murine MHC class II molecule, I-A(b), appropriate residues in both the alpha and beta chain were identified and mutated to uncharged alanine. Cell lines transfected with different combinations of mutated alpha and beta chains were generated and tested for MHC class II expression, peptide binding capabilities, and ability to present antigenic peptide to an OVA-specific T cell hybridoma. With the exception of two residues in region 2, the substitutions tested did not modulate MHC class II expression, or peptide binding function. When tested for ability to present peptide to an antigen-specific T cell hybridoma, with the exception of mutations in region 2, the substitutions did not appear to abrogate the ability of I-A(b) to stimulate the T cells. These results suggest that mutation of residues in region 2 of the putative superdimer interface have a gross effect on the ability of I-A(b) to be expressed on the cell surface. However, abrogation of salt bridges in region 1 and 3 do not influence I-A(b) cell surface expression, peptide binding or ability to

  18. Ligation of MHC class I and class II molecules can lead to heterologous desensitization of signal transduction pathways that regulate homotypic adhesion in human lymphocytes.

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    Wagner, N; Engel, P; Vega, M; Tedder, T F

    1994-06-01

    Engagement of lymphocyte MHC class I and class II Ags activates an array of intracellular signal transduction pathways that up-regulates the activity of cell-surface adhesion receptors, resulting in homotypic cell-cell aggregation. In this study, engagement of MHC class I and class II molecules with specific mAbs was shown to also inhibit lymphocyte homotypic adhesion. Two mAbs reactive with class II Ag, homotypic adhesion blocking mAb (HAB)-2, and HAB-3, and one mAb reactive with class I Ag, HAB-4, were generated that inhibited homotypic adhesion of activated lymphocytes and B and T cell lines at concentrations as low as 0.1 microgram/ml. Binding of these mAbs resulted in heterologous desensitization of other surface signal transduction molecules as homotypic adhesion induced through class I, class II, CD19, CD20, CD39, CD40, Leu-13, and PMA was also inhibited. The spontaneous adhesion exhibited by some cell lines was also abrogated by binding of these mAbs. Abs that either induced, blocked, or had no effect on adhesion bound to distinct epitopes on class I, whereas the anti-class II mAbs recognized either distinct or overlapping epitopes. Thus, engagement of distinct epitopes on MHC molecules can result in homologous or heterologous desensitization of cell-surface signaling molecules. The induction or inhibition of homotypic adhesion through class I molecules did not require the presence of the cytoplasmic domain, as deletion of this portion of the class I molecule had no effect. In contrast, the transmembrane region was essential for signal transduction as the mAbs binding to a chimeric molecule in which the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of class I were exchanged with those of the HB15 molecule did not induce or inhibit homotypic adhesion. Although this report is the first demonstration that homotypic adhesion can be influenced in a negative manner through MHC molecules, these findings demonstrate a considerable level of cross-talk between MHC molecules

  19. Engagement of major histocompatibility complex class I and class II molecules up-regulates intercellular adhesion of human B cells via a CD11/CD18-independent mechanism.

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    Alcover, A; Juillard, V; Acuto, O

    1992-02-01

    We have studied the role of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules in the regulation of intercellular adhesion of human B cells. We found that molecules able to bind to MHC class II molecules, such as monoclonal antibodies or staphylococcal enterotoxins, induced rapid and sustained homotypic adhesion of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed B cell lines as well as peripheral blood B lymphocytes. Moreover, anti-MHC class I monoclonal antibodies also stimulated intercellular adherence. Adhesion induced upon MHC engagement was faster and stronger than that triggered by phorbol esters. It needed active metabolism, but divalent cations were not required. Monoclonal antibodies directed against LFA-1 (CD11a/CD18) or its ligand ICAM-1 (CD54) did not inhibit MHC class II-induced homotypic adhesion of various EBV-transformed B cell lines, nor of a variant of the B cell line Raji expressing very low LFA-1 surface levels. Moreover, EBV-transformed B cells from a severe lymphocyte adhesion deficiency patient, lacking surface CD11/CD18, also aggregated in response to anti-MHC class I or class II monoclonal antibodies. Together these data indicate that engagement of MHC molecules may transduce signals to B cells resulting in up-regulation of intercellular adhesion, via an LFA-1-independent mechanism. This may play a role in the stabilization of T cell/antigen-presenting cell conjugates at the moment of antigen recognition.

  20. Organizing MHC Class II Presentation

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    David R Fooksman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II molecules are ligands for CD4+ T cells and are critical for initiating the adaptive immune response. This review is focused on what is currently known about MHC class II organization at the plasma membrane of antigen presenting cells and how this affects antigen presentation to T cells. The organization and diffusion of class II molecules have been measured by a variety of biochemical and microscopic techniques. Membrane lipids and other proteins have been implicated in MHC class II organization and function. However, when compared with the organization of MHC class I or TCR complexes, much less is known about MHC class II. Since clustering of T cell receptors occurs during activation, the organization of MHC molecules prior to recognition and during synapse formation may be critical for antigen presentation.

  1. The properties of the single chicken MHC classical class II alpha chain ( B-LA) gene indicate an ancient origin for the DR/E-like isotype of class II molecules

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    Salomonsen, Jan; Marston, Denise; Avila, David;

    2003-01-01

    for the cloning and sequencing of the cDNA. We found only one class II alpha chain transcript, which bears the major features of a classical class II alpha sequence, including the critical peptide-binding residues. The chicken sequence is more similar to human DR than to the DQ, DP, DO or DM isotypes, most......In mammals, there are MHC class II molecules with distinctive sequence features, such as the classical isotypes DR, DQ and DP. These particular isotypes have not been reported in non-mammalian vertebrates. We have isolated the class II (B-L) alpha chain from outbred chickens as the basis...... significantly in the peptide-binding alpha(1) domain. The cDNA and genomic DNA sequences from chickens of diverse origins show few alleles, which differ in only four nucleotides and one amino acid. In contrast, significant restriction fragment length polymorphism is detected by Southern blot analysis of genomic...

  2. Regulatory polymorphisms modulate the expression of HLA class II molecules and promote autoimmunity

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    Raj, Prithvi; Rai, Ekta; Song, Ran; Khan, Shaheen; Wakeland, Benjamin E; Viswanathan, Kasthuribai; Arana, Carlos; Liang, Chaoying; Zhang, Bo; Dozmorov, Igor; Carr-Johnson, Ferdicia; Mitrovic, Mitja; Wiley, Graham B; Kelly, Jennifer A; Lauwerys, Bernard R; Olsen, Nancy J; Cotsapas, Chris; Garcia, Christine K; Wise, Carol A; Harley, John B; Nath, Swapan K; James, Judith A; Jacob, Chaim O; Tsao, Betty P; Pasare, Chandrashekhar; Karp, David R; Li, Quan Zhen; Gaffney, Patrick M; Wakeland, Edward K

    2016-01-01

    Targeted sequencing of sixteen SLE risk loci among 1349 Caucasian cases and controls produced a comprehensive dataset of the variations causing susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Two independent disease association signals in the HLA-D region identified two regulatory regions containing 3562 polymorphisms that modified thirty-seven transcription factor binding sites. These extensive functional variations are a new and potent facet of HLA polymorphism. Variations modifying the consensus binding motifs of IRF4 and CTCF in the XL9 regulatory complex modified the transcription of HLA-DRB1, HLA-DQA1 and HLA-DQB1 in a chromosome-specific manner, resulting in a 2.5-fold increase in the surface expression of HLA-DR and DQ molecules on dendritic cells with SLE risk genotypes, which increases to over 4-fold after stimulation. Similar analyses of fifteen other SLE risk loci identified 1206 functional variants tightly linked with disease-associated SNPs and demonstrated that common disease alleles contain multiple causal variants modulating multiple immune system genes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12089.001 PMID:26880555

  3. The MHC class II ligand lymphocyte activation gene-3 is co-distributed with CD8 and CD3-TCR molecules after their engagement by mAb or peptide-MHC class I complexes.

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    Hannier, S; Triebel, F

    1999-11-01

    Previous studies indicated that signaling through lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3), a MHC class II ligand, induced by multivalent anti-receptor antibodies led to unresponsiveness to TCR stimulation. Here, lateral distribution of the LAG-3 molecules and its topological relationship (mutual proximity) to the TCR, CD8, CD4, and MHC class I and II molecules were studied in the plasma membrane of activated human T cells in co-capping experiments and conventional fluorescence microscopy. Following TCR engagement by either TCR-specific mAb or MHC-peptide complex recognition in T-B cell conjugates, LAG-3 was found to be specifically associated with the CD3-TCR complex. Similarly, following CD8 engagement LAG-3 and CD8 were co-distributed on the cell surface while only a low percentage of CD4-capped cells displayed LAG-3 co-caps. In addition, LAG-3 was found to be associated with MHC class II (i.e. DR, DP and DQ) and partially with MHC class I molecules. The supramolecular assemblies described here between LAG-3, CD3, CD8 and MHC class II molecules may result from an organization in raft microdomains, a phenomenon known to regulate early events of T cell activation.

  4. Regulation of T cell response to leishmania antigens by determinants of histocompatibility leukocyte class I and II molecules

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    Bacellar O.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that HLA class I molecules play a significant role in the regulation of the proliferation of T cells activated by mitogens and antigens. We evaluated the ability of mAb to a framework determinant of HLA class I molecules to regulate T cell proliferation and interferon gamma (IFN-g production against leishmania, PPD, C. albicans and tetanus toxoid antigens in patients with tegumentary leishmaniasis and healthy subjects. The anti-major histocompatibility complex (MHC mAb (W6/32 suppressed lymphocyte proliferation by 90% in cultures stimulated with aCD3, but the suppression was variable in cultures stimulated with leishmania antigen. This suppression ranged from 30-67% and was observed only in 5 of 11 patients. IFN-g production against leishmania antigen was also suppressed by anti-HLA class I mAb. In 3 patients IFN-g levels were suppressed by more than 60%, while in the other 2 cultures IFN-g levels were 36 and 10% lower than controls. The suppression by HLA class I mAb to the proliferative response in leishmaniasis patients and in healthy controls varied with the antigens and the patients or donors tested. To determine whether the suppression is directed at antigen presenting cells (APCs or at the responding T cells, experiments with antigen-primed non-adherent cells, separately incubated with W6/32, were performed. Suppression of proliferation was only observed when the W6/32 mAb was added in the presence of T cells. These data provide evidence that a mAb directed at HLA class I framework determinants can suppress proliferation and cytokine secretion in response to several antigens.

  5. Class II Microcins

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    Vassiliadis, Gaëlle; Destoumieux-Garzón, Delphine; Peduzzi, Jean

    Class II microcins are 4.9- to 8.9-kDa polypeptides produced by and active against enterobacteria. They are classified into two subfamilies according to their structure and their gene cluster arrangement. While class IIa microcins undergo no posttranslational modification, class IIb microcins show a conserved C-terminal sequence that carries a salmochelin-like siderophore motif as a posttranslational modification. Aside from this C-terminal end, which is the signature of class IIb microcins, some sequence similarities can be observed within and between class II subclasses, suggesting the existence of common ancestors. Their mechanisms of action are still under investigation, but several class II microcins use inner membrane proteins as cellular targets, and some of them are membrane-active. Like group B colicins, many, if not all, class II microcins are TonB- and energy-dependent and use catecholate siderophore receptors for recognition/­translocation across the outer membrane. In that context, class IIb microcins are considered to have developed molecular mimicry to increase their affinity for their outer membrane receptors through their salmochelin-like posttranslational modification.

  6. The diabetogenic mouse MHC class II molecule I-A[subscript g7] is endowed with a switch that modulates TCR affinity

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    Yoshida, Kenji; Corper, Adam L.; Herro, Rana; Jabri, Bana; Wilson, Ian A.; Teyton, Luc (Scripps); (UC)

    2011-11-16

    Genetic susceptibility to autoimmunity is frequently associated with specific MHC alleles. Diabetogenic MHC class II molecules, such as human HLA-DQ8 and mouse I-A{sub g7}, typically have a small, uncharged amino acid residue at position 57 of their {beta} chain ({beta}57); this results in the absence of a salt bridge between {beta}57 and Arg{alpha}76, which is adjacent to the P9 pocket of the peptide-binding groove. However, the influence of Arg{alpha}76 on the selection of the TCR repertoire remains unknown, particularly when the MHC molecule binds a peptide with a neutral amino acid residue at position P9. Here, we have shown that diabetogenic MHC class II molecules bound to a peptide with a neutral P9 residue primarily selected and expanded cells expressing TCRs bearing a negatively charged residue in the first segment of their complementarity determining region 3{beta}. The crystal structure of one such TCR in complex with I-A{sub g7} bound to a peptide containing a neutral P9 residue revealed that a network of favorable long-range (greater than 4 {angstrom}) electrostatic interactions existed among Arg{alpha}76, the neutral P9 residue, and TCR, which supported the substantially increased TCR/peptide-MHC affinity. This network could be modulated or switched to a lower affinity interaction by the introduction of a negative charge at position P9 of the peptide. Our results support the existence of a switch at residue {beta}57 of the I-Ag7 and HLA-DQ8 class II molecules and potentially link normal thymic TCR selection with abnormal peripheral behavior.

  7. Structural Properties of MHC Class II Ligands, Implications for the Prediction of MHC Class II Epitopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kasper Winther; Buus, Søren; Nielsen, Morten

    2010-01-01

    properties of MHC class II ligands. Here, we perform one such large-scale analysis. A large set of SYFPEITHI MHC class II ligands covering more than 20 different HLA-DR molecules was analyzed in terms of their secondary structure and surface exposure characteristics in the context of the native structure......Major Histocompatibility class II (MHC-II) molecules sample peptides from the extracellular space allowing the immune system to detect the presence of foreign microbes from this compartment. Prediction of MHC class II ligands is complicated by the open binding cleft of the MHC class II molecule...... of the corresponding source protein. We demonstrated that MHC class II ligands are significantly more exposed and have significantly more coil content than other peptides in the same protein with similar predicted binding affinity. We next exploited this observation to derive an improved prediction method for MHC...

  8. How do CD4+ T cells detect and eliminate tumor cells that either lack or express MHC class II molecules?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Audun Werner Haabeth

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available CD4+ T cells contribute to tumor eradication, even in the absence of CD8+ T cells. Cytotoxic CD4+ T cells can directly kill MHC class II positive tumor cells. More surprisingly, CD4+ T cells can indirectly eliminate tumor cells that lack MHC class II expression. Here, we review the mechanisms of direct and indirect CD4+ T cell-mediated elimination of tumor cells. An emphasis is put on T cell receptor (TCR transgenic models, where anti-tumor responses of naïve CD4+ T cells of defined specificity can be tracked. Some generalizations can tentatively be made. For both MHCIIPOS and MHCIINEG tumors, presentation of tumor specific antigen by host antigen presenting cells (APCs appears to be required for CD4+ T cell priming. This has been extensively studied in a myeloma model (MOPC315, where host APCs in tumor-draining lymph nodes are primed with secreted tumor antigen. Upon antigen recognition, naïve CD4+ T cells differentiate into Th1 cells and migrate to the tumor. At the tumor site, the mechanisms for elimination of MHCIIPOS and MHCIINEG tumor cells differ. In a TCR transgenic B16 melanoma model, MHCIIPOS melanoma cells are directly killed by cytotoxic CD4+ T cells in a perforin/granzyme B-dependent manner. By contrast, MHCIINEG myeloma cells are killed by IFN-g stimulated M1-like macrophages. In summary, while the priming phase of CD4+ T cells appears similar for MHCIIPOS and MHCIINEG tumors, the killing mechanisms are different. Unresolved issues and directions for future research are addressed.

  9. A vaccine encoding conserved promiscuous HIV CD4 epitopes induces broad T cell responses in mice transgenic to multiple common HLA class II molecules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Pereira Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Current HIV vaccine approaches are focused on immunogens encoding whole HIV antigenic proteins that mainly elicit cytotoxic CD8+ responses. Mounting evidence points toward a critical role for CD4+ T cells in the control of immunodeficiency virus replication, probably due to cognate help. Vaccine-induced CD4+ T cell responses might, therefore, have a protective effect in HIV replication. In addition, successful vaccines may have to elicit responses to multiple epitopes in a high proportion of vaccinees, to match the highly variable circulating strains of HIV. Using rational vaccine design, we developed a DNA vaccine encoding 18 algorithm-selected conserved, "promiscuous" (multiple HLA-DR-binding B-subtype HIV CD4 epitopes - previously found to be frequently recognized by HIV-infected patients. We assessed the ability of the vaccine to induce broad T cell responses in the context of multiple HLA class II molecules using different strains of HLA class II- transgenic mice (-DR2, -DR4, -DQ6 and -DQ8. Mice displayed CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses of significant breadth and magnitude, and 16 out of the 18 encoded epitopes were recognized. By virtue of inducing broad responses against conserved CD4+ T cell epitopes that can be recognized in the context of widely diverse, common HLA class II alleles, this vaccine concept may cope both with HIV genetic variability and increased population coverage. The vaccine may thus be a source of cognate help for HIV-specific CD8+ T cells elicited by conventional immunogens, in a wide proportion of vaccinees.

  10. HIV-1 proteins in infected cells determine the presentation of viral peptides by HLA class I and class II molecules and the nature of the cellular and humoral antiviral immune responses--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Y

    1994-07-01

    The goals of molecular virology and immunology during the second half of the 20th century have been to provide the conceptual approaches and the tools for the development of safe and efficient virus vaccines for the human population. The success of the vaccination approach to prevent virus epidemics was attributed to the ability of inactivated and live virus vaccines to induce a humoral immune response and to produce antiviral neutralizing antibodies in the vaccinees. The successful development of antiviral vaccines and their application to most of the human population led to a marked decrease in virus epidemics around the globe. Despite this remarkable achievement, the developing epidemics of HIV-caused AIDS (accompanied by activation of latent herpesviruses in AIDS patients), epidemics of Dengue fever, and infections with respiratory syncytial virus may indicate that conventional approaches to the development of virus vaccines that induce antiviral humoral responses may not suffice. This may indicate that virus vaccines that induce a cellular immune response, leading to the destruction of virus-infected cells by CD8+ cytotoxic T cells (CTLs), may be needed. Antiviral CD8+ CTLs are induced by viral peptides presented within the peptide binding grooves of HLA class I molecules present on the surface of infected cells. Studies in the last decade provided an insight into the presentation of viral peptides by HLA class I molecules to CD8+ T cells. These studies are here reviewed, together with a review of the molecular events of virus replication, to obtain an overview of how viral peptides associate with the HLA class I molecules. A similar review is provided on the molecular pathway by which viral proteins, used as subunit vaccines or inactivated virus particles, are taken up by endosomes in the endosome pathway and are processed by proteolytic enzymes into peptides that interact with HLA class II molecules during their transport to the plasma membrane of antigen

  11. Induction of antigen-presenting capacity in tumor cells upon infection with non-replicating recombinant vaccinia virus encoding murine MHC class II and costimulatory molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, W R; Oertli, D; Meko, J B; Norton, J A; Tsung, K

    1997-01-15

    The possibility of inducing antigen-presenting capacity in cells normally lacking such capacity, currently represents a major goal in vaccine research. To address this issue we attempted to generate 'artificial' APC able to stimulate CD4+ T cell responses when tumor cells were infected with a single, recombinant, vaccinia virus (rVV) containing the two genes encoding murine MHC class II I-Ak and a third gene encoding the murine B7-1 (mB7-1) costimulatory molecule. To minimize the cytopathic effect and to improve safety, in view of possible in vivo applications, we made this rVV replication incompetent by Psoralen and long wave UV treatment. Tumor cells infected with rVV encoding I-Ak alone, pulsed with hen egg white lysozyme peptide (HEL46-61), induced IL-2 secretion by an antigen-specific T hybridoma. Tumor cells infected with the rVV encoding mB7-1 provided costimulation for activating resting CD4+ T cells in the presence of ConA. Tumor cells infected with the rVV encoding I-Ak and mB7-1, and pulsed with chicken ovotransferrin peptide (conalbumin133-145), induced a significantly higher response in a specific Th2 cell clone (D10.G4.1) as compared to cells infected with rVV encoding I-Ak molecules only. Thus, this replication incompetent rVV represents a safe, multiple gene, vector system able to confer in one single infection step effective APC capacity to non-professional APCs.

  12. The systems biology of MHC class II antigen presentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Major histocompatibility class II molecules (MHC class II) are one of the key regulators of adaptive immunity because of their specific expression by professional antigen presenting cells (APC). They present peptides derived from endocytosed material to T helper lymphocytes. Consequently, MHC class

  13. Evaluation of the responses of MHC class II molecule-expressing cells and macrophages to epoxy resin-based and 4-META-containing, methacrylate resin-based root canal sealers in rat subcutaneous tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Yusuke; Shigetani, Yoshimi; Yoshiba, Kunihiko; Kaneko, Tomoatsu; Yoshiba, Nagako; Okiji, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecule-expressing cells and macrophages play a pivotal role in mediating the host tissue response to biomaterials. This study investigated the responses of these cells to epoxy resin-based and 4-META-containing, methacrylate resin-based endodontic sealers (AH Plus and MetaSEAL respectively) in rat connective tissue. Silicone tubes loaded with one of the sealers or solid silicone rods (control) were subcutaneously implanted in male Wistar rats for three time periods of 7, 14, or 28 days. Tissue specimens were immunoperoxidase-stained for MHC class II molecules and CD68 (a general macrophage marker). Results showed that AH Plus-implanted tissue displayed significantly more MHC class II-positive cells than the control at 14 and 28 days, whereas MetaSEAL-implanted tissue showed significantly more CD68-positive cells than both AH Plus-implanted tissue and the control at all time periods. It was concluded that the epoxy resin-based sealer induced the infiltration of MHC class II molecule-expressing cells, whereas 4-META-containing, methacrylate resin-based sealer elicited macrophage infiltration.

  14. The production and crystallization of the human leukocyte antigen class II molecules HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 complexed with deamidated gliadin peptides implicated in coeliac disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Kate N.; Reid, Hugh H.; Borg, Natalie A.; Broughton, Sophie E.; Huyton, Trevor [The Protein Crystallography Unit, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Biomedical Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Anderson, Robert P. [Autoimmunity and Transplantation Division, Walter and Eliza Hall Institute, 1G Royal Parade, Parkville, Victoria 3050 (Australia); Department of Gastroenterology, The Royal Melbourne Hospital, Grattan Street, Parkville, Victoria 3050 (Australia); McCluskey, James [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Rossjohn, Jamie, E-mail: jamie.rossjohn@med.monash.edu.au [The Protein Crystallography Unit, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Biomedical Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

    2007-12-01

    The production and crystallization of human leukocyte antigen class II molecules HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 in complex with deamidated gliadin peptides is reported. Crystals of HLA-DQ2{sup PQPELPYPQ} diffracted to 3.9 Å, while the HLA-DQ8{sup EGSFQPSQE} crystals diffracted to 2.1 Å, allowing structure determination by molecular replacement. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 are key risk factors in coeliac disease, as they bind deamidated gluten peptides that are subsequently recognized by CD4{sup +} T cells. Here, the production and crystallization of both HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 in complex with the deamidated gliadin peptides DQ2 α-I (PQPELPYPQ) and DQ8 α-I (EGSFQPSQE), respectively, are reported.

  15. The bovine class II major histocompatibility complex: Serological definition and further characterization of class II haplotypes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nilsson, Ph.R.

    1994-01-01

    In this thesis an analysis of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II in cattle is reported, with emphasis on the development of class II serology. First, the production of class II alloantisera, and the serological definition of bovine MHC class II polymorphism is described. Subsequentl

  16. Cross-species association of quail invariant chain with chicken and mouse MHC II molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fangfang; Wu, Chao; Pan, Ling; Xu, Fazhi; Liu, Xuelan; Yu, Weiyi

    2013-05-01

    There are different degrees of similarity among vertebrate invariant chains (Ii). The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between quail and other vertebrate Ii MHC class II molecules. The two quail Ii isoforms (qIi-1, qIi-2) were cloned by RACE, and qRT-PCR analysis of different organs showed that their expression levels were positively correlated with MHC II gene (B-LB) transcription levels. Confocal microscopy indicated that quail full-length Ii co-localized with MHC II of quail, chicken or mouse in 293FT cells co-transfected with both genes. Immunoprecipitation and western blotting further indicated that these aggregates corresponded to polymers of Ii and MHC class II molecules. This cross-species molecular association of quail Ii with chicken and mouse MHC II suggests that Ii molecules have a high structural and functional similarity and may thereby be used as potential immune carriers across species.

  17. Signal transduction by HLA class II antigens expressed on activated T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ødum, Niels; Martin, P J; Schieven, G L;

    1991-01-01

    Human T cells express HLA class II antigens upon activation. Although activated, class II+ T cells can present alloantigens under certain circumstances, the functional role of class II antigens on activated T cells remains largely unknown. Here, we report that cross-linking of HLA-DR molecules ex...

  18. Contrasting evolutionary histories of MHC class I and class II loci in grouse—Effects of selection and gene conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minias, Piotr; Bateson, Zachary W; Whittingham, Linda A; Johnson, Jeff A.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Dunn, Peter O

    2016-01-01

    Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) encode receptor molecules that are responsible for recognition of intracellular and extracellular pathogens (class I and class II genes, respectively) in vertebrates. Given the different roles of class I and II MHC genes, one might expect the strength of selection to differ between these two classes. Different selective pressures may also promote different rates of gene conversion at each class. Despite these predictions, surprisingly few studies have looked at differences between class I and II genes in terms of both selection and gene conversion. Here, we investigated the molecular evolution of MHC class I and II genes in five closely related species of prairie grouse (Centrocercus and Tympanuchus) that possess one class I and two class II loci. We found striking differences in the strength of balancing selection acting on MHC class I versus class II genes. More than half of the putative antigen-binding sites (ABS) of class II were under positive or episodic diversifying selection, compared with only 10% at class I. We also found that gene conversion had a stronger role in shaping the evolution of MHC class II than class I. Overall, the combination of strong positive (balancing) selection and frequent gene conversion has maintained higher diversity of MHC class II than class I in prairie grouse. This is one of the first studies clearly demonstrating that macroevolutionary mechanisms can act differently on genes involved in the immune response against intracellular and extracellular pathogens.

  19. Early failure of Class II resin composite versus Class II amalgam restorations placed by dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, J D; Sullivan, Diane J

    2012-03-01

    Using the information from remake request slips in a dental school's predoctoral clinic, we examined the short-term survival of Class II resin composite restorations versus Class II dental amalgam restorations. In the student clinic, resin composite is used in approximately 58 percent of Class II restorations placed, and dental amalgam is used in the remaining 42 percent. In the period examined, Class II resin composite restorations were ten times more likely to be replaced at no cost to the patient than Class II dental amalgam restorations. A total of eighty-four resin composite restorations and six amalgam restorations were replaced due to an identified failure.

  20. A novel method to measure HLA-DM-susceptibility of peptides bound to MHC class II molecules based on peptide binding competition assay and differential IC(50) determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Liusong; Stern, Lawrence J

    2014-04-01

    HLA-DM (DM) functions as a peptide editor that mediates the exchange of peptides loaded onto MHCII molecules by accelerating peptide dissociation and association kinetics. The relative DM-susceptibility of peptides bound to MHCII molecules correlates with antigen presentation and immunodominance hierarchy, and measurement of DM-susceptibility has been a key effort in this field. Current assays of DM-susceptibility, based on differential peptide dissociation rates measured for individually labeled peptides over a long time base, are difficult and cumbersome. Here, we present a novel method to measure DM-susceptibility based on peptide binding competition assays performed in the presence and absence of DM, reported as a delta-IC(50) (change in 50% inhibition concentration) value. We simulated binding competition reactions of peptides with various intrinsic and DM-catalyzed kinetic parameters and found that under a wide range of conditions the delta-IC(50) value is highly correlated with DM-susceptibility as measured in off-rate assay. We confirmed experimentally that DM-susceptibility measured by delta-IC(50) is comparable to that measured by traditional off-rate assay for peptides with known DM-susceptibility hierarchy. The major advantage of this method is that it allows simple, fast and high throughput measurement of DM-susceptibility for a large set of unlabeled peptides in studies of the mechanism of DM action and for identification of CD4+ T cell epitopes.

  1. Bap29/31 influences the intracellular traffic of MHC class I molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquet, Marie-Eve; Cohen-Doyle, Myrna; Shore, Gordon C; Williams, David B

    2004-06-15

    In this study, we examine the role of the putative cargo receptor B cell-associated protein (Bap)29/31 in the export of MHC class I molecules out of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We show that Bap31 binds to two allotypes of mouse class I molecules, with the interaction initiated at the time of H chain association with beta(2)-microglobulin and maintained until the class I molecule has left the ER. We also show that Bap31 is part of the peptide-loading complex, although is not required for its formation. Bap31 binds not only to class I molecules, but can bind to tapasin in the absence of class I. Consistent with an important role in recruiting class I molecules to transport vesicles, we show that in the absence of Bap29/31, there is a loss of class I colocalization with mSec31 (p137), a component of mammalian coat protein complex II coats. This observation is also associated with a delay in class I traffic from ER to Golgi. Our results are consistent with the view that class I molecules are largely recruited to ER exit sites by Bap29/31, and that Bap29/31 is a cargo receptor for MHC class I molecules.

  2. Assembly of MHC class I molecules within the endoplasmic reticulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yinan; Williams, David B

    2006-01-01

    MHC class I molecules bind cytosolically derived peptides within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and present them at the cell surface to cytotoxic T cells. A major focus of our laboratory has been to understand the functions of the diverse proteins involved in the intracellular assembly of MHC class I molecules. These include the molecular chaperones calnexin and calreticulin, which enhance the proper folding and subunit assembly of class I molecules and also retain assembly intermediates within the ER; ERp57, a thiol oxidoreductase that promotes heavy chain disulfide formation and proper assembly of the peptide loading complex; tapasin, which recruits class I molecules to the TAP peptide transporter and enhances the loading of high affinity peptide ligands; and Bap31, which is involved in clustering assembled class I molecules at ER exit sites for export along the secretory pathway. This review describes our contributions to elucidating the functions of these proteins; the combined effort of many dedicated students and postdoctoral fellows.

  3. The Relationship between Class I and Class II Methanol Masers

    CERN Document Server

    Ellingsen, S P

    2005-01-01

    The Australia Telescope National Facility Mopra millimetre telescope has been used to search for 95.1-GHz class I methanol masers towards sixty-two 6.6-GHz class II methanol masers. A total of twenty-six 95.1-GHz masers were detected, eighteen of these being new discoveries. Combining the results of this search with observations reported in the literature, a near complete sample of sixty-six 6.6-GHz class II methanol masers has been searched in the 95.1-GHz transition, with detections towards 38 per cent (twenty-five detections ; not all of the sources studied in this paper qualify for the complete sample, and some of the sources in the sample were not observed in the present observations). There is no evidence of an anti-correlation between either the velocity range, or peak flux density of the class I and II transitions, contrary to suggestions from previous studies. The majority of class I methanol maser sources have a velocity range that partially overlaps with the class II maser transitions. The presence...

  4. Molecules based on M(v) (M=Mo, W) and Ni(II) ions: a new class of trigonal bipyramidal cluster and confirmation of SMM behavior for the pentadecanuclear molecule {NiII[NiII(tmphen)(MeOH)]6[Ni(H2O)3]2[micro-CN]30[WV(CN)3]6}.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilfiger, Matthew G; Zhao, Hanhua; Prosvirin, Andrey; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Dunbar, Kim R

    2009-07-14

    The preparation, single crystal X-ray crystallography, and magnetic properties are reported for four new clusters based on [M'V(CN)8]3- octacyanometallates (M'=Mo, W). Reactions of [M'V(CN)8]3- with mononuclear NiII ions in the presence of the tmphen blocking ligand (tmphen=3,4,7,8-tetramethyl-1,10-phenanthroline) in a 2:3:6 ratio, respectively, lead to the formation of the trigonal bipyramidal clusters [NiII(tmphen)2]3[M'V(CN)8]2. Analogous reactions with the same starting materials performed in a 2:3:2 ratio, respectively, produce pentadecanuclear clusters of the type {NiII[NiII(tmphen)(MeOH)]6[Ni(H2O)3]2[micro-CN]30[WV(CN)3]6}. The W2Ni3 (1) and Mo2Ni3(2) pentanuclear clusters and the W6Ni9 (3) and Mo6Ni9 (4) pentadecanuclear molecules are isostructural to each other and crystallize in the space groups P2(1)/c and R3 respectively. Magnetic measurements indicate that the ground states for the trigonal bipyamidal clusters are S=4 as a consequence of ferromagnetic coupling with JW-Ni=9.5 cm(-1), JMo-Ni=10 cm(-1). The pentadecanuclear clusters exhibit ferromagnetic coupling as well, which leads to S=12 ground states (JW-Ni=12 cm(-1), JMo-Ni=12.2 cm(-1)). Reduced magnetization studies on the W-Ni analogues support the conclusion that they exhibit a negative axial anisotropy term; the fits give D values of -0.24 cm(-1) for the W2Ni3 cluster and D=-0.04 cm(-1)for the W6Ni9 cluster. AC susceptibility measurements indicate the beginning of an out-of-phase signal for the W2Ni3 and the W6Ni9 compounds, but detailed low temperature studies on small crystals by the microSQUID technique indicate that only the pentadecanuclear cluster exhibits hysteresis in accord with SMM behavior. Neither Mo cluster reveals any evidence for slow paramagnetic relaxation at low temperatures.

  5. Expression of HLA Class I and HLA Class II by Tumor Cells in Chinese Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Xin; van den Berg, Anke; Gao, Zifen; Visser, Lydia; Nolte, Ilja; Vos, Hans; Hepkema, Bouke; Kooistra, Wierd; Poppema, Sibrand; Diepstra, Arjan

    2010-01-01

    Background: In Caucasian populations, the tumor cells of Epstein Barr virus (EBV)-positive classical Hodgkin Lymphomas (cHL) patients more frequently express HLA class I and HLA class II molecules compared to EBV-negative cHL patients. HLA expression (in relation to EBV) in Asian cHL patients has no

  6. Class II malocclusion occlusal severity description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Janson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: It is well known that the efficacy and the efficiency of a Class II malocclusion treatment are aspects closely related to the severity of the dental anteroposterior discrepancy. Even though, sample selection based on cephalometric variables without considering the severity of the occlusal anteroposterior discrepancy is still common in current papers. In some of them, when occlusal parameters are chosen, the severity is often neglected. The purpose of this study is to verify the importance given to the classification of Class II malocclusion, based on the criteria used for sample selection in a great number of papers published in the orthodontic journal with the highest impact factor. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A search was performed in PubMed database for full-text research papers referencing Class II malocclusion in the history of the American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (AJO-DO. RESULTS: A total of 359 papers were retrieved, among which only 72 (20.06% papers described the occlusal severity of the Class II malocclusion sample. In the other 287 (79.94% papers that did not specify the anteroposterior discrepancy severity, description was considered to be crucial in 159 (55.40% of them. CONCLUSIONS: Omission in describing the occlusal severity demands a cautious interpretation of 44.29% of the papers retrieved in this study.

  7. Expression of HLA Class II Molecules in Humanized NOD.Rag1KO.IL2RgcKO Mice is Critical for Development and Function of Human T and B Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    Visualization of human immunoglobulin classes and immuno- globulin light ( kappa and lambda ) chains was carried out using IEF kits (Helena Labs, Beaumont, TX...10.1371/journal.pone.0019826.g004 HLA Class II and Humanized Mice PLoS ONE | www.plosone.org 6 May 2011 | Volume 6 | Issue 5 | e19826 light chains in...did it allow development of functional human T and B cells [11]. The generation of mice bearing a mutation in the IL2R gamma chain (IL2Rcc) was a major

  8. Signal transduction by the major histocompatibility complex class I molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Elm; Skov, S; Bregenholt, S;

    1999-01-01

    Ligation of cell surface major histocompatibility class I (MHC-I) proteins by antibodies, or by their native counter receptor, the CD8 molecule, mediates transduction of signals into the cells. MHC-I-mediated signaling can lead to both increased and decreased activity of the MHC-I-expressing cell...

  9. Condylar volume and condylar area in class I, class II and class III young adult subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Saccucci Matteo; D’Attilio Michele; Rodolfino Daria; Festa Felice; Polimeni Antonella; Tecco Simona

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Aim Aim of this study was to compare the volume and the shape of mandibular condyles in a Caucasian young adult population, with different skeletal pattern. Material and methods 200 Caucasian patients (15–30 years old, 95 male and 105 females) were classified in three groups on the base of ANB angle: skeletal class I (65 patients), skeletal class II (70 patients) and skeletal class III (65 patients). Left and right TMJs of each subject were evaluated independently with CBCT (Iluma). ...

  10. MHC class II tetramers made from isolated recombinant α and β chains refolded with affinity-tagged peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braendstrup, Peter; Justesen, Sune Frederik Lamdahl; Osterbye, Thomas;

    2013-01-01

    Targeting CD4+ T cells through their unique antigen-specific, MHC class II-restricted T cell receptor makes MHC class II tetramers an attractive strategy to identify, validate and manipulate these cells at the single cell level. Currently, generating class II tetramers is a specialized undertaking...... effectively limiting their use and emphasizing the need for improved methods of production. Using class II chains expressed individually in E. coli as versatile recombinant reagents, we have previously generated peptide-MHC class II monomers, but failed to generate functional class II tetramers. Adding...... a monomer purification principle based upon affinity-tagged peptides, we here provide a robust method to produce class II tetramers and demonstrate staining of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells. We also provide evidence that both MHC class II and T cell receptor molecules largely accept affinity-tagged peptides...

  11. 46 CFR 50.30-15 - Class II pressure vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class II pressure vessels. 50.30-15 Section 50.30-15... Fabrication Inspection § 50.30-15 Class II pressure vessels. (a) Class II pressure vessels shall be subject to... pressure vessels shall be performed during the welding of the longitudinal joint. At this time the...

  12. 49 CFR 238.317 - Class II brake test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... locomotives that utilize an electric signal to communicate a service brake application and only a pneumatic... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class II brake test. 238.317 Section 238.317... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.317 Class II brake test. (a) A Class II brake test shall...

  13. Exposing the specific roles of the invariant chain isoforms in shaping the MHC class II peptidome

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Simon eFortin; Maryse eCloutier; Jacques eThibodeau

    2013-01-01

    The peptide repertoire (peptidome) associated with MHC class II molecules (MHCIIs) is influenced by the polymorphic nature of the peptide binding groove but also by cell-intrinsic factors. The invariant chain (Ii) chaperones MHCIIs, affecting their folding and trafficking. Recent discoveries relating to Ii functions have provided insights as to how it edits the MHCII peptidome. In humans, the Ii gene encodes four different isoforms for which structure-function analyses have highlighted common...

  14. Lateral cephalometric diagnosis of asymmetry in Angle Class II subdivision compared to Class I and II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecida Fernanda Meloti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Lateral cephalometric radiographs are traditionally required for orthodontic treatment, yet rarely used to assess asymmetries. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to use lateral cephalometric radiographs to identify existing skeletal and dentoalveolar morphological alterations in Class II subdivision and to compare them with the existing morphology in Class I and II relationship. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ninety initial lateral cephalometric radiographs of male and female Brazilian children aged between 12 to 15 years old were randomly and proportionally divided into three groups: Group 1 (Class I, Group 2 (Class II and Group 3 (Class II subdivision. Analysis of lateral cephalometric radiographs included angular measurements, horizontal linear measurements and two indexes of asymmetry that were prepared for this study. RESULTS: In accordance with an Index of Dental Asymmetry (IDA, greater mandibular dental asymmetry was identified in Group 3. An Index of Mandibular Asymmetry (IMA revealed less skeletal and dental mandibular asymmetry in Group 2, greater skeletal mandibular asymmetry in Group 1, and greater mandibular dental asymmetry in Group 3. CONCLUSION: Both IDA and IMA revealed greater mandibular dental asymmetry for Group 3 in comparison to Groups 1 and 2. These results are in accordance with those found by other diagnostic methods, showing that lateral cephalometric radiography is an acceptable method to identify existing skeletal and dentoalveolar morphological alterations in malocclusions.

  15. Single molecule studies of RNA polymerase II transcription in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Abigail E; Goodrich, James A; Kugel, Jennifer F

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic mRNA transcription by RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) is the first step in gene expression and a key determinant of cellular regulation. Elucidating the mechanism by which RNAP II synthesizes RNA is therefore vital to determining how genes are controlled under diverse biological conditions. Significant advances in understanding RNAP II transcription have been achieved using classical biochemical and structural techniques; however, aspects of the transcription mechanism cannot be assessed using these approaches. The application of single-molecule techniques to study RNAP II transcription has provided new insight only obtainable by studying molecules in this complex system one at a time.

  16. The biogenesis of the MHC class II compartment in human I-cell disease B lymphoblasts

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    The localization and intracellular transport of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules nd lysosomal hydrolases were studied in I-Cell Disease (ICD) B lymphoblasts, which possess a mannose 6-phosphate (Man-6-P)-independent targeting pathway for lysosomal enzymes. In the trans-Golgi network (TGN), MHC class II- invariant chain complexes colocalized with the lysosomal hydrolase cathepsin D in buds and vesicles that lacked markers of clathrin-coated vesicle-mediated transport. ...

  17. Condylar volume and condylar area in class I, class II and class III young adult subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saccucci Matteo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim Aim of this study was to compare the volume and the shape of mandibular condyles in a Caucasian young adult population, with different skeletal pattern. Material and methods 200 Caucasian patients (15–30 years old, 95 male and 105 females were classified in three groups on the base of ANB angle: skeletal class I (65 patients, skeletal class II (70 patients and skeletal class III (65 patients. Left and right TMJs of each subject were evaluated independently with CBCT (Iluma. TMJ evaluation included: condylar volume; condylar area; morphological index (MI. Condylar volumes were calculated by using the Mimics software. The condylar volume, the area and the morphological index (MI were compared among the three groups, by using non-parametric tests. Results The Kruskal-Wallis test and the Mann Whitney test revealed that: no significant difference was observed in the whole sample between the right and the left condylar volume; subjects in skeletal class III showed a significantly higher condylar volume, respect to class I and class II subjects (p 3 in males and 663.5 ± 81.3 mm3 in females; p 2 in males and 389.76 ± 61.15 mm2 in females; p  Conclusion Skeletal class appeared to be associated to the mandibular condylar volume and to the mandibular condylar area in the Caucasian orthodontic population.

  18. Angle Class II correction with MARA appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Chiqueto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects produced by the MARA appliance in the treatment of Angle's Class II, division 1 malocclusion. METHODS: The sample consisted of 44 young patients divided into two groups: The MARA Group, with initial mean age of 11.99 years, treated with the MARA appliance for an average period of 1.11 years, and the Control Group, with initial mean age of 11.63 years, monitored for a mean period of 1.18 years with no treatment. Lateral cephalograms were used to compare the groups using cephalometric variables in the initial and final phases. For these comparisons, Student's t test was employed. RESULTS: MARA appliance produced the following effects: Maxillary growth restriction, no change in mandibular development, improvement in maxillomandibular relationship, increased lower anterior facial height and counterclockwise rotation of the functional occlusal plane. In the upper arch, the incisors moved lingually and retruded, while the molars moved distally and tipped distally. In the lower arch, the incisors proclined and protruded, whereas the molars mesialized and tipped mesially. Finally, there was a significant reduction in overbite and overjet, with an obvious improvement in molar relationship. CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded that the MARA appliance proved effective in correcting Angle's Class II, division 1 malocclusion while inducing skeletal changes and particularly dental changes.OBJETIVO: avaliar os efeitos proporcionados pelo aparelho MARA no tratamento da má oclusão de Classe II, 1ª divisão. MÉTODOS: utilizou-se uma amostra de 44 jovens, divididos em dois grupos - Grupo MARA, com idade inicial média de 11,99 anos e tratado com o aparelho MARA por um período médio de 1,11 ano; e Grupo Controle, com idade inicial média de 11,63 ano e observado por um período médio de 1,18 ano, sem nenhum tratamento. Utilizou-se as telerradiografias em norma lateral para comparar os grupos quanto às variáveis cefalométricas das

  19. A Case of Probable MHC Class II Deficiency with Disseminated BCGitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyasin, Soheyla; Abolnezhadian, Farhad; Khoshkhui, Maryam

    2015-09-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II deficiency is a primary immunodeficiency disease characterized by abnormality of MHC class II molecules surface expression on peripheral blood lymphocytes and monocytes. Clinical manifestations include extreme susceptibility to viral, bacterial, and fungal infections but the immunodeficiency is not as severe as SCID (severe combined immunodeficiency), as evidenced by failure to develop disseminated infection after BCG vaccination. Therefore, MHC II deficiency with BCGosis, that is disseminated BCGitis, is not reported commonly. We report an interesting case of BCGosis after vaccination that was diagnosed to have probable MHC II deficiency.

  20. Preferred SLA class I/class II haplotype combinations in German Landrace pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimsa, Ulrike; Ho, Chak-Sum; Hammer, Sabine E

    2017-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules are responsible for the antigen presentation to T lymphocytes. High recombination rates in the MHC genes, as observed in humans, are believed to serve the evolutionary goal to achieve a high genetic diversity, allowing for a broad and efficient immune response. In a cohort of 155 pedigreed German Landrace pigs (65 founders and 90 piglets), we found that MHC genes occur in particular class I and class II haplotype combinations. This phenomenon has not been described before, probably because most of the earlier MHC studies in pigs were not pedigree-based. After comparing our data with published genotypes of different European pig breeds and Asian pigs, we hypothesise that the combination of particular but different haplotypes in different geographical regions may have developed under the evolutionary pressure of regionally endemic pathogens. This proposed mechanism ensures an efficient immune response despite low recombination rates.

  1. Early Intervention in Skeletal Class II and dental Class II division I malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Iqbal Bhat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A Class II malocclusion may occur as a result of mandibular deficiency, maxillary excess, or a combination of both. However, the most common finding is mandibular skeletal retrusion. The use of functional jaw orthopedics, at the right time during growth, can ultimately result in malocclusion patients achieving an excellent functional occlusion, a broad beautiful smile, a full face with a beautiful jaw line, and profile. Functional jaw orthopedic (FJO appliances are designed to encourage adaptive skeletal growth by maintaining the mandible in a corrected forward position. The activator developed by Andresen is one of the most widely used for this purpose. A 12-year-old boy with skeletal Class II malocclusion and dental Class II div I malocclusion, a low mandibular plane angle was treated with growth modulation using an activator followed by molar distalization using fixed orthodontics for detailing of the occlusion. The major effects of the activator treatment in this case have been due to increase in condylar growth and also an increase in mandibular base length. Further, non-extraction fixed orthodontic treatment for proper interdigitation of the dentition also helped to maintain the stability of the satisfactory results achieved.

  2. Major histocompatibility class I molecules present Urtica dioica agglutinin, a superantigen of vegetal origin, to T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovira, P; Buckle, M; Abastado, J P; Peumans, W J; Truffa-Bachi, P

    1999-05-01

    The Urtica dioica agglutinin (UDA) shares with the superantigens the property of activating T cell subsets bearing particular Vbeta segments of the TCR. However, UDA is a lectin capable of binding to many glycoproteins on cell membranes. The implication of MHC versus other glycoproteins in UDA presentation was presently studied. Using mutant mice lacking MHC class I (MHC-I), MHC class II (MHC-II) or both MHC antigens, we provided evidence that MHC-I and MHC-II molecules serve as UDA receptors. Presentation by either one of these molecules ensured similar T cell responses and co-stimulatory signals were mandatory for optimal T cell activation and proliferation both in MHC-I and MHC-II contexts. Remarkably, in the absence of MHC molecules, UDA could not be efficiently presented to T cells by other glycosylated proteins. Surface plasmon resonance studies were used to confirm the binding of UDA to MHC-I molecules using a fusion protein consisting of MHC-I domains and beta2-microglobulin. The results indicated that the interaction between UDA and MHC-I molecules implicated lectin-binding site(s) of UDA. Taken together, our data demonstrate that, in addition to MHC-II antigens, MHC-I molecules serve as an alternative ligand for UDA.

  3. 25 CFR 522.10 - Individually owned class II and class III gaming operations other than those operating on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Individually owned class II and class III gaming... GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR APPROVAL OF CLASS II AND CLASS III ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS SUBMISSION OF GAMING ORDINANCE OR RESOLUTION § 522.10 Individually owned class II and class...

  4. HLA Class I and Class II Associations with ESRD in Saudi Arabian Population

    OpenAIRE

    Nuha Mahmoud Hamdi; Fadel Hassan Al-Hababi; Amr Ekhlas Eid

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic renal failure (CRF) leads in the majority of instances to end stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring renal replacement therapy. Our interest was to evaluate the possible associations of HLA class I and class II antigens with ESRD independent of other factors, in Saudi Arabia population. METHODOLOGY: A retrospective study to determine the HLA class I and class II polymorphisms and their association with ESRD, was performed on 350 patients with ESRD, and 105 healthy unrelated ...

  5. Class II correction prior to orthodontics with the carriere distalizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Class II correction is a challenge in orthodontics with many existing devices being complex, too compliance-driven, or too prone to breakage. The Carriere Distalizer allows for straightforward Class II correction prior to orthodontics (fixed or clear aligners) at a time when no other mechanics interfere, and compliance is at its best.

  6. Dentofacial characteristics of patients with Angle Class I and Class II malocclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Lacerda dos Santos

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study assessed some cephalometric measurements of the soft tissue profile in order to observe the behavior of facial convexity in patients with Class I, Class II division 1, and Class II division 2 malocclusions. METHODS: One hundred and thirty pre-treatment teleradiographs of Caucasian patients aged 10-16 years (mean age of 12.6 years were selected for study and divided into 3 groups. The cephalometric measurements used in the present study were the following: H.SN, Cx, NLA, MLA, UL-SUL-S, LL-S, IMPA, and 1-SN. Analysis of variance and Tukey's test were applied for measurements H.SN, Cx, IMPA, 1-SN, MLA, and NLA, whereas Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests were applied for UL-S and LL-S. RESULTS: The results showed statistically significant differences for the measurements H.SN, Cx, UL-S, and IMPA between Groups I, II-1 and II-2 (p < 0.05. Measurements LL-S and MLA showed statistically significant difference between Groups I and II-1 only (p < 0.05. On the other hand, no statistically significant differences were found for measurement NLA among the 3 groups (p < 0.05. CONCLUSION: Regarding facial characteristics expressed by measurements H.SN, Cx, and UL-S, one could conclude that Class II division 1 and Class II division 2 malocclusions, both differed from Class I malocclusion. In addition, Class II division 1 malocclusion was found to have facial characteristics expressed by MLA, which differentiate it from the Class II division 2 and Class 1 malocclusions. Class I, Class II division 1 and Class II division 2 malocclusions showed no difference in facial characteristics expressed by the measurement NLA, and measurement LL-S was directly related to eversion of the lower lip.

  7. MHC class I molecules are enriched in caveolae but do not enter with simian virus 40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, H A; Chen, Y; Norkin, L C

    1998-06-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) binds to MHC class I molecules anywhere on the cell surface and then enters through caveolae. The fate of class I molecules after SV40 binding is not known. Sensitivity of 125I-surface-labelled class I molecules to papain cleavage was used to distinguish internalized class I molecules from class I molecules remaining at the cell surface. Whereas the caveolae-enriched membrane microdomain was found to also be enriched for class I molecules, no internalized papain-resistant 125I-surface-labelled class I molecules could be detected at any time in either control cells or in cells preadsorbed with saturating amounts of SV40. Instead, 125I-surface-labelled class I molecules, as well as preadsorbed 125I-labelled anti-class I antibodies, accumulated in the medium, coincident with the turnover of class I molecules at the cell surface. The class I heavy chains that accumulated in the medium were truncated and their release was specifically prevented by the metalloprotease inhibitor 1,10-phenanthroline. Thus, whereas class I molecules mediate SV40 binding, they do not appear to mediate SV40 entry.

  8. Immunogenicity of HLA Class I and II Double Restricted Influenza A-Derived Peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sara Ram; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Buus, Søren;

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify influenza A-derived peptides which bind to both HLA class I and -II molecules and by immunization lead to both HLA class I and class II restricted immune responses. Eight influenza A-derived 9-11mer peptides with simultaneous binding to both HLA-A*02......:01 and HLA-DRB1*01:01 molecules were identified by bioinformatics and biochemical technology. Immunization of transgenic HLA-A*02:01/HLA-DRB1*01:01 mice with four of these double binding peptides gave rise to both HLA class I and class II restricted responses by CD8 and CD4 T cells, respectively, whereas...... with this, peptide vaccination did not decrease virus titres in the lungs of intranasally influenza challenged mice. Our data show that HLA class I and class II double binding peptides can be identified by bioinformatics and biochemical technology. By immunization, double binding peptides can give rise...

  9. Archform comparisons between skeletal class II and III malocclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Wei; Wu, JiaQi; Jiang, JiuHui; Xu, TianMin; Li, CuiYing

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional research was to explore the relationship of the mandibular dental and basal bone archforms between severe Skeletal Class II (SC2) and Skeletal Class III (SC3) malocclusions. We also compared intercanine and intermolar widths in these two malocclusion types. Thirty-three virtual pretreatment mandibular models (Skeletal Class III group) and Thirty-five Skeletal Class II group pretreatment models were created with a laser scanning system. FA (the midpoint of the facial axis of the clinical crown)and WALA points (the most prominent point on the soft-tissue ridge)were employed to produce dental and basal bone archforms, respectively. Gained scatter diagrams of the samples were processed by nonlinear regression analysis via SPSS 17.0. The mandibular dental and basal bone intercanine and intermolar widths were significantly greater in the Skeletal Class III group compared to the Skeletal Class II group. In both groups, a moderate correlation existed between dental and basal bone arch widths in the canine region, and a high correlation existed between dental and basal bone arch widths in the molar region. The coefficient of correlation of the Skeletal Class III group was greater than the Skeletal Class II group. Fourth degree, even order power functions were used as best-fit functions to fit the scatter plots. The radius of curvature was larger in Skeletal Class III malocclusions compared to Skeletal Class II malocclusions (rWALA3>rWALA2>rFA3>rFA2). In conclusion, mandibular dental and basal intercanine and intermolar widths were significantly different between the two groups. Compared with Skeletal Class II subjects, the mandibular archform was more flat for Skeletal Class III subjects.

  10. The simple class II and class III corrector: three case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spary, David John; Little, Rachel Ann

    2015-03-01

    This article illustrates three case reports which describe a very simple appliance that is used to correct both class II and class III buccal segments. A class I molar relationship is achieved within 2-6 months. Hundreds of cases have been treated with these appliances over a number of years at Queen's Hospital, Burton upon Trent with great success.

  11. Peptide Binding to HLA Class I Molecules: Homogenous, High-Throughput Screening, and Affinity Assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harndahl, Mikkel; Justesen, Sune Frederik Lamdahl; Lamberth, Kasper;

    2009-01-01

    present a homogenous, proximity-based assay for detection of peptide binding to HLA class I molecules. It uses a conformation-dependent anti-HLA class I antibody, W6/32, as one tag and a biotinylated recombinant HLA class I molecule as the other tag, and a proximity-based signal is generated through...

  12. Composition of MHC class II-enriched lipid microdomains is modified during maturation of primary dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setterblad, Niclas; Roucard, Corinne; Bocaccio, Claire; Abastado, Jean-Pierre; Charron, Dominique; Mooney, Nuala

    2003-07-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most potent antigen presenting cells. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecule expression changes with maturation; immature DCs concentrate MHC class II molecules intracellularly, whereas maturation increases surface expression of MHC class II and costimulatory molecules to optimize antigen presentation. Signal transduction via MHC class II molecules localized in lipid microdomains has been described in B lymphocytes and in the THP-1 monocyte cell line. We have characterized MHC class II molecules throughout human DC maturation with particular attention to their localization in lipid-rich microdomains. Only immature DCs expressed empty MHC class II molecules, and maturation increased the level of peptide-bound heterodimers. Ligand binding to surface human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR induced rapid internalization in immature DCs. The proportion of cell-surface detergent-insoluble glycosphingolipid-enriched microdomain-clustered HLA-DR was higher in immature DCs despite the higher surface expression of HLA-DR in mature DCs. Constituents of HLA-DR containing microdomains included the src kinase Lyn and the cytoskeletal protein tubulin in immature DCs. Maturation modified the composition of the HLA-DR-containing microdomains to include protein kinase C (PKC)-delta, Lyn, and the cytoskeletal protein actin, accompanied by the loss of tubulin. Signaling via HLA-DR redistributed HLA-DR and -DM and PKC-delta as well as enriching the actin content of mature DC microdomains. The increased expression of HLA-DR as a result of DC maturation was therefore accompanied by modification of the spatial organization of HLA-DR. Such regulation could contribute to the distinct responses induced by ligand binding to MHC class II molecules in immature versus mature DCs.

  13. Class II barodontalgia: review and report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodmansey, Karl

    2008-01-01

    Barodontalgia is a rarely reported condition involving changes in ambient pressure resulting in tooth pain. According to Ferjentsik and Aker, Class II barodontalgia is observed in teeth that have pre-existing pulpal disease and an ultimate diagnosis of irreversible pulpitis.1 This article describes a case of Class II barodontalgia that was experienced on a commercial airline flight and reviews current knowledge regarding this phenomenon, including proposed etiologic mechanisms.

  14. The CLASS blazar survey - II. Optical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caccianiga, A; Marcha, MJ; Anton, S; Mack, KH; Neeser, MJ

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the optical properties of the objects selected in the CLASS blazar survey. Because an optical spectrum is now available for 70 per cent of the 325 sources present in the sample, a spectral classification, based on the appearance of the emission/absorption lines, is possible. A wi

  15. Direct Activation of Human Dendritic Cells by Particle-Bound but Not Soluble MHC Class II Ligand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.B. Baleeiro (Renato); K.H. Wiesmüller (Karl Heinz); L. Dähne (Lars); J. Lademann (Jürgen); J.A. Barbuto (José); P. Walden (Peter)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractDendritic cells (DCs) are key activators of cellular immune responses through their capacity to induce naïve T cells and sustained effector T cell responses. This capacity is a function of their superior efficiency of antigen presentation via MHC class I and class II molecules, and the e

  16. The P9 pocket of HLA-DQ2 (non-Aspbeta57) has no particular preference for negatively charged anchor residues found in other type 1 diabetes-predisposing non-Aspbeta57 MHC class II molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quarsten, H; Paulsen, G; Johansen, B H;

    1998-01-01

    residues at P9 and that there is no particular preference for binding peptides with negatively charged residues at this position. The specificity of the P9 pocket in the mutated DQ molecule is altered, indicating that the beta57 residue contributes to determining the specificity of the P9 pocket. Our data...... anchor residues. We have investigated the specificity of the P9 pocket of the type 1 diabetes-associated DQ2 molecule and in particular examined for charge effects at this anchor position. Different approaches were undertaken. We analyzed binding of a high-affinity binding ligand and P9-substituted...... variants of this peptide, and we analyzed the binding of a set of synthetic random peptide libraries. The binding analyses were performed with wild-type DQ2 and a mutated DQ2 with Ala at beta57 substituted with Asp. Our results indicate that the wild-type DQ2 (non-Aspbeta57) prefers large hydrophobic...

  17. An Investigation of Craniocervical Posture in Class II & Class III Skeletal Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. HoseinZadeh-Nik

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Craniocervical Posture is a factor in the development and function of Craniofacial Structure. Previous studies of different samples have demonstrated associations between craniocervical posture and craniofacial morphology.Purpose: This study aimed lo examine whether any significant association is evident or not between craniocervical posture and the occurrence of Class il & Class III skeletal malocclusions.Materials and Methods: A sample of 76 subjects with Class II & Class III skeletal malocclusion aged 9-i 1 and>18 years were selected. None of them had received orthodontic treatment. Lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken in natural head position (NHP, and craniocervical and craniohorizental angels were traced and determined for analysis of craniocervical posture. Results: According to the craniocervical posture, most class II skeletal patients have flexed heads and class MI skeletal patients have extended heads, as a result malocclusion in these patients seems to become more severe. With increase in age. class II skeletal patients have more flexed their heads and malocclusion become more severe, while with increase in age in class ill skeletal patients, their heads become extended and once again malocclusion thought lo be more severe. In class II skeletal patients, craniocervical posture has a significant correlation with the vertical growth pattern, but shows little correlation with the horizontal growth pattern. In class 111 skeletal patients, craniocervical posture shows no correlation to any of the vertical & horizontal growth patterns, of course the mean of vertical angles is less in these patients and probably in order to make these relation significant in Class III skeletal patients there is need for more samples, in class II & class III skeletal patients, the amount of Na.prep-point A and pog-Na.prep with craniocervical posture shows a significant correlation. Conclusion: Consideration of craniocervical

  18. MHC Class II epitope predictive algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten; Lund, Ole; Buus, S

    2010-01-01

    reasonably accurate predictions for alleles that were not included in the training data. These methods can be used to define supertypes (clusters) of MHC-II alleles where alleles within each supertype have similar binding specificities. Furthermore, the pan-specific methods have been used to make a graphical...

  19. Selective export of MHC class I molecules from the ER after their dissociation from TAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiliotis, E T; Manley, H; Osorio, M; Zúñiga, M C; Edidin, M

    2000-12-01

    It has been assumed that upon dissociation from TAP, MHC class I molecules exit the ER by nonselective bulk flow. We now show that exit must occur by association with cargo receptors. Inconsistent with exit by bulk flow, loading of MHC class I molecules with high-affinity peptides triggers dissociation from TAP but has no effect on rates of ER-to-Golgi transport. Moreover, peptide-loaded MHC class I molecules accumulate at ER exit sites from which TAP molecules are excluded. Consistent with receptor-mediated exit, ER-to-Golgi transport of MHC class I molecules is independent of their cytoplasmic tails, which themselves lack ER export motifs. In addition, we show that MHC class I molecules associate with the putative cargo receptor BAP31.

  20. Identification of MHC class II restricted T-cell-mediated reactivity against MHC class I binding Mycobacterium tuberculosis peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingjun; Tang, Sheila T; Stryhn, Anette; Justesen, Sune; Larsen, Mette V; Dziegiel, Morten H; Lewinsohn, David M; Buus, Søren; Lund, Ole; Claesson, Mogens H

    2011-04-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are known to play an important role in the control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection so identification of CTL epitopes from M. tuberculosis is of importance for the development of effective peptide-based vaccines. In the present work, bioinformatics technology was employed to predict binding motifs of 9mer peptides derived from M. tuberculosis for the 12 HLA-I supertypes. Subsequently, the predicted peptides were synthesized and assayed for binding to HLA-I molecules in a biochemically based system. The antigenicity of a total of 157 peptides with measured affinity for HLA-I molecules of K(D) ≤ 500 nM were evaluated using peripheral blood T cells from strongly purified protein derivative reactive healthy donors. Of the 157 peptides, eight peptides (5%) were found to induce T-cell responses. As judged from blocking with HLA class I and II subtype antibodies in the ELISPOT assay culture, none of the eight antigenic peptides induced HLA class I restricted CD8(+) T-cell responses. Instead all responses were blocked by pan-HLA class II and anti-HLA-DR antibodies. In addition, CD4(+) T-cell depletion before the 10 days of expansion, resulted in total loss of reactivity in the ELISPOT culture for most peptide specificities. FACS analyses with intracellular interferon-γ staining of T cells expanded in the presence of M. tuberculosis peptides confirmed that the responsive cells were indeed CD4(+). In conclusion, T-cell immunity against HLA-I binding 9mer M. tuberculosis-derived peptides might in many cases turn out to be mediated by CD4(+) T cells and restricted by HLA-II molecules. The use of 9mer peptides recognized by both CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells might be of importance for the development of future M. tuberculosis peptide-based vaccines.

  1. DNA polymorphism of HLA class II genes in alopecia areata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morling, N; Frentz, G; Fugger, L;

    1992-01-01

    of the serologically defined HLA-DQw7 specificity. Individuals who carried both DQA1*0501 and DQB1*0301 seemed to have a further increased risk of developing AA compared to individuals carrying only one of these HLA class II genes. Analysis of the combined presence of DQB1*0301 and DPA1*0103 in AA suggests......We investigated the DNA restriction polymorphism (RFLP) of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class II genes: HLA-DQA, -DQB, -DPA, and -DPB in 20 Danish patients with alopecia areata (AA) and in healthy Danes. The frequency in AA of the DQB1*0301 and DQw7 associated DQB Bgl/II 4.2 kb...... that an additive risk effect (synergism or interaction) exists between the DQB1*0301 and DPA1*0103 alleles which are situated at different HLA class II loci....

  2. Bap31 enhances the endoplasmic reticulum export and quality control of human class I MHC molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladasky, John J; Boyle, Sarah; Seth, Malini; Li, Hewang; Pentcheva, Tsvetelina; Abe, Fumiyoshi; Steinberg, Steven J; Edidin, Michael

    2006-11-01

    The assembly of class I MHC molecules and their export from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is governed by chaperones and accessory proteins. We present evidence that the putative cargo receptor protein Bap31 participates in the transport and the quality control of human class I molecules. Transfection of the human adenocarcinoma cell line HeLa with yellow fluorescent protein-Bap31 chimeras increased surface levels of class I in a dose-dependent manner, by as much as 3.7-fold. The increase in surface class I resulted from an increase in the rate of export of newly synthesized class I molecules to the cell surface and from an increase in the stability of the exported molecules. We propose that Bap31 performs quality control on class I molecules in two distinct phases: first, by exporting peptide-loaded class I molecules to the ER/Golgi intermediate compartment, and second, by retrieving class I molecules that have lost peptides in the acidic post-ER environment. This function of Bap31 is conditional or redundant, because we find that Bap31 deficiency does not reduce surface class I levels. Overexpression of the Bap31 homolog, Bap29, decreases surface class levels in HeLa, indicating that it does not substitute for Bap31.

  3. MHC class II polymorphisms, autoreactive T-cells and autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue eTsai

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Major histocompatibility complex (MHC genes, also known as human leukocyte antigen genes (HLA in humans, are the prevailing contributors of genetic susceptibility to autoimmune diseases such as Type 1 Diabetes (T1D, Multiple Sclerosis (MS, and Rheumatoid arthritis (RA, among others (Todd and Wicker, 2001;MacKay et al., 2002;Hafler et al., 2007. Although the pathways through which MHC molecules afford autoimmune risk or resistance remain to be fully mapped out, it is generally accepted that they do so by shaping the central and peripheral T cell repertoires of the host towards autoimmune proclivity or resistance, respectively. Disease-predisposing MHC alleles would both spare autoreactive thymocytes from central tolerance and bias their development towards a pathogenic phenotype. Protective MHC alleles, on the other hand, would promote central deletion of autoreactive thymocytes and skew their development towards non-pathogenic phenotypes. This interpretation of the data is at odds with two other observations: that in MHC-heterozygous individuals, resistance is dominant over susceptibility; and that it is difficult to understand how deletion of one or a few clonal autoreactive T cell types would suffice to curb autoimmune responses driven by hundreds if not thousands of autoreactive T cell specificities. This review provides an update on current advances in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying MHC class II-associated autoimmune disease susceptibility and/or resistance and attempts to reconcile these seemingly opposing concepts.

  4. Exposing the specific roles of the invariant chain isoforms in shaping the MHC class II peptidome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Simon eFortin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The peptide repertoire (peptidome associated with MHC class II molecules (MHCIIs is influenced by the polymorphic nature of the peptide binding groove but also by cell-intrinsic factors. The invariant chain (Ii chaperones MHCIIs, affecting their folding and trafficking. Recent discoveries relating to Ii functions have provided insights as to how it edits the MHCII peptidome. In humans, the Ii gene encodes four different isoforms for which structure-function analyses have highlighted common properties but also some non-redundant roles. Another layer of complexity arises from the fact that Ii heterotrimerizes, a characteristic that has the potential to affect the maturation of associated MHCIIs in many different ways, depending on the isoform combinations. Here, we emphasize the peptide editing properties of Ii and discuss the impact of the various isoforms on the MHCII peptidome.

  5. Exposing the Specific Roles of the Invariant Chain Isoforms in Shaping the MHC Class II Peptidome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Jean-Simon; Cloutier, Maryse; Thibodeau, Jacques

    2013-12-13

    The peptide repertoire (peptidome) associated with MHC class II molecules (MHCIIs) is influenced by the polymorphic nature of the peptide binding groove but also by cell-intrinsic factors. The invariant chain (Ii) chaperones MHCIIs, affecting their folding and trafficking. Recent discoveries relating to Ii functions have provided insights as to how it edits the MHCII peptidome. In humans, the Ii gene encodes four different isoforms for which structure-function analyses have highlighted common properties but also some non-redundant roles. Another layer of complexity arises from the fact that Ii heterotrimerizes, a characteristic that has the potential to affect the maturation of associated MHCIIs in many different ways, depending on the isoform combinations. Here, we emphasize the peptide editing properties of Ii and discuss the impact of the various isoforms on the MHCII peptidome.

  6. HLA class II genes: typing by DNA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, J L; Bidwell, E A; Bradley, B A

    1990-04-01

    A detailed understanding of the structure and function of the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) has ensued from studies by molecular biologist during the last decade. Virtually all of the HLA genes have now been cloned, and the nucleotide sequences of their different allelic forms have been determined. Typing for these HLA alleles is a fundamental prerequisite for tissue matching in allogeneic organ transplantation. Until very recently, typing procedures have been dominated by serological and cellular methods. The availability of cloned DNA from HLA genes has now permitted the technique of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis to be applied, with remarkable success and advantage, to phenotyping of both HLA Class I and Class II determinants. For the HLA Class II genes DR and DQ, a simple two-stage RFLP analysis permits the accurate identification of all specificities defined by serology, and of many which are defined by cellular typing. At the present time, however, RFLP typing of HLA Class I genes is not as practicable or as informative as that for HLA Class II genes. The present clinical applications of HLA-DR and DQ RFLP typing are predominantly in phenotyping of living donors, including selection of HLA-matched volunteer bone marrow donors, in allograft survival studies, and in studies of HLA Class II-associated diseases. However, the time taken to perform RFLP analysis precludes its use for the typing of cadaveric kidney donors. Nucleotide sequence data for the alleles of HLA Class II genes have now permitted the development of allele-specific oligonucleotide (ASO) typing, a second category of DNA analysis. This has been greatly facilitated by the ability to amplify specific HLA Class II DNA 'target' sequences using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. The accuracy of DNA typing techniques should ensure that this methodology will eventually replace conventional HLA phenotyping.

  7. NN-align. An artificial neural network-based alignment algorithm for MHC class II peptide binding prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lund Ole

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The major histocompatibility complex (MHC molecule plays a central role in controlling the adaptive immune response to infections. MHC class I molecules present peptides derived from intracellular proteins to cytotoxic T cells, whereas MHC class II molecules stimulate cellular and humoral immunity through presentation of extracellularly derived peptides to helper T cells. Identification of which peptides will bind a given MHC molecule is thus of great importance for the understanding of host-pathogen interactions, and large efforts have been placed in developing algorithms capable of predicting this binding event. Results Here, we present a novel artificial neural network-based method, NN-align that allows for simultaneous identification of the MHC class II binding core and binding affinity. NN-align is trained using a novel training algorithm that allows for correction of bias in the training data due to redundant binding core representation. Incorporation of information about the residues flanking the peptide-binding core is shown to significantly improve the prediction accuracy. The method is evaluated on a large-scale benchmark consisting of six independent data sets covering 14 human MHC class II alleles, and is demonstrated to outperform other state-of-the-art MHC class II prediction methods. Conclusion The NN-align method is competitive with the state-of-the-art MHC class II peptide binding prediction algorithms. The method is publicly available at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/NetMHCII-2.0.

  8. Identification of MHC class II restricted T‐cell‐mediated reactivity against MHC class I binding Mycobacterium tuberculosis peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Mingjun; Tang, Sheila Tuyet; Stryhn, Anette;

    2011-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are known to play an important role in the control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection so identification of CTL epitopes from M. tuberculosis is of importance for the development of effective peptide...... blocking with HLA class I and II subtype antibodies in the ELISPOT assay culture, none of the eight antigenic peptides induced HLA class I restricted CD8+ T‐cell responses. Instead all responses were blocked by pan‐HLA class II and anti‐HLA‐DR antibodies. In addition, CD4+ T‐cell depletion before the 10......‐cell immunity against HLA‐I binding 9mer M. tuberculosis‐derived peptides might in many cases turn out to be mediated by CD4+ T cells and restricted by HLA‐II molecules. The use of 9mer peptides recognized by both CD8+ and CD4+ T cells might be of importance for the development of future M. tuberculosis peptide...

  9. Electron transmission through a class of anthracene aldehyde molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petreska, Irina; Ohanesjan, Vladimir; Pejov, Ljupco; Kocarev, Ljupco

    2016-03-01

    Transmission of electrons via metal-molecule-metal junctions, involving rotor-stator anthracene aldehyde molecules is investigated. Two model barriers having input parameters evaluated from accurate ab initio calculations are proposed and the transmission coefficients are obtained by using the quasiclassical approximation. Transmission coefficients further enter in the integral for the net current, utilizing Simmons' method. Conformational dependence of the tunneling processes is evident and the presence of the side groups enhances the functionality of the future single-molecule based electronic devices.

  10. Class II malocclusion therapy using fixed orthodontic appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Škufca Bojan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Depending on the indication, and the age of a patient, class II division I malocclusion can be treated by a fixed or mobile orthodontic appliance, with or without teeth extraction. Case report. A treatment of a male patient, 15 years old, with dentoalveolar class II division I was described. On the base of clinical findings, study case analysis, analysis of orthopan and profile cephalogram, there were class II division I with protrusion of frontal teeth and mild crowding in lower jaw assessed. The patient was treated by fixed orthodontics appliances (SWA Roth .022" in both jaws for 18 months, with the retention period of the same length. Conclusion. Fixed ortodontic appliances are necessary when bodily movement of the teeth is indicated - in this case for cuspids distalization and retraction of incisors.

  11. Contact sensitizers specifically increase MHC class II expression on murine immature dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herouet, C; Cottin, M; LeClaire, J; Enk, A; Rousset, F

    2000-01-01

    Contact sensitivity is a T-cell-mediated immune disease that can occur when low-molecular-weight chemicals penetrate the skin. In vivo topical application of chemical sensitizers results in morphological modification of Langerhans cells (LC). Moreover, within 18 h, LC increase their major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigens expression and migrate to lymph nodes where they present the sensitizer to T lymphocytes. We wanted to determine if such an effect could also be observed in vitro. However, because of the high genetic diversity encountered in humans, assays were performed with dendritic cells (DC) obtained from a Balb/c mouse strain. The capacity of a strong sensitizer, DNBS (2,4-dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid), to modulate the phenotype of bone marrow-derived DC in vitro, was investigated. A specific and marked increase of MHC class II molecules expression was observed within 18 h. To eliminate the use of animals in sensitization studies, the XS52 DC line was tested at an immature stage. A 30-min contact with the strong sensitizers DNBS and oxazolone, or the moderate mercaptobenzothiazole, resulted in upregulation of MHC class II molecules expression, analyzed after 18-h incubation. This effect was not observed with irritants (dimethyl sulfoxide and sodium lauryl sulfate) nor with a neutral molecule (sodium chloride). These data suggested the possibility of developing an in vitro model for the identification of the sensitizing potential of chemicals, using a constant and non animal-consuming material.

  12. Mutations in the HLA class II genes leading to loss of expression of HLA-DR and HLA-DQ in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jordanova, ES; Philippo, K; Giphart, MJ; Schuuring, E; Kluin, PM

    2003-01-01

    Loss of expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II molecules on tumor cells affects the onset and modulation of the immune response through lack of activation of CD4(+) T lymphocytes. Previously, we showed that the frequent loss of expression of HLA class II in diffuse large B-cell lymphom

  13. Effects of CIITA antisense RNA on the expression of HLA classmolecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    To study the effect of the major histocompatibility complex class Ⅱ (MHCⅡ) transactivator (CIITA) antisense RNA on the expression of the human leukemia (HLA) classmolecules, 5′ end cDNA sequence of CIITA gene was cloned, and antisense RNA expression vector pcDNA-Ⅱ was constructed. HeLa cells transfected with pcDNA-Ⅱ and pcDNA3 were induced by IFN-g for 3 d. The expression of HLA classmolecules on HeLa/pcDNA-Ⅱ cells was significantly decreased, while it has no effect on the expression of HLA classmolecules. This result suggests that the CIITA antisense RNA can inhibit the expression of HLA classmolecules in HeLa cells. It also implies a promising approach to generate immune tolerance in graft transplantation.

  14. Linear trinuclear cobalt(II) single molecule magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan-Zhu; Brown, Andrew J; Meng, Yin-Shan; Sun, Hao-Ling; Gao, Song

    2015-02-14

    The introduction of NaBPh(4) into a methanolic solution of CoCl(2)·(6)H(2)O and 2-[(pyridine-2-ylimine)-methyl]phenol (Hpymp) afforded {[Co(II)(3)(pymp)(4)(MeOH)(2)][BPh(4)](2)}·(2)MeOH (1) with a centro-symmetrically linear trinuclear structure. Magnetic analysis of 1 exhibited significant intracluster ferromagnetic exchange (2.4 cm(-1)) and slow relaxation of magnetization in both zero and non-zero static fields below 5 K, giving the first [Co(II)(3)] single molecule magnet with an effective energy barrier of 17.2(3) cm(-1) under a 500 Oe dc field.

  15. Cellular peptide composition governed by major histocompatibility complex class I molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, K; Rötzschke, O; Rammensee, H G

    1990-11-15

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules present peptides derived from cellular proteins to cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), which check these peptides for abnormal features. How such peptides arise in the cell is not known. Here we show that the MHC molecules themselves are substantially involved in determining which peptides occur intracellularly: normal mouse spleen cells identical at all genes but MHC class I express different patterns of peptides derived from cellular non-MHC proteins. We suggest several models to explain this influence of MHC class I molecules on cellular peptide composition.

  16. A new class of pluripotent stem cell cytotoxic small molecules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Richards

    Full Text Available A major concern in Pluripotent Stem Cell (PSC-derived cell replacement therapy is the risk of teratoma formation from contaminating undifferentiated cells. Removal of undifferentiated cells from differentiated cultures is an essential step before PSC-based cell therapies can be safely deployed in a clinical setting. We report a group of novel small molecules that are cytotoxic to PSCs. Our data indicates that these molecules are specific and potent in their activity allowing rapid eradication of undifferentiated cells. Experiments utilizing mixed PSC and primary human neuronal and cardiomyocyte cultures demonstrate that up to a 6-fold enrichment for specialized cells can be obtained without adversely affecting cell viability and function. Several structural variants were synthesized to identify key functional groups and to improve specificity and efficacy. Comparative microarray analysis and ensuing RNA knockdown studies revealed involvement of the PERK/ATF4/DDIT3 ER stress pathway. Surprisingly, cell death following ER stress induction was associated with a concomitant decrease in endogenous ROS levels in PSCs. Undifferentiated cells treated with these molecules preceding transplantation fail to form teratomas in SCID mice. Furthermore, these molecules remain non-toxic and non-teratogenic to zebrafish embryos suggesting that they may be safely used in vivo.

  17. Class II malocclusion nonextraction treatment with growth control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilda Lúcia Valentim Assunção

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports a case of Angle Class II malocclusion treatment of a male growing patient with 10-mm overjet, excessive overbite and transverse maxillary deficiency. The case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO, with DI equal to or greater than 10, as a requirement for the title of certified by the BBO.

  18. Sculpting MHC class II-restricted self and non-self peptidome by the class I Ag-processing machinery and its impact on Th-cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Charles T; Dragovic, Srdjan M; Conant, Stephanie B; Gray, Jennifer J; Zheng, Mu; Samir, Parimal; Niu, Xinnan; Moutaftsi, Magdalini; Van Kaer, Luc; Sette, Alessandro; Link, Andrew J; Joyce, Sebastian

    2013-05-01

    It is generally assumed that the MHC class I antigen (Ag)-processing (CAP) machinery - which supplies peptides for presentation by class I molecules - plays no role in class II-restricted presentation of cytoplasmic Ags. In striking contrast to this assumption, we previously reported that proteasome inhibition, TAP deficiency or ERAAP deficiency led to dramatically altered T helper (Th)-cell responses to allograft (HY) and microbial (Listeria monocytogenes) Ags. Herein, we tested whether altered Ag processing and presentation, altered CD4(+) T-cell repertoire, or both underlay the above finding. We found that TAP deficiency and ERAAP deficiency dramatically altered the quality of class II-associated self peptides suggesting that the CAP machinery impacts class II-restricted Ag processing and presentation. Consistent with altered self peptidomes, the CD4(+) T-cell receptor repertoire of mice deficient in the CAP machinery substantially differed from that of WT animals resulting in altered CD4(+) T-cell Ag recognition patterns. These data suggest that TAP and ERAAP sculpt the class II-restricted peptidome, impacting the CD4(+) T-cell repertoire, and ultimately altering Th-cell responses. Together with our previous findings, these data suggest multiple CAP machinery components sequester or degrade MHC class II-restricted epitopes that would otherwise be capable of eliciting functional Th-cell responses.

  19. Treatment of Class II Division 1 Malocclusion using Cervical Headgear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priska Lestari Hendrawan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Class II division 1 malocclusions have many variation and treatment options. Choosing the right treatment begins with a correct diagnosis. The aim of this article is to describe treatment of Class II division 1 malocclusion in a growing patient using combined cervical headgear and non-extraction fixed orthodontic therapy. Class I molar and canine relationship was achieved with normal overbite and overjet. There is improvement in jaw relationship and facial profile. This correction was achieved by downward displacement and inhibition of the forward growth of maxilla with favorable growth of mandible, upper molar distalization and retraction of upper incisors from cervical headgear use. There was neither downward rotation of the mandible nor maxillary first molar extrusion. Treatment time, favorable mandibular growth pattern and patient compliance proved to be determining factors in the success of this treatment.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v16i3.106

  20. Bap31 enhances the ER export and quality control of human class I MHC molecules

    OpenAIRE

    Ladasky, John J.; Boyle, Sarah; Seth, Malini; Li, Hewang; Pentcheva, Tsvetelina; ABE, FUMIYOSHI; Steinberg, Steven J.; Edidin, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The assembly of class I MHC molecules and their export from the endoplasmic reticulum is governed by chaperones and accessory proteins. We present evidence that the putative cargo receptor protein Bap31 participates in the transport and the quality control of human class I molecules. Transfection of the human adenocarcinoma cell line HeLa with YFP-Bap31 chimeras increased surface levels of class I in a dose-dependent manner, by as much as 3.7-fold. The increase in surface class I resulted fro...

  1. NN-align. An artificial neural network-based alignment algorithm for MHC class II peptide binding prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten; Lund, Ole

    2009-01-01

    through presentation of extracellularly derived peptides to helper T cells. Identification of which peptides will bind a given MHC molecule is thus of great importance for the understanding of host-pathogen interactions, and large efforts have been placed in developing algorithms capable of predicting...... this binding event. RESULTS: Here, we present a novel artificial neural network-based method, NN-align that allows for simultaneous identification of the MHC class II binding core and binding affinity. NN-align is trained using a novel training algorithm that allows for correction of bias in the training data...... class II alleles, and is demonstrated to outperform other state-of-the-art MHC class II prediction methods. CONCLUSION: The NN-align method is competitive with the state-of-the-art MHC class II peptide binding prediction algorithms. The method is publicly available at http...

  2. A small-molecule dye for NIR-II imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antaris, Alexander L; Chen, Hao; Cheng, Kai; Sun, Yao; Hong, Guosong; Qu, Chunrong; Diao, Shuo; Deng, Zixin; Hu, Xianming; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Xiaodong; Yaghi, Omar K; Alamparambil, Zita R; Hong, Xuechuan; Cheng, Zhen; Dai, Hongjie

    2016-02-01

    Fluorescent imaging of biological systems in the second near-infrared window (NIR-II) can probe tissue at centimetre depths and achieve micrometre-scale resolution at depths of millimetres. Unfortunately, all current NIR-II fluorophores are excreted slowly and are largely retained within the reticuloendothelial system, making clinical translation nearly impossible. Here, we report a rapidly excreted NIR-II fluorophore (∼90% excreted through the kidneys within 24 h) based on a synthetic 970-Da organic molecule (CH1055). The fluorophore outperformed indocyanine green (ICG)-a clinically approved NIR-I dye-in resolving mouse lymphatic vasculature and sentinel lymphatic mapping near a tumour. High levels of uptake of PEGylated-CH1055 dye were observed in brain tumours in mice, suggesting that the dye was detected at a depth of ∼4 mm. The CH1055 dye also allowed targeted molecular imaging of tumours in vivo when conjugated with anti-EGFR Affibody. Moreover, a superior tumour-to-background signal ratio allowed precise image-guided tumour-removal surgery.

  3. A small-molecule dye for NIR-II imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antaris, Alexander L.; Chen, Hao; Cheng, Kai; Sun, Yao; Hong, Guosong; Qu, Chunrong; Diao, Shuo; Deng, Zixin; Hu, Xianming; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Xiaodong; Yaghi, Omar K.; Alamparambil, Zita R.; Hong, Xuechuan; Cheng, Zhen; Dai, Hongjie

    2016-02-01

    Fluorescent imaging of biological systems in the second near-infrared window (NIR-II) can probe tissue at centimetre depths and achieve micrometre-scale resolution at depths of millimetres. Unfortunately, all current NIR-II fluorophores are excreted slowly and are largely retained within the reticuloendothelial system, making clinical translation nearly impossible. Here, we report a rapidly excreted NIR-II fluorophore (~90% excreted through the kidneys within 24 h) based on a synthetic 970-Da organic molecule (CH1055). The fluorophore outperformed indocyanine green (ICG)--a clinically approved NIR-I dye--in resolving mouse lymphatic vasculature and sentinel lymphatic mapping near a tumour. High levels of uptake of PEGylated-CH1055 dye were observed in brain tumours in mice, suggesting that the dye was detected at a depth of ~4 mm. The CH1055 dye also allowed targeted molecular imaging of tumours in vivo when conjugated with anti-EGFR Affibody. Moreover, a superior tumour-to-background signal ratio allowed precise image-guided tumour-removal surgery.

  4. The invariant chain p35 isoform promotes formation of nonameric complexes with MHC II molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutier, Maryse; Gauthier, Catherine; Fortin, Jean-Simon; Thibodeau, Jacques

    2014-07-01

    Four different isoforms of the human invariant chain (Ii) have been described (p33, p35, p41 and p43). These heterotrimerize in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) before associating with MHC class II molecules (MHCIIs). However, the final stoichiometry of the Ii/MHCII complex remains debated. This is particularly interesting as both p35 and p43 include a di-arginine motif that requires masking by MHCII to allow ER egress. Here, to functionally address the requirement for stoichiometric interactions, we used a recombinant DR heterodimer bearing its own cytoplasmic di-lysine ER-retention motif (DRKKAA). When coexpressed with p33 and a control myc-tagged DR (DRmyc), DRKKAA was retained in the ER but had little impact on surface expression of DRmyc. However, when coexpressed with p35, DRKKAA restricted the surface expression of DRmyc, indicating that Ii trimers can be loaded with more than one MHCII. Similar results were obtained using HLA-DQ instead of DRmyc, showing that a single trimeric Ii scaffold can include distinct MHCII isotypes. Altogether, these results demonstrate that the subunit stoichiometry of oligomeric Ii/MHCII complexes is influenced by p35.

  5. MARCH1 down-regulation in IL-10-activated B cells increases MHC class II expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbas, Tristan; Steimle, Viktor; Lapointe, Réjean; Ishido, Satoshi; Thibodeau, Jacques

    2012-07-01

    IL-10 is vastly studied for its anti-inflammatory properties on most immune cells. However, it has been reported that IL-10 activates B cells, up-regulates their MHC class II molecules and prevents apoptosis. As MARCH1 was shown to be responsible for the intracellular sequestration of MHC class II molecules in dendritic cells and monocytes in response to IL-10, we set out to clarify the role of this ubiquitin ligase in B cells. Here, we demonstrate in mice that splenic follicular B cells represent the major cell population that up-regulate MHC II molecules in the presence of IL-10. Activation of these cells through TLR4, CD40 or the IL-10 receptor caused the down-regulation of MARCH1 mRNA. Accordingly, B cells from MARCH1-deficient mice do not up-regulate I-A(b) in response to IL-10. In all, our results demonstrate that IL-10 can have opposite effects on MARCH1 regulation in different cell types.

  6. Simian virus 40 infection via MHC class I molecules and caveolae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norkin, L C

    1999-04-01

    MHC class I molecules are a necessary component of the cell surface receptor for simian virus 40 (SV40). After binding to class I molecules, SV40 enters cells via a unique endocytic pathway that involves caveolae, rather than clathrin-coated pits. This pathway is dependent on a transmembrane signal that SV40 transmits from the cell surface. Furthermore, it delivers SV40 to the endoplasmic reticulum, rather than to the endosomal/lysosomal compartment, which is the usual target for endocytic traffic. The glycosphingolipid and cholesterol-enriched plasma membrane domains that contain caveolae are also enriched for class I molecules, relative to whole plasma membrane. Nevertheless, although class I molecules bind SV40, they do not enter with SV40, nor do they enter spontaneously into uninfected SV40 host cells. Instead, they are shed from the cell surface by the activity of a metalloprotease. These results imply the existence of a putative secondary receptor for SV40 that might mediate SV40 entry. It is not yet clear whether class I molecules are active in transmitting the SV40 signal. Monoclonal antibodies against class I molecules also induce a signal in the SV40 host cells. However, the antibody-induced signal is mediated by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase), whereas the SV40 signal is independent of MAP kinase.

  7. Improved prediction of MHC class I and class II epitopes using a novel Gibbs sampling approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten; Lundegaard, Claus; Worning, Peder;

    2004-01-01

    to the MHC class II complex HLA-DR4(B1*0401). Prior identification of information-rich (anchor) positions in the binding motif is shown to improve the predictive performance of the Gibbs sampler. Similarly, a consensus solution obtained from an ensemble average over suboptimal solutions is shown...

  8. MHC class II-derived peptides can bind to class II molecules, including self molecules, and prevent antigen presentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosloniec, E F; Vitez, L J; Buus, S

    1990-01-01

    found in the first and third polymorphic regions (PMR) of the A alpha k chain (alpha k-1 and alpha k-3) were capable of inhibiting the presentation of three different HEL-derived peptide antigens to their appropriate T cells. In addition, the alpha k-1 peptide inhibited the presentation of the OVA(323......-339) immunodominant peptide to the I-Ad-restricted T cell hybridomas specific for it. Prepulsing experiments demonstrated that the PMR peptides were interacting with the APC and not with the T cell hybridomas. These observations were confirmed and extended by the demonstration that the alpha k-1 and alpha k-3...

  9. Evaluation of mandibular length in subjects with Class I and Class II skeletal patterns using the cervical vertebrae maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Generoso; Elaine Cristina Sadoco; Mônica Costa Armond; Gustavo Hauber Gameiro

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the mandibular size in boys and girls with Class I and Class II skeletal patterns, taking into consideration the bone maturation stage, as defined by the cervical vertebrae maturation. One hundred and sixty cephalometric radiographs were obtained from subjects (aged between 7 and 12 years) with Class I or Class II skeletal patterns, according to the ANB angle and WITS appraisal. The Class I sample consisted of 80 subjects (40 boys, 40 girls). The Class II ...

  10. Characterization of binding specificities of bovine leucocyte class I molecules: impacts for rational epitope discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Andreas M.; Rasmussen, Michael; Svitek, Nicholas;

    2014-01-01

    The binding of peptides to classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I proteins is the single most selective step in antigen presentation. However, the peptide-binding specificity of cattle MHC (bovine leucocyte antigen, BoLA) class I (BoLA-I) molecules remains poorly characterized...

  11. Intracellular recycling and cross-presentation by MHC class I molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Endert, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Cross-presentation of internalized antigens by dendritic cells requires efficient delivery of Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class I molecules to peptide-loading compartments. Strong evidence suggests that such loading can occur outside of the endoplasmic reticulum; however, the trafficking pathways and sources of class I molecules involved are poorly understood. Examination of non-professional, non-phagocytic cells has revealed a clathrin-independent, Arf6-dependent recycling pathway likely traveled by internalized optimally loaded (closed) class I molecules. Some closed and all open MHC class I molecules travel to late endosomes to be degraded but might also partly be re-loaded with peptides and recycled. Studies of viral interference revealed pathways in which class I molecules are directed to degradation in lysosomes upon ubiquitination at the surface, or upon AP-1 and HIV-nef-dependent misrouting from the Golgi network to lysosomes. While many observations made in non-professional cells remain to be re-examined in dendritic cells, available evidence suggests that both recycling and neo-synthesized class I molecules can be loaded with cross-presented peptides. Recycling molecules can be recruited to phagosomes triggered by innate signals such as TLR4 ligands, and may therefore specialize in loading with phagocytosed antigens. In contrast, AP-1-dependent accumulation at, or trafficking through, a Golgi compartment of newly synthesized molecules appears to be important for cross-presentation of soluble proteins and possibly of long peptides that are processed in the so-called vacuolar pathway. However, significant cell biological work will be required to confirm this or any other model and to integrate knowledge on MHC class I biochemistry and trafficking in models of CD8(+) T-cell priming by dendritic cells.

  12. Two-photon absorption of Zn(II) octupolar molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzucato, Simone; Fortunati, Ilaria; Scolaro, Sara; Zerbetto, Michele; Ferrante, Camilla; Signorini, Raffaella; Pedron, Danilo; Bozio, Renato; Locatelli, Danika; Righetto, Stefania; Roberto, Dominique; Ugo, Renato; Abbotto, Alessandro; Archetti, Graziano; Beverina, Luca; Ghezzi, Sergio

    2007-06-21

    In this work we present an investigation of the non-linear optical (NLO) properties of two octupolar chromophores: [Zn(4,4'-bis(dibutylaminostyryl)-[2,2']-bipyridine)(3)](2+) and [Zn(4,4'-bis((E)-2-(N-(TEG)pyrrol-2-yl)vinyl)-[2,2']-bipyridine)(3)](2+) with Zn(ii) as the coordination center, using two-photon emission technique (TPE) in fs-pulse temporal regime. Compared to the free ligands, our results do not show a net increase in the two-photon absorption (TPA) cross-section for the octupolar complexes, once normalized to the ligand unit. This is in partial disagreement with a previous theoretical study investigating the first molecule where a significant increase of the TPA cross-section was predicted (X. J. Liu, et al., J. Chem. Phys., 2004, 120, 11 493).

  13. Angle Class II malocclusion treated with extraction of permanent teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Gustavo Mattos

    2013-01-01

    Angle Class II malocclusion associated with anterior open bite in adult patients demands a carefully elaborated orthodontic planning, aiming at restoring not only harmonious dental and facial esthetics, but also a balanced masticatory function. Orthognathic surgery or permanent teeth extraction are often the choice of treatment, therefore, treatment decision is related to all dental, skeletal and functional aspects. The present report discusses orthodontic compensation carried out by means of upper premolar extraction performed to correct the Class II canine relationship and, consequently, the anterior open bite, accepting that the upper incisors be retroclined. This clinical case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO) as part of the requirements for obtaining the BBO Certification.

  14. Angle Class II malocclusion treated with extraction of permanent teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Mattos Barreto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Angle Class II malocclusion associated with anterior open bite in adult patients demands a carefully elaborated orthodontic planning, aiming at restoring not only harmonious dental and facial esthetics, but also a balanced masticatory function. Orthognathic surgery or permanent teeth extraction are often the choice of treatment, therefore, treatment decision is related to all dental, skeletal and functional aspects. The present report discusses orthodontic compensation carried out by means of upper premolar extraction performed to correct the Class II canine relationship and, consequently, the anterior open bite, accepting that the upper incisors be retroclined. This clinical case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO as part of the requirements for obtaining the BBO Certification.

  15. Multiple regenerative techniques for class II furcation defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpendra Kumar Verma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Regeneration of the periodontium is a major goal in the treatment of teeth affected by periodontitis. Periodontal regeneration is quite challenging, especially when it is in the furcation area. There are several techniques used alone or in combination, considered to achieve periodontal regeneration, including bone grafts or substitutes, guided tissue regeneration, root surface modification, and biological mediators. Many factors may account for variability in the response to regenerative therapy in class II furcation. This case report describes the management of a buccal class II furcation defect, with the help of surgical intervention, including the guided tissue regeneration (GTR membrane and bone graft materials. This combined treatment resulted in a healthy periodontium, with radiographic evidence of alveolar bone gain. This case report demonstrates that proper diagnosis, followed by removal of the etiological factors and utilizing combined treatment modalities, restored health and function of the tooth with severe attachment loss, at the 18-month follow-up.

  16. Relation between Angle Class II malocclusion and deleterious oral habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Tarcísio Lima Ferreira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Oral habits may interfere on the growth and development of the stomatognathic system and orofacial myofunctional conditions, producing changes in the position of teeth in their dental arches. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to verify the presence of deleterious oral habits in individuals with malocclusion and see if there is a predominance of Class II malocclusion in these individuals. METHODS: The records of 140 patients treated at the Clinic of Preventive Orthodontics FORP-USP who had already completed treatment were randomly selected and analyzed. Their ages ranged from 6 to 10 years and 11 months. Associations were made between the presence or absence of deleterious oral habits, type and number of habits found in each individual and the type of malocclusion according to Angle classification. The statistical analysis used was the Chi-square test with a significance level of 5%. History of deleterious oral habits was found in 67.1% of individuals. RESULTS: The Class I malocclusion was most frequent (82.9%, followed by Class II malocclusion (12.1% and Class III (5%. CONCLUSION: There was a predominance of Class II malocclusion in individuals with a history of deleterious oral habits.INTRODUÇÃO: hábitos bucais podem interferir no crescimento e desenvolvimento do sistema estomatognático e nas condições miofuncionais bucofaciais, acarretando alterações no posicionamento dos dentes nas respectivas arcadas dentárias. OBJETIVO: o objetivo dessa pesquisa foi verificar a presença de hábitos bucais deletérios em indivíduos portadores de má oclusão e observar se existe predominância de má oclusão Classe II de Angle nesses indivíduos. MÉTODOS: foram selecionadas, aleatoriamente, e analisadas 140 fichas de pacientes atendidos na Clínica de Ortodontia Preventiva da FORP-USP, que já haviam recebido alta no tratamento. A faixa etária variou dos 6 anos a 10 anos e 11 meses. Foram realizadas associações entre

  17. Cylindrical bubbles and blobs from a Class II Hydrophobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Paul; Pham, Michael; Blalock, Brad

    2012-02-01

    Cerato ulmin is a class II hydrophobin. In aqueous suspensions, it easily forms cylindrical air bubbles and cylindrical oil blobs. The conditions for formation of these unusual structures will be discussed, along with scattering and microscopic investigations of their remarkable stability. Possible applications in diverse fields including polymer synthesis and oil spill remediation will be considered. Acknowledgment is made to Dr. Wayne C. Richards of the Canadian Forest Service for the gift of Cerato ulmin.

  18. Characterization of recombination in the HLA class II region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullen, M.; Carrington, M. [National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD (United States); Noble, J. [Roche Molecular Systems, Almeda, CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-02-01

    Studies of linkage disequilibrium across the HLA class II region have been useful in predicting where recombination is most likely to occur. The strong associations between genes within the 85-kb region from DQB1 to DRB1 are consistent with low frequency of recombination in this segment of DNA. Conversely, a lack of association between alleles of TAP1 and TAP2 ({approximately}15 kb) has been observed, suggesting that recombination occurs here with relatively high frequency. Much of the HLA class II region has now been sequenced, providing the tools to undertake detailed analysis of recombination. Twenty-seven families containing one or two recombinant chromosomes within the 500-kb interval between the DPB1 and DRB1 genes were used to determine patterns of recombination across this region. SSCP analysis and microsatellite typing yielded identification of 127 novel polymorphic markers distributed throughout the class II region, allowing refinement of the site of crossover in 30 class II recombinant chromosomes. The three regions where recombination was observed most frequently are as follows: the 45-kb interval between HLA-DNA and RING3 (11 cases), the 50-kb interval between DQB3 and DQB1 (6 cases), and an 8.8-kb segment of the TAP2 gene (3 cases). Six of the 10 remaining recombinants await further characterization, pending identification of additional informative markers, while four recombinants were localized to other intervals (outliers). Analysis of association between markers flanking HLA-DNA to RING3 (45 kb), as well as TAP1 to TAP2 (15 kb), by use of independent CEPH haplotypes indicated little or no linkage disequilibrium, supporting the familial recombination data. A notable sequence motif located within a region associated with increased rates of recombination consisted of a (TGGA){sub 12} tandem repeat within the TAP2 gene. 74 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. [Routine application of HLA class II oligotyping. Value of automatization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillat-Zucman, S; Bach, J F

    1992-12-02

    HLA class II typing by DNA amplification and hybridization with allele-specific oligonucleotides has led to an improvement of the overall typing accuracy. In an attempt to apply this procedure to a large-scale analysis, we sought to implement an automation system using the Biomek 1,000 robotic work-station. This system allows a rapid preparation of many consecutive samples and avoids the risk of human errors. It is now routinely used in several laboratories.

  20. A new class of small molecule inhibitor of BMP signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline E Sanvitale

    Full Text Available Growth factor signaling pathways are tightly regulated by phosphorylation and include many important kinase targets of interest for drug discovery. Small molecule inhibitors of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP receptor kinase ALK2 (ACVR1 are needed urgently to treat the progressively debilitating musculoskeletal disease fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP. Dorsomorphin analogues, first identified in zebrafish, remain the only BMP inhibitor chemotype reported to date. By screening an assay panel of 250 recombinant human kinases we identified a highly selective 2-aminopyridine-based inhibitor K02288 with in vitro activity against ALK2 at low nanomolar concentrations similar to the current lead compound LDN-193189. K02288 specifically inhibited the BMP-induced Smad pathway without affecting TGF-β signaling and induced dorsalization of zebrafish embryos. Comparison of the crystal structures of ALK2 with K02288 and LDN-193189 revealed additional contacts in the K02288 complex affording improved shape complementarity and identified the exposed phenol group for further optimization of pharmacokinetics. The discovery of a new chemical series provides an independent pharmacological tool to investigate BMP signaling and offers multiple opportunities for pre-clinical development.

  1. Treatment of a Class II deepbite with microimplant anchorage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyo-Sang; Kim, Ji-Yeun; Kwon, Tae-Geon

    2011-03-01

    The goal of this report was to illustrate new treatment mechanics for using microimplants for the treatment of a Class II Division 2 deepbite malocclusion. A 29-year-old woman with a deepbite was treated with the aid of microimplant anchorage. Microimplants placed between the maxillary second premolars and first molars were used as anchorage to apply a distal force to the anterior teeth to correct the Class II canine and molar relationships. A distal force was applied to long hooks that were crimped between the lateral incisors and the canines. By applying a backward force to the long hooks, the maxillary anterior teeth experienced palatal root movement with no change in the vertical and anteroposterior positions of the incisal edges. The distal extrusive movement of the maxillary second molars achieved by disengaging the second molars from the archwire during distal force application and an anterior bite-block bonded on the lingual surface of the maxillary central incisors produced the increase in vertical dimension. The distal force to the long extended hooks from the microimplants was possibly good mechanics for obtaining the palatal root movement and correcting the Class II canine and molar relationships. The anterior bite-block and disengagement of the maxillary second molars during distal force application were effective for increasing the vertical dimension.

  2. MHC Class II haplotypes of Colombian Amerindian tribes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunis, Juan J; Yunis, Edmond J; Yunis, Emilio

    2013-07-01

    We analyzed 1041 individuals belonging to 17 Amerindian tribes of Colombia, Chimila, Bari and Tunebo (Chibcha linguistic family), Embera, Waunana (Choco linguistic family), Puinave and Nukak (Maku-Puinave linguistic families), Cubeo, Guanano, Tucano, Desano and Piratapuyo (Tukano linguistic family), Guahibo and Guayabero (Guayabero Linguistic Family), Curripaco and Piapoco (Arawak linguistic family) and Yucpa (Karib linguistic family). for MHC class II haplotypes (HLA-DRB1, DQA1, DQB1). Approximately 90% of the MHC class II haplotypes found among these tribes are haplotypes frequently encountered in other Amerindian tribes. Nonetheless, striking differences were observed among Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking tribes. The DRB1*04:04, DRB1*04:11, DRB1*09:01 carrying haplotypes were frequently found among non-Chibcha speaking tribes, while the DRB1*04:07 haplotype showed significant frequencies among Chibcha speaking tribes, and only marginal frequencies among non-Chibcha speaking tribes. Our results suggest that the differences in MHC class II haplotype frequency found among Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking tribes could be due to genetic differentiation in Mesoamerica of the ancestral Amerindian population into Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking populations before they entered into South America.

  3. MHC Class II haplotypes of Colombian Amerindian tribes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. Yunis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed 1041 individuals belonging to 17 Amerindian tribes of Colombia, Chimila, Bari and Tunebo (Chibcha linguistic family, Embera, Waunana (Choco linguistic family, Puinave and Nukak (Maku-Puinave linguistic families, Cubeo, Guanano, Tucano, Desano and Piratapuyo (Tukano linguistic family, Guahibo and Guayabero (Guayabero Linguistic Family, Curripaco and Piapoco (Arawak linguistic family and Yucpa (Karib linguistic family. for MHC class II haplotypes (HLA-DRB1, DQA1, DQB1. Approximately 90% of the MHC class II haplotypes found among these tribes are haplotypes frequently encountered in other Amerindian tribes. Nonetheless, striking differences were observed among Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking tribes. The DRB1*04:04, DRB1*04:11, DRB1*09:01 carrying haplotypes were frequently found among non-Chibcha speaking tribes, while the DRB1*04:07 haplotype showed significant frequencies among Chibcha speaking tribes, and only marginal frequencies among non-Chibcha speaking tribes. Our results suggest that the differences in MHC class II haplotype frequency found among Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking tribes could be due to genetic differentiation in Mesoamerica of the ancestral Amerindian population into Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking populations before they entered into South America.

  4. Evolução dos preparos das cavidades de classe II Developments in preparation of class II cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Miyuki ONO

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A evolução dos preparos de classe II com a introdução de novos materiais e a conscientização da importância da preservação de estrutura dental sadia são abordadas nos preparos do tipo Almqvist, Roggenkamp e túnel, em que se observa a necessidade de menor desgaste da estrutura dentária, com aumento da resistência à fratura, melhor estética e melhor retençãoDevelopments in preparation of class II cavities with the introduction of new materials and awareness of the importance of preservation of a sound dental structure are broached in preparations of the type Almqvist, Roggenkamp and tunnel, where the need for less wear of the dental structure was observed with an increase in fracture strength, better aesthetics, and better retention

  5. Spectral energy distribution analysis of class I and class II FU Orionis stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gramajo, Luciana V.; Gómez, Mercedes [Observatorio Astronómico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Argentina, Laprida 854, 5000 Córdoba (Argentina); Rodón, Javier A., E-mail: luciana@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: mercedes@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: jrodon@eso.org [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile)

    2014-06-01

    FU Orionis stars (FUors) are eruptive pre-main sequence objects thought to represent quasi-periodic or recurring stages of enhanced accretion during the low-mass star-forming process. We characterize the sample of known and candidate FUors in a homogeneous and consistent way, deriving stellar and circumstellar parameters for each object. We emphasize the analysis in those parameters that are supposed to vary during the FUor stage. We modeled the spectral energy distributions of 24 of the 26 currently known FUors, using the radiative transfer code of Whitney et al. We compare our models with those obtained by Robitaille et al. for Taurus class II and I sources in quiescence periods by calculating the cumulative distribution of the different parameters. FUors have more massive disks: we find that ∼80% of the disks in FUors are more massive than any Taurus class II and I sources in the sample. Median values for the disk mass accretion rates are ∼10{sup –7} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} versus ∼10{sup –5} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} for standard young stellar objects (YSOs) and FUors, respectively. While the distributions of envelope mass accretion rates for class I FUors and standard class I objects are similar, FUors, on average, have higher envelope mass accretion rates than standard class II and class I sources. Most FUors (∼70%) have envelope mass accretion rates above 10{sup –7} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. In contrast, 60% of the classical YSO sample has an accretion rate below this value. Our results support the current scenario in which changes experimented by the circumstellar disk explain the observed properties of these stars. However, the increase in the disk mass accretion rate is smaller than theoretically predicted, although in good agreement with previous determinations.

  6. The shape and size of the sella turcica in skeletal Class I, Class II, and Class III Saudi subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkofide, Eman A

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the shape and measure the size of the sella turcica in Saudi subjects with different skeletal types. Lateral cephalometric radiographs of 180 individuals (90 males and 90 females) with an age range of 11-26 years were taken and distributed according to skeletal classification; 60 Class I, 60 Class II, and 60 Class III. The sella turcica on each radiograph was analysed and measured to determine the shape of the sella, in addition to the linear dimensions of length, depth, and diameter. A Student's t-test was used to calculate differences in linear dimensions, while a one-way analysis of variance was performed to study the relationship between skeletal type and sella size. The results show that the sella turcica presented with a normal morphology in the majority of subjects (67 per cent). No significant differences in linear dimensions between genders could be found. When age was evaluated, significant differences were found between the older (15 years or more) and the younger (11-14 years) age groups at the 0.01 and 0.001 levels for length, depth, and diameter. Sella size of the older age group was larger than in the younger age group. When skeletal type was compared with sella size, a significant difference was found in the diameter of sella between the Class II and Class III subjects (P sella turcica area in Saudi subjects.

  7. 78 FR 14013 - Medical Devices; Exemption From Premarket Notification; Class II Devices; Wheelchair Elevator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ... Notification; Class II Devices; Wheelchair Elevator AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final... requesting exemption from premarket notification requirements for wheelchair elevator devices commonly known... another, usually in a wheelchair. This order exempts wheelchair elevators, class II devices,...

  8. MHC class II antigen presentation by B cells in health and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souwer, Yuri

    2009-01-01

    MHC class II antigen presentation by B cells is important to activate CD4+ T cells that stimulate the B cell to produce antibodies. Besides this, disruption of MHC class II antigen presentation could play a role in immune escape by tumor cells. This thesis describes MHC class II antigen presentation

  9. MHC Class II and Non-MHC Class II Genes Differentially Influence Humoral Immunity to Bacillus anthracis Lethal Factor and Protective Antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith A. James

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthrax Lethal Toxin consists of Protective Antigen (PA and Lethal Factor (LF, and current vaccination strategies focus on eliciting antibodies to PA. In human vaccination, the response to PA can vary greatly, and the response is often directed toward non-neutralizing epitopes. Variable vaccine responses have been shown to be due in part to genetic differences in individuals, with both MHC class II and other genes playing roles. Here, we investigated the relative contribution of MHC class II versus non-MHC class II genes in the humoral response to PA and LF immunization using three immunized strains of inbred mice: A/J (H-2k at the MHC class II locus, B6 (H-2b, and B6.H2k (H-2k. IgG antibody titers to LF were controlled primarily by the MHC class II locus, whereas IgG titers to PA were strongly influenced by the non-MHC class II genetic background. Conversely, the humoral fine specificity of reactivity to LF appeared to be controlled primarily through non-MHC class II genes, while the specificity of reactivity to PA was more dependent on MHC class II. Common epitopes, reactive in all strains, occurred in both LF and PA responses. These results demonstrate that MHC class II differentially influences humoral immune responses to LF and PA.

  10. T cell responses affected by aminopeptidase N (CD13)-mediated trimming of major histocompatibility complex class II-bound peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, S L; Pedersen, L O; Buus, S;

    1996-01-01

    the exopeptidase Aminopeptidase N (APN, CD13) as one of the enzymes involved in the observed cell-surface antigen processing. The NH2-terminal end of the longer peptide could, even while bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules, be digested by APN with dramatic consequences for T cell...... antigen recognition. This could be demonstrated both in cell-free systems using purified reagents and in cellular systems. Thus, MHC class II and APN may act in concert to generate the final T cell epitopes....

  11. Evaluation depth of the curve of Spee in class I, class II, and class III malocclusion: A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjna Nayar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Occlusal plane is an essential consideration when multiple long-span posterior restorations are designed. When restorations are added to an existing tooth arrangement characterized by rotated, tipped, or extruded teeth, excursive interferences may be incorporated, resulting in detrimental squeal. The curve of Spee, which exists in the ideal natural dentition, allows harmony to exist between the anterior tooth and condylar guidance. This curve exists in the sagittal plane and is the best viewed from a lateral aspect. It permits total posterior disclusion on mandibular protrusion, given proper anterior tooth guidance. It is unclear that whether the curve of Spee is a description of the occlusal surface of each arch separately or in maximal intercuspation. The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in the depth of curve of Spee between the class I, class II, class III and to investigate the relationship of depth of curve of Spee with over jet, over-bite.

  12. Simultaneous observation of water and class I methanol masers toward class II methanol maser sources

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Hyunwoo; Byun, Do-Young; Lee, Seokho; Park, Yong-Sun

    2015-01-01

    We present a simultaneous single-dish survey of 22 GHz water maser and 44 GHz and 95 GHz class I methanol masers toward 77 6.7 GHz class II methanol maser sources, which were selected from the Arecibo methanol maser Galactic plane survey (AMGPS) catalog.Water maser emission is detected in 39 (51%) sources, of which 15 are new detections. Methanol maser emission at 44 GHz and 95 GHz is found in 25 (32%) and 19 (25%) sources, of which 21 and 13 sources are newly detected, respectively. We find 4 high-velocity (> 30 km/s) water maser sources, including 3 dominant blue- or redshifted outflows.The 95 GHz masers always appear with the 44 GHz maser emission. They are strongly correlated with 44 GHz masers in velocity, flux density, and luminosity, while they are not correlated with either water or 6.7 GHz class II methanol masers. The average peak flux density ratio of 95 GHz to 44 GHz masers is close to unity, which is two times higher than previous estimates. The flux densities of class I methanol masers are more ...

  13. HLA class I and class II associations with ESRD in Saudi Arabian population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuha Mahmoud Hamdi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic renal failure (CRF leads in the majority of instances to end stage renal disease (ESRD requiring renal replacement therapy. Our interest was to evaluate the possible associations of HLA class I and class II antigens with ESRD independent of other factors, in Saudi Arabia population. METHODOLOGY: A retrospective study to determine the HLA class I and class II polymorphisms and their association with ESRD, was performed on 350 patients with ESRD, and 105 healthy unrelated control. Patients and control groups were typed by SSOP lumenix techniques. The alleles positively associated to the ESRD were: HLA-B*15, B*18, B*49 - DRB1*03, negatively associated alleles were A*26, HLA-B*39, B*50. The haplotypes positively associated with ESRD were: HLA-A*01-DRB1*13 and HLA-A*30-DRBI*03. The negatively associated haplotypes were: HLA-A*02-B*39, A*02-B*50, A*24-B*35, A*24-B*58, A*24-DRB1*16, A*68-DRB1*04, A*02-DQB1*03, A*29-DQB1*02, A*29-DOB1*05 and B*27-DRB1*07 and the last one is the most significant protective haplotypes. CONCLUSION: The high Relative Risk (RR observed and its statistical correlation reflect the strength of the described association between HLA antigens and ESRD.

  14. Susceptibility of amphibians to chytridiomycosis is associated with MHC class II conformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bataille, Arnaud; Cashins, Scott D; Grogan, Laura; Skerratt, Lee F; Hunter, David; McFadden, Michael; Scheele, Benjamin; Brannelly, Laura A; Macris, Amy; Harlow, Peter S; Bell, Sara; Berger, Lee; Waldman, Bruce

    2015-04-22

    The pathogenic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) can cause precipitous population declines in its amphibian hosts. Responses of individuals to infection vary greatly with the capacity of their immune system to respond to the pathogen. We used a combination of comparative and experimental approaches to identify major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) alleles encoding molecules that foster the survival of Bd-infected amphibians. We found that Bd-resistant amphibians across four continents share common amino acids in three binding pockets of the MHC-II antigen-binding groove. Moreover, strong signals of selection acting on these specific sites were evident among all species co-existing with the pathogen. In the laboratory, we experimentally inoculated Australian tree frogs with Bd to test how each binding pocket conformation influences disease resistance. Only the conformation of MHC-II pocket 9 of surviving subjects matched those of Bd-resistant species. This MHC-II conformation thus may determine amphibian resistance to Bd, although other MHC-II binding pockets also may contribute to resistance. Rescuing amphibian biodiversity will depend on our understanding of amphibian immune defence mechanisms against Bd. The identification of adaptive genetic markers for Bd resistance represents an important step forward towards that goal.

  15. Characterization and expression of MHC class II alpha and II beta genes in mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianyan; Tan, Shangjin; Cai, Zhonghua

    2015-12-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II plays a key role in adaptive immunity by presenting foreign peptides to CD4(+) T cells and by triggering the adaptive immune response. While the structure and function of MHC class II have been well characterized in mammalian, limited research has been done on fishes. In this study, we characterized the gene structure and expression of MHC class II α (Lunar-DAA) and II β (Lunar-DAB) of mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus). Both genes shared, respectively, a high similarity and typical features with other vertebrate MHC class II α and II β. The phylogenetic analysis of the deduced peptides revealed that both Lunar-DAA and Lunar-DAB were located in the teleost subclass. Western blotting analyses indicated that both MHC class II α and II β were expressed ubiquitously in immune-related cells, tissues and organs, and that MHC class II α and II β chains existed mainly as heterodimers. While it was highly expressed in gills, thymus, head kidney (HK), spleen, head kidney macrophage and spleen leucocytes, MHC class II β chain was expressed with a low abundance in skin, intestine, stomach and heart. The highest expression of MHC class II β in thymus confirmed the conclusion that thymus is one of the primary lymphoid organs in fishes. The detection of MHC class II αβ dimers in HK macrophages and spleen leucocytes indicated that HK macrophages and spleen leucocytes play a critical role in the adaptive immunity in fishes. All these results provide valuable information for understanding the structure of MHC class II α and II β and their function in immune responses.

  16. HLA Class II Defects in Burkitt Lymphoma: Bryostatin-1-Induced 17 kDa Protein Restores CD4+ T-Cell Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azim Hossain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available While the defects in HLA class I-mediated Ag presentation by Burkitt lymphoma (BL have been well documented, CD4+ T-cells are also poorly stimulated by HLA class II Ag presentation, and the reasons underlying this defect(s have not yet been fully resolved. Here, we show that BL cells are deficient in their ability to optimally stimulate CD4+ T cells via the HLA class II pathway. The observed defect was not associated with low levels of BL-expressed costimulatory molecules, as addition of external co-stimulation failed to result in BL-mediated CD4+ T-cell activation. We further demonstrate that BL cells express the components of the class II pathway, and the defect was not caused by faulty Ag/class II interaction, because antigenic peptides bound with measurable affinity to BL-associated class II molecules. Treatment of BL with broystatin-1, a potent modulator of protein kinase C, led to significant improvement of functional class II Ag presentation in BL. The restoration of immune recognition appeared to be linked with an increased expression of a 17 kDa peptidylprolyl-like protein. These results demonstrate the presence of a specific defect in HLA class II-mediated Ag presentation in BL and reveal that treatment with bryostatin-1 could lead to enhanced immunogenicity.

  17. Ligation of MHC class I molecules on peripheral blood T lymphocytes induces new phenotypes and functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregenholt, S; Röpke, M; Skov, S;

    1996-01-01

    Microgram concentrations of immobilized anti-MHC class I (MHC-I) Ab induced proliferation of resting CD3+ T cells from peripheral blood. In contrast, soluble Ab did not activate T cells. Exposure of T cells to immobilized anti-MHC-I Ab for only 24 h was followed by proliferation and development....... These data clearly demonstrate that ligation of the MHC-I complex on T cells may induce both positive and negative signals. Since the physiologic ligands for MHC-I molecules are TCR and the CD8 molecules, our data may suggest that MHC-I molecules are instrumental in cellular interactions between T cells....

  18. IFN-γ-induced increase in the mobility of MHC class II compartments in astrocytes depends on intermediate filaments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vardjan Nina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In immune-mediated diseases of the central nervous system, astrocytes exposed to interferon-γ (IFN-γ can express major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II molecules and antigens on their surface. MHC class II molecules are thought to be delivered to the cell surface by membrane-bound vesicles. However, the characteristics and dynamics of this vesicular traffic are unclear, particularly in reactive astrocytes, which overexpress intermediate filament (IF proteins that may affect trafficking. The aim of this study was to determine the mobility of MHC class II vesicles in wild-type (WT astrocytes and in astrocytes devoid of IFs. Methods The identity of MHC class II compartments in WT and IF-deficient astrocytes 48 h after IFN-γ activation was determined immunocytochemically by using confocal microscopy. Time-lapse confocal imaging and Alexa Fluor546-dextran labeling of late endosomes/lysosomes in IFN-γ treated cells was used to characterize the motion of MHC class II vesicles. The mobility of vesicles was analyzed using ParticleTR software. Results Confocal imaging of primary cultures of WT and IF-deficient astrocytes revealed IFN-γ induced MHC class II expression in late endosomes/lysosomes, which were specifically labeled with Alexa Fluor546-conjugated dextran. Live imaging revealed faster movement of dextran-positive vesicles in IFN-γ-treated than in untreated astrocytes. Vesicle mobility was lower in IFN-γ-treated IF-deficient astrocytes than in WT astrocytes. Thus, the IFN-γ-induced increase in the mobility of MHC class II compartments is IF-dependent. Conclusions Since reactivity of astrocytes is a hallmark of many CNS pathologies, it is likely that the up-regulation of IFs under such conditions allows a faster and therefore a more efficient delivery of MHC class II molecules to the cell surface. In vivo, such regulatory mechanisms may enable antigen-presenting reactive astrocytes to respond rapidly and in a

  19. Porcine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules and analysis of their peptide-binding specificities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lasse Eggers; Harndahl, Mikkel; Rasmussen, Michael;

    2011-01-01

    In all vertebrate animals, CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are controlled by major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) molecules. These are highly polymorphic peptide receptors selecting and presenting endogenously derived epitopes to circulating CTLs. The polymorphism of the MHC...

  20. Human leucocyte antigen class Ib molecules in pregnancy success and early pregnancy loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Mette; Hviid, Thomas Vauvert F

    2013-01-01

    AND CONCLUSIONS The HLA class Ib molecules seem to induce suppression of the maternal immune system, but are not necessarily fundamental factors for pregnancy success. However, evidence points towards low expression of these proteins, especially HLA-G, being associated with reduced fertility. To clarify...

  1. Compensatory canine angulation in angle Class II and III patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Carlos Agner Busato

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurence of compensation in mesiodistal axial inclinations of canines in skeletal malocclusions patients. The sample consisted of 25 Angle Class II, division 1 malocclusion (group 1 and 19 Angle Class III malocclusion patients (group 2. After measurement of dental angulations through a method that associates plaster model photography and AutoCad software, comparisons between the groups were performed by T-test for independent samples. Results showed that there was no statistically significant difference (p < 0.05 between groups, when maxillary canine angulations were compared. Regarding the mandibular canines, there was a statistically significant difference in dental angulation, expressed by 3.2° for group 1 and 0.15° for group 2. An upright position tendency for mandibular canines was observed in the Angle Class III sample. This configures a pattern of compensatory coronary positioning, since the angulation of these teeth makes them occupy less space in the dental arch and consequently mandibular incisors can be in a more retracted position in the sagittal plane.

  2. Selection and trans-species polymorphism of major histocompatibility complex class II genes in the order Crocodylia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weerachai Jaratlerdsiri

    Full Text Available Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC class II genes encode for molecules that aid in the presentation of antigens to helper T cells. MHC characterisation within and between major vertebrate taxa has shed light on the evolutionary mechanisms shaping the diversity within this genomic region, though little characterisation has been performed within the Order Crocodylia. Here we investigate the extent and effect of selective pressures and trans-species polymorphism on MHC class II α and β evolution among 20 extant species of Crocodylia. Selection detection analyses showed that diversifying selection influenced MHC class II β diversity, whilst diversity within MHC class II α is the result of strong purifying selection. Comparison of translated sequences between species revealed the presence of twelve trans-species polymorphisms, some of which appear to be specific to the genera Crocodylus and Caiman. Phylogenetic reconstruction clustered MHC class II α sequences into two major clades representing the families Crocodilidae and Alligatoridae. However, no further subdivision within these clades was evident and, based on the observation that most MHC class II α sequences shared the same trans-species polymorphisms, it is possible that they correspond to the same gene lineage across species. In contrast, phylogenetic analyses of MHC class II β sequences showed a mixture of subclades containing sequences from Crocodilidae and/or Alligatoridae, illustrating orthologous relationships among those genes. Interestingly, two of the subclades containing sequences from both Crocodilidae and Alligatoridae shared specific trans-species polymorphisms, suggesting that they may belong to ancient lineages pre-dating the divergence of these two families from the common ancestor 85-90 million years ago. The results presented herein provide an immunogenetic resource that may be used to further assess MHC diversity and functionality in Crocodylia.

  3. Selection and trans-species polymorphism of major histocompatibility complex class II genes in the order Crocodylia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaratlerdsiri, Weerachai; Isberg, Sally R; Higgins, Damien P; Miles, Lee G; Gongora, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class II genes encode for molecules that aid in the presentation of antigens to helper T cells. MHC characterisation within and between major vertebrate taxa has shed light on the evolutionary mechanisms shaping the diversity within this genomic region, though little characterisation has been performed within the Order Crocodylia. Here we investigate the extent and effect of selective pressures and trans-species polymorphism on MHC class II α and β evolution among 20 extant species of Crocodylia. Selection detection analyses showed that diversifying selection influenced MHC class II β diversity, whilst diversity within MHC class II α is the result of strong purifying selection. Comparison of translated sequences between species revealed the presence of twelve trans-species polymorphisms, some of which appear to be specific to the genera Crocodylus and Caiman. Phylogenetic reconstruction clustered MHC class II α sequences into two major clades representing the families Crocodilidae and Alligatoridae. However, no further subdivision within these clades was evident and, based on the observation that most MHC class II α sequences shared the same trans-species polymorphisms, it is possible that they correspond to the same gene lineage across species. In contrast, phylogenetic analyses of MHC class II β sequences showed a mixture of subclades containing sequences from Crocodilidae and/or Alligatoridae, illustrating orthologous relationships among those genes. Interestingly, two of the subclades containing sequences from both Crocodilidae and Alligatoridae shared specific trans-species polymorphisms, suggesting that they may belong to ancient lineages pre-dating the divergence of these two families from the common ancestor 85-90 million years ago. The results presented herein provide an immunogenetic resource that may be used to further assess MHC diversity and functionality in Crocodylia.

  4. A growth-related concept for skeletal class II treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuscher, U

    1978-09-01

    The use of a combined activator--high-pull headgear appliance for treatment of Class II, Division 1 malocclusion is presented as a preliminary report. The activator itself is equipped with a palatal bar, lower lip pads, and torque-control auxiliaries for the upper incisors. The face-bow is mounted directly on the activator, and the extraoral force vector is equivalent to that of an anterior high-pull vector. During bite registration the veritcal displacement of the mandible is restricted to a minimum, and the anterior displacement should not exceed 6 mm. On the basis of current knowledge of the growth of the bony facial structures, treatment objectives and a specific approach for skeletal Class II correction are defined. Following these objectives, the therapy aims at correcting the malocclusion without diverting the anterior landmarks of the bony face from their specific lines of growth. This is brought about by the corresponding mechanics of the activator-headgear combination. The corrective effect of this appliance may be assumed to be the result of several different factors. The maxillary dentition is restrained in a posterior cranial direction, and an inhibitory effect on the maxilla counter to its line of development is attained. The mandibular dentition is influenced in an anterior downward direction by means of the bite registration, and the occlusion is unlocked during treatment. Any transfer of distally directed headgear forces from the maxilla to the mandible is prevented. Temporary stimulation of condylar growth, possibly combined with temporary posterior deflection of condylar growth, may also be induced. In this way it is possible to take maximum advantage of condylar growth in the sagittal dimension. Thus, not only is the malocclusion corrected but, at the same time, decisive profile improvement is achieved by anterior development of the mandible. From the experience gained so far with a Class II, Division 1 sample undergoing treatment with the

  5. Clinical, immunological and genetic features in eleven Algerian patients with major histocompatibility complex class II expression deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djidjik Réda

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Presenting processed antigens to CD4+ lymphocytes during the immune response involves major histocompatibility complex class II molecules. MHC class II genes transcription is regulated by four transcription factors: CIITA, RFXANK, RFX5 and RFXAP. Defects in these factors result in major histocompatibility complex class II expression deficiency, a primary combined immunodeficiency frequent in North Africa. Autosomal recessive mutations in the RFXANK gene have been reported as being the principal defect found in North African patients with this disorder. In this paper, we describe clinical, immunological and genetic features of 11 unrelated Algerian patients whose monocytes display a total absence of MHC class II molecules. They shared mainly the same clinical picture which included protracted diarrhoea and respiratory tract recurrent infections. Genetic analysis revealed that 9 of the 11 patients had the same RFXANK founder mutation, a 26 bp deletion (named I5E6-25_I5E6+1, also known as 752delG26. Immunological and genetic findings in our series may facilitate genetic counselling implementation for Algerian consanguineous families. Further studies need to be conducted to determine 752delG26 heterozygous mutation frequency in Algerian population.

  6. Evaluation of mandibular length in subjects with Class I and Class II skeletal patterns using the cervical vertebrae maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Generoso

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the mandibular size in boys and girls with Class I and Class II skeletal patterns, taking into consideration the bone maturation stage, as defined by the cervical vertebrae maturation. One hundred and sixty cephalometric radiographs were obtained from subjects (aged between 7 and 12 years with Class I or Class II skeletal patterns, according to the ANB angle and WITS appraisal. The Class I sample consisted of 80 subjects (40 boys, 40 girls. The Class II sample also consisted of 80 subjects (40 boys, 40 girls. On a cross-sectional basis, mandibular length (Co-Gn was compared between groups and genders. The between-stages changes were also evaluated, with the cervical vertebrae analysis used for establishing the bone maturation stages at CS2, CS3, CS4 and CS5. The results were statistically analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test. The mandibular length differed between skeletal patterns only at the earlier stages of development. In the Class I pattern, the mandibular lengths of boys were greater than those of girls at stages CS2, CS4 and CS5, whereas in the Class II pattern, the mandibular lengths of boys were greater than those of girls at stages CS2, CS3 and CS4. The present results indicate a sexual dimorphism in the mandibular length at almost all stages of bone maturation, in exception of the CS5 stage in Class II.

  7. Energy-optimised pharmacophore approach to identify potential hotspots during inhibition of Class II HDAC isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganai, Shabir Ahmad; Shanmugam, Karthi; Mahadevan, Vijayalakshmi

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are conjugated enzymes that modulate chromatin architecture by deacetylating lysine residues on the histone tails leading to transcriptional repression. Pharmacological interventions of these enzymes with small molecule inhibitors called Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) have shown enhanced acetylation of the genome and are hence emerging as potential targets at the clinic. Type-specific inhibition of Class II HDACs has shown enhanced therapeutic benefits against developmental and neurodegenerative disorders. However, the structural identity of class-specific isoforms limits the potential of their inhibitors in precise targeting of their enzymes. Diverse strategies have been implemented to recognise the features in HDAC enzymes which may help in identifying isoform specificity factors. This work attempts a computational approach that combines in silico docking and energy-optimised pharmacophore (E-pharmacophore) mapping of 18 known HDAC inhibitors and has identified structural variations that regulate their interactions against the six Class II HDAC enzymes considered for the study. This combined approach establishes that inhibitors possessing higher number of aromatic rings in different structural regions might function as potent inhibitors, while inhibitors with scarce ring structures might point to compromised potency. This would aid the rationale for chemical optimisation and design of isoform selective HDAC inhibitors with enhanced affinity and therapeutic efficiency.

  8. Comprehensive analysis of cooperative gene mutations between class I and class II in de novo acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Yuichi; Kiyoi, Hitoshi; Tsujimura, Akane; Miyawaki, Shuichi; Miyazaki, Yasushi; Kuriyama, Kazutaka; Tomonaga, Masao; Naoe, Tomoki

    2009-08-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has been thought to be the consequence of two broad complementation classes of mutations: class I and class II. However, overlap-mutations between them or within the same class and the position of TP53 mutation are not fully analyzed. We comprehensively analyzed the FLT3, cKIT, N-RAS, C/EBPA, AML1, MLL, NPM1, and TP53 mutations in 144 newly diagnosed de novo AML. We found 103 of 165 identified mutations were overlapped with other mutations, and most overlap-mutations consisted of class I and class II mutations. Although overlap-mutations within the same class were found in seven patients, five of them additionally had the other class mutation. These results suggest that most overlap-mutations within the same class might be the consequence of acquiring an additional mutation after the completion both of class I and class II mutations. However, mutated genes overlapped with the same class were limited in N-RAS, TP53, MLL-PTD, and NPM1, suggesting the possibility that these irregular overlap-mutations might cooperatively participate in the development of AML. Notably, TP53 mutation was overlapped with both class I and class II mutations, and associated with morphologic multilineage dysplasia and complex karyotype. The genotype consisting of complex karyotype and TP53 mutation was an unfavorable prognostic factor in entire AML patients, indicating this genotype generates a disease entity in de novo AML. These results collectively suggest that TP53 mutation might be a functionally distinguishable class of mutation.

  9. 40 CFR 147.3108 - Plugging Class I, II, and III wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Plugging Class I, II, and III wells... Certain Oklahoma Indian Tribes § 147.3108 Plugging Class I, II, and III wells. In addition to the... well: (a) For Class I and III wells: (1) The well shall be filled with mud from the bottom of the...

  10. SED analysis of class I and class II FU Orionis stars

    CERN Document Server

    Gramajo, Luciana V; Gómez, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    FU Orionis stars (FUORS) are eruptive pre-main sequence objects thought to represent quasi-periodic or recurring stages of enhanced accretion during the low-mass star-forming process. We characterize the sample of known and candidate FUORS in an homogeneous and consistent way, deriving stellar and circumstellar parameters for each object. We emphasize the analysis in those parameters that are supposed to vary during the FUORS stage. We modeled the SEDs of 24 of the 26 currently known FUORS, using the radiative transfer code of Whitney et al (2003b). We compare our models with those obtained by Robitaille et al. (2007) for Taurus class II and I sources in quiescence periods, by calculating the cumulative distribution of the different parameters. FUORS have more massive disks: we find that $\\sim80\\%$ of the disks in FUORS are more massive than any Taurus class II and I sources in the sample. Median values for the disk mass accretion rates are ~ 1.e-7 Msun/yr vs ~ 1.e-5 Msun/yr for standard YSOs (young stellar o...

  11. Studying the Prevalence and Etiology of Class II Subdivision Malocclusion Utilizing Cone-Beam Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    II SUBDIVISION MALOCCLUSION UTILIZING CONE-BEAM COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY A THESIS Presented to the Faculty of the Uniform Services University of...K_Paper _Article _Book _ Poster _Presentation _Other 6. Title: ’Studying the Prevalence and Etiology of Class II Subdivision Malocclusion Utilizing...of any copyrighted material in the thesis manuscript entitled : ’STUDYING THE PREVALENCE AND ETIOLOGY OF CLASS II SUBDIVISION MALOCCLUSION

  12. 40 CFR 144.28 - Requirements for Class I, II, and III wells authorized by rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... annular pressure; (iii) The results from ground-water monitoring wells prescribed in paragraph (g)(1)(iii... drinking water and the well bore is prohibited. (2) The owner or operator of a Class I, II or III injection... water. (ii) For Class II wells: (A) The owner or operator shall not exceed a maximum injection...

  13. Prediction of peptide binding to a major histocompatibility complex class I molecule based on docking simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Takeshi

    2016-10-01

    Binding between major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules and immunogenic epitopes is one of the most important processes for cell-mediated immunity. Consequently, computational prediction of amino acid sequences of MHC class I binding peptides from a given sequence may lead to important biomedical advances. In this study, an efficient structure-based method for predicting peptide binding to MHC class I molecules was developed, in which the binding free energy of the peptide was evaluated by two individual docking simulations. An original penalty function and restriction of degrees of freedom were determined by analysis of 361 published X-ray structures of the complex and were then introduced into the docking simulations. To validate the method, calculations using a 50-amino acid sequence as a prediction target were performed. In 27 calculations, the binding free energy of the known peptide was within the top 5 of 166 peptides generated from the 50-amino acid sequence. Finally, demonstrative calculations using a whole sequence of a protein as a prediction target were performed. These data clearly demonstrate high potential of this method for predicting peptide binding to MHC class I molecules.

  14. Hyoid bone position and head posture comparison in skeletal Class I and Class II subjects: A retrospective cephalometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawankumar Dnyandeo Tekale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the hyoid bone position and the head posture using lateral cephalograms in subjects with skeletal Class I and skeletal Class II pattern and to investigate the gender differences. Materials and Methods: The study used lateral cephalograms of 40 subjects (20 skeletal Class I pattern; 20 skeletal Class II pattern. Lateral cephalograms were traced and analyzed for evaluation of the hyoid bone position and the head posture using 34 parameters. Independent sample t-test was performed to compare the differences between the two groups and between genders in each group. Statistical tests were performed using NCSS 2007 software (NCSST, Kaysville, Utah, USA. Results: The linear measurements between the hyoid bone (H and cervical spine (CV2ia, the nasion-sella line, palatal line nasion line, the anterior nasal spine (ANS to perpendicular projection of H on the NLP (NLP- Nasal Linear Projection (H-NLP/ANS as well as the posterior cranial points (Bo, Ar and S points were found to be less in skeletal Class II subjects. The measurement H-CV2ia was found to be less in males with skeletal Class I pattern and H-CV4ia was found to be less in males with skeletal Class II pattern. The natural head posture showed no significant gender differences. Conclusion: The position of hyoid bone was closer to the cervical vertebra horizontally in skeletal Class II subjects when compared with skeletal Class I subjects. In males, the hyoid bone position was closer to the cervical vertebra horizontally both in skeletal Class I and skeletal Class II subjects.

  15. The Dimanganese(II) Site of Bacillus subtilis Class Ib Ribonucleotide Reductase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boal, Amie K.; Cotruvo, Jr., Joseph A.; Stubbe, JoAnne; Rosenzweig, Amy C. (MIT); (NWU)

    2014-10-02

    Class Ib ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) use a dimanganese-tyrosyl radical cofactor, Mn{sub 2}{sup III}-Y{sm_bullet}, in their homodimeric NrdF ({beta}2) subunit to initiate reduction of ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides. The structure of the Mn{sub 2}{sup II} form of NrdF is an important component in understanding O{sub 2}-mediated formation of the active metallocofactor, a subject of much interest because a unique flavodoxin, NrdI, is required for cofactor assembly. Biochemical studies and sequence alignments suggest that NrdF and NrdI proteins diverge into three phylogenetically distinct groups. The only crystal structure to date of a NrdF with a fully ordered and occupied dimanganese site is that of Escherichia coli Mn{sub 2}{sup II}-NrdF, prototypical of the enzymes from actinobacteria and proteobacteria. Here we report the 1.9 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of Bacillus subtilis Mn{sub 2}{sup II}-NrdF, representative of the enzymes from a second group, from Bacillus and Staphylococcus. The structures of the metal clusters in the {beta}2 dimer are distinct from those observed in E. coli Mn{sub 2}{sup II}-NrdF. These differences illustrate the key role that solvent molecules and protein residues in the second coordination sphere of the Mn{sub 2}{sup II} cluster play in determining conformations of carboxylate residues at the metal sites and demonstrate that diverse coordination geometries are capable of serving as starting points for Mn{sub 2}{sup III}-Y{sm_bullet} cofactor assembly in class Ib RNRs.

  16. Role of non-classical MHC class I molecules in cancer immunosuppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochan, Grazyna; Escors, David; Breckpot, Karine; Guerrero-Setas, David

    2013-01-01

    Growing neoplasms employ various mechanisms to evade immunosurveillance. The expression of non-classical MHC class I molecules by both immune and malignant cells in the tumor microenvironment constitute of the strategies used by tumors to circumvent the cytotoxic activity of effector cells of the immune system. The overexpression of HLA-G, -E, and -F is a common finding across a variety of malignancies. However, while the presence of HLA-G and HLA-E has been recently correlated with poor clinical outcome, information on the clinicopathological significance of HLA-F is limited. In the present review, we summarize studies on non-classical MHC class I molecules with special emphasis on their role in the modulation of anticancer immune responses. PMID:24482746

  17. A third broad lineage of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I in teleost fish; MHC class II linkage and processed genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Johannes Martinus; Katagiri, Takayuki; Hosomichi, Kazuyoshi; Yanagiya, Kazuyo; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Ototake, Mitsuru; Aoki, Takashi; Hashimoto, Keiichiro; Shiina, Takashi

    2007-04-01

    Most of the previously studied teleost MHC class I molecules can be classified into two broad lineages: "U" and "Z/ZE." However, database reports on genes in cyprinid and salmonid fishes show that there is a third major lineage, which lacks detailed analysis so far. We designated this lineage "L" because of an intriguing linkage characteristic. Namely, one zebrafish L locus is closely linked with MHC class II loci, despite the extensively documented nonlinkage of teleost class I with class II. The L lineage consists of highly variable, nonclassical MHC class I genes, and has no apparent orthologues outside teleost fishes. Characteristics that distinguish the L lineage from most other MHC class I are (1) absence of two otherwise highly conserved tryptophan residues W51 and W60 in the alpha1 domain, (2) a low GC content of the alpha1 and alpha2 exons, and (3) an HINLTL motif including a possible glycosylation site in the alpha3 domain. In rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) we analyzed several intact L genes in detail, including their genomic organization and transcription pattern. The gene Onmy-LAA is quite different from the genes Onmy-LBA, Onmy-LCA, Onmy-LDA, and Onmy-LEA, while the latter four are similar and categorized as "Onmy-LBA-like." Whereas the Onmy-LAA gene is organized like a canonical MHC class I gene, the Onmy-LBA-like genes are processed and lack all introns except intron 1. Onmy-LAA is predominantly expressed in the intestine, while the Onmy-LBA-like transcripts display a rather homogeneous tissue distribution. To our knowledge, this is the first description of an MHC class I lineage with multiple copies of processed genes, which are intact and transcribed. The present study significantly improves the knowledge of MHC class I variation in teleosts.

  18. Novel MHC Class II Breast Cancer Vaccine Using RNA Interference (RNAi) to Down Regulate Invariant Chain (Ii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    uveal melanoma cells. Cancer Res. 67: 4499-4506, 2007. 30. Chamuleau ME, Souwer Y, Van Ham SM, Zevenbergen A, Westers TM, Berkhof J, Meijer CJ, van...MHC class I, class II, CD80, CD4, CD8, and immunoglobulin) or fixed and stained for Ii as described (20). Western blots . Ii Western blots were done...as described (20). Blots for MHC II were done as for Ii with the following modifications: cell lysates were loaded onto SDS-PAGE gels using nonreducing

  19. DIFFERENT ROLES OF CLASS-I AND CLASS-II CLOSTRIDIUM-HISTOLYTICUM COLLAGENASE IN RAT PANCREATIC-ISLET ISOLATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WOLTERS, GHJ; VOSSCHEPERKEUTER, GH; LIN, HC; VANSCHILFGAARDE, R

    1995-01-01

    Crude Clostridium histolyticum collagenase was purified by gel filtration and fractionated by anion exchange chromatography into class I with high collagen digestion activity (CDA) and low FALGPA (2-furanacryloyl-L-leucylglycyl-L-prolyI-L-alanine )hydrolysis activity (FHA), class II with low CDA and

  20. Characterization and evolution of MHC class II B genes in Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaberman, Scott; Moreno, Maria A; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2009-08-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules play a key role in the adaptive immune system of vertebrates. Class II B genes appear to evolve in a very different manner in mammals and birds. Orthology is commonly observed among mammal loci, while genes tend to cluster phylogenetically within bird species. Here we present class II B data from a representative of another major group of amniotes, the squamates (i.e. lizards, snakes, amphisbaenians), with the ultimate goal of placing mammalian and avian MHC evolution into a broader context. In this study, eight class II B cDNA sequences were obtained from the Galápagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) which were divided into five locus groups, Amcr-DAB1 through -DAB5, based on similarities along most of the coding and noncoding portions of the transcribed gene. All marine iguana sequences were monophyletic with respect to class II genes from other vertebrates indicating that they originated from a common ancestral locus after squamates split from other reptiles. The beta-1 domain, which is involved in antigen binding, exhibited signatures of positive selection as well as interlocus gene conversion in both long and short tracts-a pattern also observed in birds and fish, but not in mammals. On the other hand, the beta-2 domain was divergent between gene groups, which is characteristic of mammals. Based on these results, we preliminarily show that squamate class II B genes have been shaped by a unique blend of evolutionary forces that have been observed in differing degrees in other vertebrates.

  1. V beta T cell repertoire of CD8+ splenocytes selected on nonpolymorphic MHC class I molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laouini, D; Casrouge, A; Dalle, S; Lemonnier, F; Kourilsky, P; Kanellopoulos, J

    2000-12-01

    In this work, we have studied the role of the MHC class Ib molecules in the selection and maintenance of CD8(+) T splenocytes. We have compared the CD8(+) T cell repertoires of wild-type, H-2K-deficient, H-2D-deficient, or double knockout C57BL/6 mice. We show that the different CD8(+) repertoires, selected either by class Ia and class Ib or by class Ib molecules only, use the various V alpha (AV) and V beta (BV) rearrangements in the same proportion and without biases in the CDR3 size distribution. Furthermore, we have estimated the size of the BV repertoire in the four different strains of mice. Interestingly, we have found that the BV repertoire size is proportional to the overall number of CD8(+) splenocytes. This observation implies that BV diversity is positively correlated with the number of CD8(+) cells, even when the number of CD8(+) splenocytes is dramatically reduced (90% in the double knockout mice).

  2. Management of Class I and Class II Amalgam Restorations with Localized Defects: Five-Year Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Martin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Replacement of dental restorations has been the traditional treatment for defective restorations. This five-year prospective clinical trial evaluated amalgam restorations with localized defects that were treated by means of repair or refurbishing. Fifty-two patients (50% female and 50% male, mean age 28.3±18.1 years, range 18–80 with 160 class I and class II defective restorations were included. The study focused on the application of two minimally invasive treatments for localized restoration defects and compared these with no treatment and total replacement as negative and positive controls, respectively. Restorations were assessed by two calibrated examiners according to modified U.S. Public Health Service criteria, including marginal adaptation, anatomic form, secondary caries, and roughness. At five years, recall was examined in 45 patients with 108 restorations (67.5%. The results suggest that repair treatment is as effective as total replacement of restorations with localized defects, reducing biological costs to the patient and providing new tools to the clinician. Refinishing restoration is a useful treatment for localized anatomic form defects.

  3. Características cefalométricas de pacientes portadores de más oclusões Classe I e Classe II de Angle Cephalometric characteristics of patients with Angle Class I and Class II malocclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Lacerda dos Santos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: o presente estudo comparou algumas medidas cefalométricas relacionadas às características faciais em pacientes com má oclusão Classe I, Classe II 1ª divisão e Classe II 2ª divisão. METODOLOGIA: foram selecionadas 130 telerradiografias de pacientes leucodermas em fase inicial de tratamento ortodôntico, com idades entre 10 e 16 anos (média de 12,6 anos; e divididos em 3 grupos. As medidas cefalométricas utilizadas neste estudo foram: ANB, ı-SN, IMPA, AML, Ls-ı, Li-ī e EI. A análise de variância e o teste de Tukey foram realizados nas medidas ANB, IMPA, AML, ı-SN e Li-ī. Para as demais variáveis (EI e Ls-ı foi utilizado o teste de Kruskal Wallis e Dunn. RESULTADOS: os resultados mostraram que as medidas Ls-ı e EI tiveram diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os grupos I e II-1 e entre os grupos II-1 e II-2 (p AIM: The present study compared some cephalometric measurements related to facial characteristics in patients having Class I, Class II division 1, and Class II division 2 malocclusions. METHODS: One hundred and thirty teleradiographs of Caucasian patients aged 10-16 years (mean age of 12.6 years under initial orthodontic treatment were selected for study and divided into 3 groups. The cephalometric measurements used in the present study were the following: ANB, ı-SN, IMPA, AML, Ls-ı, Li-ī, and EI. Variance analysis and Tukey's test were carried out for ANB, IMPA, AML, ı-SN, and Li-ī measurements, whereas Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests were used for EI and Ls-ı. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences were found for EI and Ls-ı measurements when Group II-1 was compared to Group I and Group II-2 (p < 0.05. ANB and IMPA measurements also had statistically significant differences when Group I was compared to Group II-1 and Group II-2 (p < 0.05. The measurement ı-SN had statistically significant differences between the 3 groups (p < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: One can conclude that the measurement

  4. Search for class II methanol masers at 23.1 GHz

    CERN Document Server

    Cragg, D M; Caswell, J L; Ellingsen, S P; Godfrey, P D

    2004-01-01

    In the early days of methanol maser discoveries the 9(2)-10(1) A+ transition at 23.1 GHz was found to exhibit maser characteristics in the northern star-forming region W3(OH), and probable maser emission in two other sources. Attention subsequently turned to the 6.6-GHz 5(1)-6(0) A+ methanol maser transition, which has proved a valuable tracer of early high-mass star formation. We have undertaken a new search for 23.1-GHz methanol masers in 50 southern star formation regions using the Parkes radiotelescope. The target sources all exhibit class II methanol maser emission at 6.6 GHz, with 20 sources also displaying maser features in the 107.0-GHz 3(1)-4(0) A+ methanol line. Strong emission at 23.1 GHz in NGC 6334F was confirmed, but no emission was detected in the remaining sources. Thus the 23.1-GHz methanol masers are rare. A maser model in which methanol molecules are pumped to the second torsionally excited state by radiation from warm dust can account for class II maser activity in all the transitions in w...

  5. II-Q restriction endonucleases--new class of type II enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degtyarev, S K; Rechkunova, N I; Kolyhalov, A A; Dedkov, V S; Zhilkin, P A

    1990-10-11

    Unique restriction endonucleases Bpu 10l and Bsil have been isolated from Bacillus pumilas and Bacillus sphaericus, respectively. The recognition sequences and cleavage points of these enzymes have been determinated as 5'-CC1TNAGC-3'/3'-GGANT1CG-5' for Bpu 10l and 5'-C1TCGTG-3'/3'-GAGCA1C-5' for Bsil. Restriction endonucleases Bpu 10l and Bsil represent a new class of enzymes which recognize non-palindromic nucleotide sequences and hydrolize DNA within the recognition sequence. Bpu 10l and Bsil recognition sequences may be regarded as quasipalindromic and the enzymes may be designated as type II-Q restriction endonucleases.

  6. Performance assessment for the class L-II disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This draft radiological performance assessment (PA) for the proposed Class L-II Disposal Facility (CIIDF) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) has been prepared to demonstrate compliance with the requirements of the US Department of Energy Order 5820.2A. This PA considers the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) over the operating life of the facility and the long-term performance of the facility in providing protection to public health and the environment. The performance objectives contained in the order require that the facility be managed to accomplish the following: (1) Protect public health and safety in accordance with standards specified in environmental health orders and other DOE orders. (2) Ensure that external exposure to the waste and concentrations of radioactive material that may be released into surface water, groundwater, soil, plants, and animals results in an effective dose equivalent (EDE) that does not exceed 25 mrem/year to a member of the public. Releases to the atmosphere shall meet the requirements of 40 CFR Pt. 61. Reasonable effort should be made to maintain releases of radioactivity in effluents to the general environment as low as reasonably achievable. (1) Ensure that the committed EDEs received by individual who inadvertently may intrude into the facility after the loss of active institutional control (100 years) will not exceed 100 mrem/year for continuous exposure of 500 mrem for a single acute exposure. (4) Protect groundwater resources, consistent with federal, state, and local requirements.

  7. Hypothesis: Targeted Ikkβ deletion upregulates MIF signaling responsiveness and MHC class II expression in mouse hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine S Koch

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Katherine S Koch, Hyam L LeffertHepatocyte Growth Control and Stem Cell Laboratory, Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, CA, USAAbstract: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF is causally related to the pathogenesis of chronic liver disease but its hepatocellular mechanisms of action are largely unknown. Scattered reports in the literature hint at functional connections between the expression of MIF and major histocompatibility complex (MHC Class II molecules. Not surprisingly, these relationships have not yet been explored in hepatocytes because MIF and MHC Class II cell surface receptors are commonly expressed by other cell types including various antigen presenting cells of the immune system. On the other hand, mounting evidence suggests that heteromeric MIF receptors share a common molecule with intracellular MHC Class II complexes, viz., CD74, which also serves as the MHC Class II chaperone; and, while it is unclear what cancer-related role(s MHC Class II receptors might play, increasing evidence suggests that MIF and CD74 are also implicated in the biology of hepatocellular carcinoma. These reports are provocative for two reasons: firstly, Ikkβ Δhep mice carrying hepatocyte-targeted deletions of Ikkβ, an IκB kinase complex subunit required for the activation of the transcription factor NF-κB (nuclear factor-κB, have been shown to display heightened susceptibilities to hepatotoxins and chemical hepatocarcinogens; secondly, microarray profiling observations indicate that Ikkβ Δhep hepatocytes constitutively and “ectopically” overexpress genes, particularly CD74, CD44 (a MIF-receptor subunit and MHC Class II I-A/E β and I-A α chains, and gene families that regulate host immune process and immune defense responses. These findings together suggest that Ikkβ Δhep mice might express functional MIF and MHC Class II receptors, leading to increased hepatocellular sensitivity to

  8. The role of adhesive molecules in endometrial cancer: part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Malinowski

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The carcinogenesis is a result of both functional and structural disorders in the tissue. It initiates as a mutationin a gene encoding protein that is essential for cellular function. The subsequent cascade of eventsleads to accumulation of mutations and loss of cellular function. The cell loses its tissue-specific morphology,disconnects from other cells and extracellular matrix and migrates – the invasion begins. It is now clear thatadhesive molecules are a key player in this cascade. These proteins of the cell membrane surface are responsiblefor attachment of the cells to each other and to the extracellular matrix. These interactions are crucial forboth structural and functional tissue organization. Lack of this homeostasis destroys the tissue architectureand impairs its function and results in invasion. Abnormal expression of adhesive molecules was reported in allexamined cancers, including endometrial cancer.Endometrial cancer is the most common gynaecological cancer in developed countries. Although in many casesdiagnosed and treated in early stages, and thus with good results, some patients cannot be cured. Completeknowledge of the pathogenesis of the disease will be helpful in identifying the patients with negative prognosticfactors, increased risk of recurrence and, perhaps, to find other therapeutic options. In the paper we are trying tosum up the up-to-date knowledge of the role of adhesive molecules in pathogenesis of endometrial cancer.

  9. Complex dynamics in diatomic molecules. Part II: Quantum trajectories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, C.-D. [Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: cdyang@mail.ncku.edu.tw; Weng, H.-J. [Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: principlex@yahoo.com.tw

    2008-10-15

    The second part of this paper deals with quantum trajectories in diatomic molecules, which has not been considered before in the literature. Morse potential serves as a more accurate function than a simple harmonic oscillator for illustrating a realistic picture about the vibration of diatomic molecules. However, if we determine molecular dynamics by integrating the classical force equations derived from a Morse potential, we will find that the resulting trajectories do not consist with the probabilistic prediction of quantum mechanics. On the other hand, the quantum trajectory determined by Bohmian mechanics [Bohm D. A suggested interpretation of the quantum theory in terms of hidden variable. Phys. Rev. 1952;85:166-179] leads to the conclusion that a diatomic molecule is motionless in all its vibrational eigen-states, which also contradicts probabilistic prediction of quantum mechanics. In this paper, we point out that the quantum trajectory of a diatomic molecule completely consistent with quantum mechanics does exist and can be solved from the quantum Hamilton equations of motion derived in Part I, which is based on a complex-space formulation of fractal spacetime [El Naschie MS. A review of E-Infinity theory and the mass spectrum of high energy particle physics. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2004;19:209-36; El Naschie MS. E-Infinity theory - some recent results and new interpretations. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2006;29:845-853; El Naschie MS. The concepts of E-infinity. An elementary introduction to the cantorian-fractal theory of quantum physics. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2004;22:495-511; El Naschie MS. SU(5) grand unification in a transfinite form. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2007;32:370-374; Nottale L. Fractal space-time and microphysics: towards a theory of scale relativity. Singapore: World Scientific; 1993; Ord G. Fractal space time and the statistical mechanics of random works. Chaos, Soiltons and Fractals 1996;7:821-843] approach to quantum

  10. T cells induce extended class II MHC compartments in dendritic cells in a Toll-like receptor-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boes, Marianne; Bertho, Nicolas; Cerny, Jan; Op den Brouw, Marjolein; Kirchhausen, Tomas; Ploegh, Hidde

    2003-10-15

    Interaction of Ag-loaded dendritic cells with Ag-specific CD4 T cells induces the formation of long tubular class II MHC-positive compartments that polarize toward the T cell. We show involvement of a Toll-like receptor-mediated signal in this unusual form of intracellular class II MHC trafficking. First, wild-type dendritic cells loaded with LPS-free Ag failed to show formation of class II-positive tubules upon Ag-specific T cell engagement, but did so upon supplementation of the Ag with low concentrations of LPS. Second, Ag-loaded myeloid differentiation factor 88 -deficient dendritic cells failed to form these tubules upon interaction with T cells, regardless of the presence of LPS. Finally, inclusion of a cell-permeable peptide that blocks TNFR-associated factor 6 function, downstream of myeloid differentiation factor 88, blocked T cell-dependent tubulation. A Toll-like receptor-dependent signal is thus required to allow Ag-loaded dendritic cells to respond to T cell contact by formation of extended endosomal compartments. This activation does not result in massive translocation of class II MHC molecules to the cell surface.

  11. Aberrant Expression of MHC Class II in Melanoma Attracts Inflammatory Tumor-Specific CD4+ T- Cells, Which Dampen CD8+ T-cell Antitumor Reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donia, Marco; Andersen, Rikke; Kjeldsen, Julie W

    2015-01-01

    In the absence of a local inflammatory response, expression of MHC class II molecules is restricted mainly to hematopoietic cells and thymus epithelium. However, certain tumors, such as melanoma, may acquire aberrant constitutive expression of MHC class II. In a set of primary melanoma cell popul...... mechanism that can be activated by aberrant expression of MHC class II molecules, which by attracting tumor-specific CD4(+) T cells elicit a local inflammatory response dominated by TNF that, in turn, inhibits cytotoxic CD8(+) T-cell responses......In the absence of a local inflammatory response, expression of MHC class II molecules is restricted mainly to hematopoietic cells and thymus epithelium. However, certain tumors, such as melanoma, may acquire aberrant constitutive expression of MHC class II. In a set of primary melanoma cell...... were dominated by TNF production. TNF reduced CD8(+) T-cell activation in IFNγ-rich environments resembling a tumor site. Conversely, direct CD4(+) T-cell responses had no influence on either the proliferation or viability of melanoma cells. Taken together, our results illustrate a novel immune escape...

  12. A common minimal motif for the ligands of HLA-B*27 class I molecules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Barriga

    Full Text Available CD8(+ T cells identify and kill infected cells through the specific recognition of short viral antigens bound to human major histocompatibility complex (HLA class I molecules. The colossal number of polymorphisms in HLA molecules makes it essential to characterize the antigen-presenting properties common to large HLA families or supertypes. In this context, the HLA-B*27 family comprising at least 100 different alleles, some of them widely distributed in the human population, is involved in the cellular immune response against pathogens and also associated to autoimmune spondyloarthritis being thus a relevant target of study. To this end, HLA binding assays performed using nine HLA-B*2705-restricted ligands endogenously processed and presented in virus-infected cells revealed a common minimal peptide motif for efficient binding to the HLA-B*27 family. The motif was independently confirmed using four unrelated peptides. This experimental approach, which could be easily transferred to other HLA class I families and supertypes, has implications for the validation of new bioinformatics tools in the functional clustering of HLA molecules, for the identification of antiviral cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses, and for future vaccine development.

  13. 77 FR 60625 - Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Parts 542 and 543 RIN 3141-AA-37 Minimum Internal Control... while tribes and operations transition to the new Class II Minimum Internal Control Standards that were... part 543, Minimum Internal Control Standards Class II Gaming, with comprehensive and updated...

  14. 76 FR 53817 - Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Parts 542 and 543 Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II... delay of the effective date on the final rule for Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming... sections of established Minimum Internal Control Standards and replaced them with a new part titled...

  15. Long-term evaluation of Class II subdivision treatment with unilateral maxillary first molar extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livas, Christos; Pandis, Nikolaos; Booij, Johan Willem; Katsaros, Christos; Ren, Yijin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the long-term effects of asymmetrical maxillary first molar (M1) extraction in Class II subdivision treatment. Materials and Methods: Records of 20 Class II subdivision whites (7 boys, 13 girls; mean age, 13.0 years; SD, 1.7 years) consecutively treated with the Begg technique

  16. Maxillary first molar extraction in Class II malocclusion : Follow-up studies on treatment effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livas, Christos

    2015-01-01

    This PhD research investigated treatment effects of extraction of one and two maxillary first molars in Class II subdivision and Class II/1 malocclusion cases respectively from a longer time perspective. Private practice records were scrutinized to evaluate aspects of a treatment technique combining

  17. 40 CFR 144.22 - Existing Class II enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and hydrocarbon storage wells. 144.22 Section 144.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... of Underground Injection by Rule § 144.22 Existing Class II enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage wells. (a) An existing Class II enhanced recovery or hydrocarbon storage injection well is authorized...

  18. The effectiveness of different polymerization protocols for class II composite resin restorations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, L.C.G. de; Opdam, N.J.M.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Roeters, F.J.M.; Wolke, J.G.C.; Geitenbeek, B.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of reduced light exposure times on Vickers hardness (VH) of class II composite resin restorations. METHODS: Class II restorations were made in vitro in three 2mm thick increments in a human molar. Two composite resins (Clearfil AP-X; Esthet-X) were polymerized w

  19. Activation of human T cells by major histocompatability complex class II expressing neutrophils: proliferation in the presence of superantigen, but not tetanus toxoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanger, N A; Liu, C; Guyre, P M; Wardwell, K; O'Neil, J; Guo, T L; Christian, T P; Mudzinski, S P; Gosselin, E J

    1997-06-01

    The primary function of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) in the immune response appears to be acute phagocytic clearance of foreign pathogens and release of inflammatory mediators. Consistent with their assumed lack of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II expression, PMN have not been considered to play a role in antigen presentation and T-cell activation. However, recent reports have shown that human PMN can express MHC class II molecules both in vitro and in vivo after stimulation with either granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). Thus, under appropriate conditions, PMN could play a significant role in immune regulation, including T-cell activation. In this report, we demonstrate that human class II-expressing PMN can serve as accessory cells in superantigen (SAg)-mediated T-cell activation. This accessory activity for SAg presentation was present only after induction of MHC class II expression, and was especially pronounced following culture of PMN with GM-CSF plus IFN-gamma, which acted synergistically to induce MHC class II molecules on PMN. Moreover, the level of MHC class II expression and the magnitude of SAg-induced T-cell responses were found to be highly correlated and distinctly donor dependent, with PMN from some donors repeatedly showing fivefold higher responses than PMN from other donors. On the other hand, culture of PMN with GM-CSF plus IFN-gamma under conditions that resulted in optimal MHC class II expression did not enable them to function as antigen-presenting cells for either intact tetanus toxoid (TT) or for a TT peptide. These results delineate a new pathway for T-cell activation by SAg that may play an important role in the severity of SAg-induced inflammatory responses. They also identify a donor-specific polymorphism for induction of PMN MHC class II expression which may be of significance for therapies involving GM-CSF and IFN-gamma.

  20. Interaction of Bap31 and MHC class I molecules and their traffic out of the endoplasmic reticulum1

    OpenAIRE

    ABE, FUMIYOSHI; Van Prooyen, Nancy; Ladasky, John J.; Edidin, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein Bap31 associates with nascent class I MHC molecules. It appears to mediate the export of class I MHC molecules from the ER and may also be involved in their quality control. Here we use Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) and quantitative fluorescence imaging to show that in human, HeLa, cells Bap31 clusters with MHC class I (HLA-A2) molecules in the ER, and traffics via export vesicles to the ER/Golgi intermediate compartment, ERGIC. FRET between B...

  1. In silico designing breast cancer peptide vaccine for binding to MHC class I and II: A molecular docking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi, Manijeh; Moreau, Violaine

    2016-12-01

    Antigenic peptides or cancer peptide vaccines can be directly delivered to cancer patients to produce immunologic responses against cancer cells. Specifically, designed peptides can associate with Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class I or II molecules on the cell surface of antigen presenting cells activating anti-tumor effector mechanisms by triggering helper T cell (Th) or cytotoxic T cells (CTL). In general, high binding to MHCs approximately correlates with in vivo immunogenicity. Consequently, a molecular docking technique was run on a library of novel discontinuous peptides predicted by PEPOP from Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 ECD) subdomain III. This technique is expected to improve the prediction accuracy in order to identify the best MHC class I and II binder peptides. Molecular docking analysis through GOLD identified the peptide 1412 as the best MHC binder peptide to both MHC class I and II molecules used in the study. The GOLD results predicted HLA-DR4, HLA-DP2 and TCR as the most often targeted receptors by the peptide 1412. These findings, based on bioinformatics analyses, can be exploited in further experimental analyses in vaccine design and cancer therapy to find possible proper approaches providing beneficial effects.

  2. Insect Cells Encode a Class II α-Mannosidase with Unique Properties*

    OpenAIRE

    Kawar, Ziad; Karaveg, Khanita; Moremen, Kelley W.; Jarvis, Donald L.

    2001-01-01

    Previously, we cloned and characterized an insect (Sf9) cell cDNA encoding a class II α-mannosidase with amino acid sequence and biochemical similarities to mammalian Golgi α-mannosidase II. Since then, it has been demonstrated that other mammalian class II α-mannosidases can participate in N-glycan processing. Thus, the present study was performed to evaluate the catalytic properties of the Sf9 class II α-mannosidase and to more clearly determine its relationship to mammalian Golgi α-mannosi...

  3. HLA II class antigens and susceptibility to coeliac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojvodić Svetlana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Coeliac disease (CD is a systemic autoimmune, complex and multifactorial disorder, which is caused by interactions between genetic and environmental factors. The only established genetic risk factors so far are the human leucocyte antigens. The aim of this study was to assess the distribution of II class human leukocyte antigens (HLA in patients with coeliac disease and to investigate the susceptibility to coeliac disease in family members. We typed HLA DR and DQ antigens in 37 patients from Vojvodina with coeliac disease, 23 first-degree relatives, and 210 controls, serologically using standard lymphocytotoxicity technique. HLA DQ5(1, DQ6(1, DR11(5, DQ7(3, DQ2 and DR15(2 were the most common antigens in the control group. Frequency of HLA DQ2, DR3 and DR7 was higher in CD patients than in the control group. The relative risks for HLA DQ2, DR3 and DR7 were 4.846, 6.986 and 2.106, respectively, while positive association was found between HLA DQ2 and DR3 and CD. Frequency of HLA DQ2, DR3 and DR16(2 was higher in first-degree relatives than in the control group while a positive association was found between HLA DQ2 and DR3. A negative association was found between HLA DQ5(1 and DQ6(1 in coeliac patients from Vojvodina and their relatives, in addition to HLA DR11(5 in the group of relatives (RR=0.363,PF=0.232. These findings indicate the impact of the HLA testing for CD in clinical practice in order to rule out the possibility to CD in doubtful cases or in at-risk subjects.

  4. Phenotypic Diversity in Caucasian Adults with Moderate to Severe Class II Malocclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Uribe, Lina M.; Howe, Sara C.; Kummet, Colleen; Vela, Kaci C.; Dawson, Deborah V.; Southard, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Class II malocclusion affects about 15 % of the US population and is characterized by a convex profile and occlusion disharmonies. The specific etiological mechanisms resulting in the range of Class II dento-skeletal combinations observed is not yet understood. Most studies describing the class II phenotypic diversity have utilized moderate sample sizes or have focused on younger individuals that later in life may outgrow their class II discrepancies; such a focus may also preclude the visualization of adult class II features. The majority have utilized simple correlation methods resulting in phenotypes that may not be generalizable to different samples and thus may not be suitable for studies of malocclusion etiology. The purpose of this study is to address these knowledge gaps by capturing the maximum phenotypic variation present in a large Caucasian sample of class II individuals selected with strict eligibility criteria and rigorously standardized multivariate reduction analyses. METHODS Sixty-three lateral cephalometric variables were measured from pre-treatment records of 309 Class II Caucasian adults (82 males, 227 females; ages 16–60 years). Principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis were used to generate comprehensive phenotypes in an effort to identify the most homogeneous groups of individuals reducing heterogeneity and improving the power of future malocclusion etiology studies. RESULTS PCA resulted in 7 principal components that accounted for 81% of the variation. The first three components represented variation on mandibular rotation, upper incisor angulation and mandibular length, respectively. The cluster analysis identified 5 distinct Class II phenotypes. CONCLUSIONS A comprehensive spectrum of Class II phenotypic definitions was obtained that could be generalized to other samples advancing our efforts to the identification of etiological factors underlying Class II malocclusion. PMID:24582022

  5. Development of a simultaneous high resolution typing method for three SLA class II genes, SLA-DQA, SLA-DQB1, and SLA-DRB1 and the analysis of SLA class II haplotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, MinhThong; Choi, Hojun; Choi, Min-Kyeung; Cho, Hyesun; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Seo, Han Geuk; Cha, Se-Yeon; Seo, Kunho; Dadi, Hailu; Park, Chankyu

    2015-06-15

    The characterization of the genetic variations of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is essential to understand the relationship between the genetic diversity of MHC molecules and disease resistance and susceptibility in adaptive immunity. We previously reported the development of high-resolution individual locus typing methods for three of the most polymorphic swine leukocyte antigens (SLA) class II loci, namely, SLA-DQA, SLA-DQB1, and SLA-DRB1. In this study, we extensively modified our previous protocols and developed a method for the simultaneous amplification of the three SLA class II genes and subsequent analysis of individual loci using direct sequencing. The unbiased and simultaneous amplification of alleles from the all three hyper-polymorphic and pseudogene containing genes such as MHC genes is extremely challenging. However, using this method, we demonstrated the successful typing of SLA-DQA, SLA-DQB1, and SLA-DRB1 for 31 selected individuals comprising 26 different SLA class II haplotypes which were identified from 700 animals using the single locus typing methods. The results were identical to the known genotypes from the individual locus typing. The new method has significant benefits over the individual locus typing, including lower typing cost, use of less biomaterial, less effort and fewer errors in handling large samples for multiple loci. We also extensively characterized the haplotypes of SLA class II genes and reported three new haplotypes. Our results should serve as a basis to investigate the possible association between polymorphisms of MHC class II and differences in immune responses to exogenous antigens.

  6. Predominant Occupation of the Class I MHC Molecule H-2Kwm7 with a Single Self-peptide Suggests a Mechanism for its Diabetes-protective Effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brims, D.; Qian, J; Jarchum, I; Mikesh, L; Palmieri, E; Ramagopal, U; Malashkevich, V; Chaparro, R; Lund, T; et. al.

    2010-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease characterized by T cell-mediated destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic {beta} cells. In both humans and the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model of T1D, class II MHC alleles are the primary determinant of disease susceptibility. However, class I MHC genes also influence risk. These findings are consistent with the requirement for both CD{sup 4+} and CD{sup 8+} T cells in the pathogenesis of T1D. Although a large body of work has permitted the identification of multiple mechanisms to explain the diabetes-protective effect of particular class II MHC alleles, studies examining the protective influence of class I alleles are lacking. Here, we explored this question by performing biochemical and structural analyses of the murine class I MHC molecule H-2K{sup wm7}, which exerts a diabetes-protective effect in NOD mice. We have found that H-2K{sup wm7} molecules are predominantly occupied by the single self-peptide VNDIFERI, derived from the ubiquitous protein histone H2B. This unexpected finding suggests that the inability of H-2K{sup wm7} to support T1D development could be due, at least in part, to the failure of peptides from critical {beta}-cell antigens to adequately compete for binding and be presented to T cells. Predominant presentation of a single peptide would also be expected to influence T-cell selection, potentially leading to a reduced ability to select a diabetogenic CD{sup 8+} T-cell repertoire. The report that one of the predominant peptides bound by T1D-protective HLA-A*31 is histone derived suggests the potential translation of our findings to human diabetes-protective class I MHC molecules.

  7. Bacterial superantigens promote acute nasopharyngeal infection by Streptococcus pyogenes in a human MHC Class II-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Katherine J; Zeppa, Joseph J; Wakabayashi, Adrienne T; Xu, Stacey X; Mazzuca, Delfina M; Welch, Ian; Baroja, Miren L; Kotb, Malak; Cairns, Ewa; Cleary, P Patrick; Haeryfar, S M Mansour; McCormick, John K

    2014-05-01

    Establishing the genetic determinants of niche adaptation by microbial pathogens to specific hosts is important for the management and control of infectious disease. Streptococcus pyogenes is a globally prominent human-specific bacterial pathogen that secretes superantigens (SAgs) as 'trademark' virulence factors. SAgs function to force the activation of T lymphocytes through direct binding to lateral surfaces of T cell receptors and class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC-II) molecules. S. pyogenes invariably encodes multiple SAgs, often within putative mobile genetic elements, and although SAgs are documented virulence factors for diseases such as scarlet fever and the streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS), how these exotoxins contribute to the fitness and evolution of S. pyogenes is unknown. Here we show that acute infection in the nasopharynx is dependent upon both bacterial SAgs and host MHC-II molecules. S. pyogenes was rapidly cleared from the nasal cavity of wild-type C57BL/6 (B6) mice, whereas infection was enhanced up to ∼10,000-fold in B6 mice that express human MHC-II. This phenotype required the SpeA superantigen, and vaccination with an MHC -II binding mutant toxoid of SpeA dramatically inhibited infection. Our findings indicate that streptococcal SAgs are critical for the establishment of nasopharyngeal infection, thus providing an explanation as to why S. pyogenes produces these potent toxins. This work also highlights that SAg redundancy exists to avoid host anti-SAg humoral immune responses and to potentially overcome host MHC-II polymorphisms.

  8. Expression of class Ⅰ MHC molecule, HSP70 and TAP in human hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Ling Deng; Wei Chen; Mei-Ying Cai; Da-Peng Wei

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To demonstrate whether class Ⅰ MHC molecule,transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP), and heat-shock proteion70 (HSP70) expressed in liver cancer cells before the design and construction of CTL vaccine against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).METHODS: We studied 30 HCC specimens by labeled streptavidin biotin (LSAB) method of immunohistochemistry.RESULTS: The results showed that the majority of HCC cells investigated naturally expressed class Ⅰ MHC and TAP,which were different from other tumor cells. Furthermore,we found that HSP70 expressed not only in cellular cytoplasm, but also on the cell surface in HCC.CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that our understanding about immune escape mechanisms employed by HCC cells may be further improved. It is important to design and construct CTL vaccine against HCC.

  9. Molecular requirements for MHC class II alpha-chain engagement and allelic discrimination by the bacterial superantigen streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Katherine J; Xi, Wang; Rahman, A K M Nur-Ur; Nooh, Mohammed M; Kotb, Malak; Sundberg, Eric J; Madrenas, Joaquín; McCormick, John K

    2008-09-01

    Superantigens (SAgs) are microbial toxins that bind to both TCR beta-chain variable domains (Vbetas) and MHC class II molecules, resulting in the activation of T cells in a Vbeta-specific manner. It is now well established that different isoforms of MHC II molecules can play a significant role in the immune response to bacterial SAgs. In this work, using directed mutational studies in conjunction with functional analyses, we provide a complete functional map of the low-affinity MHC II alpha-chain binding interface of the SAg streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin C (SpeC) and identify a functional epitope in the beta-barrel domain that is required for the activation of T cells. Using cell lines that exclusively express individual MHC II isoforms, our studies provide a molecular basis for the selectivity of SpeC-MHC II recognition, and provide one mechanism by how SAgs are capable of distinguishing between different MHC II alleles.

  10. Class II antigen-associated invariant chain mRNA in mouse small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouellette, A J; Frederick, D; Hagen, S J; Katz, J D

    1991-09-30

    MHC class II antigen-associated invariant (Ii) chain mRNA appears in mouse small intestine during postnatal development. Ii chain cDNA hybridizes to RNA from epithelial sheets dissociated from the lamina propria with EDTA. Of several mouse organs tested, only bone marrow and spleen contain higher levels of Ii chain mRNA than small bowel. Ii chain mRNA is not detected in stomach, colon, duodenum, testis, liver, submandibular gland, or L-cell RNA; brain contains a cross-reactive but uncharacterized sequence. cDNA amplification using primers specific for both Ii31 and Ii41 chain mRNAs showed that both forms occur in small intestine. These results support the conclusion that regulation of the class II Ii chain gene is associated with the ontogeny of intestinal immunity.

  11. Superantigen and HLA-DR ligation induce phospholipase-C gamma 1 activation in class II+ T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanner, S B; Odum, Niels; Grosmaire, L;

    1992-01-01

    Bacterial enterotoxin superantigens bind directly to HLA class II molecules (HLA-DR) expressed on both APC and activated human T cells, and simultaneously bind to certain V beta chains of the TCR. In this report, we compared early T cell signaling events in human alloantigen-stimulated T cells when...... activated by HLA-DR ligation through antibody cross-linking or by direct enterotoxin superantigen binding. Both types of stimuli induced tyrosine phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C gamma 1 (PLC gamma 1) and an increase in intracellular calcium concentration; however....... In addition, down-modulation of CD3 receptors with antibody demonstrated that superantigen-induced signaling events were CD3-dependent. Superantigen signaling was also class II-dependent, in that resting T cells were not responsive to direct enterotoxin stimulation. To address how early signal transducing...

  12. CD4 binding to major histocompatibility complex class II antigens induces LFA-1-dependent and -independent homotypic adhesion of B lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansas, G S; Cambier, J C; Tedder, T F

    1992-01-01

    T helper cells recognize processed antigen (Ag) in the context of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigens present on the surface of B cells and other Ag-presenting cells. This interaction is mediated through the T cell receptor complex with associate recognition of class II molecules by the CD4 molecule. In this study, the binding of a soluble recombinant CD4/Ig heavy chain fusion protein (CD4-gamma 3) or monoclonal antibody (mAb) to class II antigens on human B cells was shown to induce rapid and specific homotypic adhesion of B cells and most B lymphoblastoid cell lines. mAb reactive with CD4 inhibited CD4-gamma 3-induced adhesion and a mutant B lymphoblastoid cell line deficient in class II antigens failed to respond. Induction of homotypic adhesion was dependent on energy metabolism and a functional cytoskeleton, and class II+ pre-B cells did not exhibit adhesion in response to these stimuli, suggesting that cross-linking of class II molecules generated a transmembrane signal and did not simply aggregate cells. In addition, MHC class II-induced adhesion was Fc receptor independent, as 15 mAb of different Ig isotypes reactive with HLA-D or HLA-DQ gene products induced adhesion. Anti-class II mAb and CD4-gamma 3 were able to induce adhesion at concentrations as low as 10 ng/ml and 100 ng/ml, respectively. Suboptimal stimulation of B cell lines through HLA-D antigens induced homotypic adhesion that was dependent on the activation of LFA-1 (CD11a/CD18), and which could be blocked by specific mAb. However, at greater signal strengths, adhesion was not blocked by mAb against the known adhesion receptors, suggesting the induction of a novel adhesion pathway. Consistent with this, homotypic adhesion induced by engagement of MHC class II antigens was observed with LFA-1-deficient B cell lines, and was independent of CD49d or CD18 expression. Thus, the direct engagement of B cell class II antigens by CD4 is likely to generate transmembrane signals which

  13. Elevation of c-MYC disrupts HLA class II-mediated immune recognition of human B cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    God, Jason M; Cameron, Christine; Figueroa, Janette; Amria, Shereen; Hossain, Azim; Kempkes, Bettina; Bornkamm, Georg W; Stuart, Robert K; Blum, Janice S; Haque, Azizul

    2015-02-15

    Elevated levels of the transcription factor c-myc are strongly associated with various cancers, and in particular B cell lymphomas. Although many of c-MYC's functions have been elucidated, its effect on the presentation of Ag through the HLA class II pathway has not been reported previously. This is an issue of considerable importance, given the low immunogenicity of many c-MYC-positive tumors. We report in this paper that increased c-MYC expression has a negative effect on the ability of B cell lymphomas to functionally present Ags/peptides to CD4(+) T cells. This defect was associated with alterations in the expression of distinct cofactors as well as interactions of antigenic peptides with class II molecules required for the presentation of class II-peptide complexes and T cell engagement. Using early passage Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) tumors and transformed cells, we show that compared with B lymphoblasts, BL cells express decreased levels of the class II editor HLA-DM, lysosomal thiol-reductase GILT, and a 47-kDa enolase-like protein. Functional Ag presentation was partially restored in BL cells treated with a c-MYC inhibitor, demonstrating the impact of this oncogene on Ag recognition. This restoration of HLA class II-mediated Ag presentation in early passage BL tumors/cells was linked to enhanced HLA-DM expression and a concurrent decrease in HLA-DO in BL cells. Taken together, these results reveal c-MYC exerts suppressive effects at several critical checkpoints in Ag presentation, which contribute to the immunoevasive properties of BL tumors.

  14. Elevation of c-MYC Disrupts HLA Class II-mediated Immune Recognition of Human B-cell Tumors1

    Science.gov (United States)

    God, Jason M.; Cameron, Christine; Figueroa, Janette; Amria, Shereen; Hossain, Azim; Kempkes, Bettina; Bornkamm, Georg W.; Stuart, Robert K.; Blum, Janice S.; Haque, Azizul

    2014-01-01

    Elevated levels of the transcription factor c-myc are strongly associated with various cancers, and in particular B-cell lymphomas. While many of c-MYC’s functions have been elucidated, its effect on the presentation of antigen (Ag) through the HLA class II pathway has not previously been reported. This is an issue of considerable importance, given the low immunogenicity of many c-MYC-positive tumors. We report here that increased c-MYC expression has a negative effect on the ability of B-cell lymphomas to functionally present Ags/peptides to CD4+ T cells. This defect was associated with alterations in the expression of distinct co-factors as well as interactions of antigenic peptides with class II molecules required for the presentation of class II-peptide complexes and T cell engagement. Using early passage Burkitt’s lymphoma (BL) tumors and transformed cells, we show that compared to B-lymphoblasts, BL cells express decreased levels of the class II editor HLA-DM, lysosomal thiol-reductase GILT, and a 47kDa enolase-like protein. Functional Ag presentation was partially restored in BL cells treated with a c-MYC inhibitor, demonstrating the impact of this oncogene on Ag recognition. This restoration of HLA class II-mediated Ag presentation in early passage BL tumors/cells was linked to enhanced HLA-DM expression and a concurrent decrease in HLA-DO in BL cells. Taken together, these results reveal c-MYC exerts suppressive effects at several critical checkpoints in Ag presentation which contribute to the immunoevasive properties of BL tumors. PMID:25595783

  15. The Oropharyngeal Airway in Young Adults with Skeletal Class II and Class III Deformities: A 3-D Morphometric Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasas Shri Nalaka Jayaratne

    Full Text Available 1 To determine the accuracy and reliability of an automated anthropometric measurement software for the oropharyngeal airway and 2 To compare the anthropometric dimensions of the oropharyngeal airway in skeletal class II and III deformity patients.Cone-beam CT (CBCT scans of 62 patients with skeletal class II or III deformities were used for this study. Volumetric, linear and surface area measurements retroglossal (RG and retropalatal (RP compartments of the oropharyngeal airway was measured with the 3dMDVultus software. Accuracy of automated anthropometric pharyngeal airway measurements was assessed using an airway phantom.The software was found to be reasonably accurate for measuring dimensions of air passages. The total oropharyngeal volume was significantly greater in the skeletal class III deformity group (16.7 ± 9.04 mm3 compared with class II subjects (11.87 ± 4.01 mm3. The average surface area of both the RG and RP compartments were significantly larger in the class III deformity group. The most constricted area in the RG and RP airway was significantly larger in individuals with skeletal class III deformity. The anterior-posterior (AP length of this constriction was significantly greater in skeletal class III individuals in both compartments, whereas the width of the constriction was not significantly different between the two groups in both compartments. The RP compartment was larger but less uniform than the RG compartment in both skeletal deformities.Significant differences were observed in morphological characteristics of the oropharyngeal airway in individuals with skeletal class II and III deformities. This information may be valuable for surgeons in orthognathic treatment planning, especially for mandibular setback surgery that might compromise the oropharyngeal patency.

  16. ``Simplest Molecule'' Clarifies Modern Physics II. Relativistic Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, William; Reimer, Tyle

    2015-05-01

    A ``simplest molecule'' consisting of CW- laser beam pairs helps to clarify relativity from poster board - I. In spite of a seemingly massless evanescence, an optical pair also clarifies classical and quantum mechanics of relativistic matter and antimatter. Logical extension of (x,ct) and (ω,ck) geometry gives relativistic action functions of Hamiltonian, Lagrangian, and Poincare that may be constructed in a few ruler-and-compass steps to relate relativistic parameters for group or phase velocity, momentum, energy, rapidity, stellar aberration, Doppler shifts, and DeBroglie wavelength. This exposes hyperbolic and circular trigonometry as two sides of one coin connected by Legendre contact transforms. One is Hamiltonian-like with a longitudinal rapidity parameter ρ (log of Doppler shift). The other is Lagrange-like with a transverse angle parameter σ (stellar aberration). Optical geometry gives recoil in absorption, emission, and resonant Raman-Compton acceleration and distinguishes Einstein rest mass, Galilean momentum mass, and Newtonian effective mass. (Molecular photons appear less bullet-like and more rocket-like.) In conclusion, modern space-time physics appears as a simple result of the more self-evident Evenson's axiom: ``All colors go c.''

  17. "simplest Molecule" Clarifies Modern Physics II. Relativistic Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, T. C.; Harter, W. G.

    2014-06-01

    A "simplest molecule" consisting of CW-laser beam pairs helps to clarify relativity in Talk I. In spite of a seemingly massless evanescence, an optical pair also clarifies classical and quantum mechanics of relativistic matter and anti-matter. *Logical extension of (x,ct) and (ω,ck) geometry gives relativistic action functions of Hamiltonian, Lagrangian, and Poincare that may be constructed in a few ruler-and-compass steps to relate relativistic parameters for group or phase velocity, momentum, energy, rapidity, stellar aberration, Doppler shifts, and DeBroglie wavelength. This exposes hyperbolic and circular trigonometry as two sides of one coin connected by Legendre contact transforms. One is Hamiltonian-like with a longitudinal rapidity parameter ρ (log of Doppler shift). The other is Lagrange-like with a transverse angle parameter σ (stellar aberration). Optical geometry gives recoil in absorption, emission, and resonant Raman-Compton acceleration and distinguishes Einstein rest mass, Galilean momentum mass, and Newtonian effective mass. (Molecular photons appear less bullet-like and more rocket-like.) In conclusion, modern space-time physics appears as a simple result of the more self-evident Evenson's axiom: "All colors go c."

  18. SNP variants associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) correlate with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten, Lik-Chin; Chin, Yoon-Ming; Tai, Mei-Chee; Chin, Edmund Fui-Min; Lim, Yat-Yuen; Suthandiram, Sujatha; Chang, Kian-Meng; Ong, Tee-Chuan; Bee, Ping-Chong; Mohamed, Zahurin; Gan, Gin-Gin; Ng, Ching-Ching

    2017-01-01

    Large consortia efforts and genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have linked a number of genetic variants within the 6p21 chromosomal region to non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Complementing these efforts, we genotyped previously reported SNPs in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I (rs6457327) and class II (rs9271100, rs2647012 and rs10484561) regions in a total of 1,145 subjects (567 NHL cases and 578 healthy controls) from two major ethnic groups in Malaysia, the Malays and the Chinese. We identified a NHL-associated (PNHL_add = 0.0008; ORNHL_add = 0.54; 95% CI = 0.37–0.77) and B-cell associated (PBcell_add = 0.0007; ORBcell_add = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.35–0.76) SNP rs2647012 in the Malaysian Malays. In silico cis-eQTL analysis of rs2647012 suggests potential regulatory function of nearby HLA class II molecules. Minor allele rs2647012-T is linked to higher expression of HLA-DQB1, rendering a protective effect to NHL risk. Our findings suggest that the HLA class II region plays an important role in NHL etiology. PMID:28139690

  19. Inflammatory bowel disease associations with HLA Class II genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, R. [Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Yang, H.; Targan, S. [Roche Molecular Systems, Inc., Alameda, CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    A PCR-SSOP assay has been used to analyze HLA-Class II DRB1 and DQB1 alleles in 378 Caucasians from a population in Southern California. The data has been analyzed separately for the Ashkenasi Jews and non-Jewish patients (n=286) and controls (n=92). Two common clinical forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have been studied: ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn`s disease (CD). In CD, we observed a susceptible effect with the rare DR1 allele - DRB*0103 [O.R.=4.56; 95% CI (0.96, 42.97); p=0.03]; a trend for an increase in DRB1*0103 was also observed in UC patients. A susceptible effect with DRB1*1502 [O.R.=5.20; 95% CI (1.10, 48.99); p=0.02] was observed in non-Jewish UC patients. This susceptible effect was restricted to UC ANCA-positive (antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies) patients. In addition, a significant association with DRB1*1101-DQB1*0301 [O.R.=9.46; 95% CI (1.30, 413.87); p=0.01] was seen with UC among non-Jewish patients: this haplotype was increased with CD among non-Jewish patients. Two protective haplotypes were detected among CD non-Jewish patients: DRB1*1301-DQB1*0603 [O.R.=0.34; 95% CI (0.09, 1.09); p=0.04], and DRB*0404-DQB1*0302 [O.R.=<0.08; 95% CI (0.0, 0.84); p=0.01]. When the same data were analyzed at the serology level, we observed a positive association in UC with DR2 [O.R.6.77; 95% CI (2.47, 22.95); p=2 x 10{sup -4}], and a positive association in CD with DR1 [O.R.=2.63; 95% CI (1.14, 6.62); p=0.01] consistent with previous reports. Thus, some IBD disease associations appear to be common to both UC and CD, while some are unique to one disease.

  20. Prediction of MHC class II binding affinity using SMM-align, a novel stabilization matrix alignment method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lund Ole

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antigen presenting cells (APCs sample the extra cellular space and present peptides from here to T helper cells, which can be activated if the peptides are of foreign origin. The peptides are presented on the surface of the cells in complex with major histocompatibility class II (MHC II molecules. Identification of peptides that bind MHC II molecules is thus a key step in rational vaccine design and developing methods for accurate prediction of the peptide:MHC interactions play a central role in epitope discovery. The MHC class II binding groove is open at both ends making the correct alignment of a peptide in the binding groove a crucial part of identifying the core of an MHC class II binding motif. Here, we present a novel stabilization matrix alignment method, SMM-align, that allows for direct prediction of peptide:MHC binding affinities. The predictive performance of the method is validated on a large MHC class II benchmark data set covering 14 HLA-DR (human MHC and three mouse H2-IA alleles. Results The predictive performance of the SMM-align method was demonstrated to be superior to that of the Gibbs sampler, TEPITOPE, SVRMHC, and MHCpred methods. Cross validation between peptide data set obtained from different sources demonstrated that direct incorporation of peptide length potentially results in over-fitting of the binding prediction method. Focusing on amino terminal peptide flanking residues (PFR, we demonstrate a consistent gain in predictive performance by favoring binding registers with a minimum PFR length of two amino acids. Visualizing the binding motif as obtained by the SMM-align and TEPITOPE methods highlights a series of fundamental discrepancies between the two predicted motifs. For the DRB1*1302 allele for instance, the TEPITOPE method favors basic amino acids at most anchor positions, whereas the SMM-align method identifies a preference for hydrophobic or neutral amino acids at the anchors. Conclusion

  1. Downregulation of class II transactivator (CIITA) expression by synthetic cannabinoid CP55,940.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongora, Celine; Hose, Stacey; O'Brien, Terrence P; Sinha, Debasish

    2004-01-30

    Cannabinoid receptors are known to be expressed in microglia; however, their involvement in specific aspects of microglial immune function has not been demonstrated. Many effects of cannabinoids are mediated by two G-protein coupled receptors, designated CB1 and CB2. We have shown that the CB1 receptor is expressed in microglia that also express MHC class II antigen (J. Neuroimmunol. 82 (1998) 13-21). In our present study, we have analyzed the effect of cannabinoid agonist CP55,940 on MHC class II expression on the surface of IFN-gamma induced microglial cells by flow cytometry. CP55,940 blocked the class II MHC expression induced by IFN-gamma. It has been shown that the regulation of class II MHC genes occurs primarily at the transcriptional level, and a non-DNA binding protein, class II transactivator (CIITA), has been shown to be the master activator for class II transcription. We find that mRNA levels of CIITA are increased in IFN-gamma induced EOC 20 microglial cells and that this increase is almost entirely eliminated by the cannabinoid agonist CP55,940. These data suggests that cannabinoids affect MHC class II expression through actions on CIITA at the transcriptional level.

  2. On the Relationship of UC H II Regions and Class II Methanol Masers: I. Source Catalogs

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Bo; Wu, Yuanwei; Bartkiewicz, Anna; Rygl, Kazi; Reid, Mark J; Urquhart, James S; Zheng, Xingwu

    2016-01-01

    We conducted VLA C-configuration observations to measure positions and luminosities of Galactic Class II 6.7 GHz methanol masers and their associated ultra-compact H II regions. The spectral resolution was 3.90625 kHz and the continuum sensitivity reached 45 \\uJypb. We mapped 372 methanol masers with peak flux densities of more than 2 Jy selected from the literature, 367 of them were detected. Absolute positions have nominal uncertainties of 0.3 arcsec. In this first paper on the data analysis, we present three catalogs, the first gives information on the strongest feature of 367 methanol maser sources, and the second on all detected maser spots. The third catalog present derived data of the 279 radio continuum sources found in the vicinity of maser sources. Among them, 140 show evidence of physical association with maser sources. Our catalogs list properties including distance, flux density, radial velocity and the distribution of masers on the Galactic plane is then provided as well. We found no significant...

  3. Use of cyanoacrylate as barrier in guided tissue regeneration in class II furcation defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen L Mueller Storrer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The guided bone regeneration (GBR is a technique that uses resorbable and non-resorbable membranes in association with other filling biomaterials. GBR is one of the optional treatments for therapy of class II furcation defects. The current case report evaluates clinically and radiographically the use of the cyanoacrylate membrane (Glubran ®2 associated with organic bovine bone (GenOx for the treatment of vestibular class II furcation defect on the lower left molar. Conclusion: The GBR is an option in the treatment of vestibular class II furcation defects and cyanoacrylate surgical glue, acting as a mechanic barrier and providing an efficient stability for the graft.

  4. A randomized controlled 27 years follow up of three resin composites in Class II restorations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Ulla; van Dijken, Jan WV

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the durability of three conventional resin composites in Class II restorations during 27 years. Methods: Thirty participants, 25 female and 5 male (mean age 38.2 years, range 25–63), received at least three (one set) as similar as possible Class II restorations of moderate...... sealing of the restorations was performed after finishing. One operator placed 99 restorations (33 sets). Evaluation was performed with slightly modified USPHS criteria at baseline, 2, 3, 10 and 27 years. Results: Postoperative sensitivity was observed in 5 patients. Three participants with 11......: Class II restorations of the three conventional resin composites showed an acceptable success rate during the 27 year evaluation....

  5. Class II direct composite resin restorations with beta-quartz glass-ceramic inserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rada, R E

    1993-11-01

    With the increasing demand for esthetic posterior restorations, numerous techniques have been developed. The direct resin restoration has probably been used most extensively in Class II situations. Problems with Class II direct resin restorations include difficulty in developing proximal contact, occlusal wear, and polymerization shrinkage. Beta-quartz glass-ceramic inserts have been developed in an attempt to reduce the incidence of these potential problems. They can be placed in a one-appointment technique, are relatively inexpensive, and can readily be utilized by the clinician adept in placing Class II composite resin restorations.

  6. Class II major histocompatibility complex mutant mice to study the germ-line bias of T-cell antigen receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Daniel; Krovi, Sai Harsha; Tuttle, Kathryn D; Crooks, James; Reisdorph, Richard; White, Janice; Gross, James; Matsuda, Jennifer L; Gapin, Laurent; Marrack, Philippa; Kappler, John W

    2016-09-20

    The interaction of αβ T-cell antigen receptors (TCRs) with peptides bound to MHC molecules lies at the center of adaptive immunity. Whether TCRs have evolved to react with MHC or, instead, processes in the thymus involving coreceptors and other molecules select MHC-specific TCRs de novo from a random repertoire is a longstanding immunological question. Here, using nuclease-targeted mutagenesis, we address this question in vivo by generating three independent lines of knockin mice with single-amino acid mutations of conserved class II MHC amino acids that often are involved in interactions with the germ-line-encoded portions of TCRs. Although the TCR repertoire generated in these mutants is similar in size and diversity to that in WT mice, the evolutionary bias of TCRs for MHC is suggested by a shift and preferential use of some TCR subfamilies over others in mice expressing the mutant class II MHCs. Furthermore, T cells educated on these mutant MHC molecules are alloreactive to each other and to WT cells, and vice versa, suggesting strong functional differences among these repertoires. Taken together, these results highlight both the flexibility of thymic selection and the evolutionary bias of TCRs for MHC.

  7. Histochemical analysis of the role of class I and class II Clostridium histolyticum collagenase in the degradation of rat pancreatic extracellular matrix for islet isolation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VosScheperkeuter, GH; vanSuylichem, PTR; Wolters, GHJ; vanSchilfgaarde, R

    1997-01-01

    To understand why class II Clostridium histolyticum collagenase is much more effective than class I in the isolation of rat pancreatic islets, we analyzed the role of these collagenases in pancreatic tissue dissociation. Crude collagenase was purified and then fractionated into class I and II with d

  8. 78 FR 14015 - Medical Devices; Exemption From Premarket Notification; Class II Devices; Powered Patient Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ... Notification; Class II Devices; Powered Patient Transport AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... requesting exemption from premarket notification requirements for powered patient transport devices commonly... FDA's powered patient transport regulations, including attendant-operated portable...

  9. N-Sulfonyl hydroxamate derivatives as inhibitors of class II fructose-1,6-diphosphate aldolase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavalda, Sabine; Braga, Rémi; Dax, Chantal; Vigroux, Alain; Blonski, Casimir

    2005-12-15

    Dihydroxyacetone-phosphate and phosphonate derivatives were synthesized bearing a N-sulfonyl hydroxamate moiety. The phosphate derivatives represent competitive inhibitors for the class II-FBP aldolase catalyzed reaction, while the phosphonate isosteres are comparatively weaker inhibitors.

  10. 40 CFR 82.24 - Recordkeeping and reporting requirements for class II controlled substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... facility; (vii) Dated records of the quantity (in kilograms) of raw materials and feedstock chemicals used...) Recordkeeping and reporting. Any person who produces, imports, exports, transforms, or destroys class II... total of expended and unexpended production allowances, consumption allowances, export...

  11. Discovery and computer aided potency optimization of a novel class of small molecule CXCR4 antagonists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Vinader

    Full Text Available Amongst the chemokine signalling axes involved in cancer, chemokine CXCL12 acting on chemokine receptor CXCR4 is particularly significant since it orchestrates migration of cancer cells in a tissue-specific metastatic process. High CXCR4 tumour expression is associated with poor prognosis of lung, brain, CNS, blood and breast cancers. We have identified a new class of small molecule CXCR4 antagonists based on the use of computational modelling studies in concert with experimental determination of in vitro activity against CXCL12-induced intracellular calcium mobilisation, proliferation and chemotaxis. Molecular modelling proved to be a useful tool in rationalising our observed potencies, as well as informing the direction of the synthetic efforts aimed at producing more potent compounds.

  12. Correction of an adult Class II division 2 individual using fixed functional appliance: A noncompliance approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrinivas Basavaraddi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes the application of fixed functional appliance in the treatment of an adult female having Class II division 2 malocclusion with retroclination of upper incisors. Fixed functional appliance was used to correct the overjet after the uprighting of upper incisors. Fixed functional appliance was fitted on a rigid rectangular arch wire. Application of fixed functional appliance achieved a good Class I molar relationship along with Class I canine relationship with normal overjet and overbite. Fixed functional appliance is effective in the treatment of Class II malocclusions, even in adult patients, and can serve as an alternate choice of treatment instead of orthognathic surgery. This is a case; wherein, fixed functional appliance was successfully used to relieve deep bite and overjet that was ensued after leveling and aligning. We demonstrate that fixed functional appliance can act as a “noncompliant corrector” and use of Class II elastics can be avoided.

  13. Stability of class II subdivision malocclusion treatment with 3 and 4 premolar extractions

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to compare the occlusal stability of class II subdivision malocclusion treatment with 3 and 4 first premolar extractions. A sample of 156 dental casts from 52 patients with class II subdivision malocclusion was divided into two groups according to the extraction protocol. Group 1 comprised 24 patients treated with 3 premolar extractions and group 2 included 28 patients treated with 4 premolar extractions. Methods Peer assessment rating (PAR) indexes we...

  14. Marginal and internal adaptation of class II restorations after immediate or delayed composite placement

    OpenAIRE

    Dietschi, Didier; Monasevic, Manuela; Krejci, Ivo; Davidson, Carel

    2002-01-01

    Direct class II composite restorations still represent a challenge, particularly when proximal limits extend below the CEJ. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of the type of adhesive and the delay between adhesive placement and composite insertion on restoration adaptation. Direct class II MOD box-shaped composite restorations (n=8 per group) were placed on intact human third molars, with proximal margins 1mm above or under CEJ. All cavities were filled with a horizo...

  15. Use of cyanoacrylate as barrier in guided tissue regeneration in class II furcation defects

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen L Mueller Storrer; Gabriela dos Santos Kummer; Shaban Mirco; Joao Cesar Zielak

    2014-01-01

    The guided bone regeneration (GBR) is a technique that uses resorbable and non-resorbable membranes in association with other filling biomaterials. GBR is one of the optional treatments for therapy of class II furcation defects. The current case report evaluates clinically and radiographically the use of the cyanoacrylate membrane (Glubran ®2) associated with organic bovine bone (GenOx) for the treatment of vestibular class II furcation defect on the lower left molar. Conclusion: The GBR is a...

  16. Oral Impacts on Quality of Life in Adult Patients with Class I, II and III Malocclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Javed, Omair; Bernabé, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare the social impact of malocclusion on quality of life between adult patients with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusion.MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 222 adult patients (139, 42 and 41 with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusion, respectively) were recruited voluntarily from those attending the Orthodontic Clinic of Khyber College of Dentistry in Pesh awar, Pakistan. Participants were asked to complete the Urdu version of the short form of the Oral Health Impact Profil...

  17. Evaluation and Comparison of Intermaxillary Tooth Size Discrepancy among Class I, Class II Division 1, and Class III Subjects Using Bolton’s Analysis: An in vitro Study

    OpenAIRE

    Prasanna, A Lakshmi; Venkatramana, V; Aryasri, A Srikanth; Katta, Anil Kumar; K. Santhanakrishnan; Maheshwari, Uma

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluation and comparison of intermaxillary tooth size discrepancy among Class I, Class II division 1, and Class III subjects using Bolton’s analysis. Materials and Methods: The pre-treatment casts were selected from the records of patients attending the Department of Orthodontics of Meenakshi Ammal Dental College, Chennai. The sample consists of 180 pre-treatment casts with both sexes evenly distributed with 60 casts in each type of malocclusion, i.e....

  18. Class II genes of miniature swine. II. Molecular identification and characterization of B (beta) genes from the SLAc haplotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, K; Sachs, D H; Germana, S; el-Gamil, M; Hirsch, F; Gustafsson, K; LeGuern, C

    1990-01-01

    Genomic clones corresponding to class II beta genes of the SLAc haplotype of miniature swine have been isolated and characterized. These genes have been grouped into seven non-overlapping clusters on the basis of restriction mapping. Ordering of exons within each cluster was accomplished by hybridization of Southern blots of restriction fragments with exon-specific probes. The two clusters (clusters 2 and 3) encoding the DRB and DQB genes were identified on the basis of hybridization with locus-specific 3' untranslated cDNA probes. Cluster 4 contained exons of both DOB and DQB genes, the basis for which remains to be determined. The remaining four clusters (1, 5, 6, 7) were identified as containing DP, DR, and DO coding sequences, respectively, on the basis of sequence analysis. The porcine class II region appears very similar to that of man in number and nature of the class II genes identified and in the intron/exon organization of corresponding genes.

  19. Discovery of Two New Class II Methanol Maser Transitions in G345.01+1.79

    CERN Document Server

    Ellingsen, S P; Cragg, D M; Godfrey, P D

    2012-01-01

    We have used the Swedish ESO Submillimetre Telescope (SEST) to search for new class II methanol maser transitions towards the southern source G345.01+1.79. Over a period of 5 days we observed 11 known or predicted class II methanol maser transitions. Emission with the narrow line width and characteristic velocity of class II methanol masers (in this source) was detected in 8 of these transitions, two of which have not previously been reported as masers. The new class II methanol maser transitions are the 13(-3)-12(-4)E transition at 104.1 GHz and the 5(1)-4(2)E transition at 216.9 GHz. Both of these are from transition series for which there are no previous known class II methanol maser transitions. This takes the total number of known class II methanol maser series to 10, and the total number of transitions (or transition groups) to 18. The observed 104.1 GHz maser suggests the presence of two or more regions of masing gas with similar line of sight velocities, but quite different physical conditions. Althou...

  20. Factors affecting buccal corridor space in Angle′s Class II Division 1 malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Bhat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Buccal corridor space has been thought of primarily in terms of maxillary width, but there is also evidence that they are heavily influenced by the antero-posterior position of maxilla. The present study was undertaken with an aim of evaluating and comparing the dental and skeletal factors related to buccal corridor space in individuals having Class I and Class II Division 1 malocclusions. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 subjects of which 40 were males and 40 were females in the age group of 20-30 years were selected as per inclusion criteria and were grouped as Group I having Class I malocclusion and as Group II having Class II malocclusions based on angle ANB. 12 linear and 2 angular cephalometric measurements and 4 study cast measurements were used to correlate with the buccal corridor linear ratio (BCLR, calculated on smile photograph using the Adobe Photoshop 7.0 software (Adobe Systems Inc., San Jose, California, USA. The data obtained was statistically evaluated using independent t-test and multiple linear regression analysis. Result: Buccal corridor space is larger in individuals with Class II Division 1 malocclusion when compared with individuals with Class I malocclusions. There exists a significant difference in buccal corridor space between males and females. Conclusion: The present study helps in establishing the correlation between certain factors and the amount of buccal corridor space in individuals having skeletal Class II pattern.

  1. A potential role for shed soluble major histocompatibility class I molecules as modulators of neurite outgrowth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine R Washburn

    Full Text Available The neurobiological activities of classical major histocompatibility class I (MHCI molecules are just beginning to be explored. To further examine MHCI's actions during the formation of neuronal connections, we cultured embryonic mouse retina explants a short distance from wildtype thalamic explants, or thalami from transgenic mice (termed "NSE-Db" whose neurons express higher levels of MHCI. While retina neurites extended to form connections with wildtype thalami, we were surprised to find that retina neurite outgrowth was very stunted in regions proximal to NSE-Db thalamic explants, suggesting that a diffusible factor from these thalami inhibited retina neurite outgrowth. It has been long known that MHCI-expressing cells release soluble forms of MHCI (sMHCI due to the shedding of intact MHCI molecules, as well as the alternative exon splicing of its heavy chain or the action proteases which cleave off it's transmembrane anchor. We show that the diffusible inhibitory factor from the NSE-Db thalami is sMHCI. We also show that COS cells programmed to express murine MHCI release sMHCI that inhibits neurite outgrowth from nearby neurons in vitro. The neuroinhibitory effect of sMHCI could be blocked by lowering cAMP levels, suggesting that the neuronal MHCI receptor's signaling mechanism involves a cyclic nucleotide-dependent pathway. Our results suggest that MHCI may not only have neurobiological activity in its membrane-bound form, it may also influence local neurons as a soluble molecule. We discuss the involvement of complement proteins in generating sMHCI and new theoretical models of MHCI's biological activities in the nervous system.

  2. Identification of a new class of small molecules that efficiently reactivate latent Epstein-Barr Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhmyanova, Nadezhda; Schultz, David C; Lee, Theresa; Salvino, Joseph M; Lieberman, Paul M

    2014-03-21

    Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) persists as a latent infection in many lymphoid and epithelial malignancies, including Burkitt's lymphomas, nasopharyngeal carcinomas, and gastric carcinomas. Current chemotherapeutic treatments of EBV-positive cancers include broad-spectrum cytotoxic drugs that ignore the EBV-positive status of tumors. An alternative strategy, referred to as oncolytic therapy, utilizes drugs that stimulate reactivation of latent EBV to enhance the selective killing of EBV-positive tumors, especially in combination with existing inhibitors of herpesvirus lytic replication, like Ganciclovir (GCV). At present, no small molecule, including histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, have proven safe or effective in clinical trials for treatment of EBV-positive cancers. Aiming to identify new chemical entities that induce EBV lytic cycle, we have developed a robust high-throughput cell-based assay to screen 66,840 small molecule compounds. Five structurally related tetrahydrocarboline derivatives were identified, two of which had EC50 measurements in the range of 150-170 nM. We show that these compounds reactivate EBV lytic markers ZTA and EA-D in all EBV-positive cell lines we have tested independent of the type of latency. The compounds reactivate a higher percentage of latently infected cells than HDAC inhibitors or phorbol esters in many cell types. The most active compounds showed low toxicity to EBV-negative cells but were highly effective at selective cell killing of EBV-positive cells when combined with GCV. We conclude that we have identified a class of small molecule compounds that are highly effective at reactivating latent EBV infection in a variety of cell types and show promise for lytic therapy in combination with GCV.

  3. Light-induced activation of class II cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer photolyases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafuji, Asako; Biskup, Till; Hitomi, Kenichi; Getzoff, Elizabeth D; Kaiser, Gebhard; Batschauer, Alfred; Bacher, Adelbert; Hidema, Jun; Teranishi, Mika; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Schleicher, Erik; Weber, Stefan

    2010-05-04

    Light-induced activation of class II cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) photolyases of Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa has been examined by UV/Vis and pulsed Davies-type electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy, and the results compared with structure-known class I enzymes, CPD photolyase and (6-4) photolyase. By ENDOR spectroscopy, the local environment of the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) cofactor is probed by virtue of proton hyperfine couplings that report on the electron-spin density at the positions of magnetic nuclei. Despite the amino-acid sequence dissimilarity as compared to class I enzymes, the results indicate similar binding motifs for FAD in the class II photolyases. Furthermore, the photoreduction kinetics starting from the FAD cofactor in the fully oxidized redox state, FAD(ox), have been probed by UV/Vis spectroscopy. In Escherichia coli (class I) CPD photolyase, light-induced generation of FADH from FAD(ox), and subsequently FADH(-) from FADH, proceeds in a step-wise fashion via a chain of tryptophan residues. These tryptophans are well conserved among the sequences and within all known structures of class I photolyases, but completely lacking from the equivalent positions of class II photolyase sequences. Nevertheless, class II photolyases show photoreduction kinetics similar to those of the class I enzymes. We propose that a different, but also effective, electron-transfer cascade is conserved among the class II photolyases. The existence of such electron transfer pathways is supported by the observation that the catalytically active fully reduced flavin state obtained by photoreduction is maintained even under oxidative conditions in all three classes of enzymes studied in this contribution.

  4. Characterization of Two Classes of Small Molecule Inhibitors of Arp2/3 Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolen, B.; Tomasevic, N; Russell, A; Pierce, D; Jia, Z; McCormick, C; Hartman, J; Sakowicz, R; Pollard, T

    2009-01-01

    Polymerization of actin filaments directed by the actin-related protein (Arp)2/3 complex supports many types of cellular movements. However, questions remain regarding the relative contributions of Arp2/3 complex versus other mechanisms of actin filament nucleation to processes such as path finding by neuronal growth cones; this is because of the lack of simple methods to inhibit Arp2/3 complex reversibly in living cells. Here we describe two classes of small molecules that bind to different sites on the Arp2/3 complex and inhibit its ability to nucleate actin filaments. CK-0944636 binds between Arp2 and Arp3, where it appears to block movement of Arp2 and Arp3 into their active conformation. CK-0993548 inserts into the hydrophobic core of Arp3 and alters its conformation. Both classes of compounds inhibit formation of actin filament comet tails by Listeria and podosomes by monocytes. Two inhibitors with different mechanisms of action provide a powerful approach for studying the Arp2/3 complex in living cells.

  5. Major histocompatibility complex class II compatibility, but not class I, predicts mate choice in a bird with highly developed olfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandh, Maria; Westerdahl, Helena; Pontarp, Mikael; Canbäck, Björn; Dubois, Marie-Pierre; Miquel, Christian; Taberlet, Pierre; Bonadonna, Francesco

    2012-11-01

    Mate choice for major histocompatibility complex (MHC) compatibility has been found in several taxa, although rarely in birds. MHC is a crucial component in adaptive immunity and by choosing an MHC-dissimilar partner, heterozygosity and potentially broad pathogen resistance is maximized in the offspring. The MHC genotype influences odour cues and preferences in mammals and fish and hence olfactory-based mate choice can occur. We tested whether blue petrels, Halobaena caerulea, choose partners based on MHC compatibility. This bird is long-lived, monogamous and can discriminate between individual odours using olfaction, which makes it exceptionally well suited for this analysis. We screened MHC class I and II B alleles in blue petrels using 454-pyrosequencing and quantified the phylogenetic, functional and allele-sharing similarity between individuals. Partners were functionally more dissimilar at the MHC class II B loci than expected from random mating (p = 0.033), whereas there was no such difference at the MHC class I loci. Phylogenetic and non-sequence-based MHC allele-sharing measures detected no MHC dissimilarity between partners for either MHC class I or II B. Our study provides evidence of mate choice for MHC compatibility in a bird with a high dependency on odour cues, suggesting that MHC odour-mediated mate choice occurs in birds.

  6. Modes of salmonid MHC class I and II evolution differ from the primate paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shum, B.P.; Guethlein, L.; Flodin, L.R.; Adkison, M.A.; Hedrick, R.P.; Nehring, R.B.; Stet, R.J.M.; Secombes, C.; Parham, P.

    2001-01-01

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) represent two salmonid genera separated for 15-20 million years. cDNA sequences were determined for the classical MHC class I heavy chain gene UBA and the MHC class II β-chain gene DAB from 15 rainbow and 10 brown trout. Both genes a

  7. The Presence, Persistence and Functional Properties of Plasmodium vivax Duffy Binding Protein II Antibodies Are Influenced by HLA Class II Allelic Variants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Leticia M.; Lima, Barbara A. S.; Sousa, Taís N.; Alves, Jéssica R. S.; Rocha, Roberto S.; Fontes, Cor J. F.; Sanchez, Bruno A. M.; Adams, John H.; Brito, Cristiana F. A.; Pires, Douglas E. V.; Ascher, David B.; Sell, Ana Maria; Carvalho, Luzia H.

    2016-01-01

    knowledge of the binding affinities of DBPII peptides for class II molecules linked with good or poor antibody responses might lead to the development of strategies for controlling the type of helper T cells activated in response to DBPII. PMID:27959918

  8. Homotypic aggregation of human cell lines by HLA class II-, class Ia- and HLA-G-specific monoclonal antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odum, Niels; Ledbetter, J A; Martin, P

    1991-01-01

    adhesion between T and B cells by activating the CD18/CD11a (LFA-1) adhesion pathway. Here we report that monoclonal antibodies (mAb) against HLA-DR (L243, p4.1, HB10a, VI15) and certain broad class II reacting mAb (TU35, TU39), but not anti-DQ (TU22, Leu-10) mAb, induced homotypic aggregation of human......, but not the class I-negative parental line, 221, showed homotypic aggregation in response to an HLA-G specific mAb (87G) and a broad reacting class I-specific mAb (IOT2). Both cell lines responded with aggregation to anti-class II mAb (TU35). The anti-class I mAb, W6/32, had no effect on all cell lines tested...... and two anti-beta 2-microglobulin mAb had variable, weak effects. The aggregation response was an active, temperature-sensitive process which was almost totally abrogated by azide and by cytochalasins B and E, but unaffected by colchicine, EDTA, aphidicolin, actinomycin D and protein tyrosine kinase...

  9. Do orthodontists recommend Class II treatment according to evidence-based knowledge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia Azevedo Almeida

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroductionThe adequate indications for the timing of treatment for Class II malocclusion are mandatory for the ethical and efficient practice of orthodontics, but clinicians are reluctant to accept new information that contradicts their preferred method of treatment.ObjectiveThe aim of this investigation was to assess the agreement regarding the indications for Class II malocclusion interceptive therapy between a group of international opinion-makers on early treatment and a group of orthodontists and to compare their treatment indications with the current evidence-based knowledge.Material and methodAn electronic survey containing photographs of mild, moderate and severe Class II malocclusions in children was sent to two panels of experts. Panel 1 (n=28 was composed of international orthodontists who had authored world-class publications on early orthodontic treatment, and Panel 2 (n=261 was composed of clinical orthodontists. Based on a 5-point Likert-type scale, the orthodontists selected their therapy option for each of the 9 Class II malocclusion cases.ResultThe Class II malocclusion treatment recommendations of Panel 2 were significantly different from those offered by Panel 1 with a skew of at least 1 scale point toward earlier treatment. The Class II malocclusion treatment recommendations of the members of Panel 1 members were in accordance with contemporary evidence-based knowledge.ConclusionClass II malocclusion overtreatment appears to be the tendency among clinical orthodontists but not among orthodontists who are academically involved with early treatment. There is a gap between the scientific knowledge and the practices of orthodontists.

  10. The murine cytomegalovirus immunoevasin gp40 binds MHC class I molecules to retain them in the early secretory pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janßen, Linda; Ramnarayan, Venkat Raman; Aboelmagd, Mohamed; Iliopoulou, Maro; Hein, Zeynep; Majoul, Irina; Fritzsche, Susanne; Halenius, Anne; Springer, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    In the presence of the murine cytomegalovirus (mCMV) gp40 (m152) protein, murine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules do not reach the cell surface but are retained in an early compartment of the secretory pathway. We find that gp40 does not impair the folding or high-affinity peptide binding of the class I molecules but binds to them, leading to their retention in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) and the cis-Golgi, most likely by retrieval from the cis-Golgi to the ER. We identify a sequence in gp40 that is required for both its own retention in the early secretory pathway and for that of class I molecules.

  11. Comparison Between the Sonic-Sys System and Inlay in II Class

    OpenAIRE

    Feder, T.; Mierzwinska-Nastalska, E; Adamczyk-Sosinska, E.; Gladkowski, J.; Siedlecki, M.

    2002-01-01

    In everyday dental practice we often face the problem of class II restorations. Large caries create serious problems with regard to obtaining correct contact points, marginal fit (expecially in the gingival area) and good resin polymerisation. In such cases usage of the Sonic-Sys system and inlays seems to be the best solution. The aim of this poster is to present a manual of the Sonic-Sys system, as well as comparison of the Empress II and Sonic-Sys system inlays in class II restorations....

  12. Management of severe Class II malocclusion with sequential modified twin block and fixed orthodontic appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonal Chowdhary

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional appliance is an effective way of treating skeletal Class II malocclusion in children and adolescents. A 12 months stepwise mandibular advancement protocol with Herbst appliance has been proved to enhance condylar growth and improve mandibular prognathism. The present case report documents a 12-year-old boy presenting with Angle's Class II, division 1 malocclusion associated with excessive overjet (11 mm, 100% deep bite, and retrognathic mandible. He was treated by a phase I growth modification therapy using twin block appliance with lip pads in a stepwise mandibular advancement protocol followed by a phase II preadjusted Edgewise appliance therapy.

  13. Successful treatment of Class II malocclusion with bidental protrusion using standard edgewise prescription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Ayaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report deals with the successful orthodontic treatment of a 14-year-old female patient having Class II malocclusion with bidental protrusion using standard edgewise prescription. She reported with forwardly placed upper front teeth and difficulty in closing lips. She had prognathic maxilla, retrognathic mandible, and full cusp Class II molar and canine relation bilaterally with overjet of 7 mm. She was in cervical vertebrae maturation indicator Stage IV. The case was treated by fixed extraction mechanotherapy. Interarch Class II mechanics was used to retract the upper incisor and to mesialize the lower molars. Simultaneously, Class I mechanics was used to upright lower incisors. Tip back bend, curve of Spee, and extra palatal root torque were incorporated in upper archwire to maintain molars in upright position and prevent extrusion and deepening of bite, respectively. There was satisfactory improvement in facial profile at the end of 24 months. After a follow-up of 6 months, occlusion was stable.

  14. Direct activation of human dendritic cells by particle-bound but not soluble MHC class II ligand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato B Baleeiro

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs are key activators of cellular immune responses through their capacity to induce naïve T cells and sustained effector T cell responses. This capacity is a function of their superior efficiency of antigen presentation via MHC class I and class II molecules, and the expression of co-stimulatory cell surface molecules and cytokines. Maturation of DCs is induced by microbial factors via pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptors, pro-inflammatory cytokines or cognate interaction with CD4(+ T cells. Here we show that, unexpectedly, the PanDR helper T cell epitope PADRE, a generic T helper cell antigen presented by a large fraction of HLA-DR alleles, when delivered in particle-bound form induced maturation of human DCs. The DCs that received the particle-bound PADRE displayed all features of fully mature DCs, such as high expression of the co-stimulatory molecules CD80, CD86, CD83, the MHC-II molecule HLA-DR, secretion of high levels of the biologically active IL-12 (IL-12p70 and induction of vigorous proliferation of naïve CD4(+ T cells. Furthermore, the maturation of DCs induced by particle-bound PADRE was shown to involve sphingosine kinase, calcium signaling from internal sources and downstream signaling through the MAP kinase and the p72syk pathways, and finally activation of the transcription factor NF-κB. Based on our findings, we propose that particle-bound PADRE may be used as a DC activator in DC-based vaccines.

  15. Human cytomegalovirus alters localization of MHC class II and dendrite morphology in mature Langerhans cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Andrew W; Hertel, Laura; Louie, Ryan K; Burster, Timo; Lacaille, Vashti; Pashine, Achal; Abate, Davide A; Mocarski, Edward S; Mellins, Elizabeth D

    2006-09-15

    Hemopoietic stem cell-derived mature Langerhans-type dendritic cells (LC) are susceptible to productive infection by human CMV (HCMV). To investigate the impact of infection on this cell type, we examined HLA-DR biosynthesis and trafficking in mature LC cultures exposed to HCMV. We found decreased surface HLA-DR levels in viral Ag-positive as well as in Ag-negative mature LC. Inhibition of HLA-DR was independent of expression of unique short US2-US11 region gene products by HCMV. Indeed, exposure to UV-inactivated virus, but not to conditioned medium from infected cells, was sufficient to reduce HLA-DR on mature LC, implicating particle binding/penetration in this effect. Reduced surface levels reflected an altered distribution of HLA-DR because total cellular HLA-DR was not diminished. Accumulation of HLA-DR was not explained by altered cathepsin S activity. Mature, peptide-loaded HLA-DR molecules were retained within cells, as assessed by the proportion of SDS-stable HLA-DR dimers. A block in egress was implicated, as endocytosis of surface HLA-DR was not increased. Immunofluorescence microscopy corroborated the intracellular retention of HLA-DR and revealed markedly fewer HLA-DR-positive dendritic projections in infected mature LC. Unexpectedly, light microscopic analyses showed a dramatic loss of the dendrites themselves and immunofluorescence revealed that cytoskeletal elements crucial for the formation and maintenance of dendrites are disrupted in viral Ag-positive cells. Consistent with these dendrite effects, HCMV-infected mature LC exhibit markedly reduced chemotaxis in response to lymphoid chemokines. Thus, HCMV impedes MHC class II molecule trafficking, dendritic projections, and migration of mature LC. These changes likely contribute to the reduced activation of CD4+ T cells by HCMV-infected mature LC.

  16. Models of class II methanol masers based on improved molecular data

    CERN Document Server

    Cragg, D M; Godfrey, P D

    2005-01-01

    The class II masers of methanol are associated with the early stages of formation of high-mass stars. Modelling of these dense, dusty environments has demonstrated that pumping by infrared radiation can account for the observed masers. Collisions with other molecules in the ambient gas also play a significant role, but have not been well modelled in the past. Here we examine the effects on the maser models of newly available collision rate coefficients for methanol. The new collision data does not alter which transitions become masers in the models, but does influence their brightness and the conditions under which they switch on and off. At gas temperatures above 100 K the effects are broadly consistent with a reduction in the overall collision cross-section. This means, for example, that a slightly higher gas density than identified previously can account for most of the observed masers in W3(OH). We have also examined the effects of including more excited state energy levels in the models, and find that th...

  17. Linkage relationships in the bovine MHC region. High recombination frequency between class II subregions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, L; Lundén, A; Sigurdardottir, S; Davies, C J; Rask, L

    1988-01-01

    Class II genes of the bovine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) have been investigated by Southern blot analysis using human DNA probes. Previous studies revealed the presence of bovine DO beta, DQ alpha, DQ beta, DR alpha, and DR beta genes, and restriction fragment length polymorphisms for each of these genes were documented. In the present study, the presence of three additional class II genes, designated DZ alpha, DY alpha, and DY beta, are reported. DZ alpha was assumed to correspond to the human DZ alpha gene while the other two were designated DY because their relationship to human class II genes could not be firmly established. The linkage relationships among bovine class II genes and two additional loci, TCP1B and C4, were investigated by family segregation analysis and analysis of linkage disequilibrium. The results clearly indicated that all these loci belong to the same linkage group. This linkage group is divided into two subregions separated by a fairly high recombination frequency. One region includes the C4, DQ alpha, DQ beta, DR alpha, and DR beta loci and the other one is composed of the DO beta, DY alpha, DY beta, and TCP1B loci. No recombinant was observed within any of these subregions and there was a strong or fairly strong linkage disequilibrium between loci within groups. In contrast, as many as five recombinants among three different families were detected in the interval between these subregions giving a recombination frequency estimate of 0.17 +/- 0.07. The fairly high recombination frequency observed between class II genes in cattle is strikingly different from the corresponding recombination estimates in man and mouse. The finding implies either a much larger molecular distance between some of the bovine class II genes or alternatively the presence of a recombinational "hot spot" in the bovine class II region.

  18. Stability of molar relationship after non-extraction Class II malocclusion treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darwin Vaz de Lima

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the stability of molar relationship after non-extraction treatment of Class II malocclusion. METHODS: The sample comprised 39 subjects (16 females, 23 males with initial Class II malocclusion treated with no extractions, using fixed appliances. Mean age at the beginning of treatment was 12.94 years, at the end of treatment was 15.14 years and at post-retention stage was 21.18 years. Mean treatment time was 2.19 years and mean time of post-treatment evaluation was 6.12 years. To verify the influence of the severity of initial Class II molar relationship in stability of molar relationship, the sample was divided into two groups, one presenting a ½-cusp or ¾-cusp Class II molar relationship, and the other with full-cusp Class II molar relationship. In dental casts from initial, final and postretention stages, molar, first and second premolars and canine relationships were measured. Data obtained were analyzed by dependent ANOVA, Tukey and Pearson's correlation tests, as well as independent t test between the two groups divided by severity of initial molar relationship. RESULTS: There was a non-statistically significant 0.12 mm relapse of molar relationship. The initial severity of Class II molar relationship was not correlated to relapse in the post-retention period. When compared, the two groups showed no difference in relapse of molar relationship. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that correction of Class II molar relationship is stable and initial severity does not influence relapse of molar relationship.

  19. HLA-G and MHC Class II Protein Expression in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesionek-Kupnicka, Dorota; Bojo, Marcin; Prochorec-Sobieszek, Monika; Szumera-Ciećkiewicz, Anna; Jabłońska, Joanna; Kalinka-Warzocha, Ewa; Kordek, Radzisław; Młynarski, Wojciech; Robak, Tadeusz; Warzocha, Krzysztof; Lech-Maranda, Ewa

    2016-06-01

    The expression of human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) and HLA class II protein was studied by immunohistochemical staining of lymph nodes from 148 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and related to the clinical course of the disease. Negative HLA-G expression was associated with a lower probability of achieving a complete remission (p = 0.04). Patients with negative HLA-G expression tended towards a lower 3-year overall survival (OS) rate compared to those with positive expression of HLA-G (p = 0.08). When restricting the analysis to patients receiving chemotherapy with rituximab, the estimated 3-year OS rate of patients with positive HLA-G expression was 73.3 % compared with 47.5 % (p = 0.03) in those with negative expression. Patients with negative HLA class II expression presented a lower 3-year OS rate compared to subjects with positive expression (p = 0.04). The loss of HLA class II expression (p = 0.05) and belonging to the intermediate high/high IPI risk group (p = 0.001) independently increased the risk of death. HLA class II expression also retained its prognostic value in patients receiving rituximab; the 3-year OS rate was 65.3 % in patients with positive HLA class II expression versus 29.6 % (p = 0.04) in subjects that had loss of HLA class II expression. To our knowledge, for the first time, the expression of HLA-G protein in DLBCL and its association with the clinical course of the disease was demonstrated. Moreover, the link between losing HLA class II protein expression and poor survival of patients treated with immunochemotherapy was confirmed.

  20. Assessment of upper airways measurements in patients with mandibular skeletal Class II malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayanna Nadja e Silva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Mandibular Class II malocclusions seem to interfere in upper airways measurements. The aim of this study was to assess the upper airways measurements of patients with skeletal Class II malocclusion in order to investigate the association between these measurements and the position and length of the mandible as well as mandibular growth trend, comparing the Class II group with a Class I one.Methods:A total of 80 lateral cephalograms from 80 individuals aged between 10 and 17 years old were assessed. Forty radiographs of Class I malocclusion individuals were matched by age with forty radiographs of individuals with mandibular Class II malocclusion. McNamara Jr., Ricketts, Downs and Jarabak's measurements were used for cephalometric evaluation. Data were submitted to descriptive and inferential statistical analysis by means of SPSS 20.0 statistical package. Student's t-test, Pearson correlation and intraclass correlation coefficient were used. A 95% confidence interval and 5% significance level were adopted to interpret the results.Results:There were differences between groups. Oropharynx and nasopharynx sizes as well as mandibular position and length were found to be reduced in Class II individuals. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between the size of the oropharynx and Xi-Pm, Co-Gn and SNB measurements. In addition, the size of the nasopharynx was found to be correlated with Xi-Pm, Co-Gn, facial depth, SNB, facial axis and FMA.Conclusion: Individuals with mandibular Class II malocclusion were shown to have upper airways measurements diminished. There was a correlation between mandibular length and position and the size of oropharynx and nasopharynx.

  1. Hepatitis B Virus Down-Regulates Expressions of MHC ClassMolecules on Hepatoplastoma Cell Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongyan Chen; Min Cheng; ,Zhigang Tian

    2006-01-01

    Chronic HBV infection is associated with a 100-fold high risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma. Tumor recognition is of the most importance during the immune surveillance process that prevents cancer development in humans. In the present study, the expressions of MHC classmolecules on hepatoplastoma cell line HepG2.2.15 were investigated to indicate the possible effects of HBV on the immune recognition during HBV-associated hepatocellular carcinoma. It was found that the expressions of MHC classmolecules HLA-ABC, HLA-E and MICA were much lower in HepG2.2.15 cells compared with HepG2 cells. The expressing HBV in human hepatoplastoma cell line significantly down-regulated the expressions of MHC classmolecules. Additionally, it was observed that in murine chronic HBsAg carriers the expression of classical MHC-Ⅰ molecule on hepatocytes was down-regulated. These results demonstrated that HBV might affect the immune recognition during HBV-associated hepatoceilular carcinoma such as the recognition of CD8+ T, NK-CTL and NK cells and prevent the immune surveillance against tumors. However, the effects of HBV down-regulation of MHC classmolecules on the target cells in vivo should be further studied.

  2. Interaction of Bap31 and MHC class I molecules and their traffic out of the endoplasmic reticulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Fumiyoshi; Van Prooyen, Nancy; Ladasky, John J; Edidin, Michael

    2009-04-15

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein Bap31 associates with nascent class I MHC molecules. It appears to mediate the export of class I MHC molecules from the ER and may also be involved in their quality control. In this study, we use Förster resonance energy transfer and quantitative fluorescence imaging to show that in human, HeLa cells, Bap31 clusters with MHC class I (HLA-A2) molecules in the ER, and traffics via export vesicles to the ER/Golgi intermediate compartment. Förster resonance energy transfer between Bap31 and HLA-A2 and forward traffic increases when MHC class I molecules are loaded with a pulse of peptide. The increased forward traffic is blocked by overexpression of Bap29, a partner protein for Bap31, which localizes to the ER. Thus, in HeLa cells, Bap31 is involved in the exit of peptide-loaded MHC class I from the ER, and its function is regulated by its interaction with its homologue, Bap29.

  3. Bacterial superantigens promote acute nasopharyngeal infection by Streptococcus pyogenes in a human MHC Class II-dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine J Kasper

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Establishing the genetic determinants of niche adaptation by microbial pathogens to specific hosts is important for the management and control of infectious disease. Streptococcus pyogenes is a globally prominent human-specific bacterial pathogen that secretes superantigens (SAgs as 'trademark' virulence factors. SAgs function to force the activation of T lymphocytes through direct binding to lateral surfaces of T cell receptors and class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC-II molecules. S. pyogenes invariably encodes multiple SAgs, often within putative mobile genetic elements, and although SAgs are documented virulence factors for diseases such as scarlet fever and the streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS, how these exotoxins contribute to the fitness and evolution of S. pyogenes is unknown. Here we show that acute infection in the nasopharynx is dependent upon both bacterial SAgs and host MHC-II molecules. S. pyogenes was rapidly cleared from the nasal cavity of wild-type C57BL/6 (B6 mice, whereas infection was enhanced up to ∼10,000-fold in B6 mice that express human MHC-II. This phenotype required the SpeA superantigen, and vaccination with an MHC -II binding mutant toxoid of SpeA dramatically inhibited infection. Our findings indicate that streptococcal SAgs are critical for the establishment of nasopharyngeal infection, thus providing an explanation as to why S. pyogenes produces these potent toxins. This work also highlights that SAg redundancy exists to avoid host anti-SAg humoral immune responses and to potentially overcome host MHC-II polymorphisms.

  4. Bacterial Superantigens Promote Acute Nasopharyngeal Infection by Streptococcus pyogenes in a Human MHC Class II-Dependent Manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Katherine J.; Zeppa, Joseph J.; Wakabayashi, Adrienne T.; Xu, Stacey X.; Mazzuca, Delfina M.; Welch, Ian; Baroja, Miren L.; Kotb, Malak; Cairns, Ewa; Cleary, P. Patrick; Haeryfar, S. M. Mansour; McCormick, John K.

    2014-01-01

    Establishing the genetic determinants of niche adaptation by microbial pathogens to specific hosts is important for the management and control of infectious disease. Streptococcus pyogenes is a globally prominent human-specific bacterial pathogen that secretes superantigens (SAgs) as ‘trademark’ virulence factors. SAgs function to force the activation of T lymphocytes through direct binding to lateral surfaces of T cell receptors and class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC-II) molecules. S. pyogenes invariably encodes multiple SAgs, often within putative mobile genetic elements, and although SAgs are documented virulence factors for diseases such as scarlet fever and the streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS), how these exotoxins contribute to the fitness and evolution of S. pyogenes is unknown. Here we show that acute infection in the nasopharynx is dependent upon both bacterial SAgs and host MHC-II molecules. S. pyogenes was rapidly cleared from the nasal cavity of wild-type C57BL/6 (B6) mice, whereas infection was enhanced up to ∼10,000-fold in B6 mice that express human MHC-II. This phenotype required the SpeA superantigen, and vaccination with an MHC –II binding mutant toxoid of SpeA dramatically inhibited infection. Our findings indicate that streptococcal SAgs are critical for the establishment of nasopharyngeal infection, thus providing an explanation as to why S. pyogenes produces these potent toxins. This work also highlights that SAg redundancy exists to avoid host anti-SAg humoral immune responses and to potentially overcome host MHC-II polymorphisms. PMID:24875883

  5. Regulation of MIR165/166 by class II and class III homeodomain leucine zipper proteins establishes leaf polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merelo, Paz; Ram, Hathi; Pia Caggiano, Monica; Ohno, Carolyn; Ott, Felix; Straub, Daniel; Graeff, Moritz; Cho, Seok Keun; Yang, Seong Wook; Wenkel, Stephan; Heisler, Marcus G

    2016-10-18

    A defining feature of plant leaves is their flattened shape. This shape depends on an antagonism between the genes that specify adaxial (top) and abaxial (bottom) tissue identity; however, the molecular nature of this antagonism remains poorly understood. Class III homeodomain leucine zipper (HD-ZIP) transcription factors are key mediators in the regulation of adaxial-abaxial patterning. Their expression is restricted adaxially during early development by the abaxially expressed microRNA (MIR)165/166, yet the mechanism that restricts MIR165/166 expression to abaxial leaf tissues remains unknown. Here, we show that class III and class II HD-ZIP proteins act together to repress MIR165/166 via a conserved cis-element in their promoters. Organ morphology and tissue patterning in plants, therefore, depend on a bidirectional repressive circuit involving a set of miRNAs and its targets.

  6. A Class I and Class II Methanol Maser Survey of Extended Green Objects (EGOs) from the GLIMPSE Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Cyganowski, C J; Hunter, T R; Churchwell, E

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of a high angular resolution Very Large Array (VLA) Class I 44 GHz and Class II 6.7 GHz methanol maser survey of a sample of ~20 massive young stellar object (MYSO) outflow candidates selected on the basis of extended 4.5 micron emission in Spitzer Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire (GLIMPSE) images. These 4.5 micron-selected candidates are referred to as extended green objects (EGOs), for the common coding of this band as green in three-color IRAC images. The detection rate of 6.7 GHz Class II methanol masers, which are associated exclusively with massive YSOs, towards EGOs is greater than ~64%--nearly double the detection rate of surveys using other MYSO selection criteria. The detection rate of Class I 44 GHz methanol masers, which trace molecular outflows, is ~89% towards EGOs associated with 6.7 GHz methanol masers. The two types of methanol masers exhibit different spatial distributions: 6.7 GHz masers are centrally concentrated and usually coincide with 24 m...

  7. Secondary structure and 3D homology modeling of swine leukocyte antigen class 2 (SLA-2) molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng-Shan; Xu, Chong-bo; Long, Yi-hou; Xia, Chun

    2009-01-01

    No information to date is available to elucidate the structure of swine leukocyte antigen class I (SLA-I) molecule which is comprised by a heavy chain of SLA-I non-covalently associated with a light chain, beta(2)-microglobulin (beta(2)m) proteins. Presently, one of SLA-I gene SLA-2 and beta(2)m gene were expressed as soluble maltose binding proteins (MBP-proteins) in a pMAL-p2X/Escherichia coli TB1 system and identified by western blotting with anti-MBP polyclonal antibodies. The expressed proteins MBP-SLA-2 and MBP-beta(2)m were purified on amylose affinity columns followed by DEAE-Sepharose. The purified products were cleaved by Factor Xa, respectively, and the interest of proteins SLA-2 and beta(2)m were purified on amylose affinity columns followed by separation from MBP on DEAE-Sepharose. The secondary structures of SLA-2 and beta(2)m were analyzed by circular dichroism (CD) spectrophotometry. The three-dimensional (3D) structure of their peptide-binding domain (PBD) was modeled-based sequence homology. The content of the alpha-helix, beta-sheet, turn, and random coil in the SLA-2 protein were 76, 95, 36, and 67aa, respectively. In the 98aa of beta(2)m, the contents of the alpha-helix, beta-sheet, turn, and random coil were 0, 45, 8, and 45aa, respectively. The SLA-2 protein displayed a typical alpha-helix structure while beta(2)m protein displayed a typical beta-sheet structure. Homology modeling of the SLA-2 and beta(2)m proteins demonstrated similarities with the structure of human and mouse MHC (major histocompatibility complex) class I proteins.

  8. The activation threshold of CD4+ T cells is defined by TCR/peptide-MHC class II interactions in the thymic medulla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Tom Li; Tikhonova, Anastasia; Riberdy, Janice M; Laufer, Terri M

    2009-11-01

    Immature thymocytes that are positively selected based upon their response to self-peptide-MHC complexes develop into mature T cells that are not overtly reactive to those same complexes. Developmental tuning is the active process through which TCR-associated signaling pathways of single-positive thymocytes are attenuated to respond appropriately to the peptide-MHC molecules that will be encountered in the periphery. In this study, we explore the mechanisms that regulate the tuning of CD4(+) single-positive T cells to MHC class II encountered in the thymic medulla. Experiments with murine BM chimeras demonstrate that tuning can be mediated by MHC class II expressed by either thymic medullary epithelial cells or thymic dendritic cells. Tuning does not require the engagement of CD4 by MHC class II on stromal cells. Rather, it is mediated by interactions between MHC class II and the TCR. To understand the molecular changes that distinguish immature hyperactive T cells from tuned mature CD4(+) T cells, we compared their responses to TCR stimulation. The altered response of mature CD4 single-positive thymocytes is characterized by the inhibition of ERK activation by low-affinity self-ligands and increased expression of the inhibitory tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1. Thus, persistent TCR engagement by peptide-MHC class II on thymic medullary stroma inhibits reactivity to self-Ags and prevents autoreactivity in the mature repertoire.

  9. PowerScope a Class II corrector – A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joby Paulose

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Managing mild to moderate Class II malocclusion is a one of the common and major challenges to orthodontists. Class II discrepancies with mandibular deficiency during active growth are usually treated by myofunctional appliances. Fixed functional appliances evolved due to the noncompliance with conventional myofunctional appliances. This case report illustrates the efficiency of PowerScope in correction of skeletal Class II with mandibular deficiency in a patient aged 13 years who has reported to the department with a chief complaint of forwardly placed upper front teeth. This case with functional jaw retrusion was treated initially with MBT 0.022” prescription followed by PowerScope. Pre-, mid- and post-treatment cephalograms were obtained, and cephalometric analysis was performed. Stable and successful results were obtained with a substantial improvement in facial profile, skeletal jaw relationship, and overall esthetic appearance of the patient. A significant forward displacement of the mandible was the principal element for successful correction of Class II malocclusion. PowerScope provides the best results for Class II management, thus enables us to treat such cases by a nonextraction approach rather than contemplating extractions.

  10. Peptide-independent stabilization of MHC class I molecules breaches cellular quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Zeynep; Uchtenhagen, Hannes; Abualrous, Esam Tolba; Saini, Sunil Kumar; Janßen, Linda; Van Hateren, Andy; Wiek, Constanze; Hanenberg, Helmut; Momburg, Frank; Achour, Adnane; Elliott, Tim; Springer, Sebastian; Boulanger, Denise

    2014-07-01

    The intracellular trafficking of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) proteins is directed by three quality control mechanisms that test for their structural integrity, which is correlated to the binding of high-affinity antigenic peptide ligands. To investigate which molecular features of MHC-I these quality control mechanisms detect, we have followed the hypothesis that suboptimally loaded MHC-I molecules are characterized by their conformational mobility in the F-pocket region of the peptide-binding site. We have created a novel variant of an MHC-I protein, K(b)-Y84C, in which two α-helices in this region are linked by a disulfide bond that mimics the conformational and dynamic effects of bound high-affinity peptide. K(b)-Y84C shows a remarkable increase in the binding affinity to its light chain, beta-2 microglobulin (β2m), and bypasses all three cellular quality control steps. Our data demonstrate (1) that coupling between peptide and β2m binding to the MHC-I heavy chain is mediated by conformational dynamics; (2) that the folded conformation of MHC-I, supported by β2m, plays a decisive role in passing the ER-to-cell-surface transport quality controls; and (3) that β2m association is also tested by the cell surface quality control that leads to MHC-I endocytosis.

  11. Regulatory Fe(II/III) heme: the reconstruction of a molecule's biography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühl, Toni; Imhof, Diana

    2014-09-22

    More than 20 years of research on heme as a temporary effector molecule of proteins have revealed its widespread impact on virtually all primary functions in the human organism. As our understanding of this influence is still growing, a comprehensive overview of compiled data will give fresh impetus for creativity and developing new strategies in heme-related research. From known data concerning heme-regulated proteins and their involvement in the development of diseases, we provide concise information of Fe(II/III) heme as a regulator and the availability of "regulatory heme". The latter is dependent on the balance between free and bound Fe(II/III) heme, here termed "hemeostasis". Imbalance of this system can lead to the development of diseases that were not always attributed to this small molecule. Diseases such as cancer or Alzheimer's disease highlight the reawakened interest in heme, whose function was previously believed to be completely understood.

  12. 25 CFR 547.7 - What are the minimum technical hardware standards applicable to Class II gaming systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum technical hardware standards applicable to Class II gaming systems? 547.7 Section 547.7 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION... OF CLASS II GAMES § 547.7 What are the minimum technical hardware standards applicable to Class...

  13. Structure of the Epstein-Barr virus gp42 protein bound to the MHC class II recepter HLA-DR1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullen, M.; Haan, K.M.; Longnecker, R.; Jardetzky, T.

    2010-03-08

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) causes infectious mononucleosis, establishes long-term latent infections, and is associated with a variety of human tumors. The EBV gp42 glycoprotein binds MHC class II molecules, playing a critical role in infection of B lymphocytes. EBV gp42 belongs to the C-type lectin superfamily, with homology to NK receptors of the immune system. We report the crystal structure of gp42 bound to the human MHC class II molecule HLA-DR1. The gp42 binds HLA-DR1 using a surface site that is distinct from the canonical lectin and NK receptor ligand binding sites. At the canonical ligand binding site, gp42 forms a large hydrophobic groove, which could interact with other ligands necessary for EBV entry, providing a mechanism for coupling MHC recognition and membrane fusion.

  14. Possible assortment of a1 and a2 region gene segments in human MHC class I molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, G; Wu, T T

    1998-06-01

    Using pair-wise comparison of aligned nucleotide sequences of distinct and complete human MHC class I molecules, we have constructed triangular tables to study the similarities and differences of various a1 (exon 2) and a2 (exon 3) region sequences. There are two HLA-A (A*6901 and A*6601) and 13 HLA-B (B*4201, B*8101, B*4102, B*4801, B*4007, B*4001, B*4802, Dw53, B*4406, B*4402, B*3901, B*1514 and B*3702) sequences that have identical a1 sequences with other known MHC class I molecules, while their a2 sequences are the same as those of different ones. Of these 15, A*6901, B*4001 and B*4802 have previously been suggested as the results of recombination between A*6801 and A*0201, B*4101 and B*8101, and B*4801 and B*3501, respectively. However, many other sequences can also be used to generate them by recombination. Furthermore, their reciprocal products have never been identified. Thus, gene conversion has subsequently been suggested as an alternative. Another possible genetic mechanism for generating these nucleotide sequence similarities can be assortment, or that some gene segments can be duplicated or multiplicated to be used in different human MHC class I molecules. Interestingly, this genetic mechanism is probably absent for the generation of different mouse MHC class I molecules.

  15. Self-peptides with intermediate capacity to bind and stabilize MHC class I molecules may be immunogenic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M L M; Ruhwald, Morten; Nissen, M H;

    2003-01-01

    Thirty self-peptides were selected on the basis of their predicted binding to H-2b molecules. The binding of peptides was ascertained experimentally by biochemical (KD measurements) and cellular [major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) stabilization] assays. A weak, but significant, corr...

  16. HLA class II allele polymorphism in an outbreak of chikungunya fever in Middle Andaman, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaaithanya, Itta Krishna; Muruganandam, Nagarajan; Anwesh, Maile; Rajesh, Reesu; Ghosal, Sruti R; Kartick, Chinnaiah; Prasad, Kadiyala Nageswara; Muthumani, Karuppiah; Vijayachari, Paluru

    2013-10-01

    A sudden upsurge of fever cases with joint pain was observed in the outpatient department, Community Health Centre, Rangat during July-August 2010 in Rangat Middle Andaman, India. The aetiological agent responsible for the outbreak was identified as chikungunya virus (CHIKV), by using RT-PCR and IgM ELISA. The study investigated the association of polymorphisms in the human leucocyte antigen class II genes with susceptibility or protection against CHIKV. One hundred and one patients with clinical features suggestive of CHIKV infection and 104 healthy subjects were included in the study. DNA was extracted and typed for HLA-DRB1 and DQB1 alleles. Based on the amino acid sequences of HLA-DQB1 retrieved from the IMGT/HLA database, critical amino acid differences in the specific peptide-binding pockets of HLA-DQB1 molecules were investigated. The frequencies of HLA-DRB1 alleles were not significantly different, whereas lower frequency of HLA-DQB1*03:03 was observed in CHIKV patients compared with the control population [P = 0·001, corrected P = 0·024; odds ratio (OR)  = 0, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0·0-0·331; Peto's OR = 0·1317, 95% CI 0·0428-0·405). Significantly lower frequency of glutamic acid at position 86 of peptide-binding pocket 1 coding HLA-DQB1 genotypes was observed in CHIKV patients compared with healthy controls (P = 0·004, OR = 0·307, 95% CI 0·125-0·707). Computational binding predictions of CD4 epitopes of CHIKV by NetMHCII revealed that HLA-DQ molecules are known to bind more CHIKV peptides than HLA-DRB1 molecules. The results suggest that HLA-DQB1 alleles and critical amino acid differences in the peptide-binding pockets of HLA-DQB1 alleles might have role in influencing infection and pathogenesis of CHIKV.

  17. Intercalation of organic molecules in 2D copper (II) nitroprusside: Intermolecular interactions and magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osiry, H.; Cano, A.; Lemus-Santana, A.A.; Rodríguez, A. [Centro de Investigación en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Unidad Legaria, Instituto Politécnico Nacional (Mexico); Carbonio, R.E. [INFIQC-CONICET, Departamento de Físico Química, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, X5000HUA Córdoba (Argentina); Reguera, E., E-mail: edilso.reguera@gmail.com [Centro de Investigación en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Unidad Legaria, Instituto Politécnico Nacional (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    This contribution discusses the intercalation of imidazole and its 2-ethyl derivative, and pyridine in 2D copper nitroprusside. In the interlayer region, neighboring molecules remain interacting throu gh their dipole and quadrupole moments, which supports the solid 3D crystal structure. The crystal structure of this series of intercalation compounds was solved and refined from powder X-ray diffraction patterns complemented with spectroscopic information. The intermolecular interactions were studied from the refined crystal structures and low temperature magnetic measurements. Due to strong attractive forces between neighboring molecules, the resulting π–π cloud overlapping enables the ferromagnetic coupling between metal centers on neighboring layers, which was actually observed for the solids containing imidazole and pyridine as intercalated molecules. For these two solids, the magnetic data were properly described with a model of six neighbors. For the solid containing 2-ethylimidazole and for 2D copper nitroprusside, a model of four neighbors in a plane is sufficient to obtain a reliable data fitting. - Highlights: • Intercalation of organic molecules in 2D copper (II) nitroprusside. • Molecular properties of intercalation compounds of 2D copper (II) nitroprusside. • Magnetic properties of hybrid inorganic–organic solids. • Hybrid inorganic–organic 3D framework.

  18. Fixed Lingual Mandibular Growth Modificator: a new appliance for Class II correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Hasan Alali

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This article demonstrates the description and use of a new appliance for Class II correction. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A case report of a 10-year 5 month-old girl who presented with a skeletally-based Class II division 1 malocclusion (ANB = 6.5º on a slightly low-angle pattern, with ML-NSL angle of 30º and ML-NL angle of 22.5º. Overjet was increased (7 mm and associated with a deep bite. RESULTS: Overjet and overbite reduction was undertaken with the new appliance, Fixed Lingual Mandibular Growth Modificator (FLMGM. CONCLUSION: FLMGM may be effective in stimulating the growth of the mandible and correcting skeletal Class II malocclusions. Clinicians can benefit from the unique clinical advantages that FLMGM provides, such as easy handling and full integration with bracketed appliance at any phase.

  19. Structural Insights into Substrate Binding of Brown Spider Venom Class II Phospholipases D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, M A; Ullah, A; da Silva, L S; Chaves-Moreira, D; Vuitika, L; Chaim, O M; Veiga, S S; Chahine, J; Murakami, M T; Arni, R K

    2015-01-01

    Phospholipases D (PLDs), the major dermonecrotic factors from brown spider venoms, trigger a range of biological reactions both in vitro and in vivo. Despite their clinical relevance in loxoscelism, structural data is restricted to the apo-form of these enzymes, which has been instrumental in understanding the functional differences between the class I and II spider PLDs. The crystal structures of the native class II PLD from Loxosceles intermedia complexed with myo-inositol 1-phosphate and the inactive mutant H12A complexed with fatty acids indicate the existence of a strong ligand-dependent conformation change of the highly conserved aromatic residues, Tyr 223 and Trp225 indicating their roles in substrate binding. These results provided insights into the structural determinants for substrate recognition and binding by class II PLDs.

  20. Monte Carlo calculations of the free energy of binary sII hydrogen clathrate hydrates for identifying efficient promoter molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atamas, Alexander A; Cuppen, Herma M; Koudriachova, Marina V; de Leeuw, Simon W

    2013-01-31

    The thermodynamics of binary sII hydrogen clathrates with secondary guest molecules is studied with Monte Carlo simulations. The small cages of the sII unit cell are occupied by one H(2) guest molecule. Different promoter molecules entrapped in the large cages are considered. Simulations are conducted at a pressure of 1000 atm in a temperature range of 233-293 K. To determine the stabilizing effect of different promoter molecules on the clathrate, the Gibbs free energy of fully and partially occupied sII hydrogen clathrates are calculated. Our aim is to predict what would be an efficient promoter molecule using properties such as size, dipole moment, and hydrogen bonding capability. The gas clathrate configurational and free energies are compared. The entropy makes a considerable contribution to the free energy and should be taken into account in determining stability conditions of binary sII hydrogen clathrates.

  1. High-throughput engineering and analysis of peptide binding to class II MHC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Boder, Eric T

    2010-07-27

    Class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC-II) proteins govern stimulation of adaptive immunity by presenting antigenic peptides to CD4+ T lymphocytes. Many allelic variants of MHC-II exist with implications in peptide presentation and immunity; thus, high-throughput experimental tools for rapid and quantitative analysis of peptide binding to MHC-II are needed. Here, we present an expression system wherein peptide and MHC-II are codisplayed on the surface of yeast in an intracellular association-dependent manner and assayed by flow cytometry. Accordingly, the relative binding of different peptides and/or MHC-II variants can be assayed by genetically manipulating either partner, enabling the application of directed evolution approaches for high-throughput characterization or engineering. We demonstrate the application of this tool to map the side-chain preference for peptides binding to HLA-DR1 and to evolve novel HLA-DR1 mutants with altered peptide-binding specificity.

  2. The comings and goings of MHC class I molecules herald a new dawn in cross-presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blander, J Magarian

    2016-07-01

    MHC class I (MHC-I) molecules are the centerpieces of cross-presentation. They are loaded with peptides derived from exogenous sources and displayed on the plasma membrane to communicate with CD8 T cells, relaying a message of tolerance or attack. The study of cross-presentation has been focused on the relative contributions of the vacuolar versus cytosolic pathways of antigen processing and the location where MHC-I molecules are loaded. While vacuolar processing generates peptides loaded onto vacuolar MHC-I molecules, how and where exogenous peptides generated by the proteasome and transported by TAP meet MHC-I molecules for loading has been a matter of debate. The source and trafficking of MHC-I molecules in dendritic cells have largely been ignored under the expectation that these molecules came from the Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or the plasma membrane. New studies reveal a concentrated pool of MHC-I molecules in the endocytic recycling compartment (ERC). These pools are rapidly mobilized to phagosomes carrying microbial antigens, and in a signal-dependent manner under the control of Toll-like receptors. The phagosome becomes a dynamic hub receiving traffic from multiple sources, the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment for delivering the peptide-loading machinery and the ERC for deploying MHC-I molecules that alert CD8 T cells of infection.

  3. Is traditional treatment a good option for an adult with a Class II deepbite malocclusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo Quintão, Catia Cardoso; Miguel, Jose Augusto Mendes; Brunharo, Ione Portela; Zanardi, Gustavo; Feu, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    The Tweed-Merrifield directional force technique is a useful treatment approach for a patient with a Class II malocclusion with dentoalveolar protrusion. The purpose of this case report was to present the diagnosis and treatment descriptions of a patient with an Angle Class II malocclusion complicated by tooth losses, severe dentoalveolar protrusion, and skeletal discrepancy. Treatment involved extraction of the maxillary first premolars, high-pull headgear to enhance anchorage, and high-pull J-hook headgear to retract and intrude the maxillary anterior segments. A successful outcome was achieved with traditional orthodontic treatment in this borderline surgical case.

  4. Vaccination against lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection in MHC class II-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Peter Johannes; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2011-01-01

    response could be elicited in MHC class II-deficient mice by vaccination with adenovirus encoding lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) glycoprotein tethered to MHC class II-associated invariant chain. Moreover, the response induced conferred significant cytolytic CD8(+) T cell-mediated protection...... against challenge with a high dose of the invasive clone 13 strain of LCMV. In contrast, vaccination with adenovirus encoding unlinked LCMV glycoprotein induced weak virus control in the absence of CD4(+) T cells, and mice may die of increased immunopathology associated with incomplete protection. Acute...

  5. Targeting the MHC Class II antigen presentation pathway in cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Jacques; Bourgeois-Daigneault, Marie-Claude; Lapointe, Réjean

    2012-09-01

    The success of immunotherapy relies on the participation of all arms of the immune system and the role of CD4+ T lymphocytes in preventing tumor growth is now well established. Understanding how tumors evade immune responses holds the key to the development of cancer immunotherapies. In this review, we discuss how MHC Class II expression varies in cancer cells and how this influences antitumor immune responses. We also discuss the means that are currently available for harnessing the MHC Class II antigen presentation pathway for the development of efficient vaccines to activate the immune system against cancer.

  6. HLA class II haplotypes distinctly associated with vaso-occlusion in children with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Najat; Al-Ola, Khadija; Al-Subaie, Abeer M; Ali, Muhallab E; Al-Irhayim, Zaid; Al-Irhayim, A Qader; Almawi, Wassim Y

    2008-04-01

    We investigated the association of HLA class II alleles and haplotypes with sickle cell anemia vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC). DRB1*100101 was positively associated, while DRB1*140101, DRB1*150101, and DQB1*060101 were negatively associated, with VOC. Both susceptible (DRB1*100101-DQB1*050101) and protective (DRB1*110101-DQB1*030101 and DRB1*150101-DQB1*060101) haplotypes were identified, indicating that HLA class II haplotypes influence VOC risk.

  7. Domain structures and molecular evolution of class I and class II major histocompatibility gene complex (MHC) products deduced from amino acid and nucleotide sequence homologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, K

    1984-01-01

    Domain structures of class I and class II MHC products were analyzed from a viewpoint of amino acid and nucleotide sequence homologies. Alignment statistics revealed that class I (transplantation) antigen H chains consist of four mutually homologous domains, and that class II (HLA-DR) antigen beta and alpha chains are both composed of three mutually homologous ones. The N-terminal three and two domains of class I and class II (both beta and alpha) gene products, respectively, all of which being approximately 90 residues long, were concluded to be homologous to beta2-microglobulin (beta2M). The membrane-embedded C-terminal shorter domains of these MHC products were also found to be homologous to one another and to the third domain of class I H chains. Class I H chains were found to be more closely related to class II alpha chains than to class II beta chains. Based on these findings, an exon duplication history from a common ancestral gene encoding a beta2M-like primodial protein of one-domain-length up to the contemporary MHC products was proposed.

  8. 46 CFR 50.30-10 - Class I, I-L and II-L pressure vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class I, I-L and II-L pressure vessels. 50.30-10 Section... PROVISIONS Fabrication Inspection § 50.30-10 Class I, I-L and II-L pressure vessels. (a) Classes I, I-L and II-L pressure vessels shall be subject to shop inspection at the plant where they are...

  9. A Review of Class I and Class II Pet Food Recalls Involving Chemical Contaminants from 1996 to 2008

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Commercial pet food in USA is generally safe, but adulteration does occur. Adulterated food has to be recalled to protect pets and public health. All stakeholders, including food firms, distributors, and government agencies such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) participate in food recall. The objective of this review is to describe the pet food recall procedure from start to finish, and to review class I and II pet food recalls from 1996 to 2008, with a specific focus on those due to...

  10. Conformational lability in the class II MHC 310 helix and adjacent extended strand dictate HLA-DM susceptibility and peptide exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Corrie A.; Negroni, Maria P.; Kellersberger, Katherine A.; Zavala-Ruiz, Zarixia; Evans, James E.; Stern, Lawrence J.

    2011-01-01

    HLA-DM is required for efficient peptide exchange on class II MHC molecules, but its mechanism of action is controversial. We trapped an intermediate state of class II MHC HLA-DR1 by substitution of αF54, resulting in a protein with increased HLA-DM binding affinity, weakened MHC-peptide hydrogen bonding as measured by hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry, and increased susceptibility to DM-mediated peptide exchange. Structural analysis revealed a set of concerted conformational alterations at the N-terminal end of the peptide-binding site. These results suggest that interaction with HLA-DM is driven by a conformational change of the MHC II protein in the region of the α-subunit 310 helix and adjacent extended strand region, and provide a model for the mechanism of DM-mediated peptide exchange. PMID:22084083

  11. Conformational lability in the class II MHC 310 helix and adjacent extended strand dictate HLA-DM susceptibility and peptide exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Corrie A; Negroni, Maria P; Kellersberger, Katherine A; Zavala-Ruiz, Zarixia; Evans, James E; Stern, Lawrence J

    2011-11-29

    HLA-DM is required for efficient peptide exchange on class II MHC molecules, but its mechanism of action is controversial. We trapped an intermediate state of class II MHC HLA-DR1 by substitution of αF54, resulting in a protein with increased HLA-DM binding affinity, weakened MHC-peptide hydrogen bonding as measured by hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry, and increased susceptibility to DM-mediated peptide exchange. Structural analysis revealed a set of concerted conformational alterations at the N-terminal end of the peptide-binding site. These results suggest that interaction with HLA-DM is driven by a conformational change of the MHC II protein in the region of the α-subunit 3(10) helix and adjacent extended strand region, and provide a model for the mechanism of DM-mediated peptide exchange.

  12. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA): a screening study to measure class II skeletal pattern, TMJ PDS and use of systemic corticosteroids.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mandall, Nicky A

    2010-03-01

    To screen patients with oligoarticular and polyarticular forms of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) to determine (i) the severity of their class II skeletal pattern; (ii) temporomandibular joint signs and symptoms and (iii) use of systemic corticosteroids.

  13. Human Leukocyte Antigen Class II Alleles Are Associated with Hepatitis C Virus Natural Susceptibility in the Chinese Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Yue

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Human leukocyte antigen (HLA class II molecule influences host antigen presentation and anti-viral immune response. The aim of this study was to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within HLA class II gene were associated with different clinical outcomes of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. Three HLA class II SNPs (rs3077, rs2395309 and rs2856718 were genotyped by TaqMan assay among Chinese population, including 350 persistent HCV infection patients, 194 spontaneous viral clearance subjects and 973 HCV-uninfected control subjects. After logistic regression analysis, the results indicated that the rs2856718 TC genotype was significantly associated with the protective effect of the HCV natural susceptibility (adjusted OR: 0.712, 95% CI: 0.554–0.914 when compared with reference TT genotype, and this remained significant after false discovery rate (FDR correction (p = 0.024. Moreover, the protective effect of rs2856718 was observed in dominant genetic models (adjusted OR: 0.726, 95% CI: 0.574–0.920, and this remained significant after FDR correction (p = 0.024. In stratified analysis, a significant decreased risk was found in rs2856718C allele in the male subgroup (adjusted OR: 0.778, 95% CI: 0.627–0.966 and hemodialysis subgroup (adjusted OR: 0.713, 95% CI: 0.552–0.921. Our results indicated that the genetic variations of rs2856718 within the HLA-DQ gene are associated with the natural susceptibility to HCV infection among the Chinese population.

  14. High specificity of human secretory class II phospholipase A2 for phosphatidic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snitko, Y; Yoon, E T; Cho, W

    1997-02-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a potent lipid second messenger which stimulates platelet aggregation, cell proliferation and smooth-muscle contraction. The phospholipase A2 (PLA2)-catalysed hydrolysis of phosphatidic acid (PA) is thought to be a primary synthetic route for LPA. Of the multiple forms of PLA2 present in human tissues, human secretory class-II PLA2 (hs-PLA2) has been implicated in the production of LPA from platelets and whole blood cells challenged with inflammatory stimuli. To explore further the possibility that hs-PLA2 is involved in the production of LPA, we rigorously measured the phospholipid head group specificity of hs-PLA2 by a novel PLA2 kinetic system using polymerized mixed liposomes. Kinetic analysis of recombinant hs-PLA2 demonstrates that hs-PLA2 strongly prefers PA as substrate over other phospholipids found in the mammalian plasma membrane including phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). The order of preference is PA > PE approximately PS > PC. To identify amino acid residues of hs-PLA2 that are involved in its unique substrate specificity, we mutated two residues, Glu-56 and Lys-69, which were shown to interact with the phospholipid head group in the X-ray-crystallographic structure of the hs-PLA2-transition-state-analogue complex. The K69Y mutant showed selective inactivation toward PA whereas the E56K mutant displayed a most pronounced inactivation to PE. Thus it appears that Lys-69 is at least partially involved in the PA specificity of hs-PLA2 and Glu-56 in the distinction between PE and PC. In conjunction with a recent cell study [Fourcade, Simon, Viode, Rugani, Leballe, Ragab, Fournie, Sarda and Chap (1995) Cell 80, 919-927], these studies suggest that hs-PLA2 can rapidly hydrolyse PA molecules exposed to the outer layer of cell-derived microvesicles and thereby produce LPA.

  15. Extraction of maxillary first permanent molars in patients with Class II Division 1 malocclusion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stalpers, M.J.; Booij, J.W.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Katsaros, C.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Our objectives were to assess treatment outcomes in Class II Division 1 patients who were treated orthodontically with extraction of the maxillary first permanent molars and to describe the changes in their facial profiles. METHODS: This was a prospective, longitudinal, 1-group outcome

  16. A treatment method for Class II Division 1 patients with extraction of permanent maxillary first molars.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, J.W.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Katsaros, C.

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the years, various treatment modalities have been presented for the treatment of Class II Division 1 malocclusions. The goal of this paper is to present a treatment approach that involves the extraction of the maxillary first molars followed by use of fixed appliances with low-friction br

  17. MHC class II B diversity in blue tits : A preliminary study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rivero-de Aguilar, Juan; Schut, Elske; Merino, Santiago; Martinez, Javier; Komdeur, Jan; Westerdahl, Helena

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we partly characterize major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II B in the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus). A total of 22 individuals from three different European locations: Spain, The Netherlands, and Sweden were screened for MHC allelic diversity. The MHC genes were investigate

  18. Very few indications justify early treatment for severe Class II malocclusions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, Yijin

    2004-01-01

    DESIGN: This was a single-centre two-phased, parallel, randomised clinical trial (RCT) conducted over a period of more than 10 years. INTERVENTION: Children were enrolled who had severe (=7 mm overjet) Class II malocclusions and who were developmentally at least a year before their peak pubertal gro

  19. Current Teaching of Proximal Retention Grooves for Class II Amalgam Preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David L.

    1992-01-01

    A survey gathered information on methods of class II amalgam preparation taught in 59 dental schools. Focus was on the teaching and testing of proximal retention groove use, stated rationale for placing retention grooves, and the relationship of the instruction to board criteria for cavity preparation. (MSE)

  20. The effect of anterior inclined plane treatment on the dentoskeletal of Class II division 1 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emami Meibodi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Most of Class II malocclusions are due to underdeveloped mandible with increased overjet and overbite. Lack of incisal contact results in the extrusion of the upper and lower anterior dentoalveolar complex, which helps to lock the mandible and prevent its normal growth and development, and this abnormality is exaggerated by soft tissue imbalance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the skeletal and dental changes in patients treated with anterior inclined plane appliance in growing patients with moderate Class II Division 1 having deep overbite. In this study, 25 patients, including 15 girls and 10 boys, with a mean age of 9 ±1.2 years were selected; all of them presented with moderate Class II deep bite with increased overjet and normal or horizontal growth pattern. Pre- and post-treatment X-rays and photos for an average of 8 months were taken. The statistical assessment of the data suggested that there were no significant changes in the vertical skeletal parameters. The mandibular incisors were protruded, whereas the maxillary incisors were retruded. Overbite and overjet were also reduced. There was significant increase in the mandibular length. The results revealed that in mixed dentition patients, the inclined plane corrected Class II discrepancies mostly through dentoskeletal changes.

  1. 77 FR 58473 - Minimum Technical Standards for Class II Gaming Systems and Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... supported the NPRM's removal of language asserting that ``TGRAs also regulate Class II gaming,'' but... primary regulators of tribal gaming. Response: The Commission declines to insert the requested language... are eliminated from operation through attrition and/or market forces. One commenter noted...

  2. 78 FR 5800 - Clean Water Act Class II: Proposed Administrative Settlement, Penalty Assessment and Opportunity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... administrative order assessing a civil penalty against any person who has violated applicable emergency planning... AGENCY Clean Water Act Class II: Proposed Administrative Settlement, Penalty Assessment and Opportunity... resolve violations of the Clean Water Act (CWA) and the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know...

  3. 37 GHz methanol masers : Horsemen of the Apocalypse for the class II methanol maser phase?

    CERN Document Server

    Ellingsen, S P; Sobolev, A M; Voronkov, M A; Caswell, J L; Lo, N

    2011-01-01

    We report the results of a search for class II methanol masers at 37.7, 38.3 and 38.5 GHz towards a sample of 70 high-mass star formation regions. We primarily searched towards regions known to show emission either from the 107 GHz class II methanol maser transition, or from the 6.035 GHz excited OH transition. We detected maser emission from 13 sources in the 37.7 GHz transition, eight of these being new detections. We detected maser emission from three sources in the 38 GHz transitions, one of which is a new detection. We find that 37.7 GHz methanol masers are only associated with the most luminous 6.7 and 12.2 GHz methanol maser sources, which in turn are hypothesised to be the oldest class II methanol sources. We suggest that the 37.7 GHz methanol masers are associated with a brief evolutionary phase (of 1000-4000 years) prior to the cessation of class II methanol maser activity in the associated high-mass star formation region.

  4. Influence of composite resin consistency and placement technique on proximal contact tightness of Class II restorations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, B.A.C.; Opdam, N.J.M.; Roeters, F.J.M.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Plasschaert, A.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the influence of composite resin consistency and placement technique on proximal contact tightness of Class II composite resin restorations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A manikin model (KaVo Dental) was used with an artificial first molar in which a standardized MO preparation was

  5. DNA polymorphism of HLA class II genes in pauciarticular juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morling, N; Friis, J; Fugger, L;

    1991-01-01

    We investigated the DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II genes: HLA-DRB, -DQA, -DQB, DPA, and -DPB in 54 patients with pauciarticular juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (PJRA) and in healthy Danes. The frequencies of DNA fragments a...

  6. Guided tissue regeneration in the treatment of class II furcation defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Miranda DELIBERADOR

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Numerous surgical techniques have been evaluated toattempt the regeneration of furcation defects. Objective and literature review: Among the regenerative techniques, guided tissue regeneration(GTR has been largely used in the treatment of class II furcation defects, the main indication for GTR. Several clinical studies have compared the GTR technique with surgical debridement alone for the treatment of class II furcation defects in mandibular molars. A number of membrane materials have been tested in those studies.Varying results have been observed using non-absorbable expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PTFE membranes. In some studies, the difference between the treatments was not clinically significant. When second generation absorbable membranes were used, the clinicalresults were also variable. However, some clinical studies foundfavorable results using the GTR technique, especially when a polylactic acid membrane was used. Similar modest results were observed when absorbable and non-absorbable membranes were compared clinically in the treatment of class II furcation defects in mandibular molars.Significant differences were not found between the membranes for most of the clinical parameters evaluated.Conclusion: Considering the literature, it can be concluded that the use of GTR for the treatment of mandibular molars with class II furcation defects yielded highly variable and unpredictable results.

  7. A Cephalometric Comparison of Twin Block and Bionator Appliances in Treatment of Class II Malocclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian-Babaki, Fatemeh; Araghbidi-Kashani, S. Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    Background Class II malocclusion is one of the most common orthodontic problems. In cases of class II malocclusion with mandibular deficiency, functional appliances often are used with the intent of stimulating mandibular growth. Bionator and twin block are two of the more popular functional appliances. The aim of this study was to compare the treatment outcomes of these two appliances using cephalometric radiographs. Material and Methods Cephalometric radiographs of 33 patients who had class II division I malocclusion, before and after treatment were digitalized. The mean changes in twin block and bionator groups were compared using independent t test. Results Twin block and bionator showed no statistically significant differences in cephalometric parameters except for ANB, NA-Pog, Basal and Ar-Go-Me angles. Conclusions There were no statistically significant differences in dentoalveolar and mandibular position between twin block and bionator (p>0.1). Twin block was more efficient in inhibition of forward movement of maxilla (p<0.1). Key words:Functional, Class II malocclusion, Cephalometrics, Twin block, Bionator, Treatment. PMID:28149473

  8. 40 CFR 82.70 - Nonessential Class II products and exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... limited to household, industrial, automotive and pesticide uses; (2) Except— (i) Medical devices listed in...; (iii) Lubricants, coatings or cleaning fluids used for aircraft maintenance, which contain class II... books, books with coated, dense or paper and tightly bound documents; (vii) Portable fire...

  9. Comparison of Activator-Headgear and Twin Block Treatment Approaches in Class II Division 1 Malocclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroz Tranesen, Kate; Birkeland, Kari; Katic, Visnja; Pavlic, Andrej; Vandevska-Radunovic, Vaska

    2017-01-01

    The purpose was to compare the treatment effects of functional appliances activator-headgear (AH) and Twin Block (TB) on skeletal, dental, and soft-tissue structures in class II division 1 malocclusion with normal growth changes in untreated subjects. The sample included 50 subjects (56% females) aged 8–13 years with class II division 1 malocclusion treated with either AH (n = 25) or TB (n = 25) appliances. Pre- and posttreatment lateral cephalograms were evaluated and compared to 50 untreated class II division 1 cases matched by age, gender, ANB angle, and skeletal maturity. A paired sample, independent samples tests and discriminant analysis were performed for intra- and intergroup analysis. Treatment with both appliances resulted in significant reduction of skeletal and soft-tissue facial convexity, the overjet, and the prominence of the upper lip in comparison to untreated individuals (p < 0.001). Retroclination of maxillary incisors and proclination of mandibular incisors were seen, the latter being significantly more evident in the TB group (p < 0.05). Increase of effective mandibular length was more pronounced in the TB group. In conclusion, both AH and TB appliances contributed successfully to the correction of class II division 1 malocclusion when compared to the untreated subjects with predominantly dentoalveolar changes. PMID:28203569

  10. [Features of the hormonal status in patients with temporomandibular joint dysfunction and class II malocclusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gus, L A; Arsenina, O I; Komolov, I S

    2015-01-01

    The article presents data on androgen levels in female patients with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction of varying degree and class II malocclusion. The study revealed significant correlation between degenerative and inflammatory TMJ changes and androgens level in patients with stigmas of connective tissue dysplasia (p<0.05), probably due to indirect proinflammatory action of androgens as they stimulate inflammatory mediators expression.

  11. 40 CFR 147.250 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... State of California, except those on Indian lands, is the program administered by the California... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State-administered program-Class II wells. 147.250 Section 147.250 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...

  12. Comparison of interradicular distances and cortical bone thickness in Thai patients with Class I and Class II skeletal patterns using cone-beam computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khumsarn, Nattida; Patanaporn, Virush; Jotikasthira, Dhirawat

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluated and compared interradicular distances and cortical bone thickness in Thai patients with Class I and Class II skeletal patterns, using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Methods Pretreatment CBCT images of 24 Thai orthodontic patients with Class I and Class II skeletal patterns were included in the study. Three measurements were chosen for investigation: the mesiodistal distance between the roots, the width of the buccolingual alveolar process, and buccal cortical bone thickness. All distances were recorded at five different levels from the cementoenamel junction (CEJ). Descriptive statistical analysis and t-tests were performed, with the significance level for all tests set at p<0.05. Results Patients with a Class II skeletal pattern showed significantly greater maxillary mesiodistal distances (between the first and second premolars) and widths of the buccolingual alveolar process (between the first and second molars) than Class I skeletal pattern patients at 10 mm above the CEJ. The maxillary buccal cortical bone thicknesses between the second premolar and first molar at 8 mm above the CEJ in Class II patients were likewise significantly greater than in Class I patients. Patients with a Class I skeletal pattern showed significantly wider mandibular buccolingual alveolar processes than did Class II patients (between the first and second molars) at 4, 6, and 8 mm below the CEJ. Conclusion In both the maxilla and mandible, the mesiodistal distances, the width of the buccolingual alveolar process, and buccal cortical bone thickness tended to increase from the CEJ to the apex in both Class I and Class II skeletal patterns. PMID:27358819

  13. Comparison of interradicular distances and cortical bone thickness in Thai patients with class I and class II skeletal patterns using cone-beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khumsarn, Nattida [Dental Division of Lamphun Hospital, Lamphun (Thailand); Patanaporn, Virush; Janhom, Apirum; Jotikasthira, Dhirawat [Faculty of Dentistry, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (Thailand)

    2016-06-15

    This study evaluated and compared interradicular distances and cortical bone thickness in Thai patients with Class I and Class II skeletal patterns, using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Pretreatment CBCT images of 24 Thai orthodontic patients with Class I and Class II skeletal patterns were included in the study. Three measurements were chosen for investigation: the mesiodistal distance between the roots, the width of the buccolingual alveolar process, and buccal cortical bone thickness. All distances were recorded at five different levels from the cementoenamel junction (CEJ). Descriptive statistical analysis and t-tests were performed, with the significance level for all tests set at p<0.05. Patients with a Class II skeletal pattern showed significantly greater maxillary mesiodistal distances (between the first and second premolars) and widths of the buccolingual alveolar process (between the first and second molars) than Class I skeletal pattern patients at 10 mm above the CEJ. The maxillary buccal cortical bone thicknesses between the second premolar and first molar at 8 mm above the CEJ in Class II patients were likewise significantly greater than in Class I patients. Patients with a Class I skeletal pattern showed significantly wider mandibular buccolingual alveolar processes than did Class II patients (between the first and second molars) at 4, 6, and 8 mm below the CEJ. In both the maxilla and mandible, the mesiodistal distances, the width of the buccolingual alveolar process, and buccal cortical bone thickness tended to increase from the CEJ to the apex in both Class I and Class II skeletal patterns.

  14. Rationale for referring class II patients for early orthodontic treatment As razões para indicação de tratamento precoce em pacientes de classe II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Mendes Miguel

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The tendency of indicating early treatment (before growth spurt when dealing with Angle Class II cases has been noticed, although there is no definite scientific evidence to justify such decision. The aim of this study was to identify the advantages and disadvantages to this approach and which appliances are used for this purpose. For that purpose, a questionnaire containing full records of a Class II patient was sent to two professors of each Orthodontic graduate program in Brazil (n=96, total 192, from which 107 were properly answered. Results demonstrated that the most used appliances were the headgear (80.4%, maxillary splint (50% and Bionator (44.4%. The benefits most often quoted were increase of patient self-esteem (78.5% and reduction in the incidence of incisors trauma (63.6%, while the main disadvantage was saturation of patient compliance (73.8%. Considering early Class II treatment, there is still no unanimity as to treating in one or two stages or in selection of appliances. However, the orthodontists should consider the physical situation of the patient, severity of cases and susceptibility of trauma to the maxillary incisors. It is crucial that updated information is given to parents, in order to justify this approach.A tendência de indicação de tratamento precoce (antes de surto de crescimento para casos de Classe II de Angle tem sido observada, embora não haja evidência científica para embasar tal decisão. O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar as vantagens e desvantagens da indicação e quais aparelhos são usados no tratamento. Foram enviados questionários (n=192 com a documentação completa de um paciente Classe II para dois professores de cada curso de especialização em Ortodontia no Brasil, os quais 107 foram respondidos. Os resultados demonstraram que os aparelhos mais usados foram: Extra-oral (80,4%, Thurow (50,0% e Bionator (44,4%. Foram citados como maiores vantagens: aumento de auto-estima do paciente (78

  15. 56-month clinical performance of Class I and II resin composite restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Bittencourt Pazinatto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the 56-month clinical performance of Class I and II resin composite restorations. Filtek P60 was compared with Filtek Z250, which are both indicated for posterior restorations but differ in terms of handling characteristics. The null hypothesis tested was that there is no difference in the clinical performance of the two resin composites in posterior teeth. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-three patients were treated by the same operator, who prepared 48 Class I and 42 Class II cavities, which were restored with Single Bond/Filtek Z250 or Single Bond/Filtek P60 restorative systems. Restorations were evaluated by two independent examiners at baseline and after 56 months, using the modified USPHS criteria. Data were analyzed statistically using Chi-square and Fisher's Exact tests (a=0.05. RESULTS: After 56 months, 25 patients (31 Class I and 36 Class II were analyzed. A 3% failure rate occurred due to secondary caries and excessive loss of anatomic form for P60. For both restorative systems, there were no significant differences in secondary caries and postoperative sensitivity. However, significant changes were observed with respect to anatomic form, marginal discoloration, and marginal adaptation. Significant decreases in surface texture were observed exclusively for the Z250 restorations. CONCLUSIONS: Both restorative systems can be used for posterior restorations and can be expected to perform well in the oral environment.

  16. Treatment of Class II open bite in the mixed dentition with a removable functional appliance and headgear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngan, P; Wilson, S; Florman, M; Wei, S H

    1992-05-01

    Early diagnosis of patients exhibiting open bites that are complicated by skeletal Class II and vertical growth problems can facilitate subsequent treatment. Eight patients with Class II skeletal open bite were treated with the high-pull activator appliance and compared to reasonably matched controls to determine the effects of the appliance. The high-pull activator was found to reduce forward growth of the maxilla and increase mandibular alveolar height, transforming the Class II molar relationship into a Class I molar relationship. The overjet and open bite were decreased, and, in addition, the appliance reduced the amount of forward and downward movement of the maxillary molars, providing vertical control of the maxilla during Class II orthopedic correction. These results demonstrated that open bite complicated by a Class II vertical growth pattern can be treated during the mixed dentition with favorable results by a combination of a removable functional appliance and high-pull headgear.

  17. Class I and Class II restorations of resin composite: an FE analysis of the influence of modulus of elasticity on stresses generated by occlusal loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, Erik; Peutzfeldt, Anne

    2008-01-01

    was that the marginal stresses would decrease with increasing modulus of elasticity of the restoration. METHODS: A cylindrical tooth was modelled in enamel and dentin and fitted with a Class I or a Class II restoration of resin composite. In one scenario the restoration was bonded to the tooth, in another......OBJECTIVES: It was the aim of the study to analyze by the FE method stresses generated in tooth and restoration by occlusal loading of Class I and Class II restorations of resin composite. On the basis of available information on the influence of the modulus of elasticity, the research hypothesis...

  18. Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I Chain-Related A (MICA) Molecules: Relevance in Solid Organ Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranwal, Ajay Kumar; Mehra, Narinder K.

    2017-01-01

    An ever growing number of reports on graft rejection and/or failure even with good HLA matches have highlighted an important role of non-HLA antigens in influencing allograft immunity. The list of non-HLA antigens that have been implicated in graft rejection in different types of organ transplantation has already grown long. Of these, the Major Histocompatibility Complex class I chain-related molecule A (MICA) is one of the most polymorphic and extensively studied non-HLA antigenic targets especially in the kidney transplantation. Humoral response to MICA antigens has repeatedly been associated with lower graft survival and an increased risk of acute and chronic rejection following kidney and liver transplantation with few studies showing conflicting results. Although there are clear indications of MICA antibodies being associated with adverse graft outcome, a definitive consensus on this relationship has not been arrived yet. Furthermore, only a few studies have dealt with the impact of MICA donor-specific antibodies as compared to those that are not donor specific on graft outcome. In addition to the membrane bound form, a soluble isoform of MICA (sMICA), which has the potential to engage the natural killer cell-activating receptor NKG2D resulting in endocytosis and degradation of receptor–ligand interaction complex leading to suppression of NKG2D-mediated host innate immunity, has been a subject of intense discussion. Most studies on sMICA have been directed toward understanding their influence on tumor growth, with limited literature focusing its role in transplant biology. Furthermore, a unique dimorphism (methionine to valine) at position 129 in the α2 domain categorizes MICA alleles into strong (MICA-129 met) and weak (MICA-129 val) binders of NKG2D receptor depending on whether they have methionine or valine at this position. Although the implications of MICA 129 dimorphism have been highlighted in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, its role in

  19. A modern approach for epitope prediction: identification of foot-and-mouth disease virus peptides binding bovine leukocyte antigen (BoLA) class I molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pandya, Mital; Rasmussen, Michael; Hansen, Andreas;

    2015-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules regulate adaptive immune responses through the presentation of antigenic peptides to CD8+ T cells. Polymorphisms in the peptide binding region of class I molecules determine peptide binding affinity and stability during antigen presentation...

  20. A modern approach for epitope prediction: identification of foot-and-mouth disease virus peptides binding bovine leukocyte antigen (BoLA) class I molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules regulate adaptive immune responses through the presentation of antigenic peptides to CD8positive T-cells. Polymorphisms in the peptide binding region of class I molecules determine peptide binding affinity and stability during antigen presenta...

  1. Peptide motifs of the single dominantly expressed class I molecule explain the striking MHC-determined response to Rous sarcoma virus in chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallny, Hans-Joachim; Avila, David; Hunt, Lawrence G.;

    2006-01-01

    are consistent with the peptides binding to models of the class I molecule encoded by the abundant cDNA. Finally, having shown for three haplotypes that there is a single dominantly expressed class I molecule at the level of RNA, protein, and antigenic peptide, we show that the motifs can explain the striking...

  2. Inhibition of HLA-DM mediated MHC class II peptide loading by HLA-DO promotes self tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa K. Denzin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Major histocompatibility class II (MHCII molecules are loaded with peptides derived from foreign and self-proteins within the endosomes and lysosomes of antigen presenting cells (APCs. This process is mediated by interaction of MHCII with the conserved, nonpolymorphic MHCII-like molecule HLA-DM (DM. DM activity is directly opposed by HLA-DO (DO, another conserved, non-polymorphic MHCII like molecule. DO is an MHCII substrate mimic. Binding of DO to DM prevents MHCII from binding to DM, thereby inhibiting peptide loading. Inhibition of DM function enables low stability MHC complexes to survive and populate the surface of APCS. As a consequence, DO promotes the display of a broader pool of low abundance self-peptides. Broadening the peptide repertoire theoretically reduces the likelihood of inadvertently acquiring a density of self-ligands that is sufficient to activate self-reactive T cells. One function of DO, therefore, is to promote T cell tolerance by shaping the visible image of self. Recent data also shows that DO influences the adaptive immune response by controlling B cell entry into the germinal center reaction. This review explores the data supporting these concepts.

  3. Switching of the magnetocaloric effect of Mn(II) glycolate by water molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan-Cong; Guo, Fu-Sheng; Liu, Jun-Liang; Leng, Ji-Dong; Vrábel, Peter; Orendáč, Martin; Prokleška, Jan; Sechovský, Vladimír; Tong, Ming-Liang

    2014-03-10

    The transformation of Mn(II) glycolates (glc) between the three-dimensional coordination polymer [Mn(glc)2]n (1) and discrete mononuclear phase [Mn(glc)2 (H2O)2] (2) can be reversibly switched by water molecules, which dramatically change the magnetocaloric effect (MCE) of Mn(II) glycolates from the maximum of 6.9 J kg(-1)  K(-1) in 1 to 60.3 J kg(-1)  K(-1) in 2. This case example reveals that the effect of magnetic coupling on MCE plays a dominant role over that of other factors such as magnetic density for 3d-type magnetic refrigerants.

  4. PI3KC2{alpha}, a class II PI3K, is required for dynamin-independent internalization pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Claudia; Malmberg, Emily Kim; Salcini, Anna Elisabetta

    2010-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that cellular uptake of several molecules can occur independently of functional dynamin, but the molecular players that regulate dynamin-independent endocytosis and the subsequent trafficking steps are still largely unknown. A survival-based short-hairpin (sh) RNA...... screen using a cell line expressing a diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR, officially known as HBEGF) anchored to GPI (DTR-GPI), which internalizes diphtheria toxin (DT, officially known as DTX) in a dynamin-independent manner, identified PI3KC2a, a class II phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), as a specific...... regulator of dynamin-independent DT internalization. We found that the internalization of several proteins that enter the cell through dynamin-independent pathways led to a relocalization of PI3KC2a to cargo-positive vesicles. Furthermore, downregulation of PI3KC2a impaired internalization of CD59 as well...

  5. TLR-induced activation of Btk- Role for endosomal MHC classmolecules revealed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joan Ni Gabhann; Caroline A Jefferies

    2011-01-01

    @@ MHC molecules have been shown to play key roles in the immune system including regulating T-cell repertoire development through the process of positive and negative selection.MHC molecules also function to bridge the innate and adaptive immune system through the presentation of processed antigenic peptides to T-cells.

  6. CD8 T cell memory recall is enhanced by novel direct interactions with CD4 T cells enabled by MHC class II transferred from APCs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo A Romagnoli

    Full Text Available Protection against many intracellular pathogens is provided by CD8 T cells, which are thought to need CD4 T cell help to develop into effective memory CD8 T cells. Because murine CD8 T cells do not transcribe MHC class II (MHC-II genes, several models have proposed antigen presenting cells (APCs as intermediaries required for CD4 T cells to deliver their help to CD8 T cells. Here, we demonstrate the presence of MHC-II molecules on activated murine CD8 T cells in vitro as well as in vivo. These MHC-II molecules are acquired via trogocytosis by CD8 T cells from their activating APCs, particularly CD11c positive dendritic cells (DCs. Transferred MHC-II molecules on activated murine CD8 T cells were functionally competent in stimulating specific indicator CD4 T cells. CD8 T cells that were "helped" in vitro and subsequently allowed to rest in vivo showed enhanced recall responses upon challenge compared to "helpless" CD8 T cells; in contrast, no differences were seen upon immediate challenge. These data indicate that direct CD8:CD4 T cell interactions may significantly contribute to help for CD8 T cells. Furthermore, this mechanism may enable CD8 T cells to communicate with different subsets of interacting CD4 T cells that could modulate immune responses.

  7. Sphingolipids: promising lipid-class molecules with potential applications for industry. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miazek, K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sphingolipids are a group of lipid molecules, the focus on which has been gradually increasing during recent years. This review presents sphingolipids, as valuable compounds with a high potential for industry. Literature. Structures of sphingolipids are described and their natural sources are presented. Different methods for extraction, purification and structural characterization of sphingolipids are evaluated. Activity of sphingolipids towards various microorganisms is discussed and methods for chemical modifications of natural sphingolipids to obtain novel properties are depicted. Finally, applications for implementing sphingolipid molecules in food, cosmetic, pharmaceutical or medical industry are proposed. Conclusions. Sphingolipids are molecules of high impact and their importance will inevitably increase in the future.

  8. Class II treatment by extraction of maxillary first molars or Herbst appliance: dentoskeletal and soft tissue effects in comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, J.W.; Goeke, J.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Katsaros, C.; Ruf, S.

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To compare dentoskeletal and soft tissue treatment effects of two alternative Class II division 1 treatment modalities (maxillary first permanent molar extraction versus Herbst appliance). METHODS: One-hundred-fifty-four Class II division 1 patients that had either been treated with extractions

  9. Influence of unilateral maxillary first molar extraction treatment on second and third molar inclination in Class II subdivision patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livas, Christos; Pandis, Nikolaos; Booij, Johan Willem; Halazonetis, Demetrios J.; Katsaros, Christos; Ren, Yijin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the maxillary second molar (M2) and third molar (M3) inclination following orthodontic treatment of Class II subdivision malocclusion with unilateral maxillary first molar (M1) extraction. Materials and Methods: Panoramic radiographs of 21 Class II subdivision adolescents (eight

  10. 40 CFR 144.21 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells. 144.21 Section 144.21 Protection of Environment... hydrocarbon storage) and III wells. (a) An existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon... decision; or (9) For Class II wells (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage), five years...

  11. Survival of self-etch adhesive Class II composite restorations using ART and conventional cavity preparations in primary molars.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eden, E.; Topaloglu-Ak, A.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.; Hof, M.A. van 't

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To test the null-hypothesis that there was no difference in the survival percentages of Class II composite restorations in primary teeth produced through either ART or conventional approaches after 2 years. METHODS: 157 children with 325 Class II cavitated dentin lesions were included in a

  12. 75 FR 70271 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... wound therapy into class II (special controls) under section 513(f)(2) of the Federal Food, Drug, and... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Non-Powered Suction Apparatus Device Intended for...

  13. 76 FR 20992 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... into class II (special controls) under section 513(f)(2) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Low Level Laser System for Aesthetic Use;...

  14. Má oclusão Classe II, 2ª Divisão de Angle, com sobremordida acentuada Angle Class II, Division 2, malocclusion with deep overbite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Renato Carvalho Ribeiro

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Este relato de caso descreve o tratamento ortodôntico de uma paciente adulta, portadora de uma má oclusão Classe II, 2ª Divisão de Angle, com sobremordida e curva de Spee acentuadas e que apresentava vestibuloversão do dente 12 e algumas recessões gengivais. A paciente foi tratada com exodontia dos primeiros pré-molares superiores e máximo controle de ancoragem. Esse caso foi apresentado à Diretoria do Board Brasileiro de Ortodontia e Ortopedia Facial (BBO, representando a categoria 6, ou seja, uma má oclusão com sobremordida acentuada, como parte dos requisitos para a obtenção do título de Diplomado pelo BBO.This case report describes the orthodontic treatment of an adult patient, who presented a Angle Class II, Division 2, malocclusion, with overbite, severe curve of Spee, right maxillary lateral incisor proclined and gengival recessions. The patient was treated with extraction of the first premolars and maximum anchorage control. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO representing the category 6, deep overbite malocclusion, as part of the requirements for obtaining the title of Diplomate by BBO.

  15. Ablation of phosphoinositide-3-kinase class II alpha suppresses hepatoma cell proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Stanley K.L. [Singapore Immunology Network A-STAR (Singapore); Neo, Soek-Ying, E-mail: neo_soek_ying@sics.a-star.edu.sg [Singapore Immunology Network A-STAR (Singapore); Yap, Yann-Wan [Singapore Immunology Network A-STAR (Singapore); Karuturi, R. Krishna Murthy; Loh, Evelyn S.L. [Genome Institute of Singapore A-STAR (Singapore); Liau, Kui-Hin [Department of General Surgery, Tan Tock Seng Hospital (Singapore); Ren, Ee-Chee, E-mail: ren_ee_chee@immunol.a-star.edu.sg [Singapore Immunology Network A-STAR (Singapore); Department of Microbiology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2009-09-18

    Cancer such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is characterized by complex perturbations in multiple signaling pathways, including the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K/AKT) pathways. Herein we investigated the role of PI3K catalytic isoforms, particularly class II isoforms in HCC proliferation. Among the siRNAs tested against the eight known catalytic PI3K isoforms, specific ablation of class II PI3K alpha (PIK3C2{alpha}) was the most effective in impairing cell growth and this was accompanied by concomitant decrease in PIK3C2{alpha} mRNA and protein levels. Colony formation ability of cells deficient for PIK3C2{alpha} was markedly reduced and growth arrest was associated with increased caspase 3 levels. A small but significant difference in gene dosage and expression levels was detected between tumor and non-tumor tissues in a cohort of 19 HCC patients. Taken together, these data suggest for the first time that in addition to class I PI3Ks in cancer, class II PIK3C2{alpha} can modulate HCC cell growth.

  16. Skeletal and dental changes induced by bionator in early treatment of class II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirceu Barnabé Raveli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to investigate the amount of skeletal and dentoalveolar changes after early treatment of Class II, Division 1 malocclusion with bionator appliance in prepubertal growing patients. Forty Class II patients were divided in two groups. Treated group consisted of 20 subjects treated consecutively with bionator. Mean age at the start of treatment (T0 was 9.1 years, while it was 10.6 years at the end of treatment (T1. Mean treatment time was 17.7 months. Pretreatment and post-treatment cephalometric records of treated group were evaluated and compared with a control group consisted of 20 patients with untreated Class II malocclusion. Intergroup comparisons were performed using Student’s t-tests and chi-square test with Yates’ correction at a significance level of 5 per cent. Bionator appliance was effective in generating differential growth between the jaws. Cephalometric skeletal measurements ANB, WITS, Lafh, Co-A and dental L6-Mp, U1.Pp, IsIi, OB, OJ showed statistically significantly different from the control. Bionator induced more dentoalveolar changes than skeletal during treatment in prepubertal stage.

  17. Genetic variation and balancing selection at MHC class II exon 2 in cultured stocks and wild populations of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Z N; Yang, S; Fan, B; Wang, L; Lin, H R

    2012-11-12

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules play vital roles in triggering adaptive immune responses and are considered the most variable molecules in vertebrates. Recently, many studies have focused on the polymorphism and evolution mode of MHC in both model and non-model organisms. Here, we analyzed the MHC class II exon 2-encoding β chain in comparison with the mitochondrial Cytb gene and our previously published microsatellite data set in three cultured stocks and four wild populations of the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) in order to investigate its genetic variation and mechanism of evolution. We detected one to four alleles in one individual, suggesting that at least two loci exist in the orange-spotted grouper, as well as a particularly high level of allelic diversity at the MHC loci. Furthermore, the cultured stocks exhibited reduced allelic diversity compared to the wild counterparts. We found evidence of balancing selection at MHC class II exon 2, and codon sites under positive selection were largely correspondent to the protein-binding region. In addition, MHC class II exon 2 revealed significant differences between population differentiation patterns from the neutral mitochondrial Cytb and microsatellites, which may indicate local adaptation at MHC loci in orange-spotted grouper originating from the South China Sea and Southeast Asia.

  18. A Class of Asymmetric Gapped Hamiltonians on Quantum Spin Chains and its Characterization II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Yoshiko

    2016-06-01

    We give a characterization of the class of gapped Hamiltonians introduced in Part I (Ogata, A class of asymmetric gapped Hamiltonians on quantum spin chains and its classification I, 2015). The Hamiltonians in this class are given as MPS (Matrix product state) Hamiltonians. In Ogata (A class of asymmetric gapped Hamiltonians on quantum spin chains and its classification I, 2015), we list up properties of ground state structures of Hamiltonians in this class. In this Part II, we show the converse. Namely, if a (not necessarily MPS) Hamiltonian H satisfies five of the listed properties, there is a Hamiltonian H' from the class by Ogata (A class of asymmetric gapped Hamiltonians on quantum spin chains and its classification I, 2015), satisfying the following: The ground state spaces of the two Hamiltonians on the infinite interval coincide. The spectral projections onto the ground state space of H on each finite intervals are approximated by that of H' exponentially well, with respect to the interval size. The latter property has an application to the classification problem with open boundary conditions.

  19. A Class of Asymmetric Gapped Hamiltonians on Quantum Spin Chains and its Characterization II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Yoshiko

    2016-12-01

    We give a characterization of the class of gapped Hamiltonians introduced in Part I (Ogata, A class of asymmetric gapped Hamiltonians on quantum spin chains and its classification I, 2015). The Hamiltonians in this class are given as MPS (Matrix product state) Hamiltonians. In Ogata (A class of asymmetric gapped Hamiltonians on quantum spin chains and its classification I, 2015), we list up properties of ground state structures of Hamiltonians in this class. In this Part II, we show the converse. Namely, if a (not necessarily MPS) Hamiltonian H satisfies five of the listed properties, there is a Hamiltonian H' from the class by Ogata (A class of asymmetric gapped Hamiltonians on quantum spin chains and its classification I, 2015), satisfying the following: The ground state spaces of the two Hamiltonians on the infinite interval coincide. The spectral projections onto the ground state space of H on each finite intervals are approximated by that of H' exponentially well, with respect to the interval size. The latter property has an application to the classification problem with open boundary conditions.

  20. 454 sequencing reveals extreme complexity of the class II Major Histocompatibility Complex in the collared flycatcher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustafsson Lars

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of their functional significance, the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC class I and II genes have been the subject of continuous interest in the fields of ecology, evolution and conservation. In some vertebrate groups MHC consists of multiple loci with similar alleles; therefore, the multiple loci must be genotyped simultaneously. In such complex systems, understanding of the evolutionary patterns and their causes has been limited due to challenges posed by genotyping. Results Here we used 454 amplicon sequencing to characterize MHC class IIB exon 2 variation in the collared flycatcher, an important organism in evolutionary and immuno-ecological studies. On the basis of over 152,000 sequencing reads we identified 194 putative alleles in 237 individuals. We found an extreme complexity of the MHC class IIB in the collared flycatchers, with our estimates pointing to the presence of at least nine expressed loci and a large, though difficult to estimate precisely, number of pseudogene loci. Many similar alleles occurred in the pseudogenes indicating either a series of recent duplications or extensive concerted evolution. The expressed alleles showed unambiguous signals of historical selection and the occurrence of apparent interlocus exchange of alleles. Placing the collared flycatcher's MHC sequences in the context of passerine diversity revealed transspecific MHC class II evolution within the Muscicapidae family. Conclusions 454 amplicon sequencing is an effective tool for advancing our understanding of the MHC class II structure and evolutionary patterns in Passeriformes. We found a highly dynamic pattern of evolution of MHC class IIB genes with strong signals of selection and pronounced sequence divergence in expressed genes, in contrast to the apparent sequence homogenization in pseudogenes. We show that next generation sequencing offers a universal, affordable method for the characterization and, in perspective

  1. 40 CFR Figure C-2 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM2.5 Candidate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Figure C-2 to Subpart C of Part 53... Methods and Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Fig. C-2 Figure C-2 to Subpart C of Part...

  2. CCD surface photometry of radio galaxies: Pt. 1. FR class I and II sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, F.N.; Laing, R.A.

    1989-05-01

    CCD surface photometry of 47 radio galaxies in the R-band is reported. The goal of the programme is to study the relationship of the properties of the parent galaxies to the radio structure and, in particular, to look for differences between Fanaroff and Riley (FR) class I and II sources. In order to clarify some ambiguous cases in the FR classification, we define Classical Double, Twin Jet and Fat Double sources. We describe our definitions of these three classes and their relation to the FR classification. (author).

  3. Characterization and expression pattern ofpouII1,a novel class Ⅱ POU gene in zebrafish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    POU domain transcription factors that share a conserved DNA-binding domain, POU domain, are important regulators for the development of embryos in various animal species. A novel zebrafish POU domain gene, pouII1has been cloned. The pouII1 cDNA is 2080 kb in length and encodes a putative polypeptide of 596 amino acids. It is placed into class Ⅱ POU family since it shares a high degree of homology with the known members of this family.Northern hybridization identifies a major transcript of approximately 2.1 kb that was present in embryos at the single-cell stage throughout 24 h postfertilizafion. The whole mountin situ hybridization shows thatpouII1 transcripts are present in the single-cell embryos, strongly suggesting that these transcripts are of maternal origin. During early development of the embryos, pouII1 mRNA was ubiquitously distributed in all cells and tissues. The transcripts are gradually limited to brains and become completely undetectable by day 3. To our knowledge, pouII1 is the first class Ⅱ POU gene identified in zebrafish.``

  4. Characterization of EBV gB indicates properties of both class I and class II viral fusion proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backovic, Marija; Leser, George P; Lamb, Robert A; Longnecker, Richard; Jardetzky, Theodore S

    2007-11-10

    To gain insight into Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) glycoprotein B (gB), recombinant, secreted variants were generated. The role of putative transmembrane regions, the proteolytic processing and the oligomerization state of the gB variants were investigated. Constructs containing 2 of 3 C-terminal hydrophobic regions were secreted, indicating that these do not act as transmembrane anchors. The efficiency of cleavage of the gB furin site was found to depend on the nature of C-terminus. All of the gB constructs formed rosette structures reminiscent of the postfusion aggregates formed by other viral fusion proteins. However, substitution of putative fusion loop residues, WY(112-113) and WLIY(193-196), with less hydrophobic amino acids from HSV-1 gB, produced trimeric protein and abrogated the ability of the EBV gB ectodomains to form rosettes. These data demonstrate biochemical features of EBV gB that are characteristic of other class I and class II viral fusion proteins, but not of HSV-1 gB.

  5. A Unique Cause of Proteinuria in Pregnancy: Class II Lupus Nephritis with Concomitant Minimal Change Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunjal, Ryan; Adam-Eldien, Rabie; Makary, Raafat; Jo-Hoy, Francois; Heilig, Charles W.

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 22-year-old African American female who presented to another facility for routine follow-up in the 34th week of pregnancy with lower extremity swelling and nephrotic-range proteinuria. Although she was normotensive, it was initially thought that she had preeclampsia. She was monitored carefully and delivery was induced at 37 weeks of gestation. She was transferred to our hospital, where she was diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) based on clinical and laboratory criteria. Renal biopsy revealed a surprising finding of minimal change disease (MCD) concomitant with class II lupus nephritis (LN). She was managed with pulses and then tapering doses of steroid therapy with dramatic resolution of the nephrotic syndrome. This case demonstrates not only the rare de novo occurrence of SLE in pregnancy, but the unique finding of MCD coexisting with class II LN. We propose that altered T cell activity may be the link between these seemingly distinct entities.

  6. Simvastatin inhibits interferon-γ-induced MHC class II up-regulation in cultured astrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glazenburg Lisa

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Based on their potent anti-inflammatory properties and a preliminary clinical trial, statins (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors are being studied as possible candidates for multiple sclerosis (MS therapy. The pathogenesis of MS is unclear. One theory suggests that the development of autoimmune lesions in the central nervous system may be due to a failure of endogenous inhibitory control of MHC class II expression on astrocytes, allowing these cells to adapt an interferon (IFN-γ-induced antigen presenting phenotype. By using immunocytochemistry in cultured astrocytes derived from newborn Wistar rats we found that simvastatin at nanomolar concentrations inhibited, in a dose-response fashion, up to 70% of IFN-γ-induced MHC class II expression. This effect was reversed by the HMG-CoA reductase product mevalonate. Suppression of the antigen presenting function of astrocytes might contribute to the beneficial effects of statins in MS.

  7. Efficacy of MTA and CEM Cement with Collagen Membranes for Treatment of Class II Furcation Defects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Ollah Ghanbari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the efficacy of MTA and CEM cement in Class II furcation defects in human mandibular molars.Forty furcation defects were treated in 16 patients with chronic periodontitis. The clinical parameters of probing depth (PD, vertical and horizontal clinical attachment levels (VCAL and HCAL, open vertical and horizontal furcation depths (OVFD and OHFD, and gingival margin level (GML were measured at baseline and at 3- and 6-month (re-entry surgery postoperatively. Data were analyzed at a significance level of P<0.05.Use of MTA and CEM caused significant decreases in PD, VCAL, HCAL, OVFD and OHFD at re-entry, with no statistically significant differences between the two treatment options in soft and hard tissue parameters.Both treatment modalities caused significant gains in attachment levels and bone fills, proving efficacy for treatment of Class II furcation involvements.

  8. Camouflage of Severe Skeletal Class II Gummy Smile Patient Treated Nonsurgically with Mini Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Qamruddin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal class II has always been a challenge in orthodontics and often needs assistance of surgical orthodontics in nongrowing patients when it presents with severe discrepancy. Difficulty increases more when vertical dysplasia is also associated with sagittal discrepancy. The advent of mini implants in orthodontics has broadened the spectrum of camouflage treatment. This case report presents a 16-year-old nongrowing girl with severe class II because of retrognathic mandible, and anterior dentoalveolar protrusion sagittally and vertically resulted in severe overjet of 13 mm and excessive display of incisors and gums. Both maxillary central incisors were trimmed by general practitioner few years back to reduce visibility. Treatment involved use of micro implant for retraction and intrusion of anterior maxillary dentoalveolar segment while lower incisors were proclined to obtain normal overjet, and overbite and pleasing soft tissue profile. Smile esthetics was further improved with composite restoration of incisal edges of both central incisors.

  9. In vitro evaluation of the marginal microleakage of class II amalgam restoration associated with dentin adhesive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLIVEIRA Fabiana Sodré de

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The marginal microleakage of class II amalgam restorations (Dispersalloy associated with copal varnish (Copalite and with two dentin bonding agents (Scotchbond Multi-uso Plus and Multi Bond Alpha was evaluated in vitro and compared by two methods: scores and linear measurements. Forty-five sound premolars were used, on which two separated class II cavities were prepared on the M and D surfaces. After the restoration, the specimens were thermocycled and stored in a solution of 0.5% basic fuchsin during 24 hours. The analysis allowed to conclude that none of the three restorative systems were able to eliminate the marginal microleakage. Nevertheless, the leakage was significantly smaller on the restorations associated with dentin bonding agents when compared to copal varnish. The linear measurement method was more sensitive than the score criteria.

  10. Target recognition, resistance, immunity and genome mining of class II bacteriocins from Gram-positive bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjos, Morten; Borrero, Juan; Opsata, Mona; Birri, Dagim J; Holo, Helge; Cintas, Luis M; Snipen, Lars; Hernández, Pablo E; Nes, Ingolf F; Diep, Dzung B

    2011-12-01

    Due to their very potent antimicrobial activity against diverse food-spoiling bacteria and pathogens and their favourable biochemical properties, peptide bacteriocins from Gram-positive bacteria have long been considered promising for applications in food preservation or medical treatment. To take advantage of bacteriocins in different applications, it is crucial to have detailed knowledge on the molecular mechanisms by which these peptides recognize and kill target cells, how producer cells protect themselves from their own bacteriocin (self-immunity) and how target cells may develop resistance. In this review we discuss some important recent progress in these areas for the non-lantibiotic (class II) bacteriocins. We also discuss some examples of how the current wealth of genome sequences provides an invaluable source in the search for novel class II bacteriocins.

  11. Evaluation of the position of lower incisors in the mandibular symphysis of individuals with Class II malocclusion and Pattern II profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djalma Roque Woitchunas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the position of mandibular incisors in the mandibular symphysis of individuals with Class II malocclusion and Pattern II profiles. METHODS: The sample consisted of 40 Caucasian patients (20 male and 20 female with Class II malocclusion and Pattern II profile from 10 to 18 years of age (mean age of 12.84 years who were selected from the records of the School of Dentistry of Universidade de Passo Fundo, Brazil. The linear cephalometric measurements used in this study were Ricketts' 1- AP, Interlandi's line I and Vigorito's 1-VT; and the angular measurement studied was the mandibular plane angle (IMPA. RESULTS: Mandibular incisors of individuals with Class II malocclusion and Pattern II profile tended to be buccally inclined and protruded.

  12. Preventing postoperative tooth sensitivity in class I, II and V restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Gordon J

    2002-02-01

    Postoperative tooth sensitivity in Class I, II and V resin-based composite restorations continues to be an unpredictable problem in dentistry. In spite of meticulous use of dentin bonding agents, dentists and patients are faced with the sensitivity problem and the frustrating need to remove restorations and occasionally accomplish endodontic therapy on teeth that were not sensitive before the restorations were placed. Practitioners have developed numerous preventive methods to overcome the sensitivity challenge, which I have described in this article.

  13. Unilateral Maxillary First Molar Extraction in Class II Subdivision: An Unconventional Treatment Alternative

    OpenAIRE

    J. W. Booij; Christos Livas

    2016-01-01

    The asymmetrical intra-arch relationship in Class II subdivision malocclusion poses challenges in the treatment planning and mechanotherapy of such cases. This case report demonstrates a treatment technique engaging unilateral extraction of a maxillary first molar and Begg fixed appliances. The outcome stability and the enhancing effect on the eruption of the third molar in the extraction segment were confirmed by a 4-year follow-up examination.

  14. Unilateral Maxillary First Molar Extraction in Class II Subdivision: An Unconventional Treatment Alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Booij

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetrical intra-arch relationship in Class II subdivision malocclusion poses challenges in the treatment planning and mechanotherapy of such cases. This case report demonstrates a treatment technique engaging unilateral extraction of a maxillary first molar and Begg fixed appliances. The outcome stability and the enhancing effect on the eruption of the third molar in the extraction segment were confirmed by a 4-year follow-up examination.

  15. Class II, Division 1 Angle malocclusion with severe proclination of maxillary incisors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Montanha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Protrusion of maxillary incisors is a common complaint among patients seeking orthodontic treatment. This report addresses the correction of Class II Angle malocclusion with excessively bucally proclined maxillary incisors, in an adolescent female patient, through the use of extraoral and fixed appliances. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO as part of the requirements for obtaining the title of certified by the BBO.

  16. Treatment of a Class II division 1 anterior open bite malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, H B

    2001-06-01

    A case report of an 11-year-old Caucasian female who presented with a Class II div I anterior open bite malocclusion. Overjet is 6 mm and the anterior open bite 2 mm. There was a history of digit sucking till she was eight years old. She was successfully treated by non-extraction with pre-adjusted Edgewise appliances and high-pull headgear for a period of 27 months.

  17. Low major histocompatibility complex class II diversity in European and North American moose.

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes encode cell surface proteins whose function is to bind and present intracellularly processed peptides to T lymphocytes of the immune system. Extensive MHC diversity has been documented in many species and is maintained by some form of balancing selection. We report here that both European and North American populations of moose (Alces alces) exhibit very low levels of genetic diversity at an expressed MHC class II DRB locus. The observed polymorphi...

  18. Class II transactivator (CIITA enhances cytoplasmic processing of HIV-1 Pr55Gag.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen A Porter

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Pr55(gag (Gag polyprotein of HIV serves as a scaffold for virion assembly and is thus essential for progeny virion budding and maturation. Gag localizes to the plasma membrane (PM and membranes of late endosomes, allowing for release of infectious virus directly from the cell membrane and/or upon exocytosis. The host factors involved in Gag trafficking to these sites are largely unknown. Upon activation, CD4+ T cells, the primary target of HIV infection, express the class II transcriptional activator (CIITA and therefore the MHC class II isotype, HLA-DR. Similar to Gag, HLA-DR localizes to the PM and at the membranes of endosomes and specialized vesicular MHC class II compartments (MIICs. In HIV producer cells, transient HLA-DR expression induces intracellular Gag accumulation and impairs virus release. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we demonstrate that both stable and transient expression of CIITA in HIV producer cells does not induce HLA-DR-associated intracellular retention of Gag, but does increase the infectivity of virions. However, neither of these phenomena is due to recapitulation of the class II antigen presentation pathway or CIITA-mediated transcriptional activation of virus genes. Interestingly, we demonstrate that CIITA, apart from its transcriptional effects, acts cytoplasmically to enhance Pr160(gag-pol (Gag-Pol levels and thereby the viral protease and Gag processing, accounting for the increased infectivity of virions from CIITA-expressing cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrates that CIITA enhances HIV Gag processing, and provides the first evidence of a novel, post-transcriptional, cytoplasmic function for a well-known transactivator.

  19. Anteroposterior and vertical changes in skeletal class II patients treated with modified Thurow appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pithon, Matheus Melo; dos Santos, Rogério Lacerda; Sampaio, Gêisa Aiane de Morais; de Meneses, Izaura Helena Chaves; Coqueiro, Raildo Silva

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the post-treatment anteroposterior and vertical alterations in skeletal Class II malocclusion with different maxillary patterns in patients treated with modified Thurow appliance. Forty-five patients (22 girls and 23 boys) with skeletal Class II and angle SN.GoGn ≤ 35 and different maxillary patterns (n = 15), as follows: retrusive (SNA84°) maxilla; mean age 9 years at pre-treatment (T1) and 9 years and 10 months at post-treatment (T2), were treated with modified Thurow cervical traction appliance, with expander screw and extraoral face bow with 10° to 20° fold in relation to the intraoral arch. Force of 500 gf was applied and use for 12 to 14 h/day, with fortnightly adjustments. Analysis of variance ANOVA followed by post-hoc Tukey and Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by Mann-Whitney were used (α = 5%). In changes obtained from stage T1 to T2, no statistically significant differences were found among the groups Protrusive, normal and retrusive maxilla for the variables SNB, SN.GoGn, 1.NA, overjet, overbite and Class II discrepancy (right and left) (p>0.05). Angular measurements SNA and ANB in the protrusive maxilla group were significantly greater than in the normal and retrusive maxilla groups (p0.05). Within the limits of this study, it may be concluded that the modified Thurow cervical traction appliance was efficient for the correction of skeletal Class II irrespective of the maxillary pattern. The mandible had no significant rotation during treatment.

  20. Prediction of the binding affinities of peptides to class II MHC using a regularized thermodynamic model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittelmann Hans D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The binding of peptide fragments of extracellular peptides to class II MHC is a crucial event in the adaptive immune response. Each MHC allotype generally binds a distinct subset of peptides and the enormous number of possible peptide epitopes prevents their complete experimental characterization. Computational methods can utilize the limited experimental data to predict the binding affinities of peptides to class II MHC. Results We have developed the Regularized Thermodynamic Average, or RTA, method for predicting the affinities of peptides binding to class II MHC. RTA accounts for all possible peptide binding conformations using a thermodynamic average and includes a parameter constraint for regularization to improve accuracy on novel data. RTA was shown to achieve higher accuracy, as measured by AUC, than SMM-align on the same data for all 17 MHC allotypes examined. RTA also gave the highest accuracy on all but three allotypes when compared with results from 9 different prediction methods applied to the same data. In addition, the method correctly predicted the peptide binding register of 17 out of 18 peptide-MHC complexes. Finally, we found that suboptimal peptide binding registers, which are often ignored in other prediction methods, made significant contributions of at least 50% of the total binding energy for approximately 20% of the peptides. Conclusions The RTA method accurately predicts peptide binding affinities to class II MHC and accounts for multiple peptide binding registers while reducing overfitting through regularization. The method has potential applications in vaccine design and in understanding autoimmune disorders. A web server implementing the RTA prediction method is available at http://bordnerlab.org/RTA/.

  1. Detection of autoreactive CD4 T cells using major histocompatibility complex class II dextramers

    OpenAIRE

    Kuszynski Charles; Gangaplara Arunakumar; Upadhyaya Bijaya; Massilamany Chandirasegaran; Reddy Jay

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Tetramers are useful tools to enumerate the frequencies of antigen-specific T cells. However, unlike CD8 T cells, CD4 T cells - especially self-reactive cells - are challenging to detect with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II tetramers because of low frequencies and low affinities of their T cell receptors to MHC-peptide complexes. Here, we report the use of fluorescent multimers, designated MHC dextramers that contain a large number of peptide-MHC complexes ...

  2. Francisella tularensis elicits IL-10 via a PGE₂-inducible factor, to drive macrophage MARCH1 expression and class II down-regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Hunt

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis is a bacterial pathogen that uses host-derived PGE₂ to subvert the host's adaptive immune responses in multiple ways. Francisella-induced PGE₂ acts directly on CD4 T cells to blunt production of IFN-γ. Francisella-induced PGE₂ can also elicit production of a >10 kDa soluble host factor termed FTMØSN (F. tularensismacrophage supernatant, which acts on IFN-γ pre-activated MØ to down-regulate MHC class II expression via a ubiquitin-dependent mechanism, blocking antigen presentation to CD4 T cells. Here, we report that FTMØSN-induced down-regulation of MØ class II is the result of the induction of MARCH1, and that MØ expressing MARCH1 "resistant" class II molecules are resistant to FTMØSN-induced class II down-regulation. Since PGE₂ can induce IL-10 production and IL-10 is the only reported cytokine able to induce MARCH1 expression in monocytes and dendritic cells, these findings suggested that IL-10 is the active factor in FTMØSN. However, use of IL-10 knockout MØ established that IL-10 is not the active factor in FTMØSN, but rather that Francisella-elicited PGE₂ drives production of a >10 kDa host factor distinct from IL-10. This factor then drives MØ IL-10 production to induce MARCH1 expression and the resultant class II down-regulation. Since many human pathogens such as Salmonella typhi, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Legionella pneumophila also induce production of host PGE₂, these results suggest that a yet-to-be-identified PGE₂-inducible host factor capable of inducing IL-10 is central to the immune evasion mechanisms of multiple important human pathogens.

  3. Differential recognition of MHC class I molecules of xeno-/allo-endothelial cells by human NK cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and porcine aortic endothelial cells (PAEC) as target cells, human peripheral blood NK cells (PBNK) and NK92 cells as effector cells, the differential cytotoxicities of NK cells to allo- and xeno-endothelial cells were studied. The influence of MHC class I molecules on the cytotoxicity of human NK cells was assayed using acid treatment, and blockades of MHC class I antigens, CD94 and KIR (NKB1). The results indicated that the killing of PAEC by the two kinds of NK cells is higher than that of HUVEC. After acid- treatment, the cytotoxicity of the two kinds of NK cells to PAEC and HUVEC is significantly enhanced, but the magnitude of the enhancement is different. The enhancement of NK killing to acid treated HUVEC is much greater than that to PAEC. Blockade of CD94 mAb did not alter the NK cytotoxicity, while blockade of NKB1 mAb enhanced the cytotoxicity of PBNK to HUVEC and PAEC by 95% and 29% respectively. The results above suggested that the differential recognition of MHC I molecules of xeno-endothelial cells by human NK cells could be the major reason for higher NK cytotoxicity to PAEC. KIR might be the primary molecule that transduced inhibitory signals when endothelial cells were injured by NK cells.

  4. HLA class II allele and haplotype frequencies in Ethiopian Amhara and Oromo populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, M; de Stefano, G F; Cambon-Thomsen, A; Giraldo-Alvarez, P; Dugoujon, J M; Ohayon, E; Scano, G; Abbal, M

    1998-04-01

    HLA class II alleles were identified in 181 healthy unrelated Ethiopian children of both sexes and in 350 European controls from the South of France. The Ethiopian individuals belonged to the two major ethnic groups of the country: Oromo (N=83) and Amhara (N=98). In both panels, genetic polymorphism of HLA class II alleles was analysed for the first time by molecular typing of DRB1, DQA1 and DQB1 loci. Allelic and phenotypic frequencies were compared with those of European controls and other African populations. Construction of HLA class II three-locus haplotypes was also performed. The study revealed some differences between the two groups. Characteristic features of Central and North African populations appeared on the Ethiopian HLA genotypes. Surprisingly, DRB1*11 presented one of the lowest gene frequencies in both Ethiopian ethnic groups in contrast to Europeans and West Africans. Furthermore, this decrease was more marked than those observed using serological techniques in other geographically close East African countries. Oromo and Amhara only showed minor differences in spite of their different origins and histories. One significant difference consisted of a lower DRB1*01 gene frequency in Oromo as reported in most West African people. Some new or rare haplotypes were also observed in the Oromo group. Our results underline the distinctive features of the Ethiopian populations among the few HLA genotyping data available for East African groups and emphasise the major interest of such investigations in this region of Africa.

  5. Treatment strategy for guided tissue regeneration in various class II furcation defect: Case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Pushpendra Kumar; Srivastava, Ruchi; Gupta, K K; Chaturvedi, T P

    2013-09-01

    Periodontal regeneration is a main aspect in the treatment of teeth affected by periodontitis. Periodontal regeneration in furcation areas is quite challenging, especially when it is in interproximal region. There are several techniques used alone or in combination considered to achieve periodontal regeneration, including the bone grafts or substitutes, guided tissue regeneration (GTR), root surface modification, and biological mediators. Many factors may account for variability in response to regenerative therapy in class II furcation. This case series describes the management of class II furcation defect in a mesial interproximal region of a maxillary tooth and other with a buccal class II furcation of mandibular tooth, with the help of surgical intervention including the GTR membrane and bone graft materials. This combined treatment resulted in healthy periodontium with a radiographic evidence of alveolar bone gain in both cases. This case series demonstrates that proper diagnosis, followed by removal of etiological factors and utilizing the combined treatment modalities will restore health and function of the tooth with the severe attachment loss.

  6. Cephalometric changes in Class II division 1 patients treated with two maxillary premolars extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisana Piano Seben

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cephalometric alterations in patients with Angle Class II division 1 malocclusion, orthodontically treated with extraction of two maxillary premolars. METHODS: The sample comprised 68 initial and final lateral cephalograms of 34 patients of both gender (mean initial age of 14.03 years and mean final age of 17.25 years, treated with full fixed appliances and extraction of the first maxillary premolars. In order to evaluate the alterations due the treatment between initial and final phases, the dependent t test was applied to the studied cephalometric variables. RESULTS: The dentoskeletal alterations due to extraction of two maxillary premolars in the Class II division 1 malocclusion were: maxillary retrusion, improvement of the maxillomandibular relation, increase of lower anterior face height, retrusion of the maxillary incisors, buccal inclination, protrusion and extrusion of the mandibular incisors, besides the reduction of overjet and overbite. The tissue alterations showed decrease of the facial convexity and retrusion of the upper lip. CONCLUSIONS: The extraction of two maxillary premolars in Class II division 1 malocclusion promotes dentoskeletal and tissue alterations that contribute to an improvement of the relation between the bone bases and the soft tissue profile.

  7. Class II malocclusion treatment using high-pull headgear with a splint: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder B. Jacob

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the scientific evidence pertaining to the effectiveness of high-pull headgear in growing Class II subjects. METHODS: A literature survey was performed by electronic database search. The survey covered the period from January 1966 to December 2008 and used Medical Subject Headings (MeSH. Articles were initially selected based on their titles and abstracts; the full articles were then retrieved. The inclusion criteria included growing subjects between 8 to 15 years of age, Class II malocclusion treatment with high-pull headgear, and a control group with Class II malocclusion. References from selected articles were hand-searched for additional publications. Selected studies were evaluated methodologically. RESULTS: Four articles were selected; none were randomized controlled trials. All of the articles clearly formulated their objectives and used appropriate measures. The studies showed that high-pull headgear treatment improves skeletal and dental relationship, distal displacement of the maxilla, vertical eruption control and upper molars distalization. One of the studies showed a slight clockwise rotation of the palatal plane; the others showed no significant treatment effect. The mandible was not affected by the treatment. CONCLUSION: While there is still a lack of strong evidence demonstrating the effects of high-pull headgear with a splint, other studies indicate that the AP relations improve due to distalization of the maxilla and upper molars, with little or no treatment effects in the mandible. Greater attention to the design should be given to improve the quality of such trials.

  8. Treatment strategy for guided tissue regeneration in various class II furcation defect: Case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpendra Kumar Verma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal regeneration is a main aspect in the treatment of teeth affected by periodontitis. Periodontal regeneration in furcation areas is quite challenging, especially when it is in interproximal region. There are several techniques used alone or in combination considered to achieve periodontal regeneration, including the bone grafts or substitutes, guided tissue regeneration (GTR, root surface modification, and biological mediators. Many factors may account for variability in response to regenerative therapy in class II furcation. This case series describes the management of class II furcation defect in a mesial interproximal region of a maxillary tooth and other with a buccal class II furcation of mandibular tooth, with the help of surgical intervention including the GTR membrane and bone graft materials. This combined treatment resulted in healthy periodontium with a radiographic evidence of alveolar bone gain in both cases. This case series demonstrates that proper diagnosis, followed by removal of etiological factors and utilizing the combined treatment modalities will restore health and function of the tooth with the severe attachment loss.

  9. Treatment timing of MARA and fixed appliance therapy of Class II malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghislanzoni, Luis Tomas Huanca; Baccetti, Tiziano; Toll, Douglas; Defraia, Efisio; McNamara, James A; Franchi, Lorenzo

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of timing on Mandibular Anterior Repositioning Appliance (MARA) and fixed appliance treatment of Class II malocclusion in a prospective clinical trial. The treated sample consisted of 51 consecutively treated patients at prepubertal (n = 21), pubertal (n = 15), and postpubertal (n = 15) stages of development. Control groups for the three treated groups were generated from growth data of untreated Class II subjects. Lateral cephalograms were digitized and superimposed via cephalometric software at T1 (pre-treatment) and T2 (after comprehensive treatment). The T1-T2 changes in the treated groups were compared to those in their corresponding control groups with Mann-Whitney tests with Bonferroni correction. Mandibular elongation was greater at the pubertal stage (Co-Gn +2.6 mm, with respect to controls). Headgear effect on the maxilla was greater in the pre-peak sample (Co-A -1.9 mm, with respect to controls). Dentoalveolar compensations (proclination of lower incisors, extrusion and mesialization of lower molars, and reduction in the overbite) were significant in the pre-peak and post-peak groups. Optimal timing for Class II treatment with MARA appliance is at the pubertal growth spurt, with enhanced mandibular skeletal changes and minimal dentoalveolar compensations.

  10. The same ELA class II risk factors confer equine insect bite hypersensitivity in two distinct populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Lisa S; Swinburne, June E; Meadows, Jennifer R S; Broström, Hans; Eriksson, Susanne; Fikse, W Freddy; Frey, Rebecka; Sundquist, Marie; Tseng, Chia T; Mikko, Sofia; Lindgren, Gabriella

    2012-03-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is a chronic allergic dermatitis common in horses. Affected horses mainly react against antigens present in the saliva from the biting midges, Culicoides ssp, and occasionally black flies, Simulium ssp. Because of this insect dependency, the disease is clearly seasonal and prevalence varies between geographical locations. For two distinct horse breeds, we genotyped four microsatellite markers positioned within the MHC class II region and sequenced the highly polymorphic exons two from DRA and DRB3, respectively. Initially, 94 IBH-affected and 93 unaffected Swedish born Icelandic horses were tested for genetic association. These horses had previously been genotyped on the Illumina Equine SNP50 BeadChip, which made it possible to ensure that our study did not suffer from the effects of stratification. The second population consisted of 106 unaffected and 80 IBH-affected Exmoor ponies. We show that variants in the MHC class II region are associated with disease susceptibility (p (raw) = 2.34 × 10(-5)), with the same allele (COR112:274) associated in two separate populations. In addition, we combined microsatellite and sequencing data in order to investigate the pattern of homozygosity and show that homozygosity across the entire MHC class II region is associated with a higher risk of developing IBH (p = 0.0013). To our knowledge this is the first time in any atopic dermatitis suffering species, including man, where the same risk allele has been identified in two distinct populations.

  11. Metal-ion dependent catalytic properties of Sulfolobus solfataricus class II α-mannosidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jonas Willum; Poulsen, Nina Rødtness; Johnsson, Anna Margit Susanne;

    2012-01-01

    The active site for the family GH38 class II α-mannosidase is constituted in part by a divalent metal ion, mostly Zn(2+), as revealed in the crystal structures of enzymes from both animal and bacterial sources. The metal ion coordinates to the bound substrate and side chains of conserved amino acid...... residues. Recently, evidence has accumulated that class II α-mannosidase is active in complex with a range of divalent metal ions. In the present work, with employment of the class II α-mannosidase, ManA, from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus, we explored the influence of the divalent...... metal ion on the associated steady-state kinetic parameters, K(M) and k(cat), for various substrates. With p-nitrophenyl-α-d-mannoside as a substrate, the enzyme showed activity in the presence of Co(2+), Cd(2+), Mn(2+), and Zn(2+), whereas Ni(2+) and Cu(2+) were inhibitory and nonactivating. Co(2...

  12. Variation in Class II malocclusion: comparison of Mexican mestizos and American whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Tom; Buschang, Peter H; Behrents, Rolf G; Wintergerst, Ana M; Ceen, Richard F; Hernandez, Angeles

    2004-04-01

    This study compared the skeletal and dental characteristics of Class II Division 1 white Americans and Mexicans. It was designed specifically to the evaluate ethnic, age, and sex differences of 101 whites and 107 Mexican mestizos, with approximately equal numbers in each subgroup. Three-way analyses of variance were used to simultaneously evaluate the effects of age, sex, ethnicity, and their interactions. Although Mexicans and whites in the United States had similar maxillomandibular relationships, Mexicans showed greater protrusion of the jaws and teeth. Mexican subjects with Class II malocclusions also showed less divergence of the cranial base (SN-FH angle) and greater vertical tendencies (MPA, Y-axis, and palatal plane angle) than their white counterparts. In comparison with children (mean age 9.0 years), young adults (mean age 20.1 years) had significantly larger craniofacial dimensions, jaws that were positioned more forward, and teeth that were more protruded. Sex differences pertained only to size (men were larger) and maxillary incisor angulation (men were more protrusive). The findings pertaining to the ethnic differences have important clinical implications regarding treatment decisions for Mexican and white patients. In addition, this study provides a foundation for future studies pertaining to Class II malocclusion in Mexicans.

  13. Type-II Dirac fermions in the PtSe2 class of transition metal dichalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huaqing; Zhou, Shuyun; Duan, Wenhui

    2016-09-01

    Recently, a new "type-II" Weyl fermion, which exhibits exotic phenomena, such as an angle-dependent chiral anomaly, was discovered in a new phase of matter where electron and hole pockets contact at isolated Weyl points [Nature (London) 527, 495 (2015), 10.1038/nature15768]. This raises an interesting question about whether its counterpart, i.e., a type-II Dirac fermion, exists in real materials. Here, we predict the existence of symmetry-protected type-II Dirac fermions in a class of transition metal dichalcogenide materials. Our first-principles calculations on PtSe2 reveal its bulk type-II Dirac fermions which are characterized by strongly tilted Dirac cones, novel surface states, and exotic doping-driven Lifshitz transition. Our results show that the existence of type-II Dirac fermions in PtSe2-type materials is closely related to its structural P 3 ¯m 1 symmetry, which provides useful guidance for the experimental realization of type-II Dirac fermions and intriguing physical properties distinct from those of the standard Dirac fermions known before.

  14. A extração de segundos molares superiores para o tratamento da Classe II Extraction of upper second molars for treatment of Angle Class II malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Barbieri Mezomo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem por objetivo apresentar uma abordagem alternativa para o tratamento ortodôntico das más oclusões de Classe II. Através de uma revisão da literatura, verificou-se que a extração de segundos molares superiores demonstrou ser uma alternativa viável para o tratamento desse tipo de má oclusão. Essa opção terapêutica possibilita maior rapidez na distalização dos primeiros molares com menor necessidade de cooperação por parte do paciente. Porém, a análise do grau de formação, posição intraóssea e morfologia do terceiro molar deve ser cuidadosamente realizada para proporcionar o correto posicionamento do mesmo no lugar do segundo molar extraído. Dois casos clínicos apresentarão a sequência do diagnóstico e tratamento com essa mecânica, exibindo resultados adequados dos pontos de vista funcional e estético.The purpose of this article is to present an alternative approach to the orthodontic treatment of Angle Class II malocclusion. According to a literature review it was observed that the extraction of upper second molars has proven to be a viable alternative for the treatment of this type of malocclusion. This therapeutic option enables faster first molar retraction and requires less patient compliance. However, the level of development, intraosseous position and morphology of the third molar should be carefully evaluated to ensure its correct positioning in place of the extracted second molar. Two clinical case reports will demonstrate that the sequence of diagnosis and treatment used with this mechanics yields satisfactory functional and aesthetic results.

  15. Determination of the class and isoform selectivity of small-molecule histone deacetylase inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, N.; Jeffers, M.; Kumar, S.;

    2008-01-01

    ) against a panel of rhHDAC (recombinant human HDAC) isoforms. Eight rhHDACs were expressed using a baculoviral system, and a Fluor de Lystrade mark (Biomol International) HDAC assay was optimized for each purified isoform. The potency and selectivity of ten HDACs on class I isoforms (rhHDAC1, rhHDAC2, rh...

  16. Co(II)-doped MOF-5 nano/microcrystals: Solvatochromic behaviour, sensing solvent molecules and gas sorption property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ji-Min [Coordination Chemistry Institute, State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Linyi University, Linyi 276005 (China); Liu, Qing [Coordination Chemistry Institute, State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Sun, Wei-Yin, E-mail: sunwy@nju.edu.cn [Coordination Chemistry Institute, State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2014-10-15

    Co(II)-doped MOF-5 nano/microcrystals with controllable morphology and size were successfully obtained by solvothermal method. The products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES), elemental analysis, UV–vis and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. The factors influencing the crystal morphology and size were investigated. The gas sorption measurements reveal that highly crystalline particles have large Langmuir surface area. It was found that the Co(II)-doped MOF-5 shows enhanced hydrostability and the sorption profiles of the Co(II)-doped MOF-5 nano/microcrystals are dependent on the morphology and size of the particles. Porous Co(II)-doped MOF-5 is stable upon the removal of guest molecules and exhibits different colour with accommodating different solvent molecule, which means that it can act as solvatochromic sensing materials for recognition of solvent molecules. - Graphical abstract: Co(II)-doped MOF-5 nano/microcrystals with different shapes and sizes were synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method, which not only enhance gas sorption properties and structural stability of MOFs towards moisture, but also act as new sensing materials for sensing small molecules. - Highlights: • Co(II)-doped MOF-5 nano/microcrystals with controllable morphology and size were obtained. • Co(II)-doped MOF-5 nano/microcrystals enhance the structural stability towards moisture. • Co(II)-doped MOF-5 can act as new sensing material for sensing small molecules.

  17. Quantitative predictions of peptide binding to MHC class I molecules using specificity matrices and anchor-stratified calibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauemøller, S L; Holm, A; Hilden, J;

    2001-01-01

    predictions, we have measured the MHC class I binding of a large number of peptides. In an attempt to further improve predictions and to include sequence dependency, we subdivided the panel of peptides according to whether the peptides had zero, one or two primary anchor residues. This allowed us to define......Peptides are key immune targets. They are generated by fragmentation of antigenic proteins, selected by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules and subsequently presented to T cells. One of the most selective requirements is that of peptide binding to MHC. Accurate descriptions...... and predictions of peptide-MHC interactions are therefore important. Quantitative matrices representing MHC class I specificity can be used to search any query protein for the presence of MHC binding peptides. Assuming that each peptide residue contributes to binding in an additive and sequence independent manner...

  18. pRB is required for interferon-gamma-induction of the MHC class II abeta gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X; Pattenden, S; Bremner, R

    1999-09-02

    pRB is required for IFN-gamma-induction of MHC class II in human tumor cell lines, providing a potential link between tumor suppressors and the immune system. However, other genes, such as cyclin D1, show pRB-dependency only in tumor cells, so by analogy, pRB may not be necessary for cII-regulation in normal cells. Here, we demonstrate that induction of the mouse MHC class II I-A heterodimer is normal in RB+/+ mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), but deficient in RB-/- MEFs. Inducibility is restored in RB-/- MEFs stably transfected with wild type RB cDNA or infected with an adenovirus expressing pRB. Thus, involvement of pRB in MHC class II expression is conserved in the mouse and is not an aberrant feature of tumorigenic, aneuploid, human tumor cells. Although cII genes are generally induced in a coordinate fashion, suggesting a common mechanism, we found that pRB was specifically required for induction of the Abeta, but not Aalpha or other MHC cII genes including Ebeta, Ii and H2-Malpha. Finally, IFN-gamma-induction of class II transactivator (CIITA), was pRB-independent, suggesting that pRB works downstream of this master-regulator of MHC class II expression.

  19. Complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus paraplantarum L-ZS9, a probiotic starter producing class II bacteriocins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Li, Pinglan

    2016-03-20

    Lactobacillus paraplantarum L-ZS9 is a probiotic starter isolated from fermented sausage and it is a great producer of class II bacteriocins. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first complete sequenced genome of L. paraplantarum deposited in GenBank database. The size of the complete genome of L. paraplantarum L-ZS9 is 3,139,729 bp. The genomic sequence revealed that this strain includes 19 genes involved in class II bacteriocins production and regulation. The information fill the gaps of the L. paraplantarum genome information and contribute to the improvement of class II bacteriocins research.

  20. Treatment of Class II, Division 2 in the late growth period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhard, H; Hirschfelder, U

    1998-01-01

    The "Deckbiss" with skeletal Class II jaw relationship sometimes presents a considerable therapeutic problem, particularly in the late growth period (DP3U), as regards the coordination of dental and skeletal treatment objectives. An effective treatment approach was demonstrated: a modified Herbst appliance used simultaneously with fixed appliances in the maxilla. The sample comprised 12 male (14.0 +/- 0.9 years old) and 10 female (12.3 +/- 0.4 years old) patients. Correction of the distal occlusion was achieved in all patients by means of the Herbst appliance, which was removed after an average time period of 6.4 +/- 0.2 months. In the mandible the multibracket appliances were then immediately inserted, and Class II elastics were used for retention. Maximum anchorage was required in the maxilla as well as in the mandible. Complete diagnostic records were made at the beginning of the treatment as well as 6 and 12 months later, in order to document skeletal and dental changes. A dental and skeletal Class I relationship was achieved in all cases. A significant improvement was recorded in the vertical jaw base relationship; this was still stable after a period of 12 months. In the dental area in particular, a so-called high-pull headgear effect (intrusion and distalization 16, 26) and intrusion of teeth 34, 44 were registered. Only a minor protrusion of the mandibular incisors was observed. Reinforcement of the bands reduced the failure rate significantly. The Herbst appliance does not represent a standard treatment for Class II. Its indication range is limited.

  1. Variations in cyclic mandibular movements during treatment of Class II malocclusions with removable functional appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, Kirsten M; Nägerl, Hans; Hahn, Wolfram; Ihlow, Dankmar; Kubein-Meesenburg, Dietmar

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the study was to establish whether juveniles with a Class II malocclusion change the neuromuscular control of mandibular movements during the course of orthodontic treatment with removable functional appliances (RFAs). Neuromuscular control can be indirectly evaluated by recording cyclic planar mandibular movements which were freely carried out by the patients (28 girls, 14 boys, aged 11.1 ± 1.1 years at the start of treatment) and measured with an ultrasonic device before, during, and after Class II functional appliance therapy, with either an activator or a bite jumping plate. The cyclic movements represented simultaneous rotations of the mandible around a maxillary and mandibular fixed axis (MFHA) and could be characterized by μ(α)-diagrams (μ = swing angle of MFHA, α = mouth opening angle) and path length (L) of the MFHA. The μ(α)-diagrams clearly divided into four parts: movement representing protrusion, mouth opening, and two parts of backward closing as known from Posselt diagrams. Parameters from the Posselt and μ(α)-diagrams were checked by one-factor analysis of variance on a 5 per cent significance level for group dependency. For one-third of the patients investigated, no significant changes were seen in any parameter pre- or post-therapy. However, patients showing an initially large mouth opening capacity or a very short condylar path changed their neuromuscular control to that of Class I subjects. Analysis of μ(α)-diagrams provides the possibility of assessing changes in the neuromuscular control of the mandible during Class II treatment.

  2. Semi-longitudinal Study of the Mcnamara Cephalometric Triangle in Class II and Class III Subjects Grouped by Cervical Vertebrae Maturation Stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriola-Guillén, Luis E; Fitzcarrald, Fernando D; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    The aim was to compare the McNamara cephalometric triangle values in untreated normodivergent Class II and Class III malocclusion subjects of Latin American origin grouped by cervical vertebrae maturation stage to an untreated Class I malocclusion normodivergent control group. The study was conducted on a sample of 610 pretreatment lateral cephalograms (250 male, 360 female), examined and grouped according to their anteroposterior skeletal relationship (Class I, II or III), cervical vertebrae maturation stage (Pre Pubertal Peak P1 = CS1 and CS2, Pubertal Peak P2= CS3 and CS4, and Post Pubertal Peak P3 = CS5 and CS6) and sex. Co-A, Co-Gn and ENA-Me were measured in each lateral cephalogram. ANOVA and Tukey HSD post-hoc tests were performed to determine differences between the groups. The results showed that in males, the greatest maxillary and mandibular dimensional increases occurred during the P3 stage (CS5 to CS6), while in females, they occurred in the P2 stage (CS3 to CS4). The Co-A and Co-Gn showed significant differences between the malocclusion classes (pClass II subjects and the mandibular lengths in Class III subjects were already higher at the beginning of the period evaluated (P1). A worsening trend for the Class II and III malocclusions was identified during the period evaluated. Finally, changes in the McNamara cephalometric triangle values were markedly different in the three normodivergent skeletal malocclusion classes. In these Latin American subjects the pubertal growth spurt occurred at different times with respect to the Caucasian and Asian norms.

  3. Self-esteem in adolescents with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusion in a Peruvian sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Florián-Vargas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To compare self-esteem scores in 12 to 16-year-old adolescents with different Angle malocclusion types in a Peruvian sample. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 276 adolescents (159, 52 and 65 with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusions, respectively from Trujillo, Peru. Participants were asked to complete the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES and were also clinically examined, so as to have Angle malocclusion classification determined. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA was used to compare RSES scores among adolescents with Class I, II and III malocclusions, with participants' demographic factors being controlled. Results: Mean RSES scores for adolescents with Class I, II and III malocclusions were 20.47 ± 3.96, 21.96 ± 3.27 and 21.26 ± 4.81, respectively. The ANCOVA test showed that adolescents with Class II malocclusion had a significantly higher RSES score than those with Class I malocclusion, but there were no differences between other malocclusion groups. Supplemental analysis suggested that only those with Class II, Division 2 malocclusion might have greater self-esteem when compared to adolescents with Class I malocclusion. Conclusion: This study shows that, in general, self-esteem did not vary according to adolescents' malocclusion in the sample studied. Surprisingly, only adolescents with Class II malocclusion, particularly Class II, Division 2, reported better self-esteem than those with Class I malocclusion. A more detailed analysis assessing the impact of anterior occlusal features should be conducted.

  4. Structural determinants for ligand capture by a class II preQ1 riboswitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Mijeong; Eichhorn, Catherine D; Feigon, Juli

    2014-02-11

    Prequeuosine (preQ1) riboswitches are RNA regulatory elements located in the 5' UTR of genes involved in the biosynthesis and transport of preQ1, a precursor of the modified base queuosine universally found in four tRNAs. The preQ1 class II (preQ1-II) riboswitch regulates preQ1 biosynthesis at the translational level. We present the solution NMR structure and conformational dynamics of the 59 nucleotide Streptococcus pneumoniae preQ1-II riboswitch bound to preQ1. Unlike in the preQ1 class I (preQ1-I) riboswitch, divalent cations are required for high-affinity binding. The solution structure is an unusual H-type pseudoknot featuring a P4 hairpin embedded in loop 3, which forms a three-way junction with the other two stems. (13)C relaxation and residual dipolar coupling experiments revealed interhelical flexibility of P4. We found that the P4 helix and flanking adenine residues play crucial and unexpected roles in controlling pseudoknot formation and, in turn, sequestering the Shine-Dalgarno sequence. Aided by divalent cations, P4 is poised to act as a "screw cap" on preQ1 recognition to block ligand exit and stabilize the binding pocket. Comparison of preQ1-I and preQ1-II riboswitch structures reveals that whereas both form H-type pseudoknots and recognize preQ1 using one A, C, or U nucleotide from each of three loops, these nucleotides interact with preQ1 differently, with preQ1 inserting into different grooves. Our studies show that the preQ1-II riboswitch uses an unusual mechanism to harness exquisite control over queuosine metabolism.

  5. HLA class I and class II alleles and haplotypes in Mexican mestizos established from serological typing of 50 families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leo, C; Castelan, N; Lopez, M; Gonzalez, N; Weckmann, A L; Melin-Aldana, H; Vargas-Alarcon, G; Bordes, J; Alarcon-Segovia, D; Granados, J; Ramirez, E; Lisker, R

    1997-12-01

    We describe new information on the frequency and association of class II antigens (HLA-DR and HLA-DQ) of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in Mexicans. The study includes HLA-B typing and its association with the HLA-DR antigens determined in 50 families, which included 100 individuals. This family study allowed the establishment of the precise composition of the 200 HLA haplotypes, which cannot be obtained from unrelated individuals. The predominant antigens in decreasing order of frequency were B35, B39, and B61 at the B locus; DR4, DR5, and DR8 at the DR locus; and DQ3 at the DQ locus. The most common HLA-B,HLA-DR haplotype (considering broad specificities) was B16,DR4, with a frequency of 8.0%. Five HLA-B,HLA-DR haplotypes showed significant delta values (observed vs. expected frequencies) after correcting for the number of comparisons. On the other hand, the most common HLA-DR,HLA-DQ haplotypes were DR4,DQ3 and DR5,DQ3 with a frequency higher than 10%. Ten of the 17 HLA-DR,HLA-DQ haplotypes had significant postcorrection delta values.

  6. 76 FR 43690 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration (Formerly 2007D-0309) Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Electrocardiograph Electrodes; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and...

  7. 75 FR 54637 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document for Certain Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty (PTCA) Catheters; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  8. Treatment of Class II malocclusion with bialveolar protrusion by means of unusual extractions and anchorage mini-implant

    OpenAIRE

    Jong-Moon Chae

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Patients with dental Class II bialveolar protrusion are generally treated by extracting the four first premolars or two first and two second premolars, and retracting the anterior teeth. This case report describes the treatment of an adult patient with bialveolar protrusion, a Class II canine and molar relationship, and lip protrusion. METHODS: In this patient, the maxillary right second molar (1.7) had to be extracted due to extensive caries. To create sufficient space to retra...

  9. A single residue change leads to a hydroxylated product from the class II diterpene cyclization catalyzed by abietadiene synthase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criswell, Jared; Potter, Kevin; Shephard, Freya; Beale, Michael H.; Peters, Reuben J.

    2012-01-01

    Class II diterpene cyclases catalyze bicyclization of geranylgeranyl diphosphate. While this reaction typically is terminated via methyl deprotonation to yield copalyl diphosphate, in rare cases hydroxylated bicycles are produced instead. Abietadiene synthase is a bifunctional diterpene cyclase that usually produces a copalyl diphosphate intermediate. Here it is shown that substitution of aspartate for a conserved histidine in the class II active site of abietadiene synthase leads to selective production of 8α-hydroxy-CPP instead, demonstrating striking plasticity. PMID:23167845

  10. Interaction of 2C T cells with a hybrid Ld molecule bearing an alpha 3 domain derived from the class IB molecule, Qa-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungchusri, T; Kettman, J R; Forman, J

    1997-07-01

    The CD8 co-receptor interacts with nonpolymorphic residues on class I molecules. LQ3, a laboratory engineered Ld molecule bearing an alpha 3 domain derived from Q7 (Qa-2), interacts poorly with anti-Ld CD8-dependent T cells. 2C TCR transgenic mice bear a receptor specific for the p2Ca peptide bound to Ld. The authors show that although this peptide interacts with LQ3, LQ3 APC fail to activate splenic 2C CD8 T cells in vitro in the absence of IL-2, while control Ld APC do. The authors have used this receptor ligand pair to examine negative selection within the thymus of (B6 x C3H.Ld)F1 versus (B6 x C3H.LQ3)F1 radiation chimeras repopulated with 2C bone marrow cells. While positive selection occurs normally in (B6 x C3H)F1 chimeras, animals expressing either Ld or LQ3 fail to generate 2C CD8+ cells. Thus, either CD8 is not required for negative selection of this TCR or a weak interaction of CD8 with LQ3 is sufficient. TSA-1, a developmentally regulated marker, was used to follow the process of negative selection. The results show that deletion of 2C T cells does not occur until thymocytes reach the double positive (DP) stage. Furthermore, the authors noted a small population of DP TSA-1hi cells remains, while DP TSA-1int and TSA-1lo cells are absent. These data support the notion that thymocytes either reach a particular stage of development or locate in an appropriate intrathymic compartment before they undergo negative selection.

  11. Characterization of the Antigen Processing Machinery and Endogenous Peptide Presentation of a Bat MHC Class I Molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, James W; Woon, Amanda P; Dudek, Nadine L; Croft, Nathan P; Ng, Justin H J; Baker, Michelle L; Wang, Lin-Fa; Purcell, Anthony W

    2016-06-01

    Bats are a major reservoir of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, including severe acute respiratory syndrome-like coronaviruses, henipaviruses, and Ebola virus. Although highly pathogenic to their spillover hosts, bats harbor these viruses, and a large number of other viruses, with little or no clinical signs of disease. How bats asymptomatically coexist with these viruses is unknown. In particular, little is known about bat adaptive immunity, and the presence of functional MHC molecules is mostly inferred from recently described genomes. In this study, we used an affinity purification/mass spectrometry approach to demonstrate that a bat MHC class I molecule, Ptal-N*01:01, binds antigenic peptides and associates with peptide-loading complex components. We identified several bat MHC class I-binding partners, including calnexin, calreticulin, protein disulfide isomerase A3, tapasin, TAP1, and TAP2. Additionally, endogenous peptide ligands isolated from Ptal-N*01:01 displayed a relatively broad length distribution and an unusual preference for a C-terminal proline residue. Finally, we demonstrate that this preference for C-terminal proline residues was observed in Hendra virus-derived peptides presented by Ptal-N*01:01 on the surface of infected cells. To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify endogenous and viral MHC class I ligands for any bat species and, as such, provides an important avenue for monitoring and development of vaccines against major bat-borne viruses both in the reservoir and spillover hosts. Additionally, it will provide a foundation to understand the role of adaptive immunity in bat antiviral responses.

  12. Early prevention and intervention of Class II division 1 in growing patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keerthi, V. Naga; Kanya, S. Dhivya; Babu, K. Pradeep; Mathew, Anoop; Kumar, A. Nanda

    2016-01-01

    Early screening and diagnosis help in preventing and intercepting the severity of the malocclusion which helps in addressing the esthetic and functional concerns. Growth modulation such as mandibular advancement has been an effective procedure in orthodontics. Mandibular growth advancer (MGA) and PowerScope are gaining popularity recently as these are effective in achieving the mandibular advancement and ease of fabrication, placement, and wear. MGA was fabricated by making the upper and lower splints separately and are placed in the oral cavity by joining the two splints in the new construction bite using cold cure, MGA when worn during growth phase helps in condylar remodeling in the temporomandibular joint thus helps in advancement of the mandible. The proclination of the upper anteriors in Class II division 1 can be moved lingually by activating the labial bow in the splint. Dr. Andy Hayes worked in conjunction with American orthodontics developed PowerScope. PowerScope delivers Class II correction with a combination of patient comfort and ease of use that was unmatched among other appliances. This ready to use chairside solution required no laboratory setup, making for a much quicker, and easier installation process and appointment. PowerScopes high quality, fixed one-piece design requires no patient compliance. These superior qualities of PowerScope help in correction of Class II skeletal growing patient in conjunction with fixed orthodontic therapy. MGA and PowerScope were chosen as a functional appliance for this study, which shows decreased ANB angle and effective mandible length was increased. PMID:27195234

  13. A tensor analysis to evaluate the effect of high-pull headgear on Class II malocclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngan, P; Scheick, J; Florman, M

    1993-03-01

    The inaccuracies inherent in cephalometric analysis of treatment effects are well known. The objective of this article is to present a more reliable research tool in the analysis of cephalometric data. Bookstein introduced a dilation function by means of a homogeneous deformation tensor as a method of describing changes in cephalometric data. His article gave an analytic description of the deformation tensor that permits the rapid and highly accurate calculation of it on a desktop computer. The first part of this article describes the underlying ideas and mathematics. The second part uses the tensor analysis to analyze the cephalometric results of a group of patients treated with high-pull activator (HPA) to demonstrate the application of this research tool. Eight patients with Class II skeletal open bite malocclusions in the mixed dentition were treated with HPA. A control sample consisting of eight untreated children with Class II who were obtained from The Ohio State University Growth Study was used as a comparison group. Lateral cephalograms taken before and at the completion of treatment were traced, digitized, and analyzed with the conventional method and tensor analysis. The results showed that HPA had little or no effect on maxillary skeletal structures. However, reduction in growth rate was found with the skeletal triangle S-N-A, indicating a posterior tipping and torquing of the maxillary incisors. The treatment also induced additional deformation on the mandible in a downward and slightly forward direction. Together with the results from the conventional cephalometric analysis, HPA seemed to provide the vertical and rotational control of the maxilla during orthopedic Class II treatment by inhibiting the downward and forward eruptive path of the upper posterior teeth. The newly designed computer software permits rapid analysis of cephalometric data with the tensor analysis on a desktop computer. This tool may be useful in analyzing growth changes for

  14. Association of an MHC class II haplotype with increased risk of polymyositis in Hungarian Vizsla dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Massey

    Full Text Available A breed-specific polymyositis is frequently observed in the Hungarian Vizsla. Beneficial clinical response to immunosuppressive therapies has been demonstrated which points to an immune-mediated aetiology. Canine inflammatory myopathies share clinical and histological similarities with the human immune-mediated myopathies. As MHC class II associations have been reported in the human conditions we investigated whether an MHC class II association was present in the canine myopathy seen in this breed. 212 Hungarian Vizsla pedigree dogs were stratified both on disease status and degree of relatedness to an affected dog. This generated a group of 29 cases and 183 "graded" controls: 93 unaffected dogs with a first degree affected relative, 44 unaffected dogs with a second degree affected relative, and 46 unaffected dogs with no known affected relatives. Eleven DLA class II haplotypes were identified, of which, DLA-DRB1*02001/DQA1*00401/DQB1*01303, was at significantly raised frequency in cases compared to controls (OR = 1.92, p = 0.032. When only control dogs with no family history of the disease were compared to cases, the association was further strengthened (OR = 4.08, p = 0.00011. Additionally, a single copy of the risk haplotype was sufficient to increase disease risk, with the risk substantially increasing for homozygotes. There was a trend of increasing frequency of this haplotype with degree of relatedness, indicating low disease penetrance. These findings support the hypothesis of an immune-mediated aetiology for this canine myopathy and give credibility to potentially using the Hungarian Vizsla as a genetic model for comparative studies with human myositis.

  15. Purification and characterization of a class II α-Mannosidase from Moringa oleifera seed kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejavath, Kiran Kumar; Nadimpalli, Siva Kumar

    2014-10-01

    α-Mannosidase (EC. 3.2.1.114) belonging to class II glycosyl hydrolase family 38 was purified from Moringa oleifera seeds to apparent homogeneity by conventional protein purification methods followed by affinity chromatography on Con A Sepharose and size exclusion chromatography. The purified enzyme is a glycoprotein with 9.3 % carbohydrate and exhibited a native molecular mass of 240 kDa, comprising two heterogeneous subunits with molecular masses of 66 kDa (α-larger subunit) and 55 kDa (β-smaller subunit). Among both the subunits only larger subunit stained for carbohydrate with periodic acid Schiff's staining. The optimum temperature and pH for purified enzyme was 50 °C and pH 5.0, respectively. The enzyme was stable within the pH range of 3.0-7.0. The enzyme was inhibited by EDTA, Hg(2+), Ag(2+), and Cu(2+). The activity lost by EDTA was completely regained by addition of Zn(2+). The purified enzyme was characterized in terms of the kinetic parameters K m (1.6 mM) and V max (2.2 U/mg) using para-nitrophenyl-α-D-mannopyranoside as substrate. The enzyme was very strongly inhibited by swainsonine (SW) at 1 μM concentration a class II α-Mannosidase inhibitor, but not by deoxymannojirimycin (DMNJ). Chemical modification studies revealed involvement of tryptophan at active site. The inhibition by SW and requirement of the Zn(2+) as a metal ion suggested that the enzyme belongs to class II α-Mannosidase.

  16. A randomized controlled 30 years follow up of three conventional resin composites in Class II restorations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Ulla; van Dijken, Jan WV

    2015-01-01

    three (one set) as similar as possible Class II restorations of moderate size.After cavity preparation, the three cavities were chosen at random to be restored with twochemical-cured (P10, Miradapt) and one light-cured resin composite (P30). A chemical-curedenamel bonding agent was applied after etching......Objective. The aim of this 30 year randomized controlled study was to evaluate, by intrain-dividual comparisons, the durability of three conventional resin composites in Class IIrestorations. Methods. Each of 30 participants, 21 female and 9 male (mean age 30 years, range 20–43),received at least...... of the enamel. The chemical-cured resincomposites were placed in bulk and the light-cured in increments. One operator placed 99restorations (33 sets). The restorations were evaluated with slightly modified USPHS crite-ria at baseline, 2, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 years. Statistical analyses were performed by the...

  17. Class II histone deacetylases are associated with VHL-independent regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, David Z; Kachhap, Sushant K; Collis, Spencer J; Verheul, Henk M W; Carducci, Michael A; Atadja, Peter; Pili, Roberto

    2006-09-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1 alpha) plays a critical role in transcriptional gene activation involved in tumor angiogenesis. A novel class of agents, the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, has been shown to inhibit tumor angiogenesis and HIF-1 alpha protein expression. However, the molecular mechanism responsible for this inhibition remains to be elucidated. In the current study, we investigated the molecular link between HIF-1 alpha inhibition and HDAC inhibition. Treatment of the VHL-deficient human renal cell carcinoma cell line UMRC2 with the hydroxamic HDAC inhibitor LAQ824 resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of HIF-1 alpha protein via a VHL-independent mechanism and reduction of HIF-1 alpha transcriptional activity. HIF-1 alpha inhibition by LAQ824 was associated with HIF-1 alpha acetylation and polyubiquitination. HIF-1 alpha immunoprecipitates contained HDAC activity. Then, we tested different classes of HDAC inhibitors with diverse inhibitory activity of class I versus class II HDACs and assessed their capability of targeting HIF-1 alpha. Hydroxamic acid derivatives with known activity against both class I and class II HDACs were effective in inhibiting HIF-1 alpha at low nanomolar concentrations. In contrast, valproic acid and trapoxin were able to inhibit HIF-1 alpha only at concentrations that are effective against class II HDACs. Coimmunoprecipitation studies showed that class II HDAC4 and HDAC6 were associated with HIF-1 alpha protein. Inhibition by small interfering RNA of HDAC4 and HDAC6 reduced HIF-1 alpha protein expression and transcriptional activity. Taken together, these results suggest that class II HDACs are associated with HIF-1 alpha stability and provide a rationale for targeting HIF-1 alpha with HDAC inhibitors against class II isozymes.

  18. The complete primary structure of Cw*1701 reveals a highly divergent HLA class I molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, M J; Vilches, C; de Pablo, R; Puente, S; Kreisler, M

    1997-03-01

    Genotyping of the HLA-C locus by PCR-SSP has previously shown 100% association of B41 and B42 with a new allelic variant. Partial sequencing studies (exons 2-4) demonstrated that this PCR-SSP variant corresponded to the new allele Cw*1701. In this study we have characterized the whole coding region of Cw*1701 from a Bubi individual of Equatorial Guinea. Our results partially confirm the previously reported sequence and reveal that Cw*1701 has many new polymorphisms at several exons, including a 18-bp insertion in exon 5. Cw*1701 is thus a most unusual HLA-C molecule defining a third allelic lineage of this locus.

  19. DNA polymorphism of HLA class II genes in primary biliary cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morling, Niels; Dalhoff, K; Fugger, L;

    1992-01-01

    We investigated the DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism of the major histocompatibility complex class II genes: HLA-DRB, -DQA, -DQB, DPA, -DPB, the serologically defined HLA-A, B, C, DR antigens, and the primed lymphocyte typing defined HLA-DP antigens in 23 Danish patients with primary......) associated DRB Bgl II 9.1 kilobase (kb) fragment (RR = 2.9; P less than 0.05, 'corrected' P greater than 0.05), the DQA1*0501 associated DQA Taq I 4.8 kb fragment (RR = 3.1; P less than 0.05, 'corrected' P greater than 0.05), the DQB1*0201 (DQw2) associated DQB Hin dIII 11.5 kb fragment (RR = 3.1; P less...

  20. Angle Class II, subdivision, with agenesis of mandibular second molars and extrusion of maxillary second molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Rodrigues Tavares

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This clinical case reports the treatment of an Angle Class II malocclusion in a young woman with a balanced face affected by agenesis of second and third mandibular molars and subsequent extrusion of second maxillary molars. The atypical and peculiar occlusal anomaly led to individualized treatment proposed in order to normalize dental malpositions, with subsequent rehabilitation of edentulous areas by means of a multidisciplinary approach. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO in partial fulfillment of the requirements for obtaining the title of certified by the BBO.

  1. Surgical correction of class II skeletal malocclusion in an adult patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishnan Balachander

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Correction of skeletal deformities in adult patients with orthodontics is limited. Orthognathic surgery is the best option for cases when camouflage treatment is questionable and growth modulation is not possible. This case report illustrates the benefit of the team approach in correcting vertical maxillary excess along with class II skeletal deformity. A cosmetic correction was achieved by superior repositioning of maxilla with LeFort I osteotomy and augmentation genioplasty, along with orthodontic treatment. The patient′s facial appearance was markedly improved along with functional and stable occlusion

  2. Set Theory Applied to the Mathematical Characterization of HLA Class II Binding Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Rodríguez Velásquez, MD, esp.1

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Antigen presentation contains the molecularbasis for antigenic identification and immuneresponses. The set theory and experimental datawere used in order to develop an union core regionmathematic characterization through the definitionof 8 laws associated to HLA class II binding.The laws were applied to 4 promiscuous peptides,25 natural peptides sequences of core region: 13binding peptides and 12 no binding peptides; and19 synthetic peptides looking to differentiate peptides.Only one peptide was not rightly characterized.This methodology may be used to choose keypeptides in the development of vaccine.

  3. Role of PU.1 in MHC Class II Expression via CIITA Transcription in Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Ryosuke; Kasakura, Kazumi; Nakano, Nobuhiro; Hara, Mutsuko; Maeda, Keiko; Okumura, Ko; Ogawa, Hideoki; Yashiro, Takuya; Nishiyama, Chiharu

    2016-01-01

    The cofactor CIITA is a master regulator of MHC class II expression and several transcription factors regulating the cell type-specific expression of CIITA have been identified. Although the MHC class II expression in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) is also mediated by CIITA, the transcription factors involved in the CIITA expression in pDCs are largely unknown. In the present study, we analyzed the role of a hematopoietic lineage-specific transcription factor, PU.1, in CIITA transcription in pDCs. The introduction of PU.1 siRNA into mouse pDCs and a human pDC cell line, CAL-1, reduced the mRNA levels of MHC class II and CIITA. When the binding of PU.1 to the 3rd promoter of CIITA (pIII) in CAL-1 and mouse pDCs was analyzed by a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, a significant amount of PU.1 binding to the pIII was detected, which was definitely decreased in PU.1 siRNA-transfected cells. Reporter assays showed that PU.1 knockdown reduced the pIII promoter activity and that three Ets-motifs in the human pIII promoter were candidates of cis-enhancing elements. By electrophoretic mobility shift assays, it was confirmed that two Ets-motifs, GGAA (-181/-178) and AGAA (-114/-111), among three candidates, were directly bound with PU.1. When mouse pDCs and CAL-1 cells were stimulated by GM-CSF, mRNA levels of PU.1, pIII-driven CIITA, total CIITA, MHC class II, and the amount of PU.1 binding to pIII were significantly increased. The GM-CSF-mediated up-regulation of these mRNAs was canceled in PU.1 siRNA-introduced cells. Taking these results together, we conclude that PU.1 transactivates the pIII through direct binding to Ets-motifs in the promoter in pDCs.

  4. Effects of pulp capping materials on fracture resistance of Class II composite restorations

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cavity design and the type of pulp capping materials on the fracture resistance of Class II composite restorations. Materials and Methods: Sixty freshly extracted, sound molar teeth were selected for the study. A dovetail cavity on the mesio-occlusal and a slot cavity on disto-occlusal surfaces of each tooth were prepared, and the teeth were divided 4 groups which one of them as a control group. The pulp capping materials (Ther...

  5. The orthology of HLA-E and H2-Qa1 is hidden by their concerted evolution with other MHC class I molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouillon Virginie

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whether MHC molecules undergo concerted evolution or not has been the subject of a long-standing debate. Results By comparing sequences of eight functional homologues of HLA-E from primates and rodents with those of MHC class Ia molecules from the same eight species, we find that different portions of MHC class I molecules undergo different patterns of evolution. By focusing our analyses sequentially on these various portions, we have obtained clear evidence for concerted evolution of MHC class I molecules, suggesting the occurrence of extensive interallelic and intergenic exchanges. Intra-species homogenisation of sequences is particularly noticeable at the level of exon 4, which codes for the α3 domain, but our results suggest that homogenisation also concerns certain residues of the α1–α2 codomain that lie outside the antigen recognition site. Conclusion A model is presented in which Darwinian selective pressures due to pathogens could, at the same time, favour diversification of MHC class Ia molecules and promote concerted evolution of separate loci by spreading advantageous motifs arising by mutations in individual MHC molecules to other alleles and to other loci of the MHC region. This would also allow MHC molecules to co-evolve with the proteins with which they interact to fulfil their functions of antigen presentation and regulation of NK cell activity. One of the raisons d'être of the MHC may therefore be to favour at the same time both diversification of MHC class Ia molecules and homogenisation of the whole pool of MHC class I molecules (Ia and Ib involved in antigen presentation. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Stephan Beck, Lutz Walter and Pierre Pontarotti.

  6. Post-transplant anti-HLA class II antibodies as risk factor for late kidney allograft failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, E F; Tedesco-Silva, H; Machado, P G; Franco, M; Medina-Pestana, J O; Gerbase-DeLima, M

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to prospectively analyze the relationship between the post-transplant anti-HLA class I and/or class II panel reactive antibodies and graft failure due to chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN). We studied 512 first kidney recipients transplanted at a single center, with a graft functioning for at least 3 years. A single blood sample was collected from each patient for antibody evaluation. The median posttransplant time after blood collection was 4.4 years and did not differ between patients with (n = 91) or without anti-HLA antibodies (n = 421). Female gender, pregnancies and blood transfusions were associated with the presence of anti-HLA class I antibodies. Graft function deterioration was associated with anti-HLA class II antibodies. Multivariate analysis showed independent association for creatinine levels (RR = 7.5), acute rejection (RR = 2.6), recipient male gender (RR = 3.6) and anti-HLA class II antibodies (RR = 2.9) and CAN-associated graft loss. In conclusion, the presence of anti-HLA class II antibodies conferred a risk for graft loss before a decline in renal function and increased the risk of graft failure in patients who already had a decline in graft function. Thus, anti-HLA class II antibody monitoring is a useful tool for the management of long-term kidney recipients.

  7. ACTN3 R577X Genotypes Associate with Class II and Deep Bite Malocclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebrick, Brian; Teeramongkolgul, Teesit; Nicot, Romain; Horton, Michael J.; Raoul, Gwenael; Ferri, Joel; Vieira, Alexandre R.; Sciote, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction α-actinins are myofibril anchor proteins which influence contractile properties of skeletal muscle. ACTN2 is expressed in slow type I and fast type II fibers whereas ACTN3 is expressed only in fast fibers. ACTN3 homozygosity for the 577X stop codon (i.e. changing 577RR to 577XX - the R577X polymorphism) results in the absence of α-actinin-3 in about 18% of Europeans, diminished fast contractile ability, enhanced endurance performance and reduced bone mass or bone mineral density. We have examined ACTN3 expression and genetic variation in masseter muscle of orthognathic surgery patients to determine genotype associations with malocclusion. Methods Clinical information, masseter muscle biopsies and saliva samples were obtained from 60 subjects. Genotyping for ACTN3 SNPs, RT-PCR quantitation of muscle gene message and muscle morphometric fiber type properties were compared to determine statistical differences between genotype and phenotype. Results Muscle mRNA expression level was significantly different for ACTN3 SNP genotypes (p<0.01). The frequency of ACTN3 genotypes was significantly different for sagittal and vertical classifications of malocclusion with the clearest association being elevated 577XX genotype in skeletal class II malocclusion (p = 0.003). This genotype also resulted in significantly smaller diameter of fast type II fibers in masseter muscle (p = 0.002). Conclusion ACTN3 577XX is overrepresented in skeletal class II malocclusion, suggesting a biologic influence during bone growth. ACTN3 577XX is underrepresented in deep bite malocclusion, suggesting muscle differences contribute to variations in vertical facial dimensions. PMID:25439211

  8. 40 CFR Table F-1 to Subpart F of... - Performance Specifications for PM2.5 Class II Equivalent Samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance Specifications for PM2.5 Class II Equivalent Samplers F Table F-1 to Subpart F of Part 53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., Subpt. F, Table F-1 Table F-1 to Subpart F of Part 53—Performance Specifications for PM2.5 Class...

  9. HLA class I and II expression in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in relation to tumor HPV status and clinical outcome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Näsman

    Full Text Available HPV-DNA positive (HPVDNA+ oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC has better clinical outcome than HPV-DNA negative (HPVDNA- OSCC. Current treatment may be unnecessarily extensive for most HPV+ OSCC, but before de-escalation, additional markers are needed together with HPV status to better predict treatment response. Here the influence of HLA class I/HLA class II expression was explored. Pre-treatment biopsies, from 439/484 OSCC patients diagnosed 2000-2009 and treated curatively, were analyzed for HLA I and II expression, p16(INK4a and HPV DNA. Absent/weak as compared to high HLA class I intensity correlated to a very favorable disease-free survival (DFS, disease-specific survival (DSS and overall survival (OS in HPVDNA+ OSCC, both in univariate and multivariate analysis, while HLA class II had no impact. Notably, HPVDNA+ OSCC with absent/weak HLA class I responded equally well when treated with induction-chemo-radiotherapy (CRT or radiotherapy (RT alone. In patients with HPVDNA- OSCC, high HLA class I/class II expression correlated in general to a better clinical outcome. p16(INK4a overexpression correlated to a better clinical outcome in HPVDNA+ OSCC. Absence of HLA class I intensity in HPVDNA+ OSCC suggests a very high survival independent of treatment and could possibly be used clinically to select patients for randomized trials de-escalating therapy.

  10. MHC class II-associated proteins in B-cell exosomes and potential functional implications for exosome biogenesis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buschow, S.I.; Balkom, B.W.M. van; Aalberts, M.; Heck, A.J.R. van; Wauben, M.; Stoorvogel, W.

    2010-01-01

    Professional antigen-presenting cells secrete major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) carrying exosomes with unclear physiological function(s). Exosomes are first generated as the intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) of a specific type of multivesicular body, and are then secreted by fusion of th

  11. 77 FR 16123 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    ... March 19, 2012 Part II Department of Health and Human Services Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 866 Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls... SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration...

  12. Lattice water molecules tuned spin-crossover for an iron(II) complex with thermal hysteresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yang-Hui; Yang, Li-Jing; Liu, Qing-Ling; Ling, Yang; Wang, Wei; Sun, Bai-Wang

    2014-11-28

    A new iron(II) complex based on the 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine ligand [Fe(4,4'-dmbpy)3(ClO4)(SCN)·3H2O (1·3H2O)] has been prepared and characterized. Structural studies and Hirshfeld surface analysis for complex 1·3H2O at three different temperatures (300, 240 and 130 K) are described. The UV-vis absorption spectrum of a water-free sample (1) in methanol solution and magnetic susceptibility measurements for solid-state samples 1·3H2O and 1 revealed that the removal of lattice water molecules from complex 1·3H2O changed the magnetic properties from the low-spin state (1·3H2O) to the complete spin-crossover (1) between 350-220 K with a thermal hysteresis of 7 K, and was accompanied by a colour change from brown to red.

  13. Processing and MHC class II presentation of exogenous soluble antigen involving a proteasome-dependent cytosolic pathway in CD40-activated B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Hans Jiro; Kondo, Eisei; Shimabukuro-Vornhagen, Alexander; Theurich, Sebastian; von Bergwelt-Baildon, Michael S

    2016-08-01

    Activated B cells have the capacity to present antigen and induce immune responses as potent antigen-presenting cells (APCs). As in other APCs, antigen presentation by B cells involves antigen internalization, antigen processing, and peptide loading onto MHC molecules. However, while the mechanism of antigen processing has been studied extensively in other APCs, this pathway remains elusive in B cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the MHC class II processing pathway in CD40-activated B cells (CD40Bs), as a model for activated, antigen-presenting B cells. Using CMV pp65 as a model antigen, we evaluated processing and presentation of the CD4 + T-cell epitope 509-523 (K509) by human CD40Bs in ELISPOT assays. As expected, stimulation of specific CD4 + T-cell clones was attenuated after pretreatment of CD40Bs with inhibitors of classic class II pathway components. However, proteasome inhibitors such as epoxomicin limited antigen presentation as well. This suggests that the antigen is processed in a non-classical, cytosolic MHC class II pathway. Further experiments with truncated protein variants revealed involvement of the proteasome in processing of the N and C extensions of the epitope. Access to the cytosol was shown to be size dependent. Epoxomicin sensitivity exclusively in CD40B cells, but not in dendritic cells, suggests a novel processing mechanism unique to this APC. Our data suggest that B cells process antigen using a distinct, non-classical class II pathway.

  14. Charge transfer interactions of a Ru(II) dye complex and related ligand molecules adsorbed on Au(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton, Andrew J.; Weston, Matthew; O' Shea, James N. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Nottingham Nanotechnology and Nanoscience Centre (NNNC), University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Taylor, J. Ben; Rienzo, Anna; Mayor, Louise C. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-28

    The interaction of the dye molecule, N3 (cis-bis(isothiocyanato)bis(2,2{sup '}-bipyridyl-4,4{sup '}-dicarboxylato) -ruthenium(II)), and related ligand molecules with a Au(111) surface has been studied using synchrotron radiation-based electron spectroscopy. Resonant photoemission spectroscopy (RPES) and autoionization of the adsorbed molecules have been used to probe the coupling between the molecules and the substrate. Evidence of charge transfer from the states near the Fermi level of the gold substrate into the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of the molecules is found in the monolayer RPES spectra of both isonicotinic acid and bi-isonicotinic acid (a ligand of N3), but not for the N3 molecule itself. Calibrated x-ray absorption spectroscopy and valence band spectra of the monolayers reveals that the LUMO crosses the Fermi level of the surface in all cases, showing that charge transfer is energetically possible both from and to the molecule. A core-hole clock analysis of the resonant photoemission reveals a charge transfer time of around 4 fs from the LUMO of the N3 dye molecule to the surface. The lack of charge transfer in the opposite direction is understood in terms of the lack of spatial overlap between the {pi}*-orbitals in the aromatic rings of the bi-isonicotinic acid ligands of N3 and the gold surface.

  15. Correlations between dentoskeletal variables and deep bite in Class II Division 1 individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Silva Marques

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the cephalometric pattern of Class II Division 1 individuals with deep bite, and to determine possible correlations between dentoskeletal variables and deep bite. Comparisons were also made between genders and cases that were to be treated both with and without premolar extraction. A total of 70 lateral cephalograms were used, from both male (n = 35 and female (n = 35 individuals with an average age of 11.6 years, who simultaneously presented with ANB > 5º and overbite > 4 mm. Statistical analysis involved parametric (t-test and non-parametric (Mann-Whitney tests for independent samples, as well as the Spearman correlation test (p < 0.05. The values of Go-Me, Ar-Pog, PM-1 and PM-CMI were higher in males (p < 0.05. However, no significant differences were found among the averages of the cephalometric measurements when the sample was divided by treatment with and without extraction. Deep bite was positively correlated to the PM-1 and SNA measurements, and negatively correlated to the Go-Me, Ar-Pog, SNB and SNGoMe measurements. The main factors associated with the determination of deep bite in Angle's Class II Division 1 cases were: greater lower anterior dentoalveolar growth and/or lower incisor extrusion, horizontal growth pattern, maxillary protrusion and mandibular retrusion.

  16. Comparison of 2 modifications of the twin-block appliance in matched Class II samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, N A; McKeown, H F; Sandler, P J

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the skeletal and dental changes contributing to Class II correction with 2 modifications of the Twin-block appliance: Twin-block appliances that use a labial bow (TB1) and Twin-block appliances that incorporate high-pull headgear and torquing spurs on the maxillary central incisors (TB2). After pretreatment equivalence was established, a total of 36 consecutively treated patients with the TB1 modification were compared with 27 patients treated with the TB2 modification. Both samples were treated in the same hospital department and the same technician made all the appliances. The cephalostat, digitizing package, and statistical methods were common to both groups. The results demonstrated that the addition of headgear to the appliance resulted in effective vertical and sagittal control of the maxillary complex and thus maximized the Class II skeletal correction in the TB2 sample. Use of the torquing springs resulted in less retroclination of the maxillary incisors in the TB2 sample when compared with the TB1 sample; however, this difference did not reach the level of statistical significance.

  17. Transverse craniofacial dimensions in Angle Class II, Division 1 malocclusion according to breathing mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agda Rísia David Pinto Coelho

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this longitudinal study was to assess the relation between the transverse craniofacial dimensions of subjects with Class II, Division 1 malocclusion and the breathing mode presented by them. Forty Angle Class II, Division 1 malocclusion subjects of both genders participated in the study, 23 of which were predominantly nose breathers and 17 were predominantly mouth breathers. The mean age ranged from 10 years and 9 months to 14 years - Age range 1; and from 13 years and 4 months to 16 years and 6 months - Age range 2. Measurements of six transverse craniofacial dimensions were performed in P-A teleradiographs: Total Sphenoid, Total Zygomatic, Total Nasal Cavity, Total Maxilla, Total Mastoid and Total Antegonion. The transversal craniofacial dimensions were measured and compared in both groups at age ranges 1 and 2. The longitudinal assessment of age ranges 1 and 2 showed that there was no statistically significant influence of the breathing mode on the craniofacial dimensions evaluated, or on the alteration of these dimensions. Breathing mode had no influence on craniofacial development in the sample studied.

  18. Morphological changes of the facial skeleton in Class II/1 patients treated with orthodontic functional appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Festila

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate, using lateral cephalometry, the skeletal changes in maxillary bones induced through functional jaw orthopedic therapy. 30 patients with class II division 1 malocclusion and average age of 10.4 years were included in the study. Material and Methods: Cephalometric data were analyzed with the following methods: Burstone, McNamara, Rickets, Tweed and Wits and treatment changes were evaluated overlapping the lateral cephalograms on cranial base with sella registered. Results: The results showed reduced over-jet in average with 2.46 mm, mandibular advancement with a mean value of 2.72 mm and increasing of the total mandibular length with a mean value of 4.17 mm. Although we found an inhibiting in the anterior development of the maxilla with an average of 1.57 degree, the decrease of the anterior-posterior discrepancy was due especially to the mandible. Conclusions: It can be concluded that functional appliances were effective in correcting class II malocclusion. Changes of the position and mandible′s length determined improved facial profile but did not correct it completely because of the chin that moved not only anterior but also downward, as a result of vertical ramus growth.

  19. Genomic analysis identifies class II mismatches in serologically DR-compatible human renal allografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushell, A; Wood, K J; Morris, P J

    1988-11-01

    Many studies, including those from our own center, have shown that matching the donor and recipient for HLA-DR antigens has a beneficial effect on the outcome of cadaveric renal transplantation. However, cases of irreversible graft rejection are sometimes seen in patients who have received an HLA-DR-compatible kidney, suggesting that serologic compatibility for HLA-DR may not always ensure reduced alloreactivity toward the graft. We have examined a number of recipients and their serologically DR-compatible cadaveric donors by Southern blotting and hybridization with locus specific HLA class II probes in order to determine whether in these patients there were class II mismatches that had been undetected by serology. The results show that the analysis of DR beta restriction fragment patterns does little more than complement and confirm the serologic identification of HLA-DR. Hybridization with DQ alpha and DQ beta probes, however, significantly extends the number of DQ specificities that can be detected and suggests that DQ mismatches in DR-compatible donor-recipient pairs may be more common than previously supposed, although it is not possible to draw any conclusions on the influence of DQ incompatibilities in the presence of DR compatibility on graft outcome.

  20. Prediction of positive food effect: Bioavailability enhancement of BCS class II drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Siddarth; Polli, James E

    2016-06-15

    High-throughput screening methods have increased the number of poorly water-soluble, highly permeable drug candidates. Many of these candidates have increased bioavailability when administered with food (i.e., exhibit a positive food effect). Food is known to impact drug bioavailability through a variety of mechanisms, including drug solubilization and prolonged gastric residence time. In vitro dissolution media that aim to mimic in vivo gastrointestinal (GI) conditions have been developed to lessen the need for fed human bioequivalence studies. The objective of this work was to develop an in vitro lipolysis model to predict positive food effect of three BCS Class II drugs (i.e., danazol, amiodarone and ivermectin) in previously developed lipolysis media. This in vitro lipolysis model was comparatively benchmarked against FeSSIF and FaSSIF media that were modified for an in vitro lipolysis approach, as FeSSIF and FaSSIF are widely used in in vitro dissolution studies. The in vitro lipolysis model accurately predicted the in vivo positive food effect for three model BCS class II drugs. The in vitro lipolysis model has potential use as a screening test of drug candidates in early development to assess positive food effect.

  1. IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH HLA ANTIBODIES CLASS I AND II, AND MICA ANTIBODIES IN KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sh. Khubutia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of HLA and MICA antibodies in patients from the waiting list for kidney transplantation and their influence on the course of post-transplant period. Determination of HLA antibodies class I and II, and MICA antibodies was performed on a platform of Luminex (xMAP-tech- nology using sets LABScreen ONE LAMBDA (U.S.. A total of 156 patients from the waiting list for kidney transplantation. Revealed the presence of HLA and MICA antibodies in the serum of 31.4% of patients. Regraf- ted patients increased the content of antibodies to the antigens of HLA system was noted in 88.2% of cases, 47% met the combination of antibodies to the I, II classes and MICA. In patients awaiting first kidney transplantation, HLA and MICA antibodies were determined in 23.7% of cases. The presence of pretransplant HLA and MICA antibodies had a significant influence on the course of post-transplant period. Patients with the presence of HLA and MICA in 50% of cases delayed graft function. Sessions of plasmapheresis can reduce the concentration of HLA and MICA antibodies on average by 61.1%. 

  2. JC Polyomavirus Infection Is Strongly Controlled by Human Leucocyte Antigen Class II Variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundqvist, Emilie; Buck, Dorothea; Warnke, Clemens;

    2014-01-01

    sequence-specific oligonucleotide (PCR-SSO) method. An initial GWAS screen displayed a strong HLA class II region signal. The HLA-DRB1*15 haplotype was strongly negatively associated to JCV sero-status in Scandinavian MS cases (OR = 0.42, p = 7×10(-15)) and controls (OR = 0.53, p = 2×10(-5)). In contrast......JC polyomavirus (JCV) carriers with a compromised immune system, such as in HIV, or subjects on immune-modulating therapies, such as anti VLA-4 therapy may develop progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) which is a lytic infection of oligodendrocytes in the brain. Serum antibodies to JCV...... for JCV infection, were compared to HLA class I and II alleles in 1621 Scandinavian persons with MS and 1064 population-based Swedish controls and associations were replicated in 718 German persons with MS. HLA-alleles were determined by SNP imputation, sequence specific (SSP) kits and a reverse PCR...

  3. Clinical effects of fixed functional Herbst appliance in the treatment of class II/1 malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedeljković Nenad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sagittal mandible deficiency is the most common cause of skeletal Class II malocclusion. Treatment objective is to stimulate sagittal mandible growth. Fixed functional Herbst appliance use is beneficial for shortening the time required for treatment and does not depend on patient compliance. Case outline. A 13-year-old girl was referred to the Clinic of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry in Belgrade following previous unsuccessful treatment of her skeletal Class II malocclusion using an activator. The patient's poor cooperation had led to failure of the treatment. Patient was subjected to the Herbst treatment for 6 months followed by fixed appliance for another 8 months. Lateral cephalograms before and after the treatment was performed. The remodelation of condylar and fossal articulation was assessed by superimposition of pre- and post-treatment temporomandibular joint tomograms. The promotion of oral hygiene and fluoride use was performed because orthodontic treatment carries a high caries risk and risk for periodontal disease. Skeletal and dental changes were observed after treatment (correction [Max+Mand]: molar relation 7 mm, overjet 8 mm, skeletal relation 5 mm, molars 2 mm, incisors 3 mm. Combination of Herbst and fixed appliances was effective in the treatment of dental and skeletal irregularities for a short period of time. Conclusion . In the retention period, 14 months after treatment, occlusal stability exists. Follow-up care in oral prevention is based on regular recalls at the dental office and supervision at home by the parents.

  4. Rational Design Synthesis and Evaluation of New Selective Inhibitors of Microbial Class II (Zinc Dependent) Fructose Bis-phosphate Aldolases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R Daher; M Coincon; M Fonvielle; P Gest; M Guerin; M Jackson; J Sygusch; M Therisod

    2011-12-31

    We report the synthesis and biochemical evaluation of several selective inhibitors of class II (zinc dependent) fructose bis-phosphate aldolases (Fba). The products were designed as transition-state analogues of the catalyzed reaction, structurally related to the substrate fructose bis-phosphate (or sedoheptulose bis-phosphate) and based on an N-substituted hydroxamic acid, as a chelator of the zinc ion present in active site. The compounds synthesized were tested on class II Fbas from various pathogenic microorganisms and, by comparison, on a mammalian class I Fba. The best inhibitor shows Ki against class II Fbas from various pathogens in the nM range, with very high selectivity (up to 105). Structural analyses of inhibitors in complex with aldolases rationalize and corroborate the enzymatic kinetics results. These inhibitors represent lead compounds for the preparation of new synthetic antibiotics, notably for tuberculosis prophylaxis.

  5. Treatment of Class II high angle malocclusions with the Herbst appliance: a cephalometric investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavoni, R; Grenga, V; Macri, V

    1992-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the results of treatment of Class II malocclusions by using two different designs of the Herbst appliance. Cephalometric records from lateral headplates of 19 consecutively treated Class II cases were evaluated. The headplates were taken before and after the treatment stage in which the Herbst appliance was used. The patients were divided into two groups: the first group, normohypodivergent, was treated with the Herbst appliance attached to bands; the second group, hyperdivergent, was treated with the Herbst appliance attached to acrylic splints in which a high-pull headgear was also used. The results were compared between these groups and with a control group age-matched from Bolton standards to match the changes in the Herbst samples against what might be expected in case of normal growth during similar periods of time. The results of the investigation revealed the following: (1) 9 months of treatment resulted in Class I dental arch relationships in all 19 cases; (2) the Herbst appliance attached to bands did not significantly modify the vertical growth pattern of the normohypodivergent patients; and (3) in hyperdivergent patients, the use of a Herbst appliance attached to acrylic splints in conjunction with the use of a high-pull headgear allowed a better control of the vertical dimension, as assessed by the cephalometric parameters (FA, FMA, Go-Gn-SN). The clinician should be aware of the different dentofacial changes induced in the vertical plane by different designs of the Herbst appliance to better program treatment strategy.

  6. MAXILLARY INCISOR TRAUMA IN PATIENTS WITH CLASS II DIVISION 1 DENTAL MALOCCLUSION: ASSOCIATED FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Yaman DOSDOĞRU

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the association between the presence of maxillary incisor trauma (MIT with age, gender, dentition type, the degree of overjet (OJ, lip form, respiratory type and dental arch form in patients with Class II division 1 dental malocclusion. Subjects and Methods: 256 patients (mean age: 15.80 ± 2.2 were included in this study. The patients’ gender, dentition type, superior lip form, dental arch form and respiratory type were recorded. Participants were divided into four groups according to the severity of OJ: 3.5 mm II ≤ 6 mm with incompetent lip, 6 mmClass II division 1 malocclusion.

  7. Combining positional scanning peptide libraries, HLA-DR transfectants and bioinformatics to dissect the epitope spectrum of HLA class II cross-restricted CD4+ T cell clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sospedra, Mireia; Zhao, Yingdong; Giulianotti, Marc; Simon, Richard; Pinilla, Clemencia; Martin, Roland

    2010-02-28

    The use of positional scanning peptide libraries in combination with biometrical analysis is one of the few approaches, which allows the identification of stimulatory peptides for T cells of unknown specificity. Despite the successful application of this strategy in different studies, not every T cell is suited for analysis. For as yet unknown reasons some T cells do not recognize these highly complex libraries, and even more importantly the predictive capacity of the current approach shows high variability among individual T cell clones and their TCRs. A number of factors probably contribute to differences in T cell recognition and have to be taken into account in order to overcome these difficulties. Our results suggest that the ability of some T cells to recognize peptides in the context of more than one HLA class II molecule expressed by autologous APCs could diminish the predictive capacity of the approach. In contrast, the use of B cell lines expressing single HLA class II molecules as APCs instead of autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells markedly improves the capacity to identify target peptides for this type of T cells.

  8. Human leukocyte antigen class II transgenic mouse model unmasks the significant extrahepatic pathology in toxic shock syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilahun, Ashenafi Y; Marietta, Eric V; Wu, Tsung-Teh; Patel, Robin; David, Chella S; Rajagopalan, Govindarajan

    2011-06-01

    Among the exotoxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, the superantigens (SAgs) are the most potent T-cell activators known to date. SAgs are implicated in several serious diseases including toxic shock syndrome (TSS), Kawasaki disease, and sepsis. However, the immunopathogenesis of TSS and other diseases involving SAgs are still not completely understood. The commonly used conventional laboratory mouse strains do not respond robustly to SAgs in vivo. Therefore, they must be artificially rendered susceptible to TSS by using sensitizing agents such as d-galactosamine (d-galN), which skews the disease exclusively to the liver and, hence, is not representative of the disease in humans. SAg-induced TSS was characterized using transgenic mice expressing HLA class II molecules that are extremely susceptible to TSS without d-galN. HLA-DR3 transgenic mice recapitulated TSS in humans with extensive multiple-organ inflammation affecting the lung, liver, kidneys, heart, and small intestines. Heavy infiltration with T lymphocytes (both CD4(+) and CD8+), neutrophils, and macrophages was noted. In particular, the pathologic changes in the small intestines were extensive and accompanied by significantly altered absorptive functions of the enterocytes. In contrast to massive liver failure alone in the d-galN sensitization model of TSS, findings of the present study suggest that gut dysfunction might be a key pathogenic event that leads to high morbidity and mortality in humans with TSS.

  9. Genetic variation of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II B gene in the threatened Hume's pheasant, Syrmaticus humiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weicai Chen

    Full Text Available Major histocompatibility complex (MHC genes are the most polymorphic genes in vertebrates and encode molecules that play a crucial role in pathogen resistance. As a result of their diversity, they have received much attention in the fields of evolutionary and conservation biology. Here, we described the genetic variation of MHC class II B (MHCIIB exon 2 in a wild population of Hume's pheasant (Syrmaticus humiae, which has suffered a dramatic decline in population over the last three decades across its ranges in the face of heavy exploitation and habitat loss. Twenty-four distinct alleles were found in 73 S. humiae specimens. We found seven shared alleles among four geographical groups as well as six rare MHCIIB alleles. Most individuals displayed between one to five alleles, suggesting that there are at least three MHCIIB loci of the Hume's pheasant. The dN ⁄ dS ratio at putative antigen-binding sites (ABS was significantly greater than one, indicating balancing selection is acting on MHCIIB exon 2. Additionally, recombination and gene conversion contributed to generating MHCIIB diversity in the Hume's pheasant. One to three recombination events and seventy-five significant gene conversion events were observed within the Hume's pheasant MHCIIB loci. The phylogenetic tree and network analysis revealed that the Hume's pheasant alleles do not cluster together, but are scattered through the tree or network indicating a trans-species evolutionary mode. These findings revealed the evolution of the Hume's pheasant MHC after suffering extreme habitat fragmentation.

  10. Major histocompatibility complex class I molecules protect motor neurons from astrocyte-induced toxicity in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, SungWon; Miranda, Carlos J; Braun, Lyndsey; Meyer, Kathrin; Frakes, Ashley E; Ferraiuolo, Laura; Likhite, Shibi; Bevan, Adam K; Foust, Kevin D; McConnell, Michael J; Walker, Christopher M; Kaspar, Brian K

    2016-04-01

    Astrocytes isolated from individuals with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are toxic to motor neurons (MNs) and play a non-cell autonomous role in disease pathogenesis. The mechanisms underlying the susceptibility of MNs to cell death remain unclear. Here we report that astrocytes derived from either mice bearing mutations in genes associated with ALS or human subjects with ALS reduce the expression of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI) molecules on MNs; reduced MHCI expression makes these MNs susceptible to astrocyte-induced cell death. Increasing MHCI expression on MNs increases survival and motor performance in a mouse model of ALS and protects MNs against astrocyte toxicity. Overexpression of a single MHCI molecule, HLA-F, protects human MNs from ALS astrocyte-mediated toxicity, whereas knockdown of its receptor, the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor KIR3DL2, on human astrocytes results in enhanced MN death. Thus, our data indicate that, in ALS, loss of MHCI expression on MNs renders them more vulnerable to astrocyte-mediated toxicity.

  11. Differential recognition of MHC class I molecules of xeno-/allo-endothelial cells by human NK cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯志民; 张晓峰; 王宏芳; 丰美福

    2000-01-01

    Using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and porcine aortic endothelial cells (PAEC) as target cells, human peripheral blood NK cells (PBNK) and NK92 cells as effector cells, the differential cytotoxicities of NK cells to allo- and xeno-endothelial cells were studied. The influence of MHC class I molecules on the cytotoxicity of human NK cells was assayed using acid treatment, and blockades of MHC class I antigens, CD94 and KIR (NKB1). The results indicated that the killing of PAEC by the two kinds of NK cells is higher than that of HUVEC. After acid-treatment, the cytotoxicity of the two kinds of NK cells to PAEC and HUVEC is significantly enhanced, but the magnitude of the enhancement is different. The enhancement of NK killing to acid treated HUVEC is much greater than that to PAEC. Blockade of CD94 mAb did not alter the NK cytotoxicity, while blockade of NKB1 mAb enhanced the cytotoxicity of PBNK to HUVEC and PAEC by 95% and 29% respectively. The results above suggested that the different

  12. Articulación de fones en individuos clase esqueletal I,II y III Speech patterns in skeletal class I, II and III subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pía Villanueva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: determinar los patrones de articulación de fones consonánticos en sujetos de habla española chilena clases I, II y III esqueletal; comparar las diferencias fonéticas que existan entre clases esqueletales. MÉTODOS: se seleccionaron 54 individuos que cumplían con los criterios de inclusión determinados mediante un examen clínico intraoral y a través del análisis de Ricketts, y se conformaron los grupos de estudio de pacientes clases esqueletales I, II y III. Se les realizó un examen fonoarticulatorio estandarizado para determinar los fones modificados y el patrón articulatorio compensatorio realizado. RESULTADOS: se observaron cambios en el punto de articulación de fones consonánticos en las tres clases esqueletales, con diferencias significativas en los grupos de fones anteriores y medios entre pacientes clases I y II, sólo en el grupo de los fones anteriores entre pacientes I y III. Entre pacientes clases II y III no se observaron diferencias significativas. Se reportan modificaciones y compensaciones cualitativamente distintas entre las clases esqueletales. CONCLUSIONES: en relación a pacientes clase I, los pacientes clase II o III, presentan distinto grado de modificación en el punto de articulación de fones consonánticos. Las diferencias observadas se relacionan con los patrones esqueletales propios de cada clase.PURPOSE: to determine the consonant phonemes articulation patterns in Chilean skeletal class I, II and III Spanish speakers and compare their phonetic differences. METHODS: fifty-four skeletal class I, II and III subjects were selected, based on intraoral clinical examination and Ricketts cephalometric analysis, constituting the study groups. A standardized phonoarticulatory test was applied to each patient to determine the modified phonemes and their compensatory patterns. RESULTS: the findings indicate changes in articulation in all three groups. Significant differences were found in anterior and medium

  13. MHC class I and class II phenotype, gene, and haplotype frequencies in Greeks using molecular typing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papassavas, E C; Spyropoulou-Vlachou, M; Papassavas, A C; Schipper, R F; Doxiadis, I N; Stavropoulos-Giokas, C

    2000-06-01

    In the present study, DNA typing for HLA-A, C, B, DRB1, DRB3, DRB4, DRB5, DQA1, DQB1, and DPB1 was performed for 246 healthy, unrelated Greek volunteers of 20-59 years of age. Phenotype, genotype frequencies, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium fit, and 3-locus haplotype frequencies for HLA-A, C, B, HLA-A, B, DRB1, HLA-DRB1, DQA1, DQB1, and HLA-DRB1, DQB1, DPB1 were calculated. Furthermore, linkage disequilibrium, deltas, relative deltas and p-values for significance of the deltas were defined. The population studied is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and many MHC haplotypes are in linkage disequilibrium. The most frequent specificities were HLA-A*02 (phenotype frequency = 44.3%) followed by HLA-A*24 (27.2%), HLA-B*51 (28.5%), HLA-B*18 (26.8%) and HLA-B*35 (26.4%) and HLA-Cw*04 (30.1%) and HLA-Cw*12 (26.8%). The most frequent MHC class II alleles were HLA-DRB1*1104 (34.1%), HLA-DQB1*0301 (54.5%) and HLA-DPB1*0401 with a phenotype frequency of 59.8%. The most prominent HLA-A, C, B haplotypes were HLA-A*24, Cw*04, B*35, and HLA-A*02, Cw*04, B*35, each of them observed in 21/246 individuals. The most frequent HLA-A, B, DRB1 haplotype was HLA-A*02, B*18, DRB1*1104 seen in 20/246 individuals, while the haplotype HLA-DRB1*1104, DQB1*0301, DPB1*0401 was found in 49/246 individuals. Finally, the haplotype DRB1*1104, DQA1*0501, DQB1*0301 was observed in 83/246 individuals. These results can be used for the estimation of the probability of finding a suitable haplotypically identical related or unrelated stem cell donor for patients of Greek ancestry. In addition, they can be used for HLA and disease association studies, genetic distance studies in the Balkan and Mediterranean area, paternity cases, and matching probability calculations for the optimal allocation of kidneys in Greece.

  14. Stalled RNAP-II molecules bound to non-coding rDNA spacers are required for normal nucleolus architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire-Picos, M A; Landeira-Ameijeiras, V; Mayán, María D

    2013-07-01

    The correct distribution of nuclear domains is critical for the maintenance of normal cellular processes such as transcription and replication, which are regulated depending on their location and surroundings. The most well-characterized nuclear domain, the nucleolus, is essential for cell survival and metabolism. Alterations in nucleolar structure affect nuclear dynamics; however, how the nucleolus and the rest of the nuclear domains are interconnected is largely unknown. In this report, we demonstrate that RNAP-II is vital for the maintenance of the typical crescent-shaped structure of the nucleolar rDNA repeats and rRNA transcription. When stalled RNAP-II molecules are not bound to the chromatin, the nucleolus loses its typical crescent-shaped structure. However, the RNAP-II interaction with Seh1p, or cryptic transcription by RNAP-II, is not critical for morphological changes.

  15. Long-term Outcome of Lupus Nephritis Class II in Argentine Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Maria Victoria; Dorado, Enrique; Rausch, Silvia; Gomez, Graciela; Khoury, Marina; Zazzetti, Federico; Gargiulo, María; Suarez, Lorena; Chaparro, Rafael; Paira, Sergio; Galvan, Laura; Juarez, Vicente; Pisoni, Cecilia; Garcia, Mercedes; Martinez, Liliana; Alvarez, Analia; Alvarez, Clarisa; Barreira, Juan; Sarano, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Background There is controversy in medical literature over the outcome of patients with lupus nephritis (LN) class II. The aim of this study was to explore the risk of histological transformation (HT) and possible factors related to negative response to treatment in patients with mesangial LN class II. Methods A retrospective and multicenter study was carried out that includes patients who had received a diagnosis of LN class II on their first renal biopsy. Creatinine, urine sediment, and proteinuria were recorded at the time of the first biopsy, 6 months, and 1, 2, and 5 years after the first biopsy. Response to treatment, HT, and long-term outcome were evaluated. Results Forty-one patients were included. The manifestation at first biopsy was proteinuria greater than 0.5 g/d in 28 patients (68.29%; 8 [28.57%] of 28 patients had nephrotic syndrome), hematuria in 18 patients (43.90%), and deterioration of renal function in 3 patients (7.31%). During the follow-up (median, 8 years; range, 1–35 years), a new biopsy was performed in 18 patients (43.90%), and in 17 patients (17/18 [94.44%]), there was HT. Median time at rebiopsy was 32 months (range, 11–305 months). Of the 18 patients who had a second biopsy, 10 (55.55%) were on hydroxychloroquine versus 100% (19/19) of patients who did not undergo the procedure (P = 0.001). A year after the first renal biopsy, there are data available from 34 patients; of them, 24 patients (70.58%) had achieved response, and 10 patients (29.41%) had no response (NR) (missing data in 7). A higher 24-hour urinary protein at 6 months was predictor of worse outcome at 1 year, with statistical significance difference for the nonresponder group (median proteinuria, 2.3 g/d [range, 0–4.7 g/d]) compared with responders (median proteinuria, 0.28 g/d [range, 0–1.7 g/d]) (P = 0.0133). In the long-term follow-up (5 years), HT was the main cause of unfavorable outcome and was measured in 78.57% of patients (11/14 patients). Conclusions This

  16. Brucella abortus Inhibits Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Expression and Antigen Processing through Interleukin-6 Secretion via Toll-Like Receptor 2▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrionuevo, Paula; Cassataro, Juliana; Delpino, M. Victoria; Zwerdling, Astrid; Pasquevich, Karina A.; Samartino, Clara García; Wallach, Jorge C.; Fossati, Carlos A.; Giambartolomei, Guillermo H.

    2008-01-01

    The strategies that allow Brucella abortus to survive inside macrophages for prolonged periods and to avoid the immunological surveillance of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II)-restricted gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-producing CD4+ T lymphocytes are poorly understood. We report here that infection of THP-1 cells with B. abortus inhibited expression of MHC-II molecules and antigen (Ag) processing. Heat-killed B. abortus (HKBA) also induced both these phenomena, indicating the independence of bacterial viability and involvement of a structural component of the bacterium. Accordingly, outer membrane protein 19 (Omp19), a prototypical B. abortus lipoprotein, inhibited both MHC-II expression and Ag processing to the same extent as HKBA. Moreover, a synthetic lipohexapeptide that mimics the structure of the protein lipid moiety also inhibited MHC-II expression, indicating that any Brucella lipoprotein could down-modulate MHC-II expression and Ag processing. Inhibition of MHC-II expression and Ag processing by either HKBA or lipidated Omp19 (L-Omp19) depended on Toll-like receptor 2 and was mediated by interleukin-6. HKBA or L-Omp19 also inhibited MHC-II expression and Ag processing of human monocytes. In addition, exposure to the synthetic lipohexapeptide inhibited Ag-specific T-cell proliferation and IFN-γ production of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from Brucella-infected patients. Together, these results indicate that there is a mechanism by which B. abortus may prevent recognition by T cells to evade host immunity and establish a chronic infection. PMID:17984211

  17. Probing the Evolution of Massive Young Stellar Objects using Weak Class II 6.7GHz Methanol Maser Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Bethany Ann; Cunningham, Nichol

    2017-01-01

    We present results from an investigation of class II 6.7GHz methanol masers towards four Massive Young Stellar Objects (MYSOs). The sources, selected from the Red MSX Source (RMS) Survey (Lumsden et al. 2013), were previously understood to be non-detections for class II methanol maser emission in the methanol multi-beam (MMB) Survey (Caswell et al. 2010.) Class II methanol masers are a well-known sign post of massive star forming regions and may be utilized to probe their relatively poorly understood formation. It is possible that these non-detections are simply weak masers that are potentially associated with a younger evolutionary phase of MYSOs as hypothesized by Olmi et al. (2014). The sources were chosen to sample various stages of evolution, having similar 21 to 8 micron flux ratios and bolometric luminosities as other MYSOs with previous class II methanol maser detections. We observed all 4 MYSOs with ATCA (~2" resolution) at 10 times deeper sensitivity than previously obtained with the MMB survey and have a spectral resolution of 0.087kms^-1 . The raw data is reduced using the program Miriad (Sault, R. J., et al., 1995) and deconvolutioned using the program CASA (McMullin, J. P., et al. 2007.) We determine one of the four observed MYSOs is harboring a weak class II methanol maser. We discuss the possibility of sensitivity limitations on the remaining sources as well as environmental and evolutionary differences between the sources.

  18. Má oclusão Classe II de Angle tratada sem extrações e com controle de crescimento Angle Class II malocclusion treated without extractions and with growth control

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    Flávia Artese

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A má oclusão Classe II de Angle é caracterizada por uma discrepância dentária anteroposterior, que geralmente está acompanhada por alterações esqueléticas. O tratamento ortodôntico precoce permite a correção da discrepância esquelética por controle de crescimento (primeira fase, o que favorece a correção do posicionamento dentário, mais tardiamente (segunda fase. Este relato descreve o tratamento de um caso de má oclusão Classe II, divisão 2, de Angle, em duas fases, e foi apresentado à Diretoria do Board Brasileiro de Ortodontia e Ortopedia Facial (BBO, como parte dos requisitos para a obtenção do título de Diplomado pelo BBO. O caso foi avaliado como representante da Categoria 1, ou seja, má oclusão Classe II de Angle tratada sem extrações dentárias e com controle de crescimento.Angle Class II malocclusion is characterized by an anteroposterior dental discrepancy which is generally accompanied by skeletal disharmonies. Early orthodontic treatment allows the correction of skeletal discrepancies using growth control (first phase which favors later correction of tooth positioning (second phase. This case report describes an Angle Class II, division 2, malocclusion treated in two phases and was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Facial Orthopedics (BBO as part of the requirements for BBO certification. It was evaluated as a Category 1 case, i.e., Class II malocclusion treated without extractions, with growth control.

  19. HLA-class II genes in Mexican Amerindian Mayas: relatedness with Guatemalan Mayans and other populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Granados, Julio; Pérez-Hernández, Nonanzit; Rodríguez-Pérez, José Manuel; Canto-Cetina, Thelma; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón Mauricio; Areces, Cristina; Gómez-Prieto, Pablo; Arnaiz-Villena, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed the HLA class II allele frequencies in 50 healthy unrelated Mayan individuals. The relationship with other worldwide populations was studied by using HLA data from 71 different populations. The most frequent alleles were HLA-DRB1*04, HLA-DRB1*01, HLA-DQB1*0302 and HLA-DQB1*0501. When comparisons with other Mexican Amerindian groups were made, some differences were observed. Mayans showed an increased frequency of HLA-DRB1*01 when compared to Nahuas, Mayos, Teenek and Mazatecans (p Mayas showing that languages do not correlate with genes, particularly in Amerindians. The data corroborate the restricted polymorphism of HLA-DRB1 and DQB1 alleles and the high frequency of HLA-DRB1*04 and HLA-DQB1*0302 in Mayans from Mexico.

  20. A modified orthodontic protocol for advanced periodontal disease in Class II division 1 malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, Marcos; Janson, Guilherme; Murillo-Goizueta, Oscar Edwin Francisco

    2011-04-01

    An interdisciplinary approach is often the best option for achieving a predictable outcome for an adult patient with complex clinical problems. This case report demonstrates the combined periodontal/orthodontic treatment for a 49-year-old woman presenting with a Class II Division 1 malocclusion with moderate maxillary anterior crowding, a 9-mm overjet, and moderate to severe bone loss as the main characteristics of the periodontal disease. The orthodontic treatment included 2 maxillary first premolar extractions through forced extrusion. Active orthodontic treatment was completed in 30 months. The treatment outcomes, including the periodontal condition, were stable 17 months after active orthodontic treatment. The advantages of this interdisciplinary approach are discussed. Periodontally compromised orthodontic patients can be satisfactorily treated, achieving most of the conventional orthodontic goals, if a combined orthodontic/periodontic approach is used.

  1. Tratamento da classe II divisão 1 na dentição mista

    OpenAIRE

    Angelino, André de Brito

    2016-01-01

    Introdução: Os indivíduos portadores da má oclusão de Classe II Divisão 1 possuem diversas etiologias e podem ser encontrados em todas as etnias. As suas características clínicas e radiográficas se agravam com o crescimento e uma vez não tratada, continuam com esta má oclusão por toda sua vida. Para o tratamento ortodôntico na dentição mista recorre-se a dispositivos como aparelhos extra-orais, aparelhos funcionais fixos e removíveis. Objetivo: O objetivo deste trabalho é fazer uma revisão...

  2. Agenesis of maxillary lateral incisor in an Angle Class II, Division 1 malocclusion patient

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    Guilherme Thiesen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present case report describes the orthodontic treatment of a patient with agenesis of maxillary left lateral incisor and Angle Class II, Division 1 malocclusion. The patient also presented with maxillary midline deviation and inclination of the occlusal plane in the anterior region. Treatment objectives were: correction of sagittal relationship between the maxilla and the mandible; correction of midline deviation, so as to cause maxillary and mandibular midlines to coincide; correction of overbite and leveling of the occlusal plane, so as to create ideal conditions for esthetic rehabilitation of anterior teeth. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO as a requirement for the title of certified by the BBO.

  3. Genetic variation in V gene of class II Newcastle disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Huafang; Chen, Shengli; Liu, Peng; Ren, Shanhui; Gao, Xiaolong; Wang, Yanping; Wang, Xinglong; Zhang, Shuxia; Yang, Zengqi

    2016-01-01

    The genetic variation and molecular evolution of the V gene of the class II Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates with genotypes I-XVIII were determined using bioinformatics. Results indicated that low homology existed in different genotype viruses, whereas high homology often for the same genotypes, exception may be existed within genotypes I, V, VI, and XII. Sequence analysis showed that the genetic variation of V protein was consistent with virus genotype, and specific signatures on the V protein for nine genotypes were identified. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the phylogenetic trees were highly consistent between the V and F genes, with slight discrepancies in the sub-genotypes. Evolutionary rate analyses based on V and F genes revealed the evolution rates varied in genotypes. These data indicate that the genetic variation of V protein is genotype-related and will help in elucidating the molecular evolution of NDV.

  4. Toward a network model of MHC class II-restricted antigen processing

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    Laurence C Eisenlohr

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The standard model of Major Histocompatibility Complex class II (MHCII-restricted antigen processing depicts a straightforward, linear pathway: Internalized antigens are converted into peptides that load in a chaperone dependent manner onto nascent MHCII in the late endosome, the complexes subsequently trafficking to the cell surface for recognition by CD4+ T cells (TCD4+. Several variations on this theme, both moderate and radical, have come to light but these alternatives have remained peripheral, the conventional pathway generally presumed to be the primary driver of TCD4+ responses. Here we continue to press for the conceptual repositioning of these alternatives toward the center while proposing that MHCII processing be thought of less in terms of discrete pathways and more in terms of a network whose major and minor conduits are variable depending upon many factors, including the epitope, the nature of the antigen, the source of the antigen, and the identity of the antigen-presenting cell.

  5. Orthodontic camouflage via total arch movement in a Class II with idiopathic condylar resorption

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    Ji-Sung Jang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic condylar resorption (ICR, also known as idiopathic condylysis or condylar atrophy, is multifactorial pathology leading to severe mandibular retrognathism. The etiology has been shown to be multifactorial, such as avascular necrosis, traumatic injuries, hormone and autoimmune disease and it is largely difficult to distinguish the exact cause in each individual. In spite of the remarkable morphological alteration, surgical intervention is not readily recruited due to the possibility of recurrence of resorption. In order to restore balanced facial profile and occlusion. In this report, we present a camouflage treatment for skeletal Class II with ICR and facial asymmetry involving total arch movement, for the improvement facial profile and reconstruction of occlusion.

  6. Orthodontic Protocol Using Mini-Implant for Class II Treatment in Patient with Special Needs

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    Fernando Pedrin Carvalho Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving facial and dental appearance and social interaction are the main factors for special needs (SN patients to seek orthodontic treatment. The cooperation of SN patients and their parents is crucial for treatment success. Objective. To show through a case report the satisfactory results, both functional and esthetic, in patients with intellectual disability, congenital nystagmus, and severe scoliosis. Materials Used. Pendulum device with mini-implants as anchorage unit. Results. Improvement of facial and dental esthetics, correction of Class II malocclusion, and no root resorption shown in the radiographic follow-up. Conclusion. Knowing the limitations of SN patients, having a trained team, motivating and counting on the cooperation of parents and patients, and employing quick and low-cost orthodontic therapy have been shown to be the essential factors for treatment success.

  7. Alkali/Surfactant/Polymer Flooding in the Daqing Oilfield Class II Reservoirs Using Associating Polymer

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    Ru-Sen Feng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrophobically modified associating polyacrylamide (HAPAM has good compatibility with the Daqing heavy alkylbenzene sulfonate surfactant. The HAPAM alkali/surfactant/polymer (ASP system can generate ultralow interfacial tension in a wide range of alkali/surfactant concentrations and maintain stable viscosity and interfacial tension for 120 days. The HAPAM ASP system has good injectivity for the Daqing class II reservoirs (100–300 × 10−3 μm2 and can improve oil recovery by more than 25% on top of water flooding. In the presence of both the alkali and the surfactant, the surfactant interacts with the associating groups of the polymer to form more micelles, which can significantly enhance the viscosity of the ASP system. Compared with using HPAM (Mw = 2.5 MDa, using HAPAM can reduce the polymer use by more than 40%.

  8. Prediction of HLA class II alleles using SNPs in an African population.

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    Fasil Tekola Ayele

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA gene locus in research and clinical practice, direct HLA typing is laborious and expensive. Furthermore, the analysis requires specialized software and expertise which are unavailable in most developing country settings. Recently, in silico methods have been developed for predicting HLA alleles using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. However, the utility of these methods in African populations has not been systematically evaluated.In the present study, we investigate prediction of HLA class II (HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 alleles using SNPs in the Wolaita population, southern Ethiopia. The subjects comprised 297 Ethiopians with genome-wide SNP data, of whom 188 had also been HLA typed and were used for training and testing the model. The 109 subjects with SNP data alone were used for empirical prediction using the multi-allelic gene prediction method. We evaluated accuracy of the prediction, agreement between predicted and HLA typed alleles, and discriminative ability of the prediction probability supplied by the model. We found that the model predicted intermediate (two-digit resolution for HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 alleles at accuracy levels of 96% and 87%, respectively. All measures of performance showed high accuracy and reliability for prediction. The distribution of the majority of HLA alleles in the study was similar to that previously reported for the Oromo and Amhara ethnic groups from Ethiopia.We demonstrate that HLA class II alleles can be predicted from SNP genotype data with a high level of accuracy at intermediate (two-digit resolution in an African population. This finding offers new opportunities for HLA studies of disease epidemiology and population genetics in developing countries.

  9. Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) Program - RDX Type II Class 5 Standard, Data Set 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstrom, Mary M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brown, Geoffrey W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Preston, Daniel N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pollard, Colin J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Warner, Kirstin F. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Sorenson, Daniel N. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Remmers, Daniel L. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Moran, Jesse S. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Shelley, Timothy J. [Air Force Research Lab. (AFRL), Tyndall AFB, FL (United States); Reyes, Jose A. [Applied Research Associates, Inc., Tyndall AFB, FL (United States); Hsu, Peter C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Whipple, Richard E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reynolds, John G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-04-11

    This document describes the results of the first reference sample material—RDX Type II Class 5—examined in the proficiency study for small-scale safety and thermal (SSST) testing of explosive materials for the Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) Program. The IDCA program is conducting proficiency testing on homemade explosives (HMEs). The reference sample materials are being studied to establish the accuracy of traditional explosives safety testing for each performing laboratory. These results will be used for comparison to results from testing HMEs. This effort, funded by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), ultimately will put the issues of safe handling of these materials in perspective with standard military explosives. The results of the study will add SSST testing results for a broad suite of different HMEs to the literature, potentially suggest new guidelines and methods for HME testing, and possibly establish what are the needed accuracies in SSST testing to develop safe handling practices. Described here are the results for impact, friction, electrostatic discharge, and scanning calorimetry analysis of a reference sample of RDX Type II Class 5. The results from each participating testing laboratory are compared using identical test material and preparation methods wherever possible. Note, however, the test procedures differ among the laboratories. These results are then compared to historical data from various sources. The performers involved are Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Air Force Research Laboratory/ RXQL (AFRL), Indian Head Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center, (IHD-NSWC), and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). These tests are conducted as a proficiency study in order to establish some consistency in test protocols, procedures, and experiments and to understand how to compare results when test protocols are not identical.

  10. Microleakage of Class II Combined Amalgam-Composite Restorations Using Different Composites and Bonding Agents

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    F. Sharafeddin

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the present study was to assess the microleakage of composite restorations with and without a cervical amalgam base and to compare the results of dif-ferent composites and bonding agents.Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty mesio-occlusal (MO and disto-occlusal (DO Class II cavities were prepared on sixty extracted permanent premolar teeth. The teeth were randomly divided into four groups of 30 and restored as follows:In group A, the mesio-occlusal cavity (MO, Scotchbond multi purpose plus + Z250 and in the disto-occlusal (DO cavity, Prompt-L-Pop + Z250 were applied. As for group B, in the MO and DO cavities, Clearfil SE Bond + Clearfil APX, and varnish + amalgam (In box + Clearfil SE Bond + Clearfil APX were used respectivelywhile in group C; the teeth were restored with amalgam and varnish mesio-occlusally and with amalgam only disto-occlusally. As for group D, varnish + amalgam (in box + Scotchbond multi purpose plus + Z250 were applied mesio-occlusally and Varnish + Amalgam (in box + Prompt–L–Pop + Z250 disto-occlusally.Marginal leakage was assessed by the degree of dye penetration into various sections of the restored teeth. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used for data analysis.Results: Microleakage in gingival margin was more than that in occlusal margin (P<0.05 and microleakage of combined amalgam-composite restorations was significantly lower than that of conventional composite and amalgam restorations.Conclusion: Marginal microleakage decreased by using amalgam at the base of the box in Class II composite restorations.

  11. Marginal and internal adaptation of class II restorations after immediate or delayed composite placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietschi, Didier; Monasevic, Manuela; Krejci, Ivo; Davidson, Carel

    2002-01-01

    Direct class II composite restorations still represent a challenge, particularly when proximal limits extend below the CEJ. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of the type of adhesive and the delay between adhesive placement and composite insertion on restoration adaptation. Direct class II MOD box-shaped composite restorations (n=8 per group) were placed on intact human third molars, with proximal margins 1mm above or under CEJ. All cavities were filled with a horizontal layering technique, immediately after adhesive placement (IP) or after a 24h delay (DP). A filled three-component adhesive (OptiBond FL: OB) and a single-bottle, unfilled one (Prime & Bond 2.1: PB) were tested. Marginal adaptation was assessed before and after each phase of mechanical loading (250000 cycles at 50 N, 250000 cycles at 75 N and 500000 cycles at 100 N); internal adaptation was evaluated after test completion. Gold-plated resin replicas were observed in the SEM and restoration quality evaluated in percentages of continuity (C) at the margins and within the internal interface, after sample section. Adaptation to beveled enamel proved satisfactory in all groups. After loading, adaptation to gingival dentin degraded more in PB-IP (C=55.1%) than PB-DP (C=86.9%) or OB-DP (C=89%). More internal defects were observed in PB samples (IP: C=79.2% and DP: C=86.3%) compared to OB samples (IP: C=97.4% and DP: C=98.3%). The filled adhesive (OB) produced a better adaptation than the 'one-bottle' brand (PB), hypothetically by forming a stress-absorbing layer, limiting the development of adhesive failures. Postponing occlusal loading (such as the indirect approach) improved also restoration adaptation.

  12. As implicações da classe II de angle e da desproporção esquelética tipo classe II no aspecto miofuncional The implications of class II angle and class II type skeletal disproportion on the myofunctional aspect

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    Carolina Lisbôa Mezzomo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available TEMA: esse trabalho foi baseado na temática de que existe uma associação entre as más oclusões devido a alterações do crescimento craniofacial, e, por conseguinte, a existência de alterações miofuncionais. OBJETIVOS: estudar a associação entre as más oclusões tipo classe II desencadeadas por alterações do crescimento craniofacial e as disfunções do sistema estomatognático (alterações miofuncionais: fala, mastigação, deglutição e fonação. CONCLUSÃO: pode-se concluir que alterações estruturais da face podem ter influência na funcionalidade das mesmas, portanto, enfatiza-se a importância do trabalho multidisciplinar entre os profissionais envolvidos em cada uma dessas aéreas para que o prognóstico desses casos seja pertinente de relevantes melhoras.BACKGROUND: this work has been based on the theme that there is an association between malocclusion due to change in craniofacial growth, and therefore, the existence of malfunctioning abnormalities. PURPOSE: to study the strong association among the malocclusion class II triggered by changes in craniofacial growth and dysfunctions of the stomatognathic system (myofunctional disorders - speech, chewing, swallowing and phonation. CONCLUSION: it may be concluded that structural changes of the face may affect its, and therefore, the importance of multidisciplinary work among professionals involved in each of those areas, is emphasized, so that the prognosis of these cases may have relevant and important improvements.

  13. Stability of Class II treatment with the Bionator followed by fixed appliances

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    Manoela Favaro FRANCISCONI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This prospective study assessed the stability of Class II treatment with the Bionator, followed by fixed appliances, 10 years after treatment. Material and Methods: The experimental group comprised 23 patients of both sexes (10 boys, 13 girls at a mean initial age of 11.74 years (late mixed or early permanent dentitions, treated for a mean period of 3.55 years who were evaluated at three stages: initial (T1, final (T2 and long-term posttreatment (T3. A total of 69 lateral cephalograms were evaluated and 69 dental casts were measured using the PAR index. The difference between initial and final PAR indexes, the percentage of occlusal improvement obtained with therapy and the percentage of relapse were calculated, using the PAR index. The variables were compared by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by Tukey tests. Results: The significant improvement in apical base relationship, the palatal inclination of the maxillary incisors and the labial inclination of the mandibular incisors, and the significant improvement in molar relationship and reduction of overjet and overbite, obtained with treatment, remained stable in the long-term posttreatment period. There was also significant improvement in the occlusal relationships which remained stable in the long-term posttreatment period. The percentage of occlusal improvement obtained was of 81.78% and the percentage of relapse was of 4.90%. Conclusions: Treatment of Class II division 1 malocclusions with the Bionator associated with fixed appliances showed to be stable in the long-term posttreatment period.

  14. Influence of different restorative techniques on marginal seal of class II composite restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinval Adalberto Rodrigues Junior

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the gingival marginal seal in class II composite restorations using different restorative techniques. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Class II box cavities were prepared in both proximal faces of 32 sound human third molars with gingival margins located in either enamel or dentin/cementum. Restorations were performed as follows: G1 (control: composite, conventional light curing technique; G2: composite, soft-start technique; G3: amalgam/composite association (amalcomp; and G4: resin-modified glass ionomer cement/composite, open sandwich technique. The restored specimens were thermocycled. Epoxy resin replicas were made and coated for scanning electron microscopy examination. For microleakage evaluation, teeth were coated with nail polish and immersed in dye solution. Teeth were cut in 3 slices and dye penetration was recorded (mm, digitized and analyzed with Image Tool software. Microleakage data were analyzed statistically by non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. RESULTS: Leakage in enamel was lower than in dentin (p<0.001. G2 exhibited the lowest leakage values (p<0.05 in enamel margins, with no differences between the other groups. In dentin margins, groups G1 and G2 had similar behavior and both showed less leakage (p<0.05 than groups G3 and G4. SEM micrographs revealed different marginal adaptation patterns for the different techniques and for the different substrates. CONCLUSION: The soft-start technique showed no leakage in enamel margins and produced similar values to those of the conventional (control technique for dentin margins.

  15. New susceptibility variants to narcolepsy identified in HLA class II region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagawa, Taku; Toyoda, Hiromi; Hirataka, Akane; Kanbayashi, Takashi; Imanishi, Aya; Sagawa, Yohei; Kotorii, Nozomu; Kotorii, Tatayu; Hashizume, Yuji; Ogi, Kimihiro; Hiejima, Hiroshi; Kamei, Yuichi; Hida, Akiko; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Imai, Makoto; Fujimura, Yota; Tamura, Yoshiyuki; Ikegami, Azusa; Wada, Yamato; Moriya, Shunpei; Furuya, Hirokazu; Kato, Mitsuhiro; Omata, Naoto; Kojima, Hiroto; Kashiwase, Koichi; Saji, Hiroh; Khor, Seik-Soon; Yamasaki, Maria; Wada, Yuji; Ishigooka, Jun; Kuroda, Kenji; Kume, Kazuhiko; Chiba, Shigeru; Yamada, Naoto; Okawa, Masako; Hirata, Koichi; Uchimura, Naohisa; Shimizu, Tetsuo; Inoue, Yuichi; Honda, Yutaka; Mishima, Kazuo; Honda, Makoto; Tokunaga, Katsushi

    2015-02-01

    Narcolepsy, a sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy and rapid eye movement sleep abnormalities, is tightly associated with human leukocyte antigen HLA-DQB1*06:02. DQB1*06:02 is common in the general population (10-30%); therefore, additional genetic factors are needed for the development of narcolepsy. In the present study, HLA-DQB1 in 664 Japanese narcoleptic subjects and 3131 Japanese control subjects was examined to determine whether HLA-DQB1 alleles located in trans of DQB1*06:02 are associated with narcolepsy. The strongest association was with DQB1*06:01 (P = 1.4 × 10(-10), odds ratio, OR = 0.39), as reported in previous studies. Additional predisposing effects of DQB1*03:02 were also found (P = 2.5 × 10(-9), OR = 1.97). A comparison between DQB1*06:02 heterozygous cases and controls revealed dominant protective effects of DQB1*06:01 and DQB1*05:01. In addition, a single-nucleotide polymorphism-based conditional analysis controlling for the effect of HLA-DQB1 was performed to determine whether there were other independent HLA associations outside of HLA-DQB1. This analysis revealed associations at HLA-DPB1 in the HLA class II region (rs3117242, P = 4.1 × 10(-5), OR = 2.45; DPB1*05:01, P = 8.1 × 10(-3), OR = 1.39). These results indicate that complex HLA class II associations contribute to the genetic predisposition to narcolepsy.

  16. A Randomized 10-year Prospective Follow-up of Class II Nanohybrid and Conventional Hybrid Resin Composite Restorations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan Wv; Pallesen, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the 10-year durability of a nanohybrid resin composite in Class II restorations in a randomized controlled intraindividual comparison with its conventional hybrid resin composite predecessor. Materials and Methods: Each of 52 participants received at least two Class II...... restorations that were as similar as possible. The cavities were chosen at random to be restored with a nanohybrid resin composite (Excite/Tetric EvoCeram (TEC); n = 61) and a conventional hybrid (Excite/Tetric Ceram (TC); n = 61). The restorations were evaluated with slightly modified USPHS criteria...... investigated resin composites. Conclusion: The nanohybrid and the conventional hybrid resin composite showed good clinical effectiveness in extensive Class II restorations during the 10-year study....

  17. Klammt open elastic activator and twin blocks in Class II malocclusion treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Maikel Curbeira Hernández

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Klammt open elastic activator and twin blocks have been two of the most worldwide studied functional appliances; however, there are different opinions about their effect on the cranium-facial complex. Objective: To determine the efficacy of these appliances in the functional treatment in Class II division I syndrome in early mixed teething. Methods: Prospective, cuasi experimental, “before-after” study without control group, including all children between 6 and 9 years of Area II in Cienfuegos municipality. After applying inclusion criteria, 20 patients were selected through simple randomized sampling and distributed in two groups, one for each technique. Lateral cranium teleradiographies were taken at the beginning and after a year of treatment, and lineal and/or angular measurements of Steiner, Ricketts, McNamara and Legan Burstone cephalograms were applied. Results: Favourable changes in cranium lateral radiographies measurements were obtained mainly from therapy with twin blocks. There was a decrease in the angle formed by the joint planes nasion-point A and nasion-point B and facial convexity, increase in mandible length and inferior facial height. Nasolabial angle and labial protuberance didn´t increase significantly. Conclusions: treated patients positively modified their bio-typology, and growth trend showed positive variations during functional therapy.

  18. N-containing Ag(I) and Hg(II) complexes: a new class of antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabounchei, Seyyed Javad; Shahriary, Parisa

    2013-01-01

    Several classes of antimicrobial compounds are presently available; microorganism's resistance to these drugs constantly emerges. In order to prevent this serious medical problem, the elaboration of new types of antibacterial agents or the expansion of bioactivity of the naturally known biosensitive compounds is a very interesting research problem. The synthesis and characterization of metal complexes with organic bioactive ligands is one of the promising fields for the search. The biological activities of the metal complexes differ from those of either the ligand or the metal ion. The results obtained thus far have led to the conclusion that structural factors, which govern antimicrobial activities, are strongly dependent on the central metal ion. A review of papers dealing with the Ag(I) and Hg(II) complexes of N donor ligands is presented. These metal complexes of N-chelating ligands have attracted considerable attention because of their interesting physicochemical properties and pronounced biological activities. This review will mainly focus on the preparation procedures and antibacterial properties of free organic ligands and the corresponding complexes. Finally, a research about antimicrobial properties of new Hg(II) complexes with 5-methyl-5-(4-pyridyl)-2,4-imidazolidenedione (L) and various halogen ions, HgL2X2 (X = Cl¯ (49), Br¯ (50), and I¯ (51)), is reported. Noteworthy antimicrobial activities, evaluated by minimum inhibitory concentration, for these complexes were observed.

  19. NMR spectroscopy reveals unexpected structural variation at the protein-protein interface in MHC class I molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beerbaum, Monika; Ballaschk, Martin; Erdmann, Natalja [Leibniz-Institut fuer Molekulare Pharmakologie (FMP) (Germany); Schnick, Christina [Freie Universitaet Berlin, Institut fuer Immungenetik, Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany); Diehl, Anne [Leibniz-Institut fuer Molekulare Pharmakologie (FMP) (Germany); Uchanska-Ziegler, Barbara; Ziegler, Andreas [Freie Universitaet Berlin, Institut fuer Immungenetik, Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany); Schmieder, Peter, E-mail: schmieder@fmp-berlin.de [Leibniz-Institut fuer Molekulare Pharmakologie (FMP) (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    {beta}{sub 2}-Microglobulin ({beta}{sub 2}m) is a small, monomorphic protein non-covalently bound to the heavy chain (HC) in polymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. Given the high evolutionary conservation of structural features of {beta}{sub 2}m in various MHC molecules as shown by X-ray crystallography, {beta}{sub 2}m is often considered as a mere scaffolding protein. Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, we investigate here whether {beta}{sub 2}m residues at the interface to the HC exhibit changes depending on HC polymorphisms and the peptides bound to the complex in solution. First we show that human {beta}{sub 2}m can effectively be produced in deuterated form using high-cell-density-fermentation and we employ the NMR resonance assignments obtained for triple-labeled {beta}{sub 2}m bound to the HLA-B*27:09 HC to examine the {beta}{sub 2}m-HC interface. We then proceed to compare the resonances of {beta}{sub 2}m in two minimally distinct subtypes, HLA-B*27:09 and HLA-B*27:05, that are differentially associated with the spondyloarthropathy Ankylosing Spondylitis. Each of these subtypes is complexed with four distinct peptides for which structural information is already available. We find that only the resonances at the {beta}{sub 2}m-HC interface show a variation of their chemical shifts between the different complexes. This indicates the existence of an unexpected plasticity that enables {beta}{sub 2}m to accommodate changes that depend on HC polymorphism as well as on the bound peptide through subtle structural variations of the protein-protein interface.

  20. Nonclassical antigen-processing pathways are required for MHC class II-restricted direct tumor recognition by NY-ESO-1-specific CD4(+) T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Junko; Tsuji, Takemasa; Luescher, Immanuel; Old, Lloyd J; Shrikant, Protul; Gnjatic, Sacha; Odunsi, Kunle

    2014-04-01

    Tumor antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells that directly recognize cancer cells are important for orchestrating antitumor immune responses at the local tumor sites. However, the mechanisms of direct MHC class II (MHC-II) presentation of intracellular tumor antigen by cancer cells are poorly understood. We found that two functionally distinct subsets of CD4(+) T cells were expanded after HLA-DPB1*04 (DP04)-binding NY-ESO-1157-170 peptide vaccination in patients with ovarian cancer. Although both subsets recognized exogenous NY-ESO-1 protein pulsed on DP04(+) target cells, only one type recognized target cells with intracellular expression of NY-ESO-1. The tumor-recognizing CD4(+) T cells more efficiently recognized the short 8-9-mer peptides than the non-tumor-recognizing CD4(+) T cells. In addition to endosomal/lysosomal proteases that are typically involved in MHC-II antigen presentation, several pathways in the MHC class I presentation pathways, such as the proteasomal degradation and transporter-associated with antigen-processing-mediated peptide transport, were also involved in the presentation of intracellular NY-ESO-1 on MHC-II. The presentation was inhibited significantly by primaquine, a small molecule that inhibits endosomal recycling, consistent with findings that pharmacologic inhibition of new protein synthesis enhances antigen presentation. Together, our data demonstrate that cancer cells selectively present peptides from intracellular tumor antigens on MHC-II by multiple nonclassical antigen-processing pathways. Harnessing the direct tumor-recognizing ability of CD4(+) T cells could be a promising strategy to enhance antitumor immune responses in the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment.

  1. Long maximal incremental tests accurately assess aerobic fitness in class II and III obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzi, Stefano; Codecasa, Franco; Cornacchia, Mauro; Maestrini, Sabrina; Capodaglio, Paolo; Brunani, Amelia; Fanari, Paolo; Salvadori, Alberto; Malatesta, Davide

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare two different maximal incremental tests with different time durations [a maximal incremental ramp test with a short time duration (8-12 min) (STest) and a maximal incremental test with a longer time duration (20-25 min) (LTest)] to investigate whether an LTest accurately assesses aerobic fitness in class II and III obese men. Twenty obese men (BMI≥35 kg.m-2) without secondary pathologies (mean±SE; 36.7±1.9 yr; 41.8±0.7 kg*m-2) completed an STest (warm-up: 40 W; increment: 20 W*min-1) and an LTest [warm-up: 20% of the peak power output (PPO) reached during the STest; increment: 10% PPO every 5 min until 70% PPO was reached or until the respiratory exchange ratio reached 1.0, followed by 15 W.min-1 until exhaustion] on a cycle-ergometer to assess the peak oxygen uptake [Formula: see text] and peak heart rate (HRpeak) of each test. There were no significant differences in [Formula: see text] (STest: 3.1±0.1 L*min-1; LTest: 3.0±0.1 L*min-1) and HRpeak (STest: 174±4 bpm; LTest: 173±4 bpm) between the two tests. Bland-Altman plot analyses showed good agreement and Pearson product-moment and intra-class correlation coefficients showed a strong correlation between [Formula: see text] (r=0.81 for both; p≤0.001) and HRpeak (r=0.95 for both; p≤0.001) during both tests. [Formula: see text] and HRpeak assessments were not compromised by test duration in class II and III obese men. Therefore, we suggest that the LTest is a feasible test that accurately assesses aerobic fitness and may allow for the exercise intensity prescription and individualization that will lead to improved therapeutic approaches in treating obesity and severe obesity.

  2. Long maximal incremental tests accurately assess aerobic fitness in class II and III obese men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Lanzi

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare two different maximal incremental tests with different time durations [a maximal incremental ramp test with a short time duration (8-12 min (STest and a maximal incremental test with a longer time duration (20-25 min (LTest] to investigate whether an LTest accurately assesses aerobic fitness in class II and III obese men. Twenty obese men (BMI≥35 kg.m-2 without secondary pathologies (mean±SE; 36.7±1.9 yr; 41.8±0.7 kg*m-2 completed an STest (warm-up: 40 W; increment: 20 W*min-1 and an LTest [warm-up: 20% of the peak power output (PPO reached during the STest; increment: 10% PPO every 5 min until 70% PPO was reached or until the respiratory exchange ratio reached 1.0, followed by 15 W.min-1 until exhaustion] on a cycle-ergometer to assess the peak oxygen uptake [Formula: see text] and peak heart rate (HRpeak of each test. There were no significant differences in [Formula: see text] (STest: 3.1±0.1 L*min-1; LTest: 3.0±0.1 L*min-1 and HRpeak (STest: 174±4 bpm; LTest: 173±4 bpm between the two tests. Bland-Altman plot analyses showed good agreement and Pearson product-moment and intra-class correlation coefficients showed a strong correlation between [Formula: see text] (r=0.81 for both; p≤0.001 and HRpeak (r=0.95 for both; p≤0.001 during both tests. [Formula: see text] and HRpeak assessments were not compromised by test duration in class II and III obese men. Therefore, we suggest that the LTest is a feasible test that accurately assesses aerobic fitness and may allow for the exercise intensity prescription and individualization that will lead to improved therapeutic approaches in treating obesity and severe obesity.

  3. Subcellular localization of class II HDAs in Arabidopsis thaliana: nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HDA15 is driven by light.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malona V Alinsug

    Full Text Available Class II histone deacetylases in humans and other model organisms undergo nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. This unique functional regulatory mechanism has been well elucidated in eukaryotic organisms except in plant systems. In this study, we have paved the baseline evidence for the cytoplasmic and nuclear localization of Class II HDAs as well as their mRNA expression patterns. RT-PCR analysis on the different vegetative parts and developmental stages reveal that Class II HDAs are ubiquitously expressed in all tissues with minimal developmental specificity. Moreover, stable and transient expression assays using HDA-YFP/GFP fusion constructs indicate cytoplasmic localization of HDA5, HDA8, and HDA14 further suggesting their potential for nuclear transport and deacetylating organellar and cytoplasmic proteins. Organelle markers and stains confirm HDA14 to abound in the mitochondria and chloroplasts while HDA5 localizes in the ER. HDA15, on the other hand, shuttles in and out of the nucleus upon light exposure. In the absence of light, it is exported out of the nucleus where further re-exposition to light treatments signals its nuclear import. Unlike HDA5 which binds with 14-3-3 proteins, HDA15 fails to interact with these chaperones. Instead, HDA15 relies on its own nuclear localization and export signals to navigate its subcellular compartmentalization classifying it as a Class IIb HDA. Our study indicates that nucleocytoplasmic shuttling is indeed a hallmark for all eukaryotic Class II histone deacetylases.

  4. Distalization of maxillary arch and correction of Class II with mini-implants: A report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawankumar Dnyandeo Tekale

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the successful use of mini-screws in the maxilla to treat two patients of age 21-year and 17-year-old girls. Both the patients had a skeletal Class II malocclusion with protrusive maxillary teeth and angels Class II mal-occlusion. Temporary anchorage devices (TADs in the posterior dental region between maxillary second premolar and maxillary first molar teeth on both sides were used as anchorage for the retraction and intrusion of her maxillary anterior teeth. Those appliances, combined with a compensatory curved maxillary archwire, eliminated spacing, deep bite, forwardly placed and proclined upper front teeth and the protrusive profile, corrected the molar relationship from Class II to Class I. With no extra TADs in the anterior region for intrusion, the treatment was workable and simple. The patient received a satisfactory occlusion and an attractive smile. This technique requires minimal compliance and is particularly useful for correcting Class II patients with protrusive maxillary front teeth and dental deep bite.

  5. Subcellular localization of class II HDAs in Arabidopsis thaliana: nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HDA15 is driven by light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alinsug, Malona V; Chen, Fang Fang; Luo, Ming; Tai, Ready; Jiang, Liwen; Wu, Keqiang

    2012-01-01

    Class II histone deacetylases in humans and other model organisms undergo nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. This unique functional regulatory mechanism has been well elucidated in eukaryotic organisms except in plant systems. In this study, we have paved the baseline evidence for the cytoplasmic and nuclear localization of Class II HDAs as well as their mRNA expression patterns. RT-PCR analysis on the different vegetative parts and developmental stages reveal that Class II HDAs are ubiquitously expressed in all tissues with minimal developmental specificity. Moreover, stable and transient expression assays using HDA-YFP/GFP fusion constructs indicate cytoplasmic localization of HDA5, HDA8, and HDA14 further suggesting their potential for nuclear transport and deacetylating organellar and cytoplasmic proteins. Organelle markers and stains confirm HDA14 to abound in the mitochondria and chloroplasts while HDA5 localizes in the ER. HDA15, on the other hand, shuttles in and out of the nucleus upon light exposure. In the absence of light, it is exported out of the nucleus where further re-exposition to light treatments signals its nuclear import. Unlike HDA5 which binds with 14-3-3 proteins, HDA15 fails to interact with these chaperones. Instead, HDA15 relies on its own nuclear localization and export signals to navigate its subcellular compartmentalization classifying it as a Class IIb HDA. Our study indicates that nucleocytoplasmic shuttling is indeed a hallmark for all eukaryotic Class II histone deacetylases.

  6. Treatment of class II and class III maloccolusion by using churro jumper: an efficient, inexpensive and uncomplicated fixed flexible functional technique

    OpenAIRE

    Mani, Shubhangi Amit; Mote, Nilesh; Pawar, Kunal Dilip; Mishra, Prashantkumar; Mishra, Richa Anil; Rai, Rajlaxmi Rajaram

    2016-01-01

    Functional orthopedic treatment seeks to improve skeletal and dental relationship of the jaws. The challenging task is to correctly position jaws antero-posteriorly and vertically with correct overbite, overjet and Centric relation. The Churro Jumper is an efficient, inexpensive and uncomplicated fixed flexible functional appliance. It is used to evaluate the efficacy of the Churro Jumper appliance in treatment of skeletal Class II malocclusion with retrognathic mandible. Churro Jumper contri...

  7. HLA class I and class II of the Nivkhi, an indigenous population carrying HTLV-I in Sakhalin, Far Eastern Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, H; Li, H C; Kuwayama, M; Yashiki, S; Fujiyoshi, T; Suehara, M; Osame, M; Yamashita, M; Hayami, M; Gurtsevich, V; Ballas, M; Imanishi, T; Sonoda, S

    1998-11-01

    The Nivkhi are a native people isolated in the Nogliki region of Sakhalin, Far East Russia, where our group recently recognized human T-cell lymphoma virus type I (HTLV-I) infection. In order to trace the Nivkhi's ethnic background and the HTLV-I carriers, we investigated HLA class I and II allele types of 53 Nivkhi (including four HTLV-I carriers). Major HLA class I alleles of the Nivkhi were A*24, A*02, B*40, B*48, B*27, B*35 with allele frequencies similar to the Orochon, a native people isolated in Northeast China. Major Nivkhi class II alleles were DRB1*0901, DRB1*1401, DRB1*1201, DRB1*1106 with allele frequencies similar to the Ainu in Hokkaido, Japan, but dissimilar to other Asian Mongoloids, including the general Japanese population. The same HLA class I and II allele frequencies are found in both Nivkhi HTLV-I carriers and the background population. A dendrogram of HLA class I alleles showed that the Nivkhi were closely related to the Orochon and Yakut, and remotely related to the Japanese, Ainu and other Asian Mongoloids. Interestingly, the Nivkhi were intermediately related to the Amerindians (Inuit, Tlingit and Andeans), a relationship closer than to the Japanese and Asian Mongoloids. These results suggested the Nivkhi might be related to some genetic group of Northeast Asian Mongoloids like the Orochon and Yakut, being infected with HTLV-I in the distant past before diverging into the current major Mongoloid ethnic groups.

  8. Association of high CD4-positive T cell infiltration with mutations in HLA class II-regulatory genes in microsatellite-unstable colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surmann, Eva-Maria; Voigt, Anita Y; Michel, Sara; Bauer, Kathrin; Reuschenbach, Miriam; Ferrone, Soldano; von Knebel Doeberitz, Magnus; Kloor, Matthias

    2015-03-01

    Besides being expressed on professional antigen-presenting cells, HLA class II antigens are expressed on various tumors of non-lymphoid origin, including a subset of colorectal cancers (CRC). Information about the regulation of HLA class II antigen expression is important for a better understanding of their role in the interactions between tumor and immune cells. Whether lack of HLA class II antigen expression in tumors reflects the selective immune destruction of HLA class II antigen-expressing tumor cells is unknown. To address this question, we tested whether lack of HLA class II antigen expression in CRC was associated with immune cell infiltration. We selected microsatellite-unstable (MSI-H) CRC, because they show pronounced tumor antigen-specific immune responses and, in a subset of tumors, lack of HLA class II antigen expression due to mutations inactivating HLA class II-regulatory genes. We examined HLA class II antigen expression, mutations in regulatory genes, and CD4-positive T cell infiltration in 69 MSI-H CRC lesions. Mutations in RFX5, CIITA, and RFXAP were found in 13 (28.9%), 3 (6.7%), and 1 (2.2%) out of 45 HLA class II antigen-negative tumors. CD4-positive tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte counts were significantly higher in HLA class II antigen-negative tumors harboring mutations in HLA class II-regulatory genes (107.4 T cells per 0.25 mm(2)) compared to tumors without mutations (55.5 T cells per 0.25 mm(2), p = 0.008). Our results suggest that the outgrowth of tumor cells lacking HLA class II antigen expression due to mutations of regulatory genes is favored in an environment of dense CD4-positive T cell infiltration.

  9. Uso do aparelho de Thurow no tratamento da má oclusão esquelética de Classe II The use of Thurow's appliance in the treatment of skeletal class II malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Massuia de Souza

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar uma revisão de literatura em relação ao tratamento da má oclusão esquelética de Classe II com a utilização do splint maxilar removível associado à tração alta, realçando sua influência no crescimento ósseo e seus benefícios. Através do relato do caso clínico será mostrada a confecção e os efeitos do aparelho de Thurow quando utilizado no período da dentadura mista, para a correção da Classe II esqueléticaThe aim of this study was to review the literature concerning the treatment of Class II malocclusion with removable maxillary splint associated to the high traction, enhancing its influence in the bony growth and its benefits. This clinical case will show the fabrication and the effects of Thurow's appliance, when it's used in the mixed dentition for the correction skeletal class II malocclusion.

  10. A four-step model for the IL-6 amplifier, a regulator of chronic inflammations in tissue-specific MHC class II-associated autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Masaaki; Hirano, Toshio

    2011-01-01

    It is commonly thought that autoimmune diseases are caused by the breakdown of self-tolerance, which suggests the recognition of specific antigens by autoreactive CD4+ T cells contribute to the specificity of autoimmune diseases (Marrack et al., 2001; Mathis and Benoist, 2004). In several cases, however, even for diseases associated with class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) alleles, the causative tissue-specific antigens recognized by memory/activated CD4+ T cells have not been established (Mocci et al., 2000; Skapenko et al., 2005). Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and arthritis in F759 knock-in mice (F759 mice) are such examples (Atsumi et al., 2002; Brennan et al., 2002; Falgarone et al., 2009). These include associations with class II MHC and CD4 molecules; increased numbers of memory/activated CD4+ T cells; and improved outcomes in response to suppressions and/or deficiencies in class II MHC molecules, CD4+ T cells, and the T cell survival cytokine IL-7. Regarding the development of arthritis in F759 mice, it is not only the immune system, but also non-immune tissue that are involved, indicating that the importance of their interactions (Sawa et al., 2006, 2009; Ogura et al., 2008; Hirano, 2010; Murakami et al., 2011). Furthermore, we have shown that local events such as microbleeding together with an accumulation of activated CD4+ T cells in a manner independent of tissue antigen-recognitions induces arthritis in the joints of F759 mice (Murakami et al., 2011). For example, local microbleeding-mediated CCL20 expression induce such an accumulation, causing arthritis development via chronic activation of an IL-17A-dependent IL-6 signaling amplification loop in type 1 collagen+ cells that is triggered by CD4+ T cell-derived cytokine(s) such as IL-17A, which leads to the synergistic activation of STAT3 and NFκB in non-hematopoietic cells in the joint (Murakami et al., 2011). We named this loop the IL-6-mediated inflammation amplifier, or IL-6 amplifier for

  11. HLA class I and class II conserved extended haplotypes and their fragments or blocks in Mexicans: implications for the study of genetic diversity in admixed populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Zúñiga

    Full Text Available Major histocompatibility complex (MHC genes are highly polymorphic and informative in disease association, transplantation, and population genetics studies with particular importance in the understanding of human population diversity and evolution. The aim of this study was to describe the HLA diversity in Mexican admixed individuals. We studied the polymorphism of MHC class I (HLA-A, -B, -C, and class II (HLA-DRB1, -DQB1 genes using high-resolution sequence based typing (SBT method and we structured the blocks and conserved extended haplotypes (CEHs in 234 non-related admixed Mexican individuals (468 haplotypes by a maximum likelihood method. We found that HLA blocks and CEHs are primarily from Amerindian and Caucasian origin, with smaller participation of African and recent Asian ancestry, demonstrating a great diversity of HLA blocks and CEHs in Mexicans from the central area of Mexico. We also analyzed the degree of admixture in this group using short tandem repeats (STRs and HLA-B that correlated with the frequency of most probable ancestral HLA-C/-B and -DRB1/-DQB1 blocks and CEHs. Our results contribute to the analysis of the diversity and ancestral contribution of HLA class I and HLA class II alleles and haplotypes of Mexican admixed individuals from Mexico City. This work will help as a reference to improve future studies in Mexicans regarding allotransplantation, immune responses and disease associations.

  12. Marginal sealing ability of silorane and methacrylate resin composites in class II cavities: A scanning electron microscopic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyothi Kashi Nanjundasetty

    2013-01-01

    Intergroup comparison of subgroup A did not show statistically significant difference, whereas subgroup B showed statistically significant difference for microleakage between group I and group II (P = 0.003, group III and group II (P = 0.002. Conclusion: Silorane resin composite and methacrylate resin with liner showed significantly less microleakage in class II cavities along the gingival margin placed below CEJ compared to methacrylate resin without liner. All the study groups showed less microleakage and microgap formation along the gingival margin placed above CEJ.

  13. MHC class II super-enhancer increases surface expression of HLA-DR and HLA-DQ and affects cytokine production in autoimmune vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalli, Giulio; Hayashi, Masahiro; Jin, Ying; Yorgov, Daniel; Santorico, Stephanie A; Holcomb, Cherie; Rastrou, Melinda; Erlich, Henry; Tengesdal, Isak W; Dagna, Lorenzo; Neff, C Preston; Palmer, Brent E; Spritz, Richard A; Dinarello, Charles A

    2016-02-02

    Genetic risk for autoimmunity in HLA genes is most often attributed to structural specificity resulting in presentation of self-antigens. Autoimmune vitiligo is strongly associated with the MHC class II region. Here, we fine-map vitiligo MHC class II genetic risk to three SNPs only 47 bp apart, located within a predicted super-enhancer in an intergenic region between HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQA1, localized by a genome-wide association study of 2,853 Caucasian vitiligo patients. The super-enhancer corresponds to an expression quantitative trait locus for expression of HLA-DR and HLA-DQ RNA; we observed elevated surface expression of HLA-DR (P = 0.008) and HLA-DQ (P = 0.02) on monocytes from healthy subjects homozygous for the high-risk SNP haplotype. Unexpectedly, pathogen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from subjects homozygous for the high-risk super-enhancer haplotype exhibited greater increase in production of IFN-γ and IL-1β than cells from subjects homozygous for the low-risk haplotype. Specifically, production of IFN-γ on stimulation of dectin-1, mannose, and Toll-like receptors with Candida albicans and Staphylococcus epidermidis was 2.5- and 2.9-fold higher in high-risk subjects than in low-risk subjects, respectively (P = 0.007 and P = 0.01). Similarly, production of IL-1β was fivefold higher in high-risk subjects than in low-risk subjects (P = 0.02). Increased production of immunostimulatory cytokines in subjects carrying the high-risk haplotype may act as an "adjuvant" during the presentation of autoantigens, tying together genetic variation in the MHC with the development of autoimmunity. This study demonstrates that for risk of autoimmune vitiligo, expression level of HLA class II molecules is as or more important than antigen specificity.

  14. Regulation of MIR165/166 by class II and class III homeodomain leucine zipper proteins establishes leaf polarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merelo, Paz; Ram, Hathi; Caggiano, Monica Pia

    2016-01-01

    A defining feature of plant leaves is their flattened shape. This shape depends on an antagonism between the genes that specify adaxial (top) and abaxial (bottom) tissue identity; however, the molecular nature of this antagonism remains poorly understood. Class III homeodomain leucine zipper (HD-...

  15. Re-directing CD4+ T cell responses with the flanking residues of MHC class II-bound peptides: the core is not enough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kenneth Cole

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant αβ T cell receptors (TCRs recognise short peptides presented at the cell surface in complex with MHC molecules. There are two main subsets of αβ T cells: CD8+ T cells that recognise mainly cytosol-derived peptides in the context of MHC class I (pMHC-I, and CD4+ T cells that recognise peptides usually derived from exogenous proteins presented by MHC class II (pMHC-II. Unlike the more uniform peptide lengths (usually 8-13mers bound in the MHC-I closed groove, MHC-II presented peptides are of a highly variable length. The bound peptides consist of a core bound 9mer (reflecting the binding motif for the particular MHC-II type but with variable peptide flanking residues (PFRs that can extend from both the N- and C-terminus of the MHC-II binding groove. Although pMHC-I and pMHC-II play a virtually identical role during T cell responses (T cell antigen presentation and are very similar in overall conformation, there exist a number of subtle but important differences that may govern the functional dichotomy observed between CD8+ and CD4+ T cells. Here, we provide an overview of the impact of structural differences between pMHC-I and pMHC-II and the molecular interactions with the TCR including the functional importance of MHC-II peptide flanking residues. We consider how factors such as anatomical location, inflammatory milieu and particular types of APC might, in theory, contribute to the quantitative (i.e. pMHC ligand frequency as well as qualitative (i.e. variable PFR nature of peptide epitopes, and hence offer a means of control and influence of a CD4+ T cell response. Lastly, we review our recent findings showing how modifications to these flanking regions modify CD4+ T cell antigen recognition. These findings may have novel applications for the development of CD4+ T cell peptide vaccines and diagnostics.

  16. MHC class II up-regulation and co-localization with Fas in experimental models of immune-mediated bone marrow failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erie, Andrew J.; Samsel, Leigh; Takaku, Tomoiku; Desierto, Marie J.; Keyvanfar, Keyvan; McCoy, J. Philip; Young, Neal S.; Chen, Jichun

    2011-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that gamma interferon (IFN-γ) promotes MHC class II expression on bone marrow (BM) cell targets that facilitates T cell-mediated BM destruction in immune-mediated BM failure. Materials and Methods Allogeneic lymph node (LN) cells were infused into MHC or minor histocompatibility antigen (minor-H) mismatched hosts to induce BM failure. MHC class II and Fas expression and cell apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. MHC class II-Fas co-localization was detected by ImageStream Imaging Flow Cytometry and other cell-cell associations were visualized by confocal microscopy. T cell-mediated BM cell apoptosis and effects of IFN-γ on MHC class II-Fas co-localization on normal BM cells were studied using cell culture in vitro followed by conventional and imaging flow cytometry. Results BM failure animals had significantly up-regulated MHC class II expression on CD4−CD8−CD11b−CD45R− residual BM cells and significantly increased MHC class II-Fas co-localization on BM CD150+ and CD34+ hematopoietic cells. MHC class II+Fas+ BM cells were closely associated with CD4+ T cells in the BM of affected animals, and they were significantly more responsive to T-cell mediated cell apoptosis relative to MHC class II−Fas− BM cells. Infusion of IFN-γ-deficient LN cells into minor-H mismatched recipients resulted in no MHC class II-Fas up-regulation and no clinically overt BM failure. Treatment with recombinant IFN-γ significantly increased both MHC class II-Fas co-expression and co-localization on normal BM cells. Conclusion Elevation of the inflammatory cytokine IFN-γ stimulated MHC class II expression and MHC class II-Fas co-localization, which may facilitate T-cell mediated cell destruction. PMID:21635935

  17. Marginal Integrity of Bulk Versus Incremental Fill Class II Composite Restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Harbi, F; Kaisarly, D; Bader, D; El Gezawi, M

    2016-01-01

    Bulk-fill composites have been introduced to facilitate the placement of deep direct resin composite restorations. This study aimed at analyzing the cervical marginal integrity of bulk-fill vs incremental and open-sandwich class II resin composite restorations after thermomechanical cycling using replica scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and ranking according to the World Dental Federation (FDI) criteria. Box-only class II cavities were prepared in 91 maxillary premolars with the gingival margin placed 1 mm above and below the cemento-enamel junction. Eighty-four premolars were divided into self-etch and total-etch groups, then subdivided into six restorative subgroups (n=7): 1-Tetric Ceram HB (TC) was used incrementally and in the open-sandwich technique with 2-Tetric EvoFlow (EF) and 3-Smart Dentin Replacement (SD). Bulk-fill restoratives were 4-SonicFill (SF), 5-Tetric N-Ceram Bulk Fill (TN), and 6-Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill (TE). In subgroups 1-5, Tetric N-Bond self-etch and Tetric N-Bond total-etch adhesives were used, whereas in subgroup 6, AdheSE self-etch and ExciTE F total etch were used. One more group (n=7) was restored with Filtek P90 Low Shrink Posterior Restorative (P9) only in combination with its self-etch P90 System Adhesive. Materials were manipulated and light cured (20 seconds, 1600 mW/cm(2)), and restorations were artificially aged by thermo-occlusal load cycling. Polyvinyl-siloxane impressions were taken and poured with epoxy resin. Resin replicas were examined by SEM (200×) for marginal sealing, and percentages of perfect margins were analyzed. Moreover, samples were examined using loupes (3.5×) and explorers and categorized according to the FDI criteria. Results were statistically analyzed (SEM by Kruskal-Wallis test and FDI by chi-square test) without significant differences in either the replica SEM groups (p=0.848) or the FDI criteria groups (p>0.05). The best SEM results at the enamel margin were in TC+EF/total-etch and SF

  18. Changes in soft tissue profile using functional appliances in the treatment of skeletal class II malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamenković Zorana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The effects of orthodontic treatment are considered to be successful if the facial harmony is achieved, while the structures of soft tissue profile are in harmony with skeletal structures of neurocranium and viscerocranium. In patients with skeletal distal bite caused by mandibular retrognathism, facial esthetics is disturbed often, in terms of pronounced convexity of the profile and change in the position and relationship of the lips. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine the extent of soft tissue profile changes in patients with skeletal Class II malocclusion treated with three different orthodontic appliances: Fränkel functional regulator type I (FR-I, Balters’ Bionator type I and Hotz appliance. Methods. The study included 60 patients diagnosed with skeletal Class II malocclusion caused by mandibular retrognathism, in the period of early mixed dentition. Each subgroup of 20 patients was treated with a variety of orthodontic appliances. On the lateral cephalogram, before and after treatment, the following parameters were analyzed: T angle, H angle, the height of the upper lip, the position of the upper and lower lip in relation to the esthetic line. Within the statistical analysis the mean, maximum, minimum, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, two-factor analysis of variance with repeated measures and the factor analysis of variance were calculated using ANOVA, Bonferroni test and Student’s t-test. Results. A significant decrease of angles T and H was noticed in the application of FR-I, from 21.60° to 17.15°, and from 16.45° to 13.40° (p<0.001. FR-I decreased the height of the upper lip from 26.15 mm to 25.85 mm, while Hotz appliance and Balters’ Bionator type I increased the height of the upper lip, thereby deteriorating esthetics of the patient. Conclusion. All used orthodontic appliances lead to changes in soft tissue profile in terms of improving facial esthetics, with the most distinctive

  19. Trans-species polymorphism and selection in the MHC class II DRA genes of domestic sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith T Ballingall

    Full Text Available Highly polymorphic genes with central roles in lymphocyte mediated immune surveillance are grouped together in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC in higher vertebrates. Generally, across vertebrate species the class II MHC DRA gene is highly conserved with only limited allelic variation. Here however, we provide evidence of trans-species polymorphism at the DRA locus in domestic sheep (Ovis aries. We describe variation at the Ovar-DRA locus that is far in excess of anything described in other vertebrate species. The divergent DRA allele (Ovar-DRA*0201 differs from the sheep reference sequences by 20 nucleotides, 12 of which appear non-synonymous. Furthermore, DRA*0201 is paired with an equally divergent DRB1 allele (Ovar-DRB1*0901, which is consistent with an independent evolutionary history for the DR sub-region within this MHC haplotype. No recombination was observed between the divergent DRA and B genes in a range of breeds and typical levels of MHC class II DR protein expression were detected at the surface of leukocyte populations obtained from animals homozygous for the DRA*0201, DRB1*0901 haplotype. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis groups Ovar-DRA*0201 with DRA sequences derived from species within the Oryx and Alcelaphus genera rather than clustering with other ovine and caprine DRA alleles. Tests for Darwinian selection identified 10 positively selected sites on the branch leading to Ovar-DRA*0201, three of which are predicted to be associated with the binding of peptide antigen. As the Ovis, Oryx and Alcelaphus genera have not shared a common ancestor for over 30 million years, the DRA*0201 and DRB1*0901 allelic pair is likely to be of ancient origin and present in the founding population from which all contemporary domestic sheep breeds are derived. The conservation of the integrity of this unusual DR allelic pair suggests some selective advantage which is likely to be associated with the presentation of pathogen antigen to T

  20. Coordination geometries of Zn(II) and Cd(II) in phosphotriesterase: Influence of water molecules in the active site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krauss, M; Olsen, Lars; Antony, J;

    2002-01-01

    to the Od1 of the carboxylate of the first-shell aspartate designated M 1, but the energy difference between Cd1Zn2 and the lowest energy Zn1Cd2 structure is only about 2 kcal/mol and decreasing with the addition of water molecules. The Zn1Cd2 arrangement is found experimentally....... performed to analyze the experimentally determined chemical shifts at 212 and 116 ppm, respectively, for the CdCd enzyme. The calculated isotropic shieldings correlate with the coordination number of the metal ions, indicating that the CdCd enzyme has one more ligand at the high shift site than at the low...

  1. Major histocompatibility (MH) class II ß gene polymorphism influences disease resistance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rakus, K.L.; Wiegertjes, G.F.; Jurecka, P.M.; Walker, P.D.; Pilarczyk, A.; Irnazarow, I.

    2009-01-01

    Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are crucial elements of adaptive immunity. High polymorphism renders the MHC genes highly suitable for studies on association with disease resistance. In common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), there are two paralogous groups of MH class II B genes, Cyca

  2. 40 CFR 147.903 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.903 Section 147.903 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  3. 40 CFR 147.1154 - Existing Class II enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage wells authorized by rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and hydrocarbon storage wells authorized by rule. 147.1154 Section 147.1154 Protection of Environment... UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Michigan § 147.1154 Existing Class II enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon... determines that the owner or operator of an existing enhanced recovery or hydrocarbon storage will may not...

  4. 40 CFR 147.303 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.303 Section 147.303 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  5. 40 CFR 147.253 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.253 Section 147.253 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  6. Orthopedic coordination of dentofacial development in skeletal Class II malocclusion in conjunction with edgewise therapy. Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, N M

    1983-11-01

    The skeletal Class II malocclusion may be considered to develop as a failure of the coordinating process to maintain harmonious relationships within the developing dentofacial apparatus. If the skeletal elements are too far apart for adaptation to occur and/or if there are functional abnormalities of the orofacial musculature which inhibit coordination from taking place, a malocclusion will result. An orthopedic technique and appliance system has been developed with the intention of improving those factors responsible for the development and perpetuation of the skeletal Class II malocclusion in a primary stage of treatment. This is accomplished by means of restraint and redirection of forward maxillary growth and an increase in the velocity of mandibular growth. Concurrently, adverse soft-tissue influences are eliminated or ameliorated. Edgewise appliance therapy is subsequently carried out for the final correction. The subject is considered in two articles. This first article describes the effects of the restraint of maxillary growth on craniofacial development and the dental changes produced by a maxillary removable splint with extraoral traction and shows how they can be used clinically for correction of the skeletal Class II malocclusion. The experimental and clinical evidence supporting this approach is considered, and case histories show the clinical use of the maxillary splint. This form of maxillary therapy for the skeletal Class II malocclusion has limitations, and it is desirable for it to be incorporated into a comprehensive orthopedic system.

  7. Twenty -year post-treatment assessment of class II division 1 malocclusion treated with non-extraction approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Karad

    2013-01-01

    This article describes twenty-year post-treatment assessment of a class II division 1 malocclusion case, treated in the late mixed dentition stage, with the non-extraction treatment approach - molar-inserted headgear along with a fixed appliance therapy.

  8. Extraction of maxillary first molars improves second and third molar inclinations in Class II Division 1 malocclusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livas, C.; Halazonetis, D.J.; Booij, J.W.; Katsaros, C.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to assess the changes in inclination of the maxillary second (M2) and third (M3) molars after orthodontic treatment of Class II Division 1 malocclusion with extraction of maxillary first molars. METHODS: Two groups of subjects were studied. The experimental gr

  9. Two-year evaluation of the atraumatic restorative treatment approach in primary molars class I and II restorations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    da Franca, C.; Colares, V.; van Amerongen, E.

    2011-01-01

    Background.  Atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) has the advantages of reducing pain and fear and of being more cost-effective than the traditional approach. Aim.  The aim of this study was to investigate the survival of ART class I and II restorations in primary molars at 2 years. Design.  The s

  10. 40 CFR 147.1653 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1653 Section 147.1653 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  11. 40 CFR 147.503 - Existing Class II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) wells authorized by rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Existing Class II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) wells authorized by rule. 147.503 Section 147.503 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. To meet...

  12. 40 CFR 147.1953 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1953 Section 147.1953 Protection of... enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection...

  13. 40 CFR 147.1453 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1453 Section 147.1453 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  14. 40 CFR 147.103 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.103 Section 147.103 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  15. 40 CFR 147.1353 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1353 Section 147.1353 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  16. 40 CFR 147.1153 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.1153 Section 147.1153 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  17. 40 CFR 147.2153 - Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Existing Class I, II (except enhanced recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. 147.2153 Section 147.2153 Protection of... recovery and hydrocarbon storage) and III wells authorized by rule. Maximum injection pressure. The...

  18. MHC CLASS-II-RESTRICTED T-CELL HYBRIDOMAS RECOGNIZING THE NUCLEOCAPSID PROTEIN OF AVIAN CORONAVIUS IBV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOOTS, AMH; VANLIEROP, MJ; KUSTERS, JG; VANKOOTEN, PJS; VANDERZELIST, BAM; HENSEN, EJ; Boots, Annemieke

    1991-01-01

    Mice were immunized with purified infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), strain M41. Spleen cells, expanded in vitro by stimulation with M41, were immortalized by fusion to obtain T-cell hybridomas, and two major histocompatability complex (MHC) class II (I-E)-restricted T-cell hybridomas were selected

  19. 76 FR 44594 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... by which a repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) system may comply with the requirement... Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) Systems'' you may either send an e-mail request to dsmica@fda.hhs.gov...; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic......

  20. 25 CFR 547.9 - What are the minimum technical standards for Class II gaming system accounting functions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... gaming system accounting functions? 547.9 Section 547.9 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION... systems. (a) Required accounting data.The following minimum accounting data, however named, shall be...) Accounting data storage. If the Class II gaming system electronically maintains accounting data:...

  1. MHC class II genes in the European badger (Meles meles) : Characterization, patterns of variation, and transcription analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sin, Yung Wa; Dugdale, Hannah L.; Newman, Chris; Macdonald, David W.; Burke, Terry

    2012-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) comprises many genes, some of which are polymorphic with numerous alleles. Sequence variation among alleles is most pronounced in exon 2 of the class II genes, which encodes the alpha 1 and beta 1 domains that form the antigen-binding site (ABS) for the pre

  2. Phenotypic characterization of mononuclear cells and class II antigen expression in angular cheilitis infected by Candida albicans or Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohman, S C; Jontell, M; Jonsson, R

    1989-04-01

    In the present study we characterized the phenotypes of infiltrating mononuclear cells in angular cheilitis lesions to further explore the pathogenesis of this disorder. Frozen sections from lesions infected by Candida albicans and/or Staphylococcus aureus were subjected to immunohistochemical analysis utilizing monoclonal antibodies directed to subsets of T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, and macrophages. In addition, the expression of Class II antigens (HLA-DP, -DQ, -DR), the interleukin 2- and transferrin-receptors was studied on resident and infiltrating cells. An intense infiltration of T-lymphocytes was accompanied by expression of Class II antigens on the epidermal keratinocytes in lesion infected by Candida albicans. The Staphylococcus aureus infected lesions displayed a diffuse infiltration of T-lymphocytes but virtually no expression of Class II antigen by epidermal keratinocytes. These observations suggest that the cell-mediated arm of the immune system is involved in the inflammatory reaction of lesions infected by Candida albicans. In addition, the present study confirms that epidermal expression of Class II antigens is closely related to the type and magnitude of the infiltrating T-lymphocyte. Finally, these findings indicate that the type of inflammatory reaction in angular cheilitis is primarily dependent on the isolated microorganism, although the clinical pictures of the disorder are virtually identical.

  3. 76 FR 28688 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 866 Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: In Vitro Diagnostic Devices for Bacillus Species Detection AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of...

  4. 76 FR 48870 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Herpes Simplex Virus Types 1 and 2 Serological Assays; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and...

  5. 77 FR 37058 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2012-15025] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA 2012-D-0304] Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Implanted Blood Access Devices for Hemodialysis; Availability...

  6. 75 FR 69089 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Tissue Adhesive With Adjunct Wound Closure Device Intended for the Topical Approximation of Skin; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS....

  7. 76 FR 22906 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Topical Oxygen Chamber for Extremities; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)...

  8. 76 FR 6622 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... (special controls) under section 513(f)(2) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act) (21 U... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Contact Cooling System for Aesthetic Use;...

  9. 75 FR 59726 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Herpes Simplex Virus Types 1 and 2 Serological Assays; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food...

  10. 76 FR 43332 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Focused Ultrasound Stimulator System for Aesthetic Use; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and...

  11. 76 FR 29251 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls; Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls; Guidance Document: Topical Oxygen Chamber for Extremities; Availability; Correction AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: The Food and...

  12. 76 FR 64228 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    .... 76, No. 200 / Monday, October 17, 2011 / Notices#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: External Pacemaker Pulse Generator; Availability AGENCY: Food and...

  13. 75 FR 68364 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Full-Field Digital Mammography System; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ] ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)...

  14. 76 FR 16425 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Ovarian Adnexal Mass Assessment Score Test System; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and...

  15. Class II-associated invariant chain peptide as predictive immune marker in minimal residual disease in acute myeloid leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. van Luijn (Marvin M.); W. van den Ancker (Willemijn); S.M. van Ham (Marieke); A.A. van de Loosdrecht (Arjan)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThe majority of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) reach complete remission after high-dose chemotherapy. Still, half of these patients experience a relapse due to presence of minimal residual disease (MRD). Here we discuss the poor prognostic role of class II-associated invarian

  16. Class II-associated invariant chain peptide as predictive immune marker in minimal residual disease in acute myeloid leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    van Luijn, Marvin M.; van den Ancker, Willemijn; van Ham, S Marieke; Arjan A. van de Loosdrecht

    2014-01-01

    The majority of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) reach complete remission after high-dose chemotherapy. Still, half of these patients experience a relapse due to presence of minimal residual disease (MRD). Here we discuss the poor prognostic role of class II-associated invariant chain peptide (CLIP) expression on residual leukemic cells.

  17. Crystallographic and Computational Studies of a Class II MHC Complex with a Nonconforming Peptide: HLA-DRA/DRB3*0101

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    Parry, Christian S.; Gorski, Jack; Stern, Lawrence J.

    2003-03-01

    The stable binding of processed foreign peptide to a class II major histocompatibility (MHC) molecule and subsequent presentation to a T cell receptor is a central event in immune recognition and regulation. Polymorphic residues on the floor of the peptide binding site form pockets that anchor peptide side chains. These and other residues in the helical wall of the groove determine the specificity of each allele and define a motif. Allele specific motifs allow the prediction of epitopes from the sequence of pathogens. There are, however, known epitopes that do not satisfy these motifs: anchor motifs are not adequate for predicting epitopes as there are apparently major and minor motifs. We present crystallographic studies into the nature of the interactions that govern the binding of these so called nonconforming peptides. We would like to understand the role of the P10 pocket and find out whether the peptides that do not obey the consensus anchor motif bind in the canonical conformation observed in in prior structures of class II MHC-peptide complexes. HLA-DRB3*0101 complexed with peptide crystallized in unit cell 92.10 x 92.10 x 248.30 (90, 90, 90), P41212, and the diffraction data is reliable to 2.2ÅWe are complementing our studies with dynamical long time simulations to answer these questions, particularly the interplay of the anchor motifs in peptide binding, the range of protein and ligand conformations, and water hydration structures.

  18. EFFECTS OF BETAHISTINE DIHYDROCHLORIDE AS ADJUVANT TO ENALAPRIL THERAPY OF PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEART FAILURE CLASS II-II (NYHA SUFFERING FROM GIDDINESS

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    S. Y. Martsevich

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study adjuvant effect of betahistine dihydrochloride to ACE inhibitors in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF class II-III suffering from giddiness.Material and methods. 61 patients with CHF class II-III, ejection fraction ≤45% (Simpson suffering from giddiness were involved into randomized open parallel study. Patients were randomized to Betahistine dihydrochloride plus basic CHF therapy or only basic therapy groups. Enalapril dose titration was performed in all patients. Quality of life and giddiness severity evaluation, electrocardiogram was performed initially and after treatment. Clinical examination results, drug therapy and adverse event were registered at each visit.Results. The target ACE inhibitor dose (≥20 mg daily was reached in 97 % of patients. It led to significant reduction of dyspnea, edemas, CHF class reduction and life quality increase. Significant differences between investigated groups were not found. Reduction of giddiness severity was shown in both groups. There was a trend to more prominent improvement of life quality (р=0,08 and more frequent achievement of target ACE inhibitor dose in patients treated with betahistine dihydrochloride.Conclusion. The target ACE inhibitor dose can be achieved more than in 90% of patients with CHF class II-III without hypotension symptoms. Adjuvant usage of betahistine dihydrochloride is necessary in patients with CHF still suffering from giddiness after achievement of target ACE inhibitor dose.

  19. A clinical evaluation of a bioresorbable membrane and porous hydroxyapatite in the treatment of human molar class II furcations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Gita Malathi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ultimate goal of periodontal therapy is predictable regeneration of a functional attachment apparatus destroyed as a result of periodontitis. Reconstructive procedures have been used with varying success during the past decades to accomplish this goal. Aim: To evaluate whether the use of porous hydroxyapatite alone or a bioresorbable membrane alone would enhance the clinical results in the treatment of class II furcation defects in human lower molars. Materials and Methods: Fifteen patients with chronic periodontitis, aged between 39 and 49 years, with a pair of similar bilateral class II furcation defects (classification of Hamp et al. in mandibular first molars were selected. A split-mouth design was incorporated and the selected 30 furcation defects were assigned to one of the two treatment groups, i.e., Group I treated with a bioresorbable membrane from bovine-derived collagen guided tissue regeneration membrane and Group II treated using porous hydroxyapatite bone graft material on the contralateral sides. Evaluation of clinical parameters, probing depths and attachment levels, and radiographs was done preoperatively and 6 months postoperatively. Results: Both the groups showed statistically significant mean reduction in probing depths and gain in clinical attachment levels and linear bone fill. Comparison between Group I and Group II showed insignificant difference. Conclusion: Within the limits of this study, both the treatment modalities are beneficial for the treatment of human mandibular class II furcation defects.

  20. MHC class II-associated proteins in B-cell exosomes and potential functional implications for exosome biogenesis.

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    Buschow, Sonja I; van Balkom, Bas W M; Aalberts, Marian; Heck, Albert J R; Wauben, Marca; Stoorvogel, Willem

    2010-01-01

    Professional antigen-presenting cells secrete major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) carrying exosomes with unclear physiological function(s). Exosomes are first generated as the intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) of a specific type of multivesicular body, and are then secreted by fusion of this compartment with the plasma membrane. We have previously shown that in contrast to the sorting of MHC II at lysosomally targeted multivesicular bodies, sorting of MHC II into exosomes does not rely on MHC II ubiquitination. In search for proteins that drive the incorporation of MHC II into exosomes or functionally discriminate exosomal from plasma membrane MHC II, we first analyzed the total proteome of highly purified B cell-derived exosomes using sensitive and accurate mass spectrometry (MS), and identified 539 proteins, including known and not previously identified constituents. Using quantitative MS, we then identified a small subset of proteins that were specifically co-immunoprecipitated with MHC II from detergent-solubilized exosomes. These include HSC71, HSP90, 14-3-3ɛ, CD20 and pyruvate kinase type M2 (PKM2), and we speculate on the functionality of their interaction with exosomal MHC II.