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Sample records for class ii beta

  1. Class II direct composite resin restorations with beta-quartz glass-ceramic inserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rada, R E

    1993-11-01

    With the increasing demand for esthetic posterior restorations, numerous techniques have been developed. The direct resin restoration has probably been used most extensively in Class II situations. Problems with Class II direct resin restorations include difficulty in developing proximal contact, occlusal wear, and polymerization shrinkage. Beta-quartz glass-ceramic inserts have been developed in an attempt to reduce the incidence of these potential problems. They can be placed in a one-appointment technique, are relatively inexpensive, and can readily be utilized by the clinician adept in placing Class II composite resin restorations.

  2. Characterization and expression of MHC class II alpha and II beta genes in mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianyan; Tan, Shangjin; Cai, Zhonghua

    2015-12-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II plays a key role in adaptive immunity by presenting foreign peptides to CD4(+) T cells and by triggering the adaptive immune response. While the structure and function of MHC class II have been well characterized in mammalian, limited research has been done on fishes. In this study, we characterized the gene structure and expression of MHC class II α (Lunar-DAA) and II β (Lunar-DAB) of mangrove red snapper (Lutjanus argentimaculatus). Both genes shared, respectively, a high similarity and typical features with other vertebrate MHC class II α and II β. The phylogenetic analysis of the deduced peptides revealed that both Lunar-DAA and Lunar-DAB were located in the teleost subclass. Western blotting analyses indicated that both MHC class II α and II β were expressed ubiquitously in immune-related cells, tissues and organs, and that MHC class II α and II β chains existed mainly as heterodimers. While it was highly expressed in gills, thymus, head kidney (HK), spleen, head kidney macrophage and spleen leucocytes, MHC class II β chain was expressed with a low abundance in skin, intestine, stomach and heart. The highest expression of MHC class II β in thymus confirmed the conclusion that thymus is one of the primary lymphoid organs in fishes. The detection of MHC class II αβ dimers in HK macrophages and spleen leucocytes indicated that HK macrophages and spleen leucocytes play a critical role in the adaptive immunity in fishes. All these results provide valuable information for understanding the structure of MHC class II α and II β and their function in immune responses.

  3. Organizing MHC Class II Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Fooksman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II molecules are ligands for CD4+ T cells and are critical for initiating the adaptive immune response. This review is focused on what is currently known about MHC class II organization at the plasma membrane of antigen presenting cells and how this affects antigen presentation to T cells. The organization and diffusion of class II molecules have been measured by a variety of biochemical and microscopic techniques. Membrane lipids and other proteins have been implicated in MHC class II organization and function. However, when compared with the organization of MHC class I or TCR complexes, much less is known about MHC class II. Since clustering of T cell receptors occurs during activation, the organization of MHC molecules prior to recognition and during synapse formation may be critical for antigen presentation.

  4. The bovine class II major histocompatibility complex: Serological definition and further characterization of class II haplotypes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nilsson, Ph.R.

    1994-01-01

    In this thesis an analysis of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II in cattle is reported, with emphasis on the development of class II serology. First, the production of class II alloantisera, and the serological definition of bovine MHC class II polymorphism is described. Subsequentl

  5. Early failure of Class II resin composite versus Class II amalgam restorations placed by dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, J D; Sullivan, Diane J

    2012-03-01

    Using the information from remake request slips in a dental school's predoctoral clinic, we examined the short-term survival of Class II resin composite restorations versus Class II dental amalgam restorations. In the student clinic, resin composite is used in approximately 58 percent of Class II restorations placed, and dental amalgam is used in the remaining 42 percent. In the period examined, Class II resin composite restorations were ten times more likely to be replaced at no cost to the patient than Class II dental amalgam restorations. A total of eighty-four resin composite restorations and six amalgam restorations were replaced due to an identified failure.

  6. Modeling the interactions of a peptide-major histocompatibility class I ligand with its receptors. II. Cross-reaction between a monoclonal antibody and two alpha beta T cell receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rognan, D; Engberg, J; Stryhn, A;

    2000-01-01

    -peptide pair into the Fab combining site. Interestingly, the most energetically favored binding mode shows numerous analogies to the recently determined recognition of class I MHC-peptide complexes by alpha beta T cell receptors (TCRs). The pSAN13.4.1 also binds diagonally across the MHC binding groove...

  7. MHC Class II epitope predictive algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten; Lund, Ole; Buus, S;

    2010-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) molecules sample peptides from the extracellular space, allowing the immune system to detect the presence of foreign microbes from this compartment. To be able to predict the immune response to given pathogens, a number of methods have been...

  8. The beta subunit of casein kinase II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldyreff, B; Piontek, K; Schmidt-Spaniol, I;

    1991-01-01

    cDNAs encoding the beta subunit of pig and mouse CKII were isolated. The porcine cDNA was expressed as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli and used for the production of anti-CKII-beta subunit specific antibodies.......cDNAs encoding the beta subunit of pig and mouse CKII were isolated. The porcine cDNA was expressed as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli and used for the production of anti-CKII-beta subunit specific antibodies....

  9. Class II malocclusion occlusal severity description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Janson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: It is well known that the efficacy and the efficiency of a Class II malocclusion treatment are aspects closely related to the severity of the dental anteroposterior discrepancy. Even though, sample selection based on cephalometric variables without considering the severity of the occlusal anteroposterior discrepancy is still common in current papers. In some of them, when occlusal parameters are chosen, the severity is often neglected. The purpose of this study is to verify the importance given to the classification of Class II malocclusion, based on the criteria used for sample selection in a great number of papers published in the orthodontic journal with the highest impact factor. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A search was performed in PubMed database for full-text research papers referencing Class II malocclusion in the history of the American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (AJO-DO. RESULTS: A total of 359 papers were retrieved, among which only 72 (20.06% papers described the occlusal severity of the Class II malocclusion sample. In the other 287 (79.94% papers that did not specify the anteroposterior discrepancy severity, description was considered to be crucial in 159 (55.40% of them. CONCLUSIONS: Omission in describing the occlusal severity demands a cautious interpretation of 44.29% of the papers retrieved in this study.

  10. Lateral cephalometric diagnosis of asymmetry in Angle Class II subdivision compared to Class I and II

    OpenAIRE

    Aparecida Fernanda Meloti; Renata de Cássia Gonçalves; Ertty Silva; Lídia Parsekian Martins; Ary dos Santos-Pinto

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Lateral cephalometric radiographs are traditionally required for orthodontic treatment, yet rarely used to assess asymmetries. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to use lateral cephalometric radiographs to identify existing skeletal and dentoalveolar morphological alterations in Class II subdivision and to compare them with the existing morphology in Class I and II relationship. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ninety initial lateral cephalometric radiographs of male...

  11. 25 CFR 502.3 - Class II gaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....3 Class II gaming. Class II gaming means: (a) Bingo or lotto (whether or not electronic, computer... pattern on such cards; (b) If played in the same location as bingo or lotto, pull-tabs, punch boards,...

  12. 46 CFR 50.30-15 - Class II pressure vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class II pressure vessels. 50.30-15 Section 50.30-15... Fabrication Inspection § 50.30-15 Class II pressure vessels. (a) Class II pressure vessels shall be subject to... pressure vessels shall be performed during the welding of the longitudinal joint. At this time the...

  13. Lateral cephalometric diagnosis of asymmetry in Angle Class II subdivision compared to Class I and II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecida Fernanda Meloti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Lateral cephalometric radiographs are traditionally required for orthodontic treatment, yet rarely used to assess asymmetries. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to use lateral cephalometric radiographs to identify existing skeletal and dentoalveolar morphological alterations in Class II subdivision and to compare them with the existing morphology in Class I and II relationship. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ninety initial lateral cephalometric radiographs of male and female Brazilian children aged between 12 to 15 years old were randomly and proportionally divided into three groups: Group 1 (Class I, Group 2 (Class II and Group 3 (Class II subdivision. Analysis of lateral cephalometric radiographs included angular measurements, horizontal linear measurements and two indexes of asymmetry that were prepared for this study. RESULTS: In accordance with an Index of Dental Asymmetry (IDA, greater mandibular dental asymmetry was identified in Group 3. An Index of Mandibular Asymmetry (IMA revealed less skeletal and dental mandibular asymmetry in Group 2, greater skeletal mandibular asymmetry in Group 1, and greater mandibular dental asymmetry in Group 3. CONCLUSION: Both IDA and IMA revealed greater mandibular dental asymmetry for Group 3 in comparison to Groups 1 and 2. These results are in accordance with those found by other diagnostic methods, showing that lateral cephalometric radiography is an acceptable method to identify existing skeletal and dentoalveolar morphological alterations in malocclusions.

  14. Enhanced PKC beta II translocation and PKC beta II-RACK1 interactions in PKC epsilon-induced heart failure: a role for RACK1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pass, J M; Gao, J; Jones, W K; Wead, W B; Wu, X; Zhang, J; Baines, C P; Bolli, R; Zheng, Y T; Joshua, I G; Ping, P

    2001-12-01

    Recent investigations have established a role for the beta II-isoform of protein kinase C (PKC beta II) in the induction of cardiac hypertrophy and failure. Although receptors for activated C kinase (RACKs) have been shown to direct PKC signal transduction, the mechanism through which RACK1, a selective PKC beta II RACK, participates in PKC beta II-mediated cardiac hypertrophy and failure remains undefined. We have previously reported that PKC epsilon activation modulates the expression of RACKs, and that altered epsilon-isoform of PKC (PKC epsilon)-RACK interactions may facilitate the genesis of cardiac phenotypes in mice. Here, we present evidence that high levels of PKC epsilon activity are commensurate with impaired left ventricular function (dP/dt = 6,074 +/- 248 mmHg/s in control vs. 3,784 +/- 269 mmHg/s in transgenic) and significant myocardial hypertrophy. More importantly, we demonstrate that high levels of PKC epsilon activation induce a significant colocalization of PKC beta II with RACK1 (154 +/- 7% of control) and a marked redistribution of PKC beta II to the particulate fraction (17 +/- 2% of total PKC beta II in control mice vs. 49 +/- 5% of total PKC beta II in hypertrophied mice), without compensatory changes of the other eight PKC isoforms present in the mouse heart. This enhanced PKC beta II activation is coupled with increased RACK1 expression and PKC beta II-RACK1 interactions, demonstrating PKC epsilon-induced PKC beta II signaling via a RACK1-dependent mechanism. Taken together with our previous findings regarding enhanced RACK1 expression and PKC epsilon-RACK1 interactions in the setting of cardiac hypertrophy and failure, these results suggest that RACK1 serves as a nexus for at least two isoforms of PKC, the epsilon-isoform and the beta II-isoform, thus coordinating PKC-mediated hypertrophic signaling. PMID:11709417

  15. 78 FR 37114 - Self-Regulation of Class II Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... the issuance of a certificate for tribal self-regulation of Class II gaming. 78 FR 20236, April 4... National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Part 518 RIN 3141-AA44 Self-Regulation of Class II Gaming AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission, Department of the Interior. ACTION: Final rule; technical and...

  16. The properties of the single chicken MHC classical class II alpha chain ( B-LA) gene indicate an ancient origin for the DR/E-like isotype of class II molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomonsen, Jan; Marston, Denise; Avila, David;

    2003-01-01

    significantly in the peptide-binding alpha(1) domain. The cDNA and genomic DNA sequences from chickens of diverse origins show few alleles, which differ in only four nucleotides and one amino acid. In contrast, significant restriction fragment length polymorphism is detected by Southern blot analysis of genomic...... DNA, suggesting considerable diversity around the gene. Analysis of a large back-cross family indicates that the class II alpha chain locus ( B-LA) is located roughly 5.6 cM from the MHC locus, which encodes the classical class II beta chains. Thus the chicken class II alpha chain gene is like the...

  17. Gene knockout mice establish a primary protective role for major histocompatibility complex class II-restricted responses in Chlamydia trachomatis genital tract infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, R P; Feilzer, K; Tumas, D B

    1995-01-01

    Mice with disrupted beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m-/-), I-A (class II-/-), or CD4 (CD4-/-) genes were examined for their capacity to resolve Chlamydia trachomatis genital tract infection. C57BL/6 and beta 2m-/- mice resolved infection similarly and were culture negative by 4 to 5 weeks following infection. Conversely, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-/- mice failed to resolve infection, and CD4-/- mice showed a significant delay (2 weeks). Secondary challenge of C57BL/6, beta 2m...

  18. Postura de cabeça nas deformidades dentofaciais classe II e classe III Head posture in the presence of class II and class III dentofacial deformities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Ralin de Carvalho Deda

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: este estudo investiga se existe diferença entre grupos com diferentes deformidades dentofaciais (padrão classe II e classe III e o grupo sem a deformidade em relação à postura de cabeça. MÉTODO: participaram deste estudo, voluntariamente, 25 pacientes (entre 16 e 40 anos. Dez pacientes com diagnóstico de deformidade dentofacial classe II e 15 pacientes com o diagnóstico de classe III esquelética e 15 voluntários sadios, com equivalência em sexo e idade ao grupo de deformidade, formando o grupo controle. Primeiramente foi realizada a inspeção da postura de cabeça. Logo em seguida foi realizada a avaliação postural de cabeça por meio da fotografia postural (fotogrametria. RESULTADOS: não houve diferença significante (p>0,05 entre os grupos em relação à avaliação postural utilizando-se a fotogrametria. Já em relação à avaliação postural pela inspeção clínica, observou-se uma postura anterior de cabeça nos indivíduos com a deformidade dentofacial padrão classe II, comparados ao padrão classe III (p = 0,001 e ao grupo controle (p = 0,001. Foi visto também que o grupo deformidade classe II apresentou um percentual inferior de indivíduos com posição neutra de cabeça comparado ao grupo deformidade classe III (p = 0,008 e ao grupo controle (p = 0,001. CONCLUSÃO: indivíduos com deformidade dentofacial classe II podem apresentar uma anteriorização de cabeça. Não há influência da deformidade no aumento ou na redução do ângulo cabeça-pescoço, analisado por meio da fotogrametria.PURPOSE: this study investigates whether there is a difference in head posture between groups with different dentofacial deformities (class II and class III and a group with no deformity. METHOD: 25 volunteers aged from 16 to 40 year old took part in the study. Ten patients had a diagnosis of class II dentofacial deformity, 15 had a diagnosis of class III skeletal deformity, and 15 healthy volunteers matched for sex and

  19. TGF-{beta}-stimulated aberrant expression of class III {beta}-tubulin via the ERK signaling pathway in cultured retinal pigment epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Eun Jee [Department of Ophthalmology, National Health Insurance Corporation Ilsan Hospital, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Ji Na; Jung, Sun-Ah [Konyang University Myunggok Medical Research Institute, Kim' s Eye Hospital, Konyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jin Won [Department of Biology, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joon H., E-mail: joonhlee@konyang.ac.kr [Konyang University Myunggok Medical Research Institute, Kim' s Eye Hospital, Konyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TGF-{beta} induces aberrant expression of {beta}III in RPE cells via the ERK pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TGF-{beta} increases O-GlcNAc modification of {beta}III in RPE cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mature RPE cells have the capacity to express a neuron-associated gene by TGF-{beta}. -- Abstract: The class III {beta}-tubulin isotype ({beta}{sub III}) is expressed exclusively by neurons within the normal human retina and is not present in normal retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells in situ or in the early phase of primary cultures. However, aberrant expression of class III {beta}-tubulin has been observed in passaged RPE cells and RPE cells with dedifferentiated morphology in pathologic epiretinal membranes from idiopathic macular pucker, proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF-{beta}) has been implicated in dedifferentiation of RPE cells and has a critical role in the development of proliferative vitreoretinal diseases. Here, we investigated the potential effects of TGF-{beta} on the aberrant expression of class III {beta}-tubulin and the intracellular signaling pathway mediating these changes. TGF-{beta}-induced aberrant expression and O-linked-{beta}-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNac) modification of class III {beta}-tubulin in cultured RPE cells as determined using Western blotting, RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry. TGF-{beta} also stimulated phosphorylation of ERK. TGF-{beta}-induced aberrant expression of class III {beta}-tubulin was significantly reduced by pretreatment with U0126, an inhibitor of ERK phosphorylation. Our findings indicate that TGF-{beta} stimulated aberrant expression of class III {beta}-tubulin via activation of the ERK signaling pathway. These data demonstrate that mature RPE cells have the capacity to express a neuron-associated gene in response to TGF-{beta} stimulation and provide useful information

  20. Complementary DNA sequences encoding the multimammate rat MHC class II DQ α and β chains and cross-species sequence comparison in rodents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goüy de Bellocq, J; Leirs, H

    2009-01-01

    Sequences of the complete open reading frame (ORF) for rodents major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II genes are rare. Multimammate rat (Mastomys natalensis) complementary DNA (cDNA) encoding the alpha and beta chains of MHC class II DQ gene was cloned from a rapid amplifications of c...

  1. MHC class II molecules regulate growth in human T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M; Odum, Niels; Bendtzen, K;

    1994-01-01

    modulate several T cell responses. Here, we studied further the role of class II molecules in the regulation of T cell growth. Costimulation of class II molecules by immobilized HLA-DR mAb significantly enhanced interleukin (IL)-2-supported T cell growth of the majority of CD4+, CD45RAlow, ROhigh T cell......-like) as well as T cells producing both cytokines (THO-like) responded to class II mAb. The costimulatory effect was not restricted to IL-2-driven T cell growth, since TCR/CD3-induced T cell activation was also enhanced by HLA-DR mAb. Moreover, class II costimulation potentiated CD28-mAb-induced T cell...

  2. Class II barodontalgia: review and report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodmansey, Karl

    2008-01-01

    Barodontalgia is a rarely reported condition involving changes in ambient pressure resulting in tooth pain. According to Ferjentsik and Aker, Class II barodontalgia is observed in teeth that have pre-existing pulpal disease and an ultimate diagnosis of irreversible pulpitis.1 This article describes a case of Class II barodontalgia that was experienced on a commercial airline flight and reviews current knowledge regarding this phenomenon, including proposed etiologic mechanisms.

  3. Beta II plasma-gun mechanical design and construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrotti, L.; Deis, G.; Wong, R.; Calderon, M.; Chargin, A.; Garner, D.

    1979-11-12

    The magnetized coaxial plasma gun (located on the east end of the Beta II facility at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory) will be used to test a new method of initiating a field reversed mirror plasma. The field-reversed mirror is expected to improve the mirror-fusion reactor by enhancing the ratio of fusion power to injected power. This paper concentrates on the mechanical design and construction of the magnetized coaxial plasma gun and also discusses the diagnostic devices necessary to demonstrate the formation of field-reversed rings.

  4. Evolution of major histocompatibility complex class I and class II genes in the brown bear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuduk Katarzyna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Major histocompatibility complex (MHC proteins constitute an essential component of the vertebrate immune response, and are coded by the most polymorphic of the vertebrate genes. Here, we investigated sequence variation and evolution of MHC class I and class II DRB, DQA and DQB genes in the brown bear Ursus arctos to characterise the level of polymorphism, estimate the strength of positive selection acting on them, and assess the extent of gene orthology and trans-species polymorphism in Ursidae. Results We found 37 MHC class I, 16 MHC class II DRB, four DQB and two DQA alleles. We confirmed the expression of several loci: three MHC class I, two DRB, two DQB and one DQA. MHC class I also contained two clusters of non-expressed sequences. MHC class I and DRB allele frequencies differed between northern and southern populations of the Scandinavian brown bear. The rate of nonsynonymous substitutions (dN exceeded the rate of synonymous substitutions (dS at putative antigen binding sites of DRB and DQB loci and, marginally significantly, at MHC class I loci. Models of codon evolution supported positive selection at DRB and MHC class I loci. Both MHC class I and MHC class II sequences showed orthology to gene clusters found in the giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca. Conclusions Historical positive selection has acted on MHC class I, class II DRB and DQB, but not on the DQA locus. The signal of historical positive selection on the DRB locus was particularly strong, which may be a general feature of caniforms. The presence of MHC class I pseudogenes may indicate faster gene turnover in this class through the birth-and-death process. South–north population structure at MHC loci probably reflects origin of the populations from separate glacial refugia.

  5. Partial N-terminal sequence analysis of human class II molecules expressing the DQw3 determinant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obata, F; Endo, T; Yoshii, M; Otani, F; Igarashi, M; Takenouchi, T; Ikeda, H; Ogasawara, K; Kasahara, M; Wakisaka, A

    1985-09-01

    HLA-DQ molecules were isolated from DRw9-homozygous and DR4-homozygous cell lines by using a monoclonal antibody HU-18, which recognizes class II molecules carrying the conventional DQw3 determinant. The partial N-terminal sequence analysis of the DQw3 molecules revealed that they have sequences homologous to those of murine I-A molecules. Within the limits of our sequence analysis, the DQw3 molecules from the two cell lines are identical to each other in both the alpha and beta chains. The DQ alpha as well as DQ beta chains were found to have amino acid substitutions when compared to other I-A-like molecules whose sequences have been reported. These differences may contribute to the DQw supertypic specificity. The polymorphic nature of DQ molecules is in marked contrast to that of DR molecules where DR alpha chains are highly conserved while DR beta chains have easily detectable amino acid substitutions. PMID:2411700

  6. DNA polymorphism of HLA class II genes in alopecia areata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morling, N; Frentz, G; Fugger, L;

    1992-01-01

    We investigated the DNA restriction polymorphism (RFLP) of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class II genes: HLA-DQA, -DQB, -DPA, and -DPB in 20 Danish patients with alopecia areata (AA) and in healthy Danes. The frequency in AA of the DQB1*0301 and DQw7 associated DQB Bgl/II 4.2 kb...

  7. MHC class II genes in the European badger (Meles meles) : characterization, patterns of variation, and transcription analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sin, Yung Wa; Dugdale, Hannah L.; Newman, Chris; Macdonald, David W.; Burke, Terry

    2012-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) comprises many genes, some of which are polymorphic with numerous alleles. Sequence variation among alleles is most pronounced in exon 2 of the class II genes, which encodes the alpha 1 and beta 1 domains that form the antigen-binding site (ABS) for the pre

  8. HLA class II genes: typing by DNA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, J L; Bidwell, E A; Bradley, B A

    1990-04-01

    A detailed understanding of the structure and function of the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) has ensued from studies by molecular biologist during the last decade. Virtually all of the HLA genes have now been cloned, and the nucleotide sequences of their different allelic forms have been determined. Typing for these HLA alleles is a fundamental prerequisite for tissue matching in allogeneic organ transplantation. Until very recently, typing procedures have been dominated by serological and cellular methods. The availability of cloned DNA from HLA genes has now permitted the technique of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis to be applied, with remarkable success and advantage, to phenotyping of both HLA Class I and Class II determinants. For the HLA Class II genes DR and DQ, a simple two-stage RFLP analysis permits the accurate identification of all specificities defined by serology, and of many which are defined by cellular typing. At the present time, however, RFLP typing of HLA Class I genes is not as practicable or as informative as that for HLA Class II genes. The present clinical applications of HLA-DR and DQ RFLP typing are predominantly in phenotyping of living donors, including selection of HLA-matched volunteer bone marrow donors, in allograft survival studies, and in studies of HLA Class II-associated diseases. However, the time taken to perform RFLP analysis precludes its use for the typing of cadaveric kidney donors. Nucleotide sequence data for the alleles of HLA Class II genes have now permitted the development of allele-specific oligonucleotide (ASO) typing, a second category of DNA analysis. This has been greatly facilitated by the ability to amplify specific HLA Class II DNA 'target' sequences using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. The accuracy of DNA typing techniques should ensure that this methodology will eventually replace conventional HLA phenotyping.

  9. Contrasting evolutionary histories of MHC class I and class II loci in grouse—Effects of selection and gene conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minias, Piotr; Bateson, Zachary W; Whittingham, Linda A; Johnson, Jeff A.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Dunn, Peter O

    2016-01-01

    Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) encode receptor molecules that are responsible for recognition of intracellular and extracellular pathogens (class I and class II genes, respectively) in vertebrates. Given the different roles of class I and II MHC genes, one might expect the strength of selection to differ between these two classes. Different selective pressures may also promote different rates of gene conversion at each class. Despite these predictions, surprisingly few studies have looked at differences between class I and II genes in terms of both selection and gene conversion. Here, we investigated the molecular evolution of MHC class I and II genes in five closely related species of prairie grouse (Centrocercus and Tympanuchus) that possess one class I and two class II loci. We found striking differences in the strength of balancing selection acting on MHC class I versus class II genes. More than half of the putative antigen-binding sites (ABS) of class II were under positive or episodic diversifying selection, compared with only 10% at class I. We also found that gene conversion had a stronger role in shaping the evolution of MHC class II than class I. Overall, the combination of strong positive (balancing) selection and frequent gene conversion has maintained higher diversity of MHC class II than class I in prairie grouse. This is one of the first studies clearly demonstrating that macroevolutionary mechanisms can act differently on genes involved in the immune response against intracellular and extracellular pathogens.

  10. PowerScope a Class II corrector - A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulose, Joby; Antony, Palathottungal Joseph; Sureshkumar, Brijesh; George, Susha Mariam; Mathew, Manu Mundackal; Sebastian, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Managing mild to moderate Class II malocclusion is a one of the common and major challenges to orthodontists. Class II discrepancies with mandibular deficiency during active growth are usually treated by myofunctional appliances. Fixed functional appliances evolved due to the noncompliance with conventional myofunctional appliances. This case report illustrates the efficiency of PowerScope in correction of skeletal Class II with mandibular deficiency in a patient aged 13 years who has reported to the department with a chief complaint of forwardly placed upper front teeth. This case with functional jaw retrusion was treated initially with MBT 0.022" prescription followed by PowerScope. Pre-, mid- and post-treatment cephalograms were obtained, and cephalometric analysis was performed. Stable and successful results were obtained with a substantial improvement in facial profile, skeletal jaw relationship, and overall esthetic appearance of the patient. A significant forward displacement of the mandible was the principal element for successful correction of Class II malocclusion. PowerScope provides the best results for Class II management, thus enables us to treat such cases by a nonextraction approach rather than contemplating extractions. PMID:27307671

  11. Reduced classes and curve counting on surfaces II: calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Kool, M

    2011-01-01

    We calculate the "surface part" of the reduced residue stable pair theory on the canonical bundle $K_S$ of a projective surface $S$. For fixed curve class $\\beta\\in H^2(S)$ the results are entirely topological, depending on $\\beta^2, \\beta.c_1(S), c_1(S)^2, c_2(S), b_1(S)$ and invariants of the ring structure on $H^*(S)$ such as the Pfaffian of $\\beta$ considered as an element of $\\Lambda^2 H^1(S)^*$. We also give conditions under which this calculates the full 3-fold reduced residue theory of $K_S$. This is related to the reduced residue Gromov-Witten theory of $S$ via the MNOP conjecture. When the surface has no holomorphic 2-forms this can be expressed as saying that certain Gromov-Witten invariants of $S$ are topological. Our method uses the results of \\cite{KT1} to express the reduced virtual cycle in terms of Euler classes of bundles over a natural smooth ambient space.

  12. ZAP-70 and p72syk are signaling response elements through MHC class II molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanner, S B; Grosmaire, L S; Blake, J;

    1995-01-01

    -activated human T-cells. In both tonsillar B-lymphocytes and B-cell leukemia lines, p72syk was rapidly phosphorylated on tyrosine residues following HLA-DR cross-linking. Tyrosine phosphorylation of p72syk induced through ligation of either the B-cell antigen receptor or class II molecules was potently inhibited...... intracellular calcium. Similar responses have been observed in B-cells following stimulation of MHC class II molecules, including the increased production of intracellular cAMP. In this report, we demonstrate that the ZAP-70 tyrosine kinase is a responsive signaling element following cross-linking of HLA-DR in...... antibody induced receptor ligation, bacterial superantigen (SEA and SEB) treatment of HLA-DR+ T-cells stimulated ZAP-70 tyrosine phosphorylation, consistent with class II transmembrane signaling by ligation of HLA-DR and V beta in cis. Modulation of the TCR/CD3 led to abrogation of class II induced ZAP-70...

  13. Re-expression of IGF-II is important for beta cell regeneration in adult mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luxian Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The key factors which support re-expansion of beta cell numbers after injury are largely unknown. Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II plays a critical role in supporting cell division and differentiation during ontogeny but its role in the adult is not known. In this study we investigated the effect of IGF-II on beta cell regeneration. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We employed an in vivo model of 'switchable' c-Myc-induced beta cell ablation, pIns-c-MycER(TAM, in which 90% of beta cells are lost following 11 days of c-Myc (Myc activation in vivo. Importantly, such ablation is normally followed by beta cell regeneration once Myc is deactivated, enabling functional studies of beta cell regeneration in vivo. IGF-II was shown to be re-expressed in the adult pancreas of pIns-c-MycER(TAM/IGF-II(+/+ (MIG mice, following beta cell injury. As expected in the presence of IGF-II beta cell mass and numbers recover rapidly after ablation. In contrast, in pIns-c-MycER(TAM/IGF-II(+/- (MIGKO mice, which express no IGF-II, recovery of beta cell mass and numbers were delayed and impaired. Despite failure of beta cell number increase, MIGKO mice recovered from hyperglycaemia, although this was delayed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that beta cell regeneration in adult mice depends on re-expression of IGF-II, and supports the utility of using such ablation-recovery models for identifying other potential factors critical for underpinning successful beta cell regeneration in vivo. The potential therapeutic benefits of manipulating the IGF-II signaling systems merit further exploration.

  14. The interaction between beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m) and purified class-I major histocompatibility (MHC) antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, L O; Hansen, A S; Olsen, A C;

    1994-01-01

    been generated recently and this paper reports on a similar assay for the interaction between beta 2m and class I. As a model system human beta 2m binding to mouse class I was used. The assay is strictly biochemical using purified reagents which interact in solution and complex formation is determined...... by size separation. It is specific and highly sensitive. The observed affinity of the interaction, KD, is close to 0.4 nM. The rate of association at 37 degrees C is very fast (the ka is around 5 x 10(4)/M/s) whereas the dissociation is slow (the kd is around 8 x 10(-6)/s); the ratio of dissociation...

  15. Interaction of oxyimino beta-lactams with a class C beta-lactamase and a mutant with a spectrum extended to beta-lactams.

    OpenAIRE

    Nukaga, M; Tsukamoto, K; Yamaguchi, H; Sawai, T.

    1994-01-01

    The class C beta-lactamase of Citrobacter freundii GN346 is a typical cephalosporinase comprising 361 amino acids, and substitution of the glutamic acid at position 219 in the enzyme by lysine was previously shown to broaden its substrate spectrum to oxyimino beta-lactams (K. Tsukamoto, R. Ohno, and T. Sawai, J. Bacteriol. 172:4348-4351, 1990). To clarify this spectrum extension from the kinetic point of view, the interactions of cefuroxime, ceftazidime, and aztreonam with the wild-type and m...

  16. 14 CFR 21.223 - Class II provisional airworthiness certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Class II provisional airworthiness certificates. 21.223 Section 21.223 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... the aircraft has been issued to the manufacturer. (c) The applicant must submit a statement by...

  17. Improved prediction of MHC class I and class II epitopes using a novel Gibbs sampling approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten; Lundegaard, Claus; Worning, Peder;

    2004-01-01

    binding peptides and to guiding the process of rational vaccine design. Results: We apply the motif sampler method to the complex problem of MHC class II binding. The input to the method is amino acid peptide sequences extracted from the public databases of SYFPEITHI and MHCPEP and known to bind......Prediction of which peptides will bind a specific major histocompatibility complex (MHC) constitutes an important step in identifying potential T-cell epitopes suitable as vaccine candidates. MHC class II binding peptides have a broad length distribution complicating such predictions. Thus...

  18. New molecules from old classes: revisiting the development of beta-lactams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Malcolm G P; Heim, Jutta

    2009-09-01

    Beta-lactams are among the most successful classes of antibiotics, both medically and commercially. However, more than 60 years of extensive, and sometimes inappropriate, use has enabled bacteria to develop a broad range of resistance mechanisms. Nevertheless, the versatility of the beta-lactam core structure, combined with the innovation of medicinal chemists, has repeatedly led to the development of new generations of beta-lactam antibiotics that are capable of overcoming the problems caused by mounting bacterial resistance. In particular, two cephalosporin derivatives, ceftobiprole and ceftaroline (Forest Laboratories Inc/AstraZeneca plc), as well as the carbapenem razupenem (Novartis AG/Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma Co Ltd), have demonstrated potent activity against the gram-positive 'superbug' MRSA. CXA-101 (Calixa Therapeutics Inc) is a new member of the series of cephalosporins that are effective against gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The compound has been demonstrated to be particularly stable to degradation by the class C beta-lactamases in P. aeruginosa. Furthermore, siderophore-containing monobactams such as BAL-30072 (Basilea Pharmaceutica International Ltd) are inherently stable to hydrolysis by metallo-beta-lactamases, and act as 'Trojan horses' by being transported into gram-negative cells using endogenous bacterial iron-uptake systems. Considering the significant medical need for novel antibiotics that are active against resistant strains of bacteria, it is hoped several of the new generation of beta-lactam compounds that are in clinical development will soon reach the market. PMID:19697275

  19. The disintegrin and metalloproteinase ADAM12 contributes to TGF-beta signaling through interaction with the type II receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atfi, Azeddine; Dumont, Emmanuelle; Colland, Frédéric;

    2007-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) regulates a wide variety of biological processes through two types of Ser/Thr transmembrane receptors: the TGF-beta type I receptor and the TGF-beta type II receptor (TbetaRII). Upon ligand binding, TGF-beta type I receptor activated by TbetaRII propagat...

  20. Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay in LRSM with Natural Type-II seesaw Dominance

    CERN Document Server

    Pritimita, Prativa; Patra, Sudhanwa

    2016-01-01

    We present a detailed discussion on neutrinoless double beta decay within a class of left-right symmetric models where neutrino mass originates by natural type II seesaw dominance. The spontaneous symmetry breaking is implemented with doublets, triplets and bidoublet scalars. The fermion sector is extended with an extra sterile neutrino per generation that helps in implementing the seesaw mechanism. The presence of extra particles in the model exactly cancels type-I seesaw and allows large value for Dirac neutrino mass matrix $M_D$. The key feature of this work is that all the physical masses and mixing are expressed in terms of neutrino oscillation parameters and lightest neutrino mass thereby facilitating to constrain light neutrino masses from $0\

  1. The Dimanganese(II) Site of Bacillus subtilis Class Ib Ribonucleotide Reductase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boal, Amie K.; Cotruvo, Jr., Joseph A.; Stubbe, JoAnne; Rosenzweig, Amy C. (MIT); (NWU)

    2014-10-02

    Class Ib ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) use a dimanganese-tyrosyl radical cofactor, Mn{sub 2}{sup III}-Y{sm_bullet}, in their homodimeric NrdF ({beta}2) subunit to initiate reduction of ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides. The structure of the Mn{sub 2}{sup II} form of NrdF is an important component in understanding O{sub 2}-mediated formation of the active metallocofactor, a subject of much interest because a unique flavodoxin, NrdI, is required for cofactor assembly. Biochemical studies and sequence alignments suggest that NrdF and NrdI proteins diverge into three phylogenetically distinct groups. The only crystal structure to date of a NrdF with a fully ordered and occupied dimanganese site is that of Escherichia coli Mn{sub 2}{sup II}-NrdF, prototypical of the enzymes from actinobacteria and proteobacteria. Here we report the 1.9 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of Bacillus subtilis Mn{sub 2}{sup II}-NrdF, representative of the enzymes from a second group, from Bacillus and Staphylococcus. The structures of the metal clusters in the {beta}2 dimer are distinct from those observed in E. coli Mn{sub 2}{sup II}-NrdF. These differences illustrate the key role that solvent molecules and protein residues in the second coordination sphere of the Mn{sub 2}{sup II} cluster play in determining conformations of carboxylate residues at the metal sites and demonstrate that diverse coordination geometries are capable of serving as starting points for Mn{sub 2}{sup III}-Y{sm_bullet} cofactor assembly in class Ib RNRs.

  2. The nonconventional MHC class II molecule DM governs diabetes susceptibility in NOD mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A J Morgan

    Full Text Available The spontaneous destruction of insulin producing pancreatic beta cells in non-obese diabetic (NOD mice provides a valuable model of type 1 diabetes. As in humans, disease susceptibility is controlled by the classical MHC class II genes that guide CD4(+ T cell responses to self and foreign antigens. It has long been suspected that the dedicated class II chaperone designated HLA-DM in humans or H-2M in mice also makes an important contribution, but due to tight linkage within the MHC, a possible role played by DM peptide editing has not been previously tested by conventional genetic approaches. Here we exploited newly established germ-line competent NOD ES cells to engineer a loss of function allele. DM deficient NOD mice display defective class II peptide occupancy and surface expression, and are completely protected against type 1 diabetes. Interestingly the mutation results in increased proportional representation of CD4(+Foxp3(+ regulatory T cells and the absence of pathogenic CD4(+ T effectors. Overall, this striking phenotype establishes that DM-mediated peptide selection plays an essential role in the development of autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice.

  3. Genomic analysis identifies class II mismatches in serologically DR-compatible human renal allografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushell, A; Wood, K J; Morris, P J

    1988-11-01

    Many studies, including those from our own center, have shown that matching the donor and recipient for HLA-DR antigens has a beneficial effect on the outcome of cadaveric renal transplantation. However, cases of irreversible graft rejection are sometimes seen in patients who have received an HLA-DR-compatible kidney, suggesting that serologic compatibility for HLA-DR may not always ensure reduced alloreactivity toward the graft. We have examined a number of recipients and their serologically DR-compatible cadaveric donors by Southern blotting and hybridization with locus specific HLA class II probes in order to determine whether in these patients there were class II mismatches that had been undetected by serology. The results show that the analysis of DR beta restriction fragment patterns does little more than complement and confirm the serologic identification of HLA-DR. Hybridization with DQ alpha and DQ beta probes, however, significantly extends the number of DQ specificities that can be detected and suggests that DQ mismatches in DR-compatible donor-recipient pairs may be more common than previously supposed, although it is not possible to draw any conclusions on the influence of DQ incompatibilities in the presence of DR compatibility on graft outcome.

  4. Angle Class II malocclusion treated with extraction of permanent teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Mattos Barreto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Angle Class II malocclusion associated with anterior open bite in adult patients demands a carefully elaborated orthodontic planning, aiming at restoring not only harmonious dental and facial esthetics, but also a balanced masticatory function. Orthognathic surgery or permanent teeth extraction are often the choice of treatment, therefore, treatment decision is related to all dental, skeletal and functional aspects. The present report discusses orthodontic compensation carried out by means of upper premolar extraction performed to correct the Class II canine relationship and, consequently, the anterior open bite, accepting that the upper incisors be retroclined. This clinical case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO as part of the requirements for obtaining the BBO Certification.

  5. Relation between Angle Class II malocclusion and deleterious oral habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Tarcísio Lima Ferreira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Oral habits may interfere on the growth and development of the stomatognathic system and orofacial myofunctional conditions, producing changes in the position of teeth in their dental arches. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to verify the presence of deleterious oral habits in individuals with malocclusion and see if there is a predominance of Class II malocclusion in these individuals. METHODS: The records of 140 patients treated at the Clinic of Preventive Orthodontics FORP-USP who had already completed treatment were randomly selected and analyzed. Their ages ranged from 6 to 10 years and 11 months. Associations were made between the presence or absence of deleterious oral habits, type and number of habits found in each individual and the type of malocclusion according to Angle classification. The statistical analysis used was the Chi-square test with a significance level of 5%. History of deleterious oral habits was found in 67.1% of individuals. RESULTS: The Class I malocclusion was most frequent (82.9%, followed by Class II malocclusion (12.1% and Class III (5%. CONCLUSION: There was a predominance of Class II malocclusion in individuals with a history of deleterious oral habits.INTRODUÇÃO: hábitos bucais podem interferir no crescimento e desenvolvimento do sistema estomatognático e nas condições miofuncionais bucofaciais, acarretando alterações no posicionamento dos dentes nas respectivas arcadas dentárias. OBJETIVO: o objetivo dessa pesquisa foi verificar a presença de hábitos bucais deletérios em indivíduos portadores de má oclusão e observar se existe predominância de má oclusão Classe II de Angle nesses indivíduos. MÉTODOS: foram selecionadas, aleatoriamente, e analisadas 140 fichas de pacientes atendidos na Clínica de Ortodontia Preventiva da FORP-USP, que já haviam recebido alta no tratamento. A faixa etária variou dos 6 anos a 10 anos e 11 meses. Foram realizadas associações entre

  6. Characterization of recombination in the HLA class II region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullen, M.; Carrington, M. [National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD (United States); Noble, J. [Roche Molecular Systems, Almeda, CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-02-01

    Studies of linkage disequilibrium across the HLA class II region have been useful in predicting where recombination is most likely to occur. The strong associations between genes within the 85-kb region from DQB1 to DRB1 are consistent with low frequency of recombination in this segment of DNA. Conversely, a lack of association between alleles of TAP1 and TAP2 ({approximately}15 kb) has been observed, suggesting that recombination occurs here with relatively high frequency. Much of the HLA class II region has now been sequenced, providing the tools to undertake detailed analysis of recombination. Twenty-seven families containing one or two recombinant chromosomes within the 500-kb interval between the DPB1 and DRB1 genes were used to determine patterns of recombination across this region. SSCP analysis and microsatellite typing yielded identification of 127 novel polymorphic markers distributed throughout the class II region, allowing refinement of the site of crossover in 30 class II recombinant chromosomes. The three regions where recombination was observed most frequently are as follows: the 45-kb interval between HLA-DNA and RING3 (11 cases), the 50-kb interval between DQB3 and DQB1 (6 cases), and an 8.8-kb segment of the TAP2 gene (3 cases). Six of the 10 remaining recombinants await further characterization, pending identification of additional informative markers, while four recombinants were localized to other intervals (outliers). Analysis of association between markers flanking HLA-DNA to RING3 (45 kb), as well as TAP1 to TAP2 (15 kb), by use of independent CEPH haplotypes indicated little or no linkage disequilibrium, supporting the familial recombination data. A notable sequence motif located within a region associated with increased rates of recombination consisted of a (TGGA){sub 12} tandem repeat within the TAP2 gene. 74 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Applying the Listening to Mothers II Results in Lamaze Classes

    OpenAIRE

    Day, Elizabeth H.

    2007-01-01

    Childbirth educators can use Childbirth Connection's Listening to Mothers II survey as a resource for updating their curriculum and teaching methods. The survey reveals that issues surrounding a woman's choice of care providers, her nutrition and fitness habits, and her possible experiences with depression and abuse may not be addressed sufficiently in a traditional, third-trimester, Lamaze class and may need greater emphasis in early pregnancy. The survey's results also show that women turn ...

  8. Cylindrical bubbles and blobs from a Class II Hydrophobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Paul; Pham, Michael; Blalock, Brad

    2012-02-01

    Cerato ulmin is a class II hydrophobin. In aqueous suspensions, it easily forms cylindrical air bubbles and cylindrical oil blobs. The conditions for formation of these unusual structures will be discussed, along with scattering and microscopic investigations of their remarkable stability. Possible applications in diverse fields including polymer synthesis and oil spill remediation will be considered. Acknowledgment is made to Dr. Wayne C. Richards of the Canadian Forest Service for the gift of Cerato ulmin.

  9. Relation between Angle Class II malocclusion and deleterious oral habits

    OpenAIRE

    José Tarcísio Lima Ferreira; Maria do Rosário Ferreira Lima; Luciana Zappeloni Pizzolato

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Oral habits may interfere on the growth and development of the stomatognathic system and orofacial myofunctional conditions, producing changes in the position of teeth in their dental arches. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to verify the presence of deleterious oral habits in individuals with malocclusion and see if there is a predominance of Class II malocclusion in these individuals. METHODS: The records of 140 patients treated at the Clinic of Preventive Orthodontics...

  10. Treatment of a Class II deepbite with microimplant anchorage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyo-Sang; Kim, Ji-Yeun; Kwon, Tae-Geon

    2011-03-01

    The goal of this report was to illustrate new treatment mechanics for using microimplants for the treatment of a Class II Division 2 deepbite malocclusion. A 29-year-old woman with a deepbite was treated with the aid of microimplant anchorage. Microimplants placed between the maxillary second premolars and first molars were used as anchorage to apply a distal force to the anterior teeth to correct the Class II canine and molar relationships. A distal force was applied to long hooks that were crimped between the lateral incisors and the canines. By applying a backward force to the long hooks, the maxillary anterior teeth experienced palatal root movement with no change in the vertical and anteroposterior positions of the incisal edges. The distal extrusive movement of the maxillary second molars achieved by disengaging the second molars from the archwire during distal force application and an anterior bite-block bonded on the lingual surface of the maxillary central incisors produced the increase in vertical dimension. The distal force to the long extended hooks from the microimplants was possibly good mechanics for obtaining the palatal root movement and correcting the Class II canine and molar relationships. The anterior bite-block and disengagement of the maxillary second molars during distal force application were effective for increasing the vertical dimension.

  11. Preparation of association compound between rhodium(II) citrate and {beta}-cyclodextrin; Preparacao do composto de associacao entre citrato de rodio(II) e {beta}-ciclodextrina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgos, Ana E.; Okio, Coco K.Y.A., E-mail: aeburgosc@unal.edu.co [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia); Sinisterra, Ruben D. [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte - MG (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Inclusion compound of rhodium(II) citrate with{beta}-cyclodextrin in a 1:1 molar ratio was prepared using freeze-drying method. X-ray diffractometry, thermal analysis (TG/DTG/DSC), infrared and {sup 1}H-NMR with {sup 1}H spin lattice relaxation ({sup 1}H T{sub 1}) measurements and {sup 13}C techniques were used to characterize the system prepared. The results indicated the formation of inclusion or association compounds between rhodium(II) citrate and {beta}-cyclodextrin. (author)

  12. Evolução dos preparos das cavidades de classe II Developments in preparation of class II cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Miyuki ONO

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A evolução dos preparos de classe II com a introdução de novos materiais e a conscientização da importância da preservação de estrutura dental sadia são abordadas nos preparos do tipo Almqvist, Roggenkamp e túnel, em que se observa a necessidade de menor desgaste da estrutura dentária, com aumento da resistência à fratura, melhor estética e melhor retençãoDevelopments in preparation of class II cavities with the introduction of new materials and awareness of the importance of preservation of a sound dental structure are broached in preparations of the type Almqvist, Roggenkamp and tunnel, where the need for less wear of the dental structure was observed with an increase in fracture strength, better aesthetics, and better retention

  13. Toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 binds to major histocompatibility complex class II molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholl, P.; Diez, A.; Mourad, W.; Parsonnet, J.; Geha, R.S.; Chatila, T. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (USA))

    1989-06-01

    Toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1) is a 22-kDa exotoxin produced by strains of Staphylococcus aureus and implicated in the pathogenesis of toxic shock syndrome. In common with other staphylococcal exotoxins, TSST-1 has diverse immunological effects. These include the induction of interleukin 2 receptor expression, interleukin 2 synthesis, proliferation of human T lymphocytes, and stimulation of interleukin 1 synthesis by human monocytes. In the present study, the authors demonstrate that TSST-1 binds with saturation kinetics and with a dissociation constant of 17-43 nM to a single class of binding sites on human mononuclear cells. There was a strong correlation between the number of TSST-1 binding sites and the expression of major histocompatibility complex class II molecules. Affinity chromatography of {sup 125}I-labeled cell membranes over TSST-1-agarose resulted in the recovery of two bands of 35 kDa and 31 kDa that comigrated, respectively, with the {alpha} and {beta} chains of HLA-DR and that could be immunoprecipitated with anti-HLA-DR monoclonal antibodies. Binding of TSST-1 was demonstrated to HLA-DR and HLA-DQ L-cell transfectants. These results indicate that major histocompatibility complex class II molecules represent the major binding site for TSST-1 on human cells.

  14. 78 FR 24061 - Minimum Technical Standards for Class II Gaming Systems and Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... ensuring the integrity of electronic Class II games and aids. 73 FR 60508, Oct. 10, 2008. The technical... Class II gaming system; and to clarify the term ``alternate standard.'' 77 FR 58473, Sept. 21, 2012. In... control standards (MICS) for Class II gaming. 77 FR 58708, Sept. 21, 2012. Similar to the part...

  15. Signal transduction by HLA class II antigens expressed on activated T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ødum, Niels; Martin, P J; Schieven, G L;

    1991-01-01

    Human T cells express HLA class II antigens upon activation. Although activated, class II+ T cells can present alloantigens under certain circumstances, the functional role of class II antigens on activated T cells remains largely unknown. Here, we report that cross-linking of HLA-DR molecules ex...

  16. MHC Class II and Non-MHC Class II Genes Differentially Influence Humoral Immunity to Bacillus anthracis Lethal Factor and Protective Antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith A. James

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthrax Lethal Toxin consists of Protective Antigen (PA and Lethal Factor (LF, and current vaccination strategies focus on eliciting antibodies to PA. In human vaccination, the response to PA can vary greatly, and the response is often directed toward non-neutralizing epitopes. Variable vaccine responses have been shown to be due in part to genetic differences in individuals, with both MHC class II and other genes playing roles. Here, we investigated the relative contribution of MHC class II versus non-MHC class II genes in the humoral response to PA and LF immunization using three immunized strains of inbred mice: A/J (H-2k at the MHC class II locus, B6 (H-2b, and B6.H2k (H-2k. IgG antibody titers to LF were controlled primarily by the MHC class II locus, whereas IgG titers to PA were strongly influenced by the non-MHC class II genetic background. Conversely, the humoral fine specificity of reactivity to LF appeared to be controlled primarily through non-MHC class II genes, while the specificity of reactivity to PA was more dependent on MHC class II. Common epitopes, reactive in all strains, occurred in both LF and PA responses. These results demonstrate that MHC class II differentially influences humoral immune responses to LF and PA.

  17. Dynamics of glucose-induced membrane recruitment of protein kinase C beta II in living pancreatic islet beta-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinton, Paolo; Tsuboi, Takashi; Ainscow, Edward K; Pozzan, Tullio; Rizzuto, Rosario; Rutter, Guy A

    2002-10-01

    The mechanisms by which glucose may affect protein kinase C (PKC) activity in the pancreatic islet beta-cell are presently unclear. By developing adenovirally expressed chimeras encoding fusion proteins between green fluorescent protein and conventional (betaII), novel (delta), or atypical (zeta) PKCs, we show that glucose selectively alters the subcellular localization of these enzymes dynamically in primary islet and MIN6 beta-cells. Examined by laser scanning confocal or total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, elevated glucose concentrations induced oscillatory translocations of PKCbetaII to spatially confined regions of the plasma membrane. Suggesting that increases in free cytosolic Ca(2+) concentrations ([Ca(2+)](c)) were primarily responsible, prevention of [Ca(2+)](c) increases with EGTA or diazoxide completely eliminated membrane recruitment, whereas elevation of cytosolic [Ca(2+)](c) with KCl or tolbutamide was highly effective in redistributing PKCbetaII both to the plasma membrane and to the surface of dense core secretory vesicles. By contrast, the distribution of PKCdelta.EGFP, which binds diacylglycerol but not Ca(2+), was unaffected by glucose. Measurement of [Ca(2+)](c) immediately beneath the plasma membrane with a ratiometric "pericam," fused to synaptic vesicle-associated protein-25, revealed that depolarization induced significantly larger increases in [Ca(2+)](c) in this domain. These data demonstrate that nutrient stimulation of beta-cells causes spatially and temporally complex changes in the subcellular localization of PKCbetaII, possibly resulting from the generation of Ca(2+) microdomains. Localized changes in PKCbetaII activity may thus have a role in the spatial control of insulin exocytosis.

  18. Molecular requirements for MHC class II alpha-chain engagement and allelic discrimination by the bacterial superantigen streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Katherine J; Xi, Wang; Rahman, A K M Nur-Ur; Nooh, Mohammed M; Kotb, Malak; Sundberg, Eric J; Madrenas, Joaquín; McCormick, John K

    2008-09-01

    Superantigens (SAgs) are microbial toxins that bind to both TCR beta-chain variable domains (Vbetas) and MHC class II molecules, resulting in the activation of T cells in a Vbeta-specific manner. It is now well established that different isoforms of MHC II molecules can play a significant role in the immune response to bacterial SAgs. In this work, using directed mutational studies in conjunction with functional analyses, we provide a complete functional map of the low-affinity MHC II alpha-chain binding interface of the SAg streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin C (SpeC) and identify a functional epitope in the beta-barrel domain that is required for the activation of T cells. Using cell lines that exclusively express individual MHC II isoforms, our studies provide a molecular basis for the selectivity of SpeC-MHC II recognition, and provide one mechanism by how SAgs are capable of distinguishing between different MHC II alleles.

  19. Compensatory canine angulation in angle Class II and III patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Carlos Agner Busato

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurence of compensation in mesiodistal axial inclinations of canines in skeletal malocclusions patients. The sample consisted of 25 Angle Class II, division 1 malocclusion (group 1 and 19 Angle Class III malocclusion patients (group 2. After measurement of dental angulations through a method that associates plaster model photography and AutoCad software, comparisons between the groups were performed by T-test for independent samples. Results showed that there was no statistically significant difference (p < 0.05 between groups, when maxillary canine angulations were compared. Regarding the mandibular canines, there was a statistically significant difference in dental angulation, expressed by 3.2° for group 1 and 0.15° for group 2. An upright position tendency for mandibular canines was observed in the Angle Class III sample. This configures a pattern of compensatory coronary positioning, since the angulation of these teeth makes them occupy less space in the dental arch and consequently mandibular incisors can be in a more retracted position in the sagittal plane.

  20. QCD corrections to polarized Σ- beta decay: second class form factor effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Working within the framework of the MIT bag model, all six form factors describing the Σ- → n beta decay matrix element of the strangeness-changing weak current in the standard electroweak theory have been calculated, including QCD vertex corrections to order α/sub s/. The results are close to the predictions of the Cabibbo model, the QCD corrections not being very large. In particular, we found the induced second class weak electric dipole form factor to be small (g2 ≅ -0.04), in spite of the rather sizeable s - u quark mass difference, because it is significantly suppressed by quark confinement effects. Our results are in excellent agreement with the recent high statistics data on polarized Σ- beta decay, as are the Cabibbo model predictions. 10 refs

  1. Inhibitory Effect of Curcumin-Cu(II) and Curcumin-Zn(II) Complexes on Amyloid-Beta Peptide Fibrillation

    OpenAIRE

    Rona Banerjee

    2014-01-01

    Mononuclear complexes of Curcumin with Cu(II) and Zn(II) have been synthesized and, characterized and their effects on the fibrillization and aggregation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide have been studied. FTIR spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) observations demonstrate that the complexes can inhibit the transition from less structured oligomers to β-sheet rich protofibrils which act as seeding factors for further fibrillization. The metal complexes also impart more improved inhibitor...

  2. Effect of copper (II) ion against elongation behavior of amyloid {beta} fibrils on liposome membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimanouchi, T.; Onishi, R.; Kitaura, N.; Umakoshi, H.; Kuboi, R. [Division of Chemical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama-cho, Toyonaka, Osaka (Japan)

    2012-01-15

    The fibril growth behavior of amyloid {beta} protein (A{beta}) on cell membranes is relating to the progression of Alzheimer's disease. This growth behavior of A{beta} fibrils is sensitively affected by the metal ions, neurotransmitters, or bioreactive substrate. The inhibitory effect of those materials was quantitatively estimated from the viewpoints of ''crystal growth''. In a bulk aqueous solution, copper (II) ion showed the strong inhibitory effect on the growth of A{beta} fibrils. Meanwhile, the addition of a closed-phospholipid bilayer membrane (liposome) could reduce the above inhibitory effect of copper (II) ion. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Homotypic aggregation of human cell lines by HLA class II-, class Ia- and HLA-G-specific monoclonal antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odum, Niels; Ledbetter, J A; Martin, P;

    1991-01-01

    , but not the class I-negative parental line, 221, showed homotypic aggregation in response to an HLA-G specific mAb (87G) and a broad reacting class I-specific mAb (IOT2). Both cell lines responded with aggregation to anti-class II mAb (TU35). The anti-class I mAb, W6/32, had no effect on all cell lines tested...

  4. Removable functional appliances effective in patients with Class II malocclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madurantakam, Parthasarathy

    2016-03-01

    Data sourcesMedline (Pubmed), Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Google Scholar, Web of Science, Evidence-based Medicine, Scopus, LILACS database, Ovid database, Bibliografia Brasileira de Odontolgogia, Bandolier, Atypon Link, African Journals Online, ProQuest, Conference Paper Index, German National Library of Medicine, metaRegister of Controlled Trials.Study selectionRandomised Controlled Trials (RCT) or prospective Controlled Clinical Trials (pCCT) in patients with Class II malocclusions that compared at least one removable functional appliance (RFA) with a non-intervention control. Primary outcomes were angular measurements of skeletal, dental and soft tissue changes as measured by lateral cephalographs.Data extraction and synthesisTwo reviewers independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias. A third author assessed bias across studies. Pooling of data was done if similar control groups were used and if the same angular cephalometric measurements were reported. A random-effects model was used to analyse pooled estimates and results were expressed as mean differences (MDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The extent and impact of heterogeneity was assessed.ResultsData were pooled from seventeen studies (seven RCTs and ten pCCT) involving 1031 patients with a mean age of 10.6 years. Most of the RCTs were associated with high risk of bias while most of the pCCTs were without serious methodological limitations. RFA treatment in Class II malocclusions was shown to have a statistically significant short-term effect on skeletal, dental and soft tissue relationships when compared to untreated controls. There is a minimal reduction of SNA (MD=-0.26 degree/year, 95% CI=-0.44 to -0.12 degree/year), minimal increase of SNB (MD=0.62 degree/year, 95% CI=0.36 to 0.88 degree/year) and a small decrease in ANB (MD= -1.14degree/year, 95% CI=-1.52 to 0.77 degree/year). Maxillary incisors were significantly

  5. A growth-related concept for skeletal class II treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuscher, U

    1978-09-01

    The use of a combined activator--high-pull headgear appliance for treatment of Class II, Division 1 malocclusion is presented as a preliminary report. The activator itself is equipped with a palatal bar, lower lip pads, and torque-control auxiliaries for the upper incisors. The face-bow is mounted directly on the activator, and the extraoral force vector is equivalent to that of an anterior high-pull vector. During bite registration the veritcal displacement of the mandible is restricted to a minimum, and the anterior displacement should not exceed 6 mm. On the basis of current knowledge of the growth of the bony facial structures, treatment objectives and a specific approach for skeletal Class II correction are defined. Following these objectives, the therapy aims at correcting the malocclusion without diverting the anterior landmarks of the bony face from their specific lines of growth. This is brought about by the corresponding mechanics of the activator-headgear combination. The corrective effect of this appliance may be assumed to be the result of several different factors. The maxillary dentition is restrained in a posterior cranial direction, and an inhibitory effect on the maxilla counter to its line of development is attained. The mandibular dentition is influenced in an anterior downward direction by means of the bite registration, and the occlusion is unlocked during treatment. Any transfer of distally directed headgear forces from the maxilla to the mandible is prevented. Temporary stimulation of condylar growth, possibly combined with temporary posterior deflection of condylar growth, may also be induced. In this way it is possible to take maximum advantage of condylar growth in the sagittal dimension. Thus, not only is the malocclusion corrected but, at the same time, decisive profile improvement is achieved by anterior development of the mandible. From the experience gained so far with a Class II, Division 1 sample undergoing treatment with the

  6. Expression and characterization of recombinant single-chain salmon class I MHC fused with beta2-microglobulin with biological activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Heng; Stet, René J M; Skjødt, Karsten;

    2008-01-01

    Heterodimeric class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules consist of a putative 45-kDa heavy chain and a 12-kDa beta2-microglobulin (beta2m) light chain. The knowledge about MHC genes in Atlantic salmon accumulated during the last decade has allowed us to generate soluble and stable...... antibodies were successfully produced against both the MHC class I heavy chain and beta(2)m, and showed binding to the recombinant molecule. The recombinant complex Sasabeta2mUBA*0301 was expressed and isolated; the production was scaled up by adjusting to its optimal conditions. Subsequently...

  7. Hyoid bone position and head posture comparison in skeletal Class I and Class II subjects: A retrospective cephalometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawankumar Dnyandeo Tekale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the hyoid bone position and the head posture using lateral cephalograms in subjects with skeletal Class I and skeletal Class II pattern and to investigate the gender differences. Materials and Methods: The study used lateral cephalograms of 40 subjects (20 skeletal Class I pattern; 20 skeletal Class II pattern. Lateral cephalograms were traced and analyzed for evaluation of the hyoid bone position and the head posture using 34 parameters. Independent sample t-test was performed to compare the differences between the two groups and between genders in each group. Statistical tests were performed using NCSS 2007 software (NCSST, Kaysville, Utah, USA. Results: The linear measurements between the hyoid bone (H and cervical spine (CV2ia, the nasion-sella line, palatal line nasion line, the anterior nasal spine (ANS to perpendicular projection of H on the NLP (NLP- Nasal Linear Projection (H-NLP/ANS as well as the posterior cranial points (Bo, Ar and S points were found to be less in skeletal Class II subjects. The measurement H-CV2ia was found to be less in males with skeletal Class I pattern and H-CV4ia was found to be less in males with skeletal Class II pattern. The natural head posture showed no significant gender differences. Conclusion: The position of hyoid bone was closer to the cervical vertebra horizontally in skeletal Class II subjects when compared with skeletal Class I subjects. In males, the hyoid bone position was closer to the cervical vertebra horizontally both in skeletal Class I and skeletal Class II subjects.

  8. Chromobacterium spp. harbour Ambler class A beta-lactamases showing high identity with KPC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudeta, Dereje Dadi; Bortolaia, Valeria; Jayol, Aurelie;

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The origin of KPC is unknown. The aim of this study was to detect progenitors of KPC in silico and to functionally verify their beta-lactam hydrolysis activity. Methods: The sequence of KPC-2 was used to mine the NCBI protein sequence database. The best non-KPC hits were analysed by a......-lactamases with up to 76% aa identity to KPC from distinct Chromobacterium species is highly indicative of the role played by this genus in the evolution of KPC........ Results: Genes encoding the closest KPC-2 homologues were identified on the chromosome of Chromobacterium piscinae strain ND17 (CRP-1, 76% aa identity), Chromobacterium sp. C-61 (CRS-1, 70% aa identity) and Chromobacterium haemolyticum DSM19808 (CRH-1, 69% aa identity). All three Chromobacterium beta......-lactamases were phylogenetically more related to KPC than to other Ambler class A beta-lactamases. The 27 bp region preceding the start codon of bla(CRP-1) displayed high nucleotide identity to the corresponding region upstream from bla(KPC) (74%). Heterologous expression of bla(CRP-1) and to a lesser extent...

  9. Class II fusion protein of alphaviruses drives membrane fusion through the same pathway as class I proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Zaitseva, Elena; Mittal, Aditya; Griffin, Diane E.; Chernomordik, Leonid V.

    2005-01-01

    Viral fusion proteins of classes I and II differ radically in their initial structures but refold toward similar conformations upon activation. Do fusion pathways mediated by alphavirus E1 and influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) that exemplify classes II and I differ to reflect the difference in their initial conformations, or concur to reflect the similarity in the final conformations? Here, we dissected the pathway of low pH–triggered E1-mediated cell–cell fusion by reducing the numbers of a...

  10. Ubiquitination by March-I prevents MHC class II recycling and promotes MHC class II turnover in antigen-presenting cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyung-Jin; Walseng, Even; Ishido, Satoshi; Roche, Paul A

    2015-08-18

    MHC class II (MHC-II)-dependent antigen presentation by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) is carefully controlled to achieve specificity of immune responses; the regulated assembly and degradation of antigenic peptide-MHC-II complexes (pMHC-II) is one aspect of such control. In this study, we have examined the role of ubiquitination in regulating pMHC-II biosynthesis, endocytosis, recycling, and turnover in APCs. By using APCs obtained from MHC-II ubiquitination mutant mice, we find that whereas ubiquitination does not affect pMHC-II formation in dendritic cells (DCs), it does promote the subsequent degradation of newly synthesized pMHC-II. Acute activation of DCs or B cells terminates expression of the MHC-II E3 ubiquitin ligase March-I and prevents pMHC-II ubiquitination. Most importantly, this change results in very efficient pMHC-II recycling from the surface of DCs and B cells, thereby preventing targeting of internalized pMHC-II to lysosomes for degradation. Biochemical and functional assays confirmed that pMHC-II turnover is suppressed in MHC-II ubiquitin mutant DCs or by acute activation of wild-type DCs. These studies demonstrate that acute APC activation blocks the ubiquitin-dependent turnover of pMHC-II by promoting efficient pMHC-II recycling and preventing lysosomal targeting of internalized pMHC-II, thereby enhancing pMHC-II stability for efficient antigen presentation to CD4 T cells.

  11. The interaction of beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m) with mouse class I major histocompatibility antigens and its ability to support peptide binding. A comparison of human and mouse beta 2m

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, L O; Stryhn, A; Holter, T L;

    1995-01-01

    The function of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules is to sample peptides derived from intracellular proteins and to present these peptides to CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes. In this paper, biochemical assays addressing MHC class I binding of both peptide and beta 2-microglobul...

  12. TGF-beta Inhibits Ang II-Induced MAPK p44/42 Signaling in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells by Ang II Type 1 Receptor Downregulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijering, Bernadet D. M.; van der Wouden, Els A.; Pelgrom, Vincent; Henning, Robert H.; Sharma, Kumar; Deelman, Leo E.

    2009-01-01

    Vascular changes in diabetes are characterized by reduced vasoconstriction and vascular remodeling. Previously, we demonstrated that TGF-beta 1 impairs Ang II-induced contraction through reduced calcium mobilization. However, the effect of TGF-beta 1 on Ang II-induced vascular remodeling is unknown.

  13. TGF-beta inhibits Ang II-induced MAPK p44/42 signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells by Ang II type 1 receptor downregulation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijering, B.D.; Wouden, E.A. van der; Pelgrom, V.; Henning, R.H.; Sharma, K.; Deelman, L.E.

    2009-01-01

    Vascular changes in diabetes are characterized by reduced vasoconstriction and vascular remodeling. Previously, we demonstrated that TGF-beta1 impairs Ang II-induced contraction through reduced calcium mobilization. However, the effect of TGF-beta1 on Ang II-induced vascular remodeling is unknown. T

  14. Study on beta-cyclodextrin inclusion of Zn(II) aromatic complex and its analytical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lixiu; He, Jiang; Fu, Junkai; Zhang, Jinlong

    2010-02-01

    A new beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) inclusion compound Zn(2H1NA)(2)x 2beta-CD (2H1NA=2-hydroxy-1-naphthoic acid) was prepared. The structure was characterized by (1)H NMR, IR, the fluorescence spectra, thermogravimetric analysis (TG-DTA) and elementary analysis. Meanwhile, the mechanism of the formation of the supramolecular system (2H1NA:Zn(II):beta-CD) was studied and discussed by spectrofluorimetry. The results showed that the naphthalene rings of the Zn(II) aromatic complex Zn(2H1NA)(2) were encapsulated within the beta-CD's cavity to form a 2:1 stoichiometry host-guest compound. The inclusion constant calculated was 1.27 x 10(4)(L/mol)(2). A spectrofluorimetric method for the determination of 2H1NA in bulk aqueous solution in the presence of beta-CD was developed based on the great enhancement of the fluorescence intensity of 2H1NA. The linear relationship was obtained in the range of 9.00 x 10(-7) to 2.50 x 10(-5)mol/L and the detection limit was 8.00 x 10(-7)mol/L. The proposed method was successfully applied to determine 2H1NA in waste water with recoveries of 97-104%.

  15. Immunological Functions of the Membrane Proximal Region of MHC Class II Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harton, Jonathan; Jin, Lei; Hahn, Amy; Drake, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules present exogenously derived antigen peptides to CD4 T cells, driving activation of naïve T cells and supporting CD4-driven immune functions. However, MHC class II molecules are not inert protein pedestals that simply bind and present peptides. These molecules also serve as multi-functional signaling molecules delivering activation, differentiation, or death signals (or a combination of these) to B cells, macrophages, as well as MHC class II-expressing T cells and tumor cells. Although multiple proteins are known to associate with MHC class II, interaction with STING (stimulator of interferon genes) and CD79 is essential for signaling. In addition, alternative transmembrane domain pairing between class II α and β chains influences association with membrane lipid sub-domains, impacting both signaling and antigen presentation. In contrast to the membrane-distal region of the class II molecule responsible for peptide binding and T-cell receptor engagement, the membrane-proximal region (composed of the connecting peptide, transmembrane domain, and cytoplasmic tail) mediates these "non-traditional" class II functions. Here, we review the literature on the function of the membrane-proximal region of the MHC class II molecule and discuss the impact of this aspect of class II immunobiology on immune regulation and human disease. PMID:27006762

  16. Beta-blockers in the environment: part II. Ecotoxicity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maszkowska, Joanna; Stolte, Stefan; Kumirska, Jolanta; Łukaszewicz, Paulina; Mioduszewska, Katarzyna; Puckowski, Alan; Caban, Magda; Wagil, Marta; Stepnowski, Piotr; Białk-Bielińska, Anna

    2014-09-15

    The increasing consumption of beta-blockers (BB) has caused their presence in the environment to become more noticeable. Even though BB are safe for human and veterinary usage, ecosystems may be exposed to these substances. In this study, three selected BB: propranolol, metoprolol and nadolol were subjected to ecotoxicity study. Ecotoxicity evaluation was based on a flexible ecotoxicological test battery including organisms, representing different trophic levels and complexity: marine bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), soil/sediment bacteria (Arthrobacter globiformis), green algae (Scenedesmus vacuolatus) and duckweed (Lemna minor). All the ecotoxicological studies were supported by instrumental analysis to measure deviation between nominal and real test concentrations. Based on toxicological data from the green algae test (S. vacuolatus) propranolol and metoprolol can be considered to be harmful to aquatic organisms. However, sorption explicitly inhibits the hazardous effects of BB, therefore the risks posed by these compounds for the environment are of minor importance. PMID:24975494

  17. Deconjugation Kinetics of Glucuronidated Phase II Flavonoid Metabolites by beta-glucuronidase from Neutrophils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Bartholomé; G. Haenen; P.C.H. Hollman; A. Bast; P.C. Dagnelie; D. Roos; J. Keijer; P.A. Kroon; P.W. Needs; I.C.W. Arts

    2010-01-01

    Flavonoids are inactivated by phase II metabolism and occur in the body as glucuronides. Mammalian beta-glucuronidase released from neutrophils at inflammatory sites may be able to deconjugate and thus activate flavonoid glucuronides. We have studied deconjugation kinetics and pH optimum for four so

  18. Management of Class I and Class II Amalgam Restorations with Localized Defects: Five-Year Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Martin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Replacement of dental restorations has been the traditional treatment for defective restorations. This five-year prospective clinical trial evaluated amalgam restorations with localized defects that were treated by means of repair or refurbishing. Fifty-two patients (50% female and 50% male, mean age 28.3±18.1 years, range 18–80 with 160 class I and class II defective restorations were included. The study focused on the application of two minimally invasive treatments for localized restoration defects and compared these with no treatment and total replacement as negative and positive controls, respectively. Restorations were assessed by two calibrated examiners according to modified U.S. Public Health Service criteria, including marginal adaptation, anatomic form, secondary caries, and roughness. At five years, recall was examined in 45 patients with 108 restorations (67.5%. The results suggest that repair treatment is as effective as total replacement of restorations with localized defects, reducing biological costs to the patient and providing new tools to the clinician. Refinishing restoration is a useful treatment for localized anatomic form defects.

  19. Características cefalométricas de pacientes portadores de más oclusões Classe I e Classe II de Angle Cephalometric characteristics of patients with Angle Class I and Class II malocclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Lacerda dos Santos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: o presente estudo comparou algumas medidas cefalométricas relacionadas às características faciais em pacientes com má oclusão Classe I, Classe II 1ª divisão e Classe II 2ª divisão. METODOLOGIA: foram selecionadas 130 telerradiografias de pacientes leucodermas em fase inicial de tratamento ortodôntico, com idades entre 10 e 16 anos (média de 12,6 anos; e divididos em 3 grupos. As medidas cefalométricas utilizadas neste estudo foram: ANB, ı-SN, IMPA, AML, Ls-ı, Li-ī e EI. A análise de variância e o teste de Tukey foram realizados nas medidas ANB, IMPA, AML, ı-SN e Li-ī. Para as demais variáveis (EI e Ls-ı foi utilizado o teste de Kruskal Wallis e Dunn. RESULTADOS: os resultados mostraram que as medidas Ls-ı e EI tiveram diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os grupos I e II-1 e entre os grupos II-1 e II-2 (p AIM: The present study compared some cephalometric measurements related to facial characteristics in patients having Class I, Class II division 1, and Class II division 2 malocclusions. METHODS: One hundred and thirty teleradiographs of Caucasian patients aged 10-16 years (mean age of 12.6 years under initial orthodontic treatment were selected for study and divided into 3 groups. The cephalometric measurements used in the present study were the following: ANB, ı-SN, IMPA, AML, Ls-ı, Li-ī, and EI. Variance analysis and Tukey's test were carried out for ANB, IMPA, AML, ı-SN, and Li-ī measurements, whereas Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests were used for EI and Ls-ı. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences were found for EI and Ls-ı measurements when Group II-1 was compared to Group I and Group II-2 (p < 0.05. ANB and IMPA measurements also had statistically significant differences when Group I was compared to Group II-1 and Group II-2 (p < 0.05. The measurement ı-SN had statistically significant differences between the 3 groups (p < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: One can conclude that the measurement

  20. Regulation of transglutaminase type II by transforming growth factor-beta 1 in normal and transformed human epidermal keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, M D; Vollberg, T M; Floyd, E E; Stein, J P; Jetten, A M

    1990-07-01

    This study examines the effect of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) on the expression of Type I and II transglutaminase in normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK cells). Treatment of undifferentiated NHEK cells with 100 pM TGF-beta 1 caused a 10- to 15-fold increase in the activity of a soluble transglutaminase. Based on its cellular distribution and immunoreactivity this transglutaminase was identified as Type II (tissue) transglutaminase. TGF-beta 1 did not enhance the levels of the membrane-bound Type I (epidermal) transglutaminase activity which is induced during squamous cell differentiation and did not increase Type II transglutaminase activity in differentiated NHEK cells. Several SV40 large T antigen-immortalized NHEK cell lines also exhibited a dramatic increase in transglutaminase Type II activity after TGF-beta 1 treatment; however, TGF-beta 1 did not induce any significant change in transglutaminase activity in the carcinoma-derived cell lines SCC-13, SCC-15, and SQCC/Y1. Half-maximal stimulation of transglutaminase Type II activity in NHEK cells occurred at a dose of 15 pM TGF-beta 1. TGF-beta 2 was about equally effective. This enhancement in transglutaminase activity was related to an increase in the amount of transglutaminase Type II protein as indicated by immunoblot analysis. Northern blot analyses using a specific cDNA probe for Type II transglutaminase showed that exposure of NHEK cells to TGF-beta 1 caused a marked increase in the mRNA levels of this enzyme which could be observed as early as 4 h after the addition of TGF-beta 1. Maximal induction of transglutaminase Type II mRNA occurred between 18 and 24 h. The increase in Type II transglutaminase mRNA levels was blocked by the presence of cycloheximide, suggesting that this increase in mRNA by TGF-beta 1 is dependent on protein synthesis. PMID:1972706

  1. Performance assessment for the class L-II disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This draft radiological performance assessment (PA) for the proposed Class L-II Disposal Facility (CIIDF) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) has been prepared to demonstrate compliance with the requirements of the US Department of Energy Order 5820.2A. This PA considers the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) over the operating life of the facility and the long-term performance of the facility in providing protection to public health and the environment. The performance objectives contained in the order require that the facility be managed to accomplish the following: (1) Protect public health and safety in accordance with standards specified in environmental health orders and other DOE orders. (2) Ensure that external exposure to the waste and concentrations of radioactive material that may be released into surface water, groundwater, soil, plants, and animals results in an effective dose equivalent (EDE) that does not exceed 25 mrem/year to a member of the public. Releases to the atmosphere shall meet the requirements of 40 CFR Pt. 61. Reasonable effort should be made to maintain releases of radioactivity in effluents to the general environment as low as reasonably achievable. (1) Ensure that the committed EDEs received by individual who inadvertently may intrude into the facility after the loss of active institutional control (100 years) will not exceed 100 mrem/year for continuous exposure of 500 mrem for a single acute exposure. (4) Protect groundwater resources, consistent with federal, state, and local requirements.

  2. MHC class II polymorphisms, autoreactive T-cells and autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue eTsai

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Major histocompatibility complex (MHC genes, also known as human leukocyte antigen genes (HLA in humans, are the prevailing contributors of genetic susceptibility to autoimmune diseases such as Type 1 Diabetes (T1D, Multiple Sclerosis (MS, and Rheumatoid arthritis (RA, among others (Todd and Wicker, 2001;MacKay et al., 2002;Hafler et al., 2007. Although the pathways through which MHC molecules afford autoimmune risk or resistance remain to be fully mapped out, it is generally accepted that they do so by shaping the central and peripheral T cell repertoires of the host towards autoimmune proclivity or resistance, respectively. Disease-predisposing MHC alleles would both spare autoreactive thymocytes from central tolerance and bias their development towards a pathogenic phenotype. Protective MHC alleles, on the other hand, would promote central deletion of autoreactive thymocytes and skew their development towards non-pathogenic phenotypes. This interpretation of the data is at odds with two other observations: that in MHC-heterozygous individuals, resistance is dominant over susceptibility; and that it is difficult to understand how deletion of one or a few clonal autoreactive T cell types would suffice to curb autoimmune responses driven by hundreds if not thousands of autoreactive T cell specificities. This review provides an update on current advances in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying MHC class II-associated autoimmune disease susceptibility and/or resistance and attempts to reconcile these seemingly opposing concepts.

  3. Bioavailability Enhancement Techniques for BCS Class II Drugs: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honey Kansara

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, nearly 40% of the new chemical entities (NCEs identified by pharmaceutical industry screening programs have failed to be developed because of poor water-solubility, which makes their formulation difficult or even impossible. The solubility issues complicating the delivery of these new drugs also affect the delivery of many existing drugs. The various traditional and novel techniques that that can be used for solubility enhancement of BCS Class II drugs are briefly discussed in this article. The Traditional techniques that has been discussed in this article includes use of co-solvents, Hydrotropy, Micronization, change in dielectric constant of solvent, amorphousforms, chemical modification of drug, use of surfactants, inclusion complex, alteration of pH ofsolvent, use of hydrates or solvates, use of soluble prodrugs, application of ultrasonic waves, functional polymer technology, controlled precipitation technology, evaporative precipitation in aqueous solution, use of precipitation inhibitors, solvent deposition, precipitation, selective adsorption on insoluble carriers. Novel drug delivery technologies developed in recent years for solubility enhancement of insoluble drugs are size reduction technologies, lipid based delivery system, micellar technologies,porous micro particle technology. Solid Dispersion Technique and various types of solid dispersion systems have also been explained briefly.

  4. Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay in Type I+II Seesaw Models

    CERN Document Server

    Borah, Debasish

    2015-01-01

    We study neutrinoless double beta decay in left-right symmetric extension of the standard model with type I and type II seesaw origin of neutrino masses. Due to the enhanced gauge symmetry as well as extended scalar sector, there are several new physics sources of neutrinoless double beta decay in this model. Ignoring the left-right gauge boson mixing and heavy-light neutrino mixing, we first compute the contributions to neutrinoless double beta decay for type I and type II dominant seesaw separately and compare with the standard light neutrino contributions. We then repeat the exercise by considering the presence of both type I and type II seesaw, having non-negligible contributions to light neutrino masses and show the difference in results from individual seesaw cases. Assuming the new gauge bosons and scalars to be around a TeV, we constrain different parameters of the model including both heavy and light neutrino masses from the requirement of keeping the neutrinoless double beta decay amplitude below th...

  5. Neutrinoless double beta decay in type I+II seesaw models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Debasish; Dasgupta, Arnab

    2015-11-01

    We study neutrinoless double beta decay in left-right symmetric extension of the standard model with type I and type II seesaw origin of neutrino masses. Due to the enhanced gauge symmetry as well as extended scalar sector, there are several new physics sources of neutrinoless double beta decay in this model. Ignoring the left-right gauge boson mixing and heavy-light neutrino mixing, we first compute the contributions to neutrinoless double beta decay for type I and type II dominant seesaw separately and compare with the standard light neutrino contributions. We then repeat the exercise by considering the presence of both type I and type II seesaw, having non-negligible contributions to light neutrino masses and show the difference in results from individual seesaw cases. Assuming the new gauge bosons and scalars to be around a TeV, we constrain different parameters of the model including both heavy and light neutrino masses from the requirement of keeping the new physics contribution to neutrinoless double beta decay amplitude below the upper limit set by the GERDA experiment and also satisfying bounds from lepton flavor violation, cosmology and colliders.

  6. Molecular characterization by high-resolution isoelectric focusing of the products encoded by the class II region loci of the major histocompatibility complex in humans. I. DR and DQ gene variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez de Cordoba, S; Nunez-Roldan, A; Winchester, R; Marshall, P; Carrier, C; Mollen, N; Walker, M; Ginsberg-Fellner, F; Rubinstein, P

    1987-09-01

    We describe a new approach to the analysis of the structural polymorphism of the DR beta, DQ alpha, and DQ beta polypeptide chains of human histocompatibility class II antigens. In comparison to conventional two-dimensional gel studies, this method provides sharper definition of the protein bands and side-by-side comparisons within the same gel, thereby permitting the detection of minor differences in the isoelectric points of the protein chains. Using this methodology we have analyzed the IEF polymorphism and the variability in the number of the DR beta chains encoded by different DR haplotypes. Twenty DR beta chain variants, which include the products of no less than two separate DR beta loci, have been thus far identified. Alleles at one of these loci are assumed to code for DR beta chains carrying the DR alloespecificities DR1, DR2, DR3, DR4, DR5, DRw6, DR7, and DR8. Alleles at a second DR beta locus encode DR beta chains that may be shared by serologically DR-different haplotypes and carry supertypic serologic specificities (i.e., DRw52 and DRw53). We also demonstrate here that the structural polymorphisms of the DQ alpha and DQ beta chains are more extensive than previously thought, report the characterization of 14 DQ beta variants, and define their relationship to the previously described DQw serologic specificities. In addition, we describe the class II haplotype associations observed for the different DR and DQ variants characterized. PMID:3679903

  7. 76 FR 53817 - Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Parts 542 and 543 Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II... delay of the effective date on the final rule for Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming... sections of established Minimum Internal Control Standards and replaced them with a new part titled...

  8. 77 FR 60625 - Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Parts 542 and 543 RIN 3141-AA-37 Minimum Internal Control... while tribes and operations transition to the new Class II Minimum Internal Control Standards that were... part 543, Minimum Internal Control Standards Class II Gaming, with comprehensive and updated...

  9. The effectiveness of different polymerization protocols for class II composite resin restorations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, L.C.G. de; Opdam, N.J.M.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Roeters, F.J.M.; Wolke, J.G.C.; Geitenbeek, B.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of reduced light exposure times on Vickers hardness (VH) of class II composite resin restorations. METHODS: Class II restorations were made in vitro in three 2mm thick increments in a human molar. Two composite resins (Clearfil AP-X; Esthet-X) were polymerized w

  10. 40 CFR 147.250 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... California § 147.250 State-administered program—Class II wells. The UIC program for Class II wells in the State of California, except those on Indian lands, is the program administered by the California... reference and made a part of the applicable UIC program under the SDWA for the State of California....

  11. A new compound heterozygous frameshift mutation in the type II 3{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3{beta}-HSD gene causes salt-wasting 3{beta}-HSD deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, L.; Sakkal-Alkaddour, S.; Chang, Ying T.; Yang, Xiaojiang; Songya Pang [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1996-01-01

    We report a new compound heterozygous frameshift mutation in the type II 3{Beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3{beta}-HSD) gene in a Pakistanian female child with the salt-wasting form of 3{Beta}-HSD deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia. The etiology for her congenital adrenal hyperplasia was not defined. Although the family history suggested possible 3{beta}-HSd deficiency disorder, suppressed adrenal function caused by excess glucocorticoid therapy in this child at 7 yr of age did not allow hormonal diagnosis. To confirm 3{beta}-HSD deficiency, we sequenced the type II 3{beta}-HSD gene in the patient, her family, and the parents of her deceased paternal cousins. The type II 3{beta}-HSD gene region of a putative promotor, exons I, II, III, and IV, and exon-intron boundaries were amplified by PCR and sequenced in all subjects. The DNA sequence of the child revealed a single nucleotide deletion at codon 318 [ACA(Thr){r_arrow}AA] in exon IV in one allele, and two nucleotide deletions at codon 273 [AAA(Lys){r_arrow}A] in exon IV in the other allele. The remaining gene sequences were normal. The codon 318 mutation was found in one allele from the father, brother, and parents of the deceased paternal cousins. The codon 273 mutation was found in one allele of the mother and a sister. These findings confirmed inherited 3{beta}-HSD deficiency in the child caused by the compound heterozygous type II 3{beta}-HSD gene mutation. Both codons at codons 279 and 367, respectively, are predicted to result in an altered and truncated type II 3{beta}-HSD protein, thereby causing salt-wasting 3{beta}-HSD deficiency in the patient. 21 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Isolation and characterization of recombinant human casein kinase II subunits alpha and beta from bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grankowski, N; Boldyreff, B; Issinger, O G

    1991-01-01

    cDNA encoding the casein kinase II (CKII) subunits alpha and beta of human origin were expressed in Escherichia coli using expression vector pT7-7. Significant expression was obtained with E. coli BL21(DE3). The CKII subunits accounted for approximately 30% of the bacterial protein; however, most...... determined for the subunits of the native enzyme. The recombinant alpha subunit exhibited protein kinase activity which was greatest in the absence of monovalent ions. With increasing amounts of salt, alpha subunit kinase activity declined rapidly. Addition of the beta subunit led to maximum stimulation...

  13. HLA II class antigens and susceptibility to coeliac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojvodić Svetlana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Coeliac disease (CD is a systemic autoimmune, complex and multifactorial disorder, which is caused by interactions between genetic and environmental factors. The only established genetic risk factors so far are the human leucocyte antigens. The aim of this study was to assess the distribution of II class human leukocyte antigens (HLA in patients with coeliac disease and to investigate the susceptibility to coeliac disease in family members. We typed HLA DR and DQ antigens in 37 patients from Vojvodina with coeliac disease, 23 first-degree relatives, and 210 controls, serologically using standard lymphocytotoxicity technique. HLA DQ5(1, DQ6(1, DR11(5, DQ7(3, DQ2 and DR15(2 were the most common antigens in the control group. Frequency of HLA DQ2, DR3 and DR7 was higher in CD patients than in the control group. The relative risks for HLA DQ2, DR3 and DR7 were 4.846, 6.986 and 2.106, respectively, while positive association was found between HLA DQ2 and DR3 and CD. Frequency of HLA DQ2, DR3 and DR16(2 was higher in first-degree relatives than in the control group while a positive association was found between HLA DQ2 and DR3. A negative association was found between HLA DQ5(1 and DQ6(1 in coeliac patients from Vojvodina and their relatives, in addition to HLA DR11(5 in the group of relatives (RR=0.363,PF=0.232. These findings indicate the impact of the HLA testing for CD in clinical practice in order to rule out the possibility to CD in doubtful cases or in at-risk subjects.

  14. Natalizumab-related anaphylactoid reactions in MS patients are associated with HLA class II alleles

    OpenAIRE

    De la Hera, Belén; Urcelay, Elena; Brassat, David; Chan, Andrew; Vidal-Jordana, Angela; Salmen, Anke; Villar, Luisa Maria; Álvarez-Cermeño, José Carlos; Izquierdo, Guillermo; Fernández, Oscar; Oliver, Begoña; Saiz, Albert; Ara, Jose Ramón; Vigo, Ana G.; Arroyo, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: We aimed to investigate potential associations between human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and class II alleles and the development of anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) treated with natalizumab. Methods: HLA class I and II genotyping was performed in patients with MS who experienced anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions and in patients who did not develop infusion-related allergic reactions following natalizumab administration. Results:...

  15. Immunogenicity of HLA Class I and II Double Restricted Influenza A-Derived Peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sara Ram; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Buus, Søren;

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify influenza A-derived peptides which bind to both HLA class I and -II molecules and by immunization lead to both HLA class I and class II restricted immune responses. Eight influenza A-derived 9-11mer peptides with simultaneous binding to both HLA-A*02:0...... to both HLA class I and class I restricted responses, a quality which might be of potential interest for peptide-based vaccine development....... with this, peptide vaccination did not decrease virus titres in the lungs of intranasally influenza challenged mice. Our data show that HLA class I and class II double binding peptides can be identified by bioinformatics and biochemical technology. By immunization, double binding peptides can give rise...

  16. HLA Class II Haplotypic Association and DQCAR Microsatellite Polymorphisms in Croatian Patients with Psoriasis

    OpenAIRE

    Grubić, Z.; Žunec, R.; Kaštelan, M.; Čečuk-Jeličić, E.; Gruber, F; Kaštelan, A.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate polymorphism of HLA class II haplotypic associations (HLA-DRB1, -DQA1, -DQB1) and DQCAR alleles in 78 Croatian patients with psoriasis. Patients were divided into two groups according to a family history of disease and age of onset: type I (positive family history and early onset) and type II (negative family history and late onset). The difference in frequency of HLA class II haplotypic associations between type I patients an...

  17. Regulation of MHC Class II-Peptide Complex Expression by Ubiquitination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Jin eCho

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available MHC class II (MHC-II molecules are present on antigen presenting cells (APCs and these molecules function by binding antigenic peptides and presenting these peptides to antigen-specific CD4+ T cells. APCs continuously generate and degrade MHC-II molecules, and ubiquitination of MHC-II has recently been shown to be a key regulator of MHC-II expression in dendritic cells (DCs. In this mini-review we will examine the mechanism by which the E3 ubiquitin ligase March-I regulates MHC-II expression on APCs and will discuss the functional consequences of altering MHC-II ubiquitination.

  18. The Oropharyngeal Airway in Young Adults with Skeletal Class II and Class III Deformities: A 3-D Morphometric Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasas Shri Nalaka Jayaratne

    Full Text Available 1 To determine the accuracy and reliability of an automated anthropometric measurement software for the oropharyngeal airway and 2 To compare the anthropometric dimensions of the oropharyngeal airway in skeletal class II and III deformity patients.Cone-beam CT (CBCT scans of 62 patients with skeletal class II or III deformities were used for this study. Volumetric, linear and surface area measurements retroglossal (RG and retropalatal (RP compartments of the oropharyngeal airway was measured with the 3dMDVultus software. Accuracy of automated anthropometric pharyngeal airway measurements was assessed using an airway phantom.The software was found to be reasonably accurate for measuring dimensions of air passages. The total oropharyngeal volume was significantly greater in the skeletal class III deformity group (16.7 ± 9.04 mm3 compared with class II subjects (11.87 ± 4.01 mm3. The average surface area of both the RG and RP compartments were significantly larger in the class III deformity group. The most constricted area in the RG and RP airway was significantly larger in individuals with skeletal class III deformity. The anterior-posterior (AP length of this constriction was significantly greater in skeletal class III individuals in both compartments, whereas the width of the constriction was not significantly different between the two groups in both compartments. The RP compartment was larger but less uniform than the RG compartment in both skeletal deformities.Significant differences were observed in morphological characteristics of the oropharyngeal airway in individuals with skeletal class II and III deformities. This information may be valuable for surgeons in orthognathic treatment planning, especially for mandibular setback surgery that might compromise the oropharyngeal patency.

  19. Angiotensin II increases CTGF expression via MAPKs/TGF-{beta}1/TRAF6 pathway in atrial fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Jun [Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of medicine, Shanghai (China); Liu, Xu, E-mail: xkliuxu@yahoo.cn [Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of medicine, Shanghai (China); Wang, Quan-xing, E-mail: shmywqx@126.com [National Key Laboratory of Medical Immunology, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Tan, Hong-wei [Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of medicine, Shanghai (China); Guo, Meng [National Key Laboratory of Medical Immunology, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Jiang, Wei-feng; Zhou, Li [Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of medicine, Shanghai (China)

    2012-10-01

    The activation of transforming growth factor-{beta}1(TGF-{beta}1)/Smad signaling pathway and increased expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) induced by angiotensin II (AngII) have been proposed as a mechanism for atrial fibrosis. However, whether TGF{beta}1/non-Smad signaling pathways involved in AngII-induced fibrogenetic factor expression remained unknown. Recently tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor 6 (TRAF6)/TGF{beta}-associated kinase 1 (TAK1) has been shown to be crucial for the activation of TGF-{beta}1/non-Smad signaling pathways. In the present study, we explored the role of TGF-{beta}1/TRAF6 pathway in AngII-induced CTGF expression in cultured adult atrial fibroblasts. AngII (1 {mu}M) provoked the activation of P38 mitogen activated protein kinase (P38 MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2(ERK1/2) and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK). AngII (1 {mu}M) also promoted TGF{beta}1, TRAF6, CTGF expression and TAK1 phosphorylation, which were suppressed by angiotensin type I receptor antagonist (Losartan) as well as p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB202190), ERK1/2 inhibitor (PD98059) and JNK inhibitor (SP600125). Meanwhile, both TGF{beta}1 antibody and TRAF6 siRNA decreased the stimulatory effect of AngII on TRAF6, CTGF expression and TAK1 phosphorylation, which also attenuated AngII-induced atrial fibroblasts proliferation. In summary, the MAPKs/TGF{beta}1/TRAF6 pathway is an important signaling pathway in AngII-induced CTGF expression, and inhibition of TRAF6 may therefore represent a new target for reversing Ang II-induced atrial fibrosis. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MAPKs/TGF{beta}1/TRAF6 participates in AngII-induced CTGF expression in atrial fibroblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TGF{beta}1/TRAF6 participates in AngII-induced atrial fibroblasts proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TRAF6 may represent a new target for reversing Ang II-induced atrial fibrosis.

  20. Inflammatory bowel disease associations with HLA Class II genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, R. [Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Yang, H.; Targan, S. [Roche Molecular Systems, Inc., Alameda, CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    A PCR-SSOP assay has been used to analyze HLA-Class II DRB1 and DQB1 alleles in 378 Caucasians from a population in Southern California. The data has been analyzed separately for the Ashkenasi Jews and non-Jewish patients (n=286) and controls (n=92). Two common clinical forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have been studied: ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn`s disease (CD). In CD, we observed a susceptible effect with the rare DR1 allele - DRB*0103 [O.R.=4.56; 95% CI (0.96, 42.97); p=0.03]; a trend for an increase in DRB1*0103 was also observed in UC patients. A susceptible effect with DRB1*1502 [O.R.=5.20; 95% CI (1.10, 48.99); p=0.02] was observed in non-Jewish UC patients. This susceptible effect was restricted to UC ANCA-positive (antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies) patients. In addition, a significant association with DRB1*1101-DQB1*0301 [O.R.=9.46; 95% CI (1.30, 413.87); p=0.01] was seen with UC among non-Jewish patients: this haplotype was increased with CD among non-Jewish patients. Two protective haplotypes were detected among CD non-Jewish patients: DRB1*1301-DQB1*0603 [O.R.=0.34; 95% CI (0.09, 1.09); p=0.04], and DRB*0404-DQB1*0302 [O.R.=<0.08; 95% CI (0.0, 0.84); p=0.01]. When the same data were analyzed at the serology level, we observed a positive association in UC with DR2 [O.R.6.77; 95% CI (2.47, 22.95); p=2 x 10{sup -4}], and a positive association in CD with DR1 [O.R.=2.63; 95% CI (1.14, 6.62); p=0.01] consistent with previous reports. Thus, some IBD disease associations appear to be common to both UC and CD, while some are unique to one disease.

  1. Genetic and biochemical characterization of the chromosomal class A beta-lactamases of Raoultella (formerly Klebsiella) planticola and Raoultella ornithinolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walckenaer, Estelle; Poirel, Laurent; Leflon-Guibout, Véronique; Nordmann, Patrice; Nicolas-Chanoine, Marie-Hélène

    2004-01-01

    Enterobacterial strains of Raoultella spp. display a penicillinase-related beta-lactam resistance pattern suggesting the presence of a chromosomal bla gene. From whole-cell DNA of Raoultella planticola strain ATCC 33531(T) and Raoultella ornithinolytica strain ATCC 31898(T), bla genes were cloned and expressed into Escherichia coli. Each gene encoded an Ambler class A beta-lactamase, named PLA-1 and ORN-1 for R. planticola and R. ornithinolytica, respectively. These beta-lactamases (291 amino acids), with the same pI value of 7.8, had a shared amino acid identity of 94%, 37 to 47% identity with the majority of the chromosome-encoded class A beta-lactamases previously described for Enterobacteriaceae, and 66 to 69% identity with the two beta-lactamases LEN-1 and SHV-1 from Klebsiella pneumoniae. However, the highest identity percentage (69 to 71%) was found with the plasmid-mediated beta-lactamase TEM-1. PLA-1, which displayed very strong hydrolytic activity against penicillins, also displayed significant hydrolytic activity against cefepime and, to a lesser extent, against cefotaxime and aztreonam, but there was no hydrolytic activity against ceftazidime. Such a substrate profile suggests that the Raoultella beta-lactamases PLA-1 and ORN-1 should be classified into the group 2be of the beta-lactamase classification of K. Bush, G. A. Jacoby, and A. A. Medeiros (Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 39:1211-1233, 1995). The highly homologous regions upstream of the bla(PLA-1A) and bla(ORN-1A) genes comprised a nucleotide sequence identical to the -35 region and another one very close to the -10 region of the bla(LEN-1) gene. From now on, as the bla gene sequences of the most frequent Raoultella and Klebsiella species are available, the bla gene amplification method can be used to differentiate these species from each other, which the biochemical tests currently carried out in the clinical laboratory are unable to do.

  2. On the Relationship of UC H II Regions and Class II Methanol Masers: I. Source Catalogs

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Bo; Wu, Yuanwei; Bartkiewicz, Anna; Rygl, Kazi; Reid, Mark J; Urquhart, James S; Zheng, Xingwu

    2016-01-01

    We conducted VLA C-configuration observations to measure positions and luminosities of Galactic Class II 6.7 GHz methanol masers and their associated ultra-compact H II regions. The spectral resolution was 3.90625 kHz and the continuum sensitivity reached 45 \\uJypb. We mapped 372 methanol masers with peak flux densities of more than 2 Jy selected from the literature, 367 of them were detected. Absolute positions have nominal uncertainties of 0.3 arcsec. In this first paper on the data analysis, we present three catalogs, the first gives information on the strongest feature of 367 methanol maser sources, and the second on all detected maser spots. The third catalog present derived data of the 279 radio continuum sources found in the vicinity of maser sources. Among them, 140 show evidence of physical association with maser sources. Our catalogs list properties including distance, flux density, radial velocity and the distribution of masers on the Galactic plane is then provided as well. We found no significant...

  3. Use of cyanoacrylate as barrier in guided tissue regeneration in class II furcation defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen L Mueller Storrer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The guided bone regeneration (GBR is a technique that uses resorbable and non-resorbable membranes in association with other filling biomaterials. GBR is one of the optional treatments for therapy of class II furcation defects. The current case report evaluates clinically and radiographically the use of the cyanoacrylate membrane (Glubran ®2 associated with organic bovine bone (GenOx for the treatment of vestibular class II furcation defect on the lower left molar. Conclusion: The GBR is an option in the treatment of vestibular class II furcation defects and cyanoacrylate surgical glue, acting as a mechanic barrier and providing an efficient stability for the graft.

  4. No evidence of mutations in the genes for type I and type II 3{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3{beta}HSD) in nonclassical 3{beta}HSD deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerah, M.; Mani, P.; Schram, P. [New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)] [and others

    1994-12-01

    Nonclassical 3{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/{Delta}{sup 5}-{Delta}{sup 4}-isomerase deficiency (NC3{beta}HSDD) has been diagnosed in hyperandrogenic women with an increasing frequency during the last 14 yr. Fifteen menarcheal women with androgen excess syndrome, previously diagnosed with NC3{beta}HSDD were studied, in 12 after discontinuation of glucocorticoid treatment, in 2 patients never treated with glucocorticoids, and in 1 both before and after glucocorticoid therapy. Molecular DNA analysis was also performed in 6 of the patients, using the strategy successfully used to detect point mutations in the type II 3{beta}-hydroxysteriod dehydrogenase (3{beta}HSD) gene, which are responsible for classical 3{beta}HSD deficiency. This strategy consists of the direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction-amplified DNA fragments corresponding to the complete coding sequence and all intron-exon junctions and to the 5{prime}- and 3{prime}-noncoding region of this gene. We were unable to demonstrate any mutation of the type II 3{beta}HSD gene in these 6 patients. To gain additional information about potential mutations, direct sequencing of the type I 3{beta}HSD gene was also performed using this same strategy, and no mutations were found. The present study strongly suggests that unlike the salt-losing and nonsalt-losing forms of classical 3{beta}HSD deficiency, NC3{beta}HSDD is not due to a mutant type II 3{beta}HSD enzyme. However, the possibility remains of a mutation(s) in the unsequenced regions of the type II 3{beta}HSD gene or elsewhere, such as in a gene for modulatory protein, playing a specific role in the expression of the type II 3{beta}HSD gene. On the other hand, knowing the multiple hormonal controls to which 3{beta}HSD activity is subject, it cannot be excluded that at least in some cases, NC3{beta}HSDD may be an acquired defect, the result of endogenous or environmental factors. 41 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Special classes of iron(II) azole spin crossover compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koningsbruggen, Petra J. van; Gutlich, P; Goodwin, HA

    2004-01-01

    In this chapter, selected results obtained so far on Fe(II) spin crossover compounds of 1,2,4-triazole, isoxazole and tetrazole derivatives are summarized and analysed. These materials include the only compounds known to have Fe(II)N(6) spin crossover chromophores consisting of six chemically identi

  6. Kinetics of expression of interleukin 2 receptors on class I and class II restricted murine T cell clones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The kinetics of interleukin 2 receptor (IL-2R) expression has been examined on various class I and class II restricted, influenza specific murine T cell clones. Expression and relative levels of IL-2R were examined by Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorter analysis utilizing 3 anti-murine IL-2R monoclonal antibodies. Receptor expression was analyzed by scatchard analysis using radiolabeled recombinant human interleukin 2 to access the number of high and low affinity IL-2R per cell as well as the affinity of binding. The clones tested bound all 3 monoclonal antibodies and were inhibited in an IL-2 dependent proliferation assay by the addition of the antibodies to the culture. There was, however, differing degrees of inhibition ranging up to 99%, depending on the clone and the antibody used. IL-2R expression was detectable as early as 4-6 hours after antigenic stimulation of quiescent cells. After maximal levels of receptors were expressed, which was about 24 hours after stimulation, expression of IL-2R decreased with time on all clones examined (both class I and class II restricted). Differing rates of receptor loss is seen however, with some class II restricted clones retaining relatively high levels of receptors

  7. A New Humanized HLA Transgenic Mouse Model of Multiple Sclerosis Expressing Class II on Mouse CD4 T Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Mangalam, Ashutosh; Rodriguez, Moses; David, Chella

    2007-01-01

    Among all the genetic factors associated with MS susceptibility, strongest association has been seen with expression of certain MHC class II molecules, although analysis of their exact function remains complicated. In general expression of class II is restricted to professional antigen presenting cells, however human but not mice CD4+ T cells express class II on their surface. Functional studies of classII+CD4+ T cells have been hampered due to lack of proper animal model. Here we describe de...

  8. 25 CFR 547.6 - What are the minimum technical standards for enrolling and enabling Class II gaming system...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and enabling Class II gaming system components? 547.6 Section 547.6 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM TECHNICAL STANDARDS FOR GAMING EQUIPMENT USED... enabling Class II gaming system components? (a) General requirements. Class II gaming systems shall...

  9. Protective effect of niacinamide on interleukin-1beta-induced annulus fibrosus type II collagen degeneration in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Deyu; Yang, Shuhua; Shao, Zengwu; Wang, Hong; Xiong, Xiaoqian

    2007-02-01

    The protective effect of niacinamide on interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta)-induced annulus fibrosus (AF) type II collagen degeneration in vitro and the mechanism were investigated. Chiba's intervertebral disc (IVD) culture models in rabbits were established and 48 IVDs from 12 adult Japanese white rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups: normal control group, niacinamide-treated group, type II collagen degneration group (IL-1beta) and treatment group (niacinamide+IL-1beta). After culture for one week, AFs were collected for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cysteine containing aspartate specific protease-3 (Caspase-3) and type II collagen immunohistochemical examination, and type II collagen reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results showed that rate of iNOS positive staining AF cells in the 4 groups was 17.6%, 10.9%, 73.9% and 19.3% respectively. The positive rate in treatment group was significantly lower than in the type II collagen degeneration group (Pniacinamide could effectively inhibit IL-1beta stimulated increase of iNOS and Caspase-3 in AF, and alleviate IL-1beta-caused destruction and synthesis inhibition of type II collagen. Niacinamide is of potential for clinical treatment of IVD degeneration.

  10. 76 FR 40377 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Class II Special...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... without spermicidal lubricant containing nonoxynol-9 are classified in class II. They were originally... final rule (64 FR 13254, March 17, 1999). Because the packaging requirements for condoms are similar...

  11. Data on HLA class I/II profile in Brazilian pemphigus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco Brochado, Maria José; Nascimento, Daniela Francisca; Saloum Deghaide, Neifi Hassan; Donadi, Eduardo Antonio; Roselino, Ana Maria

    2016-09-01

    Pemphigus are blistering autoimmune diseases related with genetic and environmental factors. Here we describe HLA genotyping in pemphigus patients. First, we review the HLA class I/II data on pemphigus reported in Brazilian samples and then present the HLA class I (-A, -B, -C) and class II (-DRB1, -DQA1, -DQB1) alleles related to susceptibility/resistance to pemphigus by comparing 86 patients with pemphigus foliaceus, 83 patients with pemphigus vulgaris, and 1592 controls from the northeastern region of the state of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. The data presented here are related to the manuscript "Differential HLA class I and class II associations in Pemphigus Foliaceus and Pemphigus Vulgaris patients from a prevalent Southeastern Brazilian region" Brochado et al. (2016) [1]. PMID:27331116

  12. Correction of an adult Class II division 2 individual using fixed functional appliance: A noncompliance approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrinivas Basavaraddi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes the application of fixed functional appliance in the treatment of an adult female having Class II division 2 malocclusion with retroclination of upper incisors. Fixed functional appliance was used to correct the overjet after the uprighting of upper incisors. Fixed functional appliance was fitted on a rigid rectangular arch wire. Application of fixed functional appliance achieved a good Class I molar relationship along with Class I canine relationship with normal overjet and overbite. Fixed functional appliance is effective in the treatment of Class II malocclusions, even in adult patients, and can serve as an alternate choice of treatment instead of orthognathic surgery. This is a case; wherein, fixed functional appliance was successfully used to relieve deep bite and overjet that was ensued after leveling and aligning. We demonstrate that fixed functional appliance can act as a “noncompliant corrector” and use of Class II elastics can be avoided.

  13. SKELETODENTAL CHANGES DURING THE PUBERTAL GROWTH SPURT IN CLASS II DIV I FEMALES: A LONGITUDINAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shirazi Sh. Etemad Moghadam

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the quantity and character of growth changes in the skeletodental complex of class II div I malocclusion during the pubertal growth spurt in females. Longitudinal hand-wrist radiographs were obtained from each subject and the onset anil end of the pubertal growth spurt was determined. Accordingly two lateral cephaliograms were taken, superimposed and analyzed. This sample consisted of 36 girls (18 class I ami 18 class II div I malocclusions, with no history of orthodontic treatment. Tl"e results indicate that true changes exist during the short period of pubertal growth spurt, which differ in amount ami direction, in various parts of the face am! cranium; also the pubertal growth spurt may have different effects on identical parameters, when compared between class I and class II div I subjects.

  14. Marginal and internal adaptation of class II restorations after immediate or delayed composite placement

    OpenAIRE

    Dietschi, Didier; Monasevic, Manuela; Krejci, Ivo; Davidson, Carel

    2002-01-01

    Direct class II composite restorations still represent a challenge, particularly when proximal limits extend below the CEJ. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of the type of adhesive and the delay between adhesive placement and composite insertion on restoration adaptation. Direct class II MOD box-shaped composite restorations (n=8 per group) were placed on intact human third molars, with proximal margins 1mm above or under CEJ. All cavities were filled with a horizo...

  15. Camouflage of Severe Skeletal Class II Gummy Smile Patient Treated Nonsurgically with Mini Implants

    OpenAIRE

    Irfan Qamruddin; Fazal Shahid; Mohammad Khursheed Alam; Wafa Zehra Jamal

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal class II has always been a challenge in orthodontics and often needs assistance of surgical orthodontics in nongrowing patients when it presents with severe discrepancy. Difficulty increases more when vertical dysplasia is also associated with sagittal discrepancy. The advent of mini implants in orthodontics has broadened the spectrum of camouflage treatment. This case report presents a 16-year-old nongrowing girl with severe class II because of retrognathic mandible, and anterior de...

  16. Tolerance to MHC class II disparate allografts through genetic modification of bone marrow

    OpenAIRE

    Jindra, Peter T.; TRIPATHI, SUDIPTA; Tian, Chaorui; Iacomini, John; Bagley, Jessamyn

    2012-01-01

    Induction of molecular chimerism through genetic modification of bone marrow is a powerful tool for the induction of tolerance. Here we demonstrate for the first time that expression of an allogeneic MHC class II gene in autologous bone marrow cells, resulting in a state of molecular chimerism, induces tolerance to MHC class II mismatched skin grafts, a stringent test of transplant tolerance. Reconstitution of recipients with syngeneic bone marrow transduced with retrovirus encoding H-2I-Ab (...

  17. The Class II/1 anomaly of hereditary etiology vs. Thumb-sucking etiology

    OpenAIRE

    Pădure, H; Negru, AR; Stanciu, D

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: The etiology of class II division 1 Angle anomaly comprises many entities, including heredity and the vicious habit of sucking the finger. A close connection between the etiology and the clinical features needs to be outlined, in order to have a more appropriate treatment approach. Aim: This study aims to find common clinical features for two groups of Class II division 1 etiological factors (heredity and the vicious habit of sucking the finger), outlining a characteristic dento-fa...

  18. Wide tissue distribution of axolotl class II molecules occurs independently of thyroxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völk, H; Charlemagne, J; Tournefier, A; Ferrone, S; Jost, R; Parisot, R; Kaufman, J

    1998-04-01

    Unlike most salamanders, the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) fails to produce enough thyroxin to undergo anatomical metamorphosis, although a "cryptic metamorphosis" involving a change from fetal to adult hemoglobins has been described. To understand to what extent the development of the axolotl hemopoietic system is linked to anatomical metamorphosis, we examined the appearance and thyroxin dependence of class II molecules on thymus, blood, and spleen cells, using both flow cytometry and biosynthetic labeling followed by immunoprecipitation. Class II molecules are present on B cells as early as 7 weeks after hatching, the first time analyzed. At this time, most thymocytes, all T cells, and all erythrocytes lack class II molecules, but first thymocytes at 17 weeks, then T cells at 22 weeks, and finally erythrocytes at 26-27 weeks virtually all bear class II molecules. Class II molecules and adult hemoglobin appear at roughly the same time in erythrocytes. These data are most easily explained by populations of class II-negative cells being replaced by populations of class II-positive cells, and they show that the hemopoietic system matures at a variety of times unrelated to the increase of thyroxin that drives anatomical metamorphosis. We found that administration of thyroxin during axolotl ontogeny does not accelerate or otherwise affect the acquisition of class II molecules, nor does administration of drugs that inhibit thyroxin (sodium perchlorate, thiourea, methimazole, and 1-methyl imidazole) retard or abolish this acquisition, suggesting that the programs for anatomical metamorphosis and some aspects of hemopoietic development are entirely separate. PMID:9510551

  19. Factors affecting buccal corridor space in Angle′s Class II Division 1 malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Bhat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Buccal corridor space has been thought of primarily in terms of maxillary width, but there is also evidence that they are heavily influenced by the antero-posterior position of maxilla. The present study was undertaken with an aim of evaluating and comparing the dental and skeletal factors related to buccal corridor space in individuals having Class I and Class II Division 1 malocclusions. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 subjects of which 40 were males and 40 were females in the age group of 20-30 years were selected as per inclusion criteria and were grouped as Group I having Class I malocclusion and as Group II having Class II malocclusions based on angle ANB. 12 linear and 2 angular cephalometric measurements and 4 study cast measurements were used to correlate with the buccal corridor linear ratio (BCLR, calculated on smile photograph using the Adobe Photoshop 7.0 software (Adobe Systems Inc., San Jose, California, USA. The data obtained was statistically evaluated using independent t-test and multiple linear regression analysis. Result: Buccal corridor space is larger in individuals with Class II Division 1 malocclusion when compared with individuals with Class I malocclusions. There exists a significant difference in buccal corridor space between males and females. Conclusion: The present study helps in establishing the correlation between certain factors and the amount of buccal corridor space in individuals having skeletal Class II pattern.

  20. Major histocompatibility complex class II compatibility, but not class I, predicts mate choice in a bird with highly developed olfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandh, Maria; Westerdahl, Helena; Pontarp, Mikael; Canbäck, Björn; Dubois, Marie-Pierre; Miquel, Christian; Taberlet, Pierre; Bonadonna, Francesco

    2012-11-01

    Mate choice for major histocompatibility complex (MHC) compatibility has been found in several taxa, although rarely in birds. MHC is a crucial component in adaptive immunity and by choosing an MHC-dissimilar partner, heterozygosity and potentially broad pathogen resistance is maximized in the offspring. The MHC genotype influences odour cues and preferences in mammals and fish and hence olfactory-based mate choice can occur. We tested whether blue petrels, Halobaena caerulea, choose partners based on MHC compatibility. This bird is long-lived, monogamous and can discriminate between individual odours using olfaction, which makes it exceptionally well suited for this analysis. We screened MHC class I and II B alleles in blue petrels using 454-pyrosequencing and quantified the phylogenetic, functional and allele-sharing similarity between individuals. Partners were functionally more dissimilar at the MHC class II B loci than expected from random mating (p = 0.033), whereas there was no such difference at the MHC class I loci. Phylogenetic and non-sequence-based MHC allele-sharing measures detected no MHC dissimilarity between partners for either MHC class I or II B. Our study provides evidence of mate choice for MHC compatibility in a bird with a high dependency on odour cues, suggesting that MHC odour-mediated mate choice occurs in birds.

  1. Normal HLA class I, II, and MICA gene distribution in uveal melanoma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metzelaar-Blok, J.A.; Hurks, H.M.; Naipal, A.; Lange, P. de; Keunen, J.E.E.; Claas, F.; Doxiadis, I.I.; Jager, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: The molecules of the HLA class I and II molecules as well as the MHC class I chain-related gene A (MICA), a polymorphic and stress-induced cell surface molecule, are involved in T-cell and natural killer-cell (NK-cell) mediated immune responses. In this study we looked for any genetic susce

  2. Modes of salmonid MHC class I and II evolution differ from the primate paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shum, B.P.; Guethlein, L.; Flodin, L.R.; Adkison, M.A.; Hedrick, R.P.; Nehring, R.B.; Stet, R.J.M.; Secombes, C.; Parham, P.

    2001-01-01

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) represent two salmonid genera separated for 15-20 million years. cDNA sequences were determined for the classical MHC class I heavy chain gene UBA and the MHC class II β-chain gene DAB from 15 rainbow and 10 brown trout. Both genes a

  3. Using steric hindrance to design new inhibitors of class C beta-lactamases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trehan, Indi; Morandi, F.; Blaszczak, L.C.; Shoichet, Brian K. (NWU)

    2010-03-08

    {beta}-lactamases confer resistance to {beta}-lactam antibiotics such as penicillins and cephalosporins. However, {beta}-lactams that form an acyl-intermediate with the enzyme but subsequently are hindered from forming a catalytically competent conformation seem to be inhibitors of {beta}-lactamases. This inhibition may be imparted by specific groups on the ubiquitous R1 side chain of {beta}-lactams, such as the 2-amino-4-thiazolyl methoxyimino (ATMO) group common among third-generation cephalosporins. Using steric hindrance of deacylation as a design guide, penicillin and carbacephem substrates were converted into effective {beta}-lactamase inhibitors and antiresistance antibiotics. To investigate the structural bases of inhibition, the crystal structures of the acyl-adducts of the penicillin substrate amoxicillin and the new analogous inhibitor ATMO-penicillin were determined. ATMO-penicillin binds in a catalytically incompetent conformation resembling that adopted by third-generation cephalosporins, demonstrating the transferability of such sterically hindered groups in inhibitor design.

  4. OXA-18, a class D clavulanic acid-inhibited extended-spectrum beta-lactamase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippon, L N; Naas, T; Bouthors, A T; Barakett, V; Nordmann, P

    1997-01-01

    Clinical isolate Pseudomonas aeruginosa Mus showed resistance both to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and to aztreonam. We detected a typical double-disk synergy image when ceftazidime or aztreonam was placed next to a clavulanic acid disk on an agar plate. This resistance phenotype suggested the presence of an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase. Isoelectric focusing revealed that this strain produced three beta-lactamases, of pI 5.5, 7.4, and 8.2. A 2.6-kb Sau3A fragment encoding the extended-spectrum beta-lactamase of pI 5.5 was cloned from P. aeruginosa Mus genomic DNA. This enzyme, named OXA-18, had a relative molecular mass of 30.6 kDa. OXA-18 has a broad substrate profile, hydrolyzing amoxicillin, ticarcillin, cephalothin, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, and aztreonam, but not imipenem or cephamycins. Its activity was totally inhibited by clavulanic acid at 2 microg/ml. Hydrolysis constants of OXA-18 (Vmax, Km) confirmed the MIC results. Cloxacillin and oxacillin hydrolysis was noticeable with the partially purified OXA-18. The blaOXA-18 gene encodes a 275-amino-acid protein which has weak identity with all class D beta-lactamases except OXA-9 and OXA-12 (45 and 42% amino acid identity, respectively). OXA-18 is likely to be chromosomally encoded since no plasmid was found in the strain and because attempts to transfer the resistance marker failed. OXA-18 is peculiar since it is a class D beta-lactamase which confers high resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and seems to have unique hydrolytic properties among non-class A enzymes. PMID:9333046

  5. Troglitazone stimulates {beta}-arrestin-dependent cardiomyocyte contractility via the angiotensin II type 1{sub A} receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilley, Douglas G., E-mail: douglas.tilley@jefferson.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jefferson School of Pharmacy, Thomas Jefferson University (United States); Center for Translational Medicine, Thomas Jefferson University (United States); Nguyen, Anny D. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jefferson School of Pharmacy, Thomas Jefferson University (United States); Rockman, Howard A. [Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center (United States); Department of Cell Biology, Duke University Medical Center (United States); Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center (United States)

    2010-06-11

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) agonists are commonly used to treat cardiovascular diseases, and are reported to have several effects on cardiovascular function that may be due to PPAR{gamma}-independent signaling events. Select angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) interact with and modulate PPAR{gamma} activity, thus we hypothesized that a PPAR{gamma} agonist may exert physiologic effects via the angiotensin II type 1{sub A} receptor (AT1{sub A}R). In AT1{sub A}R-overexpressing HEK 293 cells, both angiotensin II (Ang II) and the PPAR{gamma} agonist troglitazone (Trog) enhanced AT1{sub A}R internalization and recruitment of endogenous {beta}-arrestin1/2 ({beta}arr1/2) to the AT1{sub A}R. A fluorescence assay to measure diacylglycerol (DAG) accumulation showed that although Ang II induced AT1{sub A}R-G{sub q} protein-mediated DAG accumulation, Trog had no impact on DAG generation. Trog-mediated recruitment of {beta}arr1/2 was selective to AT1{sub A}R as the response was prevented by an ARB- and Trog-mediated {beta}arr1/2 recruitment to {beta}1-adrenergic receptor ({beta}1AR) was not observed. In isolated mouse cardiomyocytes, Trog increased both % and rate of cell shortening to a similar extent as Ang II, effects which were blocked with an ARB. Additionally, these effects were found to be {beta}arr2-dependent, as cardiomyocytes isolated from {beta}arr2-KO mice showed blunted contractile responses to Trog. These findings show for the first time that the PPAR{gamma} agonist Trog acts at the AT1{sub A}R to simultaneously block G{sub q} protein activation and induce the recruitment of {beta}arr1/2, which leads to an increase in cardiomyocyte contractility.

  6. Characterization of structural features controlling the receptiveness of empty class II MHC molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rupp, Bernd; Günther, Sebastian; Makhmoor, Talat;

    2011-01-01

    MHC class II molecules (MHC II) play a pivotal role in the cell-surface presentation of antigens for surveillance by T cells. Antigen loading takes place inside the cell in endosomal compartments and loss of the peptide ligand rapidly leads to the formation of a non-receptive state of the MHC mol...

  7. Molecular basis for the control of motor-based transport of MHC class II compartments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rocha, Nuno

    2008-01-01

    Antigen presentation by MHC class II is critical for immune responses against pathogens and tumors. Antigen loading occurs primarily in lysosomal-related organelles (LROs) known as MIICs. Ultimately, the MHC II-peptide complexes are transported for cell surface display. Here, we study intracellular

  8. Regulation of MIR165/166 by class II and class III homeodomain leucine zipper proteins establishes leaf polarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merelo, Paz; Ram, Hathi; Pia Caggiano, Monica;

    2016-01-01

    -ZIP) transcription factors are key mediators in the regulation of adaxial-abaxial patterning. Their expression is restricted adaxially during early development by the abaxially expressed microRNA (MIR)165/166, yet the mechanism that restricts MIR165/166 expression to abaxial leaf tissues remains unknown. Here, we...... show that class III and class II HD-ZIP proteins act together to repress MIR165/166 via a conserved cis-element in their promoters. Organ morphology and tissue patterning in plants, therefore, depend on a bidirectional repressive circuit involving a set of miRNAs and its targets....

  9. Immunogenicity of HLA Class I and II Double Restricted Influenza A-Derived Peptides

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Sara Ram; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Buus, Søren; Rasmussen, Michael; Korsholm, Karen Smith; Nielsen, Morten; Claesson, Mogens Helweg

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify influenza A-derived peptides which bind to both HLA class I and -II molecules and by immunization lead to both HLA class I and class II restricted immune responses. Eight influenza A-derived 9-11mer peptides with simultaneous binding to both HLA-A*02:01 and HLA-DRB1*01:01 molecules were identified by bioinformatics and biochemical technology. Immunization of transgenic HLA-A*02:01/HLA-DRB1*01:01 mice with four of these double binding peptides gave ...

  10. Antiarrhythmic drugs use in elderly patients. Vaughan Williams class I and II drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Ushkalova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of class I antiarrhythmic drugs in the elderly is limited by their adverse drug reactions (ADRs, proarrhythmic effect (I A и I C and high risk of drug interactions. Disopyramide use should be avoided due to its strong anticholinergic properties associated with the risk of cognitive and physical disorders and falls in the “very elderly” patients. Available data suggest that elderly patients do not have significant limitations for beta-blockers use. However to determine beta-blockers with the best benefit/risk ratio in elderly patients with co-morbidity further clinical trials are needed.

  11. Management of severe Class II malocclusion with sequential modified twin block and fixed orthodontic appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonal Chowdhary

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional appliance is an effective way of treating skeletal Class II malocclusion in children and adolescents. A 12 months stepwise mandibular advancement protocol with Herbst appliance has been proved to enhance condylar growth and improve mandibular prognathism. The present case report documents a 12-year-old boy presenting with Angle's Class II, division 1 malocclusion associated with excessive overjet (11 mm, 100% deep bite, and retrognathic mandible. He was treated by a phase I growth modification therapy using twin block appliance with lip pads in a stepwise mandibular advancement protocol followed by a phase II preadjusted Edgewise appliance therapy.

  12. Protein kinase C betaII peptide inhibitor exerts cardioprotective effects in rat cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omiyi, Didi; Brue, Richard J; Taormina, Philip; Harvey, Margaret; Atkinson, Norrell; Young, Lindon H

    2005-08-01

    Ischemia followed by reperfusion (I/R) in the presence of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) results in a marked cardiac contractile dysfunction. A cell-permeable protein kinase C (PKC) betaII peptide inhibitor was used to test the hypothesis that PKC betaII inhibition could attenuate PMN-induced cardiac dysfunction by suppression of superoxide production from PMNs and increase NO release from vascular endothelium. The effects of the PKC betaII peptide inhibitor were examined in isolated ischemic (20 min) and reperfused (45 min) rat hearts with PMNs. The PKC betaII inhibitor (10 microM; n = 7) significantly attenuated PMN-induced cardiac dysfunction compared with I/R hearts (n = 9) receiving PMNs alone in left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and the maximal rate of LVDP (+dP/dt(max)) cardiac function indices (p < 0.01). The PKC betaII inhibitor at 10 microM significantly increased endothelial NO release from a basal value of 1.85 +/- 0.18 pmol NO/mg tissue to 3.49 +/- 0.62 pmol NO/mg tissue from rat aorta. It also significantly inhibited superoxide release (i.e., absorbance) from N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine-stimulated rat PMNs from 0.13 +/- 0.01 to 0.02 +/- 0.004 (p < 0.01) at 10 microM. Histological analysis of the left ventricle of representative rat hearts from each group showed that the PKC betaII peptide inhibitor-treated hearts experienced a marked reduction in PMN vascular adherence and infiltration into the postreperfused cardiac tissue compared with I/R + PMN hearts (p < 0.01). These results suggest that the PKC betaII peptide inhibitor attenuates PMN-induced post-I/R cardiac contractile dysfunction by increasing endothelial NO release and by inhibiting superoxide release from PMNs. PMID:15878997

  13. Successful treatment of Class II malocclusion with bidental protrusion using standard edgewise prescription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Ayaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report deals with the successful orthodontic treatment of a 14-year-old female patient having Class II malocclusion with bidental protrusion using standard edgewise prescription. She reported with forwardly placed upper front teeth and difficulty in closing lips. She had prognathic maxilla, retrognathic mandible, and full cusp Class II molar and canine relation bilaterally with overjet of 7 mm. She was in cervical vertebrae maturation indicator Stage IV. The case was treated by fixed extraction mechanotherapy. Interarch Class II mechanics was used to retract the upper incisor and to mesialize the lower molars. Simultaneously, Class I mechanics was used to upright lower incisors. Tip back bend, curve of Spee, and extra palatal root torque were incorporated in upper archwire to maintain molars in upright position and prevent extrusion and deepening of bite, respectively. There was satisfactory improvement in facial profile at the end of 24 months. After a follow-up of 6 months, occlusion was stable.

  14. The stamp technique for direct Class II composite restorations: A case series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshehadat, Saaid Ayesh; Halim, Mohamad Syahrizal; Carmen, Koh; Fung, Chew Shi

    2016-01-01

    Background: “Stamp” technique is a new method for placing large composite restorations with accurate occlusal topography. It was introduced mainly to restore Class I cavities and erosively damaged teeth. This technique is indicated when the preoperative anatomy of the tooth is intact and not lost due to the carious lesion. A precise tooth-like filling an accurate functional occlusion is obtained when the stamp technique is applied. However, using this technique to restore Class II cavities is not established yet. Aim: To introduce modifications of the stamp technique that make it applicable to restore Class II composite restorations. Materials and Methods: The traditional materials and tools used for direct composite restorations are needed with no additional instruments. Clinical illustrations and step-by-step description are provided in this paper. Results and Conclusion: Using the stamp technique to restore Class II cavities is achievable, simple and practical, and result in a very accurate anatomical restoration. PMID:27656074

  15. Small organic compounds enhance antigen loading of class II major histocompatibility complex proteins by targeting the polymorphic P1 pocket

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höpner, Sabine; Dickhaut, Katharina; Hofstätter, Maria;

    2006-01-01

    immune responses by catalyzing the peptide loading of human class II MHC molecules HLA-DR. Here we show now that they achieve this by interacting with a defined binding site of the HLA-DR peptide receptor. Screening of a compound library revealed a set of adamantane derivatives that strongly accelerated......, transient occupation of this pocket by the organic compound stabilizes the peptide-receptive conformation permitting rapid antigen loading. This interaction appeared restricted to the larger Gly(beta86) pocket and allowed striking enhancements of T cell responses for antigens presented by these "adamantyl......Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules are a key element of the cellular immune response. Encoded by the MHC they are a family of highly polymorphic peptide receptors presenting peptide antigens for the surveillance by T cells. We have shown that certain organic compounds can amplify...

  16. Expression of major histocompatibility complex class II and costimulatory molecules in oral carcinomas in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroel-Dorrego, Mariana; Speight, Paul M; Barrett, A William

    2005-01-01

    Recognition in the 1980 s that keratinocytes can express class II molecules of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) first raised the possibility that these cells might have an immunological function, and may even act as antigen presenting cells (APC). For effective T lymphocyte activation, APC require, in addition to MHC II, appropriate costimulatory signals. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of MHC class II and the co-stimulatory molecules CD40, CD80 and CD86 in keratinocytes derived from healthy oral mucosa and oral carcinomas. Using flow cytometry, it was confirmed that oral keratinocytes, switch on, expression of MHC class II molecules after stimulation with IFNgamma in vitro. All keratinocyte lines expressed CD40 constitutively; by contrast, CD80 and CD86 were universally absent. Loss of CD80 and CD86 may be one means whereby tumours escape immunological surveillance.

  17. A randomized controlled 27 years follow up of three resin composites in Class II restorations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Ulla; van Dijken, Jan WV

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the durability of three conventional resin composites in Class II restorations during 27 years. Methods: Thirty participants, 25 female and 5 male (mean age 38.2 years, range 25–63), received at least three (one set) as similar as possible Class II restorations of moderate...... size. The three cavities were chosen at random to be restored with a chemical-cured (Clearfil Posterior) and two visible light-cured resin composites (Adaptic II, Occlusin). A chemical-cured enamel bonding agent (Clearfil New Bond) was applied after Ca(OH)2 covering of dentin and enamel etch. Marginal......: Class II restorations of the three conventional resin composites showed an acceptable success rate during the 27 year evaluation....

  18. Absence of transforming growth factor-beta type II receptor is associated with poorer prognosis in HER2-negative breast tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paiva, C E; Drigo, S A; Rosa, F E;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The clinical relevance of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)-signalling pathway in breast carcinomas (BCs) remained elusive. This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of TGF-beta1 and transforming growth factor-beta type II receptor (TGF-betaRII) expression levels...... in tumour cells and their association with the established biomarkers in BC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In 324 BC from patients with long-term follow-up, the TGF-beta1 and TGF-betaRII transcript and protein expression levels were assessed. RESULTS: TGF-beta1 and TGF-betaRII down-expression was significantly...... associated with BC. Negative TGF-beta1 and TGF-betaRII protein status was associated with the development of distant metastasis (P = 0.003 and P = 0.029, respectively). In multivariate analysis, TGF-beta1-positive tumours were associated with increased disease-free survival (DFS) [hazard ratio (HR) = 0...

  19. HLA-G and MHC Class II Protein Expression in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesionek-Kupnicka, Dorota; Bojo, Marcin; Prochorec-Sobieszek, Monika; Szumera-Ciećkiewicz, Anna; Jabłońska, Joanna; Kalinka-Warzocha, Ewa; Kordek, Radzisław; Młynarski, Wojciech; Robak, Tadeusz; Warzocha, Krzysztof; Lech-Maranda, Ewa

    2016-06-01

    The expression of human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) and HLA class II protein was studied by immunohistochemical staining of lymph nodes from 148 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and related to the clinical course of the disease. Negative HLA-G expression was associated with a lower probability of achieving a complete remission (p = 0.04). Patients with negative HLA-G expression tended towards a lower 3-year overall survival (OS) rate compared to those with positive expression of HLA-G (p = 0.08). When restricting the analysis to patients receiving chemotherapy with rituximab, the estimated 3-year OS rate of patients with positive HLA-G expression was 73.3 % compared with 47.5 % (p = 0.03) in those with negative expression. Patients with negative HLA class II expression presented a lower 3-year OS rate compared to subjects with positive expression (p = 0.04). The loss of HLA class II expression (p = 0.05) and belonging to the intermediate high/high IPI risk group (p = 0.001) independently increased the risk of death. HLA class II expression also retained its prognostic value in patients receiving rituximab; the 3-year OS rate was 65.3 % in patients with positive HLA class II expression versus 29.6 % (p = 0.04) in subjects that had loss of HLA class II expression. To our knowledge, for the first time, the expression of HLA-G protein in DLBCL and its association with the clinical course of the disease was demonstrated. Moreover, the link between losing HLA class II protein expression and poor survival of patients treated with immunochemotherapy was confirmed.

  20. Assessment of upper airways measurements in patients with mandibular skeletal Class II malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayanna Nadja e Silva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Mandibular Class II malocclusions seem to interfere in upper airways measurements. The aim of this study was to assess the upper airways measurements of patients with skeletal Class II malocclusion in order to investigate the association between these measurements and the position and length of the mandible as well as mandibular growth trend, comparing the Class II group with a Class I one.Methods:A total of 80 lateral cephalograms from 80 individuals aged between 10 and 17 years old were assessed. Forty radiographs of Class I malocclusion individuals were matched by age with forty radiographs of individuals with mandibular Class II malocclusion. McNamara Jr., Ricketts, Downs and Jarabak's measurements were used for cephalometric evaluation. Data were submitted to descriptive and inferential statistical analysis by means of SPSS 20.0 statistical package. Student's t-test, Pearson correlation and intraclass correlation coefficient were used. A 95% confidence interval and 5% significance level were adopted to interpret the results.Results:There were differences between groups. Oropharynx and nasopharynx sizes as well as mandibular position and length were found to be reduced in Class II individuals. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between the size of the oropharynx and Xi-Pm, Co-Gn and SNB measurements. In addition, the size of the nasopharynx was found to be correlated with Xi-Pm, Co-Gn, facial depth, SNB, facial axis and FMA.Conclusion: Individuals with mandibular Class II malocclusion were shown to have upper airways measurements diminished. There was a correlation between mandibular length and position and the size of oropharynx and nasopharynx.

  1. Testes de toxicidade aguda através de bioensaios no extrato solubilizado dos resíduos classe II A - não inertes e classe II B - inertes Acute toxicity tests by bioassays applied to the solubilized extracts of solid wastes class II A - non inerts and class II B - inerts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nébora Liz Vendramin Brasil Rodrigues

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A grande diversidade de substâncias potencialmente tóxicas contribuem para a deterioração do meio ambiente. O objetivo deste trabalho foi propor a utilização de bioensaios, através de testes de toxicidade aguda com Daphnia magna e Vibrio fischeri, como mais um parâmetro a ser analisado no extrato solubilizado dos resíduos que, segundo a NBR 10004/04 fossem classificados como classe II A - não inertes ou classe II B - inertes. Realizaram-se, também, testes de toxicidade no drenado dos aterros classe II A e II B. Verificou-se que a toxicidade foi constatada nos extratos solubilizados dos 18 resíduos analisados e que, apenas três das amostras estariam próprias para lançamento, ou seja os resíduos 04, 14 e 15. Já, a toxicidade encontrada no drenado dos aterros, ficou muito superior do que a toxicidade de cada extrato solubilizado analisado separadamente.A great diversity of substances potencially toxic contributes to the deterioration of the environment. The aim of this research was to propose the use of bioassays using Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri, as another parameter to be analyzed in the solubilized extraction of waste according to NBR 10004/04 and classified as class II A - non inerts or class II B - inerts. Besides, another test was performed to measure the level of toxicity in the drainage of the landfill class II A and II B. It was verified that the toxicity found in the solubilized extracts of the 18 wastes analysed.Only 3 wastes (04, 14 and 15 were within the emission limits. On the other hand the toxicity found in the drainage of the landfill, from which all the samples came from, was much higher than the individual one.

  2. Alternative Ii-independent antigen-processing pathway in leukemic blasts involves TAP-dependent peptide loading of HLA class II complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. van Luijn; M.E.D. Chamuleau; M.E. Ressing; E.J. Wiertz; S. Ostrand-Rosenberg; Y. Souwer; A. Zevenbergen; G.J. Ossenkoppele; A.A. van de Loosdrecht; S.M. Ham

    2010-01-01

    During HLA class II synthesis in antigen-presenting cells, the invariant chain (Ii) not only stabilizes HLA class II complexes in the endoplasmic reticulum, but also mediates their transport to specialized lysosomal antigen-loading compartments termed MIICs. This study explores an alternative HLA cl

  3. Zinc Induces Dimerization of the Class II Major Histocompatibility Complex Molecule That Leads to Cooperative Binding to a Superantigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li,H.; Zhao, Y.; Guo, Y.; Li, Z.; Eislele, L.; Mourad, W.

    2007-01-01

    Dimerization of class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays an important role in the MHC biological function. Mycoplasma arthritidis-derived mitogen (MAM) is a superantigen that can activate large fractions of T cells bearing specific T cell receptor V{beta} elements. Here we have used structural, sedimentation, and surface plasmon resonance detection approaches to investigate the molecular interactions between MAM and the class II MHC molecule HLA-DR1 in the context of a hemagglutinin peptide-(306-318) (HA). Our results revealed that zinc ion can efficiently induce the dimerization of the HLA-DR1/HA complex. Because the crystal structure of the MAM/HLA-DR1/hemagglutinin complex in the presence of EDTA is nearly identical to the structure of the complex crystallized in the presence of zinc ion, Zn{sup 2+} is evidently not directly involved in the binding between MAM and HLA-DR1. Sedimentation and surface plasmon resonance studies further revealed that MAM binds the HLA-DR1/HA complex with high affinity in a 1:1 stoichiometry, in the absence of Zn{sup 2+}. However, in the presence of Zn{sup 2+}, a dimerized MAM/HLA-DR1/HA complex can arise through the Zn{sup 2+}-induced DR1 dimer. In the presence of Zn{sup 2+}, cooperative binding of MAM to the DR1 dimer was also observed.

  4. Phase II Upgrade of the GERDA Experiment for the Search of Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majorovits, B.

    Observation of neutrinoless double beta decay could answer the question regarding the Majorana or Dirac nature of neutrinos. The GERDA experiment utilizes HPGe detectors enriched with the isotope 76Ge to search for this process. Recently the GERDA collaboration has unblinded data of Phase I of the experiment. In order to further improve the sensitivity of the experiment, additionally to the coaxial detectors used, 30 BEGe detectors made from germanium enriched in 76Ge will be deployed in GERDA Phase II. BEGe detectors have superior PSD capability, thus the background can be further reduced. The liquid argon surrounding the detector array will be instrumented in order to reject background by detecting scintillation light induced in the liquid argon by radiation. After a short introduction the hardware preparations for GERDA Phase II as well as the processing and characterization of the 30 BEGe detectors are discussed.

  5. PowerScope a Class II corrector – A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joby Paulose

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Managing mild to moderate Class II malocclusion is a one of the common and major challenges to orthodontists. Class II discrepancies with mandibular deficiency during active growth are usually treated by myofunctional appliances. Fixed functional appliances evolved due to the noncompliance with conventional myofunctional appliances. This case report illustrates the efficiency of PowerScope in correction of skeletal Class II with mandibular deficiency in a patient aged 13 years who has reported to the department with a chief complaint of forwardly placed upper front teeth. This case with functional jaw retrusion was treated initially with MBT 0.022” prescription followed by PowerScope. Pre-, mid- and post-treatment cephalograms were obtained, and cephalometric analysis was performed. Stable and successful results were obtained with a substantial improvement in facial profile, skeletal jaw relationship, and overall esthetic appearance of the patient. A significant forward displacement of the mandible was the principal element for successful correction of Class II malocclusion. PowerScope provides the best results for Class II management, thus enables us to treat such cases by a nonextraction approach rather than contemplating extractions.

  6. Differential modulation of Alzheimer's disease amyloid beta-peptide accumulation by diverse classes of metal ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caragounis, Aphrodite; Du, Tai; Filiz, Gulay; Laughton, Katrina M; Volitakis, Irene; Sharples, Robyn A; Cherny, Robert A; Masters, Colin L; Drew, Simon C; Hill, Andrew F; Li, Qiao-Xin; Crouch, Peter J; Barnham, Kevin J; White, Anthony R

    2007-11-01

    Biometals have an important role in AD (Alzheimer's disease) and metal ligands have been investigated as potential therapeutic agents for treatment of AD. In recent studies the 8HQ (8-hydroxyquinoline) derivative CQ (clioquinol) has shown promising results in animal models and small clinical trials; however, the actual mode of action in vivo is still being investigated. We previously reported that CQ-metal complexes up-regulated MMP (matrix metalloprotease) activity in vitro by activating PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) and JNK (c-jun N-terminal kinase), and that the increased MMP activity resulted in enhanced degradation of secreted Abeta (amyloid beta) peptide. In the present study, we have further investigated the biochemical mechanisms by which metal ligands affect Abeta metabolism. To achieve this, we measured the effects of diverse metal ligands on cellular metal uptake and secreted Abeta levels in cell culture. We report that different classes of metal ligands including 8HQ and phenanthroline derivatives and the sulfur compound PDTC (pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate) elevated cellular metal levels (copper and zinc), and resulted in substantial loss of secreted Abeta. Generally, the ability to inhibit Abeta levels correlated with a higher lipid solubility of the ligands and their capacity to increase metal uptake. However, we also identified several ligands that potently inhibited Abeta levels while only inducing minimal change to cellular metal levels. Metal ligands that inhibited Abeta levels [e.g. CQ, 8HQ, NC (neocuproine), 1,10-phenanthroline and PDTC] induced metal-dependent activation of PI3K and JNK, resulting in JNK-mediated up-regulation of metalloprotease activity and subsequent loss of secreted Abeta. The findings in the present study show that diverse metal ligands with high lipid solubility can elevate cellular metal levels resulting in metalloprotease-dependent inhibition of Abeta. Given that a structurally diverse array of ligands was assessed, the

  7. 25 CFR 547.7 - What are the minimum technical hardware standards applicable to Class II gaming systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum technical hardware standards applicable to Class II gaming systems? 547.7 Section 547.7 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION... OF CLASS II GAMES § 547.7 What are the minimum technical hardware standards applicable to Class...

  8. Expression regulation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC class I and class II encoding genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J van den Elsen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available MHC-I and MHC-II molecules play an essential role in the immune response to pathogens by virtue of their ability to present peptides to CD8+ and CD4+ T cells, respectively. Given this critical role, MHC-I and MHC-II genes are regulated in a tight fashion at the transcriptional level by a variety of transcription factors that interact with conserved cis-acting regulatory promoter elements. In addition to the activities of these regulatory factors, modification of chromatin also plays an essential role in the efficient transcription of these genes to meet with local requirement for an effective immune response. The focus of this review is on the transcription factors that interact with conserved cis-acting promoter elements and the epigenetic mechanisms that modulate induced and constitutive expression of these MHC genes.

  9. DNA sequence of the Peromyscus leucopus MHC class II gene Aa (MhcPeleAa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crew, M.D.; Bates, L.M. [Univ. of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The genus Peromyscus has been extensively studied by populations biologists and ecologists for over eighty years, with P. leucopus (the white-footed mouse) being one of the most intensively investigated species. Polymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes have proven useful in population genetic studies and might be helpful in understanding the population dynamics of Peromyscus species which are ubiquitously distributed over North and Central America. Polymorphism of P. leucopus MHC (MhcPele) class II genes was evident by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses using human and mouse probes and Pele class II loci exhibited degrees of polymorphism similar to H2 class II genes (A-like>E-like). 8 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Structural Insights into Substrate Binding of Brown Spider Venom Class II Phospholipases D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, M A; Ullah, A; da Silva, L S; Chaves-Moreira, D; Vuitika, L; Chaim, O M; Veiga, S S; Chahine, J; Murakami, M T; Arni, R K

    2015-01-01

    Phospholipases D (PLDs), the major dermonecrotic factors from brown spider venoms, trigger a range of biological reactions both in vitro and in vivo. Despite their clinical relevance in loxoscelism, structural data is restricted to the apo-form of these enzymes, which has been instrumental in understanding the functional differences between the class I and II spider PLDs. The crystal structures of the native class II PLD from Loxosceles intermedia complexed with myo-inositol 1-phosphate and the inactive mutant H12A complexed with fatty acids indicate the existence of a strong ligand-dependent conformation change of the highly conserved aromatic residues, Tyr 223 and Trp225 indicating their roles in substrate binding. These results provided insights into the structural determinants for substrate recognition and binding by class II PLDs.

  11. Exposing the specific roles of the invariant chain isoforms in shaping the MHC class II peptidome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Simon eFortin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The peptide repertoire (peptidome associated with MHC class II molecules (MHCIIs is influenced by the polymorphic nature of the peptide binding groove but also by cell-intrinsic factors. The invariant chain (Ii chaperones MHCIIs, affecting their folding and trafficking. Recent discoveries relating to Ii functions have provided insights as to how it edits the MHCII peptidome. In humans, the Ii gene encodes four different isoforms for which structure-function analyses have highlighted common properties but also some non-redundant roles. Another layer of complexity arises from the fact that Ii heterotrimerizes, a characteristic that has the potential to affect the maturation of associated MHCIIs in many different ways, depending on the isoform combinations. Here, we emphasize the peptide editing properties of Ii and discuss the impact of the various isoforms on the MHCII peptidome.

  12. High-throughput engineering and analysis of peptide binding to class II MHC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Boder, Eric T

    2010-07-27

    Class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC-II) proteins govern stimulation of adaptive immunity by presenting antigenic peptides to CD4+ T lymphocytes. Many allelic variants of MHC-II exist with implications in peptide presentation and immunity; thus, high-throughput experimental tools for rapid and quantitative analysis of peptide binding to MHC-II are needed. Here, we present an expression system wherein peptide and MHC-II are codisplayed on the surface of yeast in an intracellular association-dependent manner and assayed by flow cytometry. Accordingly, the relative binding of different peptides and/or MHC-II variants can be assayed by genetically manipulating either partner, enabling the application of directed evolution approaches for high-throughput characterization or engineering. We demonstrate the application of this tool to map the side-chain preference for peptides binding to HLA-DR1 and to evolve novel HLA-DR1 mutants with altered peptide-binding specificity.

  13. Association of class II human histocompatibility leukocyte antigens with rheumatic fever.

    OpenAIRE

    Ayoub, E M; Barrett, D J; Maclaren, N K; Krischer, J P

    1986-01-01

    The association of class I and II HLA antigens with rheumatic fever and its manifestations was examined in 72 patients, including 48 blacks and 24 Caucasians. No significant association was found between class I antigens and rheumatic fever. In contrast, HLA-DR2 and HLA-DR4 phenotypes were encountered in a significantly higher frequency in black and Caucasian patients with rheumatic fever, respectively, compared with the control populations (P less than 0.005). The most significant associatio...

  14. Vaccination against lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection in MHC class II-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Peter Johannes; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2011-01-01

    response could be elicited in MHC class II-deficient mice by vaccination with adenovirus encoding lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) glycoprotein tethered to MHC class II-associated invariant chain. Moreover, the response induced conferred significant cytolytic CD8(+) T cell-mediated protection...... against challenge with a high dose of the invasive clone 13 strain of LCMV. In contrast, vaccination with adenovirus encoding unlinked LCMV glycoprotein induced weak virus control in the absence of CD4(+) T cells, and mice may die of increased immunopathology associated with incomplete protection. Acute...

  15. Is traditional treatment a good option for an adult with a Class II deepbite malocclusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo Quintão, Catia Cardoso; Miguel, Jose Augusto Mendes; Brunharo, Ione Portela; Zanardi, Gustavo; Feu, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    The Tweed-Merrifield directional force technique is a useful treatment approach for a patient with a Class II malocclusion with dentoalveolar protrusion. The purpose of this case report was to present the diagnosis and treatment descriptions of a patient with an Angle Class II malocclusion complicated by tooth losses, severe dentoalveolar protrusion, and skeletal discrepancy. Treatment involved extraction of the maxillary first premolars, high-pull headgear to enhance anchorage, and high-pull J-hook headgear to retract and intrude the maxillary anterior segments. A successful outcome was achieved with traditional orthodontic treatment in this borderline surgical case.

  16. Domain structures and molecular evolution of class I and class II major histocompatibility gene complex (MHC) products deduced from amino acid and nucleotide sequence homologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Koji

    1984-12-01

    Domain structures of class I and class II MHC products were analyzed from a viewpoint of amino acid and nucleotide sequence homologies. Alignment statistics revealed that class I (transplantation) antigen H chains consist of four mutually homologous domains, and that class II (HLA-DR) antigen β and α chains are both composed of three mutually homologous ones. The N-terminal three and two domains of class I and class II (both β and α) gene products, respectively, all of which being ˜90 residues long, were concluded to be homologous to β2-microglobulin (β2M). The membraneembedded C-terminal shorter domains of these MHC products were also found to be homologous to one another and to the third domain of class I H chains. Class I H chains were found to be more closely related to class II α chains than to class II β chains. Based on these findings, an exon duplication history from a common ancestral gene encoding a β2M-like primodial protein of one-domain-length up to the contemporary MHC products was proposed.

  17. Distribution of class ii major histocompatibility complex antigenexpressing cells in human dental pulp with carious lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Haniastuti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental caries is a bacterial infection which causes destruction of the hard tissues of the tooth. Exposure of the dentin to the oral environment as a result of caries inevitably results in a cellular response in the pulp. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC is a group of genes that code for cell-surface histocompatibility antigens. Cells expressing class II MHC molecules participate in the initial recognition and the processing of antigenic substances to serve as antigen-presenting cells. Purpose: The aim of the study was to elucidate the alteration in the distribution of class II MHC antigen-expressing cells in human dental pulp as carious lesions progressed toward the pulp. Methods: Fifteen third molars with caries at the occlusal site at various stages of decay and 5 intact third molars were extracted and used in this study. Before decalcifying with 10% EDTA solution (pH 7.4, all the samples were observed by micro-computed tomography to confirm the lesion condition three-dimensionally. The specimens were then processed for cryosection and immunohistochemistry using an anti-MHC class II monoclonal antibody. Results: Class II MHC antigen-expressing cells were found both in normal and carious specimens. In normal tooth, the class II MHC-immunopositive cells were observed mainly at the periphery of the pulp tissue. In teeth with caries, class II MHC-immunopositive cells were located predominantly subjacent to the carious lesions. As the caries progressed, the number of class II MHC antigen-expressing cells was increased. Conclusion: The depth of carious lesions affects the distribution of class II MHC antigen-expressing cells in the dental pulp.Latar belakang: Karies merupakan penyakit infeksi bakteri yang mengakibatkan destruksi jaringan keras gigi. Dentin yang terbuka akibat karies akan menginduksi respon imun seluler pada pulpa. Kompleks histokompatibilitas utama (MHC merupakan sekumpulan gen yang mengkode histokompatibilitas

  18. 46 CFR 50.30-10 - Class I, I-L and II-L pressure vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class I, I-L and II-L pressure vessels. 50.30-10 Section... PROVISIONS Fabrication Inspection § 50.30-10 Class I, I-L and II-L pressure vessels. (a) Classes I, I-L and II-L pressure vessels shall be subject to shop inspection at the plant where they are...

  19. A Review of Class I and Class II Pet Food Recalls Involving Chemical Contaminants from 1996 to 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Rumbeiha, Wilson; Morrison, Jamie

    2010-01-01

    Commercial pet food in USA is generally safe, but adulteration does occur. Adulterated food has to be recalled to protect pets and public health. All stakeholders, including food firms, distributors, and government agencies such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) participate in food recall. The objective of this review is to describe the pet food recall procedure from start to finish, and to review class I and II pet food recalls from 1996 to 2008, with a specific focus on those due to...

  20. Towards universal structure-based prediction of class II MHC epitopes for diverse allotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Bordner

    Full Text Available The binding of peptide fragments of antigens to class II MHC proteins is a crucial step in initiating a helper T cell immune response. The discovery of these peptide epitopes is important for understanding the normal immune response and its misregulation in autoimmunity and allergies and also for vaccine design. In spite of their biomedical importance, the high diversity of class II MHC proteins combined with the large number of possible peptide sequences make comprehensive experimental determination of epitopes for all MHC allotypes infeasible. Computational methods can address this need by predicting epitopes for a particular MHC allotype. We present a structure-based method for predicting class II epitopes that combines molecular mechanics docking of a fully flexible peptide into the MHC binding cleft followed by binding affinity prediction using a machine learning classifier trained on interaction energy components calculated from the docking solution. Although the primary advantage of structure-based prediction methods over the commonly employed sequence-based methods is their applicability to essentially any MHC allotype, this has not yet been convincingly demonstrated. In order to test the transferability of the prediction method to different MHC proteins, we trained the scoring method on binding data for DRB1*0101 and used it to make predictions for multiple MHC allotypes with distinct peptide binding specificities including representatives from the other human class II MHC loci, HLA-DP and HLA-DQ, as well as for two murine allotypes. The results showed that the prediction method was able to achieve significant discrimination between epitope and non-epitope peptides for all MHC allotypes examined, based on AUC values in the range 0.632-0.821. We also discuss how accounting for peptide binding in multiple registers to class II MHC largely explains the systematically worse performance of prediction methods for class II MHC compared with

  1. Towards universal structure-based prediction of class II MHC epitopes for diverse allotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordner, Andrew J

    2010-01-01

    The binding of peptide fragments of antigens to class II MHC proteins is a crucial step in initiating a helper T cell immune response. The discovery of these peptide epitopes is important for understanding the normal immune response and its misregulation in autoimmunity and allergies and also for vaccine design. In spite of their biomedical importance, the high diversity of class II MHC proteins combined with the large number of possible peptide sequences make comprehensive experimental determination of epitopes for all MHC allotypes infeasible. Computational methods can address this need by predicting epitopes for a particular MHC allotype. We present a structure-based method for predicting class II epitopes that combines molecular mechanics docking of a fully flexible peptide into the MHC binding cleft followed by binding affinity prediction using a machine learning classifier trained on interaction energy components calculated from the docking solution. Although the primary advantage of structure-based prediction methods over the commonly employed sequence-based methods is their applicability to essentially any MHC allotype, this has not yet been convincingly demonstrated. In order to test the transferability of the prediction method to different MHC proteins, we trained the scoring method on binding data for DRB1*0101 and used it to make predictions for multiple MHC allotypes with distinct peptide binding specificities including representatives from the other human class II MHC loci, HLA-DP and HLA-DQ, as well as for two murine allotypes. The results showed that the prediction method was able to achieve significant discrimination between epitope and non-epitope peptides for all MHC allotypes examined, based on AUC values in the range 0.632-0.821. We also discuss how accounting for peptide binding in multiple registers to class II MHC largely explains the systematically worse performance of prediction methods for class II MHC compared with those for class I MHC

  2. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA): a screening study to measure class II skeletal pattern, TMJ PDS and use of systemic corticosteroids.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mandall, Nicky A

    2010-03-01

    To screen patients with oligoarticular and polyarticular forms of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) to determine (i) the severity of their class II skeletal pattern; (ii) temporomandibular joint signs and symptoms and (iii) use of systemic corticosteroids.

  3. Spectroscopic study of turbulent heating in the high beta tokamak - Torus II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visible spectroscopy, involving line profile and line intensity measurements, was used to study the turbulent heating of the rectangular cross-section high-beta tokamak Torus II. The spectroscopy was done in the visible wave-length region using a six channel polychrometer having 0.2 A resolution, which is capable of radial scans of the plasma. The plasma, obtained by ionizing helium, is heated by poloidal skin currents, induced by a rapid (tau/sub R/ approx. = 1.7 μsec) change of the toroidal magnetic field either parallel or anti-parallel to the initial toroidal bias magnetic field, which converts a cold toroidal Z-pinch plasma into a hot tokamak plasma

  4. Spectroscopic study of turbulent heating in the high beta tokamak - Torus II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgiou, G.E.

    1979-01-01

    Visible spectroscopy, involving line profile and line intensity measurements, was used to study the turbulent heating of the rectangular cross-section high-beta tokamak Torus II. The spectroscopy was done in the visible wave-length region using a six channel polychrometer having 0.2 A resolution, which is capable of radial scans of the plasma. The plasma, obtained by ionizing helium, is heated by poloidal skin currents, induced by a rapid (tau/sub R/ approx. = 1.7 ..mu..sec) change of the toroidal magnetic field either parallel or anti-parallel to the initial toroidal bias magnetic field, which converts a cold toroidal Z-pinch plasma into a hot tokamak plasma.

  5. Biochemical Characterization of the Split Class II Ribonucleotide Reductase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Crona

    Full Text Available The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa can grow under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Its flexibility with respect to oxygen load is reflected by the fact that its genome encodes all three existing classes of ribonucleotides reductase (RNR: the oxygen-dependent class I RNR, the oxygen-indifferent class II RNR, and the oxygen-sensitive class III RNR. The P. aeruginosa class II RNR is expressed as two separate polypeptides (NrdJa and NrdJb, a unique example of a split RNR enzyme in a free-living organism. A split class II RNR is also found in a few closely related γ-Proteobacteria. We have characterized the P. aeruginosa class II RNR and show that both subunits are required for formation of a biologically functional enzyme that can sustain vitamin B12-dependent growth. Binding of the B12 coenzyme as well as substrate and allosteric effectors resides in the NrdJa subunit, whereas the NrdJb subunit mediates efficient reductive dithiol exchange during catalysis. A combination of activity assays and activity-independent methods like surface plasmon resonance and gas phase electrophoretic macromolecule analysis suggests that the enzymatically active form of the enzyme is a (NrdJa-NrdJb2 homodimer of heterodimers, and a combination of hydrogen-deuterium exchange experiments and molecular modeling suggests a plausible region in NrdJa that interacts with NrdJb. Our detailed characterization of the split NrdJ from P. aeruginosa provides insight into the biochemical function of a unique enzyme known to have central roles in biofilm formation and anaerobic growth.

  6. Autologous CD4 T-cell responses to ectopic class II major histocompatibility complex antigen-expressing single-cell islet cells: an in vitro insight into the pathogenesis of lymphocytic insulitis in nonobese diabetic mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Formby, B; Miller, N.

    1990-01-01

    We investigated by flow cytometric analysis the expression of class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules by viable single-cell islet cells (SCICs) prepared from male and female 4- and 10-week-old nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse islets. With anti-I-Ak monoclonal antibody (specific for I-Ak,f,r,s beta and produced by clone 11-5-2), and fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated goat anti-mouse IgG as second-step antibody, we found that SCICs from both sexes aberrantly expressed class II...

  7. The effect of anterior inclined plane treatment on the dentoskeletal of Class II division 1 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emami Meibodi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Most of Class II malocclusions are due to underdeveloped mandible with increased overjet and overbite. Lack of incisal contact results in the extrusion of the upper and lower anterior dentoalveolar complex, which helps to lock the mandible and prevent its normal growth and development, and this abnormality is exaggerated by soft tissue imbalance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the skeletal and dental changes in patients treated with anterior inclined plane appliance in growing patients with moderate Class II Division 1 having deep overbite. In this study, 25 patients, including 15 girls and 10 boys, with a mean age of 9 ±1.2 years were selected; all of them presented with moderate Class II deep bite with increased overjet and normal or horizontal growth pattern. Pre- and post-treatment X-rays and photos for an average of 8 months were taken. The statistical assessment of the data suggested that there were no significant changes in the vertical skeletal parameters. The mandibular incisors were protruded, whereas the maxillary incisors were retruded. Overbite and overjet were also reduced. There was significant increase in the mandibular length. The results revealed that in mixed dentition patients, the inclined plane corrected Class II discrepancies mostly through dentoskeletal changes.

  8. 37 GHz Methanol Masers : Horsemen of the Apocalypse for the Class II Methanol Maser Phase?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingsen, S. P.; Breen, S. L.; Sobolev, A. M.; Voronkov, M. A.; Caswell, J. L.; Lo, N.

    2011-12-01

    We report the results of a search for class II methanol masers at 37.7, 38.3, and 38.5 GHz toward a sample of 70 high-mass star formation regions. We primarily searched toward regions known to show emission either from the 107 GHz class II methanol maser transition, or from the 6.035 GHz excited OH transition. We detected maser emission from 13 sources in the 37.7 GHz transition, eight of these being new detections. We detected maser emission from three sources in the 38 GHz transitions, one of which is a new detection. We find that 37.7 GHz methanol masers are only associated with the most luminous 6.7 and 12.2 GHz methanol maser sources, which in turn are hypothesized to be the oldest class II methanol sources. We suggest that the 37.7 GHz methanol masers are associated with a brief evolutionary phase (of 1000-4000 years) prior to the cessation of class II methanol maser activity in the associated high-mass star formation region.

  9. 37 GHz METHANOL MASERS : HORSEMEN OF THE APOCALYPSE FOR THE CLASS II METHANOL MASER PHASE?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellingsen, S. P.; Breen, S. L. [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 37, Hobart, TAS 7001 (Australia); Sobolev, A. M. [Astronomical Observatory, Ural Federal University, Lenin avenue 51, 620000 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Voronkov, M. A.; Caswell, J. L. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Australia Telescope National Facility, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Lo, N., E-mail: Simon.Ellingsen@utas.edu.au [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Camino El Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago, Casilla 36-D (Chile)

    2011-12-01

    We report the results of a search for class II methanol masers at 37.7, 38.3, and 38.5 GHz toward a sample of 70 high-mass star formation regions. We primarily searched toward regions known to show emission either from the 107 GHz class II methanol maser transition, or from the 6.035 GHz excited OH transition. We detected maser emission from 13 sources in the 37.7 GHz transition, eight of these being new detections. We detected maser emission from three sources in the 38 GHz transitions, one of which is a new detection. We find that 37.7 GHz methanol masers are only associated with the most luminous 6.7 and 12.2 GHz methanol maser sources, which in turn are hypothesized to be the oldest class II methanol sources. We suggest that the 37.7 GHz methanol masers are associated with a brief evolutionary phase (of 1000-4000 years) prior to the cessation of class II methanol maser activity in the associated high-mass star formation region.

  10. 37 GHz METHANOL MASERS : HORSEMEN OF THE APOCALYPSE FOR THE CLASS II METHANOL MASER PHASE?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the results of a search for class II methanol masers at 37.7, 38.3, and 38.5 GHz toward a sample of 70 high-mass star formation regions. We primarily searched toward regions known to show emission either from the 107 GHz class II methanol maser transition, or from the 6.035 GHz excited OH transition. We detected maser emission from 13 sources in the 37.7 GHz transition, eight of these being new detections. We detected maser emission from three sources in the 38 GHz transitions, one of which is a new detection. We find that 37.7 GHz methanol masers are only associated with the most luminous 6.7 and 12.2 GHz methanol maser sources, which in turn are hypothesized to be the oldest class II methanol sources. We suggest that the 37.7 GHz methanol masers are associated with a brief evolutionary phase (of 1000-4000 years) prior to the cessation of class II methanol maser activity in the associated high-mass star formation region.

  11. 37 GHz methanol masers : Horsemen of the Apocalypse for the class II methanol maser phase?

    CERN Document Server

    Ellingsen, S P; Sobolev, A M; Voronkov, M A; Caswell, J L; Lo, N

    2011-01-01

    We report the results of a search for class II methanol masers at 37.7, 38.3 and 38.5 GHz towards a sample of 70 high-mass star formation regions. We primarily searched towards regions known to show emission either from the 107 GHz class II methanol maser transition, or from the 6.035 GHz excited OH transition. We detected maser emission from 13 sources in the 37.7 GHz transition, eight of these being new detections. We detected maser emission from three sources in the 38 GHz transitions, one of which is a new detection. We find that 37.7 GHz methanol masers are only associated with the most luminous 6.7 and 12.2 GHz methanol maser sources, which in turn are hypothesised to be the oldest class II methanol sources. We suggest that the 37.7 GHz methanol masers are associated with a brief evolutionary phase (of 1000-4000 years) prior to the cessation of class II methanol maser activity in the associated high-mass star formation region.

  12. 77 FR 58473 - Minimum Technical Standards for Class II Gaming Systems and Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... Class II Games. 73 FR 60508. The rule added a new part to the Commission's regulations establishing a.... 75 FR 70680. On April 4, 2011, after consulting with tribes and reviewing all comments, the NIGC... review. 76 FR 18457. Part 547 was included in the third regulatory group reviewed pursuant to the NRR....

  13. MHC class II B diversity in blue tits : A preliminary study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rivero-de Aguilar, Juan; Schut, Elske; Merino, Santiago; Martinez, Javier; Komdeur, Jan; Westerdahl, Helena

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we partly characterize major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II B in the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus). A total of 22 individuals from three different European locations: Spain, The Netherlands, and Sweden were screened for MHC allelic diversity. The MHC genes were investigate

  14. HDACs class II-selective inhibition alters nuclear receptor-dependent differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nebbioso, Angela; Dell'Aversana, Carmela; Bugge, Anne Skovsø;

    2010-01-01

    , we show that the novel class II-selective inhibitor MC1568 interferes with the RAR- and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ)-mediated differentiation-inducing signaling pathways. In F9 cells, this inhibitor specifically blocks endodermal differentiation despite not affecting retinoic...

  15. Oral HPV infection and MHC class II deficiency (A study of two cases with atypical outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guirat-Dhouib Naouel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Major histocompatibility complex class II deficiency, also referred to as bare lymphocyte syndrome is a rare primary Immunodeficiency disorder characterized by a profondly deficient human leukocyte antigen class II expression and a lack of cellular and humoral immune responses to foreign antigens. Clinical manifestations include extreme susceptibility to viral, bacterial, and fungal infections. The infections begin in the first year of life and involve usually the respiratory system and the gastrointestinal tract. Severe malabsorption with failure to thrive ensues, often leading to death in early childhood. Bone marrow transplantation is the curative treatment. Case reports Here we report two cases with a late outcome MHC class II deficiency. They had a long term history of recurrent bronchopulmonary and gastrointestinal infections. Bone marrow transplantation could not be performed because no compatible donor had been identified. At the age of 12 years, they developed oral papillomatous lesions related to HPV (human papillomavirus. The diagnosis of HPV infection was done by histological examination. HPV typing performed on the tissue obtained at biopsy showed HPV type 6. The lesions were partially removed after two months of laser treatment. Conclusions Viral infections are common in patients with MHC class II and remain the main cause of death. Besides warts caused by HPV infection do not exhibit a propensity for malignant transformation; they can cause great psychosocial morbidity.

  16. A randomized controlled 30 years follow up of three conventional resin composites in Class II restorations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Ulla; van Dijken, Jan WV

    2015-01-01

    three (one set) as similar as possible Class II restorations of moderate size.After cavity preparation, the three cavities were chosen at random to be restored with twochemical-cured (P10, Miradapt) and one light-cured resin composite (P30). A chemical-curedenamel bonding agent was applied after etching...

  17. Current Teaching of Proximal Retention Grooves for Class II Amalgam Preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David L.

    1992-01-01

    A survey gathered information on methods of class II amalgam preparation taught in 59 dental schools. Focus was on the teaching and testing of proximal retention groove use, stated rationale for placing retention grooves, and the relationship of the instruction to board criteria for cavity preparation. (MSE)

  18. 78 FR 14013 - Medical Devices; Exemption From Premarket Notification; Class II Devices; Wheelchair Elevator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ..., 1998 (63 FR 3142). Section 510(m)(2) of the FD&C Act provides that FDA may exempt a device from....) In the Federal Register of June 1, 2012 (77 FR 32644), FDA published a notice announcing that this... criteria laid out in the Class II 510(k) Exemption Guidance and in 63 FR 3142, and agrees they weigh...

  19. 75 FR 17093 - Neurological and Physical Medicine Devices; Designation of Special Controls for Certain Class II...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... Physical Medicine Devices; Designation of Special Controls for Certain Class II Devices and Exemption From... and Drug Administration (FDA) is proposing to amend certain neurological device and physical medicine.... Elsewhere in this issue of the Federal Register, FDA is publishing a notice of availability of...

  20. Guided tissue regeneration in the treatment of class II furcation defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Miranda DELIBERADOR

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Numerous surgical techniques have been evaluated toattempt the regeneration of furcation defects. Objective and literature review: Among the regenerative techniques, guided tissue regeneration(GTR has been largely used in the treatment of class II furcation defects, the main indication for GTR. Several clinical studies have compared the GTR technique with surgical debridement alone for the treatment of class II furcation defects in mandibular molars. A number of membrane materials have been tested in those studies.Varying results have been observed using non-absorbable expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PTFE membranes. In some studies, the difference between the treatments was not clinically significant. When second generation absorbable membranes were used, the clinicalresults were also variable. However, some clinical studies foundfavorable results using the GTR technique, especially when a polylactic acid membrane was used. Similar modest results were observed when absorbable and non-absorbable membranes were compared clinically in the treatment of class II furcation defects in mandibular molars.Significant differences were not found between the membranes for most of the clinical parameters evaluated.Conclusion: Considering the literature, it can be concluded that the use of GTR for the treatment of mandibular molars with class II furcation defects yielded highly variable and unpredictable results.

  1. Very few indications justify early treatment for severe Class II malocclusions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, Yijin

    2004-01-01

    DESIGN: This was a single-centre two-phased, parallel, randomised clinical trial (RCT) conducted over a period of more than 10 years. INTERVENTION: Children were enrolled who had severe (=7 mm overjet) Class II malocclusions and who were developmentally at least a year before their peak pubertal gro

  2. 78 FR 42942 - Clean Water Act Class II: Proposed Administrative Settlement, Penalty Assessment and Opportunity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ... corporate audit agreement pursuant to EPA's policy on Incentives for Self- Policing: Discovery, Disclosure, Correction and Prevention of Violations (Audit Policy), 65 FR 19618 (Apr. 11, 2000), regarding 88 office... AGENCY Clean Water Act Class II: Proposed Administrative Settlement, Penalty Assessment and...

  3. 78 FR 5800 - Clean Water Act Class II: Proposed Administrative Settlement, Penalty Assessment and Opportunity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ..., Correction and Prevention of Violations (Audit Policy), 65 FR 19,618 (April 11, 2000). EPA determined that AboveNet's disclosures satisfied all the conditions set forth in the Audit Policy, and therefore qualify... AGENCY Clean Water Act Class II: Proposed Administrative Settlement, Penalty Assessment and...

  4. Comparison of interradicular distances and cortical bone thickness in Thai patients with Class I and Class II skeletal patterns using cone-beam computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khumsarn, Nattida; Patanaporn, Virush; Jotikasthira, Dhirawat

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluated and compared interradicular distances and cortical bone thickness in Thai patients with Class I and Class II skeletal patterns, using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Methods Pretreatment CBCT images of 24 Thai orthodontic patients with Class I and Class II skeletal patterns were included in the study. Three measurements were chosen for investigation: the mesiodistal distance between the roots, the width of the buccolingual alveolar process, and buccal cortical bone thickness. All distances were recorded at five different levels from the cementoenamel junction (CEJ). Descriptive statistical analysis and t-tests were performed, with the significance level for all tests set at p<0.05. Results Patients with a Class II skeletal pattern showed significantly greater maxillary mesiodistal distances (between the first and second premolars) and widths of the buccolingual alveolar process (between the first and second molars) than Class I skeletal pattern patients at 10 mm above the CEJ. The maxillary buccal cortical bone thicknesses between the second premolar and first molar at 8 mm above the CEJ in Class II patients were likewise significantly greater than in Class I patients. Patients with a Class I skeletal pattern showed significantly wider mandibular buccolingual alveolar processes than did Class II patients (between the first and second molars) at 4, 6, and 8 mm below the CEJ. Conclusion In both the maxilla and mandible, the mesiodistal distances, the width of the buccolingual alveolar process, and buccal cortical bone thickness tended to increase from the CEJ to the apex in both Class I and Class II skeletal patterns. PMID:27358819

  5. Rationale for referring class II patients for early orthodontic treatment As razões para indicação de tratamento precoce em pacientes de classe II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Mendes Miguel

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The tendency of indicating early treatment (before growth spurt when dealing with Angle Class II cases has been noticed, although there is no definite scientific evidence to justify such decision. The aim of this study was to identify the advantages and disadvantages to this approach and which appliances are used for this purpose. For that purpose, a questionnaire containing full records of a Class II patient was sent to two professors of each Orthodontic graduate program in Brazil (n=96, total 192, from which 107 were properly answered. Results demonstrated that the most used appliances were the headgear (80.4%, maxillary splint (50% and Bionator (44.4%. The benefits most often quoted were increase of patient self-esteem (78.5% and reduction in the incidence of incisors trauma (63.6%, while the main disadvantage was saturation of patient compliance (73.8%. Considering early Class II treatment, there is still no unanimity as to treating in one or two stages or in selection of appliances. However, the orthodontists should consider the physical situation of the patient, severity of cases and susceptibility of trauma to the maxillary incisors. It is crucial that updated information is given to parents, in order to justify this approach.A tendência de indicação de tratamento precoce (antes de surto de crescimento para casos de Classe II de Angle tem sido observada, embora não haja evidência científica para embasar tal decisão. O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar as vantagens e desvantagens da indicação e quais aparelhos são usados no tratamento. Foram enviados questionários (n=192 com a documentação completa de um paciente Classe II para dois professores de cada curso de especialização em Ortodontia no Brasil, os quais 107 foram respondidos. Os resultados demonstraram que os aparelhos mais usados foram: Extra-oral (80,4%, Thurow (50,0% e Bionator (44,4%. Foram citados como maiores vantagens: aumento de auto-estima do paciente (78

  6. 56-month clinical performance of Class I and II resin composite restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Bittencourt Pazinatto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the 56-month clinical performance of Class I and II resin composite restorations. Filtek P60 was compared with Filtek Z250, which are both indicated for posterior restorations but differ in terms of handling characteristics. The null hypothesis tested was that there is no difference in the clinical performance of the two resin composites in posterior teeth. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-three patients were treated by the same operator, who prepared 48 Class I and 42 Class II cavities, which were restored with Single Bond/Filtek Z250 or Single Bond/Filtek P60 restorative systems. Restorations were evaluated by two independent examiners at baseline and after 56 months, using the modified USPHS criteria. Data were analyzed statistically using Chi-square and Fisher's Exact tests (a=0.05. RESULTS: After 56 months, 25 patients (31 Class I and 36 Class II were analyzed. A 3% failure rate occurred due to secondary caries and excessive loss of anatomic form for P60. For both restorative systems, there were no significant differences in secondary caries and postoperative sensitivity. However, significant changes were observed with respect to anatomic form, marginal discoloration, and marginal adaptation. Significant decreases in surface texture were observed exclusively for the Z250 restorations. CONCLUSIONS: Both restorative systems can be used for posterior restorations and can be expected to perform well in the oral environment.

  7. Predicting peptides binding to MHC class II molecules using multi-objective evolutionary algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Lin

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peptides binding to Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC class II molecules are crucial for initiation and regulation of immune responses. Predicting peptides that bind to a specific MHC molecule plays an important role in determining potential candidates for vaccines. The binding groove in class II MHC is open at both ends, allowing peptides longer than 9-mer to bind. Finding the consensus motif facilitating the binding of peptides to a MHC class II molecule is difficult because of different lengths of binding peptides and varying location of 9-mer binding core. The level of difficulty increases when the molecule is promiscuous and binds to a large number of low affinity peptides. In this paper, we propose two approaches using multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEA for predicting peptides binding to MHC class II molecules. One uses the information from both binders and non-binders for self-discovery of motifs. The other, in addition, uses information from experimentally determined motifs for guided-discovery of motifs. Results The proposed methods are intended for finding peptides binding to MHC class II I-Ag7 molecule – a promiscuous binder to a large number of low affinity peptides. Cross-validation results across experiments on two motifs derived for I-Ag7 datasets demonstrate better generalization abilities and accuracies of the present method over earlier approaches. Further, the proposed method was validated and compared on two publicly available benchmark datasets: (1 an ensemble of qualitative HLA-DRB1*0401 peptide data obtained from five different sources, and (2 quantitative peptide data obtained for sixteen different alleles comprising of three mouse alleles and thirteen HLA alleles. The proposed method outperformed earlier methods on most datasets, indicating that it is well suited for finding peptides binding to MHC class II molecules. Conclusion We present two MOEA-based algorithms for finding motifs

  8. Multiple sclerosis-associated CLEC16A controls HLA class II expression via late endosome biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Luijn, Marvin M; Kreft, Karim L; Jongsma, Marlieke L; Mes, Steven W; Wierenga-Wolf, Annet F; van Meurs, Marjan; Melief, Marie-José; der Kant, Rik van; Janssen, Lennert; Janssen, Hans; Tan, Rusung; Priatel, John J; Neefjes, Jacques; Laman, Jon D; Hintzen, Rogier Q

    2015-06-01

    C-type lectins are key players in immune regulation by driving distinct functions of antigen-presenting cells. The C-type lectin CLEC16A gene is located at 16p13, a susceptibility locus for several autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis. However, the function of this gene and its potential contribution to these diseases in humans are poorly understood. In this study, we found a strong upregulation of CLEC16A expression in the white matter of multiple sclerosis patients (n = 14) compared to non-demented controls (n = 11), mainly in perivascular leukocyte infiltrates. Moreover, CLEC16A levels were significantly enhanced in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of multiple sclerosis patients (n = 69) versus healthy controls (n = 46). In peripheral blood mononuclear cells, CLEC16A was most abundant in monocyte-derived dendritic cells, in which it strongly co-localized with human leukocyte antigen class II. Treatment of these professional antigen-presenting cells with vitamin D, a key protective environmental factor in multiple sclerosis, downmodulated CLEC16A in parallel with human leukocyte antigen class II. Knockdown of CLEC16A in distinct types of model and primary antigen-presenting cells resulted in severely impaired cytoplasmic distribution and formation of human leucocyte antigen class II-positive late endosomes, as determined by immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. Mechanistically, CLEC16A participated in the molecular machinery of human leukocyte antigen class II-positive late endosome formation and trafficking to perinuclear regions, involving the dynein motor complex. By performing co-immunoprecipitations, we found that CLEC16A directly binds to two critical members of this complex, RILP and the HOPS complex. CLEC16A silencing in antigen-presenting cells disturbed RILP-mediated recruitment of human leukocyte antigen class II-positive late endosomes to perinuclear regions. Together, we identify CLEC16A as a pivotal gene in multiple sclerosis

  9. Treatment of Class II open bite in the mixed dentition with a removable functional appliance and headgear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngan, P; Wilson, S; Florman, M; Wei, S H

    1992-05-01

    Early diagnosis of patients exhibiting open bites that are complicated by skeletal Class II and vertical growth problems can facilitate subsequent treatment. Eight patients with Class II skeletal open bite were treated with the high-pull activator appliance and compared to reasonably matched controls to determine the effects of the appliance. The high-pull activator was found to reduce forward growth of the maxilla and increase mandibular alveolar height, transforming the Class II molar relationship into a Class I molar relationship. The overjet and open bite were decreased, and, in addition, the appliance reduced the amount of forward and downward movement of the maxillary molars, providing vertical control of the maxilla during Class II orthopedic correction. These results demonstrated that open bite complicated by a Class II vertical growth pattern can be treated during the mixed dentition with favorable results by a combination of a removable functional appliance and high-pull headgear.

  10. Vertebral Artery Aneurysm Mimicking as Left Subclavian Artery Aneurysm in a Patient with Transforming Growth Factor Beta Receptor II Mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Rana O; Dhillon, Baltej Singh; Sandhu, Harleen K; Charlton-Ouw, Kristofer M; Estrera, Anthony L; Azizzadeh, Ali

    2015-10-01

    We report successful endovascular repair of a left vertebral artery aneurysm in a patient with transforming growth factor beta receptor II mutation. The patient was initially diagnosed with a left subclavian artery aneurysm on computed tomography angiography. The patient consented to publication of this report.

  11. Characterization of the hydrophobic substrate-binding site of the bacterial beta class glutathione transferase from Proteus mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federici, Luca; Masulli, Michele; Di Ilio, Carmine; Allocati, Nerino

    2010-09-01

    Since their discovery, bacterial glutathione (GSH)transferases have been characterized in terms of their ability to catalyse a variety of different reactions on a large set of toxic molecules of xenobiotic or endobiotic origin. Furthermore the contribution of different residues in the GSH-binding site to GSH activation has been extensively investigated. Little is known, however, about the contribution to catalysis and overall stability of single residues shaping the hydrophobic co-substrate binding site (H-site). Here we tackle this problem by site-directed mutagenesis of residues facing the H-site in the bacterial beta class GSH transferase from Proteus mirabilis. We investigate the behaviour of these mutants under a variety of conditions and analyse their activity against several co-substrates, representative of the different reactions catalyzed by bacterial GSH transferases. Our work shows that mutations at the H-site can be used to modulate activity at the level of the different catalytic mechanisms operating on the chosen substrates, each mutation showing a different fingerprint. This work paves the way for future studies aimed at improving the catalytic properties of beta class GSH transferases against selected substrates for bioremediation purposes.

  12. Structure-Based Design of Potent and Ligand-Efficient Inhibitors of CTX-M Class A [beta]-Lactamase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, Derek A.; Jaishankar, Priyadarshini; Larson, Wayne; Smith, Emmanuel; Liu, Guoqing; Beyrouthy, Racha; Bonnet, Richard; Renslo, Adam R.; Chen, Yu (USF); (UCSF); (Clermont)

    2012-07-11

    The emergence of CTX-M class A extended-spectrum {beta}-lactamases poses a serious health threat to the public. We have applied structure-based design to improve the potency of a novel noncovalent tetrazole-containing CTX-M inhibitor (K{sub i} = 21 {mu}M) more than 200-fold via structural modifications targeting two binding hot spots, a hydrophobic shelf formed by Pro167 and a polar site anchored by Asp240. Functional groups contacting each binding hot spot independently in initial designs were later combined to produce analogues with submicromolar potencies, including 6-trifluoromethyl-3H-benzoimidazole-4-carboxylic acid [3-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)-phenyl]-amide, which had a K{sub i} value of 89 nM and reduced the MIC of cefotaxime by 64-fold in CTX-M-9 expressing Escherichia coli. The in vitro potency gains were accompanied by improvements in ligand efficiency (from 0.30 to 0.39) and LipE (from 1.37 to 3.86). These new analogues represent the first nM-affinity noncovalent inhibitors of a class A {beta}-lactamase. Their complex crystal structures provide valuable information about ligand binding for future inhibitor design.

  13. Observations of toroidal and poloidal rotation in the high beta tokamak Torus II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The macroscopic rotation of plasma in a toroidal containment device is an important feature of the equilibrium. Toroidal and poloidal rotation in the high beta tokamak Torus II is measured experimentally by examining the Doppler shift of the 4685.75 A He II line emitted from the plasma. The toroidal flow at an average velocity of 1.6 x 106 cm/sec, a small fraction of the ion thermal speed, moves in the same direction as the toroidal plasma current. The poloidal flow follows the ion diamagnetic current direction, also at an average speed of 1.6 x 106 cm/sec. In view of certain ordering parameters, the toroidal flow is compared with predictions from neoclassical theory in the collosional, Pfirsch-Schluter regime. The poloidal motion, however results from an E x B drift in a positive radial electric field, approaching a stable ambipolar state. This radial electric field is determined from theory by using the measured poloidal velocity. Mechanisms for the time evolution of rotation are also examined. It appears that the circulation damping is governed by a global decay of the temperature and density gradients which, in turn, may be functions of radiative cooling, loss of equilibrium due to external field decay, or the emergence of a growing instability, occasionally observed in CO2 interferometry measurements

  14. Subclassification of Recursive Partitioning Analysis Class II Patients With Brain Metastases Treated Radiosurgically

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Masaaki, E-mail: BCD06275@nifty.com [Katsuta Hospital Mito GammaHouse, Hitachi-naka (Japan); Department of Neurosurgery, Tokyo Women' s Medical University Medical Center East, Tokyo (Japan); Sato, Yasunori [Clinical Research Center, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba (Japan); Serizawa, Toru [Tokyo Gamma Unit Center, Tsukiji Neurologic Clinic, Tokyo (Japan); Kawabe, Takuya [Katsuta Hospital Mito GammaHouse, Hitachi-naka (Japan); Department of Neurosurgery, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyoto (Japan); Higuchi, Yoshinori [Department of Neurosurgery, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba (Japan); Nagano, Osamu [Gamma Knife House, Chiba Cardiovascular Center, Ichihara (Japan); Barfod, Bierta E. [Katsuta Hospital Mito GammaHouse, Hitachi-naka (Japan); Ono, Junichi [Gamma Knife House, Chiba Cardiovascular Center, Ichihara (Japan); Kasuya, Hidetoshi [Department of Neurosurgery, Tokyo Women' s Medical University Medical Center East, Tokyo (Japan); Urakawa, Yoichi [Katsuta Hospital Mito GammaHouse, Hitachi-naka (Japan)

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: Although the recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class is generally used for predicting survival periods of patients with brain metastases (METs), the majority of such patients are Class II and clinical factors vary quite widely within this category. This prompted us to divide RPA Class II patients into three subclasses. Methods and Materials: This was a two-institution, institutional review board-approved, retrospective cohort study using two databases: the Mito series (2,000 consecutive patients, comprising 787 women and 1,213 men; mean age, 65 years [range, 19-96 years]) and the Chiba series (1,753 patients, comprising 673 female and 1,080 male patients; mean age, 65 years [range, 7-94 years]). Both patient series underwent Gamma Knife radiosurgery alone, without whole-brain radiotherapy, for brain METs during the same 10-year period, July 1998 through June 2008. The Cox proportional hazard model with a step-wise selection procedure was used for multivariate analysis. Results: In the Mito series, four factors were identified as favoring longer survival: Karnofsky Performance Status (90% to 100% vs. 70% to 80%), tumor numbers (solitary vs. multiple), primary tumor status (controlled vs. not controlled), and non-brain METs (no vs. yes). This new index is the sum of scores (0 and 1) of these four factors: RPA Class II-a, score of 0 or 1; RPA Class II-b, score of 2; and RPA Class II-c, score of 3 or 4. Next, using the Chiba series, we tested whether our index is valid for a different patient group. This new system showed highly statistically significant differences among subclasses in both the Mito series and the Chiba series (p < 0.001 for all subclasses). In addition, this new index was confirmed to be applicable to Class II patients with four major primary tumor sites, that is, lung, breast, alimentary tract, and urogenital organs. Conclusions: Our new grading system should be considered when designing future clinical trials involving brain MET

  15. Campylobacter jejuni fatty acid synthase II: Structural and functional analysis of [beta]-hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydratase (FabZ)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, Andrew S.; Yokoyama, Takeshi; Choi, Kyoung-Jae; Yeo, Hye-Jeong; (Houston)

    2009-08-14

    Fatty acid biosynthesis is crucial for all living cells. In contrast to higher organisms, bacteria use a type II fatty acid synthase (FAS II) composed of a series of individual proteins, making FAS II enzymes excellent targets for antibiotics discovery. The {beta}-hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydratase (FabZ) catalyzes an essential step in the FAS II pathway. Here, we report the structure of Campylobacter jejuni FabZ (CjFabZ), showing a hexamer both in crystals and solution, with each protomer adopting the characteristic hot dog fold. Together with biochemical analysis of CjFabZ, we define the first functional FAS II enzyme from this pathogen, and provide a framework for investigation on roles of FAS II in C. jejuni virulence

  16. Structural Basis of the CD8[alpha beta]/MHC Class I Interaction: Focused Recognition Orients CD8[beta] to a T Cell Proximal Position[superscript 1,2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Rui; Natarajan, Kannan; Margulies, David H.; (NIH)

    2009-09-18

    In the immune system, B cells, dendritic cells, NK cells, and T lymphocytes all respond to signals received via ligand binding to receptors and coreceptors. Although the specificity of T cell recognition is determined by the interaction of T cell receptors with MHC/peptide complexes, the development of T cells in the thymus and their sensitivity to Ag are also dependent on coreceptor molecules CD8 (for MHC class I (MHCI)) and CD4 (for MHCII). The CD8{alpha}{beta} heterodimer is a potent coreceptor for T cell activation, but efforts to understand its function fully have been hampered by ignorance of the structural details of its interactions with MHCI. In this study we describe the structure of CD8{alpha}{beta} in complex with the murine MHCI molecule H-2D{sup d} at 2.6 {angstrom} resolution. The focus of the CD8{alpha}{beta} interaction is the acidic loop (residues 222-228) of the {alpha}3 domain of H-2D{sup d}. The {beta} subunit occupies a T cell membrane proximal position, defining the relative positions of the CD8{alpha} and CD8{beta} subunits. Unlike the CD8{alpha}{alpha} homodimer, CD8{alpha}{beta} does not contact the MHCI {alpha}{sub 2}- or {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin domains. Movements of the CD8{alpha} CDR2 and CD8{beta} CDR1 and CDR2 loops as well as the flexibility of the H-2D{sup d} CD loop facilitate the monovalent interaction. The structure resolves inconclusive data on the topology of the CD8{alpha}{beta}/MHCI interaction, indicates that CD8{beta} is crucial in orienting the CD8{alpha}{beta} heterodimer, provides a framework for understanding the mechanistic role of CD8{alpha}{beta} in lymphoid cell signaling, and offers a tangible context for design of structurally altered coreceptors for tumor and viral immunotherapy.

  17. HLA class II expression by Hodgkin Reed-Sternberg cells is an independent prognostic factor in classical Hodgkin's lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepstra, Arjan; van Imhoff, Gustaaf W.; Karim-Kos, Henrike E.; van den Berg, Anke; te Meerman, Gerard J.; Niens, Marijke; Nolte, Ilja M.; Bastiaannet, Esther; Schaapveld, Michael; Vellenga, Edo; Poppema, Sibrand

    2007-01-01

    Purpose The neoplastic Hodgkin Reed-Sternberg ( HRS) cells in classical Hodgkin's lymphoma ( cHL) are derived from B cells. The frequency of HLA class II downregulation and its effect on prognosis are unknown. Patients and Methods Immunohistochemistry results for HLA class II were evaluated in 292 p

  18. Accurate pan-specific prediction of peptide-MHC class II binding affinity with improved binding core identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreatta, Massimo; Karosiene, Edita; Rasmussen, Michael;

    2015-01-01

    A key event in the generation of a cellular response against malicious organisms through the endocytic pathway is binding of peptidic antigens by major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC class II) molecules. The bound peptide is then presented on the cell surface where it can be recognized ...

  19. 75 FR 70271 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT).'' This guidance document describes a means by which non-powered suction apparatus devices intended for NPWT may comply with the requirement of special controls for class II devices... suction apparatus devices intended for NPWT into class II (special controls). This guidance document...

  20. Active suppression of major histocompatibility complex class II gene expression during differentiation from B cells to plasma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constitutive expression of major histocompatibility complex class II genes is acquired very early in B-cell ontogeny and is maintained up to the B-cell blast stage. Terminal differentiation in plasma cells is, however, accompanied by a loss of class II gene expression. In B cells this gene system is under the control of several loci encoding transacting factors with activator function, one of which, the aIr-1 gene product, operates across species barriers. In this report human class II gene expression is shown to be extinguished in somatic cell hybrids between the human class II-positive B-cell line Raji and the mouse class-II negative plasmacytoma cell line P3-U1. Since all murine chromosomes are retained in these hybrids and no preferential segregation of a specific human chromosome is observed, the results are compatible with the presence of suppressor factors of mouse origin, operating across species barriers and inhibiting class II gene expression. Suppression seems to act at the level of transcription or accumulation of class II-specific mRNA, since no human, and very few murine, class II transcripts are detectable in the hybrids

  1. 25 CFR 547.12 - What are the minimum technical standards for downloading on a Class II gaming system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... on a Class II gaming system? 547.12 Section 547.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM TECHNICAL STANDARDS FOR GAMING EQUIPMENT USED WITH THE PLAY... gaming system? This section provides standards for downloading on a Class II gaming system. (a)...

  2. Survival of self-etch adhesive Class II composite restorations using ART and conventional cavity preparations in primary molars.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eden, E.; Topaloglu-Ak, A.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.; Hof, M.A. van 't

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To test the null-hypothesis that there was no difference in the survival percentages of Class II composite restorations in primary teeth produced through either ART or conventional approaches after 2 years. METHODS: 157 children with 325 Class II cavitated dentin lesions were included in a

  3. Orthodontic treatment of nongrowing patient with class II division 2 malocclusion by Herbst appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedeljković Nenad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Inheritance is most casual etiological factor of Class II division 2 malocclusion. This kind of malocclusion is very difficult for treatment specially in older patients. Case report. In the female patient, 20 years old, at the beginning of the treatment at the School of Dentistry in Belgrade, lateral cephalogram showed skeletal and dentoalveolar Class II division 2 malocclusion. She was in the Herbst treatment for 8 months and 12 months more with a fixed multibracket appliance. The measurements were performed on lateral cephalograms before and after the treatment: ii, is, mi, ms, Pg and ss. The distance from these points to occlusal perpendicular line (Olp were measured and compared from cephalogram before to cephalogram after the treatment. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ tomograms were compared from before and after the treatment by superimposition. Correction was found in molar and incisor relation, overjet and overbite. There were found sagital skeletal changes and soft tissue profile improvement. Conclusion. Herbst appliance is effective in the treatment of Class II malocclusions, even in adult patients. Dental and skeletal changes as a result of Herbst treatment could be good choice instead of camouflage orthodontics or surgical decision.

  4. Induction of tolerance against the arthritogenic antigen with type-II collagen peptide-linked soluble MHC class II molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoon-Kyung; Jung, Sundo; Park, Se-Ho

    2016-01-01

    In murine collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), self-reactive T cells can recognize peptide antigens derived from type-II collagen (CII). Activation of T cells is an important mediator of autoimmune diseases. Thus, T cells have become a focal point of study to treat autoimmune diseases. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of recombinant MHC class II molecules in the regulation of antigen-specific T cells by using a self peptide derived from CII (CII260-274; IAGFKGEQGPKGEPG) linked to mouseI-Aq in a murine CIA model. We found that recombinant I-Aq/CII260-274 molecules could be recognized by CII-specific T cells and inhibit the same T cells in vitro. Furthermore, the development of CIA in mice was successfully prevented by in vivo injection of recombinant I-Aq/CII260-274 molecules. Thus, treatment with recombinant soluble MHC class II molecules in complex with an immunodominant self-peptide might offer a potential therapeutic for chronic inflammation in autoimmune disease such as rheumatoid arthritis. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(6): 331-336 PMID:26779996

  5. Sculpting MHC class II-restricted self and non-self peptidome by the class I Ag-processing machinery and its impact on Th-cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Charles T; Dragovic, Srdjan M; Conant, Stephanie B; Gray, Jennifer J; Zheng, Mu; Samir, Parimal; Niu, Xinnan; Moutaftsi, Magdalini; Van Kaer, Luc; Sette, Alessandro; Link, Andrew J; Joyce, Sebastian

    2013-05-01

    It is generally assumed that the MHC class I antigen (Ag)-processing (CAP) machinery - which supplies peptides for presentation by class I molecules - plays no role in class II-restricted presentation of cytoplasmic Ags. In striking contrast to this assumption, we previously reported that proteasome inhibition, TAP deficiency or ERAAP deficiency led to dramatically altered T helper (Th)-cell responses to allograft (HY) and microbial (Listeria monocytogenes) Ags. Herein, we tested whether altered Ag processing and presentation, altered CD4(+) T-cell repertoire, or both underlay the above finding. We found that TAP deficiency and ERAAP deficiency dramatically altered the quality of class II-associated self peptides suggesting that the CAP machinery impacts class II-restricted Ag processing and presentation. Consistent with altered self peptidomes, the CD4(+) T-cell receptor repertoire of mice deficient in the CAP machinery substantially differed from that of WT animals resulting in altered CD4(+) T-cell Ag recognition patterns. These data suggest that TAP and ERAAP sculpt the class II-restricted peptidome, impacting the CD4(+) T-cell repertoire, and ultimately altering Th-cell responses. Together with our previous findings, these data suggest multiple CAP machinery components sequester or degrade MHC class II-restricted epitopes that would otherwise be capable of eliciting functional Th-cell responses.

  6. A Class of Asymmetric Gapped Hamiltonians on Quantum Spin Chains and its Characterization II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Yoshiko

    2016-06-01

    We give a characterization of the class of gapped Hamiltonians introduced in Part I (Ogata, A class of asymmetric gapped Hamiltonians on quantum spin chains and its classification I, 2015). The Hamiltonians in this class are given as MPS (Matrix product state) Hamiltonians. In Ogata (A class of asymmetric gapped Hamiltonians on quantum spin chains and its classification I, 2015), we list up properties of ground state structures of Hamiltonians in this class. In this Part II, we show the converse. Namely, if a (not necessarily MPS) Hamiltonian H satisfies five of the listed properties, there is a Hamiltonian H' from the class by Ogata (A class of asymmetric gapped Hamiltonians on quantum spin chains and its classification I, 2015), satisfying the following: The ground state spaces of the two Hamiltonians on the infinite interval coincide. The spectral projections onto the ground state space of H on each finite intervals are approximated by that of H' exponentially well, with respect to the interval size. The latter property has an application to the classification problem with open boundary conditions.

  7. 454 sequencing reveals extreme complexity of the class II Major Histocompatibility Complex in the collared flycatcher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustafsson Lars

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of their functional significance, the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC class I and II genes have been the subject of continuous interest in the fields of ecology, evolution and conservation. In some vertebrate groups MHC consists of multiple loci with similar alleles; therefore, the multiple loci must be genotyped simultaneously. In such complex systems, understanding of the evolutionary patterns and their causes has been limited due to challenges posed by genotyping. Results Here we used 454 amplicon sequencing to characterize MHC class IIB exon 2 variation in the collared flycatcher, an important organism in evolutionary and immuno-ecological studies. On the basis of over 152,000 sequencing reads we identified 194 putative alleles in 237 individuals. We found an extreme complexity of the MHC class IIB in the collared flycatchers, with our estimates pointing to the presence of at least nine expressed loci and a large, though difficult to estimate precisely, number of pseudogene loci. Many similar alleles occurred in the pseudogenes indicating either a series of recent duplications or extensive concerted evolution. The expressed alleles showed unambiguous signals of historical selection and the occurrence of apparent interlocus exchange of alleles. Placing the collared flycatcher's MHC sequences in the context of passerine diversity revealed transspecific MHC class II evolution within the Muscicapidae family. Conclusions 454 amplicon sequencing is an effective tool for advancing our understanding of the MHC class II structure and evolutionary patterns in Passeriformes. We found a highly dynamic pattern of evolution of MHC class IIB genes with strong signals of selection and pronounced sequence divergence in expressed genes, in contrast to the apparent sequence homogenization in pseudogenes. We show that next generation sequencing offers a universal, affordable method for the characterization and, in perspective

  8. 40 CFR Figure C-2 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM2.5 Candidate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Figure C-2 to Subpart C of Part 53... Methods and Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Fig. C-2 Figure C-2 to Subpart C of Part...

  9. Characterization and expression pattern ofpouII1,a novel class Ⅱ POU gene in zebrafish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    POU domain transcription factors that share a conserved DNA-binding domain, POU domain, are important regulators for the development of embryos in various animal species. A novel zebrafish POU domain gene, pouII1has been cloned. The pouII1 cDNA is 2080 kb in length and encodes a putative polypeptide of 596 amino acids. It is placed into class Ⅱ POU family since it shares a high degree of homology with the known members of this family.Northern hybridization identifies a major transcript of approximately 2.1 kb that was present in embryos at the single-cell stage throughout 24 h postfertilizafion. The whole mountin situ hybridization shows thatpouII1 transcripts are present in the single-cell embryos, strongly suggesting that these transcripts are of maternal origin. During early development of the embryos, pouII1 mRNA was ubiquitously distributed in all cells and tissues. The transcripts are gradually limited to brains and become completely undetectable by day 3. To our knowledge, pouII1 is the first class Ⅱ POU gene identified in zebrafish.``

  10. Ligation of MHC class I and class II molecules can lead to heterologous desensitization of signal transduction pathways that regulate homotypic adhesion in human lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, N; Engel, P; Vega, M; Tedder, T F

    1994-06-01

    Engagement of lymphocyte MHC class I and class II Ags activates an array of intracellular signal transduction pathways that up-regulates the activity of cell-surface adhesion receptors, resulting in homotypic cell-cell aggregation. In this study, engagement of MHC class I and class II molecules with specific mAbs was shown to also inhibit lymphocyte homotypic adhesion. Two mAbs reactive with class II Ag, homotypic adhesion blocking mAb (HAB)-2, and HAB-3, and one mAb reactive with class I Ag, HAB-4, were generated that inhibited homotypic adhesion of activated lymphocytes and B and T cell lines at concentrations as low as 0.1 microgram/ml. Binding of these mAbs resulted in heterologous desensitization of other surface signal transduction molecules as homotypic adhesion induced through class I, class II, CD19, CD20, CD39, CD40, Leu-13, and PMA was also inhibited. The spontaneous adhesion exhibited by some cell lines was also abrogated by binding of these mAbs. Abs that either induced, blocked, or had no effect on adhesion bound to distinct epitopes on class I, whereas the anti-class II mAbs recognized either distinct or overlapping epitopes. Thus, engagement of distinct epitopes on MHC molecules can result in homologous or heterologous desensitization of cell-surface signaling molecules. The induction or inhibition of homotypic adhesion through class I molecules did not require the presence of the cytoplasmic domain, as deletion of this portion of the class I molecule had no effect. In contrast, the transmembrane region was essential for signal transduction as the mAbs binding to a chimeric molecule in which the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of class I were exchanged with those of the HB15 molecule did not induce or inhibit homotypic adhesion. Although this report is the first demonstration that homotypic adhesion can be influenced in a negative manner through MHC molecules, these findings demonstrate a considerable level of cross-talk between MHC molecules

  11. Typing of HLA class II and class I antigens using PHA-activated, IL-2-propagated T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshem, B; Cohen, I; Sherman, L; Brautbar, C; Kedar, E

    1988-06-28

    We describe here a simple procedure, by which HLA class II antigens can be accurately and reliably identified in those patients where there is minimal or absent expression of HLA-DR,DQw antigens on B cells, or when the total number of leukocytes recovered from the patients do not permit reliable typing. Ficoll-Hypaque-separated peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes, fresh or cryopreserved, were activated by PHA and then propagated in IL-2-containing medium until enough cells for typing were obtained (usually 7-14 days). At this stage, the cultured cells were shown to be primarily T cells (greater than 90% CD3+). Since the activated T cells propagate in the presence of IL-2, even a small number (10(4] of fresh or cryopreserved patients' cells suffice for this protocol. To date we have been able to successfully HLA-DR,DQw type 34/34 bone marrow transplantation candidates and 12/12 long-term dialysis patients, who were untypable using fresh cells. HLA-DR,DQw antigens on activated T cells from normal individuals were identical to those found on their uncultured B cells. In addition, class I antigens that were undetectable on the uncultured cells of one patient could be identified on activated T cells. The HLA antigens identified on the patients' activated T cells were confirmed by phenotypic analysis of cells from family members. PMID:3260612

  12. Camouflage of Severe Skeletal Class II Gummy Smile Patient Treated Nonsurgically with Mini Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Qamruddin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal class II has always been a challenge in orthodontics and often needs assistance of surgical orthodontics in nongrowing patients when it presents with severe discrepancy. Difficulty increases more when vertical dysplasia is also associated with sagittal discrepancy. The advent of mini implants in orthodontics has broadened the spectrum of camouflage treatment. This case report presents a 16-year-old nongrowing girl with severe class II because of retrognathic mandible, and anterior dentoalveolar protrusion sagittally and vertically resulted in severe overjet of 13 mm and excessive display of incisors and gums. Both maxillary central incisors were trimmed by general practitioner few years back to reduce visibility. Treatment involved use of micro implant for retraction and intrusion of anterior maxillary dentoalveolar segment while lower incisors were proclined to obtain normal overjet, and overbite and pleasing soft tissue profile. Smile esthetics was further improved with composite restoration of incisal edges of both central incisors.

  13. Limitations of Ab Initio Predictions of Peptide Binding to MHC Class II Molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Hao; Lund, Ole; Nielsen, Morten;

    2010-01-01

    Successful predictions of peptide MHC binding typically require a large set of binding data for the specific MHC molecule that is examined. Structure based prediction methods promise to circumvent this requirement by evaluating the physical contacts a peptide can make with an MHC molecule based...... on the highly conserved 3D structure of peptide:MHC complexes. While several such methods have been described before, most are not publicly available and have not been independently tested for their performance. We here implemented and evaluated three prediction methods for MHC class II molecules: statistical...... methods prediction performance showed that these are significantly better than random, but still substantially lower than the best performing sequence based class II prediction methods available. While the approaches presented here were developed independently, we have chosen to present our results...

  14. Characterisation of four major histocompatibility complex class II genes of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Quintin; Jobbins, Sarah E; Belov, Katherine; Higgins, Damien P

    2013-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules have an integral role in the adaptive immune response, as they bind and present antigenic peptides to T helper lymphocytes. In this study of koalas, species-specific primers were designed to amplify exon 2 of the MHC class II DA and DB genes, which contain much of the peptide-binding regions of the α and β chains. A total of two DA α1 domain variants and eight DA β1 (DAB), three DB α1 and five DB β1 variants were amplified from 20 koalas from two free-living populations from South East Queensland and the Port Macquarie region in northern New South Wales. We detected greater variation in the β1 than in the α1 domains as well as evidence of positive selection in DAB. The present study provides a springboard to future investigation of the role of MHC in disease susceptibility in koalas.

  15. Drug carrier systems for solubility enhancement of BCS class II drugs: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sumit; Bhargava, Deepak; Thakkar, Arti; Arora, Saahil

    2013-01-01

    Poor aqueous solubility impedes a drug's bioavailability and challenges its pharmaceutical development. Pharmaceutical development of drugs with poor water solubility requires the establishment of a suitable formulation layout among various techniques. Various approaches have been investigated extensively to improve the aqueous solubility and poor dissolution rate of BCS class II and IV drugs. In this literature review, novel formulation options, particularly for class II drugs designed for applications such as micronization, self-emulsification, cyclodextrin complexation, co-crystallisation, super critical fluid technology, solubilisation by change in pH, salt formation, co-solvents, melt granulation, and solid dispersion, liposomal/niosomal formulations, are discussed in detail to introduce biopharmaceutical challenges and recent approaches to facilitate more efficient drug formulation and development. PMID:23614647

  16. In vitro evaluation of the marginal microleakage of class II amalgam restoration associated with dentin adhesive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLIVEIRA Fabiana Sodré de

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The marginal microleakage of class II amalgam restorations (Dispersalloy associated with copal varnish (Copalite and with two dentin bonding agents (Scotchbond Multi-uso Plus and Multi Bond Alpha was evaluated in vitro and compared by two methods: scores and linear measurements. Forty-five sound premolars were used, on which two separated class II cavities were prepared on the M and D surfaces. After the restoration, the specimens were thermocycled and stored in a solution of 0.5% basic fuchsin during 24 hours. The analysis allowed to conclude that none of the three restorative systems were able to eliminate the marginal microleakage. Nevertheless, the leakage was significantly smaller on the restorations associated with dentin bonding agents when compared to copal varnish. The linear measurement method was more sensitive than the score criteria.

  17. A Unique Cause of Proteinuria in Pregnancy: Class II Lupus Nephritis with Concomitant Minimal Change Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunjal, Ryan; Adam-Eldien, Rabie; Makary, Raafat; Jo-Hoy, Francois; Heilig, Charles W.

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 22-year-old African American female who presented to another facility for routine follow-up in the 34th week of pregnancy with lower extremity swelling and nephrotic-range proteinuria. Although she was normotensive, it was initially thought that she had preeclampsia. She was monitored carefully and delivery was induced at 37 weeks of gestation. She was transferred to our hospital, where she was diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) based on clinical and laboratory criteria. Renal biopsy revealed a surprising finding of minimal change disease (MCD) concomitant with class II lupus nephritis (LN). She was managed with pulses and then tapering doses of steroid therapy with dramatic resolution of the nephrotic syndrome. This case demonstrates not only the rare de novo occurrence of SLE in pregnancy, but the unique finding of MCD coexisting with class II LN. We propose that altered T cell activity may be the link between these seemingly distinct entities.

  18. Evaluation of the position of lower incisors in the mandibular symphysis of individuals with Class II malocclusion and Pattern II profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djalma Roque Woitchunas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the position of mandibular incisors in the mandibular symphysis of individuals with Class II malocclusion and Pattern II profiles. METHODS: The sample consisted of 40 Caucasian patients (20 male and 20 female with Class II malocclusion and Pattern II profile from 10 to 18 years of age (mean age of 12.84 years who were selected from the records of the School of Dentistry of Universidade de Passo Fundo, Brazil. The linear cephalometric measurements used in this study were Ricketts' 1- AP, Interlandi's line I and Vigorito's 1-VT; and the angular measurement studied was the mandibular plane angle (IMPA. RESULTS: Mandibular incisors of individuals with Class II malocclusion and Pattern II profile tended to be buccally inclined and protruded.

  19. FOXP3 interactions with histone acetyltransferase and class II histone deacetylases are required for repression

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Bin; Samanta, Arabinda; Song, Xiaomin; Iacono, Kathryn T.; Bembas, Kathryn; Tao, Ran; Basu, Samik; Riley, James L.; Hancock, Wayne W.; Shen, Yuan; Saouaf, Sandra J.; Greene, Mark I.

    2007-01-01

    The forkhead family protein FOXP3 acts as a repressor of transcription and is both an essential and sufficient regulator of the development and function of regulatory T cells. The molecular mechanism by which FOXP3-mediated transcriptional repression occurs remains unclear. Here, we report that transcriptional repression by FOXP3 involves a histone acetyltransferase–deacetylase complex that includes histone acetyltransferase TIP60 (Tat-interactive protein, 60 kDa) and class II histone deacety...

  20. Compensatory orthodontic treatment of Angle Class II malocclusion with posterior open bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Newton Torres

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The present case report addresses the treatment of an Angle Class II malocclusion in an adult female patient, long face pattern, with posterior open bite and dental arches extremely expanded, due to previous treatment. The patient and parents rejection to a treatment with orthognathic surgery led to orthodontic camouflage of the skeletal discrepancies. This clinical case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Facial Orthopedics (BBO as one of the requirements to become a BBO Diplomate.

  1. Restricted dog leucocyte antigen (DLA) class II haplotypes and genotypes in Beagles

    OpenAIRE

    Soutter, Francesca; Kennedy, Lorna J; Ollier, William E R; Solano-Gallego, Laia; Catchpole, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Beagles are commonly used in vaccine trials as part of the regulatory approval process. Genetic restriction within this breed and the impact this might have on vaccine responses are rarely considered. This study was designed to characterise diversity of dog leucocyte antigen (DLA) class II genes in a breeding colony of laboratory Beagles, whose offspring are used in vaccine studies. DLA haplotypes were determined by PCR and sequence-based typing from genomic DNA extracted from blood. Breeding...

  2. Distribution of class ii major histocompatibility complex antigenexpressing cells in human dental pulp with carious lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Tetiana Haniastuti

    2012-01-01

    Background: Dental caries is a bacterial infection which causes destruction of the hard tissues of the tooth. Exposure of the dentin to the oral environment as a result of caries inevitably results in a cellular response in the pulp. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a group of genes that code for cell-surface histocompatibility antigens. Cells expressing class II MHC molecules participate in the initial recognition and the processing of antigenic substances to serve as antigen-pr...

  3. 454 sequencing reveals extreme complexity of the class II Major Histocompatibility Complex in the collared flycatcher

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafsson Lars; Stuglik Michał; Babik Wiesław; Zagalska-Neubauer Magdalena; Cichoń Mariusz; Radwan Jacek

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Because of their functional significance, the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class I and II genes have been the subject of continuous interest in the fields of ecology, evolution and conservation. In some vertebrate groups MHC consists of multiple loci with similar alleles; therefore, the multiple loci must be genotyped simultaneously. In such complex systems, understanding of the evolutionary patterns and their causes has been limited due to challenges posed by ge...

  4. Treatment of a Class II division 1 anterior open bite malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, H B

    2001-06-01

    A case report of an 11-year-old Caucasian female who presented with a Class II div I anterior open bite malocclusion. Overjet is 6 mm and the anterior open bite 2 mm. There was a history of digit sucking till she was eight years old. She was successfully treated by non-extraction with pre-adjusted Edgewise appliances and high-pull headgear for a period of 27 months.

  5. Anteroposterior and vertical changes in skeletal class II patients treated with modified Thurow appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pithon, Matheus Melo; dos Santos, Rogério Lacerda; Sampaio, Gêisa Aiane de Morais; de Meneses, Izaura Helena Chaves; Coqueiro, Raildo Silva

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the post-treatment anteroposterior and vertical alterations in skeletal Class II malocclusion with different maxillary patterns in patients treated with modified Thurow appliance. Forty-five patients (22 girls and 23 boys) with skeletal Class II and angle SN.GoGn ≤ 35 and different maxillary patterns (n = 15), as follows: retrusive (SNA84°) maxilla; mean age 9 years at pre-treatment (T1) and 9 years and 10 months at post-treatment (T2), were treated with modified Thurow cervical traction appliance, with expander screw and extraoral face bow with 10° to 20° fold in relation to the intraoral arch. Force of 500 gf was applied and use for 12 to 14 h/day, with fortnightly adjustments. Analysis of variance ANOVA followed by post-hoc Tukey and Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by Mann-Whitney were used (α = 5%). In changes obtained from stage T1 to T2, no statistically significant differences were found among the groups Protrusive, normal and retrusive maxilla for the variables SNB, SN.GoGn, 1.NA, overjet, overbite and Class II discrepancy (right and left) (p>0.05). Angular measurements SNA and ANB in the protrusive maxilla group were significantly greater than in the normal and retrusive maxilla groups (p0.05). Within the limits of this study, it may be concluded that the modified Thurow cervical traction appliance was efficient for the correction of skeletal Class II irrespective of the maxillary pattern. The mandible had no significant rotation during treatment.

  6. The HLA Class II Associations with Rheumatic Heart Disease in South Indian Patients: A Preliminary Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bajoria, Divya; Menon, Thangam

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) occurs in 30-45% of the patients with rheumatic fever (RF) and it leads to chronic valvular lesions. The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) might confer a susceptibility to RHD. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalent HLA class II DR/DQ allelic types which were associated with rheumatic heart disease (RHD) in a small group of south Indian patients and to compare them with those in the control subjects.

  7. DNA polymorphism of HLA class II genes in pauciarticular juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morling, N; Friis, J; Fugger, L;

    1991-01-01

    We investigated the DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II genes: HLA-DRB, -DQA, -DQB, DPA, and -DPB in 54 patients with pauciarticular juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (PJRA) and in healthy Danes. The frequencies of DNA fragments...... associated with the following HLA class II genes were increased in PJRA when compared to normal controls: DRB1*08 (DRw8) (35.2% vs 10.3%, RR = 4.6, p less than 10(-3), DRB3*01/02/03 (DRw52) (76.3% vs 48.1%, RR 3.5, p less than 10(-3)), DQA1*0401 (41.0% vs 7.4%, RR = 7.9, p less than 10(-3)), DQA1*0501 (55...... of DNA fragments associated with the following HLA class II genes were decreased in PJRA although not statistically significantly so after 'correction' of p values: DRB1*04 (14.8% vs 40.2%, RR = 0.27; p less than 10(-3)), DRB1*07 (0% vs 25.9%, RR = 0.04, p less than 10(-3)), DRB4*0101 (DRw53) (25.9% vs...

  8. Dental, skeletal asymmetries and functional characteristics in Class II subdivision malocclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J; He, Y; Wang, Y; Chen, T; Xu, Y; Xu, X; Zeng, H; Feng, J; Xiang, Z; Xue, C; Han, X; Bai, D

    2015-08-01

    Treatment outcomes of Angle Class II subdivision malocclusions may be compromised because of the uncertainty of the aetiology. Previous studies have reported controversial ideas about the origins, but the existence of a primary contributor still remains unknown. Functional factors have been mentioned as a probable cause, but until now, there have been no supporting data. This study was a cross-sectional investigation of the characteristics of Angle Class II subdivision malocclusion, including dental, skeletal and functional factors, by comparison of the subdivision group and the normal occlusion group. The evaluations of dental and skeletal asymmetries of both groups were carried out by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and analysis of dental casts. The functional deviations were evaluated by cast mounting and measuring. In the subdivision group, the asymmetric position of the glenoid fossa was found to be the most significant skeletal asymmetry. No dentoalveolar asymmetry was found in this group. The most important finding was that, in subdivision malocclusions, functional deviation resulting in pseudoasymmetry occurred in 32.86% of the study participants. This deviation is probably related to the disharmonious arch width between maxillary and mandibular dental arches in the premolar section. The origin of Angle Class II subdivision malocclusion is multifactorial, with dental, skeletal and functional factors included. Functional deviation occurs, probably due to dental arch width disharmony. Asymmetric position of the glenoid fossa may account for most of the skeletal asymmetry. PMID:25944587

  9. Treatment strategy for guided tissue regeneration in various class II furcation defect: Case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpendra Kumar Verma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal regeneration is a main aspect in the treatment of teeth affected by periodontitis. Periodontal regeneration in furcation areas is quite challenging, especially when it is in interproximal region. There are several techniques used alone or in combination considered to achieve periodontal regeneration, including the bone grafts or substitutes, guided tissue regeneration (GTR, root surface modification, and biological mediators. Many factors may account for variability in response to regenerative therapy in class II furcation. This case series describes the management of class II furcation defect in a mesial interproximal region of a maxillary tooth and other with a buccal class II furcation of mandibular tooth, with the help of surgical intervention including the GTR membrane and bone graft materials. This combined treatment resulted in healthy periodontium with a radiographic evidence of alveolar bone gain in both cases. This case series demonstrates that proper diagnosis, followed by removal of etiological factors and utilizing the combined treatment modalities will restore health and function of the tooth with the severe attachment loss.

  10. Metal-ion dependent catalytic properties of Sulfolobus solfataricus class II α-mannosidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jonas Willum; Poulsen, Nina Rødtness; Johnsson, Anna Margit Susanne;

    2012-01-01

    The active site for the family GH38 class II α-mannosidase is constituted in part by a divalent metal ion, mostly Zn(2+), as revealed in the crystal structures of enzymes from both animal and bacterial sources. The metal ion coordinates to the bound substrate and side chains of conserved amino acid...... residues. Recently, evidence has accumulated that class II α-mannosidase is active in complex with a range of divalent metal ions. In the present work, with employment of the class II α-mannosidase, ManA, from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus, we explored the influence of the divalent...... metal ion on the associated steady-state kinetic parameters, K(M) and k(cat), for various substrates. With p-nitrophenyl-α-d-mannoside as a substrate, the enzyme showed activity in the presence of Co(2+), Cd(2+), Mn(2+), and Zn(2+), whereas Ni(2+) and Cu(2+) were inhibitory and nonactivating. Co(2...

  11. Class II malocclusion treatment using high-pull headgear with a splint: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder B. Jacob

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the scientific evidence pertaining to the effectiveness of high-pull headgear in growing Class II subjects. METHODS: A literature survey was performed by electronic database search. The survey covered the period from January 1966 to December 2008 and used Medical Subject Headings (MeSH. Articles were initially selected based on their titles and abstracts; the full articles were then retrieved. The inclusion criteria included growing subjects between 8 to 15 years of age, Class II malocclusion treatment with high-pull headgear, and a control group with Class II malocclusion. References from selected articles were hand-searched for additional publications. Selected studies were evaluated methodologically. RESULTS: Four articles were selected; none were randomized controlled trials. All of the articles clearly formulated their objectives and used appropriate measures. The studies showed that high-pull headgear treatment improves skeletal and dental relationship, distal displacement of the maxilla, vertical eruption control and upper molars distalization. One of the studies showed a slight clockwise rotation of the palatal plane; the others showed no significant treatment effect. The mandible was not affected by the treatment. CONCLUSION: While there is still a lack of strong evidence demonstrating the effects of high-pull headgear with a splint, other studies indicate that the AP relations improve due to distalization of the maxilla and upper molars, with little or no treatment effects in the mandible. Greater attention to the design should be given to improve the quality of such trials.

  12. Class II malocclusion treatment using Jasper Jumper appliance associated to intermaxillary elastics: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francyle Simões Herrera-Sanches

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Skeletal, dental and profile discrepancies can be amended by using functional orthodontic appliances. OBJECTIVE: This study is a report of the treatment of a patient, 11 years and 4 months old, with Class II, division 1, malocclusion, convex profile, protrusion of upper incisors, pronounced overjet and overbite, and mild crowding. METHODS: The patient was treated with a Jasper Jumper associated to fixed appliances for 6 months and Class II intermaxillary elastics (3/16in during the last 4 months. After debonding, a Hawley retainer was used during daytime and a modified Bionator for night use during one year. In the lower dental arch a bonded lingual retainer was used. This treatment combination improved the profile, as well as the overjet, overbite and molar relation. RESULTS: There was clockwise mandibular rotation and increase of lower anterior facial height. The lower incisors were protruded and extruded and the lower molars were extruded. The centric occlusal relation was checked and it was coincident to the maximum usual intercuspation. CONCLUSION: It was demonstrated that the Jasper Jumper is an efficient alternative to Class II malocclusion treatment, providing improvement in the facial profile, although the changes are more dentoalveolar than skeletal.

  13. Expansion design for a Laboratory of Radioactive Sources Handling type II, class B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents the expansion design of the Radioactive Wastes Research Laboratory (RWRL) installation authorized by the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (Mexico) as type II class C, to manage 40 different radionuclides, approximately. The RWRL has 4 areas at the present time: a laboratory of instrumental analysis, one of radioactive material processes, other of counting and a chemical reagents stock, which is not integrated to the operation license of the RWRL. With the purpose of expanding the operation license of the RWRL to an installation type II class B, to manage until 370 MBq of high radio toxicity radionuclides, is presented in this work an expansion proposal of the RWRL. The expansion proposal is based in: (1) the Mexican Nuclear Standard NOM-027-Nucl-1996 for installations type II class B, (2) the current distribution of water, light, electricity, extraction, gas, air and vacuum services of RWRL, and (3) the available areas inside the building that the RWRL occupies. The proposal contemplates the creation of additional new areas for RWRL: 3 laboratories, 2 dressing rooms, 2 bathrooms and 2 warehouses, one for radioactive materials and another for reagents chemical radiologically inactive. Architectural, electric, hydraulic, extraction and gas planes corresponding to the expansion of RWRL were realized. Inside the proposal the budget required to carry out the mentioned expansion is also presented. (Author)

  14. HLA class II allele and haplotype frequencies in Ethiopian Amhara and Oromo populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, M; de Stefano, G F; Cambon-Thomsen, A; Giraldo-Alvarez, P; Dugoujon, J M; Ohayon, E; Scano, G; Abbal, M

    1998-04-01

    HLA class II alleles were identified in 181 healthy unrelated Ethiopian children of both sexes and in 350 European controls from the South of France. The Ethiopian individuals belonged to the two major ethnic groups of the country: Oromo (N=83) and Amhara (N=98). In both panels, genetic polymorphism of HLA class II alleles was analysed for the first time by molecular typing of DRB1, DQA1 and DQB1 loci. Allelic and phenotypic frequencies were compared with those of European controls and other African populations. Construction of HLA class II three-locus haplotypes was also performed. The study revealed some differences between the two groups. Characteristic features of Central and North African populations appeared on the Ethiopian HLA genotypes. Surprisingly, DRB1*11 presented one of the lowest gene frequencies in both Ethiopian ethnic groups in contrast to Europeans and West Africans. Furthermore, this decrease was more marked than those observed using serological techniques in other geographically close East African countries. Oromo and Amhara only showed minor differences in spite of their different origins and histories. One significant difference consisted of a lower DRB1*01 gene frequency in Oromo as reported in most West African people. Some new or rare haplotypes were also observed in the Oromo group. Our results underline the distinctive features of the Ethiopian populations among the few HLA genotyping data available for East African groups and emphasise the major interest of such investigations in this region of Africa.

  15. The same ELA class II risk factors confer equine insect bite hypersensitivity in two distinct populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Lisa S; Swinburne, June E; Meadows, Jennifer R S; Broström, Hans; Eriksson, Susanne; Fikse, W Freddy; Frey, Rebecka; Sundquist, Marie; Tseng, Chia T; Mikko, Sofia; Lindgren, Gabriella

    2012-03-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is a chronic allergic dermatitis common in horses. Affected horses mainly react against antigens present in the saliva from the biting midges, Culicoides ssp, and occasionally black flies, Simulium ssp. Because of this insect dependency, the disease is clearly seasonal and prevalence varies between geographical locations. For two distinct horse breeds, we genotyped four microsatellite markers positioned within the MHC class II region and sequenced the highly polymorphic exons two from DRA and DRB3, respectively. Initially, 94 IBH-affected and 93 unaffected Swedish born Icelandic horses were tested for genetic association. These horses had previously been genotyped on the Illumina Equine SNP50 BeadChip, which made it possible to ensure that our study did not suffer from the effects of stratification. The second population consisted of 106 unaffected and 80 IBH-affected Exmoor ponies. We show that variants in the MHC class II region are associated with disease susceptibility (p (raw) = 2.34 × 10(-5)), with the same allele (COR112:274) associated in two separate populations. In addition, we combined microsatellite and sequencing data in order to investigate the pattern of homozygosity and show that homozygosity across the entire MHC class II region is associated with a higher risk of developing IBH (p = 0.0013). To our knowledge this is the first time in any atopic dermatitis suffering species, including man, where the same risk allele has been identified in two distinct populations.

  16. The Position of Hyoici Bone in Skeletal Class I, II and III Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravanmehr H

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, the position of hyoid bone was compared in three skeletal groups of class I, II and III. The study was based on evaluating 77 lateral cephalometric radiographs, 40 girls and 37 boys, which were divided into 3 groups. Group 1, 2, and 3 consist of 26, 25, and 26 radiographs. 19 cephalometric landmarks and 10 planes were used in order to tracing the radiographs. In all patients, 9 skeletal and 4 cervical vertebrae parameters were measured to determine the hyoid bone. These parameters were compared between three skeletal groups regardless of sex and then, in another statistical analysis, parameters were compared based on patients sex. Statistical analysis showed that in class III patients, the hyoid bone was positioned more anteriorly than two other groups. Also in this group, the hyoid bone had less inclination and it was more horizontal in relation to mandibular plane. In skeletal class II patients this bone was positioned more superiorly than two other groups. Due to these findings it can be concluded that perimandibular muscles and bones could affect the growth of mandible. In addition, comparison of the parameters between two sexes revealed that the hyoid bone was positioned more anteriorly and inferiorly in boys. Also it was shown that in the girls, the position of hyoid bone was closer to the position of this bone in skeletal class I patients.

  17. Type-II Dirac fermions in the PtSe2 class of transition metal dichalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huaqing; Zhou, Shuyun; Duan, Wenhui

    2016-09-01

    Recently, a new "type-II" Weyl fermion, which exhibits exotic phenomena, such as an angle-dependent chiral anomaly, was discovered in a new phase of matter where electron and hole pockets contact at isolated Weyl points [Nature (London) 527, 495 (2015), 10.1038/nature15768]. This raises an interesting question about whether its counterpart, i.e., a type-II Dirac fermion, exists in real materials. Here, we predict the existence of symmetry-protected type-II Dirac fermions in a class of transition metal dichalcogenide materials. Our first-principles calculations on PtSe2 reveal its bulk type-II Dirac fermions which are characterized by strongly tilted Dirac cones, novel surface states, and exotic doping-driven Lifshitz transition. Our results show that the existence of type-II Dirac fermions in PtSe2-type materials is closely related to its structural P 3 ¯m 1 symmetry, which provides useful guidance for the experimental realization of type-II Dirac fermions and intriguing physical properties distinct from those of the standard Dirac fermions known before.

  18. Susceptibility of amphibians to chytridiomycosis is associated with MHC class II conformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bataille, Arnaud; Cashins, Scott D; Grogan, Laura; Skerratt, Lee F; Hunter, David; McFadden, Michael; Scheele, Benjamin; Brannelly, Laura A; Macris, Amy; Harlow, Peter S; Bell, Sara; Berger, Lee; Waldman, Bruce

    2015-04-22

    The pathogenic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) can cause precipitous population declines in its amphibian hosts. Responses of individuals to infection vary greatly with the capacity of their immune system to respond to the pathogen. We used a combination of comparative and experimental approaches to identify major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) alleles encoding molecules that foster the survival of Bd-infected amphibians. We found that Bd-resistant amphibians across four continents share common amino acids in three binding pockets of the MHC-II antigen-binding groove. Moreover, strong signals of selection acting on these specific sites were evident among all species co-existing with the pathogen. In the laboratory, we experimentally inoculated Australian tree frogs with Bd to test how each binding pocket conformation influences disease resistance. Only the conformation of MHC-II pocket 9 of surviving subjects matched those of Bd-resistant species. This MHC-II conformation thus may determine amphibian resistance to Bd, although other MHC-II binding pockets also may contribute to resistance. Rescuing amphibian biodiversity will depend on our understanding of amphibian immune defence mechanisms against Bd. The identification of adaptive genetic markers for Bd resistance represents an important step forward towards that goal.

  19. Localization of eight additional genes in the human major histocompatibility complex, including the gene encoding the casein kinase II {beta} subunit (CSNK2B)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albertella, M.R.; Jones, H.; Thomson, W. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1996-09-01

    A wide range of autoimmune and other diseases are known to be associated with the major histocompatibility complex. Many of these diseases are linked to the genes encoding the polymorphic histocompatibility complex. Many of these diseases are linked to the genes encoding the polymorphic histocompatibility antigens in the class I and class II regions, but some appear to be more strongly associated with genes in the central 1100-kb class III region, making it important to characterize this region fully for the presence of novel genes. An {approximately}220-kb segment of DNA in the class III region separating the Hsp70 (HSPA1L) and BAT1 (D6S8IE) genes, which was previously known to contain 14 genes. Genomic DNA fragments spanning the gaps between the known genes were used as probes to isolate cDNAs corresponding to five new genes within this region. Evidence from Northern blot analysis and exon trapping experiments that suggested the presence of at least two more new genes was also obtained. Partial cDNA and complete exonic genomic sequencing of one of the new genes has identified it as the casein kinase II{beta} subunit (CSNK2B). Two of the other novel genes lie within a region syntenic to that implicated in susceptibility to experimental allergic orchitis in the mouse, an autoimmune disease of the testis, and represent additional candidates for the Orch-1 locus associated with this disease. In addition, characterization of the 13-kb intergenic gap separating the RD (D6545) and G11 (D6S60E) genes has revealed the presence of a gene encoding a 1246-amino-acid polypeptide that shows significant sequence similarity to the yeast anti-viral Ski2p gene product. 49 refs., 8 figs.

  20. A extração de segundos molares superiores para o tratamento da Classe II Extraction of upper second molars for treatment of Angle Class II malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Barbieri Mezomo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem por objetivo apresentar uma abordagem alternativa para o tratamento ortodôntico das más oclusões de Classe II. Através de uma revisão da literatura, verificou-se que a extração de segundos molares superiores demonstrou ser uma alternativa viável para o tratamento desse tipo de má oclusão. Essa opção terapêutica possibilita maior rapidez na distalização dos primeiros molares com menor necessidade de cooperação por parte do paciente. Porém, a análise do grau de formação, posição intraóssea e morfologia do terceiro molar deve ser cuidadosamente realizada para proporcionar o correto posicionamento do mesmo no lugar do segundo molar extraído. Dois casos clínicos apresentarão a sequência do diagnóstico e tratamento com essa mecânica, exibindo resultados adequados dos pontos de vista funcional e estético.The purpose of this article is to present an alternative approach to the orthodontic treatment of Angle Class II malocclusion. According to a literature review it was observed that the extraction of upper second molars has proven to be a viable alternative for the treatment of this type of malocclusion. This therapeutic option enables faster first molar retraction and requires less patient compliance. However, the level of development, intraosseous position and morphology of the third molar should be carefully evaluated to ensure its correct positioning in place of the extracted second molar. Two clinical case reports will demonstrate that the sequence of diagnosis and treatment used with this mechanics yields satisfactory functional and aesthetic results.

  1. Oligoclonal band phenotypes in MS differ in their HLA class II association, while specific KIR ligands at HLA class I show association to MS in general

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavsen, Marte W; Viken, Marte K; Celius, Elisabeth G;

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients have been reported to have different HLA class II allele profiles depending on oligoclonal bands (OCBs) in the cerebrospinal fluid, but HLA class I alleles and killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) ligands have not been studied. We investigated the associ......Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients have been reported to have different HLA class II allele profiles depending on oligoclonal bands (OCBs) in the cerebrospinal fluid, but HLA class I alleles and killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) ligands have not been studied. We investigated...... the association of HLA alleles and KIR ligands according to OCB status in MS patients (n=3876). Specific KIR ligands were associated with patients when compared to controls (n=3148), supporting a role for NK cells in MS pathogenesis. HLA class I alleles and KIR ligands did not differ between OCB phenotypes...

  2. MHC class II molecules deliver costimulatory signals in human T cells through a functional linkage with IL-2-receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odum, Niels; Kanner, S B; Ledbetter, J A;

    1993-01-01

    a regulatory function in T cell activation. Here, we show that cross-linking HLA-DR and -DP but not -DQ molecules by immobilized mAb enhanced proliferative T cell responses to IL-2. In contrast, class II stimulation had no effect on IL-4-induced proliferation. The costimulatory effect was most......Ab induced tyrosine phosphorylation of specific substrates including PLC-gamma 1. Combined stimulation of IL-2R and class II molecules had an additive effect on tyrosine phosphorylation. Pretreatment of T cells with a protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor, herbimycin A, inhibited IL-2 and class II...

  3. Use of the chromosomal class A beta-lactamase of Mycobacterium fortuitum D316 to study potentially poor substrates and inhibitory beta-lactam compounds.

    OpenAIRE

    Galleni, M; Franceschini, N; Quinting, B; Fattorini, L.; Orefici, G.; Oratore, A; Frère, J M; Amicosante, G

    1994-01-01

    Sixteen different compounds usually considered beta-lactamase stable or representing potential beta-lactam inhibitors and inactivators were tested against the beta-lactamase produced by Mycobacterium fortuitum. The compounds exhibiting the most interesting properties were BRL42715, which was by far the best inactivator, and CGP31608 and ceftazidime, which were not recognized by the enzyme. These compounds thus exhibited adequate properties for fighting mycobacterial infections. Although cloxa...

  4. Eukaryotic class II cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer photolyase structure reveals basis for improved ultraviolet tolerance in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitomi, Kenichi; Arvai, Andrew S; Yamamoto, Junpei; Hitomi, Chiharu; Teranishi, Mika; Hirouchi, Tokuhisa; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Iwai, Shigenori; Tainer, John A; Hidema, Jun; Getzoff, Elizabeth D

    2012-04-01

    Ozone depletion increases terrestrial solar ultraviolet B (UV-B; 280-315 nm) radiation, intensifying the risks plants face from DNA damage, especially covalent cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD). Without efficient repair, UV-B destroys genetic integrity, but plant breeding creates rice cultivars with more robust photolyase (PHR) DNA repair activity as an environmental adaptation. So improved strains of Oryza sativa (rice), the staple food for Asia, have expanded rice cultivation worldwide. Efficient light-driven PHR enzymes restore normal pyrimidines to UV-damaged DNA by using blue light via flavin adenine dinucleotide to break pyrimidine dimers. Eukaryotes duplicated the photolyase gene, producing PHRs that gained functions and adopted activities that are distinct from those of prokaryotic PHRs yet are incompletely understood. Many multicellular organisms have two types of PHR: (6-4) PHR, which structurally resembles bacterial CPD PHRs but recognizes different substrates, and Class II CPD PHR, which is remarkably dissimilar in sequence from bacterial PHRs despite their common substrate. To understand the enigmatic DNA repair mechanisms of PHRs in eukaryotic cells, we determined the first crystal structure of a eukaryotic Class II CPD PHR from the rice cultivar Sasanishiki. Our 1.7 Å resolution PHR structure reveals structure-activity relationships in Class II PHRs and tuning for enhanced UV tolerance in plants. Structural comparisons with prokaryotic Class I CPD PHRs identified differences in the binding site for UV-damaged DNA substrate. Convergent evolution of both flavin hydrogen bonding and a Trp electron transfer pathway establish these as critical functional features for PHRs. These results provide a paradigm for light-dependent DNA repair in higher organisms. PMID:22170053

  5. Treatment of Class II, Division 2 in the late growth period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhard, H; Hirschfelder, U

    1998-01-01

    The "Deckbiss" with skeletal Class II jaw relationship sometimes presents a considerable therapeutic problem, particularly in the late growth period (DP3U), as regards the coordination of dental and skeletal treatment objectives. An effective treatment approach was demonstrated: a modified Herbst appliance used simultaneously with fixed appliances in the maxilla. The sample comprised 12 male (14.0 +/- 0.9 years old) and 10 female (12.3 +/- 0.4 years old) patients. Correction of the distal occlusion was achieved in all patients by means of the Herbst appliance, which was removed after an average time period of 6.4 +/- 0.2 months. In the mandible the multibracket appliances were then immediately inserted, and Class II elastics were used for retention. Maximum anchorage was required in the maxilla as well as in the mandible. Complete diagnostic records were made at the beginning of the treatment as well as 6 and 12 months later, in order to document skeletal and dental changes. A dental and skeletal Class I relationship was achieved in all cases. A significant improvement was recorded in the vertical jaw base relationship; this was still stable after a period of 12 months. In the dental area in particular, a so-called high-pull headgear effect (intrusion and distalization 16, 26) and intrusion of teeth 34, 44 were registered. Only a minor protrusion of the mandibular incisors was observed. Reinforcement of the bands reduced the failure rate significantly. The Herbst appliance does not represent a standard treatment for Class II. Its indication range is limited.

  6. Self-esteem in adolescents with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusion in a Peruvian sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Florián-Vargas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To compare self-esteem scores in 12 to 16-year-old adolescents with different Angle malocclusion types in a Peruvian sample. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 276 adolescents (159, 52 and 65 with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusions, respectively from Trujillo, Peru. Participants were asked to complete the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES and were also clinically examined, so as to have Angle malocclusion classification determined. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA was used to compare RSES scores among adolescents with Class I, II and III malocclusions, with participants' demographic factors being controlled. Results: Mean RSES scores for adolescents with Class I, II and III malocclusions were 20.47 ± 3.96, 21.96 ± 3.27 and 21.26 ± 4.81, respectively. The ANCOVA test showed that adolescents with Class II malocclusion had a significantly higher RSES score than those with Class I malocclusion, but there were no differences between other malocclusion groups. Supplemental analysis suggested that only those with Class II, Division 2 malocclusion might have greater self-esteem when compared to adolescents with Class I malocclusion. Conclusion: This study shows that, in general, self-esteem did not vary according to adolescents' malocclusion in the sample studied. Surprisingly, only adolescents with Class II malocclusion, particularly Class II, Division 2, reported better self-esteem than those with Class I malocclusion. A more detailed analysis assessing the impact of anterior occlusal features should be conducted.

  7. Energy-optimised pharmacophore approach to identify potential hotspots during inhibition of Class II HDAC isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganai, Shabir Ahmad; Shanmugam, Karthi; Mahadevan, Vijayalakshmi

    2015-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are conjugated enzymes that modulate chromatin architecture by deacetylating lysine residues on the histone tails leading to transcriptional repression. Pharmacological interventions of these enzymes with small molecule inhibitors called Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) have shown enhanced acetylation of the genome and are hence emerging as potential targets at the clinic. Type-specific inhibition of Class II HDACs has shown enhanced therapeutic benefits against developmental and neurodegenerative disorders. However, the structural identity of class-specific isoforms limits the potential of their inhibitors in precise targeting of their enzymes. Diverse strategies have been implemented to recognise the features in HDAC enzymes which may help in identifying isoform specificity factors. This work attempts a computational approach that combines in silico docking and energy-optimised pharmacophore (E-pharmacophore) mapping of 18 known HDAC inhibitors and has identified structural variations that regulate their interactions against the six Class II HDAC enzymes considered for the study. This combined approach establishes that inhibitors possessing higher number of aromatic rings in different structural regions might function as potent inhibitors, while inhibitors with scarce ring structures might point to compromised potency. This would aid the rationale for chemical optimisation and design of isoform selective HDAC inhibitors with enhanced affinity and therapeutic efficiency.

  8. Resolution of D- and L-glucoses by chiral N-octyl-beta-D-glycoside-Cu(II) complex adsorbed at the gas/liquid interface of small bubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakai, M.; Miyazawa, K.; Jitsumatsu, H.; Kamio, K.; Mitsuiki, S.; Toh, N.; Sugihara, G.; Norde, W.

    2010-01-01

    A new technique of the jet drop method (JDM) was applied to a chiral molecular discrimination of optically active D- or L-glucose (guest) by chiral N-octyl-beta-D-glycoside (O beta DG)-Cu(II) complex (host) at the gas/liquid interface of small bubbles. The discrimination of glucoses as the guests is

  9. Dilepton events with displaced vertices, double beta decay, and resonant leptogenesis with Type-II seesaw dominance, TeV scale $Z'$ and RH neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Nayak, Bidyut Prava

    2015-01-01

    In a class of Type-II seesaw dominated $SO(10)$ models proposed recently with heavy neutrinos, extra $Z'$ boson, and resonant leptogenesis, at first we show that the lightest first generation sterile neutrino that mediates dominant contributions to neutrinoless double beta decay also generates the displaced vertex leading to verifiable like-sign di-electron as well as di-muon production events outside the LHC detectors having suppressed standard model back-ground and missing energy. Resonant leptogenesis in this case is implemented by a pair of quasi-degenerate sterile neutrinos of the second and the third generations having masses of ${\\cal O}(500)$ GeV. Then we predict a new alternative scenario where the models allow the second generation sterile neutrino mass to be ${\\cal O}(10)$ GeV capable of mediating the dominant double beta decay as well as the displaced vertices for significantly improved number of like-sign dilepton events in different channels. Resonant leptogenesis in this alternative scenario is...

  10. Mutation Analysis of 16 Mucolipidosis II and III Alpha/Beta Chinese Children Revealed Genotype-Phenotype Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuang; Zhang, Weimin; Shi, Huiping; Yao, Fengxia; Wei, Min; Qiu, Zhengqing

    2016-01-01

    Mucolipidosis II and III alpha/beta are autosomal recessive diseases caused by mutations in the GNPTAB gene which encodes the α and β subunits of the N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphotransferase. Clinically, mucolipidosis II (MLII) is characterized by severe developmental delay, coarse facial features, skeletal deformities, and other systemic involvement. In contrast, MLIII alpha/beta is a much milder disorder, the symptoms of which include progressive joint stiffness, short stature, and scoliosis. To study the relationship between the genotypes and phenotypes of the MLII and MLIII alpha/beta patients, we analyzed the GNPTAB gene in 16 Chinese MLII and MLIII alpha/beta patients. We collected and analyzed the patients’ available clinical data and all showed clinical features typical of MLII or MLIII alpha/beta. Moreover, the activity of several lysosomal enzymes was measured in the plasma and finally the GNPTAB gene was sequenced. We detected 30 mutant alleles out of 32 alleles in our patients. These include 10 new mutations (c.99delC, c.118-1G>A, c.523_524delAAinsG, c.1212C>G, c.2213C>A, c.2345C>T, c.2356C>T, c.2455G>T, c.2821dupA, and c.3136-2A>G) and 5 previously reported mutations (c.1071G>A, c.1090C>T, c.2715+1G>A, c.2550_2554delGAAA, and c.3613C>T). The most frequent mutation was the splicing mutation c.2715+1G>A, which accounted for 28% of the mutations. The majority of the mutations reported in the Chinese patients (57%) were located on exon 13 or in its intronic flanking regions. PMID:27662472

  11. Modified human beta 2-microglobulin (desLys(58)) displays decreased affinity for the heavy chain of MHC class I and induces nitric oxide production and apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, M; Harhaji, L; Lamberth, K;

    2009-01-01

    Beta2-microglobulin (beta2m) is the light chain of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) molecules, and is a prerequisite for the binding of peptides to the heavy chain and their presentation to CD8+ T cells. beta2m can be modified in vivo and in vitro by proteolytic cleavage...... by complement C1 and subsequent carboxypeptidase B-like activity--processes that lead to the generation of desLys(58) beta2m (dbeta2m). This work aims to study the effect of dbeta2m on peptide binding to MHC-I, the influence of dbeta2m on the binding of beta2m to the MHC-I heavy chain and the biological...... activity of dbeta2m. Both beta2m and dbeta2m are able to support the generation of MHC-I/peptide complexes at 18 degrees C, but complexes formed in the presence of dbeta2m destabilize at 37 degrees C. Moreover, a 250 times higher concentration of dbeta2m than of beta2m is needed to displace MHC...

  12. 77 FR 14403 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Norovirus Serological Reagents; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)...

  13. Class I and Class II restorations of resin composite: an FE analysis of the influence of modulus of elasticity on stresses generated by occlusal loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, Erik; Peutzfeldt, Anne

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: It was the aim of the study to analyze by the FE method stresses generated in tooth and restoration by occlusal loading of Class I and Class II restorations of resin composite. On the basis of available information on the influence of the modulus of elasticity, the research hypothesis...... was that the marginal stresses would decrease with increasing modulus of elasticity of the restoration. METHODS: A cylindrical tooth was modelled in enamel and dentin and fitted with a Class I or a Class II restoration of resin composite. In one scenario the restoration was bonded to the tooth, in another...... the restoration was left nonbonded. The resin composite was modelled with a modulus of elasticity of 5, 10, 15 or 20 GPa and loaded occlusally with 100 N. By means of the soft-ware program ABAQUS the von Mises stresses in enamel and dentin were calculated. RESULTS: In the bonded scenario, the maximum stresses...

  14. Cephalometric effects of the use of 10-hour Force Theory for Class II treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marise de Castro Cabrera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the cephalometric effects promoted by the orthodontic treatment of Class II malocclusion patients with the use of the 10-Hour Force Theory, that consists in the use of fixed appliances with 8 hours a day using a cervical headgear appliance and 16 hours a day using Class II elastics, 8 hours on the first mandibular molar and 8 hours in the second mandibular molar. METHODS: Sample comprised 31 patients with mean initial age of 14.90 years, final mean age of 17.25 years and mean treatment time of 2.35 years. The lateral cephalograms in pre-treatment and post-treatment stages were evaluated. Evaluation of cephalometric changes between initial and final treatment phases was performed by paired t test. RESULTS: The cases treated with the 10-Hour Force Theory presented a slight restriction of anterior displacement of the maxilla, increase in the effective length of the mandible, significant improvement of the maxillomandibular relationship, significant increase in anterior lower face height, distal tipping of the maxillary premolar crowns, extrusion and distal tipping of the roots of maxillary molars, significant proclination and protrusion of mandibular incisors, significant extrusion and mesialization of mandibular molars, besides a significant correction of the molar relationship, overjet and overbite. CONCLUSION: The use of the 10-Hour Force Theory in treatment of Class II malocclusion provided satisfactory results.OBJETIVO: esse estudo objetivou avaliar os efeitos cefalométricos promovidos pelo tratamento ortodôntico de pacientes com má oclusão de Classe II com o uso da Teoria de Força das 10 Horas, que consiste no uso de aparelho ortodôntico fixo, 8 horas diárias de uso de aparelho extrabucal cervical e 16 horas de uso de elásticos de Classe II, sendo 8 horas com apoio no primeiro molar inferior e 8 horas com apoio no segundo molar inferior. MÉTODOS: a amostra consistiu de 31 pacientes, com idade m

  15. DPA1*02012: A DPA1*0201-related Mhc class II allele in West Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, C.G.; May, J.; Spauke, D.; Schnittger, L. [Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, Hamburg (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    DNA techniques such as sequence-specific oligonucleotide probe (SSOP) hybridizations, restriction-fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses, and DNA sequencing have greatly supported the characterization of Mhc class II allelic polymorphism. Here the authors describe a DPA 1 allele which has been identified in two male individuals from Liberia and Benin, West Africa, during a survey study on Mhc class II associations with the different manifestations after infection with Onchocerca volvulus. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  16. A single residue change leads to a hydroxylated product from the class II diterpene cyclization catalyzed by abietadiene synthase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criswell, Jared; Potter, Kevin; Shephard, Freya; Beale, Michael H.; Peters, Reuben J.

    2012-01-01

    Class II diterpene cyclases catalyze bicyclization of geranylgeranyl diphosphate. While this reaction typically is terminated via methyl deprotonation to yield copalyl diphosphate, in rare cases hydroxylated bicycles are produced instead. Abietadiene synthase is a bifunctional diterpene cyclase that usually produces a copalyl diphosphate intermediate. Here it is shown that substitution of aspartate for a conserved histidine in the class II active site of abietadiene synthase leads to selective production of 8α-hydroxy-CPP instead, demonstrating striking plasticity. PMID:23167845

  17. Zyflamend, a polyherbal mixture, down regulates class I and class II histone deacetylases and increases p21 levels in castrate-resistant prostate cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, E-Chu; Zhao, Yi; Chen, Guoxun; Baek, Seung Joon; McEntee, Michael F.; Minkin, Steven; Biggerstaff, John P.; Whelan, Jay

    2014-01-01

    Background Zyflamend, a mixture containing extracts of ten herbs, has shown promise in a variety of preclinical cancer models, including prostate cancer. The current experiments were designed to investigate the effects of Zyflamend on the expression of class I and II histone deacetylases, a family of enzymes known to be over expressed in a variety of cancers. Methods CWR22Rv1 cells, a castrate-resistant prostate cancer cell line, were treated with Zyflamend and the expression of class I and I...

  18. Early prevention and intervention of Class II division 1 in growing patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keerthi, V Naga; Kanya, S Dhivya; Babu, K Pradeep; Mathew, Anoop; Kumar, A Nanda

    2016-04-01

    Early screening and diagnosis help in preventing and intercepting the severity of the malocclusion which helps in addressing the esthetic and functional concerns. Growth modulation such as mandibular advancement has been an effective procedure in orthodontics. Mandibular growth advancer (MGA) and PowerScope are gaining popularity recently as these are effective in achieving the mandibular advancement and ease of fabrication, placement, and wear. MGA was fabricated by making the upper and lower splints separately and are placed in the oral cavity by joining the two splints in the new construction bite using cold cure, MGA when worn during growth phase helps in condylar remodeling in the temporomandibular joint thus helps in advancement of the mandible. The proclination of the upper anteriors in Class II division 1 can be moved lingually by activating the labial bow in the splint. Dr. Andy Hayes worked in conjunction with American orthodontics developed PowerScope. PowerScope delivers Class II correction with a combination of patient comfort and ease of use that was unmatched among other appliances. This ready to use chairside solution required no laboratory setup, making for a much quicker, and easier installation process and appointment. PowerScopes high quality, fixed one-piece design requires no patient compliance. These superior qualities of PowerScope help in correction of Class II skeletal growing patient in conjunction with fixed orthodontic therapy. MGA and PowerScope were chosen as a functional appliance for this study, which shows decreased ANB angle and effective mandible length was increased. PMID:27195234

  19. Purification and characterization of a class II α-Mannosidase from Moringa oleifera seed kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejavath, Kiran Kumar; Nadimpalli, Siva Kumar

    2014-10-01

    α-Mannosidase (EC. 3.2.1.114) belonging to class II glycosyl hydrolase family 38 was purified from Moringa oleifera seeds to apparent homogeneity by conventional protein purification methods followed by affinity chromatography on Con A Sepharose and size exclusion chromatography. The purified enzyme is a glycoprotein with 9.3 % carbohydrate and exhibited a native molecular mass of 240 kDa, comprising two heterogeneous subunits with molecular masses of 66 kDa (α-larger subunit) and 55 kDa (β-smaller subunit). Among both the subunits only larger subunit stained for carbohydrate with periodic acid Schiff's staining. The optimum temperature and pH for purified enzyme was 50 °C and pH 5.0, respectively. The enzyme was stable within the pH range of 3.0-7.0. The enzyme was inhibited by EDTA, Hg(2+), Ag(2+), and Cu(2+). The activity lost by EDTA was completely regained by addition of Zn(2+). The purified enzyme was characterized in terms of the kinetic parameters K m (1.6 mM) and V max (2.2 U/mg) using para-nitrophenyl-α-D-mannopyranoside as substrate. The enzyme was very strongly inhibited by swainsonine (SW) at 1 μM concentration a class II α-Mannosidase inhibitor, but not by deoxymannojirimycin (DMNJ). Chemical modification studies revealed involvement of tryptophan at active site. The inhibition by SW and requirement of the Zn(2+) as a metal ion suggested that the enzyme belongs to class II α-Mannosidase.

  20. Early prevention and intervention of Class II division 1 in growing patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keerthi, V. Naga; Kanya, S. Dhivya; Babu, K. Pradeep; Mathew, Anoop; Kumar, A. Nanda

    2016-01-01

    Early screening and diagnosis help in preventing and intercepting the severity of the malocclusion which helps in addressing the esthetic and functional concerns. Growth modulation such as mandibular advancement has been an effective procedure in orthodontics. Mandibular growth advancer (MGA) and PowerScope are gaining popularity recently as these are effective in achieving the mandibular advancement and ease of fabrication, placement, and wear. MGA was fabricated by making the upper and lower splints separately and are placed in the oral cavity by joining the two splints in the new construction bite using cold cure, MGA when worn during growth phase helps in condylar remodeling in the temporomandibular joint thus helps in advancement of the mandible. The proclination of the upper anteriors in Class II division 1 can be moved lingually by activating the labial bow in the splint. Dr. Andy Hayes worked in conjunction with American orthodontics developed PowerScope. PowerScope delivers Class II correction with a combination of patient comfort and ease of use that was unmatched among other appliances. This ready to use chairside solution required no laboratory setup, making for a much quicker, and easier installation process and appointment. PowerScopes high quality, fixed one-piece design requires no patient compliance. These superior qualities of PowerScope help in correction of Class II skeletal growing patient in conjunction with fixed orthodontic therapy. MGA and PowerScope were chosen as a functional appliance for this study, which shows decreased ANB angle and effective mandible length was increased. PMID:27195234

  1. A tensor analysis to evaluate the effect of high-pull headgear on Class II malocclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngan, P; Scheick, J; Florman, M

    1993-03-01

    The inaccuracies inherent in cephalometric analysis of treatment effects are well known. The objective of this article is to present a more reliable research tool in the analysis of cephalometric data. Bookstein introduced a dilation function by means of a homogeneous deformation tensor as a method of describing changes in cephalometric data. His article gave an analytic description of the deformation tensor that permits the rapid and highly accurate calculation of it on a desktop computer. The first part of this article describes the underlying ideas and mathematics. The second part uses the tensor analysis to analyze the cephalometric results of a group of patients treated with high-pull activator (HPA) to demonstrate the application of this research tool. Eight patients with Class II skeletal open bite malocclusions in the mixed dentition were treated with HPA. A control sample consisting of eight untreated children with Class II who were obtained from The Ohio State University Growth Study was used as a comparison group. Lateral cephalograms taken before and at the completion of treatment were traced, digitized, and analyzed with the conventional method and tensor analysis. The results showed that HPA had little or no effect on maxillary skeletal structures. However, reduction in growth rate was found with the skeletal triangle S-N-A, indicating a posterior tipping and torquing of the maxillary incisors. The treatment also induced additional deformation on the mandible in a downward and slightly forward direction. Together with the results from the conventional cephalometric analysis, HPA seemed to provide the vertical and rotational control of the maxilla during orthopedic Class II treatment by inhibiting the downward and forward eruptive path of the upper posterior teeth. The newly designed computer software permits rapid analysis of cephalometric data with the tensor analysis on a desktop computer. This tool may be useful in analyzing growth changes for

  2. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies against MHC class II-associated p41 invariant chain fragment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouse monoclonal antibodies directed against human MHC class II-associated p41 invariant chain fragment have been generated. Mice were immunized with human recombinant Ii-isoform p26. For hybridoma production mouse splenocytes and myeloma cells were fused. Hybridoma cells were screened using ELISA and immunoblotting. Three cell lines (42B10, 42G11 and 43C8) were used for production of specific antibodies, which reacted with p41 fragment and did not bind to cathepsins L or S or their proenyzmes. As primary antibody for immunofluorescence staining of lymph node tissue sections clone 2C12 MAb was selected. Specific localization of p41 fragment in certain cells in lymph nodes was observed. (author)

  3. Surgical correction of class II skeletal malocclusion in an adult patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishnan Balachander

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Correction of skeletal deformities in adult patients with orthodontics is limited. Orthognathic surgery is the best option for cases when camouflage treatment is questionable and growth modulation is not possible. This case report illustrates the benefit of the team approach in correcting vertical maxillary excess along with class II skeletal deformity. A cosmetic correction was achieved by superior repositioning of maxilla with LeFort I osteotomy and augmentation genioplasty, along with orthodontic treatment. The patient′s facial appearance was markedly improved along with functional and stable occlusion

  4. Major histocompatibility complex haplotypes and class II genes in non-Jewish patients with pemphigus vulgaris.

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, A. R.; Wagner, R; Khatri, K; Notani, G.; Awdeh, Z; Alper, C A; Yunis, E J

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that HLA-DR4 was markedly increased among Ashkenazi Jewish patients with pemphigus vulgaris (PV), almost entirely as the common Jewish extended haplotype [HLA-B38, SC21, DR4, DQw8] or as the haplotype HLA-B35, SC31, DR4, DQw8, and that HLA-DR4, DQw8 was distributed among patients in a manner consistent with dominant expression of a class II (D-region or D-region-linked) susceptibility gene. In the present study of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) haplotypes...

  5. Microleakage of Class II Combined Amalgam-Composite Restorations Using Different Composites and Bonding Agents

    OpenAIRE

    F. Sharafeddin; H. Moradian

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to assess the microleakage of composite restorations with and without a cervical amalgam base and to compare the results of dif-ferent composites and bonding agents.Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty mesio-occlusal (MO) and disto-occlusal (DO) Class II cavities were prepared on sixty extracted permanent premolar teeth. The teeth were randomly divided into four groups of 30 and restored as follows:In group A, the mesio-occlusal cavity ...

  6. The great diversity of major histocompatibility complex class II genes in Philippine native cattle

    OpenAIRE

    S.N. Takeshima; T. Miyasaka; Polat, M.; M. Kikuya; Matsumoto, Y.; C.N. Mingala; M.A. Villanueva; A.J. Salces; Onuma, M.; Aida, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine leukocyte antigens (BoLA) are extensively used as markers for bovine disease and immunological traits. However, none of the BoLA genes in Southeast Asian breeds have been characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-sequence-based typing (SBT). Therefore, we sequenced exon 2 of the BoLA class II DRB3 gene from 1120 individual cows belonging to the Holstein, Sahiwal, Simbrah, Jersey, Brahman, and Philippine native breeds using PCR-SBT. Several cross-breeds were also examined. BoLA-D...

  7. Role of PU.1 in MHC Class II Expression via CIITA Transcription in Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Ryosuke; Kasakura, Kazumi; Nakano, Nobuhiro; Hara, Mutsuko; Maeda, Keiko; Okumura, Ko; Ogawa, Hideoki; Yashiro, Takuya; Nishiyama, Chiharu

    2016-01-01

    The cofactor CIITA is a master regulator of MHC class II expression and several transcription factors regulating the cell type-specific expression of CIITA have been identified. Although the MHC class II expression in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) is also mediated by CIITA, the transcription factors involved in the CIITA expression in pDCs are largely unknown. In the present study, we analyzed the role of a hematopoietic lineage-specific transcription factor, PU.1, in CIITA transcription in pDCs. The introduction of PU.1 siRNA into mouse pDCs and a human pDC cell line, CAL-1, reduced the mRNA levels of MHC class II and CIITA. When the binding of PU.1 to the 3rd promoter of CIITA (pIII) in CAL-1 and mouse pDCs was analyzed by a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, a significant amount of PU.1 binding to the pIII was detected, which was definitely decreased in PU.1 siRNA-transfected cells. Reporter assays showed that PU.1 knockdown reduced the pIII promoter activity and that three Ets-motifs in the human pIII promoter were candidates of cis-enhancing elements. By electrophoretic mobility shift assays, it was confirmed that two Ets-motifs, GGAA (-181/-178) and AGAA (-114/-111), among three candidates, were directly bound with PU.1. When mouse pDCs and CAL-1 cells were stimulated by GM-CSF, mRNA levels of PU.1, pIII-driven CIITA, total CIITA, MHC class II, and the amount of PU.1 binding to pIII were significantly increased. The GM-CSF-mediated up-regulation of these mRNAs was canceled in PU.1 siRNA-introduced cells. Taking these results together, we conclude that PU.1 transactivates the pIII through direct binding to Ets-motifs in the promoter in pDCs.

  8. DNA polymorphism of HLA class II genes in primary biliary cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morling, Niels; Dalhoff, K; Fugger, L;

    1992-01-01

    We investigated the DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism of the major histocompatibility complex class II genes: HLA-DRB, -DQA, -DQB, DPA, -DPB, the serologically defined HLA-A, B, C, DR antigens, and the primed lymphocyte typing defined HLA-DP antigens in 23 Danish patients with primary...... and B8, DR3, DQA1*0501, and DQB1*0201, which are frequently found together on the same haplotype, are at variance with recent reports on associations between PBC and Drw8. The discrepancy suggests that PBC is genetically heterogenous....

  9. Internal and Marginal Fit of Modern Indirect Class II Composite Inlays

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp C. Pott; Agnieszka Rzasa; Meike Stiesch; Michael Eisenburger

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This in vitro study investigates the marginal and internal fit of indirect class II composite restorations. Two different processes for chair-side restorations were compared. In group A, the restorations were fabricated using CAD/CAM technology (Cerec, Sirona, Germany, Bernsheim) and in group B they were made by hand (GrandioSO Inlay System, VOCO GmbH, Germany, Cuxhaven). Methods: For a metal tooth with a MOD cavity each 10 restorations were made for groups A and B. For each res...

  10. Intracellular transport of MHC class II and associated invariant chain in antigen presenting cells from AP-3-deficient mocha mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevilla, L M; Richter, S S; Miller, J

    2001-06-15

    MHC class II-restricted antigen presentation requires trafficking of newly synthesized class II-invariant chain complexes from the trans-Golgi network to endosomal, peptide-loading compartments. This transport is mediated by dileucine-like motifs within the cytosolic tail of the invariant chain. Although these signals have been well characterized, the cytosolic proteins that interact with these dileucine signals and mediate Golgi sorting and endosomal transport have not been identified. Recently, an adaptor complex, AP-3, has been identified that interacts with dileucine motifs and mediates endosomal/lysosomal transport in yeast, Drosophila, and mammals. In this report, we have assessed class II-invariant chain trafficking in a strain of mice (mocha) which lacks expression of AP-3. Our studies demonstrate that the lack of AP-3 does not affect the kinetics of invariant chain degradation, the route of class II-invariant chain transport, or the rate and extent of class II-peptide binding as assessed by the generation of SDS-stable dimers. The possible role of other known or unknown adaptor complexes in class II-invariant chain transport is discussed. PMID:11520080

  11. Inactivation of the transforming growth factor beta type II receptor in human small cell lung cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, S; Nørgaard, P; Abrahamsen, N;

    1999-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) exerts a growth inhibitory effect on many cell types through binding to two types of receptors, the type I and II receptors. Resistance to TGF-beta due to lack of type II receptor (RII) has been described in some cancer types including small cell lung...... cancer (SCLC). The purpose of this study was to examine the cause of absent RII expression in SCLC cell lines. Northern blot analysis showed that RII RNA expression was very weak in 16 of 21 cell lines. To investigate if the absence of RII transcript was due to mutations, we screened the poly-A tract...... of the mutation, which has not previously been observed in RII, has been linked to exposure to benzo[a]-pyrene, a component of cigarette smoke. Since RII has been mapped to chromosome 3p22 and nearby loci are often hypermethylated in SCLC, it was examined whether the lack of RII expression was due...

  12. MHC class II-associated proteins in B-cell exosomes and potential functional implications for exosome biogenesis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buschow, S.I.; Balkom, B.W.M. van; Aalberts, M.; Heck, A.J.R. van; Wauben, M.; Stoorvogel, W.

    2010-01-01

    Professional antigen-presenting cells secrete major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) carrying exosomes with unclear physiological function(s). Exosomes are first generated as the intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) of a specific type of multivesicular body, and are then secreted by fusion of th

  13. Cloning and modeling of CD8 beta in the amphibian ambystoma Mexicanum. Evolutionary conserved structures for interactions with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellah, Julien S; Tuffèry, Pierre; Etchebest, Catherine; Guillet, Françoise; Bleux, Christian; Charlemagne, Jacques

    2002-04-17

    Mammalian and avian T-cells exhibit a large number of well characterized surface molecules associated with their maturation degree. Very little is known in comparison with T-cell differentiation in ectothermic vertebrates. This is mainly due to the lack of probes to identify T-cell subsets. We cloned and sequenced the first ectothermic CD8 beta DNA complementary to RNA from an amphibian species, the Mexican axolotl. The CD8 beta chain was 30-36% identical with its avian and mammalian homologues. The extracellular V-like domain contained the two typically conserved cysteines and was followed by a J-like sequence containing the canonical Phe-Gly-X-Gly stretch. The connecting peptide was much longer than in other species and contained potential O-glycosylation sites. The axolotl CD8 beta and major histocompatibility complex class I molecules were modeled using human HLA-A2/CD8 alphaalpha complex as template. The backbone conformation of axolotl CD8 beta matched well with the CD8 alpha-2 subunit of the human complex but significant structural differences were located in the CDR1, CDR2 and DE loops. Both axolotl and human class I showed large negative surface potential. The interacting area of the human CD8 alpha chain and of the corresponding region of axolotl CD8 beta had positive electrostatic potential compatible with complexation with the corresponding class I molecules. The presence of a CD8 beta homologue in an amphibian species implies that it was already present in the Devonian ancestor of amphibians and mammals, i.e. more than 400 million years ago. PMID:12034498

  14. Neutron Diffraction Studies of a Class A beta-Lactamase Toho-1 E166A/R274N/R276N Triple Mutant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakeley, Matthew P. [Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL); Chen, Yu [ORNL; Afonine, Pavel [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

    2010-01-01

    beta-Lactam antibiotics have been used effectively over several decades against many types of bacterial infectious diseases. However, the most common cause of resistance to the beta-lactam antibiotics is the production of beta-lactamase enzymes that inactivate beta-lactams by rapidly hydrolyzing the amide group of the beta-lactam ring. Specifically, the class A extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) and inhibitor-resistant enzymes arose that were capable of hydrolyzing penicillins and the expanded-spectrum cephalosporins and monobactams in resistant bacteria, which lead to treatment problems in many clinical settings. A more complete understanding of the mechanism of catalysis of these ESBL enzymes will impact current antibiotic drug discovery efforts. Here, we describe the neutron structure of the class A, CTX-M-type ESBL Toho-1 E166A/R274N/R276N triple mutant in its apo form, which is the first reported neutron structure of a beta-lactamase enzyme. This neutron structure clearly reveals the active-site protonation states and hydrogen-bonding network of the apo Toho-1 ESBL prior to substrate binding and subsequent acylation. The protonation states of the active-site residues Ser70, Lys73, Ser130, and Lys234 in this neutron structure are consistent with the prediction of a proton transfer pathway from Lys73 to Ser130 that is likely dependent on the conformation of Lys73, which has been hypothesized to be coupled to the protonation state of Glu166 during the acylation reaction. Thus, this neutron structure is in agreement with a proposed mechanism for acylation that identifies Glu166 as the general base for catalysis.

  15. Structure of GES-1 at Atomic Resolution: Insights Into the Evolution of Carbapenamase Activity in the Class a Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.A.; /SLAC, SSRL; Caccamo, M.; /Notre Dame U.; Kantardjieff, K.A.; /Cal State, Fullerton; Vakulenko, S.; /Notre Dame U.

    2007-10-08

    The structure of the class A extended-spectrum {beta}-lactamase GES-1 from Klebsiella pneumoniae has been determined to 1.1 Angstrom resolution. GES-1 has the characteristic active-site disulfide bond of the carbapenemase family of {beta}-lactamases and has a structure that is very similar to those of other known carbapenemases, including NMC-A, SME-1 and KPC-2. Most residues implicated in the catalytic mechanism of this class of enzyme are present in the GES-1 active site, including Ser70, which forms a covalent bond with the carbonyl C atom of the {beta}-lactam ring of the substrate during the formation of an acyl-enzyme intermediate, Glu166, which is implicated as both the acylation and deacylation base, and Lys73, which is also implicated as the acylation base. A water molecule crucial to catalysis is observed in an identical location as in other class A {beta}-lactamases, interacting with the side chains of Ser70 and Glu166. One important residue, Asn170, also normally a ligand for the hydrolytic water, is missing from the GES-1 active site. This residue is a glycine in GES-1 and the enzyme is unable to hydrolyze imipenem. This points to this residue as being critically important in the hydrolysis of this class of {beta}-lactam substrate. This is further supported by flexible-docking studies of imipenem with in silico-generated Gly170Asn and Gly170Ser mutant GES-1 enzymes designed to mimic the active sites of imipenem-hydrolyzing point mutants GES-2 and GES-5.

  16. Morphological changes of the facial skeleton in Class II/1 patients treated with orthodontic functional appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Festila

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate, using lateral cephalometry, the skeletal changes in maxillary bones induced through functional jaw orthopedic therapy. 30 patients with class II division 1 malocclusion and average age of 10.4 years were included in the study. Material and Methods: Cephalometric data were analyzed with the following methods: Burstone, McNamara, Rickets, Tweed and Wits and treatment changes were evaluated overlapping the lateral cephalograms on cranial base with sella registered. Results: The results showed reduced over-jet in average with 2.46 mm, mandibular advancement with a mean value of 2.72 mm and increasing of the total mandibular length with a mean value of 4.17 mm. Although we found an inhibiting in the anterior development of the maxilla with an average of 1.57 degree, the decrease of the anterior-posterior discrepancy was due especially to the mandible. Conclusions: It can be concluded that functional appliances were effective in correcting class II malocclusion. Changes of the position and mandible′s length determined improved facial profile but did not correct it completely because of the chin that moved not only anterior but also downward, as a result of vertical ramus growth.

  17. Prediction of positive food effect: Bioavailability enhancement of BCS class II drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Siddarth; Polli, James E

    2016-06-15

    High-throughput screening methods have increased the number of poorly water-soluble, highly permeable drug candidates. Many of these candidates have increased bioavailability when administered with food (i.e., exhibit a positive food effect). Food is known to impact drug bioavailability through a variety of mechanisms, including drug solubilization and prolonged gastric residence time. In vitro dissolution media that aim to mimic in vivo gastrointestinal (GI) conditions have been developed to lessen the need for fed human bioequivalence studies. The objective of this work was to develop an in vitro lipolysis model to predict positive food effect of three BCS Class II drugs (i.e., danazol, amiodarone and ivermectin) in previously developed lipolysis media. This in vitro lipolysis model was comparatively benchmarked against FeSSIF and FaSSIF media that were modified for an in vitro lipolysis approach, as FeSSIF and FaSSIF are widely used in in vitro dissolution studies. The in vitro lipolysis model accurately predicted the in vivo positive food effect for three model BCS class II drugs. The in vitro lipolysis model has potential use as a screening test of drug candidates in early development to assess positive food effect.

  18. Transverse craniofacial dimensions in Angle Class II, Division 1 malocclusion according to breathing mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agda Rísia David Pinto Coelho

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this longitudinal study was to assess the relation between the transverse craniofacial dimensions of subjects with Class II, Division 1 malocclusion and the breathing mode presented by them. Forty Angle Class II, Division 1 malocclusion subjects of both genders participated in the study, 23 of which were predominantly nose breathers and 17 were predominantly mouth breathers. The mean age ranged from 10 years and 9 months to 14 years - Age range 1; and from 13 years and 4 months to 16 years and 6 months - Age range 2. Measurements of six transverse craniofacial dimensions were performed in P-A teleradiographs: Total Sphenoid, Total Zygomatic, Total Nasal Cavity, Total Maxilla, Total Mastoid and Total Antegonion. The transversal craniofacial dimensions were measured and compared in both groups at age ranges 1 and 2. The longitudinal assessment of age ranges 1 and 2 showed that there was no statistically significant influence of the breathing mode on the craniofacial dimensions evaluated, or on the alteration of these dimensions. Breathing mode had no influence on craniofacial development in the sample studied.

  19. Major histocompatibility complex class II alleles and haplotypes associated with non-suppurative meningoencephalitis in greyhounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiel, R E; Kennedy, L J; Nolan, C M; Mooney, C T; Callanan, J J

    2014-09-01

    Non-suppurative meningoencephalitis is a breed-restricted canine neuroinflammatory disorder affecting young greyhounds in Ireland. A genetic risk factor is suspected because of the development of disease in multiple siblings and an inability to identify a causative infectious agent. The aim of this study was to examine potential associations between dog leucocyte antigen (DLA) class II haplotype and the presence of the disease. DLA three locus haplotypes were determined in 31 dogs with non-suppurative meningoencephalitis and in 115 healthy control dogs using sequence-based typing (SBT) methods. All dogs were unrelated at the parental level. Two haplotypes (DRB1*01802/DQA1*00101/DQB1*00802 and DRB1*01501/DQA1*00601/DQB1*02201) were significantly (P = 0.0099 and 0.037) associated with the presence of meningoencephalitis, with odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of 5.531 (1.168-26.19) and 3.736 (1.446-9.652), respectively. These results confirm that there is an association between DLA class II haplotype and greyhound meningoencephalitis, suggesting an immunogenetic risk factor for the development of the disease. Greyhound meningoencephalitis may be a suitable model for human neuroinflammatory diseases with an immunogenetic component. PMID:24851745

  20. Antioxidant activity and ACE-inhibitory of Class II hydrophobin from wild strain Trichoderma reesei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalesi, Mohammadreza; Jahanbani, Raheleh; Riveros-Galan, David; Sheikh-Hassani, Vahid; Sheikh-Zeinoddin, Mahmoud; Sahihi, Mehdi; Winterburn, James; Derdelinckx, Guy; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar

    2016-10-01

    There are several possible uses of the Class II hydrophobin HFBII in clinical applications. To fully understand and exploit this potential however, the antioxidant activity and ACE-inhibitory potential of this protein need to be better understood and have not been previously reported. In this study, the Class II hydrophobin HFBII was produced by the cultivation of wild type Trichoderma reesei. The crude hydrophobin extract obtained from the fermentation process was purified using reversed-phase liquid chromatography and the identity of the purified HFBII verified by MALDI-TOF (molecular weight: 7.2kDa). Subsequently the antioxidant activities of different concentrations of HFBII (0.01-0.40mg/mL) were determined. The results show that for HFBII concentrations of 0.04mg/mL and upwards the protein significantly reduced the presence of ABTS(+) radicals in the medium, the IC50 value found to be 0.13mg/mL. Computational modeling highlighted the role of the amino acid residues located in the conserved and exposed hydrophobic patch on the surface of the HFBII molecule and the interactions with the aromatic rings of ABTS. The ACE-inhibitory effect of HFBII was found to occur from 0.5mg/mL and upwards, making the combination of HFBII with strong ACE-inhibitors attractive for use in the healthcare industry. PMID:27211298

  1. Human leukocyte antigen class II susceptibility conferring alleles among non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the frequency of Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) class II susceptibility conferring alleles among type 2 Diabetes mellitus patients, in comparison with healthy controls. Cross-sectional comparative study. Patients with non-insulin dependent Diabetes mellitus meeting World Health Organization criteria were studied. These were compared with age and gender matched healthy control subjects. For each subject (patients as well as controls), DNA was extracted from ethylene diamine tetra-acetate sample and HLA class II DRB1 typing was carried out at allele group level (DRB1*01-DRB1*16) by sequence specific primers. Human leukocyte antigen DRB1 type was determined by agarose gel electrophoresis and results were recorded. Frequencies were determined as number of an allele divided by total number of alleles per group; p-value was computed using Pearson's chi-square test. Among the 100 patients, there were 63 males and 37 females with 68 controls. A total of 13 different HLA DRB1 alleles were detected, with DRB1*15 being the commonest in both the groups. The allele DRB1*13 had statistically significant higher frequency in patient group as compared to controls (p 0.005). HLA DRB1*13 was found with a significantly increased frequency in non-insulin dependent Diabetes mellitus. (author)

  2. Comparison of 2 modifications of the twin-block appliance in matched Class II samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, N A; McKeown, H F; Sandler, P J

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the skeletal and dental changes contributing to Class II correction with 2 modifications of the Twin-block appliance: Twin-block appliances that use a labial bow (TB1) and Twin-block appliances that incorporate high-pull headgear and torquing spurs on the maxillary central incisors (TB2). After pretreatment equivalence was established, a total of 36 consecutively treated patients with the TB1 modification were compared with 27 patients treated with the TB2 modification. Both samples were treated in the same hospital department and the same technician made all the appliances. The cephalostat, digitizing package, and statistical methods were common to both groups. The results demonstrated that the addition of headgear to the appliance resulted in effective vertical and sagittal control of the maxillary complex and thus maximized the Class II skeletal correction in the TB2 sample. Use of the torquing springs resulted in less retroclination of the maxillary incisors in the TB2 sample when compared with the TB1 sample; however, this difference did not reach the level of statistical significance.

  3. In vitro evaluation of different liners in microleakage of class II posterior composite restorations

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    Behnaz Esmaeili

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Packable composites with high viscosity might not adapt properly to internal surfaces and cervical areas. The aim of this study was to assess the microleakage of class II posterior composite restorations performed using different methods.Materials and Methods: Ninety proximal cavities were prepared in extracted sound premolar teeth, divided into three groups and filled as follows: 1- packable composite (3M filtek P60, 2-Hybrid composite (Z250 + P60 composite and 3- Resin-modified glass ionomer liner + P60 composite. Afterwards, the samples were immersed in 0.5% Foushin solution and sectioned. Gingival microleakage was then graded. Obtained data were analyzed using paired t-test and analysis of variance. Results: In regard to distal cavities, significant difference was seen between the groups 1 and 3 (P=0.01 as well as groups 2 and 3 (P=0.03. Comparing microleakage of mesial and distal cavities, there was a significant difference in groups 1 (P=0.003 and 2 (P=0.005.Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, application of Z250 composite had no effect on reduction of microleakage of class II posterior composite restorations. Vitremer liner decreased microleakage in dento-gingival margins.

  4. Btn2a2, a T cell immunomodulatory molecule coregulated with MHC class II genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarter, Kerstin; Leimgruber, Elisa; Gobet, Florian; Agrawal, Vishal; Dunand-Sauthier, Isabelle; Barras, Emmanuèle; Mastelic-Gavillet, Béatris; Kamath, Arun; Fontannaz, Paola; Guéry, Leslie; Duraes, Fernanda do Valle; Lippens, Carla; Ravn, Ulla; Santiago-Raber, Marie-Laure; Magistrelli, Giovanni; Fischer, Nicolas; Siegrist, Claire-Anne; Hugues, Stéphanie; Reith, Walter

    2016-02-01

    Evidence has recently emerged that butyrophilins, which are members of the extended B7 family of co-stimulatory molecules, have diverse functions in the immune system. We found that the human and mouse genes encoding butyrophilin-2A2 (BTN2A2) are regulated by the class II trans-activator and regulatory factor X, two transcription factors dedicated to major histocompatibility complex class II expression, suggesting a role in T cell immunity. To address this, we generated Btn2a2-deficient mice. Btn2a2(-/-) mice exhibited enhanced effector CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses, impaired CD4(+) regulatory T cell induction, potentiated antitumor responses, and exacerbated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Altered immune responses were attributed to Btn2a2 deficiency in antigen-presenting cells rather than T cells or nonhematopoietic cells. These results provide the first genetic evidence that BTN2A2 is a co-inhibitory molecule that modulates T cell-mediated immunity.

  5. IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH HLA ANTIBODIES CLASS I AND II, AND MICA ANTIBODIES IN KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION

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    M. Sh. Khubutia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of HLA and MICA antibodies in patients from the waiting list for kidney transplantation and their influence on the course of post-transplant period. Determination of HLA antibodies class I and II, and MICA antibodies was performed on a platform of Luminex (xMAP-tech- nology using sets LABScreen ONE LAMBDA (U.S.. A total of 156 patients from the waiting list for kidney transplantation. Revealed the presence of HLA and MICA antibodies in the serum of 31.4% of patients. Regraf- ted patients increased the content of antibodies to the antigens of HLA system was noted in 88.2% of cases, 47% met the combination of antibodies to the I, II classes and MICA. In patients awaiting first kidney transplantation, HLA and MICA antibodies were determined in 23.7% of cases. The presence of pretransplant HLA and MICA antibodies had a significant influence on the course of post-transplant period. Patients with the presence of HLA and MICA in 50% of cases delayed graft function. Sessions of plasmapheresis can reduce the concentration of HLA and MICA antibodies on average by 61.1%. 

  6. Clinical effects of fixed functional Herbst appliance in the treatment of class II/1 malocclusion

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    Nedeljković Nenad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sagittal mandible deficiency is the most common cause of skeletal Class II malocclusion. Treatment objective is to stimulate sagittal mandible growth. Fixed functional Herbst appliance use is beneficial for shortening the time required for treatment and does not depend on patient compliance. Case outline. A 13-year-old girl was referred to the Clinic of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry in Belgrade following previous unsuccessful treatment of her skeletal Class II malocclusion using an activator. The patient's poor cooperation had led to failure of the treatment. Patient was subjected to the Herbst treatment for 6 months followed by fixed appliance for another 8 months. Lateral cephalograms before and after the treatment was performed. The remodelation of condylar and fossal articulation was assessed by superimposition of pre- and post-treatment temporomandibular joint tomograms. The promotion of oral hygiene and fluoride use was performed because orthodontic treatment carries a high caries risk and risk for periodontal disease. Skeletal and dental changes were observed after treatment (correction [Max+Mand]: molar relation 7 mm, overjet 8 mm, skeletal relation 5 mm, molars 2 mm, incisors 3 mm. Combination of Herbst and fixed appliances was effective in the treatment of dental and skeletal irregularities for a short period of time. Conclusion . In the retention period, 14 months after treatment, occlusal stability exists. Follow-up care in oral prevention is based on regular recalls at the dental office and supervision at home by the parents.

  7. Correlations between dentoskeletal variables and deep bite in Class II Division 1 individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Silva Marques

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the cephalometric pattern of Class II Division 1 individuals with deep bite, and to determine possible correlations between dentoskeletal variables and deep bite. Comparisons were also made between genders and cases that were to be treated both with and without premolar extraction. A total of 70 lateral cephalograms were used, from both male (n = 35 and female (n = 35 individuals with an average age of 11.6 years, who simultaneously presented with ANB > 5º and overbite > 4 mm. Statistical analysis involved parametric (t-test and non-parametric (Mann-Whitney tests for independent samples, as well as the Spearman correlation test (p < 0.05. The values of Go-Me, Ar-Pog, PM-1 and PM-CMI were higher in males (p < 0.05. However, no significant differences were found among the averages of the cephalometric measurements when the sample was divided by treatment with and without extraction. Deep bite was positively correlated to the PM-1 and SNA measurements, and negatively correlated to the Go-Me, Ar-Pog, SNB and SNGoMe measurements. The main factors associated with the determination of deep bite in Angle's Class II Division 1 cases were: greater lower anterior dentoalveolar growth and/or lower incisor extrusion, horizontal growth pattern, maxillary protrusion and mandibular retrusion.

  8. Human HLA class I- and HLA class II-restricted cloned cytotoxic T lymphocytes identify a cluster of epitopes on the measles virus fusion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Binnendijk, R S; Versteeg-van Oosten, J P; Poelen, M C; Brugghe, H F; Hoogerhout, P; Osterhaus, A D; Uytdehaag, F G

    1993-01-01

    The transmembrane fusion (F) glycoprotein of measles virus is an important target antigen of human HLA class I- and class II-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Genetically engineered F proteins and nested sets of synthetic peptides spanning the F protein were used to determine sequences of F recognized by a number of F-specific CTL clones. Combined N- and C-terminal deletions of the respective peptides revealed that human HLA class I and HLA class II-restricted CTL efficiently recognize nonapeptides or decapeptides representing epitopes of F. Three distinct sequences recognized by three different HLA class II (DQw1, DR2, and DR4/w53)-restricted CTL clones appear to cluster between amino acids 379 and 466 of F, thus defining an important T-cell epitope area of F. Within this same region, a nonamer peptide of F was found to be recognized by an HLA-B27-restricted CTL clone, as expected on the basis of the structural homology between this peptide and other known HLA-B27 binding peptides. PMID:7680390

  9. Engagement of major histocompatibility complex class I and class II molecules up-regulates intercellular adhesion of human B cells via a CD11/CD18-independent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcover, A; Juillard, V; Acuto, O

    1992-02-01

    We have studied the role of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules in the regulation of intercellular adhesion of human B cells. We found that molecules able to bind to MHC class II molecules, such as monoclonal antibodies or staphylococcal enterotoxins, induced rapid and sustained homotypic adhesion of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed B cell lines as well as peripheral blood B lymphocytes. Moreover, anti-MHC class I monoclonal antibodies also stimulated intercellular adherence. Adhesion induced upon MHC engagement was faster and stronger than that triggered by phorbol esters. It needed active metabolism, but divalent cations were not required. Monoclonal antibodies directed against LFA-1 (CD11a/CD18) or its ligand ICAM-1 (CD54) did not inhibit MHC class II-induced homotypic adhesion of various EBV-transformed B cell lines, nor of a variant of the B cell line Raji expressing very low LFA-1 surface levels. Moreover, EBV-transformed B cells from a severe lymphocyte adhesion deficiency patient, lacking surface CD11/CD18, also aggregated in response to anti-MHC class I or class II monoclonal antibodies. Together these data indicate that engagement of MHC molecules may transduce signals to B cells resulting in up-regulation of intercellular adhesion, via an LFA-1-independent mechanism. This may play a role in the stabilization of T cell/antigen-presenting cell conjugates at the moment of antigen recognition.

  10. Rational Design Synthesis and Evaluation of New Selective Inhibitors of Microbial Class II (Zinc Dependent) Fructose Bis-phosphate Aldolases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R Daher; M Coincon; M Fonvielle; P Gest; M Guerin; M Jackson; J Sygusch; M Therisod

    2011-12-31

    We report the synthesis and biochemical evaluation of several selective inhibitors of class II (zinc dependent) fructose bis-phosphate aldolases (Fba). The products were designed as transition-state analogues of the catalyzed reaction, structurally related to the substrate fructose bis-phosphate (or sedoheptulose bis-phosphate) and based on an N-substituted hydroxamic acid, as a chelator of the zinc ion present in active site. The compounds synthesized were tested on class II Fbas from various pathogenic microorganisms and, by comparison, on a mammalian class I Fba. The best inhibitor shows Ki against class II Fbas from various pathogens in the nM range, with very high selectivity (up to 105). Structural analyses of inhibitors in complex with aldolases rationalize and corroborate the enzymatic kinetics results. These inhibitors represent lead compounds for the preparation of new synthetic antibiotics, notably for tuberculosis prophylaxis.

  11. Treatment of Class II high angle malocclusions with the Herbst appliance: a cephalometric investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavoni, R; Grenga, V; Macri, V

    1992-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the results of treatment of Class II malocclusions by using two different designs of the Herbst appliance. Cephalometric records from lateral headplates of 19 consecutively treated Class II cases were evaluated. The headplates were taken before and after the treatment stage in which the Herbst appliance was used. The patients were divided into two groups: the first group, normohypodivergent, was treated with the Herbst appliance attached to bands; the second group, hyperdivergent, was treated with the Herbst appliance attached to acrylic splints in which a high-pull headgear was also used. The results were compared between these groups and with a control group age-matched from Bolton standards to match the changes in the Herbst samples against what might be expected in case of normal growth during similar periods of time. The results of the investigation revealed the following: (1) 9 months of treatment resulted in Class I dental arch relationships in all 19 cases; (2) the Herbst appliance attached to bands did not significantly modify the vertical growth pattern of the normohypodivergent patients; and (3) in hyperdivergent patients, the use of a Herbst appliance attached to acrylic splints in conjunction with the use of a high-pull headgear allowed a better control of the vertical dimension, as assessed by the cephalometric parameters (FA, FMA, Go-Gn-SN). The clinician should be aware of the different dentofacial changes induced in the vertical plane by different designs of the Herbst appliance to better program treatment strategy.

  12. Composition of MHC class II-enriched lipid microdomains is modified during maturation of primary dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setterblad, Niclas; Roucard, Corinne; Bocaccio, Claire; Abastado, Jean-Pierre; Charron, Dominique; Mooney, Nuala

    2003-07-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most potent antigen presenting cells. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecule expression changes with maturation; immature DCs concentrate MHC class II molecules intracellularly, whereas maturation increases surface expression of MHC class II and costimulatory molecules to optimize antigen presentation. Signal transduction via MHC class II molecules localized in lipid microdomains has been described in B lymphocytes and in the THP-1 monocyte cell line. We have characterized MHC class II molecules throughout human DC maturation with particular attention to their localization in lipid-rich microdomains. Only immature DCs expressed empty MHC class II molecules, and maturation increased the level of peptide-bound heterodimers. Ligand binding to surface human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR induced rapid internalization in immature DCs. The proportion of cell-surface detergent-insoluble glycosphingolipid-enriched microdomain-clustered HLA-DR was higher in immature DCs despite the higher surface expression of HLA-DR in mature DCs. Constituents of HLA-DR containing microdomains included the src kinase Lyn and the cytoskeletal protein tubulin in immature DCs. Maturation modified the composition of the HLA-DR-containing microdomains to include protein kinase C (PKC)-delta, Lyn, and the cytoskeletal protein actin, accompanied by the loss of tubulin. Signaling via HLA-DR redistributed HLA-DR and -DM and PKC-delta as well as enriching the actin content of mature DC microdomains. The increased expression of HLA-DR as a result of DC maturation was therefore accompanied by modification of the spatial organization of HLA-DR. Such regulation could contribute to the distinct responses induced by ligand binding to MHC class II molecules in immature versus mature DCs.

  13. Zirconium metal--water oxidation kinetics. II. Oxygen-18 diffusion in. beta. -Zircaloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, R.A.

    1976-07-01

    The diffusion of oxygen-18 in ..beta..-Zircaloy-4 was measured from 900 to 1500/sup 0/C and survey measurements were made for ..beta..-zirconium and ..beta..-Zircaloy-2. The tracer diffusivity was measured over the entire temperature range and the chemical diffusivity from 1100 to 1500/sup 0/C. The experiments were performed by using oxygen-18 as the tracer and activating it by proton bombardment. Complementary measurements were also made using Auger Electron Spectroscopy. Results indicated that the tracer and chemical diffusivity of oxygen in ..beta..-Zircaloy-4 are statistically identical, and there is no oxygen concentration dependence over the oxygen concentration range studied, 0.1 to 0.6 wt percent. The temperature dependence of the diffusivity from 1000 to 1500/sup 0/C is D = 2.48 x 10/sup -2/ exp (-28200/RT) cm/sup 2//s. Below 1000/sup 0/C, the diffusivity dropped sharply because a two-phase ..cap alpha.. + ..beta.. mixture was present. Results for the ..beta..-Zircaloy-2 and ..beta..-zirconium indicated that the alloying additions have no influence upon the oxygen diffusivity. Combination of three sets of boundary conditions (thin-film tracer diffusion, single-phase chemical diffusion couple, and phase-boundary-movement chemical diffusion couple) and two methods of oxygen profiling (oxygen-18 radioactivation and Auger Electron Spectroscopy) were used to increase the confidence in the results. Current results are about 50 percent lower than the previous results of Mallett, Albrecht, and Wilson. The diffusivity of oxygen-16 is expected to be 6 percent greater than that for oxygen-18. (auth)

  14. Persistent Ehrlichia chaffeensis infection occurs in the absence of functional major histocompatibility complex class II genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganta, Roman Reddy; Wilkerson, Melinda J.; Cheng, Chuanmin; Rokey, Aaron M.; Chapes, Stephen K.

    2002-01-01

    Human monocytic ehrlichiosis is an emerging tick-borne disease caused by the rickettsia Ehrlichia chaffeensis. We investigated the impact of two genes that control macrophage and T-cell function on murine resistance to E. chaffeensis. Congenic pairs of wild-type and toll-like receptor 4 (tlr4)- or major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II)-deficient mice were used for these studies. Wild-type mice cleared the infection within 2 weeks, and the response included macrophage activation and the synthesis of E. chaffeensis-specific Th1-type immunoglobulin G response. The absence of a functional tlr4 gene depressed nitric oxide and interleukin 6 secretion by macrophages and resulted in short-term persistent infections for > or =30 days. In the absence of MHC-II alleles, E. chaffeensis infections persisted throughout the entire 3-month evaluation period. Together, these data suggest that macrophage activation and cell-mediated immunity, orchestrated by CD4(+) T cells, are critical for conferring resistance to E. chaffeensis.

  15. Characterization of structural features controlling the receptiveness of empty class II MHC molecules.

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    Bernd Rupp

    Full Text Available MHC class II molecules (MHC II play a pivotal role in the cell-surface presentation of antigens for surveillance by T cells. Antigen loading takes place inside the cell in endosomal compartments and loss of the peptide ligand rapidly leads to the formation of a non-receptive state of the MHC molecule. Non-receptiveness hinders the efficient loading of new antigens onto the empty MHC II. However, the mechanisms driving the formation of the peptide inaccessible state are not well understood. Here, a combined approach of experimental site-directed mutagenesis and computational modeling is used to reveal structural features underlying "non-receptiveness." Molecular dynamics simulations of the human MHC II HLA-DR1 suggest a straightening of the α-helix of the β1 domain during the transition from the open to the non-receptive state. The movement is mostly confined to a hinge region conserved in all known MHC molecules. This shift causes a narrowing of the two helices flanking the binding site and results in a closure, which is further stabilized by the formation of a critical hydrogen bond between residues αQ9 and βN82. Mutagenesis experiments confirmed that replacement of either one of the two residues by alanine renders the protein highly susceptible. Notably, loading enhancement was also observed when the mutated MHC II molecules were expressed on the surface of fibroblast cells. Altogether, structural features underlying the non-receptive state of empty HLA-DR1 identified by theoretical means and experiments revealed highly conserved residues critically involved in the receptiveness of MHC II. The atomic details of rearrangements of the peptide-binding groove upon peptide loss provide insight into structure and dynamics of empty MHC II molecules and may foster rational approaches to interfere with non-receptiveness. Manipulation of peptide loading efficiency for improved peptide vaccination strategies could be one of the applications profiting

  16. Semi-longitudinal Study of the Mcnamara Cephalometric Triangle in Class II and Class III Subjects Grouped by Cervical Vertebrae Maturation Stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriola-Guillén, Luis E; Fitzcarrald, Fernando D; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    The aim was to compare the McNamara cephalometric triangle values in untreated normodivergent Class II and Class III malocclusion subjects of Latin American origin grouped by cervical vertebrae maturation stage to an untreated Class I malocclusion normodivergent control group. The study was conducted on a sample of 610 pretreatment lateral cephalograms (250 male, 360 female), examined and grouped according to their anteroposterior skeletal relationship (Class I, II or III), cervical vertebrae maturation stage (Pre Pubertal Peak P1 = CS1 and CS2, Pubertal Peak P2= CS3 and CS4, and Post Pubertal Peak P3 = CS5 and CS6) and sex. Co-A, Co-Gn and ENA-Me were measured in each lateral cephalogram. ANOVA and Tukey HSD post-hoc tests were performed to determine differences between the groups. The results showed that in males, the greatest maxillary and mandibular dimensional increases occurred during the P3 stage (CS5 to CS6), while in females, they occurred in the P2 stage (CS3 to CS4). The Co-A and Co-Gn showed significant differences between the malocclusion classes (pMcNamara cephalometric triangle values were markedly different in the three normodivergent skeletal malocclusion classes. In these Latin American subjects the pubertal growth spurt occurred at different times with respect to the Caucasian and Asian norms.

  17. Articulación de fones en individuos clase esqueletal I,II y III Speech patterns in skeletal class I, II and III subjects

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    Pía Villanueva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: determinar los patrones de articulación de fones consonánticos en sujetos de habla española chilena clases I, II y III esqueletal; comparar las diferencias fonéticas que existan entre clases esqueletales. MÉTODOS: se seleccionaron 54 individuos que cumplían con los criterios de inclusión determinados mediante un examen clínico intraoral y a través del análisis de Ricketts, y se conformaron los grupos de estudio de pacientes clases esqueletales I, II y III. Se les realizó un examen fonoarticulatorio estandarizado para determinar los fones modificados y el patrón articulatorio compensatorio realizado. RESULTADOS: se observaron cambios en el punto de articulación de fones consonánticos en las tres clases esqueletales, con diferencias significativas en los grupos de fones anteriores y medios entre pacientes clases I y II, sólo en el grupo de los fones anteriores entre pacientes I y III. Entre pacientes clases II y III no se observaron diferencias significativas. Se reportan modificaciones y compensaciones cualitativamente distintas entre las clases esqueletales. CONCLUSIONES: en relación a pacientes clase I, los pacientes clase II o III, presentan distinto grado de modificación en el punto de articulación de fones consonánticos. Las diferencias observadas se relacionan con los patrones esqueletales propios de cada clase.PURPOSE: to determine the consonant phonemes articulation patterns in Chilean skeletal class I, II and III Spanish speakers and compare their phonetic differences. METHODS: fifty-four skeletal class I, II and III subjects were selected, based on intraoral clinical examination and Ricketts cephalometric analysis, constituting the study groups. A standardized phonoarticulatory test was applied to each patient to determine the modified phonemes and their compensatory patterns. RESULTS: the findings indicate changes in articulation in all three groups. Significant differences were found in anterior and medium

  18. Purifying Selection and Birth-and-Death Evolution in the Class II Hydrophobin Gene Families of the Ascomycete Trichoderma/Hypocrea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    kubicek, Christian P.; Baker, Scott E.; Gamauf, Christian; Kenerley, Chuck; Druzhinina, Irina S.

    2008-01-10

    Hydrophobins are proteins containing eight conserved cysteine residues that occur uniquely in mycelial fungi, where their main function is to confer hydrophobicity to fungal surfaces in contact with air and during attachment of hyphae to hydrophobic surfaces of hosts, symbiotic partners or of themselves resulting in morphogenetic signals. Based on their hydropathy patterns and their solubility characteristics, they are classified in class I and class II hydrophobins, the latter being found only in ascomycetes. Here we have investigated the mechanisms driving the evolution of the class II hydrophobins in nine species of the mycoparasitic ascomycetous genus Trichoderma/Hypocrea, using three fully sequenced genomes (H. jecorina=T. reesei, H. atroviridis=T. atroviride; H. virens=T. virens) and a total of 14.000 ESTs of six others (T. asperellum, H. lixii=T. harzianum, T. aggressivum var. europeae, T. longibrachiatum, T. cf. viride). The former three contained six, ten and nine members, which is the highest number found in any other ascomycete so far. They all showed the conserved four beta-strands/one helix structure, which is stabilized by four disulfide bonds. In addition, a small number of these HFBs contained an extended N-terminus rich in either praline and aspartate, or glycine-asparagine. Phylogenetic analysis reveals a mosaic of terminal clades contain duplicated genes and shows only three reasonably supported clades. Calculation of the ratio of differences in synonymous vs. non-synonymous nucleotide substitutions provides evidence for strong purifying selection (KS/Ka >> 1). A genome database search for class II HFBs from other ascomycetes retrieved a much smaller number of hydrophobins (2-4) from each species, and most of them were from Pyrenomycetes. A combined phylogeny of these sequences with those of Trichoderma showed that the Trichoderma HFBs mostly formed their own clades, whereas those of other pyrenomycetes occured in shared clades. Our study shows

  19. MHC class I and class II phenotype, gene, and haplotype frequencies in Greeks using molecular typing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papassavas, E C; Spyropoulou-Vlachou, M; Papassavas, A C; Schipper, R F; Doxiadis, I N; Stavropoulos-Giokas, C

    2000-06-01

    In the present study, DNA typing for HLA-A, C, B, DRB1, DRB3, DRB4, DRB5, DQA1, DQB1, and DPB1 was performed for 246 healthy, unrelated Greek volunteers of 20-59 years of age. Phenotype, genotype frequencies, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium fit, and 3-locus haplotype frequencies for HLA-A, C, B, HLA-A, B, DRB1, HLA-DRB1, DQA1, DQB1, and HLA-DRB1, DQB1, DPB1 were calculated. Furthermore, linkage disequilibrium, deltas, relative deltas and p-values for significance of the deltas were defined. The population studied is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and many MHC haplotypes are in linkage disequilibrium. The most frequent specificities were HLA-A*02 (phenotype frequency = 44.3%) followed by HLA-A*24 (27.2%), HLA-B*51 (28.5%), HLA-B*18 (26.8%) and HLA-B*35 (26.4%) and HLA-Cw*04 (30.1%) and HLA-Cw*12 (26.8%). The most frequent MHC class II alleles were HLA-DRB1*1104 (34.1%), HLA-DQB1*0301 (54.5%) and HLA-DPB1*0401 with a phenotype frequency of 59.8%. The most prominent HLA-A, C, B haplotypes were HLA-A*24, Cw*04, B*35, and HLA-A*02, Cw*04, B*35, each of them observed in 21/246 individuals. The most frequent HLA-A, B, DRB1 haplotype was HLA-A*02, B*18, DRB1*1104 seen in 20/246 individuals, while the haplotype HLA-DRB1*1104, DQB1*0301, DPB1*0401 was found in 49/246 individuals. Finally, the haplotype DRB1*1104, DQA1*0501, DQB1*0301 was observed in 83/246 individuals. These results can be used for the estimation of the probability of finding a suitable haplotypically identical related or unrelated stem cell donor for patients of Greek ancestry. In addition, they can be used for HLA and disease association studies, genetic distance studies in the Balkan and Mediterranean area, paternity cases, and matching probability calculations for the optimal allocation of kidneys in Greece.

  20. Long-term Outcome of Lupus Nephritis Class II in Argentine Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Maria Victoria; Dorado, Enrique; Rausch, Silvia; Gomez, Graciela; Khoury, Marina; Zazzetti, Federico; Gargiulo, María; Suarez, Lorena; Chaparro, Rafael; Paira, Sergio; Galvan, Laura; Juarez, Vicente; Pisoni, Cecilia; Garcia, Mercedes; Martinez, Liliana; Alvarez, Analia; Alvarez, Clarisa; Barreira, Juan; Sarano, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Background There is controversy in medical literature over the outcome of patients with lupus nephritis (LN) class II. The aim of this study was to explore the risk of histological transformation (HT) and possible factors related to negative response to treatment in patients with mesangial LN class II. Methods A retrospective and multicenter study was carried out that includes patients who had received a diagnosis of LN class II on their first renal biopsy. Creatinine, urine sediment, and proteinuria were recorded at the time of the first biopsy, 6 months, and 1, 2, and 5 years after the first biopsy. Response to treatment, HT, and long-term outcome were evaluated. Results Forty-one patients were included. The manifestation at first biopsy was proteinuria greater than 0.5 g/d in 28 patients (68.29%; 8 [28.57%] of 28 patients had nephrotic syndrome), hematuria in 18 patients (43.90%), and deterioration of renal function in 3 patients (7.31%). During the follow-up (median, 8 years; range, 1–35 years), a new biopsy was performed in 18 patients (43.90%), and in 17 patients (17/18 [94.44%]), there was HT. Median time at rebiopsy was 32 months (range, 11–305 months). Of the 18 patients who had a second biopsy, 10 (55.55%) were on hydroxychloroquine versus 100% (19/19) of patients who did not undergo the procedure (P = 0.001). A year after the first renal biopsy, there are data available from 34 patients; of them, 24 patients (70.58%) had achieved response, and 10 patients (29.41%) had no response (NR) (missing data in 7). A higher 24-hour urinary protein at 6 months was predictor of worse outcome at 1 year, with statistical significance difference for the nonresponder group (median proteinuria, 2.3 g/d [range, 0–4.7 g/d]) compared with responders (median proteinuria, 0.28 g/d [range, 0–1.7 g/d]) (P = 0.0133). In the long-term follow-up (5 years), HT was the main cause of unfavorable outcome and was measured in 78.57% of patients (11/14 patients). Conclusions This

  1. Differences in non-MHC restricted cytotoxic activities of human peripheral blood lymphocytes after transfusion with allogeneic leukocytes or platelets possessing class I and/or class II MHC molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pócsik, E; Mihalik, R; Réti, M; Gyódi, E; Pálóczi, K; Mayer, K; Kassai, M; Herold, M; Huber, C; Petrányi, G G

    1990-12-01

    MHC-unrestricted cytotoxic activity of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from 4-6 healthy donors was investigated before and after transfusion with allogeneic leukocytes or platelets. Natural killer and lectin-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (LDCC) of PBL was tested against K562 and Raji target cells in a 4-h and 16-h 51Cr-release assay, respectively. After allotransfusion with leukocytes, we found increased cytotoxic activity of each donor's PBL against all the three targets on day 3 or 7. The highest non-specific cytotoxic activity was detected against the relatively NK resistant Raji target cells. The increase of cytotoxic activity was lowest against the LDCC target (PHA-treated Raji) cells. On the contrary, no changes in cytotoxic activity against any targets were observed after allotransfusion with platelets (possessing class I HLA antigens but no HLA class II molecules). Our results suggest that HLA class II molecules, presumably by inducing immune responses, are essential for activation/generation of non-specific killing of tumor targets after leukocyte transfusion. Thrombocytes, known to be less immunogenic than leukocytes, are not effective in in vivo enhancing of non-specific cytotoxicity. Cellular activation of PBL following leukocyte allotransfusion was confirmed by detection of elevated serum neopterin and beta-2-microglobulin levels on day 3. This was not the case after platelet allotransfusion. In addition, the expression of ICAM-1 antigen (as a molecule involved directly in MHC-unrestricted cytotoxicity) was also found to be increased in two donors' PBL on day 3 after leukocyte transfusion in contrast to transfusion with platelets.

  2. Organization and characteristics of the major histocompatibility complex class II region in the Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Rui; Ruan, Jue; Wan, Xiao-Ling; Zheng, Yang; Chen, Min-Min; Zheng, Jin-Song; Wang, Ding

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in the genome of Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis) (YFP) or other cetaceans. In this study, a high-quality YFP bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was constructed. We then determined the organization and characterization of YFP MHC class II region by screening the BAC library, followed by sequencing and assembly of positive BAC clones. The YFP MHC class II region consists of two segregated contigs (218,725 bp and 328,435 bp respectively) that include only eight expressed MHC class II genes, three pseudo MHC genes and twelve non-MHC genes. The YFP has fewer MHC class II genes than ruminants, showing locus reduction in DRB, DQA, DQB, and loss of DY. In addition, phylogenic and evolutionary analyses indicated that the DRB, DQA and DQB genes might have undergone birth-and-death evolution, whereas the DQB gene might have evolved under positive selection in cetaceans. These findings provide an essential foundation for future work, such as estimating MHC genetic variation in the YFP or other cetaceans. This work is the first report on the MHC class II region in cetaceans and offers valuable information for understanding the evolution of MHC genome in cetaceans. PMID:26932528

  3. Regulation of expression and biochemical characterization of a beta-class carbonic anhydrase from the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium, Azospirillum brasilense Sp7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Simarjot; Mishra, Mukti Nath; Tripathi, Anil K

    2009-10-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA; [EC 4.2.1.1]) is a ubiquitous enzyme catalysing the reversible hydration of CO(2) to bicarbonate, a reaction that supports various biochemical and physiological functions. Genome analysis of Azospirillum brasilense, a nonphotosynthetic, nitrogen-fixing, rhizobacterium, revealed an ORF with homology to beta-class carbonic anhydrases (CAs). Biochemical characteristics of the beta-class CA of A. brasilense, analysed after cloning the gene (designated as bca), overexpressing in Escherichia coli and purifying the protein by affinity purification, revealed that the native recombinant enzyme is a homotetramer, inhibited by the known CA inhibitors. CA activity in A. brasilense cell extracts, reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR and Western blot analyses showed that bca was constitutively expressed under aerobic conditions. Lower beta-galactosidase activity in A. brasilense cells harbouring bca promoter: lacZ fusion during the stationary phase or during growth on 3% CO(2) enriched air or at acidic pH indicated that the transcription of bca was downregulated by the stationary phase, elevated CO(2) levels and acidic pH conditions. These observations were also supported by RT-PCR analysis. Thus, beta-CA in A. brasilense seems to be required for scavenging CO(2) from the ambient air and the requirement of CO(2) hydration seems to be higher for the cultures growing exponentially at neutral to alkaline pH.

  4. Measurement of the CP-Violating Phase beta_s in B0s -> J/Psi Phi Decays with the CDF II Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaltonen, T. [Helsinki Institute of Physics (Finland); et al.

    2012-04-01

    We present a measurement of the \\CP-violating parameter \\betas using approximately 6500 $\\BsJpsiPhi$ decays reconstructed with the CDF\\,II detector in a sample of $p\\bar p$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=1.96$ TeV corresponding to 5.2 fb$^{-1}$ integrated luminosity produced by the Tevatron Collider at Fermilab. We find the \\CP-violating phase to be within the range $\\betas \\in [0.02, 0.52] \\cup [1.08, 1.55]$ at 68% confidence level where the coverage property of the quoted interval is guaranteed using a frequentist statistical analysis. This result is in agreement with the standard model expectation at the level of about one Gaussian standard deviation. We consider the inclusion of a potential $S$-wave contribution to the $\\Bs\\to J/\\psi K^+K^-$ final state which is found to be negligible over the mass interval $1.009 < m(K^+K^-)<1.028 \\gevcc$. Assuming the standard model prediction for the \\CP-violating phase \\betas, we find the \\Bs decay width difference to be $\\deltaG = 0.075 \\pm 0.035\\,\\textrm{(stat)} \\pm 0.006\\,\\textrm{(syst)} \\ps$. We also present the most precise measurements of the \\Bs mean lifetime $\\tau(\\Bs) = 1.529 \\pm 0.025\\,\\textrm{(stat)} \\pm 0.012\\,\\textrm{(syst)}$ ps, the polarization fractions $|A_0(0)|^2 = 0.524 \\pm 0.013\\,\\textrm{(stat)} \\pm 0.015\\,\\textrm{(syst)}$ and $|A_{\\parallel}(0)|^2 = 0.231 \\pm 0.014\\,\\textrm{(stat)} \\pm 0.015\\,\\textrm{(syst)}$, as well as the strong phase $\\delta_{\\perp}= 2.95 \\pm 0.64\\,\\textrm{(stat)} \\pm 0.07\\,\\textrm{(syst)} \\textrm{rad}$. In addition, we report an alternative Bayesian analysis that gives results consistent with the frequentist approach.

  5. Cephalometric-radiographic study, in lateral norm, considering the established standards of white Brazilian teenagers who presented normal occlusions and mal-occlusions of Class I and Class II, 1st Division and the ones from Ricketts' analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, our purpose was make a cephalometric-radiographic study, comparing white Brazilian teenagers who presented normal occlusion and the ones who presented malocclusions of Class I and Class II, according to RICKETT'S analysis (1960). (author)

  6. Discovery of periodic class II methanol masers associated with G339.986-0.425 region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maswanganye, J. P.; van der Walt, D. J.; Goedhart, S.; Gaylard, M. J.

    2016-03-01

    10 new class II methanol masers from the 6.7-GHz Methanol Multibeam survey catalogues III and IV were selected for a monitoring programme at both 6.7 and 12.2 GHz with the 26-m Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory radio telescope for 2 yr and 9 months, from 2012 August to 2015 May. In the sample, only masers associated with G339.986-0.425 were found to show periodic variability at both 6.7 and 12.2 GHz. The existence of periodic variation was tested with four independent methods. The analytical method gave the best estimation of the period, which was 246 ± 1 d. The time series of G339.986-0.425 show strong correlations across velocity channels and between the 6.7- and 12.2-GHz masers. The time delay was also measured across channels and shows structure across the spectrum which is continuous between different maser components.

  7. Efficient vaccine against pandemic influenza: combining DNA vaccination and targeted delivery to MHC class II molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grødeland, Gunnveig; Bogen, Bjarne

    2015-06-01

    There are two major limitations to vaccine preparedness in the event of devastating influenza pandemics: the time needed to generate a vaccine and rapid generation of sufficient amounts. DNA vaccination could represent a solution to these problems, but efficacy needs to be enhanced. In a separate line of research, it has been established that targeting of vaccine molecules to antigen-presenting cells enhances immune responses. We have combined the two principles by constructing DNA vaccines that encode bivalent fusion proteins; these target hemagglutinin to MHC class II molecules on antigen-presenting cells. Such DNA vaccines rapidly induce hemagglutinin-specific antibodies and T cell responses in immunized mice. Responses are long-lasting and protect mice against challenge with influenza virus. In a pandemic situation, targeted DNA vaccines could be produced and tested within a month. The novel DNA vaccines could represent a solution to pandemic preparedness in the advent of novel influenza pandemics.

  8. Orthodontic camouflage via total arch movement in a Class II with idiopathic condylar resorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Sung Jang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic condylar resorption (ICR, also known as idiopathic condylysis or condylar atrophy, is multifactorial pathology leading to severe mandibular retrognathism. The etiology has been shown to be multifactorial, such as avascular necrosis, traumatic injuries, hormone and autoimmune disease and it is largely difficult to distinguish the exact cause in each individual. In spite of the remarkable morphological alteration, surgical intervention is not readily recruited due to the possibility of recurrence of resorption. In order to restore balanced facial profile and occlusion. In this report, we present a camouflage treatment for skeletal Class II with ICR and facial asymmetry involving total arch movement, for the improvement facial profile and reconstruction of occlusion.

  9. Treatment effects of myofunctional appliances in different jaw rotations in Class II division 1 malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyumi V Shethiya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This retrospective study was conducted to determine skeletal, dentoalveolar changes in children treated with Twin Block or activator for the treatment of Class II Division 1 malocclusion with different jaw rotations. Materials and Methods: Standardized lateral cephalograms of 32 patients (18 boys, 14 girls between the ages of 11 and 14 years were chosen and divided into two groups, high angle (FMA >27 and low angle (FMA <20. Cephalograms were taken at T1 (pre-treatment and T2 (after one year of myofunctional therapy.These were manually traced and analysed. Results: The results showed statistically significant increase in SNB angle, VRP-Pog due to forward movement of the mandible. The overjet reduced significantly due to retroclination of upper incisors and proclination of lower incisors in both groups. Conclusion: It was concluded that both high angle and low angle groups responded equally well to myofunctional therapy showing significant skeletal and dentoalveolar changes.

  10. Expressed MHC class II genes in sea otters (Enhydra lutris) from geographically disparate populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, L.; Aldridge, B.M.; Miles, A.K.; Stott, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is central to maintaining the immunologic vigor of individuals and populations. Classical MHC class II genes were targeted for partial sequencing in sea otters (Enhydra lutris) from populations in California, Washington, and Alaska. Sequences derived from sea otter peripheral blood leukocyte mRNAs were similar to those classified as DQA, DQB, DRA, and DRB in other species. Comparisons of the derived amino acid compositions supported the classification of these as functional molecules from at least one DQA, DQB, and DRA locus and at least two DRB loci. While limited in scope, phylogenetic analysis of the DRB peptide-binding region suggested the possible existence of distinct clades demarcated by geographic region. These preliminary findings support the need for additional MHC gene sequencing and expansion to a comprehensive study targeting additional otters. ?? 2006 Blackwell Munksgaard.

  11. HLA-class II genes in Mexican Amerindian Mayas: relatedness with Guatemalan Mayans and other populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Granados, Julio; Pérez-Hernández, Nonanzit; Rodríguez-Pérez, José Manuel; Canto-Cetina, Thelma; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón Mauricio; Areces, Cristina; Gómez-Prieto, Pablo; Arnaiz-Villena, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed the HLA class II allele frequencies in 50 healthy unrelated Mayan individuals. The relationship with other worldwide populations was studied by using HLA data from 71 different populations. The most frequent alleles were HLA-DRB1*04, HLA-DRB1*01, HLA-DQB1*0302 and HLA-DQB1*0501. When comparisons with other Mexican Amerindian groups were made, some differences were observed. Mayans showed an increased frequency of HLA-DRB1*01 when compared to Nahuas, Mayos, Teenek and Mazatecans (p Mayas showing that languages do not correlate with genes, particularly in Amerindians. The data corroborate the restricted polymorphism of HLA-DRB1 and DQB1 alleles and the high frequency of HLA-DRB1*04 and HLA-DQB1*0302 in Mayans from Mexico.

  12. Agenesis of maxillary lateral incisor in an Angle Class II, Division 1 malocclusion patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Thiesen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present case report describes the orthodontic treatment of a patient with agenesis of maxillary left lateral incisor and Angle Class II, Division 1 malocclusion. The patient also presented with maxillary midline deviation and inclination of the occlusal plane in the anterior region. Treatment objectives were: correction of sagittal relationship between the maxilla and the mandible; correction of midline deviation, so as to cause maxillary and mandibular midlines to coincide; correction of overbite and leveling of the occlusal plane, so as to create ideal conditions for esthetic rehabilitation of anterior teeth. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO as a requirement for the title of certified by the BBO.

  13. JC Polyomavirus Infection Is Strongly Controlled by Human Leucocyte Antigen Class II Variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundqvist, Emilie; Buck, Dorothea; Warnke, Clemens;

    2014-01-01

    mark infection occur only in 50-60% of infected individuals, and high JCV-antibody titers seem to increase the risk of developing PML. We here investigated the role of human leukocyte antigen (HLA), instrumental in immune defense in JCV antibody response. Anti-JCV antibody status, as a surrogate......, the DQB1*06:03 haplotype was positively associated with JCV sero-status, in Scandinavian MS cases (OR = 1.63, p = 0.006), and controls (OR = 2.69, p = 1×10(-5)). The German dataset confirmed these findings (OR = 0.54, p = 1×10(-4) and OR = 1.58, p = 0.03 respectively for these haplotypes). HLA class II...

  14. THERMODYNAMICS OF PEPTIDE-MHC CLASS II INTERACTIONS: NOT ALL COMPLEXES ARE CREATED EQUAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eFerrante

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The adaptive immune response begins when CD4+ T cells recognize antigenic peptides bound to class II molecules of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHCII. The interaction between peptides and MHCII has been historically interpreted as a rigid docking event. However, this model has been challenged by the evidence that conformational flexibility plays an important role in peptide-MHCII complex formation. Thermodynamic analysis of the binding reaction suggests a model of complexation in which the physical-chemical nature of the peptide determines the variability in flexibility of the substates in the peptide-MHC conformational ensemble. This review discusses our understanding of the correlation between thermodynamics of peptide binding and structural features of the resulting complex as well as their impact on HLA-DM activity and on our ability to predict MHCII-restricted epitopes.

  15. Alkali/Surfactant/Polymer Flooding in the Daqing Oilfield Class II Reservoirs Using Associating Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru-Sen Feng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrophobically modified associating polyacrylamide (HAPAM has good compatibility with the Daqing heavy alkylbenzene sulfonate surfactant. The HAPAM alkali/surfactant/polymer (ASP system can generate ultralow interfacial tension in a wide range of alkali/surfactant concentrations and maintain stable viscosity and interfacial tension for 120 days. The HAPAM ASP system has good injectivity for the Daqing class II reservoirs (100–300 × 10−3 μm2 and can improve oil recovery by more than 25% on top of water flooding. In the presence of both the alkali and the surfactant, the surfactant interacts with the associating groups of the polymer to form more micelles, which can significantly enhance the viscosity of the ASP system. Compared with using HPAM (Mw = 2.5 MDa, using HAPAM can reduce the polymer use by more than 40%.

  16. As implicações da classe II de angle e da desproporção esquelética tipo classe II no aspecto miofuncional The implications of class II angle and class II type skeletal disproportion on the myofunctional aspect

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Lisbôa Mezzomo; Patrícia Girarde Machado; Andrielle de Bitencourt Pacheco; Bruna Franciele da Trindade Gonçalves; Carla Franco Hoffmann

    2011-01-01

    TEMA: esse trabalho foi baseado na temática de que existe uma associação entre as más oclusões devido a alterações do crescimento craniofacial, e, por conseguinte, a existência de alterações miofuncionais. OBJETIVOS: estudar a associação entre as más oclusões tipo classe II desencadeadas por alterações do crescimento craniofacial e as disfunções do sistema estomatognático (alterações miofuncionais: fala, mastigação, deglutição e fonação). CONCLUSÃO: pode-se concluir que alterações estruturais...

  17. Toward a network model of MHC class II-restricted antigen processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence C Eisenlohr

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The standard model of Major Histocompatibility Complex class II (MHCII-restricted antigen processing depicts a straightforward, linear pathway: Internalized antigens are converted into peptides that load in a chaperone dependent manner onto nascent MHCII in the late endosome, the complexes subsequently trafficking to the cell surface for recognition by CD4+ T cells (TCD4+. Several variations on this theme, both moderate and radical, have come to light but these alternatives have remained peripheral, the conventional pathway generally presumed to be the primary driver of TCD4+ responses. Here we continue to press for the conceptual repositioning of these alternatives toward the center while proposing that MHCII processing be thought of less in terms of discrete pathways and more in terms of a network whose major and minor conduits are variable depending upon many factors, including the epitope, the nature of the antigen, the source of the antigen, and the identity of the antigen-presenting cell.

  18. Influence of kinship and MHC class II genotype on visual traits in zebrafish larvae (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, Cornelia; Gebhardt, Katharina; Hartmann, Alexander K; Sigman, Lauren; Gerlach, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    Kin recognition can drive kin selection and the evolution of social behaviour. In zebrafish (Danio rerio, Hamilton 1822), kin recognition is based on olfactory and visual imprinting processes. If larvae are exposed to visual and chemical cues of kin at day 5 and 6 post fertilization they will recognize kin throughout life, while exposure to non-kin fails to trigger any recognition. Chemical imprinting signals are transcribed by polymorphic genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) code; however, the underlying mechanism for visual imprinting remains unclear. Here we provide evidence for the existence of family-specific differences in morphometry and pigmentation pattern of six day old zebrafish larvae. While rump, tail and body pigmentation were dependent on relatedness, iris pigmentation and morphometry were also influenced by MHC class II genotype. Our study revealed that the MHC not only influences the chemical signature of individuals, but also their visual appearance. PMID:23251449

  19. Genetic variation in V gene of class II Newcastle disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Huafang; Chen, Shengli; Liu, Peng; Ren, Shanhui; Gao, Xiaolong; Wang, Yanping; Wang, Xinglong; Zhang, Shuxia; Yang, Zengqi

    2016-01-01

    The genetic variation and molecular evolution of the V gene of the class II Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates with genotypes I-XVIII were determined using bioinformatics. Results indicated that low homology existed in different genotype viruses, whereas high homology often for the same genotypes, exception may be existed within genotypes I, V, VI, and XII. Sequence analysis showed that the genetic variation of V protein was consistent with virus genotype, and specific signatures on the V protein for nine genotypes were identified. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the phylogenetic trees were highly consistent between the V and F genes, with slight discrepancies in the sub-genotypes. Evolutionary rate analyses based on V and F genes revealed the evolution rates varied in genotypes. These data indicate that the genetic variation of V protein is genotype-related and will help in elucidating the molecular evolution of NDV.

  20. Marginal and internal adaptation of class II restorations after immediate or delayed composite placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietschi, Didier; Monasevic, Manuela; Krejci, Ivo; Davidson, Carel

    2002-01-01

    Direct class II composite restorations still represent a challenge, particularly when proximal limits extend below the CEJ. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of the type of adhesive and the delay between adhesive placement and composite insertion on restoration adaptation. Direct class II MOD box-shaped composite restorations (n=8 per group) were placed on intact human third molars, with proximal margins 1mm above or under CEJ. All cavities were filled with a horizontal layering technique, immediately after adhesive placement (IP) or after a 24h delay (DP). A filled three-component adhesive (OptiBond FL: OB) and a single-bottle, unfilled one (Prime & Bond 2.1: PB) were tested. Marginal adaptation was assessed before and after each phase of mechanical loading (250000 cycles at 50 N, 250000 cycles at 75 N and 500000 cycles at 100 N); internal adaptation was evaluated after test completion. Gold-plated resin replicas were observed in the SEM and restoration quality evaluated in percentages of continuity (C) at the margins and within the internal interface, after sample section. Adaptation to beveled enamel proved satisfactory in all groups. After loading, adaptation to gingival dentin degraded more in PB-IP (C=55.1%) than PB-DP (C=86.9%) or OB-DP (C=89%). More internal defects were observed in PB samples (IP: C=79.2% and DP: C=86.3%) compared to OB samples (IP: C=97.4% and DP: C=98.3%). The filled adhesive (OB) produced a better adaptation than the 'one-bottle' brand (PB), hypothetically by forming a stress-absorbing layer, limiting the development of adhesive failures. Postponing occlusal loading (such as the indirect approach) improved also restoration adaptation.

  1. A class II KNOX gene, KNOX4, controls seed physical dormancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Maofeng; Zhou, Chuanen; Molina, Isabel; Fu, Chunxiang; Nakashima, Jin; Li, Guifen; Zhang, Wenzheng; Park, Jongjin; Tang, Yuhong; Jiang, Qingzhen; Wang, Zeng-Yu

    2016-06-21

    Physical dormancy of seed is an adaptive trait that widely exists in higher plants. This kind of dormancy is caused by a water-impermeable layer that blocks water and oxygen from the surrounding environment and keeps embryos in a viable status for a long time. Most of the work on hardseededness has focused on morphological structure and phenolic content of seed coat. The molecular mechanism underlying physical dormancy remains largely elusive. By screening a large number of Tnt1 retrotransposon-tagged Medicago truncatula lines, we identified nondormant seed mutants from this model legume species. Unlike wild-type hard seeds exhibiting physical dormancy, the mature mutant seeds imbibed water quickly and germinated easily, without the need for scarification. Microscopic observations of cross sections showed that the mutant phenotype was caused by a dysfunctional palisade cuticle layer in the seed coat. Chemical analysis found differences in lipid monomer composition between the wild-type and mutant seed coats. Genetic and molecular analyses revealed that a class II KNOTTED-like homeobox (KNOXII) gene, KNOX4, was responsible for the loss of physical dormancy in the seeds of the mutants. Microarray and chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses identified CYP86A, a gene associated with cutin biosynthesis, as one of the downstream target genes of KNOX4 This study elucidated a novel molecular mechanism of physical dormancy and revealed a new role of class II KNOX genes. Furthermore, KNOX4-like genes exist widely in seed plants but are lacking in nonseed species, indicating that KNOX4 may have diverged from the other KNOXII genes during the evolution of seed plants. PMID:27274062

  2. Influence of different restorative techniques on marginal seal of class II composite restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinval Adalberto Rodrigues Junior

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the gingival marginal seal in class II composite restorations using different restorative techniques. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Class II box cavities were prepared in both proximal faces of 32 sound human third molars with gingival margins located in either enamel or dentin/cementum. Restorations were performed as follows: G1 (control: composite, conventional light curing technique; G2: composite, soft-start technique; G3: amalgam/composite association (amalcomp; and G4: resin-modified glass ionomer cement/composite, open sandwich technique. The restored specimens were thermocycled. Epoxy resin replicas were made and coated for scanning electron microscopy examination. For microleakage evaluation, teeth were coated with nail polish and immersed in dye solution. Teeth were cut in 3 slices and dye penetration was recorded (mm, digitized and analyzed with Image Tool software. Microleakage data were analyzed statistically by non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. RESULTS: Leakage in enamel was lower than in dentin (p<0.001. G2 exhibited the lowest leakage values (p<0.05 in enamel margins, with no differences between the other groups. In dentin margins, groups G1 and G2 had similar behavior and both showed less leakage (p<0.05 than groups G3 and G4. SEM micrographs revealed different marginal adaptation patterns for the different techniques and for the different substrates. CONCLUSION: The soft-start technique showed no leakage in enamel margins and produced similar values to those of the conventional (control technique for dentin margins.

  3. Microleakage of Class II Combined Amalgam-Composite Restorations Using Different Composites and Bonding Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sharafeddin

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the present study was to assess the microleakage of composite restorations with and without a cervical amalgam base and to compare the results of dif-ferent composites and bonding agents.Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty mesio-occlusal (MO and disto-occlusal (DO Class II cavities were prepared on sixty extracted permanent premolar teeth. The teeth were randomly divided into four groups of 30 and restored as follows:In group A, the mesio-occlusal cavity (MO, Scotchbond multi purpose plus + Z250 and in the disto-occlusal (DO cavity, Prompt-L-Pop + Z250 were applied. As for group B, in the MO and DO cavities, Clearfil SE Bond + Clearfil APX, and varnish + amalgam (In box + Clearfil SE Bond + Clearfil APX were used respectivelywhile in group C; the teeth were restored with amalgam and varnish mesio-occlusally and with amalgam only disto-occlusally. As for group D, varnish + amalgam (in box + Scotchbond multi purpose plus + Z250 were applied mesio-occlusally and Varnish + Amalgam (in box + Prompt–L–Pop + Z250 disto-occlusally.Marginal leakage was assessed by the degree of dye penetration into various sections of the restored teeth. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used for data analysis.Results: Microleakage in gingival margin was more than that in occlusal margin (P<0.05 and microleakage of combined amalgam-composite restorations was significantly lower than that of conventional composite and amalgam restorations.Conclusion: Marginal microleakage decreased by using amalgam at the base of the box in Class II composite restorations.

  4. As implicações da classe II de angle e da desproporção esquelética tipo classe II no aspecto miofuncional The implications of class II angle and class II type skeletal disproportion on the myofunctional aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Lisbôa Mezzomo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available TEMA: esse trabalho foi baseado na temática de que existe uma associação entre as más oclusões devido a alterações do crescimento craniofacial, e, por conseguinte, a existência de alterações miofuncionais. OBJETIVOS: estudar a associação entre as más oclusões tipo classe II desencadeadas por alterações do crescimento craniofacial e as disfunções do sistema estomatognático (alterações miofuncionais: fala, mastigação, deglutição e fonação. CONCLUSÃO: pode-se concluir que alterações estruturais da face podem ter influência na funcionalidade das mesmas, portanto, enfatiza-se a importância do trabalho multidisciplinar entre os profissionais envolvidos em cada uma dessas aéreas para que o prognóstico desses casos seja pertinente de relevantes melhoras.BACKGROUND: this work has been based on the theme that there is an association between malocclusion due to change in craniofacial growth, and therefore, the existence of malfunctioning abnormalities. PURPOSE: to study the strong association among the malocclusion class II triggered by changes in craniofacial growth and dysfunctions of the stomatognathic system (myofunctional disorders - speech, chewing, swallowing and phonation. CONCLUSION: it may be concluded that structural changes of the face may affect its, and therefore, the importance of multidisciplinary work among professionals involved in each of those areas, is emphasized, so that the prognosis of these cases may have relevant and important improvements.

  5. Prediction of HLA class II alleles using SNPs in an African population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fasil Tekola Ayele

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA gene locus in research and clinical practice, direct HLA typing is laborious and expensive. Furthermore, the analysis requires specialized software and expertise which are unavailable in most developing country settings. Recently, in silico methods have been developed for predicting HLA alleles using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. However, the utility of these methods in African populations has not been systematically evaluated.In the present study, we investigate prediction of HLA class II (HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 alleles using SNPs in the Wolaita population, southern Ethiopia. The subjects comprised 297 Ethiopians with genome-wide SNP data, of whom 188 had also been HLA typed and were used for training and testing the model. The 109 subjects with SNP data alone were used for empirical prediction using the multi-allelic gene prediction method. We evaluated accuracy of the prediction, agreement between predicted and HLA typed alleles, and discriminative ability of the prediction probability supplied by the model. We found that the model predicted intermediate (two-digit resolution for HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 alleles at accuracy levels of 96% and 87%, respectively. All measures of performance showed high accuracy and reliability for prediction. The distribution of the majority of HLA alleles in the study was similar to that previously reported for the Oromo and Amhara ethnic groups from Ethiopia.We demonstrate that HLA class II alleles can be predicted from SNP genotype data with a high level of accuracy at intermediate (two-digit resolution in an African population. This finding offers new opportunities for HLA studies of disease epidemiology and population genetics in developing countries.

  6. New susceptibility variants to narcolepsy identified in HLA class II region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagawa, Taku; Toyoda, Hiromi; Hirataka, Akane; Kanbayashi, Takashi; Imanishi, Aya; Sagawa, Yohei; Kotorii, Nozomu; Kotorii, Tatayu; Hashizume, Yuji; Ogi, Kimihiro; Hiejima, Hiroshi; Kamei, Yuichi; Hida, Akiko; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Imai, Makoto; Fujimura, Yota; Tamura, Yoshiyuki; Ikegami, Azusa; Wada, Yamato; Moriya, Shunpei; Furuya, Hirokazu; Kato, Mitsuhiro; Omata, Naoto; Kojima, Hiroto; Kashiwase, Koichi; Saji, Hiroh; Khor, Seik-Soon; Yamasaki, Maria; Wada, Yuji; Ishigooka, Jun; Kuroda, Kenji; Kume, Kazuhiko; Chiba, Shigeru; Yamada, Naoto; Okawa, Masako; Hirata, Koichi; Uchimura, Naohisa; Shimizu, Tetsuo; Inoue, Yuichi; Honda, Yutaka; Mishima, Kazuo; Honda, Makoto; Tokunaga, Katsushi

    2015-02-01

    Narcolepsy, a sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy and rapid eye movement sleep abnormalities, is tightly associated with human leukocyte antigen HLA-DQB1*06:02. DQB1*06:02 is common in the general population (10-30%); therefore, additional genetic factors are needed for the development of narcolepsy. In the present study, HLA-DQB1 in 664 Japanese narcoleptic subjects and 3131 Japanese control subjects was examined to determine whether HLA-DQB1 alleles located in trans of DQB1*06:02 are associated with narcolepsy. The strongest association was with DQB1*06:01 (P = 1.4 × 10(-10), odds ratio, OR = 0.39), as reported in previous studies. Additional predisposing effects of DQB1*03:02 were also found (P = 2.5 × 10(-9), OR = 1.97). A comparison between DQB1*06:02 heterozygous cases and controls revealed dominant protective effects of DQB1*06:01 and DQB1*05:01. In addition, a single-nucleotide polymorphism-based conditional analysis controlling for the effect of HLA-DQB1 was performed to determine whether there were other independent HLA associations outside of HLA-DQB1. This analysis revealed associations at HLA-DPB1 in the HLA class II region (rs3117242, P = 4.1 × 10(-5), OR = 2.45; DPB1*05:01, P = 8.1 × 10(-3), OR = 1.39). These results indicate that complex HLA class II associations contribute to the genetic predisposition to narcolepsy.

  7. Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) Program - RDX Type II Class 5 Standard, Data Set 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstrom, Mary M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brown, Geoffrey W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Preston, Daniel N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pollard, Colin J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Warner, Kirstin F. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Sorenson, Daniel N. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Remmers, Daniel L. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Moran, Jesse S. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Shelley, Timothy J. [Air Force Research Lab. (AFRL), Tyndall AFB, FL (United States); Reyes, Jose A. [Applied Research Associates, Inc., Tyndall AFB, FL (United States); Hsu, Peter C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Whipple, Richard E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reynolds, John G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-04-11

    This document describes the results of the first reference sample material—RDX Type II Class 5—examined in the proficiency study for small-scale safety and thermal (SSST) testing of explosive materials for the Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) Program. The IDCA program is conducting proficiency testing on homemade explosives (HMEs). The reference sample materials are being studied to establish the accuracy of traditional explosives safety testing for each performing laboratory. These results will be used for comparison to results from testing HMEs. This effort, funded by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), ultimately will put the issues of safe handling of these materials in perspective with standard military explosives. The results of the study will add SSST testing results for a broad suite of different HMEs to the literature, potentially suggest new guidelines and methods for HME testing, and possibly establish what are the needed accuracies in SSST testing to develop safe handling practices. Described here are the results for impact, friction, electrostatic discharge, and scanning calorimetry analysis of a reference sample of RDX Type II Class 5. The results from each participating testing laboratory are compared using identical test material and preparation methods wherever possible. Note, however, the test procedures differ among the laboratories. These results are then compared to historical data from various sources. The performers involved are Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Air Force Research Laboratory/ RXQL (AFRL), Indian Head Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center, (IHD-NSWC), and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). These tests are conducted as a proficiency study in order to establish some consistency in test protocols, procedures, and experiments and to understand how to compare results when test protocols are not identical.

  8. Cellular expression or binding of desLys58-beta2 microglobulin is not dependent on the presence of the tri-molecular MHC class I complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M; Corlin, D B; Heegaard, N H H; Claesson, M H; Nissen, M H

    2008-02-01

    The monoclonal antibody 332-01 is a newly developed antibody which specifically recognizes human desLys58-beta2 microglobulin (dbeta2m). In the present study, we characterized the binding of 332-01 to peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), a number of human leukaemic and monocytic cell lines, and beta2m gene-deleted murine lymphocytes. dbeta2m was found to be expressed on non-activated and activated monocytes. When cells were pre-exposed to dbeta2m, 332-01 also bound to non-activated T lymphocytes. dbeta2m was expressed on the monocytic cell lines U937 and TIB-202, and binding was significantly increased when cells were pre-incubated with dbeta2m and when TIB-202 cells were exposed to lipopolysaccharide. dbeta2m was also expressed on T leukaemic Jurkat cells as well as on low HLA-expressing erythroleukaemic K562 cells. beta2m gene-deleted murine splenocytes only bound 332-01 after pre-exposure to dbeta2m. Binding of 332-01 antibody could not be displaced by addition of high concentrations of native beta2m. In conclusion, our data indicate that dbeta2m - in contrast to native beta2m - binds to a hitherto unknown cell surface receptor independent of classical MHC class I molecules. As beta2m has previously been shown to display biological activities such as the induction of both growth promotion and apoptosis, C1 complement activity, shown to mediate cleavage of beta2m, could be involved in these processes.

  9. Superantigen and HLA-DR ligation induce phospholipase-C gamma 1 activation in class II+ T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanner, S B; Odum, Niels; Grosmaire, L;

    1992-01-01

    activated by HLA-DR ligation through antibody cross-linking or by direct enterotoxin superantigen binding. Both types of stimuli induced tyrosine phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C gamma 1 (PLC gamma 1) and an increase in intracellular calcium concentration; however......, superantigen-induced signaling was stronger than class II ligation alone. Antibody-mediated ligation of HLA-DR with CD3 resulted in augmented PLC gamma 1 activation and increased calcium mobilization, consistent with a mechanism of superantigen activity through a combination of class II and CD3/Ti signals...... to the PLC gamma 1 signal transduction pathway, and that coligation of HLA-DR with CD3 augments T cell signaling comparable to that induced by enterotoxin superantigen. Thus, we suggest that superantigen-induced early signaling responses in activated T cells may be due in part to class II transmembrane...

  10. A Randomized 10-year Prospective Follow-up of Class II Nanohybrid and Conventional Hybrid Resin Composite Restorations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan Wv; Pallesen, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the 10-year durability of a nanohybrid resin composite in Class II restorations in a randomized controlled intraindividual comparison with its conventional hybrid resin composite predecessor. Materials and Methods: Each of 52 participants received at least two Class II...... restorations that were as similar as possible. The cavities were chosen at random to be restored with a nanohybrid resin composite (Excite/Tetric EvoCeram (TEC); n = 61) and a conventional hybrid (Excite/Tetric Ceram (TC); n = 61). The restorations were evaluated with slightly modified USPHS criteria...... investigated resin composites. Conclusion: The nanohybrid and the conventional hybrid resin composite showed good clinical effectiveness in extensive Class II restorations during the 10-year study....

  11. Deciding factors in the treatment of Class II division 1 cases with and without single-jaw extractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afaf, Houb-Dine; Bahije, Loubna; Zaoui, Fatima; Abouqal, Redouane; Rerhrhaye, Wiam

    2014-06-01

    Extraction of two upper premolars in Class II division 1 occlusions often constitutes a therapeutic compromise for the orthodontic practitioner. The aim of our study was to compare the initial occlusal and cephalometric severity of Class II division 1 malocclusions in two groups of patients treated with and without extraction of two upper premolars and thus determine the factor or factors determining this therapeutic option. Examination of the casts and cephalometric analysis of 31 patients presenting a Class II division 1 malocclusion were made. The non-extraction group comprised 16 patients and the group undergoing extraction of two upper premolars comprised 15 patients. Discriminant analysis was applied using binary decision trees in order to identify the variable which best distinguished the two groups. Maxillary incisor-canine crowding was selected to discriminate between the patients at pretreatment stage; 93.5% of the patients were correctly classified using this factor. PMID:24820698

  12. MHC class II diversity of koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) populations across their range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Q; Jaratlerdsiri, W; Griffith, J E; Gongora, J; Higgins, D P

    2014-10-01

    Major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) genes code for proteins that bind and present antigenic peptides and trigger the adaptive immune response. We present a broad geographical study of MHCII DA β1 (DAB) and DB β1 (DBB) variants of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus; n=191) from 12 populations across eastern Australia, with a total of 13 DAB and 7 DBB variants found. We identified greater MHCII variation and, possibly, additional gene copies in koala populations in the north (Queensland and New South Wales) relative to the south (Victoria), confirmed by STRUCTURE analyses and genetic differentiation using analysis of molecular variance. The higher MHCII diversity in the north relative to south could potentially be attributed to (i) significant founder effect in Victorian populations linked to historical translocation of bottlenecked koala populations and (ii) increased pathogen-driven balancing selection and/or local genetic drift in the north. Low MHCII genetic diversity in koalas from the south could reduce their potential response to disease, although the three DAB variants found in the south had substantial sequence divergence between variants. This study assessing MHCII diversity in the koala with historical translocations in some populations contributes to understanding the effects of population translocations on functional genetic diversity.

  13. Klammt open elastic activator and twin blocks in Class II malocclusion treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Maikel Curbeira Hernández

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Klammt open elastic activator and twin blocks have been two of the most worldwide studied functional appliances; however, there are different opinions about their effect on the cranium-facial complex. Objective: To determine the efficacy of these appliances in the functional treatment in Class II division I syndrome in early mixed teething. Methods: Prospective, cuasi experimental, “before-after” study without control group, including all children between 6 and 9 years of Area II in Cienfuegos municipality. After applying inclusion criteria, 20 patients were selected through simple randomized sampling and distributed in two groups, one for each technique. Lateral cranium teleradiographies were taken at the beginning and after a year of treatment, and lineal and/or angular measurements of Steiner, Ricketts, McNamara and Legan Burstone cephalograms were applied. Results: Favourable changes in cranium lateral radiographies measurements were obtained mainly from therapy with twin blocks. There was a decrease in the angle formed by the joint planes nasion-point A and nasion-point B and facial convexity, increase in mandible length and inferior facial height. Nasolabial angle and labial protuberance didn´t increase significantly. Conclusions: treated patients positively modified their bio-typology, and growth trend showed positive variations during functional therapy.

  14. Long maximal incremental tests accurately assess aerobic fitness in class II and III obese men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Lanzi

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare two different maximal incremental tests with different time durations [a maximal incremental ramp test with a short time duration (8-12 min (STest and a maximal incremental test with a longer time duration (20-25 min (LTest] to investigate whether an LTest accurately assesses aerobic fitness in class II and III obese men. Twenty obese men (BMI≥35 kg.m-2 without secondary pathologies (mean±SE; 36.7±1.9 yr; 41.8±0.7 kg*m-2 completed an STest (warm-up: 40 W; increment: 20 W*min-1 and an LTest [warm-up: 20% of the peak power output (PPO reached during the STest; increment: 10% PPO every 5 min until 70% PPO was reached or until the respiratory exchange ratio reached 1.0, followed by 15 W.min-1 until exhaustion] on a cycle-ergometer to assess the peak oxygen uptake [Formula: see text] and peak heart rate (HRpeak of each test. There were no significant differences in [Formula: see text] (STest: 3.1±0.1 L*min-1; LTest: 3.0±0.1 L*min-1 and HRpeak (STest: 174±4 bpm; LTest: 173±4 bpm between the two tests. Bland-Altman plot analyses showed good agreement and Pearson product-moment and intra-class correlation coefficients showed a strong correlation between [Formula: see text] (r=0.81 for both; p≤0.001 and HRpeak (r=0.95 for both; p≤0.001 during both tests. [Formula: see text] and HRpeak assessments were not compromised by test duration in class II and III obese men. Therefore, we suggest that the LTest is a feasible test that accurately assesses aerobic fitness and may allow for the exercise intensity prescription and individualization that will lead to improved therapeutic approaches in treating obesity and severe obesity.

  15. IFN-γ-induced increase in the mobility of MHC class II compartments in astrocytes depends on intermediate filaments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vardjan Nina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In immune-mediated diseases of the central nervous system, astrocytes exposed to interferon-γ (IFN-γ can express major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II molecules and antigens on their surface. MHC class II molecules are thought to be delivered to the cell surface by membrane-bound vesicles. However, the characteristics and dynamics of this vesicular traffic are unclear, particularly in reactive astrocytes, which overexpress intermediate filament (IF proteins that may affect trafficking. The aim of this study was to determine the mobility of MHC class II vesicles in wild-type (WT astrocytes and in astrocytes devoid of IFs. Methods The identity of MHC class II compartments in WT and IF-deficient astrocytes 48 h after IFN-γ activation was determined immunocytochemically by using confocal microscopy. Time-lapse confocal imaging and Alexa Fluor546-dextran labeling of late endosomes/lysosomes in IFN-γ treated cells was used to characterize the motion of MHC class II vesicles. The mobility of vesicles was analyzed using ParticleTR software. Results Confocal imaging of primary cultures of WT and IF-deficient astrocytes revealed IFN-γ induced MHC class II expression in late endosomes/lysosomes, which were specifically labeled with Alexa Fluor546-conjugated dextran. Live imaging revealed faster movement of dextran-positive vesicles in IFN-γ-treated than in untreated astrocytes. Vesicle mobility was lower in IFN-γ-treated IF-deficient astrocytes than in WT astrocytes. Thus, the IFN-γ-induced increase in the mobility of MHC class II compartments is IF-dependent. Conclusions Since reactivity of astrocytes is a hallmark of many CNS pathologies, it is likely that the up-regulation of IFs under such conditions allows a faster and therefore a more efficient delivery of MHC class II molecules to the cell surface. In vivo, such regulatory mechanisms may enable antigen-presenting reactive astrocytes to respond rapidly and in a

  16. Distalization of maxillary arch and correction of Class II with mini-implants: A report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawankumar Dnyandeo Tekale

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the successful use of mini-screws in the maxilla to treat two patients of age 21-year and 17-year-old girls. Both the patients had a skeletal Class II malocclusion with protrusive maxillary teeth and angels Class II mal-occlusion. Temporary anchorage devices (TADs in the posterior dental region between maxillary second premolar and maxillary first molar teeth on both sides were used as anchorage for the retraction and intrusion of her maxillary anterior teeth. Those appliances, combined with a compensatory curved maxillary archwire, eliminated spacing, deep bite, forwardly placed and proclined upper front teeth and the protrusive profile, corrected the molar relationship from Class II to Class I. With no extra TADs in the anterior region for intrusion, the treatment was workable and simple. The patient received a satisfactory occlusion and an attractive smile. This technique requires minimal compliance and is particularly useful for correcting Class II patients with protrusive maxillary front teeth and dental deep bite.

  17. Maternal topoisomerase II alpha, not topoisomerase II beta, enables embryonic development of zebrafish top2a-/- mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapetto-Rebow Beata

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic alterations in human topoisomerase II alpha (TOP2A are linked to cancer susceptibility. TOP2A decatenates chromosomes and thus is necessary for multiple aspects of cell division including DNA replication, chromosome condensation and segregation. Topoisomerase II alpha is also required for embryonic development in mammals, as mouse Top2a knockouts result in embryonic lethality as early as the 4-8 cell stage. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the extended developmental capability of zebrafish top2a mutants arises from maternal expression of top2a or compensation from its top2b paralogue. Results Here, we describe bloody minded (blm, a novel mutant of zebrafish top2a. In contrast to mouse Top2a nulls, zebrafish top2a mutants survive to larval stages (4-5 day post fertilization. Developmental analyses demonstrate abundant expression of maternal top2a but not top2b. Inhibition or poisoning of maternal topoisomerase II delays embryonic development by extending the cell cycle M-phase. Zygotic top2a and top2b are co-expressed in the zebrafish CNS, but endogenous or ectopic top2b RNA appear unable to prevent the blm phenotype. Conclusions We conclude that maternal top2a enables zebrafish development before the mid-zygotic transition (MZT and that zebrafish top2a and top2b are not functionally redundant during development after activation of the zygotic genome.

  18. Maternal topoisomerase II alpha, not topoisomerase II beta, enables embryonic development of zebrafish top2a-/- mutants

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sapetto-Rebow, Beata

    2011-11-23

    Abstract Background Genetic alterations in human topoisomerase II alpha (TOP2A) are linked to cancer susceptibility. TOP2A decatenates chromosomes and thus is necessary for multiple aspects of cell division including DNA replication, chromosome condensation and segregation. Topoisomerase II alpha is also required for embryonic development in mammals, as mouse Top2a knockouts result in embryonic lethality as early as the 4-8 cell stage. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the extended developmental capability of zebrafish top2a mutants arises from maternal expression of top2a or compensation from its top2b paralogue. Results Here, we describe bloody minded (blm), a novel mutant of zebrafish top2a. In contrast to mouse Top2a nulls, zebrafish top2a mutants survive to larval stages (4-5 day post fertilization). Developmental analyses demonstrate abundant expression of maternal top2a but not top2b. Inhibition or poisoning of maternal topoisomerase II delays embryonic development by extending the cell cycle M-phase. Zygotic top2a and top2b are co-expressed in the zebrafish CNS, but endogenous or ectopic top2b RNA appear unable to prevent the blm phenotype. Conclusions We conclude that maternal top2a enables zebrafish development before the mid-zygotic transition (MZT) and that zebrafish top2a and top2b are not functionally redundant during development after activation of the zygotic genome.

  19. Association of high CD4-positive T cell infiltration with mutations in HLA class II-regulatory genes in microsatellite-unstable colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surmann, Eva-Maria; Voigt, Anita Y; Michel, Sara; Bauer, Kathrin; Reuschenbach, Miriam; Ferrone, Soldano; von Knebel Doeberitz, Magnus; Kloor, Matthias

    2015-03-01

    Besides being expressed on professional antigen-presenting cells, HLA class II antigens are expressed on various tumors of non-lymphoid origin, including a subset of colorectal cancers (CRC). Information about the regulation of HLA class II antigen expression is important for a better understanding of their role in the interactions between tumor and immune cells. Whether lack of HLA class II antigen expression in tumors reflects the selective immune destruction of HLA class II antigen-expressing tumor cells is unknown. To address this question, we tested whether lack of HLA class II antigen expression in CRC was associated with immune cell infiltration. We selected microsatellite-unstable (MSI-H) CRC, because they show pronounced tumor antigen-specific immune responses and, in a subset of tumors, lack of HLA class II antigen expression due to mutations inactivating HLA class II-regulatory genes. We examined HLA class II antigen expression, mutations in regulatory genes, and CD4-positive T cell infiltration in 69 MSI-H CRC lesions. Mutations in RFX5, CIITA, and RFXAP were found in 13 (28.9%), 3 (6.7%), and 1 (2.2%) out of 45 HLA class II antigen-negative tumors. CD4-positive tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte counts were significantly higher in HLA class II antigen-negative tumors harboring mutations in HLA class II-regulatory genes (107.4 T cells per 0.25 mm(2)) compared to tumors without mutations (55.5 T cells per 0.25 mm(2), p = 0.008). Our results suggest that the outgrowth of tumor cells lacking HLA class II antigen expression due to mutations of regulatory genes is favored in an environment of dense CD4-positive T cell infiltration.

  20. Uso do aparelho de Thurow no tratamento da má oclusão esquelética de Classe II The use of Thurow's appliance in the treatment of skeletal class II malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Massuia de Souza

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar uma revisão de literatura em relação ao tratamento da má oclusão esquelética de Classe II com a utilização do splint maxilar removível associado à tração alta, realçando sua influência no crescimento ósseo e seus benefícios. Através do relato do caso clínico será mostrada a confecção e os efeitos do aparelho de Thurow quando utilizado no período da dentadura mista, para a correção da Classe II esqueléticaThe aim of this study was to review the literature concerning the treatment of Class II malocclusion with removable maxillary splint associated to the high traction, enhancing its influence in the bony growth and its benefits. This clinical case will show the fabrication and the effects of Thurow's appliance, when it's used in the mixed dentition for the correction skeletal class II malocclusion.

  1. HLA class I and class II conserved extended haplotypes and their fragments or blocks in Mexicans: implications for the study of genetic diversity in admixed populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Zúñiga

    Full Text Available Major histocompatibility complex (MHC genes are highly polymorphic and informative in disease association, transplantation, and population genetics studies with particular importance in the understanding of human population diversity and evolution. The aim of this study was to describe the HLA diversity in Mexican admixed individuals. We studied the polymorphism of MHC class I (HLA-A, -B, -C, and class II (HLA-DRB1, -DQB1 genes using high-resolution sequence based typing (SBT method and we structured the blocks and conserved extended haplotypes (CEHs in 234 non-related admixed Mexican individuals (468 haplotypes by a maximum likelihood method. We found that HLA blocks and CEHs are primarily from Amerindian and Caucasian origin, with smaller participation of African and recent Asian ancestry, demonstrating a great diversity of HLA blocks and CEHs in Mexicans from the central area of Mexico. We also analyzed the degree of admixture in this group using short tandem repeats (STRs and HLA-B that correlated with the frequency of most probable ancestral HLA-C/-B and -DRB1/-DQB1 blocks and CEHs. Our results contribute to the analysis of the diversity and ancestral contribution of HLA class I and HLA class II alleles and haplotypes of Mexican admixed individuals from Mexico City. This work will help as a reference to improve future studies in Mexicans regarding allotransplantation, immune responses and disease associations.

  2. An experimental study of lower-hybrid wave driven high-poloidal beta plasmas in the Versator II tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Squire, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    High poloidal beta plasma equilibria have been produced by both toroidally asymmetric and symmetric lower-hybrid rf injection in the Versator II tokamak. (Here [beta][sub p] is the ratio of the plasma pressure to the poloidal magnetic field pressure, and [epsilon] = a/R[sub 0] is the inverse aspect ratio). In both cases the plasma current was fully sustained by the rf, with the loop voltage negligibly small. The rf-created high energy electron distribution function, which provides a large fraction of plasma current and pressure in these plasmas, is studied by means of X-ray spectroscopy of the electron-ion perpendicular to the toroidal magnetic field and emission measurements at a full range of angles to the toroidal magnetic field have been carried out. For low plasma current equilibria, [beta][sub p] is enhanced, and an outward shift in major radius of the X-ray emission profile peak was observed, corresponding to a Shafranov shift of the magnetic axis. The LHCD equilibrium current profiles was determined from the X-ray emission profile. The LHCD X-ray data indicate a highly anisotropic energetic electron distribution function with a density approximately 1% of the bulk electron density at the center. The stored energy of this distribution is much larger than the bulk energy and the global energy confinement time scales in agreement with the Kaye-Goldston L-mode scaling. At high values of [beta][sub p] [approximately] 3, LHH generates nearly the same plasma current as LHCD. The LHH equilibria has a reduction of up to a factor of four in the high energy X-ray emission flux, as compared to LHCD. Modeling of the electron distribution function in the LHH case indicates that only one third of the current is carried by the high energy electrons. At lower values of [beta][sub p] [approximately] 1.5, LHH requires the assistance of a small applied loop voltage to maintain the plasma current and the high energy electrons carry a majority of the plasma current.

  3. Cervical vertebral column morphology related to craniofacial morphology and head posture in preorthodontic children with Class II malocclusion and horizontal maxillary overjet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arntsen, Torill; Sonnesen, Ane Liselotte

    2011-01-01

    In preorthodontic children with Class II malocclusion and horizontal maxillary overjet, cervical column morphology was examined and related to craniofacial morphology and head posture for the first time....

  4. Development of a simultaneous high resolution typing method for three SLA class II genes, SLA-DQA, SLA-DQB1, and SLA-DRB1 and the analysis of SLA class II haplotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, MinhThong; Choi, Hojun; Choi, Min-Kyeung; Cho, Hyesun; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Seo, Han Geuk; Cha, Se-Yeon; Seo, Kunho; Dadi, Hailu; Park, Chankyu

    2015-06-15

    The characterization of the genetic variations of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is essential to understand the relationship between the genetic diversity of MHC molecules and disease resistance and susceptibility in adaptive immunity. We previously reported the development of high-resolution individual locus typing methods for three of the most polymorphic swine leukocyte antigens (SLA) class II loci, namely, SLA-DQA, SLA-DQB1, and SLA-DRB1. In this study, we extensively modified our previous protocols and developed a method for the simultaneous amplification of the three SLA class II genes and subsequent analysis of individual loci using direct sequencing. The unbiased and simultaneous amplification of alleles from the all three hyper-polymorphic and pseudogene containing genes such as MHC genes is extremely challenging. However, using this method, we demonstrated the successful typing of SLA-DQA, SLA-DQB1, and SLA-DRB1 for 31 selected individuals comprising 26 different SLA class II haplotypes which were identified from 700 animals using the single locus typing methods. The results were identical to the known genotypes from the individual locus typing. The new method has significant benefits over the individual locus typing, including lower typing cost, use of less biomaterial, less effort and fewer errors in handling large samples for multiple loci. We also extensively characterized the haplotypes of SLA class II genes and reported three new haplotypes. Our results should serve as a basis to investigate the possible association between polymorphisms of MHC class II and differences in immune responses to exogenous antigens.

  5. Changes in soft tissue profile using functional appliances in the treatment of skeletal class II malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamenković Zorana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The effects of orthodontic treatment are considered to be successful if the facial harmony is achieved, while the structures of soft tissue profile are in harmony with skeletal structures of neurocranium and viscerocranium. In patients with skeletal distal bite caused by mandibular retrognathism, facial esthetics is disturbed often, in terms of pronounced convexity of the profile and change in the position and relationship of the lips. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine the extent of soft tissue profile changes in patients with skeletal Class II malocclusion treated with three different orthodontic appliances: Fränkel functional regulator type I (FR-I, Balters’ Bionator type I and Hotz appliance. Methods. The study included 60 patients diagnosed with skeletal Class II malocclusion caused by mandibular retrognathism, in the period of early mixed dentition. Each subgroup of 20 patients was treated with a variety of orthodontic appliances. On the lateral cephalogram, before and after treatment, the following parameters were analyzed: T angle, H angle, the height of the upper lip, the position of the upper and lower lip in relation to the esthetic line. Within the statistical analysis the mean, maximum, minimum, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, two-factor analysis of variance with repeated measures and the factor analysis of variance were calculated using ANOVA, Bonferroni test and Student’s t-test. Results. A significant decrease of angles T and H was noticed in the application of FR-I, from 21.60° to 17.15°, and from 16.45° to 13.40° (p<0.001. FR-I decreased the height of the upper lip from 26.15 mm to 25.85 mm, while Hotz appliance and Balters’ Bionator type I increased the height of the upper lip, thereby deteriorating esthetics of the patient. Conclusion. All used orthodontic appliances lead to changes in soft tissue profile in terms of improving facial esthetics, with the most distinctive

  6. Trans-species polymorphism and selection in the MHC class II DRA genes of domestic sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith T Ballingall

    Full Text Available Highly polymorphic genes with central roles in lymphocyte mediated immune surveillance are grouped together in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC in higher vertebrates. Generally, across vertebrate species the class II MHC DRA gene is highly conserved with only limited allelic variation. Here however, we provide evidence of trans-species polymorphism at the DRA locus in domestic sheep (Ovis aries. We describe variation at the Ovar-DRA locus that is far in excess of anything described in other vertebrate species. The divergent DRA allele (Ovar-DRA*0201 differs from the sheep reference sequences by 20 nucleotides, 12 of which appear non-synonymous. Furthermore, DRA*0201 is paired with an equally divergent DRB1 allele (Ovar-DRB1*0901, which is consistent with an independent evolutionary history for the DR sub-region within this MHC haplotype. No recombination was observed between the divergent DRA and B genes in a range of breeds and typical levels of MHC class II DR protein expression were detected at the surface of leukocyte populations obtained from animals homozygous for the DRA*0201, DRB1*0901 haplotype. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis groups Ovar-DRA*0201 with DRA sequences derived from species within the Oryx and Alcelaphus genera rather than clustering with other ovine and caprine DRA alleles. Tests for Darwinian selection identified 10 positively selected sites on the branch leading to Ovar-DRA*0201, three of which are predicted to be associated with the binding of peptide antigen. As the Ovis, Oryx and Alcelaphus genera have not shared a common ancestor for over 30 million years, the DRA*0201 and DRB1*0901 allelic pair is likely to be of ancient origin and present in the founding population from which all contemporary domestic sheep breeds are derived. The conservation of the integrity of this unusual DR allelic pair suggests some selective advantage which is likely to be associated with the presentation of pathogen antigen to T

  7. Marginal Integrity of Bulk Versus Incremental Fill Class II Composite Restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Harbi, F; Kaisarly, D; Bader, D; El Gezawi, M

    2016-01-01

    Bulk-fill composites have been introduced to facilitate the placement of deep direct resin composite restorations. This study aimed at analyzing the cervical marginal integrity of bulk-fill vs incremental and open-sandwich class II resin composite restorations after thermomechanical cycling using replica scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and ranking according to the World Dental Federation (FDI) criteria. Box-only class II cavities were prepared in 91 maxillary premolars with the gingival margin placed 1 mm above and below the cemento-enamel junction. Eighty-four premolars were divided into self-etch and total-etch groups, then subdivided into six restorative subgroups (n=7): 1-Tetric Ceram HB (TC) was used incrementally and in the open-sandwich technique with 2-Tetric EvoFlow (EF) and 3-Smart Dentin Replacement (SD). Bulk-fill restoratives were 4-SonicFill (SF), 5-Tetric N-Ceram Bulk Fill (TN), and 6-Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill (TE). In subgroups 1-5, Tetric N-Bond self-etch and Tetric N-Bond total-etch adhesives were used, whereas in subgroup 6, AdheSE self-etch and ExciTE F total etch were used. One more group (n=7) was restored with Filtek P90 Low Shrink Posterior Restorative (P9) only in combination with its self-etch P90 System Adhesive. Materials were manipulated and light cured (20 seconds, 1600 mW/cm(2)), and restorations were artificially aged by thermo-occlusal load cycling. Polyvinyl-siloxane impressions were taken and poured with epoxy resin. Resin replicas were examined by SEM (200×) for marginal sealing, and percentages of perfect margins were analyzed. Moreover, samples were examined using loupes (3.5×) and explorers and categorized according to the FDI criteria. Results were statistically analyzed (SEM by Kruskal-Wallis test and FDI by chi-square test) without significant differences in either the replica SEM groups (p=0.848) or the FDI criteria groups (p>0.05). The best SEM results at the enamel margin were in TC+EF/total-etch and SF

  8. Recidiva do apinhamento anterossuperior nas más oclusões de Classe I e Classe II tratadas ortodonticamente sem extrações Relapse of maxillary anterior crowding in Class I and Class II malocclusions orthodontically treated without extractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian J. G. Guirro

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: o presente estudo objetivou comparar retrospectivamente a estabilidade pós-contenção do alinhamento dos incisivos anterossuperiores em pacientes com Classe I e Classe II. MÉTODOS: a amostra consistiu de 38 pacientes de ambos os sexos, tratados sem extrações e com mecânica Edgewise, divididos em dois grupos - Grupo 1, constituído por 19 pacientes, com idade inicial média de 13,06 anos, portadores da má oclusão de Classe I com apinhamento anterossuperior inicial maior que 3mm; Grupo 2, constituído por 19 pacientes, com idade inicial de 12,54 anos, portadores da má oclusão de Classe II e, também, com apinhamento anterossuperior inicial maior que 3mm. Foram medidos nos modelos de estudo, das fases pré- e pós-tratamento e pós-contenção, o índice de irregularidade de Little, as distâncias intercaninos e entre os primeiros e segundos pré-molares, a distância intermolares e o comprimento da arcada superior. Para a comparação intragrupo nos 3 tempos de avaliação, utilizou-se os testes ANOVA e Tukey. A comparação intergrupos foi realizada pelo teste t independente. Para verificação da presença de correlação, utilizou-se o teste de correlação de Pearson. RESULTADOS: os resultados evidenciaram maior estabilidade do tratamento no Grupo 2 (Classe II, pois, durante o período pós-contenção, foi observada recidiva do apinhamento dos dentes anterossuperiores menor no Grupo 2 (0,80mm do que no Grupo 1 (1,67mm. CONCLUSÃO: concluiu-se que o tratamento do apinhamento dos dentes anterossuperiores é mais estável na má oclusão de Classe II do que na má oclusão de Classe I.OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to retrospectively compare the postretention stability of maxillary anterior incisors alignment in Class I and Class II patients. METHODS: The sample comprised 38 patients of both genders, treated with nonextraction and Edgewise mechanics, divided into two groups: Group 1, comprised of 19 patients, at a mean

  9. High speed quantitative digital beta autoradiography using a multistep avalanche detector and an Apple II microcomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of an electronic, digital beta autoradiography system is described. Using a multistep avalanche/multiwire proportional counter (MSA/MWPC) detector system fitted with delay line readout, high speed digital imaging is demonstrated with submillimeter spatial resolution. In the case of autoradiography with a tritium label, image acquisition requires about one hour compared with several weeks for conventional film techniques. Good proportionality of observed counting rate relative to the known tritium activity is demonstrated. The application of the system to autoradiography in immunoelectrophoresis, histopathology and DNA sequencing is described (using 125I, 14C and 35S labels in addition to 3H). (orig.)

  10. 25 CFR 547.9 - What are the minimum technical standards for Class II gaming system accounting functions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... gaming system accounting functions? 547.9 Section 547.9 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION... systems. (a) Required accounting data.The following minimum accounting data, however named, shall be...) Accounting data storage. If the Class II gaming system electronically maintains accounting data:...

  11. HLA class II (DR, DQ, DP) in patients with sarcoidosis: evidence of an increased frequency of DRw6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ødum, Niels; Milman, N; Jakobsen, B K;

    1991-01-01

    The distribution of HLA class II (DR, DQ, and DP) antigens was studied in 41 patients with symptomatic sarcoidosis (SA) and ethnically matched healthy controls. HLA-DR, -DQw1 and -DQw3 typings were performed with alloantisera in the conventional microcytotoxic test, whereas -DP typings were done...

  12. Clinical, immunological and genetic features in eleven Algerian patients with major histocompatibility complex class II expression deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djidjik Réda

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Presenting processed antigens to CD4+ lymphocytes during the immune response involves major histocompatibility complex class II molecules. MHC class II genes transcription is regulated by four transcription factors: CIITA, RFXANK, RFX5 and RFXAP. Defects in these factors result in major histocompatibility complex class II expression deficiency, a primary combined immunodeficiency frequent in North Africa. Autosomal recessive mutations in the RFXANK gene have been reported as being the principal defect found in North African patients with this disorder. In this paper, we describe clinical, immunological and genetic features of 11 unrelated Algerian patients whose monocytes display a total absence of MHC class II molecules. They shared mainly the same clinical picture which included protracted diarrhoea and respiratory tract recurrent infections. Genetic analysis revealed that 9 of the 11 patients had the same RFXANK founder mutation, a 26 bp deletion (named I5E6-25_I5E6+1, also known as 752delG26. Immunological and genetic findings in our series may facilitate genetic counselling implementation for Algerian consanguineous families. Further studies need to be conducted to determine 752delG26 heterozygous mutation frequency in Algerian population.

  13. Antibodies against a class II HLA-peptide complex raised by active immunization of mice with antigen mimicking peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam-Tuxen, R; Riise, Erik Skjold

    2009-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease linked to the human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class II genes DRB1*1501, DRB5*0101 and DQB1*0602. T cells reactive towards the DRB1*1501 in complex with various peptides derived from myelin basic protein (MBP), which is the major component of myelin...

  14. T cells induce extended class II MHC compartments in dendritic cells in a Toll-like receptor-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boes, Marianne; Bertho, Nicolas; Cerny, Jan; Op den Brouw, Marjolein; Kirchhausen, Tomas; Ploegh, Hidde

    2003-10-15

    Interaction of Ag-loaded dendritic cells with Ag-specific CD4 T cells induces the formation of long tubular class II MHC-positive compartments that polarize toward the T cell. We show involvement of a Toll-like receptor-mediated signal in this unusual form of intracellular class II MHC trafficking. First, wild-type dendritic cells loaded with LPS-free Ag failed to show formation of class II-positive tubules upon Ag-specific T cell engagement, but did so upon supplementation of the Ag with low concentrations of LPS. Second, Ag-loaded myeloid differentiation factor 88 -deficient dendritic cells failed to form these tubules upon interaction with T cells, regardless of the presence of LPS. Finally, inclusion of a cell-permeable peptide that blocks TNFR-associated factor 6 function, downstream of myeloid differentiation factor 88, blocked T cell-dependent tubulation. A Toll-like receptor-dependent signal is thus required to allow Ag-loaded dendritic cells to respond to T cell contact by formation of extended endosomal compartments. This activation does not result in massive translocation of class II MHC molecules to the cell surface.

  15. Orthopedic coordination of dentofacial development in skeletal Class II malocclusion in conjunction with edgewise therapy. Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, N M

    1983-11-01

    The skeletal Class II malocclusion may be considered to develop as a failure of the coordinating process to maintain harmonious relationships within the developing dentofacial apparatus. If the skeletal elements are too far apart for adaptation to occur and/or if there are functional abnormalities of the orofacial musculature which inhibit coordination from taking place, a malocclusion will result. An orthopedic technique and appliance system has been developed with the intention of improving those factors responsible for the development and perpetuation of the skeletal Class II malocclusion in a primary stage of treatment. This is accomplished by means of restraint and redirection of forward maxillary growth and an increase in the velocity of mandibular growth. Concurrently, adverse soft-tissue influences are eliminated or ameliorated. Edgewise appliance therapy is subsequently carried out for the final correction. The subject is considered in two articles. This first article describes the effects of the restraint of maxillary growth on craniofacial development and the dental changes produced by a maxillary removable splint with extraoral traction and shows how they can be used clinically for correction of the skeletal Class II malocclusion. The experimental and clinical evidence supporting this approach is considered, and case histories show the clinical use of the maxillary splint. This form of maxillary therapy for the skeletal Class II malocclusion has limitations, and it is desirable for it to be incorporated into a comprehensive orthopedic system.

  16. 75 FR 68364 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ...-796-2533. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background In the Federal Register of May 30, 2008 (73 FR... class II (special controls). Also, in the Federal Register of May 30, 2008 (73 FR 31128), FDA announced... the heading of this document. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mary Pastel, Center for Devices...

  17. 40 CFR 147.2400 - State-administered program-Class I, II, III, IV, and V wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State-administered program-Class I, II, III, IV, and V wells. 147.2400 Section 147.2400 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... between the Washington Department of Ecology and Department of Social and Health Services, Related to...

  18. 40 CFR Table F-1 to Subpart F of... - Performance Specifications for PM2.5 Class II Equivalent Samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance Specifications for PM2.5..., Subpt. F, Table F-1 Table F-1 to Subpart F of Part 53—Performance Specifications for PM2.5 Class II Equivalent Samplers Performance test Specifications Acceptance criteria § 53.62 Full Wind Tunnel...

  19. NN-align. An artificial neural network-based alignment algorithm for MHC class II peptide binding prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten; Lund, Ole

    2009-01-01

    this binding event. RESULTS: Here, we present a novel artificial neural network-based method, NN-align that allows for simultaneous identification of the MHC class II binding core and binding affinity. NN-align is trained using a novel training algorithm that allows for correction of bias in the training data...

  20. 76 FR 50436 - Class II Gaming Regulation Proposals Submitted by Poarch Band of Creek Indians on Behalf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Chapter III Class II Gaming Regulation Proposals Submitted by Poarch Band of Creek Indians on Behalf of Tribal Gaming Working Group AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission, Interior. ACTION: Request for comments. SUMMARY: The National...

  1. 76 FR 69040 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    .... 76, No. 215 / Monday, November 7, 2011 / Notices#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II...; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and...

  2. High value of the radiobiological parameter Dq correlates to expression of the transforming growth factor beta type II receptor in a panel of small cell lung cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, S; Krarup, M; Nørgaard, P;

    1998-01-01

    Our panel of SCLC cell lines have previously been examined for their radiobiological characteristics and sensitivity to treatment with TGF beta 1. In this study we examined the possible correlations between radiobiological parameters and the expression of the TGF beta type II receptor (TGF beta-r...... role for the repair of radiation induced DNA damage in SCLC....

  3. EFFECTS OF BETAHISTINE DIHYDROCHLORIDE AS ADJUVANT TO ENALAPRIL THERAPY OF PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEART FAILURE CLASS II-II (NYHA SUFFERING FROM GIDDINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Y. Martsevich

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study adjuvant effect of betahistine dihydrochloride to ACE inhibitors in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF class II-III suffering from giddiness.Material and methods. 61 patients with CHF class II-III, ejection fraction ≤45% (Simpson suffering from giddiness were involved into randomized open parallel study. Patients were randomized to Betahistine dihydrochloride plus basic CHF therapy or only basic therapy groups. Enalapril dose titration was performed in all patients. Quality of life and giddiness severity evaluation, electrocardiogram was performed initially and after treatment. Clinical examination results, drug therapy and adverse event were registered at each visit.Results. The target ACE inhibitor dose (≥20 mg daily was reached in 97 % of patients. It led to significant reduction of dyspnea, edemas, CHF class reduction and life quality increase. Significant differences between investigated groups were not found. Reduction of giddiness severity was shown in both groups. There was a trend to more prominent improvement of life quality (р=0,08 and more frequent achievement of target ACE inhibitor dose in patients treated with betahistine dihydrochloride.Conclusion. The target ACE inhibitor dose can be achieved more than in 90% of patients with CHF class II-III without hypotension symptoms. Adjuvant usage of betahistine dihydrochloride is necessary in patients with CHF still suffering from giddiness after achievement of target ACE inhibitor dose.

  4. Elevation of c-MYC disrupts HLA class II-mediated immune recognition of human B cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    God, Jason M; Cameron, Christine; Figueroa, Janette; Amria, Shereen; Hossain, Azim; Kempkes, Bettina; Bornkamm, Georg W; Stuart, Robert K; Blum, Janice S; Haque, Azizul

    2015-02-15

    Elevated levels of the transcription factor c-myc are strongly associated with various cancers, and in particular B cell lymphomas. Although many of c-MYC's functions have been elucidated, its effect on the presentation of Ag through the HLA class II pathway has not been reported previously. This is an issue of considerable importance, given the low immunogenicity of many c-MYC-positive tumors. We report in this paper that increased c-MYC expression has a negative effect on the ability of B cell lymphomas to functionally present Ags/peptides to CD4(+) T cells. This defect was associated with alterations in the expression of distinct cofactors as well as interactions of antigenic peptides with class II molecules required for the presentation of class II-peptide complexes and T cell engagement. Using early passage Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) tumors and transformed cells, we show that compared with B lymphoblasts, BL cells express decreased levels of the class II editor HLA-DM, lysosomal thiol-reductase GILT, and a 47-kDa enolase-like protein. Functional Ag presentation was partially restored in BL cells treated with a c-MYC inhibitor, demonstrating the impact of this oncogene on Ag recognition. This restoration of HLA class II-mediated Ag presentation in early passage BL tumors/cells was linked to enhanced HLA-DM expression and a concurrent decrease in HLA-DO in BL cells. Taken together, these results reveal c-MYC exerts suppressive effects at several critical checkpoints in Ag presentation, which contribute to the immunoevasive properties of BL tumors.

  5. FOXP3 interactions with histone acetyltransferase and class II histone deacetylases are required for repression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Samanta, Arabinda; Song, Xiaomin; Iacono, Kathryn T; Bembas, Kathryn; Tao, Ran; Basu, Samik; Riley, James L; Hancock, Wayne W; Shen, Yuan; Saouaf, Sandra J; Greene, Mark I

    2007-03-13

    The forkhead family protein FOXP3 acts as a repressor of transcription and is both an essential and sufficient regulator of the development and function of regulatory T cells. The molecular mechanism by which FOXP3-mediated transcriptional repression occurs remains unclear. Here, we report that transcriptional repression by FOXP3 involves a histone acetyltransferase-deacetylase complex that includes histone acetyltransferase TIP60 (Tat-interactive protein, 60 kDa) and class II histone deacetylases HDAC7 and HDAC9. The N-terminal 106-190 aa of FOXP3 are required for TIP60-FOXP3, HDAC7-FOXP3 association, as well as for the transcriptional repression of FOXP3 via its forkhead domain. FOXP3 can be acetylated in primary human regulatory T cells, and TIP60 promotes FOXP3 acetylation in vivo. Overexpression of TIP60 but not its histone acetyltransferase-deficient mutant promotes, whereas knockdown of endogenous TIP60 relieved, FOXP3-mediated transcriptional repression. A minimum FOXP3 ensemble containing native TIP60 and HDAC7 is necessary for IL-2 production regulation in T cells. Moreover, FOXP3 association with HDAC9 is antagonized by T cell stimulation and can be restored by the protein deacetylation inhibitor trichostatin A, indicating a complex dynamic aspect of T suppressor cell regulation. These findings identify a previously uncharacterized complex-based mechanism by which FOXP3 actively mediates transcriptional repression. PMID:17360565

  6. Discovery of periodic class II methanol masers associated with G339.986-0.425 region

    CERN Document Server

    Maswanganye, J P; Goedhart, S; Gaylard, M J

    2015-01-01

    Ten new class II methanol masers from the 6.7-GHz Methanol Multibeam survey catalogues III and IV were selected for a monitoring programme at both 6.7 and 12.2 GHz with the 26m Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory (HartRAO) radio telescope for two years and nine months, from August 2012 to May 2015. In the sample, only masers associated with G339.986-0.425 were found to show periodic variability at both 6.7 and 12.2 GHz. The existence of periodic variation was tested with four independent methods. The analytical method gave the best estimation of the period, which was 246 $\\pm$ 1 days. The time series of G339.986-0.425 show strong correlations across velocity channels and between the 6.7 and 12.2 GHz masers. The time delay was also measured across channels and shows structure across the spectrum which is continuous between different maser components.

  7. Development of self emulsifying lipid formulations of BCS class II drugs with low to medium lipophilicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannin, Vincent; Chevrier, Stéphanie; Michenaud, Matthieu; Dumont, Camille; Belotti, Silvia; Chavant, Yann; Demarne, Frédéric

    2015-11-10

    Lipid-based formulations can be effective drug delivery systems for poorly water-soluble chemical entities, provided they are designed with careful selection of the excipients, based on their role in the delivery system and in relation to drug properties. The primary factor leading to increased bioavailability is the administration of the drug in a pre-dissolved state thereby avoiding the dissolution limiting step. All model drugs tested (piroxicam, curcumin and nifedipine) belong to the same chemical space--small BCS class II molecules with logP ranging from 2 to 3. These drugs, exhibiting low to medium logP, are not soluble in lipophilic lipid-based excipients (e.g., vegetable oils). Water-soluble and water-dispersible surfactants are able to dissolve the target dose of each drug in the dosage form and efficiently keep it in solution during dispersion. In vitro digestion testing was necessary to discriminate formulations and enable selection of the most robust one. For each molecule, the system with the best performance during dispersion/digestion tests did not comprise the surfactant which delivered the highest solvent capacity for the drug. This study demonstrates the potential of surfactant-based formulations - i.e., Type IV systems from the lipid formulation classification system - for this type of hydrophobic drug. PMID:26364710

  8. HLA class II sequence variants influence tuberculosis risk in populations of European ancestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sveinbjornsson, Gardar; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F.; Halldorsson, Bjarni V.; Kristinsson, Karl G.; Gottfredsson, Magnus; Barrett, Jeffrey C.; Gudmundsson, Larus J.; Blondal, Kai; Gylfason, Arnaldur; Gudjonsson, Sigurjon Axel; Helgadottir, Hafdis T.; Jonasdottir, Adalbjorg; Jonasdottir, Aslaug; Karason, Ari; Kardum, Ljiljana Bulat; Knežević, Jelena; Kristjansson, Helgi; Kristjansson, Mar; Love, Arthur; Luo, Yang; Magnusson, Olafur T.; Sulem, Patrick; Kong, Augustine; Masson, Gisli; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Dembic, Zlatko; Nejentsev, Sergey; Blondal, Thorsteinn; Jonsdottir, Ingileif; Stefansson, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) infections cause 9.0 million new tuberculosis (TB) cases and 1.5 million deaths annually1. To search for sequence variants that confer risk of TB we tested 28.3 million variants identified through whole-genome sequencing of 2,636 Icelanders for association with TB (8,162 cases and 277,643 controls), pulmonary TB (PTB), and M. tuberculosis infection. We found association of three sequence variants in the HLA class II region: rs557011[T] (MAF=40.2%) with M. tuberculosis infection (OR =1.14, P=3.1×10-13) and PTB (OR=1.25, P=5.8×10-12) and rs9271378[G] (MAF=32.5%) with PTB (OR=0.78, P=2.5×10-12), both located between HLA-DQA1 and HLA-DRB1. Finally, a missense variant p.Ala210Thr in HLA-DQA1, (MAF=19.1%, rs9272785) shows association with M. tuberculosis infection (P=9.3×10-9, OR=1.14). The association of these variants with PTB was replicated in large samples of European ancestry from Russia and Croatia (Ptuberculosis, possibly through reduced presentation of protective M. tuberculosis antigens to T cells. PMID:26829749

  9. Dental and skeletal components of Class II open bite treatment with a modified Thurow appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder Baldi Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Due to the lack of studies that distinguish between dentoalveolar and basal changes caused by the Thurow appliance, this clinical study, carried out by the School of Dentistry - State University of São Paulo/Araraquara, aimed at assessing the dental and skeletal changes induced by modified Thurow appliance. METHODS: The sample included an experimental group comprising 13 subjects aged between 7 and 10 years old, with Class II malocclusion and anterior open bite, and a control group comprising 22 subjects similar in age, sex and mandibular plane angle. Maxillary/mandibular, horizontal/vertical, dental/skeletal movements (ANS, PNS, U1, U6, Co, Go, Pog, L1, L6 were assessed, based on 14 landmarks, 8 angles (S-N-ANS, SNA, PPA, S-N-Pog, SNB, MPA, PP/MPA, ANB and 3 linear measures (N-Me, ANS-Me, S-Go. RESULTS: Treatment caused significantly greater angle decrease between the palatal and the mandibular plane of the experimental group, primarily due to an increase in the palatal plane angle. ANB, SNA and S-N-ANS angles significantly decreased more in patients from the experimental group. PNS was superiorly remodeled. Lower face height (ANS-Me decreased in the experimental group and increased in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: The modified Thurow appliance controlled vertical and horizontal displacements of the maxilla, rotated the maxilla and improved open bite malocclusion, decreasing lower facial height.

  10. Techniques used to Enhance Bioavailability of BCS Class II Drugs: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honey Kansara

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, nearly 40% of the new chemical entities (NCEs identified by pharmaceutical industry screening programs have failed to be developed because of poor water-solubility, which makes their formulation difficult or even impossible. The solubility issues complicating the delivery of these new drugs also affect the delivery of many existing drugs. The various traditional and novel techniques that that can be used for solubility enhancement of BCS Class II drugs are briefly discussed in this article. The Traditional techniques that has been discussed in this article includes use of co-solvents, Hydrotropy, Micronization, change in dielectric constant of solvent, amorphous forms, chemical modification of drug, use of surfactants, inclusion complex, alteration of pH of solvent, use of hydrates or solvates, use of soluble prodrugs, application of ultrasonic waves, functional polymer technology, controlled precipitation technology, evaporative precipitation in aqueous solution, use of precipitation inhibitors, solvent deposition, precipitation, selective adsorption on insoluble carriers. Novel drug delivery technologies developed in recent years for solubility enhancement of insoluble drugs are size reduction technologies, lipid based delivery system, micellar technologies, porous micro particle technology. Solid Dispersion Technique and various types of solid dispersion systems have also been explained briefly.

  11. The influence of lining techniques on the marginal seal of Class II composite resin restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blixt, M; Coli, P

    1993-03-01

    Various sealing techniques using a light-curing dental adhesive (Scotchbond 2) and bulk application of a light-curing resin-bonded ceramic were examined in 203 Class II cavities. Different pretreatment procedures and lining materials were used, and in one series resin impregnation of the contraction gap was included. The presence of gaps or leakage was disclosed either by a dye or a fluorescent resin penetration technique. In many restorations, Scotchbond 2 and a light-curing glass-ionomer lining did not prevent gap formation at the cervical wall. The gap usually occurred between the liner and the dentin, with dye penetration into the dentin. Three liners, one containing polytrifluorethylene sodium fluoride and calcium fluoride, one containing polyamide resin, and one containing calcium hydroxide, did not prevent dye penetration to the dentin at all; good dentinal protection was frequently observed, however, in cavities treated with a hydrophilic shellac film prior to placement of a polystyrene liner. The best results were observed when dentinal treatment with this lining system was followed by resin impregnation of the contraction gap after the composite resin had set.

  12. Impact of physical activity and fitness in class II and III obese individuals: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillot, A; Audet, M; Baillargeon, J P; Dionne, I J; Valiquette, L; Rosa-Fortin, M M; Abou Chakra, C N; Comeau, E; Langlois, M F

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to appraise current knowledge on the impact of physical activity (PA) and physical fitness (PF) on the health of class II and III obese subjects and bariatric surgery (BS) patients. All original studies were searched using four databases (Medline®, Scopus®, CINAHL and Sportdiscus). Two independent investigators selected studies assessing the impact of PA or PF on specific health outcomes (anthropometric parameters, body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, PF, wellness) in adults with a body mass index ≥35 kg m(-2) or in BS patients. Conclusions were drawn based on a rating system of evidence. From 3,170 papers identified, 40 papers met the inclusion criteria. The vast majority of studies were recently carried out with a predominance of women. Less than one-third of these studies were experimental and only three of them were of high quality. Each study reported at least one beneficial effect of PA or PF. However, a lack of high-quality studies and heterogeneity in designs prevented us from finding high levels of evidence. In conclusion, although results support the importance of PA and PF to improve the health of this population, higher-quality trials are required to strengthen evidence-based recommendations. PMID:24712685

  13. Severe Class II anterior deep bite malocclusion treated with a C-lingual retractor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Hun; Park, Young-Guk; Chung, Kyurhim

    2004-04-01

    A C-lingual retractor was placed on the lingual aspects of the six maxillary anterior teeth in a 24-year-old female patient with a Class II anterior deep-bite malocclusion. The treatment plan consisted of extracting both the upper first premolars and intruding and retracting the upper six anterior teeth. Transpalatal arches were soldered to the upper first and second molar bands and used as an intra-arch anchor unit for upper space closure. Double NiTi closed coil springs were used palatally between the hooks of the C-lingual retractor and the transplantar arches. A high-pull headgear was used for anchorage reinforcement during en masse retraction. It took 14 months to treat this patient. The correct overbite and overjet was obtained by simultaneously intruding and retracting the upper six anterior teeth into their proper positions by C-lingual retractor mechanics, which contributed to an improvement in facial balance. The treatment result was stable 6 months after debonding. The application of this new appliance, consideration in case selection, and sequence of treatment are presented.

  14. New perspective on Herbst therapy for skeletal Class II malocclusions: a proposal for maxillary protrusion management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, Leopoldino Capelozza; Siqueira, Danilo Furquim; de Castro, Renata Cristina Faria Ribeiro; An, Tien-Li; Cardoso, Mauricio de Almeida

    2012-01-01

    Angle Class II malocclusions may present morphologic deviations originated from the maxilla, mandible, or both. Since its reintroduction by Pancherz, the Herbst appliance has demonstrated effectiveness in the management of patients with mandibular deficiency. Because of the intermaxillary anchorage, the action of mandibular advancement provokes simultaneous reaction of maxillary restriction, similar to high-pull headgear. This aimed of this report is to compare two cases treated in two phases. In the first interceptive phase, the transverse problem was corrected by rapid maxillary expansion, which was followed by a Herbst appliance for mandibular advancement; in the second corrective phase, the cases were finished with fixed appliances. Although Herbst appliances were used in both patients, one patient with maxillary protrusion and another with mandibular deficiency, their use targeted different types of skeletal discrepancies. This difference allowed for the comparison of treatment effects, and although both patients had their malocclusion corrected, it seems reasonable to conclude that the final outcome was more favorable for the patient with maxillary protrusion.

  15. Class II: a comparison of activator and activator headgear combination appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztürk, Y; Tankuter, N

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate skeletal and dental effects of activator and activator high-pull headgear combination appliances on growing patients with Class II, division 1 malocclusion. The material consisted of pre- and post-treatment cephalograms of 17 boys and 20 girls. Seventeen patients (eight male and nine female) were treated with an activator, the remaining 20 (9 male and 11 female) were treated with an activator high-pull headgear combination (AHGC) appliance. Changes due to treatment were compared with a group of 19 (nine male and ten female) untreated children. ANB angle was significantly reduced and mandibular growth development was favourable in both treatment groups. The AHGC appliance was more effective in the reduction of the maxillary prognathism. An increase of the anterior facial height and clockwise rotation of the occlusal plane was observed in the patients treated with activator appliance. The cant of the mandibular plane remained stable during both treatment periods. On the other hand, the forward displacement of the upper first molars was reduced significantly and the axial inclination of the lower incisors was controlled much better with the AHGC appliance.

  16. Internal and Marginal Fit of Modern Indirect Class II Composite Inlays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp C. Pott

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This in vitro study investigates the marginal and internal fit of indirect class II composite restorations. Two different processes for chair-side restorations were compared. In group A, the restorations were fabricated using CAD/CAM technology (Cerec, Sirona, Germany, Bernsheim and in group B they were made by hand (GrandioSO Inlay System, VOCO GmbH, Germany, Cuxhaven. Methods: For a metal tooth with a MOD cavity each 10 restorations were made for groups A and B. For each restoration, a replica of the cement-gap made from light body silicone was produced by placing the restoration into the cavity of the metal tooth. For this purpose, a special restoration-positioning machine was developed. Each replica was sectioned off in the longitudinal axis (L and in the cross axis (C. The thickness of the replicas was measured in both directions, using picture analysis software under a light reflection microscope. To evaluate the fit of the restorations, a special fitting parameter was calculated. Statistical analysis was performed with the t test. Results: The fitting-parameter in group B (L: 97.6µm±73.0µm; C: 71.8µm±46.4µm was significantly lower than that of group A (L: 155.1µm±102.3.0µm; C: 168.2µm±91.9µm (P

  17. Yeast surface display of a noncovalent MHC class II heterodimer complexed with antigenic peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boder, Eric T; Bill, Jerome R; Nields, Andrew W; Marrack, Philippa C; Kappler, John W

    2005-11-20

    Microbial protein display technologies have enabled directed molecular evolution of binding and stability properties in numerous protein systems. In particular, dramatic improvements to antibody binding affinity and kinetics have been accomplished using these tools in recent years. Examples of successful application of display technologies to other immunological proteins have been limited to date. Herein, we describe the expression of human class II major histocompatibility complex allele (MHCII) HLA-DR4 on the surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a noncovalently associated heterodimer. The yeast-displayed MHCII is fully native as assessed by binding of conformationally specific monoclonal antibodies; failure of antibodies specific for empty HLA-DR4 to bind yeast-displayed protein indicates antigenic peptide is bound. This report represents the first example of a noncovalent protein dimer displayed on yeast and of successful display of wild-type MHCII. Results further point to the potential for using yeast surface display for engineering and analyzing the antigen binding properties of MHCII.

  18. SOLUBILITY ENHANCEMENT OF FENOFIBRATE, A BCS CLASS II DRUG, BY SELF EMULSIFYING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Sunitha Reddy

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work was aimed at the enhancement of solubility of Fenofibrate a BCS class II drug by Self Emulsifying Drug Delivery systems (SEDDS. The solubility of Fenofibrate in various excipients was determined. The excipients were screened for maximum solubility and compatibility. SEDDS formulations of Fenofibrate were developed using different Oils, Surfactants and Co-Surfactant combinations. Pseudoternary phase diagrams were drawn using Triplot software and by applying Pseudoternary phase diagrams, microemulsification area was evaluated.Formulations were screened based on visual observances and phase diagrams. Seven formulations were selected for further evaluations like stability, effect of dilution, freeze-thawing, emulsion droplet size and zeta potential. Among the seven formulations three were optimized and In-Vitro dissolution was performed. The dissolution rate of SEDDS was compared with plain Fenofibrate (API. The study confirmed that the solubility and dissolution rate of Fenofibrate were remarkably increased when compared to that of plain drug. Hence SEDDS formulations can be a potential alternative to traditional oral drug delivery systems of Fenofibrate to improve its bioavailability.

  19. A restorative approach for class II resin composite restorations: a two-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, M J M C

    2015-01-01

    This clinical report describes a restorative technique used to replace two Class II resin composite restorations on the upper premolars. A sectional matrix band was used in conjunction with an elastic ring (Composi-Tight) to obtain tight proximal contact. A nanofilled resin composite (Filtek Supreme Ultra) was incrementally applied using oblique layers to reduce the C-factor, each layer being no more than 2 mm thick, and then light cured for 20 seconds with a light-emitting diode lamp (EliparFreeLight 2 LED Curing Light) with a power density of 660 mW/cm(2). A centripetal technique was used to restore the lost tooth structure from the periphery toward the center of the cavity in order to achieve a better contour and anatomy with less excess, thereby minimizing the use of rotary instruments during the finishing procedures. Finally, the resin composite restorations were finished and polished, and a surface sealer (Perma Seal) was applied to fill small gaps and defects that may have been present on the surfaces and margins of the restorations after the finishing and polishing procedures.

  20. Transport of Streptococcus pneumoniae capsular polysaccharide in MHC Class II tubules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Li Stephen

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial capsular polysaccharides are virulence factors and are considered T cell-independent antigens. However, the capsular polysaccharide Sp1 from Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 1 has been shown to activate CD4(+ T cells in a major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II-dependent manner. The mechanism of carbohydrate presentation to CD4(+ T cells is unknown. We show in live murine dendritic cells (DCs that Sp1 translocates from lysosomal compartments to the plasma membrane in MHCII-positive tubules. Sp1 cell surface presentation results in reduction of self-peptide presentation without alteration of the MHCII self peptide repertoire. In DM-deficient mice, retrograde transport of Sp1/MHCII complexes resulting in T cell-dependent immune responses to the polysaccharide in vitro and in vivo is significantly reduced. The results demonstrate the capacity of a bacterial capsular polysaccharide antigen to use DC tubules as a vehicle for its transport as an MHCII/saccharide complex to the cell surface for the induction of T cell activation. Furthermore, retrograde transport requires the functional role of DM in self peptide-carbohydrate exchange. These observations open new opportunities for the design of vaccines against microbial encapsulated pathogens.

  1. Novel Insights Into The Mode of Inhibition of Class A SHV-1 Beta-Lactamases Revealed by Boronic Acid Transition State Inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W Ke; J Sampson; C Ori; F Prati; S Drawz; C Bethel; R Bonomo; F van den Akker

    2011-12-31

    Boronic acid transition state inhibitors (BATSIs) are potent class A and C {beta}-lactamase inactivators and are of particular interest due to their reversible nature mimicking the transition state. Here, we present structural and kinetic data describing the inhibition of the SHV-1 {beta}-lactamase, a clinically important enzyme found in Klebsiella pneumoniae, by BATSI compounds possessing the R1 side chains of ceftazidime and cefoperazone and designed variants of the latter, compounds 1 and 2. The ceftazidime and cefoperazone BATSI compounds inhibit the SHV-1 {beta}-lactamase with micromolar affinity that is considerably weaker than their inhibition of other {beta}-lactamases. The solved crystal structures of these two BATSIs in complex with SHV-1 reveal a possible reason for SHV-1's relative resistance to inhibition, as the BATSIs adopt a deacylation transition state conformation compared to the usual acylation transition state conformation when complexed to other {beta}-lactamases. Active-site comparison suggests that these conformational differences might be attributed to a subtle shift of residue A237 in SHV-1. The ceftazidime BATSI structure revealed that the carboxyl-dimethyl moiety is positioned in SHV-1's carboxyl binding pocket. In contrast, the cefoperazone BATSI has its R1 group pointing away from the active site such that its phenol moiety moves residue Y105 from the active site via end-on stacking interactions. To work toward improving the affinity of the cefoperazone BATSI, we synthesized two variants in which either one or two extra carbons were added to the phenol linker. Both variants yielded improved affinity against SHV-1, possibly as a consequence of releasing the strain of its interaction with the unusual Y105 conformation.

  2. OXA-46, a new class D beta-lactamase of narrow substrate specificity encoded by a blaVIM-1-containing integron from a Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Francesco; Docquier, Jean-Denis; Riccio, Maria Letizia; Pagani, Laura; Rossolini, Gian Maria

    2005-05-01

    A novel OXA-type enzyme, named OXA-46, was found to be encoded by a gene cassette inserted into a class 1 integron from a multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolate. The variable region of the integron also contained a bla(VIM-1) metallo-beta-lactamase cassette and a duplicated aacA4 aminoglycoside acetyltransferase cassette. OXA-46 belongs to the OXA-2 lineage of class D beta-lactamases. It exhibits 78% sequence identity with OXA-2 and the highest similarity (around 92% identity) with another OXA-type enzyme detected in clinical isolates of Burkholderia cepacia and in unidentified bacteria from a wastewater plant. Expression of bla(OXA-46) in Escherichia coli decreased susceptibility to penicillins and narrow-spectrum cephalosporins but not to extended-spectrum cephalosporins, cefsulodin, aztreonam, or carbapenems. The enzyme was overproduced in E. coli and purified by two anion-exchange chromatography steps (approximate yield, 6 mg/liter). OXA-46 was made of a 28.5-kDa polypeptide and exhibited an alkaline pI (7.8). In its native form OXA-46 appeared to be dimeric, and the oligomerization state was not affected by EDTA. Kinetic analysis of OXA-46 revealed a specificity for narrow-spectrum substrates, including oxacillin, other penicillins (but not temocillin), and narrow-spectrum cephalosporins. The enzyme apparently did not interact with temocillin, oxyimino-cephalosporins, or aztreonam. OXA-46 was inactivated by tazobactam and carbapenems and, although less efficiently, also by clavulanic acid. Enzyme activity was not affected either by EDTA or by divalent cations and exhibited low susceptibility to NaCl. These findings underscore the functional and structural diversity that can be encountered among class D beta-lactamases. PMID:15855521

  3. Adhesion molecules in Wilms tumor (part II : beta-catenin expression and significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basta-Jovanović Gordana M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Beta-catenin is a glicoprotein which has an important role in cell-cell adhesion, as well as in cell signal transmition, in u regulation of gen expression and in interaction with axin and APC (adenomatous poliposis coli. Its oncogenic role in several types of carcinomas in human population is well known. It is very likely that b-catenin as an protooncogen plays an importante role in genesis of Wilms tumor. It is well known that in 15% Wilms tumors there are b-catenin mutations, which indicates that there is a disorder in Wnt signal paththat plays an important role in Wilms tumor genesis. The aim of our study was to investigate b-catenin expression in Wilms tumor, to compaire it with the expression in normal renal tissue as well as to see if there is a positive correlation between b-catenin expression in Wilms tumor with tumor stage, histologic type and/ or prognostic group.

  4. Identification of MHC class II restricted T‐cell‐mediated reactivity against MHC class I binding Mycobacterium tuberculosis peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Mingjun; Tang, Sheila Tuyet; Stryhn, Anette;

    2011-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are known to play an important role in the control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection so identification of CTL epitopes from M. tuberculosis is of importance for the development of effective peptide....... The antigenicity of a total of 157 peptides with measured affinity for HLA‐I molecules of KD ≤ 500 nm were evaluated using peripheral blood T cells from strongly purified protein derivative reactive healthy donors. Of the 157 peptides, eight peptides (5%) were found to induce T‐cell responses. As judged from...

  5. Expansion design for a radioactive sources handling laboratory type II class B; Diseno de ampliacion para un laboratorio de manejo de fuentes radiactivas tipo II clase B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez S, P. S. [Universidad Mexiquense del Bicentenario, Av. Industria Poniente s/n, Parque Industrial Dona Rosa, 52000 Lerma, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Monroy G, F.; Alanis, J., E-mail: salvador-21@live.com.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Touca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    The Radioactive Wastes Research Laboratory (RWRL) of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (Mexico), at the moment has three sections: instrumental analysis, radioactive material processes, counting and a license type II class C, to manipulate radioactive material. This license limits the open sources handling to 300 kBq for radionuclides of very high radio-toxicity as the Ra-226, for what is being projected the license extension to type II class B, to be able to manage until 370 MBq of this radionuclides type, and the Laboratory, since the location where is the RWRL have unused area. This work presents a proposal of the RWRL expansion, taking into account the current laboratory sections, as well as the established specifications by the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (CNSNS). The current planes of the RWRL and the expansion proposal of the laboratory are presented. (Author)

  6. Mutations in the HLA class II genes leading to loss of expression of HLA-DR and HLA-DQ in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jordanova, ES; Philippo, K; Giphart, MJ; Schuuring, E; Kluin, PM

    2003-01-01

    Loss of expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II molecules on tumor cells affects the onset and modulation of the immune response through lack of activation of CD4(+) T lymphocytes. Previously, we showed that the frequent loss of expression of HLA class II in diffuse large B-cell lymphom

  7. Human leukocyte antigen-DO regulates surface presentation of human leukocyte antigen class II-restricted antigens on B cell malignancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, A.N.; Meijden, E.D. van der; Honders, M.W.; Pont, M.J.; Goeman, J.J.; Falkenburg, J.H.F.; Griffioen, M.

    2014-01-01

    Hematological malignancies often express surface HLA class II, making them attractive targets for CD4+ T cell therapy. We previously demonstrated that HLA class II ligands can be divided into DM-resistant and DM-sensitive antigens. In contrast to presentation of DM-resistant antigens, presentation o

  8. Numerical study of the Columbia high-beta device: Torus-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ionization, heating and subsequent long-time-scale behavior of the helium plasma in the Columbia fusion device, Torus-II, is studied. The purpose of this work is to perform numerical simulations while maintaining a high level of interaction with experimentalists. The device is operated as a toroidal z-pinch to prepare the gas for heating. This ionization of helium is studied using a zero-dimensional, two-fluid code. It is essentially an energy balance calculation that follows the development of the various charge states of the helium and any impurities (primarily silicon and oxygen) that are present. The code is an atomic physics model of Torus-II. In addition to ionization, we include three-body and radiative recombination processes

  9. Characterization of the expressed CIITA allele in the class II MHC transcriptional mutant RJ2.2.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J.A.; He, X.F.; Westerheide, S.D. [Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States)] [and others

    1996-06-01

    Class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are regulated in a coordinate manner. A set of conserved upstream elements termed the W/Z/S, X1, X2, and Y boxes are found 5{prime} to class II genes, the R gene, and the HLA-DM genes. These conserved elements are required for tissue-specific and IFN{gamma}-mediated regulation of these genes. The DNA-binding proteins RFX, X2BP, and NFY have been found to specifically interact with the X1, X2, and Y box elements, respectively, as well as with each other. A role for an additional factor was recently demonstrated by the cloning of a gene that could complement the MHC class H gene-specific transcriptional deficiency in the mutant cell line RJ2.2.5 as well as cell lines isolated from patients exhibiting the bare lymphocyte syndrome. This gene was termed the class II transactivator or CIITA. While both genetic and biochemical studies have indicated interactions between the DNA-binding proteins described above, direct interactions with CIITA have not been described. 23 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Preformed class II donor-specific antibodies are associated with an increased risk of early rejection after liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Jacqueline G; Kaneku, Hugo; Jennings, Linda W; Bañuelos, Nubia; Susskind, Brian M; Terasaki, Paul I; Klintmalm, Göran B

    2013-09-01

    Preformed donor-specific human leukocyte antigen antibodies (DSAs) are considered a contraindication to the transplantation of most solid organs other than the liver. Conflicting data currently exist on the importance of preformed DSAs in rejection and patient survival after liver transplantation (LT). To evaluate preformed DSAs in LT, we retrospectively analyzed prospectively collected samples from all adult recipients of primary LT without another organ from January 1, 2000 to May 31, 2009 with a pre-LT sample available (95.8% of the patients). Fourteen percent of the patients had preformed class I and/or II DSAs with a mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) ≥ 5000. Preformed class I DSAs with an MFI ≥ 5000 remained persistent in only 5% of patients and were not associated with rejection. Preformed class II DSAs with an MFI of 5000 to 10,000 remained persistent in 23% of patients, and this rate increased to 33% for patients whose MFI was ≥10,000 (P rejection [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.58; p = 0.004]. In addition, multivariate modeling showed that in comparison with no DSAs (MFI < 1000), preformed class I and/or II DSAs with an MFI ≥ 5000 were independently correlated with the risk of death (HR = 1.51; p = 0.02).

  11. Saliva vs. plasma bioequivalence of metformin in humans: validation of class II drugs of the salivary excretion classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idkaidek, N; Arafat, T

    2014-11-01

    To study saliva and plasma bioequivalence of metformin in humans, and to investigate the robustness of using saliva instead of plasma as surrogate for bioequivalence of class II drugs according to the salivary excretion classification system (SECS).Plasma and saliva samples were collected for 12 h after 500 mg oral dosing of metformin to 16 healthy humans. Plasma and saliva pharmacokinetic parameters, 90% confidence intervals and intra-subject variability values were calculated using Kinetica V5. Descriptive statistics and dimensional analysis were calculated by Excel. SimCYP program V13 was used for estimation of effective intestinal permeability.Metformin was subjected to salivary excretion since it falls into class II (Low permeability/High fraction unbound to plasma proteins), with correlation coefficients of 0.95-0.99 between plasma and saliva concentrations. Saliva/plasma concentration ratios were 0.29-0.39. The 90% confidence limits of all parameters failed in both saliva and plasma. Intra-subject variability values in saliva were higher than plasma leading to need for higher number of subjects to be used in saliva.Saliva instead of plasma can be used as surrogate for bioequivalence of class II drugs according to SECS when adequate sample size is used. Future work is planned to demonstrate SECS robustness in drugs that fall into class III.

  12. Wild-type phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthase (PRS from Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a bacterial class II PRS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardala Breda

    Full Text Available The 5-phospho-α-D-ribose 1-diphosphate (PRPP metabolite plays essential roles in several biosynthetic pathways, including histidine, tryptophan, nucleotides, and, in mycobacteria, cell wall precursors. PRPP is synthesized from α-D-ribose 5-phosphate (R5P and ATP by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis prsA gene product, phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthase (MtPRS. Here, we report amplification, cloning, expression and purification of wild-type MtPRS. Glutaraldehyde cross-linking results suggest that MtPRS predominates as a hexamer, presenting varied oligomeric states due to distinct ligand binding. MtPRS activity measurements were carried out by a novel coupled continuous spectrophotometric assay. MtPRS enzyme activity could be detected in the absence of P(i. ADP, GDP and UMP inhibit MtPRS activity. Steady-state kinetics results indicate that MtPRS has broad substrate specificity, being able to accept ATP, GTP, CTP, and UTP as diphosphoryl group donors. Fluorescence spectroscopy data suggest that the enzyme mechanism for purine diphosphoryl donors follows a random order of substrate addition, and for pyrimidine diphosphoryl donors follows an ordered mechanism of substrate addition in which R5P binds first to free enzyme. An ordered mechanism for product dissociation is followed by MtPRS, in which PRPP is the first product to be released followed by the nucleoside monophosphate products to yield free enzyme for the next round of catalysis. The broad specificity for diphosphoryl group donors and detection of enzyme activity in the absence of P(i would suggest that MtPRS belongs to Class II PRS proteins. On the other hand, the hexameric quaternary structure and allosteric ADP inhibition would place MtPRS in Class I PRSs. Further data are needed to classify MtPRS as belonging to a particular family of PRS proteins. The data here presented should help augment our understanding of MtPRS mode of action. Current efforts are toward experimental structure

  13. Predicting promiscuous antigenic T cell epitopes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis mymA operon proteins binding to MHC Class I and Class II molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraav, Iti; Pandey, Kirti; Sharma, Monika; Singh, Swati; Dutta, Prasun; Bhardwaj, Anshu; Sharma, Sadhna

    2016-10-01

    Limited efficacy of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine has raised the need to explore other immunogenic candidates to develop an effective vaccine against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells play a critical role in host immunity to Mtb. Infection of macrophages with Mtb results in upregulation of mymA operon genes thereby suggesting their importance as immune targets. In the present study, after exclusion of self-peptides mymA operon proteins of Mtb were analyzed in silico for the presence of Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) Class I and Class II binding peptides using Bioinformatics and molecular analysis section, NetMHC 3.4, ProPred and Immune epitope database software. Out of 56 promiscuous epitopes obtained, 41 epitopes were predicted to be antigenic for MHC Class I. In MHC Class II, out of 336 promiscuous epitopes obtained, 142 epitopes were predicted to be antigenic. The comparative bioinformatics analysis of mymA operon proteins found Rv3083 to be the best vaccine candidate. Molecular docking was performed with the most antigenic peptides of Rv3083 (LASGAASVV with alleles HLA-B51:01, HAATSGTLI with HLA-A02, IVTATGLNI and EKIHYGLKVNTA with HLA-DRB1_01:01) to study the structural basis for recognition of peptides by various HLA molecules. The software binding prediction was validated by the obtained molecular docking score of peptide-HLA complex. These peptides can be further investigated for their immunological relevance in patients of tuberculosis using major histocompatibility complex tetramer approach. PMID:27389362

  14. Exceptional hyperthyroidism and a role for both major histocompatibility class I and class II genes in a murine model of Graves' disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra M McLachlan

    Full Text Available Autoimmune hyperthyroidism, Graves' disease, can be induced by immunizing susceptible strains of mice with adenovirus encoding the human thyrotropin receptor (TSHR or its A-subunit. Studies in two small families of recombinant inbred strains showed that susceptibility to developing TSHR antibodies (measured by TSH binding inhibition, TBI was linked to the MHC region whereas genes on different chromosomes contributed to hyperthyroidism. We have now investigated TSHR antibody production and hyperthyroidism induced by TSHR A-subunit adenovirus immunization of a larger family of strains (26 of the AXB and BXA strains. Analysis of the combined AXB and BXA families provided unexpected insight into several aspects of Graves' disease. First, extreme thyroid hyperplasia and hyperthyroidism in one remarkable strain, BXA13, reflected an inability to generate non-functional TSHR antibodies measured by ELISA. Although neutral TSHR antibodies have been detected in Graves' sera, pathogenic, functional TSHR antibodies in Graves' patients are undetectable by ELISA. Therefore, this strain immunized with A-subunit-adenovirus that generates only functional TSHR antibodies may provide an improved model for studies of induced Graves' disease. Second, our combined analysis of linkage data from this and previous work strengthens the evidence that gene variants in the immunoglobulin heavy chain V region contribute to generating thyroid stimulating antibodies. Third, a broad region that encompasses the MHC region on mouse chromosome 17 is linked to the development of TSHR antibodies (measured by TBI. Most importantly, unlike other strains, TBI linkage in the AXB and BXA families to MHC class I and class II genes provides an explanation for the unresolved class I/class II difference in humans.

  15. Expansion design for a Laboratory of Radioactive Sources Handling type II, class B; Diseno de ampliacion para un Laboratorio de Manejo de Fuentes Radiactivas tipo II, clase B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez S, P. S.

    2014-07-01

    This work presents the expansion design of the Radioactive Wastes Research Laboratory (RWRL) installation authorized by the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (Mexico) as type II class C, to manage 40 different radionuclides, approximately. The RWRL has 4 areas at the present time: a laboratory of instrumental analysis, one of radioactive material processes, other of counting and a chemical reagents stock, which is not integrated to the operation license of the RWRL. With the purpose of expanding the operation license of the RWRL to an installation type II class B, to manage until 370 MBq of high radio toxicity radionuclides, is presented in this work an expansion proposal of the RWRL. The expansion proposal is based in: (1) the Mexican Nuclear Standard NOM-027-Nucl-1996 for installations type II class B, (2) the current distribution of water, light, electricity, extraction, gas, air and vacuum services of RWRL, and (3) the available areas inside the building that the RWRL occupies. The proposal contemplates the creation of additional new areas for RWRL: 3 laboratories, 2 dressing rooms, 2 bathrooms and 2 warehouses, one for radioactive materials and another for reagents chemical radiologically inactive. Architectural, electric, hydraulic, extraction and gas planes corresponding to the expansion of RWRL were realized. Inside the proposal the budget required to carry out the mentioned expansion is also presented. (Author)

  16. Polymorphism and Balancing Selection of MHC Class II DAB Gene in 7 Selective Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Du

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the genetic variation of the MHC class IIB exon2 allele in the offspring, 700 fry from seven families of Japanese flounder challenged with V. anguillarum were studied, and different mortality rates were found in those families. Five to ten surviving and dead fry from each of the seven families were selected to study the MHC class II B exon2 gene with PCR and a direct sequencing method. One hundred and sixteen different exon2 sequences were found and 116 different alleles were identified, while a minimum of four loci were revealed in the MHC class II B exon2 gene. The ratio (dN/dS of nonsynonymous substitution (dN to synonymous substitutions (dS in the peptide-binding region (PBR of the MHC class IIB gene was 6.234, which indicated that balancing selection is acting on the MHC class IIB genes. The MHC IIB alleles were thus being passed on to their progeny. Some alleles were significantly more frequent in surviving than dead individuals. All together our data suggested that the alleles Paol-DAB*4301, Paol-DAB*4601, Paol-DAB*4302, Paol-DAB*3803, and Paol-DAB*4101 were associated with resistance to V. anguillarum in flounder.

  17. Correlação entre a assimetria clínica e a assimetria radiográfica na Classe II, subdivisão Correlation between photographic asymmetry and radiographic asymmetry in patients with Class II subdivision malocclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Rita Pontes Azevedo; Guilherme Janson; José Fernando Castanha Henriques

    2004-01-01

    O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a correlação entre a assimetria clínica e a assimetria radiográfica nos pacientes com Classe II, subdivisão. A amostra consistiu de 42 indivíduos com má oclusão de Classe II, subdivisão completa, com idade média de 15,21 anos. A assimetria clínica foi avaliada medindo-se a diferença relativa da posição espacial dos pontos do tecido mole entre os lados direito e esquerdo em fotografias frontais. A assimetria radiográfica foi avaliada medindo-se a diferença r...

  18. HLA class II antigens and haplotypes associated with susceptibility of leukemias and myelodysplastic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojvodić Svetlana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetical and environmental factors play an interactive role in the development of acute and chronic leukemias. HLA antigens have been considered as possible genetic risk factors. The aim of this work was to investigate a possible association between HLA class II polymorphisms and leukemias and myelodysplastic syndrome. In the present study we investigated HLA class II antigens, DR/DQ and DR51/DR52/DR53 haplotypes in 100 patients: 7 suffering from myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS,37 from acute lymphoblastic leukemia(ALL,32 from acute myeloid leukemia (AML and 24 from chronic myeloid leukemia(CML. A panel of 210 healthy unrelated individuals of the same origin, from Vojvodina, served as controls. HLA phenotyping was performed by two color fluorescence method. In patients suffering from MDS was found a positive association with DR7(RR=2.598,EF=0.175 and DQ7(3(RR=4.419, EF=0.632, while negative association was found for DR15(2(RR=0.405, PF=0.172 and DQ6(1 (RR=0.889, PF=0,936.Positive association was found in the group of patients with ALL for DR7(RR=2.391,EF=0.688 and DQ2(RR=1.62, EF=0.15,while negative association was found with DQ5(1(RR=0.075, PF=0.324. In the group of patients with AML, there were positive associations with DR11(5(RR=1.732,EF=0.211,DQ2(RR= 1.594, EF=0.151 and DQ7(3 (RR=2.547,EF=0.266,while possible protective antigen was DQ5(1 (RR=0.107,RF=0.701. Higher RR than 1 and EF>0.15, in patients suffering from CML was found for DQ6(1(RR=1.661,EF=0.232, while negative association was found for DR4 (RR=0.182,PF=0.155.Possible protective haplotype in this study was DR3DQ8(3 for patients suffering from AML(RR=0.007, PF=0.501.The distribution of DR53-DR53 haplotypes showed significant difference in male patients with ALL(6% vs 0.09%, while DR52-DR52 haplotype was significantly less frequent in male patients with CML (4% vs 20.47% and female patients with MDS (1% vs 18.57%, respectively, in comparison to controls. We deduced that DR7 antigen in

  19. Bio-oss in Treatment of Furcation Class II Deffects and Comparison with Coronally Positioned Flap

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    Ak.Khoshkhoo Nejad

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Among periodontal defects, the furcation involvement represents one of the most chalenging scenarios due to the difficulty of achieving a predictable improvement regardless of the type of periodontal therapy. Moreover, the presence of furcation involvement has been demonstrated to considerably affect tooth prognosis. Thus, treatment of furcation defects is a challenge in clinical periodontics. The aim of periodontal treatment is not only to control infection but also to regenerate periodontal tissues lost as a consequence of periodontal disease.Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare Bio-oss (Bo, an anorganic bovine bone Xenograft, in combination with coronally positioned flap to open flap debridment surgery with coronally positiond flap alone in human mandibular class II furcation defects.Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial and interventional study 24 furcations, which provided 12 pairs of similar periodontal defects were evaluated. Each defect was randomly assigned to treatment with Bio-Oss in combination coronally positioned flap or open flap debridment and coronally positioned flap alone. Following basic therapy, baseline measurements were recorded including probing depth (PDD, clinical attachment level (CAL,gingival recession (REC, keratinized gingiva (KG and closed horizontal probing depth(CHPD. After 6 months, all sites were re-entered and hard tissue measurements were recorded.Hard tissue measurements were performed during surgery to determine open horizontal probing depth (OHPD and open vertical probing depth (OVPD. The data was analyzed using t-test paired sample.Results: Vertical probing depth reduction of 3.17±1.32 mm and horizontal probing depth reduction of 4.42±1.02 mm were noted for the BO group, with 2.87±0.83 mm and 2.31±0.49 mm reductions, respectively, noted for CPF alone. Both surgical procedures resulted in statistically significant probing depth reduction and gain clinical

  20. Prediction of MHC class II binding affinity using SMM-align, a novel stabilization matrix alignment method

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    Lund Ole

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antigen presenting cells (APCs sample the extra cellular space and present peptides from here to T helper cells, which can be activated if the peptides are of foreign origin. The peptides are presented on the surface of the cells in complex with major histocompatibility class II (MHC II molecules. Identification of peptides that bind MHC II molecules is thus a key step in rational vaccine design and developing methods for accurate prediction of the peptide:MHC interactions play a central role in epitope discovery. The MHC class II binding groove is open at both ends making the correct alignment of a peptide in the binding groove a crucial part of identifying the core of an MHC class II binding motif. Here, we present a novel stabilization matrix alignment method, SMM-align, that allows for direct prediction of peptide:MHC binding affinities. The predictive performance of the method is validated on a large MHC class II benchmark data set covering 14 HLA-DR (human MHC and three mouse H2-IA alleles. Results The predictive performance of the SMM-align method was demonstrated to be superior to that of the Gibbs sampler, TEPITOPE, SVRMHC, and MHCpred methods. Cross validation between peptide data set obtained from different sources demonstrated that direct incorporation of peptide length potentially results in over-fitting of the binding prediction method. Focusing on amino terminal peptide flanking residues (PFR, we demonstrate a consistent gain in predictive performance by favoring binding registers with a minimum PFR length of two amino acids. Visualizing the binding motif as obtained by the SMM-align and TEPITOPE methods highlights a series of fundamental discrepancies between the two predicted motifs. For the DRB1*1302 allele for instance, the TEPITOPE method favors basic amino acids at most anchor positions, whereas the SMM-align method identifies a preference for hydrophobic or neutral amino acids at the anchors. Conclusion

  1. HLA Class II Allele and Haplotype Frequencies in Iranian Patients with Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Khosravi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies demonstrated significant differences in a number of HLA allele frequencies in leukemia patients and normal subjects. In this study, we have analyzed HLA class II alleles and haplotypes in 110 leukemia patients (60 acute myelogenous leukemia "AML", 50 chronic myelogenous leukemia"CML" and 180 unrelated normal subjects. Blood samples were collected from all of the patients and control subjects. DNA was extracted by salting out method and HLA typing was performed using PCR-SSP method. Significant positive association with AML was obtained for HLA-DRB1*11allele (35% vs. 24.7%, P=0.033. Two alleles including HLA-DRB4 and -DQB1*0303 were significantly less frequent in AML patients than in controls. HLA-DQB1*0303 allele was never observed in CML patients compared with allele frequency in controls (4.2%. According to haplotype analysis, HLA-DRB1*0101/DQA1*0104/-DQB1*0501 frequencies were significantly higher and -DRB1*16/-DQA1*01021/-DQB1*0501 frequencies were significantly lower in CML patients than in controls .In conclusion it is suggested that HLA-DRB1*16 allele and HLA-DRB1*15/-DQA1*0103/-DQB1*06011 and -DRB1*16/-DQA1*01021/-DQB1*0501 haplotypes predispose individuals to AML and HLA-DRB4 allele predispose to CML. Future studies are needed to confirm these results and establish the role of these associations in AML and CML.

  2. Interspecific variability of class II hydrophobin GEO1 in the genus Geosmithia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frascella, Arcangela; Bettini, Priscilla P; Kolařík, Miroslav; Comparini, Cecilia; Pazzagli, Luigia; Luti, Simone; Scala, Felice; Scala, Aniello

    2014-11-01

    The genus Geosmithia Pitt (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) comprises cosmopolite fungi living in the galleries built by phloeophagous insects. Following the characterization in Geosmithia species 5 of the class II hydrophobin GEO1 and of the corresponding gene, the presence of the geo1 gene was investigated in 26 strains derived from different host plants and geographic locations and representing the whole phylogenetic diversity of the genus. The geo1 gene was detected in all the species tested where it maintained the general organization shown in Geosmithia species 5, comprising three exons and two introns. Size variations were found in both introns and in the first exon, the latter being due to the presence of an intragenic tandem repeat sequence corresponding to a stretch of glycine residues in the deduced proteins. At the amino acid level the deduced proteins had 44.6 % identity and no major differences in the biochemical parameters (pI, GRAVY index, hydropathy plots) were found. GEO1 release in the fungal culture medium was also assessed by turbidimetric assay and SDS-PAGE, and showed high variability between species. The phylogeny based on the geo1 sequences did not correspond to that generated from a neutral marker (ITS rDNA), suggesting that sequence similarities could be influenced by other factors than phylogenetic relatedness, such as the intimacy of the symbiosis with insect vectors. The hypothesis of a strong selection pressure on the geo1 gene was sustained by the low values (<1) of non synonymous to synonymous nucleotide substitutions ratios (Ka/Ks), which suggest that purifying selection might act on this gene. These results are compatible with either a birth-and-death evolution scenario or horizontal transfer of the gene between Geosmithia species.

  3. High specificity of human secretory class II phospholipase A2 for phosphatidic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snitko, Y; Yoon, E T; Cho, W

    1997-02-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a potent lipid second messenger which stimulates platelet aggregation, cell proliferation and smooth-muscle contraction. The phospholipase A2 (PLA2)-catalysed hydrolysis of phosphatidic acid (PA) is thought to be a primary synthetic route for LPA. Of the multiple forms of PLA2 present in human tissues, human secretory class-II PLA2 (hs-PLA2) has been implicated in the production of LPA from platelets and whole blood cells challenged with inflammatory stimuli. To explore further the possibility that hs-PLA2 is involved in the production of LPA, we rigorously measured the phospholipid head group specificity of hs-PLA2 by a novel PLA2 kinetic system using polymerized mixed liposomes. Kinetic analysis of recombinant hs-PLA2 demonstrates that hs-PLA2 strongly prefers PA as substrate over other phospholipids found in the mammalian plasma membrane including phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). The order of preference is PA > PE approximately PS > PC. To identify amino acid residues of hs-PLA2 that are involved in its unique substrate specificity, we mutated two residues, Glu-56 and Lys-69, which were shown to interact with the phospholipid head group in the X-ray-crystallographic structure of the hs-PLA2-transition-state-analogue complex. The K69Y mutant showed selective inactivation toward PA whereas the E56K mutant displayed a most pronounced inactivation to PE. Thus it appears that Lys-69 is at least partially involved in the PA specificity of hs-PLA2 and Glu-56 in the distinction between PE and PC. In conjunction with a recent cell study [Fourcade, Simon, Viode, Rugani, Leballe, Ragab, Fournie, Sarda and Chap (1995) Cell 80, 919-927], these studies suggest that hs-PLA2 can rapidly hydrolyse PA molecules exposed to the outer layer of cell-derived microvesicles and thereby produce LPA.

  4. Interaction of Fanaroff-Riley class II radio jets with a randomly magnetized intracluster medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huarte-Espinosa, M.; Krause, M.; Alexander, P.

    2011-12-01

    A combination of 3D magnetohydrodynamics and synthetic numerical simulations are presented to follow the evolution of a randomly magnetized plasma that models the intracluster medium, under the isolated effects of powerful, light, hypersonic and bipolar Fanaroff-Riley class II jets. We prescribe the cluster magnetic field (CMF) as a Gaussian random field with a Kolmogorov-like energy spectrum. Both the power of the jets and the viewing angle that is used for the synthetic rotation measure (RM) observations are investigated. We find the model radio sources introduce and amplify fluctuations on the RM statistical properties which we analyse as a function of time as well as the viewing angle. The average RM and the RM standard deviation are increased by the action of the jets. Energetics, RM statistics and magnetic power spectral analysis consistently show that the effects also correlate with the jets' power, and that the lightest, fastest jets produce the strongest changes in their environment. We see jets distort and amplify the CMFs especially near the edges of the lobes and the jets' heads. This process leads to a flattening of the RM structure functions at scales comparable to the source size. The edge features we find are similar to ones observed in Hydra A. The results show that jet-produced RM enhancements are more apparent in quasars than in radio galaxies. Globally, jets tend to enhance the RM standard deviation which may lead to overestimations of the CMFs' strength by about 70 per cent. This study means to serve as a pathfinder for the SKA, EVLA and LOFAR to follow the evolution of cosmic magnetic fields.

  5. Distribution and origin of bovine major histocompatibility complex class II DQA1 genes in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshima, S; Chen, S; Miki, M; Kado, M; Aida, Y

    2008-09-01

    We sequenced the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II DQA1 gene in 352 Japanese cattle (95 Japanese Black, 91 Holstein, 102 Japanese Shorthorn and 64 Jersey cattle) using a new sequence-based typing method. In total, 19 bovine MHC (BoLA)-DQA1 alleles, of which two were novel alleles, were detected. The Holstein, Jersey, Japanese Shorthorn and Japanese Black breeds had 13, 12, 10 and 15 alleles, respectively. The dendrogram that was constructed by the neighbor-joining method on the basis of the DQA1 gene allele frequencies of the four Japanese cattle breeds showed that the Holstein and Japanese Black breeds were closest to each other, with Jersey being farther from these two breeds than Japanese Shorthorn. In addition, Wu-Kabat analysis showed that the DQA1 alleles of the Holstein and Japanese Black were the most and least polymorphic, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the DQA1 gene of Bovidae such as cattle, sheep, bison and goat were more similar to pig SLA-DQA genes than to human HLA-DQA1 and dog DLA-DQA genes. The cattle, goat, bison, sheep, human and pig DQA1 molecules had similar rates of amino acid sequence polymorphism, but the distribution of their polymorphic residues differed from that in the dog DQA1 protein. However, the Bovidae DQA1 molecule had more polymorphic residues than the human, pig and dog DQA molecules at two regions, namely positions 52-53 and 65-66. This indicates that the Bovidae DQA1 locus is more polymorphic than the DQA loci of other species.

  6. Characterization of bovine MHC class II DRB3 diversity in South American Holstein cattle populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshima, S-N; Giovambattista, G; Okimoto, N; Matsumoto, Y; Rogberg-Muñoz, A; Acosta, T J; Onuma, M; Aida, Y

    2015-12-01

    Holstein cattle dominate the global milk production industry because of their outstanding milk production, however, this breed is susceptible to tropical endemic pathogens and suffers from heat stress and thus fewer Holstein populations are raised in tropical areas. The bovine major histocompatibility complex (BoLA)-DRB3 class II gene is used as a marker for disease and immunological traits, and its polymorphism has been studied extensively in Holstein cattle from temperate and cold regions. We studied the genetic diversity of the BoLA-DRB3 gene in South American Holstein populations to determine whether tropical populations have diverged from those bred in temperate and cold regions by selection and/or crossbreeding with local native breeds. We specifically studied Exon 2 of this gene from 855 South American Holstein individuals by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) sequence-based typing method. We found a high degree of gene diversity at the allelic (Na > 20 and He > 0.87) and molecular (π > 0.080) levels, but a low degree of population structure (FST = 0.009215). A principal components analysis and tree showed that the Bolivian subtropical population had the largest genetic divergence compared with Holsteins bred in temperate or cold regions, and that this population was closely related to Bolivian Creole cattle. Our results suggest that Holstein genetic divergence can be explained by selection and/or gene introgression from local germplasms. This is the first examination of BoLA-DRB3 in Holsteins adapted to tropical environments, and contributes to an ongoing effort to catalog bovine MHC allele frequencies by breed and location.

  7. Anti-cofactor autoantibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus: prevalence, clinical and HLA class II associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastiani, Gian Domenico; Morozzi, Gabriella; Bellisai, Francesca; Fineschi, Irene; Bacarelli, Maria Romana; Simpatico, Antonella; Font, Josep; Cervera, Ricard; Houssiau, Frederic; Fernandez-Nebro, Antonio; De Ramon Garrido, Enrique; De Pità, Ornella; Smolen, Josef; Galeazzi, Mauro

    2008-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the clinical and HLA-class II allele associations of some anti-cofactor antibodies in a homogeneous group of European patients with SLE. One hundred thirty-six patients with SLE, fulfilling four or more of the ACR 1997 revised criteria for the classification of the disease, coming from 7 European countries, were enrolled consecutively. Anti-prothrombin (anti-PT), anti-annexin V (anti-AnnV), anti-protein C (anti-Cprot) and anti-protein S (anti-Sprot) were determined by using commercial ELISA kits. Molecular typing of HLA-DRB1, DRB3, DRB4, DRB5, DQA1, DQB1 and DPB1 loci was performed by using PCR-SSOP method, carried out using digoxygenin (DIG) labeled probes. The prevalence of anti-AnnV, anti-PT, anti-Cprot and anti-Sprot was 19%, 10.4%, 4.4% and 8.1%, respectively. Twenty-seven % of anti-AnnV positive patients reported migraine vs 5.5% of anti-AnnV negatives (p = 0.003, but p not significant, odds ratio (OR) = 6.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2-21). Anti-PT, anti-AnnV and anti-Sprot were positively associated with some HLA alleles, but pc was not significant. In this study we have shown that some HLA alleles carry the risk to produce antibodies against phospholipid-binding proteins, but these association need confirmation in other studies, because they have never been reported and appear to be weak associations.

  8. Diversification of porcine MHC class II genes: evidence for selective advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luetkemeier, Erin S; Malhi, Ripan S; Beever, Jonathan E; Schook, Lawrence B

    2009-02-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is an immunological gene-dense region of high diversity in mammalian species. Sus scrofa was domesticated by at least six independent events over Eurasia during the Holocene period. It has been hypothesized that the level and distribution of MHC variation in pig populations reflect genetic selection and environmental influences. In an effort to define the complexity of MHC polymorphisms and the role of selection in the generation of class II gene diversity (DQB, DRB1, and pseudogene PsiDRB3), DNA from globally distributed unrelated domestic pigs of European and Asian origins and a Suidae out-group was analyzed. The number of pseudogene alleles identified (PsiDRB3 33) was greater than those found in the expressed genes (DQB 20 and DRB1 23) but the level of observed heterozygosity (PsiDRB3 0.452, DQB 0.732, and DRB1 0.767) and sequence diversity (PsiDRB3 0.029, DQB 0.062, and DRB1 0.074) were significantly lower in the pseudogene, respectively. The substitution ratios reflected an excess of d (N) (DQB 1.476, DRB1 1.724, and PsiDRB3 0.508) and the persistence of expressed gene alleles suggesting the influence of balancing selection, while the pseudogene was undergoing purifying selection. The lack of a clear MHC phylogeographic tree, coupled with close genetic distances observed between the European and Asian populations (DQB 0.047 and DRB1 0.063) suggested that unlike observations using mtDNA, the MHC diversity lacks phylogeographic structure and appears to be globally uniform. Taken together, these results suggest that, despite regional differences in selective breeding and environments, no skewing of MHC diversity has occurred.

  9. Shared HLA Class II in Six Autoimmune Diseases in Latin America: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Cruz-Tapias

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and genetic susceptibility of autoimmune diseases (ADs may vary depending on latitudinal gradient and ethnicity. The aims of this study were to identify common human leukocyte antigen (HLA class II alleles that contribute to susceptibility to six ADs in Latin Americans through a meta-analysis and to review additional clinical, immunological, and genetic characteristics of those ADs sharing HLA alleles. DRB1∗03:01 (OR: 4.04; 95%CI: 1.41–11.53 was found to be a risk factor for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, Sjögren's syndrome (SS, and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D. DRB1∗04:05 (OR: 4.64; 95%CI: 2.14–10.05 influences autoimmune hepatitis (AIH, rheumatoid arthritis (RA, and T1D; DRB1∗04:01 (OR: 3.86; 95%CI: 2.32–6.42 is a susceptibility factor for RA and T1D. Opposite associations were found between multiple sclerosis (MS and T1D. DQB1∗06:02 and DRB1∗15 alleles were risk factors for MS but protective factors for T1D. Likewise, DQB1∗06:03 allele was a risk factor for AIH but a protective one for T1D. Several common autoantibodies and clinical associations as well as additional shared genes have been reported in these ADs, which are reviewed herein. These results indicate that in Latin Americans ADs share major loci and immune characteristics.

  10. Diversification of porcine MHC class II genes: evidence for selective advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luetkemeier, Erin S; Malhi, Ripan S; Beever, Jonathan E; Schook, Lawrence B

    2009-02-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is an immunological gene-dense region of high diversity in mammalian species. Sus scrofa was domesticated by at least six independent events over Eurasia during the Holocene period. It has been hypothesized that the level and distribution of MHC variation in pig populations reflect genetic selection and environmental influences. In an effort to define the complexity of MHC polymorphisms and the role of selection in the generation of class II gene diversity (DQB, DRB1, and pseudogene PsiDRB3), DNA from globally distributed unrelated domestic pigs of European and Asian origins and a Suidae out-group was analyzed. The number of pseudogene alleles identified (PsiDRB3 33) was greater than those found in the expressed genes (DQB 20 and DRB1 23) but the level of observed heterozygosity (PsiDRB3 0.452, DQB 0.732, and DRB1 0.767) and sequence diversity (PsiDRB3 0.029, DQB 0.062, and DRB1 0.074) were significantly lower in the pseudogene, respectively. The substitution ratios reflected an excess of d (N) (DQB 1.476, DRB1 1.724, and PsiDRB3 0.508) and the persistence of expressed gene alleles suggesting the influence of balancing selection, while the pseudogene was undergoing purifying selection. The lack of a clear MHC phylogeographic tree, coupled with close genetic distances observed between the European and Asian populations (DQB 0.047 and DRB1 0.063) suggested that unlike observations using mtDNA, the MHC diversity lacks phylogeographic structure and appears to be globally uniform. Taken together, these results suggest that, despite regional differences in selective breeding and environments, no skewing of MHC diversity has occurred. PMID:19142631

  11. Characterization and Inhibition of a Class II Diterpene Cyclase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Francis M.; Prisic, Sladjana; Hu, Huayou; Xu, Meimei; Coates, Robert M.; Peters, Reuben J.

    2009-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a widespread and devastating human pathogen, whose ability to infiltrate macrophage host cells from the human immune system is an active area of investigation. We have recently reported the discovery of a novel diterpene from M. tuberculosis, edaxadiene, whose ability to arrest phagosomal maturation in isolation presumably contributes to this critical process in M. tuberculosis infections. (Mann, F. M., Xu, M., Chen, X., Fulton, D. B., Russell, D. G., and Peters, R. J. (2009) J. Am. Chem. Soc., in press). Here, we present characterization of the class II diterpene cyclase that catalyzes the committed step in edaxadiene biosynthesis, i.e. the previously identified halimadienyl-diphosphate synthase (HPS; EC 5.5.1.16). Intriguingly, our kinetic analysis suggests a potential biochemical regulatory mechanism that triggers edaxadiene production upon phagosomal engulfment. Furthermore, we report characterization of potential HPS inhibitors: specifically, two related transition state analogs (15-aza-14,15-dihydrogeranylgeranyl diphosphate (7a) and 15-aza-14,15-dihydrogeranylgeranyl thiolodiphosphate (7b)) that exhibit very tight binding. Although arguably not suitable for clinical use, these nevertheless provide a basis for pharmaceutical design against this intriguing biosynthetic pathway. Finally, we provide evidence indicating that this pathway exists only in M. tuberculosis and is not functional in the closely related Mycobacterium bovis because of an inactivating frameshift in the HPS-encoding gene. Thus, we hypothesize that the inability to produce edaxadiene may be a contributing factor in the decreased infectivity and/or virulence of M. bovis relative to M. tuberculosis in humans. PMID:19574210

  12. The Potential of Class II Bacteriocins to Modify Gut Microbiota to Improve Host Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umu, Özgün C. O.; Bäuerl, Christine; Oostindjer, Marije; Pope, Phillip B.; Hernández, Pablo E.; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Diep, Dzung B.

    2016-01-01

    Production of bacteriocins is a potential probiotic feature of many lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as it can help prevent the growth of pathogens in gut environments. However, knowledge on bacteriocin producers in situ and their function in the gut of healthy animals is still limited. In this study, we investigated five bacteriocin-producing strains of LAB and their isogenic non-producing mutants for probiotic values. The LAB bacteriocins, sakacin A (SakA), pediocin PA-1 (PedPA-1), enterocins P, Q and L50 (enterocins), plantaricins EF and JK (plantaricins) and garvicin ML (GarML), are all class II bacteriocins, but they differ greatly from each other in terms of inhibition spectrum and physicochemical properties. The strains were supplemented to mice through drinking water and changes on the gut microbiota composition were interpreted using 16S rRNA gene analysis. In general, we observed that overall structure of the gut microbiota remained largely unaffected by the treatments. However, at lower taxonomic levels, some transient but advantageous changes were observed. Some potentially problematic bacteria were inhibited (e.g., Staphylococcus by enterocins, Enterococcaceae by GarML, and Clostridium by plantaricins) and the proportion of LAB was increased in the presence of SakA-, plantaricins- and GarML-producing bacteria. Moreover, the treatment with GarML-producing bacteria co-occurred with decreased triglyceride levels in the host mice. Taken together, our results indicate that several of these bacteriocin producers have potential probiotic properties at diverse levels as they promote favorable changes in the host without major disturbance in gut microbiota, which is important for normal gut functioning. PMID:27695121

  13. GPS-MBA: computational analysis of MHC class II epitopes in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ruikun; Liu, Zexian; Ren, Jian; Ma, Chuang; Gao, Tianshun; Zhou, Yanhong; Yang, Qing; Xue, Yu

    2012-01-01

    As a severe chronic metabolic disease and autoimmune disorder, type 1 diabetes (T1D) affects millions of people world-wide. Recent advances in antigen-based immunotherapy have provided a great opportunity for further treating T1D with a high degree of selectivity. It is reported that MHC class II I-A(g7) in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse and human HLA-DQ8 are strongly linked to susceptibility to T1D. Thus, the identification of new I-A(g7) and HLA-DQ8 epitopes would be of great help to further experimental and biomedical manipulation efforts. In this study, a novel GPS-MBA (MHC Binding Analyzer) software package was developed for the prediction of I-A(g7) and HLA-DQ8 epitopes. Using experimentally identified epitopes as the training data sets, a previously developed GPS (Group-based Prediction System) algorithm was adopted and improved. By extensive evaluation and comparison, the GPS-MBA performance was found to be much better than other tools of this type. With this powerful tool, we predicted a number of potentially new I-A(g7) and HLA-DQ8 epitopes. Furthermore, we designed a T1D epitope database (TEDB) for all of the experimentally identified and predicted T1D-associated epitopes. Taken together, this computational prediction result and analysis provides a starting point for further experimental considerations, and GPS-MBA is demonstrated to be a useful tool for generating starting information for experimentalists. The GPS-MBA is freely accessible for academic researchers at: http://mba.biocuckoo.org.

  14. A model for straight and helical solar jets: II. Parametric study of the plasma beta

    CERN Document Server

    Pariat, E; DeVore, C R; Antiochos, S K; Karpen, J T

    2016-01-01

    Jets are dynamic, impulsive, well-collimated plasma events that develop at many different scales and in different layers of the solar atmosphere. Jets are believed to be induced by magnetic reconnection, a process central to many astrophysical phenomena. Within the solar atmosphere, jet-like events develop in many different environments, e.g., in the vicinity of active regions as well as in coronal holes, and at various scales, from small photospheric spicules to large coronal jets. In all these events, signatures of helical structure and/or twisting/rotating motions are regularly observed. The present study aims to establish that a single model can generally reproduce the observed properties of these jet-like events. In this study, using our state-of-the-art numerical solver ARMS, we present a parametric study of a numerical tridimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model of solar jet-like events. Within the MHD paradigm, we study the impact of varying the atmospheric plasma $\\beta$ on the generation and prop...

  15. Má oclusão Classe II, divisão 1, de Angle com discrepância ântero-posterior acentuada Angle Class II malocclusion with severe anteroposterior disharmony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Curado de Freitas

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A má oclusão Classe II de Angle é caracterizada por uma discrepância dentária ântero-posterior, que pode ou não estar associada a alterações esqueléticas. Além do comprometimento estético, o fato de vir associada a um overjet acentuado faz com que o paciente fique mais exposto a traumas dentários. Este caso foi apresentado à Diretoria do Board Brasileiro de Ortodontia e Ortopedia Facial (BBO, representando a categoria 4, ou seja, uma má oclusão com discrepância ântero-posterior acentuada, Classe II com ANB maior ou igual a 5º, como parte dos requisitos para a obtenção do título de Diplomado pelo BBO. Possui uma característica incomum, que é a ausência congênita de um incisivo inferior.Angle Class II malocclusion is characterized by an anteroposterior dental discrepancy which may or may not be accompanied by skeletal changes. In general, distressed by a significantly compromised facial aspect, patients tend to seek treatment. This case report was submitted to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Facial Orthopedics (BBO as part of the board certification process, as representative of Category 4, i.e., a Class II malocclusion with severe anteroposterior discrepancy and ANB Angle equal to or bigger than 5º (ANB > 5º. The case involves an unusual event - the congenital absence of one lower incisor tooth.

  16. The P9 pocket of HLA-DQ2 (non-Aspbeta57) has no particular preference for negatively charged anchor residues found in other type 1 diabetes-predisposing non-Aspbeta57 MHC class II molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quarsten, H; Paulsen, G; Johansen, B H;

    1998-01-01

    -predisposing class II molecules. The molecular explanation for such a phenomenon could be that class II beta chains with Aspbeta57 form a salt bridge between Aspbeta57 and a conserved Arg of the a chain, whereas in non-Aspbeta57 molecules the Arg is unopposed and free to interact with negatively charged P9 peptide...... anchor residues. We have investigated the specificity of the P9 pocket of the type 1 diabetes-associated DQ2 molecule and in particular examined for charge effects at this anchor position. Different approaches were undertaken. We analyzed binding of a high-affinity binding ligand and P9-substituted...... variants of this peptide, and we analyzed the binding of a set of synthetic random peptide libraries. The binding analyses were performed with wild-type DQ2 and a mutated DQ2 with Ala at beta57 substituted with Asp. Our results indicate that the wild-type DQ2 (non-Aspbeta57) prefers large hydrophobic...

  17. HLA class II genes polymorphism in DR4 giant cell arteritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bignon, J D; Ferec, C; Barrier, J; Pennec, Y; Verlingue, C; Cheneau, M L; Lucas, V; Muller, J Y; Saleun, J P

    1988-11-01

    We have previously reported a significant increase of HLA-DR4 antigen frequency in giant cell arteritis (GCA). This finding suggested an important role of immunogenetic factors in this syndrome. Recent data suggest that inherited susceptibility to several autoimmune diseases was associated with specific DR4 associated DQ beta alleles. DNAs from 27 DR4 positive patients with GCA were digested with Taq I and Bam HI, analysed on 0.7% agarose gel and hybridized with DR beta, DQ alpha and DQ beta probes. DR beta hybridization produced no variant detectable within DR4. DQ beta probe confirmed two clusters among DR4 associated DQW3 alleles: DQW 3.1 (Bam HI 360 Kb) and DQw 3.2 (Taq I 1.9 Kb and Bam HI 11 Kb). Among our 27 DR4 positive patients, 34% were DQW 3.1 and 66% were DQW 3.2. These frequencies are the same as those observed in healthy controls. PMID:2906182

  18. HLA Class II Defects in Burkitt Lymphoma: Bryostatin-1-Induced 17 kDa Protein Restores CD4+ T-Cell Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azim Hossain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available While the defects in HLA class I-mediated Ag presentation by Burkitt lymphoma (BL have been well documented, CD4+ T-cells are also poorly stimulated by HLA class II Ag presentation, and the reasons underlying this defect(s have not yet been fully resolved. Here, we show that BL cells are deficient in their ability to optimally stimulate CD4+ T cells via the HLA class II pathway. The observed defect was not associated with low levels of BL-expressed costimulatory molecules, as addition of external co-stimulation failed to result in BL-mediated CD4+ T-cell activation. We further demonstrate that BL cells express the components of the class II pathway, and the defect was not caused by faulty Ag/class II interaction, because antigenic peptides bound with measurable affinity to BL-associated class II molecules. Treatment of BL with broystatin-1, a potent modulator of protein kinase C, led to significant improvement of functional class II Ag presentation in BL. The restoration of immune recognition appeared to be linked with an increased expression of a 17 kDa peptidylprolyl-like protein. These results demonstrate the presence of a specific defect in HLA class II-mediated Ag presentation in BL and reveal that treatment with bryostatin-1 could lead to enhanced immunogenicity.

  19. Angiotensin II modulates interleukin-1{beta}-induced inflammatory gene expression in vascular smooth muscle cells via interfering with ERK-NF-{kappa}B crosstalk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Shanqin [Vascular Biology Unit, Whitaker Cardiovascular Institute, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Zhi, Hui [Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Hou, Xiuyun [Vascular Biology Unit, Whitaker Cardiovascular Institute, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Jiang, Bingbing, E-mail: bjiang1@rics.bwh.harvard.edu [Vascular Biology Unit, Whitaker Cardiovascular Institute, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} We examine how angiotensin II modulates ERK-NF-{kappa}B crosstalk and gene expression. {yields} Angiotensin II suppresses IL-1{beta}-induced prolonged ERK and NF-{kappa}B activation. {yields} ERK-RSK1 signaling is required for IL-1{beta}-induced prolonged NF-{kappa}B activation. {yields} Angiotensin II modulates NF-{kappa}B responsive genes via regulating ERK-NF-{kappa}B crosstalk. {yields} ERK-NF-{kappa}B crosstalk is a novel mechanism regulating inflammatory gene expression. -- Abstract: Angiotensin II is implicated in cardiovascular diseases, which is associated with a role in increasing vascular inflammation. The present study investigated how angiotensin II modulates vascular inflammatory signaling and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1. In cultured rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), angiotensin II suppressed interleukin-1{beta}-induced prolonged phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK)-1, and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B, leading to decreased iNOS but enhanced VCAM-1 expression, associated with an up-regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 expression. Knock-down of RSK1 selectively down regulated interleukin-1{beta}-induced iNOS expression without influencing VCAM-1 expression. In vivo experiments showed that interleukin-1{beta}, iNOS, and VCAM-1 expression were detectable in the aortic arches of both wild-type and apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE{sup -/-}) mice. VCAM-1 and iNOS expression were higher in ApoE{sup -/-} than in wild type mouse aortic arches. Angiotensin II infusion (3.2 mg/kg/day, for 6 days, via subcutaneous osmotic pump) in ApoE{sup -/-} mice enhanced endothelial and adventitial VCAM-1 and iNOS expression, but reduced medial smooth muscle iNOS expression associated with reduced phosphorylation of ERK and RSK-1. These results indicate that angiotensin

  20. Transforming growth factor beta receptor II polymorphisms are associated with Kawasaki disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Mi Choi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Transforming growth factor beta receptor 2 (TGFBR2 is a tumor suppressor gene that plays a role in the differentiation of striated cells and remodeling of coronary arteries. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of this gene are associated with Marfan syndrome and sudden death in patients with coronary artery disease. Cardiovascular remodeling and T cell activation of TGFBR2 gene suggest that the TGFBR2 gene SNPs are related to the pathogenesis of Kawasaki disease (KD and coronary artery lesion (CAL. Methods : The subjects were 105 patients with KD and 500 healthy adults as controls. Mean age of KD group was 32 months age and 26.6% of those had CAL. We selected TGFBR2 gene SNPs from serum and performed direct sequencing. Results : The sequences of the eleven SNPs in the TGFBR2 gene were compared between the KD group and controls. Three SNPs (rs1495592, rs6550004, rs795430 were associated with development of KD (P=0.019, P=0.026, P=0.016, respectively. One SNP (rs1495592 was associated with CAL in KD group (P=0.022. Conclusion : Eleven SNPs in TGFBR2 gene were identified at that time the genome wide association. But, with the change of the data base, only six SNPs remained associated with the TGFBR2 gene. One of the six SNPs (rs6550004 was associated with development of KD. One SNP associated with CAL (rs1495592 was disassociated from the TGFBR2 gene. The other five SNPs were not functionally identified, but these SNPs are notable because the data base is changing. Further studies involving larger group of patients with KD are needed.

  1. Immunogenetics of rheumatoid arthritis and primary Sjögren's syndrome: DNA polymorphism of HLA class II genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morling, Niels; Andersen, V; Fugger, L;

    1992-01-01

    We investigated the DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the Major Histocompatability Complex (MHC) class II genes: HLA-DRB, -DQA, -DQB, DPA, and -DFB in 24 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), in 19 patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (primary SS), and healthy Danes....... The frequencies of DNA fragments associated with the following HLA class II genes were increased in RA when compared to normal controls: DRB1*04 (DR4) (relative risk, RR = 7.4, P less than 10(-3), DRB4*0101 (DRw53) (RR = 9.6, P less than 10(-3), DQA1*0301 (RR = 9.6, P less than 10(-3), DQB1*0301 (DQw7) (RR = 2...

  2. Assessment of divine proportion in the cranial structure of individuals with Angle Class II malocclusion on lateral cephalograms

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos André dos Santos da Silva; Edmundo Médici Filho; Julio Cezar de Melo Castilho; Cássia T. Lopes de Alcântara Gil

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The study of the Divine Proportion (Φ = 1.618) began with the Greeks, having as main researchers the mathematician Pythagoras and the sculptor Phidias. In Dentistry, Ricketts (1981-82) was an early to study this issue. OBJECTIVE: This study proposed to evaluate how some cephalometric measures are presented in relation to the Divine Proportion, with the total of 52 proportions, formed by 28 cephalometric landmarks. METHODS: Lateral cephalograms of 40 Class II adults patients...

  3. Crystal Structure of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin I (SEI) in Complex with a Human Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Molecule*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Marisa M.; Guan, Rongjin; Swaminathan, Chittoor P.; Malchiodi, Emilio L.; Mariuzza, Roy A.

    2009-01-01

    Superantigens are bacterial or viral proteins that elicit massive T cell activation through simultaneous binding to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II and T cell receptors. This activation results in uncontrolled release of inflammatory cytokines, causing toxic shock. A remarkable property of superantigens, which distinguishes them from T cell receptors, is their ability to interact with multiple MHC class II alleles independently of MHC-bound peptide. Previous crystallographic studies have shown that staphylococcal and streptococcal superantigens belonging to the zinc family bind to a high affinity site on the class II β-chain. However, the basis for promiscuous MHC recognition by zinc-dependent superantigens is not obvious, because the β-chain is polymorphic and the MHC-bound peptide forms part of the binding interface. To understand how zinc-dependent superantigens recognize MHC, we determined the crystal structure, at 2.0 Å resolution, of staphylococcal enterotoxin I bound to the human class II molecule HLA-DR1 bearing a peptide from influenza hemagglutinin. Interactions between the superantigen and DR1 β-chain are mediated by a zinc ion, and 22% of the buried surface of peptide·MHC is contributed by the peptide. Comparison of the staphylococcal enterotoxin I·peptide·DR1 structure with ones determined previously revealed that zinc-dependent superantigens achieve promiscuous binding to MHC by targeting conservatively substituted residues of the polymorphic β-chain. Additionally, these superantigens circumvent peptide specificity by engaging MHC-bound peptides at their conformationally conserved N-terminal regions while minimizing sequence-specific interactions with peptide residues to enhance cross-reactivity. PMID:16829512

  4. PvuII RFLP detected by a human. beta. ADH cDNA probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsian, A.; Burgess, A.K.; Khan, M.A.; Devor, E.J. (Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (USA))

    1989-12-11

    A 0.97 kb cDNA (ADH12) fragment encoding human exons 7, 8, 9 of the ADH{sub 2} gene was isolated from an adult human liver cDNA library. The insert can be excised by Pst I digestion. Pvu II identifies a two-allele polymorphism with bands at 4.4 kb (A{sub 1}) and 3.0 kb (A{sub 2}) and invariant bands at 5.1, 4.0, 2.8, and 2.3 kb. It was localized on Chromosome 4q21-q25 by in situ hybridization. Co-dominant segregation was observed in 18 informative families.

  5. HLA Class I and II Blocks Are Associated to Susceptibility, Clinical Subtypes and Autoantibodies in Mexican Systemic Sclerosis (SSc Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana S Rodriguez-Reyna

    Full Text Available Human leukocyte antigen (HLA polymorphism studies in Systemic Sclerosis (SSc have yielded variable results. These studies need to consider the genetic admixture of the studied population. Here we used our previously reported definition of genetic admixture of Mexicans using HLA class I and II DNA blocks to map genetic susceptibility to develop SSc and its complications.We included 159 patients from a cohort of Mexican Mestizo SSc patients. We performed clinical evaluation, obtained SSc-associated antibodies, and determined HLA class I and class II alleles using sequence-based, high-resolution techniques to evaluate the contribution of these genes to SSc susceptibility, their correlation with the clinical and autoantibody profile and the prevalence of Amerindian, Caucasian and African alleles, blocks and haplotypes in this population.Our study revealed that class I block HLA-C*12:03-B*18:01 was important to map susceptibility to diffuse cutaneous (dc SSc, HLA-C*07:01-B*08:01 block to map the susceptibility role of HLA-B*08:01 to develop SSc, and the C*07:02-B*39:05 and C*07:02-B*39:06 blocks to map the protective role of C*07:02 in SSc. We also confirmed previous associations of HLA-DRB1*11:04 and -DRB1*01 to susceptibility to develop SSc. Importantly, we mapped the protective role of DQB1*03:01 using three Amerindian blocks. We also found a significant association for the presence of anti-Topoisomerase I antibody with HLA-DQB1*04:02, present in an Amerindian block (DRB1*08:02-DQB1*04:02, and we found several alleles associated to internal organ damage. The admixture estimations revealed a lower proportion of the Amerindian genetic component among SSc patients.This is the first report of the diversity of HLA class I and II alleles and haplotypes Mexican patients with SSc. Our findings suggest that HLA class I and class II genes contribute to the protection and susceptibility to develop SSc and its different clinical presentations as well as

  6. Changes in skeletal and dental relationship in Class II Division I malocclusion after rapid maxillary expansion: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Baratieri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess skeletal and dental changes immediately after rapid maxillary expansion (RME in Class II Division 1 malocclusion patients and after a retention period, using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT imaging. METHODS: Seventeen children with Class II, Division 1 malocclusion and maxillary skeletal transverse deficiency underwent RME following the Haas protocol. CBCT were taken before treatment (T1, at the end of the active expansion phase (T2 and after a retention period of 6 months (T3. The scanned images were measured anteroposteriorly (SNA, SNB, ANB, overjet and MR and vertically (N-ANS, ANS-Me, N-Me and overbite. RESULTS: Significant differences were identified immediately after RME as the maxilla moved forward, the mandible moved downward, overjet increased and overbite decreased. During the retention period, the maxilla relapsed backwards and the mandible was displaced forward, leaving patients with an overall increase in anterior facial height. CONCLUSION: RME treatment allowed more anterior than inferior positioning of the mandible during the retention period, thus significantly improving Class II dental relationship in 75% of the patients evaluated.

  7. Class II-targeted antigen is superior to CD40-targeted antigen at stimulating humoral responses in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frleta, D; Demian, D; Wade, W F

    2001-02-01

    We examined the efficacy of using monoclonal antibodies to target antigen (avidin) to different surface molecules expressed on antigen presenting cells (APC). In particular, we targeted CD40 to test whether the "adjuvant" properties of CD40 signaling combined with targeted antigen would result in enhanced serologic responses. We targeted avidin to class II as a positive control and to CD11c as a negative control. These surface proteins represent an ensemble of surface molecules that signal upon ligation and that are expressed on professional APC, in particular dendritic cells (DC). We observed that targeting class II molecules on APC was superior to targeting CD40, or CD11c. However, CD40 and CD11c could function as targets for antigen bound monoclonal antibodies under certain conditions. Interestingly, inclusion of anti-CD40 mAb with the targeting anti-class II-targeted antigens negatively affects humoral response, suggesting that CD40 signaling under certain conditions may suppress processing and/or presentation of targeted antigen. PMID:11360928

  8. Contrasting epidemic histories reveal pathogen-mediated balancing selection on class II MHC diversity in a wild songbird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana M Hawley

    Full Text Available The extent to which pathogens maintain the extraordinary polymorphism at vertebrate Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC genes via balancing selection has intrigued evolutionary biologists for over half a century, but direct tests remain challenging. Here we examine whether a well-characterized epidemic of Mycoplasmal conjunctivitis resulted in balancing selection on class II MHC in a wild songbird host, the house finch (Carpodacus mexicanus. First, we confirmed the potential for pathogen-mediated balancing selection by experimentally demonstrating that house finches with intermediate to high multi-locus MHC diversity are more resistant to challenge with Mycoplasma gallisepticum. Second, we documented sequence and diversity-based signatures of pathogen-mediated balancing selection at class II MHC in exposed host populations that were absent in unexposed, control populations across an equivalent time period. Multi-locus MHC diversity significantly increased in exposed host populations following the epidemic despite initial compromised diversity levels from a recent introduction bottleneck in the exposed host range. We did not observe equivalent changes in allelic diversity or heterozygosity across eight neutral microsatellite loci, suggesting that the observations reflect selection rather than neutral demographic processes. Our results indicate that a virulent pathogen can exert sufficient balancing selection on class II MHC to rescue compromised levels of genetic variation for host resistance in a recently bottlenecked population. These results provide evidence for Haldane's long-standing hypothesis that pathogens directly contribute to the maintenance of the tremendous levels of genetic variation detected in natural populations of vertebrates.

  9. Finite Element Analysis of the Effect of Proximal Contour of Class II Composite Restorations on Stress Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Moghaddas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of proximal contour of class II composite restorations placed with straight or contoured matrix band using composite resins with different modulus of elasticity on stress distribution by finite element method. Methods: In order to evaluate the stress distribution of class II composite restorations using finite element method, upper right first molar and second premolar were modeled. Proximal boxes were designed and restored with universal Z250 and packable P60 composite resins (3M ESPE using two matrix systems: flat Tofflemire matrix and precurved sectional matrix. Finally models were evaluated under loads of 200 and 400 Newton at 90 degrees angle and the results were graphically illustrated in the form of Von Misses stresses. Results: In general the stress obtained under 400 Newton load was significantly greater than the stress of models under 200 Newton load. Von Misses stress distribution pattern of two different Z250 and P60 composites were very similar in all modes of loading and proximal contour. In all analyzed models there was a significant difference between models restored with Tofflemire matrix with flat contour and models restored with sectional matrix with curved contour. This difference was greater in first molar than second premolar. Conclusion: Use of a contoured matrix band results in less stress in class II composite resin restorations.

  10. Finite Element Analysis of the Effect of Proximal Contour of Class II Composite Restorations on Stress Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Abachizadeh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of proximal contour of class II composite restorations placed with straight or contoured matrix band using composite resins with different modulus of elasticity on stress distribution by finite element method. Methods: In order to evaluate the stress distribution of class II composite restorations using finite element method, upper right first molar and second premolar were modeled. Proximal boxes were designed and restored with universal Z250 and packable P60 composite resins (3M ESPE using two matrix systems: flat Tofflemire matrix and precurved sectional matrix. Finally models were evaluated under loads of 200 and 400 Newton at 90 degrees angle and the results were graphically illustrated in the form of Von Misses stresses. Results: In general the stress obtained under 400 Newton load was significantly greater than the stress of models under 200 Newton load. Von Misses stress distribution pattern of two different Z250 and P60 composites were very similar in all modes of loading and proximal contour. In all analyzed models there was a significant difference between models restored with Tofflemire matrix with flat contour and models restored with sectional matrix with curved contour. This difference was greater in first molar than second premolar. Conclusion: Use of a contoured matrix band results in less stress in class II composite resin restorations.

  11. Work Analysis of the nuclear power plant control room operators (II): The classes of situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a work analysis of nuclear power plant control room operators focused on the classes of situation they can meet during their job. Each class of situation is first described in terms of the process variables states. We then describe the goals of the operators and the variables they process in each class of situation. We report some of the most representative difficulties encountered by the operators in each class of situation. Finally, we conclude on different topics: the nature of the mental representations, the temporal dimension, the monitoring activity, and the role of the context in the work of controlling a nuclear power plant

  12. Major histocompatibility complex haplotypes and class II genes in non-Jewish patients with pemphigus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, A R; Wagner, R; Khatri, K; Notani, G; Awdeh, Z; Alper, C A; Yunis, E J

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that HLA-DR4 was markedly increased among Ashkenazi Jewish patients with pemphigus vulgaris (PV), almost entirely as the common Jewish extended haplotype [HLA-B38, SC21, DR4, DQw8] or as the haplotype HLA-B35, SC31, DR4, DQw8, and that HLA-DR4, DQw8 was distributed among patients in a manner consistent with dominant expression of a class II (D-region or D-region-linked) susceptibility gene. In the present study of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) haplotypes in 25 non-Jewish PV patients, DR4, DQw8 was found in 12 of the patients and DRw6, DQw5 was found in 15. Only 3 patients had neither. Only 1 of the DR4, DQw8 haplotypes was [HLA-B38, SC21, DR4, DQw8] and 2 were HLA-B35, SC31, DR4, DQw8; most were the presumed fragments (SC31, DR4, DQw8) or (SC21, DR4, DQw8) or DR4, DQw8 with some other complotype. Of the patients with DRw6, DQw5, all were DRw14, DQw5, and 6 had a rare Caucasian haplotype, HLA-Bw55, SB45, DRw14, DQw5. Four of 6 of these were found in patients of Italian extraction, as was the 1 normal example. The non-Jewish patients were of more Southern European extraction than our controls. This suggests that there are two major MHC susceptibility alleles in American patients with PV. The more ancient apparently arose on a haplotype in the Jews, HLA-B38(35), SC21(SC31), DR4, DQw8, and spread to other populations largely as D-region segments. The other arose in or near Italy on the haplotype HLA-Bw55, SB45, DRw14, DQw5 and has also partially fragmented so that many patients carry only DRw14, DQw5. The available data do not permit the specific localization of either the DR4, DQw8- or the DRw14, DQw5-linked susceptibility genes. Images PMID:1675792

  13. The great diversity of major histocompatibility complex class II genes in Philippine native cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Takeshima

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine leukocyte antigens (BoLA are extensively used as markers for bovine disease and immunological traits. However, none of the BoLA genes in Southeast Asian breeds have been characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR-sequence-based typing (SBT. Therefore, we sequenced exon 2 of the BoLA class II DRB3 gene from 1120 individual cows belonging to the Holstein, Sahiwal, Simbrah, Jersey, Brahman, and Philippine native breeds using PCR-SBT. Several cross-breeds were also examined. BoLA-DRB3 PCR-SBT identified 78 previously reported alleles and five novel alleles. The number of BoLA-DRB3 alleles identified in each breed from the Philippines was higher (71 in Philippine native cattle, 58 in Brahman, 46 in Holstein × Sahiwal, and 57 in Philippine native × Brahman than that identified in breeds from other countries (e.g., 23 alleles in Japanese Black and 35 in Bolivian Yacumeño cattle. A phylogenetic tree based on the DA distance calculated from the BoLA-DRB3 allele frequency showed that Philippine native cattle from different Philippine islands are closely related, and all of them are closely similar to Philippine Brahman cattle but not to native Japanese and Latin American breeds. Furthermore, the BoLA-DRB3 allele frequency in Philippine native cattle from Luzon Island, located in the Northern Philippines was different from that in cattle from Iloilo, Bohol, and Leyte Islands, which are located in the Southern Philippines. Therefore, we conclude that Philippine native cattle can be divided into two populations, North and South areas. Moreover, a neutrality test revealed that Philippine native cattle from Leyte showed significantly greater genetic diversity, which may be maintained by balancing selection. This study shows that Asian breeds have high levels of BoLA-DRB3 polymorphism. This finding, especially the identification of five novel BoLA-DRB3 alleles, will be helpful for future SBT studies of BoLA-DRB3 alleles in East Asian cattle.

  14. Association of HLA class II alleles and CTLA-4 polymorphism with type 1 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana J EI Wafai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Type-1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM is a progressive complex autoimmune disease in which combinations of environmental as well as genetic factors contribute to T-cell mediated destruction of insulin-secreting β-cells of the pancreas. HLA class II alleles on chromosome 6p21 [insulin dependent diabetes mellitus 1 (IDDM1], especially DR and DQ, show strong association with T1DM. In addition, several studies have suggested that polymorphisms in the CTLA-4 gene (IDDM12 on chromosome 2q33 form part of the genetic susceptibility for type 1 diabetes. The aim of this study was to analyze HLA alleles of the DQB1 and DRB1 genes using polymerase chain reaction using sequence specific primers (PCR-SSP technique and to investigate the asso-ciation of the A49G CTLA-4 polymorphism using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP analysis in Lebanese T1DM patients. The study was conduc-ted on 39 Lebanese T1DM patients. Results of HLA typing showed an increased frequency of the HLA-DQB1FNx010201, HLA-DQB1FNx010302, HLA-DRB1FNx010301 and HLA-DRB1FNx010401 alleles, sugges-ting risk association and thus can be considered as susceptibility alleles. On the other hand, strong protection against the disease was conferred by the HLA-DRB1FNx01110101, HLA-DQB1FNx010301 and HLADQB1FNx010601 alleles. RFLP analysis of the A49G polymorphism showed a significant increase in the G allele and GG genotype frequencies in patients, suggesting that CTLA-4 may be considered as a susceptibility gene for the development of T1DM in the Lebanese population. Analysis of the two polymorphisms showed no detectable association between the two genes. However, a significant negative association of the G allele with the DQB1FNx010201 allele was ob-served. This might indicate that the two genetic risk factors, namely HLA and CTLA-4, act independently of each other with no additive effect.

  15. Skeletal muscle molecular alterations precede whole-muscle dysfunction in NYHA Class II heart failure patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godard MP

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Michael P Godard,1 Samantha A Whitman,2 Yao-Hua Song,3 Patrice Delafontaine41Department of Nutrition and Kinesiology, University of Central Missouri, Warrensburg, MO, USA; 2Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA; 3Cyrus Tang Hematology Center, Jiangsu Institute of Hematology, First Affiliated Hospital, Soochow University, Suzhou, China; 4Tulane University School of Medicine, Section of Cardiology, New Orleans, LA, USABackground: Heart failure (HF, a debilitating disease in a growing number of adults, exerts structural and neurohormonal changes in both cardiac and skeletal muscles. However, these alterations and their affected molecular pathways remain uncharacterized. Disease progression is known to transform skeletal muscle fiber composition by unknown mechanisms. In addition, perturbation of specific hormonal pathways, including those involving skeletal muscle insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-5 (IGFB-5 appears to occur, likely affecting muscle metabolism and regeneration. We hypothesized that changes in IGF-1 and IGFB-5 mRNA levels correlate with the transformation of single–skeletal muscle fiber myosin heavy chain isoforms early in disease progression, making these molecules valuable markers of skeletal muscle changes in heart failure.Materials and methods: To investigate these molecules during “early” events in HF patients, we obtained skeletal muscle biopsies from New York Heart Association (NYHA Class II HF patients and controls for molecular analyses of single fibers, and we also quantified isometric strength and muscle size.Results: There were more (P < 0.05 single muscle fibers coexpressing two or more myosin heavy chains in the HF patients (30% ± 7% compared to the control subjects (13% ± 2%. IGF-1 and IGFBP-5 expression was fivefold and 15-fold lower in patients with in HF compared to control subjects (P < 0.05, respectively. Strikingly

  16. The great diversity of major histocompatibility complex class II genes in Philippine native cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshima, S N; Miyasaka, T; Polat, M; Kikuya, M; Matsumoto, Y; Mingala, C N; Villanueva, M A; Salces, A J; Onuma, M; Aida, Y

    2014-12-01

    Bovine leukocyte antigens (BoLA) are extensively used as markers for bovine disease and immunological traits. However, none of the BoLA genes in Southeast Asian breeds have been characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-sequence-based typing (SBT). Therefore, we sequenced exon 2 of the BoLA class II DRB3 gene from 1120 individual cows belonging to the Holstein, Sahiwal, Simbrah, Jersey, Brahman, and Philippine native breeds using PCR-SBT. Several cross-breeds were also examined. BoLA-DRB3 PCR-SBT identified 78 previously reported alleles and five novel alleles. The number of BoLA-DRB3 alleles identified in each breed from the Philippines was higher (71 in Philippine native cattle, 58 in Brahman, 46 in Holstein × Sahiwal, and 57 in Philippine native × Brahman) than that identified in breeds from other countries (e.g., 23 alleles in Japanese Black and 35 in Bolivian Yacumeño cattle). A phylogenetic tree based on the DA distance calculated from the BoLA-DRB3 allele frequency showed that Philippine native cattle from different Philippine islands are closely related, and all of them are closely similar to Philippine Brahman cattle but not to native Japanese and Latin American breeds. Furthermore, the BoLA-DRB3 allele frequency in Philippine native cattle from Luzon Island, located in the Northern Philippines was different from that in cattle from Iloilo, Bohol, and Leyte Islands, which are located in the Southern Philippines. Therefore, we conclude that Philippine native cattle can be divided into two populations, North and South areas. Moreover, a neutrality test revealed that Philippine native cattle from Leyte showed significantly greater genetic diversity, which may be maintained by balancing selection. This study shows that Asian breeds have high levels of BoLA-DRB3 polymorphism. This finding, especially the identification of five novel BoLA-DRB3 alleles, will be helpful for future SBT studies of BoLA-DRB3 alleles in East Asian cattle. PMID:25606401

  17. Different expression of mu-opiate receptor in chronic and acute wounds and the effect of beta-endorphin on transforming growth factor beta type II receptor and cytokeratin 16 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigliardi, P L; Sumanovski, L T; Büchner, S; Rufli, T; Bigliardi-Qi, M

    2003-01-01

    There is evidence that neuropeptides, especially the opiate receptor agonists, are involved in wound healing. We have previously observed that beta-endorphin, the endogenous ligand for the mu-opiate receptor, stimulates the expression of cytokeratin 16 in a dose-dependent manner in human skin organ cultures. Cytokeratin 16 is expressed in hyperproliferative epidermis such as psoriasis and wound healing. Therefore we were interested to study whether epidermal mu-opiate receptor expression is changed at the wound margins in acute and chronic wounds. Using classical and confocal microscopy, we were able to compare the expression level of mu-opiate receptors and the influence of beta-endorphin on transforming growth factor beta type II receptor in organ culture. Our results show indeed a significantly decreased expression of mu-opiate receptors on keratinocytes close to the wound margin of chronic wounds compared to acute wounds. Additionally beta-endorphin upregulates the expression of transforming growth factor beta type II receptor in human skin organ cultures. These results suggest a crucial role of opioid peptides not only in pain control but also in wound healing. Opioid peptides have already been used in animal models in treatment of wounds; they induce fibroblast proliferation and growth of capillaries, and accelerate the maturation of granulation tissue and the epithelization of the defect. Furthermore opioid peptides may fine-tune pain and the inflammatory response while healing takes place. This new knowledge could potentially be used to design new locally applied drugs to improve the healing of painful chronic wounds.

  18. A Synthesis of Behavioral and Communication Approaches to Child Rearing for Parenting Skills Classes. Practicum II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Marvin

    This report describes the design, implementation and evaluation of a class on effective parenting skills that combined behavioral and communication based (client-centered and Adlerian) approaches to child rearing. Seventeen parents of elementary school age children attended the class; twelve parents attended five or more sessions. The class…

  19. Expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) receptors and expression of TGF beta 1, TGF beta 2 and TGF beta 3 in human small cell lung cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damstrup, L; Rygaard, K; Spang-Thomsen, M;

    1993-01-01

    A panel of 21 small cell lung cancer cell (SCLC) lines were examined for the presence of Transforming growth factor beta receptors (TGF beta-r) and the expression of TGF beta mRNAs. By the radioreceptor assay we found high affinity receptors to be expressed in six cell lines. scatchard analysis...... of the binding data demonstrated that the cells bound between 4.5 and 27.5 fmol mg-1 protein with a KD ranging from 16 to 40 pM. TGF beta 1 binding to the receptors was confirmed by cross-linking TGF beta 1 to the TGF beta-r. Three classes of TGF beta-r were demonstrated, type I and type II receptors with M......(r) = 65,000 and 90,000 and the betaglycan (type III) with M(r) = 280,000. Northern blotting showed expression of TGF beta 1 mRNA in ten, TGF beta 2 mRNA in two and TGF beta 3 mRNA in seven cell lines. Our results provide, for the first time, evidence that a large proportion of a broad panel of SCLC cell...

  20. Molecular characterization of MHC class II in the Australian invasive cane toad reveals multiple splice variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillie, Mette; Cui, Jian; Shine, Richard; Belov, Katherine

    2016-07-01

    The cane toad has gained notoriety for its invasion across the Australian landscape, with significant impacts on the native Australian fauna. The invasion has accelerated over time, with invading cane toads adapted for highly dispersive traits. This, however, has come at the cost of the immune system, with lower investment in some immune functions. To investigate the cane toad's immunogenetics, we characterized four major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class IIA and three MHC class IIB loci. Preliminary observations suggest very low allelic diversity at all loci. We also observed various splice isoforms. One isoform seen at one class IIA and two class IIB loci was missing exon 2, which is essential to peptide binding and presentation. The other isoform, observed at a class IIA locus, is likely to be a soluble MHC product. These results may suggest a significant role of alternative splicing of MHC loci in the Australian cane toad. PMID:27233954

  1. Estudo cefalométrico comparativo dos espaços naso e bucofaríngeo nas más oclusões Classe I e Classe II, Divisão 1, sem tratamento ortodôntico, com diferentes padrões de crescimento A Comparative cephalometric study of the naso and oropharyngeal space in malocclusions Class I and Class II Division 1, without orthodontic treatment with different growth patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadyr M. Penteado Virmond Alcazar

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available A finalidade deste estudo foi comparar os espaços aéreos naso e bucofaríngeo em indivíduos com má oclusão Classe I e Classe II, divisão 1, segundo Angle, do gênero masculino e feminino, com idade média de 11 anos e 6 meses, com padrão de crescimento normal e vertical, não tratados ortodonticamente. A amostra desse estudo foi dividida em dois grupos: 40 pacientes apresentando Classe I e 40 pacientes com Classe II, divisão 1, cada grupo subdividido de acordo com o padrão de crescimento facial: normal e vertical. Os espaços aéreos naso e bucofaríngeo foram avaliados segundo a análise de McNamara Jr., pelas medidas NFa-NFp e BFa-BFp. A análise dos resultados obtidos revelou que, a medida do espaço bucofaríngeo para Classe I com padrão de crescimento vertical e para o espaço nasofaríngeo para Classe II com padrão normal de crescimento apresentaram-se semelhantes à medida padrão da amostra de McNamara Jr.. As outras medidas apresentaram-se estatisticamente menores. Na comparação entre os grupos, o espaço nasofaríngeo no grupo Classe I com padrão de crescimento vertical, apresentou-se menor do que nos grupos Classe I e grupo Classe II divisão 1, ambos com padrão de crescimento normal. O espaço bucofaríngeo não sofreu alteração significante de um grupo para outro. Em relação à hipertrofia da tonsila faringeana, apenas o grupo Classe I com padrão de crescimento vertical apresentou obstrução; para hipertrofia das tonsilas palatinas, apenas o grupo Classe I com padrão de crescimento vertical e Classe II com padrão de crescimento normal apresentou hipertrofia das tonsilas palatinas.The aim of this study is to compare the naso and oropharyngeal air space in people with malocclusion class I and class II division 1, according to Angle, with mean age from 8 to 15 years old with normal and vertical growth pattern not treated orthodontically. This study was divided into two groups: 40 patients with class I, and 40

  2. Experimental validation of multi-epitope peptides including promising MHC class I- and class II-restricted epitopes of four known Leishmania infantum proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eAgallou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a significant worldwide health problem for which no vaccine exists. Activation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells is crucial for the generation of protective immunity against parasite. Recent trend in vaccine design has been shifted to epitope-based vaccines that are more specific, safe, and easy to produce. In the present study, four known antigenic Leishmania (L. infantum proteins, CPA, histone H1, KMP-11 and LeIF were analysed for the prediction of binding epitopes to H2d MHC class I and class II molecules, using online available algorithms. Based on in silico analysis, eight peptides including highly scored MHC class I- and class II-restricted epitopes were synthesized. Peptide immunogenicity was validated in MHC compatible BALB/c mice immunized with each synthetic peptide emulsified in CFA/IFA. CPA_p2, CPA_p3, H1_p1 and LeIF_p6 induced strong spleen cell proliferation upon in vitro peptide re-stimulation. In addition, the majority of the peptides, except of LeIF_p1 and KMP-11_p1, induced IFN-γ secretion, while KMP-11_p1 indicated a suppressive effect on IL-10 production. CPA_p2, CPA_p3, LeIF_p3 and LeIF_p6 induced IFN-γ-producing CD4+ T cells indicating a TH1 type response. In addition, CPA_p2, CPA_p3 and H1_p1 induced also the induction of CD8+ T cells. The induction of peptide-specific IgG in immunized mice designated also the existence of B cell epitopes in peptide sequences. Combining immunoinformatic tools and experimental validation, we demonstrated that CPA_p2, CPA_p3, H1_p1, H1_p3, CPA_p2, LeIF_p3 and LeIF_p6 are likely to include potential epitopes for the induction of protective cytotoxic and/or TH1-type immune responses supporting the feasibility of peptide-based vaccine development for leishmaniasis.

  3. Changes of hyoid bone position following treatment of class II div1 malocclusion with Farmand functional appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassaei S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Unlike other bones of the head and neck, hyoid bone has no bony articulations. It is connected to mandible, cranium and pharynx through muscles and ligaments. During treatment with functional appliance in patients with class II div1 malocclusion, mandible is positioned in inferior and anterior direction. Regarding the relation between hyoid and mandibular bone, alterations of hyoid bone position can be a result of functional appliance therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes of hyoid bone position following treatment with Farmand functional appliance in patients with class II div 1 malocclusion. Materials and Methods: In this before-after clinical trial, 28 patients with class II div 1 malocclusion which were under treatment with Farmand functional appliance for 11 months were selected. Facial growth in vertical, normal or horizontal direction was determined by cephalometric measurement. Data were analyzed with Paired-t test to compare the differences of mean values pre and post treatment. Variance analysis was used to compare the three growth patterns. P<0.05 was considered as the limit of significance. Results: Hyoid bone shifted significantly forward in horizontal dimension (P<0.01 and non-significantly upward in vertical dimension. There was no significant difference among the three studied groups with respect to hyoid bone position alterations in horizontal dimension but significant difference was observed between horizontal and vertical growth pattern in vertical dimension (P<0.05. There was significant correlation between decrease of ANB angle and forward movement of hyoid bone. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, treatment with Farmand functional appliance (Fa II leads to significant alterations in the position and anterior displacement of the hyoid bone.

  4. Phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate 4-kinase type II beta is required for vitamin D receptor-dependent E-cadherin expression in SW480 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouchi, Zen, E-mail: zkouchi@toyaku.ac.jp [Laboratory of Genome and Biosignals, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji-city, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Fujiwara, Yuki [Laboratory of Genome and Biosignals, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji-city, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Hideki [Division of Metastasis and Invasion Signaling, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi-city, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Nakamura, Yoshikazu; Fukami, Kiyoko [Laboratory of Genome and Biosignals, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji-city, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan)

    2011-05-20

    Highlights: {yields} We analyzed Phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate kinase II{beta} (PIPKII{beta}) function in cancer. {yields} PIPKII{beta} is required for vitamin D receptor-mediated E-cadherin upregulation in SW480. {yields} PIPKII{beta} suppresses cellular motility through E-cadherin induction in SW480 cells. {yields} Nuclear PIP{sub 2} but not plasma membrane-localized PIP{sub 2} mediates E-cadherin upregulation. -- Abstract: Numerous epidemiological data indicate that vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling induced by its ligand or active metabolite 1{alpha},25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} (1{alpha},25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3}) has anti-cancer activity in several colon cancers. 1{alpha},25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} induces the epithelial differentiation of SW480 colon cancer cells expressing VDR (SW480-ADH) by upregulating E-cadherin expression; however, its precise mechanism remains unknown. We found that phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate 4-kinase type II beta (PIPKII{beta}) but not PIPKII{alpha} is required for VDR-mediated E-cadherin induction in SW480-ADH cells. The syntenin-2 postsynaptic density protein/disc large/zona occludens (PDZ) domain and pleckstrin homology domain of phospholipase C-delta1 (PLC{delta}1 PHD) possess high affinity for phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P{sub 2}) mainly localized to the nucleus and plasma membrane, respectively. The expression of syntenin-2 PDZ but not PLC{delta}1 PHD inhibited 1{alpha},25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3}-induced E-cadherin upregulation, suggesting that nuclear PI(4,5)P{sub 2} production mediates E-cadherin expression through PIPKII{beta} in a VDR-dependent manner. PIPKII{beta} is also involved in the suppression of the cell motility induced by 1{alpha},25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3}. These results indicate that PIPKII{beta}-mediated PI(4,5)P{sub 2} signaling is important for E-cadherin upregulation and inhibition of cellular motility induced by VDR activation.

  5. Drug and cell type-specific regulation of genes with different classes of estrogen receptor beta-selective agonists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreenivasan Paruthiyil

    Full Text Available Estrogens produce biological effects by interacting with two estrogen receptors, ERalpha and ERbeta. Drugs that selectively target ERalpha or ERbeta might be safer for conditions that have been traditionally treated with non-selective estrogens. Several synthetic and natural ERbeta-selective compounds have been identified. One class of ERbeta-selective agonists is represented by ERB-041 (WAY-202041 which binds to ERbeta much greater than ERalpha. A second class of ERbeta-selective agonists derived from plants include MF101, nyasol and liquiritigenin that bind similarly to both ERs, but only activate transcription with ERbeta. Diarylpropionitrile represents a third class of ERbeta-selective compounds because its selectivity is due to a combination of greater binding to ERbeta and transcriptional activity. However, it is unclear if these three classes of ERbeta-selective compounds produce similar biological activities. The goals of these studies were to determine the relative ERbeta selectivity and pattern of gene expression of these three classes of ERbeta-selective compounds compared to estradiol (E(2, which is a non-selective ER agonist. U2OS cells stably transfected with ERalpha or ERbeta were treated with E(2 or the ERbeta-selective compounds for 6 h. Microarray data demonstrated that ERB-041, MF101 and liquiritigenin were the most ERbeta-selective agonists compared to estradiol, followed by nyasol and then diarylpropionitrile. FRET analysis showed that all compounds induced a similar conformation of ERbeta, which is consistent with the finding that most genes regulated by the ERbeta-selective compounds were similar to each other and E(2. However, there were some classes of genes differentially regulated by the ERbeta agonists and E(2. Two ERbeta-selective compounds, MF101 and liquiritigenin had cell type-specific effects as they regulated different genes in HeLa, Caco-2 and Ishikawa cell lines expressing ERbeta. Our gene profiling studies

  6. A Single Residue Switch for Mg2+-dependent Inhibition Characterizes Plant Class II Diterpene Cyclases from Primary and Secondary Metabolism*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Francis M.; Prisic, Sladjana; Davenport, Emily K.; Determan, Mara K.; Coates, Robert M.; Peters, Reuben J.

    2010-01-01

    Class II diterpene cyclases mediate the acid-initiated cycloisomerization reaction that serves as the committed step in biosynthesis of the large class of labdane-related diterpenoid natural products, which includes the important gibberellin plant hormones. Intriguingly, these enzymes are differentially susceptible to inhibition by their Mg2+ cofactor, with those involved in gibberellin biosynthesis being more sensitive to such inhibition than those devoted to secondary metabolism, which presumably limits flux toward the potent gibberellin phytohormones. Such inhibition has been suggested to arise from intrasteric Mg2+ binding to the DXDD motif that cooperatively acts as the catalytic acid, whose affinity must then be modulated in some fashion. While further investigating class II diterpene cyclase catalysis, we discovered a conserved basic residue that seems to act as a counter ion to the DXDD motif, enhancing the ability of aspartic acid to carry out the requisite energetically difficult protonation of a carbon-carbon double bond and also affecting inhibitory Mg2+ binding. Notably, this residue is conserved as a histidine in enzymes involved in gibberellin biosynthesis and as an arginine in those dedicated to secondary metabolism. Interchanging the identity of these residues is sufficient to switch the sensitivity of the parent enzyme to inhibition by Mg2+. These striking findings indicate that this is a single residue switch for Mg2+ inhibition, which not only supports the importance of this biochemical regulatory mechanism in limiting gibberellin biosynthesis, but the importance of its release, presumably to enable higher flux, into secondary metabolism. PMID:20430888

  7. Correlation between genetic HLA class I and II polymorphisms and anthropological aspects in the Chaouya population from Morocco (Arabic speaking).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canossi, A; Piancatelli, D; Aureli, A; Oumhani, K; Ozzella, G; Del Beato, T; Liberatore, G; El Aouad, R; Adorno, D

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to provide genetic and anthropological information on the Chaouya (CH), an Arabic-speaking population living in West Morocco, Atlantic coast (Settat). In 98 unrelated healthy CH volunteers, we first investigated the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and II allele polymorphisms using a sequence-based typing method and examined haplotypes and relatedness of this group to other African and Mediterranean populations. The study showed the close relatedness with Tunisian population and other North Africans, together with a strong influence of various immigrations, mainly Spaniards, French, and Portuguese, as expected. Nevertheless, analysis of class II allele frequencies (afs) showed that Oromo and Amhara Ethiopian groups cluster together with the Berbers and other North Africans, confirming the relationship between these populations (Afro-Asiatic linguistic group, Hamites). South and sub-Saharan Africans cluster separately at a great distance from CH, except the sub-Saharan Bantu population from Congo Kinshasa, which shows a relatively close genetic relationship ascribable to the effect of a diversifying selection. On the other hand, considering HLA class I afs analyses, it was noteworthy that CH grouped together with sub-Saharans, showing a close genetic distance mainly with Ugandas and Kenians Luo.

  8. Comparative evaluation of microleakage in class II cavities restored with Ceram X and Filtek P-90: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Bogra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Polymerization shrinkage in composite resins is responsible for microleakage. Methacrylate-based composite resins have linear reactive groups resulting in high polymerization shrinkage. A recently introduced composite resin Filtek P90 is based on siloxanes and oxiranes which polymerize by cationic "ring opening" polymerization resulting in reduced polymerization shrinkage. Objectives: Aim of this study was to compare microleakage in class II cavities restored with a nanoceramic restorative (Ceram X and a silorane composite (Filtek P90. Materials and Methods: Standardized class II box type cavities were prepared on mesial (Groups Ia and IIa and distal (Groups Ib and IIb surfaces of twenty extracted permanent molar teeth with gingival floor ending 1 mm coronal and apical to the cementoenamel junction, respectively. The teeth in Group Ia and Ib were restored with Ceram X and Group IIa and IIb with Filtek P90. The specimens were thermocycled and microleakage evaluated. Statistical Analysis Used: The data were statistically analyzed using Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test at the 0.05 level of significance. Results: Mean microleakage score of group la and lb was 1 ± 2.260 and 2.8 ± 1.229, respectively. And that of group Ila and llb was 0.2 ± .869 and 0.3 ± .588, respectively. When groups I and II were compared, results were statistically significant (P<0.05. Conclusion: It was concluded that silorane-based composite may be a better substitute for methacrylate-based composites.

  9. Correlação entre a assimetria clínica e a assimetria radiográfica na Classe II, subdivisão Correlation between photographic asymmetry and radiographic asymmetry in patients with Class II subdivision malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Rita Pontes Azevedo

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a correlação entre a assimetria clínica e a assimetria radiográfica nos pacientes com Classe II, subdivisão. A amostra consistiu de 42 indivíduos com má oclusão de Classe II, subdivisão completa, com idade média de 15,21 anos. A assimetria clínica foi avaliada medindo-se a diferença relativa da posição espacial dos pontos do tecido mole entre os lados direito e esquerdo em fotografias frontais. A assimetria radiográfica foi avaliada medindo-se a diferença relativa da posição espacial dos pontos dentários e esqueléticos, entre os lados direito e esquerdo nas dimensões ântero-posterior e transversal nas radiografias submentonianas e póstero-anterior. Posteriormente, o teste de correlação de Pearson foi realizado entre as assimetrias nas fotografias e as assimetrias nas radiografias. Como conclusão observou-se que a correlação entre a assimetria clínica e a assimetria radiográfica foi muito suave.The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation between clinical asymmetry and radiographic asymmetry in patients with Class II subdivision malocclusion. The sample consisted of 42 individuals with complete Class II subdivision malocclusion, with a mean age of 15.21 years. Photographic asymmetry was assessed by measuring the relative difference in spatial position of soft tissue landmarks between right and left sides in frontal photographs. Radiographic asymmetry was assessed by measuring the relative difference in spatial position of dental and skeletal landmarks between right and left sides in both anteroposterior and transverse dimensions in the submentovertex and in the transverse and vertical dimensions in the postero-anterior radiographs. Pearson's correlation test was performed between the asymmetries in the photographs and the asymmetries in the radiographs. In conclusion was observed that correlation between clinical and radiographic asymmetry was very weak.

  10. Maxillary sinus floor extension and posterior tooth inclination in adolescent patients with Class II Division 1 malocclusion treated with maxillary first molar extractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livas, Christos; Halazonetis, Demetrios J.; Booij, Johan Willem; Pandis, Nikolaos; Tu, Yu-Kang; Katsaros, Christos

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Our objective was to investigate potential associations between maxillary sinus floor extension and inclination of maxillary second premolars and second molars in patients with Class II Division 1 malocclusion whose orthodontic treatment included maxillary first molar extractions. Meth

  11. Maxillary sinus floor extension and posterior tooth inclination in adolescent patients with Class II Division 1 malocclusion treated with maxillary first molar extractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livas, C.; Halazonetis, D.J.; Booij, J.W.; Pandis, N.; Tu, Y.K.; Katsaros, C.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Our objective was to investigate potential associations between maxillary sinus floor extension and inclination of maxillary second premolars and second molars in patients with Class II Division 1 malocclusion whose orthodontic treatment included maxillary first molar extractions. METH

  12. Effects of Lifestyle Interventions That Include a Physical Activity Component in Class II and III Obese Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Baillot, Aurélie; Romain, Ahmed J.; Boisvert-Vigneault, Katherine; Audet, Mélisa; Baillargeon, Jean Patrice; Dionne, Isabelle J.; Valiquette, Louis; Chakra, Claire Nour Abou; Avignon, Antoine; Langlois, Marie-France

    2015-01-01

    Background In class II and III obese individuals, lifestyle intervention is the first step to achieve weight loss and treat obesity-related comorbidities before considering bariatric surgery. A systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression were performed to assess the impact of lifestyle interventions incorporating a physical activity (PA) component on health outcomes of class II and III obese individuals. Methods An electronic search was conducted in 4 databases (Medline, Scopus, CIN...

  13. In vitro evaluation of microleakage of class II packable composite resin restorations using flowable composite and resin modified glass ionomers as intermediate layers

    OpenAIRE

    Kishore Kumar Majety; Madhu Pujar

    2011-01-01

    Aim and Objectives : To evaluate the cervical marginal microleakage of class II packable composite resin restorations using flowable composite and resin modified glass ionomer as intermediate layers and whether the difference in the thickness of these intermediate layers would influence the microleakage. Materials and Methods : Standardized class II box only cavities (4 mm bucco lingual width 2 mm mesio distal depth with the gingival margin 1 mm above the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) wer...

  14. Effect of oral-transmucosal midazolam sedation on anxiety levels of 3-4 years old children during a Class II restorative procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Aditi Kapur; Chawla, H S.; Gauba, K.; Goyal, A; Bhardwaj, N

    2014-01-01

    Aim: A double-blind randomized control trial was conducted to assess the effect of oral-transmucosal midazolam sedation on changes in anxiety levels of precooperative children during a Class II amalgam restorative procedure. Methodology: A sample of 40 healthy, American Society of Anesthesiologists I, children aged 3-4 years having at least one carious primary mandibular molar requiring a Class II amalgam restoration with no previous dental history were randomly divided into experimental and ...

  15. Estudo comparativo das dimensões transversais dos arcos dentários entre jovens com oclusão normal e má oclusão de Classe II, 1ª divisão A comparative study of arch widths of white Brazilians with normal occlusion and Class II, Division 1, malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejman Roberto

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar as possíveis diferenças nas dimensões transversais dos arcos dentários superiores e inferiores entre jovens com oclusão normal e má oclusão de Classe II, 1ª divisão. METODOLOGIA: foram avaliados 170 pares de modelos em gesso de jovens brasileiros leucodermas, com dentadura permanente, sendo 76 com oclusão normal (41 do gênero feminino e 35 do masculino e média de idade de 13 anos e 6 meses e 94 com má oclusão de Classe II, 1ª divisão (58 do gênero feminino e 36 do masculino e média de idade de 13 anos e 9 meses. Este grupo com má oclusão foi dividido em duas categorias: Classe II sem apinhamento e Classe II com apinhamento. Compararam-se as distâncias intercaninos, interprimeiros pré-molares e intermolares, em ambos os arcos dentários. RESULTADOS: em relação ao grupo com oclusão normal, os jovens do gênero masculino evidenciaram as seguintes diferenças estatisticamente significantes: 1 distância intercaninos inferiores maior para o grupo com Classe II sem apinhamento; 2 distância interprimeiros pré-molares superiores menor para o grupo com Classe II sem apinhamento e 3 distâncias interprimeiros pré-molares e intermolares, superiores e inferiores, menores para o grupo com Classe II com apinhamento. Por sua vez, o gênero feminino evidenciou: 1 distâncias interprimeiros pré-molares e intermolares superiores menores para o grupo com Classe II sem apinhamento e 2 distâncias interprimeiros pré-molares e intermolares, superiores e inferiores, menores para o grupo com Classe II com apinhamento. CONCLUSÃO: de um modo geral, os jovens com má oclusão de Classe II, 1ª divisão, apresentaram uma tendência para deficiência transversal posterior dos arcos dentários, principalmente no grupo com apinhamento.AIM: to evaluate possible differences of the upper and lower dental arches widths among youths with normal occlusion and Class II, division 1, malocclusion. METHODS: the evaluation was conducted

  16. Marginal and internal adaptation of Class II ormocer and hybrid resin composite restorations before and after load cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kournetas, N; Chakmakchi, M; Kakaboura, A; Rahiotis, C; Geis-Gerstorfer, J

    2004-09-01

    To overcome the shortcomings of the conventional composite restorative materials, ormocer materials have been introduced over the past few years. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the marginal and internal adaptation of two ormocer restorative systems (Admira, Voco and Definite, Degussa) compared to a hybrid composite one (TPH Spectrum, Dentsply/ DeTrey), before and after load cycling in Class II restorations. Standardized Class II restorations with cervical margins on enamel were divided into three groups ( n=16). Teeth of each group were filled with one of the restoratives tested and its respective bonding agent. Each group was divided into two equal subgroups. The marginal and internal adaptation of the first subgroup was evaluated after 7-day water storage at room temperature and of the second after cyclic loading in a mastication simulator (1.2x10(6) cycles, 49 N, 1.6 Hz). The occlusal and cervical marginal evaluation was conducted by videomicroscope and ranked as "excellent" and "not excellent". One thin section (150 microm), in mesial-distal direction, of each restoration, was examined under metallographic microscope to determine the quality of internal adaptation. The occlusal and cervical adaptation of both ormocer restorative systems was similar and clearly worse compared with the hybrid composite restorative one before as well as after load cycling. Concerning internal adaptation, no gap-free ormocer restorations were detected, whereas all Spectrum restorations presented perfect adaptation. The bonding agents of the ormocers formed layers with unacceptable features (pores, fractures) whereas that of the hybrid composite achieved perfect bonding layer even after loading. The rheological characteristics of the bonding agents of the ormocer restorative systems are proposed to be responsible for their inferior marginal and internal quality in Class II restorations compared with the hybrid composite one.

  17. Comparison of esthetic outcome after extraction or non-extraction orthodontic treatment in class II division 1 malocclusion patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sneh Lata Verma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The extraction of premolars as a practical form of orthodontic therapy has been accepted for many years, but there remains a controversy regarding the effect of premolar extraction to improve esthetics as well as dentoskeletal relationship. The esthetic impact of the soft-tissue profile might play a major role in deciding on premolar extraction or non-extraction treatment, particularly in borderline patients. This cephalometric study was undertaken to compare the post-treatment soft-tissue profiles of successfully managed Class II, Division 1 malocclusions treated with either all first premolar extractions or treatment with a non-extraction therapy. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 100 post-pubertal female patients of Class II Division I malocclusion. Group 1, treated with four first premolar extractions, consisted of 50 female patients with a mean age of 14 years 1 month. Group 2, treated without extractions, consisted of 50 patients with a mean age of 13 years 5 months. Pre-treatment and post-treatment lateral cephalometric radiographs were evaluated. The pre-treatment to post-treatment stage comparison and the intergroup comparison of the treatment changes were conducted between extraction and non-extraction groups of Class II malocclusion samples with t-tests. Results: The soft-tissue facial profiles of the extraction and non-extraction samples were the same following active treatment except for a more retruded lower lip and a more pronounced lower labial sulcus in those patients subjected to extraction. Conclusions: The extraction or non-extraction decision, if based on sound diagnostic criteria, seems to have no systematic detrimental effects on the facial profile.

  18. Promoter-distal RNA polymerase II binding discriminates active from inactive CCAAT/ enhancer-binding protein beta binding sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Daniel; Roberts, Brian S.; Carleton, Julia B.; Partridge, E. Christopher; White, Michael A.; Cohen, Barak A.; Cooper, Gregory M.; Gertz, Jason; Myers, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) bind to thousands of DNA sequences in mammalian genomes, but most of these binding events appear to have no direct effect on gene expression. It is unclear why only a subset of TF bound sites are actively involved in transcriptional regulation. Moreover, the key genomic features that accurately discriminate between active and inactive TF binding events remain ambiguous. Recent studies have identified promoter-distal RNA polymerase II (RNAP2) binding at enhancer elements, suggesting that these interactions may serve as a marker for active regulatory sequences. Despite these correlative analyses, a thorough functional validation of these genomic co-occupancies is still lacking. To characterize the gene regulatory activity of DNA sequences underlying promoter-distal TF binding events that co-occur with RNAP2 and TF sites devoid of RNAP2 occupancy using a functional reporter assay, we performed cis-regulatory element sequencing (CRE-seq). We tested more than 1000 promoter-distal CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (CEBPB)-bound sites in HepG2 and K562 cells, and found that CEBPB-bound sites co-occurring with RNAP2 were more likely to exhibit enhancer activity. CEBPB-bound sites further maintained substantial cell-type specificity, indicating that local DNA sequence can accurately convey cell-type–specific regulatory information. By comparing our CRE-seq results to a comprehensive set of genome annotations, we identified a variety of genomic features that are strong predictors of regulatory element activity and cell-type–specific activity. Collectively, our functional assay results indicate that RNAP2 occupancy can be used as a key genomic marker that can distinguish active from inactive TF bound sites. PMID:26486725

  19. Regulatory functions of self-restricted MHC class II allopeptide-specific Th2 clones in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Waaga, Ana Maria; Gasser, Martin; Kist-van Holthe, Joana E; Najafian, Nader; Müller, Angelika; Vella, John P.; Womer, Karl L.; Chandraker, Anil; Khoury, Samia J.; Sayegh, Mohamed H.

    2001-01-01

    We studied T-cell clones generated from grafts of rejecting and tolerant animals and investigated the regulatory function of Th2 clones in vitro and in vivo. To prevent allograft rejection, we treated LEW strain recipient rats of WF strain kidney grafts with CTLA4Ig to block CD28-B7 costimulation. We then isolated epitope-specific T-cell clones from the engrafted tissue, using a donor-derived immunodominant class II MHC allopeptide presented by recipient antigen-presenting cells. Acutely reje...

  20. PI3KC2{alpha}, a class II PI3K, is required for dynamin-independent internalization pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Claudia; Malmberg, Emily Kim; Salcini, Anna Elisabetta

    2010-01-01

    screen using a cell line expressing a diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR, officially known as HBEGF) anchored to GPI (DTR-GPI), which internalizes diphtheria toxin (DT, officially known as DTX) in a dynamin-independent manner, identified PI3KC2a, a class II phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), as a specific...... regulator of dynamin-independent DT internalization. We found that the internalization of several proteins that enter the cell through dynamin-independent pathways led to a relocalization of PI3KC2a to cargo-positive vesicles. Furthermore, downregulation of PI3KC2a impaired internalization of CD59 as well...

  1. New chicken Rfp-Y haplotypes on the basis of MHC class II RFLP and MLC analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul-Madsen, H R; Zoorob, R; Auffray, C;

    1997-01-01

    New chicken Rfp-Y haplotypes were determined by the use of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) in four different chicken haplotypes, B15, B19, B21, B201. The RFLP polymorphism was mapped to the Rfp-Y system by the use of a subclone (18.1) which maps...... near a polymorphic lectin gene located in the Rfp-Y system and DNA from families with known segregation of the implicated RFLP polymorphism. For the first time it is shown that major histocompatibility complex class II genes in the Rfp-Y system have functional implications. Sequence information...

  2. Treatment outcome for a sample of patients with Class II division 1 malocclusion treated at a regional hospital orthodontic department.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burden, D J

    1998-01-01

    This retrospective study assessed the outcome of orthodontic treatment of 264 patients with Class II division 1 malocclusion (overjet greater than 6 mm). The sample comprised patients who had completed their fixed appliance orthodontic treatment at a regional hospital orthodontic unit in the Republic of Ireland. The PAR Index (Peer Assessment Rating) was used to evaluate treatment outcome using before and after treatment study casts. The results revealed that treatment for this particular type of malocclusion was highly effective with a very few patients failing to benefit from their orthodontic treatment.

  3. Part I: $\\beta$-delayed fission, laser spectroscopy and shape-coexistence studies with astatine beams; Part II: Delineating the island of deformation in the light gold isotopes by means of laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Andreyev, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    Part I: $\\beta$-delayed fission, laser spectroscopy and shape-coexistence studies with astatine beams; Part II: Delineating the island of deformation in the light gold isotopes by means of laser spectroscopy

  4. Epstein-Barr virus infection of CR2-transfected epithelial cells reveals the presence of MHC class II on the virion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, P G; Young, L S

    1995-10-20

    Epithelial cell lines transfected with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) receptor CR2 are susceptible to infection by EBV. Following infection with certain EBV strains we found that these cells became positive for MHC class II. The class II was confirmed as being of viral and not target cell origin by immunostaining with HLA-specific monoclonal antibodies. Electron microscopic immunogold staining confirmed the presence of MHC class II on the surface of the virion. While some MHC class I was also found on the EB virion, other cell surface molecules were absent. Dual color immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy analysis demonstrated colocalization of class II with EBV-encoded structural proteins (MA and VCA) in infected epithelial cells. However, preincubation of EBV with antibodies against either MHC class I or MHC class II failed to affect either EBV binding or EBV infection. The presence of MHC on the surface of the EB virion may be a consequence of the intracellular pathways through which productive virus exits from the cell and may influence the target cell tropism of EBV. PMID:7483258

  5. The Structure of the Amyloid-[beta] Peptide High-Affinity Copper II Binding Site in Alzheimer Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streltsov, Victor A.; Titmuss, Stephen J.; Epa, V. Chandana; Barnham, Kevin J.; Masters, Colin L.; Varghese, Joseph N. (CSIRO/MHT)

    2008-11-03

    Neurodegeneration observed in Alzheimer disease (AD) is believed to be related to the toxicity from reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in the brain by the amyloid-{beta} (A{beta}) protein bound primarily to copper ions. The evidence for an oxidative stress role of A{beta}-Cu redox chemistry is still incomplete. Details of the copper binding site in A{beta} may be critical to the etiology of AD. Here we present the structure determined by combining x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and density functional theory analysis of A{beta} peptides complexed with Cu{sup 2+} in solution under a range of buffer conditions. Phosphate-buffered saline buffer salt (NaCl) concentration does not affect the high-affinity copper binding mode but alters the second coordination sphere. The XAS spectra for truncated and full-length A{beta}-Cu{sup 2+} peptides are similar. The novel distorted six-coordinated (3N3O) geometry around copper in the A{beta}-Cu{sup 2+} complexes include three histidines: glutamic, or/and aspartic acid, and axial water. The structure of the high-affinity Cu{sup 2+} binding site is consistent with the hypothesis that the redox activity of the metal ion bound to A{beta} can lead to the formation of dityrosine-linked dimers found in AD.

  6. Bacterial Superantigens Promote Acute Nasopharyngeal Infection by Streptococcus pyogenes in a Human MHC Class II-Dependent Manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Katherine J.; Zeppa, Joseph J.; Wakabayashi, Adrienne T.; Xu, Stacey X.; Mazzuca, Delfina M.; Welch, Ian; Baroja, Miren L.; Kotb, Malak; Cairns, Ewa; Cleary, P. Patrick; Haeryfar, S. M. Mansour; McCormick, John K.

    2014-01-01

    Establishing the genetic determinants of niche adaptation by microbial pathogens to specific hosts is important for the management and control of infectious disease. Streptococcus pyogenes is a globally prominent human-specific bacterial pathogen that secretes superantigens (SAgs) as ‘trademark’ virulence factors. SAgs function to force the activation of T lymphocytes through direct binding to lateral surfaces of T cell receptors and class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC-II) molecules. S. pyogenes invariably encodes multiple SAgs, often within putative mobile genetic elements, and although SAgs are documented virulence factors for diseases such as scarlet fever and the streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS), how these exotoxins contribute to the fitness and evolution of S. pyogenes is unknown. Here we show that acute infection in the nasopharynx is dependent upon both bacterial SAgs and host MHC-II molecules. S. pyogenes was rapidly cleared from the nasal cavity of wild-type C57BL/6 (B6) mice, whereas infection was enhanced up to ∼10,000-fold in B6 mice that express human MHC-II. This phenotype required the SpeA superantigen, and vaccination with an MHC –II binding mutant toxoid of SpeA dramatically inhibited infection. Our findings indicate that streptococcal SAgs are critical for the establishment of nasopharyngeal infection, thus providing an explanation as to why S. pyogenes produces these potent toxins. This work also highlights that SAg redundancy exists to avoid host anti-SAg humoral immune responses and to potentially overcome host MHC-II polymorphisms. PMID:24875883

  7. Tratamento de Classe II, Divisão 1, com ausência congênita de incisivo lateral superior Treatment of Class II Division 1 with congenitally absent maxillary lateral incisor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto M. A. Lima Filho

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Este relato mostra tratamento Ortodôntico efetuado em paciente portador de Classe II, Divisão 1, de Angle, com sobremordida profunda e agenesia do incisivo lateral superior esquerdo, em que o espaço foi fechado ortodonticamente e o canino ocupou o lugar do incisivo lateral. Os procedimentos adotados possibilitaram a obtenção de estética agradável e relação oclusal normal. A linha mediana não apresentou desvio ao término do tratamento e a discrepância vertical foi devidamente corrigida.This case report demonstrates the orthodontic treatment of a patient who presented a Class II Division 1 malocclusion, deep overbite and congenitally absent maxillary left lateral incisor. The space was closed orthodontically and maxillary cuspid was positioned in the place of the maxillary lateral incisor. The treatment applied resulted in a pleasant esthetics and normal occlusal relationship. The midline was coincident at the end of treatment and vertical discrepancy was properly corrected.

  8. 75 FR 55269 - Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-10

    ... National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Parts 542 and 543 RIN 3141-AA-37 Minimum Internal Control... the extension of the effective date on the final rule for Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class... internal controls found in Sec. 543.3(c)(3) to October 13, 2011, in order to extend the transition...

  9. Activation of ERα signaling differentially modulates IFN-γ induced HLA-class II expression in breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A Mostafa

    Full Text Available The coordinate regulation of HLA class II (HLA-II is controlled by the class II transactivator, CIITA, and is crucial for the development of anti-tumor immunity. HLA-II in breast carcinoma is associated with increased IFN-γ levels, reduced expression of the estrogen receptor (ER and reduced age at diagnosis. Here, we tested the hypothesis that estradiol (E₂ and ERα signaling contribute to the regulation of IFN-γ inducible HLA-II in breast cancer cells. Using a panel of established ER⁻ and ER⁺ breast cancer cell lines, we showed that E₂ attenuated HLA-DR in two ER⁺ lines (MCF-7 and BT-474, but not in T47D, while it augmented expression in ER⁻ lines, SK-BR-3 and MDA-MB-231. To further study the mechanism(s, we used paired transfectants: ERα⁺ MC2 (MDA-MB-231 c10A transfected with the wild type ERα gene and ERα⁻ VC5 (MDA-MB-231 c10A transfected with the empty vector, treated or not with E₂ and IFN-γ. HLA-II and CIITA were severely reduced in MC2 compared to VC5 and were further exacerbated by E₂ treatment. Reduced expression occurred at the level of the IFN-γ inducible CIITA promoter IV. The anti-estrogen ICI 182,780 and gene silencing with ESR1 siRNA reversed the E2 inhibitory effects, signifying an antagonistic role for activated ERα on CIITA pIV activity. Moreover, STAT1 signaling, necessary for CIITA pIV activation, and selected STAT1 regulated genes were variably downregulated by E₂ in transfected and endogenous ERα positive breast cancer cells, whereas STAT1 signaling was noticeably augmented in ERα⁻ breast cancer cells. Collectively, these results imply immune escape mechanisms in ERα⁺ breast cancer may be facilitated through an ERα suppressive mechanism on IFN-γ signaling.

  10. COURSE OUTLINE FOR FIRST SIX WEEKS FOR SCIENCE-LEVEL II, TALENT PRESERVATION CLASSES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston Independent School District, TX.

    THE FIRST 6-WEEK UNIT CONCERNS ANIMAL LIFE, AND TOPICS INCLUDE PROTOZOA, INVERTEBRATES, AND VERTEBRATES. UNIT II, "THE HUMAN BODY", INCLUDES BODY SYSTEMS, HEALTH, AND SAFETY. TEXTBOOK REFERENCES, CONTENT OUTLINE, TEACHING SUGGESTIONS, REFERENCE READINGS, AND AUDIOVISUAL AIDS ARE GIVEN UNDER EACH TOPIC. IT IS SUGGESTED THAT FIRST EXPERIENCES WITH…

  11. Remarkably low affinity of CD4/peptide-major histocompatibility complex class II protein interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Peter; Southcombe, Jennifer H; Santos, Ana Mafalda;

    2016-01-01

    value is two to three orders of magnitude higher than previously measured 2D Kd values for interacting leukocyte surface proteins. Calculations indicated, however, that CD4/pMHC II binding would increase rates of T-cell receptor (TCR) complex phosphorylation by threefold via the recruitment of Lck, with...

  12. Parasite Manipulation of the Invariant Chain and the Peptide Editor H2-DM Affects Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Antigen Presentation during Toxoplasma gondii Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Leroux, Louis-Philippe; Nishi, Manami; El-Hage, Sandy; Fox, Barbara A.; Bzik, David J.; Dzierszinski, Florence S.

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite. This apicomplexan is the causative agent of toxoplasmosis, a leading cause of central nervous system disease in AIDS. It has long been known that T. gondii interferes with major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) antigen presentation to attenuate CD4+ T cell responses and establish persisting infections. Transcriptional downregulation of MHC-II genes by T. gondii was previously established, but the precise mechanisms...

  13. CD4 binding to major histocompatibility complex class II antigens induces LFA-1-dependent and -independent homotypic adhesion of B lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansas, G S; Cambier, J C; Tedder, T F

    1992-01-01

    T helper cells recognize processed antigen (Ag) in the context of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigens present on the surface of B cells and other Ag-presenting cells. This interaction is mediated through the T cell receptor complex with associate recognition of class II molecules by the CD4 molecule. In this study, the binding of a soluble recombinant CD4/Ig heavy chain fusion protein (CD4-gamma 3) or monoclonal antibody (mAb) to class II antigens on human B cells was shown to induce rapid and specific homotypic adhesion of B cells and most B lymphoblastoid cell lines. mAb reactive with CD4 inhibited CD4-gamma 3-induced adhesion and a mutant B lymphoblastoid cell line deficient in class II antigens failed to respond. Induction of homotypic adhesion was dependent on energy metabolism and a functional cytoskeleton, and class II+ pre-B cells did not exhibit adhesion in response to these stimuli, suggesting that cross-linking of class II molecules generated a transmembrane signal and did not simply aggregate cells. In addition, MHC class II-induced adhesion was Fc receptor independent, as 15 mAb of different Ig isotypes reactive with HLA-D or HLA-DQ gene products induced adhesion. Anti-class II mAb and CD4-gamma 3 were able to induce adhesion at concentrations as low as 10 ng/ml and 100 ng/ml, respectively. Suboptimal stimulation of B cell lines through HLA-D antigens induced homotypic adhesion that was dependent on the activation of LFA-1 (CD11a/CD18), and which could be blocked by specific mAb. However, at greater signal strengths, adhesion was not blocked by mAb against the known adhesion receptors, suggesting the induction of a novel adhesion pathway. Consistent with this, homotypic adhesion induced by engagement of MHC class II antigens was observed with LFA-1-deficient B cell lines, and was independent of CD49d or CD18 expression. Thus, the direct engagement of B cell class II antigens by CD4 is likely to generate transmembrane signals which

  14. HLA Class II Antibody Activation of Endothelial Cells Promotes Th17 and Disrupts Regulatory T Lymphocyte Expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lion, J; Taflin, C; Cross, A R; Robledo-Sarmiento, M; Mariotto, E; Savenay, A; Carmagnat, M; Suberbielle, C; Charron, D; Haziot, A; Glotz, D; Mooney, N

    2016-05-01

    Kidney transplantation is the most successful treatment option for patients with end-stage renal disease, and chronic antibody-mediated rejection is the principal cause of allograft loss. Predictive factors for chronic rejection include high levels of HLA alloantibodies (particularly HLA class II) and activation of graft endothelial cells (ECs). The mechanistic basis for this association is unresolved. We used an experimental model of HLA-DR antibody stimulation of microvascular ECs to examine the mechanisms underlying the association between HLA class II antibodies, EC activation and allograft damage. Activation of ECs with the F(Ab')2 fragment of HLA-DR antibody led to phosphorylation of Akt, ERK and MEK and increased IL-6 production by ECs cocultured with allogeneic peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in an Akt-dependent manner. We previously showed that HLA-DR-expressing ECs induce polarization of Th17 and FoxP3(bright) regulatory T cell (Treg) subsets. Preactivation of ECs with anti-HLA-DR antibody redirected EC allogenicity toward a proinflammatory response by decreasing amplification of functional Treg and by further increasing IL-6-dependent Th17 expansion. Alloimmunized patient serum containing relevant HLA-DR alloantibodies selectively bound and increased EC secretion of IL-6 in cocultures with PBMCs. These data contribute to understanding of potential mechanisms of antibody-mediated endothelial damage independent of complement activation and FcR-expressing effector cells. PMID:26614587

  15. Class II major histocompatibility complex mutant mice to study the germ-line bias of T-cell antigen receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Daniel; Krovi, Sai Harsha; Tuttle, Kathryn D; Crooks, James; Reisdorph, Richard; White, Janice; Gross, James; Matsuda, Jennifer L; Gapin, Laurent; Marrack, Philippa; Kappler, John W

    2016-09-20

    The interaction of αβ T-cell antigen receptors (TCRs) with peptides bound to MHC molecules lies at the center of adaptive immunity. Whether TCRs have evolved to react with MHC or, instead, processes in the thymus involving coreceptors and other molecules select MHC-specific TCRs de novo from a random repertoire is a longstanding immunological question. Here, using nuclease-targeted mutagenesis, we address this question in vivo by generating three independent lines of knockin mice with single-amino acid mutations of conserved class II MHC amino acids that often are involved in interactions with the germ-line-encoded portions of TCRs. Although the TCR repertoire generated in these mutants is similar in size and diversity to that in WT mice, the evolutionary bias of TCRs for MHC is suggested by a shift and preferential use of some TCR subfamilies over others in mice expressing the mutant class II MHCs. Furthermore, T cells educated on these mutant MHC molecules are alloreactive to each other and to WT cells, and vice versa, suggesting strong functional differences among these repertoires. Taken together, these results highlight both the flexibility of thymic selection and the evolutionary bias of TCRs for MHC.

  16. Evaluation of gingival microleakage of class II resin composite restorations with fiber inserts: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R S Basavanna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims/Objectives: To evaluate the effect of glass and polyethylene fiber inserts and flowable composite as a liner on the microleakage of Class II composite restorations with gingival margins on root surfaces. Materials and Methods: Class II slots were prepared on both the proximal sides of thirty freshly extracted mandibular molars and were divided into six groups, according to the type of fiber insert and use of flowable composite (Filtek Z350 as a liner. Filtek P-60 (3M/ESPE posterior composite was used to restore all cavities. The specimens were thermocycled and stained with 2% Basic Fuchsin dye, and sectioned to evaluate the dye penetration under Stereomicroscope. Statistical analysis was done using Kruskalwallis test and Mann whitney U test. Results and Conclusion: This study showed that, fiber insert groups, with or without flowable liner, had reduced microleakage scores as compared to the control groups. However, statistically no significant difference was found between the groups with fiber inserts. Less microleakage was seen in Group IV (With flowable liner and without Fiber inserts as compared to Group I (Without flowable liner and Fiber inserts.

  17. Dental and orthopedic effects of high-pull headgear in treatment of Class II, division 1 malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firouz, M; Zernik, J; Nanda, R

    1992-09-01

    In the present study a prospective cephalometric investigation was undertaken to examine the skeletal and dental effects of the high-pull extraoral appliance, when the resultant force was directed through the level of trifurcation of the maxillary molars. Twelve adolescent patients with Class II, Division 1 malocclusions were selected for the study. Each patient wore the headgear for a 6-month period, an average of 12 hours a day. A group of untreated adolescent patients with Class II, Division 1 malocclusions who were in a similar age range, as well as skeletal and dental characteristics were chosen as controls. Lateral cephalometric films were taken before and after the 6-month treatment period, and before and after the observation period in the control group of patients. Our data indicate that by directing the force of the headgear approximately through the center of resistance of the maxillary molars, it is possible to accomplish simultaneously a substantial distal movement of the molars (2.6 +/- 0.6 mm), as well as significant intrusion (0.54 +/- 0.54 mm). In addition, our results demonstrate that the applied force of 500 gm was sufficient to initiate maxillary orthopedic changes in the treated patients. These changes include relative restriction of horizontal and vertical maxillary growth, as well as distal movement (mean: 0.8 mm) of the maxillary anterior border in the treatment group relative to an untreated control group. Such orthopedic changes have been previously described only in association with much higher force levels.

  18. Marginal adaptation of class II resin composite restorations using incremental and bulk placement techniques: an ESEM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idriss, S; Habib, C; Abduljabbar, T; Omar, R

    2003-10-01

    This in vitro study compared marginal gap formation in class II resin composite restorations. Forty caries-free extracted molars were prepared in a standardized manner for class II restoration by one of four methods: bulk- or incrementally-placed light-activated resin composite (Amelogen), and bulk- or incrementally-placed chemically activated composite (Rapidfill). The restored teeth, after finishing and polishing, and thermocycling, were examined using environmental scanning electron microscopy. Marginal gap measurements at predetermined facial and lingual margin sites showed no significant differences between the two sites within any of the groups. Both the light- and the chemically-activated restorations showed no significant differences in mean marginal gap sizes whether they were placed by incremental or bulk techniques. Amelogen restorations placed by both methods had significantly larger margin gaps than those of each of the Rapidfill groups (Peffect on the quality of marginal adaptation, both of the chemically activated resin composite restorations produced significantly smaller marginal gaps than both the bulk- and incrementally-placed light-activated composites. PMID:12974860

  19. The Cosmic Linear Anisotropy Solving System (CLASS). Part II: Approximation schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blas, Diego; Lesgourgues, Julien [Institut de Théorie des Phénomènes Physiques, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, CH-1015, Lausanne (Switzerland); Tram, Thomas, E-mail: diego.blas@epfl.ch, E-mail: julien.lesgourgues@cern.ch, E-mail: tram@phys.au.dk [CERN, Theory Division, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2011-07-01

    Boltzmann codes are used extensively by several groups for constraining cosmological parameters with Cosmic Microwave Background and Large Scale Structure data. This activity is computationally expensive, since a typical project requires from 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 5} Boltzmann code executions. The newly released code CLASS (Cosmic Linear Anisotropy Solving System) incorporates improved approximation schemes leading to a simultaneous gain in speed and precision. We describe here the three approximations used by CLASS for basic ΛCDM models, namely: a baryon-photon tight-coupling approximation which can be set to first order, second order or to a compromise between the two; an ultra-relativistic fluid approximation which had not been implemented in public distributions before; and finally a radiation streaming approximation taking reionisation into account.

  20. Force-Regulated In Situ TCR-Peptide-Bound MHC Class II Kinetics Determine Functions of CD4+ T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jinsung; Persaud, Stephen P; Horvath, Stephen; Allen, Paul M; Evavold, Brian D; Zhu, Cheng

    2015-10-15

    We have recently shown that two-dimensional (2D) and force-regulated kinetics of TCR-peptide-bound MHC class I (pMHC-I) interactions predict responses of CD8(+) T cells. To test whether these findings are applicable to CD4(+) T cells, we analyzed the in situ 3.L2 TCR-pMHC-II interactions for a well-characterized panel of altered peptide ligands on the T cell surface using the adhesion frequency assay with a micropipette and the thermal fluctuation and force-clamp assays with a biomembrane force probe. We found that the 2D effective TCR-pMHC-II affinity and off-rate correlate with, but better predict the T cell response than, the corresponding measurements with the surface plasmon resonance in three dimensions. The 2D affinity of the CD4 for MHC-II was very low, approaching the detection limit, making it one to two orders of magnitude lower than the affinity of CD8 for MHC-I. In addition, the signal-dependent cooperation between TCR and coreceptor for pMHC binding previously observed for CD8 was not observed for CD4. Interestingly, force elicited TCR-pMHC-II catch-slip bonds for agonists but slip-only bonds for antagonists, thereby amplifying the power of discrimination between altered peptide ligands. These results show that the force-regulated 2D binding kinetics of the 3.L2 TCR for pMHC-II determine functions of CD4(+) T cells. PMID:26336148

  1. A degree theory for a class of perturbed Fredholm maps II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calamai Alessandro

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In a recent paper we gave a notion of degree for a class of perturbations of nonlinear Fredholm maps of index zero between real infinite dimensional Banach spaces. Our purpose here is to extend that notion in order to include the degree introduced by Nussbaum for local -condensing perturbations of the identity, as well as the degree for locally compact perturbations of Fredholm maps of index zero recently defined by the first and third authors.

  2. Binding of human beta 2-microglobulin to murine EL4 thymoma cells upregulates MHC class I heavy-chain epitopes, inhibits IL-2 secretion and induces resistance to killing by natural killer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claësson, M H; Nissen, Mogens Holst

    1994-01-01

    . EL4 cells which had bound h beta 2m decreased their rate of constitutive IL-2 secretion and became resistant to activated natural killer (NK) cell killing. The present data suggest the binding of h beta 2m to mouse T cells leads to conformational changes of MHC-I heavy chains which influence both......A variety of murine tumor cell lines was studied for its binding of exogeneously added human beta 2-microglobulin (h beta 2m). Three T lymphomas and one IL-2-dependent T-cell line (HT-1) bound substantial amounts of h beta 2m, whereas P815 mastocytoma cells, an Abelson virus-infected pre-B cell...... line (ABLS-8), X63 B-lymphoma cells and YAC cells did not bind h beta 2m. In two of the T lymphomas, EL4 and BW5147, binding of h beta 2m led to an increase in major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) heavy-chain epitope expression as measured by anti-H-2K/D antibody binding and FACS analysis...

  3. Severe Class II Division 1 malocclusion in an adolescent patient, treated with a novel sagittal-guidance Twin-block appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peilun; Feng, Jing; Shen, Gang; Zhao, Ning

    2016-07-01

    Class II malocclusion is a challenging anomaly in orthodontic practice. Various types of functional appliances are used to correct Class II skeletal and occlusal disharmonies in growing patients, including the Twin-block. We used a modified sagittal-guidance Twin-block appliance combined with a fixed appliance and microimplant anchorage to treat a 13-year-old Chinese boy with a severe skeletal Class II malocclusion and mandibular retrognathia. Normal overjet and a Class I molar relationship were achieved because of the advancement of mandibular development, the restriction of maxillary growth, and dentoalveolar modifications in both the maxilla and the mandible. Favorable skeletal, dental, and soft tissue relationships were accomplished after 24 months of treatment. After 2 years of retention, the results remained stable. PMID:27364217

  4. Comparison of the Bolton index and Bolton tooth size discrepancies between Class II1 and II2 malocclusion%安氏Ⅱ1与Ⅱ2错(牙合)牙量不调的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马宁; 郑旭; 陈晓红

    2011-01-01

    目的 通过比较安氏II1与安氏II2错(牙合)Bolton指数及Bolton不调量,探讨两类错(牙合)在上下颌牙量关系方面的差异.方法 以安氏II1错(牙合)129例,安氏II2错(牙合)81例为研究对象,分别对其模型进行牙冠宽度测量,计算Bolton指数,再根据Bolton指数正常值获取上颌Bolton不调量.两组之间进行统计学分析.结果 ①安氏II2错(牙合)全牙Bolton指数比值(0.92±0.02)大于安氏II1错(0.91±0.02),差异有统计学意义(P=0.044),而两类错间前牙Bolton指数比值的差异无统计学意义(P=0.240).② 安氏II2错(牙合)前牙Bolton不调量(1.05±0.96)大于安氏II1(0.73±0.60)错,差异有统计学意义(P=0.044),而全牙Bolton不调量的差异无统计学意义(P=0.664).结论 两类错(牙合)在Bolton指数及Bolton不调量方面存在差异,在治疗时应该加以重视.%Objective To compare the Bolton index and Bolton tooth size discrepancies between Class II1 and Class II2 cases. Methods 129 casts of Class II1 patients and 81 casts of Class II2 patients were selected. Mesiodistal width of teeth was measured and Bolton index was calculated. According to Bolton rate standards, the tooth size discrepancies were calculated. Statistical analysis was made between these two groups. Results ① The total Bolton index in Class II2 cases (0.92±0.02) was significantly larger than that in Class II1 cases (0.91±0.02),(P=0.044). There were no significant differences of the anterior Bolton index between these two classes of malocclusion (P=0.240). ② The anterior Bolton tooth size discrepancies in Class II2 patients (1.05±0.96) were significantly larger than that in Class II1 patients (0.73±0.60), (P=0.044). There were no significant differences of the total Bolton tooth size discrepancies between the two classes (P=0.664). Conclusions There were differences of the Bolton index and Bolton tooth size discrepancies between Class II1 and Class II2 patients.

  5. Morphometric analysis of cervical vertebrae morphology and correlation of cervical vertebrae morphometry, cervical spine inclination and cranial base angle to craniofacial morphology and stature in an adult skeletal class I and class II population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriya Nambiar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study was carried out to compare the morphometry of the cervical column between adult Class I and Class II individuals and between gender and to analyze the correlation between the cervical column morphology, the cranial base angle, the craniocervical inclination with craniofacial morphology and stature of Angles Class I and Class II individuals. Materials and Methods: The data for this institutional retrospective study were systematically selected according to the specified inclusion and exclusion criteria from the pretreatment cephalometric radiographs of 19 male and 30 female patients visiting the Department of Orthodontics, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Mangalore, Manipal University, based on their ANB angle. The radiographs were traced and digitized. The reliability of the variables describing the cranial base and vertical and sagittal craniofacial dimensions was assessed. Conclusions: Our results showed that there was no statistically significant variation in the cervical vertebrae dimensions between Class I and Class II patients. There was found to be a definite sexual dimorphism, which was not statistically significant. Correlation exists between sagittal skeletal patterns, especially mandibular length and cervicovertebral morphology, but its use to classify the subjects in different sagittal classes is questionable.

  6. Interferon Beta-1b Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interferon beta-1b injection is used to reduce episodes of symptoms in patients with relapsing-remitting (course ... and problems with vision, speech, and bladder control). Interferon beta-1b is in a class of medications ...

  7. Avaliação da função pulmonar na obesidade graus I e II Evaluation of pulmonary function in class I and II obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zied Rasslan

    2004-12-01

    function. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of obesity and to determine whether body mass index (BMI and waist circumference correlate with spirometry values in obese individuals. METHOD: We studied 96 non-smokers of both sexes, 48 suffering from class I and class II obesity and ranging in age rom 18 to 75. All participants presented a BMI between 30 kg/m² and 40 kg/m² and none had a history of morbidity. Spirometry was performed, and waist circumferences were measured. RESULTS: No significant differences were found between the spirometric values of men with class I or II obesity and those of non-obese men. In obese women, forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 were significantly lower than in women who were not obese. Obese individuals of both sexes presented significantly lower expiratory reserve volume (ERV than did non-obese individuals. Although inspiratory capacity was greater in obese men and women, the difference was significant only for the men. In obese men, there was a significant negative correlation, not seen in the women, between waist circumference and FEV1. CONCLUSION: Pulmonary function is altered in women suffering from class I and II obesity. In obese men, although pulmonary function is unaffected by BMI, we observed a significant negative correlation between BMI and ERV. We can conclude that pulmonary function is influenced by waist circumference in men suffering from class I and II obesity.

  8. A novel HURRAH protocol reveals high numbers of monomorphic MHC class II loci and two asymmetric multi-locus haplotypes in the Pere David's deer.

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    Qiu-Hong Wan

    Full Text Available The Père David's deer is a highly inbred, but recovered, species, making it interesting to consider their adaptive molecular evolution from an immunological perspective. Prior to this study, genomic sequencing was the only method for isolating all functional MHC genes within a certain species. Here, we report a novel protocol for isolating MHC class II loci from a species, and its use to investigate the adaptive evolution of this endangered deer at the level of multi-locus haplotypes. This protocol was designated "HURRAH" based on its various steps and used to estimate the total number of MHC class II loci. We confirmed the validity of this novel protocol in the giant panda and then used it to examine the Père David's deer. Our results revealed that the Père David's deer possesses nine MHC class II loci and therefore has more functional MHC class II loci than the eight genome-sequenced mammals for which full MHC data are currently available. This could potentially account at least in part for the strong survival ability of this species in the face of severe bottlenecking. The results from the HURRAH protocol also revealed that: (1 All of the identified MHC class II loci were monomorphic at their antigen-binding regions, although DRA was dimorphic at its cytoplasmic tail; and (2 these genes constituted two asymmetric functional MHC class II multi-locus haplotypes: DRA1*01 ∼ DRB1 ∼ DRB3 ∼ DQA1 ∼ DQB2 (H1 and DRA1*02 ∼ DRB2 ∼ DRB4 ∼ DQA2 ∼ DQB1 (H2. The latter finding indicates that the current members of the deer species have lost the powerful ancestral MHC class II haplotypes of nine or more loci, and have instead fixed two relatively weak haplotypes containing five genes. As a result, the Père David's deer are currently at risk for increased susceptibility to infectious pathogens.

  9. Three-dimensional assessment of the temporomandibular joint and mandibular dimensions after early correction of the maxillary arch form in patients with Class II division 1 or division 2 malocclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Coskuner, Hande Gorucu; Ciger, Semra

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to assess three-dimensional changes in the temporomandibular joint positions and mandibular dimensions after correction of dental factors restricting mandibular growth in patients with Class II division 1 or division 2 malocclusion in the pubertal growth period. Methods This prospective clinical study included 14 patients each with Class II division 1 (group I) and Class II division 2 (group II) malocclusions. The quad-helix was used for maxillary expansion, while u...

  10. Crescimento da base craniana nos diferentes tipos faciais nos relacionamentos maxilomandibulares ortopédicos de Classe I, II e III: parte 3 (Crescimento médio de CF-Po Cranial base growth in different facial types in Class I, II and III orthopedic maxillomandibular relationship: part 3 (Mean growth of CF-Po

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucelma Vilela Pieri

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: este estudo retrospectivo avaliou o crescimento médio de CF-Po nos diferentes tipos faciais nos relacionamentos maxilomandibulares ortopédicos de Classe I, II e III. METODOLOGIA: uma amostra aleatória de 300 pacientes brasileiros leucodermas (131 do gênero masculino, 169 do gênero feminino, com idade média inicial de 10 anos e 2 meses (dentadura mista e final de 14 anos e 8 meses (segundos molares em oclusão e tempo médio de observação de 4 anos e 5 meses, foi selecionada em uma clínica particular, em São Paulo, Brasil. Havia 118 pacientes Classe I, 151 Classe II e 31 Classe III. Todas as 600 radiografias cefalométricas laterais foram obtidas no mesmo aparelho de raios-x. As análises de Ricketts e Schwarz modificadas por Faltin foram usadas. A medida linear CF-Po foi feita manualmente pelo mesmo examinador em T1 e T2. Os relacionamentos foram estudados juntos e separadamente, considerando tipo facial e gênero. A análise de variância de ANOVA foi aplicada. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: o tipo facial retrovertido mostrou-se significativamente desfavorável à correção de Classe III mandibular no gênero masculino; com tendência desfavorável à Classe II mandibular e crescimento ântero-posterior favorável na Classe I. O neutrovertido mostrou-se significativamente favorável à correção de Classe III mandibular em ambos os gêneros; com tendência favorável à correção de Classe II mandibular e ao crescimento ântero-posterior na Classe I. O provertido mostrou-se significativamente desfavorável à correção de Classe III em ambos os gêneros e favorável na Classe II mandibular e com tendência favorável de crescimento ântero-posterior na Classe I, principalmente no gênero masculino.AIM: This retrospective study assessed the cranial base growth and development in different facial types in Class I, II and III orthopedic maxillomandibular relationship. METHODS: A random sample of 300 Brazilian Caucasian patients

  11. Functional calculus and *-regularity of a class of Banach algebras II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Chi-Wai; Ng, Chi-Keung

    2006-10-01

    In this article, we define a natural Banach *-algebra for a C*-dynamical system (A,G,[alpha]) which is slightly bigger than L1(G;A) (they are the same if A is finite-dimensional). We will show that this algebra is *-regular if G has polynomial growth. The main result in this article extends the two main results in [C.W. Leung, C.K. Ng, Functional calculus and *-regularity of a class of Banach algebras, Proc. Amer. Math. Soc., in press].

  12. 40 CFR Figure C-3 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM10−2.5 Candidate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM10â2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Figure C-3 to Subpart C of Part... Candidate Methods and Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Fig. C-3 Figure C-3 to Subpart C of Part...

  13. The MHC class II ligand lymphocyte activation gene-3 is co-distributed with CD8 and CD3-TCR molecules after their engagement by mAb or peptide-MHC class I complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannier, S; Triebel, F

    1999-11-01

    Previous studies indicated that signaling through lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3), a MHC class II ligand, induced by multivalent anti-receptor antibodies led to unresponsiveness to TCR stimulation. Here, lateral distribution of the LAG-3 molecules and its topological relationship (mutual proximity) to the TCR, CD8, CD4, and MHC class I and II molecules were studied in the plasma membrane of activated human T cells in co-capping experiments and conventional fluorescence microscopy. Following TCR engagement by either TCR-specific mAb or MHC-peptide complex recognition in T-B cell conjugates, LAG-3 was found to be specifically associated with the CD3-TCR complex. Similarly, following CD8 engagement LAG-3 and CD8 were co-distributed on the cell surface while only a low percentage of CD4-capped cells displayed LAG-3 co-caps. In addition, LAG-3 was found to be associated with MHC class II (i.e. DR, DP and DQ) and partially with MHC class I molecules. The supramolecular assemblies described here between LAG-3, CD3, CD8 and MHC class II molecules may result from an organization in raft microdomains, a phenomenon known to regulate early events of T cell activation.

  14. Chemotherapeutics and radiation stimulate MHC class I expression through elevated interferon-beta signaling in breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Wan

    Full Text Available Low doses of anticancer drugs have been shown to enhance antitumor immune response and increase the efficacy of immunotherapy. The molecular basis for such effects remains elusive, although selective depletion of T regulatory cells has been demonstrated. In the current studies, we demonstrate that topotecan (TPT, a topoisomerase I-targeting drug with a well-defined mechanism of action, stimulates major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I expression in breast cancer cells through elevated expression/secretion of interferon-β (IFN-β and activation of type I IFN signaling. First, we show that TPT treatment elevates the expression of both total and cell-surface MHC I in breast cancer cells. Second, conditioned media from TPT-treated breast cancer ZR-75-1 cells induce elevated expression of cell-surface MHC I in drug-naïve recipient cells, suggesting the involvement of cytokines and/or other secreted molecules. Consistently, TPT-treated cells exhibit elevated expression of multiple cytokines such as IFN-β, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8. Third, either knocking down the type I interferon receptor subunit 1 (IFNAR1 or addition of neutralizing antibody against IFN-β results in reduced MHC I expression in TPT-treated cells. Together, these results suggest that TPT induces increased IFN-β autocrine/paracrine signaling through type I IFN receptor, resulting in the elevated MHC I expression in tumor cells. Studies have also demonstrated that other chemotherapeutic agents (e.g. etoposide, cisplatin, paclitaxel and vinblastine similarly induce increased IFN-β secretion and elevated MHC I expression. In addition, conditioned media from γ-irradiated donor cells are shown to induce IFN-β-dependent MHC I expression in unirradiated recipient cells. In the aggregate, our results suggest that many cancer therapeutics induce elevated tumor antigen presentation through MHC I, which could represent a common mechanism for enhanced antitumor immune response through

  15. Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans Promote Telomerase Internalization and MHC Class II Presentation on Dendritic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaine, Jeanne; Kellermann, Guillaume; Guillaume, Yves; Boidot, Romain; Picard, Emilie; Loyon, Romain; Queiroz, Lise; Boullerot, Laura; Beziaud, Laurent; Jary, Marine; Mansi, Laura; André, Claire; Lethier, Lydie; Ségal-Bendirdjian, Evelyne; Borg, Christophe; Godet, Yann; Adotévi, Olivier

    2016-09-01

    Telomerase is a prototype-shared tumor Ag and represents an attractive target for anticancer immunotherapy. We have previously described promiscuous and immunogenic HLA-DR-restricted peptides derived from human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and referred as universal cancer peptide (UCP). In nonsmall cell lung cancer, the presence of spontaneous UCP-specific CD4 T cell responses increases the survival of chemotherapy-responding patients. However, the precise mechanisms of hTERT's uptake, processing, and presentation on MHC-II molecules to stimulate CD4 T cells are poorly understood. In this work, by using well-characterized UCP-specific CD4 T cell clones, we showed that hTERT processing and presentation on MHC-II involve both classical endolysosomal and nonclassical cytosolic pathways. Furthermore, to our knowledge, we demonstrated for the first time that hTERT's internalization by dendritic cells requires its interaction with surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans. Altogether, our findings provide a novel mechanism of tumor-specific CD4 T cell activation and will be useful for the development of novel cancer immunotherapies that harness CD4 T cells. PMID:27481844

  16. HLA Class-II Associated HIV Polymorphisms Predict Escape from CD4+ T Cell Responses.

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    Nathan Erdmann

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Antiretroviral therapy, antibody and CD8+ T cell-mediated responses targeting human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1 exert selection pressure on the virus necessitating escape; however, the ability of CD4+ T cells to exert selective pressure remains unclear. Using a computational approach on HIV gag/pol/nef sequences and HLA-II allelic data, we identified 29 HLA-II associated HIV sequence polymorphisms or adaptations (HLA-AP in an African cohort of chronically HIV-infected individuals. Epitopes encompassing the predicted adaptation (AE or its non-adapted (NAE version were evaluated for immunogenicity. Using a CD8-depleted IFN-γ ELISpot assay, we determined that the magnitude of CD4+ T cell responses to the predicted epitopes in controllers was higher compared to non-controllers (p<0.0001. However, regardless of the group, the magnitude of responses to AE was lower as compared to NAE (p<0.0001. CD4+ T cell responses in patients with acute HIV infection (AHI demonstrated poor immunogenicity towards AE as compared to NAE encoded by their transmitted founder virus. Longitudinal data in AHI off antiretroviral therapy demonstrated sequence changes that were biologically confirmed to represent CD4+ escape mutations. These data demonstrate an innovative application of HLA-associated polymorphisms to identify biologically relevant CD4+ epitopes and suggests CD4+ T cells are active participants in driving HIV evolution.

  17. The activation threshold of CD4+ T cells is defined by TCR/peptide-MHC class II interactions in the thymic medulla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Tom Li; Tikhonova, Anastasia; Riberdy, Janice M; Laufer, Terri M

    2009-11-01

    Immature thymocytes that are positively selected based upon their response to self-peptide-MHC complexes develop into mature T cells that are not overtly reactive to those same complexes. Developmental tuning is the active process through which TCR-associated signaling pathways of single-positive thymocytes are attenuated to respond appropriately to the peptide-MHC molecules that will be encountered in the periphery. In this study, we explore the mechanisms that regulate the tuning of CD4(+) single-positive T cells to MHC class II encountered in the thymic medulla. Experiments with murine BM chimeras demonstrate that tuning can be mediated by MHC class II expressed by either thymic medullary epithelial cells or thymic dendritic cells. Tuning does not require the engagement of CD4 by MHC class II on stromal cells. Rather, it is mediated by interactions between MHC class II and the TCR. To understand the molecular changes that distinguish immature hyperactive T cells from tuned mature CD4(+) T cells, we compared their responses to TCR stimulation. The altered response of mature CD4 single-positive thymocytes is characterized by the inhibition of ERK activation by low-affinity self-ligands and increased expression of the inhibitory tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1. Thus, persistent TCR engagement by peptide-MHC class II on thymic medullary stroma inhibits reactivity to self-Ags and prevents autoreactivity in the mature repertoire.

  18. Direct binding of autoimmune disease related T cell epitopes to purified Lewis rat MHC class II molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joosten, I; Wauben, M H; Holewijn, M C;

    1994-01-01

    must be able to assess peptide-MHC interactions. Several well described autoimmune disease models exist in the Lewis rat and thus this particular rat strain provides a good model system to study the effect of competitor peptides. So far no information has been available on the peptide binding...... characteristics of the Lewis rat MHC class II RT1.B1 molecule. We have now developed a biochemical binding assay which enables competition studies in which the relative MHC binding affinity of a set of non-labelled peptides can be assessed while employing detection of biotinylated marker peptides...... by chemiluminescence. The assay is sensitive and specific. We have used this assay to determine the binding characteristics of several disease associated T cell determinants and their sequence analogues in the Lewis rat. Notably, most of the autoimmune disease associated peptide sequences tested were found...

  19. World War II Mobilization in Men’s Work Lives: Continuity or Disruption for the Middle Class?1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechter, Aimée R.; Elder, Glen H.

    2016-01-01

    The labor needs of World War II fueled a growing demand for both military and war industry personnel. This longitudinal study investigates mobilization into these competing activities and their work life effects among men from the middle class. Hazard estimates show significant differences in wartime activities across occupations, apart from other deferment criteria. By war’s end, critical employment, in contrast to military service, is positively associated with supervisory responsibility for younger men and with occupation change. This empoloyment does not predict postwar career advancement up to the 1970s. By comparison, men who were officers had a “pipeline” to advancement after the war, whereas other service men fared worse than nonveterans.

  20. Laterally positioned flap-revised technique along with platelet rich fibrin in the management of Miller class II gingival recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagmohan Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gingival recession is a complex phenomenon that may present numerous therapeutic challenges to the clinician. The laterally positioned flap is commonly used to cover isolated, denuded roots that have adequate donor tissue laterally and vestibular depth. Various modifications in laterally sliding flap have been proposed in order to avoid the reported undesirable results on the donor teeth. Recently, use of growth factors has been proposed in combination with surgical techniques. This article highlights the use of laterally positioned pedicle flap-revised technique as a modification of laterally sliding flap technique along with autologous suspension of growth factors, platelet rich fibrin membrane (PRF for the management of localized Miller class-II gingival recession. After 6 months of follow-up, the clinical condition was stable with 80% root coverage and satisfactory gingival tissue healing at both donor and recipient site with no signs of inflammation. An excellent esthetical outcome was achieved and the patient was satisfied with case resolution.