WorldWideScience

Sample records for class ii annual

  1. MHC class II expression in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yayi; Rozeboom, Leslie; Rivard, Christopher J; Ellison, Kim; Dziadziuszko, Rafal; Yu, Hui; Zhou, Caicun; Hirsch, Fred R

    2017-10-01

    Immunotherapy is an exciting development in lung cancer research. In this study we described major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class II protein expression in lung cancer cell lines and patient tissues. We studied MHC Class II (DP, DQ, DR) (CR3/43, Abcam) protein expression in 55 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines, 42 small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines and 278 lung cancer patient tissues by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Seven (12.7%) NSCLC cell lines were positive for MHC Class II. No SCLC cell lines were found to be MHC Class II positive. We assessed 139 lung cancer samples available in the Hirsch Lab for MHC Class II. There was no positive MHC Class II staining on SCLC tumor cells. MHC Class II expression on TILs in SCLC was significantly lower than that on TILs in NSCLC (P<0.001). MHC Class II was also assessed in an additional 139 NSCLC tumor tissues from Medical University of Gdansk, Poland. Patients with positive staining of MHC Class II on TILs had longer regression-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) than those whose TILs were MHC Class II negative (2.980 years, 95% CI 1.628-4.332 vs. 1.050 years, 95% CI 0.556-1.554, P=0.028) (3.230 years, 95% CI 2.617-3.843 vs. 1.390 years, 95% CI 0.629-2.151, P=0.014). MHC Class II was expressed both in NSCLC cell lines and tissues. However, MHC Class II was not detected in SCLC cell lines or tissue tumor cells. MHC Class II expression was lower on SCLC TILs than on NSCLC TILs. Loss of expression of MHC Class II on SCLC tumor cells and reduced expression on SCLC TILs may be a means of escaping anti-cancer immunity. Higher MHC Class II expression on TILs was correlated with better prognosis in patients with NSCLC. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Finishing occlusion in Class II or Class III molar relation: therapeutic Class II and III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nangia, A; Darendeliler, M A

    2001-11-01

    The most frequent extraction regime consists of the removal of upper and lower premolars. Depending on anchorage requirements, camouflage treatment options, surgical intervention, or the absence of teeth in only one arch, it may become necessary to finalize the occlusion with a one-dental-unit discrepancy between the upper and lower dental arches. Guidelines are presented for finishing occlusions in Class II or Class III molar relation.

  3. Morphological caracteristics of malocclusion class II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Class II malocclusion are complex anomalies of the skeletal and dental systems. The aim of this study is that the rengenkefalometrics analysis closer determine the morphological characteristics of this malocclusion. For this study were used 30 patients aged 18-30, previously clinically diagnosed class II, before the planned orthodontic treatment. The results analisis lateral cephalometric radiographs were compared with the 30 patients with class I malocclusion. Analyzed three linear and two angular cranial base dimensions and nine angular and four linear measures from the facial skeleton. The Results show: No statistically significant differensis in cranial base angle (SNBa and anterior cranial base length (S-N between class II and control Class I. Angle maxillar prognathism ( SNA is no signifikant different between class I and Class II but SNB angle were signifikant smaller. The length of maxillary base (A'-SnP is longer and the length of mandibule (Pg'-MT1/MT is signifficantly smaller. The gonial angle (ArGo-Me was smaller with open articular angle (GoArSN. Morphological characteristics of class II malocclusion are , retrognathic and smaller mandibular ligth, normognathic and longer maxilla, open articular angle with vertical tendency of the craniofacial growth pattern.

  4. MHC Class II epitope predictive algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten; Lund, Ole; Buus, S

    2010-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) molecules sample peptides from the extracellular space, allowing the immune system to detect the presence of foreign microbes from this compartment. To be able to predict the immune response to given pathogens, a number of methods have been...... developed to predict peptide-MHC binding. However, few methods other than the pioneering TEPITOPE/ProPred method have been developed for MHC-II. Despite recent progress in method development, the predictive performance for MHC-II remains significantly lower than what can be obtained for MHC-I. One reason...

  5. Shark class II invariant chain reveals ancient conserved relationships with cathepsins and MHC class II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criscitiello, Michael F; Ohta, Yuko; Graham, Matthew D; Eubanks, Jeannine O; Chen, Patricia L; Flajnik, Martin F

    2012-03-01

    The invariant chain (Ii) is the critical third chain required for the MHC class II heterodimer to be properly guided through the cell, loaded with peptide, and expressed on the surface of antigen presenting cells. Here, we report the isolation of the nurse shark Ii gene, and the comparative analysis of Ii splice variants, expression, genomic organization, predicted structure, and function throughout vertebrate evolution. Alternative splicing to yield Ii with and without the putative protease-protective, thyroglobulin-like domain is as ancient as the MHC-based adaptive immune system, as our analyses in shark and lizard further show conservation of this mechanism in all vertebrate classes except bony fish. Remarkable coordinate expression of Ii and class II was found in shark tissues. Conserved Ii residues and cathepsin L orthologs suggest their long co-evolution in the antigen presentation pathway, and genomic analyses suggest 450 million years of conserved Ii exon/intron structure. Other than an extended linker preceding the thyroglobulin-like domain in cartilaginous fish, the Ii gene and protein are predicted to have largely similar physiology from shark to man. Duplicated Ii genes found only in teleosts appear to have become sub-functionalized, as one form is predicted to play the same role as that mediated by Ii mRNA alternative splicing in all other vertebrate classes. No Ii homologs or potential ancestors of any of the functional Ii domains were found in the jawless fish or lower chordates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Structural properties of MHC class II ligands, implications for the prediction of MHC class II epitopes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper Winther Jørgensen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Major Histocompatibility class II (MHC-II molecules sample peptides from the extracellular space allowing the immune system to detect the presence of foreign microbes from this compartment. Prediction of MHC class II ligands is complicated by the open binding cleft of the MHC class II molecule, allowing binding of peptides extending out of the binding groove. Furthermore, only a few HLA-DR alleles have been characterized with a sufficient number of peptides (100-200 peptides per allele to derive accurate description of their binding motif. Little work has been performed characterizing structural properties of MHC class II ligands. Here, we perform one such large-scale analysis. A large set of SYFPEITHI MHC class II ligands covering more than 20 different HLA-DR molecules was analyzed in terms of their secondary structure and surface exposure characteristics in the context of the native structure of the corresponding source protein. We demonstrated that MHC class II ligands are significantly more exposed and have significantly more coil content than other peptides in the same protein with similar predicted binding affinity. We next exploited this observation to derive an improved prediction method for MHC class II ligands by integrating prediction of MHC- peptide binding with prediction of surface exposure and protein secondary structure. This combined prediction method was shown to significantly outperform the state-of-the-art MHC class II peptide binding prediction method when used to identify MHC class II ligands. We also tried to integrate N- and O-glycosylation in our prediction methods but this additional information was found not to improve prediction performance. In summary, these findings strongly suggest that local structural properties influence antigen processing and/or the accessibility of peptides to the MHC class II molecule.

  7. Nonproliferation Graduate Fellowship Program, Annual Report, Class of 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMakin, Andrea H.

    2013-09-23

    This 32-pp annual report/brochure describes the accomplishments of the Class of 2012 of the Nonproliferation Graduate Fellowship Program (the last class of this program), which PNNL administers for the National Nuclear Security Administration. The time period covers Sept 2011 through June 2013.

  8. 25 CFR 502.3 - Class II gaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Class II gaming. 502.3 Section 502.3 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.3 Class II gaming. Class II gaming means: (a) Bingo or lotto (whether or not electronic, computer...

  9. RTNS-II 1984 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    RTNS-II was built to provide a deuterium-tritium neutron source for the study of fusion neutron effects. In the quest to apply fusion to commercial power production, the specific mission of RTNS-II is threefold: to acquire direct engineering data for near-term confinement experiments and for materials that will see moderate neutron dose in future reactor systems; to measure production rates of transmutants and to develop appropriate radiation-resistant instrumentation for fusion systems; and to study the radiation-induced property changes caused by fusion neutrons. RTNS-II comprises two independent sources of 14-MeV neutrons. This is the third annual report summarizing irradiation experiments at RTNS-II. It covers calendar year 1983, and includes reports of all irradiation results, both fusion and non-fusion related. These comprise both secondary (or ''add-on'') and primary irradiations. Each summary article has been submitted by the investigator and has been altered only to meet the style and format requirements of this report

  10. MHC class II molecules and tumour immunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oven, I.

    2005-01-01

    Background. Tumour immunotherapy attempts to use the specificity and capability of the immune system to kill malignant cells with a minimum damage to normal tissue. Increasing knowledge of the identity of tumour antigens should help us design more effective therapeutic vaccines. Increasing evidence has demonstrated that MHC class II molecules and CD4+ T cells play important roles in generating and maintaining antitumour immune responses in animal models. These data suggest that it may be necessary to involve both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells for more effective antitumour therapy. Novel strategies have been developed for enhancing T cell responses against cancer by prolonging antigen presentation of dendritic cells to T cells, by the inclusion of MHC class II-restricted tumour antigens and by genetically modifying tumour cells to present antigen to T lymphocytes directly. Conclusions. Vaccines against cancers aim to induce tumour-specific effector T cells that can reduce tumour mass and induce development of tumour-specific T cell memory, that can control tumour relapse. (author)

  11. MHC class II molecules regulate growth in human T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M; Odum, Niels; Bendtzen, K

    1994-01-01

    MHC-class-II-positive T cells are found in tissues involved in autoimmune disorders. Stimulation of class II molecules by monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) or bacterial superantigens induces protein tyrosine phosphorylation through activation of protein tyrosine kinases in T cells, and class II signals...... lines tested. Only one of three CD4+, CD45RAhigh, ROhigh T cells responded to class II costimulation. There was no correlation between T cell responsiveness to class II and the cytokine production profile of the T cell in question. Thus, T cell lines producing interferon (IFN)-gamma but not IL-4 (TH1...... modulate several T cell responses. Here, we studied further the role of class II molecules in the regulation of T cell growth. Costimulation of class II molecules by immobilized HLA-DR mAb significantly enhanced interleukin (IL)-2-supported T cell growth of the majority of CD4+, CD45RAlow, ROhigh T cell...

  12. The systems biology of MHC class II antigen presentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Major histocompatibility class II molecules (MHC class II) are one of the key regulators of adaptive immunity because of their specific expression by professional antigen presenting cells (APC). They present peptides derived from endocytosed material to T helper lymphocytes. Consequently, MHC class

  13. Early Intervention in Skeletal Class II and dental Class II division I malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Iqbal Bhat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A Class II malocclusion may occur as a result of mandibular deficiency, maxillary excess, or a combination of both. However, the most common finding is mandibular skeletal retrusion. The use of functional jaw orthopedics, at the right time during growth, can ultimately result in malocclusion patients achieving an excellent functional occlusion, a broad beautiful smile, a full face with a beautiful jaw line, and profile. Functional jaw orthopedic (FJO appliances are designed to encourage adaptive skeletal growth by maintaining the mandible in a corrected forward position. The activator developed by Andresen is one of the most widely used for this purpose. A 12-year-old boy with skeletal Class II malocclusion and dental Class II div I malocclusion, a low mandibular plane angle was treated with growth modulation using an activator followed by molar distalization using fixed orthodontics for detailing of the occlusion. The major effects of the activator treatment in this case have been due to increase in condylar growth and also an increase in mandibular base length. Further, non-extraction fixed orthodontic treatment for proper interdigitation of the dentition also helped to maintain the stability of the satisfactory results achieved.

  14. Class II correction prior to orthodontics with the carriere distalizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Class II correction is a challenge in orthodontics with many existing devices being complex, too compliance-driven, or too prone to breakage. The Carriere Distalizer allows for straightforward Class II correction prior to orthodontics (fixed or clear aligners) at a time when no other mechanics interfere, and compliance is at its best.

  15. Nonproliferation Graduate Fellowship Program Annual Report: Class of 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMakin, Andrea H.

    2012-08-20

    Annual report for the Nonproliferation Graduate Fellowship Program (NGFP), which PNNL administers for the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). Features the Class of 2011. The NGFP is a NNSA program with a mission to cultivate future technical and policy leaders in nonproliferation and international security. Through the NGFP, outstanding graduate students with career interests in nonproliferation are appointed to program offices within the Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation (DNN). During their one-year assignment, Fellows participate in programs designed to detect, prevent, and reverse the proliferation of nuclear weapons.

  16. Archform comparisons between skeletal class II and III malocclusions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zou

    Full Text Available The purpose of this cross-sectional research was to explore the relationship of the mandibular dental and basal bone archforms between severe Skeletal Class II (SC2 and Skeletal Class III (SC3 malocclusions. We also compared intercanine and intermolar widths in these two malocclusion types. Thirty-three virtual pretreatment mandibular models (Skeletal Class III group and Thirty-five Skeletal Class II group pretreatment models were created with a laser scanning system. FA (the midpoint of the facial axis of the clinical crownand WALA points (the most prominent point on the soft-tissue ridgewere employed to produce dental and basal bone archforms, respectively. Gained scatter diagrams of the samples were processed by nonlinear regression analysis via SPSS 17.0. The mandibular dental and basal bone intercanine and intermolar widths were significantly greater in the Skeletal Class III group compared to the Skeletal Class II group. In both groups, a moderate correlation existed between dental and basal bone arch widths in the canine region, and a high correlation existed between dental and basal bone arch widths in the molar region. The coefficient of correlation of the Skeletal Class III group was greater than the Skeletal Class II group. Fourth degree, even order power functions were used as best-fit functions to fit the scatter plots. The radius of curvature was larger in Skeletal Class III malocclusions compared to Skeletal Class II malocclusions (rWALA3>rWALA2>rFA3>rFA2. In conclusion, mandibular dental and basal intercanine and intermolar widths were significantly different between the two groups. Compared with Skeletal Class II subjects, the mandibular archform was more flat for Skeletal Class III subjects.

  17. Mandibular condyle dimensions in Peruvian patients with Class II and Class III skeletal patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Zegarra-Baquerizo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare condylar dimensions of young adults with Class II and Class III skeletal patterns using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT. Materials and methods: 124 CBCTs from 18-30 year-old patients, divided into 2 groups according to skeletal patterns (Class II and Class III were evaluated. Skeletal patterns were classified by measuring the ANB angle of each patient. The anteroposterior diameter (A and P of the right and left mandibular condyle was assessed from a sagittal view by a line drawn from point A (anterior to P (posterior. The coronal plane allowed the evaluation of the medio-lateral diameter by drawing a line from point M (medium to L (lateral; all distances were measured in mm. Results: In Class II the A-P diameter was 9.06±1.33 and 8.86±1.56 for the right and left condyles respectively, in Class III these values were 8.71±1.2 and 8.84±1.42. In Class II the M-L diameter was 17.94±2.68 and 17.67±2.44 for the right and left condyles respectively, in Class III these values were 19.16±2.75 and 19.16±2.54. Conclusion: Class III M-L dimensions showed higher values than Class II, whereas these differences were minimal in A-P.

  18. The CLASS blazar survey - II. Optical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caccianiga, A; Marcha, MJ; Anton, S; Mack, KH; Neeser, MJ

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the optical properties of the objects selected in the CLASS blazar survey. Because an optical spectrum is now available for 70 per cent of the 325 sources present in the sample, a spectral classification, based on the appearance of the emission/absorption lines, is possible. A

  19. Evolution of major histocompatibility complex class I and class II genes in the brown bear

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins constitute an essential component of the vertebrate immune response, and are coded by the most polymorphic of the vertebrate genes. Here, we investigated sequence variation and evolution of MHC class I and class II DRB, DQA and DQB genes in the brown bear Ursus arctos to characterise the level of polymorphism, estimate the strength of positive selection acting on them, and assess the extent of gene orthology and trans-species polymorphism in Ursidae. Results We found 37 MHC class I, 16 MHC class II DRB, four DQB and two DQA alleles. We confirmed the expression of several loci: three MHC class I, two DRB, two DQB and one DQA. MHC class I also contained two clusters of non-expressed sequences. MHC class I and DRB allele frequencies differed between northern and southern populations of the Scandinavian brown bear. The rate of nonsynonymous substitutions (dN) exceeded the rate of synonymous substitutions (dS) at putative antigen binding sites of DRB and DQB loci and, marginally significantly, at MHC class I loci. Models of codon evolution supported positive selection at DRB and MHC class I loci. Both MHC class I and MHC class II sequences showed orthology to gene clusters found in the giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca. Conclusions Historical positive selection has acted on MHC class I, class II DRB and DQB, but not on the DQA locus. The signal of historical positive selection on the DRB locus was particularly strong, which may be a general feature of caniforms. The presence of MHC class I pseudogenes may indicate faster gene turnover in this class through the birth-and-death process. South–north population structure at MHC loci probably reflects origin of the populations from separate glacial refugia. PMID:23031405

  20. Evolution of major histocompatibility complex class I and class II genes in the brown bear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuduk Katarzyna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Major histocompatibility complex (MHC proteins constitute an essential component of the vertebrate immune response, and are coded by the most polymorphic of the vertebrate genes. Here, we investigated sequence variation and evolution of MHC class I and class II DRB, DQA and DQB genes in the brown bear Ursus arctos to characterise the level of polymorphism, estimate the strength of positive selection acting on them, and assess the extent of gene orthology and trans-species polymorphism in Ursidae. Results We found 37 MHC class I, 16 MHC class II DRB, four DQB and two DQA alleles. We confirmed the expression of several loci: three MHC class I, two DRB, two DQB and one DQA. MHC class I also contained two clusters of non-expressed sequences. MHC class I and DRB allele frequencies differed between northern and southern populations of the Scandinavian brown bear. The rate of nonsynonymous substitutions (dN exceeded the rate of synonymous substitutions (dS at putative antigen binding sites of DRB and DQB loci and, marginally significantly, at MHC class I loci. Models of codon evolution supported positive selection at DRB and MHC class I loci. Both MHC class I and MHC class II sequences showed orthology to gene clusters found in the giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca. Conclusions Historical positive selection has acted on MHC class I, class II DRB and DQB, but not on the DQA locus. The signal of historical positive selection on the DRB locus was particularly strong, which may be a general feature of caniforms. The presence of MHC class I pseudogenes may indicate faster gene turnover in this class through the birth-and-death process. South–north population structure at MHC loci probably reflects origin of the populations from separate glacial refugia.

  1. Evolution of major histocompatibility complex class I and class II genes in the brown bear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuduk, Katarzyna; Babik, Wiesław; Bojarska, Katarzyna; Sliwińska, Ewa B; Kindberg, Jonas; Taberlet, Pierre; Swenson, Jon E; Radwan, Jacek

    2012-10-02

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins constitute an essential component of the vertebrate immune response, and are coded by the most polymorphic of the vertebrate genes. Here, we investigated sequence variation and evolution of MHC class I and class II DRB, DQA and DQB genes in the brown bear Ursus arctos to characterise the level of polymorphism, estimate the strength of positive selection acting on them, and assess the extent of gene orthology and trans-species polymorphism in Ursidae. We found 37 MHC class I, 16 MHC class II DRB, four DQB and two DQA alleles. We confirmed the expression of several loci: three MHC class I, two DRB, two DQB and one DQA. MHC class I also contained two clusters of non-expressed sequences. MHC class I and DRB allele frequencies differed between northern and southern populations of the Scandinavian brown bear. The rate of nonsynonymous substitutions (dN) exceeded the rate of synonymous substitutions (dS) at putative antigen binding sites of DRB and DQB loci and, marginally significantly, at MHC class I loci. Models of codon evolution supported positive selection at DRB and MHC class I loci. Both MHC class I and MHC class II sequences showed orthology to gene clusters found in the giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca. Historical positive selection has acted on MHC class I, class II DRB and DQB, but not on the DQA locus. The signal of historical positive selection on the DRB locus was particularly strong, which may be a general feature of caniforms. The presence of MHC class I pseudogenes may indicate faster gene turnover in this class through the birth-and-death process. South-north population structure at MHC loci probably reflects origin of the populations from separate glacial refugia.

  2. Features of target cell lysis by class I and class II MHC restricted cytolytic T lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maimone, M.M.; Morrison, L.A.; Braciale, V.L.; Braciale, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    The lytic activity of influenza virus-specific muvine cytolytic T lymphocyte (CTL) clones that are restricted by either H-2K/D (class I) or H-2I (class II) major histocompatibility (MHC) locus products was compared on an influenza virus-infected target cell expressing both K/D and I locus products. With the use of two in vitro measurements of cytotoxicity, conventional 51 Cr release, and detergent-releasable radiolabeled DNA (as a measure of nuclear disintegration in the early post-lethal hit period), the authors found no difference between class I and class II MHC-restricted CTL in the kinetics of target cell destruction. In addition, class II MHC-restricted antiviral CTL failed to show any lysis of radiolabeled bystander cells. Killing of labeled specific targets by these class II MHC-restricted CTL was also efficiently inhibited by unlabeled specific competitor cells in a cold target inhibition assay. In sum, these data suggest that class I and class II MHC-restricted CTL mediate target cell destruction by an essentially similar direct mechanism

  3. Thin-plate spline analysis of craniofacial growth in Class I and Class II subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, Lorenzo; Baccetti, Tiziano; Stahl, Franka; McNamara, James A

    2007-07-01

    To compare the craniofacial growth characteristics of untreated subjects with Class II division 1 malocclusion with those of subjects with normal (Class I) occlusion from the prepubertal through the postpubertal stages of development. The Class II division 1 sample consisted of 17 subjects (11 boys and six girls). The Class I sample also consisted of 17 subjects (13 boys and four girls). Three craniofacial regions (cranial base, maxilla, and mandible) were analyzed on the lateral cephalograms of the subjects in both groups by means of thin-plate spline analysis at T1 (prepubertal) and T2 (postpubertal). Both cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons were performed on both size and shape differences between the two groups. The results showed an increased cranial base angulation as a morphological feature of Class II malocclusion at the prepubertal developmental phase. Maxillary changes in either shape or size were not significant. Subjects with Class II malocclusion exhibited a significant deficiency in the size of the mandible at the completion of active craniofacial growth as compared with Class I subjects. A significant deficiency in the size of the mandible became apparent in Class II subjects during the circumpubertal period and it was still present at the completion of active craniofacial growth.

  4. A retrospective study of Class II mixed-dentition treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Heesoo; Baumrind, Sheldon; Korn, Edward L; Dugoni, Steven; Boero, Roger; Aubert, Maryse; Boyd, Robert

    2017-01-01

    To consider the effectiveness of early treatment using one mixed-dentition approach to the correction of moderate and severe Class II malocclusions. Three groups of Class II subjects were included in this retrospective study: an early treatment (EarlyTx) group that first presented at age 7 to 9.5 years (n = 54), a late treatment (LateTx) group whose first orthodontic visit occurred between ages 12 and 15 (n = 58), and an untreated Class II (UnTx) group to assess the pretreatment comparability of the two treated groups (n = 51). Thirteen conventional cephalometric measurements were reported for each group and Class II molar severity was measured on the study casts of the EarlyTx and LateTx groups. Successful Class II correction was observed in approximately three quarters of both the EarlyTx group and the LateTx group at the end of treatment. EarlyTx patients had fewer permanent teeth extracted than did the LateTx patients (5.6% vs 37.9%, P < .001) and spent less time in full-bonded appliance therapy in the permanent dentition than did LateTx patients (1.7 ± 0.8 vs 2.6 ± 0.7years, P < .001). When supervision time is included, the EarlyTx group had longer total treatment time and averaged more visits than did the LateTx group (53.1 ± 18. 8 vs 33.7 ± 8.3, P < .0001). Fifty-five percent of the LateTx extraction cases involved removal of the maxillary first premolars only and were finished in a Class II molar relationship. EarlyTx comprehensive mixed-dentition treatment was an effective modality for early correction of Class II malocclusions.

  5. The relationship between Class I and Class II methanol masers at high angular resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, T. P.; Ellingsen, S. P.; Voronkov, M. A.; Cimò, G.

    2018-06-01

    We have used the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) to make the first high-resolution observations of a large sample of class I methanol masers in the 95-GHz (80-71A+) transition. The target sources consist of a statistically complete sample of 6.7-GHz class II methanol masers with an associated 95-GHz class I methanol maser, enabling a detailed study of the relationship between the two methanol maser classes at arcsecond angular resolution. These sources have been previously observed at high resolution in the 36- and 44-GHz transitions, allowing comparison between all three class I maser transitions. In total, 172 95-GHz maser components were detected across the 32 target sources. We find that at high resolution, when considering matched maser components, a 3:1 flux density ratio is observed between the 95- and 44-GHz components, consistent with a number of previous lower angular resolution studies. The 95-GHz maser components appear to be preferentially located closer to the driving sources and this may indicate that this transition is more strongly inverted nearby to background continuum sources. We do not observe an elevated association rate between 95-GHz maser emission and more evolved sources, as indicated by the presence of 12.2-GHz class II masers. We find that in the majority of cases where both class I and class II methanol emission is observed, some component of the class I emission is associated with a likely outflow candidate.

  6. A cephalometric analysis of Class II dentate subjects to establish a formula to determine the occlusal plane in Class II edentate subjects: A neo adjunct

    OpenAIRE

    Nikita Sinha; K Mahendranadh Reddy; Nidhi Gupta; Y M Shastry

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Occlusal plane (OP) differs considerably in participants with skeletal Class I and Class II participants. In this study, cephalometrics has been used to help in the determination of orientation of the OP utilizing the nonresorbable bony anatomic landmarks in skeletal Class II participants and an attempt has been made to predict and examine the OP in individuals with skeletal class II jaw relationship. Materials and Methods: One hundred dentulous participants with skeletal Class II...

  7. Annual ADEA Survey of Dental School Seniors: 2016 Graduating Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanchek, Tanya; Cook, Bryan J; Valachovic, Richard W

    2017-05-01

    This report examines the results of the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) Survey of Dental School Seniors graduating in 2016. Data were collected from 4,558 respondents at all 59 U.S. dental schools with graduating classes that year. This annual survey asks graduating students about a variety of topics in order to understand their motivation for attending dental school, educational experiences while in school, debt incurred, and plans following graduation. Motivations for choosing to attend dental school typically involved family or friends who were dentists or students' personal experiences. The timing of the decision to enter dentistry has been getting earlier over time. Similar to previous years, the average graduating student had above $200,000 in student debt. However, for the first time in two decades, inflation-adjusted debt decreased slightly. The reduction in debt was due to students from private schools reducing their average debt by $23,401. Immediately after graduation, most seniors planned to enter private practice (50.5%) or advanced dental education (33.8%). Approximately half of the respondents planned to work in underserved areas at some point in their careers. These findings underscore the continued value of the senior survey to offer a unique view of the diverse characteristics and career paths of the future dental workforce.

  8. 78 FR 20236 - Self-Regulation of Class II Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... self- regulation. (2) Will coordinate an on-site review and verification of the information submitted... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Part 518 RIN 3141-AA44 Self... petitions seeking the issuance of a certificate for tribal self-regulation of Class II gaming. DATES...

  9. 77 FR 4714 - Self-Regulation of Class II Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ...: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: This action proposes to amend the NIGC's self-regulation regulations to tailor the self-regulating qualifying criteria to a tribe's regulation of class II gaming activity and more clearly define and streamline the self-regulation certification process. By tailoring the...

  10. Improved prediction of MHC class I and class II epitopes using a novel Gibbs sampling approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten; Lundegaard, Claus; Worning, Peder

    2004-01-01

    Prediction of which peptides will bind a specific major histocompatibility complex (MHC) constitutes an important step in identifying potential T-cell epitopes suitable as vaccine candidates. MHC class II binding peptides have a broad length distribution complicating such predictions. Thus......, identifying the correct alignment is a crucial part of identifying the core of an MHC class II binding motif. In this context, we wish to describe a novel Gibbs motif sampler method ideally suited for recognizing such weak sequence motifs. The method is based on the Gibbs sampling method, and it incorporates...

  11. Angle Class II malocclusion treated with extraction of permanent teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Mattos Barreto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Angle Class II malocclusion associated with anterior open bite in adult patients demands a carefully elaborated orthodontic planning, aiming at restoring not only harmonious dental and facial esthetics, but also a balanced masticatory function. Orthognathic surgery or permanent teeth extraction are often the choice of treatment, therefore, treatment decision is related to all dental, skeletal and functional aspects. The present report discusses orthodontic compensation carried out by means of upper premolar extraction performed to correct the Class II canine relationship and, consequently, the anterior open bite, accepting that the upper incisors be retroclined. This clinical case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO as part of the requirements for obtaining the BBO Certification.

  12. Relation between Angle Class II malocclusion and deleterious oral habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Tarcísio Lima Ferreira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Oral habits may interfere on the growth and development of the stomatognathic system and orofacial myofunctional conditions, producing changes in the position of teeth in their dental arches. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to verify the presence of deleterious oral habits in individuals with malocclusion and see if there is a predominance of Class II malocclusion in these individuals. METHODS: The records of 140 patients treated at the Clinic of Preventive Orthodontics FORP-USP who had already completed treatment were randomly selected and analyzed. Their ages ranged from 6 to 10 years and 11 months. Associations were made between the presence or absence of deleterious oral habits, type and number of habits found in each individual and the type of malocclusion according to Angle classification. The statistical analysis used was the Chi-square test with a significance level of 5%. History of deleterious oral habits was found in 67.1% of individuals. RESULTS: The Class I malocclusion was most frequent (82.9%, followed by Class II malocclusion (12.1% and Class III (5%. CONCLUSION: There was a predominance of Class II malocclusion in individuals with a history of deleterious oral habits.INTRODUÇÃO: hábitos bucais podem interferir no crescimento e desenvolvimento do sistema estomatognático e nas condições miofuncionais bucofaciais, acarretando alterações no posicionamento dos dentes nas respectivas arcadas dentárias. OBJETIVO: o objetivo dessa pesquisa foi verificar a presença de hábitos bucais deletérios em indivíduos portadores de má oclusão e observar se existe predominância de má oclusão Classe II de Angle nesses indivíduos. MÉTODOS: foram selecionadas, aleatoriamente, e analisadas 140 fichas de pacientes atendidos na Clínica de Ortodontia Preventiva da FORP-USP, que já haviam recebido alta no tratamento. A faixa etária variou dos 6 anos a 10 anos e 11 meses. Foram realizadas associações entre

  13. MHC Class II haplotypes of Colombian Amerindian tribes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunis, Juan J.; Yunis, Edmond J.; Yunis, Emilio

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed 1041 individuals belonging to 17 Amerindian tribes of Colombia, Chimila, Bari and Tunebo (Chibcha linguistic family), Embera, Waunana (Choco linguistic family), Puinave and Nukak (Maku-Puinave linguistic families), Cubeo, Guanano, Tucano, Desano and Piratapuyo (Tukano linguistic family), Guahibo and Guayabero (Guayabero Linguistic Family), Curripaco and Piapoco (Arawak linguistic family) and Yucpa (Karib linguistic family). for MHC class II haplotypes (HLA-DRB1, DQA1, DQB1). Approximately 90% of the MHC class II haplotypes found among these tribes are haplotypes frequently encountered in other Amerindian tribes. Nonetheless, striking differences were observed among Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking tribes. The DRB1*04:04, DRB1*04:11, DRB1*09:01 carrying haplotypes were frequently found among non-Chibcha speaking tribes, while the DRB1*04:07 haplotype showed significant frequencies among Chibcha speaking tribes, and only marginal frequencies among non-Chibcha speaking tribes. Our results suggest that the differences in MHC class II haplotype frequency found among Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking tribes could be due to genetic differentiation in Mesoamerica of the ancestral Amerindian population into Chibcha and non-Chibcha speaking populations before they entered into South America. PMID:23885196

  14. Spectral energy distribution analysis of class I and class II FU Orionis stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gramajo, Luciana V.; Gómez, Mercedes [Observatorio Astronómico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Argentina, Laprida 854, 5000 Córdoba (Argentina); Rodón, Javier A., E-mail: luciana@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: mercedes@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: jrodon@eso.org [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile)

    2014-06-01

    FU Orionis stars (FUors) are eruptive pre-main sequence objects thought to represent quasi-periodic or recurring stages of enhanced accretion during the low-mass star-forming process. We characterize the sample of known and candidate FUors in a homogeneous and consistent way, deriving stellar and circumstellar parameters for each object. We emphasize the analysis in those parameters that are supposed to vary during the FUor stage. We modeled the spectral energy distributions of 24 of the 26 currently known FUors, using the radiative transfer code of Whitney et al. We compare our models with those obtained by Robitaille et al. for Taurus class II and I sources in quiescence periods by calculating the cumulative distribution of the different parameters. FUors have more massive disks: we find that ∼80% of the disks in FUors are more massive than any Taurus class II and I sources in the sample. Median values for the disk mass accretion rates are ∼10{sup –7} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} versus ∼10{sup –5} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} for standard young stellar objects (YSOs) and FUors, respectively. While the distributions of envelope mass accretion rates for class I FUors and standard class I objects are similar, FUors, on average, have higher envelope mass accretion rates than standard class II and class I sources. Most FUors (∼70%) have envelope mass accretion rates above 10{sup –7} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. In contrast, 60% of the classical YSO sample has an accretion rate below this value. Our results support the current scenario in which changes experimented by the circumstellar disk explain the observed properties of these stars. However, the increase in the disk mass accretion rate is smaller than theoretically predicted, although in good agreement with previous determinations.

  15. MHC class II-derived peptides can bind to class II molecules, including self molecules, and prevent antigen presentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosloniec, E F; Vitez, L J; Buus, S

    1990-01-01

    the alpha k-3 peptide binds slightly less well. These combined data, suggesting that class II-derived peptides can bind to MHC class II molecules, including the autologous molecule from which they are derived, have important implications for the molecular basis of alloreactivity and autoreactivity. Further...... found in the first and third polymorphic regions (PMR) of the A alpha k chain (alpha k-1 and alpha k-3) were capable of inhibiting the presentation of three different HEL-derived peptide antigens to their appropriate T cells. In addition, the alpha k-1 peptide inhibited the presentation of the OVA(323......-339) immunodominant peptide to the I-Ad-restricted T cell hybridomas specific for it. Prepulsing experiments demonstrated that the PMR peptides were interacting with the APC and not with the T cell hybridomas. These observations were confirmed and extended by the demonstration that the alpha k-1 and alpha k-3...

  16. Annual ADEA Survey of Dental School Seniors: 2001 Graduating Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Richard G.; Haden, N. Karl; Valachovic, Richard W.

    2002-01-01

    An annual survey of graduating seniors by the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) obtained data about their financing of dental education, graduating indebtedness, practice and postdoctoral education plans following graduation, and impressions of the adequacy of time directed to various areas of predoctoral instruction. Also related…

  17. Annual ADEA Survey of Dental Seniors: 2000 Graduating Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Richard G.; Haden, N. Karl; Valachovic, Richard W.

    2001-01-01

    The American Dental Education Association's annual survey of dental school graduating seniors provides data on students' financing of dental education, graduating indebtedness, practice and postdoctoral education plans, decision factors that influenced post-graduation plans, and impressions of the adequacy of time directed to various areas of…

  18. Evaluation depth of the curve of Spee in class I, class II, and class III malocclusion: A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjna Nayar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Occlusal plane is an essential consideration when multiple long-span posterior restorations are designed. When restorations are added to an existing tooth arrangement characterized by rotated, tipped, or extruded teeth, excursive interferences may be incorporated, resulting in detrimental squeal. The curve of Spee, which exists in the ideal natural dentition, allows harmony to exist between the anterior tooth and condylar guidance. This curve exists in the sagittal plane and is the best viewed from a lateral aspect. It permits total posterior disclusion on mandibular protrusion, given proper anterior tooth guidance. It is unclear that whether the curve of Spee is a description of the occlusal surface of each arch separately or in maximal intercuspation. The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in the depth of curve of Spee between the class I, class II, class III and to investigate the relationship of depth of curve of Spee with over jet, over-bite.

  19. Class II HLA interactions modulate genetic risk for multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilthey, Alexander T; Xifara, Dionysia K; Ban, Maria; Shah, Tejas S; Patsopoulos, Nikolaos A; Alfredsson, Lars; Anderson, Carl A; Attfield, Katherine E; Baranzini, Sergio E; Barrett, Jeffrey; Binder, Thomas M C; Booth, David; Buck, Dorothea; Celius, Elisabeth G; Cotsapas, Chris; D’Alfonso, Sandra; Dendrou, Calliope A; Donnelly, Peter; Dubois, Bénédicte; Fontaine, Bertrand; Fugger, Lars; Goris, An; Gourraud, Pierre-Antoine; Graetz, Christiane; Hemmer, Bernhard; Hillert, Jan; Kockum, Ingrid; Leslie, Stephen; Lill, Christina M; Martinelli-Boneschi, Filippo; Oksenberg, Jorge R; Olsson, Tomas; Oturai, Annette; Saarela, Janna; Søndergaard, Helle Bach; Spurkland, Anne; Taylor, Bruce; Winkelmann, Juliane; Zipp, Frauke; Haines, Jonathan L; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Spencer, Chris C A; Stewart, Graeme; Hafler, David A; Ivinson, Adrian J; Harbo, Hanne F; Hauser, Stephen L; De Jager, Philip L; Compston, Alastair; McCauley, Jacob L; Sawcer, Stephen; McVean, Gil

    2016-01-01

    Association studies have greatly refined the understanding of how variation within the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes influences risk of multiple sclerosis. However, the extent to which major effects are modulated by interactions is poorly characterized. We analyzed high-density SNP data on 17,465 cases and 30,385 controls from 11 cohorts of European ancestry, in combination with imputation of classical HLA alleles, to build a high-resolution map of HLA genetic risk and assess the evidence for interactions involving classical HLA alleles. Among new and previously identified class II risk alleles (HLA-DRB1*15:01, HLA-DRB1*13:03, HLA-DRB1*03:01, HLA-DRB1*08:01 and HLA-DQB1*03:02) and class I protective alleles (HLA-A*02:01, HLA-B*44:02, HLA-B*38:01 and HLA-B*55:01), we find evidence for two interactions involving pairs of class II alleles: HLA-DQA1*01:01–HLA-DRB1*15:01 and HLA-DQB1*03:01–HLA-DQB1*03:02. We find no evidence for interactions between classical HLA alleles and non-HLA risk-associated variants and estimate a minimal effect of polygenic epistasis in modulating major risk alleles. PMID:26343388

  20. Evaluation of dentoskeletal effects of Farmand functional appliance (Fa II) on class II malocclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Yassaei S.; Aghili H.; Razeghi D.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aim: Functional appliances refer to a variety of removable or fixed appliances designed to alter the mandibular position both sagitally and vertically, resulting in orthodontic and orthopedic changes. Despite the long history of functional appliances, there is still much controversy related to their effectiveness and mode of action. The aim of this study was to evaluate dental and skeletal effects of Fa II in patients with class II malocclusion due to mandibular deficiency.Mate...

  1. MHC Class II and Non-MHC Class II Genes Differentially Influence Humoral Immunity to Bacillus anthracis Lethal Factor and Protective Antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith A. James

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthrax Lethal Toxin consists of Protective Antigen (PA and Lethal Factor (LF, and current vaccination strategies focus on eliciting antibodies to PA. In human vaccination, the response to PA can vary greatly, and the response is often directed toward non-neutralizing epitopes. Variable vaccine responses have been shown to be due in part to genetic differences in individuals, with both MHC class II and other genes playing roles. Here, we investigated the relative contribution of MHC class II versus non-MHC class II genes in the humoral response to PA and LF immunization using three immunized strains of inbred mice: A/J (H-2k at the MHC class II locus, B6 (H-2b, and B6.H2k (H-2k. IgG antibody titers to LF were controlled primarily by the MHC class II locus, whereas IgG titers to PA were strongly influenced by the non-MHC class II genetic background. Conversely, the humoral fine specificity of reactivity to LF appeared to be controlled primarily through non-MHC class II genes, while the specificity of reactivity to PA was more dependent on MHC class II. Common epitopes, reactive in all strains, occurred in both LF and PA responses. These results demonstrate that MHC class II differentially influences humoral immune responses to LF and PA.

  2. [Cephalometric analysis in individuals with Class II/2 malocclusions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rak, D

    1990-06-01

    Various orthodontic anomalies class II/2, classified into several experimental groups, and eugnathic occlusion serving as controls, were studied by roentgencephalometry. The objective of the study was to detect possible distinctions in the quantitative values of the chosen variables and to select those which discriminate the group of class II/2 orthodontic anomalies most significantly. Attempts were made to ascertain whether or not there were sex-related differences. The teleroentgenograma of 241 examines, aged 10 to 18 years, of both sexes, were analyzed. The experimental group consisted of 61 examinees class II/2 orthodontic anomalies. The control group consisted of 180 examinees with eugnathic occlusion. Latero-lateral skull roentgenograms were taken according to the rules of roentgencephalometry. Using acetate paper, the drawings of profile teleroentgenograms were elaborated and the reference points and lineas were entered. A total of 38 variables were analyzed, of which 10 were linear, 19 angular, 8 variables were obtained by mathematical calculations, and the age variable was also analyzed. For statistical analyses and electronic computer was used. The results are presented in tables and graphs. The results obtained have shown: that, when compared to the findings in the control group, the subjects in the experimental groups manifested significant changes in the following craniofacial characteristics: retroposition and retroinclination of the upper incisors; increased difference of the position of the apical basis of the jaw; marked convexity of the osseous profile; mandibular retrognathism and increased proportion of the maxillary compared to mandibular base; that, with regard to the sex of the examines, only linear variables of significantly discriminating character were selected. Thus it could be concluded that there were no significant sex differences among the morphological characteristics of the viscerocranium.

  3. Interfacial Chemistry of Moisture-Aged Class II Composite Restorations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Paulette; Wang, Yong; Bohaty, Brenda

    2007-01-01

    Under in vivo conditions, the adhesive/dentin bond at the gingival margin of class II composite restorations can be the first defense against substances that may penetrate and ultimately undermine the composite restoration. Deterioration of this bond during aqueous aging is an area of intense investigation, but to date, the majority of our techniques have provided only an indirect assessment of the degrading components. The purpose of this study was to analyze the in situ molecular structure of adhesive/dentin interfaces in class II composite restorations, following aging in aqueous solutions. Class II preparations were cut from 12 unerupted human third molars, with a water-cooled, high-speed, dental handpiece. The prepared teeth were randomly selected for restoration with single bond (SB) and Z100 (3M). Teeth were restored, as per the manufacturer’s directions, under environmental conditions that simulated humidity and temperature characteristics of the oral cavity. Restored teeth were kept in sterile Delbecco’s phosphate saline for 48 h or 90 days. The samples were sectioned occlusogingivally and micro-Raman spectra were acquired at ~1.5 μm spatial resolution across the composite/adhesive/dentin interfaces at the gingival margins. Samples were wet throughout spectral acquisition. The relative intensity of bands associated with the adhesive in the interfacial region decreased dramatically after aqueous storage. This decrease in concert with the similar depth of dentin demineralization provides direct spectroscopic evidence of leaching of adhesive monomer from the interface during the 90 days of storage. SB adhesive infiltrated 4 –5 μm of 12-μm demineralized dentin at the gingival margin. After 90 days of aqueous storage, SB adhesive infiltration was reduced to ~2 μm, leaving ~10 μm of demineralized dentin collagen exposed at the gingival margin. The unprotected collagen at the gingival margin of the aged class II composite restorations was disorganized

  4. Compensatory canine angulation in angle Class II and III patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Carlos Agner Busato

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurence of compensation in mesiodistal axial inclinations of canines in skeletal malocclusions patients. The sample consisted of 25 Angle Class II, division 1 malocclusion (group 1 and 19 Angle Class III malocclusion patients (group 2. After measurement of dental angulations through a method that associates plaster model photography and AutoCad software, comparisons between the groups were performed by T-test for independent samples. Results showed that there was no statistically significant difference (p < 0.05 between groups, when maxillary canine angulations were compared. Regarding the mandibular canines, there was a statistically significant difference in dental angulation, expressed by 3.2° for group 1 and 0.15° for group 2. An upright position tendency for mandibular canines was observed in the Angle Class III sample. This configures a pattern of compensatory coronary positioning, since the angulation of these teeth makes them occupy less space in the dental arch and consequently mandibular incisors can be in a more retracted position in the sagittal plane.

  5. Haemophilus ducreyi Cutaneous Ulcer Strains Diverged from Both Class I and Class II Genital Ulcer Strains: Implications for Epidemiological Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharanesh Gangaiah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Haemophilus ducreyi has emerged as a major cause of cutaneous ulcers (CU in yaws-endemic regions of the tropics in the South Pacific, South East Asia and Africa. H. ducreyi was once thought only to cause the genital ulcer (GU disease chancroid; GU strains belong to 2 distinct classes, class I and class II. Using whole-genome sequencing of 4 CU strains from Samoa, 1 from Vanuatu and 1 from Papua New Guinea, we showed that CU strains diverged from the class I strain 35000HP and that one CU strain expressed β-lactamase. Recently, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention released the genomes of 11 additional CU strains from Vanuatu and Ghana; however, the evolutionary relationship of these CU strains to previously-characterized CU and GU strains is unknown.We performed phylogenetic analysis of 17 CU and 10 GU strains. Class I and class II GU strains formed two distinct clades. The class I strains formed two subclades, one containing 35000HP and HD183 and the other containing the remainder of the class I strains. Twelve of the CU strains formed a subclone under the class I 35000HP subclade, while 2 CU strains formed a subclone under the other class I subclade. Unexpectedly, 3 of the CU strains formed a subclone under the class II clade. Phylogenetic analysis of dsrA-hgbA-ncaA sequences yielded a tree similar to that of whole-genome phylogenetic tree.CU strains diverged from multiple lineages within both class I and class II GU strains. Multilocus sequence typing of dsrA-hgbA-ncaA could be reliably used for epidemiological investigation of CU and GU strains. As class II strains grow relatively poorly and are relatively more susceptible to vancomycin than class I strains, these findings have implications for methods to recover CU strains. Comparison of contemporary CU and GU isolates would help clarify the relationship between these entities.

  6. Haemophilus ducreyi Cutaneous Ulcer Strains Diverged from Both Class I and Class II Genital Ulcer Strains: Implications for Epidemiological Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangaiah, Dharanesh; Spinola, Stanley M

    2016-12-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi has emerged as a major cause of cutaneous ulcers (CU) in yaws-endemic regions of the tropics in the South Pacific, South East Asia and Africa. H. ducreyi was once thought only to cause the genital ulcer (GU) disease chancroid; GU strains belong to 2 distinct classes, class I and class II. Using whole-genome sequencing of 4 CU strains from Samoa, 1 from Vanuatu and 1 from Papua New Guinea, we showed that CU strains diverged from the class I strain 35000HP and that one CU strain expressed β-lactamase. Recently, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention released the genomes of 11 additional CU strains from Vanuatu and Ghana; however, the evolutionary relationship of these CU strains to previously-characterized CU and GU strains is unknown. We performed phylogenetic analysis of 17 CU and 10 GU strains. Class I and class II GU strains formed two distinct clades. The class I strains formed two subclades, one containing 35000HP and HD183 and the other containing the remainder of the class I strains. Twelve of the CU strains formed a subclone under the class I 35000HP subclade, while 2 CU strains formed a subclone under the other class I subclade. Unexpectedly, 3 of the CU strains formed a subclone under the class II clade. Phylogenetic analysis of dsrA-hgbA-ncaA sequences yielded a tree similar to that of whole-genome phylogenetic tree. CU strains diverged from multiple lineages within both class I and class II GU strains. Multilocus sequence typing of dsrA-hgbA-ncaA could be reliably used for epidemiological investigation of CU and GU strains. As class II strains grow relatively poorly and are relatively more susceptible to vancomycin than class I strains, these findings have implications for methods to recover CU strains. Comparison of contemporary CU and GU isolates would help clarify the relationship between these entities.

  7. Homotypic aggregation of human cell lines by HLA class II-, class Ia- and HLA-G-specific monoclonal antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odum, Niels; Ledbetter, J A; Martin, P

    1991-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules have been implicated in cell adhesion in two ways. In addition to the well-established role of class II antigens in low-affinity adhesion provided by interactions between class II and CD4, recent data indicated that class II may also induce...... adhesion between T and B cells by activating the CD18/CD11a (LFA-1) adhesion pathway. Here we report that monoclonal antibodies (mAb) against HLA-DR (L243, p4.1, HB10a, VI15) and certain broad class II reacting mAb (TU35, TU39), but not anti-DQ (TU22, Leu-10) mAb, induced homotypic aggregation of human...... class II-positive monocytic (I937) and T leukemic (HUT78) tumor cell lines and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) transformed B-lymphoid cell lines (EBV-LCL). Class II-negative cell lines (U-937 and the EBV-LCL mutant line 616) were not induced to aggregate. An HLA-G-transfected EBV-LCL, 221-AGN...

  8. Evaluation of dentoskeletal effects of Farmand functional appliance (Fa II on class II malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassaei S.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Functional appliances refer to a variety of removable or fixed appliances designed to alter the mandibular position both sagitally and vertically, resulting in orthodontic and orthopedic changes. Despite the long history of functional appliances, there is still much controversy related to their effectiveness and mode of action. The aim of this study was to evaluate dental and skeletal effects of Fa II in patients with class II malocclusion due to mandibular deficiency.Materials and Methods: In this before-after clinical trial, 35 patients with class II div I malocclusion were selected. These samples were under treatment with Fa II appliance for 11 months. The range of age of females was 10-13 years and males 11-14 years. Combination analysis was used to determine skeletal and dental effects. Paired t-test was used to compare the differences of mean value pre and post treatment. P<0.05 was considered as the level of significance. Results: There was significant difference between pre and post treatment in respect to posterior and anterior facial height, eruption of upper and lower posterior teeth, eruption of upper anterior teeth, mandibular body length, ANB angle, IMPA and 1 to SN. No significant difference was observed between pre and post treatment regarding facial growth.Conclusion: Treatment with Fa II functional appliance leads to significant alterations in dental and skeletal elements of craniofacial complex and improvement of dental and jaws relationship.

  9. Protective influences on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by MHC class I and class II alleles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustafa, M; Vingsbo, C; Olsson, T

    1994-01-01

    are resistant. Interestingly, rats with the MHC u haplotype develop an immune response to the MBP 63-88, but do not get EAE. In this study we have used intra-MHC recombinant rat strains to compare the influences of the MHC u with the a haplotype. We discovered the following: 1) The class II region of the MHC...... a haplotype permits EAE and a Th1 type of immune response as measured by IFN-gamma production after in vitro challenge of in vivo-primed T cells with MBP 63-88. 2) The class II region of the u haplotype is associated with a disease-protective immune response characterized by production of not only IFN......Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is influenced by polymorphism of the MHC. We have previously found that Lewis rats with certain MHC haplotypes are susceptible to disease induced with the myelin basic protein (MBP) peptide 63-88, whereas Lewis rats with other MHC haplotypes...

  10. Circumvention of MHC class II restriction by genetic immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, K; Lu, C; Chang, H D; Croft, M; Zanetti, M; Gerloni, M

    2001-11-12

    The fate of T cell responses to peptide-based vaccination is subject to constraints by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), MHC restriction. Using as a model system of T and B cell epitopes from the circumsporozoite protein of Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite, we show that vaccination by somatic transgene immunization readily primes Balb/c mice (H-2(d)) a strain previously reported to be non-responder to immunization with a synthetic peptide vaccine encompassing these epitopes. Following genetic vaccination Balb/c mice developed a primary T cell response comparable to that of the responder strain C57Bl/6 (H-2(b)). Following booster immunization on day 45 Balb/c mice responded with a typical T cell memory response. Priming induced the formation of specific antibodies, which rose sharply after booster immunization. These findings suggests that genetic immunization can circumvent MHC class II restriction.

  11. Surgical Orthodontic Treatment of Severe Skeletal Class II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsulaimani, Fahad F.; Al-Sebaei, Maisa O.; Afify, Ahmed R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an adult Saudi male patient who presented with a severe skeletal class II deformity. The case was managed with a combination of presurgical orthodontic treatment followed by a double jaw orthognathic surgery and then another phase of orthodontic treatment for final occlusal detailing. Extraction of the four first premolars was done during the presurgical orthodontic phase of treatment to decompensate upper and lower incisors and to give room for surgical setback of the maxillary anterior segment. Double jaw surgery was performed: bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy for 8 mm mandibular advancement combined with three-piece Le Fort I maxillary osteotomy, 6 mm setback of the anterior segment, 8 mm impaction of the maxilla, and 5 mm advancement genioplasty. Although the anteroposterior discrepancy and the facial convexity were so severe, highly acceptable results were obtained, both esthetically as well as occlusally. PMID:23573428

  12. Autoimmunity and inflammation are independent of class II transactivator type PIV-dependent class II major histocompatibility complex expression in peripheral tissues during collagen-induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldburger, Jean-Marc; Palmer, Gaby; Seemayer, Christian; Lamacchia, Celine; Finckh, Axel; Christofilopoulos, Panayiotis; Baeten, Dominique; Reith, Walter; Gabay, Cem

    2011-11-01

    To determine the regulation of class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) expression in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) in order to investigate their role as nonprofessional antigen-presenting cells in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Expression of class II MHC, class II MHC transactivator (CIITA), and Ciita isoforms PI, PIII, and PIV was examined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry in human synovial tissues, arthritic mouse joints, and human and murine FLS. CIA was induced in mice in which isoform PIV of Ciita was knocked out (PIV(-/-) ), in PIV(-/-) mice transgenic for CIITA in the thymus (K14 CIITA), and in their control littermates. HLA-DRA, total CIITA, and CIITA PIII messenger RNA levels were significantly increased in synovial tissue samples from patients with rheumatoid arthritis compared with the levels in tissue from patients with osteoarthritis. Human FLS expressed surface class II MHC via CIITA PIII and PIV, while class II MHC expression in murine FLS was entirely mediated by PIV. Mice with a targeted deletion of CIITA PIV lack CD4+ T cells and were protected against CIA. The expression of CIITA was restored in the thymus of PIV(-/-) K14 CIITA-transgenic mice, which had a normal CD4+ T cell repertoire and normal surface levels of class II MHC on professional antigen-presenting cells, but did not induce class II MHC on FLS. Synovial inflammation and immune responses against type II collagen were similar in PIV(-/-) K14 CIITA-transgenic mice and control mice with CIA, but bone erosion was significantly reduced in the absence of PIV. Overexpression of class II MHC is tightly correlated with CIITA expression in arthritic synovium and in FLS. Selective targeting of Ciita PIV in peripheral tissues abrogates class II MHC expression by murine FLS but does not protect against inflammation and autoimmune responses in CIA. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  13. Hyoid bone position and head posture comparison in skeletal Class I and Class II subjects: A retrospective cephalometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawankumar Dnyandeo Tekale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the hyoid bone position and the head posture using lateral cephalograms in subjects with skeletal Class I and skeletal Class II pattern and to investigate the gender differences. Materials and Methods: The study used lateral cephalograms of 40 subjects (20 skeletal Class I pattern; 20 skeletal Class II pattern. Lateral cephalograms were traced and analyzed for evaluation of the hyoid bone position and the head posture using 34 parameters. Independent sample t-test was performed to compare the differences between the two groups and between genders in each group. Statistical tests were performed using NCSS 2007 software (NCSST, Kaysville, Utah, USA. Results: The linear measurements between the hyoid bone (H and cervical spine (CV2ia, the nasion-sella line, palatal line nasion line, the anterior nasal spine (ANS to perpendicular projection of H on the NLP (NLP- Nasal Linear Projection (H-NLP/ANS as well as the posterior cranial points (Bo, Ar and S points were found to be less in skeletal Class II subjects. The measurement H-CV2ia was found to be less in males with skeletal Class I pattern and H-CV4ia was found to be less in males with skeletal Class II pattern. The natural head posture showed no significant gender differences. Conclusion: The position of hyoid bone was closer to the cervical vertebra horizontally in skeletal Class II subjects when compared with skeletal Class I subjects. In males, the hyoid bone position was closer to the cervical vertebra horizontally both in skeletal Class I and skeletal Class II subjects.

  14. Student Debt and the Class of 2015. 11th Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Debbie; Cheng, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Student Debt and the Class of 2015 is the eleventh annual report on the student loan debt of recent graduates from four-year colleges, documenting the rise in student loan debt and variation among states as well as colleges. This report includes policy recommendations to address rising student debt and reduce debt burdens, including collecting…

  15. Comparison of second molar eruption patterns in patients with skeletal Class II and skeletal Class I malocclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brin, Ilana; Camasuvi, Semin; Dali, Nasser; Aizenbud, Dror

    2006-12-01

    The eruptive positions of the second molars in Class I and Class II malocclusions were studied. Pretreatment records of 221 patients with a mean age of 11.3 years were evaluated. About 19% of them had skeletal Class I, 31% had skeletal maxillary Class II, and 50% had skeletal mandibular Class II malocclusions. The mean values of the dental and chronologic ages of the subjects were similar. The eruptive positions in relation to a reference line, the developmental stages of the patients' second molars and dental ages were recorded from the panoramic roentgenograms. The distribution of the various developmental stages in each malocclusion group was similar, and no association between skeletal malocclusion and dental developmental stage of the second molars was encountered. The eruptive position of the maxillary second molars was more occlusal only in the oldest maxillary Class II group, above 12 years of age (P = .02). These results support, in part, previous reports suggesting that the maxillary second molars may erupt earlier in patients with skeletal maxillary Class II malocclusions.

  16. Identifying Effective Enzyme Activity Targets for Recombinant Class I and Class II Collagenase for Successful Human Islet Isolation

    OpenAIRE

    Balamurugan, Appakalai N.; Green, Michael L.; Breite, Andrew G.; Loganathan, Gopalakrishnan; Wilhelm, Joshua J.; Tweed, Benjamin; Vargova, Lenka; Lockridge, Amber; Kuriti, Manikya; Hughes, Michael G.; Williams, Stuart K.; Hering, Bernhard J.; Dwulet, Francis E.; McCarthy, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Isolation following a good manufacturing practice-compliant, human islet product requires development of a robust islet isolation procedure where effective limits of key reagents are known. The enzymes used for islet isolation are critical but little is known about the doses of class I and class II collagenase required for successful islet isolation.

  17. Different Roles Of Class-I And Class-II Clostridium-histolyticum Collagenase In Rat Pancreatic-islet Isolation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, G. H. J.; Vos-Scheperkeuter, Greetje; Lin, Hun-Chi; van Schilfaarde, R

    Crude Clostridium histolyticum collagenase was purified by gel filtration and fractionated by anion exchange chromatography into class I with high collagen digestion activity (CDA) and low FALGPA (2-furanacryloyl-L-leucylglycyl-L-prolyI-L-alanine )hydrolysis activity (FHA), class II with low CDA and

  18. Glass ionomer-silver cermet Class II tunnel-restorations for primary molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croll, T P

    1988-01-01

    Tunnel preparations preserve the anatomical marginal ridge and minimize the loss of healthy tooth structure adjacent to the carious lesion. When the practitioner has developed proficiency in restoring class II carious lesions with tunnel restorations, less treatment time is required than with traditional class II preparations. The technique for restoring a primary first molar with a class II carious lesion, using a tunnel preparation and Ketac-Silver restorative material is described.

  19. Sibling rivalry: competition between MHC class II family members inhibits immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzin, Lisa K; Cresswell, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Peptide loading of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules in the endosomes and lysosomes of antigen-presenting cells is catalyzed by human leukocyte antigen-DM (HLA-DM) and modulated by HLA-DO. In a structural study in this issue, Guce et al. show that HLA-DO is an MHC class II mimic and functions as a competitive and essentially irreversible inhibitor of HLA-DM activity, thereby inhibiting MHC class II antigen presentation.

  20. OGLE II Eclipsing Binaries In The LMC: Analysis With Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devinney, Edward J.; Prsa, A.; Guinan, E. F.; DeGeorge, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Eclipsing Binaries (EBs) via Artificial Intelligence (EBAI) Project is applying machine learning techniques to elucidate the nature of EBs. Previously, Prsa, et al. applied artificial neural networks (ANNs) trained on physically-realistic Wilson-Devinney models to solve the light curves of the 1882 detached EBs in the LMC discovered by the OGLE II Project (Wyrzykowski, et al.) fully automatically, bypassing the need for manually-derived starting solutions. A curious result is the non-monotonic distribution of the temperature ratio parameter T2/T1, featuring a subsidiary peak noted previously by Mazeh, et al. in an independent analysis using the EBOP EB solution code (Tamuz, et al.). To explore this and to gain a fuller understanding of the multivariate EBAI LMC observational plus solutions data, we have employed automatic clustering and advanced visualization (CAV) techniques. Clustering the OGLE II data aggregates objects that are similar with respect to many parameter dimensions. Measures of similarity for example, could include the multidimensional Euclidean Distance between data objects, although other measures may be appropriate. Applying clustering, we find good evidence that the T2/T1 subsidiary peak is due to evolved binaries, in support of Mazeh et al.'s speculation. Further, clustering suggests that the LMC detached EBs occupying the main sequence region belong to two distinct classes. Also identified as a separate cluster in the multivariate data are stars having a Period-I band relation. Derekas et al. had previously found a Period-K band relation for LMC EBs discovered by the MACHO Project (Alcock, et al.). We suggest such CAV techniques will prove increasingly useful for understanding the large, multivariate datasets increasingly being produced in astronomy. We are grateful for the support of this research from NSF/RUI Grant AST-05-75042 f.

  1. Características cefalométricas de pacientes portadores de más oclusões Classe I e Classe II de Angle Cephalometric characteristics of patients with Angle Class I and Class II malocclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Lacerda dos Santos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: o presente estudo comparou algumas medidas cefalométricas relacionadas às características faciais em pacientes com má oclusão Classe I, Classe II 1ª divisão e Classe II 2ª divisão. METODOLOGIA: foram selecionadas 130 telerradiografias de pacientes leucodermas em fase inicial de tratamento ortodôntico, com idades entre 10 e 16 anos (média de 12,6 anos; e divididos em 3 grupos. As medidas cefalométricas utilizadas neste estudo foram: ANB, ı-SN, IMPA, AML, Ls-ı, Li-ī e EI. A análise de variância e o teste de Tukey foram realizados nas medidas ANB, IMPA, AML, ı-SN e Li-ī. Para as demais variáveis (EI e Ls-ı foi utilizado o teste de Kruskal Wallis e Dunn. RESULTADOS: os resultados mostraram que as medidas Ls-ı e EI tiveram diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os grupos I e II-1 e entre os grupos II-1 e II-2 (p AIM: The present study compared some cephalometric measurements related to facial characteristics in patients having Class I, Class II division 1, and Class II division 2 malocclusions. METHODS: One hundred and thirty teleradiographs of Caucasian patients aged 10-16 years (mean age of 12.6 years under initial orthodontic treatment were selected for study and divided into 3 groups. The cephalometric measurements used in the present study were the following: ANB, ı-SN, IMPA, AML, Ls-ı, Li-ī, and EI. Variance analysis and Tukey's test were carried out for ANB, IMPA, AML, ı-SN, and Li-ī measurements, whereas Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests were used for EI and Ls-ı. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences were found for EI and Ls-ı measurements when Group II-1 was compared to Group I and Group II-2 (p < 0.05. ANB and IMPA measurements also had statistically significant differences when Group I was compared to Group II-1 and Group II-2 (p < 0.05. The measurement ı-SN had statistically significant differences between the 3 groups (p < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: One can conclude that the measurement

  2. A Genome-wide multidimensional RNAi screen reveals pathways controlling MHC class II antigen presentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul, Petra; van den Hoorn, Tineke; Jongsma, Marlieke L. M.; Bakker, Mark J.; Hengeveld, Rutger; Janssen, Lennert; Cresswell, Peter; Egan, David A.; van Ham, Marieke; ten Brinke, Anja; Ovaa, Huib; Beijersbergen, Roderick L.; Kuijl, Coenraad; Neefjes, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    MHC class II molecules (MHC-II) present peptides to T helper cells to facilitate immune responses and are strongly linked to autoimmune diseases. To unravel processes controlling MHC-II antigen presentation, we performed a genome-wide flow cytometry-based RNAi screen detecting MHC-II expression and

  3. MHC class II polymorphisms, autoreactive T-cells and autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue eTsai

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Major histocompatibility complex (MHC genes, also known as human leukocyte antigen genes (HLA in humans, are the prevailing contributors of genetic susceptibility to autoimmune diseases such as Type 1 Diabetes (T1D, Multiple Sclerosis (MS, and Rheumatoid arthritis (RA, among others (Todd and Wicker, 2001;MacKay et al., 2002;Hafler et al., 2007. Although the pathways through which MHC molecules afford autoimmune risk or resistance remain to be fully mapped out, it is generally accepted that they do so by shaping the central and peripheral T cell repertoires of the host towards autoimmune proclivity or resistance, respectively. Disease-predisposing MHC alleles would both spare autoreactive thymocytes from central tolerance and bias their development towards a pathogenic phenotype. Protective MHC alleles, on the other hand, would promote central deletion of autoreactive thymocytes and skew their development towards non-pathogenic phenotypes. This interpretation of the data is at odds with two other observations: that in MHC-heterozygous individuals, resistance is dominant over susceptibility; and that it is difficult to understand how deletion of one or a few clonal autoreactive T cell types would suffice to curb autoimmune responses driven by hundreds if not thousands of autoreactive T cell specificities. This review provides an update on current advances in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying MHC class II-associated autoimmune disease susceptibility and/or resistance and attempts to reconcile these seemingly opposing concepts.

  4. Gravitational Waves in Locally Rotationally Symmetric (LRS Class II Cosmologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bradley

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work we consider perturbations of homogeneous and hypersurface orthogonal cosmological backgrounds with local rotational symmetry (LRS, using a method based on the 1 + 1 + 2 covariant split of spacetime. The backgrounds, of LRS class II, are characterised by that the vorticity, the twist of the 2-sheets, and the magnetic part of the Weyl tensor all vanish. They include the flat Friedmann universe as a special case. The matter contents of the perturbed spacetimes are given by vorticity-free perfect fluids, but otherwise the perturbations are arbitrary and describe gravitational, shear, and density waves. All the perturbation variables can be given in terms of the time evolution of a set of six harmonic coefficients. This set decouples into one set of four coefficients with the density perturbations acting as source terms, and another set of two coefficients describing damped source-free gravitational waves with odd parity. We also consider the flat Friedmann universe, which has been considered by several others using the 1 + 3 covariant split, as a check of the isotropic limit. In agreement with earlier results we find a second-order wavelike equation for the magnetic part of the Weyl tensor which decouples from the density gradient for the flat Friedmann universes. Assuming vanishing vector perturbations, including the density gradient, we find a similar equation for the electric part of the Weyl tensor, which was previously unnoticed.

  5. Performance assessment for the class L-II disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This draft radiological performance assessment (PA) for the proposed Class L-II Disposal Facility (CIIDF) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) has been prepared to demonstrate compliance with the requirements of the US Department of Energy Order 5820.2A. This PA considers the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) over the operating life of the facility and the long-term performance of the facility in providing protection to public health and the environment. The performance objectives contained in the order require that the facility be managed to accomplish the following: (1) Protect public health and safety in accordance with standards specified in environmental health orders and other DOE orders. (2) Ensure that external exposure to the waste and concentrations of radioactive material that may be released into surface water, groundwater, soil, plants, and animals results in an effective dose equivalent (EDE) that does not exceed 25 mrem/year to a member of the public. Releases to the atmosphere shall meet the requirements of 40 CFR Pt. 61. Reasonable effort should be made to maintain releases of radioactivity in effluents to the general environment as low as reasonably achievable. (1) Ensure that the committed EDEs received by individual who inadvertently may intrude into the facility after the loss of active institutional control (100 years) will not exceed 100 mrem/year for continuous exposure of 500 mrem for a single acute exposure. (4) Protect groundwater resources, consistent with federal, state, and local requirements.

  6. Maxillary and mandibular contribution to the establishment of class II malocclusion in an adult Lebanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hajj, Nadine; Bassil-Nassif, Nayla; Tauk, Alain; Mouhanna-Fattal, Carole; Bouserhal, Joseph P

    2017-12-01

    The main aim of this study was to describe the contribution of the maxilla and the mandible to the establishment of a Class II skeletal malocclusion in an adult Lebanese population. Secondary aims were to detect the presence of sex-based dimorphism and to study the influence of the vertical dimension on the Class II skeletal pattern. A sample of 90 adults in skeletal Class II was recruited and equally distributed according to sex and vertical typology. The study describes the skeletal and dentoalveolar cephalometric characteristics of the Class II sample, essentially according to Coben's cephalometric analysis. The total effective depth of the cranial base and the anterior cranial base angle (SN-BaH) were both greater in the Class II sample. In females, the effective depth of the maxilla (Ptm-A) was larger than normal while SNB was smaller. The parameters describing the size and shape of the body of the mandible were significantly different from those of normal subjects. The upper incisors were in a retrusive position, while the axis of the lower incisors was located normally. The mandibular molars had a more distal sagittal position. Hyperdivergent subjects had more significant posterior alveolar growth, a more retrusive mandibular position and smaller mandibular dimensions than the other two vertical sub-groups. The cranial base contributes to the establishment of a Class II malocclusion, and mandibular retrusion cannot be considered as a characteristic shared by all skeletal Class II subjects. Lessening of the absolute length of the mandibular body is the second most frequent etiological factor noted in the Class II sample studied. Most individuals in skeletal Class II have an associated dental Class II malocclusion, and the vertical dimension has an influence on the Class II skeletal pattern. Copyright © 2017 CEO. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Diagnostic performance of increased overjet in Class II division 1 malocclusion and incisor trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Tiziano; Giuntini, Veronica; Vangelisti, Andrea; Darendeliler, M Ali; Franchi, Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were: 1) to evaluate the associations between an increased overjet (IO) and other dentoskeletal characteristics of Class II division 1 malocclusions in the mixed dentition; 2) to assess whether Class II division 1 malocclusions or rather an increased overjet per se is a risk factor for upper incisor trauma (UIT). A sample of 900 mixed dentition subjects, was observed by clinical inspection, analysis of dental casts, and lateral cephalograms. The diagnostic performance of IO (overjet ≥ 7 mm) was evaluated in relation to other Class II dentoskeletal features (Class II molar and canine relationships, and skeletal Class II relationships). Secondly, the diagnostic performance of IO and of the other Class II dentoskeletal components was tested with regard to the prevalence of UIT. Diagnostic performance was assessed by odds ratio and positive likelihood ratio. The diagnostic performance of IO with regard to the other dentoskeletal components of Class II malocclusions was not significant. The only Class II features associated significantly with an increased risk of UIT was IO. When used as an isolated occlusal feature, IO is not a valid diagnostic indicator for Class II division 1 malocclusions. An increased overjet per se, and not Class II malocclusions, appears to be a significant risk factor for UIT. These findings recommend discrimination between clinical conditions showing an isolated IO from comprehensive Class II malocclusions during diagnosis, analysis of treatment outcomes, and evaluation of the risk of upper incisor trauma. Copyright © 2010 Società Italiana di Ortodonzia SIDO. Published by Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  8. Anteroposterior condylar position: a comparative study between subjects with normal occlusion and patients with Class I, Class II Division 1, and Class III malocclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Marcelo Reis; Rodrigues, Andréia Fialho; Ribeiro, Luiz Claudio; Campos, Marcio José da Silva; Vitral, Robert Willer Farinazzo

    2013-10-29

    The present study aimed to determine and compare the anteroposterior position of the condyle in the mandibular fossa between groups of asymptomatic subjects with normal occlusion and asymptomatic subjects with Class I, Class II Division 1, and Class III malocclusions. Thirty persons with normal occlusion, 30 with Class I malocclusion, 30 with Class II Division 1, and 30 with Class III had computed tomography scans of their temporomandibular joints. The anterior joint space/posterior joint space (AJS/PJS) ratio was determined for the right and left joints. The paired t test was used to analyze the AJS/PJS ratio between both sides for each group. The ANOVA test was applied to verify the differences between the groups for the measurements of the right and left sides. In case the ANOVA test confirmed significance, the Dunnett's t test was performed to compare the groups of malocclusion with that of normal occlusion. The paired t test between the AJS/PJS relationships in the right and left sides showed the following p values: Class I (0.168), Class II Division 1 (0.662), Class III (0.991), and normal occlusion (0.390). The ANOVA test showed a p value of 0.445 for the comparisons of the right side and 0.040 for the left side. The Dunnett's t test demonstrated a statistically significant difference between the Class II group and the normal occlusion group (p value of 0.026) in the joints of the left side. Bilateral symmetry and lack of condyle centralization were common characteristics among all groups. The greatest condylar decentralization was observed in the Class II group, whereas the least condylar decentralization was found in the normal occlusion group.

  9. A cephalometric analysis of Class II dentate subjects to establish a formula to determine the occlusal plane in Class II edentate subjects: A neo adjunct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Nikita; Reddy, K Mahendranadh; Gupta, Nidhi; Shastry, Y M

    2017-01-01

    Occlusal plane (OP) differs considerably in participants with skeletal Class I and Class II participants. In this study, cephalometrics has been used to help in the determination of orientation of the OP utilizing the nonresorbable bony anatomic landmarks in skeletal Class II participants and an attempt has been made to predict and examine the OP in individuals with skeletal class II jaw relationship. One hundred dentulous participants with skeletal Class II malocclusion who came to the hospital for correcting their jaw relationship participated in the study. Their right lateral cephalogram was taken using standardized procedures, and all the tracings were manually done by a single trained examiner. The cephalograms which were taken for the diagnostic purpose were utilized for the study, and the patient was not exposed to any unnecessary radiation. The numerical values obtained from the cephalograms were subjected to statistical analysis. Pearson's correlation of orientation of the OP in Class II edentulous participants. Pearson's correlation coefficient and linear regression analysis were performed, and a high correlation was found between A2 and (A2 + B2)/(B2 + C2) with " r " value of 0.5. A medium correlation was found between D2 and (D2 + E2)/(E2 + F2) with " r " value of 0.42. The formula obtained for posterior reference frame through linear regression equation was y = 0.018* × +0.459 and the formula obtained for anterior reference frame was y1 = 0.011* × 1 + 0.497. It was hypothesized that by substituting these formulae in the cephalogram obtained from the Class II edentate individual, the OP can be obtained and verified. It was concluded that cephalometrics can be useful in examining the orientation of OP in skeletal Class II participants.

  10. 40 CFR 82.19 - Apportionment of baseline consumption allowances for class II controlled substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... allowances for class II controlled substances. 82.19 Section 82.19 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Consumption Controls § 82.19 Apportionment of baseline consumption allowances for class II controlled... Ineos Fluor Americas HCFC-22 2,546,305 Kivlan & Company HCFC-22 2,081,018 MDA Manufacturing HCFC-22 2...

  11. 40 CFR 82.17 - Apportionment of baseline production allowances for class II controlled substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... allowances for class II controlled substances. 82.17 Section 82.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Consumption Controls § 82.17 Apportionment of baseline production allowances for class II controlled... 1,759,681 MDA Manufacturing HCFC-22 2,383,835 Solvay Solexis HCFC-142b 6,541,764 [ 74 FR 66446, Dec...

  12. 40 CFR 147.2201 - State-administered program-Class II wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Application to Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Resource Operations, sections .051.02.02.000 to .051.02.02.080... wells 147.2201 Section 147.2201 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Texas § 147.2201 State-administered program—Class II wells The UIC program for Class II wells in the...

  13. 77 FR 58473 - Minimum Technical Standards for Class II Gaming Systems and Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... to all equipment, including computer, electronic, or other technologic aids used with Class II games..., computer, or other technologic aids in connection with the play of Class II games. This part establishes... gaming system, causes a discontinuance of game play or other component functions. Financial instrument...

  14. Long-term evaluation of Class II subdivision treatment with unilateral maxillary first molar extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livas, Christos; Pandis, Nikolaos; Booij, Johan Willem; Katsaros, Christos; Ren, Yijin

    Objective: To evaluate the long-term effects of asymmetrical maxillary first molar (M1) extraction in Class II subdivision treatment. Materials and Methods: Records of 20 Class II subdivision whites (7 boys, 13 girls; mean age, 13.0 years; SD, 1.7 years) consecutively treated with the Begg technique

  15. 40 CFR 147.2551 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., “Re: Application for Primacy in the Regulation of Class II Injection Wells,” March 8, 1982; (5) Letter... Class II Injection Wells under Section 1425 of the Safe Drinking Water Act,” November 1981; (2) Letter...) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS...

  16. 40 CFR 147.3400 - Navajo Indian lands-Class II wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to Operate an Underground Injection Control Program under the Safe Drinking Water Act”, October 11... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Navajo Indian Lands § 147.3400 Navajo Indian lands—Class II wells. The UIC program for Class II injection wells...

  17. Maxillary first molar extraction in Class II malocclusion : Follow-up studies on treatment effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livas, Christos

    2015-01-01

    This PhD research investigated treatment effects of extraction of one and two maxillary first molars in Class II subdivision and Class II/1 malocclusion cases respectively from a longer time perspective. Private practice records were scrutinized to evaluate aspects of a treatment technique combining

  18. The effectiveness of different polymerization protocols for class II composite resin restorations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, L.C.G. de; Opdam, N.J.M.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Roeters, F.J.M.; Wolke, J.G.C.; Geitenbeek, B.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of reduced light exposure times on Vickers hardness (VH) of class II composite resin restorations. METHODS: Class II restorations were made in vitro in three 2mm thick increments in a human molar. Two composite resins (Clearfil AP-X; Esthet-X) were polymerized

  19. The Effect of MHC Class II Transactivator on the Growth and Metastasis of Breast Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    F. Manca, and R. S. Accolla. 1998. HLA class II expression in uninducible hepatocarcinoma cells after transfection of AIR-1 gene product CIITA...Cestari, A. D’Agostino, ’ A M Megiovanni, F. Manca, and R. S. Accolla. 1998. HLA class II expression in uninducible hepatocarcinoma cells after

  20. H pylori receptor MHC class II contributes to the dynamic gastric epithelial apoptotic response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, David A; Suarez, Giovanni; Beswick, Ellen J; Sierra, Johanna C; Reyes, Victor E

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of MHC class II in the modulation of gastric epithelial cell apoptosis induced by H pylori infection. METHODS: After stimulating a human gastric epithelial cell line with bacteria or agonist antibodies specific for MHC class II and CD95, the quantitation of apoptotic and anti-apoptotic events, including caspase activation, BCL-2 activation, and FADD recruitment, was performed with a fluorometric assay, a cytometric bead array, and confocal microscopy, respectively. RESULTS: Pretreatment of N87 cells with the anti-MHC class II IgM antibody RFD1 resulted in a reduction in global caspase activation at 24 h of H pylori infection. When caspase 3 activation was specifically measured, crosslinking of MHC class II resulted in a marked reduced caspase activation, while simple ligation of MHC class II did not. Crosslinking of MHC class II also resulted in an increased activation of the anti-apoptosis molecule BCL-2 compared to simple ligation. Confocal microscope analysis demonstrated that the pretreatment of gastric epithelial cells with a crosslinking anti-MHC class II IgM blocked the recruitment of FADD to the cell surface. CONCLUSION: The results presented here demonstrate that the ability of MHC class II to modulate gastric epithelial apoptosis is at least partially dependent on its crosslinking. Furthermore, while previous research has demonstrated that MHC class II signaling can be pro-apoptotic during extended ligation, we have shown that the crosslinking of this molecule has anti-apoptotic effects during the earlier time points of H pylori infection. This effect is possibly mediated by the ability of MHC class II to modulate the activation of the pro-apoptotic receptor Fas by blocking the recruitment of the accessory molecule FADD, and this delay in apoptosis induction could allow for prolonged cytokine secretion by H pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells. PMID:16981259

  1. DNA alkylating agents alleviate silencing of class II transactivator gene expression in L1210 lymphoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Shawn P; Holtz, Renae; Lewandowski, Nicole; Tomasi, Thomas B; Fuji, Hiroshi

    2002-09-15

    MHC class II (Ia) Ag expression is inversely correlated with tumorigenicity and directly correlated with immunogenicity in clones of the mouse L1210 lymphoma (1 ). Understanding the mechanisms by which class II Ag expression is regulated in L1210 lymphoma may facilitate the development of immunotherapeutic approaches for the treatment of some types of lymphoma and leukemia. This study demonstrates that the variation in MHC class II Ag expression among clones of L1210 lymphoma is due to differences in the expression of the class II transactivator (CIITA). Analysis of stable hybrids suggests that CIITA expression is repressed by a dominant mechanism in class II-negative L1210 clones. DNA-alkylating agents such as ethyl methanesulfonate and the chemotherapeutic drug melphalan activate CIITA and class II expression in class II negative L1210 cells, and this effect appears to be restricted to transformed cell lines derived from the early stages of B cell ontogeny. Transient transfection assays demonstrated that the CIITA type III promoter is active in class II(-) L1210 cells, despite the fact that the endogenous gene is not expressed, which suggests that these cells have all of the transacting factors necessary for CIITA transcription. An inverse correlation between methylation of the CIITA transcriptional regulatory region and CIITA expression was observed among L1210 clones. Furthermore, 5-azacytidine treatment activated CIITA expression in class II-negative L1210 cells. Collectively, our results suggest that 1) CIITA gene expression is repressed in class II(-) L1210 cells by methylation of the CIITA upstream regulatory region, and 2) treatment with DNA-alkylating agents overcomes methylation-based silencing of the CIITA gene in L1210 cells.

  2. MHC Class II and Non-MHC Class II Genes Differentially Influence Humoral Immunity to Bacillus anthracis Lethal Factor and Protective Antigen

    OpenAIRE

    Garman, Lori; Dumas, Eric K.; Kurella, Sridevi; Hunt, Jonathan J.; Crowe, Sherry R.; Nguyen, Melissa L.; Cox, Philip M.; James, Judith A.; Farris, A. Darise

    2012-01-01

    Anthrax Lethal Toxin consists of Protective Antigen (PA) and Lethal Factor (LF), and current vaccination strategies focus on eliciting antibodies to PA. In human vaccination, the response to PA can vary greatly, and the response is often directed toward non-neutralizing epitopes. Variable vaccine responses have been shown to be due in part to genetic differences in individuals, with both MHC class II and other genes playing roles. Here, we investigated the relative contribution of MHC class I...

  3. Use of cyanoacrylate as barrier in guided tissue regeneration in class II furcation defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen L Mueller Storrer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The guided bone regeneration (GBR is a technique that uses resorbable and non-resorbable membranes in association with other filling biomaterials. GBR is one of the optional treatments for therapy of class II furcation defects. The current case report evaluates clinically and radiographically the use of the cyanoacrylate membrane (Glubran ®2 associated with organic bovine bone (GenOx for the treatment of vestibular class II furcation defect on the lower left molar. Conclusion: The GBR is an option in the treatment of vestibular class II furcation defects and cyanoacrylate surgical glue, acting as a mechanic barrier and providing an efficient stability for the graft.

  4. MHC class II tetramers made from isolated recombinant α and β chains refolded with affinity-tagged peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braendstrup, Peter; Justesen, Sune Frederik Lamdahl; Osterbye, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Targeting CD4+ T cells through their unique antigen-specific, MHC class II-restricted T cell receptor makes MHC class II tetramers an attractive strategy to identify, validate and manipulate these cells at the single cell level. Currently, generating class II tetramers is a specialized undertaking...... effectively limiting their use and emphasizing the need for improved methods of production. Using class II chains expressed individually in E. coli as versatile recombinant reagents, we have previously generated peptide-MHC class II monomers, but failed to generate functional class II tetramers. Adding...... a monomer purification principle based upon affinity-tagged peptides, we here provide a robust method to produce class II tetramers and demonstrate staining of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells. We also provide evidence that both MHC class II and T cell receptor molecules largely accept affinity-tagged peptides...

  5. Pharyngeal airway dimensions in skeletal class II: A cephalometric growth study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uslu-Akcam, Ozge

    2017-01-01

    This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal dimensions of individuals with skeletal class II, division 1 and division 2 patterns during the pre-peak, peak, and post-peak growth periods for comparison with a skeletal class I control group. Totally 124 lateral cephalograms (47 for skeletal class I; 45 for skeletal class II, division 1; and 32 for skeletal class II, division 2) in pre-peak, peak, and post-peak growth periods were selected from the department archives. Thirteen landmarks, 4 angular and 4 linear measurements, and 4 proportional calculations were obtained. The ANOVA and Duncan test were applied to compare the differences among the study groups during the growth periods. Statistically significant differences were found between the skeletal class II, division 2 group and other groups for the gonion-gnathion/sella-nasion angle. The sella-nasion-B-point angle was different among the groups, while the A-point-nasion-B-point angle was significantly different for all 3 groups. The nasopharyngeal airway space showed a statistically significant difference among the groups throughout the growth periods. The interaction among the growth periods and study groups was statistically significant regarding the upper oropharyngeal airway space measurement. The lower oropharyngeal airway space measurement showed a statistically significant difference among the groups, with the smallest dimension observed in the skeletal class II, division 2 group. The naso-oropharyngeal airway dimensions showed a statistically significant difference among the class II, division 1; class II, division 2; and class I groups during different growth periods

  6. Pharyngeal airway dimensions in skeletal class II: A cephalometric growth study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uslu-Akcam, Ozge [Clinic of Orthodontics, Ministry of Health, Tepebasi Oral and Dental Health Hospital, Ankara (Turkmenistan)

    2017-03-15

    This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal dimensions of individuals with skeletal class II, division 1 and division 2 patterns during the pre-peak, peak, and post-peak growth periods for comparison with a skeletal class I control group. Totally 124 lateral cephalograms (47 for skeletal class I; 45 for skeletal class II, division 1; and 32 for skeletal class II, division 2) in pre-peak, peak, and post-peak growth periods were selected from the department archives. Thirteen landmarks, 4 angular and 4 linear measurements, and 4 proportional calculations were obtained. The ANOVA and Duncan test were applied to compare the differences among the study groups during the growth periods. Statistically significant differences were found between the skeletal class II, division 2 group and other groups for the gonion-gnathion/sella-nasion angle. The sella-nasion-B-point angle was different among the groups, while the A-point-nasion-B-point angle was significantly different for all 3 groups. The nasopharyngeal airway space showed a statistically significant difference among the groups throughout the growth periods. The interaction among the growth periods and study groups was statistically significant regarding the upper oropharyngeal airway space measurement. The lower oropharyngeal airway space measurement showed a statistically significant difference among the groups, with the smallest dimension observed in the skeletal class II, division 2 group. The naso-oropharyngeal airway dimensions showed a statistically significant difference among the class II, division 1; class II, division 2; and class I groups during different growth periods.

  7. Functional recombinant MHC class II molecules and high-throughput peptide-binding assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Sune; Harndahl, Mikkel; Lamberth, Kasper

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Molecules of the class II major histocompability complex (MHC-II) specifically bind and present exogenously derived peptide epitopes to CD4+ T helper cells. The extreme polymorphism of the MHC-II hampers the complete analysis of peptide binding. It is also a significant hurdle......-II molecules and accompanying HTS peptide-binding assay were successfully developed for nine different MHC-II molecules including the DPA1*0103/DPB1*0401 (DP401) and DQA1*0501/DQB1*0201, where both alpha and beta chains are polymorphic, illustrating the advantages of producing the two chains separately....... CONCLUSION: We have successfully developed versatile MHC-II resources, which may assist in the generation of MHC class II -wide reagents, data, and tools....

  8. School Library Resources, Textbooks, and Other Instructional Materials: Title II, ESEA. Second Annual Report, 1967.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    The second annual compilation and analysis of data on Title II of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA Title II), this report describes how the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Guam, Puerto Rico, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, the Virgin Islands, and the Department of the Interior (for children and teachers in schools…

  9. ZAP-70 and p72syk are signaling response elements through MHC class II molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanner, S B; Grosmaire, L S; Blake, J

    1995-01-01

    Ligation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigens expressed on antigen-activated human CD4+ T-lymphocytes induces early signal transduction events including the activation of tyrosine kinases, the tyrosine phosphorylation of phospholipase-C gamma 1 and the mobilization...... of intracellular calcium. Similar responses have been observed in B-cells following stimulation of MHC class II molecules, including the increased production of intracellular cAMP. In this report, we demonstrate that the ZAP-70 tyrosine kinase is a responsive signaling element following cross-linking of HLA...... by herbimycin A. MHC class II ligation on B-lymphocytes resulted in cell death, which was both qualitatively distinct from Fas-induced apoptosis and partially protected by herbimycin A pretreatment. Thus, ligation of MHC class II molecules expressed on human lymphocytes stimulates the ZAP-70/p72syk family...

  10. Hall effects on hydromagnetic Couette flow of Class-II in a rotating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... Couette flow of class-II of a viscous, incompressible and electrically conducting fluid with ... Numerical solution of energy equation and numerical values of rate of heat transfer at ...

  11. Modified geometry three-layered tablet as a platform for class II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modified geometry three-layered tablet as a platform for class II drugs zero-order release system. Abdullah Monahi Albogami, Mustafa E. Omer, Abdulkareem M. Al Bekairy, Abdulmalik Alkatheri, Alaa Eldeen B. Yassin ...

  12. Immunogenicity of HLA Class I and II Double Restricted Influenza A-Derived Peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sara Ram; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Buus, Søren

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify influenza A-derived peptides which bind to both HLA class I and -II molecules and by immunization lead to both HLA class I and class II restricted immune responses. Eight influenza A-derived 9-11mer peptides with simultaneous binding to both HLA-A*02...... four of the double binding peptides did result in HLA-A*02:01 restricted responses only. According to their cytokine profile, the CD4 T cell responses were of the Th2 type. In influenza infected mice, we were unable to detect natural processing in vivo of the double restricted peptides and in line...... with this, peptide vaccination did not decrease virus titres in the lungs of intranasally influenza challenged mice. Our data show that HLA class I and class II double binding peptides can be identified by bioinformatics and biochemical technology. By immunization, double binding peptides can give rise...

  13. 25 CFR 547.6 - What are the minimum technical standards for enrolling and enabling Class II gaming system...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and enabling Class II gaming system components? 547.6 Section 547.6 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM TECHNICAL STANDARDS FOR GAMING EQUIPMENT USED... enabling Class II gaming system components? (a) General requirements. Class II gaming systems shall provide...

  14. Major histocompatibility complex class II compatibility, but not class I, predicts mate choice in a bird with highly developed olfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandh, Maria; Westerdahl, Helena; Pontarp, Mikael; Canbäck, Björn; Dubois, Marie-Pierre; Miquel, Christian; Taberlet, Pierre; Bonadonna, Francesco

    2012-11-07

    Mate choice for major histocompatibility complex (MHC) compatibility has been found in several taxa, although rarely in birds. MHC is a crucial component in adaptive immunity and by choosing an MHC-dissimilar partner, heterozygosity and potentially broad pathogen resistance is maximized in the offspring. The MHC genotype influences odour cues and preferences in mammals and fish and hence olfactory-based mate choice can occur. We tested whether blue petrels, Halobaena caerulea, choose partners based on MHC compatibility. This bird is long-lived, monogamous and can discriminate between individual odours using olfaction, which makes it exceptionally well suited for this analysis. We screened MHC class I and II B alleles in blue petrels using 454-pyrosequencing and quantified the phylogenetic, functional and allele-sharing similarity between individuals. Partners were functionally more dissimilar at the MHC class II B loci than expected from random mating (p = 0.033), whereas there was no such difference at the MHC class I loci. Phylogenetic and non-sequence-based MHC allele-sharing measures detected no MHC dissimilarity between partners for either MHC class I or II B. Our study provides evidence of mate choice for MHC compatibility in a bird with a high dependency on odour cues, suggesting that MHC odour-mediated mate choice occurs in birds.

  15. Post-Retention Changes in Class II Correction With the Forsus (trademark) Appliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    level of significance was defined when p≤0.02. Error of Measurement Study In dentistry , when interpreting the results of a study, the investigator...Class II malocclusion in children 8-10 years of age. Angle Orthod. 1981;51:177-202. 4) Jones G, Buschang PH, Kim KB, Oliver DR. Class II non...2: Dahlberg’s error, Bland-Altman method, and Kappa coefficient. Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics 2013;38;3;182-185. 39) Springate, SD. The

  16. Stability of class II subdivision malocclusion treatment with 3 and 4 premolar extractions

    OpenAIRE

    Janson, Guilherme; Araki, Janine; Estelita, S?rgio; Camardella, Leonardo T

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to compare the occlusal stability of class II subdivision malocclusion treatment with 3 and 4 first premolar extractions. A sample of 156 dental casts from 52 patients with class II subdivision malocclusion was divided into two groups according to the extraction protocol. Group 1 comprised 24 patients treated with 3 premolar extractions and group 2 included 28 patients treated with 4 premolar extractions. Methods Peer assessment rating (PAR) indexes we...

  17. MHC class II expression through a hitherto unknown pathway supports T helper cell-dependent immune responses: implications for MHC class II deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buch, Thorsten; Polic, Bojan; Clausen, Björn E.; Weiss, Susanne; Akilli-Ozturk, Ozlem; Chang, Cheong-Hee; Flavell, Richard; Schulz, Ansgar; Jonjic, Stipan; Waisman, Ari; Förster, Irmgard

    2006-01-01

    MHC class II (MHCII) deficiency or bare lymphocyte syndrome (BLS) is a severe immunodeficiency characterized by deficient T helper (Th)-cell-dependent immunity. The disease is caused by defects of the MHCII promoter complex resulting in low or absent MHCII expression. We demonstrate in a murine

  18. 49 CFR 238.317 - Class II brake test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....315(a)(1); (3) When previously tested units (i.e., cars that received a Class I brake test within the... hours) are added to the train; (4) When cars or equipment are removed from the train; and (5) When an... locomotives that utilize an electric signal to communicate a service brake application and only a pneumatic...

  19. 78 FR 37114 - Self-Regulation of Class II Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... Commission) is revising its rules concerning the issuance of certificates for tribal self-regulation of Class... Office of Self Regulation's recommendation and report; and to correct referencing errors in two of its... certificate of self- regulation. 25 U.S.C. 2710(c). The Act authorizes the Commission to ``promulgate such...

  20. Three-year randomized controlled clinical study of a one step universal adhesive and a two-step self-etch adhesive in Class II resin composite restorations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan WV; Pallesen, Ulla

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate in a randomized clinical evaluation the 3-year clinical durability of a one-step universal adhesive bonding system and compare it intraindividually with a 2-step self-etch adhesive in Class II restorations. Materials and Methods: Each of 57 participants (mean age 58.3 yr......) received at least two, as similar as possible, extended Class II restorations. The cavities in each of the 60 individual pairs of cavities were randomly distributed to the 1-step universal adhesive (All Bond Universal: AU) and the control 2-step self-etch adhesive (Optibond XTR: OX). A low shrinkage resin......) success rates (p>0.05). Annual failure rates were 1.8% and 2.6%, respectively.The main reason for failure was resin composite fracture. Conclusion: Class II resin composite restorations placed with a one-step universal adhesive showed good short time effectiveness....

  1. Effect of timing on the outcomes of 1-phase nonextraction therapy of Class II malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Tiziano; Franchi, Lorenzo; Kim, Ludia H

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this cephalometric study was to evaluate the role of timing in relation to skeletal maturity on the outcomes of nonextraction comprehensive Class II therapy. Three samples of patients with Class II Division 1 malocclusion were treated with headgear combined with fixed appliances and Class II elastics. Lateral cephalograms were taken of all subjects before therapy (T1) and at an average interval of 6 months after therapy (T2). The first sample (23 subjects) was treated before the pubertal growth spurt, the second sample (24 subjects) received therapy during the pubertal growth spurt, and the third sample (13 subjects) was treated at a postpubertal stage of development. The average T1 to T2 interval was approximately 30 months for all patients, with an average treatment duration of 24 months. Longitudinal observations of a group of 17 subjects with untreated Class II malocclusions were compared with the treated groups at the 3 skeletal maturation intervals with nonparametric statistics. Class II treatment before or during the pubertal growth spurt induced significant favorable skeletal changes (restricted maxillary advancement in prepubertal patients and enhanced mandibular growth in pubertal patients). Patients treated after the pubertal growth spurt had only significant dentoalveolar changes. The greatest amount of dentoskeletal correction of Class II malocclusion with 1-phase nonextraction treatment occurred in patients treated during the pubertal growth spurt.

  2. Factors affecting buccal corridor space in Angle′s Class II Division 1 malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Bhat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Buccal corridor space has been thought of primarily in terms of maxillary width, but there is also evidence that they are heavily influenced by the antero-posterior position of maxilla. The present study was undertaken with an aim of evaluating and comparing the dental and skeletal factors related to buccal corridor space in individuals having Class I and Class II Division 1 malocclusions. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 subjects of which 40 were males and 40 were females in the age group of 20-30 years were selected as per inclusion criteria and were grouped as Group I having Class I malocclusion and as Group II having Class II malocclusions based on angle ANB. 12 linear and 2 angular cephalometric measurements and 4 study cast measurements were used to correlate with the buccal corridor linear ratio (BCLR, calculated on smile photograph using the Adobe Photoshop 7.0 software (Adobe Systems Inc., San Jose, California, USA. The data obtained was statistically evaluated using independent t-test and multiple linear regression analysis. Result: Buccal corridor space is larger in individuals with Class II Division 1 malocclusion when compared with individuals with Class I malocclusions. There exists a significant difference in buccal corridor space between males and females. Conclusion: The present study helps in establishing the correlation between certain factors and the amount of buccal corridor space in individuals having skeletal Class II pattern.

  3. Facial attractiveness of skeletal class I and class II malocclusion as perceived by laypeople, patients and clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Michela; Cioffi, Iacopo; D'antò, Vincenzo; Valletta, Alessandra; Valletta, Rosa; Amato, Massimo

    2018-06-01

    Physical attractiveness is dependent on facial appearance. The facial profile plays a crucial role in facial attractiveness and can be improved with orthodontic treatment. The aesthetic assessment of facial appearance may be influenced by the cultural background and education of the assessor and dependent upon the experience level of dental professionals. This study aimed to evaluate how the sagittal jaw relationship in Class I and Class II individuals affects facial attractiveness, and whether the assessor's professional education and background affect the perception of facial attractiveness. Facial silhouettes simulating mandibular retrusion, maxillary protrusion, mandibular retrusion combined with maxillary protrusion, bimaxillary protrusion and severe bimaxillary protrusion in class I and class II patients were assessed by five groups of people with different backgrounds and education levels (i.e., 23 expert orthodontists, 21 orthodontists, 15 maxillofacial surgeons, 19 orthodontic patients and 28 laypeople). Straight facial profiles were judged to be more attractive than convex profiles due to severe mandibular retrusion and to mandibular retrusion combined with maxillary protrusion (all Pattractive by clinicians than by patients and laypeople (all Pattractive than Class I profiles. The assessment of facial attractiveness is dependent on the assessor's education and background. Laypeople and patients are considerably less sensitive to abnormal sagittal jaw relationships than orthodontists.

  4. Backbone Brackets and Arginine Tweezers delineate Class I and Class II aminoacyl tRNA synthetases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, V. Joachim; Schroeder, Michael; Labudde, Dirk

    2018-01-01

    The origin of the machinery that realizes protein biosynthesis in all organisms is still unclear. One key component of this machinery are aminoacyl tRNA synthetases (aaRS), which ligate tRNAs to amino acids while consuming ATP. Sequence analyses revealed that these enzymes can be divided into two complementary classes. Both classes differ significantly on a sequence and structural level, feature different reaction mechanisms, and occur in diverse oligomerization states. The one unifying aspect of both classes is their function of binding ATP. We identified Backbone Brackets and Arginine Tweezers as most compact ATP binding motifs characteristic for each Class. Geometric analysis shows a structural rearrangement of the Backbone Brackets upon ATP binding, indicating a general mechanism of all Class I structures. Regarding the origin of aaRS, the Rodin-Ohno hypothesis states that the peculiar nature of the two aaRS classes is the result of their primordial forms, called Protozymes, being encoded on opposite strands of the same gene. Backbone Brackets and Arginine Tweezers were traced back to the proposed Protozymes and their more efficient successors, the Urzymes. Both structural motifs can be observed as pairs of residues in contemporary structures and it seems that the time of their addition, indicated by their placement in the ancient aaRS, coincides with the evolutionary trace of Proto- and Urzymes. PMID:29659563

  5. Modes of salmonid MHC class I and II evolution differ from the primate paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shum, B.P.; Guethlein, L.; Flodin, L.R.; Adkison, M.A.; Hedrick, R.P.; Nehring, R.B.; Stet, R.J.M.; Secombes, C.; Parham, P.

    2001-01-01

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) represent two salmonid genera separated for 15-20 million years. cDNA sequences were determined for the classical MHC class I heavy chain gene UBA and the MHC class II β-chain gene DAB from 15 rainbow and 10 brown trout. Both genes

  6. Alveolar bone thickness and lower incisor position in skeletal Class I and Class II malocclusions assessed with cone-beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baysal, Asli; Ucar, Faruk Izzet; Buyuk, Suleyman Kutalmis; Ozer, Torun; Uysal, Tancan

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate lower incisor position and bony support between patients with Class II average- and high-angle malocclusions and compare with the patients presenting Class I malocclusions. CBCT records of 79 patients were divided into 2 groups according to sagittal jaw relationships: Class I and II. Each group was further divided into average- and high-angle subgroups. Six angular and 6 linear measurements were performed. Independent samples t-test, Kruskal-Wallis, and Dunn post-hoc tests were performed for statistical comparisons. Labial alveolar bone thickness was significantly higher in Class I group compared to Class II group (p = 0.003). Lingual alveolar bone angle (p = 0.004), lower incisor protrusion (p = 0.007) and proclination (p = 0.046) were greatest in Class II average-angle patients. Spongious bone was thinner (p = 0.016) and root apex was closer to the labial cortex in high-angle subgroups when compared to the Class II average-angle subgroup (p = 0.004). Mandibular anterior bony support and lower incisor position were different between average- and high-angle Class II patients. Clinicians should be aware that the range of lower incisor movement in high-angle Class II patients is limited compared to average- angle Class II patients.

  7. Effect of monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) to class I and class II HLA antigens on lectin- and MoAb OKT3-induced lymphocyte proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Y; Zicht, R; Ferrone, S; Bonnard, G D; Herberman, R B

    1985-04-01

    We have examined the effect of several monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) to monomorphic determinants of class II HLA antigens, and MoAb to monomorphic determinants of class I HLA antigens and to beta-2-microglobulin (beta 2-mu) on lectin- and MoAb OKT3-induced proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC) and cultured T cells (CTC). Some, but not all, anti-class II HLA MoAb inhibited the proliferative response of PBMNC to MoAb OKT3 and pokeweed mitogen (PWM). The degree of inhibitory effect varied considerably. This effect was not limited to anti-class II HLA MoAb since anti-class I HLA MoAb and anti-beta 2-mu MoAb also inhibited MoAb OKT3- or PWM-induced proliferative responses. In contrast, the response of PBMNC to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (Con A) was not blocked by any anti-class II HLA MoAb. However, some anti-class II HLA MoAb also inhibited the proliferative response of CTC plus allogeneic peripheral blood adherent accessory cells (AC) to PHA or Con A as well as to MoAb OKT3 or PWM. This may be attributable to the substantially greater class II HLA antigen expression by CTC than by fresh lymphocytes. Pretreatment of either CTC or AC with anti-class II HLA MoAb inhibited OKT3-induced proliferation. In contrast, pretreatment of CTC, but not AC, with anti-class I HLA MoAb inhibited the proliferative response of CTC to OKT3. Pretreatment of CTC with anti-class I HLA MoAb inhibited PHA-, Con A and PWM-induced proliferation, to a greater degree than the anti-class II HLA MoAb. It appears as if lymphocyte activation by different mitogens exhibits variable requirements for the presence of cells expressing major histocompatibility determinants. Binding of Ab to membrane markers may interfere with lymphocyte-AC cooperation, perhaps by inhibiting binding of mitogens to their receptors or by interfering with lymphocyte and AC function. We also have examined the role of class II HLA antigens on CTC by depleting class II HLA-positive cells

  8. 40 CFR 82.70 - Nonessential Class II products and exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... provide for motor vehicle safety in accordance with Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards until January 1... 21 CFR 2.125(e); (ii) Lubricants, coatings or cleaning fluids for electrical or electronic equipment...; (iii) Lubricants, coatings or cleaning fluids used for aircraft maintenance, which contain class II...

  9. Glenoid fossa position in Class II malocclusion associated with mandibular retrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuntini, Veronica; De Toffol, Laura; Franchi, Lorenzo; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2008-09-01

    To assess the position of the glenoid fossa in subjects with Class II malocclusion associated with mandibular retrusion and normal mandibular size in the mixed dentition. A sample of 30 subjects (16 male, 14 female), age 9 years +/- 6 months, with skeletal and dental Class II malocclusion associated with mandibular retrusion, normal skeletal vertical relationships, and normal mandibular dimensions, was compared with a matched group of 37 subjects (18 male, 19 female) with skeletal and dental Class I relationships. The comparisons between the Class II group and the control group on the cephalometric measures for the assessment of glenoid fossa position were performed by means of a nonparametric test for independent samples (Mann-Whitney U-test, P < .05). Subjects with Class II malocclusion presented with a significantly more distal position of the glenoid fossa, when compared with the control group as measured by means of three parameters (GF-S on FH, GF-Ptm on FH, and GF-FMN). A posteriorly displaced glenoid fossa is a possible diagnostic feature of Class II malocclusion associated with mandibular retrusion. An effective cephalometric measurement to evaluate glenoid fossa position is the distance from the glenoid fossa to the frontomaxillonasal suture (GF-FMN).

  10. Successful treatment of Class II malocclusion with bidental protrusion using standard edgewise prescription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Ayaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report deals with the successful orthodontic treatment of a 14-year-old female patient having Class II malocclusion with bidental protrusion using standard edgewise prescription. She reported with forwardly placed upper front teeth and difficulty in closing lips. She had prognathic maxilla, retrognathic mandible, and full cusp Class II molar and canine relation bilaterally with overjet of 7 mm. She was in cervical vertebrae maturation indicator Stage IV. The case was treated by fixed extraction mechanotherapy. Interarch Class II mechanics was used to retract the upper incisor and to mesialize the lower molars. Simultaneously, Class I mechanics was used to upright lower incisors. Tip back bend, curve of Spee, and extra palatal root torque were incorporated in upper archwire to maintain molars in upright position and prevent extrusion and deepening of bite, respectively. There was satisfactory improvement in facial profile at the end of 24 months. After a follow-up of 6 months, occlusion was stable.

  11. Expression of major histocompatibility complex class II and costimulatory molecules in oral carcinomas in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroel-Dorrego, Mariana; Speight, Paul M; Barrett, A William

    2005-01-01

    Recognition in the 1980 s that keratinocytes can express class II molecules of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) first raised the possibility that these cells might have an immunological function, and may even act as antigen presenting cells (APC). For effective T lymphocyte activation, APC require, in addition to MHC II, appropriate costimulatory signals. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of MHC class II and the co-stimulatory molecules CD40, CD80 and CD86 in keratinocytes derived from healthy oral mucosa and oral carcinomas. Using flow cytometry, it was confirmed that oral keratinocytes, switch on, expression of MHC class II molecules after stimulation with IFNgamma in vitro. All keratinocyte lines expressed CD40 constitutively; by contrast, CD80 and CD86 were universally absent. Loss of CD80 and CD86 may be one means whereby tumours escape immunological surveillance.

  12. Testes de toxicidade aguda através de bioensaios no extrato solubilizado dos resíduos classe II A - não inertes e classe II B - inertes Acute toxicity tests by bioassays applied to the solubilized extracts of solid wastes class II A - non inerts and class II B - inerts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nébora Liz Vendramin Brasil Rodrigues

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A grande diversidade de substâncias potencialmente tóxicas contribuem para a deterioração do meio ambiente. O objetivo deste trabalho foi propor a utilização de bioensaios, através de testes de toxicidade aguda com Daphnia magna e Vibrio fischeri, como mais um parâmetro a ser analisado no extrato solubilizado dos resíduos que, segundo a NBR 10004/04 fossem classificados como classe II A - não inertes ou classe II B - inertes. Realizaram-se, também, testes de toxicidade no drenado dos aterros classe II A e II B. Verificou-se que a toxicidade foi constatada nos extratos solubilizados dos 18 resíduos analisados e que, apenas três das amostras estariam próprias para lançamento, ou seja os resíduos 04, 14 e 15. Já, a toxicidade encontrada no drenado dos aterros, ficou muito superior do que a toxicidade de cada extrato solubilizado analisado separadamente.A great diversity of substances potencially toxic contributes to the deterioration of the environment. The aim of this research was to propose the use of bioassays using Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri, as another parameter to be analyzed in the solubilized extraction of waste according to NBR 10004/04 and classified as class II A - non inerts or class II B - inerts. Besides, another test was performed to measure the level of toxicity in the drainage of the landfill class II A and II B. It was verified that the toxicity found in the solubilized extracts of the 18 wastes analysed.Only 3 wastes (04, 14 and 15 were within the emission limits. On the other hand the toxicity found in the drainage of the landfill, from which all the samples came from, was much higher than the individual one.

  13. Treatment of periodontal abcess with Class II furcation involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Rahmah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of periodontal abscess with furcation involvement has its own challenges in achieving the success of periodontal treatment. Teeth with periodontal abscesses often indicate the presence of furcation involvement. Most periodontal abscess occurs in approximately 92.5% molar. Furcation involvement on tooth abscesses had a greater challenge to the success of periodontal therapy. A male patient aged 36 years came to the clinic with active periodontal disease. On examination, the teeth are sensitive to percussion and 2o mobility. There is 13 mm deep pockets around the roots of teeth. On radiographic examination, appears severe bone destruction in the root area and furcation. Oral hygiene status was fair. Patients had a history of systemic disease type II diabetes mellitus. The periodontal abscess with furcation involvement with systemic disease type II diabetes mellitus can be treated with open flap and debridement so it can achieve a better prognosis. Systemic disease do not become a hindrance in periodontal treatment as long as the disease is controlled. Prognosis of teeth with abscess depend on the nature and extent of bone loss. Chronic periodontal abscess has a slow progressive bone destruction.

  14. S-1 project. Volume II. Hardware. 1979 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    This volume includes highlights of the design of the Mark IIA uniprocessor (SMI-2), and the SCALD II user's manual. SCALD (structured computer-aided logic design system) cuts the cost and time required to design logic by letting the logic designer express ideas as naturally as possible, and by eliminating as many errors as possible - through consistency checking, simulation, and timing verification - before the hardware is built. (GHT)

  15. Occlusal stability of adult Class II Division 1 treatment with the Herbst appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Niko Christian; von Bremen, Julia; Ruf, Sabine

    2010-08-01

    During recent years, some articles have been published on Herbst appliance treatment in adult patients, an approach that has been shown to be most effective in Class II treatment in both early and late adulthood. However, no results on stability have yet been published. Our objective was to analyze the short-term occlusal stability of Herbst therapy in adults with Class II Division 1 malocclusions. The subjects comprised 26 adults with Class II Division 1 malocclusions exhibiting a Class II molar relationship > or =0.5 cusp bilaterally or > or =1.0 cusp unilaterally and an overjet of > or =4.0 mm. The average treatment time was 8.8 months (Herbst phase) plus 14.7 months (subsequent multi-bracket phase). Study casts from before and after treatment and after an average retention period of 32 months were analyzed. After retention, molar relationships were stable in 77.6% and canine relationships in 71.2% of the teeth. True relapses were found in 8.2% (molar relationships) and 1.9% (canine relationships) of the teeth. Overjet was stable in 92.3% and overbite in 96.0% of the patients; true relapse did not occur. Herbst treatment showed good occlusal stability 2.5 years after treatment in adults with Class II Division 1 malocclusions. Copyright (c) 2010 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Dentofacial growth changes in subjects with untreated Class II malocclusion from late puberty through young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Tiziano; Stahl, Franka; McNamara, James A

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal study was to compare dentofacial growth changes in untreated subjects with Class II Division 1 malocclusion with those in subjects with normal (Class I) occlusion from late puberty through young adulthood. The Class II Division 1 sample consisted of 23 subjects (10 male, 13 female). The Class I sample included 30 subjects (13 male, 17 female). The lateral cephalograms of the subjects in both groups were analyzed at 2 consecutive stages of development: T1, postpubertal observation (cervical vertebral maturation stage 6), and T2, young adulthood stage. The average time between T1 and T2 was 3.5 years. The statistical comparisons of the growth changes in the 2 groups were performed with Mann-Whitney U tests. From late puberty through young adulthood, dentofacial growth in subjects with untreated Class II malocclusion does not show significant differences when compared with that observed in untreated subjects with normal occlusion. These findings show that Class II dentoskeletal disharmony does not exhibit significant growth change from late puberty through young adulthood.

  17. Treatment outcome of bimaxillary surgery for asymmetric skeletal class II deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun-Fang; Liao, Yu-Fang; Chen, Yin-An; Chen, Yu-Ray

    2018-05-04

    Facial asymmetry is one of the main concerns in patients with a dentofacial deformity. The aims of the study were to (1) evaluate the changes in facial asymmetry after bimaxillary surgery for asymmetric skeletal class II deformity and (2) compare preoperative and postoperative facial asymmetry of class II patients with normal controls. The facial asymmetry was assessed for 30 adults (21 women and 9 men, mean age: 29.3 years) who consecutively underwent bimaxillary surgery for asymmetric skeletal class II deformity using cone-beam computed tomography before and at least 6 months after surgery. Thirty soft tissue and two dental landmarks were identified on each three-dimensional facial image, and the asymmetry index of each landmark was calculated. Results were compared with those of 30 normal control subjects (21 women and 9 men, mean age: 26.2 years) with skeletal class I structure. Six months after surgery, the asymmetric index of the lower face and total face decreased significantly (17.8 ± 29.4 and 16.6 ± 29.5 mm, respectively, both p class II patients had residual chin asymmetry. The postoperative total face asymmetric index was positively correlated with the preoperative asymmetric index (r = 0.37, p class II deformity resulted in a significant improvement in lower face asymmetry. However, approximately 50% of the patients still had residual chin asymmetry. The total face postoperative asymmetry was moderately related to the initial severity of asymmetry. These findings could help clinicians better understand orthognathic outcomes on different facial regions for patients with asymmetric class II deformity.

  18. Association of maternal anti-HLA class II antibodies with protection from allergy in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M; Jeal, H; Harris, J M; Smith, J D; Rose, M L; Taylor, A N; Cullinan, P

    2013-09-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the birth order effect in allergy may be established during the prenatal period and that the protective effect may originate in the mother. HLA class II disparity between mother and foetus has been associated with significantly increased Th1 production. In this study, we investigated whether production of HLA antibodies 4 years after pregnancy with index child is associated with allergic outcomes in offspring at 8 years. Anti-HLA class I and II antibodies were measured in maternal serum (n = 284) and levels correlated to numbers of pregnancies and birth order, and allergic outcomes in offspring at 8 years of age. Maternal anti-HLA class I and II antibodies were significantly higher when birth order, and the number of pregnancies were larger. Anti-HLA class II, but not class I antibodies were associated with significantly less atopy and seasonal rhinitis in the offspring at age 8 years. Mothers with nonatopic (but not atopic) offspring had a significant increase in anti-HLA class I and II antibodies with birth order. This study suggests that the 'birth order' effect in children may be due to parity-related changes in the maternal immune response to foetal antigens. We have observed for the first time an association between maternal anti-HLA class II antibodies and protection from allergy in the offspring. Further work is required to determine immunologically how HLA disparity between mother and father can protect against allergy. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Ubiquitination regulates MHC class II-peptide complex retention and degradation in dendritic cells

    OpenAIRE

    Walseng, Even; Furuta, Kazuyuki; Bosch, Berta; Weih, Karis A.; Matsuki, Yohei; Bakke, Oddmund; Ishido, Satoshi; Roche, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    The expression and turnover of MHC class II-peptide complexes (pMHC-II) on the surface of dendritic cells (DCs) is essential for their ability to activate CD4 T cells efficiently. The half-life of surface pMHC-II is significantly greater in activated (mature) DCs than in resting (immature) DCs, but the molecular mechanism leading to this difference remains unknown. We now show that ubiquitination of pMHC-II by the E3 ubiquitin ligase membrane-associated RING-CH 1 (March-I) regulates surface e...

  20. Coronal microleakage of four temporary restorative materials in Class II-type endodontic access preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Mi Yun

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the microleakage of 4 temporary materials in teeth with Class II-type endodontic access preparations by using a glucose penetration model. Materials and Methods Glucose reaction test was performed to rule out the presence of any reaction between glucose and temporary material. Class II-type endodontic access preparations were made in extracted human premolars with a single root (n = 10. Each experimental group was restored with Caviton (GC, Spacer (Vericom, IRM (Dentsply-Caulk, or Fuji II(GC. Microleakage of four materials used as temporary restorative materials was evaluated by using a glucose penetration model. Data were analyzed by the one-way analysis of variance followed by a multiple-comparison Tukey test. The interface between materials and tooth were examined under a scanning electron microscope (SEM. Results There was no significant reaction between glucose and temporary materials used in this study. Microleakage was significantly lower for Caviton and Spacer than for Fuji II and IRM. SEM observation showed more intimate adaptation of tooth-restoration interfaces in Caviton and Spacer than in IRM and Fuji II. Conclusions Compared to IRM and Fuji II, Caviton and Spacer can be considered better temporary sealing materials in Class II-type endodontic access cavities.

  1. Vaccination against lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection in MHC class II-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Peter Johannes; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2011-01-01

    response could be elicited in MHC class II-deficient mice by vaccination with adenovirus encoding lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) glycoprotein tethered to MHC class II-associated invariant chain. Moreover, the response induced conferred significant cytolytic CD8(+) T cell-mediated protection...... against challenge with a high dose of the invasive clone 13 strain of LCMV. In contrast, vaccination with adenovirus encoding unlinked LCMV glycoprotein induced weak virus control in the absence of CD4(+) T cells, and mice may die of increased immunopathology associated with incomplete protection. Acute...... mortality was not observed in any vaccinated mice following infection with the less-invasive Traub strain. However, LCMV Traub infection caused accelerated late mortality in unvaccinated MHC class II-deficient mice; in this case, we observed a strong trend toward delayed mortality in vaccinated mice...

  2. DNA sequence of the Peromyscus leucopus MHC class II gene Aa (MhcPeleAa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crew, M.D.; Bates, L.M. [Univ. of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The genus Peromyscus has been extensively studied by populations biologists and ecologists for over eighty years, with P. leucopus (the white-footed mouse) being one of the most intensively investigated species. Polymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes have proven useful in population genetic studies and might be helpful in understanding the population dynamics of Peromyscus species which are ubiquitously distributed over North and Central America. Polymorphism of P. leucopus MHC (MhcPele) class II genes was evident by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses using human and mouse probes and Pele class II loci exhibited degrees of polymorphism similar to H2 class II genes (A-like>E-like). 8 refs., 2 figs.

  3. The Influence of Class II Division 2 Malocclusions on the Harmony of the Human Face Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perović, Tatjana

    2017-11-24

    BACKGROUND Persons with class II division 2 malocclusion are characterized by a very specific dento-skeletal and soft-tissue profile (a profile in which a protruding nose and chin, retruding lips, concave and shortened lower third of the face, and gummy smile are dominant), which is the opposite of the currently modern profiles (convex profile of protruding lips and small chin). The aim of this research was to determine the differences in parameters of harmonies of facial profiles between persons with class II division 2 malocclusions and class I, and to establish the significance of those differences. MATERIAL AND METHODS For this study, 50 patients with class II division 2 malocclusions and 50 patients with class I were selected; profile photos were recorded and a photometric analysis was done: a type of profile according to Schwarz, the shape of a nose, the prominence of chin, biometrical field, the position of lips in relation to the tangent Sn-Pg, S-line (Steiner), E-line (Riketts) and a facial angle according to Arnett. RESULTS The significant differences in profiles of persons with class II division 2 compared to class I were: position and prominence of the chin, the position of the lower and upper lip in relation to the S-line, and smaller value of a facial angle in relation to persons with class I. CONCLUSIONS The differences seen in skeletal profiles were not associated with significant differences in the profiled facial contours of the examined groups. The compensatory role of the fullness of soft tissues of the lips is probably the reason why there were not significant deviations in all the examined parameters.

  4. Class II malocclusion with accentuated occlusal plane inclination corrected with miniplate: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farret, Marcel Marchiori; Farret, Milton M. Benitez

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: A canted occlusal plane presents an unesthetic element of the smile. The correction of this asymmetry has been typically considered difficult by orthodontists, as it requires complex mechanics and may sometimes even require orthognathic surgery. Objective: This paper outlines the case of a 29-year-old woman with Class II malocclusion, pronounced midline deviation and accentuated occlusal plane inclination caused by mandibular deciduous molar ankylosis. Methods: The patient was treated with a miniplate used to provide anchorage in order to intrude maxillary teeth and extrude mandibular teeth on one side, thus eliminating asymmetry. Class II was corrected on the left side by means of distalization, anchored in the miniplate as well. On the right side, maxillary first premolar was extracted and molar relationship was kept in Class II, while canines were moved to Class I relationship. The patient received implant-prosthetic rehabilitation for maxillary left lateral incisor and mandibular left second premolar. Results: At the end of treatment, Class II was corrected, midlines were matched and the canted occlusal plane was totally corrected, thereby improving smile function and esthetics. PMID:27409658

  5. Class II malocclusion with accentuated occlusal plane inclination corrected with miniplate: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Marchiori Farret

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: A canted occlusal plane presents an unesthetic element of the smile. The correction of this asymmetry has been typically considered difficult by orthodontists, as it requires complex mechanics and may sometimes even require orthognathic surgery. Objective: This paper outlines the case of a 29-year-old woman with Class II malocclusion, pronounced midline deviation and accentuated occlusal plane inclination caused by mandibular deciduous molar ankylosis. Methods: The patient was treated with a miniplate used to provide anchorage in order to intrude maxillary teeth and extrude mandibular teeth on one side, thus eliminating asymmetry. Class II was corrected on the left side by means of distalization, anchored in the miniplate as well. On the right side, maxillary first premolar was extracted and molar relationship was kept in Class II, while canines were moved to Class I relationship. The patient received implant-prosthetic rehabilitation for maxillary left lateral incisor and mandibular left second premolar. Results: At the end of treatment, Class II was corrected, midlines were matched and the canted occlusal plane was totally corrected, thereby improving smile function and esthetics.

  6. Treatment of Class II Malocclusion by Nonextraction Therapy using Microimplants and Pendex Appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkumar S Alle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of Class II cases is always challenging. Treatment modalities involve growth modulation, expansion of the maxillary arch or extraction of premolars and retraction. The patient compliance is key factor in success of the treatment. In the present article a male patient with Class II malocclusion was treated using a Pendex appliance to simultaneously expand the upper arch and distalize the molars. The maxillary anteriors were retracted using microimplants. The results were satisfactory. This approach can be used in patients with mild skeletal discrepancy and with slight increase in the gingival display.

  7. Combined orthodontic and surgical correction of adult skeletal class II with hyperdivergent jaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Jiku; Bagchi, Paulami; Gupta, Swati; Gupta, Hemant; Autar, Ram

    2012-01-01

    A case of severe Class II skeletal malocclusion with anterior open bite having vertical growth pattern and matching soft tissue profile is presented. Considering age of the patient and the severity of the malocclusion, it was decided to combine orthodontic treatment with surgery. A 0.022 Roth Pre-adjusted Edgewise Appliance was chosen for the orthodontic correction and Le-Fort 1 differential vertical impaction of maxilla with mandibular autorotation and augmentation genioplasty was considered as the treatment plan. The main aim was to reduce the gummy smile and correct the class II profile.

  8. HLA Class I and Class II Alleles and Haplotypes Confirm the Berber Origin of the Present Day Tunisian Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhafidh Hajjej

    Full Text Available In view of its distinct geographical location and relatively small area, Tunisia witnessed the presence of many civilizations and ethnic groups throughout history, thereby questioning the origin of present-day Tunisian population. We investigated HLA class I and class II gene profiles in Tunisians, and compared this profile with those of Mediterranean and Sub-Sahara African populations. A total of 376 unrelated Tunisian individuals of both genders were genotyped for HLA class I (A, B and class II (DRB1, DQB1, using reverse dot-blot hybridization (PCR-SSO method. Statistical analysis was performed using Arlequin software. Phylogenetic trees were constructed by DISPAN software, and correspondence analysis was carried out by VISTA software. One hundred fifty-three HLA alleles were identified in the studied sample, which comprised 41, 50, 40 and 22 alleles at HLA-A,-B,-DRB1 and -DQB1 loci, respectively. The most frequent alleles were HLA-A*02:01 (16.76%, HLA-B*44:02/03 (17.82%, HLA-DRB1*07:01 (19.02%, and HLA-DQB1*03:01 (17.95%. Four-locus haplotype analysis identified HLA-A*02:01-B*50:01-DRB1*07:01-DQB1*02:02 (2.2% as the common haplotype in Tunisians. Compared to other nearby populations, Tunisians appear to be genetically related to Western Mediterranean population, in particular North Africans and Berbers. In conclusion, HLA genotype results indicate that Tunisians are related to present-day North Africans, Berbers and to Iberians, but not to Eastern Arabs (Palestinians, Jordanians and Lebanese. This suggests that the genetic contribution of Arab invasion of 7th-11th century A.D. had little impact of the North African gene pool.

  9. Improved methods for predicting peptide binding affinity to MHC class II molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kamilla Kjærgaard; Andreatta, Massimo; Marcatili, Paolo

    2018-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) molecules are expressed on the surface of professional antigen presenting cells where they display peptides to T helper cells, which orchestrate the onset and outcome of many host immune responses. Understanding which peptides will be presented b...... are publicly available at www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/NetMHCII-2.3 and www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/NetMHCIIpan-3.2. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  10. MHC class II molecules deliver costimulatory signals in human T cells through a functional linkage with IL-2-receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odum, Niels; Kanner, S B; Ledbetter, J A

    1993-01-01

    MHC class II-positive T cells are found in tissues involved in autoimmune and infectious disorders. Because stimulation of class II molecules by mAb or bacterial superantigens induces protein tyrosine phosphorylation through activation of PTK3 in T cells, we hypothesized that class II signals play...... tyrosine phosphorylation of specific substrates including PLC-gamma 1. Combined stimulation of IL-2R and class II molecules had an additive effect on tyrosine phosphorylation. Pretreatment of T cells with a protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor, herbimycin A, inhibited IL-2 and class II-induced proliferation...... a regulatory function in T cell activation. Here, we show that cross-linking HLA-DR and -DP but not -DQ molecules by immobilized mAb enhanced proliferative T cell responses to IL-2. In contrast, class II stimulation had no effect on IL-4-induced proliferation. The costimulatory effect was most pronounced...

  11. Distribution of class ii major histocompatibility complex antigenexpressing cells in human dental pulp with carious lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Haniastuti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental caries is a bacterial infection which causes destruction of the hard tissues of the tooth. Exposure of the dentin to the oral environment as a result of caries inevitably results in a cellular response in the pulp. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC is a group of genes that code for cell-surface histocompatibility antigens. Cells expressing class II MHC molecules participate in the initial recognition and the processing of antigenic substances to serve as antigen-presenting cells. Purpose: The aim of the study was to elucidate the alteration in the distribution of class II MHC antigen-expressing cells in human dental pulp as carious lesions progressed toward the pulp. Methods: Fifteen third molars with caries at the occlusal site at various stages of decay and 5 intact third molars were extracted and used in this study. Before decalcifying with 10% EDTA solution (pH 7.4, all the samples were observed by micro-computed tomography to confirm the lesion condition three-dimensionally. The specimens were then processed for cryosection and immunohistochemistry using an anti-MHC class II monoclonal antibody. Results: Class II MHC antigen-expressing cells were found both in normal and carious specimens. In normal tooth, the class II MHC-immunopositive cells were observed mainly at the periphery of the pulp tissue. In teeth with caries, class II MHC-immunopositive cells were located predominantly subjacent to the carious lesions. As the caries progressed, the number of class II MHC antigen-expressing cells was increased. Conclusion: The depth of carious lesions affects the distribution of class II MHC antigen-expressing cells in the dental pulp.Latar belakang: Karies merupakan penyakit infeksi bakteri yang mengakibatkan destruksi jaringan keras gigi. Dentin yang terbuka akibat karies akan menginduksi respon imun seluler pada pulpa. Kompleks histokompatibilitas utama (MHC merupakan sekumpulan gen yang mengkode histokompatibilitas

  12. Long-term effects of Class II orthodontic treatment on oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, N C; Saffar, M; Hudel, H; Evälahti, M; Heikinheimo, K; Rice, D P C; Ruf, S

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the long-term (≥15 years) benefit of orthodontic Class II treatment (Tx) on oral health (OH). All patients (Department of Orthodontics, University of Giessen, Giessen, Germany) who underwent Class II correction (Herbst-multibracket Tx, end of active Tx ≥ 15 years ago) and agreed to participate in a recall (clinical examination, interview, impressions, and photographs) were included. Records after active Tx were used to assess the long-term OH effects. Data were compared to corresponding population-representative age-cohorts as well as to untreated Class I controls without orthodontic Tx need during adolescence. Of 152 treated Class II patients, 75 could be located and agreed to participate at 33.7 ± 3.0 years of age (pre-Tx age: 14.0 ± 2.7 years). The majority (70.8%) were fully satisfied with their teeth and with their masticatory system. The Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth Index (DMFT) was 7.1 ± 4.8 and, thus, almost identical to that of the untreated Class I controls (7.9 ± 3.6). In contrast, the DMFT in the population-representative age-cohort was 56% higher. The determined mean Community Periodontal Index (CPI) maximum score (1.6 ± 0.6) was also comparable to the untreated Class I controls (1.7 ± 0.9) but in the corresponding population-representative age-cohort it was 19-44% higher. The extent of lower incisor gingival recessions did not differ significantly between the treated Class II participants and the untreated Class I controls (0.1 ± 0.2 vs. 0.0 ± 0.1 mm). Patients with orthodontically treated severe Class II malocclusions had a lower risk for oral health impairment than the general population. The risk corresponded to that of untreated Class I controls (without orthodontic Tx need during adolescence).

  13. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA): a screening study to measure class II skeletal pattern, TMJ PDS and use of systemic corticosteroids.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mandall, Nicky A

    2010-03-01

    To screen patients with oligoarticular and polyarticular forms of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) to determine (i) the severity of their class II skeletal pattern; (ii) temporomandibular joint signs and symptoms and (iii) use of systemic corticosteroids.

  14. Comparison of interradicular distances and cortical bone thickness in Thai patients with class I and class II skeletal patterns using cone-beam computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khumsarn, Nattida; Patanaporn, Virush; Janhom, Apirum; Jotikasthira, Dhirawat

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated and compared interradicular distances and cortical bone thickness in Thai patients with Class I and Class II skeletal patterns, using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Pretreatment CBCT images of 24 Thai orthodontic patients with Class I and Class II skeletal patterns were included in the study. Three measurements were chosen for investigation: the mesiodistal distance between the roots, the width of the buccolingual alveolar process, and buccal cortical bone thickness. All distances were recorded at five different levels from the cementoenamel junction (CEJ). Descriptive statistical analysis and t-tests were performed, with the significance level for all tests set at p<0.05. Patients with a Class II skeletal pattern showed significantly greater maxillary mesiodistal distances (between the first and second premolars) and widths of the buccolingual alveolar process (between the first and second molars) than Class I skeletal pattern patients at 10 mm above the CEJ. The maxillary buccal cortical bone thicknesses between the second premolar and first molar at 8 mm above the CEJ in Class II patients were likewise significantly greater than in Class I patients. Patients with a Class I skeletal pattern showed significantly wider mandibular buccolingual alveolar processes than did Class II patients (between the first and second molars) at 4, 6, and 8 mm below the CEJ. In both the maxilla and mandible, the mesiodistal distances, the width of the buccolingual alveolar process, and buccal cortical bone thickness tended to increase from the CEJ to the apex in both Class I and Class II skeletal patterns

  15. Comparison of interradicular distances and cortical bone thickness in Thai patients with class I and class II skeletal patterns using cone-beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khumsarn, Nattida [Dental Division of Lamphun Hospital, Lamphun (Thailand); Patanaporn, Virush; Janhom, Apirum; Jotikasthira, Dhirawat [Faculty of Dentistry, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (Thailand)

    2016-06-15

    This study evaluated and compared interradicular distances and cortical bone thickness in Thai patients with Class I and Class II skeletal patterns, using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Pretreatment CBCT images of 24 Thai orthodontic patients with Class I and Class II skeletal patterns were included in the study. Three measurements were chosen for investigation: the mesiodistal distance between the roots, the width of the buccolingual alveolar process, and buccal cortical bone thickness. All distances were recorded at five different levels from the cementoenamel junction (CEJ). Descriptive statistical analysis and t-tests were performed, with the significance level for all tests set at p<0.05. Patients with a Class II skeletal pattern showed significantly greater maxillary mesiodistal distances (between the first and second premolars) and widths of the buccolingual alveolar process (between the first and second molars) than Class I skeletal pattern patients at 10 mm above the CEJ. The maxillary buccal cortical bone thicknesses between the second premolar and first molar at 8 mm above the CEJ in Class II patients were likewise significantly greater than in Class I patients. Patients with a Class I skeletal pattern showed significantly wider mandibular buccolingual alveolar processes than did Class II patients (between the first and second molars) at 4, 6, and 8 mm below the CEJ. In both the maxilla and mandible, the mesiodistal distances, the width of the buccolingual alveolar process, and buccal cortical bone thickness tended to increase from the CEJ to the apex in both Class I and Class II skeletal patterns.

  16. Predictors of favorable soft tissue profile outcomes following Class II Twin-block treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Eun; Mah, Su-Jung; Kim, Tae-Woo; Kim, Su-Jung; Park, Ki-Ho; Kang, Yoon-Goo

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine cephalometric factors that help predict favorable soft-tissue profile outcomes following treatment with the Class II Twin-block appliance. Pre- and post-treatment lateral cephalograms of 45 patients treated with the Class II Twin-block appliance were retrospectively analyzed. Profile silhouettes were drawn from the cephalograms and evaluated by three orthodontists in order to determine the extent of improvement. Samples were divided into a favorable group (upper 30% of visual analogue scale [VAS] scores, n = 14) and an unfavorable group (lower 30% of VAS scores, n = 14). Skeletal and soft-tissue measurements were performed on the cephalograms and an intergroup comparison was conducted. An independent t -test revealed that the following pre-treatment values were lower in the favorable group compared to the unfavorable group: lower incisor to mandibular plane angle, lower incisor to pogonion distance, point A-nasion-point B angle, sella-nasion line (SN) to maxillary plane angle, SN to mandibular plane angle, gonial angle, and symphysis inclination. The favorable group had a larger incisor inclination to occlusal plane. Moreover, the favorable group showed larger post-treatment changes in gonial angle, B point projection, and pogonion projection than did the unfavorable group. Class II malocclusion patients with a low divergent skeletal pattern and reduced lower incisor protrusions are likely to show more improvement in soft-tissue profile outcomes following Class II Twin-block treatment.

  17. MHC class II B diversity in blue tits : A preliminary study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rivero-de Aguilar, Juan; Schut, Elske; Merino, Santiago; Martinez, Javier; Komdeur, Jan; Westerdahl, Helena

    In this study, we partly characterize major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II B in the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus). A total of 22 individuals from three different European locations: Spain, The Netherlands, and Sweden were screened for MHC allelic diversity. The MHC genes were

  18. 78 FR 14013 - Medical Devices; Exemption From Premarket Notification; Class II Devices; Wheelchair Elevator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ... Elevator AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final order. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug... requirements for wheelchair elevator devices commonly known as inclined platform lifts and vertical platform... wheelchair elevators, class II devices, from premarket notification and establishes conditions for exemption...

  19. Variation in MHC class II B genes in marbled murrelets: implications for delineating conservation units

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Vásquez-Carrillo; V. Friesen; L. Hall; M.Z. Peery

    2013-01-01

    Conserving genetic variation is critical for maintaining the evolutionary potential and viability of a species. Genetic studies seeking to delineate conservation units, however, typically focus on characterizing neutral genetic variation and may not identify populations harboring local adaptations. Here, variation at two major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II...

  20. 37 GHz METHANOL MASERS : HORSEMEN OF THE APOCALYPSE FOR THE CLASS II METHANOL MASER PHASE?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingsen, S. P.; Breen, S. L.; Sobolev, A. M.; Voronkov, M. A.; Caswell, J. L.; Lo, N.

    2011-01-01

    We report the results of a search for class II methanol masers at 37.7, 38.3, and 38.5 GHz toward a sample of 70 high-mass star formation regions. We primarily searched toward regions known to show emission either from the 107 GHz class II methanol maser transition, or from the 6.035 GHz excited OH transition. We detected maser emission from 13 sources in the 37.7 GHz transition, eight of these being new detections. We detected maser emission from three sources in the 38 GHz transitions, one of which is a new detection. We find that 37.7 GHz methanol masers are only associated with the most luminous 6.7 and 12.2 GHz methanol maser sources, which in turn are hypothesized to be the oldest class II methanol sources. We suggest that the 37.7 GHz methanol masers are associated with a brief evolutionary phase (of 1000-4000 years) prior to the cessation of class II methanol maser activity in the associated high-mass star formation region.

  1. Building Students' Reasoning Skills by Promoting Student-Led Discussions in an Algebra II Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJarnette, Anna F.; González, Gloriana

    2013-01-01

    Current research and professional organizations call for greater emphasis on reasoning and sense making in algebra (Chazan, 2000; Cuoco, Goldenberg, & Mark, 1996; Harel & Sowder, 2005; National Council of Teachers of Mathematics [NCTM], 2009, 2010). This paper illustrates how students in an Algebra II class had opportunities to develop…

  2. Oral HPV infection and MHC class II deficiency (A study of two cases with atypical outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guirat-Dhouib Naouel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Major histocompatibility complex class II deficiency, also referred to as bare lymphocyte syndrome is a rare primary Immunodeficiency disorder characterized by a profondly deficient human leukocyte antigen class II expression and a lack of cellular and humoral immune responses to foreign antigens. Clinical manifestations include extreme susceptibility to viral, bacterial, and fungal infections. The infections begin in the first year of life and involve usually the respiratory system and the gastrointestinal tract. Severe malabsorption with failure to thrive ensues, often leading to death in early childhood. Bone marrow transplantation is the curative treatment. Case reports Here we report two cases with a late outcome MHC class II deficiency. They had a long term history of recurrent bronchopulmonary and gastrointestinal infections. Bone marrow transplantation could not be performed because no compatible donor had been identified. At the age of 12 years, they developed oral papillomatous lesions related to HPV (human papillomavirus. The diagnosis of HPV infection was done by histological examination. HPV typing performed on the tissue obtained at biopsy showed HPV type 6. The lesions were partially removed after two months of laser treatment. Conclusions Viral infections are common in patients with MHC class II and remain the main cause of death. Besides warts caused by HPV infection do not exhibit a propensity for malignant transformation; they can cause great psychosocial morbidity.

  3. 75 FR 55269 - Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Parts 542 and 543 RIN 3141-AA-37 Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission. ACTION: Delay of effective date of final rule; request for comments. SUMMARY: The National Indian Gaming...

  4. 76 FR 53817 - Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Parts 542 and 543 Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission, Interior. ACTION: Final rule; delay of effective date and request for comments. SUMMARY: The National Indian Gaming...

  5. 77 FR 60625 - Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Indian Gaming Commission 25 CFR Parts 542 and 543 RIN 3141-AA-37 Minimum Internal Control Standards for Class II Gaming AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission. ACTION: Final rule; delay of effective date; suspension. SUMMARY: The National Indian Gaming Commission...

  6. Citrullination only infrequently impacts peptide binding to HLA class II MHC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidney, John; Becart, Stephane; Zhou, Mimi

    2017-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that HLA class II alleles associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) preferentially present self-antigens altered by post-translational modification, such as citrullination. To understand the role of citrullination we tested four RA-associated citrullinated epitopes and th...

  7. HLA-class II alleles in patients with drug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuranov, A B; Kozhamkulov, U A; Vavilov, M N; Belova, E S; Bismilda, V L; Alenova, A H; Ismailov, S S; Momynaliev, K T

    2014-02-01

    The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system has a major role in the regulation of the immune response as it is involved in the defense against pathogens. Some studies have reported that HLA class II genes play a strong role in severe cases of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in several populations. Thus the aim of the study was to compare the HLA-class II alleles of patients with drug resistant tuberculosis with those of healthy controls from the same ethnic group in Kazakhstan. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the correlation of HLA-class II alleles by patients with drug resistant tuberculosis and the healthy controls of the same ethnic group in Kazakhstan. The HLA-class II alleles of 76 patients with tuberculosis (TB) and 157 healthy volunteers were investigated using sequence-based typing (SBT)-method. HLA-DQA1*03:02 HLA-DRB1*08:01 and DRB1*08:03 occurred more frequently (P = 0.05) in patients with drug resistant tuberculosis than in controls. We observed a possible association between certain HLA alleles and TB that are specific for the Kazakh population. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings using a larger number of patients with drug resistant tuberculosis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Evidence for multiple major histocompatibility class II X-box binding proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Celada, A; Maki, R

    1989-01-01

    The X box is a loosely conserved DNA sequence that is located upstream of all major histocompatibility class II genes and is one of the cis-acting regulatory elements. Despite the similarity between all X-box sequences, each promoter-proximal X box in the mouse appears to bind a separate nuclear factor.

  9. Tolerance to MHC class II disparate allografts through genetic modification of bone marrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindra, Peter T.; Tripathi, Sudipta; Tian, Chaorui; Iacomini, John; Bagley, Jessamyn

    2012-01-01

    Induction of molecular chimerism through genetic modification of bone marrow is a powerful tool for the induction of tolerance. Here we demonstrate for the first time that expression of an allogeneic MHC class II gene in autologous bone marrow cells, resulting in a state of molecular chimerism, induces tolerance to MHC class II mismatched skin grafts, a stringent test of transplant tolerance. Reconstitution of recipients with syngeneic bone marrow transduced with retrovirus encoding H-2I-Ab (I-Ab) resulted the long-term expression of the retroviral gene product on the surface of MHC class II-expressing bone marrow derived cell types. Mechanistically, tolerance was maintained by the presence of regulatory T cells, which prevented proliferation and cytokine production by alloreactive host T cells. Thus, the introduction of MHC class II genes into bone marrow derived cells through genetic engineering results in tolerance. These results have the potential to extend the clinical applicability of molecular chimerism for tolerance induction. PMID:22833118

  10. The impact of functional jaw orthopedics in subjects with unfavorable Class II skeletal patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Tiziano; McNamara, James A

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the outcomes of functional jaw orthopedics (FJO) followed by fixed appliances in Class II patients showing cephalometric signs predictive of unfavorable responsiveness to orthopedic treatment. A total of 48 treated subjects (20 males, 28 females) with unfavorable Class II malocclusions were treated with FJO at the adolescent growth spurt, followed by fixed appliances. Treatment outcomes were compared with the growth changes in a matched control group of untreated subjects with "unfavorable" Class II malocclusions. A significant prevalence rate of successful outcome was recorded within the treated group (64.5%). When compared with the untreated controls, both the overall treated group and the successful treated subgroup revealed a significant reduction in maxillary growth and sagittal position, along with a significant enhancement in mandibular length, sagittal advancement of the mandible, and significant improvements in the maxillo-mandibular relationships. Both overjet and molar relation showed significant favorable changes in the treated group. FJO at the pubertal spurt followed by fixed appliances is a viable therapeutical option in patients with "unfavorable" Class II malocclusions, although skeletal changes are of minor entity. Copyright © 2010 Società Italiana di Ortodonzia SIDO. Published by Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  11. HLA class II linkage disequilibrium and haplotype evolution in the Cayapa Indians of Ecuador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trachtenberg, E.A.; Erlich, H.A. [Roche Molecular Systems, Alameda, CA (United States); Klitz, W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    DNA-based typing of the HLA class II loci in a sample of the Cayapa Indians of Ecuador reveals several lines of evidence that selection has operated to maintain and to diversify the existing level of polymorphism in the class II region. As has been noticed for other Native American groups, the overall level of polymorphism at the DRB1, DQA1, DQB1, and DPB1 loci is reduced relative to that found in other human populations. Nonetheless, the relative eveness in the distribution of allele frequencies at each of the four loci points to the role of balancing selection in the maintenance of the polymorphism. The DQA1 and DQB1 loci, in particular, have near-maximum departures from the neutrality model, which suggests that balancing selection has been especially strong in these cases. Several novel DQA1-DQB1 haplotypes and the discovery of a new DRB1 allele demonstrate an evolutionary tendency favoring the diversification of class II alleles and haplotypes. The recombination interval between the centromeric DPB1 locus and the other class II loci will, in the absence of other forces such as selection, reduce disequilibrium across this region. However, nearly all common alleles were found to be part of DR-DP haplotypes in strong disequilibrium, consistent with the recent action of selection acting on these haplotypes in the Cayapa. 50 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. DNA polymorphism of HLA class II genes in pauciarticular juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morling, N; Friis, J; Fugger, L

    1991-01-01

    We investigated the DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II genes: HLA-DRB, -DQA, -DQB, DPA, and -DPB in 54 patients with pauciarticular juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (PJRA) and in healthy Danes. The frequencies of DNA fragments a...

  13. Evaluation of proximal contact tightness of Class II resin composite restorations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saber, M.H.; Loomans, B.A.C.; Zohairy, A. El; Dorfer, C.E.; El-Badrawy, W.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the current study was to compare in-vitro the proximal contact tightness (PCT) of Class II resin composite restorations (RCR) placed with different established and new placement techniques. METHODS: 105 ivorine lower left first molars with standardized MO cavities were

  14. 40 CFR 147.50 - State-administered program-Class II wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Carry Out Underground Injection Control Program Relating to Class II Wells as Described in Federal Safe... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Alabama... application: (a) Incorporation by reference. The requirements set forth in the State statutes and regulations...

  15. The effect of proximal contour on marginal ridge fracture of Class II composite resin restorations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, B.A.C.; Roeters, F.J.M.; Opdam, N.J.M.; Kuijs, R.H.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the marginal ridge fracture strength of Class II composite resin restorations placed with a straight or contoured matrix band using composite resins with different modulus of elasticity. METHODS: In 60 artificial first molars standardized MO-preparations were ground. Two

  16. A treatment method for Class II Division 1 patients with extraction of permanent maxillary first molars.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, J.W.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Katsaros, C.

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the years, various treatment modalities have been presented for the treatment of Class II Division 1 malocclusions. The goal of this paper is to present a treatment approach that involves the extraction of the maxillary first molars followed by use of fixed appliances with low-friction

  17. Predicting peptides binding to MHC class II molecules using multi-objective evolutionary algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Lin

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peptides binding to Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC class II molecules are crucial for initiation and regulation of immune responses. Predicting peptides that bind to a specific MHC molecule plays an important role in determining potential candidates for vaccines. The binding groove in class II MHC is open at both ends, allowing peptides longer than 9-mer to bind. Finding the consensus motif facilitating the binding of peptides to a MHC class II molecule is difficult because of different lengths of binding peptides and varying location of 9-mer binding core. The level of difficulty increases when the molecule is promiscuous and binds to a large number of low affinity peptides. In this paper, we propose two approaches using multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEA for predicting peptides binding to MHC class II molecules. One uses the information from both binders and non-binders for self-discovery of motifs. The other, in addition, uses information from experimentally determined motifs for guided-discovery of motifs. Results The proposed methods are intended for finding peptides binding to MHC class II I-Ag7 molecule – a promiscuous binder to a large number of low affinity peptides. Cross-validation results across experiments on two motifs derived for I-Ag7 datasets demonstrate better generalization abilities and accuracies of the present method over earlier approaches. Further, the proposed method was validated and compared on two publicly available benchmark datasets: (1 an ensemble of qualitative HLA-DRB1*0401 peptide data obtained from five different sources, and (2 quantitative peptide data obtained for sixteen different alleles comprising of three mouse alleles and thirteen HLA alleles. The proposed method outperformed earlier methods on most datasets, indicating that it is well suited for finding peptides binding to MHC class II molecules. Conclusion We present two MOEA-based algorithms for finding motifs

  18. Oligoclonal band phenotypes in MS differ in their HLA class II association, while specific KIR ligands at HLA class I show association to MS in general

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavsen, Marte W; Viken, Marte K; Celius, Elisabeth G

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients have been reported to have different HLA class II allele profiles depending on oligoclonal bands (OCBs) in the cerebrospinal fluid, but HLA class I alleles and killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) ligands have not been studied. We investigated the associ......Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients have been reported to have different HLA class II allele profiles depending on oligoclonal bands (OCBs) in the cerebrospinal fluid, but HLA class I alleles and killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) ligands have not been studied. We investigated...

  19. Self-esteem in adolescents with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusion in a Peruvian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florián-Vargas, Karla; Honores, Marcos J Carruitero; Bernabé, Eduardo; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    To compare self-esteem scores in 12 to 16-year-old adolescents with different Angle malocclusion types in a Peruvian sample. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 276 adolescents (159, 52 and 65 with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusions, respectively) from Trujillo, Peru. Participants were asked to complete the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) and were also clinically examined, so as to have Angle malocclusion classification determined. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare RSES scores among adolescents with Class I, II and III malocclusions, with participants' demographic factors being controlled. Mean RSES scores for adolescents with Class I, II and III malocclusions were 20.47 ± 3.96, 21.96 ± 3.27 and 21.26 ± 4.81, respectively. The ANCOVA test showed that adolescents with Class II malocclusion had a significantly higher RSES score than those with Class I malocclusion, but there were no differences between other malocclusion groups. Supplemental analysis suggested that only those with Class II, Division 2 malocclusion might have greater self-esteem when compared to adolescents with Class I malocclusion. This study shows that, in general, self-esteem did not vary according to adolescents' malocclusion in the sample studied. Surprisingly, only adolescents with Class II malocclusion, particularly Class II, Division 2, reported better self-esteem than those with Class I malocclusion. A more detailed analysis assessing the impact of anterior occlusal features should be conducted.

  20. Subclassification of Recursive Partitioning Analysis Class II Patients With Brain Metastases Treated Radiosurgically

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Masaaki, E-mail: BCD06275@nifty.com [Katsuta Hospital Mito GammaHouse, Hitachi-naka (Japan); Department of Neurosurgery, Tokyo Women' s Medical University Medical Center East, Tokyo (Japan); Sato, Yasunori [Clinical Research Center, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba (Japan); Serizawa, Toru [Tokyo Gamma Unit Center, Tsukiji Neurologic Clinic, Tokyo (Japan); Kawabe, Takuya [Katsuta Hospital Mito GammaHouse, Hitachi-naka (Japan); Department of Neurosurgery, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyoto (Japan); Higuchi, Yoshinori [Department of Neurosurgery, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba (Japan); Nagano, Osamu [Gamma Knife House, Chiba Cardiovascular Center, Ichihara (Japan); Barfod, Bierta E. [Katsuta Hospital Mito GammaHouse, Hitachi-naka (Japan); Ono, Junichi [Gamma Knife House, Chiba Cardiovascular Center, Ichihara (Japan); Kasuya, Hidetoshi [Department of Neurosurgery, Tokyo Women' s Medical University Medical Center East, Tokyo (Japan); Urakawa, Yoichi [Katsuta Hospital Mito GammaHouse, Hitachi-naka (Japan)

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: Although the recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) class is generally used for predicting survival periods of patients with brain metastases (METs), the majority of such patients are Class II and clinical factors vary quite widely within this category. This prompted us to divide RPA Class II patients into three subclasses. Methods and Materials: This was a two-institution, institutional review board-approved, retrospective cohort study using two databases: the Mito series (2,000 consecutive patients, comprising 787 women and 1,213 men; mean age, 65 years [range, 19-96 years]) and the Chiba series (1,753 patients, comprising 673 female and 1,080 male patients; mean age, 65 years [range, 7-94 years]). Both patient series underwent Gamma Knife radiosurgery alone, without whole-brain radiotherapy, for brain METs during the same 10-year period, July 1998 through June 2008. The Cox proportional hazard model with a step-wise selection procedure was used for multivariate analysis. Results: In the Mito series, four factors were identified as favoring longer survival: Karnofsky Performance Status (90% to 100% vs. 70% to 80%), tumor numbers (solitary vs. multiple), primary tumor status (controlled vs. not controlled), and non-brain METs (no vs. yes). This new index is the sum of scores (0 and 1) of these four factors: RPA Class II-a, score of 0 or 1; RPA Class II-b, score of 2; and RPA Class II-c, score of 3 or 4. Next, using the Chiba series, we tested whether our index is valid for a different patient group. This new system showed highly statistically significant differences among subclasses in both the Mito series and the Chiba series (p < 0.001 for all subclasses). In addition, this new index was confirmed to be applicable to Class II patients with four major primary tumor sites, that is, lung, breast, alimentary tract, and urogenital organs. Conclusions: Our new grading system should be considered when designing future clinical trials involving brain MET

  1. Identifying Effective Enzyme Activity Targets for Recombinant Class I and Class II Collagenase for Successful Human Islet Isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balamurugan, Appakalai N; Green, Michael L; Breite, Andrew G; Loganathan, Gopalakrishnan; Wilhelm, Joshua J; Tweed, Benjamin; Vargova, Lenka; Lockridge, Amber; Kuriti, Manikya; Hughes, Michael G; Williams, Stuart K; Hering, Bernhard J; Dwulet, Francis E; McCarthy, Robert C

    2016-01-01

    Isolation following a good manufacturing practice-compliant, human islet product requires development of a robust islet isolation procedure where effective limits of key reagents are known. The enzymes used for islet isolation are critical but little is known about the doses of class I and class II collagenase required for successful islet isolation. We used a factorial approach to evaluate the effect of high and low target activities of recombinant class I (rC1) and class II (rC2) collagenase on human islet yield. Consequently, 4 different enzyme formulations with divergent C1:C2 collagenase mass ratios were assessed, each supplemented with the same dose of neutral protease. Both split pancreas and whole pancreas models were used to test enzyme targets (n = 20). Islet yield/g pancreas was compared with historical enzymes (n = 42). Varying the Wunsch (rC2) and collagen degradation activity (CDA, rC1) target dose, and consequently the C1:C2 mass ratio, had no significant effect on tissue digestion. Digestions using higher doses of Wunsch and CDA resulted in comparable islet yields to those obtained with 60% and 50% of those activities, respectively. Factorial analysis revealed no significant main effect of Wunsch activity or CDA for any parameter measured. Aggregate results from 4 different collagenase formulations gave 44% higher islet yield (>5000 islet equivalents/g) in the body/tail of the pancreas (n = 12) when compared with those from the same segment using a standard natural collagenase/protease mixture (n = 6). Additionally, islet yields greater than 5000 islet equivalents/g pancreas were also obtained in whole human pancreas. A broader C1:C2 ratio can be used for human islet isolation than has been used in the past. Recombinant collagenase is an effective replacement for the natural enzyme and we have determined that high islet yield can be obtained even with low doses of rC1:rC2, which is beneficial for the survival of islets.

  2. The properties of the single chicken MHC classical class II alpha chain (B-LA) gene indicate an ancient origin for the DR/E-like isotype of class II molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomonsen, Jan; Marston, Denise; Avila, David

    2003-01-01

    for the cloning and sequencing of the cDNA. We found only one class II alpha chain transcript, which bears the major features of a classical class II alpha sequence, including the critical peptide-binding residues. The chicken sequence is more similar to human DR than to the DQ, DP, DO or DM isotypes, most...... the mammalian DR and E isotypes in three properties: the presence of the critical peptide-binding residues, the low level of polymorphism and sequence diversity, and the recombinational separation from the class II beta chain genes. These results indicate that the sequence features of this lineage are both......In mammals, there are MHC class II molecules with distinctive sequence features, such as the classical isotypes DR, DQ and DP. These particular isotypes have not been reported in non-mammalian vertebrates. We have isolated the class II (B-L) alpha chain from outbred chickens as the basis...

  3. MHC class II+ (HLA-DP-like) cells in the cow reproductive tract: II. Immunolocalization of MHC class II+ cells in oviduct and vagina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, U; Kum, S; Sandikçi, M; Eren, V; Ilhan, F

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine and examine the distribution of major frequency MHC II+ cells in the oviduct and vagina of cows during the oestrous and dioestrus phases. Right oviduct (ampulla, isthmus) and vaginal samples taken from a total of twenty seven multiparous cows were used. Tissue samples were processed to obtain both cryostat and paraffin sections. Sections were stained immunocytochemically using StreptABC method using a specific monoclonal antibody to MHC II+ cell population. Intra-epithelial and subepithelial areas along with lamina propria, muscularis mucosae and serosa of both ampulla and isthmus and intra-epithelial/subepithelial areas and mucosae of vagina were examined for the presence of MHC II+ cells. The density of immune positive cells was determined using a subjective scoring system. MHC II+ cells were demonstrated in all areas examined in both oestrus and dioestrus. In oestrus, the density of MHC II+ cells decreased in subepithelial areas (in between the epithelial cells and the basal membrane) of isthmus, whereas the density of immune positive cells was increased in muscularis mucosae of isthmus (P < 0.05), lamina propria and muscularis mucosae of ampulla (P < 0.05) as well as in the mucosae of vagina (P II+ cells observed in the oviduct and vagina increases in the majority of areas examined due to the effect of oestrogen.

  4. Schwann cells promote post-traumatic nerve inflammation and neuropathic pain through MHC class II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartlehnert, Maike; Derksen, Angelika; Hagenacker, Tim; Kindermann, David; Schäfers, Maria; Pawlak, Mathias; Kieseier, Bernd C; Meyer Zu Horste, Gerd

    2017-10-02

    The activation of T helper cells requires antigens to be exposed on the surface of antigen presenting cells (APCs) via MHC class II (MHC-II) molecules. Expression of MHC-II is generally limited to professional APCs, but other cell types can express MHC-II under inflammatory conditions. However, the importance of these conditional APCs is unknown. We and others have previously shown that Schwann cells are potentially conditional APCs, but the functional relevance of MHC-II expression by Schwann cells has not been studied in vivo. Here, we conditionally deleted the MHC-II β-chain from myelinating Schwann cells in mice and investigated how this influenced post-traumatic intraneural inflammation and neuropathic pain using the chronic constriction injury (CCI) model. We demonstrate that deletion of MHC-II in myelinating Schwann cells reduces thermal hyperalgesia and, to a lesser extent, also diminishes mechanical allodynia in CCI in female mice. This was accompanied by a reduction of intraneural CD4+ T cells and greater preservation of preferentially large-caliber axons. Activation of T helper cells by MHC-II on Schwann cells thus promotes post-traumatic axonal loss and neuropathic pain. Hence, we provide experimental evidence that Schwann cells gain antigen-presenting function in vivo and modulate local immune responses and diseases in the peripheral nerves.

  5. Class II young adult treatment with Twin Force Bite corrector: 10-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozge Uslu-Akcam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most preferred compliance free fixed functional appliances in nongrowing patients is Twin Force Bite corrector (TFBC. The aim of this case report is to evaluate the effectiveness of TFBC in the treatment of an adult Class II case. A 16-year 1-month-old boy having skeletal and dental Class II relationship was selected. Roth 0.018 × 0.025 inch slots brackets were attached; a fixed lingual arch in the mandibular dental arch and a Nance appliance in the maxillary dental arch were used to increase anchorage. The TFBC therapy used for sagittal activation and stimulation of forward mandibular growth lasted for 3 months. The post-TFBC treatment lasted 6 months and the total treatment time was 9 months. Treatment of a young adult Class II malocclusion with TFBC resulted in a Class I molar occlusion, an ideal overjet, overbite, and incisor angulation in a short time and maintained in the 10-year follow-up.

  6. Ablation of phosphoinositide-3-kinase class II alpha suppresses hepatoma cell proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Stanley K.L. [Singapore Immunology Network A-STAR (Singapore); Neo, Soek-Ying, E-mail: neo_soek_ying@sics.a-star.edu.sg [Singapore Immunology Network A-STAR (Singapore); Yap, Yann-Wan [Singapore Immunology Network A-STAR (Singapore); Karuturi, R. Krishna Murthy; Loh, Evelyn S.L. [Genome Institute of Singapore A-STAR (Singapore); Liau, Kui-Hin [Department of General Surgery, Tan Tock Seng Hospital (Singapore); Ren, Ee-Chee, E-mail: ren_ee_chee@immunol.a-star.edu.sg [Singapore Immunology Network A-STAR (Singapore); Department of Microbiology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2009-09-18

    Cancer such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is characterized by complex perturbations in multiple signaling pathways, including the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K/AKT) pathways. Herein we investigated the role of PI3K catalytic isoforms, particularly class II isoforms in HCC proliferation. Among the siRNAs tested against the eight known catalytic PI3K isoforms, specific ablation of class II PI3K alpha (PIK3C2{alpha}) was the most effective in impairing cell growth and this was accompanied by concomitant decrease in PIK3C2{alpha} mRNA and protein levels. Colony formation ability of cells deficient for PIK3C2{alpha} was markedly reduced and growth arrest was associated with increased caspase 3 levels. A small but significant difference in gene dosage and expression levels was detected between tumor and non-tumor tissues in a cohort of 19 HCC patients. Taken together, these data suggest for the first time that in addition to class I PI3Ks in cancer, class II PIK3C2{alpha} can modulate HCC cell growth.

  7. Orthodontic treatment of nongrowing patient with class II division 2 malocclusion by Herbst appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedeljković Nenad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Inheritance is most casual etiological factor of Class II division 2 malocclusion. This kind of malocclusion is very difficult for treatment specially in older patients. Case report. In the female patient, 20 years old, at the beginning of the treatment at the School of Dentistry in Belgrade, lateral cephalogram showed skeletal and dentoalveolar Class II division 2 malocclusion. She was in the Herbst treatment for 8 months and 12 months more with a fixed multibracket appliance. The measurements were performed on lateral cephalograms before and after the treatment: ii, is, mi, ms, Pg and ss. The distance from these points to occlusal perpendicular line (Olp were measured and compared from cephalogram before to cephalogram after the treatment. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ tomograms were compared from before and after the treatment by superimposition. Correction was found in molar and incisor relation, overjet and overbite. There were found sagital skeletal changes and soft tissue profile improvement. Conclusion. Herbst appliance is effective in the treatment of Class II malocclusions, even in adult patients. Dental and skeletal changes as a result of Herbst treatment could be good choice instead of camouflage orthodontics or surgical decision.

  8. Skeletal and dental changes induced by bionator in early treatment of class II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirceu Barnabé Raveli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to investigate the amount of skeletal and dentoalveolar changes after early treatment of Class II, Division 1 malocclusion with bionator appliance in prepubertal growing patients. Forty Class II patients were divided in two groups. Treated group consisted of 20 subjects treated consecutively with bionator. Mean age at the start of treatment (T0 was 9.1 years, while it was 10.6 years at the end of treatment (T1. Mean treatment time was 17.7 months. Pretreatment and post-treatment cephalometric records of treated group were evaluated and compared with a control group consisted of 20 patients with untreated Class II malocclusion. Intergroup comparisons were performed using Student’s t-tests and chi-square test with Yates’ correction at a significance level of 5 per cent. Bionator appliance was effective in generating differential growth between the jaws. Cephalometric skeletal measurements ANB, WITS, Lafh, Co-A and dental L6-Mp, U1.Pp, IsIi, OB, OJ showed statistically significantly different from the control. Bionator induced more dentoalveolar changes than skeletal during treatment in prepubertal stage.

  9. Cephalometric assessment of lips in skeletal class ii patients by steiner's line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokhari, F.; Amin, F.; Asad, S.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Steiner's (S) Line has been used as reference line to assess anteroposterior position of lips cephalometrically and has been an effective diagnostic aid in this era of soft tissue paradigm. Norms for Sline has been established for different populations and it has been used widely to assess treatment outcomes in Skeletal Class II malocclusion, however anteroposterior position of lips and determinants of lip position in Skeletal Class II has not been explored. Study Design: This Prospective study was aimed to find out the anteroposterior position of lips on cephalograph using S-line in patients with retrognathic pro-file and to establish correlation between determinants of lip prominence. Data was collected using nonprobability convenience sampling technique following the selection criteria. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 65 subjects, with retrognathic profile as judged by orthodontists in consensus and confirmed by lateral cephalogram (ANB > 4 degree). S-Line was drawn on lateral cephalograph to assess the prominence of upper Lip and lower lip. SPSS 17.0 was used for statistical evaluation. Results: Antero-posterior position of upper and lower lip in patients with retrognathic profile with reference to S-line was 1.96 +- 2.6 mm and 3.09 +- 3.16 mm respectively. Moreover it was found that statistically significant correlation existed between lower lip prominence as assessed by S-line and upper lip prominence using the same reference line (r = 0.411), Lower incisor inclination (r = 0.535) and Skeletal Class II as assessed by ANB angle (r = 0.27). Upper lip prominence as assessed S-line was found to be statistically significantly correlated with lower incisor inclination and lower lip prominence. Discussion: Results were compliant with the previous studies.Conclusion: In the present study both upper and lower lips were more prominent in Skeletal Class II patients as compared to Steiner's norms for skeletal class I. (author)

  10. Influence of unilateral maxillary first molar extraction treatment on second and third molar inclination in Class II subdivision patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livas, Christos; Pandis, Nikolaos; Booij, Johan Willem; Halazonetis, Demetrios J.; Katsaros, Christos; Ren, Yijin

    Objective: To assess the maxillary second molar (M2) and third molar (M3) inclination following orthodontic treatment of Class II subdivision malocclusion with unilateral maxillary first molar (M1) extraction. Materials and Methods: Panoramic radiographs of 21 Class II subdivision adolescents (eight

  11. 75 FR 69089 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-D-0514] Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document... Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of the guidance entitled ``Class II Special Controls Guidance...

  12. 77 FR 16123 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    ... Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document... Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 866 Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Nucleic Acid-Based In Vitro Diagnostic Devices for the...

  13. 76 FR 29251 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls; Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2006-D-0094] Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls; Guidance Document... of the guidance entitled ``Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II...

  14. Survival of self-etch adhesive Class II composite restorations using ART and conventional cavity preparations in primary molars.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eden, E.; Topaloglu-Ak, A.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.; Hof, M.A. van 't

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To test the null-hypothesis that there was no difference in the survival percentages of Class II composite restorations in primary teeth produced through either ART or conventional approaches after 2 years. METHODS: 157 children with 325 Class II cavitated dentin lesions were included in a

  15. 25 CFR 547.12 - What are the minimum technical standards for downloading on a Class II gaming system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... on a Class II gaming system? 547.12 Section 547.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM TECHNICAL STANDARDS FOR GAMING EQUIPMENT USED WITH THE PLAY... gaming system? This section provides standards for downloading on a Class II gaming system. (a) Downloads...

  16. 25 CFR 547.7 - What are the minimum technical hardware standards applicable to Class II gaming systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... applicable to Class II gaming systems? 547.7 Section 547.7 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM TECHNICAL STANDARDS FOR GAMING EQUIPMENT USED WITH THE PLAY... gaming systems? (a) General requirements. (1) The Class II gaming system shall operate in compliance with...

  17. Opposing motor activities of dynein and kinesin determine retention and transport of MHC class II-containing compartments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubbolts, R.; Fernandez-Borja, M.; Jordens, I.; Reits, E.; Dusseljee, S.; Echeverri, C.; Vallee, R. B.; Neefjes, J.

    1999-01-01

    MHC class II molecules exert their function at the cell surface by presenting to T cells antigenic fragments that are generated in the endosomal pathway. The class II molecules are targetted to early lysosomal structures, termed MIIC, where they interact with antigenic fragments and are subsequently

  18. 454 sequencing reveals extreme complexity of the class II Major Histocompatibility Complex in the collared flycatcher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustafsson Lars

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of their functional significance, the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC class I and II genes have been the subject of continuous interest in the fields of ecology, evolution and conservation. In some vertebrate groups MHC consists of multiple loci with similar alleles; therefore, the multiple loci must be genotyped simultaneously. In such complex systems, understanding of the evolutionary patterns and their causes has been limited due to challenges posed by genotyping. Results Here we used 454 amplicon sequencing to characterize MHC class IIB exon 2 variation in the collared flycatcher, an important organism in evolutionary and immuno-ecological studies. On the basis of over 152,000 sequencing reads we identified 194 putative alleles in 237 individuals. We found an extreme complexity of the MHC class IIB in the collared flycatchers, with our estimates pointing to the presence of at least nine expressed loci and a large, though difficult to estimate precisely, number of pseudogene loci. Many similar alleles occurred in the pseudogenes indicating either a series of recent duplications or extensive concerted evolution. The expressed alleles showed unambiguous signals of historical selection and the occurrence of apparent interlocus exchange of alleles. Placing the collared flycatcher's MHC sequences in the context of passerine diversity revealed transspecific MHC class II evolution within the Muscicapidae family. Conclusions 454 amplicon sequencing is an effective tool for advancing our understanding of the MHC class II structure and evolutionary patterns in Passeriformes. We found a highly dynamic pattern of evolution of MHC class IIB genes with strong signals of selection and pronounced sequence divergence in expressed genes, in contrast to the apparent sequence homogenization in pseudogenes. We show that next generation sequencing offers a universal, affordable method for the characterization and, in perspective

  19. MHC polymorphism and disease resistance in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar); facing pathogens with single expressed major histocompatibility class I and class II loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimholt, U.; Larsen, S.; Nordmo, R.; Midtlyng, P.; Kjoeglum, S.; Storset, A.; Saebo, S.; Stet, R.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Few studies have yet addressed the functional aspects of MHC molecules in fish. To lay the foundation for this, we evaluated the association between disease resistance and MHC class I and class II polymorphism in Atlantic salmon. Standardized disease challenge trials were performed on a semi-wild

  20. Eleventh annual meeting, Bologna, Italy, 17-20 April 1978. Summary report. Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-07-01

    The Summary Report - Part II of the Eleventh Annual Meeting of the IAEA International Working Group on Fast Reactors - includes reports on development of fast reactors in France from 1977 to 1978; review of the activities related to fast reactors in Germany; status of fast breeder reactors development in Belgium and Netherlands; status of activities related to fast reactors in USSR, Japan USA, UK and Italy.

  1. International Working Group on Fast Reactors Thirteenth Annual Meeting. Summary Report. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    The Thirteenth Annual Meeting of the IAEA International Working Group on Fast Reactors was held at the IAEA Headquarters, Vienna, Austria from 9 to 11 April 1980. The Summary Report (Part I) contains the Minutes of the Meeting. The Summary Report (Part II) contains the papers which review the national programme in the field of LMFBRs and other presentations at the Meeting. The Summary Report (Part III) contains the discussions on the review of the national programmes

  2. Eleventh annual meeting, Bologna, Italy, 17-20 April 1978. Summary report. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-07-01

    The Summary Report - Part II of the Eleventh Annual Meeting of the IAEA International Working Group on Fast Reactors - includes reports on development of fast reactors in France from 1977 to 1978; review of the activities related to fast reactors in Germany; status of fast breeder reactors development in Belgium and Netherlands; status of activities related to fast reactors in USSR, Japan USA, UK and Italy

  3. Characterization of EBV gB indicates properties of both class I and class II viral fusion proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backovic, Marija; Leser, George P.; Lamb, Robert A.; Longnecker, Richard; Jardetzky, Theodore S.

    2007-01-01

    To gain insight into Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) glycoprotein B (gB), recombinant, secreted variants were generated. The role of putative transmembrane regions, the proteolytic processing and the oligomerization state of the gB variants were investigated. Constructs containing 2 of 3 C-terminal hydrophobic regions were secreted, indicating that these do not act as transmembrane anchors. The efficiency of cleavage of the gB furin site was found to depend on the nature of C-terminus. All of the gB constructs formed rosette structures reminiscent of the postfusion aggregates formed by other viral fusion proteins. However, substitution of putative fusion loop residues, WY 112-113 and WLIY 193-196 , with less hydrophobic amino acids from HSV-1 gB, produced trimeric protein and abrogated the ability of the EBV gB ectodomains to form rosettes. These data demonstrate biochemical features of EBV gB that are characteristic of other class I and class II viral fusion proteins, but not of HSV-1 gB

  4. Isolation and characterization of major histocompatibility complex class II B genes in cranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohyama, Tetsuo I; Akiyama, Takuya; Nishida, Chizuko; Takami, Kazutoshi; Onuma, Manabu; Momose, Kunikazu; Masuda, Ryuichi

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we isolated and characterized the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II B genes in cranes. Genomic sequences spanning exons 1 to 4 were amplified and determined in 13 crane species and three other species closely related to cranes. In all, 55 unique sequences were identified, and at least two polymorphic MHC class II B loci were found in most species. An analysis of sequence polymorphisms showed the signature of positive selection and recombination. A phylogenetic reconstruction based on exon 2 sequences indicated that trans-species polymorphism has persisted for at least 10 million years, whereas phylogenetic analyses of the sequences flanking exon 2 revealed a pattern of concerted evolution. These results suggest that both balancing selection and recombination play important roles in the crane MHC evolution.

  5. Incisor root resorption in class II division 2 patients in relation to orthodontic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faxén Sepanian, Varro; Sonnesen, Liselotte

    2018-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The aims were 1. to analyse differences in the occurrence of orthodontic induced inflammatory root resorption (OIIRR) of the upper and lower incisors in Angle Class II division 2 patients, between patients treated with fixed appliance only (one-phase treatment group......-four subjects treated for Class II division 2 malocclusion were divided into two groups: 46 patients in the one-phase treatment group (28 girls, 18 boys, mean age 14.4) and 28 patients in the two-phase treatment group (18 girls, 10 boys, mean age 12.4) where 336 and 201 incisors were analysed respectively...... group showed significantly more OIIRR for lower central incisors (P = 0.002) compared to the two-phase treatment group. For the both groups combined, boys showed more OIIRR than girls (P = 0.002) and patients with agenesis showed more OIIRR than patients without agenesis (P = 0.019) for the lower...

  6. Efficacy of MTA and CEM Cement with Collagen Membranes for Treatment of Class II Furcation Defects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Ollah Ghanbari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the efficacy of MTA and CEM cement in Class II furcation defects in human mandibular molars.Forty furcation defects were treated in 16 patients with chronic periodontitis. The clinical parameters of probing depth (PD, vertical and horizontal clinical attachment levels (VCAL and HCAL, open vertical and horizontal furcation depths (OVFD and OHFD, and gingival margin level (GML were measured at baseline and at 3- and 6-month (re-entry surgery postoperatively. Data were analyzed at a significance level of P<0.05.Use of MTA and CEM caused significant decreases in PD, VCAL, HCAL, OVFD and OHFD at re-entry, with no statistically significant differences between the two treatment options in soft and hard tissue parameters.Both treatment modalities caused significant gains in attachment levels and bone fills, proving efficacy for treatment of Class II furcation involvements.

  7. Durability of a low shrinkage TEGDMA/HEMA-free resin composite system in Class II restorations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan WV; Pallesen, Ulla

    2017-01-01

    with a mean age of 53 years (range 29-82). Each participant received at random two, as similar as possible, Class II restorations. In the first cavity of each pair the TEGDMA/HEMA-free resin composite system was placed with its 3-step etch-and-rinse adhesive (cmf-els). In the second cavity a 1-step HEMA......Objective: The objective of this randomized controlled prospective trial was to evaluate the durability of a low shrinkage and TEGDMA/HEMA-free resin composite system in posterior restorations in a 6-year follow up. Material and methods: 139 Class II restorations were placed in 67 patients......-free self-etch adhesive was used (AdheSe One F). The restorations were evaluated using slightly modified USPHS criteria at baseline and then yearly during 6 years. Caries risk and parafunctional habits of the participants were estimated. Results: Three molar teeth showed mild post-operative sensitivity...

  8. The roles of MHC class II genes and post-translational modification in celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollid, Ludvig M

    2017-08-01

    Our increasing understanding of the etiology of celiac disease, previously considered a simple food hypersensitivity disorder caused by an immune response to cereal gluten proteins, challenges established concepts of autoimmunity. HLA is a chief genetic determinant, and certain HLA-DQ allotypes predispose to the disease by presenting posttranslationally modified (deamidated) gluten peptides to CD4 + T cells. The deamidation of gluten peptides is mediated by transglutaminase 2. Strikingly, celiac disease patients generate highly disease-specific autoantibodies to the transglutaminase 2 enzyme. The dual role of transglutaminase 2 in celiac disease is hardly coincidental. This paper reviews the genetic mapping and involvement of MHC class II genes in disease pathogenesis, and discusses the evidence that MHC class II genes, via the involvement of transglutaminase 2, influence the generation of celiac disease-specific autoantibodies.

  9. Camouflage of Severe Skeletal Class II Gummy Smile Patient Treated Nonsurgically with Mini Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Qamruddin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal class II has always been a challenge in orthodontics and often needs assistance of surgical orthodontics in nongrowing patients when it presents with severe discrepancy. Difficulty increases more when vertical dysplasia is also associated with sagittal discrepancy. The advent of mini implants in orthodontics has broadened the spectrum of camouflage treatment. This case report presents a 16-year-old nongrowing girl with severe class II because of retrognathic mandible, and anterior dentoalveolar protrusion sagittally and vertically resulted in severe overjet of 13 mm and excessive display of incisors and gums. Both maxillary central incisors were trimmed by general practitioner few years back to reduce visibility. Treatment involved use of micro implant for retraction and intrusion of anterior maxillary dentoalveolar segment while lower incisors were proclined to obtain normal overjet, and overbite and pleasing soft tissue profile. Smile esthetics was further improved with composite restoration of incisal edges of both central incisors.

  10. Characterisation of four major histocompatibility complex class II genes of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Quintin; Jobbins, Sarah E; Belov, Katherine; Higgins, Damien P

    2013-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules have an integral role in the adaptive immune response, as they bind and present antigenic peptides to T helper lymphocytes. In this study of koalas, species-specific primers were designed to amplify exon 2 of the MHC class II DA and DB genes, which contain much of the peptide-binding regions of the α and β chains. A total of two DA α1 domain variants and eight DA β1 (DAB), three DB α1 and five DB β1 variants were amplified from 20 koalas from two free-living populations from South East Queensland and the Port Macquarie region in northern New South Wales. We detected greater variation in the β1 than in the α1 domains as well as evidence of positive selection in DAB. The present study provides a springboard to future investigation of the role of MHC in disease susceptibility in koalas.

  11. Expansion design for a radioactive sources handling laboratory type II class B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez S, P. S.; Monroy G, F.; Alanis, J.

    2013-10-01

    The Radioactive Wastes Research Laboratory (RWRL) of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (Mexico), at the moment has three sections: instrumental analysis, radioactive material processes, counting and a license type II class C, to manipulate radioactive material. This license limits the open sources handling to 300 kBq for radionuclides of very high radio-toxicity as the Ra-226, for what is being projected the license extension to type II class B, to be able to manage until 370 MBq of this radionuclides type, and the Laboratory, since the location where is the RWRL have unused area. This work presents a proposal of the RWRL expansion, taking into account the current laboratory sections, as well as the established specifications by the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (CNSNS). The current planes of the RWRL and the expansion proposal of the laboratory are presented. (Author)

  12. Prediction of the binding affinities of peptides to class II MHC using a regularized thermodynamic model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittelmann Hans D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The binding of peptide fragments of extracellular peptides to class II MHC is a crucial event in the adaptive immune response. Each MHC allotype generally binds a distinct subset of peptides and the enormous number of possible peptide epitopes prevents their complete experimental characterization. Computational methods can utilize the limited experimental data to predict the binding affinities of peptides to class II MHC. Results We have developed the Regularized Thermodynamic Average, or RTA, method for predicting the affinities of peptides binding to class II MHC. RTA accounts for all possible peptide binding conformations using a thermodynamic average and includes a parameter constraint for regularization to improve accuracy on novel data. RTA was shown to achieve higher accuracy, as measured by AUC, than SMM-align on the same data for all 17 MHC allotypes examined. RTA also gave the highest accuracy on all but three allotypes when compared with results from 9 different prediction methods applied to the same data. In addition, the method correctly predicted the peptide binding register of 17 out of 18 peptide-MHC complexes. Finally, we found that suboptimal peptide binding registers, which are often ignored in other prediction methods, made significant contributions of at least 50% of the total binding energy for approximately 20% of the peptides. Conclusions The RTA method accurately predicts peptide binding affinities to class II MHC and accounts for multiple peptide binding registers while reducing overfitting through regularization. The method has potential applications in vaccine design and in understanding autoimmune disorders. A web server implementing the RTA prediction method is available at http://bordnerlab.org/RTA/.

  13. The application of NISA II FEM package in seismic qualification of small class IE electric motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fancev, T.; Saban, I.; Grgic, D.

    1995-01-01

    According to the IEEE standards 323/1974 and 344/1975, seismic qualification of class IE equipment is appropriate combination of test and analysis methods. Complex equipment and assemblies are usually tested through seismic testing. The analysis is recommended for simple equipment that can be easily modeled to correctly predict its response. This article deals with the application of NISA II FEM package in 3D FE modeling and mode shape calculations of small power low voltage electric motors. (author)

  14. Orthodontic Class II:1 treatment-efficiency and outcome quality of Herbst-multibracket appliance therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, N; Ruehl, J; Ruf, S

    2017-12-08

    The aim of this retrospective investigation was to assess the efficiency and outcome quality of Class II:1 treatment (Tx). The investigation is based on the evaluation of all Class II:1 patients that ever (1986-2014) started Tx with a Herbst appliance and subsequently a multibracket appliance (MBA) at the study center. Study casts from before Tx, after Herbst-MBA Tx, and (if available) after ≥ 24 months of retention were evaluated using the Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) index, the Ahlgren scale, and standard occlusal variables. In total, 526 Class II:1 patients with a mean pre-Tx age of 14.4 years (range 9.8-44.4) had received Herbst-MBA Tx; 18 patients discontinued Tx before completion. For 240 patients, data from ≥ 24 months of retention were available. The pre-Tx PAR score of 32.4 ± 8.83 was reduced to 8.0 ± 4.51 during Tx. A slight increase to 8.8 ± 5.11 occurred during retention. The percentage of patients which could be assigned to the category "greatly improved" was 62% after Tx and 57% after retention; only 2-3% had to be assigned to the category "worse/no different." The outcome ratings according to the Ahlgren scale revealed 17% excellent, 35% good, 45% satisfactory, and 3% unsuccessful results. Class II:1 Tx using Herbst-MBA is an efficient approach in orthodontic care. During a mean active Tx period of 2 years, high-quality results can be obtained in the majority of patients. The present investigation is the first to investigate a large unselected cohort of consecutive Herbst-MBA patients to determine representative data on the efficiency and the outcome quality of this Tx approach.

  15. JC Polyomavirus Infection Is Strongly Controlled by Human Leucocyte Antigen Class II Variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundqvist, Emilie; Buck, Dorothea; Warnke, Clemens

    2014-01-01

    sequence-specific oligonucleotide (PCR-SSO) method. An initial GWAS screen displayed a strong HLA class II region signal. The HLA-DRB1*15 haplotype was strongly negatively associated to JCV sero-status in Scandinavian MS cases (OR = 0.42, p = 7×10(-15)) and controls (OR = 0.53, p = 2×10(-5)). In contrast...

  16. A caspase-2-RFXANK interaction and its implication for MHC class II expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Jeremy; Li, Xinge; Akpinar, Birce; Salvatori, Roger; Ott, Martin; Zhivotovsky, Boris; Olsson, Magnus

    2018-01-23

    Despite recent achievements implicating caspase-2 in tumor suppression, the enzyme stands out from the apoptotic caspase family as a factor whose function requires further clarification. To specify enzyme characteristics through the definition of interacting proteins in apoptotic or non-apoptotic settings, a yeast 2-hybrid (Y2H) screen was performed using the full-length protein as bait. The current report describes the analysis of a captured prey and putative novel caspase-2 interacting factor, the regulatory factor X-associated ankyrin-containing protein (RFXANK), previously associated with CIITA, the transactivator regulating cell-type specificity and inducibility of MHC class II gene expression. The interaction between caspase-2 and RFXANK was verified by co-immunoprecipitations using both exogenous and endogenous proteins, where the latter approach suggested that binding of the components occurs in the cytoplasm. Cellular co-localization was confirmed by transfection of fluorescently conjugated proteins. Enhanced caspase-2 processing in RFXANK-overexpressing HEK293T cells treated with chemotherapeutic agents further supported Y2H data. Yet, no distinct differences with respect to MHC class II expression were observed in plasma membranes of antigen-presenting cells derived from wild type and caspase-2 -/- mice. In contrast, increased levels of the total MHC class II protein was evident in protein lysates from caspase-2 RNAi-silenced leukemia cell lines and B-cells isolated from gene-targeted mice. Together, these data identify a novel caspase-2-interacting factor, RFXANK, and indicate a potential non-apoptotic role for the enzyme in the control of MHC class II gene regulation.

  17. Treatment of Class II subdivision malocclusion with congenitally missing upper lateral incisors: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Siddharth Mehta; Ashima Valiathan; Arun Urala

    2014-01-01

    Orthodontic treatment for patients with unilateral or bilateral congenitally missing lateral incisor poses a challenge mainly with regard to treatment planning. The use of a diagnostic setup is one of the most important aids in the decision-making process. Two alternatives, orthodontic space closure or space opening for prosthetic replacement exist. The present case report shows use of the microimplant for unilateral upper molar distalization and space closure in a Class-II division 1 subdivi...

  18. Influence of the HLA class II polymorphism in chronic Chagas' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Mestre, M T; Layrisse, Z; Montagnani, S; Acquatella, H; Catalioti, F; Matos, M; Balbas, O; Makhatadze, N; Dominguez, E; Herrera, F; Madrigal, A

    1998-04-01

    Chagas' disease or American trypanosomiasis due to Trypanosoma cruzi has existed at least since the time of the Inca empire and contributes significantly to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in several countries of this continent. Due to the fundamental role of human class II molecules polymorphic residues in the control of the immune response, a study was designed to define by DNA typing HLA class II alleles in a sample of 67 serologically positive individuals with and without cardiomyopathy and in 156 healthy controls of similar ethnic origin. Genomic DNA extraction, PCR amplification of the HLA-DRB1 and DQB1 second exon regions and hybridization to labelled specific probes were carried out following the 11th International Histocompatibility Workshop reference protocol. Comparison of DRB1 and DQB1 allele frequencies among the patients and control subjects showed a decreased frequency of DRB1*14 and DQB1*0303 in the patients, suggesting independent protective effects to the chronic infection in this population. Allele frequencies comparison between patients with and without cardiomyopathy showed a higher frequency of DRB1*01, DRB1*08 and DQB1*0501 and a decreased frequency of DRB1*1501 in the patients with arrhythmia and congestive heart failure. The results suggest that HLA Class II genes may be associated with the development of a chronic infection and with heart damage in Chagas' disease.

  19. Expansion design for a Laboratory of Radioactive Sources Handling type II, class B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez S, P. S.

    2014-01-01

    This work presents the expansion design of the Radioactive Wastes Research Laboratory (RWRL) installation authorized by the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (Mexico) as type II class C, to manage 40 different radionuclides, approximately. The RWRL has 4 areas at the present time: a laboratory of instrumental analysis, one of radioactive material processes, other of counting and a chemical reagents stock, which is not integrated to the operation license of the RWRL. With the purpose of expanding the operation license of the RWRL to an installation type II class B, to manage until 370 MBq of high radio toxicity radionuclides, is presented in this work an expansion proposal of the RWRL. The expansion proposal is based in: (1) the Mexican Nuclear Standard NOM-027-Nucl-1996 for installations type II class B, (2) the current distribution of water, light, electricity, extraction, gas, air and vacuum services of RWRL, and (3) the available areas inside the building that the RWRL occupies. The proposal contemplates the creation of additional new areas for RWRL: 3 laboratories, 2 dressing rooms, 2 bathrooms and 2 warehouses, one for radioactive materials and another for reagents chemical radiologically inactive. Architectural, electric, hydraulic, extraction and gas planes corresponding to the expansion of RWRL were realized. Inside the proposal the budget required to carry out the mentioned expansion is also presented. (Author)

  20. Class II malocclusion treatment using high-pull headgear with a splint: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder B. Jacob

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the scientific evidence pertaining to the effectiveness of high-pull headgear in growing Class II subjects. METHODS: A literature survey was performed by electronic database search. The survey covered the period from January 1966 to December 2008 and used Medical Subject Headings (MeSH. Articles were initially selected based on their titles and abstracts; the full articles were then retrieved. The inclusion criteria included growing subjects between 8 to 15 years of age, Class II malocclusion treatment with high-pull headgear, and a control group with Class II malocclusion. References from selected articles were hand-searched for additional publications. Selected studies were evaluated methodologically. RESULTS: Four articles were selected; none were randomized controlled trials. All of the articles clearly formulated their objectives and used appropriate measures. The studies showed that high-pull headgear treatment improves skeletal and dental relationship, distal displacement of the maxilla, vertical eruption control and upper molars distalization. One of the studies showed a slight clockwise rotation of the palatal plane; the others showed no significant treatment effect. The mandible was not affected by the treatment. CONCLUSION: While there is still a lack of strong evidence demonstrating the effects of high-pull headgear with a splint, other studies indicate that the AP relations improve due to distalization of the maxilla and upper molars, with little or no treatment effects in the mandible. Greater attention to the design should be given to improve the quality of such trials.

  1. Treatment timing of MARA and fixed appliance therapy of Class II malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghislanzoni, Luis Tomas Huanca; Baccetti, Tiziano; Toll, Douglas; Defraia, Efisio; McNamara, James A; Franchi, Lorenzo

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of timing on Mandibular Anterior Repositioning Appliance (MARA) and fixed appliance treatment of Class II malocclusion in a prospective clinical trial. The treated sample consisted of 51 consecutively treated patients at prepubertal (n = 21), pubertal (n = 15), and postpubertal (n = 15) stages of development. Control groups for the three treated groups were generated from growth data of untreated Class II subjects. Lateral cephalograms were digitized and superimposed via cephalometric software at T1 (pre-treatment) and T2 (after comprehensive treatment). The T1-T2 changes in the treated groups were compared to those in their corresponding control groups with Mann-Whitney tests with Bonferroni correction. Mandibular elongation was greater at the pubertal stage (Co-Gn +2.6 mm, with respect to controls). Headgear effect on the maxilla was greater in the pre-peak sample (Co-A -1.9 mm, with respect to controls). Dentoalveolar compensations (proclination of lower incisors, extrusion and mesialization of lower molars, and reduction in the overbite) were significant in the pre-peak and post-peak groups. Optimal timing for Class II treatment with MARA appliance is at the pubertal growth spurt, with enhanced mandibular skeletal changes and minimal dentoalveolar compensations.

  2. Treatment strategy for guided tissue regeneration in various class II furcation defect: Case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpendra Kumar Verma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal regeneration is a main aspect in the treatment of teeth affected by periodontitis. Periodontal regeneration in furcation areas is quite challenging, especially when it is in interproximal region. There are several techniques used alone or in combination considered to achieve periodontal regeneration, including the bone grafts or substitutes, guided tissue regeneration (GTR, root surface modification, and biological mediators. Many factors may account for variability in response to regenerative therapy in class II furcation. This case series describes the management of class II furcation defect in a mesial interproximal region of a maxillary tooth and other with a buccal class II furcation of mandibular tooth, with the help of surgical intervention including the GTR membrane and bone graft materials. This combined treatment resulted in healthy periodontium with a radiographic evidence of alveolar bone gain in both cases. This case series demonstrates that proper diagnosis, followed by removal of etiological factors and utilizing the combined treatment modalities will restore health and function of the tooth with the severe attachment loss.

  3. Methylation of class II transactivator gene promoter IV is not associated with susceptibility to Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lincoln Matthew R

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple sclerosis (MS is a complex trait in which alleles at or near the class II loci HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 contribute significantly to genetic risk. The MHC class II transactivator (MHC2TA is the master controller of expression of class II genes, and methylation of the promoter of this gene has been previously been shown to alter its function. In this study we sought to assess whether or not methylation of the MHC2TA promoter pIV could contribute to MS disease aetiology. Methods In DNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a sample of 50 monozygotic disease discordant MS twins the MHC2TA promoter IV was sequenced and analysed by methylation specific PCR. Results No methylation or sequence variation of the MHC2TA promoter pIV was found. Conclusion The results of this study cannot support the notion that methylation of the pIV promoter of MHC2TA contributes to MS disease risk, although tissue and timing specific epigenetic modifications cannot be ruled out.

  4. Stability of class II subdivision malocclusion treatment with 3 and 4 premolar extractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, Guilherme; Araki, Janine; Estelita, Sérgio; Camardella, Leonardo T

    2014-12-30

    The purpose of this study was to compare the occlusal stability of class II subdivision malocclusion treatment with 3 and 4 first premolar extractions. A sample of 156 dental casts from 52 patients with class II subdivision malocclusion was divided into two groups according to the extraction protocol. Group 1 comprised 24 patients treated with 3 premolar extractions and group 2 included 28 patients treated with 4 premolar extractions. Peer assessment rating (PAR) indexes were measured on the dental casts obtained before (T1) and after treatment (T2) and at a mean of 6.9 years after the end of treatment (T3). The groups were matching regarding sex distribution, pretreatment, posttreatment and long-term posttreatment ages, and treatment and long-term posttreatment times. They were also comparable concerning the initial malocclusion severity and the occlusal results at the end of treatment. Stability evaluation was calculated by subtracting the posttreatment from the long-term posttreatment index values (T3 - T2). T tests were used to compare the amount and percentage of long-term posttreatment changes. There were no intergroup differences regarding the amount and percentage of long-term posttreatment changes. Treatment of class II subdivision malocclusion with 3 and 4 premolar extractions have a similar long-term posttreatment occlusal stability.

  5. The same ELA class II risk factors confer equine insect bite hypersensitivity in two distinct populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Lisa S; Swinburne, June E; Meadows, Jennifer R S; Broström, Hans; Eriksson, Susanne; Fikse, W Freddy; Frey, Rebecka; Sundquist, Marie; Tseng, Chia T; Mikko, Sofia; Lindgren, Gabriella

    2012-03-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is a chronic allergic dermatitis common in horses. Affected horses mainly react against antigens present in the saliva from the biting midges, Culicoides ssp, and occasionally black flies, Simulium ssp. Because of this insect dependency, the disease is clearly seasonal and prevalence varies between geographical locations. For two distinct horse breeds, we genotyped four microsatellite markers positioned within the MHC class II region and sequenced the highly polymorphic exons two from DRA and DRB3, respectively. Initially, 94 IBH-affected and 93 unaffected Swedish born Icelandic horses were tested for genetic association. These horses had previously been genotyped on the Illumina Equine SNP50 BeadChip, which made it possible to ensure that our study did not suffer from the effects of stratification. The second population consisted of 106 unaffected and 80 IBH-affected Exmoor ponies. We show that variants in the MHC class II region are associated with disease susceptibility (p (raw) = 2.34 × 10(-5)), with the same allele (COR112:274) associated in two separate populations. In addition, we combined microsatellite and sequencing data in order to investigate the pattern of homozygosity and show that homozygosity across the entire MHC class II region is associated with a higher risk of developing IBH (p = 0.0013). To our knowledge this is the first time in any atopic dermatitis suffering species, including man, where the same risk allele has been identified in two distinct populations.

  6. The Position of Hyoici Bone in Skeletal Class I, II and III Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravanmehr H

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, the position of hyoid bone was compared in three skeletal groups of class I, II and III. The study was based on evaluating 77 lateral cephalometric radiographs, 40 girls and 37 boys, which were divided into 3 groups. Group 1, 2, and 3 consist of 26, 25, and 26 radiographs. 19 cephalometric landmarks and 10 planes were used in order to tracing the radiographs. In all patients, 9 skeletal and 4 cervical vertebrae parameters were measured to determine the hyoid bone. These parameters were compared between three skeletal groups regardless of sex and then, in another statistical analysis, parameters were compared based on patients sex. Statistical analysis showed that in class III patients, the hyoid bone was positioned more anteriorly than two other groups. Also in this group, the hyoid bone had less inclination and it was more horizontal in relation to mandibular plane. In skeletal class II patients this bone was positioned more superiorly than two other groups. Due to these findings it can be concluded that perimandibular muscles and bones could affect the growth of mandible. In addition, comparison of the parameters between two sexes revealed that the hyoid bone was positioned more anteriorly and inferiorly in boys. Also it was shown that in the girls, the position of hyoid bone was closer to the position of this bone in skeletal class I patients.

  7. [Morphological analysis of alveolar bone of anterior mandible in high-angle skeletal class II and class III malocclusions assessed with cone-beam computed tomography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, J; Jiang, J H

    2018-02-18

    To evaluate the difference of features of alveolar bone support under lower anterior teeth between high-angle adults with skeletal class II malocclusions and high-angle adults presenting skeletal class III malocclusions by using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Patients who had taken the images of CBCT were selected from the Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology between October 2015 and August 2017. The CBCT archives from 62 high-angle adult cases without orthodontic treatment were divided into two groups based on their sagittal jaw relationships: skeletal class II and skeletal class III. vertical bone level (VBL), alveolar bone area (ABA), and the width of alveolar bone were measured respectively at the 2 mm, 4 mm, 6 mm below the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) level and at the apical level. After that, independent samples t-tests were conducted for statistical comparisons. The ABA of the mandibular alveolar bone in the area of lower anterior teeth was significantly thinner in the patients of skeletal class III than those of skeletal class II, especially in terms of the apical ABA, total ABA on the labial and lingual sides and the ABA at 6 mm below CEJ level on the lingual side (Pclass III than those of skeletal class II, especially regarding the apical level on the labial and lingual side and at the level of 4 mm, 6 mm below CEJ level on the lingual side (Pclass III adult patients with high-angle when compared with the sample of high-angle skeletal class II adult cases. We recommend orthodontists to be more cautious in treatment of high-angle skeletal class III patients, especially pay attention to control the torque of lower anterior teeth during forward and backward movement, in case that the apical root might be absorbed or fenestration happen in the area of lower anterior teeth.

  8. Paul Scherrer Institut annual report 1996. Annex II: PSI life sciences and Institute for Medical Radiobiology Newsletter 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehne, G.; Gschwend, B.

    1997-01-01

    This annex to the PSI Annual Report 1996 reports on the progress achieved by the PSI Department II during 1996 in the fields of radiation medicine, radiopharmacy, radiation hygiene, positron emission tomography and medical radiobiology. figs., tab., refs

  9. Stability of Class II fixed functional appliance therapy—a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bremen, Julia; Ruf, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objectives: To systematically search for scientific evidence concerning the stability of treatment (Tx) results achieved by means of Class II fixed functional appliance therapy and to assess possible differences between appliances. Search Methods: An electronic search of databases and orthodontic journals was carried out (until December 2013), with supplemental hand searching. In addition to the names of all identified appliances, the term fixed functional was used in combination with each of the following search terms: long-term, post-Tx, relapse, retention, stability. Selection Criteria: To be included in the review, the articles had to contain clear data on: Class II Tx with a fixed functional appliance (>5 patients), post-Tx period ≥ 1 year, assessment of ANB angle, Wits appraisal, molar relationship, soft-tissue profile convexity excluding the nose, overjet and/or overbite. Data Collection and Analysis: The literature search revealed 20 scientific investigations which corresponded to only two of the 76 identified appliances (Herbst and Twin Force Bite Corrector). As only one publication was found for the Twin Force Bite Corrector, a meta-analysis could only be performed for Herbst Tx. The data were extracted, pooled and weighted according to the number of patients in each study. Results: The mean values for post-Tx relapse (percentages relative to the Tx changes) were: ANB angle 0.2 degrees (12.4 per cent), Wits appraisal 0.5mm (19.5 per cent), sagittal molar relationship 1.2mm/0.1 cusp widths (21.8 per cent /6.5 per cent); soft-tissue profile convexity excluding nose less than 0.1 degrees (1.0 per cent), overjet 1.8mm (26.2 per cent), overbite Class II:1 1.4mm (44.7 per cent), overbite Class II:2 1.0mm (22.2 per cent). Conclusions: The scientific evidence concerning the stability of Tx results is inexistent for most fixed functional appliances for Class II correction except for Herbst appliance Tx. Even if the evidence level of most included studies

  10. Comparison of temporomandibular joint and ramus morphology between class II and class III cases before and after bi-maxillary osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iguchi, Ran; Yoshizawa, Kunio; Moroi, Akinori; Tsutsui, Takamitsu; Hotta, Asami; Hiraide, Ryota; Takayama, Akihiro; Tsunoda, Tatsuya; Saito, Yuki; Sato, Momoko; Baba, Nana; Ueki, Koichiro

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare changes in temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and ramus morphology between class II and III cases before and after sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO) and Le Fort I osteotomy. The subjects were 39 patients (78 sides) who underwent bi-maxillary surgery. They consisted of 2 groups (18 class II cases and 21 class III cases), and were selected randomly from among patients who underwent surgery between 2012 and 2016. The TMJ disc tissue and joint effusion were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the TMJ space, condylar height, ramus height, ramus inclination and condylar square were assessed by computed tomography (CT), pre- and post-operatively. The number of joints with anterior disc displacement in class II was significantly higher than that in class III (p bi-maxillary surgery. The findings of the numerical analysis also demonstrated that reduction of condylar volume occurred frequently in class II, although TMJ disc position classification did not change significantly, as previously reported. Copyright © 2017 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Dimanganese(II) Site of Bacillus subtilis Class Ib Ribonucleotide Reductase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boal, Amie K.; Cotruvo, Jr., Joseph A.; Stubbe, JoAnne; Rosenzweig, Amy C. (MIT); (NWU)

    2014-10-02

    Class Ib ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) use a dimanganese-tyrosyl radical cofactor, Mn{sub 2}{sup III}-Y{sm_bullet}, in their homodimeric NrdF ({beta}2) subunit to initiate reduction of ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides. The structure of the Mn{sub 2}{sup II} form of NrdF is an important component in understanding O{sub 2}-mediated formation of the active metallocofactor, a subject of much interest because a unique flavodoxin, NrdI, is required for cofactor assembly. Biochemical studies and sequence alignments suggest that NrdF and NrdI proteins diverge into three phylogenetically distinct groups. The only crystal structure to date of a NrdF with a fully ordered and occupied dimanganese site is that of Escherichia coli Mn{sub 2}{sup II}-NrdF, prototypical of the enzymes from actinobacteria and proteobacteria. Here we report the 1.9 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of Bacillus subtilis Mn{sub 2}{sup II}-NrdF, representative of the enzymes from a second group, from Bacillus and Staphylococcus. The structures of the metal clusters in the {beta}2 dimer are distinct from those observed in E. coli Mn{sub 2}{sup II}-NrdF. These differences illustrate the key role that solvent molecules and protein residues in the second coordination sphere of the Mn{sub 2}{sup II} cluster play in determining conformations of carboxylate residues at the metal sites and demonstrate that diverse coordination geometries are capable of serving as starting points for Mn{sub 2}{sup III}-Y{sm_bullet} cofactor assembly in class Ib RNRs.

  12. Self-esteem in adolescents with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusion in a Peruvian sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Florián-Vargas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To compare self-esteem scores in 12 to 16-year-old adolescents with different Angle malocclusion types in a Peruvian sample. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 276 adolescents (159, 52 and 65 with Angle Class I, II and III malocclusions, respectively from Trujillo, Peru. Participants were asked to complete the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES and were also clinically examined, so as to have Angle malocclusion classification determined. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA was used to compare RSES scores among adolescents with Class I, II and III malocclusions, with participants' demographic factors being controlled. Results: Mean RSES scores for adolescents with Class I, II and III malocclusions were 20.47 ± 3.96, 21.96 ± 3.27 and 21.26 ± 4.81, respectively. The ANCOVA test showed that adolescents with Class II malocclusion had a significantly higher RSES score than those with Class I malocclusion, but there were no differences between other malocclusion groups. Supplemental analysis suggested that only those with Class II, Division 2 malocclusion might have greater self-esteem when compared to adolescents with Class I malocclusion. Conclusion: This study shows that, in general, self-esteem did not vary according to adolescents' malocclusion in the sample studied. Surprisingly, only adolescents with Class II malocclusion, particularly Class II, Division 2, reported better self-esteem than those with Class I malocclusion. A more detailed analysis assessing the impact of anterior occlusal features should be conducted.

  13. Additional file 4: of MHC class II expression and potential antigen-presenting cells in the retina during experimental autoimmune uveitis

    OpenAIRE

    Lipski, Deborah; Dewispelaere, RÊmi; Foucart, Vincent; Caspers, Laure; Defrance, Matthieu; Bruyns, Catherine; Willermain, François

    2017-01-01

    Figure S4. MHC class II expression in the retina during classical EAU. Three weeks after immunization, eye cryosections were prepared and stained for MHC class II (green) and IBA1 (red) or endoglin (magenta) detection. Cell nuclei were stained with Hoechst (blue). Each picture was chosen as representative of an experiment conducted on six or more animals. A. MHC class II and IBA1 expression. B. MHC class II and endoglin expression. (PPTX 7276 kb)

  14. 40 CFR Figure C-2 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM2.5 Candidate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Figure C-2 to Subpart C of Part 53... Methods and Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Fig. C-2 Figure C-2 to Subpart C of Part 53—Illustration...

  15. Cephalometric effects of the use of 10-hour Force Theory for Class II treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marise de Castro Cabrera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the cephalometric effects promoted by the orthodontic treatment of Class II malocclusion patients with the use of the 10-Hour Force Theory, that consists in the use of fixed appliances with 8 hours a day using a cervical headgear appliance and 16 hours a day using Class II elastics, 8 hours on the first mandibular molar and 8 hours in the second mandibular molar. METHODS: Sample comprised 31 patients with mean initial age of 14.90 years, final mean age of 17.25 years and mean treatment time of 2.35 years. The lateral cephalograms in pre-treatment and post-treatment stages were evaluated. Evaluation of cephalometric changes between initial and final treatment phases was performed by paired t test. RESULTS: The cases treated with the 10-Hour Force Theory presented a slight restriction of anterior displacement of the maxilla, increase in the effective length of the mandible, significant improvement of the maxillomandibular relationship, significant increase in anterior lower face height, distal tipping of the maxillary premolar crowns, extrusion and distal tipping of the roots of maxillary molars, significant proclination and protrusion of mandibular incisors, significant extrusion and mesialization of mandibular molars, besides a significant correction of the molar relationship, overjet and overbite. CONCLUSION: The use of the 10-Hour Force Theory in treatment of Class II malocclusion provided satisfactory results.OBJETIVO: esse estudo objetivou avaliar os efeitos cefalométricos promovidos pelo tratamento ortodôntico de pacientes com má oclusão de Classe II com o uso da Teoria de Força das 10 Horas, que consiste no uso de aparelho ortodôntico fixo, 8 horas diárias de uso de aparelho extrabucal cervical e 16 horas de uso de elásticos de Classe II, sendo 8 horas com apoio no primeiro molar inferior e 8 horas com apoio no segundo molar inferior. MÉTODOS: a amostra consistiu de 31 pacientes, com idade m

  16. Surgical treatment of class II malocclusion in the orthodontic boundaries: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandeca, Matheus Coelho; Porto, Alessandra Nogueira; Valieri, Sidnei; Valieri, Matheus; Borges, Alvaro H; Mattos, Fernanda Zanol

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to report a clinical case of treatment of Class II division I malocclusion with facial aesthetic impairment, whose therapeutic approach comprised the association of orthodontic treatment with orthognathic surgery. The treatment for the present case consisted of decompensation oflower incisors and extraction oftwo lower premolars, in order to obtain horizontal discrepancy allowing the surgery for mandibular advancement. At the end of treatment, we could clinically observe a Class I molar/canine relationship, normal overbite and overjet, presence of lip seal, type I facial profile with considerable aesthetic improvement. We can conclude that the ortho-surgical treatment is a therapeutic alternative providing the best prognosis in terms of aesthetic correction in patients with unpleasant facial profile.

  17. Bilateral sagittal split osteotomy: Surgery first approach for correction of skeletal Class II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revathi Peddu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the skeletal malocclusions which require orthognathic surgeries are treated by traditional approach which requires time-consuming and unesthetic presurgical orthodontic phase. Surgery first approach (SFA avoids these disadvantages of the traditional approach. A 24-year-old female patient with skeletal and dental class II malocclusion due to retrognathic mandible was treated with SFA. Bilateral sagittal split osteotomy with mandibular advancement was done immediately after initial alignment and closure of the existing spaces in the maxillary arch. Angle's class I molar and canine relation was achieved after surgery. Bonding of the mandibular arch was done after 1 month of orthognathic surgery and treatment was completed within 13 months. A wrap-around retainer was placed in upper arch, and bonded lingual retainer was given in the lower arch.

  18. β class II tubulin predominates in normal and tumor breast tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dozier, James H; Hiser, Laree; Davis, Jennifer A; Thomas, Nancy Stubbs; Tucci, Michelle A; Benghuzzi, Hamed A; Frankfurter, Anthony; Correia, John J; Lobert, Sharon

    2003-01-01

    Antimitotic chemotherapeutic agents target tubulin, the major protein in mitotic spindles. Tubulin isotype composition is thought to be both diagnostic of tumor progression and a determinant of the cellular response to chemotherapy. This implies that there is a difference in isotype composition between normal and tumor tissues. To determine whether such a difference occurs in breast tissues, total tubulin was fractionated from lysates of paired normal and tumor breast tissues, and the amounts of β-tubulin classes I + IV, II, and III were measured by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Only primary tumor tissues, before chemotherapy, were examined. Her2/neu protein amplification occurs in about 30% of breast tumors and is considered a marker for poor prognosis. To gain insight into whether tubulin isotype levels might be correlated with prognosis, ELISAs were used to quantify Her2/neu protein levels in these tissues. β-Tubulin isotype distributions in normal and tumor breast tissues were similar. The most abundant β-tubulin isotypes in these tissues were β-tubulin classes II and I + IV. Her2/neu levels in tumor tissues were 5–30-fold those in normal tissues, although there was no correlation between the Her2/neu biomarker and tubulin isotype levels. These results suggest that tubulin isotype levels, alone or in combination with Her2/neu protein levels, might not be diagnostic of tumorigenesis in breast cancer. However, the presence of a broad distribution of these tubulin isotypes (for example, 40–75% β-tubulin class II) in breast tissue, in conjunction with other factors, might still be relevant to disease progression and cellular response to antimitotic drugs

  19. The effectiveness of the Herbst appliance for patients with Class II malocclusion: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin; Zhu, Yafen; Long, Hu; Zhou, Yang; Jian, Fan; Ye, Niansong; Gao, Meiya

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective: To systematically investigate review in literature the effects of the Herbst appliance for patients with Class II malocclusion patients. Method: We performed a comprehensive literature survey on PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, CENTRAL, SIGLE, and ClinicalTrial.gov up to December 2014. The selection criteria: randomized controlled trials or clinical controlled trials; using any kind of Herbst appliances to correct Class II division 1 malocclusions; skeletal and/or dental changes evaluated through lateral cephalograms. And the exclusion criteria: syndromic patients; individual case reports and series of cases; surgical interventions. Article screening, data extraction, assessment of risk of bias, and evaluation of evidence quality through GRADE were conducted independently by two well-trained orthodontic doctors. Consensus was made via group discussion of all authors when there is inconsistent information from the two. After that, sensitivity analysis and subgroup analysis were performed to evaluate the robustness of the meta-analysis. Results: Twelve clinical controlled trials meet the above-mentioned criteria, and were included in this analysis. All included studies have eleven measures taken during both active treatment effect and long term effect periods, including four angular ones (i.e., SNA, SNB, ANB, mandibular plane angle) and seven linear ones (i.e. Co-Go, Co-Gn, overjet, overbite, molar relationship, A point-OLp, Pg-OLp) during active treatment effect period were statistically pooled. Meta-analysis and sensitivity analysis demonstrated that all these measures showed consistent results except for SNA, ANB, and overbite. Subgroup analysis showed significant changes in SNA, overbite, and Pg-OLp. Publication bias was detected in SNB, mandibular plane angle, and A point-OLp. Conclusion: The Herbst appliance is effective for patients with Class II malocclusion in active treatment period. Especially, there are obvious changes on dental

  20. Antigen presentation and MHC class II expression by human esophageal epithelial cells: role in eosinophilic esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Daniel J; Pooni, Aman; Mak, Nanette; Hurlbut, David J; Basta, Sameh; Justinich, Christopher J

    2011-02-01

    Professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) play a crucial role in initiating immune responses. Under pathological conditions, epithelial cells at mucosal surfaces act as nonprofessional APCs, thereby regulating immune responses at the site of exposure. Epithelial cells in the esophagus may contribute to the pathogenesis of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) by presenting antigens on the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II. Our goal was to demonstrate the ability of esophageal epithelial cells to process and present antigens on the MHC class II system and to investigate the contribution of epithelial cell antigen presentation to EoE. Immunohistochemistry detected HLA-DR, CD80, and CD86 expression and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay detected interferon-γ (IFNγ) in esophageal biopsies. Antigen presentation was studied using the human esophageal epithelial cell line HET-1A by reverse transcriptase-PCR, flow cytometry, and confocal microscopy. T helper cell lymphocyte proliferation was assessed by flow cytometry and IL-2 secretion. IFNγ and MHC class II were increased in mucosa of patients with EoE. IFNγ increased mRNA of HLA-DP, HLA-DQ, HLA-DR, and CIITA in HET-1A cells. HET-1A engulfed cell debris and processed ovalbumin. HET-1A cells expressed HLA-DR after IFNγ treatment. HET-1A stimulated T helper cell activation. In this study, we demonstrated the ability of esophageal epithelial cells to act as nonprofessional APCs in the presence of IFNγ. Esophageal epithelial cell antigen presentation may contribute to the pathophysiology of eosinophilic esophagitis. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. MHC Class II and CD9 in Human Eosinophils Localize to Detergent-Resistant Membrane Microdomains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuthota, Praveen; Melo, Rossana C. N.; Spencer, Lisa A.

    2012-01-01

    Eosinophils function in murine allergic airways inflammation as professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs). In murine professional APC cell types, optimal functioning of MHC Class II depends on its lateral association in plasma membranes and colocalization with the tetraspanin CD9 into detergent-resistant membrane microdomains (DRMs). With human eosinophils, we evaluated the localization of MHC Class II (HLA-DR) to DRMs and the functional significance of such localization. In granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor–stimulated human eosinophils, antibody cross-linked HLA-DR colocalized by immunofluorescence microscopy focally on plasma membranes with CD9 and the DRM marker ganglioside GM1. In addition, HLA-DR coimmunoprecipitates with CD9 after chemical cross-linking of CD9. HLA-DR and CD9 were localized by Western blotting in eosinophil DRM subcellular fractions. DRM disruption with the cholesterol-depleting agent methyl-β-cyclodextrin decreased eosinophil surface expression of HLA-DR and CD9. We show that CD9 is abundant on the surface of eosinophils, presenting the first electron microscopy data of the ultrastructural immunolocalization of CD9 in human eosinophils. Disruption of HLA-DR–containing DRMs decreased the ability of superantigen-loaded human eosinophils to stimulate CD4+ T-cell activation (CD69 expression), proliferation, and cytokine production. Our results, which demonstrate that eosinophil MHC Class II localizes to DRMs in association with CD9 in a functionally significant manner, represent a novel insight into the organization of the antigen presentation complex of human eosinophils. PMID:21885678

  2. MHC Class II and CD9 in human eosinophils localize to detergent-resistant membrane microdomains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuthota, Praveen; Melo, Rossana C N; Spencer, Lisa A; Weller, Peter F

    2012-02-01

    Eosinophils function in murine allergic airways inflammation as professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs). In murine professional APC cell types, optimal functioning of MHC Class II depends on its lateral association in plasma membranes and colocalization with the tetraspanin CD9 into detergent-resistant membrane microdomains (DRMs). With human eosinophils, we evaluated the localization of MHC Class II (HLA-DR) to DRMs and the functional significance of such localization. In granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-stimulated human eosinophils, antibody cross-linked HLA-DR colocalized by immunofluorescence microscopy focally on plasma membranes with CD9 and the DRM marker ganglioside GM1. In addition, HLA-DR coimmunoprecipitates with CD9 after chemical cross-linking of CD9. HLA-DR and CD9 were localized by Western blotting in eosinophil DRM subcellular fractions. DRM disruption with the cholesterol-depleting agent methyl-β-cyclodextrin decreased eosinophil surface expression of HLA-DR and CD9. We show that CD9 is abundant on the surface of eosinophils, presenting the first electron microscopy data of the ultrastructural immunolocalization of CD9 in human eosinophils. Disruption of HLA-DR-containing DRMs decreased the ability of superantigen-loaded human eosinophils to stimulate CD4(+) T-cell activation (CD69 expression), proliferation, and cytokine production. Our results, which demonstrate that eosinophil MHC Class II localizes to DRMs in association with CD9 in a functionally significant manner, represent a novel insight into the organization of the antigen presentation complex of human eosinophils.

  3. Class II malocclusion treatment using combined Twin Block and fixed orthodontic appliances – A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Anezi, Saud A.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of the Twin Block functional orthodontic appliances is mostly dento-alveolar with small skeletal effect. There are certain clinical indications where functional appliances can be used successfully in class II malocclusion e.g. in a growing patient. The use of these appliances is greatly dependent on the patient’s compliance and they simplify the fixed appliance phase. In this case, a 13-year old adolescent was treated with Twin Block appliance followed by fixed appliance to detail the occlusion. The design and treatment effects were demonstrated in this case report. PMID:24151413

  4. DNA polymorphism of HLA class II genes in primary biliary cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morling, Niels; Dalhoff, K; Fugger, L

    1992-01-01

    We investigated the DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism of the major histocompatibility complex class II genes: HLA-DRB, -DQA, -DQB, DPA, -DPB, the serologically defined HLA-A, B, C, DR antigens, and the primed lymphocyte typing defined HLA-DP antigens in 23 Danish patients with primary...... than 0.05, 'corrected' P greater than 0.05). No DNA fragments specific for DRB1*0301 (DR3) could be identified. The frequencies in PBC of other genetic markers including DRw8, DRB1*08, HLA-DP antigens, DPA, and DPB genes did not differ significantly from those in controls. The associations between PBC...

  5. Treatment of Class II subdivision malocclusion with congenitally missing upper lateral incisors: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Mehta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontic treatment for patients with unilateral or bilateral congenitally missing lateral incisor poses a challenge mainly with regard to treatment planning. The use of a diagnostic setup is one of the most important aids in the decision-making process. Two alternatives, orthodontic space closure or space opening for prosthetic replacement exist. The present case report shows use of the microimplant for unilateral upper molar distalization and space closure in a Class-II division 1 subdivision malocclusion case with bilateral congenitally missing upper lateral incisors.

  6. [Improving the effectiveness of functional jaw orthopedics in Class II malocclusion by appropriate treatment timing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Tiziano

    2010-12-01

    Time can be considered the fourth dimension in dento-facial orthopedics. Treatment timing can play a significant role in the outcomes of treatment aimed to produce an orthopedic effect in the craniofacial structures. The results of methodologically-sound cephalometric studies of both the past and the recent history of orthodontics clearly indicate that optimal treatment timing for Class II skeletal disharmony with a functional appliance (e.g. twin block) is during or slightly after the peak in mandibular growth as revealed by a reliable biologic indicator of individual skeletal maturity such as the cervical vertebral maturation method. © EDP Sciences, SFODF, 2010.

  7. DNA typing of HLA class II genes in native inhabitants of Chukotka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krylov, M.Yu.; Erdesz, S.; Alexeeva, L.I. [Institute of Rheumatology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-06-01

    Polymorphism of HLA class II genes was studied in native Chukotka inhabitants with the use of DNA oligotyping. The characteristics of the distribution of allelic variants of the loci HLA-DRB1, -DQA1, -DQB1, and -DPB1 were revealed; they were similar to those of other Subarctic Mongoloid populations and different from those for comparable populations of other climatic and geographic zones. Our data suggest that the specific features found for the distributions of some alleles of the loci examined are related to the geographic variation in the HLA gene system studied. 20 refs., 4 tabs.

  8. Evolução dos preparos das cavidades de classe II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ONO Mary Miyuki

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A evolução dos preparos de classe II com a introdução de novos materiais e a conscientização da importância da preservação de estrutura dental sadia são abordadas nos preparos do tipo Almqvist, Roggenkamp e túnel, em que se observa a necessidade de menor desgaste da estrutura dentária, com aumento da resistência à fratura, melhor estética e melhor retenção

  9. Surgical correction of class II skeletal malocclusion in an adult patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishnan Balachander

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Correction of skeletal deformities in adult patients with orthodontics is limited. Orthognathic surgery is the best option for cases when camouflage treatment is questionable and growth modulation is not possible. This case report illustrates the benefit of the team approach in correcting vertical maxillary excess along with class II skeletal deformity. A cosmetic correction was achieved by superior repositioning of maxilla with LeFort I osteotomy and augmentation genioplasty, along with orthodontic treatment. The patient′s facial appearance was markedly improved along with functional and stable occlusion

  10. Post-treatment occlusal changes in Class II division 2 subjects treated with the Herbst appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Niko; Ruf, Sabine

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to analyse and compare the post-treatment occlusal changes of Class II division 2 treatment with the Herbst appliance in early adolescent, late adolescent, and adult subjects. The subjects were 37 Class II division 2 patients (19 females and 18 males) treated at the Orthodontic Department, University of Giessen, Germany. All were in the late mixed or permanent dentition and exhibited a Class II molar relationship > or =0.5 cusp width (CW) bilaterally or > or =1.0 CW unilaterally, an overbite (OB) >3.0 mm, and two upper central incisors retroclined. The subjects were divided into three skeletal maturity groups based on evaluation of hand wrist radiographs: early adolescent (n = 10, stages MP3-E to MP3-FG at start of treatment, age range: 11.3-13.2 years), late adolescent (n = 14, stages MP3-G to MP3-I at start of treatment, age range: 14.1-16.4 years), and adult (n = 13, stages R-I to R-J at the start of treatment, age range: 16.3-25.6 years). Study casts from before treatment (T1), after Herbst-Tip-Edge-Multibracket appliance treatment (T2), and after an average retention time of 27 months (T3) were analysed. Statistical analysis was undertaken using t-tests for paired and unpaired samples. For the whole sample, the molar relationship at T3 was stable in 82.4 per cent, the canine relationship in 82.9 per cent, and OB in 75.7 per cent of the cases. In the different skeletal maturity groups, the stability of the molars, canines, and overbite was as follows: early adolescents: 95.0, 100.0, and 70.0 per cent, respectively; late adolescents: 92.9, 74.1, and 85.7 per cent, respectively; and adults 61.5, 80.8, 69.2 per cent, respectively. Occlusal correction of Class II division 2 malocclusions with Herbst treatment was relatively stable 2 years post-treatment. The outcome of treatment of adolescents was more stable than that of adults.

  11. Microsatellite and HLA class II oligonucleotide typing in a population of Yanomami Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roewer, L; Nagy, M; Schmidt, P; Epplen, J T; Herzog-Schröder, G

    1993-01-01

    We have used three different microsatellites (on chromosome 12 and Y) together with HLA class II oligonucleotide typing (DQA and DQB) to analyze families of Yanomami indians settling in villages in Southern Venezuela. There exist complex networks of biological relationship between villages as a result of wife exchange, village fissioning and changing patterns of alliances associated with inter-village warfare. Social status in this society is largely determined by the kinship system. Polygyny is common, especially among headmen, with additional wives, frequently being chosen among the sisters of the first wife. Our preliminary results mainly obtained from inhabitants of the village HAP show the expected allele distribution in populations with a high degree of consanguinity: (i) deficiency of observed heterozygotes at the autosomal loci and (ii) almost all men carry the same Y chromosomal allele. Nevertheless in the Yanomami village two thirds of the described autosomal microsatellite alleles were identified. Several paternities were clarified.

  12. Subseabed disposal program annual report, January-December 1979. Volume II. Appendices (principal investigator progress reports). Part 2 of 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbert, D.M.

    1981-04-01

    Volume II of the sixth annual report describing the progress and evaluating the status of the Subseabed Disposal Program contains the appendices referred to in Volume II, Summary and Status. Because of the length of Volume II, it has been split into two parts for publication purposes. Part 1 contains Appendices A-O; Part 2 contains Appendices P-FF. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each appendix for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  13. Improved methods for predicting peptide binding affinity to MHC class II molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kamilla Kjaergaard; Andreatta, Massimo; Marcatili, Paolo; Buus, Søren; Greenbaum, Jason A; Yan, Zhen; Sette, Alessandro; Peters, Bjoern; Nielsen, Morten

    2018-01-06

    Major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) molecules are expressed on the surface of professional antigen-presenting cells where they display peptides to T helper cells, which orchestrate the onset and outcome of many host immune responses. Understanding which peptides will be presented by the MHC-II molecule is therefore important for understanding the activation of T helper cells and can be used to identify T-cell epitopes. We here present updated versions of two MHC-II-peptide binding affinity prediction methods, NetMHCII and NetMHCIIpan. These were constructed using an extended data set of quantitative MHC-peptide binding affinity data obtained from the Immune Epitope Database covering HLA-DR, HLA-DQ, HLA-DP and H-2 mouse molecules. We show that training with this extended data set improved the performance for peptide binding predictions for both methods. Both methods are publicly available at www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/NetMHCII-2.3 and www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/NetMHCIIpan-3.2. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Cytotoxic T cell recognition of an endogenous class I HLA peptide presented by a class II HLA molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, B P; Madrigal, A; Parham, P

    1990-09-01

    Human leukocytes were stimulated in vitro with peptides corresponding in sequence to the highly variable helix of the alpha 1 domain of various HLA-B and -C molecules. A CD4+ CD8- cytotoxic T cell line, CTL-AV, that is specific for the HLA-B7 peptide presented by HLA-DR11.1 was obtained. The HLA-DR11.2 molecule, which only differs at three residues from HLA-DR11.1, did not present the HLA-B7 peptide to CTL-AV. Peptides from the alpha 1 domain helix of other HLA-A and HLA-B molecules, but not HLA-C molecules, competed with the HLA-B7 peptide for binding to HLA-DR11.1. A cell line (WT50) that coexpresses HLA-B7 and HLA-DR11.1 was killed by CTL-AV in the absence of any added HLA-B7 peptide. The processing and presentation of HLA-B7 in these cells appears to be through the endogenous, and not the exogenous, pathway of antigen presentation. Thus, Brefeldin A inhibits presentation and chloroquine does not. Furthermore, introduction of purified HLA-B7 molecules into HLA-DR11.1+, HLA-B7- cells by cytoplasmic loading via osmotic lysis of pinosomes, but not by simple incubation, rendered them susceptible to CTL-AV killing. These results provide an example of class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) presentation of a constitutively synthesized self protein that uses the endogenous pathway of antigen presentation. They also emphasize the capacity for presentation of MHC peptides by MHC molecules.

  15. Regulation of MIR165/166 by class II and class III homeodomain leucine zipper proteins establishes leaf polarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merelo, Paz; Ram, Hathi; Caggiano, Monica Pia

    2016-01-01

    A defining feature of plant leaves is their flattened shape. This shape depends on an antagonism between the genes that specify adaxial (top) and abaxial (bottom) tissue identity; however, the molecular nature of this antagonism remains poorly understood. Class III homeodomain leucine zipper (HD-...... show that class III and class II HD-ZIP proteins act together to repress MIR165/166 via a conserved cis-element in their promoters. Organ morphology and tissue patterning in plants, therefore, depend on a bidirectional repressive circuit involving a set of miRNAs and its targets....

  16. Prediction of individual mandibular changes induced by functional jaw orthopedics followed by fixed appliances in Class II patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, Lorenzo; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2006-11-01

    To identify pretreatment cephalometric variables for the prediction of individual mandibular outcomes of functional jaw orthopedics (FJO) followed by fixed appliances in Class II patients treated at the peak in mandibular growth. The study was performed on 51 subjects (24 females, 27 males) with Class II malocclusion. First-phase therapy was accomplished with a twin block in 16 subjects, a stainless steel crown Herbst in 15 subjects, and an acrylic splint Herbst in 20 subjects. Lateral cephalograms were available at the start of treatment with FJO and at the completion of fixed appliance therapy. All subjects received FJO at the peak in mandibular growth (CS 3 at T1). Individual responsiveness to Class II treatment including FJO was defined on the basis of the T2-T1 increment in total mandibular length (Co-Gn) when compared with untreated Class II subjects. Discriminant analysis identified a single predictive parameter (Co-Go-Me degrees) with a classification power of 80%. Pretreatment vertical and sagittal parameters were not able to improve the prediction based upon the mandibular angle. A Class II patient at the peak in skeletal maturation (CS 3) with a pretreatment Co-Go-Me degrees smaller than 125.5 degrees is expected to respond favorably to treatment including FJO. A Class II patient at CS 3 with a pretreatment value for Co-Go-Me degrees greater than 125.5 degrees is expected to respond poorly to treatment including FJO.

  17. MHC class II expression through a hitherto unknown pathway supports T helper cell-dependent immune responses: implications for MHC class II deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch, Thorsten; Polic, Bojan; Clausen, Björn E; Weiss, Susanne; Akilli-Ozturk, Ozlem; Chang, Cheong-Hee; Flavell, Richard; Schulz, Ansgar; Jonjic, Stipan; Waisman, Ari; Förster, Irmgard

    2006-02-15

    MHC class II (MHCII) deficiency or bare lymphocyte syndrome (BLS) is a severe immunodeficiency characterized by deficient T helper (Th)-cell-dependent immunity. The disease is caused by defects of the MHCII promoter complex resulting in low or absent MHCII expression. We demonstrate in a murine model of MHCII deficiency (RFX5- or CIITA-deficient mice) that residual MHCII expression by professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) is sufficient to support activation of adoptively transferred Th cells. Furthermore, upon transplantation of WT thymic epithelium, we observed development of endogenous Th cells with restoration of Th-cell-dependent antibody responses and immunity to cytomegalovirus infection, thus opening the possibility of an alternative treatment regimen for BLS. Residual MHCII expression was further induced by the presence of Th cells and also other stimuli. Analysis of CIITA/RFX5 double-deficient animals revealed that this inducible MHCII expression is genetically independent of the known promoter complex and thus constitutes an alternative MHCII expression pathway. In these experiments, we also detected a novel repressive function of the RFX complex in the absence of CIITA.

  18. 25 CFR 547.10 - What are the minimum standards for Class II gaming system critical events?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...: Event Definition and action to be taken (i) Player interface power off during play This condition is reported by the affected component(s) to indicate power has been lost during game play. (ii) Player... INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM TECHNICAL STANDARDS FOR GAMING EQUIPMENT USED WITH THE PLAY OF CLASS II...

  19. Morphological changes of the facial skeleton in Class II/1 patients treated with orthodontic functional appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Festila

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate, using lateral cephalometry, the skeletal changes in maxillary bones induced through functional jaw orthopedic therapy. 30 patients with class II division 1 malocclusion and average age of 10.4 years were included in the study. Material and Methods: Cephalometric data were analyzed with the following methods: Burstone, McNamara, Rickets, Tweed and Wits and treatment changes were evaluated overlapping the lateral cephalograms on cranial base with sella registered. Results: The results showed reduced over-jet in average with 2.46 mm, mandibular advancement with a mean value of 2.72 mm and increasing of the total mandibular length with a mean value of 4.17 mm. Although we found an inhibiting in the anterior development of the maxilla with an average of 1.57 degree, the decrease of the anterior-posterior discrepancy was due especially to the mandible. Conclusions: It can be concluded that functional appliances were effective in correcting class II malocclusion. Changes of the position and mandible′s length determined improved facial profile but did not correct it completely because of the chin that moved not only anterior but also downward, as a result of vertical ramus growth.

  20. DNA polymorphism of HLA class II genes in pauciarticular juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morling, N; Friis, J; Fugger, L

    1991-01-01

    associated with the following HLA class II genes were increased in PJRA when compared to normal controls: DRB1*08 (DRw8) (35.2% vs 10.3%, RR = 4.6, p less than 10(-3), DRB3*01/02/03 (DRw52) (76.3% vs 48.1%, RR 3.5, p less than 10(-3)), DQA1*0401 (41.0% vs 7.4%, RR = 7.9, p less than 10(-3)), DQA1*0501 (55...... of DNA fragments associated with the following HLA class II genes were decreased in PJRA although not statistically significantly so after 'correction' of p values: DRB1*04 (14.8% vs 40.2%, RR = 0.27; p less than 10(-3)), DRB1*07 (0% vs 25.9%, RR = 0.04, p less than 10(-3)), DRB4*0101 (DRw53) (25.9% vs...... 53.6%, RR = 0.31, p less than 10(-3)), DQA1*0102 (11.6% vs 36.0%, RR = 0.25, p less than 10(-4)), and DQA1*0201 (2.6% vs 34.2%, RR = 0.05, p less than 10(-2)).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  1. Cephalomteric changes in airway dimensions with twin block therapy in growing Class II patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinoth, Santhana Krishnan; Thomas, Ashwin Varghese; Nethravathy, Ramya

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Myofunctional appliances are commonly used for correction of skeletal Class II malrelationship. These appliances influence craniofacial and nasopharyngeal dimensions. Objectives: The present study was done to evaluate changes in airway with twin block therapy. Materials and Methods: Cephalometric assessment of airway was done in 25 growing children in the age group of 11-13 years with Class II skeletal pattern. All the patients were treated with twin block appliance. Pre and post treatment lateral cephalograms were taken to evaluate the changes in different airway and craniofacial dimensions during the treatment period. The average treatment duration was 14.5 months. Results: Airway: A significant increase was observed in upper and lower pharyngeal width and area of bony nasopharynx. Craniofacial dimension: There was a significant increase in effective mandibular length, ramal length and mandibular plane angle. There was an increase in SNB angle, which resulted in decreased ANB angle. Conclusion: There was a definite improvement in airway dimension following twin block therapy PMID:23946570

  2. Cephalometric effects of the Jones Jig appliance followed by fixed appliances in Class II malocclusion treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mayara Paim; Henriques, José Fernando Castanha; Freitas, Karina Maria Salvatore; Grec, Roberto Henrique da Costa

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to cephalometrically assess the skeletal and dentoalveolar effects of Class II malocclusion treatment performed with the Jones Jig appliance followed by fixed appliances. The sample comprised 25 patients with Class II malocclusion treated with the Jones Jig appliance followed by fixed appliances, at a mean initial age of 12.90 years old. The mean time of the entire orthodontic treatment was 3.89 years. The distalization phase lasted for 0.85 years, after which the fixed appliance was used for 3.04 years. Cephalograms were used at initial (T1), post-distalization (T2) and final phases of treatment (T3). For intragroup comparison of the three phases evaluated, dependent ANOVA and Tukey tests were used. Jones Jig appliance did not interfere in the maxillary and mandibular component and did not change maxillomandibular relationship. Jones Jig appliance promoted distalization of first molars with anchorage loss, mesialization and significant extrusion of first and second premolars, as well as a significant increase in anterior face height at the end of treatment. The majority of adverse effects that occur during intraoral distalization are subsequently corrected during corrective mechanics. Buccal inclination and protrusion of mandibular incisors were identified. By the end of treatment, correction of overjet and overbite was observed. Jones Jig appliance promoted distalization of first molars with anchorage loss represented by significant mesial movement and extrusion of first and second premolars, in addition to a significant increase in anterior face height.

  3. Islamic Educational Transformation through Inmate Social Interaction at Palu Correctional Facility Class II A, Central Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation system adopted by correctional facility is based on Pancasila. All incarcerated men are rehabilitated there with the goal to make them repent, be law-abiding citizens, and uphold moral values. Correctional facility comes as a rehabilitation place to improve social interaction so that inmates can be received by their social environment once they are released from prison. At this point, the researcher focuses on Islamic educational transformation through inmate social interaction training program at Palu correctional facility class II A. This research uses descriptive quantitative design with social legal approach to observe patterns of inmate social interaction. The result of research points out that Islamic educational transformation which is packed into rehabilitation programs and correctional educational activities is remarkably emphasized in inmate social interaction. In this case, Islamic educational transformation applied in Palu correctional facility class II A is defined as ultimum remidium, correctional activities emphasizing on process-based approach. Rehabilitation process given to inmates is able to improve insight and awareness of ethical and moral values in their social interaction. Therefore, when returning to society they can be accepted by social environtment as good responsible people.

  4. Effect of gingival fluid on marginal adaptation of Class II resin-based composite restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahr, A; Schön, F; Haller, B

    2000-10-01

    To evaluate in vitro the marginal quality of Class II composite restorations at the gingival enamel margins as affected by contamination of the cavities with gingival fluid (GF) during different steps of resin bonding procedures. 70 Class II cavities were prepared in extracted human molars and restored with composite using a multi-component bonding system (OptiBond FL/Herculite XRV; OPTI) or a single-bottle adhesive (Syntac Sprint/Tetric Ceram; SYN). The cavities were contaminated with human GF: C1 after acid etching, C2 after application of the primer (OPTI) or light-curing of the primer-adhesive (SYN), and C3 after light-curing of the resin adhesive (OPTI). Uncontaminated cavities were used as the control (C0). The restored teeth were subjected to thermocycling (TC) and replicated for SEM analysis of marginal gap formation. Microleakage at the gingival margins was determined by dye penetration with basic fuchsin. non-parametric tests (Kruskal-Wallis test, Mann-Whitney test with Bonferroni correction). In both bonding systems, contamination with GF after acid etching (C1) did not impair the marginal quality; the mean percentages of continuous margin/mean depths of dye penetration were: OPTI: C0: 88.5%/0.10 mm, C1: 95.6%/0.04 mm; SYN: C0: 90.9%/0.08 mm, C1: 97.0%/0.05 mm. Marginal adaptation was adversely affected when GF contamination was performed after

  5. Correlations between dentoskeletal variables and deep bite in Class II Division 1 individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Silva Marques

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the cephalometric pattern of Class II Division 1 individuals with deep bite, and to determine possible correlations between dentoskeletal variables and deep bite. Comparisons were also made between genders and cases that were to be treated both with and without premolar extraction. A total of 70 lateral cephalograms were used, from both male (n = 35 and female (n = 35 individuals with an average age of 11.6 years, who simultaneously presented with ANB > 5º and overbite > 4 mm. Statistical analysis involved parametric (t-test and non-parametric (Mann-Whitney tests for independent samples, as well as the Spearman correlation test (p < 0.05. The values of Go-Me, Ar-Pog, PM-1 and PM-CMI were higher in males (p < 0.05. However, no significant differences were found among the averages of the cephalometric measurements when the sample was divided by treatment with and without extraction. Deep bite was positively correlated to the PM-1 and SNA measurements, and negatively correlated to the Go-Me, Ar-Pog, SNB and SNGoMe measurements. The main factors associated with the determination of deep bite in Angle's Class II Division 1 cases were: greater lower anterior dentoalveolar growth and/or lower incisor extrusion, horizontal growth pattern, maxillary protrusion and mandibular retrusion.

  6. Human leukocyte antigen class II susceptibility conferring alleles among non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tipu, H.N.; Ahmed, T.A.; Bashir, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    To determine the frequency of Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) class II susceptibility conferring alleles among type 2 Diabetes mellitus patients, in comparison with healthy controls. Cross-sectional comparative study. Patients with non-insulin dependent Diabetes mellitus meeting World Health Organization criteria were studied. These were compared with age and gender matched healthy control subjects. For each subject (patients as well as controls), DNA was extracted from ethylene diamine tetra-acetate sample and HLA class II DRB1 typing was carried out at allele group level (DRB1*01-DRB1*16) by sequence specific primers. Human leukocyte antigen DRB1 type was determined by agarose gel electrophoresis and results were recorded. Frequencies were determined as number of an allele divided by total number of alleles per group; p-value was computed using Pearson's chi-square test. Among the 100 patients, there were 63 males and 37 females with 68 controls. A total of 13 different HLA DRB1 alleles were detected, with DRB1*15 being the commonest in both the groups. The allele DRB1*13 had statistically significant higher frequency in patient group as compared to controls (p 0.005). HLA DRB1*13 was found with a significantly increased frequency in non-insulin dependent Diabetes mellitus. (author)

  7. Ultrahigh-energy Cosmic Rays from Fanaroff Riley class II radio galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachen, Joerg; Biermann, Peter L.

    1992-08-01

    The hot spots of very powerful radio galaxies (Fanaroff Riley class II) are argued to be the sources of the ultrahigh energy component in Cosmic Rays. We present calculations of Cosmic Ray transport in an evolving universe, taking the losses against the microwave background properly into account. As input we use the models for the cosmological radio source evolution derived by radioastronomers (mainly Peacock 1985). The model we adopt for the acceleration in the radio hot spots has been introduced by Biermann and Strittmatter (1987), and Meisenheimer et al. (1989) and is based on first order Fermi theory of particle acceleration at shocks (see, e.g., Drury 1983). As an unknown the actual proportion of energy density in protons enters, which together with structural uncertainties in the hot spots should introduce no more than one order of magnitude in uncertainty: We easily reproduce the observed spectra of high energy cosmic rays. It follows that scattering of charged energetic particles in intergalactic space must be sufficiently small in order to obtain contributions from sources as far away as even the nearest Fanaroff Riley class II radio galaxies. This implies a strong constraint on the turbulent magnetic field in intergalactic space.

  8. Stability of Class II treatment with the Bionator followed by fixed appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisconi, Manoela Fávaro; Henriques, José Fernando Castanha; Janson, Guilherme; Freitas, Karina Maria Salvatore de; Santos, Patrícia Bittencourt Dutra dos

    2013-01-01

    This prospective study assessed the stability of Class II treatment with the Bionator, followed by fixed appliances, 10 years after treatment. The experimental group comprised 23 patients of both sexes (10 boys, 13 girls) at a mean initial age of 11.74 years (late mixed or early permanent dentitions), treated for a mean period of 3.55 years who were evaluated at three stages: initial (T1), final (T2) and long-term posttreatment (T3). A total of 69 lateral cephalograms were evaluated and 69 dental casts were measured using the PAR index. The difference between initial and final PAR indexes, the percentage of occlusal improvement obtained with therapy and the percentage of relapse were calculated, using the PAR index. The variables were compared by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey tests. The significant improvement in apical base relationship, the palatal inclination of the maxillary incisors and the labial inclination of the mandibular incisors, and the significant improvement in molar relationship and reduction of overjet and overbite, obtained with treatment, remained stable in the long-term posttreatment period. There was also significant improvement in the occlusal relationships which remained stable in the long-term posttreatment period. The percentage of occlusal improvement obtained was of 81.78% and the percentage of relapse was of 4.90%. Treatment of Class II division 1 malocclusions with the Bionator associated with fixed appliances showed to be stable in the long-term posttreatment period.

  9. Clinical effects of fixed functional Herbst appliance in the treatment of class II/1 malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedeljković Nenad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sagittal mandible deficiency is the most common cause of skeletal Class II malocclusion. Treatment objective is to stimulate sagittal mandible growth. Fixed functional Herbst appliance use is beneficial for shortening the time required for treatment and does not depend on patient compliance. Case outline. A 13-year-old girl was referred to the Clinic of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry in Belgrade following previous unsuccessful treatment of her skeletal Class II malocclusion using an activator. The patient's poor cooperation had led to failure of the treatment. Patient was subjected to the Herbst treatment for 6 months followed by fixed appliance for another 8 months. Lateral cephalograms before and after the treatment was performed. The remodelation of condylar and fossal articulation was assessed by superimposition of pre- and post-treatment temporomandibular joint tomograms. The promotion of oral hygiene and fluoride use was performed because orthodontic treatment carries a high caries risk and risk for periodontal disease. Skeletal and dental changes were observed after treatment (correction [Max+Mand]: molar relation 7 mm, overjet 8 mm, skeletal relation 5 mm, molars 2 mm, incisors 3 mm. Combination of Herbst and fixed appliances was effective in the treatment of dental and skeletal irregularities for a short period of time. Conclusion . In the retention period, 14 months after treatment, occlusal stability exists. Follow-up care in oral prevention is based on regular recalls at the dental office and supervision at home by the parents.

  10. New design of MHC class II tetramers to accommodate fundamental principles of antigen presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landais, Elise; Romagnoli, Pablo A; Corper, Adam L; Shires, John; Altman, John D; Wilson, Ian A; Garcia, K Christopher; Teyton, Luc

    2009-12-15

    Direct identification and isolation of Ag-specific T cells became possible with the development of MHC tetramers, based on fluorescent avidins displaying biotinylated peptide-MHC complexes. This approach, extensively used for MHC class I-restricted T cells, has met very limited success with class II peptide-MHC complex tetramers (pMHCT-2) for the detection of CD4(+)-specific T cells. In addition, a very large number of these reagents, although capable of specifically activating T cells after being coated on solid support, is still unable to stain. To try to understand this puzzle and design usable tetramers, we examined each parameter critical for the production of pMHCT-2 using the I-A(d)-OVA system as a model. Through this process, the geometry of peptide-MHC display by avidin tetramers was examined, as well as the stability of rMHC molecules. However, we discovered that the most important factor limiting the reactivity of pMHCT-2 was the display of peptides. Indeed, long peptides, as presented by MHC class II molecules, can be bound to I-A/HLA-DQ molecules in more than one register, as suggested by structural studies. This mode of anchorless peptide binding allows the selection of a broader repertoire on single peptides and should favor anti-infectious immune responses. Thus, beyond the technical improvements that we propose, the redesign of pMHCT-2 will give us the tools to evaluate the real size of the CD4 T cell repertoire and help us in the production and testing of new vaccines.

  11. Integrating MRP (materiel requirements planning) II and JIT to achieve world-class status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titone, R C

    1994-05-01

    The concepts and principles of using manufacturing resource planning (MRP II) for planning are not new. Their success has been proven in numerous manufacturing companies in America. The concepts and principles of using just-in-time (JIT) inventory for execution, while more recent, have also been available for some time, and their success in Japan well documented. However, it is the effective integration of these two powerful tools that open the way to achieving world-class manufacturing status. This article will utilize a newly developed world-class manufacturing model, which will review the aspects of planning, beginning with a business plan through the production planning process and culminating with a master schedule that drives a materiel/capacity plan. The importance and interrelationship of these functions are reviewed. The model then illustrates the important aspects of executing these plans beginning with people issues, through total quality control (TQC) and pull systems. We will then utilize this new functional model to demonstrate the relationship between these various functions and the importance of integrating them with a total comprehensive manufacturing strategy that will lead to world-class manufacturing and profits.

  12. An Evaluation of Mandibular Dental and Basal Arch Dimensions in Class I and Class II Division 1 Adult Syrian Patients using Cone-beam Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hilal, Layal H; Sultan, Kinda; Hajeer, Mohammad Y; Mahmoud, Ghiath; Wanli, Abdulrahman A

    2018-04-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is (1) to inspect any difference in mandibular arch widths between males and females in class I and class II division 1 (class malocclusions using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), (2) to compare the mandibular dental and basal widths between the two groups, and (3) to investigate any possible correlation between dental and basal arch widths in both groups. Materials and methods: The CBCT images of 68 patients aged between 18 and 25 years consisted of 34 class I (17 males and 17 females) and 34 class (17 males and 17 females) who were recruited at the Department of Orthodontics, University of Damascus Dental School (Syria). Using on-demand three-dimensional (3D) on axial views, facial axis points for dental measurements and basal bone center (BBC) points for basal measurements were identified on lower canines and first molars. Dental and basal intercanine width (ICW) and intermolar width (IMW) were measured. Results: Independent t-test showed a statistically significant difference between males and females in several variables in both groups and a statistically significant difference between class I and class groups in the basal ICW for both genders and in the dental ICW for females only (p class I group, Pearson's correlation coefficients between dental and basal measurements showed a strong correlation in the IMW for both genders (r > 0.73; p class group, a moderate correlation in females' IMW (r = 0.67; p Class I patients had larger ICW than class II-1 patients in all measurements and had narrower IMW than class in most measurements for both genders. There were moderate-to-strong correlations between dental and basal dimensions. BBC points might be landmarks that accurately represent the basal bone arch. Clinical significance: CBCT-based assessments of dental and basal arch dimensions provide a great opportunity to accurately evaluate these aspects, to enhance clinicians' decisions regarding proper tooth movements, and to achieve

  13. NN-align. An artificial neural network-based alignment algorithm for MHC class II peptide binding prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lund Ole

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The major histocompatibility complex (MHC molecule plays a central role in controlling the adaptive immune response to infections. MHC class I molecules present peptides derived from intracellular proteins to cytotoxic T cells, whereas MHC class II molecules stimulate cellular and humoral immunity through presentation of extracellularly derived peptides to helper T cells. Identification of which peptides will bind a given MHC molecule is thus of great importance for the understanding of host-pathogen interactions, and large efforts have been placed in developing algorithms capable of predicting this binding event. Results Here, we present a novel artificial neural network-based method, NN-align that allows for simultaneous identification of the MHC class II binding core and binding affinity. NN-align is trained using a novel training algorithm that allows for correction of bias in the training data due to redundant binding core representation. Incorporation of information about the residues flanking the peptide-binding core is shown to significantly improve the prediction accuracy. The method is evaluated on a large-scale benchmark consisting of six independent data sets covering 14 human MHC class II alleles, and is demonstrated to outperform other state-of-the-art MHC class II prediction methods. Conclusion The NN-align method is competitive with the state-of-the-art MHC class II peptide binding prediction algorithms. The method is publicly available at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/NetMHCII-2.0.

  14. Treatment stability in patients with Class II malocclusion treated with 2 maxillary premolar extractions or without extractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, Guilherme; Camardella, Leonardo Tavares; Araki, Janine Della Valle; de Freitas, Marcos Roberto; Pinzan, Arnaldo

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the occlusal stability of Class II malocclusion treatment with and without extraction of 2 maxillary premolars. A sample of 59 records from patients with complete Class II malocclusion was used. This sample was divided into 2 groups with the following characteristics: group 1, comprising 29 patients treated without extractions, and group 2, comprising 30 patients treated with extraction of 2 maxillary premolars. Dental cast measurements were obtained before and after treatment and at a minimum of 2.4 years after treatment. The pretreatment, posttreatment, and postretention occlusal statuses were evaluated with the peer assesment rating index. The occlusal indexes at the postretention stage and the posttreatment changes and percentages of posttreatment changes were compared with t tests. The nonextraction and the 2 maxillary premolar extraction treatment protocols of complete Class II malocclusions had no statistically significant differences in occlusal stability. Finishing Class II malocclusion treatment with the molars in a Class II relationship has similar occlusal stability as finishing with the molars in a Class I relationship. Copyright (c) 2010 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Relationship Between Class I and II Integrons and Antibiotic Resistance Among Escherichia coli Isolates From Urinary Tract Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Nojoomi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the aim of this study was determination of antibiotic resistance profile, investigation of class I and II integrons among Escherichia coli (E. coli isolates from urinary tract infections. This study was conducted for the investigation of the prevalence of class I and II Integrons among E. coli Isolates from urinary tract infections. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 E. coli clinical isolates were collected from urinary tract infections in Borujerd city, Iran, from… to …. All the isolates were identified with standard laboratory procedures as described everywhere. The antibiotic susceptibility profile was conducted against adopted antibiotic disks following CLSI 2016 guidelines. All the isolates were enrolled in the PCR technique for the presence of class I and II integrons. Results: the highest resistance was against amoxicillin (72%, ciprofloxacin (69%, nalidixic acid (55% and tetracycline (51%. The prevalence of class I and II integrons was 31% and 21%, respectively. A significant relation was observed between resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (p<0.001, nalidixic acid (p<0.01 and tetracycline (p<0.005 with the presence of class I integron. The rate of class I integron in the E. coli isolates was high, possibly playing a role in the spread of multidrug resistant isolates. Conclusion: considering the significant relation observed between the presence of class I integron among multidrug-resistant isolates, establishment implementation of proper procedures to control and suitable treatment strategies in hospitals seems essential for the prevention of more spread of these isolates.

  16. Effects of major histocompatibility complex class II knockout on mouse bone mechanical properties during development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simske, Steven J.; Bateman, Ted A.; Smith, Erin E.; Ferguson, Virginia L.; Chapes, Stephen K.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the effect of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) knockout on the development of the mouse peripheral skeleton. These C2D mice had less skeletal development at 8, 12 and 16 weeks of age compared to wild-type C57BL/6J (B6) male mice. The C2D mice had decreased femur mechanical, geometric and compositional measurements compared to wild type mice at each of these ages. C2D femur stiffness (S), peak force in 3-pt bending (Pm), and mineral mass (Min-M) were 74%, 64% and 66%, respectively, of corresponding B6 values at 8 weeks of age. Similar differences were measured at 12 weeks (for which C2D femoral S, Pm and Min-M were 71%, 72% and 73%, respectively, of corresponding B6 values) and at 16 weeks (for which C2D femoral S, Pm and Min-M were 80%, 66% and 61%, respectively, of corresponding B6 values). MHC II knockout delays the development of adult bone properties and is accompanied by lower body mass compared to wild-type controls.

  17. Characterization of class II alpha genes and DLA-D region allelic associations in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, U M; Storb, R F

    1988-10-01

    Human major histocompatibility complex (HLA) cDNA probes were used to analyze the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the alpha genes of the DLA-D region in dogs. Genomic DNA from peripheral blood leucocytes of 23 unrelated DLA-D homozygous dogs representing nine DLA-D types (defined by mixed leucocyte reaction) was digested with restriction enzymes (BamHI, EcoRI, Hind III, Pvu II, Taq I, Rsa I, Msp I, Pst I and Bgl II), separated by agarose gel electrophoresis and transferred onto Biotrace membrane. The Southern blots were successively hybridized with radiolabelled HLA cDNA probes corresponding to DQ, DP, DZ and DR alpha genes. Clear evidence was obtained for the canine homologues of DQ and DR alpha genes with simple bi- or tri-allelic polymorphism respectively. Evidence for a single, nonpolymorphic DP alpha gene was also obtained. However, the presence of a DZ alpha gene could not be clearly demonstrated in canine genomic DNA. This report extends our previous RFLP analysis documenting polymorphism of DLA class II beta genes in the same panel of homozygous typing cell dogs, and provides the basis for DLA-D genotyping at a population level. This study also characterizes the RFLP-defined preferential allelic associations across the DLA-D region in nine different homozygous typing cell specificities.

  18. The role of CD4+ T cells in cell-mediated immunity to LCMV: studies in MHC class I and class II deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Marker, O; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    1994-01-01

    Parameters of the virus-specific T-cell response were analysed in order to dissect the contribution of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to cell-mediated immunity to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. In MHC class II deficient mice, initial T-cell responsiveness was not impaired, but virus clearance...... was delayed, and virus-specific Td activity declined more rapidly. Furthermore, class I restricted Tc memory appeared to be impaired in these mice. To directly evaluate the role of CD4+ cells in virus clearance and T-cell mediated inflammation, MHC class I deficient mice were also studied. No virus...... exudate. This low-grade response was associated with some degree of virus control as organ titres were lower in these animals than in matched T-cell deficient nu/nu mice or class I deficient mice treated with anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody. This confirms that CD4+ cells are not needed to induce a virus...

  19. JC polyomavirus infection is strongly controlled by human leucocyte antigen class II variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Sundqvist

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available JC polyomavirus (JCV carriers with a compromised immune system, such as in HIV, or subjects on immune-modulating therapies, such as anti VLA-4 therapy may develop progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML which is a lytic infection of oligodendrocytes in the brain. Serum antibodies to JCV mark infection occur only in 50-60% of infected individuals, and high JCV-antibody titers seem to increase the risk of developing PML. We here investigated the role of human leukocyte antigen (HLA, instrumental in immune defense in JCV antibody response. Anti-JCV antibody status, as a surrogate for JCV infection, were compared to HLA class I and II alleles in 1621 Scandinavian persons with MS and 1064 population-based Swedish controls and associations were replicated in 718 German persons with MS. HLA-alleles were determined by SNP imputation, sequence specific (SSP kits and a reverse PCR sequence-specific oligonucleotide (PCR-SSO method. An initial GWAS screen displayed a strong HLA class II region signal. The HLA-DRB1*15 haplotype was strongly negatively associated to JCV sero-status in Scandinavian MS cases (OR = 0.42, p = 7×10(-15 and controls (OR = 0.53, p = 2×10(-5. In contrast, the DQB1*06:03 haplotype was positively associated with JCV sero-status, in Scandinavian MS cases (OR = 1.63, p = 0.006, and controls (OR = 2.69, p = 1×10(-5. The German dataset confirmed these findings (OR = 0.54, p = 1×10(-4 and OR = 1.58, p = 0.03 respectively for these haplotypes. HLA class II restricted immune responses, and hence CD4+ T cell immunity is pivotal for JCV infection control. Alleles within the HLA-DR1*15 haplotype are associated with a protective effect on JCV infection. Alleles within the DQB1*06:03 haplotype show an opposite association. These associations between JC virus antibody response and human leucocyte antigens supports the notion that CD4+ T cells are crucial in the immune defence to JCV and

  20. Articulación de fones en individuos clase esqueletal I,II y III Speech patterns in skeletal class I, II and III subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pía Villanueva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: determinar los patrones de articulación de fones consonánticos en sujetos de habla española chilena clases I, II y III esqueletal; comparar las diferencias fonéticas que existan entre clases esqueletales. MÉTODOS: se seleccionaron 54 individuos que cumplían con los criterios de inclusión determinados mediante un examen clínico intraoral y a través del análisis de Ricketts, y se conformaron los grupos de estudio de pacientes clases esqueletales I, II y III. Se les realizó un examen fonoarticulatorio estandarizado para determinar los fones modificados y el patrón articulatorio compensatorio realizado. RESULTADOS: se observaron cambios en el punto de articulación de fones consonánticos en las tres clases esqueletales, con diferencias significativas en los grupos de fones anteriores y medios entre pacientes clases I y II, sólo en el grupo de los fones anteriores entre pacientes I y III. Entre pacientes clases II y III no se observaron diferencias significativas. Se reportan modificaciones y compensaciones cualitativamente distintas entre las clases esqueletales. CONCLUSIONES: en relación a pacientes clase I, los pacientes clase II o III, presentan distinto grado de modificación en el punto de articulación de fones consonánticos. Las diferencias observadas se relacionan con los patrones esqueletales propios de cada clase.PURPOSE: to determine the consonant phonemes articulation patterns in Chilean skeletal class I, II and III Spanish speakers and compare their phonetic differences. METHODS: fifty-four skeletal class I, II and III subjects were selected, based on intraoral clinical examination and Ricketts cephalometric analysis, constituting the study groups. A standardized phonoarticulatory test was applied to each patient to determine the modified phonemes and their compensatory patterns. RESULTS: the findings indicate changes in articulation in all three groups. Significant differences were found in anterior and medium

  1. The E5 protein of human papillomavirus type 16 perturbs MHC class II antigen maturation in human foreskin keratinocytes treated with interferon-γ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Benyue; Li Ping; Wang Exing; Brahmi, Zacharie; Dunn, Kenneth W.; Blum, Janice S.; Roman, Ann

    2003-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigens are expressed on human foreskin keratinocytes (HFKs) following exposure to interferon gamma. The expression of MHC class II proteins on the cell surface may allow keratinocytes to function as antigen-presenting cells and induce a subsequent immune response to virus infection. Invariant chain (Ii) is a chaperone protein which plays an important role in the maturation of MHC class II molecules. The sequential degradation of Ii within acidic endocytic compartments is a key process required for the successful loading of antigenic peptide onto MHC class II molecules. Since human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 E5 can inhibit the acidification of late endosomes in HFKs, the E5 protein may be able to affect proper peptide loading onto the MHC class II molecule. To test this hypothesis, HFKs were infected with either control virus or a recombinant virus expressing HPV16 E5 and the infected cells were subsequently treated with interferon-γ. ELISAs revealed a decrease of MHC class II expression on the surface of E5-expressing cells compared with control virus-infected cells after interferon treatment. Western blot analysis showed that, in cells treated with interferon gamma, E5 could prevent the breakdown of Ii and block the formation of peptide-loaded, SDS-stable mature MHC class II dimers, correlating with diminished surface MHC class II expression. These data suggest that HPV16 E5 may be able to decrease immune recognition of infected keratinocytes via disruption of MHC class II protein function

  2. Role of major histocompatibility complex class II in the development of autoimmune type 1 diabetes and thyroiditis in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, N; Hidaka, S; Tanabe, S; Ohya, M; Ishima, M; Takagi, Y; Masui, N; Seino, S

    2012-01-01

    Although the MHC class II ‘u' haplotype is strongly associated with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in rats, the role of MHC class II in the development of tissue-specific autoimmune diseases including T1D and autoimmune thyroiditis remains unclear. To clarify this, we produced a congenic strain carrying MHC class II ‘a' and ‘u' haplotypes on the Komeda diabetes-prone (KDP) genetic background. The u/u homozygous animals developed T1D similar to the original KDP rat; a/u heterozygous animals did develop T1D but with delayed onset and low frequency. In contrast, none of the a/a homozygous animals developed T1D; about half of the animals with a/u heterozygous or a/a homozygous genotypes showed autoimmune thyroiditis. To investigate the role of genetic background in the development of thyroiditis, we also produced a congenic strain carrying Cblb mutation of the KDP rat on the PVG.R23 genetic background (MHC class II ‘a' haplotype). The congenic rats with homozygous Cblb mutation showed autoimmune thyroiditis without T1D and slight to severe alopecia, a clinical symptom of hypothyroidism such as Hashimoto's thyroiditis. These data indicate that MHC class II is involved in the tissue-specific development of autoimmune diseases, including T1D and thyroiditis. PMID:21918539

  3. Inhibitors of type II NADH:menaquinone oxidoreductase represent a class of antitubercular drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Edward A.; Yano, Takahiro; Li, Lin-Sheng; Avarbock, David; Avarbock, Andrew; Helm, Douglas; McColm, Andrew A.; Duncan, Ken; Lonsdale, John T.; Rubin, Harvey

    2005-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is an obligate aerobe that is capable of long-term persistence under conditions of low oxygen tension. Analysis of the Mtb genome predicts the existence of a branched aerobic respiratory chain terminating in a cytochrome bd system and a cytochrome aa3 system. Both chains can be initiated with type II NADH:menaquinone oxidoreductase. We present a detailed biochemical characterization of the aerobic respiratory chains from Mtb and show that phenothiazine analogs specifically inhibit NADH:menaquinone oxidoreductase activity. The emergence of drug-resistant strains of Mtb has prompted a search for antimycobacterial agents. Several phenothiazines analogs are highly tuberculocidal in vitro, suppress Mtb growth in a mouse model of acute infection, and represent lead compounds that may give rise to a class of selective antibiotics. PMID:15767566

  4. Alkali/Surfactant/Polymer Flooding in the Daqing Oilfield Class II Reservoirs Using Associating Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru-Sen Feng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrophobically modified associating polyacrylamide (HAPAM has good compatibility with the Daqing heavy alkylbenzene sulfonate surfactant. The HAPAM alkali/surfactant/polymer (ASP system can generate ultralow interfacial tension in a wide range of alkali/surfactant concentrations and maintain stable viscosity and interfacial tension for 120 days. The HAPAM ASP system has good injectivity for the Daqing class II reservoirs (100–300 × 10−3 μm2 and can improve oil recovery by more than 25% on top of water flooding. In the presence of both the alkali and the surfactant, the surfactant interacts with the associating groups of the polymer to form more micelles, which can significantly enhance the viscosity of the ASP system. Compared with using HPAM (Mw = 2.5 MDa, using HAPAM can reduce the polymer use by more than 40%.

  5. Orthodontic camouflage via total arch movement in a Class II with idiopathic condylar resorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Sung Jang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic condylar resorption (ICR, also known as idiopathic condylysis or condylar atrophy, is multifactorial pathology leading to severe mandibular retrognathism. The etiology has been shown to be multifactorial, such as avascular necrosis, traumatic injuries, hormone and autoimmune disease and it is largely difficult to distinguish the exact cause in each individual. In spite of the remarkable morphological alteration, surgical intervention is not readily recruited due to the possibility of recurrence of resorption. In order to restore balanced facial profile and occlusion. In this report, we present a camouflage treatment for skeletal Class II with ICR and facial asymmetry involving total arch movement, for the improvement facial profile and reconstruction of occlusion.

  6. Orthodontic Protocol Using Mini-Implant for Class II Treatment in Patient with Special Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Pedrin Carvalho Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving facial and dental appearance and social interaction are the main factors for special needs (SN patients to seek orthodontic treatment. The cooperation of SN patients and their parents is crucial for treatment success. Objective. To show through a case report the satisfactory results, both functional and esthetic, in patients with intellectual disability, congenital nystagmus, and severe scoliosis. Materials Used. Pendulum device with mini-implants as anchorage unit. Results. Improvement of facial and dental esthetics, correction of Class II malocclusion, and no root resorption shown in the radiographic follow-up. Conclusion. Knowing the limitations of SN patients, having a trained team, motivating and counting on the cooperation of parents and patients, and employing quick and low-cost orthodontic therapy have been shown to be the essential factors for treatment success.

  7. Thin-Film CIGS Photovoltaic Technology: Annual Technical Report-Phase II, 16 April 1999-15 April 2000; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delahoy, A.E.; Bruns, J.; Ruppert, A.; Akhtar, M.; Chen, L.; Kiss, Z.J.

    2000-01-01

    A summary of Energy Photovoltaics' Phase II work includes the following: (1) EPV has demonstrated that it can sputter a Mo back-contact capable of supporting very high efficiency cell processing. Using EPV Mo, NREL has deposited a 17.1% CIGS cell (no AR coating). EPV believes it can identify the signature of''good'' Mo. The Mo was produced on EPV's 0.43 m(sup 2) pilot-line equipment; (2) EPV has performed compound synthesis for several classes of materials, namely non-Cu precursor materials, Cu-containing materials, and ternary buffer materials. Using a ternary compound synthesized at EPV (ZIS) as an evaporation source material for the buffer layer, a Cd-free CIGS device has been produced having an efficiency of 11.5% (560 mV, 32.1 mA/cm(sup 2), FF 64.3%). The ZIS films are photoconductive, and the devices exhibit no dark-light crossover or light soaking effects; (3) EPV initiated the interest of the University of Oregon in capacitance spectroscopy of CIGS devices. An Urbach tail with characteristic energy E0 and lt; 20meV was identified by transient photocapacitance spectroscopy; (4) Small-area CIGS devices were produced in the pilot-line system with an efficiency of 12.0% (581 mV, 30.1 mA/cm(sup 2), FF 68.7%), and in an R and D-scale system with 13.3% efficiency (569 mV, 34.1 mA/cm(sup 2), FF 68.1%); (5) An improved linear evaporation source for Cu delivery has been developed and was used for CIGS formation in the pilot-line system. The deposition width is 45 cm. This technological''tour de force'' allows EPV to build large-area CIGS systems possessing considerable flexibility. In particular, both EPV's FORNAX process and NREL's 3-stage process have been implemented on the pilot line. A CIGS thickness uniformity of 7% over a 40 cm width has been achieved; (6) A 4-head linear source assembly was designed, constructed, and is in use. Flux monitoring is practiced; (7) Large-area CIGS modules were produced with Voc's up to 36.3 V; (8) EPV has started to construct an

  8. Cephalometric-radiographic study, in lateral norm, considering the established standards of white Brazilian teenagers who presented normal occlusions and mal-occlusions of Class I and Class II, 1st Division and the ones from Ricketts' analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bismarck, V.E.

    1986-01-01

    In the present work, our purpose was make a cephalometric-radiographic study, comparing white Brazilian teenagers who presented normal occlusion and the ones who presented malocclusions of Class I and Class II, according to RICKETT'S analysis (1960). (author) [pt

  9. Má oclusão Classe II de Angle tratada sem extrações e com controle de crescimento Angle Class II malocclusion treated without extractions and with growth control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Artese

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A má oclusão Classe II de Angle é caracterizada por uma discrepância dentária anteroposterior, que geralmente está acompanhada por alterações esqueléticas. O tratamento ortodôntico precoce permite a correção da discrepância esquelética por controle de crescimento (primeira fase, o que favorece a correção do posicionamento dentário, mais tardiamente (segunda fase. Este relato descreve o tratamento de um caso de má oclusão Classe II, divisão 2, de Angle, em duas fases, e foi apresentado à Diretoria do Board Brasileiro de Ortodontia e Ortopedia Facial (BBO, como parte dos requisitos para a obtenção do título de Diplomado pelo BBO. O caso foi avaliado como representante da Categoria 1, ou seja, má oclusão Classe II de Angle tratada sem extrações dentárias e com controle de crescimento.Angle Class II malocclusion is characterized by an anteroposterior dental discrepancy which is generally accompanied by skeletal disharmonies. Early orthodontic treatment allows the correction of skeletal discrepancies using growth control (first phase which favors later correction of tooth positioning (second phase. This case report describes an Angle Class II, division 2, malocclusion treated in two phases and was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Facial Orthopedics (BBO as part of the requirements for BBO certification. It was evaluated as a Category 1 case, i.e., Class II malocclusion treated without extractions, with growth control.

  10. Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) Program - RDX Type II Class 5 Standard, Data Set 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstrom, Mary M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brown, Geoffrey W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Preston, Daniel N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pollard, Colin J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Warner, Kirstin F. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Sorenson, Daniel N. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Remmers, Daniel L. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Moran, Jesse S. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Shelley, Timothy J. [Air Force Research Lab. (AFRL), Tyndall AFB, FL (United States); Reyes, Jose A. [Applied Research Associates, Inc., Tyndall AFB, FL (United States); Hsu, Peter C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Whipple, Richard E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reynolds, John G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-04-11

    This document describes the results of the first reference sample material—RDX Type II Class 5—examined in the proficiency study for small-scale safety and thermal (SSST) testing of explosive materials for the Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) Program. The IDCA program is conducting proficiency testing on homemade explosives (HMEs). The reference sample materials are being studied to establish the accuracy of traditional explosives safety testing for each performing laboratory. These results will be used for comparison to results from testing HMEs. This effort, funded by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), ultimately will put the issues of safe handling of these materials in perspective with standard military explosives. The results of the study will add SSST testing results for a broad suite of different HMEs to the literature, potentially suggest new guidelines and methods for HME testing, and possibly establish what are the needed accuracies in SSST testing to develop safe handling practices. Described here are the results for impact, friction, electrostatic discharge, and scanning calorimetry analysis of a reference sample of RDX Type II Class 5. The results from each participating testing laboratory are compared using identical test material and preparation methods wherever possible. Note, however, the test procedures differ among the laboratories. These results are then compared to historical data from various sources. The performers involved are Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Air Force Research Laboratory/ RXQL (AFRL), Indian Head Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center, (IHD-NSWC), and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). These tests are conducted as a proficiency study in order to establish some consistency in test protocols, procedures, and experiments and to understand how to compare results when test protocols are not identical.

  11. As implicações da classe II de angle e da desproporção esquelética tipo classe II no aspecto miofuncional The implications of class II angle and class II type skeletal disproportion on the myofunctional aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Lisbôa Mezzomo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available TEMA: esse trabalho foi baseado na temática de que existe uma associação entre as más oclusões devido a alterações do crescimento craniofacial, e, por conseguinte, a existência de alterações miofuncionais. OBJETIVOS: estudar a associação entre as más oclusões tipo classe II desencadeadas por alterações do crescimento craniofacial e as disfunções do sistema estomatognático (alterações miofuncionais: fala, mastigação, deglutição e fonação. CONCLUSÃO: pode-se concluir que alterações estruturais da face podem ter influência na funcionalidade das mesmas, portanto, enfatiza-se a importância do trabalho multidisciplinar entre os profissionais envolvidos em cada uma dessas aéreas para que o prognóstico desses casos seja pertinente de relevantes melhoras.BACKGROUND: this work has been based on the theme that there is an association between malocclusion due to change in craniofacial growth, and therefore, the existence of malfunctioning abnormalities. PURPOSE: to study the strong association among the malocclusion class II triggered by changes in craniofacial growth and dysfunctions of the stomatognathic system (myofunctional disorders - speech, chewing, swallowing and phonation. CONCLUSION: it may be concluded that structural changes of the face may affect its, and therefore, the importance of multidisciplinary work among professionals involved in each of those areas, is emphasized, so that the prognosis of these cases may have relevant and important improvements.

  12. Genetic factors and multiple sclerosis in the Moroccan population: a role for HLA class II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouadghiri, S; El Alaoui Toussi, K; Brick, C; Ait Benhaddou, E H; Benseffaj, N; Benomar, A; El Yahyaoui, M; Essakalli, M

    2013-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system that mainly affects young adults. The association between susceptibility to MS and HLA class II genes, in particular the DRB1*15 allele, has been reported in diverse ethnic groups. The aim of our study was to investigate the distribution of HLA-DRB1* and -DQB1* alleles in Moroccan population and their implication in the susceptibility to the disease. Fifty-seven MS patients were compared to 172 healthy controls unrelated to one another and matched by age, sex and ethnic origin. HLA class II (DRB1* and DQB1*) typing was performed by PCR-SSP and/or Luminex (PCR-SSO). Allelic and haplotypic frequencies, P-values, odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using the software SPSS. A significant increase of DRB1*15 allele frequency (17.6% vs 8.4%, OR=2.67, 95% CI=1.36-5.23, P=0.004) and HLA-DRB1*15-DQB1*06 haplotype (8.8% vs 4.08%, OR=2.78, 95% CI=1.41-5.48, P=0.002) were observed in Moroccan MS patients. No association of the DR15 allele with sex or age at onset was appreciated. Concerning HLA-DQB1* alleles, no significant difference between patients and controls was found. Our results reveal a role for HLA-DRB1*15 allele molecules in the predisposition of Moroccan patients to MS. Although this study should be confirmed on a larger sample size, it analyzes for the first time the possible role of a genetic marker for susceptibility to MS in Moroccan population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Cervical microleakage in Class II cavities restored with the Sonicsys approx system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rominu, Mihai; Florita, Zeno; Lakatos, Sorin; Rominu, Roxana Otilia

    2009-04-01

    To investigate the cervical microleakage in Class II cavities restored with Sonicsys approx ceramic inserts and four resin-based materials. Forty noncarious and crack-free mandibular third molars were used. These teeth were randomly assigned to four groups each containing 10 teeth. No control group was created. On each tooth, one mesial boxlike cavity was prepared using the active head Sonicsys approx no. 3. The cervical margin of each cavity was in enamel about 1 mm coronal to the cementoenamel junction. According to manufacturer's instructions, the prepared cavities were restored using a Sonicsys approx ceramic inserts no.3 and four resin-based materials as follows: group 1, Tetric Flow; group 2, Admira Flow; group 3, Nexus 2; group 4, X-Flow. After finishing and polishing, all specimens were stored in distilled water for 7 days at 37 degrees C, thermocycled 1,000 cycles between 5 degrees and 55 degrees C, and stored for 24 hours in basic fuchsine 2%. All specimens were then embedded in clear acrylic resin and sectioned along a mesial-distal plane through the middle of the cervical margin. The cervical areas of the resulting sections were examined using an optical microscope to assess the dye penetration. The registered scores were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Microleakage was detected in each experimental group. Kruskal-Wallis test revealed statistically significant differences among groups (P = .009, alpha = .01). The Mann-Whitney U test showed significant differences between Admira Flow group and Tetric Flow (P = .011, alpha = .05), Nexus 2 (P = .001, alpha = .01), and X-Flow (P = .004, alpha = .01), respectively. Within the limitations of this study, the extent of microleakage in the cervical area (enamel) of Class II cavities restored with Sonicsys approx ceramic inserts depends on the material used for luting. The highest leakage occurred when Admira flow was used.

  14. Stability of Class II treatment with the Bionator followed by fixed appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoela Favaro FRANCISCONI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This prospective study assessed the stability of Class II treatment with the Bionator, followed by fixed appliances, 10 years after treatment. Material and Methods: The experimental group comprised 23 patients of both sexes (10 boys, 13 girls at a mean initial age of 11.74 years (late mixed or early permanent dentitions, treated for a mean period of 3.55 years who were evaluated at three stages: initial (T1, final (T2 and long-term posttreatment (T3. A total of 69 lateral cephalograms were evaluated and 69 dental casts were measured using the PAR index. The difference between initial and final PAR indexes, the percentage of occlusal improvement obtained with therapy and the percentage of relapse were calculated, using the PAR index. The variables were compared by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by Tukey tests. Results: The significant improvement in apical base relationship, the palatal inclination of the maxillary incisors and the labial inclination of the mandibular incisors, and the significant improvement in molar relationship and reduction of overjet and overbite, obtained with treatment, remained stable in the long-term posttreatment period. There was also significant improvement in the occlusal relationships which remained stable in the long-term posttreatment period. The percentage of occlusal improvement obtained was of 81.78% and the percentage of relapse was of 4.90%. Conclusions: Treatment of Class II division 1 malocclusions with the Bionator associated with fixed appliances showed to be stable in the long-term posttreatment period.

  15. Adiponectin mediated MHC class II mismatched cardiac graft rejection in mice is IL-4 dependent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daxu Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adiponectin regulates glucose and fatty-acid metabolism but its role in chronic graft rejection mediated by Th2 cytokines remains ill-defined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Wild type and adiponectin-null mice were used as graft recipients in mouse MHC class II disparate cardiac transplantation (bm12 toB6 and the graft rejection was monitored. In adiponectin-null mice we observed that the cellular infiltrate of eosinophils, CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells was reduced in grafts compared to the controls as was collagen deposition and vessel occlusion. A similar outcome was observed for skin transplants except that neutrophil infiltration was increased. Low levels of IL-4 were detected in the grafts and serum. The effect of adiponectin signaling on IL-4 expression was further investigated. Treatment with AMPK and p38 MAPK inhibitors blocked adiponectin enhanced T cell proliferation in mixed lymphocyte reactions. Inhibition of AMPK reduced eosinophil infiltration in skin grafts in wild type recipients and in contrast AMPK activation increased eosinophils in adiponectin-null recipients. The addition of adiponectin increased IL-4 production by the T cell line EL4 with augmented nuclear GATA-3 and phospho-STAT6 expression which were suppressed by knockdown of adiponectin receptor 1 and 2. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate a direct effect of adiponectin on IL-4 expression which contributes to Th2 cytokine mediated rejection in mouse MHC class II histoincompatible transplants. These results add to our understanding of the interrelationship of metabolism and immune regulation and raise the possibility that AMPK inhibitors may be beneficial in selected types of rejection.

  16. Outcome quality and long-term (≥15 years) stability after Class II:2 Herbst-multibracket appliance treatment in comparison to untreated Class I controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Niko C; Saffar, Mitra; Hudel, Helge; Evälahti, Marjut; Heikinheimo, Kaisa; Rice, David P; Ruf, Sabine

    2017-12-09

    To investigate the outcome quality and the long-term (≥15 years) post-treatment (Tx) changes after Class II:2 Herbst-multibracket appliance (MBA) Tx. In this longitudinal observational study, a recall of Class II:2 patients who had been treated by a Herbst-MBA during adolescence was conducted. Study models from before and after active Tx, after retention and after recall were assessed using standard occlusal variables and the peer assessment rating index (PAR). These data were compared to historical untreated Class I controls. Twenty out of 33 patients (61%) could be located and participated at age 33.9 ± 2.7 years. When comparing their data to the 13 patients who did not participate, the pre- and post-Tx occlusal findings did not differ systematically; however, the PAR scores of the non-participants were by 3.3-8.2 points higher at all times and the non-participants were 2.1-2.5 years older. Pre-Tx at age 14.4 ± 2.7 years, the participants showed the following mean values: PAR = 15.0 ± 7.0, Class II molar relationship (MR) = 0.8 ± 0.3 cusp widths (cw), overbite = 5.3 ± 1.3 mm. After Tx, a PAR score of 2.9 ± 1.3 and a super Class I MR (-0.1 ± 0.1 cw) with normal overbite (1.2 ± 0.8 mm) existed. At recall, a PAR score increase to 5.9 ± 3.6 points had occurred, mainly caused by an increase of overbite to 2.5 ± 1.5 mm. The average MR remained Class I (0.0 ± 0.2 cw). For all variables, the untreated controls exhibited similar findings. The occlusal outcome of Class II:2 Herbst-MBA Tx exhibited very good long-term stability. While mild post-Tx changes occurred, the long-term findings are similar to untreated Class I controls. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  17. NetMHCIIpan-3.0, a common pan-specific MHC class II prediction method including all three human MHC class II isotypes, HLA-DR, HLA-DP and HLA-DQ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karosiene, Edita; Rasmussen, Michael; Blicher, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) molecules play an important role in cell-mediated immunity. They present specific peptides derived from endosomal proteins for recognition by T helper cells. The identification of peptides that bind to MHCII molecules is therefore of great importa......MHCIIpan-3.0 method is the first pan-specific predictor covering all HLA class II molecules with known sequences including HLA-DR, HLA-DP, and HLA-DQ. The NetMHCpan-3.0 method is available at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/NetMHCIIpan-3.0....

  18. Subseabed disposal program annual report, January-December 1979. Volume II. Appendices (principal investigator progress reports). Part 1 of 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbert, D.M.

    1981-04-01

    Volume II of the sixth annual report describing the progress and evaluating the status of the Subseabed Disposal Program contains the appendices referred to in Volume I, Summary and Status. Because of the length of Volume II, it has been split into two parts for publication purposes. Part 1 contains Appendices A-O; Part 2 contains Appendices P-FF. Separate abstracts have been prepared of each Appendix for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  19. Subseabed disposal program annual report, January-December 1980. Volume II. Appendices (principal investigator progress reports). Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinga, K.R. (ed.)

    1981-07-01

    Volume II of the sixth annual report describing the progress and evaluating the status of the Subseabed Disposal Program contains the appendices referred to in Volume I, Summary and Status. Because of the length of Volume II, it has been split into two parts for publication purposes. Part 1 contains Appendices A-Q; Part 2 contains Appendices R-MM. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each appendix for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  20. Subseabed disposal program annual report, January-December 1980. Volume II. Appendices (principal investigator progress reports). Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinga, K.R.

    1981-07-01

    Volume II of the sixth annual report describing the progress and evaluating the status of the Subseabed Disposal Program contains the appendices referred to in Volume I, Summary and Status. Because of the length of Volume II, it has been split into two parts for publication purposes. Part 1 contains Appendices A-Q; Part 2 contains Appendices R-MM. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each appendix for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  1. Immunomodulation of glioma cells after gene therapy: induction of major histocompatibility complex class I but not class II antigen in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsa, A T; Chi, J H; Hurley, P T; Jeyapalan, S A; Bruce, J N

    2001-09-01

    Acquired immunity has been demonstrated in Fischer rats bearing syngeneic 9L tumors after herpes simplex virus (HSV) thymidine kinase (TK) gene transfection and ganciclovir treatment. The nature of this immunity in rats and its relevance to the HSV TK/ganciclovir protocol for human subjects remain to be determined. In this study, levels of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class I and II antigen expression were measured before and after HSV TK transfection, in an effort to document immunomodulatory changes caused by gene therapy. Tumor cells from the 9L gliosarcoma cell line, three primary human glioma cultures, and the human glioma cell line U87 MG were transduced with HSV TK vector-containing supernatant from fibroblast-producing cells (titer of 5 x 10(6) colony-forming units/ml) and selected in G418 medium for neomycin resistance. Clones were pooled or individually selected for cell-killing assays with ganciclovir, to confirm TK expression (10(3) cells/well in a 96-well dish). Northern analyses using MHC Class I and Class II complementary deoxyribonucleic acid probes were performed on blots containing total ribonucleic acid from wild-type tumor cells and HSV TK transfectants. A beta-actin complementary deoxyribonucleic acid probe served as an internal control. Cell surface expression was confirmed with flow cytometry. The induction of MHC Class I was tested for cycloheximide and genistein sensitivity. All cell cultures exhibited increases in MHC Class I but not MHC Class II expression, as determined by Northern analysis densitometry and flow cytometry. Cycloheximide treatment did not diminish the up-regulation of MHC Class I after retroviral transfection, implicating a signal transduction pathway that does not require ongoing protein synthesis. Genistein pretreatment of cell cultures did diminish the up-regulation of MHC Class I, implicating a tyrosine kinase in the signaling cascade. Induction of MHC Class I in rat and human glioma cells after HSV TK

  2. Spectropolarimetric Inversions of the Ca II 8542 Å Line in an M-class Solar Flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuridze, D.; Henriques, V. M. J.; Mathioudakis, M.; Rouppe van der Voort, L.; de la Cruz Rodríguez, J.; Carlsson, M.

    2018-06-01

    We study the M1.9-class solar flare SOL2015-09-27T10:40 UT using high-resolution full Stokes imaging spectropolarimetry of the Ca II 8542 Å line obtained with the CRISP imaging spectropolarimeter at the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope. Spectropolarimetric inversions using the non-LTE code NICOLE are used to construct semiempirical models of the flaring atmosphere to investigate the structure and evolution of the flare temperature and magnetic field. A comparison of the temperature stratification in flaring and nonflaring areas reveals strong heating of the flare ribbon during the flare peak. The polarization signals of the ribbon in the chromosphere during the flare maximum become stronger when compared to its surroundings and to pre- and post-flare profiles. Furthermore, a comparison of the response functions to perturbations in the line-of-sight magnetic field and temperature in flaring and nonflaring atmospheres shows that during the flare, the Ca II 8542 Å line is more sensitive to the lower atmosphere where the magnetic field is expected to be stronger. The chromospheric magnetic field was also determined with the weak-field approximation, which led to results similar to those obtained with the NICOLE inversions.

  3. MHC class II diversity of koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) populations across their range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Q; Jaratlerdsiri, W; Griffith, J E; Gongora, J; Higgins, D P

    2014-10-01

    Major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) genes code for proteins that bind and present antigenic peptides and trigger the adaptive immune response. We present a broad geographical study of MHCII DA β1 (DAB) and DB β1 (DBB) variants of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus; n=191) from 12 populations across eastern Australia, with a total of 13 DAB and 7 DBB variants found. We identified greater MHCII variation and, possibly, additional gene copies in koala populations in the north (Queensland and New South Wales) relative to the south (Victoria), confirmed by STRUCTURE analyses and genetic differentiation using analysis of molecular variance. The higher MHCII diversity in the north relative to south could potentially be attributed to (i) significant founder effect in Victorian populations linked to historical translocation of bottlenecked koala populations and (ii) increased pathogen-driven balancing selection and/or local genetic drift in the north. Low MHCII genetic diversity in koalas from the south could reduce their potential response to disease, although the three DAB variants found in the south had substantial sequence divergence between variants. This study assessing MHCII diversity in the koala with historical translocations in some populations contributes to understanding the effects of population translocations on functional genetic diversity.

  4. Superantigen and HLA-DR ligation induce phospholipase-C gamma 1 activation in class II+ T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanner, S B; Odum, Niels; Grosmaire, L

    1992-01-01

    Bacterial enterotoxin superantigens bind directly to HLA class II molecules (HLA-DR) expressed on both APC and activated human T cells, and simultaneously bind to certain V beta chains of the TCR. In this report, we compared early T cell signaling events in human alloantigen-stimulated T cells when...... activated by HLA-DR ligation through antibody cross-linking or by direct enterotoxin superantigen binding. Both types of stimuli induced tyrosine phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C gamma 1 (PLC gamma 1) and an increase in intracellular calcium concentration; however......, superantigen-induced signaling was stronger than class II ligation alone. Antibody-mediated ligation of HLA-DR with CD3 resulted in augmented PLC gamma 1 activation and increased calcium mobilization, consistent with a mechanism of superantigen activity through a combination of class II and CD3/Ti signals...

  5. Lateral-access Class II restoration using resin-modified glass-ionomer or silver-cermet cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croll, T P

    1995-02-01

    Direct-access preparation of a carious proximal surface is perhaps the most conservative approach to restoration. Physical properties and handling characteristics of silver amalgam and of resin composite and lack of fluoride ion release make these materials unsuitable for direct buccal- or lingual-access proximal restoration. Insufficient strengths and radiolucency of self-hardening glass-ionomer cements preclude their use for Class II restorations. However, glass-ionomer silver-cermet cement and some resin-modified glass-ionomer materials are proving useful for non-stress-bearing Class II restorations and may have applications in preventive dentistry. This article describes lateral-access Class II restoration with modified glass-ionomer cements. Emphasis is placed on careful handling of materials, maintenance of an ideal operative field, and conservation of tooth structure.

  6. A Randomized 10-year Prospective Follow-up of Class II Nanohybrid and Conventional Hybrid Resin Composite Restorations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan Wv; Pallesen, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the 10-year durability of a nanohybrid resin composite in Class II restorations in a randomized controlled intraindividual comparison with its conventional hybrid resin composite predecessor. Materials and Methods: Each of 52 participants received at least two Class II...... restorations that were as similar as possible. The cavities were chosen at random to be restored with a nanohybrid resin composite (Excite/Tetric EvoCeram (TEC); n = 61) and a conventional hybrid (Excite/Tetric Ceram (TC); n = 61). The restorations were evaluated with slightly modified USPHS criteria...... investigated resin composites. Conclusion: The nanohybrid and the conventional hybrid resin composite showed good clinical effectiveness in extensive Class II restorations during the 10-year study....

  7. Characterization and evolution of MHC class II B genes in Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaberman, Scott; Moreno, Maria A; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2009-08-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules play a key role in the adaptive immune system of vertebrates. Class II B genes appear to evolve in a very different manner in mammals and birds. Orthology is commonly observed among mammal loci, while genes tend to cluster phylogenetically within bird species. Here we present class II B data from a representative of another major group of amniotes, the squamates (i.e. lizards, snakes, amphisbaenians), with the ultimate goal of placing mammalian and avian MHC evolution into a broader context. In this study, eight class II B cDNA sequences were obtained from the Galápagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) which were divided into five locus groups, Amcr-DAB1 through -DAB5, based on similarities along most of the coding and noncoding portions of the transcribed gene. All marine iguana sequences were monophyletic with respect to class II genes from other vertebrates indicating that they originated from a common ancestral locus after squamates split from other reptiles. The beta-1 domain, which is involved in antigen binding, exhibited signatures of positive selection as well as interlocus gene conversion in both long and short tracts-a pattern also observed in birds and fish, but not in mammals. On the other hand, the beta-2 domain was divergent between gene groups, which is characteristic of mammals. Based on these results, we preliminarily show that squamate class II B genes have been shaped by a unique blend of evolutionary forces that have been observed in differing degrees in other vertebrates.

  8. Characterization of MHC class I and II genes in a subantarctic seabird, the blue petrel, Halobaena caerulea (Procellariiformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandh, Maria; Lannefors, Mimi; Bonadonna, Francesco; Westerdahl, Helena

    2011-10-01

    The great polymorphism observed in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes is thought to be maintained by pathogen-mediated selection possibly combined with MHC-disassortative mating, guided by MHC-determined olfactory cues. Here, we partly characterize the MHC class I and II B of the blue petrel, Halobaena caerulea (Procellariiformes), a bird with significant olfactory abilities that lives under presumably low pathogen burdens in Subantarctica. Blue petrels are long-lived, monogamous birds which suggest the necessity of an accurate mate choice process. The species is ancestral to songbirds (Passeriformes; many MHC loci), although not to gamefowls (Galliformes; few MHC loci). Considering the phylogenetic relationships and the low subantarctic pathogen burden, we expected few rather than many MHC loci in the blue petrel. However, when we analysed partial MHC class I and class II B cDNA and gDNA sequences we found evidence for as many as at least eight MHC class I loci and at least two class II B loci. These class I and II B sequences showed classical MHC characteristics, e.g. high nucleotide diversity, especially in putative peptide-binding regions where signatures of positive selection was detected. Trans-species polymorphism was found between MHC class II B sequences of the blue petrel and those of thin-billed prion, Pachyptila belcheri, two species that diverged ∼25 MYA. The observed MHC allele richness in the blue petrel may well serve as a basis for mate choice, especially since olfactory discrimination of MHC types may be possible in this species.

  9. Subcellular localization of class II HDAs in Arabidopsis thaliana: nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HDA15 is driven by light.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malona V Alinsug

    Full Text Available Class II histone deacetylases in humans and other model organisms undergo nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. This unique functional regulatory mechanism has been well elucidated in eukaryotic organisms except in plant systems. In this study, we have paved the baseline evidence for the cytoplasmic and nuclear localization of Class II HDAs as well as their mRNA expression patterns. RT-PCR analysis on the different vegetative parts and developmental stages reveal that Class II HDAs are ubiquitously expressed in all tissues with minimal developmental specificity. Moreover, stable and transient expression assays using HDA-YFP/GFP fusion constructs indicate cytoplasmic localization of HDA5, HDA8, and HDA14 further suggesting their potential for nuclear transport and deacetylating organellar and cytoplasmic proteins. Organelle markers and stains confirm HDA14 to abound in the mitochondria and chloroplasts while HDA5 localizes in the ER. HDA15, on the other hand, shuttles in and out of the nucleus upon light exposure. In the absence of light, it is exported out of the nucleus where further re-exposition to light treatments signals its nuclear import. Unlike HDA5 which binds with 14-3-3 proteins, HDA15 fails to interact with these chaperones. Instead, HDA15 relies on its own nuclear localization and export signals to navigate its subcellular compartmentalization classifying it as a Class IIb HDA. Our study indicates that nucleocytoplasmic shuttling is indeed a hallmark for all eukaryotic Class II histone deacetylases.

  10. [Pre-surgical orthodontic treatment of skeletal class II patients with gingival smile corrected by anterior maxillary segmental osteotomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaobing; Xiao, Liwei; Chen, Song; Chen, Yangxi

    2002-11-01

    To discuss the pre-surgical orthodontic treatment of skeletal class II patients with gingiva smile corrected by AMSO. We analyzed the clinical features of 20 skeletal class II patients treated by AMSO combined with Orthodontic treatment and evaluated the effects of AMSO by means of cephalometric analysis. After the AMSO treatment, ANB angle, the height of anterior maxilla, the protrusion of the upper anterior teeth, and the of A point had reduced significantly (P orthodontically to make arch relationship. Extract the upper bicuspid half a year before the surgery was recommended. When necessary, genioplasty could be performed.

  11. Identification of MHC class II restricted T‐cell‐mediated reactivity against MHC class I binding Mycobacterium tuberculosis peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Mingjun; Tang, Sheila Tuyet; Stryhn, Anette

    2011-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are known to play an important role in the control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection so identification of CTL epitopes from M. tuberculosis is of importance for the development of effective peptide...

  12. An Approach for a Synthetic CTL Vaccine Design against Zika Flavivirus Using Class I and Class II Epitopes Identified by Computer Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edecio Cunha-Neto

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The threat posed by severe congenital abnormalities related to Zika virus (ZKV infection during pregnancy has turned development of a ZKV vaccine into an emergency. Recent work suggests that the cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL response to infection is an important defense mechanism in response to ZKV. Here, we develop the rationale and strategy for a new approach to developing cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL vaccines for ZKV flavivirus infection. The proposed approach is based on recent studies using a protein structure computer model for HIV epitope selection designed to select epitopes for CTL attack optimized for viruses that exhibit antigenic drift. Because naturally processed and presented human ZKV T cell epitopes have not yet been described, we identified predicted class I peptide sequences on ZKV matching previously identified DNV (Dengue class I epitopes and by using a Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC binding prediction tool. A subset of those met the criteria for optimal CD8+ attack based on physical chemistry parameters determined by analysis of the ZKV protein structure encoded in open source Protein Data File (PDB format files. We also identified candidate ZKV epitopes predicted to bind promiscuously to multiple HLA class II molecules that could provide help to the CTL responses. This work suggests that a CTL vaccine for ZKV may be possible even if ZKV exhibits significant antigenic drift. We have previously described a microsphere-based CTL vaccine platform capable of eliciting an immune response for class I epitopes in mice and are currently working toward in vivo testing of class I and class II epitope delivery directed against ZKV epitopes using the same microsphere-based vaccine.

  13. Characterization of major histocompatibility complex class I, and class II DRB loci of captive and wild Indian leopards (Panthera pardus fusca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Drashti R; Mitra, Siuli; Bhadouriya, Snehalata; Rao, Tirupathi; Kunteepuram, Vaishnavi; Gaur, Ajay

    2017-12-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC), in vertebrate animals, is a multi-genic protein complex that encodes various receptors. During a disease, MHC interacts with the antigen and triggers a cascade of adaptive immune responses to overcome a disease outbreak. The MHC is very important region from immunological point of view, but it is poorly characterized among Indian leopards. During this investigation, we examined genetic diversity for MHC class I (MHC-I) and MHC class II-DRB (MHC-II) among wild and captive Indian leopards. This study estimated a pool of 9 and 17 alleles for MHC-I and MHC-II, respectively. The wild group of individuals showed higher nucleotide diversity and amino acid polymorphism compared to the captive group. A phylogenetic comparison with other felids revealed a clustering in MHC-I and interspersed presence in MHC-II sequences. A test for selection also revealed a deviation from neutrality at MHC-II DRB loci and higher non-synonymous substitution rate (dN) among the individuals from wild group. Further, the wild individuals showed higher dN for both MHC I and II genes compared to the group that was bred under captive conditions. These findings suggest the role of micro-evolutionary forces, such as pathogen-mediated selection, to cause MHC variations among the two groups of Indian leopards, because the two groups have been bred in two different environments for a substantial period of time. Since, MHC diversity is often linked with the quality of immunological health; the results obtained from this study fill the gap of knowledge on disease predisposition among wild and captive Indian leopards.

  14. Dynamic range of Nef-mediated evasion of HLA class II-restricted immune responses in early HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahiti, Macdonald; Brumme, Zabrina L; Jessen, Heiko; Brockman, Mark A; Ueno, Takamasa

    2015-07-31

    HLA class II-restricted CD4(+) T lymphocytes play an important role in controlling HIV-1 replication, especially in the acute/early infection stage. But, HIV-1 Nef counteracts this immune response by down-regulating HLA-DR and up-regulating the invariant chain associated with immature HLA-II (Ii). Although functional heterogeneity of various Nef activities, including down-regulation of HLA class I (HLA-I), is well documented, our understanding of Nef-mediated evasion of HLA-II-restricted immune responses during acute/early infection remains limited. Here, we examined the ability of Nef clones from 47 subjects with acute/early progressive infection and 46 subjects with chronic progressive infection to up-regulate Ii and down-regulate HLA-DR and HLA-I from the surface of HIV-infected cells. HLA-I down-regulation function was preserved among acute/early Nef clones, whereas both HLA-DR down-regulation and Ii up-regulation functions displayed relatively broad dynamic ranges. Nef's ability to down-regulate HLA-DR and up-regulate Ii correlated positively at this stage, suggesting they are functionally linked in vivo. Acute/early Nef clones also exhibited higher HLA-DR down-regulation and lower Ii up-regulation functions compared to chronic Nef clones. Taken together, our results support enhanced Nef-mediated HLA class II immune evasion activities in acute/early compared to chronic infection, highlighting the potential importance of these functions following transmission. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Positive selection on MHC class II DRB and DQB genes in the bank vole (Myodes glareolus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherman, Kristin; Råberg, Lars; Westerdahl, Helena

    2014-05-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class IIB genes show considerable sequence similarity between loci. The MHC class II DQB and DRB genes are known to exhibit a high level of polymorphism, most likely maintained by parasite-mediated selection. Studies of the MHC in wild rodents have focused on DRB, whilst DQB has been given much less attention. Here, we characterised DQB genes in Swedish bank voles Myodes glareolus, using full-length transcripts. We then designed primers that specifically amplify exon 2 from DRB (202 bp) and DQB (205 bp) and investigated molecular signatures of natural selection on DRB and DQB alleles. The presence of two separate gene clusters was confirmed using BLASTN and phylogenetic analysis, where our seven transcripts clustered according to either DQB or DRB homologues. These gene clusters were again confirmed on exon 2 data from 454-amplicon sequencing. Our DRB primers amplify a similar number of alleles per individual as previously published DRB primers, though our reads are longer. Traditional d N/d S analyses of DRB sequences in the bank vole have not found a conclusive signal of positive selection. Using a more advanced substitution model (the Kumar method) we found positive selection in the peptide binding region (PBR) of both DRB and DQB genes. Maximum likelihood models of codon substitutions detected positively selected sites located in the PBR of both DQB and DRB. Interestingly, these analyses detected at least twice as many positively selected sites in DQB than DRB, suggesting that DQB has been under stronger positive selection than DRB over evolutionary time.

  16. Recent Progress in the Chemical Synthesis of Class II and S-Glycosylated Bacteriocins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Bédard

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A wide variety of antimicrobial peptides produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB have been identified and studied in the last decades. Known as bacteriocins, these ribosomally synthesized peptides inhibit the growth of a wide range of bacterial species through numerous mechanisms and show a great variety of spectrum of activity. With their great potential as antimicrobial additives and alternatives to traditional antibiotics in food preservation and handling, animal production and in veterinary and medical medicine, the demand for bacteriocins is rapidly increasing. Bacteriocins are most often produced by fermentation but, in several cases, the low isolated yields and difficulties associated with their purification seriously limit their use on a large scale. Chemical synthesis has been proposed for their production and recent advances in peptide synthesis methodologies have allowed the preparation of several bacteriocins. Moreover, the significant cost reduction for peptide synthesis reagents and building blocks has made chemical synthesis of bacteriocins more attractive and competitive. From a protein engineering point of view, the chemical approach offers many advantages such as the possibility to rapidly perform amino acid substitution, use unnatural or modified residues, and make backbone and side chain modifications to improve potency, modify the activity spectrum or increase the stability of the targeted bacteriocin. This review summarized synthetic approaches that have been developed and used in recent years to allow the preparation of class IIa bacteriocins and S-linked glycopeptides from LAB. Synthetic strategies such as the use of pseudoprolines, backbone protecting groups, microwave irradiations, selective disulfide bridge formation and chemical ligations to prepare class II and S-glycosylsated bacteriocins are discussed.

  17. DLA Class II Alleles Are Associated with Risk for Canine Symmetrical Lupoid Onychodystropy (SLO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbe, Maria; Ziener, Martine Lund; Aronsson, Anita; Harlos, Charlotte; Sundberg, Katarina; Norberg, Elin; Andersson, Lisa; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Hedhammar, Åke; Andersson, Göran; Lingaas, Frode

    2010-01-01

    Symmetrical lupoid onychodystrophy (SLO) is an immune-mediated disease in dogs affecting the claws with a suggested autoimmune aethiology. Sequence-based genotyping of the polymorphic exon 2 from DLA-DRB1, -DQA1, and -DQB1 class II loci were performed in a total of 98 SLO Gordon setter cases and 98 healthy controls. A risk haplotype (DRB1*01801/DQA1*00101/DQB1*00802) was present in 53% of cases and 34% of controls and conferred an elevated risk of developing SLO with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.1. When dogs homozygous for the risk haplotype were compared to all dogs not carrying the haplotype the OR was 5.4. However, a stronger protective haplotype (DRB1*02001/DQA1*00401/DQB1*01303, OR = 0.03, 1/OR = 33) was present in 16.8% of controls, but only in a single case (0.5%). The effect of the protective haplotype was clearly stronger than the risk haplotype, since 11.2% of the controls were heterozygous for the risk and protective haplotypes, whereas this combination was absent from cases. When the dogs with the protective haplotype were excluded, an OR of 2.5 was obtained when dogs homozygous for the risk haplotype were compared to those heterozygous for the risk haplotype, suggesting a co-dominant effect of the risk haplotype. In smaller sample sizes of the bearded collie and giant schnauzer breeds we found the same or similar haplotypes, sharing the same DQA1 allele, over-represented among the cases suggesting that the risk is associated primarily with DLA-DQ. We obtained conclusive results that DLA class II is significantly associated with risk of developing SLO in Gordon setters, thus supporting that SLO is an immune-mediated disease. Further studies of SLO in dogs may provide important insight into immune privilege of the nail apparatus and also knowledge about a number of inflammatory disorders of the nail apparatus like lichen planus, psoriasis, alopecia areata and onycholysis. PMID:20808798

  18. DLA class II alleles are associated with risk for canine symmetrical lupoid onychodystrophy [corrected](SLO.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Wilbe

    Full Text Available Symmetrical lupoid onychodystrophy (SLO is an immune-mediated disease in dogs affecting the claws with a suggested autoimmune aethiology. Sequence-based genotyping of the polymorphic exon 2 from DLA-DRB1, -DQA1, and -DQB1 class II loci were performed in a total of 98 SLO Gordon setter cases and 98 healthy controls. A risk haplotype (DRB1*01801/DQA1*00101/DQB1*00802 was present in 53% of cases and 34% of controls and conferred an elevated risk of developing SLO with an odds ratio (OR of 2.1. When dogs homozygous for the risk haplotype were compared to all dogs not carrying the haplotype the OR was 5.4. However, a stronger protective haplotype (DRB1*02001/DQA1*00401/DQB1*01303, OR = 0.03, 1/OR = 33 was present in 16.8% of controls, but only in a single case (0.5%. The effect of the protective haplotype was clearly stronger than the risk haplotype, since 11.2% of the controls were heterozygous for the risk and protective haplotypes, whereas this combination was absent from cases. When the dogs with the protective haplotype were excluded, an OR of 2.5 was obtained when dogs homozygous for the risk haplotype were compared to those heterozygous for the risk haplotype, suggesting a co-dominant effect of the risk haplotype. In smaller sample sizes of the bearded collie and giant schnauzer breeds we found the same or similar haplotypes, sharing the same DQA1 allele, over-represented among the cases suggesting that the risk is associated primarily with DLA-DQ. We obtained conclusive results that DLA class II is significantly associated with risk of developing SLO in Gordon setters, thus supporting that SLO is an immune-mediated disease. Further studies of SLO in dogs may provide important insight into immune privilege of the nail apparatus and also knowledge about a number of inflammatory disorders of the nail apparatus like lichen planus, psoriasis, alopecia areata and onycholysis.

  19. Changes in soft tissue profile using functional appliances in the treatment of skeletal class II malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamenković Zorana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The effects of orthodontic treatment are considered to be successful if the facial harmony is achieved, while the structures of soft tissue profile are in harmony with skeletal structures of neurocranium and viscerocranium. In patients with skeletal distal bite caused by mandibular retrognathism, facial esthetics is disturbed often, in terms of pronounced convexity of the profile and change in the position and relationship of the lips. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine the extent of soft tissue profile changes in patients with skeletal Class II malocclusion treated with three different orthodontic appliances: Fränkel functional regulator type I (FR-I, Balters’ Bionator type I and Hotz appliance. Methods. The study included 60 patients diagnosed with skeletal Class II malocclusion caused by mandibular retrognathism, in the period of early mixed dentition. Each subgroup of 20 patients was treated with a variety of orthodontic appliances. On the lateral cephalogram, before and after treatment, the following parameters were analyzed: T angle, H angle, the height of the upper lip, the position of the upper and lower lip in relation to the esthetic line. Within the statistical analysis the mean, maximum, minimum, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, two-factor analysis of variance with repeated measures and the factor analysis of variance were calculated using ANOVA, Bonferroni test and Student’s t-test. Results. A significant decrease of angles T and H was noticed in the application of FR-I, from 21.60° to 17.15°, and from 16.45° to 13.40° (p<0.001. FR-I decreased the height of the upper lip from 26.15 mm to 25.85 mm, while Hotz appliance and Balters’ Bionator type I increased the height of the upper lip, thereby deteriorating esthetics of the patient. Conclusion. All used orthodontic appliances lead to changes in soft tissue profile in terms of improving facial esthetics, with the most distinctive

  20. Trans-species polymorphism and selection in the MHC class II DRA genes of domestic sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith T Ballingall

    Full Text Available Highly polymorphic genes with central roles in lymphocyte mediated immune surveillance are grouped together in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC in higher vertebrates. Generally, across vertebrate species the class II MHC DRA gene is highly conserved with only limited allelic variation. Here however, we provide evidence of trans-species polymorphism at the DRA locus in domestic sheep (Ovis aries. We describe variation at the Ovar-DRA locus that is far in excess of anything described in other vertebrate species. The divergent DRA allele (Ovar-DRA*0201 differs from the sheep reference sequences by 20 nucleotides, 12 of which appear non-synonymous. Furthermore, DRA*0201 is paired with an equally divergent DRB1 allele (Ovar-DRB1*0901, which is consistent with an independent evolutionary history for the DR sub-region within this MHC haplotype. No recombination was observed between the divergent DRA and B genes in a range of breeds and typical levels of MHC class II DR protein expression were detected at the surface of leukocyte populations obtained from animals homozygous for the DRA*0201, DRB1*0901 haplotype. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis groups Ovar-DRA*0201 with DRA sequences derived from species within the Oryx and Alcelaphus genera rather than clustering with other ovine and caprine DRA alleles. Tests for Darwinian selection identified 10 positively selected sites on the branch leading to Ovar-DRA*0201, three of which are predicted to be associated with the binding of peptide antigen. As the Ovis, Oryx and Alcelaphus genera have not shared a common ancestor for over 30 million years, the DRA*0201 and DRB1*0901 allelic pair is likely to be of ancient origin and present in the founding population from which all contemporary domestic sheep breeds are derived. The conservation of the integrity of this unusual DR allelic pair suggests some selective advantage which is likely to be associated with the presentation of pathogen antigen to T

  1. Clinical, immunological and genetic features in eleven Algerian patients with major histocompatibility complex class II expression deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djidjik Réda

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Presenting processed antigens to CD4+ lymphocytes during the immune response involves major histocompatibility complex class II molecules. MHC class II genes transcription is regulated by four transcription factors: CIITA, RFXANK, RFX5 and RFXAP. Defects in these factors result in major histocompatibility complex class II expression deficiency, a primary combined immunodeficiency frequent in North Africa. Autosomal recessive mutations in the RFXANK gene have been reported as being the principal defect found in North African patients with this disorder. In this paper, we describe clinical, immunological and genetic features of 11 unrelated Algerian patients whose monocytes display a total absence of MHC class II molecules. They shared mainly the same clinical picture which included protracted diarrhoea and respiratory tract recurrent infections. Genetic analysis revealed that 9 of the 11 patients had the same RFXANK founder mutation, a 26 bp deletion (named I5E6-25_I5E6+1, also known as 752delG26. Immunological and genetic findings in our series may facilitate genetic counselling implementation for Algerian consanguineous families. Further studies need to be conducted to determine 752delG26 heterozygous mutation frequency in Algerian population.

  2. 77 FR 37058 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA 2012-D-0304] Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance... Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the...

  3. 76 FR 20992 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-D-0189] Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Low Level Laser System for Aesthetic Use; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS...

  4. 75 FR 70271 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-D-0515] Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document...: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is...

  5. 75 FR 68364 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2008-D-0275] Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Full-Field Digital Mammography System; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. [[Page...

  6. 76 FR 16425 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-D-0028] Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Ovarian Adnexal Mass Assessment Score Test System; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS...

  7. 76 FR 6622 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-D-0645] Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Contact Cooling System for Aesthetic Use; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION...

  8. 76 FR 22906 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2006-D-0094] Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Topical Oxygen Chamber for Extremities; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION...

  9. 76 FR 28688 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 866 [Docket No. FDA-2011-D-0102] Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: In Vitro Diagnostic Devices for Bacillus Species Detection AGENCY: Food and...

  10. 76 FR 43332 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-D-0500] Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Focused Ultrasound Stimulator System for Aesthetic Use; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...

  11. 76 FR 43690 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2007-D-0149] (Formerly 2007D-0309) Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Electrocardiograph Electrodes; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug...

  12. 77 FR 14403 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2012-D-0167] Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Norovirus Serological Reagents; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice...

  13. 76 FR 48870 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... selection inclusion and exclusion criteria section. The revisions define and differentiate the required... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-D-0428] Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document...

  14. 75 FR 59726 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... method comparison section and the sample selection inclusion and exclusion criteria section. The... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-D-0428] Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

  15. 25 CFR 547.9 - What are the minimum technical standards for Class II gaming system accounting functions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... gaming system accounting functions? 547.9 Section 547.9 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION... accounting functions? This section provides standards for accounting functions used in Class II gaming systems. (a) Required accounting data.The following minimum accounting data, however named, shall be...

  16. A research for Class II defect Bored Pile’s Accept Criteria: A case of Penang Second Marine bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kang

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this preliminary research is to study the accept criteria of class II bored pile with subtle defect. According to a detailed comparison of the existed different standards, Chinese ones are more applicable especially for the large diameter bored piles. Through the concrete coring at pile No P25-03 of this case and the comparison to the actual calculation, the Class II pile’s defects were very minor. Comparison was also made for the effects on pile structural capacities before and after repair of the defects. the feasible repair proposal may bring forward to more defects to the piles. The Class II piles don’t need any further repairation when piles have typical of similar character and sonic logging test result with P25-03‘s one. For other Class II piles with some differences in characters, verification is needed through further concrete coring on the pile. The recommendation of this research could be adopted for the similar huge marine structures which installed large diameter bored piles.

  17. NN-align. An artificial neural network-based alignment algorithm for MHC class II peptide binding prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten; Lund, Ole

    2009-01-01

    this binding event. RESULTS: Here, we present a novel artificial neural network-based method, NN-align that allows for simultaneous identification of the MHC class II binding core and binding affinity. NN-align is trained using a novel training algorithm that allows for correction of bias in the training data...

  18. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Jjj of... - Class II Emission Limits for Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion Unitsa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Small Municipal Waste Combustion Unitsa 4 Table 4 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Pt. 62, Subpt. JJJ, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62—Class II Emission Limits for Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion Unitsa ER31JA03.009...

  19. Negative relationships between cellular immune response, Mhc class II heterozygosity and secondary sexual trait in the montane water vole

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Charbonnel, N.; Bryja, Josef; Galan, M.; Deter, J.; Tollenaere, C.; Chaval, Y.; Morand, S.; Cosson, J.-F.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 3 (2010), s. 279-290 ISSN 1752-4571 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 10284 - EDEN Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : abundance cycles * Dqa and Drb * immunocompetence handicap * Mhc class II genes * parasite-mediated balancing selection * sexual selection Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.145, year: 2010

  20. Effectiveness of comprehensive fixed appliance treatment used with the Forsus Fatigue Resistant Device in Class II patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, Lorenzo; Alvetro, Lisa; Giuntini, Veronica; Masucci, Caterina; Defraia, Efisio; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2011-07-01

    To assess the dental, skeletal, and soft tissue effects of comprehensive fixed appliance treatment combined with the Forsus Fatigue Resistant Device (FRD) in Class II patients. Thirty-two Class II patients (mean age 12.7 ± 1.2 years) were treated consecutively with the FRD protocol and compared with a matched sample of 27 untreated Class II subjects (mean age 12.8 ± 1.3 years). Lateral cephalograms were taken before therapy and at the completion of comprehensive therapy. The mean duration of comprehensive treatment was 2.4 ± 0.4 years. Statistical comparisons were carried out with the Student's t-test (P < .05). The success rate was 87.5%. The FRD group showed a significant restraint in the sagittal skeletal position of the maxilla (also at the soft tissue level), a significant increase in mandibular length, and a significant improvement in maxillo-mandibular sagittal skeletal relationships. The treated group exhibited a significant reduction in overjet and a significant increase in molar relationship. The lower incisors were significantly proclined and intruded, while the lower first molars moved significantly in a mesial and vertical direction. The FRD protocol is effective in correcting Class II malocclusion with a combination of skeletal (mainly maxillary) and dentoalveolar (mainly mandibular) modifications.

  1. 75 FR 54637 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... conferencing and electronic submissions, Mammography Matters, and other device-oriented information. The CDRH... approval) into class II (special controls). DATES: Submit written or electronic comments on this guidance... electronic access to the guidance. Submit electronic comments on the guidance to http://www.regulations.gov...

  2. Stability of skeletal changes induced by growth modulation procedures in the treatment of skeletal Class II malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashantha Govinakovi Shivamurthy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Objective of this study, based on an evaluation of lateral cephalograms, was to evaluate the degree of skeletal changes produced by the various growth modulative procedures in the treatment of skeletal Class II malocclusion and to characterize the stability of these changes in the years after treatment. Materials and Methods: Total of 40 patients with Class II malocclusion was divided into three groups according to appliance used, i.e. removable or fixed functional appliances (n = 10, combination of functional appliance with headgear (n = 10, and only headgear (n = 10. In addition, almost a matched control group (n = 10 also characterized by skeletal Class II pattern and were under observation, for more than 2 years was also selected. Lateral cephalograms of each patient were taken at the start of treatment (T1, at its completion (T2, and long-term posttreatment (T3. Results: This study showed significant improvement in maxillomandibular relationship in treated group compared to control group, and the changes remained stable in posttreatment phase. Restriction of maxillary growth was evident in headgear and combination groups whereas significant forward movement of the mandible was seen in functional group. Conclusion: Analysis of lateral cephalograms indicates that growth modulation therapy in angle Class II malocclusion brings about desired skeletal changes which remain relatively stable over a long-term period.

  3. MHC class II genes in the European badger (Meles meles) : Characterization, patterns of variation, and transcription analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sin, Yung Wa; Dugdale, Hannah L.; Newman, Chris; Macdonald, David W.; Burke, Terry

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) comprises many genes, some of which are polymorphic with numerous alleles. Sequence variation among alleles is most pronounced in exon 2 of the class II genes, which encodes the alpha 1 and beta 1 domains that form the antigen-binding site (ABS) for the

  4. Long-term outcomes of mandibular kinematics following class II malocclusion therapy with removable functional appliance therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsen, Sabine S; Wolf, Michael; Müßig, Dieter

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate mandibular kinematics in class I adults following class II therapy with removable functional appliances (RFAs) during the growth period in comparison with orthodontically untreated class I and II individuals. Condylar (CRoM) and incisal range of motion (InRoM), velocity during opening and closing, and the mandibular rotation angle were recorded using an ultrasound-based jaw-tracking system in 36 test patients (mean age = 28.03 ± 6.58 years). Significant group effects were found for CRoM towards the posterior in the right joint (p = 0.002) and InRoM towards the anterior (p = 0.043). The post hoc Tukey test indicates a significantly longer CRoM (posterior) for the right condyle in class II (p = 0.003) and RFA individuals (p = 0.023). The kinematic data imply greater dentoalveolar effects due to RFA therapy than adaptive remodeling of the temporomandibular joint. The class I relationship in the RFA group following treatment indicates stable long-term outcomes.

  5. A clinical evaluation of a bioresorbable membrane and porous hydroxyapatite in the treatment of human molar class II furcations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Gita Malathi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ultimate goal of periodontal therapy is predictable regeneration of a functional attachment apparatus destroyed as a result of periodontitis. Reconstructive procedures have been used with varying success during the past decades to accomplish this goal. Aim: To evaluate whether the use of porous hydroxyapatite alone or a bioresorbable membrane alone would enhance the clinical results in the treatment of class II furcation defects in human lower molars. Materials and Methods: Fifteen patients with chronic periodontitis, aged between 39 and 49 years, with a pair of similar bilateral class II furcation defects (classification of Hamp et al. in mandibular first molars were selected. A split-mouth design was incorporated and the selected 30 furcation defects were assigned to one of the two treatment groups, i.e., Group I treated with a bioresorbable membrane from bovine-derived collagen guided tissue regeneration membrane and Group II treated using porous hydroxyapatite bone graft material on the contralateral sides. Evaluation of clinical parameters, probing depths and attachment levels, and radiographs was done preoperatively and 6 months postoperatively. Results: Both the groups showed statistically significant mean reduction in probing depths and gain in clinical attachment levels and linear bone fill. Comparison between Group I and Group II showed insignificant difference. Conclusion: Within the limits of this study, both the treatment modalities are beneficial for the treatment of human mandibular class II furcation defects.

  6. MHC class II B diversity in blue tits: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Juan Rivero-de; Schut, Elske; Merino, Santiago; Martínez, Javier; Komdeur, Jan; Westerdahl, Helena

    2013-07-01

    In this study, we partly characterize major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II B in the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus). A total of 22 individuals from three different European locations: Spain, The Netherlands, and Sweden were screened for MHC allelic diversity. The MHC genes were investigated using both PCR-based methods and unamplified genomic DNA with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and southern blots. A total of 13 different exon 2 sequences were obtained independently from DNA and/or RNA, thus confirming gene transcription and likely functionality of the genes. Nine out of 13 alleles were found in more than one country, and two alleles appeared in all countries. Positive selection was detected in the region coding for the peptide binding region (PBR). A maximum of three alleles per individual was detected by sequencing and the RFLP pattern consisted of 4-7 fragments, indicating a minimum number of 2-4 loci per individual. A phylogenetic analysis, demonstrated that the blue tit sequences are divergent compared to sequences from other passerines resembling a different MHC lineage than those possessed by most passerines studied to date.

  7. Two class II D-tagatose-bisphosphate aldolases from enteric bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkkötter, Andreas; Shakeri-Garakani, Ansiah; Lengeler, Joseph W

    2002-05-01

    Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Klebsiella pneumoniaeand Klebsiella oxytocawere found to contain two D-tagatose 1,6-bisphosphate (TagBP)-specific aldolases involved in catabolism of galactitol (genes gatY gatZ) and of N-acetyl-galactosamine and D-galactosamine (genes kbaY kbaZ,also called agaY agaZ). The two aldolases were closely related (> or = 53.8% identical amino acids) and could substitute for each other in vivo. The catalytic subunits GatY or KbaY alone were sufficient to show aldolase activity. Although substantially shorter than other aldolases (285 amino acids, instead of 358 and 349 amino acids), these subunits contained most or all of the residues that have been identified as essential in substrate/product recognition and catalysis for class II aldolases. In contrast to these, both aldolases required subunits GatZ or KbaZ (420 amino acids) for full activity and for good in vivo and in vitro stability. The Z subunits alone did not show any aldolase activity. Close relatives of these new TagBP aldolases were found in several gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, e.g., Streptomyces coelicolor.

  8. Internal and Marginal Fit of Modern Indirect Class II Composite Inlays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp C. Pott

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This in vitro study investigates the marginal and internal fit of indirect class II composite restorations. Two different processes for chair-side restorations were compared. In group A, the restorations were fabricated using CAD/CAM technology (Cerec, Sirona, Germany, Bernsheim and in group B they were made by hand (GrandioSO Inlay System, VOCO GmbH, Germany, Cuxhaven. Methods: For a metal tooth with a MOD cavity each 10 restorations were made for groups A and B. For each restoration, a replica of the cement-gap made from light body silicone was produced by placing the restoration into the cavity of the metal tooth. For this purpose, a special restoration-positioning machine was developed. Each replica was sectioned off in the longitudinal axis (L and in the cross axis (C. The thickness of the replicas was measured in both directions, using picture analysis software under a light reflection microscope. To evaluate the fit of the restorations, a special fitting parameter was calculated. Statistical analysis was performed with the t test. Results: The fitting-parameter in group B (L: 97.6µm±73.0µm; C: 71.8µm±46.4µm was significantly lower than that of group A (L: 155.1µm±102.3.0µm; C: 168.2µm±91.9µm (P

  9. Medical devices; exemption from premarket notification; class II devices; wheelchair elevator. Final order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is publishing an order granting a petition requesting exemption from premarket notification requirements for wheelchair elevator devices commonly known as inclined platform lifts and vertical platform lifts. These devices are used to provide a means for a person with a mobility impairment caused by injury or other disease to move from one level to another, usually in a wheelchair. This order exempts wheelchair elevators, class II devices, from premarket notification and establishes conditions for exemption for this device that will provide a reasonable assurance of the safety and effectiveness of the device without submission of a premarket notification (510(k)). This exemption from 510(k), subject to these conditions, is immediately in effect for wheelchair elevators. All other devices classified under FDA's wheelchair elevator regulations, including attendant-operated stair climbing devices for wheelchairs and portable platform lifts, continue to require submission of 510(k)s. FDA is publishing this order in accordance with the section of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act) permitting the exemption of a device from the requirement to submit a 510(k).

  10. Outcomes of different Class II treatments : Comparisons using the American Board of Orthodontics Model Grading System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinci Cansunar, Hatice; Uysal, Tancan

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of three different Class II treatment modalities followed by fixed orthodontic therapy, using the American Board of Orthodontics Model Grading System (ABO-MGS). As a retrospective study, files of patients treated at postgraduate orthodontic  clinics in different cities in Turkey was randomly selected. From 1684 posttreatment records, 669 patients were divided into three groups: 269 patients treated with extraction of two upper premolars, 198 patients treated with cervical headgear, and 202 patients treated with functional appliances. All the cases were evaluated by one researcher using ABO-MGS. The χ (2), Z test, and multivariate analysis of variance were used for statistical evaluation (p < 0.05). No significant differences were found among the groups in buccolingual inclination, overjet, occlusal relationship, and root angulation. However, there were significant differences in alignment, marginal ridge height, occlusal contact, interproximal contact measurements, and overall MGS average scores. The mean treatment time between the extraction and functional appliance groups was significantly different (p = 0.017). According to total ABO-MGS scores, headgear treatment had better results than functional appliances. The headgear group had better tooth alignment than the extraction group. Headgear treatment resulted in better occlusal contacts than the functional appliances and had lower average scores for interproximal contact measurements. Functional appliances had the worst average scores for marginal ridge height. Finally, the functional appliance group had the longest treatment times.

  11. Transport of Streptococcus pneumoniae capsular polysaccharide in MHC Class II tubules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Li Stephen

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial capsular polysaccharides are virulence factors and are considered T cell-independent antigens. However, the capsular polysaccharide Sp1 from Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 1 has been shown to activate CD4(+ T cells in a major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II-dependent manner. The mechanism of carbohydrate presentation to CD4(+ T cells is unknown. We show in live murine dendritic cells (DCs that Sp1 translocates from lysosomal compartments to the plasma membrane in MHCII-positive tubules. Sp1 cell surface presentation results in reduction of self-peptide presentation without alteration of the MHCII self peptide repertoire. In DM-deficient mice, retrograde transport of Sp1/MHCII complexes resulting in T cell-dependent immune responses to the polysaccharide in vitro and in vivo is significantly reduced. The results demonstrate the capacity of a bacterial capsular polysaccharide antigen to use DC tubules as a vehicle for its transport as an MHCII/saccharide complex to the cell surface for the induction of T cell activation. Furthermore, retrograde transport requires the functional role of DM in self peptide-carbohydrate exchange. These observations open new opportunities for the design of vaccines against microbial encapsulated pathogens.

  12. Design of Peptide Immunotherapies for MHC Class-II-Associated Autoimmune Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masha Fridkis-Hareli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune disorders, that occur when autoreactive immune cells are induced to activate their responses against self-tissues, affect one percent of the world population and represent one of the top 10 leading causes of death. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC is a principal susceptibility locus for many human autoimmune diseases, in which self-tissue antigens providing targets for pathogenic lymphocytes are bound to HLA molecules encoded by disease-associated alleles. In spite of the attempts to design strategies for inhibition of antigen presentation targeting the MHC-peptide/TCR complex via generation of blocking antibodies, altered peptide ligands (APL, or inhibitors of costimulatory molecules, potent therapies with minimal side effects have yet to be developed. Copaxone (glatiramer acetate, GA is a random synthetic amino acid copolymer that reduces the relapse rate by about 30% in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS patients. Based on the elucidated binding motifs of Copaxone and of the anchor residues of the immunogenic myelin basic protein (MBP peptide to HLA-DR molecules, novel copolymers have been designed and proved to be more effective in suppressing MS-like disease in mice. In this report, we describe the rationale for design of second-generation synthetic random copolymers as candidate drugs for a number of MHC class-II-associated autoimmune disorders.

  13. Lipid Based Formulations of Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS Class II Drugs: Strategy, Formulations, Methods and Saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šoltýsová I.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Active ingredients in pharmaceuticals differ by their physico-chemical properties and their bioavailability therefore varies. The most frequently used and most convenient way of administration of medicines is oral, however many drugs are little soluble in water. Thus they are not sufficiently effective and suitable for such administration. For this reason a system of lipid based formulations (LBF was developed. Series of formulations were prepared and tested in water and biorelevant media. On the basis of selection criteria, there were selected formulations with the best emulsification potential, good dispersion in the environment and physical stability. Samples of structurally different drugs included in the Class II of the Biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS were obtained, namely Griseofulvin, Glibenclamide, Carbamazepine, Haloperidol, Itraconazol, Triclosan, Praziquantel and Rifaximin, for testing of maximal saturation in formulations prepared from commercially available excipients. Methods were developed for preparation of formulations, observation of emulsification and its description, determination of maximum solubility of drug samples in the respective formulation and subsequent analysis. Saturation of formulations with drugs showed that formulations 80 % XA and 20 % Xh, 35 % XF and 65 % Xh were best able to dissolve the drugs which supports the hypothesis that it is desirable to identify limited series of formulations which could be generally applied for this purpose.

  14. Selection on MHC class II supertypes in the New Zealand endemic Hochstetter's frog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillie, Mette; Grueber, Catherine E; Sutton, Jolene T; Howitt, Robyn; Bishop, Phillip J; Gleeson, Dianne; Belov, Katherine

    2015-04-13

    The New Zealand native frogs, family Leiopelmatidae, are among the most archaic in the world. Leiopelma hochstetteri (Hochstetter's frog) is a small, semi-aquatic frog with numerous, fragmented populations scattered across New Zealand's North Island. We characterized a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II B gene (DAB) in L. hochstetteri from a spleen transcriptome, and then compared its diversity to neutral microsatellite markers to assess the adaptive genetic diversity of five populations ("evolutionarily significant units", ESUs). L. hochstetteri possessed very high MHC diversity, with 74 DAB alleles characterized. Extremely high differentiation was observed at the DAB locus, with only two alleles shared between populations, a pattern that was not reflected in the microsatellites. Clustering analysis on putative peptide binding residues of the DAB alleles indicated four functional supertypes, all of which were represented in 4 of 5 populations, albeit at different frequencies. Otawa was an exception to these observations, with only two DAB alleles present. This study of MHC diversity highlights extreme population differentiation at this functional locus. Supertype differentiation was high among populations, suggesting spatial and/or temporal variation in selection pressures. Low DAB diversity in Otawa may limit this population's adaptive potential to future pathogenic challenges.

  15. Evaluation of criticality criteria for fissile class II packages in transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.T.

    1976-01-01

    The nuclear criticality safety of packages in transportation is explored systematically by a surface density representation of reflected array criticality of air-spaced units. Typical perturbations to arrays are shown to be related analytically to the corresponding reactivity changes they produce. The reactivity change associated with the removal of three reflecting surfaces from a totally water reflected array is shown to depend upon the fissile material loading of the packages. For U(93.2) metal, the expected reactivity loss can range from 2 to 21%. Replacement of a three-sided reflector of water on a critical array by one of concrete results in a reactivity increase ranging from 0 to 6%. Mass limits established by criticality data for reflected arrays of air-spaced units can provide a minimum, uniform margin of safety, expressible in terms of reactivity, to more reliably specify subcriticality in transport. Mass limits less than those defined by air-spaced units in water-reflected arrays are unnecessary for Fissile Class II packages. (author)

  16. Association analysis of class II cytokine and receptor genes in vitiligo patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traks, Tanel; Karelson, Maire; Reimann, Ene; Rätsep, Ranno; Silm, Helgi; Vasar, Eero; Kõks, Sulev; Kingo, Külli

    2016-05-01

    The loss of melanocytes in vitiligo is mainly attributed to defective autoimmune mechanisms and lately autoinflammatory mediators have become more emphasized. Among these, a number of class II cytokines and their receptors have displayed altered expression patterns in vitiligo. Thus, we selected 30 SNPs from the regions of respective genes to be genotyped in Estonian case-control sample (109 and 328 individuals, respectively). For more precise analyses, patients were divided into subgroups based on vitiligo progression activity, age of onset, sex, occurrence of vitiligo among relatives, extent of depigmented areas, appearance of Köbner's phenomenon, existence of halo nevi, occurrence of spontaneous repigmentation, and amount of thyroid peroxidase antibodies. No associations appeared in whole vitiligo group. In subgroups, several allelic and haplotype associations were found. The strongest involved SNPs rs12301088 (near IL26 gene), that was associated with familial vitiligo and existence of halo nevi, and rs2257167 (IFNAR1 gene), that was associated with female vitiligo. Additionally, haplotypes consisting of rs12301088 and rs12321603 alleles (IL26-IL22 genes), that were associated with familial vitiligo and existence of halo nevi. In conclusion, several genetic associations with vitiligo subphenotypes were revealed and functional explanations to these remain to be determined in respective studies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. HLA class II influences humoral autoimmunity in patients with type 2 autoimmune hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djilali-Saiah, Idriss; Fakhfakh, Amin; Louafi, Hamida; Caillat-Zucman, Sophie; Debray, Dominique; Alvarez, Fernando

    2006-12-01

    Type 2 autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is characterized by the presence of anti-liver kidney microsome (anti-LKM-1) and/or anti-liver cytosol type 1 (anti-LC1) autoantibodies. However, the correlation between these autoantibodies and the genetic background has not been studied. Frequencies of HLA class II alleles were compared between the 60 Caucasian children with type 2 AIH and 313 control subjects. The anti-LKM1 antibody reactivity directed against antigenic sites of CYP2D6 was analysed by ELISA. HLA-DQB1 *0201 allele was found to be the primary genetic determinant of susceptibility to type 2 AIH by conferring the highest odd-ratio (OR = 6.4). HLA-DRB1 *03 allele was significantly increased (P LKM1 and anti-LC1 autoantibodies as well as in those with only anti-LC1(+) compared to those with anti-LKM1(+) alone. In contrast, HLA-DRB1 *07 allele was significantly associated (P LKM1(+) alone compared to groups with both anti-LKM and anti-LC1 or with LC1+ alone. Children with the DRB1 *07 allele develop anti-LKM1 autoantibodies having a more restricted specificity (2 epitopes) than to those having HLA-DRB1 *03 allele (5 epitopes). The HLA-DR locus is involved in autoantibody expression, while the DQ locus appears to be a critical determinant for the development of type 2 AIH.

  18. Class I and II histone deacetylase expression in human chronic periodontitis gingival tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantley, M D; Dharmapatni, A A S S K; Algate, K; Crotti, T N; Bartold, P M; Haynes, D R

    2016-04-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are being considered to treat chronic inflammatory diseases at low doses. Currently HDACi that are more specific are being developed to target particular HDACs; therefore, this study aimed to determine levels and distribution of class I and II HDAC in human gingival samples obtained from patients with chronic periodontitis. Gingival biopsies were obtained from patients with and without (mild inflammation, no bone loss) periodontitis. Total RNA was isolated for real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction to determine expression of HDACs 1-10. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine protein distribution of HDACs 1, 5, 8 and 9. Factor VIII, CD3 and tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) were detected in serial sections to identify blood vessels, lymphocytes, pre-osteoclasts and osteoclasts cells respectively. Tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) expression was also assessed. mRNA for HDAC 1, 5, 8 and 9 were significantly upregulated in chronic periodontitis gingival tissues compared to non-periodontitis samples (p chronic periodontitis samples (p chronic periodontitis gingival tissues. HDAC 1, 5, 8 and 9 expression was higher in gingival tissues from patients with chronic periodontitis compared to non-periodontitis samples. Results suggest that these HDACs could therefore be targeted with specific acting HDACi. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Treatment and post-treatment effects of functional therapy on the sagittal pharyngeal dimensions in Class II subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavoni, Chiara; Cretella Lombardo, Elisabetta; Franchi, Lorenzo; Lione, Roberta; Cozza, Paola

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the craniofacial changes induced by functional appliances with special regard to the oro and nasopharyngeal sagittal airway dimensions in subjects with dentoskeletal Class II malocclusions when compared with an untreated Class II control group immediately after therapy and at long-term observation. A group of 40 patients (21 females and 19 males) with Class II malocclusion treated consecutively either with a Bionator or an Activator followed by fixed appliances was compared with a matched control group of 31 subjects (16 females and 15 males) with untreated Class II malocclusion. The treated sample was evaluated at T1, start of treatment (mean age: 9.9 ± 1.4 years); T2, end of functional treatment and prior to fixed appliances (mean age: 11.9 ± 1.3 years); and T3, long-term observation at the end of growth (mean age: 18.2 ± 2.1 years). Statistical comparisons were performed with independent sample t tests at T1 (baseline characteristics) and for the T1-T2, T2-T3, and T1-T3 changes. During active treatment the treated group showed a significant increment in lower airway dimension (PNS-AD1), as well as a significant improvement in the upper airway dimension (PNS-AD2). A significant decrease in the upper adenoid size (AD2-H) was also found. In the longterm evaluation, a significant increase in both lower and upper airway thickness (PNS-AD1; PNS-AD2) and a significant decrease in the upper adenoid thickness were still present in the treated group. The treatment with functional appliances produced significant favorable changes during active treatment in the oro- and nasopharyngeal sagittal airway dimensions in dentoskeletal Class II subjects when compared with untreated controls, and these changes were stable in the long-term. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. 40 CFR 82.13 - Recordkeeping and reporting requirements for class I controlled substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... subpart) and will not be resold or used in manufacturing. (xiii) The amount of class I, Group VI... class II controlled substances; (xii) The U.S. Customs entry form; (xiii) Dated records documenting the..., an annual list of the amount of critical use methyl bromide bought; (ii) For critical uses of class I...

  1. Application of annual ring analyses to the determination of smoke damage. II. Contribution to the evaluation of annual ring analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vins, B

    1962-01-01

    The most emission-endangered forested areas of Czechoslovakia are Krusne Hory and of Decinsky Sneznik. The condition of the forest cover today is such that not only the productivity of the forests but also their hydrological and ecological functions are in jeopardy. Measurements by annual ring analysis were made on trees at 102 selected experimental sites to determine the growth gain decrease due to air pollution. The decrease in growth gains was first noted in 1952. Up to 1958 this decrease was differentiated according to the degree of damage caused in different areas. Thus, forests in the Chomutov area exhibited a 30% damage while forests in the Most and Teplice areas exhibited a 90% damage. In the Decinsky Sneznik area the growth gain drop was already noted in 1947 and from then on the annual growth impairment was about 15%. From 1953 on, this area suffered growth gain damage of the same magnitude as the Krusne Hory area. During 1954-1958, the growth gain decreases in four areas exposed to pollution of different severity were 23, 37, 40, and 70% respectively, compared to normal growth gains of trees grown in an unpolluted environment.

  2. Wild-type phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthase (PRS from Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a bacterial class II PRS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardala Breda

    Full Text Available The 5-phospho-α-D-ribose 1-diphosphate (PRPP metabolite plays essential roles in several biosynthetic pathways, including histidine, tryptophan, nucleotides, and, in mycobacteria, cell wall precursors. PRPP is synthesized from α-D-ribose 5-phosphate (R5P and ATP by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis prsA gene product, phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthase (MtPRS. Here, we report amplification, cloning, expression and purification of wild-type MtPRS. Glutaraldehyde cross-linking results suggest that MtPRS predominates as a hexamer, presenting varied oligomeric states due to distinct ligand binding. MtPRS activity measurements were carried out by a novel coupled continuous spectrophotometric assay. MtPRS enzyme activity could be detected in the absence of P(i. ADP, GDP and UMP inhibit MtPRS activity. Steady-state kinetics results indicate that MtPRS has broad substrate specificity, being able to accept ATP, GTP, CTP, and UTP as diphosphoryl group donors. Fluorescence spectroscopy data suggest that the enzyme mechanism for purine diphosphoryl donors follows a random order of substrate addition, and for pyrimidine diphosphoryl donors follows an ordered mechanism of substrate addition in which R5P binds first to free enzyme. An ordered mechanism for product dissociation is followed by MtPRS, in which PRPP is the first product to be released followed by the nucleoside monophosphate products to yield free enzyme for the next round of catalysis. The broad specificity for diphosphoryl group donors and detection of enzyme activity in the absence of P(i would suggest that MtPRS belongs to Class II PRS proteins. On the other hand, the hexameric quaternary structure and allosteric ADP inhibition would place MtPRS in Class I PRSs. Further data are needed to classify MtPRS as belonging to a particular family of PRS proteins. The data here presented should help augment our understanding of MtPRS mode of action. Current efforts are toward experimental structure

  3. Wild-Type Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate Synthase (PRS) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A Bacterial Class II PRS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breda, Ardala; Martinelli, Leonardo K. B.; Bizarro, Cristiano V.; Rosado, Leonardo A.; Borges, Caroline B.; Santos, Diógenes S.; Basso, Luiz A.

    2012-01-01

    The 5-phospho-α-D-ribose 1-diphosphate (PRPP) metabolite plays essential roles in several biosynthetic pathways, including histidine, tryptophan, nucleotides, and, in mycobacteria, cell wall precursors. PRPP is synthesized from α-D-ribose 5-phosphate (R5P) and ATP by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis prsA gene product, phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthase (MtPRS). Here, we report amplification, cloning, expression and purification of wild-type MtPRS. Glutaraldehyde cross-linking results suggest that MtPRS predominates as a hexamer, presenting varied oligomeric states due to distinct ligand binding. MtPRS activity measurements were carried out by a novel coupled continuous spectrophotometric assay. MtPRS enzyme activity could be detected in the absence of Pi. ADP, GDP and UMP inhibit MtPRS activity. Steady-state kinetics results indicate that MtPRS has broad substrate specificity, being able to accept ATP, GTP, CTP, and UTP as diphosphoryl group donors. Fluorescence spectroscopy data suggest that the enzyme mechanism for purine diphosphoryl donors follows a random order of substrate addition, and for pyrimidine diphosphoryl donors follows an ordered mechanism of substrate addition in which R5P binds first to free enzyme. An ordered mechanism for product dissociation is followed by MtPRS, in which PRPP is the first product to be released followed by the nucleoside monophosphate products to yield free enzyme for the next round of catalysis. The broad specificity for diphosphoryl group donors and detection of enzyme activity in the absence of Pi would suggest that MtPRS belongs to Class II PRS proteins. On the other hand, the hexameric quaternary structure and allosteric ADP inhibition would place MtPRS in Class I PRSs. Further data are needed to classify MtPRS as belonging to a particular family of PRS proteins. The data here presented should help augment our understanding of MtPRS mode of action. Current efforts are toward experimental structure determination of Mt

  4. Deciphering the fine nucleotide diversity of full HLA class I and class II genes in a well-documented population from sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeury, T; Creary, L E; Brunet, L; Galan, M; Pasquier, M; Kervaire, B; Langaney, A; Tiercy, J-M; Fernández-Viña, M A; Nunes, J M; Sanchez-Mazas, A

    2018-01-01

    With the aim to understand how next-generation sequencing (NGS) improves both our assessment of genetic variation within populations and our knowledge on HLA molecular evolution, we sequenced and analysed 8 HLA loci in a well-documented population from sub-Saharan Africa (Mandenka). The results of full-gene NGS-MiSeq sequencing compared with those obtained by traditional typing techniques or limited sequencing strategies showed that segregating sites located outside exon 2 are crucial to describe not only class I but also class II population diversity. A comprehensive analysis of exons 2, 3, 4 and 5 nucleotide diversity at the 8 HLA loci revealed remarkable differences among these gene regions, notably a greater variation concentrated in the antigen recognition sites of class I exons 3 and some class II exons 2, likely associated with their peptide-presentation function, a lower diversity of HLA-C exon 3, possibly related to its role as a KIR ligand, and a peculiar molecular diversity of HLA-A exon 2, revealing demographic signals. Based on full-length HLA sequences, we also propose that the most frequent DRB1 allele in the studied population, DRB1*13:04, emerged from an allelic conversion involving 3 potential alleles as donors and DRB1*11:02:01 as recipient. Finally, our analysis revealed a high occurrence of the DRB1*13:04-DQA1*05:05:01-DQB1*03:19 haplotype, possibly resulting from a selective sweep due to protection to Onchorcerca volvulus, a prevalent pathogen in West Africa. This study unveils highly relevant information on the molecular evolution of HLA genes in relation to their immune function, calling for similar analyses in other populations living in contrasting environments. © 2017 The Authors HLA: Immune Response Genetics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Identification and cloning of class II and III chitinases from alkaline floral nectar of Rhododendron irroratum, Ericaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Hong-Guang; Milne, Richard I; Zhou, Hong-Xia; Chen, Xiang-Yang; Sun, Hang

    2016-10-01

    Class II and III chitinases belonging to different glycoside hydrolase families were major nectarins in Rhododendron irroratum floral nectar which showed significant chitinolytic activity. Previous studies have demonstrated antimicrobial activity in plant floral nectar, but the molecular basis for the mechanism is still poorly understood. Two chitinases, class II (Rhchi2) and III (Rhchi3), were characterized from alkaline Rhododendron irroratum nectar by both SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry. Rhchi2 (27 kDa) and Rhchi3 (29 kDa) are glycoside hydrolases (family 19 and 18) with theoretical pI of 8.19 and 7.04. The expression patterns of Rhchi2 and Rhchi3 were analyzed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Rhchi2 is expressed in flowers (corolla nectar pouches) and leaves while Rhchi3 is expressed in flowers. Chitinase in concentrated protein and fresh nectar samples was visualised by SDS-PAGE and chitinolytic activity in fresh nectar was determined spectrophotometrically via chitin-azure. Full length gene sequences were cloned with Tail-PCR and RACE. The amino acid sequence deduced from the coding region for these proteins showed high identity with known chitinases and predicted to be located in extracellular space. Fresh R. irroratum floral nectar showed significant chitinolytic activity. Our results demonstrate that class III chitinase (GH 18 family) also exists in floral nectar. The functional relationship between class II and III chitinases and the role of these pathogenesis-related proteins in antimicrobial activity in nectar is suggested.

  6. Temporomandibular disorders in growing patients after treatment of class II and III malocclusion with orthopaedic appliances: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Silva, Antonio; Carnevali-Arellano, Romano; Venegas-Aguilera, Matías; Tobar-Reyes, Julio; Palomino-Montenegro, Hernán

    2018-05-01

    To determine if the use of orthopaedic appliances in growing patients applied to correct Class II and III malocclusion is related to the development of temporomandibular disorders (TMD). A systematic review was conducted between 1960 and July 2017, based on electronic databases: PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, Medline, Scopus, EBSCOhost, Scielo, Lilacs and Bireme. Controlled clinical trials (CCTs) and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were identified. The articles were selected and analyzed by two authors independently. The quality of the evidence was determined according to the guidelines of the Cochrane Risk Bias Assessment Tool and the Cochrane Quality Study Guide. Seven articles were included, four CCTs and three RCTs. The studies were grouped according to malocclusion treatment in (a) class II appliances (n = 4) and (b) class III appliances (n = 3). The quality of evidence was low due to the high risk of bias, independent of the association reported. All studies concluded that the use of orthopaedic appliances would not contribute to the development of TMD. The quality of evidence available is insufficient to establish definitive conclusions, since the studies were very heterogeneous and presented a high risk of bias. However, it is suggested that the use of orthopaedic appliances to correct class II and III malocclusion in growing patients would not be considered as a risk factor for the development of TMD. High-quality RCTs are required to draw any definitive conclusions.

  7. Expansion design for a radioactive sources handling laboratory type II class B; Diseno de ampliacion para un laboratorio de manejo de fuentes radiactivas tipo II clase B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez S, P. S. [Universidad Mexiquense del Bicentenario, Av. Industria Poniente s/n, Parque Industrial Dona Rosa, 52000 Lerma, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Monroy G, F.; Alanis, J., E-mail: salvador-21@live.com.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Touca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    The Radioactive Wastes Research Laboratory (RWRL) of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (Mexico), at the moment has three sections: instrumental analysis, radioactive material processes, counting and a license type II class C, to manipulate radioactive material. This license limits the open sources handling to 300 kBq for radionuclides of very high radio-toxicity as the Ra-226, for what is being projected the license extension to type II class B, to be able to manage until 370 MBq of this radionuclides type, and the Laboratory, since the location where is the RWRL have unused area. This work presents a proposal of the RWRL expansion, taking into account the current laboratory sections, as well as the established specifications by the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (CNSNS). The current planes of the RWRL and the expansion proposal of the laboratory are presented. (Author)

  8. Bio-oss in Treatment of Furcation Class II Deffects and Comparison with Coronally Positioned Flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ak.Khoshkhoo Nejad

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Among periodontal defects, the furcation involvement represents one of the most chalenging scenarios due to the difficulty of achieving a predictable improvement regardless of the type of periodontal therapy. Moreover, the presence of furcation involvement has been demonstrated to considerably affect tooth prognosis. Thus, treatment of furcation defects is a challenge in clinical periodontics. The aim of periodontal treatment is not only to control infection but also to regenerate periodontal tissues lost as a consequence of periodontal disease.Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare Bio-oss (Bo, an anorganic bovine bone Xenograft, in combination with coronally positioned flap to open flap debridment surgery with coronally positiond flap alone in human mandibular class II furcation defects.Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial and interventional study 24 furcations, which provided 12 pairs of similar periodontal defects were evaluated. Each defect was randomly assigned to treatment with Bio-Oss in combination coronally positioned flap or open flap debridment and coronally positioned flap alone. Following basic therapy, baseline measurements were recorded including probing depth (PDD, clinical attachment level (CAL,gingival recession (REC, keratinized gingiva (KG and closed horizontal probing depth(CHPD. After 6 months, all sites were re-entered and hard tissue measurements were recorded.Hard tissue measurements were performed during surgery to determine open horizontal probing depth (OHPD and open vertical probing depth (OVPD. The data was analyzed using t-test paired sample.Results: Vertical probing depth reduction of 3.17±1.32 mm and horizontal probing depth reduction of 4.42±1.02 mm were noted for the BO group, with 2.87±0.83 mm and 2.31±0.49 mm reductions, respectively, noted for CPF alone. Both surgical procedures resulted in statistically significant probing depth reduction and gain clinical

  9. Enamel matrix protein derivative plus synthetic bone substitute for the treatment of mandibular Class II furcation defects: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Lucas Araujo; Santamaria, Mauro; Casati, Marcio; Silverio, Karina; Nociti-Junior, Francisco; Sallum, Enilson

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study is to report on the treatment of mandibular Class II furcation defects with enamel matrix protein derivative (EMD) combined with a βTCP/HA (β-tricalcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite) alloplastic material. Thirteen patients were selected. All patients were nonsmokers, systemically healthy, and diagnosed with chronic periodontitis; had not taken medications known to interfere with periodontal tissue health and healing; presented one Class II mandibular furcation defect with horizontal probing equal to or greater than 4 mm at buccal site. The clinical parameters evaluated were probing depth (PD), relative gingival margin position (RGMP), relative vertical clinical attachment level (RVCAL), and relative horizontal clinical attachment level (RHCAL). A paired Student t test was used to detect differences between the baseline and 6-month measurements, with the level of significance of .05. After 6 months, the treatment produced a statistically significant reduction in PD and a significant gain in RVCAL and RHCAL, but no observable change in RGMP. RVCAL ranged from 13.77 (± 1.31) at baseline to 12.15 (± 1.29) after 6 months, with a mean change of -1.62 ± 1.00 mm (P < .05). RHCAL ranged from 5.54 (± 0.75) to 2.92 (± 0.92), with a mean change of -2.62 ± 0.63 mm (P < .05). After 6 months, 76.92% of the patients improved their diagnosis to Class I furcation defects while 23.08% remained as Class II. The present study has shown that positive clinical results may be expected from the combined treatment of Class II furcation defects with EMD and βTCP/HA, especially considering the gain of horizontal attachment level. Despite this result, controlled clinical studies are needed to confirm our outcomes.

  10. MHC class II super-enhancer increases surface expression of HLA-DR and HLA-DQ and affects cytokine production in autoimmune vitiligo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavalli, G.; Hayashi, M.; Jin, Y.; Yorgov, D.; Santorico, S.A.; Holcomb, C.; Rastrou, M.; Erlich, H.; Tengesdal, I.W.; Dagna, L.; Neff, C.P.; Palmer, B.E.; Spritz, R.A.; Dinarello, C.A.

    2016-01-01

    Genetic risk for autoimmunity in HLA genes is most often attributed to structural specificity resulting in presentation of self-antigens. Autoimmune vitiligo is strongly associated with the MHC class II region. Here, we fine-map vitiligo MHC class II genetic risk to three SNPs only 47 bp apart,

  11. Cervical vertebral column morphology related to craniofacial morphology and head posture in preorthodontic children with Class II malocclusion and horizontal maxillary overjet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arntsen, Torill; Sonnesen, Ane Liselotte

    2011-01-01

    In preorthodontic children with Class II malocclusion and horizontal maxillary overjet, cervical column morphology was examined and related to craniofacial morphology and head posture for the first time.......In preorthodontic children with Class II malocclusion and horizontal maxillary overjet, cervical column morphology was examined and related to craniofacial morphology and head posture for the first time....

  12. The Ia.2 Epitope Defines a Subset of Lipid Raft Resident MHC Class II Molecules Crucial to Effective Antigen Presentation1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busman-Sahay, Kathleen; Sargent, Elizabeth; Harton, Jonathan A.; Drake, James R.

    2016-01-01

    Previous work has established that binding of the 11-5.2 anti-I-Ak mAb, which recognizes the Ia.2 epitope on I-Ak class II molecules, elicits MHC class II signaling, whereas binding of two other anti-I-Ak mAb that recognize the Ia.17 epitope fail to elicit signaling. Using a biochemical approach, we establish that the Ia.2 epitope recognized by the widely used 11-5.2 mAb defines a subset of cell surface I-Ak molecules predominantly found within membrane lipid rafts. Functional studies demonstrate that the Ia.2 bearing subset of I-Ak class II molecules is critically necessary for effective B cell–T cell interactions especially at low antigen doses, a finding consistent with published studies on the role of raft-resident class II molecules in CD4 T cell activation. Interestingly, B cells expressing recombinant I-Ak class II molecules possessing a β chain-tethered HEL peptide lack the Ia.2 epitope and fail to partition into lipid rafts. Moreover, cells expressing Ia.2 negative tethered peptide-class II molecules are severely impaired in their ability to present both tethered peptide or peptide derived from exogenous antigen to CD4 T cells. These results establish the Ia.2 epitope as defining a lipid raft-resident MHC class II confomer vital to the initiation of MHC class II restricted B cell–T cell interactions. PMID:21543648

  13. Human cytomegalovirus alters localization of MHC class II and dendrite morphology in mature Langerhans cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Andrew W; Hertel, Laura; Louie, Ryan K; Burster, Timo; Lacaille, Vashti; Pashine, Achal; Abate, Davide A; Mocarski, Edward S; Mellins, Elizabeth D

    2006-09-15

    Hemopoietic stem cell-derived mature Langerhans-type dendritic cells (LC) are susceptible to productive infection by human CMV (HCMV). To investigate the impact of infection on this cell type, we examined HLA-DR biosynthesis and trafficking in mature LC cultures exposed to HCMV. We found decreased surface HLA-DR levels in viral Ag-positive as well as in Ag-negative mature LC. Inhibition of HLA-DR was independent of expression of unique short US2-US11 region gene products by HCMV. Indeed, exposure to UV-inactivated virus, but not to conditioned medium from infected cells, was sufficient to reduce HLA-DR on mature LC, implicating particle binding/penetration in this effect. Reduced surface levels reflected an altered distribution of HLA-DR because total cellular HLA-DR was not diminished. Accumulation of HLA-DR was not explained by altered cathepsin S activity. Mature, peptide-loaded HLA-DR molecules were retained within cells, as assessed by the proportion of SDS-stable HLA-DR dimers. A block in egress was implicated, as endocytosis of surface HLA-DR was not increased. Immunofluorescence microscopy corroborated the intracellular retention of HLA-DR and revealed markedly fewer HLA-DR-positive dendritic projections in infected mature LC. Unexpectedly, light microscopic analyses showed a dramatic loss of the dendrites themselves and immunofluorescence revealed that cytoskeletal elements crucial for the formation and maintenance of dendrites are disrupted in viral Ag-positive cells. Consistent with these dendrite effects, HCMV-infected mature LC exhibit markedly reduced chemotaxis in response to lymphoid chemokines. Thus, HCMV impedes MHC class II molecule trafficking, dendritic projections, and migration of mature LC. These changes likely contribute to the reduced activation of CD4+ T cells by HCMV-infected mature LC.

  14. Shared HLA Class II in Six Autoimmune Diseases in Latin America: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Cruz-Tapias

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and genetic susceptibility of autoimmune diseases (ADs may vary depending on latitudinal gradient and ethnicity. The aims of this study were to identify common human leukocyte antigen (HLA class II alleles that contribute to susceptibility to six ADs in Latin Americans through a meta-analysis and to review additional clinical, immunological, and genetic characteristics of those ADs sharing HLA alleles. DRB1∗03:01 (OR: 4.04; 95%CI: 1.41–11.53 was found to be a risk factor for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, Sjögren's syndrome (SS, and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D. DRB1∗04:05 (OR: 4.64; 95%CI: 2.14–10.05 influences autoimmune hepatitis (AIH, rheumatoid arthritis (RA, and T1D; DRB1∗04:01 (OR: 3.86; 95%CI: 2.32–6.42 is a susceptibility factor for RA and T1D. Opposite associations were found between multiple sclerosis (MS and T1D. DQB1∗06:02 and DRB1∗15 alleles were risk factors for MS but protective factors for T1D. Likewise, DQB1∗06:03 allele was a risk factor for AIH but a protective one for T1D. Several common autoantibodies and clinical associations as well as additional shared genes have been reported in these ADs, which are reviewed herein. These results indicate that in Latin Americans ADs share major loci and immune characteristics.

  15. Human immune responses to H. pylori HLA Class II epitopes identified by immunoinformatic methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songhua Zhang

    Full Text Available H. pylori persists in the human stomach over decades and promotes several adverse clinical sequelae including gastritis, peptic ulcers and gastric cancer that are linked to the induction and subsequent evasion of chronic gastric inflammation. Emerging evidence indicates that H. pylori infection may also protect against asthma and some other immune-mediated conditions through regulatory T cell effects outside the stomach. To characterize the complexity of the CD4+ T cell response generated during H. pylori infection, computational methods were previously used to generate a panel of 90 predicted epitopes conserved among H. pylori genomes that broadly cover HLA Class II diversity for maximum population coverage. Here, these sequences were tested individually for their ability to induce in vitro responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by interferon-γ ELISpot assay. The average number of spot-forming cells/million PBMCs was significantly elevated in H. pylori-infected subjects over uninfected persons. Ten of the 90 peptides stimulated IFN-γ secretion in the H. pylori-infected group only, whereas two out of the 90 peptides elicited a detectable IFN-γ response in the H. pylori-uninfected subjects but no response in the H. pylori-infected group. Cytokine ELISA measurements performed using in vitro PBMC culture supernatants demonstrated significantly higher levels of TNF-α, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, and TGF-β1 in the H. pylori-infected subjects, whereas IL-17A expression was not related to the subjects H. pylori-infection status. Our results indicate that the human T cell responses to these 90 peptides are generally increased in actively H. pylori-infected, compared with H. pylori-naïve, subjects. This information will improve understanding of the complex immune response to H. pylori, aiding rational epitope-driven vaccine design as well as helping identify other H. pylori epitopes with potentially immunoregulatory effects.

  16. Evaluation of Class II treatment by cephalometric regional superpositions versus conventional measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efstratiadis, Stella; Baumrind, Sheldon; Shofer, Frances; Jacobsson-Hunt, Ulla; Laster, Larry; Ghafari, Joseph

    2005-11-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to evaluate cephalometric changes in subjects with Class II Division 1 malocclusion who were treated with headgear (HG) or Fränkel function regulator (FR) and (2) to compare findings from regional superpositions of cephalometric structures with those from conventional cephalometric measurements. Cephalographs were taken at baseline, after 1 year, and after 2 years of 65 children enrolled in a prospective randomized clinical trial. The spatial location of the landmarks derived from regional superpositions was evaluated in a coordinate system oriented on natural head position. The superpositions included the best anatomic fit of the anterior cranial base, maxillary base, and mandibular structures. Both the HG and the FR were effective in correcting the distoclusion, and they generated enhanced differential growth between the jaws. Differences between cranial and maxillary superpositions regarding mandibular displacement (Point B, pogonion, gnathion, menton) were noted: the HG had a more horizontal vector on maxillary superposition that was also greater (.0001 < P < .05) than the horizontal displacement observed with the FR. This discrepancy appeared to be related to (1) the clockwise (backward) rotation of the palatal and mandibular planes observed with the HG; the palatal plane's rotation, which was transferred through the occlusion to the mandibular plane, was factored out on maxillary superposition; and (2) the interaction between the inclination of the maxillary incisors and the forward movement of the mandible during growth. Findings from superpositions agreed with conventional angular and linear measurements regarding the basic conclusions for the primary effects of HG and FR. However, the results suggest that inferences of mandibular displacement are more reliable from maxillary than cranial superposition when evaluating occlusal changes during treatment.

  17. Detection of autoreactive CD4 T cells using major histocompatibility complex class II dextramers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuszynski Charles

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tetramers are useful tools to enumerate the frequencies of antigen-specific T cells. However, unlike CD8 T cells, CD4 T cells - especially self-reactive cells - are challenging to detect with major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II tetramers because of low frequencies and low affinities of their T cell receptors to MHC-peptide complexes. Here, we report the use of fluorescent multimers, designated MHC dextramers that contain a large number of peptide-MHC complexes per reagent. Results The utility of MHC dextramers was evaluated in three autoimmune disease models: 1 proteolipid protein (PLP 139-151-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in SJL/J (H-2s mice; 2 myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG 35-55-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in C57Bl/6 (H-2b mice; and 3 cardiac myosin heavy chain (Myhc-α 334-352-induced experimental autoimmune myocarditis in A/J (H-2a mice. Flow cytometrically, we demonstrate that IAs/PLP 139-151, IAb/MOG 35-55 and IAk/Myhc-α 334-352 dextramers detect the antigen-sensitized cells with specificity, and with a detection sensitivity significantly higher than that achieved with conventional tetramers. Furthermore, we show that binding of dextramers, but not tetramers, is less dependent on the activation status of cells, permitting enumeration of antigen-specific cells ex vivo. Conclusions The data suggest that MHC dextramers are useful tools to track the generation and functionalities of self-reactive CD4 cells in various experimental systems.

  18. GPS-MBA: computational analysis of MHC class II epitopes in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ruikun; Liu, Zexian; Ren, Jian; Ma, Chuang; Gao, Tianshun; Zhou, Yanhong; Yang, Qing; Xue, Yu

    2012-01-01

    As a severe chronic metabolic disease and autoimmune disorder, type 1 diabetes (T1D) affects millions of people world-wide. Recent advances in antigen-based immunotherapy have provided a great opportunity for further treating T1D with a high degree of selectivity. It is reported that MHC class II I-A(g7) in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse and human HLA-DQ8 are strongly linked to susceptibility to T1D. Thus, the identification of new I-A(g7) and HLA-DQ8 epitopes would be of great help to further experimental and biomedical manipulation efforts. In this study, a novel GPS-MBA (MHC Binding Analyzer) software package was developed for the prediction of I-A(g7) and HLA-DQ8 epitopes. Using experimentally identified epitopes as the training data sets, a previously developed GPS (Group-based Prediction System) algorithm was adopted and improved. By extensive evaluation and comparison, the GPS-MBA performance was found to be much better than other tools of this type. With this powerful tool, we predicted a number of potentially new I-A(g7) and HLA-DQ8 epitopes. Furthermore, we designed a T1D epitope database (TEDB) for all of the experimentally identified and predicted T1D-associated epitopes. Taken together, this computational prediction result and analysis provides a starting point for further experimental considerations, and GPS-MBA is demonstrated to be a useful tool for generating starting information for experimentalists. The GPS-MBA is freely accessible for academic researchers at: http://mba.biocuckoo.org.

  19. Pendulum and modified pendulum appliances for maxillary molar distalization in Class II malocclusion - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Thomali, Yousef; Basha, Sakeenabi; Mohamed, Roshan Noor

    2017-08-01

    The main purpose of the present systematic review was to evaluate the quantitative effects of the pendulum appliance and modified pendulum appliances for maxillary molar distalization in Class II malocclusion. Our systematic search included MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, Scopus and key journals and review articles; the date of the last search was 30 January 2017. We graded the methodological quality of the studies by means of the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies, developed for the Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP). In total, 203 studies were identified for screening, and 25 studies were eligible. The quality assessment rated four (16%) of the study as being of strong quality and 21 (84%) of these studies as being of moderate quality. The pendulum appliances showed mean molar distalization of 2-6.4 mm, distal tipping of molars from 6.67° to 14.50° and anchorage loss with mean premolar and incisor mesial movement of 1.63-3.6 mm and 0.9-6.5 mm, respectively. The bone anchored pendulum appliances (BAPAs) showed mean molar distalization of 4.8-6.4 mm, distal tipping of molars from 9° to 11.3° and mean premolar distalization of 2.7-5.4 mm. Pendulum and modified pendulum appliances are effective in molar distalization. Pendulum appliance with K-loop modification, implant supported pendulum appliance and BAPA significantly reduced anchorage loss of the anterior teeth and distal tipping of the molar teeth.

  20. International Working Group on Fast Reactors Eight Annual Meeting, Vienna, Austria, 15-18 April 1975. Summary Report. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-07-01

    The Eighth Annual Meeting of the IAEA International Working Group on Past Reactors was held at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna, Austria, from 15 to 18 April 1975. The Summary Report (Part I) contains the Minutes of the Meeting. The Summary Report (Part II) contains the papers which review the national programmes in the field of LMPBR’s and other presentations at the Meeting. The Summary Report (Part III) contains the discussions on the review of the national programmes

  1. Expansion design for a Laboratory of Radioactive Sources Handling type II, class B; Diseno de ampliacion para un Laboratorio de Manejo de Fuentes Radiactivas tipo II, clase B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez S, P. S.

    2014-07-01

    This work presents the expansion design of the Radioactive Wastes Research Laboratory (RWRL) installation authorized by the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (Mexico) as type II class C, to manage 40 different radionuclides, approximately. The RWRL has 4 areas at the present time: a laboratory of instrumental analysis, one of radioactive material processes, other of counting and a chemical reagents stock, which is not integrated to the operation license of the RWRL. With the purpose of expanding the operation license of the RWRL to an installation type II class B, to manage until 370 MBq of high radio toxicity radionuclides, is presented in this work an expansion proposal of the RWRL. The expansion proposal is based in: (1) the Mexican Nuclear Standard NOM-027-Nucl-1996 for installations type II class B, (2) the current distribution of water, light, electricity, extraction, gas, air and vacuum services of RWRL, and (3) the available areas inside the building that the RWRL occupies. The proposal contemplates the creation of additional new areas for RWRL: 3 laboratories, 2 dressing rooms, 2 bathrooms and 2 warehouses, one for radioactive materials and another for reagents chemical radiologically inactive. Architectural, electric, hydraulic, extraction and gas planes corresponding to the expansion of RWRL were realized. Inside the proposal the budget required to carry out the mentioned expansion is also presented. (Author)

  2. Prediction of MHC class II binding affinity using SMM-align, a novel stabilization matrix alignment method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Morten; Lundegaard, Claus; Lund, Ole

    2007-07-04

    Antigen presenting cells (APCs) sample the extra cellular space and present peptides from here to T helper cells, which can be activated if the peptides are of foreign origin. The peptides are presented on the surface of the cells in complex with major histocompatibility class II (MHC II) molecules. Identification of peptides that bind MHC II molecules is thus a key step in rational vaccine design and developing methods for accurate prediction of the peptide:MHC interactions play a central role in epitope discovery. The MHC class II binding groove is open at both ends making the correct alignment of a peptide in the binding groove a crucial part of identifying the core of an MHC class II binding motif. Here, we present a novel stabilization matrix alignment method, SMM-align, that allows for direct prediction of peptide:MHC binding affinities. The predictive performance of the method is validated on a large MHC class II benchmark data set covering 14 HLA-DR (human MHC) and three mouse H2-IA alleles. The predictive performance of the SMM-align method was demonstrated to be superior to that of the Gibbs sampler, TEPITOPE, SVRMHC, and MHCpred methods. Cross validation between peptide data set obtained from different sources demonstrated that direct incorporation of peptide length potentially results in over-fitting of the binding prediction method. Focusing on amino terminal peptide flanking residues (PFR), we demonstrate a consistent gain in predictive performance by favoring binding registers with a minimum PFR length of two amino acids. Visualizing the binding motif as obtained by the SMM-align and TEPITOPE methods highlights a series of fundamental discrepancies between the two predicted motifs. For the DRB1*1302 allele for instance, the TEPITOPE method favors basic amino acids at most anchor positions, whereas the SMM-align method identifies a preference for hydrophobic or neutral amino acids at the anchors. The SMM-align method was shown to outperform other

  3. Prediction of MHC class II binding affinity using SMM-align, a novel stabilization matrix alignment method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lund Ole

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antigen presenting cells (APCs sample the extra cellular space and present peptides from here to T helper cells, which can be activated if the peptides are of foreign origin. The peptides are presented on the surface of the cells in complex with major histocompatibility class II (MHC II molecules. Identification of peptides that bind MHC II molecules is thus a key step in rational vaccine design and developing methods for accurate prediction of the peptide:MHC interactions play a central role in epitope discovery. The MHC class II binding groove is open at both ends making the correct alignment of a peptide in the binding groove a crucial part of identifying the core of an MHC class II binding motif. Here, we present a novel stabilization matrix alignment method, SMM-align, that allows for direct prediction of peptide:MHC binding affinities. The predictive performance of the method is validated on a large MHC class II benchmark data set covering 14 HLA-DR (human MHC and three mouse H2-IA alleles. Results The predictive performance of the SMM-align method was demonstrated to be superior to that of the Gibbs sampler, TEPITOPE, SVRMHC, and MHCpred methods. Cross validation between peptide data set obtained from different sources demonstrated that direct incorporation of peptide length potentially results in over-fitting of the binding prediction method. Focusing on amino terminal peptide flanking residues (PFR, we demonstrate a consistent gain in predictive performance by favoring binding registers with a minimum PFR length of two amino acids. Visualizing the binding motif as obtained by the SMM-align and TEPITOPE methods highlights a series of fundamental discrepancies between the two predicted motifs. For the DRB1*1302 allele for instance, the TEPITOPE method favors basic amino acids at most anchor positions, whereas the SMM-align method identifies a preference for hydrophobic or neutral amino acids at the anchors. Conclusion

  4. HLA non-class II genes may confer type I diabetes susceptibility in a Mapuche (Amerindian) affected family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Bravo, Francisco; Martinez-Laso, Jorge; Martin-Villa, Jose M; Moscoso, Juan; Moreno, Almudena; Serrano-Vela, Juan I; Zamora, Jorge; Asenjo, Silvia; Gleisner, Andrea; Arnaiz-Villena, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    A rare case of type I diabetes is studied in an Amerindian (Mapuche) family from Chile, analyzing glutamic acid decarboxylase, islet-cell autoantibodies and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes. The affected sib is the only one that has one specific HLA haplotype combination that differs from the other sibs only in the HLA class I genes. It is concluded that HLA diabetes susceptibility factors may be placed outside the class II region or even that susceptibility factors do not exist in the HLA region in this Amerindian family.

  5. Pistas planas en el tratamiento de la clase II: Presentación de un caso Flat strips in the treatment of class II malocclusion.: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulenia Cruz Rivas

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available La maloclusión clase II división 1 es una de las anomalías que se presentan en las consultas de Ortodoncia con mayor frecuencia. Para solucionar esta problemática se han descrito diversos tratamientos. Se muestra un caso tratado mediante ortopedia funcional, específicamente con pistas planas de clase II, aparato funcional ideado por Pedro Planas , basado en la rehabilitación neuroclusal . Los resultados demuestran la efectividad de dicho aparato, pues se aprecian cambios a favor de la armonía esqueletal , la estética y la función, así como las modificaciones transversales que fueron alentadores. Dentro de los cambios esqueletales , se observó la apertura del eje facial y el aumento de la altura facial anteroinferior .Division 1 class II malocclusion is one of the abnormalities that are present in the Orthodontics offices more frequently. Different treatments have been described to solve this problem. A case treated by functional orthopedics, specifically with class II flat strips, an appliance created by Pedro Planas that is based on neuroocclusal rehabilitation, is reported. The results show the effectiveness of this appliance, since changes in favor of skeletal harmony, aesthetics and function are observed, and the transversal modifications are encouraging. The opening of the facial axis and the increase of the anteroinferior facial height are observed among the skeletal changes.

  6. Prediction of MHC class II binding affinity using SMM-align, a novel stabilization matrix alignment method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten; Lundegaard, Claus; Lund, Ole

    2007-01-01

    the correct alignment of a peptide in the binding groove a crucial part of identifying the core of an MHC class II binding motif. Here, we present a novel stabilization matrix alignment method, SMM-align, that allows for direct prediction of peptide:MHC binding affinities. The predictive performance...... of the method is validated on a large MHC class II benchmark data set covering 14 HLA-DR (human MHC) and three mouse H2-IA alleles. RESULTS: The predictive performance of the SMM-align method was demonstrated to be superior to that of the Gibbs sampler, TEPITOPE, SVRMHC, and MHCpred methods. Cross validation...... between peptide data set obtained from different sources demonstrated that direct incorporation of peptide length potentially results in over-fitting of the binding prediction method. Focusing on amino terminal peptide flanking residues (PFR), we demonstrate a consistent gain in predictive performance...

  7. Enterocin 96, a Novel Class II Bacteriocin Produced by Enterococcus faecalis WHE 96, Isolated from Munster Cheese▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Esther; Wagner, Camille; Marchioni, Eric; Aoude-Werner, Dalal; Ennahar, Saïd

    2009-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis WHE 96, a strain isolated from soft cheese based on its anti-Listeria activity, produced a 5,494-Da bacteriocin that was purified to homogeneity by ultrafiltration and cation-exchange and reversed-phase chromatographies. The amino acid sequence of this bacteriocin, named enterocin 96, was determined by Edman degradation, and its structural gene was sequenced, revealing a double-glycine leader peptide. After a comparison with other bacteriocins, it was shown that enterocin 96 was a new class II bacteriocin that showed very little similarity with known structures. Enterocin 96 was indeed a new bacteriocin belonging to class II bacteriocins. The activity spectrum of enterocin 96 covered a wide range of bacteria, with strong activity against most gram-positive strains but very little or no activity against gram-negative strains. PMID:19411428

  8. Enterocin 96, a novel class II bacteriocin produced by Enterococcus faecalis WHE 96, isolated from Munster cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Esther; Wagner, Camille; Marchioni, Eric; Aoude-Werner, Dalal; Ennahar, Saïd

    2009-07-01

    Enterococcus faecalis WHE 96, a strain isolated from soft cheese based on its anti-Listeria activity, produced a 5,494-Da bacteriocin that was purified to homogeneity by ultrafiltration and cation-exchange and reversed-phase chromatographies. The amino acid sequence of this bacteriocin, named enterocin 96, was determined by Edman degradation, and its structural gene was sequenced, revealing a double-glycine leader peptide. After a comparison with other bacteriocins, it was shown that enterocin 96 was a new class II bacteriocin that showed very little similarity with known structures. Enterocin 96 was indeed a new bacteriocin belonging to class II bacteriocins. The activity spectrum of enterocin 96 covered a wide range of bacteria, with strong activity against most gram-positive strains but very little or no activity against gram-negative strains.

  9. HLA Class II Defects in Burkitt Lymphoma: Bryostatin-1-Induced 17 kDa Protein Restores CD4+ T-Cell Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azim Hossain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available While the defects in HLA class I-mediated Ag presentation by Burkitt lymphoma (BL have been well documented, CD4+ T-cells are also poorly stimulated by HLA class II Ag presentation, and the reasons underlying this defect(s have not yet been fully resolved. Here, we show that BL cells are deficient in their ability to optimally stimulate CD4+ T cells via the HLA class II pathway. The observed defect was not associated with low levels of BL-expressed costimulatory molecules, as addition of external co-stimulation failed to result in BL-mediated CD4+ T-cell activation. We further demonstrate that BL cells express the components of the class II pathway, and the defect was not caused by faulty Ag/class II interaction, because antigenic peptides bound with measurable affinity to BL-associated class II molecules. Treatment of BL with broystatin-1, a potent modulator of protein kinase C, led to significant improvement of functional class II Ag presentation in BL. The restoration of immune recognition appeared to be linked with an increased expression of a 17 kDa peptidylprolyl-like protein. These results demonstrate the presence of a specific defect in HLA class II-mediated Ag presentation in BL and reveal that treatment with bryostatin-1 could lead to enhanced immunogenicity.

  10. Structural myocardial changes in chronic heart failure of II functional class based on overweight and abdominal obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Z. Netyazhenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. 153 patients with CHF of II functional class, with normal weight, overweight and abdominal obesity I-III degrees Examined. Studied structural myocardial changes at CHF depending on the degree of excess weight. Structural changes of the heart, the extent and type of myocardial hypertrophy of left ventricle depending on the availability of overweight and obesity were revealed. Actuality. Chronic heart failure (CHF is characterized by a high mortality rate and frequency of hospitalization of patients, a significant decline in their quality of life and significant financial burden. CHF is a medical and social problem that a certain dominant in the near future all over the world, because the average life expectancy of patients with the diagnosis ranges from 1,7 to 7 years and the long-term observation is evidence of the increased risk of death, that 5 year more than four times the initial value. The main etiological factors of occurrence, progression and adverse exit of CHF are age, coronary heart disease (CHD, arterial hypertension, valvular heart disease, diabetes and obesity. In general, structural changes of heart in obesity can be divided into the following main components: left ventricle hypertrophy, changes in the structural composition of cardiac tissue, heart obesity, change of the sizes of the right ventricle and left atrium (PL, valvular heart disease. Research objective: to establish the structural changes of CHF of II functional class depending on the availability of overweight and abdominal type of obesity various degrees. Material and methods: 153 patients with CHF of II functional class were examined. Etiological factors of development CHF were hypertensive disease, chronic forms of CAD and the combination of these pathologies. The diagnosis of CHF installed according to WHO criteria, the European society of cardiology and the Association of cardiologists of Ukraine, and classified according to functional classification of

  11. Work Analysis of the nuclear power plant control room operators (II): The classes of situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alengry, P.

    1989-03-01

    This report presents a work analysis of nuclear power plant control room operators focused on the classes of situation they can meet during their job. Each class of situation is first described in terms of the process variables states. We then describe the goals of the operators and the variables they process in each class of situation. We report some of the most representative difficulties encountered by the operators in each class of situation. Finally, we conclude on different topics: the nature of the mental representations, the temporal dimension, the monitoring activity, and the role of the context in the work of controlling a nuclear power plant [fr

  12. 40 CFR Table F-1 to Subpart F of... - Performance Specifications for PM2.5 Class II Equivalent Samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... METHODS Procedures for Testing Performance Characteristics of Class II Equivalent Methods for PM2.5 Pt. 53... Solid VOAG produced aerosol at 2 km/hr and 24 km/hr Dp50 = 2.5 µm ± 0.2 µm Numerical Analysis Results... fractionator under static conditions Dp50 = 2.5 µm ± 0.2 µm Numerical Analysis Results: 95% ≤ Rc ≤ 105%. § 53...

  13. [Orthopedic treatment of dento-skeletal Class II by the association minivis + Forsus(TM): a clinical case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, Pierre

    2014-06-01

    The use of customized combination mechanics with two auxillaries such as mini screws and Forsus(TM) Springs that up to now have been used independently, achieved unexpected results in the correction of a non-surgical skeletal Class II malocclusion. The use of mini implants to control the canting of the occlusal plane that is frequently reported during the use of hyperpropulsors with fixed appliances made it possible to achieve a better mandibular outcome. © EDP Sciences, SFODF, 2014.

  14. Three-dimensional dental arch changes of patients submitted to orthodontic-surgical treatment for correction of Class II malocclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Peixoto,Adriano Porto; Pinto,Ary dos Santos; Garib,Daniela Gamba; Gonçalves,João Roberto

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This study assessed the three-dimensional changes in the dental arch of patients submitted to orthodontic-surgical treatment for correction of Class II malocclusions at three different periods. METHODS: Landmarks previously identified on upper and lower dental casts were digitized on a three-dimensional digitizer MicroScribe-3DX and stored in Excel worksheets in order to assess the width, length and depth of patient's dental arches. RESULTS: During orthodontic preparation, the m...

  15. Class II malocclusion with mutilated anterior segment: Treated with a rare approach-creating an apparent midline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Kshetrapal

    2013-01-01

    The following case report shows a 15-year-old male patient with Class II malocclusion who had missing central incisor and canine in the upper right quadrant, which were extracted around 4 years back. The case was treated by space closure involving movement of left central incisor into right central incisor position and conversion of the left lateral incisor into left central incisor. Overall an esthetic result was achieved saving the patient from the need for a prosthesis.

  16. Long-term skeletal and dental effects and treatment timing for functional appliances in Class II malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, Lorenzo; Pavoni, Chiara; Faltin, Kurt; McNamara, James A; Cozza, Paola

    2013-03-01

    To analyze the long-term skeletal and dentoalveolar effects and to evaluate treatment timing of Class II treatment with functional appliances followed by fixed appliances. A group of 40 patients (22 females and 18 males) with Class II malocclusion consecutively treated either with a Bionator or an Activator followed by fixed appliances was compared with a control group of 20 subjects (9 females and 11 males) with untreated Class II malocclusion. Lateral cephalograms were available at the start of treatment (mean age 10 years), end of treatment with functional appliances (mean age 12 years), and long-term observation (mean age 18.6 years). The treated sample also was divided into two groups according to skeletal maturity. The early-treatment group was composed of 20 subjects (12 females and 8 males) treated before puberty, while the late-treatment group included 20 subjects (10 females and 10 males) treated at puberty. Statistical comparisons were performed with analysis of variance followed by Tukey's post hoc tests. Significant long-term mandibular changes (Co-Gn) in the treated group (3.6 mm over the controls) were associated with improvements in the skeletal sagittal intermaxillary relationship, overjet, and molar relationship (∼3.0-3.5 mm). Treatment during the pubertal peak was able to produce significantly greater increases in total mandibular length (4.3 mm) and mandibular ramus height (3.1 mm) associated with a significant advancement of the bony chin (3.9 mm) when compared with treatment before puberty. Treatment of Class II malocclusion with functional appliances appears to be more effective at puberty.

  17. HLA Class II Allele, Haplotype, and Genotype Associations with Type 1 Diabetes in Benin: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaossarath A. Fagbemi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Several studies have reported the implication of HLA-DR/DQ loci in the susceptibility to type 1 diabetes (T1D. Since no such study has yet been performed in Benin, this pilot one aimed at assessing HLA class II allele, haplotype, and genotype associations with T1D. Material and Methods. Class II HLA genotyping was performed in 51 patients with T1D and 51 healthy unrelated controls by means of the PCR-SSP method. The diagnosis of T1D was set up according to American Diabetes Association criteria. Odds ratio (OR and its 95% confidence interval (95% CI were calculated to assess the associations between T1D and HLA alleles, haplotypes, and genotypes. Results. Participants were aged 1–24 years. T1D was significantly associated with DR3, DQA1∗05:01, DQB1∗02:01, and DR3-DR4. No significant associations were observed with DR4, DQB1∗03:02, and DQB1∗06:02. Conclusion. Certain HLA class II alleles, haplotypes, and genotypes were related to T1D and may be used as genetic susceptibility markers to T1D in Benin.

  18. Dissemination of Multidrug-Resistant, Class I and II Integrons and Molecular Typing of CTX-M-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akya, Alisha; Elahi, Azam; Chegenelorestani, Roya; Rezaee, Mahya

    2018-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae ( K. pneumoniae ) is an important opportunistic pathogen causes serious community and hospital-acquired infections, which is highly resistant to antibiotics. We aimed to determine the frequency of multidrug resistant (MDR) and molecular typing of clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae . One hundred isolates of K. pneumoniae were collected from clinical samples in three general hospitals in Kermanshah. The antimicrobial susceptibility and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) production of isolates were determined using disk diffusion and combined disk methods, respectively. The bla CTX-M gene, class I and II integrons were detected using polymerase chain reaction. The bla CTX-M positive isolates were selected for genotyping using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). MDR phenotype was observed in 56% of isolates. The 40% of isolates were ESBL positive and 35 isolates contained bla CTX-M . Class I and II of integrons were detected in 50 (89.2%) and 39 (69.6%) of MDR isolates, respectively. PFGE patterns of K. pneumoniae bla CTX-M positive isolates indicated 19 clusters (X 1-19 ) with different genotype patterns. The study findings highlight the concern of circulating MDR strains of K. pneumoniae with bla CTX-M and class I and II integrons in Kermanshah hospitals. The presence of integrons among isolates may facilitate the spread of new resistance genes in this bacterium. Therefore, surveillance for the spread of MDR strains of this bacterium is recommended in hospitals.

  19. Tubulation of Class II MHC Compartments Is Microtubule Dependent and Involves Multiple Endolysosomal Membrane Proteins in Primary Dendritic Cells1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Jatin M.; Kim, You-Me; Artavanis-Tsakonas, Katerina; Love, J. Christopher; Van der Veen, Annemarthe G.; Ploegh, Hidde L.

    2009-01-01

    Immature dendritic cells (DCs) capture exogenous Ags in the periphery for eventual processing in endolysosomes. Upon maturation by TLR agonists, DCs deliver peptide-loaded class II MHC molecules from these compartments to the cell surface via long tubular structures (endolysosomal tubules). The nature and rules that govern the movement of these DC compartments are unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that the tubules contain multiple proteins including the class II MHC molecules and LAMP1, a lysosomal resident protein, as well as CD63 and CD82, members of the tetraspanin family. Endolysosomal tubules can be stained with acidotropic dyes, indicating that they are extensions of lysosomes. However, the proper trafficking of class II MHC molecules themselves is not necessary for endolysosomal tubule formation. DCs lacking MyD88 can also form endolysosomal tubules, demonstrating that MyD88-dependent TLR activation is not necessary for the formation of this compartment. Endolysosomal tubules in DCs exhibit dynamic and saltatory movement, including bidirectional travel. Measured velocities are consistent with motor-based movement along microtubules. Indeed, nocodazole causes the collapse of endolysosomal tubules. In addition to its association with microtubules, endolysosomal tubules follow the plus ends of microtubules as visualized in primary DCs expressing end binding protein 1 (EB1)-enhanced GFP. PMID:17513769

  20. Dentoskeletal and Soft Tissue Effects in the Treatment of Class II Malocclusion with Klammt's Elastic Open Activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamassu-Lemes, Sheila Marques; Fuziy, Acácio; Costa, André Luiz Ferreira; Carvalho, Paulo Eduardo Guedes; Nahás-Scocate, Ana Carla Raphaelli

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dentoskeletal and soft tissue effects resulting from treatment with Klammt's elastic open activator (EOA) functional orthopedic appliance in patients with Class II malocclusion characterized by mandibular deficiency. Teleradiographs were evaluated in the lateral aspect of the initial (T1) and final (T2) orthopedic phases for 16 patients with Class II, Division 1 malocclusion. The age range was from 9 to 11.2 years, with a mean age of 9.9 years. The cephalometric points were demarcated, and cephalometric measurements were obtained by the same investigator to avoid interobserver variability. The EOA promoted increased lower anterior facial height (LAFH), increased effective mandibular length, clockwise rotation of the mandible, retrusion and verticalization of the upper incisors, proclination and protrusion of the lower incisors, extrusion of the upper molars, mesial movement of the lower molars and anterior projection of the lower lip. Skeletal changes characterized by an increase in mandibular length and dentoalveolar changes with an emphasis on the verticalization and retrusion of the upper incisors, proclination of the lower incisors and mesial positioning of the lower molars were key to improving the occlusal relationship and esthetic facial factors. The EOA is well indicated in patients with Class II malocclusion due to mandibular deficiency with increased overbite, proclined upper incisors and verticalized lower incisors.

  1. Structure-based prediction and identification of 4-epimerization activity of phosphate sugars in class II aldolases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seon-Hwa; Hong, Seung-Hye; An, Jung-Ung; Kim, Kyoung-Rok; Kim, Dong-Eun; Kang, Lin-Woo; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2017-05-16

    Sugar 4-epimerization reactions are important for the production of rare sugars and their derivatives, which have various potential industrial applications. For example, the production of tagatose, a functional sweetener, from fructose by sugar 4-epimerization is currently constrained because a fructose 4-epimerase does not exist in nature. We found that class II D-fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FbaA) catalyzed the 4-epimerization of D-fructose-6-phosphate (F6P) to D-tagatose-6-phosphate (T6P) based on the prediction via structural comparisons with epimerase and molecular docking and the identification of the condensed products of C3 sugars. In vivo, the 4-epimerization activity of FbaA is normally repressed. This can be explained by our results showing the catalytic efficiency of D-fructose-6-phosphate kinase for F6P phosphorylation was significantly higher than that of FbaA for F6P epimerization. Here, we identified the epimerization reactions and the responsible catalytic residues through observation of the reactions of FbaA and L-rhamnulose-1-phosphate aldolases (RhaD) variants with substituted catalytic residues using different substrates. Moreover, we obtained detailed potential epimerization reaction mechanism of FbaA and a general epimerization mechanism of the class II aldolases L-fuculose-1-phosphate aldolase, RhaD, and FbaA. Thus, class II aldolases can be used as 4-epimerases for the stereo-selective synthesis of valuable carbohydrates.

  2. Finite Element Analysis of the Effect of Proximal Contour of Class II Composite Restorations on Stress Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Abachizadeh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of proximal contour of class II composite restorations placed with straight or contoured matrix band using composite resins with different modulus of elasticity on stress distribution by finite element method. Methods: In order to evaluate the stress distribution of class II composite restorations using finite element method, upper right first molar and second premolar were modeled. Proximal boxes were designed and restored with universal Z250 and packable P60 composite resins (3M ESPE using two matrix systems: flat Tofflemire matrix and precurved sectional matrix. Finally models were evaluated under loads of 200 and 400 Newton at 90 degrees angle and the results were graphically illustrated in the form of Von Misses stresses. Results: In general the stress obtained under 400 Newton load was significantly greater than the stress of models under 200 Newton load. Von Misses stress distribution pattern of two different Z250 and P60 composites were very similar in all modes of loading and proximal contour. In all analyzed models there was a significant difference between models restored with Tofflemire matrix with flat contour and models restored with sectional matrix with curved contour. This difference was greater in first molar than second premolar. Conclusion: Use of a contoured matrix band results in less stress in class II composite resin restorations.

  3. Characterization and evaluation of graphene oxide scaffold for periodontal wound healing of class II furcation defects in dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Kohei; Miyaji, Hirofumi; Nishida, Erika; Miyata, Saori; Kato, Akihito; Tateyama, Akito; Furihata, Tomokazu; Shitomi, Kanako; Iwanaga, Toshihiko; Sugaya, Tsutomu

    2018-01-01

    The 3-dimensional scaffold plays a key role in volume and quality of repair tissue in periodontal tissue engineering therapy. We fabricated a novel 3D collagen scaffold containing carbon-based 2-dimensional layered material, named graphene oxide (GO). The aim of this study was to characterize and assess GO scaffold for periodontal tissue healing of class II furcation defects in dog. GO scaffolds were prepared by coating the surface of a 3D collagen sponge scaffold with GO dispersion. Scaffolds were characterized using cytotoxicity and tissue reactivity tests. In addition, GO scaffold was implanted into dog class II furcation defects and periodontal healing was investigated at 4 weeks postsurgery. GO scaffold exhibited low cytotoxicity and enhanced cellular ingrowth behavior and rat bone forming ability. In addition, GO scaffold stimulated healing of dog class II furcation defects. Periodontal attachment formation, including alveolar bone, periodontal ligament-like tissue, and cementum-like tissue, was significantly increased by GO scaffold implantation, compared with untreated scaffold. The results suggest that GO scaffold is biocompatible and possesses excellent bone and periodontal tissue formation ability. Therefore, GO scaffold would be beneficial for periodontal tissue engineering therapy.

  4. Tubulation of class II MHC compartments is microtubule dependent and involves multiple endolysosomal membrane proteins in primary dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Jatin M; Kim, You-Me; Artavanis-Tsakonas, Katerina; Love, J Christopher; Van der Veen, Annemarthe G; Ploegh, Hidde L

    2007-06-01

    Immature dendritic cells (DCs) capture exogenous Ags in the periphery for eventual processing in endolysosomes. Upon maturation by TLR agonists, DCs deliver peptide-loaded class II MHC molecules from these compartments to the cell surface via long tubular structures (endolysosomal tubules). The nature and rules that govern the movement of these DC compartments are unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that the tubules contain multiple proteins including the class II MHC molecules and LAMP1, a lysosomal resident protein, as well as CD63 and CD82, members of the tetraspanin family. Endolysosomal tubules can be stained with acidotropic dyes, indicating that they are extensions of lysosomes. However, the proper trafficking of class II MHC molecules themselves is not necessary for endolysosomal tubule formation. DCs lacking MyD88 can also form endolysosomal tubules, demonstrating that MyD88-dependent TLR activation is not necessary for the formation of this compartment. Endolysosomal tubules in DCs exhibit dynamic and saltatory movement, including bidirectional travel. Measured velocities are consistent with motor-based movement along microtubules. Indeed, nocodazole causes the collapse of endolysosomal tubules. In addition to its association with microtubules, endolysosomal tubules follow the plus ends of microtubules as visualized in primary DCs expressing end binding protein 1 (EB1)-enhanced GFP.

  5. Platelet-rich plasma in the treatment of Class II furcation defects: a histometrical study in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrícia Ferreira Suaid

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to evaluate the potential adjunctive benefits of platelet-rich plasma (PRP when used with guided-tissue regeneration (GTR and bioactive glass (BG in the treatment of Class II furcation lesions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Bilateral Class II furcation lesions were surgically created and allowed to become chronic in the mandibular third premolars of 9 dogs. The defects were randomly assigned to: A GTR+BG and B GTR+BG+PRP. Similar defects were created in the maxillary third premolars and received the same treatments after 45 days. Dogs were sacrificed 90 days after the first treatment. The histometric parameters evaluated were: connective tissue adaptation, new cementum, new bone, mineralized bone area, non-mineralized bone area, and residual BG particle area. RESULTS: Data analysis showed a superior length of new cementum and a greater mineralized bone area for group B in both periods (p<0.05. The non-mineralized bone area was greater in the control group (p<0.05 in both periods. CONCLUSION: Within the limits of this study, it can be concluded that the use of PRP in the treatment of Class II furcation defects may enhance the amount of new cementum and provide a more mineralized bone in a shorter period of time.

  6. Clinical, Immunological, and Molecular Findings in Five Patients with Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Deficiency from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahnavi Aluri

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive form of primary immunodeficiency disorder (PID characterized by the deficiency of MHC class II molecules. This deficiency affects the cellular and humoral immune response by impairing the development of CD4+ T helper (Th cells and Th cell-dependent antibody production by B cells. Affected children typically present with severe respiratory and gastrointestinal tract infections. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT is the only curative therapy available for treating these patients. This is the first report from India wherein we describe the clinical, immunological, and molecular findings in five patients with MHC class II deficiency. Our patients presented with recurrent lower respiratory tract infection as the most common clinical presentation within their first year of life and had a complete absence of human leukocyte antigen-antigen D-related (HLA-DR expression on B cells and monocytes. Molecular characterization revealed novel mutations in RFAXP, RFX5, and CIITA genes. Despite genetic heterogeneity, these patients were clinically indistinguishable. Two patients underwent HSCT but had a poor survival outcome. Detectable level of T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs were measured in our patients, highlighting that this form of PID may be missed by TREC-based newborn screening program for severe combined immunodeficiency.

  7. The great diversity of major histocompatibility complex class II genes in Philippine native cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshima, S.N.; Miyasaka, T.; Polat, M.; Kikuya, M.; Matsumoto, Y.; Mingala, C.N.; Villanueva, M.A.; Salces, A.J.; Onuma, M.; Aida, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine leukocyte antigens (BoLA) are extensively used as markers for bovine disease and immunological traits. However, none of the BoLA genes in Southeast Asian breeds have been characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-sequence-based typing (SBT). Therefore, we sequenced exon 2 of the BoLA class II DRB3 gene from 1120 individual cows belonging to the Holstein, Sahiwal, Simbrah, Jersey, Brahman, and Philippine native breeds using PCR-SBT. Several cross-breeds were also examined. BoLA-DRB3 PCR-SBT identified 78 previously reported alleles and five novel alleles. The number of BoLA-DRB3 alleles identified in each breed from the Philippines was higher (71 in Philippine native cattle, 58 in Brahman, 46 in Holstein × Sahiwal, and 57 in Philippine native × Brahman) than that identified in breeds from other countries (e.g., 23 alleles in Japanese Black and 35 in Bolivian Yacumeño cattle). A phylogenetic tree based on the DA distance calculated from the BoLA-DRB3 allele frequency showed that Philippine native cattle from different Philippine islands are closely related, and all of them are closely similar to Philippine Brahman cattle but not to native Japanese and Latin American breeds. Furthermore, the BoLA-DRB3 allele frequency in Philippine native cattle from Luzon Island, located in the Northern Philippines was different from that in cattle from Iloilo, Bohol, and Leyte Islands, which are located in the Southern Philippines. Therefore, we conclude that Philippine native cattle can be divided into two populations, North and South areas. Moreover, a neutrality test revealed that Philippine native cattle from Leyte showed significantly greater genetic diversity, which may be maintained by balancing selection. This study shows that Asian breeds have high levels of BoLA-DRB3 polymorphism. This finding, especially the identification of five novel BoLA-DRB3 alleles, will be helpful for future SBT studies of BoLA-DRB3 alleles in East Asian cattle. PMID:25606401

  8. Inactivation of the Class II PI3K-C2β Potentiates Insulin Signaling and Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Alliouachene

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to the class I phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks, the organismal roles of the kinase activity of the class II PI3Ks are less clear. Here, we report that class II PI3K-C2β kinase-dead mice are viable and healthy but display an unanticipated enhanced insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, as well as protection against high-fat-diet-induced liver steatosis. Despite having a broad tissue distribution, systemic PI3K-C2β inhibition selectively enhances insulin signaling only in metabolic tissues. In a primary hepatocyte model, basal PI3P lipid levels are reduced by 60% upon PI3K-C2β inhibition. This results in an expansion of the very early APPL1-positive endosomal compartment and altered insulin receptor trafficking, correlating with an amplification of insulin-induced, class I PI3K-dependent Akt signaling, without impacting MAPK activity. These data reveal PI3K-C2β as a critical regulator of endosomal trafficking, specifically in insulin signaling, and identify PI3K-C2β as a potential drug target for insulin sensitization.

  9. A Synthesis of Behavioral and Communication Approaches to Child Rearing for Parenting Skills Classes. Practicum II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Marvin

    This report describes the design, implementation and evaluation of a class on effective parenting skills that combined behavioral and communication based (client-centered and Adlerian) approaches to child rearing. Seventeen parents of elementary school age children attended the class; twelve parents attended five or more sessions. The class…

  10. Evaluation of fly ash concrete durability containing class II durability aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    Fly ash was used in this evaluation study to replace 15% of the cement in : Class C-3 concrete paving mixes. One Class "c" ash from Iowa approved : sources was examined in each mix. Substitution rate was based on 1 to 1 : basis, for each pound of cem...

  11. MHC class II deficiency: Report of a novel mutation and special review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhi, S; Shabani, M; Aryan, Z; Zoghi, S; Krolo, A; Boztug, K; Rezaei, N

    The MHC II deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive primary immunodeficiency syndrome with increased susceptibility to respiratory and gastrointestinal infections, failure to thrive and early mortality. This syndrome is caused by mutations in transcription regulators of the MHC II gene and results in development of blind lymphocytes due to the lack of indicatory MHC II molecules. Despite homogeneity of clinical manifestations of patients with MHC II deficiency, the genetic defects underlying this disease are heterogeneous. Herein, we report an Iranian patient with MHC II deficiency harbouring a novel mutation in RFXANK and novel misleading clinical features. He had ataxic gait and dysarthria from 30 months of age. Epidemiology, clinical and immunological features, therapeutic options and prognosis of patients with MHC II are reviewed in this paper. Copyright © 2017 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Estudo cefalométrico comparativo dos espaços naso e bucofaríngeo nas más oclusões Classe I e Classe II, Divisão 1, sem tratamento ortodôntico, com diferentes padrões de crescimento A Comparative cephalometric study of the naso and oropharyngeal space in malocclusions Class I and Class II Division 1, without orthodontic treatment with different growth patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadyr M. Penteado Virmond Alcazar

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available A finalidade deste estudo foi comparar os espaços aéreos naso e bucofaríngeo em indivíduos com má oclusão Classe I e Classe II, divisão 1, segundo Angle, do gênero masculino e feminino, com idade média de 11 anos e 6 meses, com padrão de crescimento normal e vertical, não tratados ortodonticamente. A amostra desse estudo foi dividida em dois grupos: 40 pacientes apresentando Classe I e 40 pacientes com Classe II, divisão 1, cada grupo subdividido de acordo com o padrão de crescimento facial: normal e vertical. Os espaços aéreos naso e bucofaríngeo foram avaliados segundo a análise de McNamara Jr., pelas medidas NFa-NFp e BFa-BFp. A análise dos resultados obtidos revelou que, a medida do espaço bucofaríngeo para Classe I com padrão de crescimento vertical e para o espaço nasofaríngeo para Classe II com padrão normal de crescimento apresentaram-se semelhantes à medida padrão da amostra de McNamara Jr.. As outras medidas apresentaram-se estatisticamente menores. Na comparação entre os grupos, o espaço nasofaríngeo no grupo Classe I com padrão de crescimento vertical, apresentou-se menor do que nos grupos Classe I e grupo Classe II divisão 1, ambos com padrão de crescimento normal. O espaço bucofaríngeo não sofreu alteração significante de um grupo para outro. Em relação à hipertrofia da tonsila faringeana, apenas o grupo Classe I com padrão de crescimento vertical apresentou obstrução; para hipertrofia das tonsilas palatinas, apenas o grupo Classe I com padrão de crescimento vertical e Classe II com padrão de crescimento normal apresentou hipertrofia das tonsilas palatinas.The aim of this study is to compare the naso and oropharyngeal air space in people with malocclusion class I and class II division 1, according to Angle, with mean age from 8 to 15 years old with normal and vertical growth pattern not treated orthodontically. This study was divided into two groups: 40 patients with class I, and 40

  13. Craniofacial analysis of the Tweed Foundation in Angle Class II, division 1 malocclusion Análise craniofacial da Fundação Tweed na maloclusão Classe II, divisão 1 de Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César Tukasan

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This study has defined the cephalometric values of the Craniofacial Analysis of the Tweed Foundation for a sample of Brazilian subjects. The sample consisted of 211 cephalometric radiographs from subjects aged 12-15, which were divided into two groups: Class II group, with 168 lateral teleradiographs (cephalograms of white Brazilian subjects, with Angle Class II, division 1 malocclusion, of both genders (82 males and 86 females; and the Control Group, with 43 lateral teleradiographs (cephalograms of subjects whose occlusion was clinically excellent, and also of both genders (21 males and 22 females. The teleradiographs were selected from the files of the Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry of Piracicaba, State University of Campinas, previously to the orthodontic treatment. The results demonstrated no sexual dimorphism for each group, as attested by the Student's t-test. The exploratory analysis (± 0.5 standard deviation enabled the tolerance limits to be determined and a Craniofacial Analysis Table to be constructed using the respective cephalometric intervals. In addition, the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant according to the maxilla position. The maxilla was in a good position in relation to the cranial base. On the other hand, the mandible was retruded in relation to the cranial base in the Class II cases. The skeletal pattern was not defined because only the Facial Height Index (FHI showed a vertical pattern in Class II subjects, while the Y Axis, SN.PlO, SN.GoMe and FMA values did not show any statistically significant difference between the groups. The Class II division 1 subjects showed lower incisors more labially tipped and a convex facial profile.A pesquisa definiu os valores cefalométricos da Análise Craniofacial da Fundação Tweed em amostra de brasileiros. O estudo constava de 211 telerradiografias tomadas previamente ao tratamento ortodôntico de indivíduos na faixa etária de 12

  14. Changes of hyoid bone position following treatment of class II div1 malocclusion with Farmand functional appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassaei S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Unlike other bones of the head and neck, hyoid bone has no bony articulations. It is connected to mandible, cranium and pharynx through muscles and ligaments. During treatment with functional appliance in patients with class II div1 malocclusion, mandible is positioned in inferior and anterior direction. Regarding the relation between hyoid and mandibular bone, alterations of hyoid bone position can be a result of functional appliance therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes of hyoid bone position following treatment with Farmand functional appliance in patients with class II div 1 malocclusion. Materials and Methods: In this before-after clinical trial, 28 patients with class II div 1 malocclusion which were under treatment with Farmand functional appliance for 11 months were selected. Facial growth in vertical, normal or horizontal direction was determined by cephalometric measurement. Data were analyzed with Paired-t test to compare the differences of mean values pre and post treatment. Variance analysis was used to compare the three growth patterns. P<0.05 was considered as the limit of significance. Results: Hyoid bone shifted significantly forward in horizontal dimension (P<0.01 and non-significantly upward in vertical dimension. There was no significant difference among the three studied groups with respect to hyoid bone position alterations in horizontal dimension but significant difference was observed between horizontal and vertical growth pattern in vertical dimension (P<0.05. There was significant correlation between decrease of ANB angle and forward movement of hyoid bone. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, treatment with Farmand functional appliance (Fa II leads to significant alterations in the position and anterior displacement of the hyoid bone.

  15. Antibodies against major histocompatibility complex class II antigens directly inhibit the growth of T cells infected with Theileria parva without affecting their state of activation

    OpenAIRE

    Eichhorn, M; Prospero, T D; Heussler, Volker; Dobbelaere, D A

    1993-01-01

    We have analyzed the effect of antibodies (Abs) directed against major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II Abs on the proliferation of Theileria parva-infected (Tpi) T cells. Anti-MHC class II Abs exert a direct effect on Tpi T cells causing an acute block in their proliferation. The inhibition does not involve apoptosis and is also entirely reversible. The rapid arrest of DNA synthesis caused by anti- MHC class II Abs is not due to interference with the state of activation of the T cel...

  16. Human leukocyte antigen class I, class II, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha polymorphisms in a healthy elder Mexican Mestizo population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llorente Luis

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is strong evidence that an individual's genetic background is an important predisposing factor to longevity. In the present study we analysed the frequency of HLA class I, class II, as well as the TNF-α -308 polymorphism that may be related to an increased life span in Mexican Mestizo healthy elders. Results HLA typing was performed by polymerase chain reaction sequence specific oligonucleotide (PCR SSO reverse dot blot. The TNF-α -308 polymorphism was assessed by PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism. A significant increased frequency of HLA-DRB1*11 was found in elderly women whereas this allele was not present in elderly males. The TNF2 allele was also increased in the elder group when compared to young controls. The frequencies of the remaining alleles tested were not statistically different among groups. Conclusion These data suggest an ethnicity independent tendency of HLA-DRB1*11 in elder females to increase life span and a possible role of the TNF2 allele with the successful remodelling of senescent immune system.

  17. Distribution of CD163-positive cell and MHC class II-positive cell in the normal equine uveal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Yuto; Matsuda, Kazuya; Okamoto, Minoru; Takehana, Kazushige; Hirayama, Kazuko; Taniyama, Hiroyuki

    2016-02-01

    Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in the uveal tract participate in ocular immunity including immune homeostasis and the pathogenesis of uveitis. In horses, although uveitis is the most common ocular disorder, little is known about ocular immunity, such as the distribution of APCs. In this study, we investigated the distribution of CD163-positive and MHC II-positive cells in the normal equine uveal tract using an immunofluorescence technique. Eleven eyes from 10 Thoroughbred horses aged 1 to 24 years old were used. Indirect immunofluorescence was performed using the primary antibodies CD163, MHC class II (MHC II) and CD20. To demonstrate the site of their greatest distribution, positive cells were manually counted in 3 different parts of the uveal tract (ciliary body, iris and choroid), and their average number was assessed by statistical analysis. The distribution of pleomorphic CD163- and MHC II-expressed cells was detected throughout the equine uveal tract, but no CD20-expressed cells were detected. The statistical analysis demonstrated the distribution of CD163- and MHC II-positive cells focusing on the ciliary body. These results demonstrated that the ciliary body is the largest site of their distribution in the normal equine uveal tract, and the ciliary body is considered to play important roles in uveal and/or ocular immune homeostasis. The data provided in this study will help further understanding of equine ocular immunity in the normal state and might be beneficial for understanding of mechanisms of ocular disorders, such as equine uveitis.

  18. Orthodontic treatment for prominent upper front teeth (Class II malocclusion) in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Klaus Bsl; Thiruvenkatachari, Badri; Harrison, Jayne E; O'Brien, Kevin D

    2018-03-13

    Prominent upper front teeth are a common problem affecting about a quarter of 12-year-old children in the UK. The condition develops when permanent teeth erupt. These teeth are more likely to be injured and their appearance can cause significant distress. Children are often referred to an orthodontist for treatment with dental braces to reduce the prominence of their teeth. If a child is referred at a young age, the orthodontist is faced with the dilemma of whether to treat the patient early or to wait and provide treatment in adolescence. To assess the effects of orthodontic treatment for prominent upper front teeth initiated when children are seven to 11 years old ('early treatment' in two phases) compared to in adolescence at around 12 to 16 years old ('late treatment' in one phase); to assess the effects of late treatment compared to no treatment; and to assess the effects of different types of orthodontic braces. Cochrane Oral Health's Information Specialist searched the following databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (to 27 September 2017), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library, 2017, Issue 8), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 27 September 2017), and Embase Ovid (1980 to 27 September 2017). The US National Institutes of Health Ongoing Trials Registry (ClinicalTrials.gov) and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform were searched for ongoing trials. No restrictions were placed on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. Randomised controlled trials of orthodontic treatments to correct prominent upper front teeth (Class II malocclusion) in children and adolescents. We included trials that compared early treatment in children (two-phase) with any type of orthodontic braces (removable, fixed, functional) or head-braces versus late treatment in adolescents (one-phase) with any type of orthodontic braces or head-braces, and trials that compared any

  19. Inclinação de cabeça durante a mastigação habitual nas deformidades dentofaciais classe II e III Head inclination during habitual chewing in the presence of class II and III dentofacial deformities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Ralin de Carvalho Deda

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: este estudo investiga a diferença entre grupos com deformidade dentofacial (padrão classe II e classe III, em relação à preferência mastigatória referida e inclinação de cabeça durante a mastigação, assim como predomínio intra-grupo de cada um desses aspectos, comparativamente a um grupo controle. MÉTODOS: participaram deste estudo, voluntariamente, 25 pacientes (entre 18 e 35 anos. Doze pacientes com diagnóstico de deformidade dentofacial classe II e 13 pacientes com o diagnóstico de classe III esquelética e 10 voluntários, com equivalência em sexo e idade ao grupo de deformidade, formando o grupo controle. Os voluntários da pesquisa foram questionados sobre a existência de um lado de preferência mastigatória. Em seguida foram filmados durante a mastigação habitual de um biscoito maizena e através das imagens captadas, a postura de cabeça pôde ser analisada. RESULTADOS: não houve diferença entre os grupos em relação à preferência mastigatória referida, entretanto os grupos com deformidades dentofaciais apresentaram predomínio significativo de preferência mastigatória referida. Os grupos com deformidade dentofacial apresentaram maior predomínio de inclinação de cabeça durante a mastigação quando comparados ao grupo controle. CONCLUSÃO: indivíduos com deformidade dentofacial podem apresentar uma preferência mastigatória e alteração de postura de cabeça durante a mastigação.PURPOSE: the study was conducted in order to investigate the difference among groups with class II and class III dentofacial deformities regarding reported chewing side preference and head inclination during chewing and to determine the intra-group predominance for these features when compared to a control group. METHODS: twenty-five volunteers aged from 15 to 34 years took part in the study, 12 of them with a diagnosis of class II dentofacial deformity, 13 with class III dentofacial deformity, and 10 control

  20. A randomized controlled 30 years follow up of three conventional resin composites in Class II restorations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Ulla; van Dijken, Jan WV

    2015-01-01

    % of the material fractures occurred in participants with active para-functional habits. The overall success rate at 30 years was 63%, with an annual failure rateof 1.1%. 68–81% of the restorations showed non-acceptable color match. No statistical sig-nificant difference in survival rate was found between the three...

  1. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of a class II phospholipase D from Loxosceles intermedia venom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, Anwar; Giuseppe, Priscila Oliveira de; Murakami, Mario Tyago; Trevisan-Silva, Dilza; Wille, Ana Carolina Martins; Chaves-Moreira, Daniele; Gremski, Luiza Helena; Silveira, Rafael Bertoni da; Sennf-Ribeiro, Andrea; Chaim, Olga Meiri; Veiga, Silvio Sanches; Arni, Raghuvir Krishnaswamy

    2011-01-01

    Wild-type and H12A-mutant class II phospholipase D from L. intermedia venom were crystallized; the crystals diffracted to maximum resolutions of 1.95 and 1.60 Å, respectively. Phospholipases D are the major dermonecrotic component of Loxosceles venom and catalyze the hydrolysis of phospholipids, resulting in the formation of lipid mediators such as ceramide-1-phosphate and lysophosphatidic acid which can induce pathological and biological responses. Phospholipases D can be classified into two classes depending on their catalytic efficiency and the presence of an additional disulfide bridge. In this work, both wild-type and H12A-mutant forms of the class II phospholipase D from L. intermedia venom were crystallized. Wild-type and H12A-mutant crystals were grown under very similar conditions using PEG 200 as a precipitant and belonged to space group P12 1 1, with unit-cell parameters a = 50.1, b = 49.5, c = 56.5 Å, β = 105.9°. Wild-type and H12A-mutant crystals diffracted to maximum resolutions of 1.95 and 1.60 Å, respectively

  2. Assessment of the changes in quality of life of patients with class II and III deformities during and after orthodontic-surgical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baherimoghaddam, T; Tabrizi, R; Naseri, N; Pouzesh, A; Oshagh, M; Torkan, S

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to assess and compare the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of patients with class II and III deformities during and after orthodontic-surgical treatment. Thirty class III and 28 class II patients were evaluated at baseline (T0), just prior to surgery (T1), at 6 months after surgery (T2), and at 12 months after debonding (T3). OHRQoL was assessed using the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14). Friedman two-way analysis of variance and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test were performed to compare the relative changes in OHRQoL during treatment. Significant changes in the overall OHIP-14 scores were observed during and after orthodontic-surgical treatment in both groups. During the pre-surgical stage, psychological discomfort and psychological disability decreased in class III patients, and class II patients experienced a significant deterioration in psychological discomfort during the same period. Six months after surgery, patients in both groups showed improvements in psychological discomfort, social disability, and handicap. Physical disability and functional limitation showed further improvement at 12 months after debonding in class II patients. This study reaffirms that orthodontic-surgical treatment has a significant effect on the OHRQoL of class III and class II patients. Copyright © 2015 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. CIITA promoter I CARD-deficient mice express functional MHC class II genes in myeloid and lymphoid compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinzow-Kramer, W M; Long, A B; Youngblood, B A; Rosenthal, K M; Butler, R; Mohammed, A-U-R; Skountzou, I; Ahmed, R; Evavold, B D; Boss, J M

    2012-06-01

    Three distinct promoters control the master regulator of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II expression, class II transactivator (CIITA), in a cell type-specific manner. Promoter I (pI) CIITA, expressed primarily by dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages, expresses a unique isoform that contains a caspase-recruitment domain (CARD). The activity and function of this isoform are not understood, but are believed to enhance the function of CIITA in antigen-presenting cells. To determine whether isoform I of CIITA has specific functions, CIITA mutant mice were created in which isoform I was replaced with isoform III sequences. Mice in which pI and the CARD-encoding exon were deleted were also created. No defect in the formation of CD4 T cells, the ability to respond to a model antigen or bacterial or viral challenge was observed in mice lacking CIITA isoform I. Although CIITA and MHC-II expression was decreased in splenic DCs, pI knockout animals expressed CIITA from downstream promoters, suggesting that control of pI activity is mediated by unknown distal elements that could act at pIII, the B-cell promoter. Thus, no critical function is linked to the CARD domain of CIITA isoform I with respect to basic immune system development, function and challenge.

  4. Comparative evaluation of microleakage in class II cavities restored with Ceram X and Filtek P-90: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Bogra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Polymerization shrinkage in composite resins is responsible for microleakage. Methacrylate-based composite resins have linear reactive groups resulting in high polymerization shrinkage. A recently introduced composite resin Filtek P90 is based on siloxanes and oxiranes which polymerize by cationic "ring opening" polymerization resulting in reduced polymerization shrinkage. Objectives: Aim of this study was to compare microleakage in class II cavities restored with a nanoceramic restorative (Ceram X and a silorane composite (Filtek P90. Materials and Methods: Standardized class II box type cavities were prepared on mesial (Groups Ia and IIa and distal (Groups Ib and IIb surfaces of twenty extracted permanent molar teeth with gingival floor ending 1 mm coronal and apical to the cementoenamel junction, respectively. The teeth in Group Ia and Ib were restored with Ceram X and Group IIa and IIb with Filtek P90. The specimens were thermocycled and microleakage evaluated. Statistical Analysis Used: The data were statistically analyzed using Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test at the 0.05 level of significance. Results: Mean microleakage score of group la and lb was 1 ± 2.260 and 2.8 ± 1.229, respectively. And that of group Ila and llb was 0.2 ± .869 and 0.3 ± .588, respectively. When groups I and II were compared, results were statistically significant (P<0.05. Conclusion: It was concluded that silorane-based composite may be a better substitute for methacrylate-based composites.

  5. The effect of additional enamel etching and a flowable composite to the interfacial integrity of Class II adhesive composite restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belli, S; Inokoshi, S; Ozer, F; Pereira, P N; Ogata, M; Tagami, J

    2001-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the interfacial integrity of Class II resin composite restorations. The influence of a flowable composite and additional enamel etching was also evaluated. Deep, saucer-shaped Class II cavities were prepared in the mesial and distal proximal surfaces of 25 extracted human molars and assigned to five treatment groups. The gingival margins were extended to approximately 1 mm above the CEJ in 40 cavities and below the CEJ in 10 cavities. The prepared cavities were then restored with a self-etching primer system (Clearfil Liner Bond II) and a hybrid resin composite (Clearfil AP-X), with and without a flowable composite (Protect Liner F) and additional enamel etching with 37% phosphoric acid gel (K-etchant). After finishing, polishing and thermocycling (4 and 60 degrees C, x300), the samples were longitudinally sectioned through the restorations and resin-tooth interfaces were observed directly under a laser scanning microscope. Statistical analysis indicated that the use of a flowable composite produced significantly more (p = 0.04) gap-free resin-dentin interfaces than teeth restored without the flowable composite. However, both flowable composite and enamel etching could not prevent gap formation at enamel-resin interfaces and crack formation on enamel walls.

  6. Evaluation of cervical posture of children in skeletal class I, II, and III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Attilio, Michele; Caputi, Sergio; Epifania, Ettore; Festa, Felice; Tecco, Simona

    2005-07-01

    Previous studies on the relationship between morphological structure of the face and cervical posture have predominantly focused on vertical dimensions of the face. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there are significant differences in cervical posture in subjects with a different sagittal morphology of the face, i.e., a different skeletal class. One hundred twenty (120) children (60 males and 60 females, average age 9.5 yrs., SD+/-0.5) were admitted for orthodontic treatment. Selection criteria was: European ethnic origin, date of birth, considerable skeletal growth potential remaining and an absence of temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMD). Lateral skull radiographs were taken in mirror position. Subjects were divided into three groups based on their skeletal class. The cephalometric tracings included postural variables. The most interesting findings were: 1. children in skeletal class III showed a significantly lower cervical lordosis angle (phead upon the spinal column compared to children in skeletal class I and skeletal class III (pposture of the neck seems to be strongly associated with the sagittal as well as the vertical structure of the face.

  7. Maxillary sinus floor extension and posterior tooth inclination in adolescent patients with Class II Division 1 malocclusion treated with maxillary first molar extractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livas, Christos; Halazonetis, Demetrios J.; Booij, Johan Willem; Pandis, Nikolaos; Tu, Yu-Kang; Katsaros, Christos

    Introduction: Our objective was to investigate potential associations between maxillary sinus floor extension and inclination of maxillary second premolars and second molars in patients with Class II Division 1 malocclusion whose orthodontic treatment included maxillary first molar extractions.

  8. Maxillary sinus floor extension and posterior tooth inclination in adolescent patients with Class II Division 1 malocclusion treated with maxillary first molar extractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livas, C.; Halazonetis, D.J.; Booij, J.W.; Pandis, N.; Tu, Y.K.; Katsaros, C.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Our objective was to investigate potential associations between maxillary sinus floor extension and inclination of maxillary second premolars and second molars in patients with Class II Division 1 malocclusion whose orthodontic treatment included maxillary first molar extractions.

  9. Royal Wine Corporation d/b/a/ Royal Kedem (Herzog Wine Cellars), Oxnard, CA; Proposed Settlement of Clean Water Act Class II Administrative Penalty and Opportunity to Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Notice of Proposed Settlement of Clean Water Act Class II Administrative Penalty and Opportunity to Comment In the Matter of Royal Wine Corporation d/b/a/ Royal Kedem (Herzog Wine Cellars), Oxnard, California.

  10. A Readily Accessible Class of Chiral Cp Ligands and their Application in RuII -Catalyzed Enantioselective Syntheses of Dihydrobenzoindoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shou-Guo; Park, Sung Hwan; Cramer, Nicolai

    2018-05-04

    Chiral cyclopentadienyl (Cp x ) ligands have a large application potential in enantioselective transition-metal catalysis. However, the development of concise and practical routes to such ligands remains in its infancy. We present a convenient and efficient two-step synthesis of a novel class of chiral Cp x ligands with tunable steric properties that can be readily used for complexation, giving Cp x Rh I , Cp x Ir I , and Cp x Ru II complexes. The potential of this ligand class is demonstrated with the latter in the enantioselective cyclization of azabenzonorbornadienes with alkynes, affording dihydrobenzoindoles in up to 98:2 e.r., significantly outperforming existing binaphthyl-derived Cp x ligands. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Two residues determine the product profile of the class II diterpene synthases TPS14 and TPS21 of Tripterygium wilfordii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Nikolaj Lervad; Nissen, Jakob N.; Hamberger, Björn Robert

    2017-01-01

    residue gave mixed product profiles. Two mutants, TwTPS14:Y265H and TwTPS21:A325V, also produced ent-copalyl diphosphate, highlighting the evolutionary potential of enzymes of this family to drive rapid diversification of plant diterpene biosynthesis through neo-functionalization. Our study contributes......The medicinal plant Tripterygium wilfordii (Celastraceae) contains a pair of class II diterpene synthases (diTPS) of specialized labdane-type metabolism that, despite remarkably close homology, form strikingly different products. TwTPS21 catalyzes bicyclization of the linear C20 precursor......-directed mutagenesis, we generated a panel of six variants, where one, or both positions were exchanged between the enzymes. In coupled heterologous assays with a corresponding class I diTPS, TwTPS2, complete product interchange was observed in variants with both reciprocal mutations, while substitutions of either...

  12. EFFECT OF PLACEMENT TECHNIQUES, FLOWABLE COMPOSITE , LINER AND FIBRE INSERTS ON MARGINAL MICROLEAKAGE OF CLASS II COMPOSITE RESTORATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupriya

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM : T he aim of this study was to evaluate effect of placement techniques, flow able composite, and fiber inserts in marginal adaptation of class II composite restorations. MATERIALS AND METHODS : 120 class II box cavities were prepared on both mesial and distal surfaces of extracted human molars. The prepared teeth were randomly assigned to 6 groups : 1 bulk insertion . ( S ingle increment, 2 O blique incremental placement technique, 3 Centripetal incremental placement technique . 4 S plit horizontal incremental placement technique . 5 flow able composite as gingival increment 6 ribbond fiber insert in gingival increment . The preparations were restored with a total etch adhesive (Adper Single Bond, 3M ESPE and nano composite (Z350, 3M ESPE. Specimens were isola ted with nail varnish except for a 2 - mm - wide rim around the restoration and thermocycled (1,000 thermal cycles, 5°C/55°C; 30 - second dwell time. The specimens were immersed in a solution of 2% methylene blue dye for 24 hours. The teeth were sectioned longi tudinally, observed under stereomicroscope and evaluated for microleakage using an ordinal scale of 0 to 4. The microleakage scores obtained from gingival walls were analyzed with Kruskal - Wallis and Mann Whitney nonparametric tests. RESULTS: Among all plac ement techniques split incremental technique showed least microleakage scores . The group that used flowable composite liner did not show significant reduction in microleakage and group with fiber inserts showed significant decrease in microleakage scores. CONCLUSION : None of the techniques eliminated marginal microleakage in class II composite restorations . However, the split incremental technique and group with fiber inserts showed significantly lower microleakage at gingival margin when compared to other groups

  13. Comparison of esthetic outcome after extraction or non-extraction orthodontic treatment in class II division 1 malocclusion patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sneh Lata Verma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The extraction of premolars as a practical form of orthodontic therapy has been accepted for many years, but there remains a controversy regarding the effect of premolar extraction to improve esthetics as well as dentoskeletal relationship. The esthetic impact of the soft-tissue profile might play a major role in deciding on premolar extraction or non-extraction treatment, particularly in borderline patients. This cephalometric study was undertaken to compare the post-treatment soft-tissue profiles of successfully managed Class II, Division 1 malocclusions treated with either all first premolar extractions or treatment with a non-extraction therapy. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 100 post-pubertal female patients of Class II Division I malocclusion. Group 1, treated with four first premolar extractions, consisted of 50 female patients with a mean age of 14 years 1 month. Group 2, treated without extractions, consisted of 50 patients with a mean age of 13 years 5 months. Pre-treatment and post-treatment lateral cephalometric radiographs were evaluated. The pre-treatment to post-treatment stage comparison and the intergroup comparison of the treatment changes were conducted between extraction and non-extraction groups of Class II malocclusion samples with t-tests. Results: The soft-tissue facial profiles of the extraction and non-extraction samples were the same following active treatment except for a more retruded lower lip and a more pronounced lower labial sulcus in those patients subjected to extraction. Conclusions: The extraction or non-extraction decision, if based on sound diagnostic criteria, seems to have no systematic detrimental effects on the facial profile.

  14. Application of collagen hydrogel/sponge scaffold facilitates periodontal wound healing in class II furcation defects in beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosen, Y; Miyaji, H; Kato, A; Sugaya, T; Kawanami, M

    2012-10-01

    A three-dimensional scaffold may play an important role in periodontal tissue engineering. We prepared bio-safe collagen hydrogel, which exhibits properties similar to those of native extracellular matrix. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of implantation of collagen hydrogel/sponge scaffold on periodontal wound healing in class II furcation defects in dogs. The collagen hydrogel/sponge scaffold was prepared by injecting collagen hydrogel, cross-linked to the ascorbate-copper ion system, into a collagen sponge. Class II furcation defects (of 5 mm depth and 3 mm width) were surgically created in beagle dogs. The exposed root surface was planed and demineralized with EDTA. In the experimental group, the defect was filled with collagen hydrogel/sponge scaffold. In the control group, no implantation was performed. Histometric parameters were evaluated 2 and 4 wk after surgery. At 2 wk, the collagen hydrogel/sponge scaffold displayed high biocompatibility and biodegradability with numerous cells infiltrating the scaffold. In the experimental group, reconstruction of alveolar bone and cementum was frequently observed 4 wk after surgery. Periodontal ligament tissue was also re-established between alveolar bone and cementum. Volumes of new bone, new cementum and new periodontal ligament were significantly greater in the experimental group than in the control group. In addition, epithelial down-growth was suppressed by application of collagen hydrogel. The collagen hydrogel/sponge scaffold possessed high tissue compatibility and degradability. Implantation of the scaffold facilitated periodontal wound healing in class II furcation defects in beagle dogs. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Class II obese and healthy pregnant controls exhibit indistinguishable pro‐ and anti‐inflammatory immune responses to Caesarian section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Caroline; Thorleifson, Mullein; Stefura, William P.; Funk, Duane J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Obesity during pregnancy is associated with meta‐inflammation and an increased likelihood of clinical complications. Surgery results in intense, acute inflammatory responses in any individual. Because obese individuals exhibit constitutive inflammatory responses and high rates of Caesarian section, it is important to understand the impact of surgery in such populations. Whether more pronounced pro‐inflammatory cytokine responses and/or counterbalancing changes in anti‐inflammatory immune modulators occurs is unknown. Here we investigated innate immune capacity in vivo and in vitro in non‐obese, term‐pregnant controls versus healthy, term‐pregnant obese women (Class II, BMI 35–40). Methods Systemic in vivo induction of eleven pro‐ and anti‐inflammatory biomarkers and acute phase proteins was assessed in plasma immediately prior to and again following Caesarian section surgery. Independently, innate immune capacity was examined by stimulating freshly isolated PBMC in vitro with a panel of defined PRR‐ligands for TLR4, TLR8, TLR3, and RLR 24 h post‐surgery. Results The kinetics and magnitude of the in vivo inflammatory responses examined were indistinguishable in the two populations across the broad range of biomarkers examined, despite the fact that obese women had higher baseline inflammatory status. Deliberate in vitro stimulation with a range of PRR ligands also elicited pro‐ and anti‐inflammatory cytokine responses that were indistinguishable between control and obese mothers. Conclusions Acute in vivo innate immune responses to C‐section, as well as subsequent in vitro stimulation with a panel of microbial mimics, are not detectably altered in Class II obese women. The data argue that while Class II obesity is undesirable, it has minimal impact on the in vivo inflammatory response, or innate immunomodulatory capacity, in women selecting C‐section. PMID:28544689

  16. Meta-analysis reveals association between most common class II haplotype in full-heritage Native Americans and rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R C; Jacobsson, L T; Knowler, W C; del Puente, A; Kostyu, D; McAuley, J E; Bennett, P H; Pettitt, D J

    1995-01-01

    The association of RA with the alleles at the HLA system was tested among Pima and Tohono O'odham Indians (Pimans) of the Gila River Indian Community of Arizona. Serologic class I (HLA-A, -B, and -C) alleles were typed in 51 individuals with RA and in 302 without RA. Serologic class II (HLA-DR, DQ; DR52 DR53) alleles were typed in a subset of 47 with RA and 147 without RA. Molecular subtypes of DR3X6, DRB1*1402, and *1406 were determined in 29 individuals, 16 with RA and 13 without RA. Among the cases with RA, 46 of 47 had the serologic antigen HLA-DR3X6, as did 140 of 147 of those without the disease. However, this association was not statistically significant because of the high prevalence of the antigen in the controls. Data from Pimans were analyzed with similar results from the Tlingit and Yakima Indians. A meta-analysis employing the Mantel-Haenszel procedure, stratified by tribe, revealed a statistically significant association between the most common haplotype, DRB1*1402 DQA1*0501 DQB1*0301 DRB3*0101, and RA (summary odds ratio = 2.63, 95% confidence interval = 1.08, 6.46). There was also a statistically significant difference in the genotype distributions of one class I locus, HLA-C, between those with and without RA (chi 2 = 12.4, 5 df; p = 0.03). It is concluded that the association with the most common class II haplotype in full-heritage Native Americans might help explain their high prevalence of RA.

  17. Formation and elasticity of membranes of the class II hydrophobin Cerato-ulmin at oil-water interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xujun; Kirby, Stephanie M; Chen, Yuwu; Anna, Shelley L; Walker, Lynn M; Hung, Francisco R; Russo, Paul S

    2018-04-01

    Protein surfactants show great potential to stabilize foams, bubbles, and emulsions. An important family of surface active proteins, the hydrophobins, is secreted by filamentous fungi. Two hydrophobin classes have been recognized, with Class II exhibiting slightly better solubility than Class I, although neither is very soluble in water. Hydrophobins are small proteins (8-14 kDa), but they are larger and more rigid than typical surfactants such as sodium dodecyl sulfate. This rigidity seems to be manifested in the strength of adsorbed hydrophobin layers on oil droplets or air bubbles. A particular Class II hydrophobin, Cerato-ulmin, was characterized at the oil-water interface (the oil was squalane). The results are compared to measurements at the air-water interface, newly extended to lower Cerato-ulmin concentrations. For both oil-water and air-water interfaces, static and dynamic properties were measured during the evolution of the membrane structure. The static measurements reveal that dilute Cerato-ulmin solution efficiently decreases the interfacial tension, whether at oil-water or air-water interfaces. The reduction in surface tension requires several hours. Interfacial mechanics were characterized too, and the dilatational modulus was found to reach large values at both types of interfaces: 339 ± 19 mN/m at the squalane-water interface and at least 764 ± 45 mN/m at the air-water interface. Both values well exceed those typical of small-molecule surfactants, but come closer to those expected of particulate-loaded interfaces. Circular dichroism provides some insight to adsorption-induced molecular rearrangements, which seem to be more prevalent at the oil-water interface than at the air-water interface. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The Center for Community Development Annual Report, FY 1984-85. Volume II, Addendum 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Tom

    A variety of information is included in this 1984-85 annual report of Humboldt State University's Center for Community Development (California), which has been instrumental in establishing a wide range of community services and has worked extensively to preserve the language and culture of four northwestern California tribes--Hupa, Karuk, Tolowa,…

  19. Treatment outcome for a sample of patients with Class II division 1 malocclusion treated at a regional hospital orthodontic department.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burden, D J

    1998-01-01

    This retrospective study assessed the outcome of orthodontic treatment of 264 patients with Class II division 1 malocclusion (overjet greater than 6 mm). The sample comprised patients who had completed their fixed appliance orthodontic treatment at a regional hospital orthodontic unit in the Republic of Ireland. The PAR Index (Peer Assessment Rating) was used to evaluate treatment outcome using before and after treatment study casts. The results revealed that treatment for this particular type of malocclusion was highly effective with a very few patients failing to benefit from their orthodontic treatment.

  20. Mutational analysis of divalent metal ion binding in the active site of class II α-mannosidase from sulfolobus solfataricus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Dennis K.; Webb, Helen; Nielsen, Jonas Willum

    2015-01-01

    Mutational analysis of Sulfolobus solfataricus class II α-mannosidase was focused on side chains that interact with the hydroxyls of the-1 mannosyl of the substrate (Asp-534) or form ligands to the active site divalent metal ion (His-228 and His-533) judged from crystal structures of homologous e......, although less dramatically with some activating metal ions. No major differences in the pH dependence between wild-type and mutant enzymes were found in the presence of different metal ions. The pH optimum was 5, but enzyme instability was observed at pH...

  1. Giant panda BAC library construction and assembly of a 650-kb contig spanning major histocompatibility complex class II region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Hui-Juan

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Giant panda is rare and endangered species endemic to China. The low rates of reproductive success and infectious disease resistance have severely hampered the development of captive and wild populations of the giant panda. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC plays important roles in immune response and reproductive system such as mate choice and mother-fetus bio-compatibility. It is thus essential to understand genetic details of the giant panda MHC. Construction of a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC library will provide a new tool for panda genome physical mapping and thus facilitate understanding of panda MHC genes. Results A giant panda BAC library consisting of 205,800 clones has been constructed. The average insert size was calculated to be 97 kb based on the examination of 174 randomly selected clones, indicating that the giant panda library contained 6.8-fold genome equivalents. Screening of the library with 16 giant panda PCR primer pairs revealed 6.4 positive clones per locus, in good agreement with an expected 6.8-fold genomic coverage of the library. Based on this BAC library, we constructed a contig map of the giant panda MHC class II region from BTNL2 to DAXX spanning about 650 kb by a three-step method: (1 PCR-based screening of the BAC library with primers from homologous MHC class II gene loci, end sequences and BAC clone shotgun sequences, (2 DNA sequencing validation of positive clones, and (3 restriction digest fingerprinting verification of inter-clone overlapping. Conclusion The identifications of genes and genomic regions of interest are greatly favored by the availability of this giant panda BAC library. The giant panda BAC library thus provides a useful platform for physical mapping, genome sequencing or complex analysis of targeted genomic regions. The 650 kb sequence-ready BAC contig map of the giant panda MHC class II region from BTNL2 to DAXX, verified by the three-step method, offers a

  2. Ex vivo analysis of human memory CD4 T cells specific for hepatitis C virus using MHC class II tetramers

    OpenAIRE

    Day, Cheryl L.; Seth, Nilufer P.; Lucas, Michaela; Appel, Heiner; Gauthier, Laurent; Lauer, Georg M.; Robbins, Gregory K.; Szczepiorkowski, Zbigniew M.; Casson, Deborah R.; Chung, Raymond T.; Bell, Shannon; Harcourt, Gillian; Walker, Bruce D.; Klenerman, Paul; Wucherpfennig, Kai W.

    2003-01-01

    Containment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and other chronic human viral infections is associated with persistence of virus-specific CD4 T cells, but ex vivo characterization of circulating CD4 T cells has not been achieved. To further define the phenotype and function of these cells, we developed a novel approach for the generation of tetrameric forms of MHC class II/peptide complexes that is based on the cellular peptide-exchange mechanism. HLA-DR molecules were expressed as precursors with a c...

  3. Direct binding of autoimmune disease related T cell epitopes to purified Lewis rat MHC class II molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joosten, I; Wauben, M H; Holewijn, M C

    1994-01-01

    New strategies applied in the treatment of experimental autoimmune disease models involve blocking or modulation of MHC-peptide-TCR interactions either at the level of peptide-MHC interaction or, alternatively, at the level of T cell recognition. In order to identify useful competitor peptides one...... characteristics of the Lewis rat MHC class II RT1.B1 molecule. We have now developed a biochemical binding assay which enables competition studies in which the relative MHC binding affinity of a set of non-labelled peptides can be assessed while employing detection of biotinylated marker peptides...

  4. New chicken Rfp-Y haplotypes on the basis of MHC class II RFLP and MLC analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul-Madsen, H R; Zoorob, R; Auffray, C

    1997-01-01

    New chicken Rfp-Y haplotypes were determined by the use of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) in four different chicken haplotypes, B15, B19, B21, B201. The RFLP polymorphism was mapped to the Rfp-Y system by the use of a subclone (18.1) which maps...... near a polymorphic lectin gene located in the Rfp-Y system and DNA from families with known segregation of the implicated RFLP polymorphism. For the first time it is shown that major histocompatibility complex class II genes in the Rfp-Y system have functional implications. Sequence information...

  5. Identification and applications of the Petunia class II Act1/dTph1 transposable element system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerats, Tom; Zethof, Jan; Vandenbussche, Michiel

    2013-01-01

    Transposable genetic elements are considered to be ubiquitous. Despite this, their mutagenic capacity has been exploited in only a few species. The main plant species are maize, Antirrhinum, and Petunia. Representatives of all three major groups of class II elements, viz., hAT-, CACTA- and Mutator-like elements, have been identified in Petunia. Here we focus on the research "history" of the Petunia two-element Act1-dTph1 system and the development of its application in forward- and reverse-genetics studies.

  6. Treatment of Class II Division 2 Malocclusion Using the Forsus Fatigue Resistance Device and 5-Year Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezgi Atik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report presents the treatment of a 14-year-and-8-month-old boy with Class II division 2 mandibular retrusion, severe deep bite, and concave profile. The Forsus fatigue resistance device (FRD was effective in correcting both skeletal and dental parameters. At 5-year posttreatment follow-up, the teeth were well aligned and the occlusion was stable. FRD application with appropriate treatment time can result with prominent changes in the facial profile and dentition, and the outcomes can be maintained at the long-term follow-up periods.

  7. Cattle with the BoLA class II DRB3*0902 allele have significantly lower bovine leukemia proviral loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Takumi; Mekata, Hirohisa; Sekiguchi, Satoshi; Kirino, Yumi; Mitoma, Shuya; Honkawa, Kazuyuki; Horii, Yoichiro; Norimine, Junzo

    2017-09-12

    The bovine MHC (BoLA) class II DRB3 alleles are associated with polyclonal expansion of lymphocytes caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection in cattle. To examine whether the DRB3*0902 allele, one of the resistance-associated alleles, is associated with the proviral load, we measured BLV proviral load of BLV-infected cattle and clarified their DRB3 alleles. Fifty-seven animals with DRB3*0902 were identified out of 835 BLV-infected cattle and had significantly lower proviral load (Pclass II DRA/DRB3*0902 molecule plays an important immunological role in suppressing viral replication, resulting in resistance to the disease progression.

  8. Dynamical systems with first- and second-class constraints. II. Local-symmetry transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitaia, N.P.; Gogilidze, S.A.; Surovtsev, Y.S.

    1997-01-01

    In the framework of the generalized Hamiltonian formalism by Dirac, local symmetries of dynamical systems with first- and second-class constraints are investigated. The method of constructing the generator of local-symmetry transformations is presented both for theories with an algebra of constraints of a special form (a majority of the physically interesting theories) and in the general case without restrictions on the algebra of constraints. It is proven that second-class constraints do not contribute to the transformation law of the local symmetry entirely stipulated by all the first-class constraints. A mechanism of the occurrence of higher derivatives of coordinates and group parameters in the symmetry transformation law in Noether close-quote s second theorem is elucidated. In the latter case it is shown that the obtained transformations of symmetry are canonical in the extended (by Ostrogradsky) phase space. It is thereby shown that in the general case the degeneracy of theories with first- and second-class constraints is due to their invariance under local-symmetry transformations. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  9. Analysing the Wu metric on a class of eggs in Cn–II

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 127; Issue 3. Analysing the Wu metric on a class of eggs in C C n – I I .... G P BALAKUMAR1 PRACHI MAHAJAN2. Indian Statistical Institute, Chennai 600 113, India; Department of Mathematics, Indian Institute of Technology – Bombay, Mumbai 400 076, India ...

  10. Bacterial superantigens promote acute nasopharyngeal infection by Streptococcus pyogenes in a human MHC Class II-dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine J Kasper

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Establishing the genetic determinants of niche adaptation by microbial pathogens to specific hosts is important for the management and control of infectious disease. Streptococcus pyogenes is a globally prominent human-specific bacterial pathogen that secretes superantigens (SAgs as 'trademark' virulence factors. SAgs function to force the activation of T lymphocytes through direct binding to lateral surfaces of T cell receptors and class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC-II molecules. S. pyogenes invariably encodes multiple SAgs, often within putative mobile genetic elements, and although SAgs are documented virulence factors for diseases such as scarlet fever and the streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS, how these exotoxins contribute to the fitness and evolution of S. pyogenes is unknown. Here we show that acute infection in the nasopharynx is dependent upon both bacterial SAgs and host MHC-II molecules. S. pyogenes was rapidly cleared from the nasal cavity of wild-type C57BL/6 (B6 mice, whereas infection was enhanced up to ∼10,000-fold in B6 mice that express human MHC-II. This phenotype required the SpeA superantigen, and vaccination with an MHC -II binding mutant toxoid of SpeA dramatically inhibited infection. Our findings indicate that streptococcal SAgs are critical for the establishment of nasopharyngeal infection, thus providing an explanation as to why S. pyogenes produces these potent toxins. This work also highlights that SAg redundancy exists to avoid host anti-SAg humoral immune responses and to potentially overcome host MHC-II polymorphisms.

  11. Tratamento de Classe II, Divisão 1, com ausência congênita de incisivo lateral superior Treatment of Class II Division 1 with congenitally absent maxillary lateral incisor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto M. A. Lima Filho

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Este relato mostra tratamento Ortodôntico efetuado em paciente portador de Classe II, Divisão 1, de Angle, com sobremordida profunda e agenesia do incisivo lateral superior esquerdo, em que o espaço foi fechado ortodonticamente e o canino ocupou o lugar do incisivo lateral. Os procedimentos adotados possibilitaram a obtenção de estética agradável e relação oclusal normal. A linha mediana não apresentou desvio ao término do tratamento e a discrepância vertical foi devidamente corrigida.This case report demonstrates the orthodontic treatment of a patient who presented a Class II Division 1 malocclusion, deep overbite and congenitally absent maxillary left lateral incisor. The space was closed orthodontically and maxillary cuspid was positioned in the place of the maxillary lateral incisor. The treatment applied resulted in a pleasant esthetics and normal occlusal relationship. The midline was coincident at the end of treatment and vertical discrepancy was properly corrected.

  12. HPC Colony II Consolidated Annual Report: July-2010 to June-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Terry R [ORNL

    2011-06-01

    This report provides a brief progress synopsis of the HPC Colony II project for the period of July 2010 to June 2011. HPC Colony II is a 36-month project and this report covers project months 10 through 21. It includes a consolidated view of all partners (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, IBM, and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign) as well as detail for Oak Ridge. Highlights are noted and fund status data (burn rates) are provided.

  13. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells suppress MHC class II expression on rat vascular endothelium and prolong survival time of cardiac allograft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Ying; Yun, Mark M; Han, Xia; Zhao, Ruidong; Zhou, Erxia; Yun, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Background: Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells (UC-MSCs) have low immunogenicity and immune regulation. To investigate immunomodulatory effects of human UC-MSCs on MHC class II expression and allograft, we transplanted heart of transgenic rats with MHC class II expression on vascular endothelium. Methods: UC-MSCs were obtained from human umbilical cords and confirmed with flow cytometry analysis. Transgenic rat line was established using the construct of human MHC class II transactivator gene (CIITA) under mouse ICAM-2 promoter control. The induced MHC class II expression on transgenic rat vascular endothelial cells (VECs) was assessed with immunohistological staining. And the survival time of cardiac allograft was compared between the recipients with and without UC-MSC transfusion. Results: Flow cytometry confirmed that the human UC-MSCs were positive for CD29, CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105, CD271, and negative for CD34 and HLA-DR. Repeated infusion of human UC-MSCs reduced MHC class II expression on vascular endothelia of transplanted hearts, and increased survival time of allograft. The UC-MSCs increased regulatory cytokines IL10, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and suppressed proinflammatory cytokines IL2 and IFN-γ in vivo. The UC-MSC culture supernatant had similar effects on cytokine expression, and decreased lymphocyte proliferation in vitro. Conclusions: Repeated transfusion of the human UC-MSCs reduced MHC class II expression on vascular endothelia and prolonged the survival time of rat cardiac allograft. PMID:25126177

  14. Tetraspan microdomains distinct from lipid rafts enrich select peptide-MHC class II complexes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kropshofer, H.; Spindeldreher, S.; Rohn, T. A.; Platania, N.; Grygar, C.; Daniel, N.; Wolpl, A.; Langen, H.; Hořejší, Václav; Vogt, A. B.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 1 (2002), s. 61-68 ISSN 1529-2908 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : MHC II * tetraspan microdomains * peptide presentation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 27.868, year: 2002

  15. Treatment of skeletal class II in a growing patient using two-phase treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kumar Neela

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This case was submitted to the board under category II for the Indian Board of Orthodontics examination, November 2016. The summary of the treatment, various records, treatment progress, and critical appraisal are reprinted here with minimal editing and reformatting and hence that the presentation resembles the actual documents submitted to the board.

  16. Sales and marketing's partnership role in class A MRP II (material requirements planning).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, J R; Lerner, W

    1994-08-01

    As the material and requirements planning (MRP) II process has evolved, many companies have discovered that the process is greatly enhanced when the entire business participates. The sales and operations planning process is the forum for the businesswide decisions concerning sales, production, and inventory. Sales and marketing must be integral parts of these decision-making activities.

  17. SCIMP, a transmembrane adaptor protein involved in major histocompatibility complex class II signaling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dráber, Peter; Vonková, Ivana; Štěpánek, Ondřej; Hrdinka, Matouš; Kucová, Markéta; Skopcová, Tereza; Otáhal, Pavel; Angelisová, Pavla; Hořejší, Václav; Yeung, M.; Weiss, A.; Brdička, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 22 (2011), s. 4550-4562 ISSN 0270-7306 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0506; GA ČR GEMEM/09/E011 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : SCIMP * transmembrane adaptor protein * MHC II Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.527, year: 2011

  18. Evaluation of efficacy of a novel resorbable collagen membrane for root coverage of Miller's Class I and Class II recession in the maxillary anteriors and premolars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krutika Kapare

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are several surgical techniques in literature that have been used to perform root coverage (RC. Currently, the use of a resorbable collagen membrane (RCM as a guided tissue regenerative material is one of the highly sought treatment modalities. The present study aimed at evaluating the clinical outcome of RC in the treatment of Miller's Class I and II recession defects in maxillary anteriors and premolars by coronally advanced flap (CAF with and without RCM. Materials and Methods: This split-mouth study (bilateral buccal recession defects was randomized to include 15 test (CAF + membrane and 15 control (CAF alone sites. Clinical parameters included gingival recession depth (RD, probing pocket depth (PPD, clinical attachment level (CAL, and keratinized tissue height (KTH measured at baseline and 9 months postoperatively. Results: Both test and control groups showed statistically significant (P < 0.05 reductions in RD (1.54 ± 0.46 mm and 1.60 ± 0.07 mm, PPD (0.53 ± 0.15 mm and 0.94 ± 0.10 mm, increase in KTH (0.67 ± 0.90 mm and 0.73 ± 0.14 mm and CAL (1.94 ± 0.27 mm and 2.60 ± 0.19 mm when comparing the 9-month data from baseline. The present study showed that mean improvement in RD was 1.60 ± 0.507 and 1.53 ± 0.64 mm in both test and control groups, respectively. Mean percent RC was 58.33% ±12.19% and 56.22% ±10.22% for test and control groups, respectively. However, there were no statistically significant differences between groups for RD, PPD, KTH, and CAL. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that both the groups CAF (control and CAF and RCM (test could be successfully used to treat Miller's Class I and II gingival recession defects and also demonstrated an overall significant improvement in all the assessed clinical parameters. However, there was a greater reduction of gingival RD with the use of RCM when compared with the group of CAF alone.

  19. Activation of ERα signaling differentially modulates IFN-γ induced HLA-class II expression in breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A Mostafa

    Full Text Available The coordinate regulation of HLA class II (HLA-II is controlled by the class II transactivator, CIITA, and is crucial for the development of anti-tumor immunity. HLA-II in breast carcinoma is associated with increased IFN-γ levels, reduced expression of the estrogen receptor (ER and reduced age at diagnosis. Here, we tested the hypothesis that estradiol (E₂ and ERα signaling contribute to the regulation of IFN-γ inducible HLA-II in breast cancer cells. Using a panel of established ER⁻ and ER⁺ breast cancer cell lines, we showed that E₂ attenuated HLA-DR in two ER⁺ lines (MCF-7 and BT-474, but not in T47D, while it augmented expression in ER⁻ lines, SK-BR-3 and MDA-MB-231. To further study the mechanism(s, we used paired transfectants: ERα⁺ MC2 (MDA-MB-231 c10A transfected with the wild type ERα gene and ERα⁻ VC5 (MDA-MB-231 c10A transfected with the empty vector, treated or not with E₂ and IFN-γ. HLA-II and CIITA were severely reduced in MC2 compared to VC5 and were further exacerbated by E₂ treatment. Reduced expression occurred at the level of the IFN-γ inducible CIITA promoter IV. The anti-estrogen ICI 182,780 and gene silencing with ESR1 siRNA reversed the E2 inhibitory effects, signifying an antagonistic role for activated ERα on CIITA pIV activity. Moreover, STAT1 signaling, necessary for CIITA pIV activation, and selected STAT1 regulated genes were variably downregulated by E₂ in transfected and endogenous ERα positive breast cancer cells, whereas STAT1 signaling was noticeably augmented in ERα⁻ breast cancer cells. Collectively, these results imply immune escape mechanisms in ERα⁺ breast cancer may be facilitated through an ERα suppressive mechanism on IFN-γ signaling.

  20. A degree theory for a class of perturbed Fredholm maps II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calamai Alessandro

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In a recent paper we gave a notion of degree for a class of perturbations of nonlinear Fredholm maps of index zero between real infinite dimensional Banach spaces. Our purpose here is to extend that notion in order to include the degree introduced by Nussbaum for local -condensing perturbations of the identity, as well as the degree for locally compact perturbations of Fredholm maps of index zero recently defined by the first and third authors.

  1. CNS proceedings of the 16. annual conference, volume I and II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wight, A.L.; Loewer, R.

    1995-01-01

    The proceedings of the 16. annual conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society cover a wide range of nuclear topics, but the emphasis is on CANDU reactors and Canadian experience. The 82 papers are arranged in 16 sessions dealing with the following subjects: thermalhydraulics, containment, control and instrumentation, reactor physics, fuel channels, engineering and maintenance, safety and licensing, severe accidents and probabilistic safety assessment, new reactors and applications, radiation, fuel, computers. The individual papers have been abstracted separately

  2. CNS proceedings of the 16. annual conference, volume I and II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wight, A L; Loewer, R [eds.

    1996-12-31

    The proceedings of the 16. annual conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society cover a wide range of nuclear topics, but the emphasis is on CANDU reactors and Canadian experience. The 82 papers are arranged in 16 sessions dealing with the following subjects: thermalhydraulics, containment, control and instrumentation, reactor physics, fuel channels, engineering and maintenance, safety and licensing, severe accidents and probabilistic safety assessment, new reactors and applications, radiation, fuel, computers. The individual papers have been abstracted separately.

  3. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II alleles which confer susceptibility or protection in the Morphea in Adults and Children (MAC) cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobe, Heidi; Ahn, Chul; Arnett, Frank; Reveille, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine human leukocyte antigen class I (HLA-class I) and II (HLA-class II) alleles associated with morphea (localized scleroderma) in the Morphea in Adults and Children (MAC) cohort by a nested case–control association study. Methods Morphea patients were included from MAC cohort and matched controls from the NIH/NIAMS Scleroderma Family Registry and DNA Repository and Division of Rheumatology at the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston. HLA- Class II genotyping and SSCP typing was performed of HLA-A, -B, -C alleles. Associations between HLA-Class I and II alleles and morphea as well as its subphenotypes were determined. Results There were 211 cases available for HLA-class I typing with 726 matched controls and 158 cases available for HLA Class-II typing with 1108 matched controls. The strongest associations were found with DRB1*04:04 (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.4–4.0 P=0.002) and HLA-B*37 conferred the highest OR among Class I alleles (3.3, 95% CI 1.6–6.9, P= 0.0016). Comparison with risk alleles in systemic sclerosis determined using the same methods and control population revealed one common allele (DRB*04:04). Conclusion Results of the present study demonstrate specific HLA Class I and II alleles are associated with morphea and likely generalized and linear subtypes. The associated morphea alleles are different than in scleroderma, implicating morphea is also immunogenetically distinct. Risk alleles in morphea are also associated with conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other autoimmune conditions. Population based studies indicate patients with RA have increased risk of morphea, implicating a common susceptibility allele. PMID:25223600

  4. Changes in oro-pharyngeal airway dimension after treatment with function appliance in class II skeletal pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, B.; Shaikh, A.; Fida, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Functional appliances have been used since many decades for the correction of mandibular retrognathism. Similar oral appliances are a treatment modality for patients with Obstructive sleep apnea. Hence, interception at the right age with these growth modification appliances might benefit a child from developing long term respiratory insufficiency. Therefore, the purpose of our study was to assess the short term effects of Twin block appliance (CTB) on pharyngeal airway size in subjects with skeletal Class II pattern in a sample of Pakistani population. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted from orthodontic records of 62 children (31 males, 31 females) with retrognathic mandibles using lateral cephalograms obtained at initial visit and after CTB treatment. Paired t-test was used to compare the pre-functional and post-functional treatment airway size. Independent sample t-test was used for comparison between the genders and statistical significance was kept at =0.05. Results: The upper airway width (p<0.001), nasopharyngeal depth (p=0.03) and upper airway thickness (p=0.008) was substantially improved after CTB treatment. Males showed a greater increase in upper airway width (p= 0.03) and nasopharyngeal depth (p=0.01) in comparison to the females. Conclusion: Functional appliance therapy can improve the narrow pharyngeal airway of growing children presenting with deficient mandibles having Class II skeletal pattern. (author)

  5. Comparative clinical evaluation of removable partial dentures made of two different materials in Kennedy Applegate class II partially edentulous situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundal, Maninder; Madan, Rajesh

    2015-12-01

    Cast Chromium Cobalt alloy has been the material of choice for fabricating Removable Partial Dentures (RPDs) but has certain drawbacks. Newer materials like the flexible Nylon based Super Polyamide have been introduced to overcome these drawbacks. The present study has compared the above two materials for nine clinical parameters. The study was carried out on 30 patients presenting with a Kennedy Applegate class II partially edentulous situation who were divided into two equal groups and clinically assessed. Statistically significant results were obtained in favor of flexible RPDs, in the parameters of 'aesthetics' and 'overall patient satisfaction'. Both groups showed more or less similar values for 'frequency of fracture of the prosthesis during usage' with the incidence being slightly higher for patients wearing the cast RPDs. The clinical parameters of 'oral soft tissue tolerance', 'gingival health', 'periodontal health' and 'adaptability in areas with undercut' were statistically at par for all the 30 patients thus suggesting the comparable biocompatibility of the two materials. The highlight of this study was the relative ease in fabrication of the flexible RPDs as compared to the cast RPDs. Based on the favorable clinical results of this study, it can be summarized that the flexible RPDs is a viable alternative to cast RPDs in Kennedy Applegate class II partially edentulous situation in the short term.

  6. The Class II trehalose 6-phosphate synthase gene PvTPS9 modulates trehalose metabolism in Phaseolus vulgaris nodules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarón Barraza

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Legumes form symbioses with rhizobia, producing nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots of the plant host. The network of plant signaling pathways affecting carbon metabolism may determine the final number of nodules. The trehalose biosynthetic pathway regulates carbon metabolism and plays a fundamental role in plant growth and development, as well as in plant-microbe interactions. The expression of genes for trehalose synthesis during nodule development suggests that this metabolite may play a role in legume-rhizobia symbiosis. In this work, PvTPS9, which encodes a Class II trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, was silenced by RNA interference in transgenic nodules. The silencing of PvTPS9 in root nodules resulted in a reduction of 85% (± 1% of its transcript, which correlated with a 30% decrease in trehalose contents of transgenic nodules and in untransformed leaves. Composite transgenic plants with PvTPS9 silenced in the roots showed no changes in nodule number and nitrogen fixation, but a severe reduction in plant biomass and altered transcript profiles of all Class II TPS genes. Our data suggest that PvTPS9 plays a key role in modulating trehalose metabolism in the symbiotic nodule and, therefore, in the whole plant.

  7. Immunogenetics of rheumatoid arthritis and primary Sjögren's syndrome: DNA polymorphism of HLA class II genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morling, Niels; Andersen, V; Fugger, L

    1992-01-01

    . The frequencies of DNA fragments associated with the following HLA class II genes were increased in RA when compared to normal controls: DRB1*04 (DR4) (relative risk, RR = 7.4, P less than 10(-3), DRB4*0101 (DRw53) (RR = 9.6, P less than 10(-3), DQA1*0301 (RR = 9.6, P less than 10(-3), DQB1*0301 (DQw7) (RR = 2.......8, P less than 0.05, 'corrected' P greater than 0.05), and DQB1*0302 (DQw8) (RR = 4.5, P less than 10(-2). Negative associations were found between RA and DRB1*1501 (DR2/DRw15) (RR = 0.2, P less than 10(-2) and DQB1*0602 (DQw6) (RR = 0.2, P less than 10(-2), 'corrected' P greater than 0.......05). The frequencies in RA of other HLA class II associated DNA fragments including DPA and DPB and the antigens DPw1-w6 defined by primed lymphocyte stimulation, did not differ significantly from those in controls. In primary SS, the frequency of HLA-B8 was significantly increased (RR = 9.0, P less than 10...

  8. Gastrointestinal Behavior of Weakly Acidic BCS Class II Drugs in Man--Case Study of Diclofenac Potassium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Abeele, Jens; Brouwers, Joachim; Mattheus, Ruben; Tack, Jan; Augustijns, Patrick

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the gastrointestinal supersaturation and precipitation behavior of a weakly acidic Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) Class II drug in healthy volunteers. For this purpose, a tablet containing 50 mg diclofenac potassium (Cataflam(®)) was predissolved in 240 mL of water and this solution was subsequently orally administered to five healthy volunteers under fasted and fed state conditions with or without concomitant use of a proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) (40 mg esomeprazole, Nexiam(®)). Subsequently, total diclofenac content and dissolved intraluminal drug concentrations as well as drug thermodynamic solubility were determined in gastrointestinal aspirates. In all volunteers, gastric supersaturation resulted in precipitation of diclofenac in the stomach. The extent of precipitation correlated well with gastric pH (r = - 0.78). pH dependency of precipitation was corroborated by the absence of precipitate in the stomach after coadministration of a meal and/or a PPI. Diclofenac was found to be fully dissolved in the duodenum in all test conditions. It can be concluded that substantial pH-dependent gastric precipitation of a weakly acidic BCS Class II drug administered as a solution occurs in humans. With regard to its implications for intestinal absorption, results suggest the instantaneous redissolution of gastric drug precipitate upon transfer to the duodenum. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Effects of early activator treatment in patients with class II malocclusion evaluated by thin-plate spline analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, C J; Rübel, J; Starke, J; Conradt, C; Stellzig, P A; Komposch, P G

    2001-04-01

    The aim of the present longitudinal cephalometric study was to evaluate the dentofacial shape changes induced by activator treatment between 9.5 and 11.5 years in male Class II patients. For a rigorous morphometric analysis, a thin-plate spline analysis was performed to assess and visualize dental and skeletal craniofacial changes. Twenty male patients with a skeletal Class II malrelationship and increased overjet who had been treated at the University of Heidelberg with a modified Andresen-Häupl-type activator were compared with a control group of 15 untreated male subjects of the Belfast Growth Study. The shape changes for each group were visualized on thin-plate splines with one spline comprising all 13 landmarks to show all the craniofacial shape changes, including skeletal and dento-alveolar reactions, and a second spline based on 7 landmarks to visualize only the skeletal changes. In the activator group, the grid deformation of the total spline pointed to a strong activator-induced reduction of the overjet that was caused both by a tipping of the incisors and by a moderation of sagittal discrepancies, particularly a slight advancement of the mandible. In contrast with this, in the control group, only slight localized shape changes could be detected. Both in the 7- and 13-landmark configurations, the shape changes between the groups differed significantly at P thin-plate spline analysis turned out to be a useful morphometric supplement to conventional cephalometrics because the complex patterns of shape change could be suggestively visualized.

  10. Provocation of skin graft rejection across murine class II differences by non--bone-marrow-derived cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, P.M.; Beck-Maier, B.; Melvold, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    We have evaluated the relative contribution of bone-marrow-derived cells to skin allograft immunogenicity in mice differing only at class II major histocompatibility genes by using bone marrow radiation chimeras as donors. The mouse strains used were C57BL/6Kh (B6) and B6.C-H-2bm12 (bm12), which differ only at at A beta gene of the I region of the mouse H-2 complex. Our results demonstrated that skin from (B6----bm12) chimeras was accepted by bm12 recipients and rejected by B6 mice in a manner indistinguishable from that of normal bm12 skin. Likewise, naive bm12 mice rejected (bm12----B6) chimeric skin and normal B6 skin equally well, and B6 animals accepted both types of skin grafts. Our data argues that the donor cell-type leading to graft rejection across limited I region differences is not of bone marrow origin, and that these cells must--at least under certain circumstances--express class II antigens

  11. Sealing of minimally invasive Class II fillings (slot) using an adhesive patch: sealant margin extension for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidlin, Patrick R; Seemann, Rainer; Filli, Tilla; Attin, Thomas; Imfeld, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    A laboratory study was performed to assess the potential of an adhesive patch to seal small, unbeveled, Class II, box-only (slot) composite fillings. After minimal access cavity preparation with an 80 pm diamond bur, 40 box-only Class II cavities were prepared mesially and distally in 20 extracted human molars using a u-shaped PCS insert (EMS). One cavity per tooth was adhesively filled with a hybrid composite material in one increment. A patch, acting as an adhesive matrice, was applied to the other cavity of each tooth to seal the restoration. The margin of the patch was located in areas easily accessible to oral hygiene measures and self-cleaning. All the teeth were subjected to thermo-mechanical stress in a computer-controlled masticator device. In 10 teeth, caries was induced in a microbial-based artificial mouth model and quantitatively determined by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Microleakage was assessed in the other 10 teeth in two planar sections after immersion in 0.5% basic fuchsin solution. The results showed no demineralization at the filling margins protected with the patch. Microleakage was observed in one sample only and was limited to the enamel. In contrast, the margins of fillings without the patch application showed a mean demineralization depth of 146 +/- 42 microm and dye penetration into the dentin in five sections. This innovative approach to sealing restorative margins with an adhesive patch results in less leakage and filling margin demineralization and merits further investigation.

  12. Hand-wrist and cervical vertebral maturation indicators: how can these events be used to time Class II treatments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grave, Keith; Townsend, Grant

    2003-11-01

    Ossification events in the hand and wrist and in the cervical vertebrae have been shown to occur at specific times before, during and after the adolescent growth spurt, but there is still debate about the applicability of these findings to the clinical management of Class II cases. The aim of this study was to relate, on an individual basis, cervical vertebral maturation stages and hand-wrist ossification events to the timing of peak statural and mandibular growth in a group of indigenous Australians. Velocity curves for stature and mandibular growth were constructed for 47 boys and 27 girls, and maturation events were then plotted on the curves. For the majority of children, peak velocity in mandibular growth coincided with peak velocity in stature. Particular combinations of hand-wrist and cervical maturation events occurred consistently before, during or after the adolescent growth spurt. Our findings are consistent with those for North American children and we believe that assessment by orthodontists of a combination of hand-wrist and cervical vertebral maturation stages will enhance prediction of the adolescent growth spurt, thereby contributing to a positive, purposeful and more confident approach to the management of Class II cases.

  13. Class II malocclusion with complex problems treated with a novel combination of lingual orthodontic appliances and lingual arches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagita, Takeshi; Nakamura, Masahiro; Kawanabe, Noriaki; Yamashiro, Takashi

    2014-07-01

    This case report describes a novel method of combining lingual appliances and lingual arches to control horizontal problems. The patient, who was 25 years of age at her first visit to our hospital with a chief complaint of crooked anterior teeth, was diagnosed with skeletal Class II and Angle Class II malocclusion with anterior deep bite, lateral open bite, premolar crossbite, and severe crowding in both arches. She was treated with premolar extractions and temporary anchorage devices. Conventionally, it is ideal to use labial brackets simultaneously with appliances, such as a lingual arch, a quad-helix, or a rapid expansion appliance, in patients with complex problems requiring horizontal, anteroposterior, and vertical control; however, this patient strongly requested orthodontic treatment with lingual appliances. A limitation of lingual appliances is that they cannot be used with other conventional appliances. In this report, we present the successful orthodontic treatment of a complex problem using modified lingual appliances that enabled combined use of a conventional lingual arch. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Inhibitors of type II NADH:menaquinone oxidoreductase represent a class of antitubercular drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Weinstein, Edward A.; Yano, Takahiro; Li, Lin-Sheng; Avarbock, David; Avarbock, Andrew; Helm, Douglas; McColm, Andrew A.; Duncan, Ken; Lonsdale, John T.; Rubin, Harvey

    2005-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is an obligate aerobe that is capable of long-term persistence under conditions of low oxygen tension. Analysis of the Mtb genome predicts the existence of a branched aerobic respiratory chain terminating in a cytochrome bd system and a cytochrome aa3 system. Both chains can be initiated with type II NADH:menaquinone oxidoreductase. We present a detailed biochemical characterization of the aerobic respiratory chains from Mtb and show that phenothiazine analogs...

  15. HLA class II association with Type I allergy to house dust mite and Japanese cedar pollen in Japanese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuaki Sadanaga

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the incidence of the association of HLA class II phenotype and specific IgE responsiveness against house dust mite (HDM and/or Japanese cedar pollen (Jc in 176 patients with allergic rhinitis, with or without bronchial asthma, and 107 nonallergic subjects. Specific IgE antibody titration against the purified allergens Der f1 and Der f2 from HDM, and against Cry J1 and Cry J2 from Jc, was performed by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and radioimmunoassay (RIA in sera from all subjects. HLA class II oligotyping was performed by the polymerase chain reaction sequence specific oligonucleotide (PCR-SSO method on the DRB1*, DQA1*, DQB1* and DPB1* alleles using peripheral blood cells. The high IgE responders ≥ class 4 to the purified allergens were identified by using the IgE antibody reference concentration obtained by ELISA, RIA and routine IgE CAP RAST. Compared to the controls, the patients with both rhinitis and asthma showed significantly higher frequencies of DRB1* 0901, DQB1* 0303, and DPB1* 0401 alleles. High IgE responsiveness to HDM was associated with DRB1* 1101, 0901, DQB1* 0303, and DPB1*0401 alleles. The patients with anti-Der f1 IgE antibody concentration exceeding 72.2 ng/mL showed significantly elevated frequencies for DQB1*0401 and DPB1*0401 alleles, and those with anti Der f2 IgE antibody concentration exceeding 46.2 ng/mL showed significantly elevated frequencies for DPB1*0401 and 0901 alleles. High IgE responsiveness to Jc with Cry j1 and Cryj2was associated with the DRB1* 1201 alleles.

  16. Savannah River Site Approved Site Treatment Plan, 2001 Annual Update (Volumes I and II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, B.

    2001-04-30

    The Compliance Plan Volume (Volume I) identifies project activity scheduled milestones for achieving compliance with Land Disposal Restrictions. Information regarding the technical evaluation of treatment options for SRS mixed wastes is contained in the Background Volume (Volume II) and is provided for information.

  17. In silico prediction of drug dissolution and absorption with variation in intestinal pH for BCS class II weak acid drugs: ibuprofen and ketoprofen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsume, Yasuhiro; Langguth, Peter; Garcia-Arieta, Alfredo; Amidon, Gordon L

    2012-10-01

    The FDA Biopharmaceutical Classification System guidance allows waivers for in vivo bioavailability and bioequivalence studies for immediate-release solid oral dosage forms only for BCS class I. Extensions of the in vivo biowaiver for a number of drugs in BCS class III and BCS class II have been proposed, in particular, BCS class II weak acids. However, a discrepancy between the in vivo BE results and in vitro dissolution results for BCS class II acids was recently observed. The objectives of this study were to determine the oral absorption of BCS class II weak acids via simulation software and to determine if the in vitro dissolution test with various dissolution media could be sufficient for in vitro bioequivalence studies of ibuprofen and ketoprofen as models of carboxylic acid drugs. The oral absorption of these BCS class II acids from the gastrointestinal tract was predicted by GastroPlus™. Ibuprofen did not satisfy the bioequivalence criteria at lower settings of intestinal pH of 6.0. Further the experimental dissolution of ibuprofen tablets in a low concentration phosphate buffer at pH 6.0 (the average buffer capacity 2.2 mmol l (-1) /pH) was dramatically reduced compared with the dissolution in SIF (the average buffer capacity 12.6 mmol l (-1) /pH). Thus these predictions for the oral absorption of BCS class II acids indicate that the absorption patterns depend largely on the intestinal pH and buffer strength and must be considered carefully for a bioequivalence test. Simulation software may be a very useful tool to aid the selection of dissolution media that may be useful in setting an in vitro bioequivalence dissolution standard. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. In Silico Prediction of Drug Dissolution and Absorption with variation in Intestinal pH for BCS Class II Weak Acid Drugs: Ibuprofen and Ketoprofen§

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsume, Yasuhiro; Langguth, Peter; Garcia-Arieta, Alfredo; Amidon, Gordon L.

    2012-01-01

    The FDA Biopharmaceutical Classification System guidance allows waivers for in vivo bioavailability and bioequivalence studies for immediate-release solid oral dosage forms only for BCS class I. Extensions of the in vivo biowaiver for a number of drugs in BCS Class III and BCS class II have been proposed, particularly, BCS class II weak acids. However, a discrepancy between the in vivo- BE results and in vitro- dissolution results for a BCS class II acids was recently observed. The objectives of this study were to determine the oral absorption of BCS class II weak acids via simulation software and to determine if the in vitro dissolution test with various dissolution media could be sufficient for in vitro bioequivalence studies of ibuprofen and ketoprofen as models of carboxylic acid drugs. The oral absorption of these BCS class II acids from the gastrointestinal tract was predicted by GastroPlus™. Ibuprofen did not satisfy the bioequivalence criteria at lower settings of intestinal pH=6.0. Further the experimental dissolution of ibuprofen tablets in the low concentration phosphate buffer at pH 6.0 (the average buffer capacity 2.2 mmol L-1/pH) was dramatically reduced compared to the dissolution in SIF (the average buffer capacity 12.6 mmol L -1/pH). Thus these predictions for oral absorption of BCS class II acids indicate that the absorption patterns largely depend on the intestinal pH and buffer strength and must be carefully considered for a bioequivalence test. Simulation software may be very useful tool to aid the selection of dissolution media that may be useful in setting an in vitro bioequivalence dissolution standard. PMID:22815122

  19. A novel HURRAH protocol reveals high numbers of monomorphic MHC class II loci and two asymmetric multi-locus haplotypes in the Père David's deer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu-Hong Wan

    Full Text Available The Père David's deer is a highly inbred, but recovered, species, making it interesting to consider their adaptive molecular evolution from an immunological perspective. Prior to this study, genomic sequencing was the only method for isolating all functional MHC genes within a certain species. Here, we report a novel protocol for isolating MHC class II loci from a species, and its use to investigate the adaptive evolution of this endangered deer at the level of multi-locus haplotypes. This protocol was designated "HURRAH" based on its various steps and used to estimate the total number of MHC class II loci. We confirmed the validity of this novel protocol in the giant panda and then used it to examine the Père David's deer. Our results revealed that the Père David's deer possesses nine MHC class II loci and therefore has more functional MHC class II loci than the eight genome-sequenced mammals for which full MHC data are currently available. This could potentially account at least in part for the strong survival ability of this species in the face of severe bottlenecking. The results from the HURRAH protocol also revealed that: (1 All of the identified MHC class II loci were monomorphic at their antigen-binding regions, although DRA was dimorphic at its cytoplasmic tail; and (2 these genes constituted two asymmetric functional MHC class II multi-locus haplotypes: DRA1*01 ∼ DRB1 ∼ DRB3 ∼ DQA1 ∼ DQB2 (H1 and DRA1*02 ∼ DRB2 ∼ DRB4 ∼ DQA2 ∼ DQB1 (H2. The latter finding indicates that the current members of the deer species have lost the powerful ancestral MHC class II haplotypes of nine or more loci, and have instead fixed two relatively weak haplotypes containing five genes. As a result, the Père David's deer are currently at risk for increased susceptibility to infectious pathogens.

  20. HLA Class-II Associated HIV Polymorphisms Predict Escape from CD4+ T Cell Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Erdmann

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Antiretroviral therapy, antibody and CD8+ T cell-mediated responses targeting human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1 exert selection pressure on the virus necessitating escape; however, the ability of CD4+ T cells to exert selective pressure remains unclear. Using a computational approach on HIV gag/pol/nef sequences and HLA-II allelic data, we identified 29 HLA-II associated HIV sequence polymorphisms or adaptations (HLA-AP in an African cohort of chronically HIV-infected individuals. Epitopes encompassing the predicted adaptation (AE or its non-adapted (NAE version were evaluated for immunogenicity. Using a CD8-depleted IFN-γ ELISpot assay, we determined that the magnitude of CD4+ T cell responses to the predicted epitopes in controllers was higher compared to non-controllers (p<0.0001. However, regardless of the group, the magnitude of responses to AE was lower as compared to NAE (p<0.0001. CD4+ T cell responses in patients with acute HIV infection (AHI demonstrated poor immunogenicity towards AE as compared to NAE encoded by their transmitted founder virus. Longitudinal data in AHI off antiretroviral therapy demonstrated sequence changes that were biologically confirmed to represent CD4+ escape mutations. These data demonstrate an innovative application of HLA-associated polymorphisms to identify biologically relevant CD4+ epitopes and suggests CD4+ T cells are active participants in driving HIV evolution.

  1. 40 CFR Figure C-3 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM10−2.5 Candidate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM10â2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Figure C-3 to Subpart C of Part... Candidate Methods and Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Fig. C-3 Figure C-3 to Subpart C of Part 53...

  2. 2013 Annual Site Inspection and Monitoring Report for Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act Title II Disposal Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This report, in fulfillment of a license requirement, presents the results of long-term surveillance and maintenance activities conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management in 2013 at six uranium mill tailings disposal sites reclaimed under Title II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978. These activities verified that the UMTRCA Title II disposal sites remain in compliance with license requirements. DOE manages six UMTRCA Title II disposal sites under a general license granted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) established at Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 40.28. Reclamation and site transition activities continue at other sites, and DOE ultimately expects to manage approximately 27 Title II disposal sites. Long-term surveillance and maintenance activities and services for these disposal sites include inspecting and maintaining the sites; monitoring environmental media and institutional controls; conducting any necessary corrective action; and performing administrative, records, stakeholder services, and other regulatory functions. Annual site inspections and monitoring are conducted in accordance with site-specific long-term surveillance plans (LTSPs) and procedures established by DOE to comply with license requirements. Each site inspection is performed to verify the integrity of visible features at the site; to identify changes or new conditions that may affect the long-term performance of the site; and to determine the need, if any, for maintenance, follow-up inspections, or corrective action. LTSPs and site compliance reports are available online at http://www.lm.doe.gov

  3. 2013 Annual Site Inspection and Monitoring Report for Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act Title II Disposal Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-11-01

    This report, in fulfillment of a license requirement, presents the results of long-term surveillance and maintenance activities conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management in 2013 at six uranium mill tailings disposal sites reclaimed under Title II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978. These activities verified that the UMTRCA Title II disposal sites remain in compliance with license requirements. DOE manages six UMTRCA Title II disposal sites under a general license granted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) established at Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 40.28. Reclamation and site transition activities continue at other sites, and DOE ultimately expects to manage approximately 27 Title II disposal sites. Long-term surveillance and maintenance activities and services for these disposal sites include inspecting and maintaining the sites; monitoring environmental media and institutional controls; conducting any necessary corrective action; and performing administrative, records, stakeholder services, and other regulatory functions. Annual site inspections and monitoring are conducted in accordance with site-specific long-term surveillance plans (LTSPs) and procedures established by DOE to comply with license requirements. Each site inspection is performed to verify the integrity of visible features at the site; to identify changes or new conditions that may affect the long-term performance of the site; and to determine the need, if any, for maintenance, follow-up inspections, or corrective action. LTSPs and site compliance reports are available online at http://www.lm.doe.gov

  4. Gendered power in cultural contexts: Part II. Middle class African American heterosexual couples with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowdery, Randi S; Scarborough, Norma; Knudson-Martin, Carmen; Seshadri, Gita; Lewis, Monique E; Mahoney, Anne Rankin

    2009-03-01

    When race and gender intersect, understanding gendered power may be complicated. The authors first describe the historical context that serves as important background for understanding gender and power in heterosexual African American relationships. Then they show how family solidarity in the face of social injustices often overrides gender equality as a goal for middle class African American couples with young children. The findings illustrate pragmatic equality within couple relationships and the willful suspension of gender roles for the well-being of the family as a whole. However, gendered power impacts couples in a variety of ways. Sometimes a woman's fear that the man might leave, for example, diminished her power in the relationship. Often a woman accommodated a man's greater power in the family because of her perception that he was often denied power in the larger society. Societal discrimination of women was less visible to couples. Implications for practice are provided.

  5. Fatty Acid Profile of Sunshine Bass: II. Profile Change Differs Among Fillet Lipid Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trushenski, Jesse T; Lewis, Heidi A; Kohler, Christopher C

    2008-07-01

    Fatty acid (FA) profile of fish tissue mirrors dietary FA profile and changes in a time-dependent manner following a change in dietary FA composition. To determine whether FA profile change varies among lipid classes, we evaluated the FA composition of fillet cholesteryl esters (CE), phospholipids (PL), and triacylglycerols (TAG) of sunshine bass (SB, Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis) raised on feeds containing fish oil or 50:50 blend of fish oil and coconut, grapeseed, linseed, or poultry oil, with or without implementation of a finishing period (100% FO feed) prior to harvest. Each lipid class was associated with a generalized FA signature, irrespective of nutritional history: fillet PL was comprised largely of saturated FA (SFA), long-chain polyunsaturated FA (LC-PUFA), and total n-3 FA; fillet TAG was higher in MC-PUFA and total n-6 FA; and fillet CE was highest in monounsaturated FA (MUFA). Neutral lipids reflected dietary composition in a near-direct fashion; conversely, PL showed evidence of selectivity for MC- and LC-PUFA. Shorter-chain SFA were not strongly reflected within any lipid fraction, even when dietary availability was high, suggesting catabolism of these FA. FA metabolism in SB is apparently characterized by a division between saturated and unsaturated FA, whereby LC-PUFA are preferentially incorporated into tissues and SFA are preferentially oxidized for energy production. We demonstrated provision of SFA in grow-out feeds for SB, instead MC-PUFA which compete for tissue deposition, meets energy demands and allows for maximum inclusion of LC-PUFA within fillet lipids.

  6. Design of glycopeptides used to investigate class II MHC binding and T-cell responses associated with autoimmune arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida E Andersson

    Full Text Available The glycopeptide fragment CII259-273 from type II collagen (CII binds to the murine A(q and human DR4 class II Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC II proteins, which are associated with development of murine collagen-induced arthritis (CIA and rheumatoid arthritis (RA, respectively. It has been shown that CII259-273 can be used in therapeutic vaccination of CIA. This glycopeptide also elicits responses from T-cells obtained from RA patients, which indicates that it has an important role in RA as well. We now present a methodology for studies of (glycopeptide-receptor interactions based on a combination of structure-based virtual screening, ligand-based statistical molecular design and biological evaluations. This methodology included the design of a CII259-273 glycopeptide library in which two anchor positions crucial for binding in pockets of A(q and DR4 were varied. Synthesis and biological evaluation of the designed glycopeptides provided novel structure-activity relationship (SAR understanding of binding to A(q and DR4. Glycopeptides that retained high affinities for these MHC II proteins and induced strong responses in panels of T-cell hybridomas were also identified. An analysis of all the responses revealed groups of glycopeptides with different response patterns that are of high interest for vaccination studies in CIA. Moreover, the SAR understanding obtained in this study provides a platform for the design of second-generation glycopeptides with tuned MHC affinities and T-cell responses.

  7. Factors affecting marginal integrity of class II bulk-fill composite resin restorations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savadi Oskoee, Siavash; Bahari, Mahmoud; Jafari Navimipour, Elmira; Ajami, Amir Ahmad; Ghiasvand, Negar; Savadi Oskoee, Ayda

    2017-01-01

    Background. Bulk-fill composite resins are a new type of resin-based composite resins, claimed to have the capacity to be placed in thick layers, up to 4 mm. This study was carried out to evaluate factors affecting gap formation in Cl II cavities restored using the bulk-fill technique. Methods. A total of 60 third molars were used in this study. Two Cl II cavities were prepared in each tooth, one on the mesial aspect 1 mm coronal to the CEJ and one on the distal aspect 1 mm apical to the CEJ. The teeth were divided into 4 groups: A: The cavities were restored using the bulk-fill technique with Filtek P90 composite resin and its adhesive system and light-cured with quartz tungsten halogen (QTH) light-curing unit. B: The cavities were restored similar to that in group A but light-cured with an LED light-curing unit. C: The cavities were restored using the bulk-fill technique with X-tra Fil composite resin and Clearfil SE Bond adhesive system and light-cured with a QTH curing unit. D: The cavities were restored similar to that in group C but light-cured with an LED light-curing unit. The gaps were examined under a stereomicroscope at ×60. Data were analyzed with General Linear Model test. In cases of statistical significance (Pcomposite resin type and margin location (Pcomposite resin type were not significant; however, the cumulative effect of composite rein type*gingival margin was significant (P=0.04) Conclusion. X-tra Fil composite exhibited smaller gaps compared with Filtek P90 composite with both light-curing units. Both composite resins exhibited smaller gaps at enamel margins. PMID:28748051

  8. Clinical assessment of class II resin-based composites versus preformed metal crowns performed on primary molars in patients at high risk of caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyahya, A; Khanum, A; Qudeimat, M

    2018-02-01

    To compare class II resin composite with preformed metal crowns (PMC) in the treatment of proximal dentinal caries in high caries-risk patients. The charts (270) of paediatric patients with proximal caries of their primary molars were reviewed. Success or failure of a procedure was assessed using the dental notes. Survival analysis was used to calculate the mean survival time (MST) for both procedures. The influence of variables on the mean survival time was investigated. A total of 593 class II resin composites and 243 PMCs were placed in patients ranging between 4-13 years of age. The failure percentage of class II resin composites was 22.6% with the majority having been due to recurrent caries, while the failure percentage of PMCs was 15.2% with the majority due to loss of the crown. There was no significant difference between the MST of class II resin composites and PMCs, 41.3 and 45.6 months respectively (p value = 0.06). In class II resin composites, mesial restorations were associated with lower MST compared to distal restorations (p-value composites and PMCs were comparable when performed on high caries-risk patients.

  9. Analysis of Class II patients, successfully treated with the straight-wire and Forsus appliances, based on cervical vertebral maturation status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servello, David F; Fallis, Drew W; Alvetro, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    To assess skeletal and dental changes in patients successfully treated with the Forsus appliance based on cervical vertebral maturation status. Forty-seven Class II patients, successfully treated with the Forsus appliance, were divided into peak and postpeak growth groups determined immediately prior to Forsus placement. The mean (SD) ages of the peak and postpeak groups were 13.4 (1.0) and 14.1 (1.3) years, respectively. Superimpositions of initial, Forsus placement, Forsus removal, and final cephalometric radiographs were completed, allowing the measurement of changes during three treatment phases. There were no significant differences between groups during treatment phase 1 (alignment/leveling), with both groups demonstrating a worsening of the Class II molar relationship. However, during treatment phase 2 (Class II correction), patients within the peak group demonstrated significantly higher mean apical base, mandibular and molar changes, and an increased rate of change compared with those in the postpeak group. No significant differences were observed during treatment phase 3 (detail/finishing). Following an initial worsening of the Class II molar relationship as a result of straight-wire appliance effects, Forsus appliance treatment initiated during cervical vertebral maturation status (CS) 3-4 elicits more effective and efficient correction of Class II molar relationships than when initiated during CS 5-6. Data support that these effects are due mainly to maxillary skeletal and dentoalveolar restraint during a period of more rapid mandibular growth.

  10. Laterally positioned flap-revised technique along with platelet rich fibrin in the management of Miller class II gingival recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagmohan Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gingival recession is a complex phenomenon that may present numerous therapeutic challenges to the clinician. The laterally positioned flap is commonly used to cover isolated, denuded roots that have adequate donor tissue laterally and vestibular depth. Various modifications in laterally sliding flap have been proposed in order to avoid the reported undesirable results on the donor teeth. Recently, use of growth factors has been proposed in combination with surgical techniques. This article highlights the use of laterally positioned pedicle flap-revised technique as a modification of laterally sliding flap technique along with autologous suspension of growth factors, platelet rich fibrin membrane (PRF for the management of localized Miller class-II gingival recession. After 6 months of follow-up, the clinical condition was stable with 80% root coverage and satisfactory gingival tissue healing at both donor and recipient site with no signs of inflammation. An excellent esthetical outcome was achieved and the patient was satisfied with case resolution.

  11. PI3KC2{alpha}, a class II PI3K, is required for dynamin-independent internalization pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Claudia; Malmberg, Emily Kim; Salcini, Anna Elisabetta

    2010-01-01

    as fluid-phase endocytosis. Our data suggest a general role for PI3KC2a in regulating physiologically relevant dynamin-independent internalization pathways by recruiting early endosome antigen 1 (EEA1) to vesicular compartments, a step required for the intracellular trafficking of vesicles generated...... screen using a cell line expressing a diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR, officially known as HBEGF) anchored to GPI (DTR-GPI), which internalizes diphtheria toxin (DT, officially known as DTX) in a dynamin-independent manner, identified PI3KC2a, a class II phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), as a specific...... regulator of dynamin-independent DT internalization. We found that the internalization of several proteins that enter the cell through dynamin-independent pathways led to a relocalization of PI3KC2a to cargo-positive vesicles. Furthermore, downregulation of PI3KC2a impaired internalization of CD59 as well...

  12. Interdisciplinary management of an adult patient with class II div 1 Malocclusion, Anterior Open Bite and multiple missing molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Mehrotra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes the esthetic and functional rehabilitation of a female patient in her mid forties having Class II Div 1 malocclusion, anterior open bite and multiple missing molars, with orthodontics and implant prosthodontics. The patient had bilaterally missing upper first and third molars and lower first and second molars. Orthodontic treatment using skeletal anchorage was performed to retract and align the upper anteriors and correct the open bite. In the upper arch, first molar spaces were closed and no prosthesis was needed. In the lower arch, the anteriors and premolars were aligned and implants were placed bilaterally to replace the missing molars and provide proper occlusion with the upper posteriors. Significant improvement in the occlusion, smile and facial esthetics was achieved. This article highlights the importance of an interdisciplinary team approach for providing optimum treatment to many adult patients.

  13. Management of large class II lesions in molars: how to restore and when to perform surgical crown lengthening?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Belén Dablanca-Blanco

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The restoration of endodontic tooth is always a challenge for the clinician, not only due to excessive loss of tooth structure but also invasion of the biological width due to large decayed lesions. In this paper, the 7 most common clinical scenarios in molars with class II lesions ever deeper were examined. This includes both the type of restoration (direct or indirect and the management of the cavity margin, such as the need for deep margin elevation (DME or crown lengthening. It is necessary to have the DME when the healthy tooth remnant is in the sulcus or at the epithelium level. For caries that reaches the connective tissue or the bone crest, crown lengthening is required. Endocrowns are a good treatment option in the endodontically treated tooth when the loss of structure is advanced.

  14. Multiple tooth anomalies in a nonsyndromic patient with class II division 2 malocclusions: A case report and a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isman, E; Isman, O; Aktan, A M; Ciftci, E; Topcuoglu, T

    2015-01-01

    Reports in the literature about the craniofacial characteristics of patients with class II division 2 malocclusions show a lot of different patterns accompanied by palatally displaced upper incisors, congenital missing teeth, polydiastema, fusion, germination, tooth impaction, peg-shaped lateral incisors, persistent teeth, hypodontia, persistent deciduous teeth, transpositions, and supernumerary teeth. The following case report focuses on the description of the clinical characteristics observed on a patient with a very unusual conjunction of dental and skeletal anomalies mentioned above, as well as a literature review on the related issues. Extra-intra-oral examinations, radiographic evaluations, orthodontic consultation, and reviewing the literature concluded that this nonsyndromic patient that refused to receive all dental treatment approaches is special with its uniqueness.

  15. The Effect of a Glass Ceramic Insert in Sandwich Technique on Microleakage in Class II Composite Resin Restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hila Hajizadeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of glass ceramic insert in the sandwich technique to reduce microleakage in class II composite resin restorations. Methods: Sixty sound human upper second premolars were selected and randomly divided into six groups (n=10. Class II box-only cavities were prepared in distal aspects of each tooth with gingival margin located approximately 0.5 mm below the CEJ. Group A (Control was restored incrementally with Tetric Ceram and a total-etch bonding technique. Group B and C were restored with sandwich technique using a compomer (Compoglass F or flowable composite resin (Tetric Flow as the lining material at gingival floor, respectively. Group D, E and F were represented in the same way as group A, B and C and a glass ceramic insert was added to the composite bulk. The specimens were thermo-mechanically cycled, and then immersed in 0.5 % basic fuschin for 24 hours. Dye penetration was detected using a sectioning technique. Results: No significant difference was found between total-etch bonding and sandwich techniques. The placement of an insert caused an increase in   microleakage in all groups significantly (P < 0.05. Group D (no liner/ with glass insert showed the highest amount of microleakage and Group A (no liner/ without glass insert resulted in the lowest amount of total microleakage. Conclusion: Placement of glass ceramic insert could not decrease gingival leakage. According to the limitation of this study a composite resin restorations with incremental technique is recommended

  16. Selection, diversity and evolutionary patterns of the MHC class II DAB in free-ranging Neotropical marsupials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otten Celine

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on the genetic architecture and diversity of the MHC has focused mainly on eutherian mammals, birds and fish. So far, studies on model marsupials used in laboratory investigations indicated very little or even no variation in MHC class II genes. However, natural levels of diversity and selection are unknown in marsupials as studies on wild populations are virtually absent. We used two endemic South American mouse opossums, Gracilinanus microtarsus and Marmosops incanus, to investigate characteristic features of MHC selection. This study is the first investigation of MHC selection in free-ranging Neotropical marsupials. In addition, the evolutionary history of MHC lineages within the group of marsupials was examined. Results G. microtarsus showed extensive levels of MHC diversity within and among individuals as 47 MHC-DAB alleles and high levels of sequence divergence were detected at a minimum of four loci. Positively selected codon sites were identified, of which most were congruent with human antigen binding sites. The diversity in M. incanus was rather low with only eight observed alleles at presumably two loci. However, these alleles also revealed high sequence divergence. Again, positive selection was identified on specific codon sites, all congruent with human ABS and with positively selected sites observed in G. microtarsus. In a phylogenetic comparison alleles of M. incanus interspersed widely within alleles of G. microtarsus with four alleles being present in both species. Conclusion Our investigations revealed extensive MHC class II polymorphism in a natural marsupial population, contrary to previous assumptions. Furthermore, our study confirms for the first time in marsupials the presence of three characteristic features common at MHC loci of eutherian mammals, birds and fish: large allelic sequence divergence, positive selection on specific sites and trans-specific polymorphism.

  17. HLA class II alleles and the presence of circulating Epstein-Barr virus DNA in greek patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karanikiotis, C.; Daniilidis, M.; Karyotis, N.; Nikolaou, A.; Bakogiannis, C.; Economopoulos, T.; Murray, S.; Papamichael, D.; Samantas, E.; Skoura, L.; Tselis, N.; Zamboglou, N.; Fountzilas, G.

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) represents a seldom malignancy in most developed countries. Nevertheless, NPC receives an endemic form in concrete racial entities. The aims of this study were to detect the presence of Epstein-Barr virus DNA (EBV-DNA) in peripheral blood of NPC patients, to molecularly define human leukocyte antigens (HLA) DRB1*, DQA1* and DQB1* allele frequencies, and, finally, to determine whether the genetic predisposition of an individual to NPC depends on the liability to EBV infection. Patients and methods: a total of 101 patients of Hellenic origin and nationality, with histologically proven NPC, participated in this study. EBV-DNA detection was also applied in 66 patients with EBV-related malignancies (Hodgkin's [HL] and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma [NHL]) and infectious mononucleosis (IM), as well as in 80 healthy EBV-seropositive controls. Results: 81% of the NPC patients, 77.8% with HL, 72.2% with NHL, and 66.7% with IM were EBV-DNA positive, whereas the EBV genome was detected only in 15% of the healthy controls. These differences were statistically significant in all cases. Analysis of HLA class II antigens showed decreased frequency of the DRB1*07 (p 0.003), DQA1*0103 (p = 0.002), and DQA1*0201 (p = 0.003) alleles among NPC patients. A significant association between the HLA-DR/DQ alleles and the presence of EBV-DNA in peripheral whole blood was not established. Conclusion: circulating EBV-DNA and specific HLA class II alleles may predispose to or protect from NPC. However, the results of this study suggest that the genetic predisposition of an individual to NPC is independent of the liability to EBV infection. (orig.)

  18. HLA class II alleles and the presence of circulating Epstein-Barr virus DNA in greek patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karanikiotis, C. [424 Army General Hospital, Thessaloniki (Greece); Daniilidis, M.; Karyotis, N.; Nikolaou, A. [AHEPA Hospital, Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki School of Medicine (Greece); Bakogiannis, C. [Hygeia Hospital, Athens (Greece); Economopoulos, T. [' Attikon' Univ. Hospital, Athens (Greece); Murray, S. [Metropolitan Hospital, Athens (Greece); Papamichael, D. [Bank of Cyprus Oncology Center, Nicosia, Cyprus (Greece); Samantas, E. [' Agii Anargiri' Cancer Hospital, Athens (Greece); Skoura, L. [' Hippokration' Hospital, Thessaloniki (Greece); Tselis, N.; Zamboglou, N. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Offenbach Hospital (Germany); Fountzilas, G. [' Papageorgiou' Hospital, Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki School of Medicine (Greece)

    2008-06-15

    Background and purpose: nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) represents a seldom malignancy in most developed countries. Nevertheless, NPC receives an endemic form in concrete racial entities. The aims of this study were to detect the presence of Epstein-Barr virus DNA (EBV-DNA) in peripheral blood of NPC patients, to molecularly define human leukocyte antigens (HLA) DRB1*, DQA1* and DQB1* allele frequencies, and, finally, to determine whether the genetic predisposition of an individual to NPC depends on the liability to EBV infection. Patients and methods: a total of 101 patients of Hellenic origin and nationality, with histologically proven NPC, participated in this study. EBV-DNA detection was also applied in 66 patients with EBV-related malignancies (Hodgkin's [HL] and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma [NHL]) and infectious mononucleosis (IM), as well as in 80 healthy EBV-seropositive controls. Results: 81% of the NPC patients, 77.8% with HL, 72.2% with NHL, and 66.7% with IM were EBV-DNA positive, whereas the EBV genome was detected only in 15% of the healthy controls. These differences were statistically significant in all cases. Analysis of HLA class II antigens showed decreased frequency of the DRB1*07 (p = 0.003), DQA1*0103 (p = 0.002), and DQA1*0201 (p = 0.003) alleles among NPC patients. A significant association between the HLA-DR/DQ alleles and the presence of EBV-DNA in peripheral whole blood was not established. Conclusion: circulating EBV-DNA and specific HLA class II alleles may predispose to or protect from NPC. However, the results of this study suggest that the genetic predisposition of an individual to NPC is independent of the liability to EBV infection. (orig.)

  19. How Do CD4+ T Cells Detect and Eliminate Tumor Cells That Either Lack or Express MHC Class II Molecules?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haabeth, Ole Audun Werner; Tveita, Anders Aune; Fauskanger, Marte; Schjesvold, Fredrik; Lorvik, Kristina Berg; Hofgaard, Peter O.; Omholt, Hilde; Munthe, Ludvig A.; Dembic, Zlatko; Corthay, Alexandre; Bogen, Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    CD4+ T cells contribute to tumor eradication, even in the absence of CD8+ T cells. Cytotoxic CD4+ T cells can directly kill MHC class II positive tumor cells. More surprisingly, CD4+ T cells can indirectly eliminate tumor cells that lack MHC class II expression. Here, we review the mechanisms of direct and indirect CD4+ T cell-mediated elimination of tumor cells. An emphasis is put on T cell receptor (TCR) transgenic models, where anti-tumor responses of naïve CD4+ T cells of defined specificity can be tracked. Some generalizations can tentatively be made. For both MHCIIPOS and MHCIINEG tumors, presentation of tumor-specific antigen by host antigen-presenting cells (APCs) appears to be required for CD4+ T cell priming. This has been extensively studied in a myeloma model (MOPC315), where host APCs in tumor-draining lymph nodes are primed with secreted tumor antigen. Upon antigen recognition, naïve CD4+ T cells differentiate into Th1 cells and migrate to the tumor. At the tumor site, the mechanisms for elimination of MHCIIPOS and MHCIINEG tumor cells differ. In a TCR-transgenic B16 melanoma model, MHCIIPOS melanoma cells are directly killed by cytotoxic CD4+ T cells in a perforin/granzyme B-dependent manner. By contrast, MHCIINEG myeloma cells are killed by IFN-γ stimulated M1-like macrophages. In summary, while the priming phase of CD4+ T cells appears similar for MHCIIPOS and MHCIINEG tumors, the killing mechanisms are different. Unresolved issues and directions for future research are addressed. PMID:24782871

  20. How do CD4+ T cells detect and eliminate tumor cells that either lack or express MHC class II molecules?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Audun Werner Haabeth

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available CD4+ T cells contribute to tumor eradication, even in the absence of CD8+ T cells. Cytotoxic CD4+ T cells can directly kill MHC class II positive tumor cells. More surprisingly, CD4+ T cells can indirectly eliminate tumor cells that lack MHC class II expression. Here, we review the mechanisms of direct and indirect CD4+ T cell-mediated elimination of tumor cells. An emphasis is put on T cell receptor (TCR transgenic models, where anti-tumor responses of naïve CD4+ T cells of defined specificity can be tracked. Some generalizations can tentatively be made. For both MHCIIPOS and MHCIINEG tumors, presentation of tumor specific antigen by host antigen presenting cells (APCs appears to be required for CD4+ T cell priming. This has been extensively studied in a myeloma model (MOPC315, where host APCs in tumor-draining lymph nodes are primed with secreted tumor antigen. Upon antigen recognition, naïve CD4+ T cells differentiate into Th1 cells and migrate to the tumor. At the tumor site, the mechanisms for elimination of MHCIIPOS and MHCIINEG tumor cells differ. In a TCR transgenic B16 melanoma model, MHCIIPOS melanoma cells are directly killed by cytotoxic CD4+ T cells in a perforin/granzyme B-dependent manner. By contrast, MHCIINEG myeloma cells are killed by IFN-g stimulated M1-like macrophages. In summary, while the priming phase of CD4+ T cells appears similar for MHCIIPOS and MHCIINEG tumors, the killing mechanisms are different. Unresolved issues and directions for future research are addressed.

  1. Effect of fiber inserts on gingival margin microleakage of Class II bulk-fill composite resin restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiei, Fereshteh; Doozandeh, Maryam; Karimi, Vahid

    2018-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of fiber inserts combined with composite resins on enamel and dentin margin microleakage. The fiber inserts were used with high- (x-tra fil) and low-viscosity (x-tra base) bulk-fill composite resins and as well as conventional composite resins (Grandio and Grandio Flow). In 96 sound, recently extracted molars, 2 standardized Class II cavities were prepared. The teeth were randomly divided into 8 groups of 12 teeth each, based on composite resin type and presence or absence of fiber inserts: groups 1 and 2, x-tra fil with and without fiber inserts, respectively; groups 3 and 4, x-tra base with and without fiber inserts; groups 5 and 6, Grandio with and without fiber inserts; and groups 7 and 8, Grandio Flow liner (gingival floor)/Grandio (remainder of cavity) with and without fiber inserts. In all the groups, a 2-step etch-and-rinse adhesive was used. The specimens were processed in a dye penetration technique to determine microleakage percentages. Data were analyzed with analysis of variance, Tukey, and t tests. There was significantly less leakage at the enamel margins than the dentin margins. Fiber reinforcement significantly decreased enamel microleakage in all the groups, with no significant differences among the groups. Concerning dentin microleakage, there were no significant differences among the 4 groups without fiber inserts, while a significant difference was detected in groups 2 (x-tra fil plus fiber) and 8 (Grandio Flow plus fiber/Grandio). Fibers significantly improved dentin sealing in groups 2 and 8. These findings suggest that a fiber insert reinforcing bulk-fill and conventional composite resins might improve enamel sealing in shallow Class II cavi-ties. The effect of fiber reinforcement on the dentin margins of deep cavities depended on the viscosity of the composite resins; fiber reinforcement was effective for flowable bulk-fill and conventional composite resin restorations.

  2. Acemannan sponges stimulate alveolar bone, cementum and periodontal ligament regeneration in a canine class II furcation defect model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantarawaratit, P; Sangvanich, P; Banlunara, W; Soontornvipart, K; Thunyakitpisal, P

    2014-04-01

    Periodontal disease is a common infectious disease, found worldwide, causing the destruction of the periodontium. The periodontium is a complex structure composed of both soft and hard tissues, thus an agent applied to regenerate the periodontium must be able to stimulate periodontal ligament, cementum and alveolar bone regeneration. Recent studies demonstrated that acemannan, a polysaccharide extracted from Aloe vera gel, stimulated both soft and hard tissue healing. This study investigated effect of acemannan as a bioactive molecule and scaffold for periodontal tissue regeneration. Primary human periodontal ligament cells were treated with acemannan in vitro. New DNA synthesis, expression of growth/differentiation factor 5 and runt-related transcription factor 2, expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, bone morphogenetic protein-2 and type I collagen, alkaline phosphatase activity, and mineralized nodule formation were determined using [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay, biochemical assay and alizarin red staining, respectively. In our in vivo study, premolar class II furcation defects were made in four mongrel dogs. Acemannan sponges were applied into the defects. Untreated defects were used as a negative control group. The amount of new bone, cementum and periodontal ligament formation were evaluated 30 and 60 d after the operation. Acemannan significantly increased periodontal ligament cell proliferation, upregulation of growth/differentiation factor 5, runt-related transcription factor 2, vascular endothelial growth factor, bone morphogenetic protein 2, type I collagen and alkaline phosphatase activity, and mineral deposition as compared with the untreated control group in vitro. Moreover, acemannan significantly accelerated new alveolar bone, cementum and periodontal ligament formation in class II furcation defects. Our data suggest that acemannan could be a candidate

  3. Associations of anti-beta2-glycoprotein I autoantibodies with HLA class II alleles in three ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, F C; Thiagarajan, P; Ahn, C; Reveille, J D

    1999-02-01

    To determine any HLA associations with anti-beta2-glycoprotein I (anti-beta2GPI) antibodies in a large, retrospectively studied, multiethnic group of 262 patients with primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), or another connective tissue disease. Anti-beta2GPI antibodies were detected in sera using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. HLA class II alleles (DRB1, DQA1, and DQB1) were determined by DNA oligotyping. The HLA-DQB1*0302 (DQ8) allele, typically carried on HLA-DR4 haplotypes, was associated with anti-beta2GPI when compared with both anti-beta2GPI-negative SLE patients and ethnically matched normal controls, especially in Mexican Americans and, to a lesser extent, in whites. Similarly, when ethnic groups were combined, HLA-DQB1*0302, as well as HLA-DQB1*03 alleles overall (DQB1*0301, *0302, and *0303), were strongly correlated with anti-beta2GPI antibodies. The HLA-DR6 (DR13) haplotype DRB1*1302; DQB1*0604/5 was also significantly increased, primarily in blacks. HLA-DR7 was not significantly increased in any of these 3 ethnic groups, and HLA-DR53 (DRB4*0101) was increased in Mexican Americans only. Certain HLA class II haplotypes genetically influence the expression of antibodies to beta2GPI, an important autoimmune response in the APS, but there are variations in HLA associations among different ethnic groups.

  4. 1+1+2 gravitational perturbations on LRS class II spacetimes: decoupling gravito-electromagnetic tensor harmonic amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burston, R B

    2008-01-01

    This is the first in a series of papers which considers gauge-invariant and covariant gravitational perturbations on arbitrary vacuum locally rotationally symmetric (LRS) class II spacetimes. Ultimately, we derive four decoupled equations governing four specific combinations of the gravito-electromagnetic (GEM) 2-tensor harmonic amplitudes. We use the gauge-invariant and covariant 1+1+2 formalism which Clarkson and Barrett (2003 Class. Quantum Grav. 20 3855) developed for analysis of vacuum Schwarzschild perturbations. In particular we focus on the first-order 1+1+2 GEM system and use linear algebra techniques suitable for exploiting its structure. Consequently, we express the GEM system new 1+1+2 complex form by choosing new complex GEM tensors, which is conducive to decoupling. We then show how to derive a gauge-invariant and covariant decoupled equation governing a newly defined complex GEM 2-tensor. Finally, the GEM 2-tensor is expanded in terms of arbitrary tensor harmonics and linear algebra is used once again to decouple the system further into four real decoupled equations

  5. Social class, political power, and the state: their implications in medicine--parts I and II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, V

    1976-01-01

    This three part article presents an anlysis of the distribution of power and of the nature of the state in Western industrialized societies and details their implications in medicine. Part I presents a critique of contemporary theories of the Western system of power; discusses the countervailing pluralist and power elite theories, as well as those of bureaucratic and professional control; and concludes with an examination of the Marxist theories of economic determinism, structural determinism, and corporate statism. Part II presents a Marxist theory of the role, nature, and characteristics of state intervention. Part III (which will appear in the next issue of this journal) focuses on the mode of that intervention and the reasons for its growth, with an added analysis of the attributes of state intervention in the health sector, and of the dialectical relationship between its growth and the current fiscal crisis of the state. In all three parts, the focus is on Western European countries and on North America, with many examples and categories from the area of medicine.

  6. Class I and II Small Heat Shock Proteins Together with HSP101 Protect Protein Translation Factors during Heat Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoughlin, Fionn; Basha, Eman; Fowler, Mary E; Kim, Minsoo; Bordowitz, Juliana; Katiyar-Agarwal, Surekha; Vierling, Elizabeth

    2016-10-01

    The ubiquitous small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) are well documented to act in vitro as molecular chaperones to prevent the irreversible aggregation of heat-sensitive proteins. However, the in vivo activities of sHSPs remain unclear. To investigate the two most abundant classes of plant cytosolic sHSPs (class I [CI] and class II [CII]), RNA interference (RNAi) and overexpression lines were created in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and shown to have reduced and enhanced tolerance, respectively, to extreme heat stress. Affinity purification of CI and CII sHSPs from heat-stressed seedlings recovered eukaryotic translation elongation factor (eEF) 1B (α-, β-, and γ-subunits) and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A (three isoforms), although the association with CI sHSPs was stronger and additional proteins involved in translation were recovered with CI sHSPs. eEF1B subunits became partially insoluble during heat stress and, in the CI and CII RNAi lines, showed reduced recovery to the soluble cell fraction after heat stress, which was also dependent on HSP101. Furthermore, after heat stress, CI sHSPs showed increased retention in the insoluble fraction in the CII RNAi line and vice versa. Immunolocalization revealed that both CI and CII sHSPs were present in cytosolic foci, some of which colocalized with HSP101 and with eEF1Bγ and eEF1Bβ. Thus, CI and CII sHSPs have both unique and overlapping functions and act either directly or indirectly to protect specific translation factors in cytosolic stress granules. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Association of SNP variants of MHC Class II DRB gene with thermo-physiological traits in tropical goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubu, Abdulmojeed; Salako, Adebowale E; De Donato, Marcos; Peters, Sunday O; Takeet, Michael I; Wheto, Mathew; Okpeku, Moses; Imumorin, Ikhide G

    2017-02-01

    Host defense in vertebrates depend on many secreted regulatory proteins such as major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II which provide important regulatory and effector functions of T cells. Gene polymorphism in the second exon of Capra-DRB gene in three major Nigerian goat breeds [West African Dwarf (WAD), Red Sokoto (RS), and Sahel (SH)] was analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP). Four restriction enzymes, BsaHI, AluI, HaeIII, and SacII, were utilized. The association between the polymorphic sites and some heat tolerance traits were also investigated in a total of 70 WAD, 90 RS, and 50 SH goats. Fourteen different types of alleles identified in the Nigerian goats, four of which were found in the peptide coding region (A57G, Q89R, G104D, and T112I), indicate a high degree of polymorphism at the DRB locus in this species. An obvious excess (P  0.05), except AluI in RS goats and HaeIII in WAD goats (P goat populations, ranged from 0.16 to 0.50. Genotypes AA (BsaHI), GG, GC and CC (AluI) and GG, GA, AA (HaeIII) appeared better in terms of heat tolerance. The heat-tolerant ability of SH and RS goats to the hot and humid tropical environment of Nigeria seemed better than that of the WAD goats. Sex effect (P tropics.

  8. Cardiac resynchronization induces major structural and functional reverse remodeling in patients with New York Heart Association class I/II heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    St John Sutton, Martin; Ghio, Stefano; Plappert, Ted

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) improves LV structure, function, and clinical outcomes in New York Heart Association class III/IV heart failure with prolonged QRS. It is not known whether patients with New York Heart Association class I/II systolic heart failure exhibit left...... ventricular (LV) reverse remodeling with CRT or whether reverse remodeling is modified by the cause of heart failure. METHODS AND RESULTS: Six hundred ten patients with New York Heart Association class I/II heart failure, QRS duration > or =120 ms, LV end-diastolic dimension > or =55 mm, and LV ejection...... reduction in LV end-diastolic and end-systolic volume indexes and a 3-fold greater increase in LV ejection fraction in patients with nonischemic causes of heart failure. CONCLUSIONS: CRT in patients with New York Heart Association I/II resulted in major structural and functional reverse remodeling at 1 year...

  9. Ames Infusion Stories for NASA Annual Technology Report: Nano Entry System for CubeSat-Class Payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brandon; Jan, Darrell Leslie; Venkatapathy, Etiraj

    2015-01-01

    The Nano Entry System for CubeSat-Class Payloads led to the development of the Nano-Adaptable Deployable Entry and Placement Technology ("Nano-ADEPT"). Nano-ADEPT is a mechanically deployed entry, descent, and landing (EDL) system that stows during launch and cruise (like an umbrella) and serves as both heat shield and primary structure during EDL. It is especially designed for small spacecraft where volume is a limiting constraint.

  10. Patterns of evolution of MHC class II genes of crows (Corvus suggest trans-species polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Eimes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A distinguishing characteristic of genes that code for the major histocompatibility complex (MHC is that alleles often share more similarity between, rather than within species. There are two likely mechanisms that can explain this pattern: convergent evolution and trans-species polymorphism (TSP, in which ancient allelic lineages are maintained by balancing selection and retained by descendant species. Distinguishing between these two mechanisms has major implications in how we view adaptation of immune genes. In this study we analyzed exon 2 of the MHC class IIB in three passerine bird species in the genus Corvus: jungle crows (Corvus macrorhynchos japonensis American crows (C. brachyrhynchos and carrion crows (C. corone orientalis. Carrion crows and American crows are recently diverged, but allopatric, sister species, whereas carrion crows and jungle crows are more distantly related but sympatric species, and possibly share pathogens linked to MHC IIB polymorphisms. These patterns of evolutionary divergence and current geographic ranges enabled us to test for trans-species polymorphism and convergent evolution of the MHC IIB in crows. Phylogenetic reconstructions of MHC IIB sequences revealed several well supported interspecific clusters containing all three species, and there was no biased clustering of variants among the sympatric carrion crows and jungle crows. The topologies of phylogenetic trees constructed from putatively selected sites were remarkably different than those constructed from putatively neutral sites. In addition, trees constructed using non-synonymous substitutions from a continuous fragment of exon 2 had more, and generally more inclusive, supported interspecific MHC IIB variant clusters than those constructed from the same fragment using synonymous substitutions. These phylogenetic patterns suggest that recombination, especially gene conversion, has partially erased the signal of allelic ancestry in these species. While

  11. Annual and semiannual variations in the ionospheric F2-layer: II. Physical discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rishbeth

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available The companion paper by Zou et al. shows that the annual and semiannual variations in the peak F2-layer electron density (NmF2 at midlatitudes can be reproduced by a coupled thermosphere-ionosphere computational model (CTIP, without recourse to external influences such as the solar wind, or waves and tides originating in the lower atmosphere. The present work discusses the physics in greater detail. It shows that noon NmF2 is closely related to the ambient atomic/molecular concentration ratio, and suggests that the variations of NmF2 with geographic and magnetic longitude are largely due to the geometry of the auroral ovals. It also concludes that electric fields play no important part in the dynamics of the midlatitude thermosphere. Our modelling leads to the following picture of the global three-dimensional thermospheric circulation which, as envisaged by Duncan, is the key to explaining the F2-layer variations. At solstice, the almost continuous solar input at high summer latitudes drives a prevailing summer-to-winter wind, with upwelling at low latitudes and throughout most of the summer hemisphere, and a zone of downwelling in the winter hemisphere, just equatorward of the auroral oval. These motions affect thermospheric composition more than do the alternating day/night (up-and-down motions at equinox. As a result, the thermosphere as a whole is more molecular at solstice than at equinox. Taken in conjunction with the well-known relation of F2-layer electron density to the atomic/molecular ratio in the neutral air, this explains the F2-layer semiannual effect in NmF2 that prevails at low and middle latitudes. At higher midlatitudes, the seasonal behaviour depends on the geographic latitude of the winter downwelling zone, though the effect of the composition changes is modified by the large solar zenith angle at midwinter. The zenith angle effect is especially important in longitudes far from the magnetic poles. Here, the downwelling occurs

  12. Annual and semiannual variations in the ionospheric F2-layer: II. Physical discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rishbeth

    Full Text Available The companion paper by Zou et al. shows that the annual and semiannual variations in the peak F2-layer electron density (NmF2 at midlatitudes can be reproduced by a coupled thermosphere-ionosphere computational model (CTIP, without recourse to external influences such as the solar wind, or waves and tides originating in the lower atmosphere. The present work discusses the physics in greater detail. It shows that noon NmF2 is closely related to the ambient atomic/molecular concentration ratio, and suggests that the variations of NmF2 with geographic and magnetic longitude are largely due to the geometry of the auroral ovals. It also concludes that electric fields play no important part in the dynamics of the midlatitude thermosphere. Our modelling leads to the following picture of the global three-dimensional thermospheric circulation which, as envisaged by Duncan, is the key to explaining the F2-layer variations. At solstice, the almost continuous solar input at high summer latitudes drives a prevailing summer-to-winter wind, with upwelling at low latitudes and throughout most of the summer hemisphere, and a zone of downwelling in the winter hemisphere, just equatorward of the auroral oval. These motions affect thermospheric composition more than do the alternating day/night (up-and-down motions at equinox. As a result, the thermosphere as a whole is more molecular at solstice than at equinox. Taken in conjunction with the well-known relation of F2-layer electron density to the atomic/molecular ratio in the neutral air, this explains the F2-layer semiannual effect in NmF2 that prevails at low and middle latitudes. At higher midlatitudes, the seasonal behaviour depends on the geographic latitude of the winter downwelling zone, though the effect of the composition changes is modified by the large solar zenith angle at midwinter. The zenith angle effect is especially important in longitudes far from the magnetic

  13. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Exhibits Deficient Biofilm Formation in the Absence of Class II and III Ribonucleotide Reductases Due to Hindered Anaerobic Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Anna; Pedraz, Lucas; Astola, Josep; Torrents, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    Chronic lung infections by the ubiquitous and extremely adaptable opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa correlate with the formation of a biofilm, where bacteria grow in association with an extracellular matrix and display a wide range of changes in gene expression and metabolism. This leads to increased resistance to physical stress and antibiotic therapies, while enhancing cell-to-cell communication. Oxygen diffusion through the complex biofilm structure generates an oxygen concentration gradient, leading to the appearance of anaerobic microenvironments. Ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) are a family of highly sophisticated enzymes responsible for the synthesis of the deoxyribonucleotides, and they constitute the only de novo pathway for the formation of the building blocks needed for DNA synthesis and repair. P. aeruginosa is one of the few bacteria encoding all three known RNR classes (Ia, II, and III). Class Ia RNRs are oxygen dependent, class II are oxygen independent, and class III are oxygen sensitive. A tight control of RNR activity is essential for anaerobic growth and therefore for biofilm development. In this work we explored the role of the different RNR classes in biofilm formation under aerobic and anaerobic initial conditions and using static and continuous-flow biofilm models. We demonstrated the importance of class II and III RNR for proper cell division in biofilm development and maturation. We also determined that these classes are transcriptionally induced during biofilm formation and under anaerobic conditions. The molecular mechanism of their anaerobic regulation was also studied, finding that the Anr/Dnr system is responsible for class II RNR induction. These data can be integrated with previous knowledge about biofilms in a model where these structures are understood as a set of layers determined by oxygen concentration and contain cells with different RNR expression profiles, bringing us a step closer to the understanding of this

  14. Duration of the peak of adolescent growth spurt in class i and ii malocclusion subjects using a cervical vertebrae maturation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Lazo, Rodrigo; Arriola-Guillén, Luis E; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to determine the duration of the adolescent peak growth spurt using cervical vertebral maturation analysis in class I and II malocclusion subjects. The study was conducted on a sample which consisted of 154 lateral cephalograms of children and adolescents aged 9-15 years (84 females and 70 males). The evaluation of skeletal maturation stage was performed using a visual morphological analysis of CS3 and CS4 cervical vertebrae. The sagittal skeletal relation was evaluated according to Steiner analysis. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize chronological age in each malocclusion group and for each CS3 and CS4 skeletal maturation stage. Due to a lack of normal distribution, comparisons of CS3 and CS4 age intervals on class I and II subjects were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test for independent samples. The results show that the mean duration of the adolescent peak growth spurt was 10 months between CS3 and CS4 stages in class I malocclusion subjects, whereas in class II malocclusion patients the duration was 6 months. This difference of 4 months was statistically significant (p<0.001). Finally, a clinically significant difference of 4 months in the duration of the adolescent peak growth spurt for class I and II malocclusion subjects was identified.

  15. Radiographic cephalometric study using Ricketts analysis for dentoskeletal patterns evaluation of patients having class II, division I malocclusion treated during mixed dentition period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motta e Albuquerque, Carmen da.

    1988-01-01

    In the specialized literature about the use of extra oral forces in the treatment of the Class II malocclusion one can observe that it has been used more and more, with the objective of achieving teeth improvement and bone as well. It is proposed to evaluate the extent of the orthodontic/orthopedic modifications and their influence in the facial pattern of patients with those malocclusions, treated during the mixed dentition period. A sample of 32 patients of both sexes, leucoderms, with Class II, division I malocclusion, between 7 and 14 years old, were studied employing a cephalometric radiographic method for evaluation. (author). 94 refs., 11 figs., 15 tabs

  16. Influence of HLA class I, HLA class II and KIRs on vertical transmission and chronicity of hepatitis C virus in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ruiz-Extremera

    Full Text Available There is evidence that maternal viral load of HCV during delivery influences the risk for Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT, but this does not explain all cases. We study the role of the immunogenetic profile (HLA, KIRs and KIR-ligand binding of mothers and children in HCV-MTCT and in chronicity in the children.79 HCV-RNA (+ mothers and their 98 children were included. 24 children were infected, becoming chronic in 8 cases and clearing in 16. HLA-class-I and II and KIRs were determined by Luminex.MTCT study: The presence of HLA-C1-ligand in mothers and/or their children reduces the risk of transmission (mothers: Pc = 0.011, children: P = 0.033, whereas the presence of HLA-C2C2-ligand in mothers increases it (Pc = 0.011. In children KIR2DL3-HLA-C1 is a protector factor (Pc = 0.011. Chronicity in children study: Maternal DQA1*01 allele (Pc = 0.027, KIR2DS1 (Pc = 0.011 or KIR3DS1 (Pc = 0.011 favours chronicity in the child. The presence of the DQB1*03 allele (Pc = 0.027 and KIR2DS3 (P = 0.056 in the child and homozygosity for KIR3DL1/3DL1 (Pc = 0.011 and for the HLA-Bw4/Bw4 ligand (P = 0.027 is associated with viral clearance, whereas the presence of HLA-Bw6 ligand (P = 0.027, the binding of KIR3DS1-HLA-Bw4 (P = 0.037 and heterozygosity for KIR3DL1/3DS1 (Pc = 0.011 favour viral chronicity. Mother/child allele matching: In the joint HLA analysis, matching was greater between mothers and children with chronic infection vs those who had cleared the virus (67%±4.1 vs 57%±1.2, P = 0.003.The HLA-C1 ligand in the mother is related to MTCT, while several genetic factors of the mother or child are involved in the chronification or clearance of infection in the child. Matching allelic data is considered to be an indicator of HCV chronicity in the child and can be used as a potential prognostic test. This implies that NK cells may play a previously undocumented role in protecting against MTCT and that both NK cell immunity and adaptive T-cell responses may

  17. High resolution human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and class II allele typing in Mexican mestizo women with sporadic breast cancer: case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantú de León, David; Yu, Neng; Yunis, Edmond J; Granados, Julio; Pérez-Montiel, Delia; Villavicencio, Verónica; Carranca, Alejandro García; Betancourt, Alejandro Mohar; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; López-Tello, Alberto; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Barquera, Rodrigo

    2009-01-01

    The development of breast cancer is multifactorial. Hormonal, environmental factors and genetic predisposition, among others, could interact in the presentation of breast carcinoma. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles play an important role in immunity (cellular immunity) and may be important genetic traits. HLAAllele-specific interaction has not been well established. Recently, several studies had been conducted in order to do so, but the results are controversial and in some instances contradictory. We designed a case-control study to quantify the association of HLA class I and II genes and breast cancer. HLA typing was performed by high resolution sequence-specific oligotyping after DNA amplification (PCR-SSOP) of 100 breast cancer Mexican mestizo patients and 99 matched healthy controls. HLA-A frequencies that we were able to observe that there was no difference between both groups from the statistical viewpoint. HLA-B*1501 was found three times more common in the case group (OR, 3.714; p = 0.031). HLA-Cw is not a marker neither for risk, nor protection for the disease, because we did not find significant statistical differences between the two groups. DRB1*1301, which is expressed in seven cases and in only one control, observing an risk increase of up to seven times and DRB1*1602, which behaves similarly in being present solely in the cases (OR, 16.701; 95% CI, 0.947 – 294.670). DQ*0301-allele expression, which is much more common in the control group and could be protective for the presentation of the disease (OR, 0.078; 95% CI, 0.027–0.223, p = 0.00001). Our results reveal the role of the MHC genes in the pathophysiology of breast cancer, suggesting that in the development of breast cancer exists a disorder of immune regulation. The triggering factor seems to be restricted to certain ethnic groups and certain geographical regions since the relevant MHC alleles are highly diverse. This is the first study in Mexican population where high resolutions HLA

  18. 1+1+2 gravitational perturbations on LRS class II spacetimes: II. Decoupling gravito-electromagnetic 2-vector and scalar harmonic amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burston, R B

    2008-01-01

    This is the second paper in a series that considers first-order, gauge-invariant and covariant, gravitational perturbations to locally rotationally symmetric (LRS) class II vacuum spacetimes. Focusing on the 1+1+2 gravito-electromagnetic (GEM) formalism, the first paper used linear algebra techniques to derive four decoupled equations that govern four specific combinations of the GEM 2-tensor harmonic amplitudes. This paper completes the decoupling of the 1+1+2 GEM system by showing how to derive seven new decoupled quantities. Four of these arise when considering the GEM 2-vector harmonic amplitudes and it is found that decoupling is achieved by combining these with the (2/3-sheet) shear 2-tensor harmonic amplitudes. The remaining three arise from the 1+1+2 GEM scalars. Two of which concern the 2-gradient of the gravito-electric scalar that must also be combined with shear 2-tensor amplitudes, whereas the other involves the gravito-magnetic scalar only

  19. Relationship between crown-root angulation (collum angle) of maxillary central incisors in Class II, division 2 malocclusion and lower lip line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Bhadrinath; Kailasam, Vignesh; Chitharanjan, Arun; Ramalingam, Arthi

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to measure the magnitude of the collum angle (crown-root angulation) of maxillary central incisors present in Class II, division 2 malocclusion and to relate the changes in its magnitude with variations in the lower lip line. A set of 120 conventional lateral cephalograms were selected and divided into three groups of 40 each based on the type of malocclusion presented: Class II, division 2 (group 1); Class II, division 1 (group 2); and Class I (group 3). The collum angle of the maxillary central incisor was measured, and the lower lip line was recorded. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that the mean collum angle was statistically significantly different in the three groups. The mean collum angle was greatest in Class II, division 2 malocclusion (group 1). The mean collum angles were 3.24 ± 4.69 degrees, 0.95 ± 1.06 degrees, and 1.05 ± 1.50 degrees in groups 1, 2, and 3 respectively. In χ ² test comparison of the location of the lower lip line (incisal, middle, or apical third of the central incisor) among the three groups, the lower lip line was found to contact the middle third of the central incisor most frequently in Class II, division 2 malocclusion. ANOVA followed by Tukey honestly significant difference (HSD) test showed that the mean collum angle is significantly increased when the lower lip is in the middle third (P lower lip line suggest a probable etiologic role of the lower lip line in the development of the collum angle.

  20. Eight-year randomized clinical evaluation of Class II nanohybrid resin composite restorations bonded with a one-step self-etch or a two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan WV; Pallesen, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    (13.5 %) and nine in the two-step etch-and-rinse group (13.0 %). This resulted in nonsignificant different annual failure rates of 1.69 and 1.63 %, respectively. Fracture of restoration was the main reason for failure. Conclusion: Good clinical performance was shown during the 8-year evaluation....... Results: One hundred and fifty-eight restorations were evaluated after 8 years. Three participants with five restorations (three Xeno III, two Excite) were registered as dropouts. Twenty-one failed restorations (13.3 %) were observed during the follow-up. Twelve in the one-step self-etch adhesive group...... and no significant difference in overall clinical performance between the two adhesives. Fracture was the main reason for failure. Clinical relevance: The one-step self-etch adhesive showed a good long-term clinical effectiveness in combination with the nanohybrid resin composite in Class II restorations....