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Sample records for clark fork river

  1. Brown trout avoidance of metals in water characteristic of the Clark Fork River, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Daniel F.; Hansen, James A.; Bergman, Harold L.; Delonay, Aaron J.; Little, Edward E.

    1995-01-01

    The avoidance response of brown trout (Salmo trutta) to mixtures of cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc was determined in water simulating the Clark Fork River, Montana. Effects of acidification on the avoidance response were also evaluated. Tests were conducted in a cylindrical chamber that received reference water at one end and metal-contaminated water at the other; a distinct boundary formed at the center where the chamber drained. A 1 × mixture of the four metals (Cd, 1.1 μg/L; Cu, 12 μg/L; Pb, 3.2 μg/L; and Zn, 55 μg/L) that was representative of the ambient metals concentrations of the Clark Fork River resulted in avoidance by brown trout. Brown trout also avoided 0.5×, 2×, 4×, and 10× mixtures but not a 0.1 × mixture. A reduction in pH from 8.0 to either 7.0, 6.0, or 5.0 resulted in significant avoidance. Avoidance reactions to metals, similar to those observed in our laboratory experiments, may contribute to the depression of brown trout populations in the Clark Fork River.

  2. Metals-contaminated benthic invertebrates in the Clark Fork River, Montana: Effects on age-0 brown trout and rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Daniel F.; Farag, Aïda M.; Bergman, Harold L.; Delonay, Aaron J.; Little, Edward E.; Smiths, Charlie E.; Barrows, Frederic T.

    1995-01-01

    Benthic organisms in the upper Clark Fork River have recently been implicated as a dietary source of metals that may be a chronic problem for young-of-the-year rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). In this present study, early life stage brown trout (Salmo trutta) and rainbow trout were exposed for 88 d to simulated Clark Fork River water and a diet of benthic invertebrates collected from the river. These exposures resulted in reduced growth and elevated levels of metals in the whole body of both species. Concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, and Pb increased in whole brown trout; in rainbow trout, As and Cd increased in whole fish, and As also increased in liver. Brown trout on the metals-contaminated diets exhibited constipation, gut impaction, increased cell membrane damage (lipid peroxidation), decreased digestive enzyme production (zymogen), and a sloughing of intestinal mucosal epithelial cells. Rainbow trout fed the contaminated diets exhibited constipation and reduced feeding activity. We believe that the reduced standing crop of trout in the Clark Fork River results partly from chronic effects of metals contamination in benthic invertebrates that are important as food for young-of-the-year fish.

  3. Water-quality trends and constituent-transport analysis for selected sampling sites in the Milltown Reservoir/Clark Fork River Superfund Site in the upper Clark Fork Basin, Montana, water years 1996–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sando, Steven K.; Vecchia, Aldo V.

    2016-07-20

    During the extended history of mining in the upper Clark Fork Basin in Montana, large amounts of waste materials enriched with metallic contaminants (cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc) and the metalloid trace element arsenic were generated from mining operations near Butte and milling and smelting operations near Anaconda. Extensive deposition of mining wastes in the Silver Bow Creek and Clark Fork channels and flood plains had substantial effects on water quality. Federal Superfund remediation activities in the upper Clark Fork Basin began in 1983 and have included substantial remediation near Butte and removal of the former Milltown Dam near Missoula. To aid in evaluating the effects of remediation activities on water quality, the U.S. Geological Survey began collecting streamflow and water-quality data in the upper Clark Fork Basin in the 1980s.Trend analysis was done on specific conductance, selected trace elements (arsenic, copper, and zinc), and suspended sediment for seven sampling sites in the Milltown Reservoir/Clark Fork River Superfund Site for water years 1996–2015. The most upstream site included in trend analysis is Silver Bow Creek at Warm Springs, Montana (sampling site 8), and the most downstream site is Clark Fork above Missoula, Montana (sampling site 22), which is just downstream from the former Milltown Dam. Water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30 and is designated by the year in which it ends. Trend analysis was done by using a joint time-series model for concentration and streamflow. To provide temporal resolution of changes in water quality, trend analysis was conducted for four sequential 5-year periods: period 1 (water years 1996–2000), period 2 (water years 2001–5), period 3 (water years 2006–10), and period 4 (water years 2011–15). Because of the substantial effect of the intentional breach of Milltown Dam on March 28, 2008, period 3 was subdivided into period 3A (October 1, 2005–March 27, 2008

  4. Montana's Clark Fork River Basin Task Force: A Vehicle for Integrated Water Resources Management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, David D.; Mueller, Gerald

    2010-11-01

    This article examines what is generally considered to be an unattainable goal in the western United States: integrated water resources management (IWRM). Specifically, we examine an organization that is quite unique in the West, Montana’s Clark Fork River Basin Task Force (Task Force), and we analyze its activities since its formation in 2001 to answer the question: are the activities and contributions of the Task Force working to promote a more strongly integrated approach to water resources management in Montana? After reviewing the concepts underlying IWRM, some of the issues that have been identified for achieving IWRM in the West, and the Montana system of water right allocation and issues it faces, we adapt Mitchell’s IWRM framework and apply it to the analysis of the Task Force’s activities in the context of IWRM. In evaluating the physical, interaction, and protocol/planning/policy components of IWRM, we find that the Task Force has been contributing to the evolution of Montana’s water resources management towards this framework, though several factors will likely continue to prevent its complete realization. The Task Force has been successful in this regard because of its unique nature and charge, and because of the authority and power given it by successive Montana legislatures. Also critical to the success of the organization is its ability to help translate into policy the outcomes of legal and quasi-judicial decisions that have impacted the state’s water resources management agency.

  5. Mining-related metals in terrestrial food webs of the upper Clark Fork River basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastorok, R.A.; LaTier, A.J.; Butcher, M.K.; Ginn, T.C. [PTI Environmental Services, Bellevue, WA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Fluvial deposits of tailings and other mining-related waste in selected riparian habitats of the Upper Clark Fork River basin (Montana) have resulted in metals enriched soils. The significance of metals exposure to selected wildlife species was evaluated by measuring tissue residues of metals (arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, zinc) in key dietary species, including dominant grasses (tufted hair grass and redtop), willows, alfalfa, barley, invertebrates (grasshoppers, spiders, and beetles), and deer mice. Average metals concentrations in grasses, invertebrates, and deer mice collected from tailings-affected sites were elevated relative to reference to reference levels. Soil-tissue bioconcentration factors for grasses and invertebrates were generally lower than expected based on the range of values in the literature, indicating the reduced bioavailability of metals from mining waste. In general, metals concentrations in willows, alfalfa, and barley were not elevated above reference levels. Using these data and plausible assumptions for other exposure parameters for white-tailed deer, red fox, and American kestrel, metals intake was estimated for soil and diet ingestion pathways. Comparisons of exposure estimates with toxicity reference values indicated that the elevated concentrations of metals in key food web species do not pose a significant risk to wildlife.

  6. Montana's Clark Fork River Basin Task Force: a vehicle for integrated water resources management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, David D; Mueller, Gerald

    2010-11-01

    This article examines what is generally considered to be an unattainable goal in the western United States: integrated water resources management (IWRM). Specifically, we examine an organization that is quite unique in the West, Montana's Clark Fork River Basin Task Force (Task Force), and we analyze its activities since its formation in 2001 to answer the question: are the activities and contributions of the Task Force working to promote a more strongly integrated approach to water resources management in Montana? After reviewing the concepts underlying IWRM, some of the issues that have been identified for achieving IWRM in the West, and the Montana system of water right allocation and issues it faces, we adapt Mitchell's IWRM framework and apply it to the analysis of the Task Force's activities in the context of IWRM. In evaluating the physical, interaction, and protocol/planning/policy components of IWRM, we find that the Task Force has been contributing to the evolution of Montana's water resources management towards this framework, though several factors will likely continue to prevent its complete realization. The Task Force has been successful in this regard because of its unique nature and charge, and because of the authority and power given it by successive Montana legislatures. Also critical to the success of the organization is its ability to help translate into policy the outcomes of legal and quasi-judicial decisions that have impacted the state's water resources management agency.

  7. Water-quality trends and constituent-transport analysis for selected sampling sites in the Milltown Reservoir/Clark Fork River Superfund Site in the upper Clark Fork Basin, Montana, water years 1996–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sando, Steven K.; Vecchia, Aldo V.

    2016-07-20

    During the extended history of mining in the upper Clark Fork Basin in Montana, large amounts of waste materials enriched with metallic contaminants (cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc) and the metalloid trace element arsenic were generated from mining operations near Butte and milling and smelting operations near Anaconda. Extensive deposition of mining wastes in the Silver Bow Creek and Clark Fork channels and flood plains had substantial effects on water quality. Federal Superfund remediation activities in the upper Clark Fork Basin began in 1983 and have included substantial remediation near Butte and removal of the former Milltown Dam near Missoula. To aid in evaluating the effects of remediation activities on water quality, the U.S. Geological Survey began collecting streamflow and water-quality data in the upper Clark Fork Basin in the 1980s.Trend analysis was done on specific conductance, selected trace elements (arsenic, copper, and zinc), and suspended sediment for seven sampling sites in the Milltown Reservoir/Clark Fork River Superfund Site for water years 1996–2015. The most upstream site included in trend analysis is Silver Bow Creek at Warm Springs, Montana (sampling site 8), and the most downstream site is Clark Fork above Missoula, Montana (sampling site 22), which is just downstream from the former Milltown Dam. Water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30 and is designated by the year in which it ends. Trend analysis was done by using a joint time-series model for concentration and streamflow. To provide temporal resolution of changes in water quality, trend analysis was conducted for four sequential 5-year periods: period 1 (water years 1996–2000), period 2 (water years 2001–5), period 3 (water years 2006–10), and period 4 (water years 2011–15). Because of the substantial effect of the intentional breach of Milltown Dam on March 28, 2008, period 3 was subdivided into period 3A (October 1, 2005–March 27, 2008

  8. Nature's complex flume - Using a diagnostic state-and-transition framework to understand post-restoration channel adjustment of the Clark Fork River, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyke, Chris

    2016-02-01

    There is an imperfect symmetry between the patterns of channel evolution observed during laboratory flume experiments and those which materialize in rivers exposed to ambient environmental conditions that produce hydrogeomorphic fluxes which are more complex, contingent, and unpredictable. One strategy to improve our understanding of short- to medium-term channel evolution is to study landscapes that have undergone significant disturbance and have had their biogeomorphic templates reset to a known condition - in effect, creating a flume in nature. This study adopts a diagnostic state-and-transition framework to narrate and document baseline hypotheses for the potential evolutionary trajectories Clark Fork River, near Milltown, Montana. Following dam removal and remediation, a 5-km stretch of the Clark Fork River and its adjoining floodplain were reconstructed. Since flow was introduced to the newly constructed channel in December 2010, complex evolutionary trajectories have been observed on the Clark Fork's mainstem, its secondary channels, and floodplain. Focusing particularly on the river's secondary channels, this paper develops a typology of channel states that have been observed and demonstrates that multiple adjustment trajectories have materialized, sometimes within the same channel. A diagnostic state-and-transition framework offers a parsimonious strategy to quantitatively or qualitatively anticipate the influence of water, sediment, and ecological fluxes on channel evolution at the basin, reach, or segment scale. It provides environmental agencies with a robust method to devise spatially explicit scenario-based management plans for rivers in a variety of geomorphic settings.

  9. Effects of the Cabinet Gorge Kokanee Hatchery on Wintering Bald Eagles in the Lower Clark Fork River and Lake Pend, Oreille, Idaho: 1986 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crenshaw, John G.

    1987-12-01

    The abundance and distribution of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) on the lower Clark Fork River, Lake Pend Oreille, and the upper Pend Oreille River, Idaho, were documented during the winters of 1985--86 and 1986--87. Peak counts of bald eagles in weekly aerial censuses were higher in 1985--86 (274) and 1986--87 (429) than previously recorded in mid-winter surveys. Differences in eagle distribution within and between years were apparently responses to changes in prey availability. Eight bald eagles were captured and equipped with radio transmitters in the winter and spring of 1986. Residencies within the study area averaged 13.9 days in 1985--86 and 58.3 days for the four eagles that returned in 1986-87. The eagles exhibited considerable daily movement throughout the study area. After departing the area, one eagle was later sighted approximately 1185 km to the southwest in northern California. Eagle behavioral activity was recorded at time budget sessions at areas of heavy use. Perching in live trees was the most common behavior observed. 34 refs., 39 figs., 17 tabs.

  10. Summary of surface-water-quality data collected for the Northern Rockies Intermontane Basins National Water-Quality Assessment Program in the Clark Fork-Pend Oreille and Spokane River basins, Montana, Idaho, and Washington, water years 1999-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckwith, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    Water-quality samples were collected at 10 sites in the Clark Fork-Pend Oreille and Spokane River Basins in water years 1999 – 2001 as part of the Northern Rockies Intermontane Basins (NROK) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Sampling sites were located in varied environments ranging from small streams and rivers in forested, mountainous headwater areas to large rivers draining diverse landscapes. Two sampling sites were located immediately downstream from the large lakes; five sites were located downstream from large-scale historical mining and oreprocessing areas, which are now the two largest “Superfund” (environmental remediation) sites in the Nation. Samples were collected during a wide range of streamflow conditions, more frequently during increasing and high streamflow and less frequently during receding and base-flow conditions. Sample analyses emphasized major ions, nutrients, and selected trace elements. Streamflow during the study ranged from more than 130 percent of the long-term average in 1999 at some sites to 40 percent of the long-term average in 2001. River and stream water in the study area exhibited small values for specific conductance, hardness, alkalinity, and dissolved solids. Dissolved oxygen concentrations in almost all samples were near saturation. Median total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations in samples from most sites were smaller than median concentrations reported for many national programs and other NAWQA Program study areas. The only exceptions were two sites downstream from large wastewater-treatment facilities, where median concentrations of total nitrogen exceeded the national median. Maximum concentrations of total phosphorus in samples from six sites exceeded the 0.1 milligram per liter threshold recommended for limiting nuisance aquatic growth. Concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, and zinc were largest in samples from sites downstream from historical mining and ore

  11. TERRAIN, City of Clark Fork Levee PMR, BONNER COUNTY, IDAHO

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The dataset encompasses portions of Northern Oregon, Eastern Washington, Northern Idaho, and Northwestern Montana within the Columbia River drainage. The bare earth...

  12. Clarks River National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Clarks River NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and...

  13. Water-quality, bed-sediment, and biological data (October 2013 through September 2014) and statistical summaries of data for streams in the Clark Fork Basin, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Kent A.; Hornberger, Michelle I.

    2015-12-24

    Water, bed sediment, and biota were sampled in streams from Butte to near Missoula, Montana, as part of a monitoring program in the upper Clark Fork Basin of western Montana. The sampling program was led by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, to characterize aquatic resources in the Clark Fork Basin, with emphasis on trace elements associated with historic mining and smelting activities. Sampling sites were located on the Clark Fork and selected tributaries. Water samples were collected periodically at 20 sites from October 2013 through September 2014. Bed-sediment and biota samples were collected once at 14 sites during August 2014.

  14. Water-quality trends for selected sampling sites in the upper Clark Fork Basin, Montana, water years 1996-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sando, Steven K.; Vecchia, Aldo V.; Lorenz, David L.; Barnhart, Elliott P.

    2014-01-01

    A large-scale trend analysis was done on specific conductance, selected trace elements (arsenic, cadmium, copper, iron, lead, manganese, and zinc), and suspended-sediment data for 22 sites in the upper Clark Fork Basin for water years 1996–2010. Trend analysis was conducted by using two parametric methods: a time-series model (TSM) and multiple linear regression on time, streamflow, and season (MLR). Trend results for 1996–2010 indicate moderate to large decreases in flow-adjusted concentrations (FACs) and loads of copper (and other metallic elements) and suspended sediment in Silver Bow Creek upstream from Warm Springs. Deposition of metallic elements and suspended sediment within Warm Springs Ponds substantially reduces the downstream transport of those constituents. However, mobilization of copper and suspended sediment from floodplain tailings and stream banks in the Clark Fork reach from Galen to Deer Lodge is a large source of metallic elements and suspended sediment, which also affects downstream transport of those constituents. Copper and suspended-sediment loads mobilized from within this reach accounted for about 40 and 20 percent, respectively, of the loads for Clark Fork at Turah Bridge (site 20); whereas, streamflow contributed from within this reach only accounted for about 8 percent of the streamflow at Turah Bridge. Minor changes in FACs and loads of copper and suspended sediment are indicated for this reach during 1996–2010. Clark Fork reaches downstream from Deer Lodge are relatively smaller sources of metallic elements than the reach from Galen to Deer Lodge. In general, small decreases in loads and FACs of copper and suspended sediment are indicated for Clark Fork sites downstream from Deer Lodge during 1996–2010. Thus, although large decreases in FACs and loads of copper and suspended sediment are indicated for Silver Bow Creek upstream from Warm Springs, those large decreases are not translated to the more downstream reaches largely

  15. BALD ROCK AND MIDDLE FORK FEATHER RIVER ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Martin L.; Buehler, Alan R.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a mineral-resource assessment of the Bald Rock and Middle Fork Feather River Roadless Areas in California indicate several areas within the Middle Fork Feather River Roadless Area that have probable mineral-resource potential. A probable potential for placer gold exists at various localities, both in areas covered by Tertiary volcanic rocks and in small streams that drain into the Middle Fork of the Feather River. A probable potential for small deposits of chromite exists in tracts underlain by ultramafic rocks in the Melones fault zone. A probable potential for lead-silver deposits is recognized at the east end of the Middle Fork Feather River Roadless Area.

  16. Investigation of Hyporheic Microbial Biofilms as Indicators of Heavy Metal Toxicity in the Clark Fork Basin, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, E. P.; Hwang, C.; Bouskill, N.; Hornberger, M.; Fields, M. W.

    2015-12-01

    Water-saturated sediments that underlie a stream channel contain microbial biofilms that are often responsible for the majority of the metabolic activity in river and stream ecosystems. Metal contamination from mining effluent can modify the biofilm community structure, diversity, and activity. Developing a mechanistic understanding of the biofilm response to metal contamination could provide a useful bioindicator of metal toxicity due to the ease of standard biofilm sampling, environmental ubiquity of biofilms and the rapid response of biofilms to environmental perturbation and metal toxicity. Here we present data on the structure of the biofilm community (e.g., microbial population composition and diversity) and trace metal concentrations in water, bed sediment and biota (benthic insects) across 15 sites in the Clark Fork Basin. Sample sites were selected across a historically-monitored metal pollution gradient at shallow riffles with bed sediment predominantly composed of pebbles, cobbles, and sand. Bed-sediment samples (for biofilm analysis) were obtained from the top 20 centimeters of the hyporheic zone and sieved using sterile sieves to obtain homogeneous sediment samples with particle sizes ranging from 1.70 to 2.36 millimeters. Linear discriminant analysis and effect size statistical methods were used to integrate the metals concentration data (for water and benthic-insects samples) with the microbial community analysis to identify microbial biomarkers of metal toxicity. The development of rapid microbial biomarker tools could provide reproducible and quantitative insights into the effectiveness of remediation activities on metal toxicity and advances in the field of environmental biomonitoring.

  17. 33 CFR 117.307 - Miami River, North Fork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Miami River, North Fork. 117.307... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.307 Miami River, North Fork. The draw of the FDOT Railroad Bridge, mile 5.3 at Miami, shall open on signal if at least 48-hour notice is...

  18. Geochemistry of the Johnson River, Lake Clark National Park and Preserve, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabets, Timothy P.; Riehle, James R.

    2003-01-01

    The Johnson River Basin, located in Lake Clark National Park and Preserve, drains an area of 96 square miles. A private inholding in the upper part of the basin contains a gold deposit that may be developed in the future. To establish a natural baseline to compare potential effects on water quality if development were to occur, the upper part of the Johnson River Basin was studied from 1999 to 2001 as part of a cooperative study with the National Park Service. Two basic rock types occur within the drainage basin of the study: the Jurassic Talkeetna Formation of interbedded volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks, and the slightly younger plutonic rocks of the Aleutian-Alaska Ranges batholith. The Johnson River gold prospect reflects widespread, secondary mineralization and alteration of the Talkeetna Formation. Metals found at the prospect proper are: arsenic, cadmium, copper, gold, iron, lead, mercury, molybdenum, selenium, silver, and zinc. The Johnson River prospect is located in the East Fork Ore Creek Basin, a 0.5 square mile watershed that is a tributary to the Johnson River. Water quality data from this stream reflect the mineralization of the basin and the highest concentrations of several trace elements and major ions of the water column were found in this stream. Presently, pH in this stream is normal, indicating that there is sufficient buffering capacity. At the Johnson River streamgage, which drains approximately 25 mi2 including the East Fork Ore Creek, concentrations of these constituents are significantly lower, reflecting the runoff from Johnson Glacier and Double Glacier, which account for approximately 75 percent of the total discharge. Streambed concentrations of cadmium, lead, and zinc from East Fork Ore Creek and its receiving stream, Ore Creek, typically exceed concentrations where sediment dwelling organisms would be affected. Similar to the water column chemistry, concentrations of these elements are lower at the Johnson River streamgage

  19. South Fork Clearwater River Habitat Enhancement, Nez Perce National Forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddall, Phoebe

    1992-04-01

    In 1984, the Nez Perce National forest and the Bonneville Power Administration entered into a contractual agreement which provided for improvement of spring chinook salmon and summer steelhead trout habitat in south Fork Clearwater River tributaries. Project work was completed in seven main locations: Crooked River, Red River, Meadow Creek Haysfork Gloryhole, Cal-Idaho Gloryhole, Fisher Placer and Leggett Placer. This report describes restoration activities at each of these sites.

  20. 78 FR 13660 - Middle Fork American River Project; Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Middle Fork American River Project; Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Middle Fork American River Hydrolectric Project In accordance with the... Projects has reviewed the application for license for the Middle Fork American River Hydroelectric...

  1. Elm Fork of the Trinity River Floodplain Management Study

    OpenAIRE

    Tickle, Greg; Clary, Melinda

    2001-01-01

    Wendy Lopez and Associates, Inc. (WLA) was asked to provide a conservation and ecological restoration overview for the City of Dallas as part of an Elm Fork Floodplain Management Study. This study encompasses a unique portion of the main stem of the Elm Fork of the Trinity River, Dallas County, Dallas, Texas. The project area includes approximately 8.5 square miles, half of which lie within a 100-year floodplain. Approximately 15% of the project area is mature bottomland hardwood forest and s...

  2. Sprague River Oregon Centerline North Fork 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the...

  3. Sprague River Oregon Centerline North Fork 1975

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the...

  4. Sprague River Oregon Centerline North Fork 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the...

  5. Wildlife Impact Assessment and Summary of Previous Mitigation Related to Hydroelectric Projects in Montana, Phase I, Volume Two (A), Clark Fork Projects, Thompson Falls Dam, Operator, Montana Power Company.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Marilyn

    1984-03-27

    The Thompson Falls Dam inundated approximately 347 acres of wildlife habitat that likely included conifer forests, deciduous bottoms, mixed conifer-deciduous forests and grassland/hay meadows. Additionally, at least one island, and several gravel bars were inundated when the river was transformed into a reservoir. The loss of riparian and riverine habitat adversely affected the diverse wildlife community inhabiting the lower Clark Fork River area. Quantitative loss estimates were determined for selected target species based on best available information. The loss estimates were based on inundation of the habitat capable of supporting the target species. Whenever possible, loss estimates bounds were developed by determining ranges of impacts based on density estimates and/or acreage loss estimates. Of the twelve target species or species groups, nine were assessed as having net negative impacts. 86 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. South Fork Clearwater River Habitat Enhancement, Crooked and Red Rivers : Annual Report, 1989.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, William H.

    1990-01-01

    In 1983, the Nez Perce National Forest and the Bonneville Power Administration entered into an interagency agreement to enhance and improve habitat for two anadromous fish species, spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawyscha) and summer steelhead trout (Onchorhyncus mykiss), in the South Fork Clearwater River tributaries. The South Fork Clearwater River was dammed in 1927 for hydroelectric development. Anadromous fish runs were virtually eliminated until the dam was removed in 1962. To complicate the problem, upstream spawning and rearing habitats were severely impacted by dredge and hydraulic mining, road building, timber harvest, and over-grazing. Fish habitat improvement projects under the above contract are being carried out in two major tributaries to the South Fork Clearwater River. Both the Red River and the Crooked River projects began in 1983 and will be completed in 1990. 12 figures., 1 tab.

  7. 77 FR 39675 - Wallowa-Whitman National Forest, Baker County, OR; North Fork Burnt River Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... River Mining AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Correction--Notice of intent to prepare a supplement... changed to the Whitman District Ranger. This 2012 North Fork Burnt River Mining Record of Decision will replace and supercede the 2004 North Fork Burnt River Mining Record of Decision only where necessary...

  8. Time of travel of solutes in the East Fork Trinity River, November 1975; and Elm Fork Trinity River, December 1975; Trinity River Basin, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Dennis R.; Slade, Raymond M., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the North Central Texas Council of Governments, the Trinity River Authority of Texas, and the Texas Water Development Board, conducted two time-of-travel studies in the Trinity River basin in November and December, 1975.  Field data were collected on the East Fork Trinity River during November 18-22, 1975, and on the Elm Fork Trinity River during December 8-13, 1975.  The purpose of these two studies was to provide data that could be used by the Trinity River Authority and the Texas Water Quality Board in the development of a mathematical water-quality model of the two streams.  The model is to be used in a comprehensive water-quality management plan for the Trinity River basin.

  9. 77 FR 47058 - Middle Fork American River Hydroelectric Project Placer County Water Agency; Notice of Draft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Middle Fork American River Hydroelectric Project Placer County Water Agency... comments on the draft environmental impact statement for the Middle Fork American River Project No....

  10. 77 FR 45597 - Middle Fork American River Project; Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Middle Fork American River Project; Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Middle Fork American River Hydrolectric Project and Intention To Hold... CFR part 380 ), the Office of Energy Projects has reviewed the application for license for the...

  11. New observations on the Middle Fork Eel River coal-bearing beds, Mendocino County, California, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartley, Russell H. [Mendocino County Museum, 400 East Commercial Street, Willits, CA 95490 (United States); Bartley, Sylvia E. [Noyo Hill House, 28953 Highway 20, Fort Bragg, CA 95437 (United States); Springer, David J. [College of the Redwoods-Mendocino Coast, 1211 Del Mar Drive, Fort Bragg, CA 95437 (United States); Erwin, Diane M. [Museum of Paleontology, 1101 Valley Life Sciences Building, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Mid-19th century reports of ''immense'' coal outcrops in the Middle Fork Eel River (MFER) drainage near Round Valley in California's northern Coast Ranges fueled the early geological interest in this area, with mine development the primary focus of many studies. It was not until Samuel G. Clark's 1940 ''Geology of the Covelo District, Mendocino County, California,'' that the coal was placed in its regional geologic context and assigned to the Miocene, a determination that relied primarily on a Desmostylus hesperus molar found in shale overlying the coal and an associated equivocal, though Miocene-compatible, marine molluscan fauna. Our investigation of the MFER coal-bearing beds has provided new data from foraminifera, marine mollusks, fish remains, and the first reported fossil plants, which as a whole support Clark's Miocene age assignment. We also present an updated stratigraphy proposing under modern-day stratigraphic protocols that the informal name Sand Bank beds (SBb) be used in place of the Temblor Formation to refer to the SBb coal-bearing fluvial-marine unit. Analysis of the SBb stratigraphy and sedimentology reveals the presence of a fluvial system that flowed from a distal upland region southward toward the paleocoast of California. An abundant diverse palynoflora containing lycophytes, ferns, conifers, and mesic, thermophillic herbaceous and woody angiosperms indicates the drainage flowed through a coastal swampy forested bottomland and estuarine environment before emptying into a coastal basin. Presence of Taxodium-like wood, foliage, pollen, and other ''hydrophiles'' suggests the MFER coal was a local mire buried by the progradation of the SBb fluvial system during a regressive phase, an interpretation to be tested with future field work and detailed compositional analysis of the coal. (author)

  12. Geographic distribution of mercury in asiatic clams, Corbicuia plumihea, from the North Fork Holston River, Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A study was conducted quantifying mercury concentrations in the Asiatic clam, Corbicula fluminea, from the North Fork Holston River, Virginia. The purpose of this...

  13. An Environmental Quality Assessment of Clarks River National Wildlife Refuge: A component of the Tennessee National Wildlife Refuge Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study, Project ID No. 4N62, was initiated in September 2000. Habitat and fish community assessments were completed at seven sites in the Clarks River watershed...

  14. Time-of-travel studies, Susquehanna River, Binghamton, New York, to Clarks Ferry, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, C.D.; Armbruster, J.T.; Voytik, Andrew

    1976-01-01

    Results of time-of-travel studies are presented in both tabular and graphical form for several flow conditions in the Susquehanna River from Binghamton, N.Y., to Clarks Ferry, Pa. This reach is approximately 240 miles (386 kilometres) long, measured along the center of the channel, and has a drainage area of about 19,700 square miles (51,000 square kilometres) at its downstream end.

  15. Geomorphic Characterization of the Middle Fork Saline River: Garland, Perry, and Saline Counties, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Aaron L.; Garday, Thomas J.; Redman, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    This report was prepared to help address concerns raised by local residents, State, and Federal agencies about the current geomorphic conditions of the Middle Fork Saline River. Over the past 30 years the Middle Fork Saline River Basin has experienced a marked increase in urbanization. The report summarizes the Middle Fork?s current (2003) channel characteristics at nine stream reaches in the upper 91 square miles of the basin. Assessments at each study reach included comparing measured stream geometry dimensions (cross-sectional area, top width, and mean depth) at bankfull stage to regional hydraulic geometry curves for the Ouachita Mountains Physiographic Province of Arkansas and Oklahoma, evaluations of streambed materials and sinuosity, and classification of individual stream reach types. When compared to the Ouachita Mountains? regional hydraulic geometry curves for natural, stable, stream reaches, five of the nine study reaches had slightly smaller crosssectional areas, longer top widths, and shallower depths. Streambed material analysis indicates that the Middle Fork is a bedrock influenced, gravel dominated stream with lesser amounts of sand and cobbles. Slight increases in sinuosity from 1992 to 2002 at seven of the nine study reaches indicate a slight decrease in stream channel slope. Analyses of the Middle Fork?s hydraulic geometry and sinuosity indicate that the Middle Fork is currently overly wide and shallow, but is slowly adjusting towards a deeper, narrower hydraulic geometry. Using the Rosgen system of channel classification, the two upstream study reaches classified as B4c/1 stream types; which were moderately entrenched, riffle dominated channels, with infrequently spaced pools. The downstream seven study reaches classified as C4/1 stream types; which were slightly entrenched, meandering, gravel-dominated, riffle/ pool channels with well developed flood plains. Analyses of stream reach types suggest that the downstream reaches of the Middle Fork

  16. A water-quality assessment of the Muddy Fork Silver Creek watershed, Clark, Floyd, and Washington Counties, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Mark A.

    1978-01-01

    Data collected for a wide range of flow conditions from September 8, 1975, to July 13, 1976, reveal that human and animal waste loading of streams and pesticides use in the Muddy Fork Silver Creek watershed, Indiana, are probably the most significant water-quality problems. Generally, the type(s) of water in tributary streams in the south and southwest parts of the watershed was calcium bicarbonate and in other tributaries were calcium sulfate and magnesium sulfate. Dissolved-solids concentrations of discharge from top-spill reservoirs were lower and more consistent over a range of flows than concentrations from uncontrolled streams. Concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria and fecal streptococcal bacteria ranged from 5 to 65 ,000 colonies per 100 milliliters and from 5 to 14,000 colonies per 100 milliliters, respectively. Data on periphyton, phytoplankton, and benthic communities collected during low flow in September 1975 indicate organic loading of Muddy Fork downstream from the town of Speed. Phytoplankton community structures varied temporally and spatially. Ranges of concentration (In micrograms per kilogram) of various chlorinated hydrocarbons in samples of bed materials were: chlordane, from 0 to 14; DDT, from 0 to 19; and PCB's, from 0 to 11. Concentrations of aldrin, DDD, DDE, heptachlor, and heptachlor epoxide of 5.1 micrograms per kilogram or less were also detected. The presence of these compounds makes them potentially available for accumulation in the biological food chain. (Woodard-USGS)

  17. Aerial photo mosaic of the South Fork Coquille, Middle Fork Coquille, North Fork Coquille, and Coquille Rivers, Oregon in 1967

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Coquille River system is an unregulated system that encompasses 2,745 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon and flows into the Pacific Ocean near the town of...

  18. South Fork Snake River/Palisades Wildlife Mitigation Project: Environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    BPA proposes to fund the implementation of the South Fork Snake River Programmatic Management Plan to compensate for losses of wildlife and wildlife habitat due to hydroelectric development at Palisades Dam. The Idaho Department of Fish and Game drafted the plan, which was completed in May 1993. This plan recommends land and conservation easement acquisition and wildlife habitat enhancement measures. These measures would be implemented on selected lands along the South Fork of the Snake River between Palisades Dam and the confluence with the Henry`s Fork, and on portions of the Henry`s Fork located in Bonneville, Madison, and Jefferson Counties, Idaho. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment evaluating the proposed project. The EA also incorporates by reference the analyses in the South Fork Snake River Activity/Operations Plan and EA prepared jointly in 1991 by the Bureau of Land Management and the Forest Service. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI.

  19. Geomorphic Effects of Engineered Log Jams in River Restoration, Middle Fork John Day River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffin, J.; McDowell, P. F.

    2014-12-01

    The Middle Fork of the John Day River (MFJD) Intensively Monitored Watershed in eastern Oregon is a multi-phase restoration implementation and monitoring project. MFJD is a tributary to the Colombia and is part of one of the longest free flowing rivers systems in the continental United States. It is a gravel and cobble bed river with a drainage area of 2,100 km2. The river has endured extensive channel and floodplain degradation from years of channel alteration and straightening due to human influences including dredge mining, ranching, and farming. As part of the river restoration project on the MFJD, engineered log jams have been constructed to address many of the restoration goals including creating scour pools, inhibiting bank erosion, creating and maintaining a sinuous river planform, and increasing complexity of fish habitat. There is a need for more detailed understanding on ELJ channel morphologic effects and how site-specific characteristics and differences in log jam infrastructure interact to create the in-channel features over timescales longer than a few years. This study uses detailed channel bed topographic surveys collected either with a total station or RTK-GPS technology. Geomorphic change detection techniques are utilized to monitor topographic change under and around the 26 log structures in two different river reaches over a six to seven year period The log structures are often associated with deepening of pools as desired, but also some structures show sedimentation under the structure. Differences in the patterns will be assessed based on the design, location, and specific characteristics of the log structures; variables include number and placement of logs, volume of structure, location on meander bend, and sediment sizes.

  20. Physical Habitat Characteristics on the North and South Forks of the Shenandoah River, VA in 2002-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The layers within this geodataset describe physical habitat characteristics in the North and South Fork Shenandoah rivers. They represent conditions during summer...

  1. Flood-inundation maps for the East Fork White River at Shoals, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldt, Justin A.

    2016-05-06

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 5.9-mile reach of the East Fork White River at Shoals, Indiana (Ind.), were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Office of Community and Rural Affairs. The flood-inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/ depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage on the East Fork White River at Shoals, Ind. (USGS station number 03373500). Near-real-time stages at this streamgage may be obtained on the Internet from the USGS National Water Information System at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ or the National Weather Service (NWS) Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) at http://water.weather.gov/ahps/, which also forecasts flood hydrographs at this site (NWS AHPS site SHLI3). NWS AHPS forecast peak stage information may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation.Flood profiles were computed for the East Fork White River reach by means of a one-dimensional, step-backwater model developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The hydraulic model was calibrated by using the current stage-discharge relation (USGS rating no. 43.0) at USGS streamgage 03373500, East Fork White River at Shoals, Ind. The calibrated hydraulic model was then used to compute 26 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot (ft) intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from approximately bankfull (10 ft) to the highest stage of the current stage-discharge rating curve (35 ft). The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system (GIS) digital elevation model (DEM), derived from light detection and ranging (lidar) data, to delineate the area flooded at each water level. The areal extent of the 24-ft flood-inundation map was

  2. Flood-inundation map library for the Licking River and South Fork Licking River near Falmouth, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lant, Jeremiah G.

    2016-09-19

    Digital flood inundation maps for a 17-mile reach of Licking River and 4-mile reach of South Fork Licking River near Falmouth, Kentucky, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with Pendleton County and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers–Louisville District. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://wim.usgs.gov/FIMI/FloodInundationMapper.html, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage on the Licking River at Catawba, Ky., (station 03253500) and the USGS streamgage on the South Fork Licking River at Hayes, Ky., (station 03253000). Current conditions (2015) for the USGS streamgages may be obtained online at the USGS National Water Information System site (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis). In addition, the streamgage information has been provided to the National Weather Service (NWS) for incorporation into their Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood warning system (http:/water.weather.gov/ahps/). The flood hydrograph forecasts provided by the NWS are usually collocated with USGS streamgages. The forecasted peak-stage information, also available on the NWS Web site, may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation.In this study, flood profiles were computed for the Licking River reach and South Fork Licking River reach by using a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The hydraulic model was calibrated by using the most current (2015) stage-discharge relations for the Licking River at Catawba, Ky., and the South Fork Licking River at Hayes, Ky., USGS streamgages. The calibrated model was then used to calculate 60 water-surface profiles for a sequence of flood stages, at 2-foot intervals, referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from an elevation near bankfull to the elevation associated with a major flood that

  3. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshOR: Flood-Inundation Maps for the Coast Fork Willamette River from Creswell, Oregon to Goshen, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This feature class represents inundated area for the Coast Fork of the Willamette River, the Row River and Silk Creek (west of Cottage Grove, OR) for eight...

  4. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshOR_breach: Flood-Inundation Maps for the Coast Fork Willamette River from Creswell, Oregon to Goshen, Oregon (Area of Uncertainty)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This feature class represents inundated area for the Coast Fork of the Willamette River, the Row River and Silk Creek (west of Cottage Grove, OR) for eight...

  5. Hydrologic and hydraulic analyses for the Black Fork Mohican River Basin in and near Shelby, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huitger, Carrie A.; Ostheimer, Chad J.; Koltun, G.F.

    2016-05-06

    Hydrologic and hydraulic analyses were done for selected reaches of five streams in and near Shelby, Richland County, Ohio. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Muskingum Watershed Conservancy District, conducted these analyses on the Black Fork Mohican River and four tributaries: Seltzer Park Creek, Seltzer Park Tributary, Tuby Run, and West Branch. Drainage areas of the four stream reaches studied range from 0.51 to 60.3 square miles. The analyses included estimation of the 10-, 2-, 1-, and 0.2-percent annual-exceedance probability (AEP) flood-peak discharges using the USGS Ohio StreamStats application. Peak discharge estimates, along with cross-sectional and hydraulic structure geometries, and estimates of channel roughness coefficients were used as input to step-backwater models. The step-backwater water models were used to determine water-surface elevation profiles of four flood-peak discharges and a regulatory floodway. This study involved the installation of, and data collection at, a streamflow-gaging station (Black Fork Mohican River at Shelby, Ohio, 03129197), precipitation gage (Rain gage at Reservoir Number Two at Shelby, Ohio, 405209082393200), and seven submersible pressure transducers on six selected river reaches. Two precipitation-runoff models, one for the winter events and one for nonwinter events for the headwaters of the Black Fork Mohican River, were developed and calibrated using the data collected. With the exception of the runoff curve numbers, all other parameters used in the two precipitation-runoff models were identical. The Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficients were 0.737, 0.899, and 0.544 for the nonwinter events and 0.850 and 0.671 for the winter events. Both of the precipitation-runoff models underestimated the total volume of water, with residual runoff ranging from -0.27 inches to -1.53 inches. The results of this study can be used to assess possible mitigation options and define flood hazard areas that

  6. South Fork Salmon River Watershed Restoration, 2008-2009 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reaney, Mark D. [Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management

    2009-04-15

    The watershed restoration work elements within the project area, the South Fork Salmon River Watershed, follow the watershed restoration approach adopted by the Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management (DFRM) - Watershed Division. The vision of the Nez Perce Tribe DFRM-Watershed Division focuses on protecting, restoring, and enhancing watersheds and treaty resources within the ceded territory of the Nez Perce Tribe under the Treaty of 1855 with the United States Federal Government. The program uses a holistic approach, which encompasses entire watersheds, ridge top to ridge top, emphasizing all cultural aspects and strategies that rely on natural fish production and healthy river ecosystems. The Nez Perce Tribe DFRM-Watershed Division strives towards maximizing historic ecosystem productivity and health for the restoration of anadromous and resident fish populations and the habitat on which all depend on for future generations Originally, this project was funded to create a step/pool stream channel that was appropriate to restore fish passage where the 'Glory Hole Cascade' is currently located at the Stibnite Mine. Due to unforeseen circumstances at the time, the project is unable to move forward as planned and a request for a change in scope of the project and an expansion of the geographic area in which to complete project work was submitted. No additional funds were being requested. The ultimate goal of this project is to work with the holistic, ridge top to ridge top approach to protect and restore the ecological and biological functions of the South Fork Salmon River Watershed to assist in the recovery of threatened and endangered anadromous and resident fish species. FY 2008 Work Elements included two aquatic organism passage (AOP) projects to restore habitat connectivity to two fish-bearing tributaries to the East Fork South Fork Salmon River, Salt and Profile Creeks. The Work Elements also included road survey and assessment

  7. Qualitative Assessment: Evaluating the Impacts of Climate Change on Endangered Species Act Recovery Actions for the South Fork Nooksack River, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The South Fork Nooksack River (South Fork) is located in northwest Washington State and is home to nine species of Pacific salmon, including Nooksack early Chinook (aka, spring Chinook salmon), an iconic species for the Nooksack Indian Tribe. The quantity of salmon in the South F...

  8. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_1: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 12,000 cfs at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  9. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_7: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 46,800 cfs at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  10. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_2: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 15,000 cfs at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  11. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_4: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 27,900 cfs at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  12. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_8: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 62,300 cfs at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  13. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_3: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 21,450 cfs at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  14. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_6: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 39,900 at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  15. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_5: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 33,900 cfs at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  16. Chloride loading in the South Fork of the Shenandoah River, Virginia, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, W. Cullen

    1989-09-01

    Loading trends and sources of CI- in the South Fork of the Shenandoah River, Virginia were analyzed for the period 1929 1982. CI- has increased from approximately 2 mg/L (2,776 tons/yr) to over 10 mg/L (14,256 tons/yr). Natural CI- is estimated to be 1.01 mg/L (1,388 tons/yr) with precipitation providing 0.99 mg/L and rocks 0.02 mg/L. From 1929 to 1949 CI- concentrations were relatively constant and independent of discharge, conforming to the Type II curve of Davis and Zobrist (1978), indicative of natural or relatively uncontaminated streams. Since 1952 CI- concentrations increased exponentially as river discharge decreases conforming to the Type I curve of Davis and Zobrist for polluted streams. Since 1965 anthropogenic CI- loading at 12,868 tons/yr has remained relatively constant. Four major sources contribute 92.2 percent (11,871 tons/yr) of the anthropogenic CI-: (1) deicing salts—4,149 tons/yr, (2) domestic sewage—3,015 tons/yr, (3) livestock and poultry wastes—2,458 tons/yr, and (4) commercial fertilizers—2,249 tons/yr.

  17. Oxbow Conservation Area; Middle Fork John Day River, Annual Report 2003-2004.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, Brian

    2004-02-01

    In early 2001, the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs, through their John Day Basin Office, concluded the acquisition of the Oxbow Ranch, now know as the Oxbow Conservation Area (OCA). Under a memorandum of agreement with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the Tribes are required to provided BPA an 'annual written report generally describing the real property interests in the Project, HEP analyses undertaken or in progress, and management activities undertaken or in progress'. The project during 2003 was crippled due to the aftermath of the BPA budget crisis. Some objectives were not completed during the first half of this contract because of limited funds in the 2003 fiscal year. The success of this property purchase can be seen on a daily basis. Water rights were utilized only in the early, high water season and only from diversion points with functional fish screens. After July 1, all of the OCA water rights were put instream. Riparian fences on the river, Ruby and Granite Boulder creeks continued to promote important vegetation to provide shade and bank stabilization. Hundreds of willow, dogwood, Douglas-fir, and cottonwood were planted along the Middle Fork John Day River. Livestock grazing on the property was carefully managed to ensure the protection of fish and wildlife habitat, while promoting meadow vigor and producing revenue for property taxes. Monitoring of property populations, resources, and management activities continued in 2003 to build a database for future management of this and other properties in the region.

  18. South Fork Tolt River Hydroelectric Project : Adopted Portions of a 1987 Federal Energy Regulatory Commission`s Final Environmental Impact Statement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-07-01

    The South Fork Tolt River Hydroelectric Project that world produce 6.55 average megawatts of firm energy per year and would be sited in the Snohomish River Basin, Washington, was evaluated by the Federal Energy Regulatory commission (FERC) along with six other proposed projects for environmental effects and economic feasibility Based on its economic analysis and environmental evaluation of the project, the FERC staff found that the South Fork Tolt River Project would be economically feasible and would result in insignificant Impacts if sedimentation issues could be resolved. Upon review, the BPA is adopting portions of the 1987 FERC FEIS that concern the South Fork Tolt River Hydroelectric Project and updating specific sections in an Attachment.

  19. Physical Habitat Characteristics on the North Fork Shenandoah River, VA in 2002-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset was collected with a PLGR government-issue GPS, and through manual measurement in the field. Points were gathered while canoeing along the North Fork...

  20. Comparing effects of active and passive restoration on the Middle Fork John Day River, NE Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, P. F.; Goslin, M.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2000, cattle grazing has been eliminated on over 14 km of the upper Middle Fork John Day. Starting in 2008, active restoration (log structures with dug pools, woody vegetation planting, and modifications to increase channel-floodplain hydrologic connectivity) was implemented on nearly 6 km within the cattle exclosure length. Implementation of active and passive restoration strategies in the same and adjacent reaches allows comparison of these two approaches. We have been monitoring these reaches since 2008. Unexpectedly in response to grazing exclosure, a native sedge, Carex nudata (torrent sedge), has exploded in population. C. nudata grows in the active channel, anchoring itself tightly to the gravel-cobble river bed with a dense root network. As a result, C. nudata has changed erosion and sedimentation patterns including bank erosion, channel bed scour, and island formation. We present data on fish cover increases due to C. nudata and log structures, and on channel complexity before and after restoration. Both active and passive restorations are increasing channel complexity and juvenile fish cover, although in different ways. Fish cover provided by active and passive restoration are similar in area but different in depth and position, with C. nudata fish cover generally shallower and partly mid-channel. Residual pool depth is larger in log structure pools than in C. nudata scour pools, but C. nudata pools are more numerous in some reaches. By producing frequent, small scour features and small islands, it can be argued that C. nudata is increasing hydraulic complexity more than the large, meander-bend pools at log structures, but this is hard to quantify. C. nudata has also stabilized active bars, perhaps changing the bedload sediment budget. Positive habitat benefits of active restoration appear to be greater in the short term, but over the long term (20 years or more) effects of C. nudata may be comparable or greater.

  1. Updated glacial chronology of the South Fork Hoh River valley, Olympic Peninsula, Washington through detailed stratigraphy and OSL dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyshnytzky, C.; Rittenour, T. M.; Thackray, G. D.

    2012-12-01

    The Olympic Peninsula lies within a maritime climatic zone under the direct influence of westerly atmospheric flow and Pacific Ocean sea surface temperature variations (i.e. ENSO and PDO). During the last glaciation, large valley glaciers extended radially from the Mt. Olympus area and carved deep valleys, which preserve glacial diamicton, outwash, and lacustrine sediment emplaced during ice advance and retreat. Previous work by Thackray (1996) mapped glacial deposits through several key drainages in the western Olympic Mountains and used exposures along the South Fork Hoh River to reconstruct MIS 2 glaciation and determine the relative extent of the LGM ice margin in the region. Findings suggest that the extent of mountain glaciers in the western Olympics were much reduced during MIS 2 in comparison to MIS 3/4, with glacier mass balance primarily controlled by moisture delivery. Here we discuss new data constraining the style and timing of deglaciation in the South Fork Hoh River valley of the western Olympic Mountains, Washington, USA. Previous research in the South Fork Hoh River used radiocarbon ages, geomorphic mapping, and general stratigraphic relationships to establish a chronostratigraphic framework (Thackray, 1996). To further that understanding and provide new insight on the style and timing of MIS 2 glaciation, we examine the sedimentology and stratigraphic architecture of glacial landforms, which contain invaluable information about glacial processes and style. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating, commonly regarded as problematic in glacial sediments, constrains the ages of proximal glacial outwash and glaciolacustrine deposits that were traditionally difficult to date due to the lack of organic matter for radiocarbon dating. OSL ages are internally coherent and stratigraphically consistent with previous radiocarbon ages. Results from this research in the South Fork Hoh River valley and associated work in the Queets River valley, the next

  2. Flood-inundation maps for an 8.9-mile reach of the South Fork Little River at Hopkinsville, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lant, Jeremiah G.

    2013-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for an 8.9-mile reach of South Fork Little River at Hopkinsville, Kentucky, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Hopkinsville Community Development Services. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/ depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage at South Fork Little River at Highway 68 By-Pass at Hopkinsville, Kentucky (station no. 03437495). Current conditions for the USGS streamgage may be obtained online at the USGS National Water Information System site (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis/inventory?agency_code=USGS&site_no=03437495). In addition, the information has been provided to the National Weather Service (NWS) for incorporation into their Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service flood warning system (http://water.weather.gov/ahps/). The NWS forecasts flood hydrographs at many places that are often co-located at USGS streamgages. The forecasted peak-stage information, also available on the Internet, may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. In this study, flood profiles were computed for the South Fork Little River reach by using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional step-backwater model developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The hydraulic model was calibrated by using the most current (2012) stage-discharge relation at the South Fork Little River at Highway 68 By-Pass at Hopkinsville, Kentucky, streamgage and measurements collected during recent flood events. The calibrated model was then used to calculate 13 water-surface profiles for a sequence of flood stages, most at 1-foot intervals, referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from a stage near bank full to the estimated elevation of the 1.0-percent annual exceedance

  3. Data that describe at-a-point temporal variations in the transport rate and particle-size distribution of bedload; East Fork River, Wyoming, and Fall River, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Basil; Emmett, W.W.

    1990-01-01

    Data from the East Fork River, Wyoming, and the Fall River, Colorado, that document at-a-point temporal variations in the transport rate and particle-size distribution of bedload, associated with the downstream migration of dunes, are presented. Bedload sampling was undertaken, using a 76.2 x 76.2 mm Helley-Smith sampler, on three separate occasions at each site in June 1988. In each instance, the sampling time was 30 seconds and the sampling intervals 5 minutes. The sampling period ranged from 4.92 to 8.25 hours. Water stage did not vary appreciably during any of the sampling periods. (USGS)

  4. 77 FR 8890 - Clarks River National Wildlife Refuge, KY; Draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... River NWR. We started the process through a notice in the Federal Register on August 29, 2008 (73 FR... ecotourism trade and residents searching for natural landscapes and associated benefits. Alternative...

  5. Comparison of Stream Restoration and Vegetation Restoration on Stream Temperature in the Middle Fork John Day River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabat, M.; Wondzell, S. M.; Haggerty, R.

    2013-12-01

    Stream temperature is an important component of aquatic ecosystems. During the past century, various anthropogenic activities (such as timber harvest, mining, and agriculture) reduced riparian vegetation and channel complexity along many streams around the world. As a result, stream temperature increased and suitable habitat for cool- and cold-water organisms declined. Stream temperatures are expected to increase even more under future climate. The effects of warmer climate and anthropogenic activities are proposed to be mitigated by restoration projects aimed to reduce stream temperatures. Common restoration practices are replanting natural vegetation along stream banks and restoring channel complexity. The Middle Fork John Day River, in northeastern Oregon, USA is an example of such a process. We modeled stream temperature along a 37-km section of the Middle Fork John Day River for current and projected conditions of climate, restored riparian vegetation along 6.6-km, and restored channel meanders along 1.5 km. Preliminary simulations suggest that if current riparian vegetation remains unchanged, an average summertime air warming of 4°C increased the 7-day average daily maximum (7DADM) by about 1.3°C. However, restored riparian vegetation reduced the 7DADM by about 0.7°C relative to the current temperature. Restored channel meanders reduced the 7DADM by less than 0.05°C relative to the current temperature. These preliminary simulations assume no hyporheic exchange and riparian vegetation that is 10 m tall and has 30% canopy density.

  6. Aerial photo mosaic of the Gravelford Reach, North Fork Coquille River and Myrtle Point Reach, South Fork Coquille River, Oregon in 1939

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Coquille River system is an unregulated system that encompasses 2,745 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon and flows into the Pacific Ocean near the town of...

  7. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Loss Assessment at Dexter Dam and Reservoir Project, Middle Fork Willamette River, Oregon, 1985 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyes, J.H.

    1985-09-01

    A habitat based assessment was conducted of the US Army Corps of Engineers' Dexter Dam and Reservoir Project on the Middle Fork Willamette River, Oregon, to determine losses or gains resulting from the development and operation of the project. Preconstruction, post-construction, and recent vegetation cover types of the project site were mapped based on aerial photographs from 1944, 1956, and 1979, respectively. Vegetation cover types were identified within the affected area and acreages of each type at each period were determined. Fifteen wildlife target species were selected to represent a cross-section of species groups affected by the project. An interagency team evaluated the suitability of the habitat to support the target species at each time period. An evaluation procedure which accounted for both the quantity and quality of habitat was used to aid in assessing impacts resulting from the project. The Dexter Project extensively altered or affected 4662 acres of land and river in the Middle Fork Willamette River drainage. Impacts to wildlife centered around the loss of 445 acres of riparian habitat. Impacts resulting from the Dexter Project included the loss of year-round habitat for black-tailed deer, red fox, mink, beaver, western gray squirrel, ruffed grouse, ring-necked pheasant, California quail, wood duck and nongame species. Bald eagle, osprey, and greater scaup were benefitted by an increase in foraging habitat. The potential of the affected area to support wildlife was greatly altered as a result of the Dexter Project. Losses or gains in the potential of the habitat to support wildlife will exist over the life of the project.

  8. Habitat selection influences sex distribution, morphology, tissue biochemistry, and parasite load of juvenile coho salmon in the West Fork Smith River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given the strong influence of water temperature on salmonid physiology and behavior, in the summers of 2004 and 2005 we studied juvenile male and female coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch in two reaches of Oregon’s West Fork Smith River with different thermal profiles. Our goals we...

  9. Water quality and relation to taste-and-odor compounds in North Fork Ninnescah River and Cheney Reservoir, south-central Kansas, 1997-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Victoria G.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Milligan, Chad R.; Pope, Larry M.; Ziegler, Andrew C.

    2006-01-01

    Cheney Reservoir, the primary water supply for the city of Wichita in south-central Kansas, and its main source of inflow, the North Fork Ninnescah River, were sampled between 1997 and 2003 for sediment, nutrients, and the taste-and-odor-causing compounds geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB). It is believed that objectionable tastes and odors in Cheney Reservoir result from cyanobacteria (blue-green algae), and there is concern with proliferation of algal growth. Both nutrients and suspended solids affect algal growth and may be a concern for taste-and-odor issues. The transport of nutrients and suspended solids from the North Fork Ninnescah River to Cheney Reservoir was monitored as part of an effort to understand and thereby mitigate algal proliferation. The regression-estimated concentrations of total phosphorus in water entering the reservoir from the North Fork Ninnescah River during 2001–03 exceeded the base-flow, runoff, and long-term goals established by the Cheney Reservoir Task Force. Total suspended-solids concentrations in water from the North Fork Ninnescah River during 2001–03 generally exceeded long-term goals only during periods of runoff.

  10. Mercury Loads in the South River and Simulation of Mercury Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) for the South River, South Fork Shenandoah River, and Shenandoah River: Shenandoah Valley, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Due to elevated levels of methylmercury in fish, three streams in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia have been placed on the State's 303d list of contaminated waters. These streams, the South River, the South Fork Shenandoah River, and parts of the Shenandoah River, are downstream from the city of Waynesboro, where mercury waste was discharged from 1929-1950 at an industrial site. To evaluate mercury contamination in fish, this total maximum daily load (TMDL) study was performed in a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey, the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The investigation focused on the South River watershed, a headwater of the South Fork Shenandoah River, and extrapolated findings to the other affected downstream rivers. A numerical model of the watershed, based on Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF) software, was developed to simulate flows of water, sediment, and total mercury. Results from the investigation and numerical model indicate that contaminated flood-plain soils along the riverbank are the largest source of mercury to the river. Mercury associated with sediment accounts for 96 percent of the annual downstream mercury load (181 of 189 kilograms per year) at the mouth of the South River. Atmospherically deposited mercury contributes a smaller load (less than 1 percent) as do point sources, including current discharge from the historic industrial source area. In order to determine how reductions of mercury loading to the stream could reduce methylmercury concentrations in fish tissue below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency criterion of 0.3 milligrams per kilogram, multiple scenarios were simulated. Bioaccumulation of mercury was expressed with a site-specific exponential relation between aqueous total mercury and methylmercury in smallmouth bass, the indicator fish species. Simulations indicate that if mercury loading were to decrease by 98.9 percent from 189

  11. Effects of catastrophic floods and debris flows on the sediment retention structure, North Fork Toutle River, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denlinger, Roger P.

    2012-01-01

    The eruption of Mount St. Helens in 1980 produced a debris avalanche that flowed down the upper reaches of the North Fork Toutle River in southwestern Washington, clogging this drainage with sediment. In response to continuous anomalously high sediment flux into the Toutle and Cowlitz Rivers resulting from this avalanche and associated debris flows, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers completed a Sediment Retention Structure (SRS) on the North Fork Toutle River in May 1989. For one decade, the SRS effectively blocked most of the sediment transport down the Toutle River. In 1999, the sediment level behind the SRS reached the elevation of the spillway base. Since then, a higher percentage of sediment has been passing the SRS and increasing the flood risk in the Cowlitz River. Currently (2012), the dam is filling with sediment at a rate that cannot be sustained for its original design life, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is concerned with the current ability of the SRS to manage floods. This report presents an assessment of the ability of the dam to pass large flows from three types of scenarios (it is assumed that no damage to the spillway will occur). These scenarios are (1) a failure of the debris-avalanche blockage forming Castle Lake that produces a dambreak flood, (2) a debris flow from failure of that blockage, or (3) a debris flow originating in the crater of Mount St. Helens. In each case, the flows are routed down the Toutle River and through the SRS using numerical models on a gridded domain produced from a digital elevation model constructed with existing topography and dam infrastructure. The results of these simulations show that a structurally sound spillway is capable of passing large floods without risk of overtopping the crest of the dam. In addition, large debris flows originating from Castle Lake or the crater of Mount St. Helens never reach the SRS. Instead, debris flows fill the braided channels upstream of the dam and reduce its storage

  12. Hydraulic, geomorphic, and trout habitat conditions of the Lake Fork of the Gunnison River in Hinsdale County, Lake City, Colorado, Water Years 2010-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cory A.; Richards, Rodney J.; Schaffrath, Keelin R.

    2015-01-01

    Channel rehabilitation, or reconfiguration, to mitigate a variety of riverine problems has become a common practice in the western United States. However, additional work to monitor and assess the channel response to, and the effectiveness of, these modifications over longer periods of time (decadal or longer) is still needed. The Lake Fork of the Gunnison River has been an area of active channel modification to accommodate the needs of the Lake City community since the 1950s. The Lake Fork Valley Conservancy District began a planning process to assess restoration options for a reach of the Lake Fork in Lake City to enhance hydraulic and ecologic characteristics of the reach. Geomorphic channel form is affected by land-use changes within the basin and geologic controls within the reach. The historic channel was defined as a dynamic, braided channel with an active flood plain. This can result in a natural tendency for the channel to braid. A braided channel can affect channel stability of reconfigured reaches when a single-thread meandering channel is imposed on the stream. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Water Conservation Board and Colorado River Water Conservation District, began a study in 2010 to quantify existing hydraulic and habitat conditions for a reach of the Lake Fork of the Gunnison River in Lake City, Colorado. The purpose of this report is to quantify existing Lake Fork hydraulic and habitat conditions and establish a baseline against which post-reconfiguration conditions can be compared. This report (1) quantifies the existing hydraulic and geomorphic conditions in a 1.1-kilometer section of the Lake Fork at Lake City that has been proposed as a location for future channel-rehabilitation efforts, (2) characterizes the habitat suitability of the reach for two trout species based on physical conditions within the stream, and (3) characterizes the current riparian canopy density.

  13. Linking habitat quality with trophic performance of steelhead along forest gradients in the South Fork Trinity River Watershed, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Sarah G.; Duda, Jeffrey J.; Emlen, John M.; Hodgson, Garth R.; Beauchamp, David A.

    2009-01-01

    We examined invertebrate prey, fish diet, and energy assimilation in relation to habitat variation for steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss (anadromous rainbow trout) and rainbow trout in nine low-order tributaries of the South Fork Trinity River, northern California. These streams spanned a range of environmental conditions, which allowed us to use bioenergetics modeling to determine the relative effects of forest cover, stream temperature, season, and fish age on food consumption and growth efficiency. Evidence of seasonal shifts in reliance on aquatic versus terrestrial food sources was detected among forest cover categories and fish ages, although these categories were not robust indicators of O. mykiss condition and growth efficiency. Consumption estimates were generally less than 20% of maximum consumption, and fish lost weight in some streams during summer low-flow conditions when stream temperatures exceeded 15°C. Current 100-year climate change projections for California threaten to exacerbate negative growth patterns and may undermine the productivity of this steelhead population, which is currently not listed as endangered or threatened. To demonstrate the potential effect of global warming on fish growth, we ran three climate change scenarios in two representative streams. Simulated temperature increases ranging from 1.4°C to 5.5°C during the summer and from 1.5°C to 2.9C during the winter amplified the weight loss; estimated average growth for age-1 fish was 0.4–4.5 times lower than normal (low to high estimated temperature increase) in the warm stream and 0.05–0.8 times lower in the cool stream. We conclude that feeding rate and temperature during the summer currently limit the growth and productivity of steelhead and rainbow trout in low-order streams in the South Fork Trinity River basin and predict that climate change will have detrimental effects on steelhead growth as well as on macroinvertebrate communities and stream ecosystems in general.

  14. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_4b: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 27,900 cfs at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon (Area of Uncertainty)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  15. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_8b: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 62,300 cfs at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon (Area of Uncertainty)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  16. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_3b: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 21,450 cfs at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon (Area of Uncertainty)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  17. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_5b: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 33,900 cfs at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon (Area of Uncertainty)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  18. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_1b: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 12,000 cfs at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon (Area of Uncertainty)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  19. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_7b: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 46,800 cfs at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon (Area of Uncertainty)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  20. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_6b: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 39,900 at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon (Area of Uncertainty)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  1. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_2b: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 15,000 cfs at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon (Area of Uncertainty)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  2. South Fork Shenandoah River habitat-flow modeling to determine ecological and recreational characteristics during low-flow periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstolic, Jennifer L.; Ramey, R. Clay

    2012-01-01

    The ecological habitat requirements of aquatic organisms and recreational streamflow requirements of the South Fork Shenandoah River were investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Central Shenandoah Valley Planning District Commission, the Northern Shenandoah Valley Regional Commission, and Virginia Commonwealth University. Physical habitat simulation modeling was conducted to examine flow as a major determinant of physical habitat availability and recreation suitability using field-collected hydraulic habitat variables such as water depth, water velocity, and substrate characteristics. Fish habitat-suitability criteria specific to the South Fork Shenandoah River were developed for sub-adult and adult smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), juvenile and sub-adult redbreast sunfish (Lepomis auritus), spotfin or satinfin shiner (Cyprinella spp), margined madtom (Noturus insignis),and river chub (Nocomis micropogon). Historic streamflow statistics for the summer low-flow period during July, August, and September were used as benchmark low-flow conditions and compared to habitat simulation results and water-withdrawal scenarios based on 2005 withdrawal data. To examine habitat and recreation characteristics during droughts, daily fish habitat or recreation suitability values were simulated for 2002 and other selected drought years. Recreation suitability during droughts was extremely low, because the modeling demonstrated that suitable conditions occur when the streamflows are greater than the 50th percentile flow for July, August, and September. Habitat availability for fish is generally at a maximum when streamflows are between the 75th and 25th percentile flows for July, August, and September. Time-series results for drought years, such as 2002, showed that extreme low-flow conditions less than the 5th percentile of flow for July, August, and September corresponded to below-normal habitat availability for both game and nongame fish in the

  3. Hydrogeologic framework and groundwater/surface-water interactions of the South Fork Nooksack River Basin, northwestern Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendaszek, Andrew S.

    2014-01-01

    A hydrogeologic framework of the South Fork (SF) Nooksack River Basin in northwestern Washington was developed and hydrologic data were collected to characterize the groundwater-flow system and its interaction with surface‑water features. In addition to domestic, agricultural, and commercial uses of groundwater within the SF Nooksack River Basin, groundwater has the potential to provide ecological benefits by maintaining late-summer streamflows and buffering stream temperatures. Cold-water refugia, created and maintained in part by groundwater, have been identified by water-resource managers as key elements to restore the health and viability of threatened salmonids in the SF Nooksack River. The SF Nooksack River drains a 183-square mile area of the North Cascades and the Puget Lowland underlain by unconsolidated glacial and alluvial sediments deposited over older sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous bedrock. The primary aquifer that interacts with the SF Nooksack River was mapped within unconsolidated glacial outwash and alluvial sediment. The lower extent of this unit is bounded by bedrock and fine-grained, poorly sorted unconsolidated glaciomarine and glaciolacustrine sediments. In places, these deposits overlie and confine an aquifer within older glacial sediments. The extent and thickness of the hydrogeologic units were assembled from mapped geologic units and lithostratigraphic logs of field-inventoried wells. Generalized groundwater-flow directions within the surficial aquifer were interpreted from groundwater levels measured in August 2012; and groundwater seepage gains and losses to the SF Nooksack River were calculated from synoptic streamflow measurements made in the SF Nooksack River and its tributaries in September 2012. A subset of the field-inventoried wells was measured at a monthly interval to determine seasonal fluctuations in groundwater levels during water year 2013. Taken together, these data provide the foundation for a future groundwater

  4. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Loss Assessment at Green Peter-Foster Project; Middle Fork Santiam River, Oregon, 1985 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyes, J.H.

    1986-02-01

    A habitat based assessment was conducted of the US Army Corps of Engineers' Green Peter-Foster Dam and Reservoir Project on the Middle Fork Santiam River, Oregon, to determine losses or gains resulting from the development and operation of the hydroelectric related components of the project. Preconstruction, postconstruction, and recent vegetation cover types at the project site were mapped based on aerial photographs from 1955, 1972, and 1979, respectively. Vegetation cover types were identified within the affected area and acreages of each type at each period were determined. Eleven wildlife target species were selected to represent a cross-section of species groups affected by the project. An interagency team evaluated the suitability of the habitat to support the target species at each time period. An evaluation procedure which accounted for both the quantity and quality of habitat was used to aid in assessing impacts resulting from the project. The Green Peter-Foster Project extensively altered or affected 7873 acres of land and river in the Santiam River drainage. Impacts to wildlife centered around the loss of 1429 acres of grass-forb vegetation, 768 acres of shrubland, and 717 acres of open conifer forest cover types. Impacts resulting from the Green Peter-Foster Project included the loss of critical winter range for black-tailed deer and Roosevelt elk, and the loss of year-round habitat for deer, upland game birds, river otter, beaver, pileated woodpecker, and many other wildlife species. Bald eagle and osprey were benefited by an increase in foraging habitat. The potential of the affected area to support wildlife was greatly altered as a result of the Green Peter-Foster Project. Losses or gains in the potential of the habitat to support wildlife will exist over the life of the project.

  5. Simulation of streamflow and the effects of brush management on water yields in the Double Mountain Fork Brazos River watershed, western Texas 1994–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwell, Glenn R.; Stengel, Victoria G.; Bumgarner, Johnathan R.

    2016-04-20

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Lubbock and the Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board, developed and calibrated a Soil and Water Assessment Tool watershed model of the Double Mountain Fork Brazos River watershed in western Texas to simulate monthly mean streamflow and to evaluate the effects of brush management on water yields in the watershed, particularly to Lake Alan Henry, for calendar years 1994–2013. Model simulations were done to quantify the possible change in water yield of individual subbasins in the Double Mountain Fork Brazos River watershed as a result of the replacement of shrubland (brush) with grassland. The simulation results will serve as a tool for resource managers to guide brush-management efforts.

  6. Aerial photo mosaic of the Bridge Reach, Middle Fork Coquille River, Oregon in 1939

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Coquille River system is an unregulated system that encompasses 2,745 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon and flows into the Pacific Ocean near the town of...

  7. Development of CE-QUAL-W2 models for the Middle Fork Willamette and South Santiam Rivers, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccola, Norman L.; Stonewall, Adam J.; Sullivan, Annett B.; Kim, Yoonhee; Rounds, Stewart A.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrodynamic (CE-QUAL-W2) models of Hills Creek Lake (HCL), Lookout Point Lake (LOP), and Dexter Lake (DEX) on the Middle Fork Willamette River (MFWR), and models of Green Peter Lake and Foster Lake on the South Santiam River systems in western Oregon were updated and recalibrated for a wide range of flow and meteorological conditions. These CE-QUAL-W2 models originally were developed by West Consultants, Inc., for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. This study by the U.S. Geological Survey included a reassessment of the models’ calibration in more recent years—2002, 2006, 2008, and 2011—categorized respectively as low, normal, high, and extremely high flow calendar years. These years incorporated current dam-operation practices and more available data than the time period used in the original calibration. Modeled water temperatures downstream of both HCL and LOP-DEX on the MFWR were within an average of 0.68 degree Celsius (°C) of measured values; modeled temperatures downstream of Foster Dam on the South Santiam River were within an average of 0.65°C of measured values. A new CE-QUAL-W2 model was developed and calibrated for the riverine MFWR reach between Hills Creek Dam and the head of LOP, allowing an evaluation of the flow and temperature conditions in the entire MFWR system from HCL to Dexter Dam. The complex bathymetry and long residence time of HCL, combined with the relatively deep location of the power and regulating outlet structures at Hills Creek Dam, led to a HCL model that was highly sensitive to several outlet and geometric parameters related to dam structures (STR TOP, STR BOT, STR WIDTH). Release temperatures from HCL were important and often persisted downstream as they were incorporated in the MFWR model and the LOP-DEX model (downstream of MFWR). The models tended to underpredict the measured temperature of water releases from Dexter Dam during the late-September-through-December drawdown period in 2002, and again (to a lesser extent) in

  8. Physical habitat classification and instream flow modeling to determine habitat availability during low-flow periods, North Fork Shenandoah River, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstolic, Jennifer L.; Hayes, Donald C.; Ruhl, Peter M.

    2006-01-01

    Increasing development and increasing water withdrawals for public, industrial, and agricultural water supply threaten to reduce streamflows in the Shenandoah River basin in Virginia. Water managers need more information to balance human water-supply needs with the daily streamflows necessary for maintaining the aquatic ecosystems. To meet the need for comprehensive information on hydrology, water supply, and instream-flow requirements of the Shenandoah River basin, the U.S. Geological Survey and the Northern Shenandoah Valley Regional Commission conducted a cooperative investigation of habitat availability during low-flow periods on the North Fork Shenandoah River. Historic streamflow data and empirical data on physical habitat, river hydraulics, fish community structure, and recreation were used to develop a physical habitat simulation model. Hydraulic measurements were made during low, medium, and high flows in six reaches at a total of 36 transects that included riffles, runs, and pools, and that had a variety of substrates and cover types. Habitat suitability criteria for fish were developed from detailed fish-community sampling and microhabitat observations. Fish were grouped into four guilds of species and life stages with similar habitat requirements. Simulated habitat was considered in the context of seasonal flow regimes to show the availability of flows that sustain suitable habitat during months when precipitation and streamflow are scarce. The North Fork Shenandoah River basin was divided into three management sections for analysis purposes: the upper section, middle section, and lower section. The months of July, August, and September were chosen to represent a low-flow period in the basin with low mean monthly flows, low precipitation, high temperatures, and high water withdrawals. Exceedance flows calculated from the combined data from these three months describe low-flow periods on the North Fork Shenandoah River. Long-term records from three

  9. Design criteria applied for the Lower Pressure Tunnel of the North Fork Stanislaus River Hydroelectric Project in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleiss, A.

    1988-07-01

    The application of various criteria and certain new approaches to design is illustrated by the example of the Lower Collierville Pressure Tunnel of the North Fork Stanislaus River Hydropower Project in California. With a maximum internal water pressure of 72 bar, Lower Collierville Tunnel will be, when commissioned in 1989, the highest stressed pressure tunnel in the world not situated in granitic rocks. The geological conditions and the results of the geotechnical investigations are described briefly. For the steel-lined portion of the tunnel, the approach for determining the bearing capacity of the rock mass and the load sharing between steel and rock is discussed. The required length of steel liner was determined on the basis of rock mechanical (hydraulic jacking) and rock hydraulic (seepage losses and extension of saturated zone due to seepage) criteria. The use of a new theory allows the effects of mechanical-hydraulic interaction to be taken into account. Finally the methods of estimating the expected water losses and the sealing effect of the consolidation grouting are described.

  10. Continuous water-quality monitoring and regression analysis to estimate constituent concentrations and loads in the Red River of the North at Fargo and Grand Forks, North Dakota, 2003-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Joel M.

    2014-01-01

    The Red River of the North (hereafter referred to as “Red River”) Basin is an important hydrologic region where water is a valuable resource for the region’s economy. Continuous water-quality monitors have been operated by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the North Dakota Department of Health, Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, City of Fargo, City of Moorhead, City of Grand Forks, and City of East Grand Forks at the Red River at Fargo, North Dakota, from 2003 through 2012 and at Grand Forks, N.Dak., from 2007 through 2012. The purpose of the monitoring was to provide a better understanding of the water-quality dynamics of the Red River and provide a way to track changes in water quality. Regression equations were developed that can be used to estimate concentrations and loads for dissolved solids, sulfate, chloride, nitrate plus nitrite, total phosphorus, and suspended sediment using explanatory variables such as streamflow, specific conductance, and turbidity. Specific conductance was determined to be a significant explanatory variable for estimating dissolved solids concentrations at the Red River at Fargo and Grand Forks. The regression equations provided good relations between dissolved solid concentrations and specific conductance for the Red River at Fargo and at Grand Forks, with adjusted coefficients of determination of 0.99 and 0.98, respectively. Specific conductance, log-transformed streamflow, and a seasonal component were statistically significant explanatory variables for estimating sulfate in the Red River at Fargo and Grand Forks. Regression equations provided good relations between sulfate concentrations and the explanatory variables, with adjusted coefficients of determination of 0.94 and 0.89, respectively. For the Red River at Fargo and Grand Forks, specific conductance, streamflow, and a seasonal component were statistically significant explanatory variables for estimating chloride. For the Red River at Grand Forks, a time

  11. Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation North Fork John Day River Basin Anadromous Fish Enhancement Project, Annual Report for FY 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macy, Tom L.; James, Gary A.

    2003-03-01

    The CTUIR North Fork John Day River Basin Anadromous Enhancement Project (NFJDAFEP) identified and prioritized stream reaches in The North Fork John day River basin for habitat improvements during the 2000 project period. Public outreach was emphasized during this first year of the project. During the past year we concentrated on satisfying landowner needs, providing cost share alternatives, providing joint projects and starting implementation. We presented multiple funding and enhancement options to landowners. We concentrated on natural recovery methods, riparian fencing and offstream livestock water developments. Under this BPA contract four riparian easements have been signed protecting almost 5 miles of tributary streams. There are nine offstream water developments associated with these easements. Some landowners chose to participate in other programs based on Tribal outreach efforts. Some landowners chose NRCS programs for enhancement and others chose OWEB as a funding source. The exact amount of stream protection due to other funding sources probably exceeds that by BPA, however most would not have entered any program without initial Tribal outreach. Cooperation between the NRCS/FSA/SWCDs and the Tribe to create joint projects and develop alternative funding scenarios for riparian enhancement was a major effort. The Tribe also worked with the North Fork John Day Watershed Council, USFS and ODFW to coordinate projects and support similar projects throughout the John Day Basin.

  12. Mercury and Selenium Concentrations in Biofilm, Macroinvertebrates, and Fish Collected in the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho, USA, and Their Potential Effects on Fish Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhea, Darren T.; Farag, Aida M.; Harper, David D.; McConnell, Elizabeth; Brumbaugh, William G.

    2013-01-01

    The Yankee Fork is a large tributary of the Salmon River located in central Idaho, USA, with an extensive history of placer and dredge-mining activities. Concentrations of selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) in various aquatic trophic levels were measured in the Yankee Fork during 2001 and 2002. Various measurements of fish health were also performed. Sites included four on the mainstem of the Yankee Fork and two off-channel sites in partially reclaimed dredge pools used as rearing habitat for cultured salmonid eggs and fry. Hg concentrations in whole mountain whitefish and shorthead sculpin ranged from 0.28 to 0.56 μg/g dry weight (dw), concentrations that are generally less than those reported to have significant impacts on fish. Biofilm and invertebrates ranged from 0.05 to 0.43 μg Hg/g dw. Se concentrations measured in biota samples from the Yankee Fork were greater than many representative samples collected in the Snake and Columbia watersheds and often exceeded literature-based toxic thresholds. Biofilm and invertebrates ranged from 0.58 to 4.66 μg Se/g dw. Whole fish ranged from 3.92 to 7.10 μg Se/g dw, and gonads ranged from 6.91 to 31.84 μg Se/g dw. Whole-body Se concentrations exceeded reported toxicological thresholds at three of four sites and concentrations in liver samples were mostly greater than concentrations shown to have negative impacts on fish health. Histological examinations performed during this study noted liver abnormalities, especially in shorthead sculpin, a bottom-dwelling species.

  13. Geohydrology and saline ground-water discharge to the South Fork Ninnescah River in Pratt and Kingman Counties, south-central Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Joe B.; Hargadine, G.D.

    1994-01-01

    Saline ground water discharges to the South Fork Ninnescah River in Pratt and Kingman Counties from the adjacent alluvial aquifer. Electromagnetic terrain surveys in this area indicated that the saline ground water is entering the river in intermittent reaches along the channel. The chloride concentration in the river near Murdock exceeds 250 milligrams per liter 75 percent of the time. During base flow in November 1988, stream discharge increased 67 cubic feet per second, and the chloride concentration increased 360 milligrams per liter from Pratt to the Pratt-Kingman County line. The chloride load to the river along this reach was 82 tons per day. The source of saline water probably is dissolution of salt in the Permian rocks, about 600 feet below land surface. Subsequent subsidence and collapse of Permian rocks into salt-dissolution cavities probably has caused fracturing in overlying Permian rocks. Brine moves upward through the Permian rocks and discharges into the alluvial aquifer. The brine discharge to the alluvium is about 0.7 cubic foot per second. In the area of major saline-water discharge to the river, the fluid-potential levels in the Permian rocks are higher than fluid-potential levels in the alluvial aquifer. Several methods for reducing the saline ground-water discharge to the South Fork Ninnescah River have been considered. The most effective of these methods appears to be interception of brine flow in the Permian rocks by pumping of relief wells. Brine could be disposed by injection into deeper formations, by storage in evaporation reservoirs, or by desalinization.

  14. Oxbow Conservation Area; Middle Fork John Day River, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, Brian; Smith, Brent

    2003-07-01

    In early 2001, the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs, through their John Day Basin Office, concluded the acquisition of the Oxbow Ranch, now know as the Oxbow Conservation Area (OCA). Under a memorandum of agreement with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the Tribes are required to provided BPA an 'annual written report generally describing the real property interests in the Project, HEP analyses undertaken or in progress, and management activities undertaken or in progress'. The 2002 contract period was well funded and the second year of the project. A new manager started in April, allowing the previous manager to focus his efforts on the Forrest Ranch acquisition. However, the Oxbow Habitat manager's position was vacant from October through mid February of 2003. During this time, much progress, mainly O&M, was at a minimum level. Many of the objectives were not completed during this contract due to both the size and duration needed to complete such activities (example: dredge mine tailings restoration project) or because budget crisis issues with BPA ending accrual carryover on the fiscal calendar. Although the property had been acquired a year earlier, there were numerous repairs and discoveries, which on a daily basis could pull personnel from making progress on objectives for the SOW, aside from O&M objectives. A lack of fencing on a portion of the property's boundary and deteriorating fences in other areas are some reasons much time was spent chasing trespassing cattle off of the property. The success of this property purchase can be seen on a daily basis. Water rights were used seldom in the summer of 2002, with minor irrigation water diverted from only Granite Boulder Creek. Riparian fences on the river, Ruby and Granite Boulder creeks help promote important vegetation to provide shade and bank stabilization. Trees planted in this and past years are growing and will someday provide cover fish and wildlife. Even grazing on the

  15. Preliminary assessment of aggradation potential in the North Fork Stillaguamish River downstream of the State Route 530 landslide near Oso, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magirl, Christopher S.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Anderson, Scott W.; O'Connor, Jim; Robert Aldrich,; Mastin, Mark C.

    2015-12-28

    On March 22, 2014, the State Route 530 Landslide near Oso, Washington, traveled almost 2 kilometers (km), destroyed more than 40 structures, and impounded the North Fork Stillaguamish River to a depth of 8 meters (m) and volume of 3.3×106 cubic meters (m3). The landslide killed 43 people. After overtopping and establishing a new channel through the landslide, the river incised into the landslide deposit over the course of 10 weeks draining the impoundment lake and mobilizing an estimated 280,000±56,000 m3 of predominantly sand-sized and finer sediment. During the first 4 weeks after the landslide, this eroded sediment caused downstream riverbed aggradation of 1–2 m within 1 km of the landslide and 0.4 m aggradation at Whitman Road Bridge, 3.5 km downstream. Winter high flows in 2014–15 were anticipated to mobilize an additional 220,000±44,000 m3 of sediment, potentially causing additional aggradation and exacerbating flood risk downstream of the landslide. Analysis of unit stream power and bed-material transport capacity along 35 km of the river corridor indicated that most fine-grained sediment will transport out of the North Fork Stillaguamish River, although some localized additional aggradation was possible. This new aggradation was not likely to exceed 0.1 m except in reaches within a few kilometers downstream of the landslide, where additional aggradation of up to 0.5 m is possible. Alternative river response scenarios, including continued mass wasting from the landslide scarp, major channel migration or avulsion, or the formation of large downstream wood jams, although unlikely, could result in reaches of significant local aggradation or channel change.

  16. Water temperature effects from simulated dam operations and structures in the Middle Fork Willamette River, western Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccola, Norman L.; Turner, Daniel F.; Rounds, Stewart A.

    2016-09-14

    Significant FindingsStreamflow and water temperature in the Middle Fork Willamette River (MFWR), western Oregon, have been regulated and altered since the construction of Lookout Point, Dexter, and Hills Creek Dams in 1954 and 1961, respectively. Each year, summer releases from the dams typically are cooler than pre-dam conditions, with the reverse (warmer than pre-dam conditions) occurring in autumn. This pattern has been detrimental to habitat of endangered Upper Willamette River (UWR) Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and UWR winter steelhead (O. mykiss) throughout multiple life stages. In this study, scenarios testing different dam-operation strategies and hypothetical dam-outlet structures were simulated using CE-QUAL-W2 hydrodynamic/temperature models of the MFWR system from Hills Creek Lake (HCR) to Lookout Point (LOP) and Dexter (DEX) Lakes to explore and understand the efficacy of potential flow and temperature mitigation options.Model scenarios were run in constructed wet, normal, and dry hydrologic calendar years, and designed to minimize the effects of Hills Creek and Lookout Point Dams on river temperature by prioritizing warmer lake surface releases in May–August and cooler, deep releases in September–December. Operational scenarios consisted of a range of modified release rate rules, relaxation of power-generation constraints, variations in the timing of refill and drawdown, and maintenance of different summer maximum lake levels at HCR and LOP. Structural scenarios included various combinations of hypothetical floating outlets near the lake surface and hypothetical new outlets at depth. Scenario results were compared to scenarios using existing operational rules that give temperature management some priority (Base), scenarios using pre-2012 operational rules that prioritized power generation over temperature management (NoBlend), and estimated temperatures from a without-dams condition (WoDams).Results of the tested model scenarios led

  17. High-resolution digital elevation model of Mount St. Helens crater and upper North Fork Toutle River basin, Washington, based on an airborne lidar survey of September 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosbrucker, Adam

    2014-01-01

    The lateral blast, debris avalanche, and lahars of the May 18th, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington, dramatically altered the surrounding landscape. Lava domes were extruded during the subsequent eruptive periods of 1980–1986 and 2004–2008. More than three decades after the emplacement of the 1980 debris avalanche, high sediment production persists in the North Fork Toutle River basin, which drains the northern flank of the volcano. Because this sediment increases the risk of flooding to downstream communities on the Toutle and Cowlitz Rivers, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), under the direction of Congress to maintain an authorized level of flood protection, built a sediment retention structure on the North Fork Toutle River in 1989 to help reduce this risk and to prevent sediment from clogging the shipping channel of the Columbia River. From September 16–20, 2009, Watershed Sciences, Inc., under contract to USACE, collected high-precision airborne lidar (light detection and ranging) data that cover 214 square kilometers (83 square miles) of Mount St. Helens and the upper North Fork Toutle River basin from the sediment retention structure to the volcano's crater. These data provide a digital dataset of the ground surface, including beneath forest cover. Such remotely sensed data can be used to develop sediment budgets and models of sediment erosion, transport, and deposition. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) used these lidar data to develop digital elevation models (DEMs) of the study area. DEMs are fundamental to monitoring natural hazards and studying volcanic landforms, fluvial and glacial geomorphology, and surface geology. Watershed Sciences, Inc., provided files in the LASer (LAS) format containing laser returns that had been filtered, classified, and georeferenced. The USGS produced a hydro-flattened DEM from ground-classified points at Castle, Coldwater, and Spirit Lakes. Final results averaged about five laser last

  18. Water-power resources in upper Carson River basin, California-Nevada, A discussion of potential development of power and reservoir sites on east and west forks, Carson River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumphrey, Harold L.

    1955-01-01

    West Fork Carson River offers the best opportunity for power development in the Carson River basin. The Hope Valley reservoir site could be developed to provide adequate storage regulation and concentration of fall would permit utilization of 1,400 feet of head in 51h miles below the clam site, or 1,900 feet of head in about 972 miles below the dam site; however, the average annual runoff susceptible of development is only about 70,000 acre-feet which limits the power that could be developed continuously in an average year with regulation to about 8,700 kilowatts utilizing 1,400 feet of head, or 12,000 kilowatts utilizing 1,900 feet of head. The method and degree of development will be determined to large extent by the method devised to supplement regulated flows from the Hope Valley reservoir to supply the water already appropriated for irrigation. If the Hope Valley site and the Watasheamu site on East Fork Carson River were developed coordinately water could be transferred to the West Fork for distribution through canals leading from that stream thus satisfying the deficiency due to regulation at Hope Valley and release of stored water on a power schedule. This would permit utilization of the entire 1,900 feet of fall. Independent development of the West Fork for optimum power production would require re-regulation of releases from Hope Valley reservoir and storage of a considerable part of the fall and winter flow for use during the irrigation season. Adequate storage capacity is apparently not available on the West Fork below Hope Valley; but offstream storage may be available in Diamond Valley which could be utilized by diversion from the West Fork near Woodfords. This would limit the utilization of the stream for power purposes to the development of the 1,400 feet of head between the Hope Valley dam site and Wood fords. In a year of average discharge East Fork Carson River and three of its principal tributaries could be developed to produce about 13

  19. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Loss Assessment at Hills Creek Dam and Reservoir Project, Middle Fork Willamette River, Oregon, 1985 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyes, J.H.

    1985-09-01

    A habitat based assessment was conducted of the US Army Corps of Engineers' Hills Creek Dam and Reservoir Project on the Middle Fork Willamette River, Oregon, to determine losses or gains resulting from the development and operation of the hydroelectric related components of the project. Preconstruction, postconstruction, and recent vegetation cover types of the project site were mapped based on aerial photographs from 1944, 1964, and 1979, respectively. Vegetation cover types were identified within the affected area and acreages of each type at each period were determined. Fifteen wildlife target species were selected to represent a cross-section of species groups affected by the project. An interagency team evaluated the suitability of the habitat to support the target species at each time period. An evaluation procedure which accounted for both the quantity and quality of habitat was used to aid in assessing impacts resulting from the project. The Hills Creek Project extensively altered or affected 4662 acres of land and river in the Middle Fork Willamette River drainage. Impacts to wildlife centered around the loss of 2694 acres of old-growth forest and 207 acres of riparian habitat. Impacts resulting from the Hills Creek Project included the loss of winter range for Roosevelt elk, and the loss of year-round habitat for black-tailed deer, black bear, cougar, river otter, beaver, ruffed grouse, spotted owl, and other nongame species. Bald eagle and osprey were benefited by an increase in foraging habitat. The potential of the affected area to support wildlife was greatly altered as a result of the Hills Creek Project, losses or gains in the potential of the habitat to support wildlife will exist over the life of the project.

  20. Geologic investigation of the Virgin River Valley salt deposits, Clark County, southeastern Nevada, to investigate their suitability for possible storage of radioactive waste material as of September 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results from a geologic investigation of the Virgin River Valley salt deposits, Clark County, southeastern Nevada, to examine their suitability for further study and consideration in connection with the possible storage of radioactive waste material are given. The results indicate that (1) approximately one-half of the salt body underlies the Overton Arm of Lake Mead and that the dry land portion of the salt body that has a thickness of 1,000 feet or more covers an area of about four and one-half square miles; (2) current tectonic activity in the area of the salt deposits is believed to be confined to seismic events associated with crustal adjustments following the filling of Lake Mead; (3) detailed information on the hydrology of the salt deposit area is not available at present but it is reported that a groundwater study by the U.S. Geological Survey is now in progress; (4) there is no evidence of exploitable minerals in the salt deposit area other than evaporites such as salt, gypsum, and possibly sand and gravel; (5) the salt deposit area is located inside the Lake Mead Recreation Area, outlined on the accompanying Location Plat, and several Federal, State, and Local agencies share regulatory responsibilities for the activities in the area; (6) other salt deposit areas of Arizona and Nevada, such as the Detrital Valley, Red Lake Dome, Luke Dome, and Mormon Mesa area, and several playa lake areas of central Nevada may merit further study; and (7) additional information, as outlined, is needed to more thoroughly evaluate the salt deposits of the Virgin River Valley and other areas referred to above

  1. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Loss Assessment Summary at Lookout Point Dam and Reservoir Project, Middle Fork Willamette River, Oregon; 1985 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedrossian, K.L.; Noyes, J.H.

    1985-09-01

    A habitat based assessment was conducted of the US Army Corps of Engineers' Lookout Point Dam and Reservoir Project on the Middle Fork Willamette River, Oregon, to determine losses or gains resulting from development and operation of the hydroelectric related components of the project. Preconstruction, postconstruction, and recent vegetation cover types of the project site were mapped based on aerial photographs from 1944, 1956, and 1979, respectively. Vegetation cover types were identified within the affected area and acreages of each type at each period were determined. Seventeen wildlife target species were selected to represent a cross-section of species groups affected by the project. An interagency team evaluated the suitability of the habitat to support the target species at each time period. An evaluation procedure which accounted for both the quantity and quality of habitat was used to aid in assessing impacts resulting from the project. The Lookout Point Project extensively altered or affected 6790 acres of land and river in the Middle Fork Willamette River drainage. Impacts to wildlife centered around the loss of 724 acres of old-growth conifer forest and 118 acres of riparian habitat. Impacts resulting from the Lookout Point Project included the loss of winter range for Roosevelt elk, and the loss of year-round habitat for black-tailed deer, western gray squirrel, red fox, mink, beaver, ruffed grouse, ring-necked pheasant, California quail, spotted owl, and other nongame species. Bald eagle and osprey were benefitted by an increase in foraging habitat. The potential of the affected area to support wildlife was greatly altered as a result of the Lookout Point Project. Loses or gains in the potential of the habitat to support wildlife will exist over the life of the project.

  2. Predictive simulation of alternatives for managing the water resources of North Fork Solomon River Valley between Kirwin Dam and Waconda Lake, north-central Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, R.D.

    1984-01-01

    Since 1974 water levels in the alluvial aquifer of the North Fork Solomon River Valley in north-central Kansas have decreased due to increases in ground-water pumpage, decreases in availability of surface water for irrigation, and below-average precipitation. A finite-element model was developed in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation to simulate changing conditions between 1970-79. Model results indicate that annual recharge to the aquifer due to precipitation, applcation of water for irrigation, and canal leakage averaged about 22,825 acre-feet and that annual ground-wate discharge to the river averaged about 16,590 acre-feet. Predictive simulations for 1980-2000 were made using management alternatives that involved clay-lining of irrigation ditches, reduction of surface-water availability with and without an increase in ground-water pumping, and continuation of 1979 pumping conditions. The simulations indicated that as much as 5.5 feet of additional average water-level drawdown in wells would occur by 2000 if surface-water supply were reduced 100 percent and ground-water pumpage increased. The simulations also indicated that a decrease in average drawdown of 0.55 foot would occur by 2000 and that base flow to the river would decrease to 12,300 acre-feet per year if 1979 conditions remained constant. (USGS)

  3. Behavioral avoidance: Possible mechanism for explaining abundance and distribution of trout species in a metal-impacted river

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, J.A.; Bergman, H.L. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Woodward, D.F. [Geological Survey, Jackson, WY (United States). Environmental and Contaminants Research Center; Little, E.E.; DeLonay, A.J. [Geological Survey, Columbia, MO (United States). Environmental and Contaminants Research Center

    1999-02-01

    Behavioral avoidance of metal mixtures by rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was determined in the laboratory under water quality conditions that simulated the upper Clark Fork River, Montana, USA. A metal mixture with a fixed ratio of observed ambient metal concentrations (12 {micro}g/L Cu:1.1 {micro}g/L Cd:3.2 {micro}g/L Pb:50 {micro}g/L Zn) was used to determine avoidance in a countercurrent avoidance chamber. Rainbow trout avoided all metal concentrations tested from 10 to 1,000% of the simulated ambient metal mixture. The behavioral response of rainbow trout to the metal mixture was more sensitive than the response of brown trout (Salmo trutta) previously reported from the same laboratory under the same experimental conditions. Additionally, rainbow trout that were acclimated to the simulated ambient metal mixture for 45 d preferred clean water and avoided higher metal concentrations. Therefore, laboratory experiments on the behavioral avoidance responses of rainbow trout, as well as previously reported experiments on brown trout, show that both species will avoid typical metal concentrations observed on the Clark Fork River. And the greater sensitivity of rainbow trout to the metal mixture may explain, in part, why rainbow trout populations appear to be more severely affected, compared to brown trout populations, in the upper Clark Fork River.

  4. Behavioral avoidance: Possible mechanism for explaining abundance and distribution of trout species in a metal-impacted river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, J.A.; Woodward, D.F.; Little, E.E.; DeLonay, A.J.; Bergman, H.L.

    1999-01-01

    Behavioral avoidance of metal mixtures by rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was determined in the laboratory under water quality conditions that simulated the upper Clark Fork River, Montana, USA. A metal mixture with a fixed ratio of observed ambient metal concentrations (12 mg/L Cu: 1.1 ??g/L Cd:3.2 ??g/L Pb:50 ??g/L Zn) was used to determine avoidance in a countercurrent avoidance chamber. Rainbow trout avoided all metal concentrations tested from 10 to 1,000% of the simulated ambient metal mixture. The behavioral response of rainbow trout to the metal mixture was more sensitive than the response of brown trout (Salmo trutta) previously reported from the same laboratory under the same experimental conditions. Additionally, rainbow trout that were acclimated to the simulated ambient metal mixture for 45 d preferred clean water and avoided higher metal concentrations. Therefore, our laboratory experiments on the behavioral avoidance responses of rainbow trout, as well as previously reported experiments on brown trout, show that both species will avoid typical metal concentrations observed on the Clark Fork River. And the greater sensitivity of rainbow trout to the metal mixture may explain, in part, why rainbow trout populations appear to be more severely affected, compared to brown trout populations; in the upper Clark Fork River.

  5. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Loss Assessment at Cougar Dam and Reservoir Project, South Fork McKenzie River, Oregon; 1985 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyes, J.H.

    1985-09-01

    A habitat based assessment was conducted of the US Army Corps of Engineers' Cougar Dam and Reservoir Project on the South Fork McKenzie River, Oregon, to determine losses or gains resulting from the development and operation of the hydroelectric related components of the project. Preconstruction, postconstruction, and recent vegetation cover types of the project site were mapped based on aerial photographs from 1953, 1965, and 1979, respectively. Vegetation cover types were identified within the affected area and acreages of each type at each period were determined. Fifteen wildlife target species were selected to represent a cross-section of species groups affected by the project. An interagency team evaluated the suitability of the habitat to support the target species at each time period. An evaluation procedure which accounted for both the quantity and quality of habitat was used to aid in assessing impacts resulting from the project. The Cougar Project extensively altered or affected 3096 acres of land and river in the McKenzie River drainage. Impacts to wildlife centered around the loss of 1587 acres of old-growth conifer forest and 195 acres of riparian hardwoods. Impacts resulting from the Cougar Project included the loss of winter range for Roosevelt elk, and the loss of year-round habitat for black-tailed deer, black bear, cougar, river otter, beaver, spotted owl, and other nongame species. Bald eagle and osprey were benefited by an increase in foraging habitat. The potential of the effected area to support wildlife was greatly altered as a result of the Cougar Project. Loses or grains in the potential of the habitat to support wildlife will exist over the life of the project.

  6. 7-Years of Using Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) to assess river restoration efforts : synergies of high-resolution observation and modeling on the Middle Fork of the John Day River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, A.; Diabat, M.

    2014-12-01

    Temperature is a key factor for salmonid health and is an important restoration metric on the Middle Fork of the John Day River, northeast Oregon. The longest undammed tributary to the Columbia, the headwaters of the Middle Fork are crucial to steelhead and spring Chinook and summer Chinook juvenile rearing. In the past century the river has been altered by dredge mining, overgrazing, logging activities, and irrigation resulting in bank erosion, low effective shade, and channelization. These factors decreased fish habitat and led to increased stream temperature maxima. Restoration has focused on restoring fish habitat, creating thermal refugia, and planting native vegetation. The most recent completed restoration project diverted the flow into the historic, meandering stream channel from the dredged, straightened channel. Over the past seven years, Oregon State University researchers (Tara O'Donnell-2012, Julie Huff-2009) have been involved in a planned-to-be 10-year stream temperature monitoring study to assess maximum temperatures during low-flow summer months. The use of fiber optics through distributed temperature sensing (DTS) made it possible to record high resolution temperature data at both temporal and spatial scales; data which is used to assess the efficacy of restoration efforts on the reach. Furthermore, DTS provided temperature data that reveals subtle hydrologic processes such as groundwater or hyporheic inflows and quantifies their effect on the stream. Current research has focused on large scale DTS installations on the Middle Fork of the John Day River on the Oxbow, Forrest, and the upstream Galena ("RPB") conservation properties. In the summers of 2013 and 2014, 16 km of river were monitored. Our study compares temperatures before and after the restoration project and provides essential guidance for future restoration projects. Direct comparisons coupled with a deterministic modeling using HeatSource assist in better understanding the

  7. OK - Establishing a mussel monitoring program to evaluate point-source discharges into Deep Fork NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A study incorporating several investigative methods was conducted at the Deep Fork River, Okmulgee, Oklahoma in and near the Deep Fork National Wildlife Refuge. The...

  8. Flood-inundation maps for a 9.1-mile reach of the Coast Fork Willamette River near Creswell and Goshen, Lane County, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Glen W.; Haluska, Tana L.

    2016-04-13

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 9.1-mile reach of the Coast Fork Willamette River near Creswell and Goshen, Oregon, were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected stages at the USGS streamgage at Coast Fork Willamette River near Goshen, Oregon (14157500), at State Highway 58. Current stage at the streamgage for estimating near-real-time areas of inundation may be obtained at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/or/nwis/uv/?site_no=14157500&PARAmeter_cd=00065,00060. In addition, the National Weather Service (NWS) forecasted peak-stage information may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation.In this study, areas of inundation were provided by USACE. The inundated areas were developed from flood profiles simulated by a one-dimensional unsteady step‑backwater hydraulic model. The profiles were checked by the USACE using documented high-water marks from a January 2006 flood. The model was compared and quality assured using several other methods. The hydraulic model was then used to determine eight water-surface profiles at various flood stages referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from 11.8 to 19.8 ft, approximately 2.6 ft above the highest recorded stage at the streamgage (17.17 ft) since 1950. The intervals between stages are variable and based on annual exceedance probability discharges, some of which approximate NWS action stages.The areas of inundation and water depth grids provided to USGS by USACE were used to create interactive flood‑inundation maps. The availability of these maps with current stage from USGS streamgage and forecasted stream stages from the NWS provide emergency management

  9. Aerial photo mosaic of the Powers Reach and Broadbent Reach, South Fork Coquille River, Oregon in 1939

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Coquille River system is an unregulated system that encompasses 2,745 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon and flows into the Pacific Ocean near the town of...

  10. An aerial radiological survey of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area, Forked River, New Jersey. Date of survey: September 18--25, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power Plant in Forked River, New Jersey, during the period September 18 through September 24, 1992. The survey was conducted at an altitude of 150 feet (46 meters) over a 26-square-mile (67-square-kilometer) area centered on the power station. The purpose of the survey was to document the terrestrial gamma radiation environment of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power plant and surrounding area. The results of the aerial survey are reported as inferred gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level in the form of a contour map. Outside the plant boundary, exposure rates were found to vary between 4 and 10 microroentgens per hour and were attributed to naturally-occurring uranium, thorium, and radioactive potassium gamma emitters. The aerial data were compared to ground-based benchmark exposure rate measurements and radionuclide assays of soil samples obtained within the survey boundary. The ground-based measurements were found to be in good agreement with those inferred from the aerial measuring system. A previous survey of the power plant was conducted in August 1969 during its initial startup phase. Exposure rates and radioactive isotopes revealed in both surveys were consistent and within normal terrestrial background levels

  11. A physiological approach to quantifying thermal habitat quality for redband rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri) in the south Fork John Day River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldhaus, J.W.; Heppell, S.A.; Li, H.; Mesa, M.G.

    2010-01-01

    We examined tissue-specific levels of heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) and whole body lipid levels in juvenile redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri) from the South Fork of the John Day River (SFJD), Oregon, with the goal of determining if these measures could be used as physiological indicators of thermal habitat quality for juvenile redband trout. Our objectives were to determine the hsp70 induction temperature in liver, fin, and white muscle tissue and characterize the relation between whole body lipids and hsp70 for fish in the SFJD. We found significant increases in hsp70 levels between 19 and 22??C in fin, liver, and white muscle tissue. Maximum hsp70 levels in liver, fin, and white muscle tissue occurred when mean weekly maximum temperatures (MWMT) exceeded 20-22??C. In general, the estimated hsp70 induction temperature for fin and white muscle tissue was higher than liver tissue. Whole body lipid levels began to decrease when MWMT exceeded 20. 4??C. There was a significant interaction between temperature and hsp70 in fin and white muscle tissue, but not liver tissue. Collectively, these results suggest that increased hsp70 levels in juvenile redband trout are symptomatic of thermal stress, and that energy storage capacity decreases with this stress. The possible decrease in growth potential and fitness for thermally stressed individuals emphasizes the physiological justification for thermal management criteria in salmon-bearing streams. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010.

  12. Streamflow and water-quality properties in the West Fork San Jacinto River Basin and regression models to estimate real-time suspended-sediment and total suspended-solids concentrations and loads in the West Fork San Jacinto River in the vicinity of Conroe, Texas, July 2008-August 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin, Lee J.; Oden, Jeannette H.

    2010-01-01

    To better understand the hydrology (streamflow and water quality) of the West Fork San Jacinto River Basin downstream from Lake Conroe near Conroe, Texas, including spatial and temporal variation in suspended-sediment (SS) and total suspended-solids (TSS) concentrations and loads, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Houston-Galveston Area Council and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, measured streamflow and collected continuous and discrete water-quality data during July 2008-August 2009 in the West Fork San Jacinto River Basin downstream from Lake Conroe. During July 2008-August 2009, discrete samples were collected and streamflow measurements were made over the range of flow conditions at two streamflow-gaging stations on the West Fork San Jacinto River: West Fork San Jacinto River below Lake Conroe near Conroe, Texas (station 08067650) and West Fork San Jacinto River near Conroe, Texas (station 08068000). In addition to samples collected at these two main monitoring sites, discrete sediment samples were also collected at five additional monitoring sites to help characterize water quality in the West Fork San Jacinto River Basin. Discrete samples were collected semimonthly, regardless of flow conditions, and during periods of high flow resulting from storms or releases from Lake Conroe. Because the period of data collection was relatively short (14 months) and low flow was prevalent during much of the study, relatively few samples collected were representative of the middle and upper ranges of historical daily mean streamflows. The largest streamflows tended to occur in response to large rainfall events and generally were associated with the largest SS and TSS concentrations. The maximum SS and TSS concentrations at station 08067650 (180 and 133 milligrams per liter [mg/L], respectively) were on April 19, 2009, when the instantaneous streamflow was the third largest associated with a discrete sample at the station. SS concentrations

  13. Trophic feasibility of reintroducing anadromous salmonids in three reservoirs on the north fork Lewis River, Washington: Prey supply and consumption demand of resident fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorel, Mark H.; Hansen, Adam G.; Connelly, Kristin A.; Beauchamp, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The reintroduction of anadromous salmonids in reservoirs is being proposed with increasing frequency, requiring baseline studies to evaluate feasibility and estimate the capacity of reservoir food webs to support reintroduced populations. Using three reservoirs on the north fork Lewis River as a case study, we demonstrate a method to determine juvenile salmonid smolt rearing capacities for lakes and reservoirs. To determine if the Lewis River reservoirs can support reintroduced populations of juvenile stream-type Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, we evaluated the monthly production of daphniaDaphnia spp. (the primary zooplankton consumed by resident salmonids in the system) and used bioenergetics to model the consumption demand of resident fishes in each reservoir. To estimate the surplus of Daphnia prey available for reintroduced salmonids, we assumed a maximum sustainable exploitation rate and accounted for the consumption demand of resident fishes. The number of smolts that could have been supported was estimated by dividing any surplus Daphnia production by the simulated consumption demand of an individual Chinook Salmon fry rearing in the reservoir to successful smolt size. In all three reservoirs, densities of Daphnia were highest in the epilimnion, but warm epilimnetic temperatures and the vertical distribution of planktivores suggested that access to abundant epilimnetic prey was limited. By comparing accessible prey supply and demand on a monthly basis, we were able to identify potential prey supply bottlenecks that could limit smolt production and growth. These results demonstrate that a bioenergetics approach can be a valuable method of examining constraints on lake and reservoir rearing capacity, such as thermal structure and temporal food supply. This method enables numerical estimation of rearing capacity, which is a useful metric for managers evaluating the feasibility of reintroducing Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. in lentic systems.

  14. Hyporheic Exchange Flows and Biogeochemical Patterns near a Meandering Stream: East Fork of the Jemez River, Valles Caldera National Preserve, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, H.; Wooten, J. P.; Swanson, E.; Senison, J. J.; Myers, K. D.; Befus, K. M.; Warden, J.; Zamora, P. B.; Gomez, J. D.; Wilson, J. L.; Groffman, A.; Rearick, M. S.; Cardenas, M. B.

    2012-12-01

    A study by the 2012 Hydrogeology Field Methods class of the University of Texas at Austin implemented multiple approaches to evaluate and characterize local hyporheic zone flow and biogeochemical trends in a highly meandering reach of the of the East Fork of the Jemez River, a fourth order stream in northwestern New Mexico. This section of the Jemez River is strongly meandering and exhibits distinct riffle-pool morphology. The high stream sinuosity creates inter-meander hyporheic flow that is also largely influenced by local groundwater gradients. In this study, dozens of piezometers were used to map the water table and flow vectors were then calculated. Surface water and ground water samples were collected and preserved for later geochemical analysis by ICPMS and HPLC, and unstable parameters and alkalinity were measured on-site. Additionally, information was collected from thermal monitoring of the streambed, stream gauging, and from a series of electrical resistivity surveys forming a network across the site. Hyporheic flow paths are suggested by alternating gaining and losing sections of the stream as determined by stream gauging at multiple locations along the reach. Water table maps and calculated fluxes across the sediment-water interface also indicate hyporheic flow paths. We find variability in the distribution of biogeochemical constituents (oxidation-reduction potential, nitrate, ammonium, and phosphate) along interpreted flow paths which is partly consistent with hyporheic exchange. The variability and heterogeneity of reducing and oxidizing conditions is interpreted to be a result of groundwater-surface water interaction. Two-dimensional mapping of biogeochemical parameters show redox transitions along interpreted flow paths. Further analysis of various measured unstable chemical parameters results in observable trends strongly delineated along these preferential flow paths that are consistent with the direction of groundwater flow and the assumed

  15. Evaluation of the behavior and movement patterns of adult coho salmon and steelhead in the North Fork Toutle River, Washington, 2005-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedtke, Theresa L.; Kock, Tobias J.; Rondorf, Dennis W.

    2013-01-01

    The 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens severely affected the North Fork Toutle River (hereafter Toutle River), Washington, and threatened anadromous salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) populations in the basin. The Toutle River was further affected in 1989 when a sediment retention structure (SRS) was constructed to trap sediments in the upper basin. The SRS completely blocked upstream volitional passage, so a fish collection facility (FCF) was constructed to trap adult coho salmon (O. kisutch) and steelhead (O. mykiss) so they could be transported upstream of the SRS. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) has operated a trap-and-haul program since 1989 to transport coho salmon and steelhead into tributaries of the Toutle River, upstream of the SRS. Although this program has allowed wild coho salmon and steelhead populations to persist in the Toutle River basin, the trap-andhaul program has faced many challenges that may be limiting the effectiveness of the program. We conducted a multi-year evaluation during 2005–2009 to monitor tagged fish in the upper Toutle River to provide information on the movements and behavior of adult coho salmon and steelhead, and to evaluate the efficacy of the FCF. Radio-tagged coho salmon and steelhead were released: (1) in Toutle River tributaries to evaluate the behavior and movements of fish released as part of the trap-and-haul program; (2) between the FCF and SRS to determine if volitional upstream passage through the SRS spillway was possible; (3) in the sediment plain upstream of the SRS to determine if volitional passage through the sediment plain was possible; and (4) downstream of the FCF to evaluate the efficacy of the structure. We also deployed an acoustic camera in the FCF to monitor fish movements near the entrance to the FCF, and in the fish holding vault where coho salmon and steelhead are trapped. A total of 20 radio-tagged coho salmon and 10 radio-tagged steelhead were released into Alder and Hoffstadt

  16. sir2016-5029_Hi_Res_Extents: Flood-Inundation Maps for the Coast Fork Willamette River from Creswell, Oregon to Goshen, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Digital Elevation Model (DEM) utilized for this Willamette FIS submittal was produced by combining multiple overlapping topographic surveys for the Middle Fork...

  17. sir2016-5029_Low_Res_Extents: Flood-Inundation Maps for the Coast Fork Willamette River from Creswell, Oregon to Goshen, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Digital Elevation Model (DEM) utilized for this Willamette FIS submittal was produced by combining multiple overlapping topographic surveys for the Middle Fork...

  18. Influences of summer water temperatures on the movement, distribution, and resources use of fluvial Westslope Cutthroat Trout in the South Fork Clearwater River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobos, Marika E.; Corsi, Matthew P.; Schill, Daniel J.; DuPont, Joseph M.; Quist, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Although many Westslope Cutthroat Trout Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi populations in Idaho are robust and stable, population densities in some systems remain below management objectives. In many of those systems, such as in the South Fork Clearwater River (SFCR) system, environmental conditions (e.g., summer temperatures) are hypothesized to limit populations of Westslope Cutthroat Trout. Radiotelemetry and snorkeling methods were used to describe seasonal movement patterns, distribution, and habitat use of Westslope Cutthroat Trout in the SFCR during the summers of 2013 and 2014. Sixty-six radio transmitters were surgically implanted into Westslope Cutthroat Trout (170–405 mm TL) from May 30–June 25, 2013, and June 20–July 6, 2014. Sedentary and mobile summer movement patterns by Westslope Cutthroat Trout were observed in the SFCR. Westslope Cutthroat Trout were generally absent from the lower SFCR. In the upper region of the SFCR, fish generally moved from the main-stem SFCR into tributaries as water temperatures increased during the summer. Fish remained in the middle region of the SFCR where water temperatures were cooler than in the upper or lower regions of the SFCR. A spatially explicit water temperature model indicated that the upper and lower regions of the SFCR exceeded thermal tolerance levels of Westslope Cutthroat Trout throughout the summer. During snorkeling, 23 Westslope Cutthroat Trout were observed in 13 sites along the SFCR and at low density (mean ± SD, 0.0003 ± 0.0001 fish/m2). The distribution of fish observed during snorkeling was consistent with the distribution of radio-tagged fish in the SFCR during the summer. Anthropogenic activities (i.e., grazing, mining, road construction, and timber harvest) in the SFCR basin likely altered the natural flow dynamics and temperature regime and thereby limited stream habitat in the SFCR system for Westslope Cutthroat Trout.

  19. Evaluating turbidity and suspended-sediment concentration relations from the North Fork Toutle River basin near Mount St. Helens, Washington; annual, seasonal, event, and particle size variations - a preliminary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhrich, Mark A.; Spicer, Kurt R.; Mosbrucker, Adam; Christianson, Tami

    2015-01-01

    Regression of in-stream turbidity with concurrent sample-based suspended-sediment concentration (SSC) has become an accepted method for producing unit-value time series of inferred SSC (Rasmussen et al., 2009). Turbidity-SSC regression models are increasingly used to generate suspended-sediment records for Pacific Northwest rivers (e.g., Curran et al., 2014; Schenk and Bragg, 2014; Uhrich and Bragg, 2003). Recent work developing turbidity-SSC models for the North Fork Toutle River in Southwest Washington (Uhrich et al., 2014), as well as other studies (Landers and Sturm, 2013, Merten et al., 2014), suggests that models derived from annual or greater datasets may not adequately reflect shorter term changes in turbidity-SSC relations, warranting closer inspection of such relations. In-stream turbidity measurements and suspended-sediment samples have been collected from the North Fork Toutle River since 2010. The study site, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamgage 14240525 near Kid Valley, Washington, is 13 river km downstream of the debris avalanche emplaced by the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens (Lipman and Mullineaux, 1981), and 2 river km downstream of the large sediment retention structure (SRS) built from 1987–1989 to mitigate the associated sediment hazard. The debris avalanche extends roughly 25 km down valley from the edifice of the volcano and is the primary source of suspended sediment moving past the streamgage (NF Toutle-SRS). Other significant sources are debris flow events and sand deposits upstream of the SRS, which are periodically remobilized and transported downstream. Also, finer material often is derived from the clay-rich original debris avalanche deposit, while coarser material can derive from areas such as fluvially reworked terraces.

  20. Evaluation of LiDAR-acquired bathymetric and topographic data accuracy in various hydrogeomorphic settings in the Deadwood and South Fork Boise Rivers, West-Central Idaho, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Kenneth D.

    2011-01-01

    High-quality elevation data in riverine environments are important for fisheries management applications and the accuracy of such data needs to be determined for its proper application. The Experimental Advanced Airborne Research LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging)-or EAARL-system was used to obtain topographic and bathymetric data along the Deadwood and South Fork Boise Rivers in west-central Idaho. The EAARL data were post-processed into bare earth and bathymetric raster and point datasets. Concurrently with the EAARL surveys, real-time kinematic global positioning system surveys were made in three areas along each of the rivers to assess the accuracy of the EAARL elevation data in different hydrogeomorphic settings. The accuracies of the EAARL-derived raster elevation values, determined in open, flat terrain, to provide an optimal vertical comparison surface, had root mean square errors ranging from 0.134 to 0.347 m. Accuracies in the elevation values for the stream hydrogeomorphic settings had root mean square errors ranging from 0.251 to 0.782 m. The greater root mean square errors for the latter data are the result of complex hydrogeomorphic environments within the streams, such as submerged aquatic macrophytes and air bubble entrainment; and those along the banks, such as boulders, woody debris, and steep slopes. These complex environments reduce the accuracy of EAARL bathymetric and topographic measurements. Steep banks emphasize the horizontal location discrepancies between the EAARL and ground-survey data and may not be good representations of vertical accuracy. The EAARL point to ground-survey comparisons produced results with slightly higher but similar root mean square errors than those for the EAARL raster to ground-survey comparisons, emphasizing the minimized horizontal offset by using interpolated values from the raster dataset at the exact location of the ground-survey point as opposed to an actual EAARL point within a 1-meter distance. The

  1. OR/WA Environmental contaminants in fish eating birds from the Lewis and Clark NWR and Ridgefield NWR along the Columbia River

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Great blue heron (Ardea herodias) eggs and prey items were collected from six colonies on the Columbia and Willamette rivers and Puget Sound during 1994-95....

  2. The role of episodic fire-related debris flows on long-term (103-104) sediment yields in the Middle Fork Salmon River Watershed, in central Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, K. E.; Pierce, J. L.; Hopkins, A.

    2010-12-01

    Episodic fire-related debris flows contribute large amounts of sediment and large woody debris to streams. This study evaluates fire-related sedimentation from small steep tributaries of the Middle Fork Salmon River (MFSR) in central Idaho to evaluate the timing, frequency, and magnitude of episodic fire-related sedimentation on long-term (10 3-10 4) sediment yields. The MFSR lies within the Northern Rocky Mountains and encompasses a range of ecosystems including high elevation (~3,000 -1,700 m) subalpine pine and spruce forests, mid-elevation (2650 - 1130 m) montane Douglas-fir and ponderosa pine-dominated forests and low elevation (~ 1,800 - 900 m) sagebrush steppe. Recent debris flow events in tributaries of the MFSR appear to primarily result from increased surface runoff, rilling, and progressive sediment bulking following high severity fires. This study estimates: 1) the volume of sediment delivered by four recent (1997-2008) fire-related debris flow events using real time kinematic GPS surveys, and 2) the timing of Holocene fire-related debris flow events determined by 14C dating charcoal fragments preserved in buried burned soils and within fire-related deposits. Our measured volumes of the four recent debris flow events are compared to two empirically derived volume estimates based on remotely sensed spatial data (burn severity and slope), measured geometric data (longitudinal profile, cross sectional area, flow banking angle), and precipitation records. Preliminary stratigraphic profiles in incised alluvial fans suggest that a large percentage of alluvial fan thickness is composed of fire-related deposits suggesting fire-related hillslope erosion is a major process delivering sediment to alluvial fans and to the MFSR. Fire-related deposits from upper basins compose ~71% of total alluvial fan thickness, while fire-related deposits from lower basins make up 36% of alluvial fan thickness. However, lower basins are less densely vegetated with small diameter

  3. Fate and transport of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil and ground water at Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area, Tennessee and Kentucky, 2002-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Shannon D.; Ladd, David E.; Farmer, James

    2006-01-01

    In 2002 and 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), by agreement with the National Park Service (NPS), investigated the effects of oil and gas production operations on ground-water quality at Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area (BISO) with particular emphasis on the fate and transport of petroleum hydrocarbons in soils and ground water. During a reconnaissance of ground-water-quality conditions, samples were collected from 24 different locations (17 springs, 5 water-supply wells, 1 small stream, and 1 spring-fed pond) in and near BISO. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) compounds were not detected in any of the water samples, indicating that no widespread contamination of ground-water resources by dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons probably exists at BISO. Additional water-quality samples were collected from three springs and two wells for more detailed analyses to obtain additional information on ambient water-quality conditions at BISO. Soil gas, soil, water, and crude oil samples were collected at three study sites in or near BISO where crude oil had been spilled or released (before 1993). Diesel range organics (DRO) were detected in soil samples from all three of the sites at concentrations greater than 2,000 milligrams per kilogram. Low concentrations (less than 10 micrograms per kilogram) of BTEX compounds were detected in lab-analyzed soil samples from two of the sites. Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria counts in soil samples from the most contaminated areas of the sites were not greater than counts for soil samples from uncontaminated (background) sites. The elevated DRO concentrations, the presence of BTEX compounds, and the low number of -hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in contaminated soils indicate that biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soils at these sites is incomplete. Water samples collected from the three study sites were analyzed for BTEX and DRO. Ground-water samples were collected from three small springs at the

  4. Wildlife Impact Assessment and Summary of Previous Mitigation Related to Hydroelectric Projects in Montana, Phase 1, Volume Two (B), Clark Fork River Projects, Cabinet Gorge and Noxon Rapids Dams, Operator, Washington Water Power Company.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Marilyn

    1984-06-01

    This report documents best available information concerning the wildlife species impacted and the degree of the impact. A target species list was developed to focus the impact assessment and to direct mitigation efforts. Many non-target species also incurred impacts but are not discussed in this report. All wildlife habitats inundated by the two reservoirs are represented by the target species. It was assumed the numerous non-target species also affected will be benefited by the mitigation measures adopted for the target species. Impacts addressed are limited to those directly attributable to the loss of habitat and displacement of wildlife populations due to the construction and operation of the two hydroelectric projects. Secondary impacts, such as the relocation of railroads and highways, and the increase of the human population, were not considered. In some cases, both positive and negative impacts were assessed; and the overall net effect was reported. The loss/gain estimates reported represent impacts considered to have occurred during one point in time except where otherwise noted. When possible, quantitative estimates were developed based on historical information from the area or on data from similar areas. Qualitative loss estimates of low, moderate, or high with supporting rationale were assessed for each species or species group.

  5. SSTI Clark ACS Technology Demonstrations

    OpenAIRE

    Freesland, Douglas

    1997-01-01

    SSTI Clark, one of two spacecraft built under NASA's Small Satellite Technology Initiative, includes seven ACS technology demonstrations. The technologies redefine the performance cost envelope, providing improved sensor and actuator performance at reduced costs. Six sensing technologies are being flown consisting of both hardware and algorithmic demonstrations: autonomous star tracker, hemispherical resonating gyro, GPS attitude determination, miniature horizon sensors, low cost course sun s...

  6. Lewis and Clark as Naturalists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. National Museum of Natural History.

    Intended for use in elementary and high school education, this Web site includes a teacher's guide and three lesson plans. The site contains images of museum specimens, scientific drawings, and field photos of the plant and animal species observed by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, along with journal excerpts, historical notes, and references…

  7. Living History: Clark M. Blatteis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Ning

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the American Physiological Society (APS) initiated the Living History Project to recognize senior members who have made extraordinary contributions during their career to the advancement of the discipline and profession of physiology. During 2007, the APS Section of Environmental and Exercise Physiology selected Clark M. Blatteis to be…

  8. SC tuning fork

    CERN Multimedia

    The tuning fork used to modulate the radiofrequency system of the synchro cyclotron (SC) from 1957 to 1973. This piece is an unused spare part. The SC was the 1st accelerator built at CERN. It operated from August 1957 until it was closed down at the end of 1990. In the SC the magnetic field did not change with time, and the particles were accelerated in successive pulses by a radiofrequency voltage of some 20kV which varied in frequency as they spiraled outwards towards the extraction radius. The frequency varied from 30MHz to about 17Mz in each pulse. The tuning fork vibrated at 55MHz in vacuum in an enclosure which formed a variable capacitor in the tuning circuit of the RF system, allowing the RF to vary over the appropriate range to accelerate protons from the centre of the macine up to 600Mev at extraction radius. In operation the tips of the tuning fork blade had an amplitude of movement of over 1 cm. The SC accelerator underwent extensive improvements from 1973 to 1975, including the installation of a...

  9. 75 FR 26709 - Clarke County Water Supply Project, Clarke County, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... Natural Resources Conservation Service Clarke County Water Supply Project, Clarke County, IA AGENCY... Moines, IA 50309-2180, telephone: 515-284- 4769. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: A Notice of Intent (NOI) to... http://www.ia.nrcs.usda.gov . A map of the Clarke County Water Supply proposed study sites will also...

  10. On non-forking spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Chernikov, Artem; Shelah, Saharon

    2012-01-01

    Non-forking is one of the most important notions in modern model theory capturing the idea of a generic extension of a type (which is a far-reaching generalization of the concept of a generic point of a variety). To a countable first-order theory we associate its non-forking spectrum - a function of two cardinals kappa and lambda giving the supremum of the possible number of types over a model of size lambda that do not fork over a sub-model of size kappa. This is a natural generalization of the stability function of a theory. We make progress towards classifying the non-forking spectra. On the one hand, we show that the possible values a non-forking spectrum may take are quite limited. On the other hand, we develop a general technique for constructing theories with a prescribed non-forking spectrum, thus giving a number of examples. In particular, we answer negatively a question of Adler whether NIP is equivalent to bounded non-forking. In addition, we answer a question of Keisler regarding the number of cut...

  11. Discrimination method of forked larch trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wen-bin; Sun Ren-shan; Liu Xu-hua; Liu Yong

    2006-01-01

    For the demands of automatíc pruning, an effective discrimination rule of the forked and non-forked larch trees is established. First, information of trunk and branch diameters of a larch plantations was collected from the west mountain of Beijing. The growth characteristics of the forked and non-forked trees were studied. Given the statistical characteristics of the trunk and branch diameters, a discriminant function of the forked branch and non-forked larch trees was established statistically. Excellent discrimination results were obtained by the function and the rule. The study presents an effective discrimination rule to separate forked trees from straight trees for automatic pruning.

  12. Tuning fork tests: forgotten art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgis, T F; Shambaugh, G E

    1988-01-01

    Four examples are cited in which tuning fork tests helped in proper selection of patients for surgery, after audiometric air and bone tests were equivocal or gave the wrong diagnostic and prognostic indication.

  13. Continuous real-time water-quality monitoring and regression analysis to compute constituent concentrations and loads in the North Fork Ninnescah River upstream from Cheney Reservoir, south-central Kansas, 1999–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Mandy L.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Gatotho, Jackline W.

    2013-01-01

    Cheney Reservoir, located in south-central Kansas, is the primary water supply for the city of Wichita. The U.S. Geological Survey has operated a continuous real-time water-quality monitoring station since 1998 on the North Fork Ninnescah River, the main source of inflow to Cheney Reservoir. Continuously measured water-quality physical properties include streamflow, specific conductance, pH, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity. Discrete water-quality samples were collected during 1999 through 2009 and analyzed for sediment, nutrients, bacteria, and other water-quality constituents. Regression models were developed to establish relations between discretely sampled constituent concentrations and continuously measured physical properties to compute concentrations of those constituents of interest that are not easily measured in real time because of limitations in sensor technology and fiscal constraints. Regression models were published in 2006 that were based on data collected during 1997 through 2003. This report updates those models using discrete and continuous data collected during January 1999 through December 2009. Models also were developed for four new constituents, including additional nutrient species and indicator bacteria. In addition, a conversion factor of 0.68 was established to convert the Yellow Springs Instruments (YSI) model 6026 turbidity sensor measurements to the newer YSI model 6136 sensor at the North Ninnescah River upstream from Cheney Reservoir site. Newly developed models and 14 years of hourly continuously measured data were used to calculate selected constituent concentrations and loads during January 1999 through December 2012. The water-quality information in this report is important to the city of Wichita because it allows the concentrations of many potential pollutants of interest to Cheney Reservoir, including nutrients and sediment, to be estimated in real time and characterized over conditions and time scales that

  14. 2013 Athens-Clarke County, Georgia Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of 0.5 foot pixel resolution, four band (RGB, Near IR) orthoimages covering Athens-Clarke Georgia. An orthoimage is remotely sensed image...

  15. The relationship between land management, fecal indicator bacteria, and the occurrence of Campylobacter and Listeria spp. in water and sediments during synoptic sampling in the S. Fork Broad River Watershed, N.E. Georgia, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, J. K.; Molina, M.; Sidle, R. C.; Sullivan, K.; Oakley, B.; Berrang, M.; Meinersmann, R.

    2013-12-01

    Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and pathogens stored in the bed sediments of streams and rivers may be mobilized into the water column affecting overall water quality. Furthermore, land management may play an important role in the concentrations of FIB and the occurrence of pathogens in stream water and sediments. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between FIB and pathogens in stream water and sediment based on three land management-affected categories: agricultural, forest, and waters receiving treated municipal wastewater. Two synoptic sampling events were conducted under baseflow conditions (Campylobacter and Listeria spp. were measured in stream water and sediment samples collected at 15 locations (six agricultural (AG); six forested (FORS); and three receiving discharge from water pollution control plants (WPCP)) in the S. Fork Broad River watershed located in northeast Georgia, USA. Mean E. coli and E. faecalis concentrations were highest in the AG stream water samples (3.08 log MPN 100 mL -1 for E. coli and 3.07 log CFU 100 mL -1 for E. faecalis ) and lowest in the FORS water samples for E. coli (2.37 log MPN 100 mL -1 ) and WPCP water samples for E. faecalis (2.53 log CFU 100 mL -1 ). E. coli concentrations (2.74 log MPN 100 mL -1 ) in the WPCP streams were intermediate. Similar to water samples, E. coli concentrations were highest in the AG sediments (4.31 log MPN g -1 ), intermediate in the WPCP sediments (4.06 log MPN g -1 ), and lowest in the FORS sediments (3.46 log MPN g -1 ). In contrast to E. coli, E. faecalis concentrations were lower (1.10 to 1.31 log CFU g -1 ) and relatively more constant than E. coli in sediments over the three land management categories. Campylobacter was detected in 27% of the water samples and 8% of the sediment samples. The highest occurrence of Campylobacter detection was in the AG streams (15% of the water samples; 5% of the sediment samples). Listeria was detected in 76% of the water samples and

  16. Flood duration and chute cutoff formation in a wandering gravel-bed river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, A.; Wilcox, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    Chute cutoffs occur when a bypass or "chute" channel incises across a bar or low floodplain area, re-distributing water and sediment. Cutoffs result from a setup and a triggering event, typically during overbank flow, but the combined effect of magnitude and duration on potential erosion in in-channel and overbank areas is still poorly constrained. Here we investigated how overbank flow duration impacts cutoff formation and spatiotemporal shear stress patterns in a wandering gravel-bed river. We applied a two-dimensional hydraulic model to a recently reconstructed reach of the Clark Fork River in western Montana that experienced chute cutoffs during a long-duration flood in 2011. Hydrographs with increasing durations exceeding overbank were simulated; for each magnitude-duration combination, various metrics were quantified for in-channel and overbank areas separately. We confirm the hypothesized importance of floodplain elevation, vegetation presence, chute-channel inlet entrance location, and high overbank shear stress zones at bend apexes on cutoff occurrence. Floodplain width plays an important role in controlling unit discharge such that overbank areas are more competent in a narrower floodplain conveyance corridor. Duration controls cumulative flow exceeding sediment mobility thresholds, having the largest effect in overbank areas. Side channels at the reconstructed study site act like naturally formed incipient chutes. This work describes a complex floodplain system characteristic of wandering gravel-bed rivers with implications for understanding morphodynamic evolution, river restoration, and flow management in regulated rivers.

  17. Modern Exploration of the Lewis and Clark Expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The Lewis and Clark Geosystem is an online collection of private, state, local, and Federal data resources associated with the geography of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Data were compiled from key partners including NASA s Stennis Space Center, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the University of Montana, the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, and from a collection of Lewis and Clark scholars. It combines modern views of the landscape with historical aerial photography, cartography, and other geographical data resources and historical sources, including: The Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, the Academy of Natural Science's Lewis and Clark Herbarium, high-resolution copies of the American Philosophical Society s primary-source Lewis and Clark Journals, The Library of Congress Lewis and Clark cartography collection, as well as artifacts from the Smithsonian Institution and other sources.

  18. FBH1 Catalyzes Regression of Stalled Replication Forks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugger, Kasper; Mistrik, Martin; Neelsen, Kai J;

    2015-01-01

    DNA replication fork perturbation is a major challenge to the maintenance of genome integrity. It has been suggested that processing of stalled forks might involve fork regression, in which the fork reverses and the two nascent DNA strands anneal. Here, we show that FBH1 catalyzes regression...... of a model replication fork in vitro and promotes fork regression in vivo in response to replication perturbation. Cells respond to fork stalling by activating checkpoint responses requiring signaling through stress-activated protein kinases. Importantly, we show that FBH1, through its helicase activity...... a model whereby FBH1 promotes early checkpoint signaling by remodeling of stalled DNA replication forks....

  19. Geometry of forking in simple theories

    OpenAIRE

    Peretz, Assaf

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the geometry of forking for SU-rank 2 elements in supersimple ω-categorical theories and prove stable forking and some structural properties for such elements. We extend this analysis to the case of SU-rank 3 elements.

  20. Amy Finkelstein: 2012 John Bates Clark Medalist

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Levin; James Poterba

    2012-01-01

    Amy Finkelstein is the 2012 recipient of the John Bates Clark Medal from the American Economic Association. The core concerns of Amy's research program have been insurance markets and health care. She has addressed whether asymmetric information leads to inefficiencies in insurance markets, how large social insurance programs affect healthcare markets, and the determinants of innovation incentives in health care. We describe a number of Amy's key research contributions, with particular emphas...

  1. Forecasting gaming revenues in Clark County, Nevada: Issues and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, B.K.; Bando, A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the Western Area Gaming and Economic Response Simulator (WAGERS), a forecasting model that emphasizes the role of the gaming industry in Clark County, Nevada. Is is designed to generate forecasts of gaming revenues in Clark County, whose regional economy is dominated by the gaming industry. The model is meant to forecast Clark County gaming revenues and identifies the exogenous variables that affect gaming revenues. It will provide baseline forecasts of Clark County gaming revenues in order to assess changes in gaming-related economic activity resulting from changes in regional economic activity and tourism.

  2. Forecasting gaming revenues in Clark County, Nevada: Issues and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, B.K.; Bando, A.

    1992-07-01

    This paper describes the Western Area Gaming and Economic Response Simulator (WAGERS), a forecasting model that emphasizes the role of the gaming industry in Clark County, Nevada. Is is designed to generate forecasts of gaming revenues in Clark County, whose regional economy is dominated by the gaming industry. The model is meant to forecast Clark County gaming revenues and identifies the exogenous variables that affect gaming revenues. It will provide baseline forecasts of Clark County gaming revenues in order to assess changes in gaming-related economic activity resulting from changes in regional economic activity and tourism.

  3. Salmon River Habitat Enhancement, 1989 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, Mike

    1989-04-01

    This project was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The annual report contains three individual subproject papers detailing tribal fisheries work completed during the summer and fall of 1989. Subproject 1 contains summaries of evaluation/monitoring efforts associated with the Bear Valley Creek, Idaho enhancement project. Subproject 2 contains an evaluation of the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River habitat enhancement project. This report has been sub-divided into two parts: Part 1; stream evaluation and Part 2; pond series evaluation. Subproject 3 concerns the East Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho. This report summarizes the evaluation of the project to date including the 1989 pre-construction evaluation conducted within the East Fork drainage. Dredge mining has degraded spawning and rearing habitat for chinook salmon and steelhead trout in the Yankee Fork drainage of the Salmon River and in Bear Valley Creek. Mining, agricultural, and grazing practices degraded habitat in the East Fork of the Salmon River. Biological monitoring of the success of habitat enhancement for Bear Valley Creek and Yankee Fork are presented in this report. Physical and biological inventories prior to habitat enhancement in East Fork were also conducted. Four series of off-channel ponds of the Yankee Fork are shown to provide effective rearing habitat for chinook salmon. 45 refs., 49 figs., 24 tabs.

  4. Clark E. Moustakas (1923-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, Diane S

    2013-01-01

    Presents an obituary for Clark E. Moustakas. Clark E. Moustakas was a consummate educator and a true model of the tenets and values of humanistic psychology, a movement he cofounded in the late 1950s with other pioneers in American psychology, including Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers. This movement, recognized as the "third force" in psychology, had a significant impact in the 1960s and 1970s and became an important component of mainstream practice. Moustakas produced a prolific and influential body of work. He embraced solitude as a time of reflection and did not enjoy notoriety. While he inhabited many roles-professor, scholar, clinician, and author-engagement with others in the moment was always the most essential element in his life. He was a gentle man, full of energy and spirit, exuding warmth and focused attention. In his company, one was immediately struck by his earnestness and caring. People from all over the world respected his expertise and sought his advice. To have this impact and to have informed the field in so many ways is a remarkable accomplishment. PMID:23895613

  5. Clark E. Moustakas (1923-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, Diane S

    2013-01-01

    Presents an obituary for Clark E. Moustakas. Clark E. Moustakas was a consummate educator and a true model of the tenets and values of humanistic psychology, a movement he cofounded in the late 1950s with other pioneers in American psychology, including Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers. This movement, recognized as the "third force" in psychology, had a significant impact in the 1960s and 1970s and became an important component of mainstream practice. Moustakas produced a prolific and influential body of work. He embraced solitude as a time of reflection and did not enjoy notoriety. While he inhabited many roles-professor, scholar, clinician, and author-engagement with others in the moment was always the most essential element in his life. He was a gentle man, full of energy and spirit, exuding warmth and focused attention. In his company, one was immediately struck by his earnestness and caring. People from all over the world respected his expertise and sought his advice. To have this impact and to have informed the field in so many ways is a remarkable accomplishment.

  6. Clark's Nutcracker Breeding Season Space Use and Foraging Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaming, Taza D

    2016-01-01

    Considering the entire life history of a species is fundamental to developing effective conservation strategies. Decreasing populations of five-needle white pines may be leading to the decline of Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana). These birds are important seed dispersers for at least ten conifer species in the western U.S., including whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), an obligate mutualist of Clark's nutcrackers. For effective conservation of both Clark's nutcrackers and whitebark pine, it is essential to ensure stability of Clark's nutcracker populations. My objectives were to examine Clark's nutcracker breeding season home range size, territoriality, habitat selection, and foraging behavior in the southern Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, a region where whitebark pine is declining. I radio-tracked Clark's nutcrackers in 2011, a population-wide nonbreeding year following a low whitebark pine cone crop, and 2012, a breeding year following a high cone crop. Results suggest Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) communities are important habitat for Clark's nutcrackers because they selected it for home ranges. In contrast, they did not select whitebark pine habitat. However, Clark's nutcrackers did adjust their use of whitebark pine habitat between years, suggesting that, in some springs, whitebark pine habitat may be used more than previously expected. Newly extracted Douglas-fir seeds were an important food source both years. On the other hand, cached seeds made up a relatively lower proportion of the diet in 2011, suggesting cached seeds are not a reliable spring food source. Land managers focus on restoring whitebark pine habitat with the assumption that Clark's nutcrackers will be available to continue seed dispersal. In the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, Clark's nutcracker populations may be more likely to be retained year-round when whitebark pine restoration efforts are located adjacent to Douglas-fir habitat. By extrapolation, whitebark pine restoration

  7. Clark's Nutcracker Breeding Season Space Use and Foraging Behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taza D Schaming

    Full Text Available Considering the entire life history of a species is fundamental to developing effective conservation strategies. Decreasing populations of five-needle white pines may be leading to the decline of Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana. These birds are important seed dispersers for at least ten conifer species in the western U.S., including whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis, an obligate mutualist of Clark's nutcrackers. For effective conservation of both Clark's nutcrackers and whitebark pine, it is essential to ensure stability of Clark's nutcracker populations. My objectives were to examine Clark's nutcracker breeding season home range size, territoriality, habitat selection, and foraging behavior in the southern Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, a region where whitebark pine is declining. I radio-tracked Clark's nutcrackers in 2011, a population-wide nonbreeding year following a low whitebark pine cone crop, and 2012, a breeding year following a high cone crop. Results suggest Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii communities are important habitat for Clark's nutcrackers because they selected it for home ranges. In contrast, they did not select whitebark pine habitat. However, Clark's nutcrackers did adjust their use of whitebark pine habitat between years, suggesting that, in some springs, whitebark pine habitat may be used more than previously expected. Newly extracted Douglas-fir seeds were an important food source both years. On the other hand, cached seeds made up a relatively lower proportion of the diet in 2011, suggesting cached seeds are not a reliable spring food source. Land managers focus on restoring whitebark pine habitat with the assumption that Clark's nutcrackers will be available to continue seed dispersal. In the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, Clark's nutcracker populations may be more likely to be retained year-round when whitebark pine restoration efforts are located adjacent to Douglas-fir habitat. By extrapolation, whitebark

  8. The Relationship Between Land Management, Fecal Indicator Bacteria, and the Occurrence of Campylobacter and Listeria Spp. in Water and Sediments During Synoptic Sampling In The South Fork Broad River Watershed, Northeast Georgia, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and pathogens stored in the bed sediments of streams and rivers may be mobilized into the water column affecting overall water quality. Furthermore, land management may play an important role in the concentrations of FIB and the occurrence of pathog...

  9. Habitat Management Plan - Clarks River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Habitat Management Plans (HMPs) are dynamic working documents that provide refuge managers a decision-making process; guidance for the management of the refuge’s...

  10. FBH1 Catalyzes Regression of Stalled Replication Forks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper Fugger

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available DNA replication fork perturbation is a major challenge to the maintenance of genome integrity. It has been suggested that processing of stalled forks might involve fork regression, in which the fork reverses and the two nascent DNA strands anneal. Here, we show that FBH1 catalyzes regression of a model replication fork in vitro and promotes fork regression in vivo in response to replication perturbation. Cells respond to fork stalling by activating checkpoint responses requiring signaling through stress-activated protein kinases. Importantly, we show that FBH1, through its helicase activity, is required for early phosphorylation of ATM substrates such as CHK2 and CtIP as well as hyperphosphorylation of RPA. These phosphorylations occur prior to apparent DNA double-strand break formation. Furthermore, FBH1-dependent signaling promotes checkpoint control and preserves genome integrity. We propose a model whereby FBH1 promotes early checkpoint signaling by remodeling of stalled DNA replication forks.

  11. Geomorphology and flood-plain vegetation of the Sprague and lower Sycan Rivers, Klamath Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, James E.; McDowell, Patricia F.; Lind, Pollyanna; Rasmussen, Christine G.; Keith, Mackenzie K.

    2015-01-01

    This study provides information on channel and flood-plain processes and historical trends to guide effective restoration and monitoring strategies for the Sprague River Basin, a primary tributary (via the lower Williamson River) of Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. The study area covered the lower, alluvial segments of the Sprague River system, including the lower parts of the Sycan River, North Fork Sprague River, South Fork Sprague River, and the entire main-stem Sprague River between the confluence of the North Fork Sprague and the South Fork Sprague Rivers and its confluence with the Williamson River at Chiloquin, Oregon. The study included mapping and stratigraphic analysis of flood-plain deposits and flanking features; evaluation of historical records, maps and photographs; mapping and analysis of flood-plain and channel characteristics (including morphologic and vegetation conditions); and a 2006 survey of depositional features left by high flows during the winter and spring of 2005–06.

  12. A forecasting model of gaming revenues in Clark County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the Western Area Gaining and Economic Response Simulator (WAGERS), a forecasting model that emphasizes the role of the gaming industry in Clark County, Nevada. It is designed to generate forecasts of gaming revenues in Clark County, whose regional economy is dominated by the gaming industry, an identify the exogenous variables that affect gaming revenues. This model will provide baseline forecasts of Clark County gaming revenues in order to assess changes in gaming related economic activity resulting from future events like the siting of a permanent high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain

  13. Step up Ken Clarke, pragmatist, cigar smoker, and prison reformer

    OpenAIRE

    Bastow, Simon

    2010-01-01

    In his inimitable style, Ken Clarke gave indication last week of the coalition’s approach to reform of the prison system. There are reasons to be optimistic, and reasons to be sceptical. Simon Bastow discusses the reasons.

  14. J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge [Land Status Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge. It was generated from rectified aerial...

  15. Forks impacts and motivations in free and open source projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Viseur

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Forking is a mechanism of splitting in a community and is typically found in the free and open source software field. As a failure of cooperation in a context of open innovation, forking is a practical and informative subject of study. In-depth researches concerning the fork phenomenon are uncommon. We therefore conducted a detailed study of 26 forks from popular free and open source projects. We created fact sheets, highlighting the impact and motivations to fork. We particularly point to the fact that the desire for greater technical differentiation and problems of project governance are major sources of conflict.

  16. Homologous Recombination as a Replication Fork Escort: Fork-Protection and Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Costes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Homologous recombination is a universal mechanism that allows DNA repair and ensures the efficiency of DNA replication. The substrate initiating the process of homologous recombination is a single-stranded DNA that promotes a strand exchange reaction resulting in a genetic exchange that promotes genetic diversity and DNA repair. The molecular mechanisms by which homologous recombination repairs a double-strand break have been extensively studied and are now well characterized. However, the mechanisms by which homologous recombination contribute to DNA replication in eukaryotes remains poorly understood. Studies in bacteria have identified multiple roles for the machinery of homologous recombination at replication forks. Here, we review our understanding of the molecular pathways involving the homologous recombination machinery to support the robustness of DNA replication. In addition to its role in fork-recovery and in rebuilding a functional replication fork apparatus, homologous recombination may also act as a fork-protection mechanism. We discuss that some of the fork-escort functions of homologous recombination might be achieved by loading of the recombination machinery at inactivated forks without a need for a strand exchange step; as well as the consequence of such a model for the stability of eukaryotic genomes.

  17. An extension of clarke's model with stochastic amplitude flip processes

    KAUST Repository

    Hoel, Hakon

    2014-07-01

    Stochastic modeling is an essential tool for studying statistical properties of wireless channels. In multipath fading channel (MFC) models, the signal reception is modeled by a sum of wave path contributions, and Clarke\\'s model is an important example of such which has been widely accepted in many wireless applications. However, since Clarke\\'s model is temporally deterministic, Feng and Field noted that it does not model real wireless channels with time-varying randomness well. Here, we extend Clarke\\'s model to a novel time-varying stochastic MFC model with scatterers randomly flipping on and off. Statistical properties of the MFC model are analyzed and shown to fit well with real signal measurements, and a limit Gaussian process is derived from the model when the number of active wave paths tends to infinity. A second focus of this work is a comparison study of the error and computational cost of generating signal realizations from the MFC model and from its limit Gaussian process. By rigorous analysis and numerical studies, we show that in many settings, signal realizations are generated more efficiently by Gaussian process algorithms than by the MFC model\\'s algorithm. Numerical examples that strengthen these observations are also presented. © 2014 IEEE.

  18. Malheur River Basin cooperative bull trout/redband trout research project, annual report FY 1999; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to document the seasonal distribution of adult/sub-adult bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Malheur River basin. Due to the decline of bull trout in the Columbia Basin, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service listed bull trout as a threatened species in June 1998. Past land management activities; construction of dams; and fish eradication projects in the North Fork and Middle Fork Malheur River by poisoning have worked in concert to cumulatively impact native species in the Malheur Basin (Bowers et. al. 1993). Survival of the remaining bull trout populations is severely threatened (Buchanan 1997). 1999 Research Objects are: (1) Document the migratory patterns of adult/sub-adult bull trout in the North Fork Malheur River; (2) Determine the seasonal bull trout use of Beulah Reservoir and bull trout entrainment; and (3) Timing and location of bull trout spawning in the North Fork Malheur River basin. The study area includes the Malheur basin from the mouth of the Malheur River located near Ontario, Oregon to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur River (Map 1). All fish collected and most of the telemetry effort was done on the North Fork Malheur River subbasin (Map 2). Fish collection was conducted on the North Fork Malheur River at the tailwaters of Beulah Reservoir (RK 29), Beulah Reservoir (RK 29-RK 33), and in the North Fork Malheur River at Crane Crossing (RK 69) to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur. Radio telemetry was done from the mouth of the Malheur River in Ontario, Oregon to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur. This report will reflect all migration data collected from 3/1/99 to 12/31/99

  19. Quartz tuning fork based microwave impedance microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yong-Tao; Ma, Eric Yue; Shen, Zhi-Xun

    2016-06-01

    Microwave impedance microscopy (MIM), a near-field microwave scanning probe technique, has become a powerful tool to characterize local electrical responses in solid state samples. We present the design of a new type of MIM sensor based on quartz tuning fork and electrochemically etched thin metal wires. Due to a higher aspect ratio tip and integration with tuning fork, such design achieves comparable MIM performance and enables easy self-sensing topography feedback in situations where the conventional optical feedback mechanism is not available, thus is complementary to microfabricated shielded stripline-type probes. The new design also enables stable differential mode MIM detection and multiple-frequency MIM measurements with a single sensor.

  20. Socioeconomic profile of Clark County, Nevada: Community services inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project is preparing socioeconomic profiles of Clark County, Nevada, and communities in Clark County that could be affected by siting, construction, operation, and decommissioning of a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, located in Nye County. These profiles serve as a data base for evaluating local community service impacts; store existing socioeconomic data in a uniform, readily accessible format; identify the need for additional data; and assist in developing a plan for monitoring and mitigating any significant adverse impacts that may be associated with site characterization and potential repository development. This element of the socioeconomic profiles contains an inventory of community services provided by local, county, and state agencies and volunteer organizations to residents of Las Vegas, North Las Vegas, Henderson, Boulder City, Indian Springs, and unincorporated areas of the county. Services inventoried include housing, growth management, general government, education, police protection, transportation networks, public clinics, private health personnel, parks and recreation, social services, libraries, ambulances, electric power, natural gas, water, sewers and wastewater treatment, solid waste, and fire protection. The report includes a summary overview of service providers in Clark County, discussions of the services provided to residents of communities in Clark County that may be affected by Project activities, and a description of service providers whose service areas are not limited to the incorporated areas of Clark County. Data presented in this profile were collected through March of 1985. Data collection efforts are ongoing and this profile will be updated periodically

  1. Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 1999 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassemer, Peter F.

    2001-04-01

    During 1999, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued developing techniques for the captive rearing of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Techniques under development included protocols for rearing juveniles in freshwater and saltwater hatchery environments, and fieldwork to collect brood year 1998 and 1999 juveniles and eggs and to investigate the ability of these fish to spawn naturally. Fish collected as juveniles were held for a short time at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and later transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery for rearing. Eyed-eggs were transferred immediately to the Eagle Fish Hatchery where they were disinfected and reared by family groups. When fish from either collection method reached approximately 60 mm, they were PIT tagged and reared separately by brood year and source stream. Sixteen different groups were in culture at IDFG facilities in 1999. Hatchery spawning activities of captive-reared chinook salmon produced eyed-eggs for outplanting in streamside incubation chambers in the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=2,297) and the East Fork Salmon River (N=1,038). Additionally, a number of these eggs were maintained at the Eagle Fish Hatchery to ensure adequate brood year 1999 representation from these systems, and produced 279 and 87 juveniles from the West Fork Yankee Fork and East Fork Salmon River, respectively. Eyed-eggs were not collected from the West Fork Yankee Fork due to low adult escapement. Brood year 1998 juveniles were collected from the Lemhi River (N=191), West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=229), and East Fork Salmon River (N=185). Additionally, brood year 1999 eyed-eggs were collected from the Lemhi River (N=264) and East Fork Salmon River (N=143). Sixty-two and seven maturing adults were released into Bear Valley Creek (Lemhi River system) and the East Fork Salmon River, respectively, for spawning evaluation in 1999. Nine female carcasses from Bear Valley Creek were examined for egg retention, and of

  2. Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 1998-1999 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassemer, Peter F.

    2001-04-01

    During 1999, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued developing techniques for the captive rearing of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Techniques under development included protocols for rearing juveniles in freshwater and saltwater hatchery environments, and fieldwork to collect brood year 1998 and 1999 juveniles and eggs and to investigate the ability of these fish to spawn naturally. Fish collected as juveniles were held for a short time at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and later transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery for rearing. Eyed-eggs were transferred immediately to the Eagle Fish Hatchery where they were disinfected and reared by family groups. When fish from either collection method reached approximately 60 mm, they were PIT tagged and reared separately by brood year and source stream. Sixteen different groups were in culture at IDFG facilities in 1999. Hatchery spawning activities of captive-reared chinook salmon produced eyed-eggs for outplanting in streamside incubation chambers in the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=2,297) and the East Fork Salmon River (N=1,038). Additionally, a number of these eggs were maintained at the Eagle Fish Hatchery to ensure adequate brood year 1999 representation from these systems, and produced 279 and 87 juveniles from the West Fork Yankee Fork and East Fork Salmon River, respectively. Eyed-eggs were not collected from the West Fork Yankee Fork due to low adult escapement. Brood year 1998 juveniles were collected from the Lemhi River (N=191), West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=229), and East Fork Salmon River (N=185). Additionally, brood year 1999 eyed-eggs were collected from the Lemhi River (N=264) and East Fork Salmon River (N=143). Sixty-two and seven maturing adults were released into Bear Valley Creek (Lemhi River system) and the East Fork Salmon River, respectively, for spawning evaluation in 1999. Nine female carcasses from Bear Valley Creek were examined for egg retention, and of

  3. The forked flap repair for hypospadias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Chadha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Despite the abundance of techniques for the repair of Hypospadias, its problems still persist and a satisfactory design to correct the penile curvature with the formation of neourethra from the native urethral tissue or genital or extragenital tissues, with minimal postoperative complications has yet to evolve. Aim: Persisting with such an endeavor, a new technique for the repair of distal and midpenile hypospadias is described. Materials and Methods: The study has been done in 70 cases over the past 11 years. The "Forked-Flap" repair is a single stage method for the repair of such Hypospadias with chordee. It takes advantage of the rich vascular communication at the corona and capitalizes on the established reliability of the meatal based flip-flap. The repair achieves straightening of the curvature of the penis by complete excision of chordee tissue from the ventral surface of the penis beneath the urethral plate. The urethra is reconstructed using the native plate with forked flap extensions and genital tissue relying on the concept of meatal based flaps. Water proofing by dartos tissue and reinforcement by Nesbit′s prepucial tissue transfer completes the one stage procedure. Statistical Analysis: An analysis of 70 cases of this single stage technique of repair of penile hypospadias with chordee, operated at 3 to 5 years of age over the past 11 years is presented. Results and Conclusion: The Forked Flap gives comparable and replicable results; except for a urethrocutaneous fistula rate of 4% no other complications were observed.

  4. Lowell Observatory's 24-inch Clark Refractor: Its History and Renovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Kevin; Nye, Ralph; Rosenthal, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In 1895, Percival Lowell hired eminent telescope maker Alvan G. Clark to build a 24-inch refractor. Lowell intended the telescope intitally for observing Mars in support of his controversial theories about life on that planet. Clark finished the telescope within a year and at a cost of $20,000. Lowell and his staff of assistants and astronomers began observing through it on July 23, 1896, setting off a long and productive career for the telescope.While Lowell's Mars studies dominated early work with the Clark, V.M. Slipher by the 1910s was using it to observe planetary rotations and atmospheric compositions. He soon revolutionized spectroscopic studies, gathering excruciatingly long spectra - some in excess of 40 hours - of the so-called white nebula and determining startling radial velocities, evidence of an expanding universe. In the 1960s, scientists and artists teamed up on the Clark and created detailed lunar maps in support of the Apollo program.In recent decades, the Clark has played a central role in the education programs at Lowell, with general public audiences, students, and private groups all taking advantage of this unique resource.With this nearly 120 years of contant use, the Clark had been wearing down in recent years. The telescope was becoming more difficult to move, old electrical wiring in the dome was a fire hazard, and many of the telescope's parts needed to be repaired or replaced.In 2013, Lowell Observatory began a fundraising campaign, collecting $291,000 to cover the cost of dome and telescope renovation. Workers removed the entire telescope mount and tube assembly from the dome, examining every part from tube sections to individuals screws. They also stabilized the dome, adding a water vapor barrier and new outer wall while reinforcing the upper dome. The project lasted from January, 2014 through August, 2015. The facility reopened for daytime tours in September, 2015 and evening viewing the following month.

  5. Code forking in open-source software: a requirements perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Ernst, Neil A; Mylopoulos, John

    2010-01-01

    To fork a project is to copy the existing code base and move in a direction different than that of the erstwhile project leadership. Forking provides a rapid way to address new requirements by adapting an existing solution. However, it can also create a plethora of similar tools, and fragment the developer community. Hence, it is not always clear whether forking is the right strategy. In this paper, we describe a mixed-methods exploratory case study that investigated the process of forking a project. The study concerned the forking of an open-source tool for managing software projects, Trac. Trac was forked to address differing requirements in an academic setting. The paper makes two contributions to our understanding of code forking. First, our exploratory study generated several theories about code forking in open source projects, for further research. Second, we investigated one of these theories in depth, via a quantitative study. We conjectured that the features of the OSS forking process would allow new...

  6. Code forking in open-source software: a requirements perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ernst, Neil A.; Easterbrook, Steve; Mylopoulos, John

    2010-01-01

    To fork a project is to copy the existing code base and move in a direction different than that of the erstwhile project leadership. Forking provides a rapid way to address new requirements by adapting an existing solution. However, it can also create a plethora of similar tools, and fragment the developer community. Hence, it is not always clear whether forking is the right strategy. In this paper, we describe a mixed-methods exploratory case study that investigated the process of forking a ...

  7. Evolution of tail fork depth in genus Hirundo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Masaru; Arai, Emi; Kutsukake, Nobuyuki

    2016-02-01

    A classic example of a sexually selected trait, the deep fork tail of the barn swallow Hirundo rustica is now claimed to have evolved and be maintained mainly via aerodynamic advantage rather than sexually selected advantage. However, this aerodynamic advantage hypothesis does not clarify which flight habits select for/against deep fork tails, causing diversity of tail fork depth in hirundines. Here, by focusing on the genus Hirundo, we investigated whether the large variation in tail fork depth could be explained by the differential flight habits. Using a phylogenetic comparative approach, we found that migrant species had deeper fork tails, but less colorful plumage, than the other species, indicating that migration favors a specific trait, deep fork tails. At the same time, tail fork depth but not plumage coloration decreased with increasing bill size - a proxy of prey size, suggesting that foraging on larger prey items favors shallower fork tails. Variation of tail fork depth in the genus Hirundo may be explained by differential flight habits, even without assuming sexual selection. PMID:26865972

  8. Paul Clark, The Chinese Cultural Revolution: A History

    OpenAIRE

    Marchetti, Gina

    2011-01-01

    Paul Clark, The Chinese Cultural Revolution : A History, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2008, 352 p. Avec cet ouvrage remarquable, Paul Clark prend le contre-pied des perspectives dominantes de la recherche anglo-saxonne et redonne toute sa place à la « culture » au sein de la Grande Révolution Culturelle Prolétarienne (GRCP, 1966-76). Plutôt que d'analyser la période comme une série de manifestions, rivalités de factions, proclamations politiques et initiatives du gouvernement, Clar...

  9. Replication Termination: Containing Fork Fusion-Mediated Pathologies in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Juachi U. Dimude; Midgley-Smith, Sarah L.; Monja Stein; Rudolph, Christian J.

    2016-01-01

    Duplication of bacterial chromosomes is initiated via the assembly of two replication forks at a single defined origin. Forks proceed bi-directionally until they fuse in a specialised termination area opposite the origin. This area is flanked by polar replication fork pause sites that allow forks to enter but not to leave. The precise function of this replication fork trap has remained enigmatic, as no obvious phenotypes have been associated with its inactivation. However, the fork trap becom...

  10. Wesley Clark pooldab NATO harta tugevdamist / Evi Evart

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Evart, Evi

    2003-01-01

    Endine NATO vägede ülemjuhataja Euroopas Wesley Clark pidas USA välispoliitikanõukogus kõne, milles tegi ettepaneku sõlmida uus Atlandi harta ning võrdles USA suhteid Euroopa riikidega raudeesriide-aegse olukorraga

  11. Automatic differentiation of melanoma and clark nevus skin lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeAnder, R. W.; Kasture, A.; Pandey, A.; Umbaugh, S. E.

    2007-03-01

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. Although melanoma accounts for just 11% of all types of skin cancer, it is responsible for most of the deaths, claiming more than 7910 lives annually. Melanoma is visually difficult for clinicians to differentiate from Clark nevus lesions which are benign. The application of pattern recognition techniques to these lesions may be useful as an educational tool for teaching physicians to differentiate lesions, as well as for contributing information about the essential optical characteristics that identify them. Purpose: This study sought to find the most effective features to extract from melanoma, melanoma in situ and Clark nevus lesions, and to find the most effective pattern-classification criteria and algorithms for differentiating those lesions, using the Computer Vision and Image Processing Tools (CVIPtools) software package. Methods: Due to changes in ambient lighting during the photographic process, color differences between images can occur. These differences were minimized by capturing dermoscopic images instead of photographic images. Differences in skin color between patients were minimized via image color normalization, by converting original color images to relative-color images. Relative-color images also helped minimize changes in color that occur due to changes in the photographic and digitization processes. Tumors in the relative-color images were segmented and morphologically filtered. Filtered, relative-color, tumor features were then extracted and various pattern-classification schemes were applied. Results: Experimentation resulted in four useful pattern classification methods, the best of which was an overall classification rate of 100% for melanoma and melanoma in situ (grouped) and 60% for Clark nevus. Conclusion: Melanoma and melanoma in situ have feature parameters and feature values that are similar enough to be considered one class of tumor that significantly differs from

  12. Design of a tuning-fork gyro made of quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yubin; Sun, Yunan; Qin, BingKun; Cui, Fang; Chen, Gang

    1998-08-01

    Based on piezoelectric effect of quartz, a design of tuning- fork gyroscopes made of quartz was presented in this paper. The gyroscope is a kind of micro-machined quartz angular rate sensor. Its structure is similar to a tuning fork in quartz watch. In the gyroscope, the piezoelectric effect in quartz is used both to excite a reference vibration in the plane of tuning fork and to detect a vibration normal to this plane due to an externally applied rotation. The amplitude of the second vibration is directly proportional to the angular velocity of the applied rotation. In contrast to ordinary types of tuning fork gyroscopes, this gyroscope uses a single piece of quartz, the sensor element is of a design in which the only vibrationally, active areas are the tines of the tuning fork.

  13. Mass loading of selected major and trace elements in Lake Fork Creek near Leadville, Colorado, September-October 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton-Day, Katherine; Flynn, Jennifer L.; Kimball, Briant A.; Runkel, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    A mass-loading study of Lake Fork Creek of the Arkansas River between Sugarloaf Dam and the mouth was completed in September-October 2001 to help ascertain the following: (1) variation of pH and aqueous constituent concentrations (calcium, sulfate, alkalinity, aluminum, cadmium, copper, iron, manganese, lead, and zinc) and their relation to toxicity standards along the study reach; (2) location and magnitude of sources of metal loading to Lake Fork Creek; (3) amount and locations of metal attenuation; (4) the effect of streamside wetlands on metal transport from contributing mine tunnels; and (5) the effect of organic-rich inflow from the Leadville National Fish Hatchery on water quality in Lake Fork Creek. The study was done in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Constituent concentrations and pH showed variable patterns over the study reach. Hardness-based acute and chronic toxicity standards were exceeded for some inflows and some constituents. However, stream concentrations did not exceed standards except for zinc starting in the upper parts of the study reach and extending to just downstream from the inflow from the Leadville National Fish Hatchery. Dilution from that inflow lowered stream zinc concentrations to less than acute and chronic toxicity standards. The uppermost 800 meters of the study reach that contained inflow from the Bartlett, Dinero, and Nelson mine tunnels and the Dinero wetland was the greatest source of loading for manganese and zinc. A middle section of the study reach that extended approximately 2 kilometers upstream from the National Fish Hatchery inflow to just downstream from that inflow was the largest source of aluminum, copper, iron, and lead loading. The loading was partially from the National Fish Hatchery inflow but also from unknown sources upstream from that inflow, possibly ground water. The largest sources for calcium and sulfate

  14. Wireless tuning fork gyroscope for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Jose K.; Varadan, Vijay K.; Whitchurch, Ashwin K.; Sarukesi, K.

    2003-07-01

    This paper presents the development of a Bluetooth enabled wireless tuning fork gyroscope for the biomedical applications, including gait phase detection system, human motion analysis and physical therapy. This gyroscope is capable of measuring rotation rates between -90 and 90 and it can read the rotation information using a computer. Currently, the information from a gyroscope can trigger automobile airbag deployment during rollover, improve the accuracy and reliability of GPS navigation systems and stabilize moving platforms such as automobiles, airplanes, robots, antennas, and industrial equipment. Adding wireless capability to the existing gyroscope could help to expand its applications in many areas particularly in biomedical applications, where a continuous patient monitoring is quite difficult. This wireless system provides information on several aspects of activities of patients for real-time monitoring in hospitals.

  15. Chemical and biological sensing using tuning forks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Nongjian; Boussaad, Salah

    2012-07-10

    A device for sensing a chemical analyte is disclosed. The device is comprised of a vibrating structure having first and second surfaces and having an associated resonant frequency and a wire coupled between the first and second surfaces of the vibrating structure, wherein the analyte interacts with the wire and causes a change in the resonant frequency of the vibrating structure. The vibrating structure can include a tuning fork. The vibrating structure can be comprised of quartz. The wire can be comprised of polymer. A plurality of vibrating structures are arranged in an array to increase confidence by promoting a redundancy of measurement or to detect a plurality of chemical analytes. A method of making a device for sensing a chemical analyte is also disclosed.

  16. Fork gratings based on ferroelectric liquid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y; Wei, B Y; Shi, L Y; Srivastava, A K; Chigrinov, V G; Kwok, H-S; Hu, W; Lu, Y Q

    2016-03-21

    In this article, we disclose a fork grating (FG) based on the photo-aligned ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC). The Digital Micro-mirror Device based system is used as a dynamic photomask to generated different holograms. Because of controlled anchoring energy, the photo alignment process offers optimal conditions for the multi-domain FLC alignment. Two different electro-optical modes namely DIFF/TRANS and DIFF/OFF switchable modes have been proposed where the diffraction can be switched either to no diffraction or to a completely black state, respectively. The FLC FG shows high diffraction efficiency and fast response time of 50µs that is relatively faster than existing technologies. Thus, the FLC FG may pave a good foundation toward optical vertices generation and manipulation that could find applications in a variety of devices. PMID:27136779

  17. Kindral Clark: tehke NATOs kõva häält! / Wesley K Clark ; interv. Kaarel Kaas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Clark, Wesley K

    2005-01-01

    NATO Euroopa liitlasvägede endine juhataja, USA erukindral 2004. aasta presidendivalimistest USA-s, võimalikust kandideerimisest presidendiks 2008. aasta valimistel, demokraatide võimalustest järgmised presidendivalimised võita, oma seisukohtadest Iraagi sõja küsimuses, diplomaatiliste vahendite kasutamisest sõjaliste konfliktide lahendamisel, NATO laienemisest ja organisatsiooni sõjalisest suutlikkusest ning intsidendist Vene hävitajaga. Lisa: Wesley K. Clark

  18. Deep Fork National Wildlife Refuge [Land Status Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Deep Fork National Wildlife Refuge. It was generated from rectified aerial photography,...

  19. Spent-fuel verification with the Los Alamos fork detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Los Alamos fork detector for the verification of spent-fuel assemblies has generated precise, reproducible data. The data analyses have now evolved to the point of placing tight restrictions on a diverter's actions

  20. MUS81-EME2 Promotes Replication Fork Restart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Pepe

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Replication forks frequently stall at regions of the genome that are difficult to replicate or contain lesions that cause replication blockage. An important mechanism for the restart of a stalled fork involves endonucleolytic cleavage that can lead to fork restoration and replication progression. Here, we show that the structure-selective endonuclease MUS81-EME2 is responsible for fork cleavage and restart in human cells. The MUS81-EME2 protein, whose actions are restricted to S phase, is also responsible for telomere maintenance in telomerase-negative ALT (Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres cells. In contrast, the G2/M functions of MUS81, such as the cleavage of recombination intermediates and fragile site expression, are promoted by MUS81-EME1. These results define distinct and temporal roles for MUS81-EME1 and MUS81-EME2 in the maintenance of genome stability.

  1. An inventory of wildlife resources, Marsh Fork, summer 1973

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife contracted us to do a wildlife resource inventory of the Marsh Fork in summer, 1973. We had planned the inventory in two...

  2. Inventory and Monitoring Plan for Deep Fork National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Inventory and Monitoring Plan (IMP) is prepared to document the inventory and monitoring surveys that will, or could be conducted at Deep Fork National...

  3. Regulation of replication fork progression through histone supply and demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Anja; Corpet, Armelle; Cook, Adam J L;

    2007-01-01

    DNA replication in eukaryotes requires nucleosome disruption ahead of the replication fork and reassembly behind. An unresolved issue concerns how histone dynamics are coordinated with fork progression to maintain chromosomal stability. Here, we characterize a complex in which the human histone...... chaperone Asf1 and MCM2-7, the putative replicative helicase, are connected through a histone H3-H4 bridge. Depletion of Asf1 by RNA interference impedes DNA unwinding at replication sites, and similar defects arise from overproduction of new histone H3-H4 that compromises Asf1 function. These data link Asf......1 chaperone function, histone supply, and replicative unwinding of DNA in chromatin. We propose that Asf1, as a histone acceptor and donor, handles parental and new histones at the replication fork via an Asf1-(H3-H4)-MCM2-7 intermediate and thus provides a means to fine-tune replication fork...

  4. Growth Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. The fork length to the nearest mm and weight to the nearest gram of a...

  5. Chromatin Immunoprecipitation of Replication Factors Moving with the Replication Fork

    OpenAIRE

    Rapp, Jordan B.; Ansbach, Alison B.; Noguchi, Chiaki; Noguchi, Eishi

    2009-01-01

    Replication of chromosomes involves a variety of replication proteins including DNA polymerases, DNA helicases, and other accessory factors. Many of these proteins are known to localize at replication forks and travel with them as components of the replisome complex. Other proteins do not move with replication forks but still play an essential role in DNA replication. Therefore, in order to understand the mechanisms of DNA replication and its controls, it is important to examine localization ...

  6. Fascin, may the Forked be with you.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okenve-Ramos, Pilar; Llimargas, Marta

    2014-01-01

    The FGFR pathway triggers a wide range of key biological responses. Among others, the Breathless (Btl, Drosophila FGFR1) receptor cascade promotes cell migration during embryonic tracheal system development. However, how the actin cytoskeleton responds to Btl pathway activation to induce cell migration has remained largely unclear. Our recent results shed light into this issue by unveiling a link between the actin-bundling protein Singed (Sn) and the Btl pathway. We showed that the Btl pathway regulates sn, which leads to the stabilization of the actin bundles required for filopodia formation and actin cytoskeleton rearrangement. This regulation contributes to tracheal migration, tracheal branch fusion and tracheal cell elongation. Parallel actin bundles (PABs) are usually cross-linked by more than one actin-bundling protein. Accordingly, we have also shown that sn synergistically interacts with forked (f), another actin crosslinker. In this Extra View we extend f analysis and hypothesize how both actin-bundling proteins may act together to regulate the PABs during tracheal embryonic development. Although both proteins are required for similar tracheal events, we suggest that Sn is essential for actin bundle initiation and stiffening, while F is required for the lengthening and further stabilization of the PABs.

  7. Nicola Clarke, The Muslim Conquest of Iberia. Medieval Arabic Narratives

    OpenAIRE

    Manzano, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Es mucho lo que se conoce sobre la influencia de Oriente en al-Andalus pero, en cambio, es mucho menos lo que sabemos sobre la forma en que el territorio occidental era percibido por los orientales. Como afirma N. Clarke en este inteligente, sólido y, por momentos, brillante estudio sobre las narrativas árabes en torno a la conquista, las relaciones entre ambas áreas eran complejas. A la rivalidad política se le añadía la percepción de un déficit cultural del que los occidentales eran siempre...

  8. Estimating Subdivision Depth of Catmull-Clark Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua-Wei Wang; Kai-Huai Qin

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, both general and exponential bounds of the distance between a uniform Catmull-Clark surface and its control polyhedron are derived. The exponential bound is independent of the process of subdivision and can be evaluated without recursive subdivision. Based on the exponential bound, we can predict the depth of subdivision within a user-specified error tolerance. This is quite useful and important for pre-computing the subdivision depth of subdivision surfaces in many engineering applications such as surface/surface intersection,mesh generation, numerical control machining and surface rendering.

  9. Yucca Mountain: How Do Global and Federal Initiatives Impact Clark County's Nuclear Waste Program?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1987, Clark County has been designated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as an 'Affected Unit of Local Government' (AULG). The AULG designation is an acknowledgement by the federal government that activities associated with the Yucca Mountain proposal could result in considerable impacts on Clark County residents and the community as a whole. As an AULG, Clark County is authorized to identify 'any potential economic, social, public health and safety, and environmental impacts of a repository', 42 U.S.C. Section 10135(c)(1)(B)(i) under provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act Amendments (NWPAA). Clark County's oversight program contains key elements of (1) technical and scientific analysis (2) transportation analysis (3) impact assessment and monitoring (4) policy and legislative analysis and monitoring, and (5) public outreach. Clark County has conducted numerous studies of potential impacts, many of which are summarized in Clark County's Impact Assessment Report that was submitted DOE and the President of the United States in February 2002. Given the unprecedented magnitude and duration of DOE's proposal, as well as the many unanswered questions about the transportation routes, number of shipments, and the modal mix that will ultimately be used, impacts to public health and safety and security, as well as socioeconomic impacts, can only be estimated. In order to refine these estimates, Clark County Comprehensive Planning Department's Nuclear Waste Division updates, assesses, and monitors impacts on a regular basis. Clark County's Impact Assessment program covers not only unincorporated Clark County but all five jurisdictions of Las Vegas, North Las Vegas, Henderson, Mesquite, and Boulder City as well as tribal jurisdictions that fall within Clark County's geographic boundary. National and global focus on nuclear power and nuclear waste could have significant impact on the Yucca Mountain Program, and therefore, Clark County's oversight of that program

  10. Bull Trout Population Assessment in the White Salmon and Klickitat Rivers, Columbia River Gorge, Washington, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiesfeld, Steven L.; McPeak, Ronald H.; McNamara, Brian S. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife); Honanie, Isadore (Confederated Tribes and Bands, Yakama Nation)

    2002-01-01

    We utilized night snorkeling and single pass electroshocking to determine the presence or absence of bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in 26 stream reaches (3,415 m) in the White Salmon basin and in 71 stream reaches (9,005 m) in the Klickitat River basin during summer and fall 2001. We did not find any bull trout in the White Salmon River basin. In the Klickitat River basin, bull trout were found only in the West Fork Klickitat River drainage. We found bull trout in two streams not previously reported: Two Lakes Stream and an unnamed tributary to Fish Lake Stream (WRIA code number 30-0550). We attempted to capture downstream migrant bull trout in the West Fork Klickitat River by fishing a 1.5-m rotary screw trap at RM 4.3 from July 23 through October 17. Although we caught other salmonids, no bull trout were captured. The greatest limiting factor for bull trout in the West Fork Klickitat River is likely the small amount of available habitat resulting in a low total abundance, and the isolation of the population. Many of the streams are fragmented by natural falls, which are partial or complete barriers to upstream fish movement. To date, we have not been able to confirm that the occasional bull trout observed in the mainstem Klickitat River are migrating upstream into the West Fork Klickitat River.

  11. Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S.M.; Christensen, S.W.; Greeley, M.S.jr; Hill, W.R.; Kszos, L.A.; McCarthy, J.F.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

    1998-10-15

    ) access. The sampling sites include upper EFPC at kilometers (EFKs) 24.4 and 23.4 [upstream and downstream of Lake Reality (LR) respectively]; EFK 18.7 (also EFK 18 and 19), iocated off the ORR and below an area of intensive commercial and limited light industrial development; EFK 13.8 (also EFK 14), located upstream from the Oak Ridge Wastewater Treatment Facility (ORWTF); and EFK 6.3 located approximately 1.4 km below the ORR boundary (Fig. 1.1 ). Other sampling sites on EFPC are utilized as appropriate for individual tasks. Brushy Fork (BF) at kilometer (BFK) 7.6 is used as a reference stream in most tasks of the BMAP. Additional sites off the ORR are also occasional 1 y used for reference, including Beaver Creek, Bull Run, Hinds Creek, Paint Rock Creek, and the Einory River in Watts Bar Reservoir (Fig. 1.2).

  12. Biblioteca W. Dale Clark Omaha - Nebraska - EE. UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellmuth, George

    1979-12-01

    Full Text Available The W. Dale Clark Library, a very popular institution since it was opened, has become a landmark in the urban renewal plan of the City of Omaha. The building, in a square plan and totally symetric, projects its functionality to the outside. Hence, the two large solid walls on opposite façades express the non-public uses while the other two glazed façades express the public areas. A central interior court creates a vast space visually connecting the four upper floors while affords natural lighting through a skylight in the roof.

    La Biblioteca W. Dale Clark, por la aceptación pública que ha tenido desde su apertura, marca un hito importante en el plan de revitalización de la ciudad de Omaha. El edificio, de planta cuadrada y de total simetría, muestra su funcionalidad al exterior, y así, los dos grandes paños ciegos en fachadas opuestas, delimitan los usos cerrados, mientras que las otras dos fachadas, con sus muros totalmente acristalados, manifiestan e iluminan las zonas de uso público. En el interior, un espacio central que cruza los cuatro niveles superiores, enlaza visualmente a, todas las plantas entre sí, al tiempo que permite su iluminación natural por el lucernario de la cubierta.

  13. Superior abstract-concept learning by Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnotti, John F; Katz, Jeffrey S; Wright, Anthony A; Kelly, Debbie M

    2015-05-01

    The ability to learn abstract relational concepts is fundamental to higher level cognition. In contrast to item-specific concepts (e.g. pictures containing trees versus pictures containing cars), abstract relational concepts are not bound to particular stimulus features, but instead involve the relationship between stimuli and therefore may be extrapolated to novel stimuli. Previous research investigating the same/different abstract concept has suggested that primates might be specially adapted to extract relations among items and would require fewer exemplars of a rule to learn an abstract concept than non-primate species. We assessed abstract-concept learning in an avian species, Clark's nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana), using a small number of exemplars (eight pairs of the same rule, and 56 pairs of the different rule) identical to that previously used to compare rhesus monkeys, capuchin monkeys and pigeons. Nutcrackers as a group (N = 9) showed more novel stimulus transfer than any previous species tested with this small number of exemplars. Two nutcrackers showed full concept learning and four more showed transfer considerably above chance performance, indicating partial concept learning. These results show that the Clark's nutcracker, a corvid species well known for its amazing feats of spatial memory, learns the same/different abstract concept better than any non-human species (including non-human primates) yet tested on this same task.

  14. Changes in Clark-Trow Subcultures from 1976 to 2006: Implications for Addressing Undergraduates' Leisure Interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendel, Darwin D.; Harrold, Roger

    2007-01-01

    Unrest in the early 1970s stimulated a need to understand undergraduates' motivations. The Clark-Trow Typology (Clark & Trow, 1966) examined student behavior (i.e., academic, collegiate, vocational, and non-conformist) according to identification with the institution and involvement with ideas. The Student Interest Survey included questions based…

  15. Giving Children Security: Mamie Phipps Clark and the Racialization of Child Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Shafali

    2002-01-01

    Examines the individual and social contexts of the life of Mamie Clark (wife of African American psychologist Kenneth Clark), whose work at the Harlem Northside Center for Child Development helped define an increasing interest in the psychology of children of color. Urges greater attention to the dynamics of race and gender in history of…

  16. More forks on the road to replication stress recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chris Allen; Amanda K. Ashley; Robert Hromas; Jac A. Nickoloff

    2011-01-01

    High-fidelity replication of DNA, and its accurate segregation to daughter cells, is critical for maintaining genome stability and suppressing cancer. DNA replication forks are stalled by many DNA lesions, activating checkpoint proteins that stabilize stalled forks.Stalled forks may eventually collapse, producing a broken DNA end. Fork restart is typically mediated by proteins initially identified by their rotes in homologous recombination repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). In recent years, several proteins involved in DSB repair by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) have been implicated in the replication stress response, including DNA-PKcs, Ku,DNA Ligase IV-XRCC4, Artemis, XLF and Metnase. It is currently unclear whether NHEJ proteins are involved in the replication stress response through indirect (signaling) roles, and/or direct roles involving DNA end joining. Additional complexity in the replication stress response centers around RPA, which undergoes significant post-translational modification after stress, and RAD52, a conserved HR protein whose role in DSB repair may have shifted to another protein in higher eukaryotes, such as BRCA2, but retained its rote in fork restart. Most cancer therapeutic strategies create DNA reputation stress. Thus, it is imperative to gain a better understanding of replication stress response proteins and pathways to improve cancer therapy.

  17. Assessment of endocrine disruption in Smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) in the Potomac River Watershed

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Intersex, specifically testicular oocytes, has been observed in male smallmouth bass (SMB) and other centrarchids in the South Branch of the Potomac River and forks...

  18. Tianjin,Full of Fork Art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Tianjin is one of the four municipalities in China.Its name means"the place where the emperor crossed the river".Its urban area is the third largest in China,after Shanghai and Beijing.Tianjin's urban area is located along the Hai He River.Its ports,some distance away,are located on Bohai Gulf in the Pacific Ocean.Tianjin Municipality borders Hebei province to the north,south,and west;the municipality of Beijing is to the northwest,and Bohai Gulf to the east.

  19. A Multi-Fork Z-Axis Quartz Micromachined Gyroscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiying Yang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel multi-fork z-axis gyroscope is presented in this paper. Different from traditional quartz gyroscopes, the lateral electrodes of the sense beam can be arranged in simple patterns; as a result, the fabrication is simplified. High sensitivity is achieved by the multi-fork design. The working principles are introduced, while the finite element method (FEM is used to simulate the modal and sensitivity. A quartz fork is fabricated, and a prototype is assembled. Impedance testing shows that the drive frequency and sense frequency are similar to the simulations, and the quality factor is approximately 10,000 in air. The scale factor is measured to be 18.134 mV/(°/s and the nonlinearity is 0.40% in a full-scale input range of ±250 °/s.

  20. Geometric Metasurface Fork Gratings for Vortex Beam Generation and Manipulation

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Shumei; Li, Guixin; Zhang, Shuang; Cheah, Kok Wai

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, optical vortex beams possessing orbital angular momentum have caught much attention due to their potential for high capacity optical communications. This capability arises from the unbounded topological charges of orbital angular momentum (OAM) that provides infinite freedoms for encoding information. The two most common approaches for generating vortex beams are through fork diffraction gratings and spiral phase plates. While realization of conventional spiral phase plate requires complicated 3D fabrication, the emerging field of metasurfaces has provided a planar and facile solution for generating vortex beams of arbitrary orbit angular momentum. Here we realize a novel type of geometric metasurface fork grating that seamlessly combine the functionality of a metasurface phase plate for vortex beam generation, and that of a linear phase gradient metasurface for controlling the wave propagation direction. The metasurface fork grating is therefore capable of simultaneously controlling both the...

  1. A multi-fork z-axis quartz micromachined gyroscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lihui; Zhao, Ke; Sun, Yunan; Cui, Jianmin; Cui, Fang; Yang, Aiying

    2013-01-01

    A novel multi-fork z-axis gyroscope is presented in this paper. Different from traditional quartz gyroscopes, the lateral electrodes of the sense beam can be arranged in simple patterns; as a result, the fabrication is simplified. High sensitivity is achieved by the multi-fork design. The working principles are introduced, while the finite element method (FEM) is used to simulate the modal and sensitivity. A quartz fork is fabricated, and a prototype is assembled. Impedance testing shows that the drive frequency and sense frequency are similar to the simulations, and the quality factor is approximately 10,000 in air. The scale factor is measured to be 18.134 mV/(°/s) and the nonlinearity is 0.40% in a full-scale input range of ±250 °/s.

  2. New histone supply regulates replication fork speed and PCNA unloading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlvang, Jakob; Feng, Yunpeng; Alabert, Constance;

    2014-01-01

    Correct duplication of DNA sequence and its organization into chromatin is central to genome function and stability. However, it remains unclear how cells coordinate DNA synthesis with provision of new histones for chromatin assembly to ensure chromosomal stability. In this paper, we show...... that replication fork speed is dependent on new histone supply and efficient nucleosome assembly. Inhibition of canonical histone biosynthesis impaired replication fork progression and reduced nucleosome occupancy on newly synthesized DNA. Replication forks initially remained stable without activation...... of conventional checkpoints, although prolonged histone deficiency generated DNA damage. PCNA accumulated on newly synthesized DNA in cells lacking new histones, possibly to maintain opportunity for CAF-1 recruitment and nucleosome assembly. Consistent with this, in vitro and in vivo analysis showed that PCNA...

  3. Re-Reconsidering Research on Learning from Media: Comments on Richard E. Clark's "Point of View" Column on Serious Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J. R.; Becker, Katrin; Sawyer, Ben

    2008-01-01

    Everything old is new again. In a recent "Point of View" editorial commentary in "Educational Technology," Richard E. Clark revisits the now-famous media-effects debate with a focus on serious games. Clark argues that serious games have little to offer that improves upon traditional methods. This article responds to those claims. While Clark's…

  4. Geologic map of the Vancouver and Orchards quadrangles and parts of the Portland and Mount Tabor quadrangles, Clark County, Washington, and Multnomah County, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Jim E.; Cannon, Charles M.; Mangano, Joseph F.; Evarts, Russell C.

    2016-06-03

    IntroductionThis is a 1:24,000-scale geologic map of the Vancouver and Orchards quadrangles and parts of the Portland and Mount Tabor quadrangles in the States of Washington and Oregon. The map area is within the Portland Basin and includes most of the city of Vancouver, Washington; parts of Clark County, Washington; and a small part of northwestern Multnomah County, Oregon. The Columbia River flows through the southern part of the map area, generally forming the southern limit of mapping. Mapped Quaternary geologic units include late Pleistocene cataclysmic flood deposits, eolian deposits, and alluvium of the Columbia River and its tributaries. Older deposits include Miocene to Pleistocene alluvium from an ancestral Columbia River. Regional geologic structures are not exposed in the map area but are inferred from nearby mapping.

  5. Replication Termination: Containing Fork Fusion-Mediated Pathologies in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juachi U. Dimude

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Duplication of bacterial chromosomes is initiated via the assembly of two replication forks at a single defined origin. Forks proceed bi-directionally until they fuse in a specialised termination area opposite the origin. This area is flanked by polar replication fork pause sites that allow forks to enter but not to leave. The precise function of this replication fork trap has remained enigmatic, as no obvious phenotypes have been associated with its inactivation. However, the fork trap becomes a serious problem to cells if the second fork is stalled at an impediment, as replication cannot be completed, suggesting that a significant evolutionary advantage for maintaining this chromosomal arrangement must exist. Recently, we demonstrated that head-on fusion of replication forks can trigger over-replication of the chromosome. This over-replication is normally prevented by a number of proteins including RecG helicase and 3’ exonucleases. However, even in the absence of these proteins it can be safely contained within the replication fork trap, highlighting that multiple systems might be involved in coordinating replication fork fusions. Here, we discuss whether considering the problems associated with head-on replication fork fusion events helps us to better understand the important role of the replication fork trap in cellular metabolism.

  6. 76 FR 35909 - Temporary Concession Contract for Big South Fork National Recreation Area, TN/KY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... contract for Big South Fork National Recreation Area, TN/KY. SUMMARY: Pursuant to 36 CFR 51.24, public... National Park Service Temporary Concession Contract for Big South Fork National Recreation Area, TN/KY... contract for the conduct of certain visitor services within Big South Fork National Recreation...

  7. Influence of remediation in a mine-impacted river: Metal trends over large spatial and temporal scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberger, M.I.; Luoma, S.N.; Johnson, M.L.; Holyoak, M.

    2009-01-01

    The effectiveness of mine-waste remediation at the Clark Fork River Superfund site in western Montana, USA, was examined by monitoring metal concentrations in resident biota (caddisfly, Hydropsyche spp.) and bed sediment over a 19-year period. Remediation activities began in 1990 and are ongoing. In the upper 45 km, reduced Cu and Cd concentrations at some sites were coincident with remediation events. However, for a period of three years, the decline in Cu and Cd directly below the treatment ponds was offset by high arsenic concentrations, suggesting that remediation for cations (e.g., Cu and Cd) mobilized anions such as arsenic. The impact of remediation in the middle and lower reaches was confounded by a significant positive relationship between metal bioaccumulation and stream discharge. High flows did not dilute metals but redistributed contaminants throughout the river. The majority of clean-up efforts were focused on reducing metal-rich sediments in the most contaminated upstream reach, implicitly assuming that improvements upstream will positively impact the downstream stations. We tested this assumption by correlating temporal metal trends in sediment between and among stations. The strength of that association (r value) was our indicator of spatial connectivity. Connectivity for both Cu and Cd was strong at small spatial scales. Large-scale connectivity was strongest with Cu since similar temporal reductions were observed at most monitoring stations. The most upstream station, closest to remediation, had the lowest connectivity, but the next three downstream sites were strongly correlated to trends downstream. Targeted remediation in this reach would be an effective approach to positively influencing the downstream stations. ?? 2009 by the Ecological Society ot America.

  8. Curve interpolation based on Catmull-Clark subdivision scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    An efficient algorithm for curve interpolation is proposed. The algorithm can produce a subdivision surface that can interpolate the predefined cubic B-spline curves by applying the Catmull-Clark scheme to a polygonal mesh containing "symmetric zonal meshes", which possesses some special properties. Many kinds of curve interpolation problems can be dealt with by this algorithm, such as interpolating single open curve or closed curve, a mesh of nonintersecting or intersecting curve. The interpolating surface is C2 everywhere excepting at a finite number of points. At the same time, sharp creases can also be modeled on the limit subdivision surface by duplicating the vertices of the tagged edges of initial mesh, i.e. the surface is only C0 along the cubic B-spline curve that is defined by the tagged edges. Because of being simple and easy to implement, this method can be used for product shape design and graphic software development.

  9. Ten Things You Should Do with a Tuning Fork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, James

    2013-01-01

    Tuning forks are wonderful tools for teaching physics. Every physics classroom should have several and every physics student should be taught how to use them. In this article, I highlight 10 enriching demonstrations that most teachers might not know, as well as provide tips to enhance the demonstrations teachers might already be doing. Some of…

  10. Micro-Temperature Sensor Based on Quartz Tuning Fork Resonator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Ma

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a low cost quartz tuning fork temperature sensor adopting H-shaped tuning fork resonator to address miniaturization, high resolution and high stability has been designed, developed and tested. The quartz tuning temperature sensor is designed using flexural vibrating mode with a new thermo-sensitive cut. The quartz tuning fork temperature sensor consists of two prongs connected at one end of crystalline quartz plate with thin-film metal electrodes deposited on the faces, which is used to produce vibration in response to alternating voltages and detecting the resonance frequency in the meantime. When an external temperature is change, there is a shift in its natural frequency. Finite Element Method (FEM is used to analyze the vibratory modes and optimize the structure of the sensor. The resonance frequency of tuning fork is about 37 kHz with a sensitivity of rough 80 ppm/°C. The experimental results shown that a temperature accuracy of 0.01°C and a resolution of 0.005°C within temperature range from 0 to 100°C, respectively.

  11. Narrative report: J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge for calendar year 1967

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for J. Clark Salyer NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1967 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  12. J. Clark Salyer Wetland Management District : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for J. Clark Salyer Wetland Management District outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1984 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  13. DS 827, Vegetation Database for Land-Cover Mapping in Clark and Lincoln Counties, Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This geodatabase consists of a point feature class and related tables representing sample sites where vegetation data were collected from 2007 to 2013 in Clark and...

  14. J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1986 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  15. J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1994 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  16. J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1995 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  17. J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1993 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  18. Lewis and Clark NWR: Initial Survey Instructions for Resident Dark Goose Nest Survey Protocol

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In the 1960s the USFWS and WDFW attempted to translocate Dusky Canada geese to the lower islands of the Lewis and Clark NWR. The attempt formed a Western Canada...

  19. J. Clark Salyer Wetland Management District : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for J. Clark Salyer Wetland Management District outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1982 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  20. Geospatial Database of Hydroclimate Variables, Spring Mountains and Sheep Range, Clark County, Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This point feature class contains 81,481 points arranged in a 270-meter spaced grid that covers the Spring Mountains and Sheep Range in Clark County, Nevada. Points...

  1. J. Clark Salyer Wetland Management District : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for J. Clark Salyer Wetland Management District outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1987 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  2. J. Clark Salyer Wetland Management District : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for J. Clark Salyer Wetland Management District outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1985 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  3. J. Clark Salyer Wetland Management District : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for J. Clark Salyer Wetland Management District outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1986 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  4. J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2001 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  5. J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1998 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  6. J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1997 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  7. J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1999 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  8. J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2000 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  9. J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1985 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  10. J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge Complex Integrated Pest Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the Integrated Pest Management Plan is to provide a comprehensive, environmentally sensitive approach to managing pests on the J. Clark Salyer NWRC....

  11. J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1981 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  12. J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1982 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  13. J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1983 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  14. Narrative report: J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge for calendar year 1970

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for J. Clark Salyer NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1970 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  15. Narrative report: J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge for calendar year 1971

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for J. Clark Salyer NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1971 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  16. Lewis and Clark NWR: Initial Survey Instructions for Resident Dark Goose (RDG) Banding Protocol

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In the 1960s the USFWS and WDFW attempted to translocate Dusky Canada geese to the lower islands of the Lewis and Clark NWR. The birds hybridized with Western...

  17. Bull Trout (Salvelinus Confluentus) Population and Habitat Surveys in the McKenzie and Middle Fork Willamette Basins, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Greg

    2000-11-28

    Prior to 1978, Dolly Varden Salvelinus malma were classified into an anadromous and interior form. Cavender (1978) classified the interior form as a distinct species, Salvelinus confluentus, the bull trout. Bull trout are large char weighing up to 18 kg and growing to over one meter in length (Goetz 1989). They are distinguished by a broad flat head, large downward curving maxillaries that extend beyond the eye, a well developed fleshy knob and a notch in the lower terminus of the snout, and light colored spots normally smaller than the pupil of the eye (Cavender 1978). Bull trout are found throughout northwestern North America from lat. 41{sup o}N to lat. 60{sup o}N. In Oregon, bull trout were once distributed throughout 12 basins in the Klamath and Columbia River systems including the Clackamas, Santiam, McKenzie and Middle Fork Willamette sub-basins west of the Cascades (Buchanan et al. 1997). However, it is believed bull trout have been extirpated from west of the Cascades with the exception of the McKenzie sub-basin. Before 1963, bull trout in the McKenzie sub-basin were a contiguous population from the mouth to Tamolitch Falls. Following the construction of Cougar and Trail Bridge Reservoirs there are three isolated populations: (1) mainstem McKenzie and tributaries from the mouth to Trail Bridge Reservoir. (2) mainstem McKenzie and tributaries above Trail Bridge Reservoir to Tamolitch Falls. (3) South Fork McKenzie and tributaries above Cougar Reservoir. The study area includes the three aforementioned McKenzie populations, and the Middle Fork Willamette and tributaries above Hills Creek Reservoir. We monitored bull trout populations in the McKenzie and Middle Fork Willamette basins using a combination of sampling techniques including: spawning surveys, standard pool counts, juvenile trapping, radio tracking, electronic fish counters, and a modified Hankin and Reeves protocol to estimate juvenile abundance and density. In addition, we continued to

  18. Book review: Hard times: inequality, recession, aftermath by Tom Clark with Anthony Heath

    OpenAIRE

    Bon, Florian

    2015-01-01

    In Hard Times: Inequality, Recession, Aftermath, Tom Clark offers a potent exploration of growing inequalities in US and British societies, contributing to the work of other leading intellectuals such as Thomas Piketty, Tyler Cowen and Robert Reich. Florian Bon argues that Clark looks beyond seemingly glowing statistics testifying to economic growth to examine the ‘social recession’ and resultant ‘hard times’ experienced in the aftermath of the financial crisis.

  19. Natural sources of salinity in the Brazos River, Texas with particular reference to the Croton and salt Croton Creek basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, R.C.; Hughes, Leon S.; Yost, I.D.

    1964-01-01

    The average daily load of the Brazos River at Possum Kingdom Reservoir is about 2,800 tons of dissolved solids, of which 1,000 tons is chloride. More than 85 percent of the chloride load is contributed by the Salt Fork Brazos River, and more than 50 percent of the chloride load of the Brazos River originates from salt springs and seeps in Croton and Salt Crotdn Creeks, which are tributaries of Salt Fork Brazos River. The rest of the chloride is contributed from many small sources.

  20. Why is SMOS Drier than the South Fork In-situ Soil Moisture Network?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, V. A.; Hornbuckle, B. K.; Cosh, M. H.

    2014-12-01

    Global maps of near-surface soil moisture are currently being produced by the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite mission at 40 km. Within the next few months NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite mission will begin producing observations of near-surface soil moisture at 10 km. Near-surface soil moisture is the water content of the first 3 to 5 cm of the soil. Observations of near-surface soil moisture are expected to improve weather and climate forecasts. These satellite observations must be validated. We define validation as determining the space/time statistical characteristics of the uncertainty. A standard that has been used for satellite validation is in-situ measurements of near-surface soil moisture made with a network of sensors spanning the extent of a satellite footprint. Such a network of sensors has been established in the South Fork of the Iowa River in Central Iowa by the USDA ARS. Our analysis of data in 2013 indicates that SMOS has a dry bias: SMOS near-surface soil moisture is between 0.05 to 0.10 m^3m^{-3} lower than what is observed by the South Fork network. A dry bias in SMOS observations has also been observed in other regions of North America. There are many possible explanations for this difference: underestimation of vegetation, or soil surface roughness; undetected radio frequency interference (RFI); a retrieval model that is not appropriate for agricultural areas; or the use of an incorrect surface temperature in the retrieval process. We will begin our investigation by testing this last possibility: that SMOS is using a surface temperature that is too low which results in a drier soil moisture that compensates for this error. We will present a comparison of surface temperatures from the European Center for Medium-range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) used to retrieve near-surface soil moisture from SMOS measurements of brightness temperature, and surface temperatures in the South Fork

  1. Lockhart Clarke's contribution to the description of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Martin R; Swash, Michael; Ebers, George C

    2010-11-01

    The definition of the clinicopathological entity of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis evolved over half a century. Although the definitive term amyotrophic lateral sclerosis that acknowledged both upper and lower motor neuron involvement was attributed to Jean-Martin Charcot in 1874, his initial case was published nearly a decade earlier; and it is accepted that, from at least the 1830s, several others (including Charles Bell, François-Amilcar Aran and Jean Cruveilhier) had already recognized a progressive lower motor neuron-only syndrome within a broader, clinically-defined group of disorders, termed progressive muscular atrophy. Although William Gowers first grouped the three phenotypes of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, progressive muscular atrophy and progressive bulbar palsy together as part of the same syndrome, the term motor neuron disease, as an over-arching label, was not suggested until nearly a century later by W. Russell Brain. Augustus Jacob Lockhart Clarke (1817-80) is best known for his descriptions of spinal cord anatomy. However, in two detailed case reports from the 1860s, he carried out rigorous post-mortem neuropathological studies of what appear to be classical cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Furthermore, he recognized the additional involvement of the corticospinal tracts that distinguished this from progressive muscular atrophy. Several aspects of the exquisite clinical histories documented as part of both studies, one by Charles Bland Radcliffe, resonate with contemporary debates concerning the evolution of disease in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. These 'past masters' still have much to teach us.

  2. Concept learning set-size functions for Clark's nutcrackers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Anthony A; Magnotti, John F; Katz, Jeffrey S; Leonard, Kevin; Kelly, Debbie M

    2016-01-01

    Same/Different abstract-concept learning by Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana) was tested with novel stimuli following learning of training set expansion (8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512, and 1024 picture items). The resulting set-size function was compared to those from rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella), and pigeons (Columba livia). Nutcrackers showed partial concept learning following initial eight-item set learning, unlike the other species (Magnotti, Katz, Wright, & Kelly, 2015). The mean function for the nutcrackers' novel-stimulus transfer increased linearly as a function of the logarithm of training set size, which intersected its baseline function at the 128-item set size. Thus, nutcrackers on average achieved full concept learning (i.e., transfer statistically equivalent to baseline performance) somewhere between set sizes of 64 to 128 items, similar to full concept learning by monkeys. Pigeons required a somewhat larger training set (256 items) for full concept learning, but results from other experiments (initial training and transfer with 32- and 64-item set sizes) suggested carryover effects with smaller set sizes may have artificially prolonged the pigeon's full concept learning. We find it remarkable that these diverse species with very different neural architectures can fully learn this same/different abstract concept, and (at least under some conditions) do so with roughly similar sets sizes (64-128 items) and numbers of training exemplars, despite initial concept learning advantages (nutcrackers), learning disadvantages (pigeons), or increasing baselines (monkeys).

  3. Arrays of optical vortices formed by "fork" holograms

    CERN Document Server

    Bekshaev, A Ya; Mohammed, K A

    2014-01-01

    Singular light beams with optical vortices (OV) are often generated by means of thin binary gratings with groove bifurcation ("fork holograms") that produce a set of diffracted beams with different OV charges. Usually, only single separate beams are used and investigated; here we consider the whole set of diffracted OV beams that, at certain conditions, are involved in efficient mutual interference to form a characteristic pattern where the ring-like structure of separate OV beams is replaced by series of bright and dark lines between adjacent diffraction orders. This pattern, well developed for high diffraction orders, reflects the main spatial properties of the diffracted beams as well as of the fork grating used for their generation. In particular, it confirms the theoretical model for the diffracted beams (Kummer beam model) and enables to determine the sign and the absolute value of the phase singularity embedded in the hologram.

  4. El argumento de la simplicidad y los conceptos de espacio y tiempo en Samule Clarke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Benítez Grobert

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La autora de este estudio se propone poner de relieve la importancia del argumento de la simplicidad en el desarrollo de las ideas de espacio y tiempo en Samuel Clarke y su incidencia en el newtonianismo. Así, en primer lugar intenta poner al descubierto la importancia que la noción de simplicidad tiene para el dualismo de Samuel Clarke, en donde se ponen en conexión la extensión y la simplicidad cuando se considera que la inmensidad de Dios es extensión indivisa. Por otra parte, recorre las vicisitudes del argumento de la simplicidad en función de las nociones físicas de espacio y de tiempo, para concluir que los simples de Clarke (espacio y tiempo son muy cercanos a los conceptos de espacio y tiempo absolutos en Newton. Finalmente se explica cómo en opinión de Clarke el alma humana, siendo una sustancia simple y, por tanto, indivisible, es sin embargo una sustancia extensa; en este caso las partes, como las concibe Clarke, no son burdas y diferenciadas, sino semejantes e inseparables, algo que Leibniz habría reducido a una única entidad, en vista de su argumento de la identidad de los indiscernibles.The author of this study intends to point out the importance of the argument of simplicity in the development of the ideas of space and time in Samuel Clarke and their incidence in newtonianism. Thus, she first intends to uncover the importance that the notion of simplicity possesses for Samuel Clark's dualism, in which extension and simplicity connect with one another, when we consider that God's immensity is indivisible extension. On the other hand, she goes through the vicissitudes of the argument of simplicity with regard to the physical notions of space and time, to conclude that Clarke's simples (space and time stand very near the concepts of absolute space and time in Newton. Finally, an explanation comes of how, in Clarke's opinion, the human soul, being a simple substance, and therefore indivisible, is nevertheless an extensive

  5. Geometric Metasurface Fork Gratings for Vortex Beam Generation and Manipulation

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Shumei; Cai, Yuan; Li, Guixin; Shuang ZHANG; Cheah, Kok Wai

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, optical vortex beams possessing orbital angular momentum have caught much attention due to their potential for high capacity optical communications. This capability arises from the unbounded topological charges of orbital angular momentum (OAM) that provides infinite freedoms for encoding information. The two most common approaches for generating vortex beams are through fork diffraction gratings and spiral phase plates. While realization of conventional spiral phase plate re...

  6. Genome instability induced by structured DNA and replication fork restart

    OpenAIRE

    Schalbetter, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    DNA replication is a central mechanism to all forms of life. Errors occurring during DNA replication can result in mutagenesis and genome rearrangements, which can cause various diseases. In this work I have investigated the stability of direct tandem repeats (TRs) in the context of replication and replication-associated repair mechanisms. During DNA replication the replication fork encounters many obstacles, such as DNA-protein barriers, secondary DNA structures and DNA lesions. How and if r...

  7. Failure analysis of axle shaft of a fork lift

    OpenAIRE

    Souvik Das; Goutam Mukhopadhyay; Sandip Bhattacharyya

    2015-01-01

    An axle shaft of fork lift failed at operation within 296 h of service. The shaft transmits torque from discrepancy to wheel through planetary gear arrangement. A section of fractured axle shaft made of induction-hardened steel was analyzed to determine the root cause of the failure. Optical microscopies as well as field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM) along with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were carried out to characterize the microstructure. Hardness profile thro...

  8. Molecular clock fork phylogenies: closed form analytic maximum likelihood solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chor, Benny; Snir, Sagi

    2004-12-01

    Maximum likelihood (ML) is increasingly used as an optimality criterion for selecting evolutionary trees, but finding the global optimum is a hard computational task. Because no general analytic solution is known, numeric techniques such as hill climbing or expectation maximization (EM) are used in order to find optimal parameters for a given tree. So far, analytic solutions were derived only for the simplest model-three-taxa, two-state characters, under a molecular clock. Quoting Ziheng Yang, who initiated the analytic approach,"this seems to be the simplest case, but has many of the conceptual and statistical complexities involved in phylogenetic estimation."In this work, we give general analytic solutions for a family of trees with four-taxa, two-state characters, under a molecular clock. The change from three to four taxa incurs a major increase in the complexity of the underlying algebraic system, and requires novel techniques and approaches. We start by presenting the general maximum likelihood problem on phylogenetic trees as a constrained optimization problem, and the resulting system of polynomial equations. In full generality, it is infeasible to solve this system, therefore specialized tools for the molecular clock case are developed. Four-taxa rooted trees have two topologies-the fork (two subtrees with two leaves each) and the comb (one subtree with three leaves, the other with a single leaf). We combine the ultrametric properties of molecular clock fork trees with the Hadamard conjugation to derive a number of topology dependent identities. Employing these identities, we substantially simplify the system of polynomial equations for the fork. We finally employ symbolic algebra software to obtain closed formanalytic solutions (expressed parametrically in the input data). In general, four-taxa trees can have multiple ML points. In contrast, we can now prove that each fork topology has a unique(local and global) ML point.

  9. Synthetic lethality of cohesins with PARPs and replication fork mediators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L McLellan

    Full Text Available Synthetic lethality has been proposed as a way to leverage the genetic differences found in tumor cells to affect their selective killing. Cohesins, which tether sister chromatids together until anaphase onset, are mutated in a variety of tumor types. The elucidation of synthetic lethal interactions with cohesin mutants therefore identifies potential therapeutic targets. We used a cross-species approach to identify robust negative genetic interactions with cohesin mutants. Utilizing essential and non-essential mutant synthetic genetic arrays in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we screened genome-wide for genetic interactions with hypomorphic mutations in cohesin genes. A somatic cell proliferation assay in Caenorhabditis elegans demonstrated that the majority of interactions were conserved. Analysis of the interactions found that cohesin mutants require the function of genes that mediate replication fork progression. Conservation of these interactions between replication fork mediators and cohesin in both yeast and C. elegans prompted us to test whether other replication fork mediators not found in the yeast were required for viability in cohesin mutants. PARP1 has roles in the DNA damage response but also in the restart of stalled replication forks. We found that a hypomorphic allele of the C. elegans SMC1 orthologue, him-1(e879, genetically interacted with mutations in the orthologues of PAR metabolism genes resulting in a reduced brood size and somatic cell defects. We then demonstrated that this interaction is conserved in human cells by showing that PARP inhibitors reduce the viability of cultured human cells depleted for cohesin components. This work demonstrates that large-scale genetic interaction screening in yeast can identify clinically relevant genetic interactions and suggests that PARP inhibitors, which are currently undergoing clinical trials as a treatment of homologous recombination-deficient cancers, may be effective in treating

  10. Evaluate Status of Pacific Lamprey in the Clearwater River and Salmon River Drainages, Idaho, 2009 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochnauer, Tim; Claire, Christopher [Idaho Department of Fish and Game

    2009-05-07

    Pacific lamprey Lampetra tridentata have received little attention in fishery science until recently, even though abundance has declined significantly along with other anadromous fish species in Idaho. Pacific lamprey in Idaho have to navigate over eight lower Snake River and Columbia River hydroelectric facilities for migration downstream as juveniles to the Pacific Ocean and again as adults migrating upstream to their freshwater spawning grounds in Idaho. The number of adult Pacific lamprey annually entering the Snake River basin at Ice Harbor Dam has declined from an average of over 18,000 during 1962-1969 to fewer than 600 during 1998-2006. Based on potential accessible streams and adult escapement over Lower Granite Dam on the lower Snake River, we estimate that no more than 200 Pacific lamprey adult spawners annually utilize the Clearwater River drainage in Idaho for spawning. We utilized electrofishing in 2000-2006 to capture, enumerate, and obtain biological information regarding rearing Pacific lamprey ammocoetes and macropthalmia to determine the distribution and status of the species in the Clearwater River drainage, Idaho. Present distribution in the Clearwater River drainage is limited to the lower sections of the Lochsa and Selway rivers, the Middle Fork Clearwater River, the mainstem Clearwater River, the South Fork Clearwater River, and the lower 7.5 km of the Red River. In 2006, younger age classes were absent from the Red River.

  11. Finite Element and Failure Analysis of Cracked Fork Lift Tynes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tyne's or forks of fork lift trucks are subject to repeated loading as well as wear so that catastrophic failures are sometimes experienced in the form of fatigue induced brittle fractures. It used extensively in carrying the safety related items used in nuclear industry as well as the hazard items within the waste nuclear fuel facility. Design standards for Tyne's are written in terms of permissible deflection and the ratio of load to permanent set load rather than resistance to fatigue and fracture so that the possibility of failure is not widely appreciated. In the present work finite element analysis have been made of the stress distribution developed in a typical Tyne at the specified truck stability load. The critical factors in the design and manufacture of Tyne's are those of the radius formed at the bend between the horizontal and vertical arms together with the thickness of the fork at this radius. This aspect is examined in the finite element analyses. Using a J-integral fracture mechanics module, the stress intensity factor Kl has been determined for simulated fatigue induced cracks at the point of maximum stress in the internal bend. Material fracture toughness KIC data have been applied to make a prediction of critical flaw size.

  12. Timing, coordination, and rhythm: Acrobatics at the DNA replication fork

    KAUST Repository

    Hamdan, Samir

    2010-04-09

    In DNA replication, the antiparallel nature of the parental duplex imposes certain constraints on the activity of the DNA polymerases that synthesize new DNA. The leading-strand polymerase advances in a continuous fashion, but the lagging-strand polymerase is forced to restart at short intervals. In several prokaryotic systems studied so far, this problem is solved by the formation of a loop in the lagging strand of the replication fork to reorient the lagging-strand DNA polymerase so that it advances in parallel with the leading-strand polymerase. The replication loop grows and shrinks during each cycle of Okazaki fragment synthesis. The timing of Okazaki fragment synthesis and loop formation is determined by a subtle interplay of enzymatic activities at the fork. Recent developments in single-molecule techniques have enabled the direct observation of these processes and have greatly contributed to a better understanding of the dynamic nature of the replication fork. Here, we will review recent experimental advances, present the current models, and discuss some of the exciting developments in the field. 2010 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Reproductive biology of Tinantia anomala (Torr. C.B. Clarke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Gębura

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Tinantia anomala (Torr. C.B. Clarke (Commelinaceae is an annual plant endemic to central Texas in the United States and Durango in northern Mexico. T. anomala has zygomorphic flowers with three different petals, androecium consists of six various stamens and gynoecium consists of three carpels. Furthermore in T. anomala’s flowers there are many staminal hairs (Faden 2006. Its semi-succulent, grass-like leaves emerge in late fall and remain green throughout the cold months. It grows rapidly in early spring and blooms mid-spring (from March to May. A few weeks later the fruits (capsules with four seeds usually appear. This entire cycle is usually completed by summer, when the plant has often turned yellow and limp. We studied T. anomala due to the occurrence of two types of strikingly different stamens occur in one flower. According to available literature, one type of the stamens (the upper one with smaller anthers produces sterile pollen grains which do not participate in fertilization but only attract insects. The other type, i.e. the lower stamens with bigger anthers can form abundant pollen grains used for pollination (Simpson et al. 1986. Our aim was to investigate type of pollination of T. anomala. Using many microscopic methods we were able to analyze and compare the morphology of two types of anthers and staminal hairs in T. anomala’s flowers. We also investigated this species in terms of development of its gametophytes. An embryo sac develops according to the type of Polygonum. Pollen grains develop during different ways depending on the chemical composition of each anther. We identified that the insects of Thysanoptera which preys on the withered flowers T. anomala could be responsible for pollination of this species under greenhouse condition.

  14. Take It Slow: can feedback from a smart fork reduce eating speed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander Hermsen

    2015-09-01

    The present study examines the efficacy of a smart fork that helps people to eat more slowly. This adapted fork records eating speed and delivers vibrotactile feedback if users eat too quickly. In two studies, we tested the acceptability and user experience of the fork (Study 1, and its effect on eating rate and satiety levels in a controlled lab-setting (Study 2. Method: In study 1, 11 participants (all self-reported fast eaters ate a meal using the fork in our laboratory and used the fork for three consecutive days in their home setting. Participants took part in semi-structured interviews after the first meal and upon returning the fork, covering perceived effect on eating rate, comfort of use, accuracy, and motivational and social aspects of fork use. Interviews were coded and a thematic classification analysis was performed. In study 2, 128 participants (all self-reported fast eaters ate a standardized meal using the fork in our laboratory. We used a between-participants design with 2 conditions; participants ate their meal either with vibrotactile feedback from the fork (experimental condition or ate their meal without vibrotactile feedback (control condition. Eating rate, meal duration, error rate (number of bites taken faster than 10 seconds after previous bite, total food intake, and satiety were recorded for every participant. Results: Study 1: All participants felt that the feedback was generally accurate and consistent. Fork size, weight, and intensity of the feedback were seen as comfortable and acceptable. All participants reported a heightened awareness of eating rate and all but one participant reported eating more slowly with the fork. Study 2: Participants in the experimental condition ate significantly slower, and with a lower error rate than those in the control condition. Feedback did not significantly affect the amount of food eaten. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that this smart fork is an acceptable and effective tool to disrupt and

  15. Clark fights weak margins and high crude costs by leveraging capital and costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melnuk, P.D.

    1997-03-01

    Clark Refining & Marketing`s past year included unprofitable quarters and a legal challenge from the Illinois Attorney General that nearly shuttered the company`s Chicago-area refinery. Yet despite those valleys, there were clearly peaks for the independent refiner--notably, a deal to become one of the first hypermarket suppliers in the US and extension and upgrades of its retail network. Based in St. Louis, Clark employs 7,000 people and operates three refineries, two in Illinois with a combined capacity of 130,000 b/d, and one in Texas with a 200,000-b/d capacity. In addition, the company operates 16 product terminals, a crude oil terminal and about 870 gasoline stations throughout the midwestern US. In an exclusive interview with Hart Fuels Group Editor Carol Cole, Melnuk discusses the company`s accomplishments and shortcomings, along with his personal goals for Clark.

  16. An Approach to Enforcing Clark-Wilson Model in Role-based Access Control Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANGBin; SHIWenchang; SUNYufang; SUNBo

    2004-01-01

    Using one security model to enforce another is a prospective solution to multi-policy support. In this paper, an approach to the enforcing Clark-Wilson data integrity model in the Role-based access control (RBAC) model is proposed. An enforcement construction with great feasibility is presented. In this construction, a direct way to enforce the Clark-Wilson model is provided, the corresponding relations among users, transformation procedures, and constrained data items are strengthened; the concepts of task and subtask are introduced to enhance the support to least-privilege. The proposed approach widens the applicability of RBAC. The theoretical foundation for adopting Clark-Wilson model in a RBAC system with small cost is offered to meet the requirements of multi-policy support and policy flexibility.

  17. Field comparison of optical and clark cell dissolved-oxygen sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulford, J.M.; Davies, W.J.; Garcia, L.

    2005-01-01

    Three multi-parameter water-quality monitors equipped with either Clark cell type or optical type dissolved-oxygen sensors were deployed for 30 days in a brackish (salinity biofouling. The dissolved-oxygen sensors compared periodically to a hand-held dissolved oxygen sensor, but were not serviced or cleaned during the deployment. One of the Clark cell sensors and the optical sensor performed similarly during the deployment. The remaining Clark cell sensor was not aged correctly prior to deployment and did not perform as well as the other sensors. All sensors experienced substantial biofouling that gradually degraded the accuracy of the dissolved-oxygen measurement during the last half of the deployment period. Copyright ASCE 2005.

  18. Interaction force microscopy based on quartz tuning fork force sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yexian

    The ability to sense small changes in the interaction force between a scanning probe microscope (SPM) tip and a substrate requires cantilevers with a sharp mechanical resonance. A typical commercially available cantilever in air is characterized by a resonance with a Q factor of 100 ˜ 300. The low Q factor can be attributed to imperfections in the cantilever itself as well as damping effects of the surrounding air. To substantially increase the Q factor, novel concepts are required. For this reason, we have performed a systematic study of quartz tuning fork resonators for possible use with SPMs. We find that tuning fork resonators operating in air are characterized by Q factors in the order of 104, thereby greatly improving the SPM's ability to measure small shifts in the interaction force. By carefully attaching commercially available SPM tips to the tuning fork, it is possible to obtain SPM images using non-contact imaging techniques and analyze the tip-sample interactions. The assembly of uniform molecular monolayers on atomically flat substrates for molecular electronics applications has received widespread attention during the past ten years. Scanning probe techniques are often used to assess substrate topography, molecular ordering and electronic properties, yet little is known about the fundamental tip-molecule interaction. To address this issue we have built an Interaction Force Microscope using a quartz tuning fork to probe tip-molecular monolayer interactions using scanning probe microscopy. The high quality factor and stable resonant frequency of a quartz tuning fork allows accurate measurement of small shifts in the resonant frequency as the tip interacts with the substrate. To permit an accurate measure of surface interaction forces, the electrical and piezomechanical properties of a tuning fork have been calibrated using a fiber optical interferometer. In prior work [1], we have studied molecular layers formed from either 4-Trifluoro

  19. Glue-free tuning fork shear-force microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlschlegel, P.; Toquant, J.; Pohl, D. W.; Hecht, B.

    2006-01-01

    A scanning near-field optical microscope without any glued parts is described. Key elements are the optical fiber probe/tuning fork junction and the piezotube scanner assembly. In both cases, fixation is achieved by means of controlled pressure and elastic deformation. The avoidance of glued connections was found to improve the Q factor of the shear-force sensor as well as to facilitate the replacement of the fiber probe and other parts of the scanner head. We present approach curves and shear-force images that demonstrate the performance and stability of the system.

  20. Ideal synchronizer for marked pairs in fork-join network

    CERN Document Server

    Vyshenski, S V; Dubenskaya, Yu Yu

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a new functional element (synchronizer for marked pairs) meant to join results of parallel processing in two-branch fork-join queueing network. Approximations for distribution of sojourn time at the synchronizer are derived along with a validity domain. Calculations are performed assuming that: arrivals to the network form a Poisson process, each branch operates like an M/M/N queueing system. It is shown that a mean quantity of jobs in the synchronizer is bounded below by the value, defined by parameters of the network (which contains the synchronizer) and does not depend upon performance and particular properties of the synchronizer.

  1. Blue tilapia (Oreochromis aureus) predation on fishes in the Muddy River system, Clark County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoppettone, G.G.; Salgado, J.A.; Nielsen, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    Blue tilapia (Oreochromis aureus), native to North Africa and the Middle East (Courtenay and Robins 1973, Fuller et al. 1999), has been introduced around the world as a human food source, for vegetation control, and as a game fish (Costa-Pierce and Riedel 2000). Blue tilapia has been particularly successful in establishing and spreading in North American waters where it has been reported to change fish community structure and cause native fish decline (Courtenay and Robins 1973, Fuller et al. 1999). Because of these detrimental effects, it is now generally considered an unwelcome introduction into North American waters (Dill and Cordone 1997, Fuller et al. 1999).

  2. 78 FR 13692 - Clarks River National Wildlife Refuge, KY; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan/Land Protection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... the Federal Register on August 29, 2008 (73 FR 50981). For more about the process, see that notice... on February 15, 2012 (77 FR 8890). More than 270 people attended and many submitted comments at three... refuge is beneficial to local ecotourism trade and residents searching for natural landscapes and...

  3. Assessment of Environmental Contaminants in Muddy River Fishes, Clark County, Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 2002 the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) Southern Nevada Field Office initiated a study to identify environmental contaminant impacts to native fish of...

  4. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1512 - Bicycle Front Fork Cantilever Bending Test Rig

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bicycle Front Fork Cantilever Bending Test Rig 1 Figure 1 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS... Fork Cantilever Bending Test Rig EC03OC91.070...

  5. 16 CFR 1512.14 - Requirements for fork and frame assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for fork and frame assembly. 1512.14 Section 1512.14 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS... assembly. The fork and frame assembly shall be tested for strength by application of a load of 890 N...

  6. Assessment of possible sources of microbiological contamination and water-quality characteristics of the Jacks Fork, Ozark National Scenic Riverways, Missouri; phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jerri V.; Richards, Joseph M.

    2002-01-01

    In 1998, an 8-mile reach of the Jacks Fork was included on Missouri?s list of impaired waters as required by Section 303(d) of the Federal Clean Water Act. The identified pollutant on the Jacks Fork was fecal coliform bacteria. Potential sources of fecal contamination to the Jacks Fork include a wastewater treatment plant; campground pit-toilet or septic-system effluent; a large commercial, cross-country horseback trail riding facility; canoeists, boaters, and tubers; and cows.The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, conducted a study to better understand the extent and sources of microbiological contamination within the Jacks Fork from Alley Spring to the mouth, which includes the 8-mile 303(d) reach. Identification of the sources would provide the National Park Service and the State of Missouri with the information needed to craft a solution of abatement, regulation, prevention, and mitigation with the end result being the removal of the Jacks Fork from the 303(d) list. Fifteen sites were sampled from November 1999 through December 2000. An additional site was sampled one time. Samples were collected mostly during base-flow conditions during a variety of nonrecreational and recreational season river uses. Samples were analyzed for selected fecal indicator bacteria, physical properties, nutrients, and wastewater organic compounds. During the sampling period, the whole-body-contact recreation standard for fecal coliform (200 colonies per 100 milliliters of sample) was exceeded at three sites on August 10, 2000, and also at one site on May 11, June 7, and October 3, 2000. Fecal coliform densities and instantaneous loads generally increased from background concentrations at the Eminence site, peaked about 2 river miles downstream, and then decreased until the most downstream site sampled. Generally, the largest densities and loads at sites downstream from Eminence not related to wet-weather flow were observed during a trail ride held

  7. VIBRATION MEASUREMENT OF DOUBLE-ENDED TUNING FORKS RESONATOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To enhance the coherence and reliability of the double-ended tuning fork (DETF) resonator, a measurement system of resonator vibration is presented to check its dynamic characteristics. Laser Doppler techniques are utilized and the relation between DETF vibration velocity and output current of photodetector is obtained. Resonator vibration equation is also analyzed and its driving power only depends on the direct current bias voltage and the amplitude of alternative voltage. Furthermore, a special resonator driving control circuit based on measurement is designed. The amplitude and frequency of circuit is controlled by a computer so that highly stable and strong driving signal can be output. Experiments on driving and measuring double-ended tuning fork have been done. The frequency of driving signal is 8 kHz and the peak-to-peak value of driving voltage is 140 V. Experimental results indicate resonator can be drived stably by driving control circuit and dynamic characteristics of DETF may be measured in real time.

  8. South Fork Flathead Watershed Westslope Cutthroat Trout Conservation Program, Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grisak, Grant; Marotz, Brian

    2003-06-01

    In 1999, Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks (MFWP) began a program aimed at conserving the genetically pure populations of westslope cutthroat trout in the South Fork Flathead River drainage. The objective of this program is to eliminate all of the exotic and hybrid trout that threaten the genetically pure westslope cutthroat populations in the South Fork Flathead. The exotic and hybrid trout populations occur in several headwater lakes and their outflow streams. In 2001 MFWP released a draft environmental assessment, pursuant to the Montana Environmental Policy Act (MEPA), that addressed the use of motorized equipment to deliver personnel and materials to some of these lakes in the Bob Marshall and Great Bear Wildernesses (Grisak 2001). After a 30-day public comment period, MFWP determined that the complexity of issues was too great and warranted a more detailed analysis. These issues included transportation options for personnel, equipment and materials, the use of motorized equipment in wilderness, fish removal methods, fish stocking, and the status and distribution of amphibian populations in the project area. Because the program also involves the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the environmental analysis needs to comply with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). In October 2001, pursuant to NEPA, MFWP, along with the USFS and BPA initiated an environmental assessment to address these issues. In June 2002, the three agencies determined that the scope of these issues warranted an Environmental Impact Statement. This specialist report describes the logistical, technical and biological issues associated with this project and provides an analysis of options for fish removal, transportation and fish stocking. It further analyzes issues and concerns associated with amphibian populations and creating new domesticated stocks of westslope cutthroat trout. Finally, this document provides a description of each lake, the best

  9. Groundwater and climate change: a sensitivity analysis for the Grand Forks aquifer, southern British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, D. M.; Mackie, D. C.; Wei, M.

    The Grand Forks aquifer, located in south-central British Columbia, Canada was used as a case study area for modeling the sensitivity of an aquifer to changes in recharge and river stage consistent with projected climate-change scenarios for the region. Results suggest that variations in recharge to the aquifer under the different climate-change scenarios, modeled under steady-state conditions, have a much smaller impact on the groundwater system than changes in river-stage elevation of the Kettle and Granby Rivers, which flow through the valley. All simulations showed relatively small changes in the overall configuration of the water table and general direction of groundwater flow. High-recharge and low-recharge simulations resulted in approximately a +0.05 m increase and a -0.025 m decrease, respectively, in water-table elevations throughout the aquifer. Simulated changes in river-stage elevation, to reflect higher-than-peak-flow levels (by 20 and 50%), resulted in average changes in the water-table elevation of 2.72 and 3.45 m, respectively. Simulated changes in river-stage elevation, to reflect lower-than-baseflow levels (by 20 and 50%), resulted in average changes in the water-table elevation of -0.48 and -2.10 m, respectively. Current observed water-table elevations in the valley are consistent with an average river-stage elevation (between current baseflow and peak-flow stages). L'aquifère de Grand Forks, situé en Colombie britannique (Canada), a été utilisé comme zone d'étude pour modéliser la sensibilité d'un aquifère à des modifications de la recharge et du niveau de la rivière, correspondant à des scénarios envisagés de changement climatique dans cette région. Les résultats font apparaître que les variations de recharge de l'aquifère pour différents scénarios de changement climatique, modélisées pour des conditions de régime permanent, ont un impact sur le système aquifère beaucoup plus faible que les changements du niveau des

  10. Clark Kerr's Multiversity and Technology Transfer in the Modern American Research University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdson, Kristjan T.

    2013-01-01

    In the early 1960s, Clark Kerr, the famed American educationalist and architect of the California public higher education system, took up the task of describing the emergent model of the contemporary American university. Multiversities, as he called them, were the large powerful American universities that packaged the provision of undergraduate,…

  11. Education for Liberal Democracy: Fred Clarke and the 1944 Education Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Hsiao-Yuh

    2013-01-01

    Fred Clarke (1880-1952), an English educationist, emerged as a leading figure with his liberal approach alongside such key figures as R. H. Tawney and Cyril Norwood in the reform leading to the 1944 Education Act. Many of his reform proposals, which were provided by the new Act, reflected his ideals of liberal democracy. Nevertheless, his…

  12. Fred Clarke's Ideals of Liberal Democracy: State and Community in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Hsiao-Yuh

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the continuity and changes in Clarke's ideas about the State and community in education, especially in relation to a rapidly changing political situation in England in the 1930s and 1940s. His ideas evolved in the intellectual context of British idealism. Moreover, in response to the threat to democracy arising from…

  13. Cultural Mediations: Or How to Listen to Lewis and Clark's Indian Artifacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Scott

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author maps the complex history of objects collected on the Lewis and Clark expedition. He follows the objects from the Peale Museum where they were first exhibited to their final destination, the Peabody Museum at Harvard University. The author sheds light on how the manipulation and exhibition of one collection can encompass…

  14. 75 FR 14625 - Notice of Realty Action: Recreation and Public Purposes Act Classification, Clark County, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... to do so. Any adverse comments on the proposed classification, lease or conveyance will be reviewed...] Notice of Realty Action: Recreation and Public Purposes Act Classification, Clark County, NV AGENCY... filed a Recreation and Public Purposes (R&PP) Act application for lease or conveyance of approximately...

  15. 75 FR 14626 - Notice of Realty Action: Recreation and Public Purposes Act Classification, Clark County, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... proposed classification, lease or conveyance will be reviewed by the BLM Nevada State Director, who may...] Notice of Realty Action: Recreation and Public Purposes Act Classification, Clark County, NV AGENCY... filed a Recreation and Public Purposes (R&PP) Act application for lease or conveyance of approximately...

  16. Early Literacy, Family Engagement, and Cultural Competence: District Priorities in Clark County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keaton, Lucy

    2013-01-01

    This Summer 2013 issue of "Voices in Urban Education" presents an interview with Lucy Keaton, appointed in February 2013 as the first assistant superintendent for the English Language Learner program at the Clark County (Nevada) School District (CCSD), which includes Las Vegas and contains more than half of Nevada's public schools.…

  17. Assessing summer and fall chinook salmon restoration in the Upper Clearwater River and principal tributaries. Annual report 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the first annual report of a five year study to assess summer and fall chinook salmon restoration potential in the upper Clearwater River and principal tributaries, Salmon, Grande Ronde, and Imnaha Rivers. During 1994, the authors focused primarily on assessing water temperatures and spawning habitat in the upper Clearwater River and principal tributaries. Water temperature analysis indicated a colder temperature regime in the upper Clearwater River above the North Fork Clearwater River confluence during the winter as compared to the lower Clearwater. This was due to warm water releases from Dworshak Reservoir on the North Fork moderating temperatures in the lower Clearwater River. Thermal temperature unit analysis and available literature suggest a 75% survival threshold level may be anticipated for chinook salmon egg incubation if spawning would occur by November 1 in the upper Clearwater River. Warm water upwelling in historic summer and fall chinook spawning areas may result in increased incubation survivals and will be tested in the future. The authors observed a total of 37 fall chinook salmon redds in the Clearwater River subbasin. They observed 30 redds in the mainstem Clearwater below the North Fork Clearwater River confluence and seven redds in the North Fork Clearwater River. No redds were observed in the South Fork Clearwater, Middle Fork Clearwater, or Selway Rivers. They observed one fall chinook salmon redd in the Salmon River. They recovered 10 fall chinook salmon carcasses in the Clearwater River to obtain biological measurements and to document hatchery contribution to spawning. Unseasonably high and cold Dworshak Dam releases coinciding with early juvenile fall chinook salmon rearing in the lower Clearwater River may be influencing selective life history traits including growth, smolt development, outmigration timing, behavior, and could be directly affecting survival. During July 1994, discharges from Dworshak Dam increased from a

  18. Assessing Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon Restoration in the Upper Clearwater River and Principal Tributaries, 1994 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnsberg, Billy D.; Statler, David P.

    1995-08-01

    This is the first annual report of a five year study to assess summer and fall chinook salmon restoration potential in the upper Clearwater River and principal tributaries, Salmon, Grande Ronde, and Imnaha Rivers. During 1994, the authors focused primarily on assessing water temperatures and spawning habitat in the upper Clearwater River and principal tributaries. Water temperature analysis indicated a colder temperature regime in the upper Clearwater River above the North Fork Clearwater River confluence during the winter as compared to the lower Clearwater. This was due to warm water releases from Dworshak Reservoir on the North Fork moderating temperatures in the lower Clearwater River. Thermal temperature unit analysis and available literature suggest a 75% survival threshold level may be anticipated for chinook salmon egg incubation if spawning would occur by November 1 in the upper Clearwater River. Warm water upwelling in historic summer and fall chinook spawning areas may result in increased incubation survivals and will be tested in the future. The authors observed a total of 37 fall chinook salmon redds in the Clearwater River subbasin. They observed 30 redds in the mainstem Clearwater below the North Fork Clearwater River confluence and seven redds in the North Fork Clearwater River. No redds were observed in the South Fork Clearwater, Middle Fork Clearwater, or Selway Rivers. They observed one fall chinook salmon redd in the Salmon River. They recovered 10 fall chinook salmon carcasses in the Clearwater River to obtain biological measurements and to document hatchery contribution to spawning. Unseasonably high and cold Dworshak Dam releases coinciding with early juvenile fall chinook salmon rearing in the lower Clearwater River may be influencing selective life history traits including growth, smolt development, outmigration timing, behavior, and could be directly affecting survival. During July 1994, discharges from Dworshak Dam increased from a

  19. UvrD controls the access of recombination proteins to blocked replication forks

    OpenAIRE

    Lestini, Roxane; Michel, Bénédicte

    2007-01-01

    Blocked replication forks often need to be processed by recombination proteins prior to replication restart. In Escherichia coli, the UvrD repair helicase was recently shown to act at inactivated replication forks, where it counteracts a deleterious action of RecA. Using two mutants affected for different subunits of the polymerase III holoenzyme (Pol IIIh), we show here that the anti-RecA action of UvrD at blocked forks reflects two different activities of this enzyme. A defective UvrD mutan...

  20. Salmon River Habitat Enhancement, 1984 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konopacky, Richard C.

    1986-04-01

    This report has four volumes: a Tribal project annual report (Part 1) and three reports (Parts 2, 3, and 4) prepared for the Tribes by their engineering subcontractor. The Tribal project annual report contains reports for four subprojects within Project 83-359. Subproject I involved habitat and fish inventories in Bear Valley Creek, Valley County, Idaho that will be used to evaluate responses to ongoing habitat enhancement. Subproject II is the coordination/planning activities of the Project Leader in relation to other BPA-funded habitat enhancement projects that have or will occur within the traditional Treaty (Fort Bridger Treaty of 1868) fishing areas of the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall Reservation, Idaho. Subproject III involved habitat and fish inventories (pretreatment) and habitat problem identification on the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River (including Jordan Creek). Subproject IV during 1985 involved habitat problem identification in the East Fork of the Salmon River and habitat and fish inventories (pretreatment) in Herd Creek, a tributary to the East Fork.

  1. Deep Fork National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan 1999-2009 and Environmental Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan CCP was written to guide management on Deep Fork NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose...

  2. Theoretical model and optimization of a novel temperature sensor based on quartz tuning fork resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Xu; Bo, You; Xin, Li; Juan, Cui

    2007-12-01

    To accurately measure temperatures, a novel temperature sensor based on a quartz tuning fork resonator has been designed. The principle of the quartz tuning fork temperature sensor is that the resonant frequency of the quartz resonator changes with the variation in temperature. This type of tuning fork resonator has been designed with a new doubly rotated cut work at flexural vibration mode as temperature sensor. The characteristics of the temperature sensor were evaluated and the results sufficiently met the target of development for temperature sensor. The theoretical model for temperature sensing has been developed and built. The sensor structure was analysed by finite element method (FEM) and optimized, including tuning fork geometry, tine electrode pattern and the sensor's elements size. The performance curve of output versus measured temperature is given. The results from theoretical analysis and experiments indicate that the sensor's sensitivity can reach 60 ppm °C-1 with the measured temperature range varying from 0 to 100 °C.

  3. Assessment of contaminant loads at the Deep Fork National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Fish, sediment, and benthic macroinvertebrate communities were sampled on and near the Deep Fork National Wildlife Refuge, Okmulgee County, Oklahoma. Collections...

  4. Waterfowl Production Areas - Bottineau County (J.Clark Salyer N. W. Refuge): Narrative report: January-December 1969

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for J. Clark Salyer WPA outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1969 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  5. Waterfowl Production Areas - Bottineau County (J.Clark Salyer N. W. Refuge): Narrative report: January-December 1967

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for J. Clark Salyer WPA outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1967 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  6. Comprehensive Conservation Plan: Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge, J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge, Upper Souris National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Des Lacs NWR, J. Clark Salyer NWR, and Upper Souris NWR for the next 15 years. This...

  7. Take It Slow: can feedback from a smart fork reduce eating speed?

    OpenAIRE

    Sander Hermsen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Reductions in eating rate have been recommended as potential behavioural strategies to prevent and treat overweight [1–4]. Unfortunately, eating rate is difficult to modify, due to its highly automatic nature [5]. Training people to eat more slowly in everyday eating contexts, therefore, requires creative and engaging solutions. Aim: The present study examines the efficacy of a smart fork that helps people to eat more slowly. This adapted fork records eating speed ...

  8. Probing Liquid ^4He with Quartz Tuning Forks Using a Novel Multifrequency Lock-in Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, D. I.; Haley, R. P.; Kafanov, S.; Noble, M. T.; Pickett, G. R.; Tsepelin, V.; Vonka, J.; Wilcox, T.

    2016-09-01

    We report on a novel technique to measure quartz tuning forks, and possibly other vibrating objects, in a quantum fluid using a multifrequency lock-in amplifier. The multifrequency technique allows to measure the resonance curve of a vibrating object much faster than a conventional single frequency lock-in amplifier technique. Forks with resonance frequencies of 12 kHz and 16 kHz were excited and measured electro-mechanically either at a single frequency or at up to 40 different frequencies simultaneously around the same mechanical mode. The response of each fork was identical for both methods and validates the use of the multifrequency lock-in technique to probe properties of liquid helium at low fork velocities. Using both methods we measured the resonance frequency and drag of two 25-μ m-wide quartz tuning forks immersed in liquid ^4He in the temperature range from 4.2 K to 1.5 K at saturated vapour pressure. The damping and shift of resonance frequency experienced by both tuning forks at low velocities are well described by hydrodynamic contributions in the framework of the two-fluid model. The sensitivity of the 25-μ m-wide tuning forks is larger compared to similar 75-μ m-wide forks and in combination with the faster multifrequency lock-in technique could be used to improve thermometry in liquid ^4He. The multifrequency technique could also be used for studies of the onset of non-linear phenomena such as quantum turbulence and cavitation in superfluids.

  9. Fabrication of SMD 32.768 kHz tuning fork-type crystals: photolithography and selective etching of an array of quartz tuning fork resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. [Dept. of Molecular Science and Technology, Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea); Lee, J.Y.; Park, T.S. [Research and Development Center, Samsung Electro-Mechanics Co., Ltd., Suwon (Korea)

    2001-09-01

    Negative photoresist photolithography was used to etch array of quartz tuning forks for use in Qualcomm trademark mobile station modem (MSM)-3000{sup TM} central processing unit (CPU) chips of code division multiple access (CDMA), personal communication system (PCS), and global system for mobile communication (GSM) units. It was found superior to positive photoresist photolithography. Quartz tuning fork blanks with optimum shock-resistant characteristics were designed using finite element method (FEM) and processing condition was devised for reproducible precision etching of Z-cut quartz wafer into array of tuning forks. Tuning fork pattern was transferred via ordinary photolithographical chromium/quartz glass template using a standard single-sided aligner and subsequent negative photoresist development. Tightly adhering and pinhole-free 600/2000 A chromium/gold mask is coated over the developed photoresist pattern which was subsequently stripped in acetone. This procedure was repeated on the backside of the wafer. With protective metallization area of tuning fork geometry thus formed, etching through quartz wafer was done at 80 C in a {+-} 1.5 C controlled bath containing concentrated solution of ammonium bifluoride to remove unwanted area of the quartz wafer. Surface finish of quartz wafer prior to etching and the quality of quartz crystals used primarily affected the quality of quartz wafer surface finish after quartz etching. At 80 C, selective etching of 100 {mu}m quartz wafer could be effected within 90 min. Reproducible precision selective etching method has thus been established and enables mass production of miniature tuning fork resonators photolithographically. (orig.)

  10. Applications of the quadratic covariation differentiation theory: variants of the Clark-Ocone and Stroock's formulas

    CERN Document Server

    Allouba, Hassan

    2010-01-01

    In a 2006 article (\\cite{A1}), Allouba gave his quadratic covariation differentiation theory for It\\^o's integral calculus. He defined the derivative of a semimartingale with respect to a Brownian motion as the time derivative of their quadratic covariation and a generalization thereof. He then obtained a systematic differentiation theory containing a fundamental theorem of stochastic calculus relating this derivative to It\\^o's integral, a differential stochastic chain rule, a differential stochastic mean value theorem, and other differentiation rules. Here, we use this differentiation theory to obtain variants of the Clark-Ocone and Stroock formulas, with and without change of measure. We prove our variants of the Clark-Ocone formula under $L^{2}$-type conditions; with no Malliavin calculus, without the use of weak distributional or Radon-Nikodym type derivatives, and without the significant machinery of the Hida-Malliavin calculus. Unlike Malliavin or Hida-Malliavin calculi, the form of our variant of the ...

  11. Regional clarkes of chemical elements in soils of southern European Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'yachenko, V. V.; Matasova, I. Yu.

    2016-10-01

    Distribution patterns of 19 elements in soils of the southern part of European Russian were estimated on the basis of the analysis of more than 9000 soil samples; regional clarkes of the elements were compared with their global clarkes, The obtained data attest to the fact that southern Russia is characterized by increased concentrations of most of the microelements with a tendency for their rise in the recent decades. The great role of the aerial migration and deposition of elements results in the enrichment of the soils with technophilic elements, so that the geochemical convergence of the soils is observed. It can be concluded that natural element abundances in soils are subjected to the technogenic transformation reflecting the high rate of contamination of the biosphere.

  12. Construction of Minimal Catmull-Clark's Subdivision Surfaces with Given Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qing; Xu, Guoliang

    Minimal surface is an important class of surfaces. They are widely used in the areas such as architecture, art and natural science etc.. On the other hand, subdivision technology has always been active in computer aided design since its invention. The flexibility and high quality of the subdivision surface makes them a powerful tool in geometry modeling and surface designing. In this paper, we combine these two ingredients together aiming at constructing minimal subdivision surfaces. We use the mean curvature flow, a second order geometric partial differential equation, to construct minimal Catmull-Clark's subdivision surfaces with specified B-spline boundary curves. The mean curvature flow is solved by a finite element method where the finite element space is spanned by the limit functions of the modified Catmull-Clark's subdivision scheme.

  13. Petroleum geology of the Devonian Three Forks Formation, Sinclair Field and surrounding area, southwestern Manitoba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolas, M. [Manitoba Industry, Economic Development and Mines, Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Petroleum Branch

    2006-07-01

    The proven and probable reserves of Manitoba's most recent oil field, the Sinclair Field, are estimated at 3.8 million m{sup 3}. There are 9 designated oil pools within the Sinclair Field which produce from the Bakken and Three Forks Formations, with the most productive interval being the Qu'Appelle Group in the Three Forks Formation. In 2005, the Sinclair Field represented nearly 20 per cent of Manitoba's total oil production. This paper described the geological setting of southwestern Manitoba and the northeastern flank of the Williston Basin, with reference to the Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic strata that form a basinward thickening, southwestern sloping wedge. An erosion unconformity that marked the end of the Devonian represents a period of uplift that continued until early Mississippian time and affected the deposition, reworking and erosion of the Three Forks Formation. During Three Forks time, there was a shift in the depositional environment that produced the carbonates and evaporites of the Devonian, to a more transitional clastics-dominated environment. The regional isopach of the Three Forks was reviewed along with its structural features and tectonic interpretation. The shaley, silty dolarites, interbedded with shale and brecciated rocks of the Three Forks Formation have been highly affected by weathering and subsequent diagenesis and block faulting. It was suggested that future potential for another Sinclair-type oil play may exist east of Range 24W1. 8 refs., 12 figs., 2 appendices.

  14. Rose L. Clark: award for distinguished early career contributions to psychology in the public interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    Presents a citation for Rose L. Clark, who received the Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest "for her leadership and contributions to the field of psychology in the awareness and advancement of research, practice, and policy on behalf of American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) children, families, and communities." A brief profile and a selected bibliography accompany the citation. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:17115824

  15. Management accounting, engineering and the management of company growth : Clarke Chapman, 1864-1914.

    OpenAIRE

    McLean, T.; McGovern, T.; Davie, S.

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the relationship between management accounting and engineering in the processes of strategic decision-making and managerial control underlying the management of growth in Clarke Chapman, 1864 – 1914. The research finds that strategic decisions to invest in new technologies were grounded in the engineering ethos of the firm, market awareness and information derived from the firm's extensive business networks. Decisions regarding the (dis)continuance of existing strategic...

  16. Population-Wide Failure to Breed in the Clark's Nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taza D Schaming

    Full Text Available In highly variable environments, conditions can be so stressful in some years that entire populations forgo reproduction in favor of higher likelihood of surviving to breed in future years. In two out of five years, Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga Columbiana in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem exhibited population-wide failure to breed. Clark's nutcrackers at the study site experienced substantial interannual differences in food availability and weather conditions, and the two nonbreeding years corresponded with low whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis cone crops the previous autumn (≤ an average of 8 ± 2 cones per tree versus ≥ an average of 20 ± 2 cones per tree during breeding years and high snowpack in early spring (≥ 61.2 ± 5.5 cm versus ≤ 51.9 ± 4.4 cm during breeding years. The average adult body condition index during the breeding season was significantly lower in 2011 (-1.5 ± 1.1, a nonbreeding year, as compared to 2012 (6.2 ± 2.0, a breeding year. The environmental cues available to the birds prior to breeding, specifically availability of cached whitebark pine seeds, may have allowed them to predict that breeding conditions would be poor, leading to the decision to skip breeding. Alternatively, the Clark's nutcrackers may have had such low body energy stores that they chose not to or were unable to breed. Breeding plasticity would allow Clark's nutcrackers to exploit an unpredictable environment. However, if large-scale mortality of whitebark pines is leading to an increase in the number of nonbreeding years, there could be serious population-level and ecosystem-wide consequences.

  17. Pyramid Coarse Sun Sensing for NASA SSTI "Clark" Safe-Hold Mode

    OpenAIRE

    Benton, Jeff

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes an innovative approach to solving the Sun-pointing problem using a pyramid configuration of Coarse Sun Sensor (CSS) cells. In safe-hold mode, the Small Spacecraft Technology Initiative (SSTI) Clark spacecraft must keep its solar arrays towards the Sun using only CSS cells to sense the Sun. Unfortunately, Earth albedo degrades the accuracy of the Sun vector from these cells. Two CSS configurations are considered. A traditional configuration has cells mounted flat on each s...

  18. The relation between social anxiety and audience perception: Examining Clark and Wells’ (1995) model among adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blöte, Anke W.; Miers, Anne C.; Heyne, David A.; Clark, David M.; Westenberg, P. Michiel

    2016-01-01

    Background Clark and Wells’ (1995; Clark, 2001) cognitive model of social anxiety proposes that socially anxious individuals have negative expectations of performance prior to a social event, focus their attention predominantly on themselves and on their negative self-evaluations during an event, and use this negative self processing to infer that other people are judging them harshly. Aims The present study tested these propositions. Method The study used a community sample of 161 adolescents aged 14-18 years. The participants gave a speech in front of a pre-recorded audience acting neutrally, and participants were aware that the projected audience was pre-recorded. Results As expected, participants with higher levels of social anxiety had more negative performance expectations, higher self-focused attention, and more negative perceptions of the audience. Negative performance expectations and self-focused attention were found to mediate the relationship between social anxiety and audience perception. Conclusion The findings support Clark and Wells’ cognitive model of social anxiety which poses that socially anxious individuals have distorted perceptions of the responses of other people because their perceptions are colored by their negative thoughts and feelings. PMID:23635882

  19. Note: Enhanced energy harvesting from low-frequency magnetic fields utilizing magneto-mechano-electric composite tuning-fork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Aichao; Li, Ping; Wen, Yumei; Yang, Chao; Wang, Decai; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Jiajia

    2015-06-01

    A magnetic-field energy harvester using a low-frequency magneto-mechano-electric (MME) composite tuning-fork is proposed. This MME composite tuning-fork consists of a copper tuning fork with piezoelectric Pb(Zr(1-x)Ti(x))O3 (PZT) plates bonded near its fixed end and with NdFeB magnets attached at its free ends. Due to the resonance coupling between fork prongs, the MME composite tuning-fork owns strong vibration and high Q value. Experimental results show that the proposed magnetic-field energy harvester using the MME composite tuning-fork exhibits approximately 4 times larger maximum output voltage and 7.2 times higher maximum power than the conventional magnetic-field energy harvester using the MME composite cantilever. PMID:26133877

  20. BIOLOGICAL MONITORING PROGRAM FOR EAST FORK POPLAR CREEK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ADAMS, S.M.; BEATY, T.W.; BRANDT, C.C.; CHRISTENSEN, S.W.; CICERONE, D.S.

    1998-09-09

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Lear et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities.

  1. Failure analysis of axle shaft of a fork lift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souvik Das

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An axle shaft of fork lift failed at operation within 296 h of service. The shaft transmits torque from discrepancy to wheel through planetary gear arrangement. A section of fractured axle shaft made of induction-hardened steel was analyzed to determine the root cause of the failure. Optical microscopies as well as field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM along with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS were carried out to characterize the microstructure. Hardness profile throughout the cross-section was evaluated by micro-hardness measurements. Chemical analysis indicated that the shaft was made of 42CrMo4 steel grade as per specification. Microstructural analysis and micro-hardness profile revealed that the shaft was improperly heat treated resulting in a brittle case, where crack was found to initiate from the case in a brittle mode in contrast to ductile mode within the core. This behaviour was related to differences in microstructure, which was observed to be martensitic within the case with a micro-hardness equivalent to 735 HV, and a mixture of non-homogeneous structure of pearlite and ferrite within the core with a hardness of 210 HV. The analysis suggests that the fracture initiated from the martensitic case as brittle mode due to improper heat treatment process (high hardness. Moreover the inclusions along the hot working direction i.e. in the longitudinal axis made the component more susceptible to failure.

  2. CDK1 phosphorylates WRN at collapsed replication forks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Valentina; Rinalducci, Sara; Sanchez, Massimo; Grillini, Francesca; Sommers, Joshua A.; Brosh, Robert M.; Zolla, Lello; Franchitto, Annapaola; Pichierri, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of end-processing is critical for accurate repair and to switch between homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). End resection is a two-stage process but very little is known about regulation of the long-range resection, especially in humans. WRN participates in one of the two alternative long-range resection pathways mediated by DNA2 or EXO1. Here we demonstrate that phosphorylation of WRN by CDK1 is essential to perform DNA2-dependent end resection at replication-related DSBs, promoting HR, replication recovery and chromosome stability. Mechanistically, S1133 phosphorylation of WRN is dispensable for relocalization in foci but is involved in the interaction with the MRE11 complex. Loss of WRN phosphorylation negatively affects MRE11 foci formation and acts in a dominant negative manner to prevent long-range resection altogether, thereby licensing NHEJ at collapsed forks. Collectively, we unveil a CDK1-dependent regulation of the WRN-DNA2-mediated resection and identify an undescribed function of WRN as a DSB repair pathway switch. PMID:27634057

  3. BIOLOGICAL MONITORING PROGRAM FOR EAST FORK POPLAR CREEK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ADAMS, S.M.; ASHWOOD, T.L.; BEATY, T.W.; BRANDT, C.C.

    1997-10-24

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y- 12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Lear et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities.

  4. Bioavailability of mercury in East Fork Poplar Creek soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The initial risk assessment for the East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) floodplain in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, a superfund site heavily contaminated with mercury, was based upon a reference dose for mercuric chloride, a soluble mercury compound not expected to be present in the floodplain, which is frequently saturated with water. Previous investigations had suggested mercury in the EFPC floodplain was less soluble and therefore less bioavailable than mercuric chloride, possibly making the results of the risk assessment unduly conservative. A bioavailability study, designed to measure the amount of mercury available for absorption in a child's digestive tract, the most critical risk endpoint and pathway, was performed on twenty soils from the EFPC floodplain. The average percentage of mercury released during the study for the twenty soils was 5.3%, compared to 100% of the compound mercuric chloride subjected to the same conditions. Alteration of the procedure to test additional conditions possible during soil digestion did not appreciably alter the results. Therefore, use of a reference dose for mercuric chloride in the EFPC risk assessment without inclusion of a corresponding bioavailability factor may be unduly conservative

  5. River restoration, discharge uncertainties and floods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendiondo, E.M. [Kassel Univ. (Germany). Hydraulic Structures and Water-Resources Engineering]|[Univ. Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Pesquisas Hidraulicas; Clarke, R.T. [Univ. Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Pesquisas Hidraulicas; Toensmann, F. [Kassel Univ. (Germany). Hydraulic Structures and Water-Resources Engineering

    2000-07-01

    Although ecological river restoration is updated continuously, discharge uncertainties are not being addressed to practical purposes, i.e. flood mitigation. So, uncertainty-based strategies need to be addressed with resilient river habitats. Not only the flood-defence and river-restoration framework of Toensmann (1996), but also the uncertainties in rating curves pointed by Clarke et al (2000), are used as starting points to propose an alternative flood mitigation scheme, managing hydraulics, ecology and statistics for restoring watercourses. Our working hypothesis considers the likelihood and the resiliency of riparian habitats in order to encompass the routing effects caused by this alternative flood mitigation scheme. Herein we depict the strategy and assessment for the appraisal of flood mitigation due to discharge reduction in rating curves, with application examples. (orig.)

  6. Chloride control and monitoring program in the Wichita River Basin, Texas, 1996-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynie, M.M.; Burke, G.F.; Baldys, Stanley

    2011-01-01

    Water resources of the Wichita River Basin in north-central Texas are vital to the water users in Wichita Falls, Tex., and surrounding areas. The Wichita River Basin includes three major forks of the Wichita River upstream from Lake Kemp, approximately 50 miles southwest of Wichita Falls, Tex. The main stem of the Wichita River is formed by the confluence of the North Wichita River and Middle Fork Wichita River upstream from Truscott Brine Lake. The confluence of the South Wichita River with the Wichita River is northwest of Seymour, Tex. (fig. 1). Waters from the Wichita River Basin, which is part of the Red River Basin, are characterized by high concentrations of chloride and other salinity-related constituents from salt springs and seeps (hereinafter salt springs) in the upper reaches of the basin. These salt springs have their origins in the Permian Period when the Texas Panhandle and western Oklahoma areas were covered by a broad shallow sea. Over geologic time, evaporation of the shallow seas resulted in the formation of salt deposits, which today are part of the geologic formations underlying the area. Groundwater in these formations is characterized by high chloride concentrations from these salt deposits, and some of this groundwater is discharged by the salt springs into the Wichita River.

  7. A Tuning Fork with a Short Fibre Probe Sensor for a Near-FieldScanning Optical Microscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王沛; 鲁拥华; 章江英; 明海; 谢建平; 黄建文; 高宗圣; 蔡定平

    2002-01-01

    We report on a tapping-mode tuning fork with a short fibre probe sensor for a near-field scanning optical microscope. The method demonstrates how to fabricate the short fibre probe. This tapping-mode tuning fork with a short fibre probe can provide stable and high Q at the tapping frequency of the tuning fork, and can give high-quality near-field scanning optical microscope and atomic force microscope images of samples. We present the results of using the tapping-mode tuning fork with a short fibre probe sensor for a near-field scanning optical microscope performed on an eight-channel silica waveguide.

  8. Quarterly Progress Report - Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S. M.; Christensen, S. W.; Greeley, M.S. jr; McCracken, M.K.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth G. R.; Stewart, A. J.

    2001-01-19

    adjacent floodplain, (5) appropriate habitat distribution, and (6) access. The primary sampling sites include upper EFPC at kilometers (EFKs) 24.4 and 23.4 [upstream and downstream of Lake Reality (LR) respectively]; EFK 18.7 (also EFK 18 and 19), located off the ORR and below an area of intensive commercial and light industrial development; EFK 13.8 (also EFK 14), located upstream from the Oak Ridge Wastewater Treatment Facility (ORWTF); and EFK 6.3 located approximately 1.4 km below the ORR boundary (Fig. 1.1). Brushy Fork (BF) at kilometer (BFK) 7.6 is used as a reference stream in most tasks of the BMAP. Additional sites off the ORR are also occasionally used for reference, including Beaver Creek, Bull Run, Hinds Creek, Paint Rock Creek, and the Emory River in Watts Bar Reservoir (Fig. 1.2).

  9. South Fork Iowa River watershed selected for a national water-quality study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, M.L.; Kalkhoff, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is studying seven watersheds across the Nation to better understand how natural factors and agricultural management practices (AMPs) affect the transport of water and chemicals. Natural factors include climate and landscape (soil type, topography, geology), and AMPs include practices related to tillage, irrigation, and chemical application. The study approach is similar in each watershed so that we can compare and contrast the results and more accurately predict conditions in other agricultural settings.

  10. Physical Habitat Characteristics on the South Fork Shenandoah River, VA in 2006-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Data collected with the GeoXT Trimble GPS unit using ArcPad 6.1. (summer 2006-2007). Files were created within a geodatabase to create a data dictionary for use in...

  11. FLOODPLAIN MAPPING SUBMISSION FOR SOUTH FORK, NOOKSACK RIVER, WHATCOM COUNTY, WASHINGTON

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  12. Forked and Integrated Variants In An Open-Source Firmware Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanciulescu, Stefan; Schulze, Sandro; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Code cloning has been reported both on small (code fragments) and large (entire projects) scale. Cloning-in-the-large, or forking, is gaining ground as a reuse mechanism thanks to availability of better tools for maintaining forked project variants, hereunder distributed version control systems a...... and how feature implementations are migrated from forks to the main integrated platform. We believe that this understanding will ultimately help development of tools mixing clone-based and integrated variant management, combining the advantages of both....... and integrated variability management (conditional ompilation) to create variants and features. Thus studying it increases our understanding of the choice between integrated and clone-based variant management. It also allows us to observe mechanisms governing source code maturation, in particular when, why......Code cloning has been reported both on small (code fragments) and large (entire projects) scale. Cloning-in-the-large, or forking, is gaining ground as a reuse mechanism thanks to availability of better tools for maintaining forked project variants, hereunder distributed version control systems...

  13. DNA Copy-Number Control through Inhibition of Replication Fork Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared T. Nordman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Proper control of DNA replication is essential to ensure faithful transmission of genetic material and prevent chromosomal aberrations that can drive cancer progression and developmental disorders. DNA replication is regulated primarily at the level of initiation and is under strict cell-cycle regulation. Importantly, DNA replication is highly influenced by developmental cues. In Drosophila, specific regions of the genome are repressed for DNA replication during differentiation by the SNF2 domain-containing protein SUUR through an unknown mechanism. We demonstrate that SUUR is recruited to active replication forks and mediates the repression of DNA replication by directly inhibiting replication fork progression instead of functioning as a replication fork barrier. Mass spectrometry identification of SUUR-associated proteins identified the replicative helicase member CDC45 as a SUUR-associated protein, supporting a role for SUUR directly at replication forks. Our results reveal that control of eukaryotic DNA copy number can occur through the inhibition of replication fork progression.

  14. Vibratory Gyro-Sensor Using Vertically Set Quartz Crystal Trident-Type Tuning Fork Resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiratori, Norihiko; YoshiroTomikawa, YoshiroTomikawa; Ohnishi, Kazumasa

    1999-05-01

    In this study we deal with a new type of vibratory gyro-sensor using a vertically set quartz crystal trident-type tuning fork resonator. The sensor is made of X-cut quartz crystal wafer formed by rotating 2° about the X-axis, applying the wire saw cutting method. The slits that form three arms are cut along the Y-axis direction. In such a trident-type tuning fork resonator, two resonance vibration modes are used: one has vibrational displacement in the vertical direction (X-axis) of the tuning fork plane and the other has that in the horizontal direction (Z‧-axis). When an angular rate (ΩY‧) around the Y‧-axis is applied to the trident-type tuning fork gyro-sensor vibrating in the V-MODE, Coriolis forces, due to the ΩY‧, are applied on the three arms in the X‧-axis direction and the H-MODE vibration is induced. Therefore, the angular rate (ΩY‧) can be determined by detecting the signals of H-MODE vibration. The experimental results have proved that the vibratory gyro-sensor that uses such a quartz crystal tuning fork resonator has good characteristics.

  15. RECOVERY FOLLOWING SUBARACHNOID BLOCK : EVALUATION USING 128 HZ TUNING FORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Following spinal anesthesia it is very important to see complete recovery before ambulation and discharge of the patient. Conventional methods to see recovery from spinal block use different types of motor power tests like Bromage score or the Formal motor power test system. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of one hundred and fifty patients of ASA grade I and II, presenting for lower segment caesarean section under spinal anesthesia were taken up for the study. We compared the use of a 128-Hz tuning fork with the results of conventional evaluation of block recovery. Conventional block recovery testing included Bromage score, Formal muscle power testing according to the British Medical Research Council, pinprick testing, and warm/cold testing. After obtaining base line values, a subarachnoid block was performed and patients were tested every 15 minutes after surgery, till the vibration score of one less than the baseline was achieved. Statistical analysis was performed to compare the results of the different methods to the time at which baseline values of vibration sense were reached. RESULTS: At the time vibration sense testing returned to baseline, 100% of the patients had attained Bromage score of 0 with no residual motor block. 98% of the patients regained foot extension and foot flexion strength completely while 92% of the patients showed complete recovery of the quadriceps strength. CONCLUSION: Recovery of vibration sense corresponds with recovery of motor block after spinal anesthesia and may serve as an easy means of documenting recovery with a single test before discharge.

  16. The Analysis of the Relationship between Communication Skills and the Establishment of Clark's Management Network among Sport Managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasool NAZARI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between communication skills and the establishment of Clark's Management Network among sport managers. This applied research is a kind of correlational – survey study. Statistical population consist ed of 140 sport managers working for sport organizations in Isfahan Province, which have been selected by stratified random sampling. Measurement tools included two questionnaires of Communication Skill (91% and Establishment of Clark's Management Network (87%. Descriptive and inferential statistical methods applied for statistical analysis using SPSS software. Results show that there is a relationship between communication skills and the establishment of Clark's Management Network among sport managers. I n addition, the feedback component has greater contribution to prediction of Clark's management network (p 0.05. In general, it can acknowledge that the communication skills are effective in the establishment of Clark's management network and cause to i mprove the management process of sport organizations' managers and to achieve to the organizational goals with high level of productivity.

  17. Lower Red River Meadow Stream Restoration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of a continuing effort to restore anadromous fish populations in the South Fork Clearwater River basin of Idaho, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund the Lower Red River Meadow Restoration Project (Project). The Project is a cooperative effort with the Idaho Soil and Water Conservation District, Nez Perce National Forest, Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), and the Nez Perce Tribe of Idaho. The proposed action would allow the sponsors to perform stream bank stabilization, aquatic and riparian habitat improvement activities on IDFG's Red River Management Area and to secure long-term conservation contracts or agreements for conducting streambank and habitat improvement activities with participating private landowners located in the Idaho County, Idaho, study area. This preliminary Environmental Assessment (EA) examines the potential environmental effects of stabilizing the stream channel, restoring juvenile fish rearing habitat and reestablishing a riparian shrub community along the stream

  18. Concentrations of metals in water, sediment, biofilm, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish in the boulder river watershed, Montana, and the role of colloids in metal uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, A.M.; Nimick, D.A.; Kimball, B.A.; Church, S.E.; Harper, D.D.; Brumbaugh, W.G.

    2007-01-01

    To characterize the partitioning of metals in a stream ecosystem, concentrations of trace metals including As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn were measured in water, colloids, sediment, biofilm (also referred to as aufwuchs), macroinvertebrates, and fish collected from the Boulder River watershed, Montana. Median concentrations of Cd, Cu, and Zn in water throughout the watershed exceeded the U.S. EPA acute and chronic criteria for protection of aquatic life. Concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in sediment were sufficient in the tributaries to cause invertebrate toxicity. The concentrations of As, Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn in invertebrates from lower Cataract Creek (63, 339, 59, 34, and 2,410 ??g/g dry wt, respectively) were greater than the concentrations in invertebrates from the Clark Fork River watershed, Montana (19, 174, 2.3, 15, and 648 ??g/g, respectively), that were associated with reduced survival, growth, and health of cutthroat trout fed diets composed of those invertebrates. Colloids and biofilm seem to play a critical role in the pathway of metals into the food chain and concentrations of As, Cu, Pb, and Zn in these two components are significantly correlated. We suggest that transfer of metals associated with Fe colloids to biological components of biofilm is an important pathway where metals associated with abiotic components are first available to biotic components. The significant correlations suggest that Cd, Cu, and Zn may move independently to biota (biofilm, invertebrates, or fish tissues) from water and sediment. The possibility exists that Cd, Cu, and Zn concentrations increase in fish tissues as a result of direct contact with water and sediment and indirect exposure through the food chain. However, uptake through the food chain to fish may be more important for As. Although As concentrations in colloids and biofilm were significantly correlated with As water concentrations, As concentrations in fish tissues were not correlated with water. The pathway for

  19. Area Based Approach for Three Phase Power Quality Assessment in Clarke Plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. CHATTOPADHYAY

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an area-based approach for electric power quality analysis. Some specific reference signals have been defined and areas formed by the real power system data with the reference signal have been calculated wherefrom contributions of fundamental waveform and harmonic components have been assessed separately. Active power, reactive power and total harmonic distortion factors have been measured. Clarke transformation technique has been used for analysis in three-phase system, which has reduced the computational effort to a great extent. Distortion factors of individual phase of a three-phase system have also been assessed.

  20. The DNA damage checkpoint response to replication stress: A Game of Forks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel eJossen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Conditions challenging replication fork progression, collectively referred to as replication stress, represent a major source of genomic instability and are associated to cancer onset. The replication checkpoint, a specialized branch of the DNA damage checkpoint, monitors fork problems and triggers a cellular response aimed at preserving genome integrity. Here, we review the mechanisms by which the replication checkpoint monitors and responds to replication stress, focusing on the checkpoint-mediated pathways contributing to protect replication fork integrity. We discuss how cells achieve checkpoint signaling inactivation once replication stress is overcome and how a failure to timely revert checkpoint-mediated changes in cellular physiology might impact on replication dynamics and genome integrity. We also highlight the checkpoint function as an anti-cancer barrier preventing cells malignant transformation following oncogene-induced replication stress.

  1. Design of a new portable fork detector for research reactor spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are many situations in nonproliferation and international safeguards when one needs to verify spent research-reactor fuel. Special inspections, a reactor coming under safeguards for the first time, and failed surveillance are prime examples. Several years ago, Los Alamos developed the FORK detector for the IAEA and EURATOM. This detector, together with the GRAND electronics package, is used routinely by inspectors to verify light-water-reactor spent fuels. Both the FORK detector and the GRAND electronics technologies have been transferred and are now commercially available. Recent incidents in the world indicate that research-reactor fuel is potentially a greater concern for proliferation than light-water-reactor fuels. A device similar to the FORK/GRAND should be developed to verify research-reactor spent fuels because the signals from light-water-reactor spent fuel are quite different than those from research-reactor fuels

  2. Pathological Changes of von Economo Neuron and Fork Neuron in Neuropsychiatric Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Wang, Lu-ning; Arzberger, Thomas; Zhu, Ming-wei

    2016-02-01

    von Economo neuron (VEN) is a bipolar neuron characterized by a large spindle-shaped soma. VEN is generally distributed in the layer V of anterior insular lobe and anterior cingulate cortex. Fork neuron is another featured bipolar neuron. In recent years,many studies have illustrated that VEN and fork neurons are correlated with complicated cognition such as self-consciousness and social emotion. Studies in the development and morpholigies of these two neurons as well as their pathological changes in various neurological and psychiatric disorders have found that the abnormal number and functions of VEN can cause corresponding dysfunctions in social recognition and emotions both during the neuro-developmental stages of childhood and during the nerve degeneration in old age stage. Therefore, more attentions should be paid on the research of VEN and fork neurons in neuropsychiatric diseases.

  3. Lsd1 and Lsd2 Control Programmed Replication Fork Pauses and Imprinting in Fission Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allyson Holmes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, a chromosomal imprinting event controls the asymmetric pattern of mating-type switching. The orientation of DNA replication at the mating-type locus is instrumental in this process. However, the factors leading to imprinting are not fully identified and the mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we show that the replication fork pause at the mat1 locus (MPS1, essential for imprint formation, depends on the lysine-specific demethylase Lsd1. We demonstrate that either Lsd1 or Lsd2 amine oxidase activity is required for these processes, working upstream of the imprinting factors Swi1 and Swi3 (homologs of mammalian Timeless and Tipin, respectively. We also show that the Lsd1/2 complex controls the replication fork terminators, within the rDNA repeats. These findings reveal a role for the Lsd1/2 demethylases in controlling polar replication fork progression, imprint formation, and subsequent asymmetric cell divisions.

  4. Integrative Paths to the Past: Paleoanthropological Advances in Honor of F. Clark Howell, edited by Robert S. Corrnccini and Russell L. Ciochon, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1994.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela R. Willoughby

    1995-11-01

    Full Text Available F. Clark Howell retired from the faculty of the University of California at Berkeley in 1991. At Berkeley, and earlier while at the University of Chicago, he was responsible for training a number of specialists in human biocultural evolution, or palaeoanthropology. In fact, Howell is credited with developing the concept of palaeoanthropology (and defining the term itself; he certainly created the framework for this integrated, multi-disciplinary approach to human evolution. For his retirement, former students and colleagues collaborated to produce this volume. Some of the papers were presented at a one day symposium reviewing the highlights of Howell's career along with current research directions in palaeoanthropology. It took place during the annual meeting of the American Anthropological Association held in San Francisco in 1992. Bowell's long time colleague J. Desmond Clark gave the distinguished lecture at the same meeting. During his career, Howell directed excavations at Isimilain Tanzania, as well as Torralba and Ambrona in Spain (all extensive Acheulean localities, but is best known for his work west of the Omo River in southern Ethiopia. It was there during the 1960s and 1970s that he developed the methods and approaches which would come to characterize the best of palaeoanthropological research.

  5. The distribution of time for Clark's flow and risk assessment for the activities of pert network structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letić Duško

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the ways of quantification of flow time qualifications that can be used for planning or other stochastic processes by employing Clark's methods, central limit theorem and Monte Carlo simulation. The results of theoretical researches on superponed flow time quantification for complex activities and events flow in PERT network for project management are also presented. By extending Clark's research we have made a generalization of flow models for parallel and ordinal activities and events and specifically for their critical and subcritical paths. This can prevent planning errors and decrease the project realization risk. The software solution is based on Clark's equations and Monte Carlo simulation. The numerical experiment is conducted using Mathcad Professional.

  6. 浅析JSR-166y中Fork/Join框架的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁黎明

    2011-01-01

    多线程开发技术可以有效利用计算资源,而Fork/Join框架是一种经典的多线程开发框,能够帮助开发人员处理线程调度问题.文章从JDK各个版本对并行编程的支持着手,介绍了未来JSR-166y中引入的Fork/Join框架及其应用方法,并给出Java实现代码.

  7. Measurements of Vortex Line Density Generated by a Quartz Tuning Fork in Superfluid 4He

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, M. J.; Kolosov, O.; Schmoranzer, D.; Skrbek, L.; Tsepelin, V.; Woods, A. J.

    2016-05-01

    We present proof-of-concept measurements of the vortex line density generated by a quartz tuning fork resonator probed by the attenuation of second sound in superfluid ^4He at 1.6 K. The force-velocity response of a quartz tuning fork operating at a frequency of 31 kHz exhibited the onset of extra damping at a velocity of 0.5 ms^{-1}. Attenuation of the 5th resonant mode of second sound was observed at the same velocity, indicating the production of vortex lines. Our measurements demonstrate that an increase of the drag coefficient corresponds to the development of quantum turbulence.

  8. The DNA repair helicase UvrD is essential for replication fork reversal in replication mutants

    OpenAIRE

    Flores, Maria Jose; Bidnenko, Vladimir; Michel, Bénédicte

    2004-01-01

    Replication forks arrested by inactivation of the main Escherichia coli DNA polymerase (polymerase III) are reversed by the annealing of newly synthesized leading- and lagging-strand ends. Reversed forks are reset by the action of RecBC on the DNA double-strand end, and in the absence of RecBC chromosomes are linearized by the Holliday junction resolvase RuvABC. We report here that the UvrD helicase is essential for RuvABC-dependent chromosome linearization in E. coli polymerase III mutants, ...

  9. Regulating telomere length from the inside out: the replication fork model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Telomere length is regulated around an equilibrium set point. Telomeres shorten during replication and are lengthened by telomerase. Disruption of the length equilibrium leads to disease; thus, it is important to understand the mechanisms that regulate length at the molecular level. The prevailing protein-counting model for regulating telomerase access to elongate the telomere does not explain accumulating evidence of a role of DNA replication in telomere length regulation. Here I present an alternative model: the replication fork model that can explain how passage of a replication fork and regulation of origin firing affect telomere length. PMID:27401551

  10. Salmon River Habitat Enhancement, Part 1 of 2, 1986 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, Carl

    1987-03-01

    The tribal project annual report contains reports for four subprojects within Project 83-359. Subproject I involved fish inventories in Bear Valley Creek, Idaho, that will be used in conjunction with 1984 and 1985 fish and habitat pre-treatment (baseline) data to evaluate effects of habitat enhancement on the habitat and fish community in Bear Valley Creek overtime. Subproject II is the coordination/planning activities of the Project Leader in relation to other BPA-funded habitat enhancement projects that have or will occur in the upper-Salmon River basin. Subproject III involved fish inventories (pre-treatment) in the Yankee Fork drainage of the Salmon River, and habitat problem identification on Fivemile and Ramey Creek. Subproject IV involved baseline habitat and fish inventories on the East Fork of the Salmon River, Herd Creek and Big-Boulder Creek. Individual abstracts have been prepared for the four subproject reports. 20 refs., 37 figs., 22 tabs.

  11. Clark's nutcracker spatial memory: many errors might not be due to forgetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednekoff; Balda

    1997-09-01

    Clark's nutcrackers, Nucifraga columbianarely upon cached seeds for both winter survival and breeding. Laboratory studies have confirmed that nutcrackers use spatial memory to recover their caches. In the laboratory, however, nutcrackers seem to perform less accurately than they do in nature. Two lines of evidence indicate that nutcrackers make 'errors' in the laboratory that are not due to failures of memory. First, when digging in sand-filled cups, nutcrackers were 89% accurate when they plunged their bills directly into the middle of cups but only 21% accurate when they swept their bills across the cups. Second, nutcrackers were more accurate when the cost of probing was increased by covering sand-filled cups with either petri dishes or heavy glass bowls. Birds recovered caches in order of increasing costs. As costs increased, nutcrackers made somewhat fewer errors nearer to cache sites before recovering the caches and dramatically fewer errors further away from cache sites or near cache sites after recovering the caches. Some errors may be a form of environmental sampling. We conclude that the impressive achievements documented by previous studies are underestimates of the spatial memory abilities of Clark's nutcrackers.1997The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour

  12. FROM THE LEWIS AND CLARK EXPEDITION TO IBM, DELL, AND SOUTHWEST AIRLINES: TEACHING HISTORY AND LEADERSHIP TO BUSINESS STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey J. Matthews

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available History is not a tomb of dead facts but a resource that can inform and improve everyday decision making. Experience as an analytical tool is invaluable for solving problems in changing and competitive environments. “From the Lewis and Clark Expedition,” which coincides with the National Lewis & Clark Bicentennial Commemoration (2003—2006, demonstrates how contemporary business concepts of visionary leadership, systematic planning, and organizational climate were instrumental to the success of Thomas Jefferson's “Corps of Discovery” and shows how a mastery of these concepts contributed to the successes of the pioneering US corporations IBM, Southwest Airlines, and Dell.

  13. Summary of biological investigations relating to surface-water quality in the Kentucky River basin, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradfield, A.D.; Porter, S.D.

    1990-01-01

    The Kentucky River basin, an area of approximately 7,000 sq mi, is divided into five hydrologic units that drain parts of three physiographic regions. Data on aquatic biological resources were collected and reviewed to assess conditions in the major streams for which data were available. The North, Middle, and South Forks of the Kentucky River are in the Eastern Coal Field physiographic region. Streams in this region are affected by drainage from coal mines and oil and gas operations, and many support only tolerant biotic stream forms. The Kentucky River from the confluence of the three forks to the Red River, is in the Knobs physiographic region. Oil and gas production operations and point discharges from municipalities have affected many streams in this region. The Red River, a Kentucky Wild River, supported a unique flora and fauna but accelerated sedimentation has eliminated many species of mussels. The Millers Creek drainage is affected by brines discharged from oil and gas operations, and some reaches support only halophilic algae and a few fish. The Kentucky River from the Red River to the Ohio River is in the Bluegrass physiographic region. Heavy sediment loads and sewage effluent from urban centers have limited the aquatic biota in this region. Silver Creek and South Elkhorn Creek have been particularly affected and aquatic communities in these streams are dominated by organisms tolerant of low dissolved oxygen concentrations. Biological data for other streams indicate that habitat and water quality conditions are favorable for most commonly occurring aquatic organisms. (USGS)

  14. Biogeochemistry of mercury in a river-reservoir system: impact of an inactive chloralkali plant on the Holston River-Cherokee Reservoir, Virginia and Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrand, S. G.; Lindberg, S. E.; Turner, R. R.; Huckabee, J. W.; Strand, R. H.; Lund, J. R.; Andren, A. W.

    1980-08-01

    Elevated mercury concentrations in fish species from the North Fork of the Holston River were observed in the early 1970's. The source of the mercury was a chloralkali plant which had ceased operation in 1972. Mercury continues to be released to the river from two large (approx. 40-ha) waste disposal ponds at the plant site. This report presents results of a study of the emission of mercury to the environment from the abandoned waste ponds and of the distribution of mercury in water, sediment, and biota of the Holston River-Cherokee Reservoir System in Virginia and eastern Tennessee.

  15. Dietary effects of metals-contaminated invertebrates from the Coeur d'Alene River, Idaho, on cutthroat trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, A.M.; Woodward, D.F.; Brumbaugh, W.; Goldstein, J.N.; MacConnell, E.; Hogstrand, C.; Barrows, F.T.

    1999-01-01

    Benthic macroinvertebrates with elevated concentrations of metals were collected from the Coeur d'Alene (CDA) River, Idaho, pasteurized, and fed to cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki in the laboratory from start of feeding until 90 d posthatch. Invertebrates were collected from two sites known to contain elevated concentrations of metals: near Pinehurst in the South Fork of the CDA River and at Cataldo, approximately 5 km below the confluence of the South Fork and the North Fork. Invertebrates collected from a relatively clean site in the North Fork were used as a reference diet. We performed measurements of fish health that indicate reduced fitness of fish fed the South Fork and Cataldo diets. Effects measured were reduced feeding activity, increased number of macrophage aggregates and hyperplasia of cells in the kidney, degeneration of mucosal epithelium in the pyloric caecae, and metallothionein induction. These effects would likely reduce growth and survival of fish in the wild. Vacuolization of glial cells were also observed in fish fed the Cataldo diet. Metals in the water often exacerbated the histological effects observed. Although the invertebrates collected near Cataldo had lower concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) than the invertebrates from the South Fork, fish fed the Cataldo diet had equally high or higher concentrations of all metals except as by day 44. The Cataldo diet also caused the most deleterious effects on survival and growth. These findings are especially important for early life stage fish, whose diet consists wholly of benthic macroinvertebrates. Therefore, fish feeding on invertebrates in the CDA River below the Bunker Hill smelting complex are at risk of reduced fitness.

  16. Diagnostic nutrient mass balance on J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge, North Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Souris River, an international river originating in Canada’s Saskatchewan Province, flows south into the State of North Dakota and then back north into Canada’s...

  17. Linking Climate, Hydrology and Groundwater in High-Resolution Transient Groundwater Flow Models: a Case Study For a Climate Change Impacts Assessment in Grand Forks, BC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scibek, J.; Allen, D. M.; Whitfield, P.; Wei, M.

    2004-05-01

    A case study of an unconfined aquifer in the Grand Forks valley in south-central BC was used to develop methodology for linking climate models, hydrologic models, and groundwater models to investigate future impacts of climate change on groundwater resources. A three dimensional groundwater flow model of variable spatial resolution (constrained by borehole spacing) was implemented in MODFLOW, and calibrated to observation well data. Multiple scenarios of the hydraulic conductivity fields were used in a sensitivity analysis. A new methodology was developed for generating spatially-distributed and temporally-varying recharge zonation for the surficial aquifer, using GIS linked to the one-dimensional HELP (USEPA) hydrologic model that estimates aquifer recharge. The recharge model accounts for soil distribution, vadose zone depth and hydraulic conductivity, extent of impermeable areas, surficial geology, and vadose zone thickness. Production well pumping and irrigation return flow during the summer season were included in recharge computations. Although recharge was computed as monthly averages per climate scenario, it is driven by physically-based daily weather inputs generated by a stochastic weather generator and calibrated to local observed climate. Four year long climate scenarios were run, each representing one typical year in the present and future (2020s, 2050s, and 2080s), by perturbing the historical weather according to the downscaled CGCM1 general circulation model results (Environment Canada). CGCM1 model outputs were calibrated for local conditions during the downscaling procedure. These include absolute and relative changes in precipitation; including indirect measures of precipitation intensity, dry and wet spell lengths, temperature, and solar radiation for the evapotranspiration model. CGCM1 downscaling was also used to predict basin-scale runoff for the Kettle River upstream of Grand Forks. This river exerts strong control on the groundwater levels

  18. Storm water control plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the erosion and sediment control, storm water management, maintenance, and reporting and record keeping practices to be employed during Phase II of the remediation project for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) Operable Unit

  19. 77 FR 55796 - Sand Lick Fork Watershed Restoration Project; Daniel Boone National Forest, KY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Sand Lick Fork Watershed Restoration Project; Daniel Boone National Forest, KY AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an environmental impact statement. SUMMARY:...

  20. MediaMill: Fast and effective video search using the ForkBrowser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. de Rooij; C.G.M. Snoek; M. Worring

    2008-01-01

    In this technical demonstration we showcase the MediaMill ForkBrowser for video retrieval. It embeds multiple query methods into a single browsing environment. We show that users can switch query methods on demand without the need to adapt to a different interface. This allows for fast and effective

  1. BENZO(A)PYRENE DIOL EPOXIDE I BINDS TO DNA AT REPLICATION FORKS (JOURNAL VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The distribution in replication forks of DNA lesions caused by the treatment of S phase calls with benzo(a)pyrene-diol-epoxide-1 (BPDE-1) was studied in synchronized C3H10T1/2 cells. Sites of carcinogen modification of DNA were identified by polyclonal rabbit antibodies that were...

  2. Noncontact atomic force microscopy in liquid environment with quartz tuning fork and carbon nanotube probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kageshima, M.; Jensenius, Henriette; Dienwiebel, M.;

    2002-01-01

    A force sensor for noncontact atomic force microscopy in liquid environment was developed by combining a multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) probe with a quartz tuning fork. Solvation shells of octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane surface were detected both in the frequency shift and dissipation. Due...

  3. Storm water control plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This document provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the erosion and sediment control, storm water management, maintenance, and reporting and record keeping practices to be employed during Phase II of the remediation project for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) Operable Unit.

  4. 77 FR 71611 - Land Acquisitions; North Fork Rancheria of Mono Indians of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Land Acquisitions; North Fork Rancheria of Mono Indians of California AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice of final agency determination. SUMMARY: The Assistant Secretary--Indian Affairs made a final agency determination to acquire approximately 305.49 acres of land...

  5. From farm to fork and further. Research tackling the grand challenge of food safety in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, M. de; Polchar, J.; Gehem, M.

    2012-01-01

    The study From Farm to Fork and Further shows how, as traditional causes of food safety problems such as basic hygiene are successfully dealt with, future food safety risks become ever harder to manage. European countries may have the highest food safety standards, however the trends that go hand in

  6. Fork naar Farm. deelrapport: experimentele kweek van yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi) en de implementatie hiervan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, W.; Blanco Garcia, A.; Poelman, M.

    2011-01-01

    In Nederland is sprake van een toenemende vraag naar duurzaam en lokaal geproduceerde vis. Het doel van het Fork naar Farm project was het begeleiden van de productie van een nieuwe vissoort binnen de Nederlandse viskweeksector en Afrikaanse meerval volgens een certificeringsschema waarin duurzaamhe

  7. Elk monitoring in Lewis and Clark National Historical Park: 2008-2012 synthesis report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Paul C.; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Cole, Carla; Clatterbuck, Chris; Boetsch, John; Beirne, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining elk (Cervus elaphus roosevelti) herds that frequent Lewis and Clark National Historical Park (NHP) is central to the park’s purpose of preserving the historic, cultural, scenic, and natural resources associated with the winter encampment of the Lewis and Clark expedition. Elk were critically important to the Lewis and Clark expedition in providing food and hides that sustained the expedition during the winter of 1805-06 and supplied them for their return east during 1806. Today, elk remain a key component of interpreting the Lewis and Clark story to over 200,000 park visitors each year at the Fort Clatsop visitor center. In 2008, the US Geological Survey (USGS) began collaborating with Lewis and Clark NHP and the NPS North Coast and Cascades Network to develop a protocol for monitoring long-term changes in the magnitude and spatial patterns of elk use within and adjacent to Lewis and Clark NHP (Griffin et al. 2011). Specific objectives of the monitoring program were to measure trends in (1) relative use of the Fort Clatsop unit by elk during winter; (2) the proportion of areas where elk sign is present in the Fort Clatsop unit in winter; and (3) the frequency of elk sightings from roads in and around the Fort Clatsop unit. This report synthesizes the results of the first four years of monitoring elk distribution and use in Lewis and Clark NHP from 2008-2012. We also present data from FY2012 (Appendix 1), in lieu of an annual report for that year. We used fecal pellet group surveys as the cornerstone for monitoring trends in both relative use of the Fort Clatsop Unit by elk and the proportion of areas where elk sign was present at the end of winter. We estimated pellet group density based on data collected from a network of fecal pellet plots distributed systematically throughout the unit. We developed a double observer sampling scheme that enabled us to estimate detection biases and improve the accuracy of pellet group density estimates. We computed

  8. Evaluation of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Mercury Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, David B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brooks, Scott C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mathews, Teresa J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bevelhimer, Mark S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); DeRolph, Chris [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brandt, Craig C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peterson, Mark J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ketelle, Richard [East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-06-01

    This report summarizes a 3-year research project undertaken to better understand the nature and magnitude of mercury (Hg) fluxes in East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). This project addresses the requirements of Action Plan 1 in the 2011 Oak Ridge Reservation-wide Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Five Year Review (FYR). The Action Plan is designed to address a twofold 2011 FYR issue: (1) new information suggests mobilization of mercury from the upper and lower EFPC streambeds and stream banks is the primary source of mercury export during high-flow conditions, and (2) the current Record of Decision did not address the entire hydrologic system and creek bank or creek bed sediments. To obtain a more robust watershed-scale understanding of mercury sources and processes in lower EFPC (LEFPC), new field and laboratory studies were coupled with existing data from multiple US Department of Energy programs to develop a dynamic watershed and bioaccumulation model. LEFPC field studies for the project focused primarily on quantification of streambank erosion and an evaluation of mercury dynamics in shallow groundwater adjacent to LEFPC and potential connection to the surface water. The approach to the stream bank study was innovative in using imagery from kayak floats’ surveys from the headwaters to the mouth of EFPC to estimate erosion, coupled with detailed bank soil mercury analyses. The goal of new field assessments and modeling was to generate a more holistic and quantitative understanding of the watershed and the sources, flux, concentration, transformation, and bioaccumulation of inorganic mercury (IHg) and methylmercury (MeHg). Model development used a hybrid approach that dynamically linked a spreadsheet-based physical and chemical watershed model to a systems dynamics, mercury bioaccumulation model for key fish species. The watershed model tracks total Hg and MeHg fluxes and concentrations by examining upstream inputs, floodplain

  9. Force-gradient-induced mechanical dissipation of quartz tuning fork force sensors used in atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellanos-Gomez, A. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada (C-III), Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Agrait, N. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada (C-III), Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Instituto Universitario de Ciencia de Materiales ' Nicolas Cabrera' , Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Instituto Madrileno de Estudios Avanzados en Nanociencia, IMDEA-Nanociencia, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Rubio-Bollinger, G., E-mail: gabino.rubio@uam.es [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada (C-III), Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Instituto Universitario de Ciencia de Materiales ' Nicolas Cabrera' , Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    We have studied the dynamics of quartz tuning fork resonators used in atomic force microscopy taking into account the mechanical energy dissipation through the attachment of the tuning fork base. We find that the tuning fork resonator quality factor changes even in the case of a purely elastic sensor-sample interaction. This is due to the effective mechanical imbalance of the tuning fork prongs induced by the sensor-sample force gradient, which in turn has an impact on dissipation through the attachment of the resonator base. This effect may yield a measured dissipation signal that can be different from the one exclusively related to the dissipation between the sensor and the sample. We also find that there is a second-order term in addition to the linear relationship between the sensor-sample force gradient and the resonance frequency shift of the tuning fork that is significant even for force gradients usually present in atomic force microscopy, which are in the range of tens of N/m. -- Research Highlights: {yields} Dynamics of miniature tuning fork force sensors: a mechanical model. {yields} Non-linear relationship between resonance frequency shift and applied force gradient. {yields} An apparent mechanical dissipation channel opens even for purely conservative tip-sample interactions. {yields} qPlus tuning forks configuration has lower Q factor but straightforward dynamics.

  10. Radio diary follows geochemist as he tracks the movement of heavy metals

    OpenAIRE

    Trulove, Susan

    2007-01-01

    This summer, people worldwide have been able to join Virginia Tech Geochemist Michael Hochella as he traced heavy metals in the headwaters of Montana's Clark Fork River to learn how nanoparticles speed the movement of pollution downstream from a contaminated mine site.

  11. 75 FR 1010 - CSX Transportation, Inc.-Discontinuance of Service Exemption-in Clark, Floyd, Lawrence, Orange...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board CSX Transportation, Inc.--Discontinuance of Service Exemption--in Clark, Floyd, Lawrence, Orange, and Washington Counties, IN On December 18, 2009, CSX Transportation, Inc. (CSXT) filed with the Board a petition under...

  12. 76 FR 71124 - Caddo Valley Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Pike and Clark Counties, AR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... milepost 447, near Antoine, a distance of 17.55 miles, in Pike and Clark Counties, Ark. (the line).\\1\\ The.... 10907. See Caddo Antoine & Little Mo. R.R.--Feeder Line Acquis.--Ark. Midland R.R. Co. Line Between Gurdon & Birds Mill, Ark., 4 S.T.B. 326 (1999). AKMD further states that on September 29, 2011,...

  13. 76 FR 71125 - Caddo Valley Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Clark, Pike, and Montgomery Counties, AR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... distance of 32.2 miles, in Clark, Pike, and Montgomery Counties, Ark. (the line).\\1\\ The line traverses... Antoine & Little Mo. R.R.--Feeder Line Acquis.--Ark. Midland R.R. Co. Line Between Gurdon & Birds Mill, Ark., 4 S.T.B. 326 (1999). AKMD further states that on September 29, 2011, AKMD reacquired from...

  14. 78 FR 17718 - Notice of Availability of a Record of Decision for the Searchlight Wind Energy Project, Clark...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ...: 14X5017] Notice of Availability of a Record of Decision for the Searchlight Wind Energy Project, Clark... Searchlight Wind Energy Project. The Department of the Interior Secretary signed the ROD on March 13, 2013.../lvfo/blm_programs/energy/searchlight_wind_energy.html . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  15. River engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, M.

    1993-01-01

    One dimension models - basic eauations, analytical models, numberical models. One dimensional models -suspended load, roughness and resistance of river beds. Solving river problems - tools, flood mitigation, bank protection.

  16. 用于微机电系统的叉形微铰链%Micro Fork Hinge for MEMS Devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Flexible beams are often used for rotation in MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) devices to avoid the friction problems associated with hinge. However, the rotation angle of flexible beam is very limited and not enough for many applications. In this paper, we introduce a quasi hinge structure named as Fork Hinge, which has a larger equivalent rotation angle (e.g.10 times lager) and is more stable than the flexible hinge, while keeping its interesting properties. We develop an analytical model and simulate the Fork hinge behavior with FEM analysis. We find a good correlation with Fork Hinges fabricated using a SOI (Silicon on Insulator) wafer and DRIE (Deep Reactive Ion Etching).

  17. Concordance of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers in detecting a founder event in Lake Clark sockeye salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramstad, Kristina M.; Woody, Carol Ann; Habicht, Chris; Sage, G. Kevin; Seeb, James E.; Allendorf, Fred W.

    2007-01-01

    Genetic bottleneck effects can reduce genetic variation, persistence probability, and evolutionary potential of populations. Previous microsatellite analysis suggested a bottleneck associated with a common founding of sock-eye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka populations of Lake Clark, Alaska, about 100 to 400 generations ago. The common foundingevent occurred after the last glacial recession and resulted in reduced allelic diversity and strong divergence of Lake Clarksockeye salmon relative to neighboring Six Mile Lake and LakeIliamna populations. Here we used two additional genetic marker types (allozymes and mtDNA) to examine these patterns further. Allozyme and mtDNA results were congruent with the microsatellite data in suggesting a common founder event in LakeClark sockeye salmon and confirmed the divergence of Lake Clarkpopulations from neighboring Six Mile Lake and Lake Iliamna populations. The use of multiple marker types provided better understanding of the bottleneck in Lake Clark. For example, the Sucker Bay Lake population had an exceptionally severe reduction in allelic diversity at microsatellite loci, but not at mtDNA. This suggests that the reduced microsatellite variation in Sucker Bay Lake fish is due to consistently smaller effective population size than other Lake Clark populations, rather than a more acute or additional bottleneck since founding. Caution is urged in using reduced heterozygosity as a measure of genetic bottleneck effects because stochastic variance among loci resulted in an overall increase in allozyme heterozygosity within bottlenecked Lake Clark populations. However, heterozygosity excess, which assesses heterozygosity relative to allelic variation, detected genetic bottleneck effects in both allozyme and microsatellite loci. 

  18. Whitebark pine stand condition, tree abundance, and cone production as predictors of visitation by Clark's nutcracker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren E Barringer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Accurately quantifying key interactions between species is important for developing effective recovery strategies for threatened and endangered species. Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis, a candidate species for listing under the Endangered Species Act, depends on Clark's nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana for seed dispersal. As whitebark pine succumbs to exotic disease and mountain pine beetles (Dendroctonus ponderosae, cone production declines, and nutcrackers visit stands less frequently, reducing the probability of seed dispersal. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We quantified whitebark pine forest structure, health metrics, and the frequency of nutcracker occurrence in national parks within the Northern and Central Rocky Mountains in 2008 and 2009. Forest health characteristics varied between the two regions, with the northern region in overall poorer health. Using these data, we show that a previously published model consistently under-predicts the proportion of survey hours resulting in nutcracker observations at all cone density levels. We present a new statistical model of the relationship between whitebark pine cone production and the probability of Clark's nutcracker occurrence based on combining data from this study and the previous study. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our model clarified earlier findings and suggested a lower cone production threshold value for predicting likely visitation by nutcrackers: Although nutcrackers do visit whitebark pine stands with few cones, the probability of visitation increases with increased cone production. We use information theoretics to show that beta regression is a more appropriate statistical framework for modeling the relationship between cone density and proportion of survey time resulting in nutcracker observations. We illustrate how resource managers may apply this model in the process of prioritizing areas for whitebark pine restoration.

  19. Evaluation of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Mercury Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, David B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brooks, Scott C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mathews, Teresa J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bevelhimer, Mark S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); DeRolph, Chris [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brandt, Craig C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peterson, Mark J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ketelle, Richard [East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-06-01

    This report summarizes a 3-year research project undertaken to better understand the nature and magnitude of mercury (Hg) fluxes in East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). This project addresses the requirements of Action Plan 1 in the 2011 Oak Ridge Reservation-wide Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Five Year Review (FYR). The Action Plan is designed to address a twofold 2011 FYR issue: (1) new information suggests mobilization of mercury from the upper and lower EFPC streambeds and stream banks is the primary source of mercury export during high-flow conditions, and (2) the current Record of Decision did not address the entire hydrologic system and creek bank or creek bed sediments. To obtain a more robust watershed-scale understanding of mercury sources and processes in lower EFPC (LEFPC), new field and laboratory studies were coupled with existing data from multiple US Department of Energy programs to develop a dynamic watershed and bioaccumulation model. LEFPC field studies for the project focused primarily on quantification of streambank erosion and an evaluation of mercury dynamics in shallow groundwater adjacent to LEFPC and potential connection to the surface water. The approach to the stream bank study was innovative in using imagery from kayak floats’ surveys from the headwaters to the mouth of EFPC to estimate erosion, coupled with detailed bank soil mercury analyses. The goal of new field assessments and modeling was to generate a more holistic and quantitative understanding of the watershed and the sources, flux, concentration, transformation, and bioaccumulation of inorganic mercury (IHg) and methylmercury (MeHg). Model development used a hybrid approach that dynamically linked a spreadsheet-based physical and chemical watershed model to a systems dynamics, mercury bioaccumulation model for key fish species. The watershed model tracks total Hg and MeHg fluxes and concentrations by examining upstream inputs, floodplain

  20. Understanding Code Forking in Open Source Software: An examination of code forking, its effect on open source software, and how it is viewed and practiced by developers

    OpenAIRE

    Nyman, Linus

    2015-01-01

    Open source software is everywhere. From phones, tablets, TVs, and game consoles to less self-evident examples like cars, washing machines, and the International Space Station. However, what makes open source software remarkable is not where it can be found, but rather what can be done with it. One of the most astounding rights guaranteed by all open source software licenses is the right to fork the source code. In other words, the right to copy any program, either in part or in its entirety,...

  1. Calibration of piezoelectric positioning actuators using a reference voltage-to-displacement transducer based on quartz tuning forks

    CERN Document Server

    Castellanos-Gomez, Andres; Agraït, Nicolás; Rubio-Bollinger, Gabino; 10.1017/S1431927611012839

    2012-01-01

    We use a piezoelectric quartz tuning fork to calibrate the displacement of ceramic piezoelectric scanners which are widely employed in scanning probe microscopy. We measure the static piezoelectric response of a quartz tuning fork and find it to be highly linear, non-hysteretic and with negligible creep. These performance characteristics, close to those of an ideal transducer, make quartz transducers superior to ceramic piezoelectric actuators. Furthermore, quartz actuators in the form of a tuning fork have the advantage of yielding static displacements comparable to those of local probe microscope scanners. We use the static displacement of a quartz tuning fork as a reference to calibrate the three axis displacement of a ceramic piezoelectric scanner. Although this calibration technique is a non-traceable method, it can be more versatile than using calibration grids because it enables to characterize the linear and non-linear response of a piezoelectric scanner in a broad range of displacements, spanning fro...

  2. Status of fork-tailed and Leach's storm-petrel populations at St. Lazaria Island during the summer of 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purposes of this study were to (1) continue monitoring on Leach's forktail (Oceanadroma furcata) and on fork-tailed storm petrels (Oceanodroma leucorhoa); (2)...

  3. Monitoring and Evaluation of Environmental Flow Prescriptions for Five Demonstration Sites of the Sustainable Rivers Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Christopher P.

    2010-01-01

    The Nature Conservancy has been working with U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) through the Sustainable Rivers Project (SRP) to modify operations of dams to achieve ecological objectives in addition to meeting the authorized purposes of the dams. Modifications to dam operations are specified in terms of environmental flow prescriptions that quantify the magnitude, duration, frequency, and seasonal timing of releases to achieve specific ecological outcomes. Outcomes of environmental flow prescriptions implemented from 2002 to 2008 have been monitored and evaluated at demonstration sites in five rivers: Green River, Kentucky; Savannah River, Georgia/South Carolina; Bill Williams River, Arizona; Big Cypress Creek, Texas; and Middle Fork Willamette River, Oregon. Monitoring and evaluation have been accomplished through collaborative partnerships of federal and state agencies, universities, and nongovernmental organizations.

  4. Mrc1 is a replication fork component whose phosphorylation in response to DNA replication stress activates Rad53

    OpenAIRE

    Osborn, Alexander J.; Elledge, Stephen J.

    2003-01-01

    When DNA replication is stalled, a signal transduction pathway is activated that promotes the stability of stalled forks and resumption of DNA synthesis. In budding yeast, this pathway includes the kinases Mec1 and Rad53. Here we report that the Mediator protein Mrc1, which is required for normal DNA replication and for activation of Rad53, is present at replication forks. Mrc1 initially binds early-replicating sequences and moves along chromatin with the replication f...

  5. Distributions of small nongame fishes in the lower Yellowstone River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Michael B.; Bramblett, Robert G.; Zale, Alexander V.

    2016-01-01

    The Yellowstone River is the longest unimpounded river in the conterminous United States. It has a relatively natural flow regime, which helps maintain diverse habitats and fish assemblages uncommon in large rivers elsewhere. The lower Yellowstone River was thought to support a diverse nongame fish assemblage including several species of special concern. However, comprehensive data on the small nongame fish assemblage of the lower Yellowstone River is lacking. Therefore, we sampled the Yellowstone River downstream of its confluence with the Clark’s Fork using fyke nets and otter trawls to assess distributions and abundances of small nongame fishes. We captured 42 species (24 native and 18 nonnative) in the lower Yellowstone River with fyke nets. Native species constituted over 99% of the catch. Emerald shiners Notropis atherinoides, western silvery minnows Hybognathus argyritis, flathead chubs Platygobio gracilis, sand shiners Notropis stramineus, and longnose dace Rhinichthys cataractae composed nearly 94% of fyke net catch and were caught in every segment of the study area. We captured 24 species by otter trawling downstream of the Tongue River. Sturgeon chubs Macrhybopsis gelida, channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, flathead chubs, stonecats Noturus flavus, and sicklefin chubs Macrhybopsis meeki composed 89% of the otter trawl catch. The upstream distributional limit of sturgeon chubs in the Yellowstone River was the Tongue River; few sicklefin chubs were captured above Intake Diversion Dam. This study not only provides biologists with baseline data for future monitoring efforts on the Yellowstone River but serves as a benchmark for management and conservation efforts in large rivers elsewhere as the Yellowstone River represents one of the best references for a naturally functioning Great Plains river.

  6. Noncontact scanning force microscopy based on a modified tuning fork sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göttlich, Hagen; Stark, Robert W.; Pedarnig, Johannes D.; Heckl, Wolfgang M.

    2000-08-01

    Distance control using a tuning fork setup for the detection of shear forces is a standard configuration in scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM). Based on this concept, a modified sensor was developed, where a standard silicon tip for atomic force microscopy (AFM) is attached to the front end of one prong of a 100 kHz quartz tuning fork oscillator. Comparison of force curves of a standard tapping-mode AFM cantilever, a conventional fiber tip SNOM sensor and the novel AFM tip shear force sensor demonstrate an enhanced stability and sensitivity of the new sensor. Due to the rigid sensor design the force curves of the AFM tip shear force sensor indicate a perfect noncontact behavior under normal conditions in air. Noncontact images show a comparable resolution to conventional force microscopy.

  7. Acute MUS81 depletion leads to replication fork slowing and a constitutive DNA damage response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xing, Meichun; Wang, Xiaohui; Palmai-Pallag, Timea;

    2015-01-01

    The MUS81 protein belongs to a conserved family of DNA structure-specific nucleases that play important roles in DNA replication and repair. Inactivation of the Mus81 gene in mice has no major deleterious consequences for embryonic development, although cancer susceptibility has been reported. We...... have investigated the role of MUS81 in human cells by acutely depleting the protein using shRNAs. We found that MUS81 depletion from human fibroblasts leads to accumulation of ssDNA and a constitutive DNA damage response that ultimately activates cellular senescence. Moreover, we show that MUS81 is...... required for efficient replication fork progression during an unperturbed S-phase, and for recovery of productive replication following replication stalling. These results demonstrate essential roles for the MUS81 nuclease in maintenance of replication fork integrity....

  8. Applications of the quartz tuning fork in classical and superfluid hydrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Mantia Marco

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a short review of the multitude of applications of the commercially produced quartz tuning fork in cryogenic fluid dynamics, using cold gaseous, normal liquid and superfluid 4He as working fluids with extraordinary, but well-known and tunable physical properties. While the central focus of this work is the use of the tuning fork as a detector of classical and quantum turbulence, we also report other studies and applications, mainly on cavitation, pressure-, thermo- and viscosimetry. Finally, we mention briefly our recent studies of the acoustic emission due to these high-Q oscillators and its effect on the characteristics of their resonance.

  9. Experimental Study of Gyro Sensor Using Double-Ended Tuning Fork Quartz Resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kenji; Ono, Atsushi; Tomikawa, Yoshiro

    2004-05-01

    In this study, we focus on a flatly supported gyro sensor using a double-ended tuning fork quartz resonator set in parallel with the rotating plane. The resonator has the advantages of flat form, high precision and strong shock resistance; moreover, fundamentally, the resonator is able to detect two-axial angular velocities. We clarified the features of the resonator by discussing the advantages and disadvantages of the resonator as a gyro sensor. The resonator was designed to have high detection efficiency, applying the vibration theory and using the finite element method. The resonator was finely fabricated by photolithography and wet etching. As a result, the resonators, without any problem as a gyro sensor, have been fabricated; we also confirmed experimentally that the practical angular velocity could be detected by the prototype gyro sensor. Consequently, we can conclude that the double-ended tuning fork quartz resonator could be used as the flatly supported gyro sensor.

  10. Carbon fibre tips for scanning probe microscopy based on quartz tuning fork force sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellanos-Gomez, A; Agrait, N; Rubio-Bollinger, G, E-mail: gabino.rubio@uam.es [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada (C-III), Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-04-09

    We report the fabrication and the characterization of carbon fibre tips for use in combined scanning tunnelling and force microscopy based on piezoelectric quartz tuning fork force sensors. We find that the use of carbon fibre tips results in a minimum impact on the dynamics of quartz tuning fork force sensors, yielding a high quality factor and, consequently, a high force gradient sensitivity. This high force sensitivity, in combination with high electrical conductivity and oxidation resistance of carbon fibre tips, make them very convenient for combined and simultaneous scanning tunnelling microscopy and atomic force microscopy measurements. Interestingly, these tips are quite robust against occasionally occurring tip crashes. An electrochemical fabrication procedure to etch the tips is presented that produces a sub-100-nm apex radius in a reproducible way which can yield high resolution images.

  11. Break-induced replication repair of damaged forks induces genomic duplications in human cells

    OpenAIRE

    Costantino, L.; Sotiriou, S. K.; Rantala, J. K.; Magin, S.; Mladenov, E.; Helleday, T.; Haber, J E; Iliakis, G.; Kallioniemi, O P; Halazonetis, T D

    2013-01-01

    In budding yeast, one-ended DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and damaged replication forks are repaired by break-induced replication (BIR), a homologous recombination pathway that requires the Pol32 subunit of DNA polymerase delta. DNA replication stress is prevalent in cancer, but BIR has not been characterized in mammals. In a cyclin E overexpression model of DNA replication stress, POLD3, the human ortholog of POL32, was required for cell cycle progression and processive DNA synthesis. Segm...

  12. Influence of tectonic folding on rockfall susceptibility, American Fork Canyon, Utah, USA

    OpenAIRE

    J. A. Coe; Harp, E. L.

    2007-01-01

    International audience We examine rockfall susceptibility of folded strata in the Sevier fold-thrust belt exposed in American Fork Canyon in north-central Utah. Large-scale geologic mapping, talus production data, rock-mass-quality measurements, and historical rockfall data indicate that rockfall susceptibility is correlated with limb dip and curvature of the folded, cliff-forming Mississippian limestones. On fold limbs, rockfall susceptibility increases as dip increases. This relation is ...

  13. The Drosophila fork head domain protein crocodile is required for the establishment of head structures.

    OpenAIRE

    Haecker, U.; Kaufmann, E.; Hartmann, C.; Jurgens, G; Knoechel, W.; Jaeckle, H.

    1995-01-01

    The fork head (fkh) domain defines the DNA-binding region of a family of transcription factors which has been implicated in regulating cell fate decisions across species lines. We have cloned and molecularly characterized the crocodile (croc) gene which encodes a new family member from Drosophila. croc is expressed in the head anlagen of the blastoderm embryo under the control of the anterior, the dorsoventral and the terminal maternal organizer systems. The croc mutant phenotype indicates th...

  14. Calibrating conservative and dissipative response of electrically-driven quartz tuning forks

    OpenAIRE

    Hao, Lifeng; Wang, Qi; Peng, Ping; Cao, Zhenxing; Jiao, Weicheng; Yang, Fan; Liu, Wenbo; Wang, Rongguo; He, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    Determining sensor parameters is a prerequisite for quantitative force measurement. Here we report a direct, high-precision calibration method for quartz tuning fork(TF) sensors that are popular in the feld of nanomechanical measurement. In the method, conservative and dissipative forces with controlled amplitudes are applied to one prong of TF directly to mimic the tip-sample interaction, and the responses of the sensor are measured at the same time to extract sensor parameters. The method, ...

  15. Temperature, Frequency, and Young’s Modulus of an Aluminum Tuning Fork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachery L. Greer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The frequency produced by a standard C (523.3 Hz aluminum alloy tuning fork when struck at temperatures ranging from 29 ̊C to 300 ̊C was studied. It was found that frequency decreased with increasing temperature with an inverse exponential relationship. The frequency was used to calculate Young’s Modulus for aluminum, with the results being in close agreement with published values.

  16. Continuous hydrologic simulation of runoff for the Middle Fork and South Fork of the Beargrass Creek basin in Jefferson County, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, G. Lynn; Downs, Aimee C.; Grace-Jarrett, Patricia A.

    1998-01-01

    The Hydrological Simulation Pro-gram-FORTRAN (HSPF) was applied to an urban drainage basin in Jefferson County, Ky to integrate the large amounts of information being collected on water quantity and quality into an analytical framework that could be used as a management and planning tool. Hydrologic response units were developed using geographic data and a K-means analysis to characterize important hydrologic and physical factors in the basin. The Hydrological Simulation Program FORTRAN Expert System (HSPEXP) was used to calibrate the model parameters for the Middle Fork Beargrass Creek Basin for 3 years (June 1, 1991, to May 31, 1994) of 5-minute streamflow and precipitation time series, and 3 years of hourly pan-evaporation time series. The calibrated model parameters were applied to the South Fork Beargrass Creek Basin for confirmation. The model confirmation results indicated that the model simulated the system within acceptable tolerances. The coefficient of determination and coefficient of model-fit efficiency between simulated and observed daily flows were 0.91 and 0.82, respectively, for model calibration and 0.88 and 0.77, respectively, for model confirmation. The model is most sensitive to estimates of the area of effective impervious land in the basin; the spatial distribution of rain-fall; and the lower-zone evapotranspiration, lower-zone nominal storage, and infiltration-capacity parameters during recession and low-flow periods. The error contribution from these sources varies with season and antecedent conditions.

  17. Influence of dams on river-floodplain dynamics in the Elwha River, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloehn, K.K.; Beechie, T.J.; Morley, S.A.; Coe, H.J.; Duda, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    The Elwha dam removal project presents an ideal opportunity to study how historic reduction and subsequent restoration of sediment supply alter river-floodplain dynamics in a large, forested river floodplain. We used remote sensing and onsite data collection to establish a historical record of floodplain dynamics and a baseline of current conditions. Analysis was based on four river reaches, three from the Elwha River and the fourth from the East Fork of the Quinault River. We found that the percentage of floodplain surfaces between 25 and 75 years old decreased and the percentage of surfaces >75 years increased in reaches below the Elwha dams. We also found that particle size decreased as downstream distance from dams increased. This trend was evident in both mainstem and side channels. Previous studies have found that removal of the two Elwha dams will initially release fine sediment stored in the reservoirs, then in subsequent decades gravel bed load supply will increase and gradually return to natural levels, aggrading river beds up to 1 m in some areas. We predict the release of fine sediments will initially create bi-modal grain size distributions in reaches downstream of the dams, and eventual recovery of natural sediment supply will significantly increase lateral channel migration and erosion of floodplain surfaces, gradually shifting floodplain age distributions towards younger age classes.

  18. Lewis and Clark National Wildlife Refuge and Julia Butler Hansen Refuge for the Columbian White-tailed Deer: Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Environmental Impact Statement

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Lewis and Clark NWR and Julia Butler Hansen Refuge for the Columbian White-tailed Deer...

  19. Temperature profile data collected using CTD casts from the JAMES CLARK ROSS in the South Atlantic Ocean from 15 November 1994 to 21 November 1994 (NODC Accession 0000873)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using CTD casts in the South Atlantic Ocean from JAMES CLARK ROSS. Data were collected from 15 November 1994 to 21 November...

  20. Temperature profile data collected using CTD casts from the JAMES CLARK ROSS in the South Atlantic Ocean from 15 November 1996 to 20 November 1996 (NODC Accession 0000874)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using CTD casts in the South Atlantic Ocean from JAMES CLARK ROSS. Data were collected from 15 November 1996 to 20 November...

  1. J. Clark Salyer Wetlands Management District (Bottineau, McHenry, Pierce, Renville and Rolette Counties): Narrative report: January-December 1971

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for J. Clark Salyer WMD outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1971 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  2. J. Clark Salyer Wetlands Management District (Bottineau, McHenry, Pierce, Renville and Rolette Counties): Narrative report: January-December 1970

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for J. Clark Salyer WMD outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1970 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  3. On bandwidth characteristics of tuning fork micro-gyroscope with mechanically coupled sense mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yunfang; Li, Hongsheng; Huang, Libin; Ding, Xukai; Wang, Haipeng

    2014-01-01

    The bandwidth characteristics of a tuning fork micro-gyroscope with mechanically coupled sense mode were investigated in this paper to provide some references for mechanical bandwidth design. The concept of sense mode mechanical coupling is introduced first. Theoretical frequency response analyses were then carried out on the mechanical part of the gyroscope. Equations representing the relationships between the differential output signal and the frequency of the input angular rate were deduced in full frequency range and further simplified in low frequency range. Based on these equations, bandwidth characteristics under ideal and non-ideal conditions are discussed. Analytical results show that under ideal conditions, the bandwidth characteristics of a tuning fork micro-gyroscope are similar to those of a single mass micro-gyroscope, but under non-ideal conditions, especially when sense mass and/or stiffness are asymmetric, the bandwidth characteristics would be quite different because the in-phase mode would participate in the anti-phase vibration response. Experimental verifications were carried out on two micro-gyroscope prototypes designed in our laboratory. The deduced equations and analytical results can be used in guiding the mechanical bandwidth design of tuning fork micro-gyroscopes with mechanically coupled sense mode.

  4. Replication-fork stalling and processing at a single psoralen interstrand crosslink in Xenopus egg extracts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrille Le Breton

    Full Text Available Interstrand crosslink (ICL-inducing agents block the separation of the two DNA strands. They prevent transcription and replication and are used in clinics for the treatment of cancer and skin diseases. Here, we have introduced a single psoralen ICL at a specific site in plasmid DNA using a triplex-forming-oligonucleotide (TFO-psoralen conjugate and studied its repair in Xenopus egg extracts that support nuclear assembly and replication of plasmid DNA. Replication forks arriving from either side stalled at the psoralen ICL. In contrast to previous observations with other ICL-inducing agents, the leading strands advanced up to the lesion without any prior pausing. Subsequently, incisions were introduced on one parental strand on both sides of the ICL. These incisions could be detected whether one or both forks reached the ICL. Using small molecule inhibitors, we found that the ATR-Chk1 pathway, but not the ATM-Chk2 pathway, stimulated both the incision step and the subsequent processing of the broken replication intermediates. Our results highlight both similarities and differences in fork stalling and repair induced by psoralen and by other ICL-forming agents.

  5. On Bandwidth Characteristics of Tuning Fork Micro-Gyroscope with Mechanically Coupled Sense Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfang Ni

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The bandwidth characteristics of a tuning fork micro-gyroscope with mechanically coupled sense mode were investigated in this paper to provide some references for mechanical bandwidth design. The concept of sense mode mechanical coupling is introduced first. Theoretical frequency response analyses were then carried out on the mechanical part of the gyroscope. Equations representing the relationships between the differential output signal and the frequency of the input angular rate were deduced in full frequency range and further simplified in low frequency range. Based on these equations, bandwidth characteristics under ideal and non-ideal conditions are discussed. Analytical results show that under ideal conditions, the bandwidth characteristics of a tuning fork micro-gyroscope are similar to those of a single mass micro-gyroscope, but under non-ideal conditions, especially when sense mass and/or stiffness are asymmetric, the bandwidth characteristics would be quite different because the in-phase mode would participate in the anti-phase vibration response. Experimental verifications were carried out on two micro-gyroscope prototypes designed in our laboratory. The deduced equations and analytical results can be used in guiding the mechanical bandwidth design of tuning fork micro-gyroscopes with mechanically coupled sense mode.

  6. Leroy Clarke entre poésie et peinture, Chantre de la spiritualité et de la liberté Leroy Clarke: The double ritual of poetic and plastic creation, a way to freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Donatien-Yssa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Trinidadian painter Leroy Clarke is hungry for art, and every piece of paper becomes under his fingers a field of experimentation for his excessive and impressive style. This anti-colonialist activist is also a Shango Baptist priest and, in his conception of writing and painting, art cannot be an individualist exercise but is a space for communication with his people.This famous Caribbean painter practices an art whose strong symbolism finds its origin in the Shango Baptist faith which is one the bases of his work. But Leroy Clarke hates limits and cannot conceive being restricted to only one form of art; for painting, poetry and dance are all only the vectors of messages from the spirits. Painting and writing are, for Clarke, ritual acts of sublimation of the original and historical suffering of the Caribbean peoples, which transform the unspeakable and the unbearable into aesthetic realizations.So, in Clarke’s works, signs, words, traces and colours are organised in an identical dynamic of accumulation, correspondence and swarming which place the observer in an interstice outside time and space where he can be immersed in an embracing plenitude.

  7. Hybrid Mandatory Integrity Model Composed of Biba and Clark-Wilson Policy%基于Biba和Clark-Wilson策略的混合强制完整性模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周洲仪; 贺也平; 梁洪亮

    2010-01-01

    商业应用需要实施完整性策略保护.Biba模型提供了一种简洁的多级完整性控制方案,但是需要引入可信主体来保证实施的可用性.而Clark-Wilson模型通过可监控的状态转换提供了一种完备的完整性保护,但其复杂性影响了该模型的完整实现.提出的模型以Biba严格完整性策略为基础,同时根据可信主体在其生命周期所属的状态实施Biba低水标策略.对可信主体在其生命周期发生的状态转换及相应的低水标参数调整,采用Clark-Wilson模型来进行监控.在有效解决了Biba策略的可用性问题和Clark-Wilson模型监控量过大给系统带来的配置和运行负担问题的同时,继承它们的优点.证明了该策略融合方案是可行的、安全的.

  8. Leroy Clarke entre poésie et peinture, Chantre de la spiritualité et de la liberté Leroy Clarke: The double ritual of poetic and plastic creation, a way to freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Donatien-Yssa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Trinidadian painter Leroy Clarke is hungry for art, and every piece of paper becomes under his fingers a field of experimentation for his excessive and impressive style. This anti-colonialist activist is also a Shango Baptist priest and in his conception of writing and painting, art cannot be an individualist exercise but is a space for communication with his people.This famous Caribbean painter practices an art whose strong symbolism finds its origin in the Shango Baptist faith which is one the bases of his work. But Leroy Clarke hates limits and cannot conceive being restricted to only one form of art; for painting, poetry or dance are all only the vectors of messages from the spirits. Painting and writing are, for Clarke, ritual acts of sublimation of the original and historical suffering of the Caribbean peoples, which transform the unspeakable and the unbearable into aesthetic realizations.So, in Clarke’s works, signs, words, traces and colours are organised in an identical dynamic of accumulation, correspondence and swarming which place the observer in an interstice outside time and space where he can be immersed in an embracing plenitude.

  9. A Clark-type oxygen chip for in situ estimation of the respiratory activity of adhering cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ching-Chou; Luk, Hsiang-Ning; Lin, Yen-Ting Tsai; Yuan, Chia-Yin

    2010-04-15

    A Clark-type oxygen chip consisting of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) reservoir containing an amino group-modified PDMS oxygen-permeable membrane (OPM) and a glass substrate containing a three-electrode detector has been constructed by using microfabrication techniques, and it is utilized for in situ measurement of the respiration activity of adhering cells. Use of the alginate sol electrolyte and the electroplating Ag/AgCl pseudo-reference electrode can effectively diminish the crosstalk between the electrochemical electrodes and supply a stable potential for the detection of dissolved oxygen, respectively. The Clark-type oxygen chips possess only 1.00% residual current, response time of 13.4s and good linearity with a correlation coefficient of 0.9933. The modification of amino groups for the OPM obviously facilitates the adhesion of HeLa cells onto the PDMS OPM surface and allows the cells to spread after 2h of incubation. The oxygen consumption of the cells in the cell-adhesion process increases with the adhesion time, and the increment of cellular oxygen consumption per minute reaches a maximum after 30 min of incubation. Moreover, the change in the respiration activity of adhering HeLa cells stimulated by the high concentration of glucose or propofol anaesthetic can be monitored in real time with the Clark-type oxygen chip. PMID:20188913

  10. Vacuum properties of high quality value tuning fork in high magnetic field up to 8 Tesla and at mK temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Clovecko, M.; Kupka, M.; Skyba, P.; Vavrek, F.

    2014-01-01

    Tuning forks are very popular experimental tools widely applied in low and ultra low temperature physics as mechanical resonators and cantilevers in the study of quantum liquids, STM and AFM techniques, etc. As an added benefit, these forks being cooled, have very high Q-value, typically $10^6$ and their properties seems to be magnetic field independent. We present preliminary vacuum measurements of a commercial tuning fork oscillating at frequency 32~kHz conducted in magnetic fields up to 8~...

  11. Replication Stress-Induced Chromosome Breakage Is Correlated with Replication Fork Progression and Is Preceded by Single-Stranded DNA Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Wenyi; Di Rienzi, Sara C.; Raghuraman, M. K.; Brewer, Bonita J.

    2011-01-01

    Chromosome breakage as a result of replication stress has been hypothesized to be the direct consequence of defective replication fork progression, or “collapsed” replication forks. However, direct and genome-wide evidence that collapsed replication forks give rise to chromosome breakage is still lacking. Previously we showed that a yeast replication checkpoint mutant mec1-1, after transient exposure to replication impediment imposed by hydroxyurea (HU), failed to complete DNA replication, ac...

  12. Streamflow and stream quality in the coal-mining region, Patoka River basin, southwestern Indiana, 1983-85

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renn, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    Streamflow and stream quality data were collected in the coal mining region of the Patoka River basin, Indiana. Data were collected on the Patoka River, tributaries to the Patoka River, the South Fork Patoka River (the largest tributary to the Patoka River), and tributaries to the South Fork Patoka River. Data were collected 4 times at 29 sites from August 1983 through March 1985 during different seasons and conditions of streamflow. Data obtained at the sites included instantaneous streamflow, pH, specific conductance, dissolved-oxygen concentration, water temperature, and concentrations of alkalinity and hot acidity. Water samples were collected and analyzed to determine the concentrations of dissolved sulfate; dissolved, suspended, and total recoverable iron and manganese; dissolved solids suspended sediment; and suspended sediment finer than 0.0625-mm diameter. Streamflow in the Patoka river has been regulated since 1978 by Patoka Lake. Flow-duration analysis indicate that flow regulation by Patoka Lake generally has increased low streamflows and decreased high streamflows in the Patoka Lake. When compared to sites on the tributaries, sites on the Patoka River generally had smaller values for specific conductance and concentrations of chemical constituents. Sites on the tributaries had larger values due to the physical and chemical weathering of coal-mined material in their basins. For the tributary sites, pH was near neutral at 11 sites, pH was low at 8 sites, and pH was variable at 3 sites depending on streamflow.

  13. Ficivora leucoteles Clarke: Nuevo Genero y Especie de Plaga del Breva o Higo (Ficus Carical.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallego M. F. Luis

    1971-09-01

    Full Text Available El Ficivora leucoteles Clarke constituye una plaga nueva de los brevos, recientemente identificada para Colombia. Su ocurrencia es más común en climas medios y aunque solo los brevos se han observado atacados, se presume que otras moráceas pueden albergarlo. Actúa como perforador de los tallos y ramas causando efectos típicos de daño en la planta, locual disminuye considerablemente su producción. Se discuten aspectos de su biología y duración de sus diversos estados, así como la descripción del género y especie según fueron hechos por el especialista que la determinó. Se hacen algunas consideraciones sobre su control, haciéndose énfasis en los pocos resultados que podrían obtenerse con el control químico y se destaca la acción del parásito Dasylagon aegeriae Mues., perteneciente a la familia Braconidae.

  14. "And teach agony to sing": an afternoon with Eleanor Clarke Slagle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, R K

    1997-03-01

    Using published works, archival correspondence, interviews with contemporaries, and historical commentary, an imagined conversation is presented between Eleanor Clarke Slagle (1871-1942) and three of her actual contemporaries. As a founder of the National Society for the Promotion of Occupational Therapy (later to become the American Occupational Therapy Association [AOTA] and a past-president and executive secretary of AOTA for 21 years, Slagle came in contact with a host of therapists as well as men and women who influenced her and the occupational therapy profession, most particularly Julia Lathrop, Adolf Meyer, William Rush Dunton, Jr., and Ida Sands. Emphasis is placed on some of her early life experiences; Hull House; and the evolution of the occupational therapy belief system, including occupations, curative work, and spiritual rehabilitation (i.e., self-respect, interests, ambition, happiness, economic usefulness, success). Special attention was taken to reflect Slagle's typical use of language and the vernacular of the mid-1930s. Extensive study was undertaken, through reading Slagle's published works, to remain true to her use of language.

  15. Discipline and credibility in the post-war australopithecine controversy: Le Gros Clark versus Zuckerman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Jesse

    2012-01-01

    Paleoanthropologists and outside commentators have often remarked upon the apparent difficulty of securing shared belief among experts in the science of human evolution. The field has been and continues to be particularly prone to disagreement and even controversy among its practitioners to a degree that sets it apart from other areas of scientific inquiry. The fact that the field lies at the intersection of a number of disciplines may help to explain this predicament. Displays of discipline serve as an important resource for scientists as they work to secure credibility. Where a field of inquiry spans a host of disciplinary approaches, there can be disagreement about the kind of disciplined behavior appropriate to making credible claims about that field's subject matter. A conflict of this sort emerged after WW II over the claim that the australopithecines of South Africa represented a likely ancestral link in the evolution of human beings. W. E. Le Gros Clark, working in the established disciplinary tradition of comparative anatomy, endorsed the claim of ancestry, while Solly Zuckerman, reflecting his recent immersion in war-time operations research, criticized that claim on the grounds that it came without the rigorous quantitative demonstration that he felt was the hallmark of a properly disciplined science. PMID:23272594

  16. Aerodynamic data banks for Clark-Y, NACA 4-digit and NACA 16-series airfoil families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkan, K. D.; Camba, J., III; Morris, P. M.

    1986-01-01

    With the renewed interest in propellers as means of obtaining thrust and fuel efficiency in addition to the increased utilization of the computer, a significant amount of progress was made in the development of theoretical models to predict the performance of propeller systems. Inherent in the majority of the theoretical performance models to date is the need for airfoil data banks which provide lift, drag, and moment coefficient values as a function of Mach number, angle-of-attack, maximum thickness to chord ratio, and Reynolds number. Realizing the need for such data, a study was initiated to provide airfoil data banks for three commonly used airfoil families in propeller design and analysis. The families chosen consisted of the Clark-Y, NACA 16 series, and NACA 4 digit series airfoils. The various component of each computer code, the source of the data used to create the airfoil data bank, the limitations of each data bank, program listing, and a sample case with its associated input-output are described. Each airfoil data bank computer code was written to be used on the Amdahl Computer system, which is IBM compatible and uses Fortran.

  17. Effects of controlled burning of chaparral on streamflow and sediment characteristics, East Fork Sycamore Creek, central Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldys, Stanley; Hjalmarson, H.W.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of controlled burning of part of a chaparral-covered drainage basin on streamflow and sediment characteristics were studied in the upper reaches of the Sycamore Creek basin in central Arizona. A paired-watershed method was used to analyze data collected in two phases separated by the controlled burning of 45 percent of the East Fork Sycamore Creek drainage basin by the U.S. Forest Service on October 31, 1981. Statistically significant increases in streamflow in East Fork occurred from October 26, 1982, through August 25, 1984. Streamflow for August 26, 1984, through the end of data collection for the study on May 31, 1986, was generally at or less than preburn levels. An increase in the percentage of time that flow occurred in East Fork was noted for water years 1983 and 1984. No increase in the magnitude of instantaneous peak flows as a result of the burn was discernable at statistically significant levels. Suspended-sediment yields computed for data collected during water year 1983 were significantly greater in the East Fork drainage basin, 546 tons per square mile, than in the West Fork drainage basin, 22.6 tons per square mile. Suspended-sediment yields computed for East Fork and West Fork for water year 1985, 38.3 and 13.3 tons per square mile, respectively, were much closer in yield. These more uniform yields indicate a possible return to preburn conditions. Data collection did not begin until 11 months after the burn; therefore, the largest increases in streamflow and sediment yields, which commonly occur during the year after a burn, may not have been measured. During the second through fourth years after the burn, smaller increases in stream- flow and sediment yields were found in this study than were found in similar studies in this region.

  18. Generating acceptability of PNRI environmental radioactivity monitoring studies at the former ammunition dump area in Clark special economic zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rejection of the 1991 Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation, which sought to extend the military bases agreement (MBA), paved the way for the Americans to abandon Clark Air Base in Angeles, Pampanga, which had served as an American military base since 1947. The total and immediate pullout of the Americans left the base in an ''as is'' condition and without the benefits of restoration efforts. Various studies and reports have been conducted to determine the presence of hazardous wastes in the former Clark Air Base. The issue of hazardous wastes purportedly left there by the Americans is a continuing and a growing concern particularly of citizens living within its area. The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) In November of 1997 and in April of 1998, the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute PNRI, upon the request of Clark Development Corporation, conducted a thorough radiological monitoring in CSEZ in order to determine the presence of radioactive contamination. Radioactive materials such as cesium-137 and tritium are considered hazardous wastes. Results of monitoring showed that radiation levels in CSEZ were within allowable standards. This means that the workers and residents at the Clark Air Base (the base) are free from dangers of exposure to radiation. Despite the findings, however, reports by the media and environmental NGOs on the presence of hazardous wastes, including radioactive wastes, in Clark have proliferated. This action plan and project (APP) intends to address the issue of environmental radioactivity contamination (if any) within the CSEZ. The APP results are geared towards dispelling the persistent fear of the public in general, and the base stakeholders especially its residents, in particular, regarding the presence of radioactive contamination which results in untoward health effects to those exposed to such contaminants. Thus, the sectoral concern of this APP is to heighten the level of social acceptability by the base stakeholders

  19. Development of SMD 32.768 kHz tuning fork-type crystals using photolithography and selective etching process. Pt. I. Selective etching of an array of quartz tuning fork resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. [Samsung Electro-Mechanics Co., Ltd., Suwon City (Korea); Kang, K.M. [National Univ. of Technology, Seoul (Korea). Dept. of Materials Engineering

    2001-05-01

    Negative photoresist photolithography was found superior to previously used positive photoresist photolithography to etch array of quartz tuning forks for use in Qualcomm trademark mobile station modem (MSM), 3000{sup TM} central processing unit (CPU), chips of code division multiple access (CDMA), personal communication system (PCS), and global system for mobile communication (GSM) units. Optimum processing condition was devised for reproducible precision etching of Z-cut quartz wafer into array of tuning forks. Tuning fork pattern was transferred via ordinary photolithographical chromium/quartz glass template using a standard single-sided aligner and subsequent negative photoresist development. A tightly adhering and pinhole-free 600/2000 A chromium/gold mask is coated over the developed photoresist pattern which was subsequently stripped in acetone. This procedure was repeated on the backside of the wafer. With protective metallization area of tuning fork geometry thus formed, etching through quartz wafer was done at 80 C in a {+-} 1.5 C controlled bath containing concentrated solution of ammonium bifluoride to remove unwanted area of the quartz wafer. The quality of quartz wafer surface finish after quartz etching depended primarily on the surface finish of quartz wafer prior to etching and the quality of quartz crystals used. At 80 C, selective etching of 100 {mu}m quartz wafer could be effected within 90 min. Reproducible precision selective etching method has thus been established and enables mass production of miniature tuning fork resonators with electrode patterns on them photolithographically. (orig.)

  20. Lewis and Clark NWR: Initial Survey Instructions for Rice Island Gull Colony Nest Survey Protocol

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The dredging of the lower Columbia River for shipping has created flat sand islands that attract nesting seabirds. These seabird colonies are situated in prime...

  1. Replication fork progression is paused in two large chromosomal zones flanking the DNA replication origin in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Masahiro Tatsumi; Oshima, Taku; Chumsakul, Onuma; Ishikawa, Shu; Maki, Hisaji

    2016-08-01

    Although the speed of nascent DNA synthesis at individual replication forks is relatively uniform in bacterial cells, the dynamics of replication fork progression on the chromosome are hampered by a variety of natural impediments. Genome replication dynamics can be directly measured from an exponentially growing cell population by sequencing newly synthesized DNA strands that were specifically pulse-labeled with the thymidine analogue 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU). However, a short pulse labeling with BrdU is impracticable for bacteria because of poor incorporation of BrdU into the cells, and thus, the genomewide dynamics of bacterial DNA replication remain undetermined. Using a new thymidine-requiring Escherichia coli strain, eCOMB, and high-throughput sequencing, we succeeded in determining the genomewide replication profile in bacterial cells. We also found that fork progression is paused in two ~200-kb chromosomal zones that flank the replication origin in the growing cells. This origin-proximal obstruction to fork progression was overcome by an increased thymidine concentration in the culture medium and enhanced by inhibition of transcription. These indicate that DNA replication near the origin is sensitive to the impediments to fork progression, namely a scarcity of the DNA precursor deoxythymidine triphosphate and probable conflicts between replication and transcription machineries. PMID:27353572

  2. Silicon carbide resonant tuning fork for microsensing applications in high-temperature and high G-shock environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David R Myers; Kan Bun Cheng; Babak Jamshidi; Robert G Azevedo; Debbie G Senesky; Li Chen; Mehran Mehregany; Muthu B J Wijesundara; Albert P Pisano

    2012-01-01

    We present the fabrication and testing of a silicon carbide (SiC) balanced mass doublended tuning fork that survives harsh environments without compromising the device strain sensitivity and resolution bandwidth. The device features a material stack that survives corrosive environments and enables high-temperature operation. To perform hightemperature testing, a specialized setup was constructed that allows the tuning fork to be characterized using traditional silicon electronics. The tuning fork has been operated at 600°C in the presence of dry steam for short durations. This tuning fork has also been tested to 64 000 G using a hard-launch, soft-catch shock implemented with a light gas gun. However, the device still has a strain sensitivity of 66 Hz/μe and strain resolution of 0. 045 μe in a 10 kHz bandwidth. As such, this balanced-mass double-ended tuning fork can be used to create a variety of different sensors including strain gauges, accelerometers, gyroscopes, and pressure transducers. Given the adaptable fabrication process flow, this device could be useful to micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) designers creating sensors for a variety of different applications.

  3. Mineral evaluation of part of the Gold Butte district, Clark County, Nevada. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mineral potential of part of the Gold Butte district, Clark County, Nevada, was investigated to supplement the evaluation of granitic rocks in the area as a probable geologic environment for uranium mineralization. This project is a part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program conducted by Bendix Field Engineering Corporation for the US Department of Energy. A total of 41 stream-sediment samples and 149 rock samples were collected; the stream-sediment samples were analyzed chemically, and most f the rock samples were analyzed chemically and petrographically. The project area was restricted to Precambrian rocks, which comprise a metamorphic complex of early Proterozoic age, charnockitic rocks of early or middle Proterozoic age and ultramafic rocks and the Gold Butte Granite of middle Proterozoic age. Although the project area is not favorable for uranium deposits according to NURE criteria, an area of low resource potential for uranium, thorium, rare-earth elements and yttrium, and niobium-tantalum was assigned to the contact zone of the Gold Butte Granite. Pegmatites and aplites in the zone contain high concentrations of these elements. Two areas of moderate potential for gold and silver in quartz veins are within the project area; small-scale operations may recover these elements profitably. Titanium has a low-to-moderate resource potential, although the deposits are currently subeconomic. The titanium concentrations occur as titaniferous magnetite- and ilmenite-bearing placer sands. One small area has been assigned a low-to-moderate resource potential for vermiculite in altered ultramafic rocks. Tungsten has been assigned a low resource potential in two places within the project area; scheelite-bearing ultramafic bodies are small and scattered. Platinum-group metals and copper have no resource potential in the project area

  4. Unsteady Lift and Drag Characteristics of Cavitating Clark Y-11.7% Hydrofoil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unsteady cavitating flow and lift/drag characteristics of a two-dimensional Clark Y- 11.7% hydrofoil are experimentally investigated in order to clarify the relation between the lift drop mechanism and the unsteady cavity behavior. Unsteady lift and drag forces are measured by strain gauges attached on the cantilever supporting the hydrofoil, assuming the negligible bending moment. In combination with the above force measurements, the cavitating flow is filmed from both top and side simultaneously using two high speed video cameras. It is clearly observed that, in larger attack angle conditions (4-10 degrees), the time-averaged lift coefficient slightly increases from that in the non-cavitating condition. After the slight increase, the lift gradually decreases then its steep decrease starts to occur. On the other hand, in a small attack angle case (2 degrees), little increase of the lift is observed, and just after that the sudden lift drop occurs. From the instantaneous frequency spectra of the lift, the followings are found; during the slight increase of the lift, the cavity is being a partial cavity in almost steady state, but during the subsequent gradual lift decrease, the partial cavity oscillates with cloud cavity shedding, in other word, the partial cavity oscillation occurs, whose frequency decreases with the growth of the cavity. During the sudden lift drop, the low frequency transitional cavity oscillation occurs, in which the cavity dramatically changes between partial and super cavities. The typical events of cavity behavior during the cavitation instabilities are found to be able to be related with the behavior of instantaneous lift force and pressure

  5. Laurel Clark Earth Camp: Building a Framework for Teacher and Student Understanding of Earth Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colodner, D.; Buxner, S.; Schwartz, K.; Orchard, A.; Titcomb, A.; King, B.; Baldridge, A.; Thomas-Hilburn, H.; Crown, D. A.

    2013-04-01

    Laurel Clark Earth Camp is designed to inspire teachers and students to study their world through field experiences, remote sensing investigations, and hands on exploration, all of which lend context to scientific inquiry. In three different programs (for middle school students, for high school students, and for teachers) participants are challenged to understand Earth processes from the perspectives of both on-the ground inspection and from examination of satellite images, and use those multiple perspectives to determine best practices on both a societal and individual scale. Earth Camp is a field-based program that takes place both in the “natural” and built environment. Middle School Earth Camp introduces students to a variety of environmental science, engineering, technology, and societal approaches to sustainability. High School Earth Camp explores ecology and water resources from southern Arizona to eastern Utah, including a 5 day rafting trip. In both camps, students compare environmental change observed through repeat photography on the ground to changes observed from space. Students are encouraged to utilize their camp experience in considering their future course of study, career objectives, and lifestyle choices. During Earth Camp for Educators, teachers participate in a series of weekend workshops to explore relevant environmental science practices, including water quality testing, biodiversity surveys, water and light audits, and remote sensing. Teachers engage students, both in school and after school, in scientific investigations with this broad based set of tools. Earth Stories from Space is a website that will assist in developing skills and comfort in analyzing change over time and space using remotely sensed images. Through this three-year NASA funded program, participants will appreciate the importance of scale and perspective in understanding Earth systems and become inspired to make choices that protect the environment.

  6. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Genetics Predicts Candidate Therapeutic Genetic Interactions at the Mammalian Replication Fork

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Pel, Derek M.; Stirling, Peter C.; Minaker, Sean W.; Sipahimalani, Payal; Hieter, Philip

    2013-01-01

    The concept of synthetic lethality has gained popularity as a rational guide for predicting chemotherapeutic targets based on negative genetic interactions between tumor-specific somatic mutations and a second-site target gene. One hallmark of most cancers that can be exploited by chemotherapies is chromosome instability (CIN). Because chromosome replication, maintenance, and segregation represent conserved and cell-essential processes, they can be modeled effectively in simpler eukaryotes such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here we analyze and extend genetic networks of CIN cancer gene orthologs in yeast, focusing on essential genes. This identifies hub genes and processes that are candidate targets for synthetic lethal killing of cancer cells with defined somatic mutations. One hub process in these networks is DNA replication. A nonessential, fork-associated scaffold, CTF4, is among the most highly connected genes. As Ctf4 lacks enzymatic activity, potentially limiting its development as a therapeutic target, we exploited its function as a physical interaction hub to rationally predict synthetic lethal interactions between essential Ctf4-binding proteins and CIN cancer gene orthologs. We then validated a subset of predicted genetic interactions in a human colorectal cancer cell line, showing that siRNA-mediated knockdown of MRE11A sensitizes cells to depletion of various replication fork-associated proteins. Overall, this work describes methods to identify, predict, and validate in cancer cells candidate therapeutic targets for tumors with known somatic mutations in CIN genes using data from yeast. We affirm not only replication stress but also the targeting of DNA replication fork proteins themselves as potential targets for anticancer therapeutic development. PMID:23390603

  7. In-Field Performance Testing of the Fork Detector for Quantitative Spent Fuel Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauld, Ian C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hu, Jianwei [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); De Baere, P. [European Commission (Luxembourg). DG Energy, Directorate Nuclear Safeguards; Vaccaro, S. [European Commission (Luxembourg). DG Energy, Directorate Nuclear Safeguards; Schwalbach, P. [European Commission (Luxembourg). DG Energy, Directorate Nuclear Safeguards; Liljenfeldt, Henrik [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (Sweden); Tobin, Stephen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Expanding spent fuel dry storage activities worldwide are increasing demands on safeguards authorities that perform inspections. The European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) require measurements to verify declarations when spent fuel is transferred to difficult-to-access locations, such as dry storage casks and the repositories planned in Finland and Sweden. EURATOM makes routine use of the Fork detector to obtain gross gamma and total neutron measurements during spent fuel inspections. Data analysis is performed by modules in the integrated Review and Analysis Program (iRAP) software, developed jointly by EURATOM and the IAEA. Under the framework of the US Department of Energy–EURATOM cooperation agreement, a module for automated Fork detector data analysis has been developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) using the ORIGEN code from the SCALE code system and implemented in iRAP. EURATOM and ORNL recently performed measurements on 30 spent fuel assemblies at the Swedish Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel (Clab), operated by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB). The measured assemblies represent a broad range of fuel characteristics. Neutron count rates for 15 measured pressurized water reactor assemblies are predicted with an average relative standard deviation of 4.6%, and gamma signals are predicted on average within 2.6% of the measurement. The 15 measured boiling water reactor assemblies exhibit slightly larger deviations of 5.2% for the gamma signals and 5.7% for the neutron count rates, compared to measurements. These findings suggest that with improved analysis of the measurement data, existing instruments can provide increased verification of operator declarations of the spent fuel and thereby also provide greater ability to confirm integrity of an assembly. These results support the application of the Fork detector as a fully quantitative spent fuel

  8. dnaC-dependent reconstitution of replication forks in Escherichia coli lysates.

    OpenAIRE

    Nüsslein-Crystalla, V; Niedenhof, I; Rein, R.

    1982-01-01

    Lysates of Escherichia coli exhibit a DNA-synthesizing activity that depends on the presence of replication forks and of replication proteins. Replicative activity was reconstituted in vitro by mixing lysates prepared from temperature-sensitive dnaB mutants with wild-type dnaB protein. Lysates of double mutants deficient in both dnaB and dnaC genes could only be complemented by the addition of both dnaB and dnaC proteins, whereas lysates deficient in dnaC protein did not require the addition ...

  9. Freedom and forking in open source software: the MariaDB story

    OpenAIRE

    Nyman, Linus Morten

    2013-01-01

    While significant factors that affect the open source community’s interest to participate in a development project have been studied, there has been little focus on the motivating factors that can cause a contributor to become a competitor by utilizing the right to fork a program i.e., to copy an existing program’s code base and use it to begin a separate development. The right to copy an existing program’s code base and use it to begin a separate development is guaranteed by all open s...

  10. Best management practices plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This plan was prepared in support of the Phase II Remedial Design Report (DOE/OR/01-1449&D1) and in accordance with requirements under CERCLA to present the plan for best management practices to be followed during the remediation. This document provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about spill prevention and control, water quality monitoring, good housekeeping practices, sediment and erosion control measures, and inspections and environmental compliance practices to be used during Phase II of the remediation project for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit.

  11. Especificidade hospedeira de variantes Bradyrhizobium spp em soja (cvs peking e clark, caupi e guandu Host specificity of Bradyrhizobium spp mutants in soybean (cultivars peking and clark, cowpea and pigeon pea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Gomes de Carvalho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A expansão da cultura da soja evidenciou uma alta especificidade hospedeira, requerendo a pesquisa de novas estirpes que apresentassem capacidade de nodular a soja e bom potencial de competição com a população de rizóbios naturalizada nos solos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a especificidade hospedeira de variantes isolados de estirpes de Bradyrhizobium spp quanto à nodulação e eficiência relativa de fixação de N2 atmosférico em soja (cvs peking e clark, caupi e guandu. O experimento foi realizado sob condições controladas em câmara de crescimento por meio de testes de variantes de B. japonicum e B. elkanii e suas respectivas estirpes originais quanto à habilidade de nodular soja, caupi e guandu. A colheita foi realizada aos 35 dias, sendo avaliada a nodulação (número, peso dos nódulos secos, produção de matéria seca na parte aérea, eficiência relativa de fixação de N2 atmosférico. Os variantes e estirpes de Bradyrhizobium spp nodularam Glycine max (cultivares BR-16, Clark e Peking, Vigna unguiculata e Cajanus cajan, contudo, apenas para Glycine max a interação rizóbio-leguminosa demonstrou eficiência simbiótica significativa.The expansion of the soybean crop has evidenced a high host specificity, indicating the requirement of new strains with capacity of nodulating soybean and competition capacity with the natural soil rhizobial population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the host specificity of mutants isolated from Bradyrhizobium spp strains in relation to nodulation and relative N2 fixation effectiveness in soybean (cultivars Peking and Clark, cowpea and pigeon pea. The experiment was carried out under controlled conditions in a growth chamber, where B. japonicum and B. elkanii mutants and the respective original strains were tested for their nodulation ability on soybean, cowpea and pigeon pea. The crop was harvested 35 days after planting and the nodulation (number, dry nodule weight

  12. Photolithography and Selective Etching of an Array of Quartz Tuning Fork Resonators with Improved Impact Resistance Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungkyu

    2001-08-01

    Quartz tuning fork blanks with improved impact-resistant characteristics for use in Qualcomm mobile station modem (MSM)-3000 central processing unit (CPU) chips for code division multiple access (CDMA), personal communication system (PCS), and global system for mobile communication (GSM) systems were designed using finite element method (FEM) analysis and suitable processing conditions were determined for the reproducible precision etching of a Z-cut quartz wafer into an array of tuning forks. Negative photoresist photolithography for the additive process was used in preference to positive photoresist photolithography for the subtractive process to etch the array of quartz tuning forks. The tuning fork pattern was transferred via a conventional photolithographical chromium/quartz glass template using a standard single-sided aligner and subsequent negative photoresist development. A tightly adhering and pinhole-free 600/2000 Å chromium/gold mask was coated over the developed photoresist pattern which was subsequently stripped in acetone. This procedure was repeated on the back surface of the wafer. With the protective metallization area of the tuning fork geometry thus formed, etching through the quartz wafer was performed at 80°C in a ± 1.5°C controlled bath containing a concentrated solution of ammonium bifluoride to remove the unwanted areas of the quartz wafer. The quality of the quartz wafer surface finish after quartz etching depended primarily on the surface finish of the quartz wafer prior to etching and the quality of quartz crystals used. Selective etching of a 100 μm quartz wafer could be achieved within 90 min at 80°C. A selective etching procedure with reproducible precision has thus been established and enables the photolithographic mass production of miniature tuning fork resonators.

  13. A reduction in ribonucleotide reductase activity slows down the chromosome replication fork but does not change its localization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingvild Odsbu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been proposed that the enzymes of nucleotide biosynthesis may be compartmentalized or concentrated in a structure affecting the organization of newly replicated DNA. Here we have investigated the effect of changes in ribonucleotide reductase (RNR activity on chromosome replication and organization of replication forks in Escherichia coli. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Reduced concentrations of deoxyribonucleotides (dNTPs obtained by reducing the activity of wild type RNR by treatment with hydroxyurea or by mutation, resulted in a lengthening of the replication period. The replication fork speed was found to be gradually reduced proportionately to moderate reductions in nucleotide availability. Cells with highly extended C periods showed a "delay" in cell division i.e. had a higher cell mass. Visualization of SeqA structures by immunofluorescence indicated no change in organization of the new DNA upon moderate limitation of RNR activity. Severe nucleotide limitation led to replication fork stalling and reversal. Well defined SeqA structures were not found in situations of extensive replication fork repair. In cells with stalled forks obtained by UV irradiation, considerable DNA compaction was observed, possibly indicating a reorganization of the DNA into a "repair structure" during the initial phase of the SOS response. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The results indicate that the replication fork is slowed down in a controlled manner during moderate nucleotide depletion and that a change in the activity of RNR does not lead to a change in the organization of newly replicated DNA. Control of cell division but not control of initiation was affected by the changes in replication elongation.

  14. THE INFLUENCE OF HUMIDITY ON THE SHEAR FORCE BETWEEN TIP AND SAMPLE IN NSOM USING PIEZOELECTRIC FORK

    OpenAIRE

    TIANHAO ZHANG; ZHEYU FANG; JIANYA ZHENG; LIMO GAO; HAIDONG YANG; MEIRONG YIN; JIA YANG; YANZHEN LU; HUIZHEN KANG; DAPENG YANG; HUIZHAN YANG

    2005-01-01

    The distance between tip and sample can be regulated using piezoelectric quartz fork glued with micro optic fiber probe. A biquadrate vibration equation for the fork–probe–sample system is established to theoretically analyze the relations of the electric current flow through fork versus tip–sample (T–S) distance (I–d). The I–d curve and the action distance for shear force are influenced by environmental humidity. The results reinforce the opinions in the earlier works by other researches tha...

  15. Shear Force Detection Using Single-Tine Oscillating Tuning Fork for Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭晓靖; 孙家林; 刘晟; 郭继华; 孙红三

    2003-01-01

    We propose a new method to detect near-field by using a single-tine oscillating tuning fork with mechanically asymmetric excitation that exhibits the sensitivity and stability better than that by using a double-tine oscillating one. Comparison of shear forces for the two methods demonstrate that the single-tine oscillating tuning fork provides a simpler and more sensitive method for near-field measurements. A theoretical analysis is presented for explanation to the greater sensitivity. The method is demonstrated by imaging a sparse-packed layer of micro-spheres in size of 200 nm.

  16. Musical outgroups and the paradox of social bonding. Comment on "Music, empathy and cultural understanding" by E. Clark et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overy, Katie

    2015-12-01

    Clarke, DeNora and Vuoskoski's valuable review paper [2] raises the proposition that passive musical listening experiences can increase 'dispositional empathy' in individuals and consequently lead to increased positive feeling towards other cultural groups. The challenge of integrating relevant ideas and evidence from neuroscience, philosophy, psychology, sociology and community music is met convincingly, alongside the presentation of empirical data and a new model of empathic music listening. The resulting discussion brings social, motor and emotional aspects of musical behavior to the forefront and sparks a number of ideas and questions.

  17. The forked tongue and edge detection in snakes (Crotalus oreganus): an experimental test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M Rockwell; Young, Bruce A; Kardong, Kenneth V

    2008-02-01

    Many stimulus-detection systems are lateralized to allow for simultaneous comparison of paired stimuli. It has been hypothesized that the deeply forked tongue of snakes and some derived lizards functions as a chemical edge detector where cues gathered by each tine are kept separate to provide two points of lateral odor assessment by the central nervous system via vomeronasal input. While following a chemical trail, one time can be on the trail, the other off, and such differential information prompts the snake to turn back to the trail. The authors tested this hypothesis in rattlesnakes within a predatory context by unilaterally severing the vomeronasal nerves. If edge detection is used by snakes during prey trailing, then unilateral denervation should disrupt trailing ability. The authors found no change in the seven separate trailing parameters measured. Therefore, they found no support for the edge detection hypothesis as it applies to prey trailing behavior. Instead, the deeply forked tongue may represent a chemosensory specialization to increase odor-sampling area, with snakes and derived lizards detecting only the concentration of chemical trails.

  18. The ammonoids from the Three Forks Shale (Late Devonian of Montana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Korn

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The ammonoid fauna from the Late Devonian Three Forks Shale of Montana is revised. Six taxa were recognised, which belong to the genera Tornoceras, Pernoceras, Raymondiceras, Platyclymenia, Pleuroclymenia, and Carinoclymenia. The ammonoid assemblage suggests a stratigraphic position within the middle Famennian, most probably the Platyclymenia annulata Zone. The ammonoids display extreme septal crowding in intermediate as well as adult growth stages, which can be regarded as evidence for instable palaeoecological conditions during lifetime of the animals. Die Ammonoideenfauna aus dem oberdevonischen Three Forks Shale von Montana wird revidiert. Sechs Taxa werden unterschieden; sie gehören zu den Gattungen Tornoceras, Pernoceras, Raymondiceras, Platyclymenia, Pleuroclymenia und Carinoclymenia. Die Ammonoideen-Vergesellschaftung spricht für eine stratigraphische Position im mittleren Famennium, wahrscheinlich in der Platyclymenia annulata Zone. Die Ammonoideen zeigen auffällige Drängung der Septen in intermediären und adulten Wachstumsstadien, die als Hinweis auf instabile Lebensbedingungen für die Tiere gewertet werden kann. doi:10.1002/mmng.200600008

  19. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant biological monitoring and abatement program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Giddings, J.M.; McCarthy, J.F.; Southworth, G.R.; Smith, J.G.; Stewart, A.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA); Springborn Bionomics, Inc., Wareham, MA (USA); Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1989-10-01

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, a nuclear weapons components production facility located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for the US Department of Energy. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek), in particular, the growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life, as designated by the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment. A second purpose for the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from implementation of a water pollution control program that will include construction of nine new wastewater treatment facilities over the next 4 years. Because of the complex nature of the effluent discharged to East Fork Poplar Creek and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the effluent (i.e., temporal variability related to various pollution abatement measures that will be implemented over the next several years and spatial variability caused by pollutant inputs downstream of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant), a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed for the BMAP. 39 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  20. Stalled replication fork repair and misrepair during thymineless death in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuong, Kawai J; Kuzminov, Andrei

    2010-06-01

    Starvation for DNA precursor dTTP, known as 'thymineless death' (TLD), kills bacterial and eukaryotic cells alike. Despite numerous investigations, toxic mechanisms behind TLD remain unknown, although wrong nucleotide incorporation with subsequent excision dominates the explanations. We show that kinetics of TLD in Escherichia coli is not affected by mutations in DNA repair, ruling out excision after massive misincorporation as the cause of TLD. We found that the rate of DNA synthesis in thymine-starved cells decreases exponentially, indicating replication fork stalling. Processing of stalled replication forks by recombinational repair is known to fragment the chromosome, and we detect significant chromosomal fragmentation during TLD. Moreover, we report that, out of major recombinational repair functions, only inactivation of recF and recO relieves TLD, identifying the poisoning mechanism. Inactivation of recJ and rep has slight effect, while the recA, recBC, ruvABC, recG and uvrD mutations all accelerate TLD, identifying the protection mechanisms. Our epistatic analysis argues for two distinct pathways protecting against TLD: RecABCD/Ruv repairs the double-strand breaks, whereas UvrD counteracts RecAFO-catalyzed toxic single-strand gap processing. PMID:20465561

  1. Mode locking effects on the playing frequency for fork fingerings on the clarinet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nederveen, C J; Dalmont, J-P

    2012-01-01

    The non-linear excitation of wind instruments generates higher harmonics of the playing frequency. These higher harmonics are coupled to resonances in the pipe. This is called mode locking. When the pipe modes are not harmonic, the playing frequency shifts away from the fundamental in order to maximize the output. It may go up or down, depending on the position of the modes and the amplitude. The effect is especially manifest for fork fingerings. Three fork fingerings on a clarinet were investigated. They were artificially blown between the threshold and extinction pressure. A time domain simulation was carried out based on a lumped model of the excitation coupled to an input impedance calculated from the instrument dimensions. At low amplitudes the fundamental frequency dominates and the playing frequency is governed by the position of the first peak in the input impedance spectra. At higher blowing pressures the playing frequency shifts. For both blowing and simulation this follows the same pattern. The frequencies predicted by the calculations are higher than the values found by blowing, which may be due to inadequacies in the model description, to uncertainties of the various parameters, as reed stiffness, moving reed area, and the properties of the slit flow. PMID:22280690

  2. Geologic Map of the Clark Peak Quadrangle, Jackson and Larimer Counties, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Karl S.; Ruleman, Chester A.; Shroba, Ralph R.; Braddock, William A.

    2008-01-01

    The Clark Peak quadrangle encompasses the southern end of the Medicine Bow Mountains and the northernmost end of the Mummy Range. The Continental Divide traverses the map area and Highway 14 cross the Divide at Cameron Pass, in the southeastern corner of the map. Approximately the eastern half of the map, and a few areas to the west, are underlain by Early Proterozoic plutonic and metamorphic rocks. Most of these basement rocks are part of the ~1,715 Ma Rawah batholith, composed mostly of pinkish, massive to moderately foliated monzogranite and granodiorite intruded by numerous, large pegmatite- aplite bodies. The metamorphic rocks, many of which form large inclusions in the granitic rocks of the Rawah batholith, include biotite-hornblende gneiss, hornblende gneiss, amphibolite, and biotite schist. The crystalline basement rocks are thrust westward along the Medicine Bow thrust over a sequence of sedimentary rocks as old as the Upper Permian Satanka Shale. The Satanka Shale, Middle and Lower Triassic Chugwater group, and a thin sandstone tentatively correlated with the Lower Jurassic and Upper Triassic Jelm Formation are combined as one map unit. This undivided unit is overlain sequentially upward by the Upper Jurassic Sundance Formation, Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation, Lower Cretaceous Dakota Group, Upper and Lower Cretaceous Benton Group, Upper Cretaceous Niobrara Formation, and the Eocene and Paleocene Coalmont Formation. The Late Cretaceous to early Eocene Medicine Bow thrust is folded in places, and several back thrusts produced a complicated thrust pattern in the south part of the map. Early Oligocene magmatism produced rhyolite tuff, dacite and basalt flows, and intermediate dikes and small stocks. A 40Ar/39Ar date on sanidine from one rhyolite tuff is ~28.5 Ma; a similar whole-rock date on a trachybasalt is ~29.6 Ma. A very coarse, unsorted probably pre-Quaternary ridge-top diamicton crops out in the southern part of the quadrangle. Numerous glacial

  3. Salmonid Gamete Preservation in the Snake River Basin, Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, William; Kucera, Paul

    2003-07-01

    In spite of an intensive management effort, chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations in the Northwest have not recovered and are currently listed as threatened species under the Endangered Species Act. In addition to the loss of diversity from stocks that have already gone extinct, decreased genetic diversity resulting from genetic drift and inbreeding is a major concern. Reduced population and genetic variability diminishes the environmental adaptability of individual species and entire ecological communities. The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), in cooperation with Washington State University and the University of Idaho, established a germplasm repository in 1992 in order to preserve the remaining salmonid diversity in the region. The germplasm repository provides long-term storage for cryopreserved gametes. Although only male gametes can be cryopreserved, conserving the male component of genetic diversity will maintain future management options for species recovery. NPT efforts have focused on preserving salmon and steelhead gametes from the major river subbasins in the Snake River basin. However, the repository is available for all management agencies to contribute gamete samples from other regions and species. In 2002 a total of 570 viable semen samples were added to the germplasm repository. This included the gametes of 287 chinook salmon from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River, Imnaha River (Lookingglass Hatchery), Lake Creek, South Fork Salmon River, Johnson Creek, Big Creek, Capehorn Creek, Marsh Creek, Pahsimeroi River (Pahsimeroi Hatchery), and upper Salmon River (Sawtooth Hatchery) and the gametes of 280 steelhead from the North Fork Clearwater River (Dworshak Hatchery), Fish Creek, Little Sheep Creek, Pahsimeroi River (Pahsimeroi Hatchery) and Snake River (Oxbow Hatchery). In addition, gametes from 60 Yakima River spring chinook and 34 Wenatchee River coho salmon were added to the

  4. Differentiating sex and species of Western Grebes (Aechmophorus occidentalis) and Clark's Grebes (Aechmophorus clarkii) and their eggs using external morphometrics and discriminant function analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, C. Alex; Ackerman, Josh; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark

    2016-01-01

    In birds where males and females are similar in size and plumage, sex determination by alternative means is necessary. Discriminant function analysis based on external morphometrics was used to distinguish males from females in two closely related species: Western Grebe (Aechmophorus occidentalis) and Clark's Grebe (A. clarkii). Additionally, discriminant function analysis was used to evaluate morphometric divergence between Western and Clark's grebe adults and eggs. Aechmophorus grebe adults (n = 576) and eggs (n = 130) were sampled across 29 lakes and reservoirs throughout California, USA, and adult sex was determined using molecular analysis. Both Western and Clark's grebes exhibited considerable sexual size dimorphism. Males averaged 6–26% larger than females among seven morphological measurements, with the greatest sexual size dimorphism occurring for bill morphometrics. Discriminant functions based on bill length, bill depth, and short tarsus length correctly assigned sex to 98% of Western Grebes, and a function based on bill length and bill depth correctly assigned sex to 99% of Clark's Grebes. Further, a simplified discriminant function based only on bill depth correctly assigned sex to 96% of Western Grebes and 98% of Clark's Grebes. In contrast, external morphometrics were not suitable for differentiating between Western and Clark's grebe adults or their eggs, with correct classification rates of discriminant functions of only 60%, 63%, and 61% for adult males, adult females, and eggs, respectively. Our results indicate little divergence in external morphology between species of Aechmophorus grebes, and instead separation is much greater between males and females.

  5. Ophiacantha clypeata n. sp. from the Bering Sea, with a redescription of Ophiacantha rhachophora Clark (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyte, M.A.

    1977-06-16

    Ophiacantha clypeata differs from O. rhachophora in having the distal tips of the radial shields concealed, the basal upper arm plates with thorny stumps, small and inconspicuous genital slits, oral shields quadrangular and wider than long, first lateral arm shields and oral shields contiguous, not separated by the aboral plates, arm spines on the first basal segment not meeting on the aboral side of the arm segment, and entirely smooth uppermost arm spines. While the oral papillae of O. rhachophora are markedly thorny, the 6 to 10 papillae of O. clypeata are only slightly serrate. A papilla does not arise from the adoral shield in O. clypeata. Geographical distribution supports the evidence from morphological differences. While O. clypeata occurs only in the Bering Sea, O. rhachophora is apparently restricted to Japanese waters and the Eastern Sea (Clark, 1911; Matsumoto, 1917). Although the depth ranges of the 2 species overlap, O. rhachophora is found in somewhat shallower water than O. clypeata This geographical separation and the morphological differences indicate clearly that Clark's (1911) Bering Sea specimens of O. rhachophora should be separated as a distinct species.

  6. Barriers to HIV Testing Among Young Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM): Experiences from Clark County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharr, Jennifer R.; Lough, Nancy L.; Ezeanolue, Echezona E.

    2016-01-01

    Clark County, Nevada had a 52% increase in newly diagnosed HIV infections in young people age 13-24 with 83% of the new diagnoses in this age group being men who have sex with men (MSM). HIV testing and counseling is critical for HIV prevention, care and treatment, yet young people are the least likely to seek HIV testing. The purpose of this study was to identify barriers and facilitators to HIV testing experienced by young MSM in Clark County, Nevada. We conducted a qualitative focus group discussion to identify barriers and facilitators to HIV testing among eleven young MSM in March, 2015. The primary barrier to HIV testing identified by the group was a lack of awareness or knowledge about testing for HIV. Other barriers within the person included: fear of results, fear of rejection, and fear of disclosure. Barriers identified within the environment included: access issues, stigma, and unfriendly test environments for young people. In addition to increasing awareness, intervention to increase HIV testing among MSM young people should incorporate access to testing in environments where the adolescents are comfortable and which reduces stigma. HIV testing sites should be convenient, accessible and young person/gay friendly.

  7. ‘Looking for Civilisation, Discovering Clark’: ‘Kenneth Clark – Looking for Civilisation’, An Exhibition at Tate Britain, 20 May – 10 August 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C Potter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses upon the art historiographical lessons to be learned from the ‘Kenneth Clark – Looking for Civilisation’ exhibition at Tate Britain. It considers the challenges represented by art galleries choosing to present displays centred on art historians generally and Clark in particular. The political contexts that existed during Clark’s career and the recent exhibition are mapped in order to explore both how the actions of this democratic patriarch were motivated by his understanding of the shortcomings of humanist and Marxist ideologies, and how an opportunity for reassessment has presented itself since the declining dominance of the New Art History.

  8. Assisting Students Struggling with Mathematics: Response to Intervention (RtI) for Elementary and Middle Schools. Q&A with Ben Clarke Ph.D and Paul Riccomini, Ph.D. REL Mid-Atlantic Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Ben; Riccomini, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This REL Mid-Atlantic Event focused on effective strategies for screening, instruction, and differentiation of instruction as part of math RtI implementation. The Q&A presented in this document address the questions participants had for Dr. Clarke and Dr. Riccomini following the event. Dr. Clarke's and Dr. Riccomini's PowerPoint presentations…

  9. Vocational Psychology at the Fork in the Road: Staying the Course or Taking the Road Less Traveled

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blustein, David L.

    2011-01-01

    In response to the question posed in this special issue of the "Journal of Career Assessment" regarding the next big question in vocational psychology, this article poses that the field is at a critical fork in the road. The choice point for vocational psychology is to continue to create knowledge and services for middle-class populations with…

  10. Mode analysis for a quartz tuning fork coupled to acoustic resonances of fluid in a cylindrical cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuoriniemi, J.; Rysti, J.; Salmela, A.; Manninen, M.

    2012-12-01

    Quartz tuning forks are precise electromechanical oscillators mass produced in different sizes around one millimeter for the purpose of providing the reference frequency for watches and such. Usually, they are designed to operate at 215 = 32768 Hz in vacuum at room temperature. When refrigerated to cryogenic conditions, they may show extremely high Q-values. Immersion of such an oscillator to fluid medium changes its response due to inertial forces and dissipation exerted by the medium. This makes it very useful in studies of pure and mixed helium fluids at low temperatures. When the wavelength of sound in the medium, determined by the frequency of oscillation and the speed of sound, corresponds to typical dimensions in the fluid volume, the oscillator may produce standing acoustic waves, observed as strong anomalies in the oscillator response. This can happen in helium fluids for both first and second sound under various conditions. We study the character of such modes by computational methods for typical fork geometries in a cylindrical volume. Reasonable correspondence with measurements in helium mixtures both below and above 1 K is obtained. This is the regime of vigorous second sound resonances, since the speed of this unusual mode compares nicely with the typical dimensions and frequency of the tuning forks. The nontrivial geometry of the fork in the cylinder makes the problem somewhat challenging for computations.

  11. Finite Element Method Simulation of Double-Ended Tuning-Fork Quartz Resonator for Application to Vibratory Gyro-Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kenji; Ono, Atsushi; Tomikawa, Yoshiro

    2003-05-01

    In the present paper, we propose a double-ended tuning-fork quartz resonator for a flatly supported vibratory gyro-sensor in parallel with its rotating plane. The resonator has the advantages of ease of miniaturization and high resistance to external shock, because the height of the proposed resonator is less than that of the conventional vertical-type tuning-fork. In addition, the proposed resonator has two end-support parts. The resonator also has the following features: (1) the vibration energy of the resonator is trapped in the driving part, therefore the resonator is only slightly affected by the support parts and (2) unwanted output signals can be removed by differential connection of the output signals from two symmetric detection electrodes. The resonator was designed using the finite element method (FEM), and its characteristics were also simulated by FEM. The obtained results show that the double-ended tuning-fork quartz resonator is applicable as a vibratory gyro-sensor, and the I/O voltage ratio of the gyro-sensor was found to be proportional to the applied angular velocity. That is, we clarified that the double-ended tuning-fork quartz resonator could be used as a gyro-sensor.

  12. Gas Phase Photoacoustic Spectroscopy in the long-wave IR using Quartz Tuning Forks and Amplitude Modulated Quantum Cascade Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojcik, Michael D.; Phillips, Mark C.; Cannon, Bret D.

    2006-12-31

    A paper to accompany a 20 minute talk about the progress of a DARPA funded project called LPAS. ABSTRACT: We demonstrate the performance of a novel long-wave infrared photoacoustic laser absorbance spectrometer for gas-phase species using an amplitude modulated (AM) quantum cascade (QC) laser and a quartz tuning fork microphone. Photoacoustic signal was generated by focusing the output of a Fabry-Perot QC laser operating at 8.41 micron between the legs of a quartz tuning fork which served as a transducer for the transient acoustic pressure wave. The QC laser was modulated at the resonant frequency of the tuning fork (32.8 kHz). This sensor was calibrated using the infrared absorber Freon-134a by performing a simultanious absorption measurement using a 35 cm absorption cell. The NEAS of this instrument was determined to be 2 x 10^-8 W cm^-1 /Hz^1/2 and the fundamental sensitivity of this technique is limited by the noise floor of the tuning fork itself.

  13. Computer Aided Design of the Link-Fork Head-Piston Assembly of the Kaplan Turbine with Solidworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Jianu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the steps for 3D computer aided design (CAD of the link-fork head-piston assembly of the Kaplan turbine made in SolidWorks.The present paper is a tutorial for a Kaplan turbine assembly 3D geometry, which is dedicated to the Assembly design and Drawing Geometry and Drawing Annotation.

  14. Differences in survival and growth in hatchery and stream environments, and in maturation of residuls in a stream, between progeny of hatchery and wild steelhead (Study sites: Brushy Fork Creek and Dworshak Hatchery; Stocks:Dworshak hatchery and Fish Creek wild; Year classes: 1992 and 1993): Chapter 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hensleigh, Jay E.; Leonetti,; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hayes, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    Freshwater survival in hatchery and natural rearing environments was compared between progeny of hatchery (H) and wild (W) steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss from the Clearwater River drainage in Idaho. Adults from Dworshak National Fish Hatchery and wild adults from Fish Creek fish were artificially spawned, and their progeny were genetically marked at the PEPA allozyme locus and released together as unfed fry in production facilities at the hatchery and in Brushy Fork Creek, also in the Clearwater River drainage, in a common garden design. Survival was higher for H than for W progeny at the hatchery but lower for H than for W progeny in Brushy Fork, indicating reduced fitness of the hatchery population for natural rearing and suggesting domestication as the cause. Survival at the hatchery was lower than is typical due to disease outbreaks. Survival of the first year-class of experimental fish to smolt release was only 18%. Survival of H fish was 3.8 times that of W fish under these poor survival conditions. All fish from the second year-class died halfway through the scheduled 10 month rearing period. Survival of H fish was 5.2 times that of W fish to when 1% of the initial fry were still alive indicating that W fish succumbed to the epizootic sooner than did H fish. Emigrants from the Brushy Fork study reach were sampled for three years and fish residing in the study reach were sampled for six years following fry release. Most emigrants were one or two years old and too small to be smolts (mean fork length at age-2 = 93 mm). Survival in Brushy Fork was lower for H than for W fish of the first year-class. Survival of the second year-class was higher for H than for W fish during the first two months in the stream but was lower for H than for W fish thereafter, and net survival from release to ages 3 and older was also lower for H than for W fish if our emigrant samples were representative (periods of inoperative emigrant traps prevented certainty about this

  15. Assessing Geomorphic and Vegetative Responses to Environmental Flows in the Willamette River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangano, J.; Jones, K.; Wallick, R.; Bach, L.; Olson, M.; Bervid, H.

    2015-12-01

    On regulated rivers, restoring flow regimes is a process-based restoration approach that may strongly affect downstream ecosystems. Developing realistic flow targets with meaningful geomorphic and ecological benefits, however, is challenging. For instance, hydraulic, geomorphic and biological processes are affected by more than manipulating water release—sediment supply and transport conditions also require consideration. Also, funding and programmatic directives rarely require the monitoring necessary to adaptively manage environmental flow programs. Recent research in the Willamette River basin in support of the Sustainable Rivers Project (SRP) demonstrates how such a monitoring program can be implemented. At the reach scale, initial efforts have assessed geomorphic and vegetative changes in alluvial sections of the Middle Fork Willamette and McKenzie Rivers using repeat mapping from aerial photographs and flow analyses. Overall, both rivers are largely stable because of reduced discharge, bed-material supply and local revetments, but some reaches of the McKenzie River are more dynamic, perhaps reflecting greater inputs of sediment from unregulated tributaries and higher magnitude peak flows. Repeat, reach-scale mapping on the Middle Fork Willamette River shows that frequent bankfull flows are able to scour minimally vegetated gravel bars and sustain a patchwork of actively shifting bed-material sediment. Repeat mapping on the McKenzie River in summer 2015 will reveal insights about the geomorphic effectiveness of bankfull flows. At the site scale, monitoring at two bars in summer 2015 is linking streamflow with the establishment of black cottonwood. Lastly, a review of hydrographs from 2000-2015 and retrospectively applying stakeholder-defined flow targets showed substantial variability in meeting objectives for the timing and types of flows under traditional regulated conditions and the SRP. Altogether, these related efforts help link streamflow, geomorphic

  16. Antibiotic resistance and community analysis of surface and subsurface drainage waters in the South Fork Iowa River watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Midwest is a center for swine production leading to application of swine manure onto lands that have artificial subsurface drainage. Previous reports have indicated elevated levels of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in surface water and groundwater around confined animal feeding operations w...

  17. Design and simulation of a tuning fork micromachined gyroscope with slide film damping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHE Lu-feng; XIONG Bin; JIAO Ji-wei; WANG Yue-lin

    2005-01-01

    A novel tuning fork micromachined gyroscope, based on slide-film damping, is presented. The electrostatic driving gyroscope consists of two driving masses each of which supports one sensitive mass. The angular rate is sensed by the differential capacitances consisted of movable bar electrodes and fixed bar electrodes located on the glass wafer. The gyroscope can operate at atmospheric pressure with slide film damping in the driving and sensing directions, eliminate vacuum packaging and restrain cross-axis acceleration signal. The results of design and simulation show that the driving and sensing mode frequencies are 3 106 Hz and 3 175 Hz,respectively, and the Q-values in driving and sensitive modes are 1 721 and 1 450 respectively. The design resolution is 0.025°/s.

  18. Mercury Remediation Technology Development for Lower East Fork Poplar Creek - FY 2015 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Mark J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Brooks, Scott C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Mathews, Teresa J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Mayes, Melanie [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Johs, Alexander [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Watson, David B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Poteat, Monica D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Smith, John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Mehlhorn, Tonia [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Lester, Brian [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Morris, Jesse [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Lowe, Kenneth [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Dickson, Johnbull O. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Eller, Virginia [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); DeRolph, Christopher R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division

    2016-04-01

    Mercury remediation is a high priority for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management (OREM) because of large historical losses of mercury within buildings and to soils and surface waters at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12). Because of the extent of mercury losses and the complexities of mercury transport and fate in the downstream environment, the success of conventional options for mercury remediation in lower East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) is uncertain. A phased, adaptive management approach to remediation of surface water includes mercury treatment actions at Y-12 in the short-term and research and technology development (TD) to evaluate longer-term solutions in the downstream environment (US Department of Energy 2014b).

  19. Waste management plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) Remedial Action project will remove mercury-contaminated soils from the floodplain of LEFPC, dispose of these soils at the Y-12 Plant Landfill V, and restore the affected floodplain. The waste management plan addresses management and disposition of all wastes generated during the LEFPC remedial action. Most of the solid wastes will be sanitary or construction/demolition wastes and will be disposed of at existing Y- 12 facilities. Some small amounts of hazardous waste are anticipated, along with possible low-level or mixed wastes (> 35 pCi/g). Liquid wastes will be generated which will be sanitary and capable of being disposed of at the Oak Ridge Sewage Treatment Plant, except sanitary sewage.

  20. Fork-Join program response time on multiprocessors with exchangeable join

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yong-cai; ZHAO Qian-chuan; ZHENG Da-zhong

    2006-01-01

    The Fork-Join program consisting of K parallel tasks is a useful model for a large number of computing applications.When the parallel processor has multi-channels, later tasks may finish execution earlier than their earlier tasks and may join with tasks from other programs. This phenomenon is called exchangeable join (EJ), which introduces correlation to the task's service time. In this work, we investigate the response time of multiprocessor systems with EJ with a new approach. We analyze two aspects of this kind of systems: exchangeable join (EJ) and the capacity constraint (CC). We prove that the system response time can be effectively reduced by EJ, while the reduced amount is constrained by the capacity of the multiprocessor. An upper bound model is constructed based on this analysis and a quick estimation algorithm is proposed. The approximation formula is verified by extensive simulation results, which show that the relative error of approximation is less than 5%.

  1. Optimizing Data Locality for Fork/Join Programs Using Constrained Work Stealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lifflander, Jonathan; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Kale, Laxmikant

    2014-11-16

    We present an approach to improving data locality across different phases of fork/join programs scheduled using work stealing. The approach consists of: (1) user-specified and automated approaches to constructing a steal tree, the schedule of steal operations and (2) constrained work stealing algorithms that constrain the actions of the scheduler to mirror a given steal tree. These are combined to construct work stealing schedules that maximize data locality across computation phases while ensuring load balance within each phase. These algorithms are also used to demonstrate dynamic coarsening, an optimization to improve spatial locality and sequential overheads by combining many finer-grained tasks into coarser tasks while ensuring sufficient concurrency for locality-optimized load balance. Implementation and evaluation in Cilk demonstrate performance improvements of up to 2.5x on 80 cores. We also demonstrate that dynamic coarsening can combine the performance benefits of coarse task specification with the adaptability of finer tasks.

  2. Orbital angular momentum generation and mode transformation with high efficiency using forked polarization gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanming; Kim, Jihwan; Escuti, Michael J

    2012-12-01

    We present a novel optical element that efficiently generates orbital angular momentum (OAM) of light and transforms light between OAM modes based on a polarization grating with a fork-shaped singularity. This forked polarization grating (FPG) is composed of liquid crystalline materials, and can be made either static or switchable with high diffraction efficiency (i.e., 100% theoretically) into a single order. By spatially varying the Pancharatnam-Berry phase, FPGs shape the wavefront and thus control the OAM mode. We demonstrate theoretically and empirically that a charge l(g) FPG creates helical modes with OAM charge ±l(g) when a gaussian beam is input, and more generally, transforms the incident helical mode with OAM charge l(in) into output modes with OAM charge l(in)±l(g). We also show for the first time that this conversion into a single mode can be very efficient (i.e., ∼95% experimentally) at visible wavelengths, and the relative power between the two possible output modes is polarization-controllable from 0% to ∼100%. We developed a fabrication method that substantially improves FPG quality and efficiency over prior work. We also successfully fabricated switchable FPGs, which can be electrically switched between an OAM generating/transforming state and a transmissive state. Our experimental results showed >92% conversion efficiency for both configurations at 633 nm. These holographically fabricated elements are compact (i.e., thin glass plates), lightweight, and easily optimized for nearly any wavelength from ultraviolet to infrared, for a wide range of OAM charge, and for large or small clear apertures. They are ideal elements for enhanced control of OAM, e.g., in optical trapping and high-capacity information.

  3. DNA repair and replication fork helicases are differentially affected by alkyl phosphotriester lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhasini, Avvaru N; Sommers, Joshua A; Yu, Stephen; Wu, Yuliang; Xu, Ting; Kelman, Zvi; Kaplan, Daniel L; Brosh, Robert M

    2012-06-01

    DNA helicases are directly responsible for catalytically unwinding duplex DNA in an ATP-dependent and directionally specific manner and play essential roles in cellular nucleic acid metabolism. It has been conventionally thought that DNA helicases are inhibited by bulky covalent DNA adducts in a strand-specific manner. However, the effects of highly stable alkyl phosphotriester (PTE) lesions that are induced by chemical mutagens and refractory to DNA repair have not been previously studied for their effects on helicases. In this study, DNA repair and replication helicases were examined for unwinding a forked duplex DNA substrate harboring a single isopropyl PTE specifically positioned in the helicase-translocating or -nontranslocating strand within the double-stranded region. A comparison of SF2 helicases (RecQ, RECQ1, WRN, BLM, FANCJ, and ChlR1) with a SF1 DNA repair helicase (UvrD) and two replicative helicases (MCM and DnaB) demonstrates unique differences in the effect of the PTE on the DNA unwinding reactions catalyzed by these enzymes. All of the SF2 helicases tested were inhibited by the PTE lesion, whereas UvrD and the replication fork helicases were fully tolerant of the isopropyl backbone modification, irrespective of strand. Sequestration studies demonstrated that RECQ1 helicase was trapped by the PTE lesion only when it resided in the helicase-translocating strand. Our results are discussed in light of the current models for DNA unwinding by helicases that are likely to encounter sugar phosphate backbone damage during biological DNA transactions. PMID:22500020

  4. Tennessee's East Fork Poplar Creek: A biological monitoring and abatement program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On May 1985, a Biological Monitoring Program was developed for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in eastern Tennessee, United States. This stream originates within the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant that produces nuclear weapons components for the Department of Energy. Water and sediment in the stream contain metals, organic chemicals, and radionuclides from releases that have occurred over the past 45 years. The creek also receives urban and some agricultural runoff and effluent from the City of Oak Ridge's Wastewater Treatment Facility (WTF). The biological monitoring program includes four major tasks: (1) ambient toxicity testing: (2) bioaccumulation studies; (3) biological indicator studies; and (4) ecological monitoring of stream communities, including periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish. Biological conditions are monitored at six sites on EFPC ranging from kilometer 24.4 near the headwaters to kilometer 6.3 near the month. A site on Brushy Fork, A stream just north of Oak Ridge, is used as reference. Ambient (instream) toxicity was monitored through the use of 7-day static-renewal tests that measured the survival and growth of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) larvae and the survival and reproduction of a microstrustacean (Ceriodaphnia dubia). Full-strength water from EFPC within the Y-12 Plant boundary was frequently toxic to Ceriodaphnia, but less frequently toxic to the minnow larvae. Chlorine has been identified as an important toxicant in upper EFPC. Water samples from six sites in EFPC downstream from the Y-12 Plant boundary were tested eight times with both species during a 2-year period (October, 1986 through October, 1988). These sites were ranked by the number of times they were ''best'' or ''worst'' for each species. Water samples collected for use in the ambient toxicity tests were routinely analyzed for conductivity, pH, alkalinity, hardness, total residual and free chlorine, and temperature

  5. On Rivers

    OpenAIRE

    Gleason, Colin Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Despite the importance of rivers to industry, agriculture, the climate system, and global ecosystems, our current knowledge of river discharge (volume of available water per unit time) is surprisingly poor for many regions of the world as political cloistering, aging infrastructure, and rapid human changes limit our ability to understand global surface waters holistically. Closing this knowledge gap is critical for better management of surface water in light of drought and increasing human de...

  6. Ecologic and geographic distributions of the vascular plants of southern Nye County, and adjacent parts of Clark, Lincoln, and Esmeralda Counties, Nevada. [Based on collections made in 1970

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beatley, J. C.

    1971-01-01

    A catalog is compiled of the vascular plants indiginous to Nye, Clark, Lincoln, and Esmeralda Counties of Nevada based on collections made in 1970. This compilation is an update of previous collections in these areas and is a supplement to report, UCLA--12-705. (ERB)

  7. iPhone, Android, or Kindle: The Emma S. Clark Memorial Library Has an App for That and So Can You

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bob; Gutmann, Ted

    2013-01-01

    If you are like the millions of people buying the latest smartphone, iPhone 5, or Samsung Galaxy S III, your local library should have something to offer you. The Emma S. Clark Memorial Library, for one, has an app for that! Dubbed "Emma Mobile," the library's application works with iOS (Apple), Android (Google), and Amazon Kindle Fire devices.…

  8. Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 2000 Project Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venditti, David A.

    2002-04-01

    During 2000, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued to develop techniques to rear chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were collected to establish captive cohorts from three study streams and included 503 eyed-eggs from East Fork Salmon River (EFSR), 250 from the Yankee Fork Salmon River, and 304 from the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF). After collection, the eyed-eggs were immediately transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery, where they were incubated and reared by family group. Juveniles collected the previous summer were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease before the majority (approximately 75%) were transferred to the National Marine Fisheries Service, Manchester Marine Experimental Station for saltwater rearing through sexual maturity. Smolt transfers included 158 individuals from the Lemhi River (LEM), 193 from the WFYF, and 372 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from the Manchester facility to the Eagle Fish Hatchery included 77 individuals from the LEM, 45 from the WFYF, and 11 from the EFSR. Two mature females from the WFYF were spawned in captivity with four males in 2000. Only one of the females produced viable eggs (N = 1,266), which were placed in in-stream incubators by personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe. Mature adults (N = 70) from the Lemhi River were released into Big Springs Creek to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish distributed themselves throughout the study section and displayed a progression of habitat associations and behavior consistent with progressing maturation and the onset of spawning. Fifteen of the 17 suspected redds spawned by captive-reared parents in Big Springs Creek were hydraulically sampled to assess survival to the eyed stage of development. Eyed-eggs were collected from 13 of these, and

  9. Music as a way of knowing. Comment on "Music, empathy, and cultural understanding" by E. Clarke et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibben, Nicola

    2015-12-01

    In their critical review, Clarke, DeNora and Vuoskoski [3, this issue] integrate and make sense of a diverse range of theory and evidence to argue that music has the capacity to facilitate empathy and aid cultural understanding. The invitation to comment on this paper arrived in my email in-box at a time when Europe was witnessing one of the largest movements of people in modern times and when thousands of refugees were dying in the attempt to cross the Mediterranean. For a short while at least, empathy, or the lack thereof, became a socio-political lever, galvanizing European citizens to demonstrate their willingness to give asylum to refugees (#refugeeswelcome), and shaping domestic and European immigration policies. In this context, it would be hard to refute the importance of understanding empathy, albeit through its musical incarnation.

  10. CLARKE AND WRIGHT SAVING ALGORITHM AS A MEANS OF DISTRIBUTION STREAMLINING IN THE ENVIRONMENT OF A CONCRETE COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Straka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Reducing costs forces of companies to look for reserves also in field of management, support and implementation of material flow. This is connected with the optimization of costs for product distribution, which forms a significant part of the total cost of the company. In practice, it happens that making plans for distribution of materials within a distribution space is left solely to the implementers of distribution and it drivers of vehicles. As a result is uneconomic material distribution and unnecessary cost increases to his distribution. The objective of the paper is to propose a methodology for optimization of transport planning from DC Prešov to the individual Tesco units within the region that comes under this distribution centre. The methodology is based on the Clarke and Wright saving algorithm.

  11. Analysis of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) camera survey data on Deep Fork National Wildlife Refuge, 2012-2103 final report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes justification, methods, and results for white-tailed deer camera surveys conducted on Deep Fork National Wildlife Refuge during late summer...

  12. Use of a ground-water flow model with particle tracking to evaluate ground-water vulnerability, Clark County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, D.T.; Wilkinson, J.M.; Orzol, L.L.

    1996-01-01

    A ground-water flow model was used in conjunction with particle tracking to evaluate ground-water vulnerability in Clark County, Washington. Using the particle-tracking program, particles were placed in every cell of the flow model (about 60,000 particles) and tracked backwards in time and space upgradient along flow paths to their recharge points. A new computer program was developed that interfaces the results from a particle-tracking program with a geographic information system (GIS). The GIS was used to display and analyze the particle-tracking results. Ground-water vulnerability was evaluated by selecting parts of the ground-water flow system and combining the results with ancillary information stored in the GIS to determine recharge areas, characteristics of recharge areas, downgradient impact of land use at recharge areas, and age of ground water. Maps of the recharge areas for each hydrogeologic unit illustrate the presence of local, intermediate, or regional ground-water flow systems and emphasize the three-dimensional nature of the ground-water flow system in Clark County. Maps of the recharge points for each hydrogeologic unit were overlaid with maps depicting aquifer sensitivity as determined by DRASTIC (a measure of the pollution potential of ground water, based on the intrinsic characteristics of the near-surface unsaturated and saturated zones) and recharge from on-site waste-disposal systems. A large number of recharge areas were identified, particularly in southern Clark County, that have a high aquifer sensitivity, coincide with areas of recharge from on-site waste-disposal systems, or both. Using the GIS, the characteristics of the recharge areas were related to the downgradient parts of the ground-water system that will eventually receive flow that has recharged through these areas. The aquifer sensitivity, as indicated by DRASTIC, of the recharge areas for downgradient parts of the flow system was mapped for each hydrogeologic unit. A number of

  13. Escapement and Productivity of Spring Chinook and Summer Steelhead in the John Day River Basin, Technical Report 2004-2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Wayne

    2007-04-01

    The objectives are: (1) Estimate number and distribution of spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha redds and spawners in the John Day River subbasin; and (2) Estimate smolt-to-adult survival rates (SAR) and out-migrant abundance for spring Chinook and summer steelhead O. mykiss and life history characteristics of summer steelhead. Spawning ground surveys for spring (stream-type) Chinook salmon were conducted in four main spawning areas (Mainstem, Middle Fork, North Fork, and Granite Creek System) and seven minor spawning areas (South Fork, Camas Creek, Desolation Creek, Trail Creek, Deardorff Creek, Clear Creek, and Big Creek) in the John Day River basin during August and September of 2005. Census surveys included 298.2 river kilometers (88.2 rkm within index, 192.4 rkm additional within census, and 17.6 rkm within random survey areas) of spawning habitat. We observed 902 redds and 701 carcasses including 227 redds in the Mainstem, 178 redds in the Middle Fork, 420 redds in the North Fork, 62 redds in the Granite Creek System, and 15 redds in Desolation Creek. Age composition of carcasses sampled for the entire basin was 1.6% age 3, 91.2% age 4, and 7.1% age 5. The sex ratio was 57.4% female and 42.6% male. Significantly more females than males were observed in the Granite Creek System. During 2005, 82.3% of female carcasses sampled had released all of their eggs. Significantly more pre-spawn mortalities were observed in Granite Creek. Nine (1.3%) of 701 carcasses were of hatchery origin. Of 298 carcasses examined, 4.0% were positive for the presence of lesions. A significantly higher incidence of gill lesions was found in the Granite Creek System when compared to the rest of the basin. Of 114 kidney samples tested, two (1.8%) had clinical BKD levels. Both infected fish were age-4 females in the Middle Fork. All samples tested for IHNV were negative. To estimate spring Chinook and summer steelhead smolt-to-adult survival (SAR) we PIT tagged 5,138 juvenile

  14. Characterize and Quantify Residual Steelhead in the Clearwater River, Idaho, 1999-2000 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brostrom, Jody K. (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Fishery Resource Office, Ahsahka, ID)

    2006-08-01

    During 1999-2002 we determined whether size at release and release site influenced emigration success and survival of hatchery steelhead smolts raised at Dworshak National Fish Hatchery and released into the Clearwater River drainage. We marked 4,500 smolts each year with Passive Integrated Transponder Tags (PIT-tags) which enabled us to track emigration and estimate survival through mainstem Snake and Columbia river dams. Hatchery steelhead raised in System I freshwater were significantly smaller than those raised in warmer System II re-use water (196 mm, 206 mm, 198 mm and 201 mm System I; 215 mm, 213 mm, 206 mm and 209 mm System II). However, there was no significant difference in detection rates to mainstem observation sites between the two groups (65%, 58%, 78% and 55% System I; 69%, 59%, 74% and 53% System II). Survival estimates to Lower Granite Dam were also not significant between the two groups (72%, 81%, 80% and 77% System I; 77%, 79%, 77%, and 72% System II). Smolts less than 180 mm FL were less likely to be detected than larger smolts. Hatchery steelhead smolts released into Clear Creek, the South Fork Clearwater River and the Clearwater River at Dworshak National Fish Hatchery had significantly different lengths each year, but there was no discernible pattern due to random egg takes and rearing systems. Detection rates to mainstem observation sites for smolts released into Clear Creek were significantly less than the other two groups in all years except 2002 (62%, 57%, 71%, and 57% Clear Creek; 68%, 63%, 73% and 61% South Fork Clearwater River; 70%, 59%, 78% and 55% Clearwater River). However, survival rates to Lower Granite Dam were not significantly different (73%, 65%, 78%, and 77% Clear Creek; 79%, 72%, 79% and 76% South Fork Clearwater River; 81%, 76%, 80% and 83% Clearwater River). Similar to the size at release group, smolts less than 180 mm FL were less likely to get detected than larger smolts. Smolts from both size at release and release

  15. Excess Cdt1 inhibits nascent strand elongation by repressing the progression of replication forks in Xenopus egg extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazaki, Yuta; Tsuyama, Takashi; Seki, Masayuki; Takahashi, Mikiko; Enomoto, Takemi; Tada, Shusuke

    2016-02-01

    Cdt1 is a protein essential for initiation of DNA replication; it recruits MCM helicase, a core component of the replicative DNA helicase, onto replication origins. In our previous study, we showed that addition of excess Cdt1 inhibits nascent strand elongation during DNA replication in Xenopus egg extracts. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism behind the inhibitory effect of Cdt1. We found that addition of recombinant Cdt1 inhibited nascent DNA synthesis in a reinitiation-independent manner. To identify the mechanism by which Cdt1 inhibits nascent strand elongation, the effect of Cdt1 on loading of Mcm4 and Rpa70 onto chromatin was examined. The results showed that Cdt1 suppressed the excessive Rpa70 binding caused by extensive, aphidicolin-induced DNA unwinding; this unwinding occurs between stalled DNA polymerases and advancing replication forks. These findings suggested that excess Cdt1 suppressed the progression of replication forks.

  16. Single-molecule FRET and linear dichroism studies of DNA breathing and helicase binding at replication fork junctions

    OpenAIRE

    Phelps, Carey; Lee, Wonbae; Jose, Davis; von Hippel, Peter H.; Marcus, Andrew H.

    2013-01-01

    Unique single-molecule fluorescence techniques were used to monitor DNA “breathing” at and near the junctions of model DNA replication forks on biologically relevant microsecond-to-millisecond time scales. Experiments performed in the absence and presence of helicase complexes addressed the role of these fluctuations in helicase function during DNA replication. These studies simultaneously monitored single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer and single-molecule fluorescence linear dich...

  17. Yeast Rad5 Protein Required for Postreplication Repair Has a DNA Helicase Activity Specific for Replication Fork Regression

    OpenAIRE

    Blastyák, András; Pintér, Lajos; Unk, Ildiko; Prakash, Louise; Prakash, Satya; Haracska, Lajos

    2007-01-01

    Summary Lesions in the template DNA strand block the progression of the replication fork. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, replication through DNA lesions is mediated by different Rad6-Rad18-dependent means, which include translesion synthesis and a Rad5-dependent postreplicational repair pathway that repairs the discontinuities that form in the DNA synthesized from damaged templates. Although translesion synthesis is well characterized, little is known about the mechanisms that modulat...

  18. Confirmatory Sampling and Analysis Plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    This document describes the organization, strategy, and procedures to be used to confirm that mercury concentrations in soils in the remediated areas are statistically less than, or equal to, the cleanup standard of 400 ppm. It focuses on confirming the cleanup of the stretch of the Lower East Fork Popular Creed flowing from Lake Reality at the Y-12 Plant, through the City of Oak Ridge, to Poplar Creek on the Oak Ridge Reservation and its associated flood plain.

  19. Stream flow and stream quality in the coal-mining region, Patoka River Basin, Southwestern Indiana, 1983-85. Water-resources investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renn, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    The report describes the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey to determine the stream flow and stream quality in the Patoka River and its tributaries, including the South Fork Patoka River and its tributaries. The South Fork Patoka River is the largest tributary to the Patoka River. Because the flow in the Patoka River is regulated by Patoka Lake, data collection was designed to represent four different flow conditions in the Patoka River: Dry-weather steady-state low flows with large releases of water from Patoka Lake; dry-weather steady-state high flows with small releases of water from Patoka Lake; wet-weather nonsteady-state high flows with small releases of water from Patoka Lake; and wet-weather nonsteady-state high flows with large releases of water from Patoka Lake. The tributaries were sampled four times at two different flow conditions--twice during dry-weather steady-state low flows and twice during wet-weather nonsteady-state high flows.

  20. A tuning fork based wide range mechanical characterization tool with nanorobotic manipulators inside a scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study proposes a tuning fork probe based nanomanipulation robotic system for mechanical characterization of ultraflexible nanostructures under scanning electron microscope. The force gradient is measured via the frequency modulation of a quartz tuning fork and two nanomanipulators are used for manipulation of the nanostructures. Two techniques are proposed for attaching the nanostructure to the tip of the tuning fork probe. The first technique involves gluing the nanostructure for full range characterization whereas the second technique uses van der Waals and electrostatic forces in order to avoid destroying the nanostructure. Helical nanobelts (HNB) are proposed for the demonstration of the setup. The nonlinear stiffness behavior of HNBs during their full range tensile studies is clearly revealed for the first time. Using the first technique, this was between 0.009 N/m for rest position and 0.297 N/m before breaking of the HNB with a resolution of 0.0031 N/m. For the second experiment, this was between 0.014 N/m for rest position and 0.378 N/m before detaching of the HNB with a resolution of 0.0006 N/m. This shows the wide range sensing of the system for potential applications in mechanical property characterization of ultraflexible nanostructures.

  1. Integrated tuning fork nanocavity optomechanical transducers with high $f_{M}Q_{M}$ product and stress-engineered frequency tuning

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, R; Davanco, M I; Ren, Y; Aksyuk, V; Liu, Y; Srinivasan, K

    2015-01-01

    Cavity optomechanical systems are being widely developed for precision force and displacement measurements. For nanomechanical transducers, there is usually a trade-off between the frequency ($f_{M}$) and quality factor ($Q_{M}$), which limits temporal resolution and sensitivity. Here, we present a monolithic cavity optomechanical transducer supporting both high $f_{M}$ and high $Q_{M}$. By replacing the common doubly-clamped, Si$_3$N$_4$ nanobeam with a tuning fork geometry, we demonstrate devices with the fundamental $f_{M}\\approx29$ MHz and $Q_{M}\\approx2.2$$\\times10^5$, corresponding to an $f_{M}Q_{M}$ product of 6.35$\\times10^{12}$ Hz, comparable to the highest values previously demonstrated for room temperature operation. This high $f_{M}Q_{M}$ product is partly achieved by engineering the stress of the tuning fork to be 3 times the residual film stress through clamp design, which results in an increase of $f_{M}$ up to 1.5 times. Simulations reveal that the tuning fork design simultaneously reduces the...

  2. Fork-join and data-driven execution models on multi-core architectures: Case study of the FMM

    KAUST Repository

    Amer, Abdelhalim

    2013-01-01

    Extracting maximum performance of multi-core architectures is a difficult task primarily due to bandwidth limitations of the memory subsystem and its complex hierarchy. In this work, we study the implications of fork-join and data-driven execution models on this type of architecture at the level of task parallelism. For this purpose, we use a highly optimized fork-join based implementation of the FMM and extend it to a data-driven implementation using a distributed task scheduling approach. This study exposes some limitations of the conventional fork-join implementation in terms of synchronization overheads. We find that these are not negligible and their elimination by the data-driven method, with a careful data locality strategy, was beneficial. Experimental evaluation of both methods on state-of-the-art multi-socket multi-core architectures showed up to 22% speed-ups of the data-driven approach compared to the original method. We demonstrate that a data-driven execution of FMM not only improves performance by avoiding global synchronization overheads but also reduces the memory-bandwidth pressure caused by memory-intensive computations. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.

  3. Vibration Sensitivity Reduction of Micromachined Tuning Fork Gyroscopes through Stiffness Match Method with Negative Electrostatic Spring Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yanwei; Gao, Shiqiao; Liu, Haipeng; Jin, Lei; Zhang, Yaping

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a stiffness match method is proposed to reduce the vibration sensitivity of micromachined tuning fork gyroscopes. Taking advantage of the coordinate transformation method, a theoretical model is established to analyze the anti-phase vibration output caused by the stiffness mismatch due to the fabrication imperfections. The analytical solutions demonstrate that the stiffness mismatch is proportional to the output induced by the external linear vibration from the sense direction in the anti-phase mode frequency. In order to verify the proposed stiffness match method, a tuning fork gyroscope (TFG) with the stiffness match electrodes is designed and implemented using the micromachining technology and the experimental study is carried out. The experimental tests illustrate that the vibration output can be reduced by 73.8% through the stiffness match method than the structure without the stiffness match. Therefore, the proposed stiffness match method is experimentally validated to be applicable to vibration sensitivity reduction in the Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) tuning fork gyroscopes without sacrificing the scale factor. PMID:27455272

  4. Vibration Sensitivity Reduction of Micromachined Tuning Fork Gyroscopes through Stiffness Match Method with Negative Electrostatic Spring Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yanwei; Gao, Shiqiao; Liu, Haipeng; Jin, Lei; Zhang, Yaping

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a stiffness match method is proposed to reduce the vibration sensitivity of micromachined tuning fork gyroscopes. Taking advantage of the coordinate transformation method, a theoretical model is established to analyze the anti-phase vibration output caused by the stiffness mismatch due to the fabrication imperfections. The analytical solutions demonstrate that the stiffness mismatch is proportional to the output induced by the external linear vibration from the sense direction in the anti-phase mode frequency. In order to verify the proposed stiffness match method, a tuning fork gyroscope (TFG) with the stiffness match electrodes is designed and implemented using the micromachining technology and the experimental study is carried out. The experimental tests illustrate that the vibration output can be reduced by 73.8% through the stiffness match method than the structure without the stiffness match. Therefore, the proposed stiffness match method is experimentally validated to be applicable to vibration sensitivity reduction in the Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) tuning fork gyroscopes without sacrificing the scale factor. PMID:27455272

  5. A tuning fork based wide range mechanical characterization tool with nanorobotic manipulators inside a scanning electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta, Juan Camilo; Hwang, Gilgueng; Regnier, Stephane [Institut des Systemes Intelligents et de Robotique Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, CNRS UMR 7222 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex (France); Polesel-Maris, Jerome [CEA, IRAMIS, Service de Physique et Chimie des Surfaces et Interfaces, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2011-03-15

    This study proposes a tuning fork probe based nanomanipulation robotic system for mechanical characterization of ultraflexible nanostructures under scanning electron microscope. The force gradient is measured via the frequency modulation of a quartz tuning fork and two nanomanipulators are used for manipulation of the nanostructures. Two techniques are proposed for attaching the nanostructure to the tip of the tuning fork probe. The first technique involves gluing the nanostructure for full range characterization whereas the second technique uses van der Waals and electrostatic forces in order to avoid destroying the nanostructure. Helical nanobelts (HNB) are proposed for the demonstration of the setup. The nonlinear stiffness behavior of HNBs during their full range tensile studies is clearly revealed for the first time. Using the first technique, this was between 0.009 N/m for rest position and 0.297 N/m before breaking of the HNB with a resolution of 0.0031 N/m. For the second experiment, this was between 0.014 N/m for rest position and 0.378 N/m before detaching of the HNB with a resolution of 0.0006 N/m. This shows the wide range sensing of the system for potential applications in mechanical property characterization of ultraflexible nanostructures.

  6. Water Quality of the Snake River and Five Eastern Tributaries in the Upper Snake River Basin, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, 1998-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Melanie L.; Sadler, Wilfrid J.; O'Ney, Susan E.

    2004-01-01

    To address water-resource management objectives of the National Park Service in Grand Teton National Park, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the National Park Service has conducted water-quality sampling in the upper Snake River Basin. Routine sampling of the Snake River was conducted during water years 1998-2002 to monitor the water quality of the Snake River through time. A synoptic study during 2002 was conducted to supplement the routine Snake River sampling and establish baseline water-quality conditions of five of its eastern tributaries?Pilgrim Creek, Pacific Creek, Buffalo Fork, Spread Creek, and Ditch Creek. Samples from the Snake River and the five tributaries were collected at 12 sites and analyzed for field measurements, major ions and dissolved solids, nutrients, selected trace metals, pesticides, and suspended sediment. In addition, the eastern tributaries were sampled for fecal-indicator bacteria by the National Park Service during the synoptic study. Major-ion chemistry of the Snake River varies between an upstream site above Jackson Lake near the northern boundary of Grand Teton National Park and a downstream site near the southern boundary of the Park, in part owing to the inputs from the eastern tributaries. Water type of the Snake River changes from sodium bicarbonate at the upstream site to calcium bicarbonate at the downstream site. The water type of the five eastern tributaries is calcium bicarbonate. Dissolved solids in samples collected from the Snake River were significantly higher at the upstream site (p-valueion chemistry of Pilgrim Creek, Pacific Creek, Buffalo Fork, Spread Creek, and Ditch Creek generally did not change substantially between the upstream sites near the National Park Service boundary with the National Forest and the downstream sites near the Snake River; however, variations in the major ions and dissolved solids existed between basins. Variations probably result from differences in geology between the

  7. A Network of Multi-Tasking Proteins at the DNA Replication Fork Preserves Genome Stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available To elucidate the network that maintains high fidelity genome replication, we have introduced two conditional mutant alleles of DNA2, an essential DNA replication gene, into each of the approximately 4,700 viable yeast deletion mutants and determined the fitness of the double mutants. Fifty-six DNA2-interacting genes were identified. Clustering analysis of genomic synthetic lethality profiles of each of 43 of the DNA2-interacting genes defines a network (consisting of 322 genes and 876 interactions whose topology provides clues as to how replication proteins coordinate regulation and repair to protect genome integrity. The results also shed new light on the functions of the query gene DNA2, which, despite many years of study, remain controversial, especially its proposed role in Okazaki fragment processing and the nature of its in vivo substrates. Because of the multifunctional nature of virtually all proteins at the replication fork, the meaning of any single genetic interaction is inherently ambiguous. The multiplexing nature of the current studies, however, combined with follow-up supporting experiments, reveals most if not all of the unique pathways requiring Dna2p. These include not only Okazaki fragment processing and DNA repair but also chromatin dynamics.

  8. Ethical dilemmas in choosing a healthful diet: vote with your fork!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestle, M

    2000-11-01

    Dietary guidelines for health promotion and disease prevention in the USA recommend a consumption pattern based largely on grains, fruit and vegetables, with smaller amounts of meat and dairy foods, and even smaller amounts of foods high in fat and sugar. Such diets are demonstrably health promoting, but following them raises ethical issues related to the role of nutritionists in advising the public about healthful dietary choices, as well as to the role of the food industry in food production and marketing. In the USA a shift towards a more plant-based diet would affect the economic interests of producers of food commodities, food products and meals prepared outside the home; it would also affect the environment, food prices, trade with other countries (developing as well as industrialized) and relationships among the food industry, government agencies (domestic and international) and food and nutrition professionals. In a free-market economy any dietary choice has consequences for food producers. Thus, considerations of ethical dilemmas in choosing healthful diets suggest that food choices are political acts that offer opportunities for all parties concerned to examine the consequences of such choices and 'vote with forks'. PMID:11115798

  9. Rock fall simulation at Timpanogos Cave National Monument, American Fork Canyon, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harp, Edwin L.; Dart, Richard L.; Reichenbach, Paola

    2011-01-01

    Rock fall from limestone cliffs at Timpanogos Cave National Monument in American Fork Canyon east of Provo, Utah, is a common occurrence. The cave is located in limestone cliffs high on the southern side of the canyon. One fatality in 1933 led to the construction of rock fall shelters at the cave entrance and exit in 1976. Numerous rock fall incidents, including a near miss in 2000 in the vicinity of the trail below the cave exit, have led to a decision to extend the shelter at the cave exit to protect visitors from these ongoing rock fall events initiating from cliffs immediately above the cave exit. Three-dimensional rock fall simulations from sources at the top of these cliffs have provided data from which to assess the spatial frequencies and velocities of rock falls from the cliffs and to constrain the design of protective measures to reduce the rock fall hazard. Results from the rock fall simulations are consistent with the spatial patterns of rock fall impacts that have been observed at the cave exit site.

  10. An inventory of wetlands in the East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain, Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-01

    An inventory of wetlands within the floodplain of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee was conducted during October, 1991 through May, 1992 for the US Department of Energy (DOE) by the US Army Corps of Engineers, Nashville District. About 15 miles of EFPC channel and 500 acres of its floodplain are contaminated with mercury and other contaminants released from the Y-12 Plant on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation. The wetland inventory will serve as baseline information for DOE`s remedial action planning and National Environmental Policy Act compliance efforts related to the contamination. In order to provide broad wetland determinations beyond which future wetland definitions are unlikely to expand, the 1989 Federal Manual for Identifying And Delineating Jurisdictional Wetlands was utilized. Using the manual`s methodology in a contaminated system under the approved health and safety plan presented some unique problems, resulting in intrusive sampling for field indicators of hydric soils being accomplished separately from observation of other criteria. Beginning with wetland areas identified on National Wetland Inventory Maps, the entire floodplain was examined for presence of wetland criteria, and 17 wetlands were identified ranging from 0.01 to 2.81 acres in size. The majority of wetlands identified were sized under 1 acre. Some of the wetlands identified were not delineated on the National Wetland Inventory Maps, and much of the wetland area delineated on the maps did not meet the criteria under the 1989 manual.

  11. Design of a compact tuning fork-shaped notched ultrawideband antenna for wireless communication application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakib, M N; Moghavvemi, M; Mahadi, W N L

    2014-01-01

    A new compact planar notched ultrawideband (UWB) antenna is designed for wireless communication application. The proposed antenna has a compact size of 0.182λ × 0.228λ × 0.018λ where λ is the wavelength of the lowest operating frequency. The antenna is comprised of rectangular radiating patch, ground plane, and an arc-shaped strip in between radiating patch and feed line. By introducing a new Tuning Fork-shaped notch in the radiating plane, a stopband is obtained. The antenna is tested and measured. The measured result indicated that fabricated antenna has achieved a wide bandwidth of 4.33-13.8 GHz (at -10 dB return loss) with a rejection frequency band of 5.28-6.97 GHz (WiMAX, WLAN, and C-band). The effects of the parameters of the antenna are discussed. The experiment results demonstrate that the proposed antenna can well meet the requirement for the UWB communication in spite of its compactness and small size. PMID:24723835

  12. Remedial design work plan for Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The Remedial Design Work Plan (RDWP) for Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) Operable Unit (OU) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This remedial action fits into the overall Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) cleanup strategy by addressing contaminated floodplain soil. The objective of this remedial action is to minimize the risk to human health and the environment from contaminated soil in the Lower EFPC floodplain pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) (1992). In accordance with the FFA, a remedial investigation (RI) (DOE 1994a) and a feasibility study (DOE 1994b) were conducted to assess contamination of the Lower EFPC and propose remediation alternatives. The remedial investigation determined that the principal contaminant is mercury, which originated from releases during Y-12 Plant operations, primarily between 1953 and 1963. The recommended alternative by the feasibility study was to excavate and dispose of floodplain soils contaminated with mercury above the remedial goal option. Following the remedial investigation/feasibility study, and also in accordance with the FFA, a proposed plan was prepared to more fully describe the proposed remedy.

  13. Kinetic energy dissipation of a tuning fork immersed in superfluid helium at different frequencies of oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental study is made of the drag coefficient, which is the characteristics of energy dissipation during oscillations of the tuning forks, immersed in liquid helium. The experiments were performed in the temperature range from 0.1 to 3.5 K covering both the range of a hydrodynamic flow, and the ballistic regime of transfer of thermal excitations of superfluid helium below 0.6 K. It is found that there is the frequency dependence of the drag coefficient in the hydrodynamic limit, when the main dissipation mechanism is the viscous friction of the fluid against the walls of the oscillating body at temperatures above 0.7 K. In this case, the drag coefficient is proportional to the square root of the frequency of oscillation, and its temperature dependence in He II is determined by the respective dependence of the normal component density of the normal component and the viscosity of the fluid. At lower temperatures, the dependence of drag coefficient on the frequency is not available, and the magnitude of the dissipative losses is determined only by the temperature dependence of the density of the normal component. At the same time in the entire range of temperatures value of dissipative losses depends on the geometry of the oscillating body.

  14. Research on the Sensing Performance of the Tuning Fork-Probe as a Micro Interaction Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengli Gao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The shear force position system has been widely used in scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM and recently extended into the force sensing area. The dynamic properties of a tuning fork (TF, the core component of this system, directly determine the sensing performance of the shear positioning system. Here, we combine experimental results and finite element method (FEM analysis to investigate the dynamic behavior of the TF probe assembled structure (TF-probe. Results from experiments under varying atmospheric pressures illustrate that the oscillation amplitude of the TF-probe is linearly related to the quality factor, suggesting that decreasing the pressure will dramatically increase the quality factor. The results from FEM analysis reveal the influences of various parameters on the resonant performance of the TF-probe. We compared numerical results of the frequency spectrum with the experimental data collected by our recently developed laser Doppler vibrometer system. Then, we investigated the parameters affecting spatial resolution of the SNOM and the dynamic response of the TF-probe under longitudinal and transverse interactions. It is found that the interactions in transverse direction is much more sensitive than that in the longitudinal direction. Finally, the TF-probe was used to measure the friction coefficient of a silica–silica interface.

  15. Research on the Sensing Performance of the Tuning Fork-Probe as a Micro Interaction Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fengli; Li, Xide

    2015-01-01

    The shear force position system has been widely used in scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) and recently extended into the force sensing area. The dynamic properties of a tuning fork (TF), the core component of this system, directly determine the sensing performance of the shear positioning system. Here, we combine experimental results and finite element method (FEM) analysis to investigate the dynamic behavior of the TF probe assembled structure (TF-probe). Results from experiments under varying atmospheric pressures illustrate that the oscillation amplitude of the TF-probe is linearly related to the quality factor, suggesting that decreasing the pressure will dramatically increase the quality factor. The results from FEM analysis reveal the influences of various parameters on the resonant performance of the TF-probe. We compared numerical results of the frequency spectrum with the experimental data collected by our recently developed laser Doppler vibrometer system. Then, we investigated the parameters affecting spatial resolution of the SNOM and the dynamic response of the TF-probe under longitudinal and transverse interactions. It is found that the interactions in transverse direction is much more sensitive than that in the longitudinal direction. Finally, the TF-probe was used to measure the friction coefficient of a silica-silica interface. PMID:26404310

  16. Design of a compact tuning fork-shaped notched ultrawideband antenna for wireless communication application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakib, M N; Moghavvemi, M; Mahadi, W N L

    2014-01-01

    A new compact planar notched ultrawideband (UWB) antenna is designed for wireless communication application. The proposed antenna has a compact size of 0.182λ × 0.228λ × 0.018λ where λ is the wavelength of the lowest operating frequency. The antenna is comprised of rectangular radiating patch, ground plane, and an arc-shaped strip in between radiating patch and feed line. By introducing a new Tuning Fork-shaped notch in the radiating plane, a stopband is obtained. The antenna is tested and measured. The measured result indicated that fabricated antenna has achieved a wide bandwidth of 4.33-13.8 GHz (at -10 dB return loss) with a rejection frequency band of 5.28-6.97 GHz (WiMAX, WLAN, and C-band). The effects of the parameters of the antenna are discussed. The experiment results demonstrate that the proposed antenna can well meet the requirement for the UWB communication in spite of its compactness and small size.

  17. A single active nanoelectromechanical tuning fork front-end radio-frequency receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) offer the potential to revolutionize fundamental methods employed for signal processing in today’s telecommunication systems, owing to their spectral purity and the prospect of integration with existing technology. In this work we present a novel, front-end receiver topology based on a single device silicon nanoelectromechanical mixer-filter. The operation is demonstrated by using the signal amplification in a field effect transistor (FET) merged into a tuning fork resonator. The combination of both a transistor and a mechanical element into a hybrid unit enables on-chip functionality and performance previously unachievable in silicon. Signal mixing, filtering and demodulation are experimentally demonstrated at very high frequencies ( > 100 MHz), maintaining a high quality factor of Q = 800 and stable operation at near ambient pressure (0.1 atm) and room temperature (T = 300 K). The results show that, ultimately miniaturized, silicon NEMS can be utilized to realize multi-band, single-chip receiver systems based on NEMS mixer-filter arrays with reduced system complexity and power consumption. (paper)

  18. Comparison between Measured and Calculated Sediment Transport Rates in North Fork Caspar Creek, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T. W.; Yarnell, S. M.; Yager, E.; Leidman, S. Z.

    2015-12-01

    Caspar Creek is a gravel-bedded stream located in the Jackson Demonstration State Forest in the coast range of California. The Caspar Creek Experimental Watershed has been actively monitored and studied by the Pacific Southwest Research Station and California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection for over five decades. Although total annual sediment yield has been monitored through time, sediment transport during individual storm events is less certain. At a study site on North Fork Caspar Creek, cross-section averaged sediment flux was collected throughout two storm events in December 2014 and February 2015 to determine if two commonly used sediment transport equations—Meyer-Peter-Müller and Wilcock—approximated observed bedload transport. Cross-section averaged bedload samples were collected approximately every hour during each storm event using a Helley-Smith bedload sampler. Five-minute composite samples were collected at five equally spaced locations along a cross-section and then sieved to half-phi sizes to determine the grain size distribution. The measured sediment flux values varied widely throughout the storm hydrographs and were consistently less than two orders of magnitude in value in comparison to the calculated values. Armored bed conditions, changing hydraulic conditions during each storm and variable sediment supply may have contributed to the observed differences.

  19. Narrative report: J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge, Lords Lake Easement Refuge, Rabb Lake Easement Refuge, School Section Lake Easement Refuge, Willow Lake Easement Refuge for calendar year 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for J. Clark Salyer NWR and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1968 calendar year. The report begins by...

  20. Description of the immature stages of the weevil Anthonomus vis Clark (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, inquiline into the gall of Leandra aurea (Melastomataceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela de Cassia Bená

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Description of the immature stages of the weevil Anthonomus vis Clark (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, inquiline into the gall of Leandra aurea (Melastomataceae. The third instar larva and the pupa of Anthonomus vis Clark, 1992 are described and illustrated, based upon specimens collected in the Serra de São José, Tiradentes, in Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. The species was previously known from the type series collected in the states of Amapá and Pará. Comparisons with the larva and pupa of A. grandis Boheman, 1843 and A. monostigma Champion, 1903 are included. The larvae of A. vis live as inquilines in the galls induced by a species of momphid moths (Lepidoptera, Momphidae in the stems of Leandra aurea (Cham. Cogn. (Melastomataceae.

  1. U.S. Geological Survey 2013 assessment of undiscovered resources in the Bakken and Three Forks Formations of the U.S. Williston Basin Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.

    2014-01-01

    The Upper Devonian Three Forks and Upper Devonian to Lower Mississippian Bakken Formations comprise a major United States continuous oil resource. Current exploitation of oil is from horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing of the Middle Member of the Bakken and upper Three Forks, with ongoing exploration of the lower Three Forks, and the Upper, Lower, and Pronghorn Members of the Bakken Formation. In 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) estimated a mean of 3.65 billion bbl of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil resource within the Bakken Formation. The USGS recently reassessed the Bakken Formation, which included an assessment of the underlying Three Forks Formation. The Pronghorn Member of the Bakken Formation, where present, was included as part of the Three Forks assessment due to probable fluid communication between reservoirs. For the Bakken Formation, five continuous and one conventional assessment units (AUs) were defined. These AUs are modified from the 2008 AU boundaries to incorporate expanded geologic and production information. The Three Forks Formation was defined with one continuous and one conventional AU. Within the continuous AUs, optimal regions of hydrocarbon recovery, or “sweet spots,” were delineated and estimated ultimate recoveries were calculated for each continuous AU. Resulting undiscovered, technically recoverable resource estimates were 3.65 billion bbl for the five Bakken continuous oil AUs and 3.73 billion bbl for the Three Forks Continuous Oil AU, generating a total mean resource estimate of 7.38 billion bbl. The two conventional AUs are hypothetical and represent a negligible component of the total estimated resource (8 million barrels of oil).

  2. Additional considerations to the model of musical empathic engagement: Empathy facets, preferences, and openness. Comment on "Music, empathy, and cultural understanding" by E. Clarke et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, David M.

    2015-12-01

    Recent research has shown that empathy plays an important role in musical experience including perception, preference, and performance [9,11,13,16,17]. Clarke, DeNora, and Vuoskoski's [4] timely review extends this work by establishing a framework for how "music empathic engagement" can facilitate cultural understanding. In this commentary I raise attention to some additional factors that may be at play in their model.

  3. Digital Geologic Map of the Nevada Test Site and Vicinity, Nye, Lincoln, and Clark Counties, Nevada, and Inyo County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slate, Janet L.; Berry, Margaret E.; Rowley, Peter D.; Fridrich, Christopher J.; Morgan, Karen S.; Workman, Jeremiah B.; Young, Owen D.; Dixon, Gary L.; Williams, Van S.; McKee, Edwin H.; Ponce, David A.; Hildenbrand, Thomas G.; Swadley, W.C.; Lundstrom, Scott C.; Ekren, E. Bartlett; Warren, Richard G.; Cole, James C.; Fleck, Robert J.; Lanphere, Marvin A.; Sawyer, David A.; Minor, Scott A.; Grunwald, Daniel J.; Laczniak, Randell J.; Menges, Christopher M.; Yount, James C.; Jayko, Angela S.

    1999-01-01

    This digital geologic map of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and vicinity, as well as its accompanying digital geophysical maps, are compiled at 1:100,000 scale. The map compilation presents new polygon (geologic map unit contacts), line (fault, fold axis, metamorphic isograd, dike, and caldera wall) and point (structural attitude) vector data for the NTS and vicinity, Nye, Lincoln, and Clark Counties, Nevada, and Inyo County, California. The map area covers two 30 x 60-minute quadrangles-the Pahute Mesa quadrangle to the north and the Beatty quadrangle to the south-plus a strip of 7.5-minute quadrangles on the east side-72 quadrangles in all. In addition to the NTS, the map area includes the rest of the southwest Nevada volcanic field, part of the Walker Lane, most of the Amargosa Desert, part of the Funeral and Grapevine Mountains, some of Death Valley, and the northern Spring Mountains. This geologic map improves on previous geologic mapping of the same area (Wahl and others, 1997) by providing new and updated Quaternary and bedrock geology, new geophysical interpretations of faults beneath the basins, and improved GIS coverages. Concurrent publications to this one include a new isostatic gravity map (Ponce and others, 1999) and a new aeromagnetic map (Ponce, 1999).

  4. Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana) are sensitive to distance, but not lighting when caching in the presence of a conspecific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornick, Jan K; Rushia, Sara N; Gibson, Brett M

    2016-02-01

    We examined the caching behavior of the Clark's nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana), a relatively asocial corvid bird, during social and non-social conditions with conspecifics. Past work by Dally et al., (2004, 2005a) has found that the related but more social scrub jay (Aphelocoma californica) caches food in locations that are far away or that are more dimly illuminated when in the presence of an observer. Here, we used procedures comparable to those of Dally's group to examine if the less social nutcracker is also sensitive to these same factors when caching in the presence of a conspecific. We found that nutcrackers cached nuts farther away, but showed no preference for caching in a dimly compared to a brightly illuminated area when in the presence of a conspecific observer. When comparing the measures of cache protection used in the past work with scrub jays the results are consistent with the social organization of these birds; that is, the less social nutcracker engaged in fewer cache protection behaviors than the more social scrub jays, However, we explore other possible explanations for our findings given the wider body of literature on corvid cache protection suggesting that nutcrackers and scrub jays may be more comparable. PMID:26581321

  5. Deployment of a Prototype Plant GFP Imager at the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse of the Haughton Mars Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Ferl

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of engineered plants as biosensors has made elegant strides in the past decades, providing keen insights into the health of plants in general and particularly in the nature and cellular location of stress responses. However, most of the analytical procedures involve laboratory examination of the biosensor plants. With the advent of the green fluorescence protein (GFP as a biosensor molecule, it became at least theoretically possible for analyses of gene expression to occur telemetrically, with the gene expression information of the plant delivered to the investigator over large distances simply as properly processed fluorescence images. Spaceflight and other extraterrestrial environments provide unique challenges to plant life, challenges that often require changes at the gene expression level to accommodate adaptation and survival. Having previously deployed transgenic plant biosensors to evaluate responses to orbital spaceflight, we wished to develop the plants and especially the imaging devices required to conduct such experiments robotically, without operator intervention, within extraterrestrial environments. This requires the development of an autonomous and remotely operated plant GFP imaging system and concomitant development of the communications infrastructure to manage dataflow from the imaging device. Here we report the results of deploying a prototype GFP imaging system within the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse (ACMG an autonomously operated greenhouse located within the Haughton Mars Project in the Canadian High Arctic. Results both demonstrate the applicability of the fundamental GFP biosensor technology and highlight the difficulties in collecting and managing telemetric data from challenging deployment environments.

  6. Remedial design work plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Remedial Design Work Plan (RDWP) for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) Operable Unit (OU) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, has been prepared. The remedial investigation determined that the principal contaminant is mercury, which originated from releases during Y-12 Plant operations, primarily between 1953 and 1963. The recommended alternative, as stated in the Record of Decision (ROD) was to excavate and dispose of floodplain soils contaminated with mercury above the remedial goal option. Thereafter, a public hearing was held to review the proposed plan. Comments were incorporated. The revised selected remedy, per the ROD is to excavate and dispose of floodplain soils contaminated above the remediation goal of 400 parts per million mercury. The approved ROD with this goal will be the basis for remedial design (RD). The RD work plan (RDWP) is composed of six chapters. An introductory chapter describes the purpose and scope of the RDWP, the selected remedy as identified by the ROD; the roles and responsibilities of the RD team members, and the site background information, including site history, contaminants of concern, and site characteristics. Chapter 2 contains the design objectives, RD approach, regulatory considerations during RD, and the design criteria with assumptions. Chapter 3 presents the RD planning process to prepare this RDWP, as well as secondary RD support plans. Chapter 4 describes the scope of the RD activities in more detail and identifies what will be included in the design package. Chapter 5 presents the schedule for performance of the RD activities, identifying key RD milestones. Specific documents used in the preparation of this document are referenced in Chapter 6.

  7. The poultry-associated microbiome: network analysis and farm-to-fork characterizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Brian B; Morales, Cesar A; Line, J; Berrang, Mark E; Meinersmann, Richard J; Tillman, Glenn E; Wise, Mark G; Siragusa, Gregory R; Hiett, Kelli L; Seal, Bruce S

    2013-01-01

    Microbial communities associated with agricultural animals are important for animal health, food safety, and public health. Here we combine high-throughput sequencing (HTS), quantitative-PCR assays, and network analysis to profile the poultry-associated microbiome and important pathogens at various stages of commercial poultry production from the farm to the consumer. Analysis of longitudinal data following two flocks from the farm through processing showed a core microbiome containing multiple sequence types most closely related to genera known to be pathogenic for animals and/or humans, including Campylobacter, Clostridium, and Shigella. After the final stage of commercial poultry processing, taxonomic richness was ca. 2-4 times lower than the richness of fecal samples from the same flocks and Campylobacter abundance was significantly reduced. Interestingly, however, carcasses sampled at 48 hr after processing harboured the greatest proportion of unique taxa (those not encountered in other samples), significantly more than expected by chance. Among these were anaerobes such as Prevotella, Veillonella, Leptrotrichia, and multiple Campylobacter sequence types. Retail products were dominated by Pseudomonas, but also contained 27 other genera, most of which were potentially metabolically active and encountered in on-farm samples. Network analysis was focused on the foodborne pathogen Campylobacter and revealed a majority of sequence types with no significant interactions with other taxa, perhaps explaining the limited efficacy of previous attempts at competitive exclusion of Campylobacter. These data represent the first use of HTS to characterize the poultry microbiome across a series of farm-to-fork samples and demonstrate the utility of HTS in monitoring the food supply chain and identifying sources of potential zoonoses and interactions among taxa in complex communities. PMID:23468931

  8. A ruthenium polypyridyl intercalator stalls DNA replication forks, radiosensitizes human cancer cells and is enhanced by Chk1 inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Martin R.; Harun, Siti Norain; Halder, Swagata; Boghozian, Ramon A.; Ramadan, Kristijan; Ahmad, Haslina; Vallis, Katherine A.

    2016-08-01

    Ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes can intercalate DNA with high affinity and prevent cell proliferation; however, the direct impact of ruthenium-based intercalation on cellular DNA replication remains unknown. Here we show the multi-intercalator [Ru(dppz)2(PIP)]2+ (dppz = dipyridophenazine, PIP = 2-(phenyl)imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline) immediately stalls replication fork progression in HeLa human cervical cancer cells. In response to this replication blockade, the DNA damage response (DDR) cell signalling network is activated, with checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) activation indicating prolonged replication-associated DNA damage, and cell proliferation is inhibited by G1-S cell-cycle arrest. Co-incubation with a Chk1 inhibitor achieves synergistic apoptosis in cancer cells, with a significant increase in phospho(Ser139) histone H2AX (γ-H2AX) levels and foci indicating increased conversion of stalled replication forks to double-strand breaks (DSBs). Normal human epithelial cells remain unaffected by this concurrent treatment. Furthermore, pre-treatment of HeLa cells with [Ru(dppz)2(PIP)]2+ before external beam ionising radiation results in a supra-additive decrease in cell survival accompanied by increased γ-H2AX expression, indicating the compound functions as a radiosensitizer. Together, these results indicate ruthenium-based intercalation can block replication fork progression and demonstrate how these DNA-binding agents may be combined with DDR inhibitors or ionising radiation to achieve more efficient cancer cell killing.

  9. A ruthenium polypyridyl intercalator stalls DNA replication forks, radiosensitizes human cancer cells and is enhanced by Chk1 inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Martin R; Harun, Siti Norain; Halder, Swagata; Boghozian, Ramon A; Ramadan, Kristijan; Ahmad, Haslina; Vallis, Katherine A

    2016-01-01

    Ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes can intercalate DNA with high affinity and prevent cell proliferation; however, the direct impact of ruthenium-based intercalation on cellular DNA replication remains unknown. Here we show the multi-intercalator [Ru(dppz)2(PIP)](2+) (dppz = dipyridophenazine, PIP = 2-(phenyl)imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline) immediately stalls replication fork progression in HeLa human cervical cancer cells. In response to this replication blockade, the DNA damage response (DDR) cell signalling network is activated, with checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) activation indicating prolonged replication-associated DNA damage, and cell proliferation is inhibited by G1-S cell-cycle arrest. Co-incubation with a Chk1 inhibitor achieves synergistic apoptosis in cancer cells, with a significant increase in phospho(Ser139) histone H2AX (γ-H2AX) levels and foci indicating increased conversion of stalled replication forks to double-strand breaks (DSBs). Normal human epithelial cells remain unaffected by this concurrent treatment. Furthermore, pre-treatment of HeLa cells with [Ru(dppz)2(PIP)](2+) before external beam ionising radiation results in a supra-additive decrease in cell survival accompanied by increased γ-H2AX expression, indicating the compound functions as a radiosensitizer. Together, these results indicate ruthenium-based intercalation can block replication fork progression and demonstrate how these DNA-binding agents may be combined with DDR inhibitors or ionising radiation to achieve more efficient cancer cell killing. PMID:27558808

  10. YELLOWSTONE RIVER WATCH (YRW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellowstone River Watch seeks to expand its monitoring and education efforts throughout the Yellowstone River Basin by actively recruiting and training new teacher members. Yellowstone River Watch also seeks to advance existing school programs by offering quality assurance/quali...

  11. Assessment of Salmonids and Their Habitat Conditions in the Walla Walla River Basin within Washington, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendel, Glen; Trump, Jeremy; Gembala, Mike

    2003-09-01

    trutta) had low densities, and limited distribution throughout the basin. A large return of adult spring chinook to the Touchet River drainage in 2001 produced higher densities of juvenile chinook in 2002 than have been seen in recent years, especially in the Wolf Fork. The adult return in 2002 was substantially less than what was seen in 2001. Due to poor water conditions and trouble getting personnel hired, spawning surveys were limited in 2002. Surveyors found only one redd in four Walla Walla River tributaries (Cottonwood Ck., East Little Walla Walla, West Little Walla Walla, and Mill Ck.), and 59 redds in Touchet River tributaries (10 in the North Fork Touchet, 30 in the South Fork Touchet, and 19 in the Wolf Fork). Bull trout spawning surveys in the upper Touchet River tributaries found a total of 125 redds and 150 live fish (92 redds and 75 fish in the Wolf Fork, 2 redds and 1 fish in the Burnt Fork, 0 redds and 1 fish in the South Fork Touchet, 29 redds and 71 fish in the North Fork Touchet, and 2 redds and 2 fish in Lewis Ck.). A preliminary steelhead genetics analysis was completed as part of this project. Results indicate differences between naturally produced steelhead and those produced in the hatchery. There were also apparent genetic differences among the naturally produced fish from different areas of the basin. Detailed results are reported in Bumgarner et al. 2003. Recommendations for assessment activities in 2003 included: (1) continue to monitor the Walla Walla River (focusing from the stateline to McDonald Rd.), the Mill Ck system, and the Little Walla Walla System. (2) reevaluate Whiskey Ck. for abundance and distribution of salmonids, and Lewis Ck. for bull trout density and distribution. (3) select or develop a habitat survey protocol and begin to conduct habitat inventory and assessment surveys. (4) summarize bull trout data for Mill Ck, South Fork Touchet, and Lewis Ck. (5) begin to evaluate temperature and flow data to assess if the habitat

  12. Scanning thermal microscopy based on a quartz tuning fork and a micro-thermocouple in active mode (2ω method).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontempi, Alexia; Nguyen, Tran Phong; Salut, Roland; Thiery, Laurent; Teyssieux, Damien; Vairac, Pascal

    2016-06-01

    A novel probe for scanning thermal microscope using a micro-thermocouple probe placed on a Quartz Tuning Fork (QTF) is presented. Instead of using an external deflection with a cantilever beam for contact detection, an original combination of piezoelectric resonator and thermal probe is employed. Due to a non-contact photothermal excitation principle, the high quality factor of the QTF allows the probe-to-surface contact detection. Topographic and thermal scanning images obtained on a specific sample points out the interest of our system as an alternative to cantilevered resistive probe systems which are the most spread. PMID:27370454

  13. The Escherichia coli Tus-Ter replication fork barrier causes site-specific DNA replication perturbation in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Nicolai B; Sass, Ehud; Suski, Catherine;

    2014-01-01

    Replication fork (RF) pausing occurs at both 'programmed' sites and non-physiological barriers (for example, DNA adducts). Programmed RF pausing is required for site-specific DNA replication termination in Escherichia coli, and this process requires the binding of the polar terminator protein, Tus...... utilized as a versatile, site-specific, heterologous DNA replication-perturbing system, with a variety of potential applications......., to specific DNA sequences called Ter. Here, we demonstrate that Tus-Ter modules also induce polar RF pausing when engineered into the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome. This heterologous RF barrier is distinct from a number of previously characterized, protein-mediated, RF pause sites in yeast, as it...

  14. Baseline and Postremediation Monitoring Program Plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek operable unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This report was prepared in accordance with CERCLA requirements to present the plan for baseline and postremediation monitoring as part of the selected remedy. It provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the requirements to monitor for soil and terrestrial biota in the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) floodplain; sediment, surface water, and aquatic biota in LEFPC; wetland restoration in the LEFPC floodplain; and human use of shallow groundwater wells in the LEFPC floodplain for drinking water. This document describes the monitoring program that will ensure that actions taken under Phases I and II of the LEFPC remedial action are protective of human health and the environment.

  15. Evaluation of a force sensor based on a quartz tuning fork for operation at low temperatures and ultrahigh vacuum

    OpenAIRE

    Hembacher, Stefan; Giessibl, Franz J; Mannhart, Jochen

    2002-01-01

    The noise performance of the force sensor is crucial for optimizing the resolution in non-contact atomic force microscopy. Sensing forces in vacuum and low temperatures is even more demanding than at ambient conditions. Here we analyze the noise performance and the sensitivity of a force sensor based on a quartz tuning fork of which one of the prongs is fixed (qPlus sensor). The noise characteristic of the qPlus sensor, optical and piezoresistive detection schemes at room temperature are comp...

  16. Baseline and Postremediation Monitoring Program Plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek operable unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report was prepared in accordance with CERCLA requirements to present the plan for baseline and postremediation monitoring as part of the selected remedy. It provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the requirements to monitor for soil and terrestrial biota in the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) floodplain; sediment, surface water, and aquatic biota in LEFPC; wetland restoration in the LEFPC floodplain; and human use of shallow groundwater wells in the LEFPC floodplain for drinking water. This document describes the monitoring program that will ensure that actions taken under Phases I and II of the LEFPC remedial action are protective of human health and the environment

  17. First Overtone Frequency Stimulated Quartz Tuning Fork Used for Shear-Force Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晟; 孙家林; 孙红三; 谭晓靖; 时硕; 郭继华; 赵钧

    2003-01-01

    The conventional 32.768 kHz tuning fork is stimulated at its first overtone resonant frequency of ~190 kHz for shear-force distance control.The time constant is measured to be 0.54 ms and it decreases about 40 times faster than that of the fundamental frequency(20.76ms).The cross section of a corn root with a height difference of ~ 3μm is imaged at a scan speed of 12μm/s for 256 × 256 pixels.

  18. Environmental compliance plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Remedial Action Project at Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    Remedial action for Lower East Fork Poplar Creek, as defined by the Record of Decision, requires that soil contaminated with >400 ppM mercury be excavated and disposed. Based on the remediation goal, soil will be excavated from areas located at the NOAA site and the Bruner site and disposed at the Industrial Landfill V at the Y-12 Plant. Objective is to minimize the risk to human health and the environment from contaminated soil in the lower EFPC floodplain pursuant to CERCLA and the Federal Facility Agreement (DOE 1992).

  19. Seasonal Distribution and Movements of Atlantic and Shortnose Sturgeon in the Penobscot River Estuary, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zydlewski, Joseph; Fernandes, Stephen J.; Zydlewski, Gayle B.; Wippelhauser, Gail S.; Kinnison, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the distribution and seasonal movement patterns of shortnose sturgeon Acipenser brevirostrum and Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus occupying rivers in the northern part of their range. During 2006 and 2007, 40 shortnose sturgeon (66–113.4 cm fork length [FL]) and 8 Atlantic sturgeon (76.2–166.2 cm FL) were captured in the Penobscot River, Maine, implanted with acoustic transmitters, and monitored using an array of acoustic receivers in the Penobscot River estuary and Penobscot Bay. Shortnose sturgeon were present year round in the estuary and overwintered from fall (mid-October) to spring (mid-April) in the upper estuary. In early spring, all individuals moved downstream to the middle estuary. Over the course of the summer, many individuals moved upstream to approximately 2 km of the downstream-most dam (46 river kilometers [rkm] from the Penobscot River mouth [rkm 0]) by August. Most aggregated into an overwintering site (rkm 36.5) in mid- to late fall. As many as 50% of the tagged shortnose sturgeon moved into and out of the Penobscot River system during 2007, and 83% were subsequently detected by an acoustic array in the Kennebec River, located 150 km from the Penobscot River estuary. Atlantic sturgeon moved into the estuary from the ocean in the summer and concentrated into a 1.5-km reach. All Atlantic sturgeon moved to the ocean by fall, and two of these were detected in the Kennebec River. Although these behaviors are common for Atlantic sturgeon, regular coastal migrations of shortnose sturgeon have not been documented previously in this region. These results have important implications for future dam removals as well as for rangewide and river-specific shortnose sturgeon management.

  20. Streamflow statistics for development of water rights claims for the Jarbidge Wild and Scenic River, Owyhee Canyonlands Wilderness, Idaho, 2013-14: a supplement to Scientific Investigations Report 2013-5212

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Molly S.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), estimated streamflow statistics for stream segments designated “Wild,” “Scenic,” or “Recreational” under the National Wild and Scenic Rivers System in the Owyhee Canyonlands Wilderness in southwestern Idaho. The streamflow statistics were used by the BLM to develop and file a draft, federal reserved water right claim to protect federally designated “outstanding remarkable values” in the Jarbidge River. The BLM determined that the daily mean streamflow equaled or exceeded 20, 50, and 80 percent of the time during bimonthly periods (two periods per month) and the bankfull (66.7-percent annual exceedance probability) streamflow are important thresholds for maintaining outstanding remarkable values. Although streamflow statistics for the Jarbidge River below Jarbidge, Nevada (USGS 13162225) were published previously in 2013 and used for the draft water right claim, the BLM and USGS have since recognized the need to refine streamflow statistics given the approximate 40 river mile distance and intervening tributaries between the original point of estimation (USGS 13162225) and at the mouth of the Jarbidge River, which is the downstream end of the Wild and Scenic River segment. A drainage-area-ratio method was used in 2013 to estimate bimonthly exceedance probability streamflow statistics at the mouth of the Jarbidge River based on available streamgage data on the Jarbidge and East Fork Jarbidge Rivers. The resulting bimonthly streamflow statistics were further adjusted using a scaling factor calculated from a water balance on streamflow statistics calculated for the Bruneau and East Fork Bruneau Rivers and Sheep Creek. The final, adjusted bimonthly exceedance probability and bankfull streamflow statistics compared well with available verification datasets (including discrete streamflow measurements made at the mouth of the Jarbidge River) and are considered the