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Sample records for clark fork river

  1. Brown trout avoidance of metals in water characteristic of the Clark Fork River, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Daniel F.; Hansen, James A.; Bergman, Harold L.; Delonay, Aaron J.; Little, Edward E.

    1995-01-01

    The avoidance response of brown trout (Salmo trutta) to mixtures of cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc was determined in water simulating the Clark Fork River, Montana. Effects of acidification on the avoidance response were also evaluated. Tests were conducted in a cylindrical chamber that received reference water at one end and metal-contaminated water at the other; a distinct boundary formed at the center where the chamber drained. A 1 × mixture of the four metals (Cd, 1.1 μg/L; Cu, 12 μg/L; Pb, 3.2 μg/L; and Zn, 55 μg/L) that was representative of the ambient metals concentrations of the Clark Fork River resulted in avoidance by brown trout. Brown trout also avoided 0.5×, 2×, 4×, and 10× mixtures but not a 0.1 × mixture. A reduction in pH from 8.0 to either 7.0, 6.0, or 5.0 resulted in significant avoidance. Avoidance reactions to metals, similar to those observed in our laboratory experiments, may contribute to the depression of brown trout populations in the Clark Fork River.

  2. Initial Geomorphic Responses to Removal of Milltown Dam, Clark Fork River, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, A. C.; Brinkerhoff, D.; Woelfle-Erskine, C.

    2008-12-01

    The removal of Milltown Dam on the Clark Fork River, Montana, USA, is creating a field-scale experiment on upstream and downstream responses to dam removal and on how gravel-bed rivers respond to sediment pulses. Milltown Dam was removed in 2008, reconnecting the Clark Fork River to its upstream basin in terms of sediment transport and fish passage. This dam removal is especially notable because (1) it is the largest dam removal to date in the United States in terms of the volume of reservoir sediment potentially available for downstream transport (over 3 million m3; 1.7 million m3 are being mechanically removed); and (2) the dam is the downstream end of the largest Superfund site in the United States, the Clark Fork Complex, and reservoir sediments are composed largely of contaminated mine tailings. Data collection on pre- and post-dam removal channel morphology, bed sediment characteristics, and sediment loads are being used to investigate spatial and temporal patterns of sediment transport and deposition associated with this dam removal. In the first several months following breaching of the dam, snowmelt runoff with a 3-year recurrence interval peak caused substantial erosion and downstream transport of metals-laden sediments from Milltown reservoir. Reservoir sediments in the Clark Fork arm of Milltown reservoir eroded at levels far exceeding modeling predictions as a result of both incision to the new base level created by dam removal and bank retreat of over 200 m in reaches upstream of a constructed bypass reach and remediation area. Copper and other metals in these eroded reservoir sediments provide a tracer for identifying whether sediment deposits observed downstream of the dam originated from Milltown reservoir or uncontaminated tributaries and indicate that Milltown sediments have reached over 200 km downstream. Downstream deposition has been greatest along channel margins and in side-channel areas, whereas the transport capacity of the active channel

  3. Metals-contaminated benthic invertebrates in the Clark Fork River, Montana: Effects on age-0 brown trout and rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Daniel F.; Farag, Aïda M.; Bergman, Harold L.; Delonay, Aaron J.; Little, Edward E.; Smiths, Charlie E.; Barrows, Frederic T.

    1995-01-01

    Benthic organisms in the upper Clark Fork River have recently been implicated as a dietary source of metals that may be a chronic problem for young-of-the-year rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). In this present study, early life stage brown trout (Salmo trutta) and rainbow trout were exposed for 88 d to simulated Clark Fork River water and a diet of benthic invertebrates collected from the river. These exposures resulted in reduced growth and elevated levels of metals in the whole body of both species. Concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, and Pb increased in whole brown trout; in rainbow trout, As and Cd increased in whole fish, and As also increased in liver. Brown trout on the metals-contaminated diets exhibited constipation, gut impaction, increased cell membrane damage (lipid peroxidation), decreased digestive enzyme production (zymogen), and a sloughing of intestinal mucosal epithelial cells. Rainbow trout fed the contaminated diets exhibited constipation and reduced feeding activity. We believe that the reduced standing crop of trout in the Clark Fork River results partly from chronic effects of metals contamination in benthic invertebrates that are important as food for young-of-the-year fish.

  4. Montana's Clark Fork River Basin Task Force: A Vehicle for Integrated Water Resources Management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, David D.; Mueller, Gerald

    2010-11-01

    This article examines what is generally considered to be an unattainable goal in the western United States: integrated water resources management (IWRM). Specifically, we examine an organization that is quite unique in the West, Montana’s Clark Fork River Basin Task Force (Task Force), and we analyze its activities since its formation in 2001 to answer the question: are the activities and contributions of the Task Force working to promote a more strongly integrated approach to water resources management in Montana? After reviewing the concepts underlying IWRM, some of the issues that have been identified for achieving IWRM in the West, and the Montana system of water right allocation and issues it faces, we adapt Mitchell’s IWRM framework and apply it to the analysis of the Task Force’s activities in the context of IWRM. In evaluating the physical, interaction, and protocol/planning/policy components of IWRM, we find that the Task Force has been contributing to the evolution of Montana’s water resources management towards this framework, though several factors will likely continue to prevent its complete realization. The Task Force has been successful in this regard because of its unique nature and charge, and because of the authority and power given it by successive Montana legislatures. Also critical to the success of the organization is its ability to help translate into policy the outcomes of legal and quasi-judicial decisions that have impacted the state’s water resources management agency.

  5. Free-ranging Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep and an outbreak of inflammatory bowel disease along the Clark Fork River in Plains, Montana

    OpenAIRE

    Pierce, Ellen S.

    2012-01-01

    Nine individuals with ulcerative colitis or Crohn disease grew up or lived in Plains, Montana, a 1,200-person community adjacent to the Clark Fork River near herds of free ranging Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep. This inflammatory bowel disease outbreak is similar to others that have occurred along rivers contaminated by animal feces.

  6. Experiments in dam removal, sediment pulses and channel evolution on the Clark Fork River, MT and White Salmon River, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, A. C.

    2012-12-01

    Two recent dam removals on tributaries to the Columbia River in the northwestern United States present contrasting examples of how dam removal methods, reservoir contents, and geomorphic settings influence system responses. The 2008 removal of Milltown Dam, from the Clark Fork River (CFR), Montana, and the 2011 removal of Condit Dam from the White Salmon River (WSR), Washington (Table 1), represent two of the largest dam removals to date. The Milltown Dam removal was notable because the dam stored millions of cubic meters of contaminated mine tailings, a portion of which were excavated as part of Superfund remediation but a portion of which flowed downstream after the removal. On the CFR, post-breach high flows in 2008 produced reservoir erosion and downstream deposition in bed interstices, along bars, and on the floodplain, but above-average (3-15 year recurrence interval) floods since then have remobilized this material and have, to a large extent, erased signs of downstream sedimentation. The Condit Dam removal entailed dynamiting of a 4m by 5.5m hole at the base of the dam, which produced rapid and dramatic draining of fine reservoir sediments within hours of the blast. Downstream of Condit Dam, the initial hyperconcentrated flows and sediment pulse draped the WSR with fine sediment, filled pools, and, in an unconfined reach influenced by the Columbia River's backwater, caused meters of aggradation and new bar formation. In the confined, bedrock-dominated reach downstream of the Condit site, pool-riffle structure has started to reemerge as of summer 2012 and the finest bed materials have been evacuated from the main channel, although sediment storage in pools and eddies persists. Whereas post-breach geomorphic responses on the CFR have been largely driven by hydrology, the post-breach evolution of the WSR has been predominantly influenced by antecedent geomorphic conditions (slope, confinement, and Columbia River backwater). On both the CFR and WSR, the pace of

  7. Nature's complex flume - Using a diagnostic state-and-transition framework to understand post-restoration channel adjustment of the Clark Fork River, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyke, Chris

    2016-02-01

    There is an imperfect symmetry between the patterns of channel evolution observed during laboratory flume experiments and those which materialize in rivers exposed to ambient environmental conditions that produce hydrogeomorphic fluxes which are more complex, contingent, and unpredictable. One strategy to improve our understanding of short- to medium-term channel evolution is to study landscapes that have undergone significant disturbance and have had their biogeomorphic templates reset to a known condition - in effect, creating a flume in nature. This study adopts a diagnostic state-and-transition framework to narrate and document baseline hypotheses for the potential evolutionary trajectories Clark Fork River, near Milltown, Montana. Following dam removal and remediation, a 5-km stretch of the Clark Fork River and its adjoining floodplain were reconstructed. Since flow was introduced to the newly constructed channel in December 2010, complex evolutionary trajectories have been observed on the Clark Fork's mainstem, its secondary channels, and floodplain. Focusing particularly on the river's secondary channels, this paper develops a typology of channel states that have been observed and demonstrates that multiple adjustment trajectories have materialized, sometimes within the same channel. A diagnostic state-and-transition framework offers a parsimonious strategy to quantitatively or qualitatively anticipate the influence of water, sediment, and ecological fluxes on channel evolution at the basin, reach, or segment scale. It provides environmental agencies with a robust method to devise spatially explicit scenario-based management plans for rivers in a variety of geomorphic settings.

  8. Effects of the Cabinet Gorge Kokanee Hatchery on Wintering Bald Eagles in the Lower Clark Fork River and Lake Pend, Oreille, Idaho: 1986 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crenshaw, John G.

    1987-12-01

    The abundance and distribution of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) on the lower Clark Fork River, Lake Pend Oreille, and the upper Pend Oreille River, Idaho, were documented during the winters of 1985--86 and 1986--87. Peak counts of bald eagles in weekly aerial censuses were higher in 1985--86 (274) and 1986--87 (429) than previously recorded in mid-winter surveys. Differences in eagle distribution within and between years were apparently responses to changes in prey availability. Eight bald eagles were captured and equipped with radio transmitters in the winter and spring of 1986. Residencies within the study area averaged 13.9 days in 1985--86 and 58.3 days for the four eagles that returned in 1986-87. The eagles exhibited considerable daily movement throughout the study area. After departing the area, one eagle was later sighted approximately 1185 km to the southwest in northern California. Eagle behavioral activity was recorded at time budget sessions at areas of heavy use. Perching in live trees was the most common behavior observed. 34 refs., 39 figs., 17 tabs.

  9. TERRAIN, City of Clark Fork Levee PMR, BONNER COUNTY, IDAHO

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The dataset encompasses portions of Northern Oregon, Eastern Washington, Northern Idaho, and Northwestern Montana within the Columbia River drainage. The bare earth...

  10. Clarks River National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Clarks River NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and...

  11. BALD ROCK AND MIDDLE FORK FEATHER RIVER ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Martin L.; Buehler, Alan R.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a mineral-resource assessment of the Bald Rock and Middle Fork Feather River Roadless Areas in California indicate several areas within the Middle Fork Feather River Roadless Area that have probable mineral-resource potential. A probable potential for placer gold exists at various localities, both in areas covered by Tertiary volcanic rocks and in small streams that drain into the Middle Fork of the Feather River. A probable potential for small deposits of chromite exists in tracts underlain by ultramafic rocks in the Melones fault zone. A probable potential for lead-silver deposits is recognized at the east end of the Middle Fork Feather River Roadless Area.

  12. Investigation of Hyporheic Microbial Biofilms as Indicators of Heavy Metal Toxicity in the Clark Fork Basin, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, E. P.; Hwang, C.; Bouskill, N.; Hornberger, M.; Fields, M. W.

    2015-12-01

    Water-saturated sediments that underlie a stream channel contain microbial biofilms that are often responsible for the majority of the metabolic activity in river and stream ecosystems. Metal contamination from mining effluent can modify the biofilm community structure, diversity, and activity. Developing a mechanistic understanding of the biofilm response to metal contamination could provide a useful bioindicator of metal toxicity due to the ease of standard biofilm sampling, environmental ubiquity of biofilms and the rapid response of biofilms to environmental perturbation and metal toxicity. Here we present data on the structure of the biofilm community (e.g., microbial population composition and diversity) and trace metal concentrations in water, bed sediment and biota (benthic insects) across 15 sites in the Clark Fork Basin. Sample sites were selected across a historically-monitored metal pollution gradient at shallow riffles with bed sediment predominantly composed of pebbles, cobbles, and sand. Bed-sediment samples (for biofilm analysis) were obtained from the top 20 centimeters of the hyporheic zone and sieved using sterile sieves to obtain homogeneous sediment samples with particle sizes ranging from 1.70 to 2.36 millimeters. Linear discriminant analysis and effect size statistical methods were used to integrate the metals concentration data (for water and benthic-insects samples) with the microbial community analysis to identify microbial biomarkers of metal toxicity. The development of rapid microbial biomarker tools could provide reproducible and quantitative insights into the effectiveness of remediation activities on metal toxicity and advances in the field of environmental biomonitoring.

  13. North Fork Feather River Erosion Control Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PG and E, an investor owned gas and electric utility serving northern and central California, has been engaged since 1984 in the development and implementation of a regional erosion control program for the 954 square mile northern Sierra Nevada watersheed of the East Branch of the North Fork Feather River in Plumas County, California. PG and E entered into an agreement with 13 governmental agencies and a number of private landowners using Coordinated Resource Management and Planning: to cooperatively develop, fund and implement the program. The group has completed several field projects and has a number of additional projects in various stages of development. This paper reports that the program provides multiple environmental and economic benefits including reduction of soil erosion and sedimentation, improved fisheries, enhancement of riparian habitat, increased land values, improved recreation opportunities, and preservation of watershed resources

  14. South Fork Clearwater River Habitat Enhancement, Nez Perce National Forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddall, Phoebe

    1992-04-01

    In 1984, the Nez Perce National forest and the Bonneville Power Administration entered into a contractual agreement which provided for improvement of spring chinook salmon and summer steelhead trout habitat in south Fork Clearwater River tributaries. Project work was completed in seven main locations: Crooked River, Red River, Meadow Creek Haysfork Gloryhole, Cal-Idaho Gloryhole, Fisher Placer and Leggett Placer. This report describes restoration activities at each of these sites.

  15. 78 FR 13660 - Middle Fork American River Project; Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Middle Fork American River Project; Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Middle Fork American River Hydrolectric Project In accordance with the... Projects has reviewed the application for license for the Middle Fork American River Hydroelectric...

  16. Elm Fork of the Trinity River Floodplain Management Study

    OpenAIRE

    Tickle, Greg; Clary, Melinda

    2001-01-01

    Wendy Lopez and Associates, Inc. (WLA) was asked to provide a conservation and ecological restoration overview for the City of Dallas as part of an Elm Fork Floodplain Management Study. This study encompasses a unique portion of the main stem of the Elm Fork of the Trinity River, Dallas County, Dallas, Texas. The project area includes approximately 8.5 square miles, half of which lie within a 100-year floodplain. Approximately 15% of the project area is mature bottomland hardwood forest and s...

  17. Sprague River Oregon Centerline South Fork 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the...

  18. Sprague River Oregon Centerline South Fork 1940

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the...

  19. Sprague River Oregon Centerline South Fork 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the...

  20. Sprague River Oregon Centerline North Fork 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the...

  1. Sprague River Oregon Centerline North Fork 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the...

  2. South Fork Clearwater River Habitat Enhancement, Crooked and Red Rivers : Annual Report, 1989.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, William H.

    1990-01-01

    In 1983, the Nez Perce National Forest and the Bonneville Power Administration entered into an interagency agreement to enhance and improve habitat for two anadromous fish species, spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawyscha) and summer steelhead trout (Onchorhyncus mykiss), in the South Fork Clearwater River tributaries. The South Fork Clearwater River was dammed in 1927 for hydroelectric development. Anadromous fish runs were virtually eliminated until the dam was removed in 1962. To complicate the problem, upstream spawning and rearing habitats were severely impacted by dredge and hydraulic mining, road building, timber harvest, and over-grazing. Fish habitat improvement projects under the above contract are being carried out in two major tributaries to the South Fork Clearwater River. Both the Red River and the Crooked River projects began in 1983 and will be completed in 1990. 12 figures., 1 tab.

  3. 77 FR 39675 - Wallowa-Whitman National Forest, Baker County, OR; North Fork Burnt River Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... River Mining AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Correction--Notice of intent to prepare a supplement... changed to the Whitman District Ranger. This 2012 North Fork Burnt River Mining Record of Decision will replace and supercede the 2004 North Fork Burnt River Mining Record of Decision only where necessary...

  4. Time of travel of solutes in the East Fork Trinity River, November 1975; and Elm Fork Trinity River, December 1975; Trinity River Basin, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Dennis R.; Slade, Raymond M., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the North Central Texas Council of Governments, the Trinity River Authority of Texas, and the Texas Water Development Board, conducted two time-of-travel studies in the Trinity River basin in November and December, 1975.  Field data were collected on the East Fork Trinity River during November 18-22, 1975, and on the Elm Fork Trinity River during December 8-13, 1975.  The purpose of these two studies was to provide data that could be used by the Trinity River Authority and the Texas Water Quality Board in the development of a mathematical water-quality model of the two streams.  The model is to be used in a comprehensive water-quality management plan for the Trinity River basin.

  5. 77 FR 47058 - Middle Fork American River Hydroelectric Project Placer County Water Agency; Notice of Draft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Middle Fork American River Hydroelectric Project Placer County Water Agency... comments on the draft environmental impact statement for the Middle Fork American River Project No....

  6. 77 FR 45597 - Middle Fork American River Project; Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Middle Fork American River Project; Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Middle Fork American River Hydrolectric Project and Intention To Hold... CFR part 380 ), the Office of Energy Projects has reviewed the application for license for the...

  7. New observations on the Middle Fork Eel River coal-bearing beds, Mendocino County, California, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartley, Russell H. [Mendocino County Museum, 400 East Commercial Street, Willits, CA 95490 (United States); Bartley, Sylvia E. [Noyo Hill House, 28953 Highway 20, Fort Bragg, CA 95437 (United States); Springer, David J. [College of the Redwoods-Mendocino Coast, 1211 Del Mar Drive, Fort Bragg, CA 95437 (United States); Erwin, Diane M. [Museum of Paleontology, 1101 Valley Life Sciences Building, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Mid-19th century reports of ''immense'' coal outcrops in the Middle Fork Eel River (MFER) drainage near Round Valley in California's northern Coast Ranges fueled the early geological interest in this area, with mine development the primary focus of many studies. It was not until Samuel G. Clark's 1940 ''Geology of the Covelo District, Mendocino County, California,'' that the coal was placed in its regional geologic context and assigned to the Miocene, a determination that relied primarily on a Desmostylus hesperus molar found in shale overlying the coal and an associated equivocal, though Miocene-compatible, marine molluscan fauna. Our investigation of the MFER coal-bearing beds has provided new data from foraminifera, marine mollusks, fish remains, and the first reported fossil plants, which as a whole support Clark's Miocene age assignment. We also present an updated stratigraphy proposing under modern-day stratigraphic protocols that the informal name Sand Bank beds (SBb) be used in place of the Temblor Formation to refer to the SBb coal-bearing fluvial-marine unit. Analysis of the SBb stratigraphy and sedimentology reveals the presence of a fluvial system that flowed from a distal upland region southward toward the paleocoast of California. An abundant diverse palynoflora containing lycophytes, ferns, conifers, and mesic, thermophillic herbaceous and woody angiosperms indicates the drainage flowed through a coastal swampy forested bottomland and estuarine environment before emptying into a coastal basin. Presence of Taxodium-like wood, foliage, pollen, and other ''hydrophiles'' suggests the MFER coal was a local mire buried by the progradation of the SBb fluvial system during a regressive phase, an interpretation to be tested with future field work and detailed compositional analysis of the coal. (author)

  8. Geographic distribution of mercury in asiatic clams, Corbicuia plumihea, from the North Fork Holston River, Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A study was conducted quantifying mercury concentrations in the Asiatic clam, Corbicula fluminea, from the North Fork Holston River, Virginia. The purpose of this...

  9. 33 CFR 334.855 - Salt River, Rolling Fork River, Otter Creek; U.S. Army Garrison, Fort Knox Military Reservation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salt River, Rolling Fork River..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.855 Salt River, Rolling Fork River... approximately 1.2 miles southeast of West Point, Kentucky; southward to its confluence with the Rolling...

  10. An Environmental Quality Assessment of Clarks River National Wildlife Refuge: A component of the Tennessee National Wildlife Refuge Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study, Project ID No. 4N62, was initiated in September 2000. Habitat and fish community assessments were completed at seven sites in the Clarks River watershed...

  11. Time-of-travel studies, Susquehanna River, Binghamton, New York, to Clarks Ferry, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, C.D.; Armbruster, J.T.; Voytik, Andrew

    1976-01-01

    Results of time-of-travel studies are presented in both tabular and graphical form for several flow conditions in the Susquehanna River from Binghamton, N.Y., to Clarks Ferry, Pa. This reach is approximately 240 miles (386 kilometres) long, measured along the center of the channel, and has a drainage area of about 19,700 square miles (51,000 square kilometres) at its downstream end.

  12. Geomorphic Characterization of the Middle Fork Saline River: Garland, Perry, and Saline Counties, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Aaron L.; Garday, Thomas J.; Redman, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    This report was prepared to help address concerns raised by local residents, State, and Federal agencies about the current geomorphic conditions of the Middle Fork Saline River. Over the past 30 years the Middle Fork Saline River Basin has experienced a marked increase in urbanization. The report summarizes the Middle Fork?s current (2003) channel characteristics at nine stream reaches in the upper 91 square miles of the basin. Assessments at each study reach included comparing measured stream geometry dimensions (cross-sectional area, top width, and mean depth) at bankfull stage to regional hydraulic geometry curves for the Ouachita Mountains Physiographic Province of Arkansas and Oklahoma, evaluations of streambed materials and sinuosity, and classification of individual stream reach types. When compared to the Ouachita Mountains? regional hydraulic geometry curves for natural, stable, stream reaches, five of the nine study reaches had slightly smaller crosssectional areas, longer top widths, and shallower depths. Streambed material analysis indicates that the Middle Fork is a bedrock influenced, gravel dominated stream with lesser amounts of sand and cobbles. Slight increases in sinuosity from 1992 to 2002 at seven of the nine study reaches indicate a slight decrease in stream channel slope. Analyses of the Middle Fork?s hydraulic geometry and sinuosity indicate that the Middle Fork is currently overly wide and shallow, but is slowly adjusting towards a deeper, narrower hydraulic geometry. Using the Rosgen system of channel classification, the two upstream study reaches classified as B4c/1 stream types; which were moderately entrenched, riffle dominated channels, with infrequently spaced pools. The downstream seven study reaches classified as C4/1 stream types; which were slightly entrenched, meandering, gravel-dominated, riffle/ pool channels with well developed flood plains. Analyses of stream reach types suggest that the downstream reaches of the Middle Fork

  13. A water-quality assessment of the Muddy Fork Silver Creek watershed, Clark, Floyd, and Washington Counties, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Mark A.

    1978-01-01

    Data collected for a wide range of flow conditions from September 8, 1975, to July 13, 1976, reveal that human and animal waste loading of streams and pesticides use in the Muddy Fork Silver Creek watershed, Indiana, are probably the most significant water-quality problems. Generally, the type(s) of water in tributary streams in the south and southwest parts of the watershed was calcium bicarbonate and in other tributaries were calcium sulfate and magnesium sulfate. Dissolved-solids concentrations of discharge from top-spill reservoirs were lower and more consistent over a range of flows than concentrations from uncontrolled streams. Concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria and fecal streptococcal bacteria ranged from 5 to 65 ,000 colonies per 100 milliliters and from 5 to 14,000 colonies per 100 milliliters, respectively. Data on periphyton, phytoplankton, and benthic communities collected during low flow in September 1975 indicate organic loading of Muddy Fork downstream from the town of Speed. Phytoplankton community structures varied temporally and spatially. Ranges of concentration (In micrograms per kilogram) of various chlorinated hydrocarbons in samples of bed materials were: chlordane, from 0 to 14; DDT, from 0 to 19; and PCB's, from 0 to 11. Concentrations of aldrin, DDD, DDE, heptachlor, and heptachlor epoxide of 5.1 micrograms per kilogram or less were also detected. The presence of these compounds makes them potentially available for accumulation in the biological food chain. (Woodard-USGS)

  14. Aerial photo mosaic of the South Fork Coquille, Middle Fork Coquille, North Fork Coquille, and Coquille Rivers, Oregon in 1967

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Coquille River system is an unregulated system that encompasses 2,745 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon and flows into the Pacific Ocean near the town of...

  15. South Fork Snake River/Palisades Wildlife Mitigation Project: Environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    BPA proposes to fund the implementation of the South Fork Snake River Programmatic Management Plan to compensate for losses of wildlife and wildlife habitat due to hydroelectric development at Palisades Dam. The Idaho Department of Fish and Game drafted the plan, which was completed in May 1993. This plan recommends land and conservation easement acquisition and wildlife habitat enhancement measures. These measures would be implemented on selected lands along the South Fork of the Snake River between Palisades Dam and the confluence with the Henry`s Fork, and on portions of the Henry`s Fork located in Bonneville, Madison, and Jefferson Counties, Idaho. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment evaluating the proposed project. The EA also incorporates by reference the analyses in the South Fork Snake River Activity/Operations Plan and EA prepared jointly in 1991 by the Bureau of Land Management and the Forest Service. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI.

  16. Geomorphic Effects of Engineered Log Jams in River Restoration, Middle Fork John Day River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffin, J.; McDowell, P. F.

    2014-12-01

    The Middle Fork of the John Day River (MFJD) Intensively Monitored Watershed in eastern Oregon is a multi-phase restoration implementation and monitoring project. MFJD is a tributary to the Colombia and is part of one of the longest free flowing rivers systems in the continental United States. It is a gravel and cobble bed river with a drainage area of 2,100 km2. The river has endured extensive channel and floodplain degradation from years of channel alteration and straightening due to human influences including dredge mining, ranching, and farming. As part of the river restoration project on the MFJD, engineered log jams have been constructed to address many of the restoration goals including creating scour pools, inhibiting bank erosion, creating and maintaining a sinuous river planform, and increasing complexity of fish habitat. There is a need for more detailed understanding on ELJ channel morphologic effects and how site-specific characteristics and differences in log jam infrastructure interact to create the in-channel features over timescales longer than a few years. This study uses detailed channel bed topographic surveys collected either with a total station or RTK-GPS technology. Geomorphic change detection techniques are utilized to monitor topographic change under and around the 26 log structures in two different river reaches over a six to seven year period The log structures are often associated with deepening of pools as desired, but also some structures show sedimentation under the structure. Differences in the patterns will be assessed based on the design, location, and specific characteristics of the log structures; variables include number and placement of logs, volume of structure, location on meander bend, and sediment sizes.

  17. Mapping the Riverscape of the Middle Fork John Day River with Structure-from-Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, J. T.

    2014-12-01

    Aerial photography has proven an efficient method to collect a wide range of continuous variables for large sections of rivers. These data include variables such as the planimetric shape, low-flow and bank-full widths, bathymetry, and sediment sizes. Mapping these variables in a continuous manner allows us to explore the heterogeneity of the river and build a more complete picture of the holistic riverscape. To explore a low-cost option for aerial photography and riverscape mapping, I used the combination of a piloted helicopter and an off-the-shelf digital SLR camera to collect aerial imagery for a 32 km segment of the Middle Fork John Day River in eastern Oregon. This imagery was processed with Structure-from-Motion (SfM) photogrammetry to produce high-resolution 10 cm orthophotos and digital surface models that were used to extract riverscape variables. The Middle Fork John Day River is an important spawning river for anadromous Chinnook and Steelhead and has been the focus of widespread restoration and conservation activities in response to the legacies of extensive grazing and mining activity. By mapping the riverscape of the Middle Fork John Day, I explored downstream relationships between several geomorphic variables with hyperscale analysis. These riverscape data also provided an opportunity to make a continuous map of habitat suitability for migrating adult Chinook. Both the geomorphic and habitat suitability analysis provide an important assessment of the natural variation in the river and the impact of human modification, both positive and negative.

  18. Flood-inundation maps for the East Fork White River at Columbus, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, Pamela J.

    2013-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 5.4-mile reach of the East Fork White River at Columbus, Indiana, from where the Flatrock and Driftwood Rivers combine to make up East Fork White River to just upstream of the confluence of Clifty Creek with the East Fork White River, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Department of Transportation. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation, depict estimates of the areal extent of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at USGS streamgage 03364000, East Fork White River at Columbus, Indiana. Current conditions at the USGS streamgage may be obtained on the Internet from the USGS National Water Information System (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/in/nwis/uv/?site_no=03364000&agency_cd=USGS&). The National Weather Service (NWS) forecasts flood hydrographs for the East Fork White River at Columbus, Indiana at their Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood warning system Website (http://water.weather.gov/ahps/), that may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. In this study, flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The hydraulic model was calibrated by using the most current stage-discharge relation at USGS streamgage 03364000, East Fork White River at Columbus, Indiana. The calibrated hydraulic model was then used to determine 15 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot (ft) intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from bankfull to approximately the highest recorded water level at the streamgage. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system digital elevation model (derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data), having a 0.37-ft vertical accuracy and a 1.02 ft

  19. Anglers' Attitudes Toward the Fisheries Management Policies of the Logan and Blacksmith Fork Rivers, Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Riley, Larry Edwin

    1987-01-01

    In the summer of 1986, anglers along three sections of the Logan and Blacksmith Fork Rivers, Utah were surveyed as to their attitudes toward fish stocking, habitat improvement, and wild trout management policies. Information concerning socio-demographic characteristics and ang ling values were ascertained as well. Data were cross tabulated to determine which of the variab les influence anglers' attitudes toward spec ifi c fisheries manage ment policies and the type of angling opportunity prov...

  20. Flood-inundation maps for the East Fork White River near Bedford, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Kathleen K.

    2014-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for an 1.8-mile reach of the East Fork White River near Bedford, Indiana (Ind.) were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Department of Transportation. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/ depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selectedwater levels (stages) at USGS streamgage 03371500, East Fork White River near Bedford, Ind. Current conditions for estimating near-real-time areas of inundation using USGS streamgage information may be obtained on the Internet at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/in/nwis/uv?site_no=03371500. In addition, information has been provided to the National Weather Service (NWS) for incorporation into their Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood warning system (http://water.weather.gov/ahps/). The NWS forecasts flood hydrographs at many places that are often colocated with USGS streamgages, including the East Fork White River near Bedford, Ind. NWS-forecasted peak-stage information may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. For this study, flood profiles were computed for the East Fork White River reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The hydraulic model was calibrated by using the most current stage-discharge relations at USGS streamgage 03371500, East Fork White River near Bedford, Ind., and documented high-water marks from the flood of June 2008. The calibrated hydraulic model was then used to determine 20 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from bankfull to the highest stage of the current stage-discharge rating curve. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system (GIS) digital elevation model (DEM, derived from

  1. Flood-inundation maps for the East Fork White River at Shoals, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldt, Justin A.

    2016-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 5.9-mile reach of the East Fork White River at Shoals, Indiana (Ind.), were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Office of Community and Rural Affairs. The flood-inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/ depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage on the East Fork White River at Shoals, Ind. (USGS station number 03373500). Near-real-time stages at this streamgage may be obtained on the Internet from the USGS National Water Information System at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ or the National Weather Service (NWS) Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) at http://water.weather.gov/ahps/, which also forecasts flood hydrographs at this site (NWS AHPS site SHLI3). NWS AHPS forecast peak stage information may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation.Flood profiles were computed for the East Fork White River reach by means of a one-dimensional, step-backwater model developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The hydraulic model was calibrated by using the current stage-discharge relation (USGS rating no. 43.0) at USGS streamgage 03373500, East Fork White River at Shoals, Ind. The calibrated hydraulic model was then used to compute 26 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot (ft) intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from approximately bankfull (10 ft) to the highest stage of the current stage-discharge rating curve (35 ft). The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system (GIS) digital elevation model (DEM), derived from light detection and ranging (lidar) data, to delineate the area flooded at each water level. The areal extent of the 24-ft flood-inundation map was

  2. Bull Trout Population and Habitat Surveys in the Middle Fork Willamette and McKenzie Rivers, Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seals, Jason; Reis, Kelly

    2003-10-01

    Bull trout in the Willamette River Basin were historically distributed throughout major tributaries including the Middle Fork Willamette and McKenzie rivers. Habitat degradation, over-harvest, passage barriers, fish removal by rotenone, and hybridization and competition with non-native brook trout are all likely factors that have led to the decline of bull trout in the Willamette Basin (Ratliff and Howell 1992). The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service listed the Columbia River bull trout population segment as Threatened under the federal Endangered Species Act in 1998. Four bull trout populations were isolated in the upper Willamette River following the construction of flood control dams on the South Fork McKenzie River, McKenzie River, and Middle Fork Willamette River that created Cougar, Trail Bridge, and Hills Creek reservoirs. Buchanan et al. (1997) described the population in the main stem McKenzie as 'of special concern', the South Fork McKenzie population as 'high risk of extinction', the population above Trail Bridge Reservoir as 'high risk of extinction', and bull trout in the Middle Fork Willamette as 'probably extinct'. Various management efforts such as strict angling regulations and passage improvement projects have been implemented to stabilize and rehabilitate bull trout habitat and populations in the McKenzie River over the past 10 years. Since 1997, bull trout fry from Anderson Creek on the upper McKenzie River have been transferred to the Middle Fork Willamette basin above Hills Creek Reservoir in an attempt to re-establish a reproducing bull trout population. This project was developed in response to concerns over the population status and management of bull trout in the McKenzie and Middle Fork Willamette Rivers by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife during the early 1990s. The project was conducted under measure 9.3G(2) of the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program to monitor the status, life history

  3. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshOR_breach: Flood-Inundation Maps for the Coast Fork Willamette River from Creswell, Oregon to Goshen, Oregon (Area of Uncertainty)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This feature class represents inundated area for the Coast Fork of the Willamette River, the Row River and Silk Creek (west of Cottage Grove, OR) for eight...

  4. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshOR: Flood-Inundation Maps for the Coast Fork Willamette River from Creswell, Oregon to Goshen, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This feature class represents inundated area for the Coast Fork of the Willamette River, the Row River and Silk Creek (west of Cottage Grove, OR) for eight...

  5. 33 CFR 165.552 - Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zone; Oyster Creek Generation Station, Forked River, Ocean County, New Jersey. 165.552 Section 165.552 Navigation and Navigable... County, New Jersey. (a) Location. The following area is a security zone: Starting at the south branch...

  6. South Fork Salmon River Watershed Restoration, 2008-2009 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reaney, Mark D. [Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management

    2009-04-15

    The watershed restoration work elements within the project area, the South Fork Salmon River Watershed, follow the watershed restoration approach adopted by the Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management (DFRM) - Watershed Division. The vision of the Nez Perce Tribe DFRM-Watershed Division focuses on protecting, restoring, and enhancing watersheds and treaty resources within the ceded territory of the Nez Perce Tribe under the Treaty of 1855 with the United States Federal Government. The program uses a holistic approach, which encompasses entire watersheds, ridge top to ridge top, emphasizing all cultural aspects and strategies that rely on natural fish production and healthy river ecosystems. The Nez Perce Tribe DFRM-Watershed Division strives towards maximizing historic ecosystem productivity and health for the restoration of anadromous and resident fish populations and the habitat on which all depend on for future generations Originally, this project was funded to create a step/pool stream channel that was appropriate to restore fish passage where the 'Glory Hole Cascade' is currently located at the Stibnite Mine. Due to unforeseen circumstances at the time, the project is unable to move forward as planned and a request for a change in scope of the project and an expansion of the geographic area in which to complete project work was submitted. No additional funds were being requested. The ultimate goal of this project is to work with the holistic, ridge top to ridge top approach to protect and restore the ecological and biological functions of the South Fork Salmon River Watershed to assist in the recovery of threatened and endangered anadromous and resident fish species. FY 2008 Work Elements included two aquatic organism passage (AOP) projects to restore habitat connectivity to two fish-bearing tributaries to the East Fork South Fork Salmon River, Salt and Profile Creeks. The Work Elements also included road survey and assessment

  7. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_4: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 27,900 cfs at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  8. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_1: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 12,000 cfs at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  9. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_2: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 15,000 cfs at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  10. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_5: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 33,900 cfs at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  11. Qualitative Assessment: Evaluating the Impacts of Climate Change on Endangered Species Act Recovery Actions for the South Fork Nooksack River, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The South Fork Nooksack River (South Fork) is located in northwest Washington State and is home to nine species of Pacific salmon, including Nooksack early Chinook (aka, spring Chinook salmon), an iconic species for the Nooksack Indian Tribe. The quantity of salmon in the South F...

  12. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_3: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 21,450 cfs at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  13. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_7: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 46,800 cfs at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  14. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_8: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 62,300 cfs at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  15. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_6: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 39,900 at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  16. Evaluating the effectiveness of floodplain restoration on the North Fork John Day River, Northeast Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, C. F.; Blanton, P.; Long, W.; Walterman, M. T.; McDowell, P. F.; Maus, P.

    2007-12-01

    Over the last decade hundreds of river restoration projects intended to maintain, protect, and restore watersheds, rivers, and habitat for native species in the Pacific Northwest have been implemented. By some counts, investment in watershed restoration exceeds hundreds of millions of dollars annually yet the effectiveness of these efforts remains an elusive question (Roni, 2005). Remote sensing and GIS technologies show great promise for large-scale river monitoring, however most natural resource organizations who implement these projects have limited budget and staff and would benefit from simple, low cost monitoring techniques that use readily available imagery. We used 1:24000 digitized orthorectified resource imagery from 1995, and National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) digital orthophotography from 2005 to assess the effectiveness of floodplain restoration on a 16 km reach of the North Fork John Day River. Between 1993 and 1997 this section was restored by mechanically removing, reshaping, and revegetating cobble-boulder tailings piles left from dredge mining. The project was intended to directly improve floodplain function (i.e. inundation, riparian habitat) and indirectly improve instream habitat (pools, spawning) by reconnecting the active river channel with a reconstructed floodplain surface. Project effectiveness was not well documented initially in terms of quantifying floodplain functional area improvement or channel condition and response at the river-reach scale. Our objectives were to field-verify remote sensing measurements of response variables to test the applicability of available remote sensing imagery for project effectiveness monitoring, and to quantify adjustment in river response variables, using a "before-after" case study approach. Bracketing restoration activities with 1995 and 2000 imagery, we developed and tested methods for acquisition and processing of digital imagery and identified a core set of response variables to sample

  17. Debris Flow Control on Fluvial Hanging Valley Formation in the South Fork Eel River, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, N.; Perkins, J.; Finnegan, N. J.

    2012-12-01

    An understanding of how base level signals are transmitted into landscapes is fundamental to interpreting river long profiles in tectonically active settings. Fluvial hanging valleys, locations where waves of incision have apparently arrested at tributary junctions, suggest that base level propagation is an unsteady process in many settings. A recent hypothesis (Wobus et al., 2006) explains the formation of fluvial hanging valleys via an instability in the saltation abrasion model of Sklar and Dietrich (2004). At locations where small steep tributaries join trunk streams, tributary incision rates can actually decrease with increasing channel slope when subjected to downstream base-level fall. However, we note that in mountainous river networks steep tributaries also commonly convey debris flows into trunk channels. Since these tributary junctions mark the upstream limit of channels whose beds are mobilized on a regular basis during flood events, here we hypothesize that transitions from fluvial to debris flow channels control the location of fluvial hanging valleys. To test our hypothesis, we exploit a natural experiment in base level fall and landscape evolution along the South Fork Eel River, which is argued to be responding to an increase in rock uplift rate associated with the passage of the Mendocino Triple Junction. In order to separate debris flow channels from fluvial channels, we use airborne laser swath mapping (ALSM) to quantify channel slopes and concavities. In our analysis, concavity data are noisy and represent a poor metric for determination of debris flow channels. In lieu of this, we choose a more straightforward metric of channel slope to discriminate where debris flows occur on the landscape. We find that, on average, fluvial hanging valleys are only present in tributaries with average gradients above 0.10, consistent with empirical determinations of the gradient at which debris flow channels transition to fluvial channels (0.03-0.10). Field

  18. Oxbow Conservation Area; Middle Fork John Day River, Annual Report 2003-2004.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, Brian

    2004-02-01

    In early 2001, the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs, through their John Day Basin Office, concluded the acquisition of the Oxbow Ranch, now know as the Oxbow Conservation Area (OCA). Under a memorandum of agreement with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the Tribes are required to provided BPA an 'annual written report generally describing the real property interests in the Project, HEP analyses undertaken or in progress, and management activities undertaken or in progress'. The project during 2003 was crippled due to the aftermath of the BPA budget crisis. Some objectives were not completed during the first half of this contract because of limited funds in the 2003 fiscal year. The success of this property purchase can be seen on a daily basis. Water rights were utilized only in the early, high water season and only from diversion points with functional fish screens. After July 1, all of the OCA water rights were put instream. Riparian fences on the river, Ruby and Granite Boulder creeks continued to promote important vegetation to provide shade and bank stabilization. Hundreds of willow, dogwood, Douglas-fir, and cottonwood were planted along the Middle Fork John Day River. Livestock grazing on the property was carefully managed to ensure the protection of fish and wildlife habitat, while promoting meadow vigor and producing revenue for property taxes. Monitoring of property populations, resources, and management activities continued in 2003 to build a database for future management of this and other properties in the region.

  19. Recovery status and chemosensory cues affecting reproduction of freshwater mussles in the North Fork Holston River downstream of Saltville, Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Henley, William F.

    1996-01-01

    The freshwater mussel fauna of the North Fork Holston River (NFHR) downstream of Saltville, VA declined from at least 24 species, as observed in 1918, to one species in 1974 due to mercury pollution. To determine the degree of recovery of mussels in the NFHR downstream of Saltville, and to provide recommendations for future mussel translocation sites, 19 sites were surveyed using a snorkeling catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) method. At sites where investigator CPUE values (no./h...

  20. Physical Habitat Characteristics on the North Fork Shenandoah River, VA in 2002-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset was collected with a PLGR government-issue GPS, and through manual measurement in the field. Points were gathered while canoeing along the North Fork...

  1. South Fork Tolt River Hydroelectric Project : Adopted Portions of a 1987 Federal Energy Regulatory Commission`s Final Environmental Impact Statement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-07-01

    The South Fork Tolt River Hydroelectric Project that world produce 6.55 average megawatts of firm energy per year and would be sited in the Snohomish River Basin, Washington, was evaluated by the Federal Energy Regulatory commission (FERC) along with six other proposed projects for environmental effects and economic feasibility Based on its economic analysis and environmental evaluation of the project, the FERC staff found that the South Fork Tolt River Project would be economically feasible and would result in insignificant Impacts if sedimentation issues could be resolved. Upon review, the BPA is adopting portions of the 1987 FERC FEIS that concern the South Fork Tolt River Hydroelectric Project and updating specific sections in an Attachment.

  2. Comparing effects of active and passive restoration on the Middle Fork John Day River, NE Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, P. F.; Goslin, M.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2000, cattle grazing has been eliminated on over 14 km of the upper Middle Fork John Day. Starting in 2008, active restoration (log structures with dug pools, woody vegetation planting, and modifications to increase channel-floodplain hydrologic connectivity) was implemented on nearly 6 km within the cattle exclosure length. Implementation of active and passive restoration strategies in the same and adjacent reaches allows comparison of these two approaches. We have been monitoring these reaches since 2008. Unexpectedly in response to grazing exclosure, a native sedge, Carex nudata (torrent sedge), has exploded in population. C. nudata grows in the active channel, anchoring itself tightly to the gravel-cobble river bed with a dense root network. As a result, C. nudata has changed erosion and sedimentation patterns including bank erosion, channel bed scour, and island formation. We present data on fish cover increases due to C. nudata and log structures, and on channel complexity before and after restoration. Both active and passive restorations are increasing channel complexity and juvenile fish cover, although in different ways. Fish cover provided by active and passive restoration are similar in area but different in depth and position, with C. nudata fish cover generally shallower and partly mid-channel. Residual pool depth is larger in log structure pools than in C. nudata scour pools, but C. nudata pools are more numerous in some reaches. By producing frequent, small scour features and small islands, it can be argued that C. nudata is increasing hydraulic complexity more than the large, meander-bend pools at log structures, but this is hard to quantify. C. nudata has also stabilized active bars, perhaps changing the bedload sediment budget. Positive habitat benefits of active restoration appear to be greater in the short term, but over the long term (20 years or more) effects of C. nudata may be comparable or greater.

  3. Flood-inundation maps for an 8.9-mile reach of the South Fork Little River at Hopkinsville, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lant, Jeremiah G.

    2013-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for an 8.9-mile reach of South Fork Little River at Hopkinsville, Kentucky, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Hopkinsville Community Development Services. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/ depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage at South Fork Little River at Highway 68 By-Pass at Hopkinsville, Kentucky (station no. 03437495). Current conditions for the USGS streamgage may be obtained online at the USGS National Water Information System site (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis/inventory?agency_code=USGS&site_no=03437495). In addition, the information has been provided to the National Weather Service (NWS) for incorporation into their Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service flood warning system (http://water.weather.gov/ahps/). The NWS forecasts flood hydrographs at many places that are often co-located at USGS streamgages. The forecasted peak-stage information, also available on the Internet, may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. In this study, flood profiles were computed for the South Fork Little River reach by using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional step-backwater model developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The hydraulic model was calibrated by using the most current (2012) stage-discharge relation at the South Fork Little River at Highway 68 By-Pass at Hopkinsville, Kentucky, streamgage and measurements collected during recent flood events. The calibrated model was then used to calculate 13 water-surface profiles for a sequence of flood stages, most at 1-foot intervals, referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from a stage near bank full to the estimated elevation of the 1.0-percent annual exceedance

  4. Data that describe at-a-point temporal variations in the transport rate and particle-size distribution of bedload; East Fork River, Wyoming, and Fall River, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Basil; Emmett, W.W.

    1990-01-01

    Data from the East Fork River, Wyoming, and the Fall River, Colorado, that document at-a-point temporal variations in the transport rate and particle-size distribution of bedload, associated with the downstream migration of dunes, are presented. Bedload sampling was undertaken, using a 76.2 x 76.2 mm Helley-Smith sampler, on three separate occasions at each site in June 1988. In each instance, the sampling time was 30 seconds and the sampling intervals 5 minutes. The sampling period ranged from 4.92 to 8.25 hours. Water stage did not vary appreciably during any of the sampling periods. (USGS)

  5. 77 FR 8890 - Clarks River National Wildlife Refuge, KY; Draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... River NWR. We started the process through a notice in the Federal Register on August 29, 2008 (73 FR... ecotourism trade and residents searching for natural landscapes and associated benefits. Alternative...

  6. Comparison of Stream Restoration and Vegetation Restoration on Stream Temperature in the Middle Fork John Day River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabat, M.; Wondzell, S. M.; Haggerty, R.

    2013-12-01

    Stream temperature is an important component of aquatic ecosystems. During the past century, various anthropogenic activities (such as timber harvest, mining, and agriculture) reduced riparian vegetation and channel complexity along many streams around the world. As a result, stream temperature increased and suitable habitat for cool- and cold-water organisms declined. Stream temperatures are expected to increase even more under future climate. The effects of warmer climate and anthropogenic activities are proposed to be mitigated by restoration projects aimed to reduce stream temperatures. Common restoration practices are replanting natural vegetation along stream banks and restoring channel complexity. The Middle Fork John Day River, in northeastern Oregon, USA is an example of such a process. We modeled stream temperature along a 37-km section of the Middle Fork John Day River for current and projected conditions of climate, restored riparian vegetation along 6.6-km, and restored channel meanders along 1.5 km. Preliminary simulations suggest that if current riparian vegetation remains unchanged, an average summertime air warming of 4°C increased the 7-day average daily maximum (7DADM) by about 1.3°C. However, restored riparian vegetation reduced the 7DADM by about 0.7°C relative to the current temperature. Restored channel meanders reduced the 7DADM by less than 0.05°C relative to the current temperature. These preliminary simulations assume no hyporheic exchange and riparian vegetation that is 10 m tall and has 30% canopy density.

  7. Aerial photo mosaic of the Gravelford Reach, North Fork Coquille River and Myrtle Point Reach, South Fork Coquille River, Oregon in 1939

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Coquille River system is an unregulated system that encompasses 2,745 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon and flows into the Pacific Ocean near the town of...

  8. Influences on Bed Sorting and Armoring in an Upland Gravel-Cobble Bed River, Middle Fork John Day River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, P. F.

    2014-12-01

    The Middle Fork is an unconfined to partly confined upland river with channel length of 34 km, drainage area of 250-850 km2, and channel gradients of 0.004 to 0.006 in the study area. Geology is dominated by Tertiary volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks that yield abundant coarse clasts. Surface and subsurface bed material was sampled volumetrically at twenty-five sites. The textural types range from gravelly cobbles to sandy cobbly gravels, sand content is low (2 to 13%), mud content is very low, and sorting is poor to very poor. Generally the surface layer is an open framework gravel or cobble, while the subsurface layer is a filled or partially filled framework gravel or cobble. Despite an armored appearance, only 20% of the sites are armored using the standard armor ratio (surface D50/subsurface D50). While surface layers are not coarser than their subsurface layers in terms of the median or coarse end of the distribution, they are coarser in terms of fines (ratios based on D25, D16, % sand), suggesting that alternatives to the D50armor ratio might be useful. Multivariate analysis of size fraction data reveals four distinct groups of samples, distinguished mainly by differences in proportions of coarse to fine gravels, and in abundance of sand. While one group comprises only surface samples and another subsurface samples, two of the groups are mixed. One goal of the project is to evaluate the effects of land use history on bed material characteristics and mobility. Sediment characteristics were examined in relation to distance downstream, geology, relation to debris-flow sources, land use history, and other potential influences. There are no geologic associations or downstream trends in fining or other grain size parameters. Differences in land use history, such as former dredged-mined reaches and reaches with recent restoration projects also do not explain patterns of armoring or other sediment characteristics. High variability within each reach suggests that

  9. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Loss Assessment at Dexter Dam and Reservoir Project, Middle Fork Willamette River, Oregon, 1985 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyes, J.H.

    1985-09-01

    A habitat based assessment was conducted of the US Army Corps of Engineers' Dexter Dam and Reservoir Project on the Middle Fork Willamette River, Oregon, to determine losses or gains resulting from the development and operation of the project. Preconstruction, post-construction, and recent vegetation cover types of the project site were mapped based on aerial photographs from 1944, 1956, and 1979, respectively. Vegetation cover types were identified within the affected area and acreages of each type at each period were determined. Fifteen wildlife target species were selected to represent a cross-section of species groups affected by the project. An interagency team evaluated the suitability of the habitat to support the target species at each time period. An evaluation procedure which accounted for both the quantity and quality of habitat was used to aid in assessing impacts resulting from the project. The Dexter Project extensively altered or affected 4662 acres of land and river in the Middle Fork Willamette River drainage. Impacts to wildlife centered around the loss of 445 acres of riparian habitat. Impacts resulting from the Dexter Project included the loss of year-round habitat for black-tailed deer, red fox, mink, beaver, western gray squirrel, ruffed grouse, ring-necked pheasant, California quail, wood duck and nongame species. Bald eagle, osprey, and greater scaup were benefitted by an increase in foraging habitat. The potential of the affected area to support wildlife was greatly altered as a result of the Dexter Project. Losses or gains in the potential of the habitat to support wildlife will exist over the life of the project.

  10. Habitat selection influences sex distribution, morphology, tissue biochemistry, and parasite load of juvenile coho salmon in the West Fork Smith River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given the strong influence of water temperature on salmonid physiology and behavior, in the summers of 2004 and 2005 we studied juvenile male and female coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch in two reaches of Oregon’s West Fork Smith River with different thermal profiles. Our goals we...

  11. Effects of catastrophic floods and debris flows on the sediment retention structure, North Fork Toutle River, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denlinger, Roger P.

    2012-01-01

    The eruption of Mount St. Helens in 1980 produced a debris avalanche that flowed down the upper reaches of the North Fork Toutle River in southwestern Washington, clogging this drainage with sediment. In response to continuous anomalously high sediment flux into the Toutle and Cowlitz Rivers resulting from this avalanche and associated debris flows, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers completed a Sediment Retention Structure (SRS) on the North Fork Toutle River in May 1989. For one decade, the SRS effectively blocked most of the sediment transport down the Toutle River. In 1999, the sediment level behind the SRS reached the elevation of the spillway base. Since then, a higher percentage of sediment has been passing the SRS and increasing the flood risk in the Cowlitz River. Currently (2012), the dam is filling with sediment at a rate that cannot be sustained for its original design life, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is concerned with the current ability of the SRS to manage floods. This report presents an assessment of the ability of the dam to pass large flows from three types of scenarios (it is assumed that no damage to the spillway will occur). These scenarios are (1) a failure of the debris-avalanche blockage forming Castle Lake that produces a dambreak flood, (2) a debris flow from failure of that blockage, or (3) a debris flow originating in the crater of Mount St. Helens. In each case, the flows are routed down the Toutle River and through the SRS using numerical models on a gridded domain produced from a digital elevation model constructed with existing topography and dam infrastructure. The results of these simulations show that a structurally sound spillway is capable of passing large floods without risk of overtopping the crest of the dam. In addition, large debris flows originating from Castle Lake or the crater of Mount St. Helens never reach the SRS. Instead, debris flows fill the braided channels upstream of the dam and reduce its storage

  12. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_4b: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 27,900 cfs at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon (Area of Uncertainty)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  13. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_1b: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 12,000 cfs at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon (Area of Uncertainty)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  14. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_5b: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 33,900 cfs at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon (Area of Uncertainty)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  15. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_3b: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 21,450 cfs at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon (Area of Uncertainty)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  16. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_7b: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 46,800 cfs at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon (Area of Uncertainty)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  17. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_6b: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 39,900 at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon (Area of Uncertainty)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  18. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_2b: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 15,000 cfs at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon (Area of Uncertainty)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  19. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_8b: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 62,300 cfs at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon (Area of Uncertainty)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  20. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Loss Assessment at Green Peter-Foster Project; Middle Fork Santiam River, Oregon, 1985 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyes, J.H.

    1986-02-01

    A habitat based assessment was conducted of the US Army Corps of Engineers' Green Peter-Foster Dam and Reservoir Project on the Middle Fork Santiam River, Oregon, to determine losses or gains resulting from the development and operation of the hydroelectric related components of the project. Preconstruction, postconstruction, and recent vegetation cover types at the project site were mapped based on aerial photographs from 1955, 1972, and 1979, respectively. Vegetation cover types were identified within the affected area and acreages of each type at each period were determined. Eleven wildlife target species were selected to represent a cross-section of species groups affected by the project. An interagency team evaluated the suitability of the habitat to support the target species at each time period. An evaluation procedure which accounted for both the quantity and quality of habitat was used to aid in assessing impacts resulting from the project. The Green Peter-Foster Project extensively altered or affected 7873 acres of land and river in the Santiam River drainage. Impacts to wildlife centered around the loss of 1429 acres of grass-forb vegetation, 768 acres of shrubland, and 717 acres of open conifer forest cover types. Impacts resulting from the Green Peter-Foster Project included the loss of critical winter range for black-tailed deer and Roosevelt elk, and the loss of year-round habitat for deer, upland game birds, river otter, beaver, pileated woodpecker, and many other wildlife species. Bald eagle and osprey were benefited by an increase in foraging habitat. The potential of the affected area to support wildlife was greatly altered as a result of the Green Peter-Foster Project. Losses or gains in the potential of the habitat to support wildlife will exist over the life of the project.

  1. Development and Implementation of Integrative Bioassessment Techniques to Delineate Small Order Acid Mine Drainage Impacted Streams of the North Fork Powell River, Southwestern Virginia.

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Travis Scott

    2001-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) results from the oxidation of pyretic mineralogy, exposed by mining operations to oxygen and water. This reaction produces sulfuric acid and liberates heavy metals from the surrounding mineralogy and impairs water quality and freshwater communities. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers has begun an ecosystem restoration project to remediate the abandoned mine land (AML) impacts to the North Fork Powell River (NFP) and is utilizing the ecotoxicological ratin...

  2. Aerial photo mosaic of the Bridge Reach, Middle Fork Coquille River, Oregon in 1939

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Coquille River system is an unregulated system that encompasses 2,745 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon and flows into the Pacific Ocean near the town of...

  3. Design criteria applied for the Lower Pressure Tunnel of the North Fork Stanislaus River Hydroelectric Project in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleiss, A.

    1988-07-01

    The application of various criteria and certain new approaches to design is illustrated by the example of the Lower Collierville Pressure Tunnel of the North Fork Stanislaus River Hydropower Project in California. With a maximum internal water pressure of 72 bar, Lower Collierville Tunnel will be, when commissioned in 1989, the highest stressed pressure tunnel in the world not situated in granitic rocks. The geological conditions and the results of the geotechnical investigations are described briefly. For the steel-lined portion of the tunnel, the approach for determining the bearing capacity of the rock mass and the load sharing between steel and rock is discussed. The required length of steel liner was determined on the basis of rock mechanical (hydraulic jacking) and rock hydraulic (seepage losses and extension of saturated zone due to seepage) criteria. The use of a new theory allows the effects of mechanical-hydraulic interaction to be taken into account. Finally the methods of estimating the expected water losses and the sealing effect of the consolidation grouting are described.

  4. Physical habitat classification and instream flow modeling to determine habitat availability during low-flow periods, North Fork Shenandoah River, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstolic, Jennifer L.; Hayes, Donald C.; Ruhl, Peter M.

    2006-01-01

    Increasing development and increasing water withdrawals for public, industrial, and agricultural water supply threaten to reduce streamflows in the Shenandoah River basin in Virginia. Water managers need more information to balance human water-supply needs with the daily streamflows necessary for maintaining the aquatic ecosystems. To meet the need for comprehensive information on hydrology, water supply, and instream-flow requirements of the Shenandoah River basin, the U.S. Geological Survey and the Northern Shenandoah Valley Regional Commission conducted a cooperative investigation of habitat availability during low-flow periods on the North Fork Shenandoah River. Historic streamflow data and empirical data on physical habitat, river hydraulics, fish community structure, and recreation were used to develop a physical habitat simulation model. Hydraulic measurements were made during low, medium, and high flows in six reaches at a total of 36 transects that included riffles, runs, and pools, and that had a variety of substrates and cover types. Habitat suitability criteria for fish were developed from detailed fish-community sampling and microhabitat observations. Fish were grouped into four guilds of species and life stages with similar habitat requirements. Simulated habitat was considered in the context of seasonal flow regimes to show the availability of flows that sustain suitable habitat during months when precipitation and streamflow are scarce. The North Fork Shenandoah River basin was divided into three management sections for analysis purposes: the upper section, middle section, and lower section. The months of July, August, and September were chosen to represent a low-flow period in the basin with low mean monthly flows, low precipitation, high temperatures, and high water withdrawals. Exceedance flows calculated from the combined data from these three months describe low-flow periods on the North Fork Shenandoah River. Long-term records from three

  5. Historical Channel Movement and Sediment Accretion Along the South Fork of the Iowa River

    Science.gov (United States)

    River valleys have been influenced by sediment derived from agricultural erosion and channel straightening intended to hasten flood routing. Post-settlement alluvium (PSA) has been little documented in tile-drained areas of the upper Midwest, where agricultural settlement began around 1850 and few s...

  6. Floodplain Sediment Accretion and Stream-course Straightening Along the South Fork of the Iowa River

    Science.gov (United States)

    River valleys have been influenced by sediment derived from agricultural erosion and channel straightening intended to hasten flood routing. Post-settlement alluvium (PSA) has not been documented in tile-drained areas of the upper Midwest where agricultural settlement is relatively recent (<150 yrs)...

  7. Flathead River creel report, 1992--1993. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A roving creel survey was conducted on the Flathead River system, May 1992 through May 1993, as part of Hungry Horse Dam Fisheries Mitigation, funded by Bonneville Power Administration. The Flathead River system is a tributary to the Clarks Fork of the Columbia River originating in northwest Montana and southern British Columbia. The river creel survey was conducted in conjunction with a Flathead Lake creel survey. This document summarizes the creel survey on the river system. The purpose of these creel surveys was to quantify fishery status prior to mitigation efforts and provide replicative survey methodology to measure success of future mitigation activities. 4 figs., 21 tabs

  8. Mercury and Selenium Concentrations in Biofilm, Macroinvertebrates, and Fish Collected in the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho, USA, and Their Potential Effects on Fish Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhea, Darren T.; Farag, Aida M.; Harper, David D.; McConnell, Elizabeth; Brumbaugh, William G.

    2013-01-01

    The Yankee Fork is a large tributary of the Salmon River located in central Idaho, USA, with an extensive history of placer and dredge-mining activities. Concentrations of selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) in various aquatic trophic levels were measured in the Yankee Fork during 2001 and 2002. Various measurements of fish health were also performed. Sites included four on the mainstem of the Yankee Fork and two off-channel sites in partially reclaimed dredge pools used as rearing habitat for cultured salmonid eggs and fry. Hg concentrations in whole mountain whitefish and shorthead sculpin ranged from 0.28 to 0.56 μg/g dry weight (dw), concentrations that are generally less than those reported to have significant impacts on fish. Biofilm and invertebrates ranged from 0.05 to 0.43 μg Hg/g dw. Se concentrations measured in biota samples from the Yankee Fork were greater than many representative samples collected in the Snake and Columbia watersheds and often exceeded literature-based toxic thresholds. Biofilm and invertebrates ranged from 0.58 to 4.66 μg Se/g dw. Whole fish ranged from 3.92 to 7.10 μg Se/g dw, and gonads ranged from 6.91 to 31.84 μg Se/g dw. Whole-body Se concentrations exceeded reported toxicological thresholds at three of four sites and concentrations in liver samples were mostly greater than concentrations shown to have negative impacts on fish health. Histological examinations performed during this study noted liver abnormalities, especially in shorthead sculpin, a bottom-dwelling species.

  9. Geohydrology and saline ground-water discharge to the South Fork Ninnescah River in Pratt and Kingman Counties, south-central Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Joe B.; Hargadine, G.D.

    1994-01-01

    Saline ground water discharges to the South Fork Ninnescah River in Pratt and Kingman Counties from the adjacent alluvial aquifer. Electromagnetic terrain surveys in this area indicated that the saline ground water is entering the river in intermittent reaches along the channel. The chloride concentration in the river near Murdock exceeds 250 milligrams per liter 75 percent of the time. During base flow in November 1988, stream discharge increased 67 cubic feet per second, and the chloride concentration increased 360 milligrams per liter from Pratt to the Pratt-Kingman County line. The chloride load to the river along this reach was 82 tons per day. The source of saline water probably is dissolution of salt in the Permian rocks, about 600 feet below land surface. Subsequent subsidence and collapse of Permian rocks into salt-dissolution cavities probably has caused fracturing in overlying Permian rocks. Brine moves upward through the Permian rocks and discharges into the alluvial aquifer. The brine discharge to the alluvium is about 0.7 cubic foot per second. In the area of major saline-water discharge to the river, the fluid-potential levels in the Permian rocks are higher than fluid-potential levels in the alluvial aquifer. Several methods for reducing the saline ground-water discharge to the South Fork Ninnescah River have been considered. The most effective of these methods appears to be interception of brine flow in the Permian rocks by pumping of relief wells. Brine could be disposed by injection into deeper formations, by storage in evaporation reservoirs, or by desalinization.

  10. Oxbow Conservation Area; Middle Fork John Day River, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, Brian; Smith, Brent

    2003-07-01

    In early 2001, the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs, through their John Day Basin Office, concluded the acquisition of the Oxbow Ranch, now know as the Oxbow Conservation Area (OCA). Under a memorandum of agreement with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the Tribes are required to provided BPA an 'annual written report generally describing the real property interests in the Project, HEP analyses undertaken or in progress, and management activities undertaken or in progress'. The 2002 contract period was well funded and the second year of the project. A new manager started in April, allowing the previous manager to focus his efforts on the Forrest Ranch acquisition. However, the Oxbow Habitat manager's position was vacant from October through mid February of 2003. During this time, much progress, mainly O&M, was at a minimum level. Many of the objectives were not completed during this contract due to both the size and duration needed to complete such activities (example: dredge mine tailings restoration project) or because budget crisis issues with BPA ending accrual carryover on the fiscal calendar. Although the property had been acquired a year earlier, there were numerous repairs and discoveries, which on a daily basis could pull personnel from making progress on objectives for the SOW, aside from O&M objectives. A lack of fencing on a portion of the property's boundary and deteriorating fences in other areas are some reasons much time was spent chasing trespassing cattle off of the property. The success of this property purchase can be seen on a daily basis. Water rights were used seldom in the summer of 2002, with minor irrigation water diverted from only Granite Boulder Creek. Riparian fences on the river, Ruby and Granite Boulder creeks help promote important vegetation to provide shade and bank stabilization. Trees planted in this and past years are growing and will someday provide cover fish and wildlife. Even grazing on the

  11. High-resolution digital elevation model of Mount St. Helens crater and upper North Fork Toutle River basin, Washington, based on an airborne lidar survey of September 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosbrucker, Adam

    2014-01-01

    The lateral blast, debris avalanche, and lahars of the May 18th, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington, dramatically altered the surrounding landscape. Lava domes were extruded during the subsequent eruptive periods of 1980–1986 and 2004–2008. More than three decades after the emplacement of the 1980 debris avalanche, high sediment production persists in the North Fork Toutle River basin, which drains the northern flank of the volcano. Because this sediment increases the risk of flooding to downstream communities on the Toutle and Cowlitz Rivers, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), under the direction of Congress to maintain an authorized level of flood protection, built a sediment retention structure on the North Fork Toutle River in 1989 to help reduce this risk and to prevent sediment from clogging the shipping channel of the Columbia River. From September 16–20, 2009, Watershed Sciences, Inc., under contract to USACE, collected high-precision airborne lidar (light detection and ranging) data that cover 214 square kilometers (83 square miles) of Mount St. Helens and the upper North Fork Toutle River basin from the sediment retention structure to the volcano's crater. These data provide a digital dataset of the ground surface, including beneath forest cover. Such remotely sensed data can be used to develop sediment budgets and models of sediment erosion, transport, and deposition. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) used these lidar data to develop digital elevation models (DEMs) of the study area. DEMs are fundamental to monitoring natural hazards and studying volcanic landforms, fluvial and glacial geomorphology, and surface geology. Watershed Sciences, Inc., provided files in the LASer (LAS) format containing laser returns that had been filtered, classified, and georeferenced. The USGS produced a hydro-flattened DEM from ground-classified points at Castle, Coldwater, and Spirit Lakes. Final results averaged about five laser last

  12. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Loss Assessment at Hills Creek Dam and Reservoir Project, Middle Fork Willamette River, Oregon, 1985 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyes, J.H.

    1985-09-01

    A habitat based assessment was conducted of the US Army Corps of Engineers' Hills Creek Dam and Reservoir Project on the Middle Fork Willamette River, Oregon, to determine losses or gains resulting from the development and operation of the hydroelectric related components of the project. Preconstruction, postconstruction, and recent vegetation cover types of the project site were mapped based on aerial photographs from 1944, 1964, and 1979, respectively. Vegetation cover types were identified within the affected area and acreages of each type at each period were determined. Fifteen wildlife target species were selected to represent a cross-section of species groups affected by the project. An interagency team evaluated the suitability of the habitat to support the target species at each time period. An evaluation procedure which accounted for both the quantity and quality of habitat was used to aid in assessing impacts resulting from the project. The Hills Creek Project extensively altered or affected 4662 acres of land and river in the Middle Fork Willamette River drainage. Impacts to wildlife centered around the loss of 2694 acres of old-growth forest and 207 acres of riparian habitat. Impacts resulting from the Hills Creek Project included the loss of winter range for Roosevelt elk, and the loss of year-round habitat for black-tailed deer, black bear, cougar, river otter, beaver, ruffed grouse, spotted owl, and other nongame species. Bald eagle and osprey were benefited by an increase in foraging habitat. The potential of the affected area to support wildlife was greatly altered as a result of the Hills Creek Project, losses or gains in the potential of the habitat to support wildlife will exist over the life of the project.

  13. Geologic investigation of the Virgin River Valley salt deposits, Clark County, southeastern Nevada, to investigate their suitability for possible storage of radioactive waste material as of September 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results from a geologic investigation of the Virgin River Valley salt deposits, Clark County, southeastern Nevada, to examine their suitability for further study and consideration in connection with the possible storage of radioactive waste material are given. The results indicate that (1) approximately one-half of the salt body underlies the Overton Arm of Lake Mead and that the dry land portion of the salt body that has a thickness of 1,000 feet or more covers an area of about four and one-half square miles; (2) current tectonic activity in the area of the salt deposits is believed to be confined to seismic events associated with crustal adjustments following the filling of Lake Mead; (3) detailed information on the hydrology of the salt deposit area is not available at present but it is reported that a groundwater study by the U.S. Geological Survey is now in progress; (4) there is no evidence of exploitable minerals in the salt deposit area other than evaporites such as salt, gypsum, and possibly sand and gravel; (5) the salt deposit area is located inside the Lake Mead Recreation Area, outlined on the accompanying Location Plat, and several Federal, State, and Local agencies share regulatory responsibilities for the activities in the area; (6) other salt deposit areas of Arizona and Nevada, such as the Detrital Valley, Red Lake Dome, Luke Dome, and Mormon Mesa area, and several playa lake areas of central Nevada may merit further study; and (7) additional information, as outlined, is needed to more thoroughly evaluate the salt deposits of the Virgin River Valley and other areas referred to above

  14. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Loss Assessment Summary at Lookout Point Dam and Reservoir Project, Middle Fork Willamette River, Oregon; 1985 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedrossian, K.L.; Noyes, J.H.

    1985-09-01

    A habitat based assessment was conducted of the US Army Corps of Engineers' Lookout Point Dam and Reservoir Project on the Middle Fork Willamette River, Oregon, to determine losses or gains resulting from development and operation of the hydroelectric related components of the project. Preconstruction, postconstruction, and recent vegetation cover types of the project site were mapped based on aerial photographs from 1944, 1956, and 1979, respectively. Vegetation cover types were identified within the affected area and acreages of each type at each period were determined. Seventeen wildlife target species were selected to represent a cross-section of species groups affected by the project. An interagency team evaluated the suitability of the habitat to support the target species at each time period. An evaluation procedure which accounted for both the quantity and quality of habitat was used to aid in assessing impacts resulting from the project. The Lookout Point Project extensively altered or affected 6790 acres of land and river in the Middle Fork Willamette River drainage. Impacts to wildlife centered around the loss of 724 acres of old-growth conifer forest and 118 acres of riparian habitat. Impacts resulting from the Lookout Point Project included the loss of winter range for Roosevelt elk, and the loss of year-round habitat for black-tailed deer, western gray squirrel, red fox, mink, beaver, ruffed grouse, ring-necked pheasant, California quail, spotted owl, and other nongame species. Bald eagle and osprey were benefitted by an increase in foraging habitat. The potential of the affected area to support wildlife was greatly altered as a result of the Lookout Point Project. Loses or gains in the potential of the habitat to support wildlife will exist over the life of the project.

  15. What Does a Mean Really Mean? Interpreting Mainstem Detrital CRN Data in Transient Landscapes, South Fork Eel River, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, B. T.; Rowland, J. C.

    2011-12-01

    In landscapes with steady, uniform erosion rates, mainstem detrital cosmogenic radionuclide (CRN) concentrations are expected to reflect basin-wide erosion rates. In this study, we use both field and numerical experiments to provide new insight into how these rates will vary in over space and time during transient landscape adjustment. Our field data come from the South Fork Eel River (SFER) in Northern California where well-aligned knickpoints and terraces along the mainstem and tributary channels define a clear boundary between an incised, actively adjusting lowland and an unadjusted relict upland landscape. This transient adjustment is most complete in the lower portion of the basin and becomes progressively less extensive upstream, consistent with an upstream propagating wave of adjustment. To test if detrital CRN erosion rates would reflect this transient adjustment, we collected 9 sand samples along the mainstem SFER at sites distributed between the headwaters and the basin outlet. CRN erosion rates increase systematically down the mainstem from 0.22 to 0.52 mm/yr. This gradual increase in erosion rate reflects the progressive dilution of relict high CRN concentrations by low CRN concentration sediment from the rapidly eroding, adjusting regions downstream. Using a simple, two member sediment mixing model, we find that CRN concentrations should decrease in a non-linear manner as the proportion of the basin in the adjusting state increases. In order to test this non-linear dilution theory, we use the mapped boundary between the relict and adjusting regions in the SFER to quantify, for each mainstem sample site, the fraction of upstream drainage area that is in a relict state. Because the adjustment is relatively immature, our samples only range from 75% to 98% relict, but fall along the predicted mixing line. Because detrital CRN erosion rate data from any field site only provides a single snapshot of contemporary erosion rates, we employ the CHILD numerical

  16. Behavioral avoidance: Possible mechanism for explaining abundance and distribution of trout species in a metal-impacted river

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, J.A.; Bergman, H.L. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Woodward, D.F. [Geological Survey, Jackson, WY (United States). Environmental and Contaminants Research Center; Little, E.E.; DeLonay, A.J. [Geological Survey, Columbia, MO (United States). Environmental and Contaminants Research Center

    1999-02-01

    Behavioral avoidance of metal mixtures by rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was determined in the laboratory under water quality conditions that simulated the upper Clark Fork River, Montana, USA. A metal mixture with a fixed ratio of observed ambient metal concentrations (12 {micro}g/L Cu:1.1 {micro}g/L Cd:3.2 {micro}g/L Pb:50 {micro}g/L Zn) was used to determine avoidance in a countercurrent avoidance chamber. Rainbow trout avoided all metal concentrations tested from 10 to 1,000% of the simulated ambient metal mixture. The behavioral response of rainbow trout to the metal mixture was more sensitive than the response of brown trout (Salmo trutta) previously reported from the same laboratory under the same experimental conditions. Additionally, rainbow trout that were acclimated to the simulated ambient metal mixture for 45 d preferred clean water and avoided higher metal concentrations. Therefore, laboratory experiments on the behavioral avoidance responses of rainbow trout, as well as previously reported experiments on brown trout, show that both species will avoid typical metal concentrations observed on the Clark Fork River. And the greater sensitivity of rainbow trout to the metal mixture may explain, in part, why rainbow trout populations appear to be more severely affected, compared to brown trout populations, in the upper Clark Fork River.

  17. Behavioral avoidance: Possible mechanism for explaining abundance and distribution of trout species in a metal-impacted river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, J.A.; Woodward, D.F.; Little, E.E.; DeLonay, A.J.; Bergman, H.L.

    1999-01-01

    Behavioral avoidance of metal mixtures by rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was determined in the laboratory under water quality conditions that simulated the upper Clark Fork River, Montana, USA. A metal mixture with a fixed ratio of observed ambient metal concentrations (12 mg/L Cu: 1.1 ??g/L Cd:3.2 ??g/L Pb:50 ??g/L Zn) was used to determine avoidance in a countercurrent avoidance chamber. Rainbow trout avoided all metal concentrations tested from 10 to 1,000% of the simulated ambient metal mixture. The behavioral response of rainbow trout to the metal mixture was more sensitive than the response of brown trout (Salmo trutta) previously reported from the same laboratory under the same experimental conditions. Additionally, rainbow trout that were acclimated to the simulated ambient metal mixture for 45 d preferred clean water and avoided higher metal concentrations. Therefore, our laboratory experiments on the behavioral avoidance responses of rainbow trout, as well as previously reported experiments on brown trout, show that both species will avoid typical metal concentrations observed on the Clark Fork River. And the greater sensitivity of rainbow trout to the metal mixture may explain, in part, why rainbow trout populations appear to be more severely affected, compared to brown trout populations; in the upper Clark Fork River.

  18. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Loss Assessment at Cougar Dam and Reservoir Project, South Fork McKenzie River, Oregon; 1985 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyes, J.H.

    1985-09-01

    A habitat based assessment was conducted of the US Army Corps of Engineers' Cougar Dam and Reservoir Project on the South Fork McKenzie River, Oregon, to determine losses or gains resulting from the development and operation of the hydroelectric related components of the project. Preconstruction, postconstruction, and recent vegetation cover types of the project site were mapped based on aerial photographs from 1953, 1965, and 1979, respectively. Vegetation cover types were identified within the affected area and acreages of each type at each period were determined. Fifteen wildlife target species were selected to represent a cross-section of species groups affected by the project. An interagency team evaluated the suitability of the habitat to support the target species at each time period. An evaluation procedure which accounted for both the quantity and quality of habitat was used to aid in assessing impacts resulting from the project. The Cougar Project extensively altered or affected 3096 acres of land and river in the McKenzie River drainage. Impacts to wildlife centered around the loss of 1587 acres of old-growth conifer forest and 195 acres of riparian hardwoods. Impacts resulting from the Cougar Project included the loss of winter range for Roosevelt elk, and the loss of year-round habitat for black-tailed deer, black bear, cougar, river otter, beaver, spotted owl, and other nongame species. Bald eagle and osprey were benefited by an increase in foraging habitat. The potential of the effected area to support wildlife was greatly altered as a result of the Cougar Project. Loses or grains in the potential of the habitat to support wildlife will exist over the life of the project.

  19. 7-Years of Using Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) to assess river restoration efforts : synergies of high-resolution observation and modeling on the Middle Fork of the John Day River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, A.; Diabat, M.

    2014-12-01

    Temperature is a key factor for salmonid health and is an important restoration metric on the Middle Fork of the John Day River, northeast Oregon. The longest undammed tributary to the Columbia, the headwaters of the Middle Fork are crucial to steelhead and spring Chinook and summer Chinook juvenile rearing. In the past century the river has been altered by dredge mining, overgrazing, logging activities, and irrigation resulting in bank erosion, low effective shade, and channelization. These factors decreased fish habitat and led to increased stream temperature maxima. Restoration has focused on restoring fish habitat, creating thermal refugia, and planting native vegetation. The most recent completed restoration project diverted the flow into the historic, meandering stream channel from the dredged, straightened channel. Over the past seven years, Oregon State University researchers (Tara O'Donnell-2012, Julie Huff-2009) have been involved in a planned-to-be 10-year stream temperature monitoring study to assess maximum temperatures during low-flow summer months. The use of fiber optics through distributed temperature sensing (DTS) made it possible to record high resolution temperature data at both temporal and spatial scales; data which is used to assess the efficacy of restoration efforts on the reach. Furthermore, DTS provided temperature data that reveals subtle hydrologic processes such as groundwater or hyporheic inflows and quantifies their effect on the stream. Current research has focused on large scale DTS installations on the Middle Fork of the John Day River on the Oxbow, Forrest, and the upstream Galena ("RPB") conservation properties. In the summers of 2013 and 2014, 16 km of river were monitored. Our study compares temperatures before and after the restoration project and provides essential guidance for future restoration projects. Direct comparisons coupled with a deterministic modeling using HeatSource assist in better understanding the

  20. OK - Establishing a mussel monitoring program to evaluate point-source discharges into Deep Fork NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A study incorporating several investigative methods was conducted at the Deep Fork River, Okmulgee, Oklahoma in and near the Deep Fork National Wildlife Refuge. The...

  1. Flood-inundation maps for a 9.1-mile reach of the Coast Fork Willamette River near Creswell and Goshen, Lane County, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Glen W.; Haluska, Tana L.

    2016-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 9.1-mile reach of the Coast Fork Willamette River near Creswell and Goshen, Oregon, were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected stages at the USGS streamgage at Coast Fork Willamette River near Goshen, Oregon (14157500), at State Highway 58. Current stage at the streamgage for estimating near-real-time areas of inundation may be obtained at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/or/nwis/uv/?site_no=14157500&PARAmeter_cd=00065,00060. In addition, the National Weather Service (NWS) forecasted peak-stage information may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation.In this study, areas of inundation were provided by USACE. The inundated areas were developed from flood profiles simulated by a one-dimensional unsteady step‑backwater hydraulic model. The profiles were checked by the USACE using documented high-water marks from a January 2006 flood. The model was compared and quality assured using several other methods. The hydraulic model was then used to determine eight water-surface profiles at various flood stages referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from 11.8 to 19.8 ft, approximately 2.6 ft above the highest recorded stage at the streamgage (17.17 ft) since 1950. The intervals between stages are variable and based on annual exceedance probability discharges, some of which approximate NWS action stages.The areas of inundation and water depth grids provided to USGS by USACE were used to create interactive flood‑inundation maps. The availability of these maps with current stage from USGS streamgage and forecasted stream stages from the NWS provide emergency management

  2. Aerial photo mosaic of the Powers Reach and Broadbent Reach, South Fork Coquille River, Oregon in 1939

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Coquille River system is an unregulated system that encompasses 2,745 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon and flows into the Pacific Ocean near the town of...

  3. An aerial radiological survey of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area, Forked River, New Jersey. Date of survey: September 18--25, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power Plant in Forked River, New Jersey, during the period September 18 through September 24, 1992. The survey was conducted at an altitude of 150 feet (46 meters) over a 26-square-mile (67-square-kilometer) area centered on the power station. The purpose of the survey was to document the terrestrial gamma radiation environment of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power plant and surrounding area. The results of the aerial survey are reported as inferred gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level in the form of a contour map. Outside the plant boundary, exposure rates were found to vary between 4 and 10 microroentgens per hour and were attributed to naturally-occurring uranium, thorium, and radioactive potassium gamma emitters. The aerial data were compared to ground-based benchmark exposure rate measurements and radionuclide assays of soil samples obtained within the survey boundary. The ground-based measurements were found to be in good agreement with those inferred from the aerial measuring system. A previous survey of the power plant was conducted in August 1969 during its initial startup phase. Exposure rates and radioactive isotopes revealed in both surveys were consistent and within normal terrestrial background levels

  4. A physiological approach to quantifying thermal habitat quality for redband rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri) in the south Fork John Day River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldhaus, J.W.; Heppell, S.A.; Li, H.; Mesa, M.G.

    2010-01-01

    We examined tissue-specific levels of heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) and whole body lipid levels in juvenile redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri) from the South Fork of the John Day River (SFJD), Oregon, with the goal of determining if these measures could be used as physiological indicators of thermal habitat quality for juvenile redband trout. Our objectives were to determine the hsp70 induction temperature in liver, fin, and white muscle tissue and characterize the relation between whole body lipids and hsp70 for fish in the SFJD. We found significant increases in hsp70 levels between 19 and 22??C in fin, liver, and white muscle tissue. Maximum hsp70 levels in liver, fin, and white muscle tissue occurred when mean weekly maximum temperatures (MWMT) exceeded 20-22??C. In general, the estimated hsp70 induction temperature for fin and white muscle tissue was higher than liver tissue. Whole body lipid levels began to decrease when MWMT exceeded 20. 4??C. There was a significant interaction between temperature and hsp70 in fin and white muscle tissue, but not liver tissue. Collectively, these results suggest that increased hsp70 levels in juvenile redband trout are symptomatic of thermal stress, and that energy storage capacity decreases with this stress. The possible decrease in growth potential and fitness for thermally stressed individuals emphasizes the physiological justification for thermal management criteria in salmon-bearing streams. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010.

  5. Quantify Effects of Integrated Land Management on Water Quality in Agricultural Landscape in South Fork Watershed, Iowa River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, M.; Wu, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    Sustainable biofuel feedstock production — environmental sustainability and economic sustainability — may be achieved by using a multi-faceted approach. This study focuses on quantifying the water sustainability of an integrated landscaping strategy, by which current land use and land management, cropping system, agricultural Best Management Practices (BMPs), and economics play equal roles. The strategy was applied to the South Fork watershed, IA, including the tributaries of Tipton and Beaver Creeks, which expand to 800-km2 drainage areas. The watershed is an agricultural dominant area covered with row-crops production. On the basis of profitability, switchgrass was chosen as a replacement for row crops in low-productivity land. Areas for harvesting agricultural residue were selected on the basis of soil conservation principals. Double cropping with a cover crop was established to further reduce soil loss. Vegetation buffer strips were in place at fields and in riparian areas for water quality control, resource conservation, and eco service improvement. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied to evaluate source reduction under various management schemes and land use changes. SWAT modeling incorporated 10-yr meteorological information, soil data, land slope classification, land use, four-year crop-rotation cycle, and management operations. Tile drain and pothole parameters were modeled to assess the fate and transport of nutrients. The influence of landscape management and cropping systems on nitrogen and phosphorus loadings, erosion process, and hydrological performance at the sub-watershed scale was analyzed and key factors identified. Results suggest strongly that incorporating agricultural BMPs and conservation strategies into integrated landscape management for certain energy crops in row-crop production regions can be economical and environmentally sustainable.

  6. Simulation of the effects of management alternatives on the stream-aquifer system, South Fork Solomon River Valley between Webster Reservoir and Waconda Lake, north-central Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, R.D.; Reed, T.B.

    1985-01-01

    With extensive irrigation use of both surface water and groundwater in the South Fork Solomon River valley shortages of these water supplies have been created. A two-dimensional digital model of transient groundwater flow was applied to investigate the potential effects on the stream aquifer system of seven management alternatives. These alternatives included proposals to conserve surface water supplies by lining the Osborne Irrigation Canal with clay, replacing the lateral canals with pipe, removing phreatophytes, decreasing surface water use by 75%, 50%, or 25% and replacing it with groundwater sources, and continuing 1978 groundwater use and 1970-78 average surface water use until the end of the 20th century. Results were assessed by comparison of drawdowns of hydraulic head in the alluvial aquifer and base flow for each simulation. As listed in order of the smallest to the greatest potential effects on the system relative to drawdown and base flow the alternatives are: (1) removal of one-half of the phreatophytes; (2) continuation of 1978 groundwater withdrawals and average 1970-78 surface water supply; (3) replacement of the lateral canals with pipe; (4) lining the Osborne Irrigation Canal with clay; (5) decrease of surface water use by 25% and replacement of it with groundwater; (6) decrease of surface water use by 50% and replacement of it with groundwater; and (7) decrease of surface water use by 75% and replacement of it with groundwater. The removal of one-half of the phreatophytes would result in a decrease in average drawdown in the alluvial aquifer to about 1.74 ft and an increase in base flow of the Solomon River to about 12.3 cu ft/sec. The decrease of surface water supply by 75 % and a corresponding increase in groundwater withdrawal would result in an increase in drawdown in the aquifer to about 2.5 ft and a decrease in base flow to about 6.8 cu ft/sec. (Lantz-PTT)

  7. Hyporheic Exchange Flows and Biogeochemical Patterns near a Meandering Stream: East Fork of the Jemez River, Valles Caldera National Preserve, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, H.; Wooten, J. P.; Swanson, E.; Senison, J. J.; Myers, K. D.; Befus, K. M.; Warden, J.; Zamora, P. B.; Gomez, J. D.; Wilson, J. L.; Groffman, A.; Rearick, M. S.; Cardenas, M. B.

    2012-12-01

    A study by the 2012 Hydrogeology Field Methods class of the University of Texas at Austin implemented multiple approaches to evaluate and characterize local hyporheic zone flow and biogeochemical trends in a highly meandering reach of the of the East Fork of the Jemez River, a fourth order stream in northwestern New Mexico. This section of the Jemez River is strongly meandering and exhibits distinct riffle-pool morphology. The high stream sinuosity creates inter-meander hyporheic flow that is also largely influenced by local groundwater gradients. In this study, dozens of piezometers were used to map the water table and flow vectors were then calculated. Surface water and ground water samples were collected and preserved for later geochemical analysis by ICPMS and HPLC, and unstable parameters and alkalinity were measured on-site. Additionally, information was collected from thermal monitoring of the streambed, stream gauging, and from a series of electrical resistivity surveys forming a network across the site. Hyporheic flow paths are suggested by alternating gaining and losing sections of the stream as determined by stream gauging at multiple locations along the reach. Water table maps and calculated fluxes across the sediment-water interface also indicate hyporheic flow paths. We find variability in the distribution of biogeochemical constituents (oxidation-reduction potential, nitrate, ammonium, and phosphate) along interpreted flow paths which is partly consistent with hyporheic exchange. The variability and heterogeneity of reducing and oxidizing conditions is interpreted to be a result of groundwater-surface water interaction. Two-dimensional mapping of biogeochemical parameters show redox transitions along interpreted flow paths. Further analysis of various measured unstable chemical parameters results in observable trends strongly delineated along these preferential flow paths that are consistent with the direction of groundwater flow and the assumed

  8. sir2016-5029_Low_Res_Extents: Flood-Inundation Maps for the Coast Fork Willamette River from Creswell, Oregon to Goshen, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Digital Elevation Model (DEM) utilized for this Willamette FIS submittal was produced by combining multiple overlapping topographic surveys for the Middle Fork...

  9. sir2016-5029_Hi_Res_Extents: Flood-Inundation Maps for the Coast Fork Willamette River from Creswell, Oregon to Goshen, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Digital Elevation Model (DEM) utilized for this Willamette FIS submittal was produced by combining multiple overlapping topographic surveys for the Middle Fork...

  10. Effects of the Upper Taum Sauk Reservoir Embankment Breach on the Surface-Water Quality and Sediments of the East Fork Black River and the Black River, Southeastern Missouri - 2006-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Miya N.

    2009-01-01

    On December 14, 2005, a 680-foot wide section of the upper reservoir embankment of the Taum Sauk pump-storage hydroelectric powerplant located in Reynolds County, Missouri, suddenly failed. This catastrophic event sent approximately 1.5 billion gallons of water into the Johnson's Shut-Ins State Park and into the East Fork Black River, and deposited enormous quantities of rock, soil, and vegetation in the flooded areas. Water-quality data were collected within and below the impacted area to study and document the changes to the riverene system. Data collection included routine, event-based, and continuous surface-water quality monitoring as well as suspended- and streambed-sediment sampling. Surface water-quality samples were collected and analyzed for a suite of physical and chemical constituents including: turbidity; nutrients; major ions such as calcium, magnesium, and potassium; total suspended solids; total dissolved solids; trace metals such as aluminum, iron, and lead; and suspended-sediment concentrations. Suspended-sediment concentrations were used to calculate daily sediment discharge. A peculiar blue-green coloration on the water surface of the East Fork Black River and Black River was evident downstream from the lower reservoir during the first year of the study. It is possible that this phenomenon was the result of 'rock flour' occurring when the upper reservoir embankment was breached, scouring the mountainside and producing extremely fine sediment particles, or from the alum-based flocculent used to reduce turbidity in the lower reservoir. It also was determined that no long-term effects of the reservoir embankment breach are expected as the turbidity and concentrations of trace metals such as total recoverable aluminum, dissolved aluminum, dissolved iron, and suspended-sediment concentration graphically decreased over time. Larger concentrations of these constituents during the beginning of the study also could be a direct result of the alum

  11. Characterization of salinity loads and selenium loads in the Smith Fork Creek region of the Lower Gunnison River Basin, western Colorado, 2008-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Rodney J.; Linard, Joshua I.; Hobza, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    The lower Gunnison River Basin of the Colorado River Basin has elevated salinity and selenium levels. The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of June 24, 1974 (Public Law 93–320, amended by Public Law 98–569), authorized investigation of the Lower Gunnison Basin Unit Salinity Control Project by the U.S. Department of the Interior. The Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) and the Natural Resources Conservation Service are responsible for assessing and implementing measures to reduce salinity and selenium loading in the Colorado River Basin. Cost-sharing programs help farmers, ranchers, and canal companies improve the efficiency of water delivery systems and irrigation practices. The delivery systems (irrigation canals) have been identified as potential sources of seepage, which can contribute to salinity loading. Reclamation wants to identify seepage from irrigation systems in order to maximize the effectiveness of the various salinity-control methods, such as polyacrylamide lining and piping of irrigation canals programs. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Reclamation, developed a study to characterize the salinity and selenium loading of seven subbasins in the Smith Fork Creek region and identify where control efforts can be maximized to reduce salinity and selenium loading. Total salinity loads ranged from 27.9±19.1 tons per year (t/yr) to 87,500±80,500 t/yr. The four natural subbasins—BkKm, RCG1, RCG2, and SF1—had total salinity loads of 27.9±19.1 t/yr, 371±248 t/yr, 2,180±1,590 t/yr, and 4,200±2,720 t/yr, respectively. The agriculturally influenced sites had salinity loads that ranged from 7,580±6,900 t/yr to 87,500±80,500 t/yr. Salinity loads for the subbasins AL1, B1, CK1, SF2, and SF3 were 7,580±6,900 t/yr; 28,300±26,700 t/yr; 48,700±36,100 t/yr; 87,500±80,900 t/yr; and 52,200±31,800 t/yr, respectively. The agricultural salinity load was separated into three components: tail water, deep percolation, and canal seepage

  12. Evaluating turbidity and suspended-sediment concentration relations from the North Fork Toutle River basin near Mount St. Helens, Washington; annual, seasonal, event, and particle size variations - a preliminary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhrich, Mark A.; Spicer, Kurt R.; Mosbrucker, Adam; Christianson, Tami

    2015-01-01

    Regression of in-stream turbidity with concurrent sample-based suspended-sediment concentration (SSC) has become an accepted method for producing unit-value time series of inferred SSC (Rasmussen et al., 2009). Turbidity-SSC regression models are increasingly used to generate suspended-sediment records for Pacific Northwest rivers (e.g., Curran et al., 2014; Schenk and Bragg, 2014; Uhrich and Bragg, 2003). Recent work developing turbidity-SSC models for the North Fork Toutle River in Southwest Washington (Uhrich et al., 2014), as well as other studies (Landers and Sturm, 2013, Merten et al., 2014), suggests that models derived from annual or greater datasets may not adequately reflect shorter term changes in turbidity-SSC relations, warranting closer inspection of such relations. In-stream turbidity measurements and suspended-sediment samples have been collected from the North Fork Toutle River since 2010. The study site, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamgage 14240525 near Kid Valley, Washington, is 13 river km downstream of the debris avalanche emplaced by the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens (Lipman and Mullineaux, 1981), and 2 river km downstream of the large sediment retention structure (SRS) built from 1987–1989 to mitigate the associated sediment hazard. The debris avalanche extends roughly 25 km down valley from the edifice of the volcano and is the primary source of suspended sediment moving past the streamgage (NF Toutle-SRS). Other significant sources are debris flow events and sand deposits upstream of the SRS, which are periodically remobilized and transported downstream. Also, finer material often is derived from the clay-rich original debris avalanche deposit, while coarser material can derive from areas such as fluvially reworked terraces.

  13. Evaluation of LiDAR-acquired bathymetric and topographic data accuracy in various hydrogeomorphic settings in the Deadwood and South Fork Boise Rivers, West-Central Idaho, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Kenneth D.

    2011-01-01

    High-quality elevation data in riverine environments are important for fisheries management applications and the accuracy of such data needs to be determined for its proper application. The Experimental Advanced Airborne Research LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging)-or EAARL-system was used to obtain topographic and bathymetric data along the Deadwood and South Fork Boise Rivers in west-central Idaho. The EAARL data were post-processed into bare earth and bathymetric raster and point datasets. Concurrently with the EAARL surveys, real-time kinematic global positioning system surveys were made in three areas along each of the rivers to assess the accuracy of the EAARL elevation data in different hydrogeomorphic settings. The accuracies of the EAARL-derived raster elevation values, determined in open, flat terrain, to provide an optimal vertical comparison surface, had root mean square errors ranging from 0.134 to 0.347 m. Accuracies in the elevation values for the stream hydrogeomorphic settings had root mean square errors ranging from 0.251 to 0.782 m. The greater root mean square errors for the latter data are the result of complex hydrogeomorphic environments within the streams, such as submerged aquatic macrophytes and air bubble entrainment; and those along the banks, such as boulders, woody debris, and steep slopes. These complex environments reduce the accuracy of EAARL bathymetric and topographic measurements. Steep banks emphasize the horizontal location discrepancies between the EAARL and ground-survey data and may not be good representations of vertical accuracy. The EAARL point to ground-survey comparisons produced results with slightly higher but similar root mean square errors than those for the EAARL raster to ground-survey comparisons, emphasizing the minimized horizontal offset by using interpolated values from the raster dataset at the exact location of the ground-survey point as opposed to an actual EAARL point within a 1-meter distance. The

  14. OR/WA Environmental contaminants in fish eating birds from the Lewis and Clark NWR and Ridgefield NWR along the Columbia River

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Great blue heron (Ardea herodias) eggs and prey items were collected from six colonies on the Columbia and Willamette rivers and Puget Sound during 1994-95....

  15. Needs assessment for the Greenway Grand Forks-East Grand Forks development and public education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munski, Laura

    Following the flood of 1997, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers included the Greenway Grand Forks---East Grand Forks (the Greenway) as a flood control measure for Grand Forks, North Dakota and East Grand Forks, Minnesota. It extends along both the Red River of the North and the Red Lake River, encompassing 2200 acres of land. The cities of Grand Forks and East Grand Forks hired consultants to assist with the postflood planning process. The planning process culminated with the Red River of the North Greenway Final Report (Flink, 1998). The purpose of this study was to determine if the development of the Greenway addressed the objectives of the planning report. The history of the land adjacent to the rivers was reviewed to document the progression of riverfront development. Anecdotal evidence was collected, field observations were made, city council minutes were reviewed, Greenway Technical Committee members were interviewed, Greenway Technical Committee minutes were reviewed, and the Greenway Grand Forks---East Grand Forks survey results were reviewed to determine if the objectives of the Red River of the North Greenway Final Report were addressed. A cross section survey was designed by Laura Munski for this dissertation research. The survey was approved by the Greenway Technical Committee. The survey collected both quantitative and qualitative data from the community. The purpose of the survey portion of the research project was to ascertain how residents were kept informed of activities on the Greenway and what amenities residents were using on the Greenway and to solicit their comments regarding the Greenway. The results of the survey research were used in both marketing and event planning for the Greenway. The singular qualitative survey question gave respondents an opportunity to share their comments regarding the Greenway. The qualitative data analysis provided insight to the amenities and educational programs desired by respondents, their concerns regarding the

  16. The role of episodic fire-related debris flows on long-term (103-104) sediment yields in the Middle Fork Salmon River Watershed, in central Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, K. E.; Pierce, J. L.; Hopkins, A.

    2010-12-01

    Episodic fire-related debris flows contribute large amounts of sediment and large woody debris to streams. This study evaluates fire-related sedimentation from small steep tributaries of the Middle Fork Salmon River (MFSR) in central Idaho to evaluate the timing, frequency, and magnitude of episodic fire-related sedimentation on long-term (10 3-10 4) sediment yields. The MFSR lies within the Northern Rocky Mountains and encompasses a range of ecosystems including high elevation (~3,000 -1,700 m) subalpine pine and spruce forests, mid-elevation (2650 - 1130 m) montane Douglas-fir and ponderosa pine-dominated forests and low elevation (~ 1,800 - 900 m) sagebrush steppe. Recent debris flow events in tributaries of the MFSR appear to primarily result from increased surface runoff, rilling, and progressive sediment bulking following high severity fires. This study estimates: 1) the volume of sediment delivered by four recent (1997-2008) fire-related debris flow events using real time kinematic GPS surveys, and 2) the timing of Holocene fire-related debris flow events determined by 14C dating charcoal fragments preserved in buried burned soils and within fire-related deposits. Our measured volumes of the four recent debris flow events are compared to two empirically derived volume estimates based on remotely sensed spatial data (burn severity and slope), measured geometric data (longitudinal profile, cross sectional area, flow banking angle), and precipitation records. Preliminary stratigraphic profiles in incised alluvial fans suggest that a large percentage of alluvial fan thickness is composed of fire-related deposits suggesting fire-related hillslope erosion is a major process delivering sediment to alluvial fans and to the MFSR. Fire-related deposits from upper basins compose ~71% of total alluvial fan thickness, while fire-related deposits from lower basins make up 36% of alluvial fan thickness. However, lower basins are less densely vegetated with small diameter

  17. What Does a Mean Really Mean? Interpreting Mainstem Detrital CRN Data in Transient Landscapes, a view from the South Fork Eel River, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, B. T.; Willenbring, J.; Gasparini, N. M.

    2011-12-01

    In landscapes with steady, uniform erosion rates, mainstem detrital cosmogenic radionuclide (CRN) concentrations are expected to reflect basin-wide erosion rates. In this study, we use both field and numerical experiments to provide new insight into how these rates will vary over space and time during transient landscape adjustment. Our field data come from the South Fork Eel River (SFER) in Northern California where well-aligned knickpoints and terraces along the mainstem and tributary channels define a clear boundary between an incised, actively adjusting lowland and an unadjusted relict upland landscape. This transient adjustment is most complete in the lower portion of the basin and becomes progressively less extensive upstream, consistent with an upstream propagating wave of adjustment. To test if detrital CRN erosion rates would reflect this transient adjustment, we collected 9 sand samples along the mainstem SFER at sites distributed between the headwaters and the basin outlet. CRN erosion rates increase systematically down the mainstem from 0.22 to 0.52 mm/yr. This gradual increase in erosion rate reflects the progressive dilution of relict high CRN concentrations by low CRN concentration sediment from the rapidly eroding, adjusting regions downstream. Using a simple, two member sediment mixing model, we find that CRN concentrations should decrease in a non-linear manner as the proportion of the basin in the adjusting state increases. In order to test this non-linear dilution theory, we use the mapped boundary between the relict and adjusting regions in the SFER to quantify, for each mainstem sample site, the fraction of upstream drainage area that is in a relict state. Because the adjustment is relatively immature, our samples only range from 75% to 98% relict, but fall along the predicted mixing line. Because detrital CRN erosion rate data from any field site only provides a single snapshot of contemporary erosion rates, we employ the CHILD numerical

  18. Fate and transport of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil and ground water at Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area, Tennessee and Kentucky, 2002-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Shannon D.; Ladd, David E.; Farmer, James

    2006-01-01

    In 2002 and 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), by agreement with the National Park Service (NPS), investigated the effects of oil and gas production operations on ground-water quality at Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area (BISO) with particular emphasis on the fate and transport of petroleum hydrocarbons in soils and ground water. During a reconnaissance of ground-water-quality conditions, samples were collected from 24 different locations (17 springs, 5 water-supply wells, 1 small stream, and 1 spring-fed pond) in and near BISO. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) compounds were not detected in any of the water samples, indicating that no widespread contamination of ground-water resources by dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons probably exists at BISO. Additional water-quality samples were collected from three springs and two wells for more detailed analyses to obtain additional information on ambient water-quality conditions at BISO. Soil gas, soil, water, and crude oil samples were collected at three study sites in or near BISO where crude oil had been spilled or released (before 1993). Diesel range organics (DRO) were detected in soil samples from all three of the sites at concentrations greater than 2,000 milligrams per kilogram. Low concentrations (less than 10 micrograms per kilogram) of BTEX compounds were detected in lab-analyzed soil samples from two of the sites. Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria counts in soil samples from the most contaminated areas of the sites were not greater than counts for soil samples from uncontaminated (background) sites. The elevated DRO concentrations, the presence of BTEX compounds, and the low number of -hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in contaminated soils indicate that biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soils at these sites is incomplete. Water samples collected from the three study sites were analyzed for BTEX and DRO. Ground-water samples were collected from three small springs at the

  19. Wildlife Impact Assessment and Summary of Previous Mitigation Related to Hydroelectric Projects in Montana, Phase 1, Volume Two (B), Clark Fork River Projects, Cabinet Gorge and Noxon Rapids Dams, Operator, Washington Water Power Company.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Marilyn

    1984-06-01

    This report documents best available information concerning the wildlife species impacted and the degree of the impact. A target species list was developed to focus the impact assessment and to direct mitigation efforts. Many non-target species also incurred impacts but are not discussed in this report. All wildlife habitats inundated by the two reservoirs are represented by the target species. It was assumed the numerous non-target species also affected will be benefited by the mitigation measures adopted for the target species. Impacts addressed are limited to those directly attributable to the loss of habitat and displacement of wildlife populations due to the construction and operation of the two hydroelectric projects. Secondary impacts, such as the relocation of railroads and highways, and the increase of the human population, were not considered. In some cases, both positive and negative impacts were assessed; and the overall net effect was reported. The loss/gain estimates reported represent impacts considered to have occurred during one point in time except where otherwise noted. When possible, quantitative estimates were developed based on historical information from the area or on data from similar areas. Qualitative loss estimates of low, moderate, or high with supporting rationale were assessed for each species or species group.

  20. Taking the thrombin "fork".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Kenneth G

    2010-07-01

    The proverb that probably best exemplifies my career in research is attributable to Yogi Berra (http://www.yogiberra.com/), ie, "when you come to a fork in the road ... take it." My career is a consequence of chance interactions with great mentors and talented students and the opportunities provided by a succession of ground-breaking improvements in technology. PMID:20554951

  1. Clark and Prehistory at Cambridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Jane Smith

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available If honours and titles give measure of a man, then Professor Sir Grahame Clark was indeed important. Faculty Assistant Lecturer in the Faculty of Archaeology and Anthropology at Cambridge University from 1935-46, University Lecturer 1946-52, Disney Professor of Archaeology 1952-74, Head of the Department of Archaeol­ogy and Anthropology 1956-61 and 1968-71, Fellow of Peterhouse, Cambridge 1950-73, Master of Peterhouse 1973-80, he was a visiting lecturer at diverse universities; appointed CBE in 1971, he received many awards includ­ing the prestigious Erasmus Prize for 1990, presented by Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands, for his "long and inspiring devotion to prehistory" (Scarre 1991:10; and in June 1992, he was knighted. Yet well before fame and position were rewards, Clark made major contributions to the establishment of prehis­tory as an academic subject at Cambridge University. Cambridge was the first and, for many years, only British university granting an undergraduate degree which offered prehistory as a specialization. "The development of postgraduate research in prehistoric archaeology at Cambridge had to wait on the provision of undergraduate teaching;' Clark (1989b: 6 recently observed. The "faculty was the only one in Britain producing a flow of graduates in prehistoric archaeology" (Clark 1989a: 53.

  2. Living History: Clark M. Blatteis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Ning

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the American Physiological Society (APS) initiated the Living History Project to recognize senior members who have made extraordinary contributions during their career to the advancement of the discipline and profession of physiology. During 2007, the APS Section of Environmental and Exercise Physiology selected Clark M. Blatteis to be…

  3. SSTI Clark ACS Technology Demonstrations

    OpenAIRE

    Freesland, Douglas

    1997-01-01

    SSTI Clark, one of two spacecraft built under NASA's Small Satellite Technology Initiative, includes seven ACS technology demonstrations. The technologies redefine the performance cost envelope, providing improved sensor and actuator performance at reduced costs. Six sensing technologies are being flown consisting of both hardware and algorithmic demonstrations: autonomous star tracker, hemispherical resonating gyro, GPS attitude determination, miniature horizon sensors, low cost course sun s...

  4. SC tuning fork

    CERN Multimedia

    The tuning fork used to modulate the radiofrequency system of the synchro cyclotron (SC) from 1957 to 1973. This piece is an unused spare part. The SC was the 1st accelerator built at CERN. It operated from August 1957 until it was closed down at the end of 1990. In the SC the magnetic field did not change with time, and the particles were accelerated in successive pulses by a radiofrequency voltage of some 20kV which varied in frequency as they spiraled outwards towards the extraction radius. The frequency varied from 30MHz to about 17Mz in each pulse. The tuning fork vibrated at 55MHz in vacuum in an enclosure which formed a variable capacitor in the tuning circuit of the RF system, allowing the RF to vary over the appropriate range to accelerate protons from the centre of the macine up to 600Mev at extraction radius. In operation the tips of the tuning fork blade had an amplitude of movement of over 1 cm. The SC accelerator underwent extensive improvements from 1973 to 1975, including the installation of a...

  5. Clark and Prehistory at Cambridge

    OpenAIRE

    Pamela Jane Smith

    1996-01-01

    If honours and titles give measure of a man, then Professor Sir Grahame Clark was indeed important. Faculty Assistant Lecturer in the Faculty of Archaeology and Anthropology at Cambridge University from 1935-46, University Lecturer 1946-52, Disney Professor of Archaeology 1952-74, Head of the Department of Archaeol­ogy and Anthropology 1956-61 and 1968-71, Fellow of Peterhouse, Cambridge 1950-73, Master of Peterhouse 1...

  6. 75 FR 26709 - Clarke County Water Supply Project, Clarke County, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... Natural Resources Conservation Service Clarke County Water Supply Project, Clarke County, IA AGENCY... Moines, IA 50309-2180, telephone: 515-284- 4769. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: A Notice of Intent (NOI) to... http://www.ia.nrcs.usda.gov . A map of the Clarke County Water Supply proposed study sites will also...

  7. On non-forking spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Chernikov, Artem; Shelah, Saharon

    2012-01-01

    Non-forking is one of the most important notions in modern model theory capturing the idea of a generic extension of a type (which is a far-reaching generalization of the concept of a generic point of a variety). To a countable first-order theory we associate its non-forking spectrum - a function of two cardinals kappa and lambda giving the supremum of the possible number of types over a model of size lambda that do not fork over a sub-model of size kappa. This is a natural generalization of the stability function of a theory. We make progress towards classifying the non-forking spectra. On the one hand, we show that the possible values a non-forking spectrum may take are quite limited. On the other hand, we develop a general technique for constructing theories with a prescribed non-forking spectrum, thus giving a number of examples. In particular, we answer negatively a question of Adler whether NIP is equivalent to bounded non-forking. In addition, we answer a question of Keisler regarding the number of cut...

  8. Discrimination method of forked larch trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wen-bin; Sun Ren-shan; Liu Xu-hua; Liu Yong

    2006-01-01

    For the demands of automatíc pruning, an effective discrimination rule of the forked and non-forked larch trees is established. First, information of trunk and branch diameters of a larch plantations was collected from the west mountain of Beijing. The growth characteristics of the forked and non-forked trees were studied. Given the statistical characteristics of the trunk and branch diameters, a discriminant function of the forked branch and non-forked larch trees was established statistically. Excellent discrimination results were obtained by the function and the rule. The study presents an effective discrimination rule to separate forked trees from straight trees for automatic pruning.

  9. 2013 Athens-Clarke County, Georgia Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of 0.5 foot pixel resolution, four band (RGB, Near IR) orthoimages covering Athens-Clarke Georgia. An orthoimage is remotely sensed image...

  10. The relationship between land management, fecal indicator bacteria, and the occurrence of Campylobacter and Listeria spp. in water and sediments during synoptic sampling in the S. Fork Broad River Watershed, N.E. Georgia, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, J. K.; Molina, M.; Sidle, R. C.; Sullivan, K.; Oakley, B.; Berrang, M.; Meinersmann, R.

    2013-12-01

    Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and pathogens stored in the bed sediments of streams and rivers may be mobilized into the water column affecting overall water quality. Furthermore, land management may play an important role in the concentrations of FIB and the occurrence of pathogens in stream water and sediments. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between FIB and pathogens in stream water and sediment based on three land management-affected categories: agricultural, forest, and waters receiving treated municipal wastewater. Two synoptic sampling events were conducted under baseflow conditions (Campylobacter and Listeria spp. were measured in stream water and sediment samples collected at 15 locations (six agricultural (AG); six forested (FORS); and three receiving discharge from water pollution control plants (WPCP)) in the S. Fork Broad River watershed located in northeast Georgia, USA. Mean E. coli and E. faecalis concentrations were highest in the AG stream water samples (3.08 log MPN 100 mL -1 for E. coli and 3.07 log CFU 100 mL -1 for E. faecalis ) and lowest in the FORS water samples for E. coli (2.37 log MPN 100 mL -1 ) and WPCP water samples for E. faecalis (2.53 log CFU 100 mL -1 ). E. coli concentrations (2.74 log MPN 100 mL -1 ) in the WPCP streams were intermediate. Similar to water samples, E. coli concentrations were highest in the AG sediments (4.31 log MPN g -1 ), intermediate in the WPCP sediments (4.06 log MPN g -1 ), and lowest in the FORS sediments (3.46 log MPN g -1 ). In contrast to E. coli, E. faecalis concentrations were lower (1.10 to 1.31 log CFU g -1 ) and relatively more constant than E. coli in sediments over the three land management categories. Campylobacter was detected in 27% of the water samples and 8% of the sediment samples. The highest occurrence of Campylobacter detection was in the AG streams (15% of the water samples; 5% of the sediment samples). Listeria was detected in 76% of the water samples and

  11. Knowledge, Power, and Freud's Clark Conference Lectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Martha; Makay, John J.

    1988-01-01

    Examines Freud's Clark Conference Lectures in which he offers a case in point of the intersection among knowledge, power, and discourse. Argues that Freud's rhetorical action constituted the "new" knowledge of psychoanalysis, while simultaneously forging relationships between the scientific and medical communities that endowed the psychoanalyst…

  12. Flood duration and chute cutoff formation in a wandering gravel-bed river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, A.; Wilcox, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    Chute cutoffs occur when a bypass or "chute" channel incises across a bar or low floodplain area, re-distributing water and sediment. Cutoffs result from a setup and a triggering event, typically during overbank flow, but the combined effect of magnitude and duration on potential erosion in in-channel and overbank areas is still poorly constrained. Here we investigated how overbank flow duration impacts cutoff formation and spatiotemporal shear stress patterns in a wandering gravel-bed river. We applied a two-dimensional hydraulic model to a recently reconstructed reach of the Clark Fork River in western Montana that experienced chute cutoffs during a long-duration flood in 2011. Hydrographs with increasing durations exceeding overbank were simulated; for each magnitude-duration combination, various metrics were quantified for in-channel and overbank areas separately. We confirm the hypothesized importance of floodplain elevation, vegetation presence, chute-channel inlet entrance location, and high overbank shear stress zones at bend apexes on cutoff occurrence. Floodplain width plays an important role in controlling unit discharge such that overbank areas are more competent in a narrower floodplain conveyance corridor. Duration controls cumulative flow exceeding sediment mobility thresholds, having the largest effect in overbank areas. Side channels at the reconstructed study site act like naturally formed incipient chutes. This work describes a complex floodplain system characteristic of wandering gravel-bed rivers with implications for understanding morphodynamic evolution, river restoration, and flow management in regulated rivers.

  13. FBH1 Catalyzes Regression of Stalled Replication Forks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugger, Kasper; Mistrik, Martin; Neelsen, Kai J;

    2015-01-01

    DNA replication fork perturbation is a major challenge to the maintenance of genome integrity. It has been suggested that processing of stalled forks might involve fork regression, in which the fork reverses and the two nascent DNA strands anneal. Here, we show that FBH1 catalyzes regression of a...... model whereby FBH1 promotes early checkpoint signaling by remodeling of stalled DNA replication forks....... model replication fork in vitro and promotes fork regression in vivo in response to replication perturbation. Cells respond to fork stalling by activating checkpoint responses requiring signaling through stress-activated protein kinases. Importantly, we show that FBH1, through its helicase activity, is...

  14. Modern Exploration of the Lewis and Clark Expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The Lewis and Clark Geosystem is an online collection of private, state, local, and Federal data resources associated with the geography of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Data were compiled from key partners including NASA s Stennis Space Center, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the University of Montana, the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, and from a collection of Lewis and Clark scholars. It combines modern views of the landscape with historical aerial photography, cartography, and other geographical data resources and historical sources, including: The Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, the Academy of Natural Science's Lewis and Clark Herbarium, high-resolution copies of the American Philosophical Society s primary-source Lewis and Clark Journals, The Library of Congress Lewis and Clark cartography collection, as well as artifacts from the Smithsonian Institution and other sources.

  15. Geometry of forking in simple theories

    OpenAIRE

    Peretz, Assaf

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the geometry of forking for SU-rank 2 elements in supersimple ω-categorical theories and prove stable forking and some structural properties for such elements. We extend this analysis to the case of SU-rank 3 elements.

  16. Amy Finkelstein: 2012 John Bates Clark Medalist

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Levin; James Poterba

    2012-01-01

    Amy Finkelstein is the 2012 recipient of the John Bates Clark Medal from the American Economic Association. The core concerns of Amy's research program have been insurance markets and health care. She has addressed whether asymmetric information leads to inefficiencies in insurance markets, how large social insurance programs affect healthcare markets, and the determinants of innovation incentives in health care. We describe a number of Amy's key research contributions, with particular emphas...

  17. Forecasting gaming revenues in Clark County, Nevada: Issues and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, B.K.; Bando, A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the Western Area Gaming and Economic Response Simulator (WAGERS), a forecasting model that emphasizes the role of the gaming industry in Clark County, Nevada. Is is designed to generate forecasts of gaming revenues in Clark County, whose regional economy is dominated by the gaming industry. The model is meant to forecast Clark County gaming revenues and identifies the exogenous variables that affect gaming revenues. It will provide baseline forecasts of Clark County gaming revenues in order to assess changes in gaming-related economic activity resulting from changes in regional economic activity and tourism.

  18. Forecasting gaming revenues in Clark County, Nevada: Issues and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, B.K.; Bando, A.

    1992-07-01

    This paper describes the Western Area Gaming and Economic Response Simulator (WAGERS), a forecasting model that emphasizes the role of the gaming industry in Clark County, Nevada. Is is designed to generate forecasts of gaming revenues in Clark County, whose regional economy is dominated by the gaming industry. The model is meant to forecast Clark County gaming revenues and identifies the exogenous variables that affect gaming revenues. It will provide baseline forecasts of Clark County gaming revenues in order to assess changes in gaming-related economic activity resulting from changes in regional economic activity and tourism.

  19. Salmon River Habitat Enhancement, 1989 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, Mike

    1989-04-01

    This project was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The annual report contains three individual subproject papers detailing tribal fisheries work completed during the summer and fall of 1989. Subproject 1 contains summaries of evaluation/monitoring efforts associated with the Bear Valley Creek, Idaho enhancement project. Subproject 2 contains an evaluation of the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River habitat enhancement project. This report has been sub-divided into two parts: Part 1; stream evaluation and Part 2; pond series evaluation. Subproject 3 concerns the East Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho. This report summarizes the evaluation of the project to date including the 1989 pre-construction evaluation conducted within the East Fork drainage. Dredge mining has degraded spawning and rearing habitat for chinook salmon and steelhead trout in the Yankee Fork drainage of the Salmon River and in Bear Valley Creek. Mining, agricultural, and grazing practices degraded habitat in the East Fork of the Salmon River. Biological monitoring of the success of habitat enhancement for Bear Valley Creek and Yankee Fork are presented in this report. Physical and biological inventories prior to habitat enhancement in East Fork were also conducted. Four series of off-channel ponds of the Yankee Fork are shown to provide effective rearing habitat for chinook salmon. 45 refs., 49 figs., 24 tabs.

  20. Clark E. Moustakas (1923-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, Diane S

    2013-01-01

    Presents an obituary for Clark E. Moustakas. Clark E. Moustakas was a consummate educator and a true model of the tenets and values of humanistic psychology, a movement he cofounded in the late 1950s with other pioneers in American psychology, including Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers. This movement, recognized as the "third force" in psychology, had a significant impact in the 1960s and 1970s and became an important component of mainstream practice. Moustakas produced a prolific and influential body of work. He embraced solitude as a time of reflection and did not enjoy notoriety. While he inhabited many roles-professor, scholar, clinician, and author-engagement with others in the moment was always the most essential element in his life. He was a gentle man, full of energy and spirit, exuding warmth and focused attention. In his company, one was immediately struck by his earnestness and caring. People from all over the world respected his expertise and sought his advice. To have this impact and to have informed the field in so many ways is a remarkable accomplishment. PMID:23895613

  1. Clark's Nutcracker Breeding Season Space Use and Foraging Behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taza D Schaming

    Full Text Available Considering the entire life history of a species is fundamental to developing effective conservation strategies. Decreasing populations of five-needle white pines may be leading to the decline of Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana. These birds are important seed dispersers for at least ten conifer species in the western U.S., including whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis, an obligate mutualist of Clark's nutcrackers. For effective conservation of both Clark's nutcrackers and whitebark pine, it is essential to ensure stability of Clark's nutcracker populations. My objectives were to examine Clark's nutcracker breeding season home range size, territoriality, habitat selection, and foraging behavior in the southern Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, a region where whitebark pine is declining. I radio-tracked Clark's nutcrackers in 2011, a population-wide nonbreeding year following a low whitebark pine cone crop, and 2012, a breeding year following a high cone crop. Results suggest Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii communities are important habitat for Clark's nutcrackers because they selected it for home ranges. In contrast, they did not select whitebark pine habitat. However, Clark's nutcrackers did adjust their use of whitebark pine habitat between years, suggesting that, in some springs, whitebark pine habitat may be used more than previously expected. Newly extracted Douglas-fir seeds were an important food source both years. On the other hand, cached seeds made up a relatively lower proportion of the diet in 2011, suggesting cached seeds are not a reliable spring food source. Land managers focus on restoring whitebark pine habitat with the assumption that Clark's nutcrackers will be available to continue seed dispersal. In the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, Clark's nutcracker populations may be more likely to be retained year-round when whitebark pine restoration efforts are located adjacent to Douglas-fir habitat. By extrapolation, whitebark

  2. Clark's Nutcracker Breeding Season Space Use and Foraging Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaming, Taza D

    2016-01-01

    Considering the entire life history of a species is fundamental to developing effective conservation strategies. Decreasing populations of five-needle white pines may be leading to the decline of Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana). These birds are important seed dispersers for at least ten conifer species in the western U.S., including whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), an obligate mutualist of Clark's nutcrackers. For effective conservation of both Clark's nutcrackers and whitebark pine, it is essential to ensure stability of Clark's nutcracker populations. My objectives were to examine Clark's nutcracker breeding season home range size, territoriality, habitat selection, and foraging behavior in the southern Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, a region where whitebark pine is declining. I radio-tracked Clark's nutcrackers in 2011, a population-wide nonbreeding year following a low whitebark pine cone crop, and 2012, a breeding year following a high cone crop. Results suggest Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) communities are important habitat for Clark's nutcrackers because they selected it for home ranges. In contrast, they did not select whitebark pine habitat. However, Clark's nutcrackers did adjust their use of whitebark pine habitat between years, suggesting that, in some springs, whitebark pine habitat may be used more than previously expected. Newly extracted Douglas-fir seeds were an important food source both years. On the other hand, cached seeds made up a relatively lower proportion of the diet in 2011, suggesting cached seeds are not a reliable spring food source. Land managers focus on restoring whitebark pine habitat with the assumption that Clark's nutcrackers will be available to continue seed dispersal. In the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, Clark's nutcracker populations may be more likely to be retained year-round when whitebark pine restoration efforts are located adjacent to Douglas-fir habitat. By extrapolation, whitebark pine restoration

  3. The Relationship Between Land Management, Fecal Indicator Bacteria, and the Occurrence of Campylobacter and Listeria Spp. in Water and Sediments During Synoptic Sampling In The South Fork Broad River Watershed, Northeast Georgia, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and pathogens stored in the bed sediments of streams and rivers may be mobilized into the water column affecting overall water quality. Furthermore, land management may play an important role in the concentrations of FIB and the occurrence of pathog...

  4. Habitat Management Plan - Clarks River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Habitat Management Plans (HMPs) are dynamic working documents that provide refuge managers a decision-making process; guidance for the management of the refuge’s...

  5. DNA fork displacement rates in human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DNA fork displacement rates were measured in 20 human cell lines by a bromodeoxyuridine-313 nm photolysis technique. Cell lines included representatives of normal diploid, Fanconi's anemia, ataxia telangiectasia, xeroderma pigmentosum, trisomy-21 and several transformed lines. The average value for all the cell lines was 0.53 +- 0.08 μm/min. The average value for individual cell lines, however, displayed a 30% variation. Less than 10% of variation in the fork displacement rate appears to be due to the experimental technique; the remainder is probably due to true variation among the cell types and to culture conditions. (Auth.)

  6. A forecasting model of gaming revenues in Clark County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the Western Area Gaming and Economic Response Simulator (WAGERS), a forecasting model that emphasizes the role of the gaming industry in Clark County, Nevada. It is designed to generate forecasts of gaming revenues in Clark County, whose regional economy is dominated by the gaming industry, and identify the exogenous variables that affect gaming revenues. This model will provide baseline forecasts of Clark County gaming revenues in order to assess changes in gaming related economic activity resulting from future events like the siting of a permanent high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain

  7. A forecasting model of gaming revenues in Clark County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the Western Area Gaining and Economic Response Simulator (WAGERS), a forecasting model that emphasizes the role of the gaming industry in Clark County, Nevada. It is designed to generate forecasts of gaming revenues in Clark County, whose regional economy is dominated by the gaming industry, an identify the exogenous variables that affect gaming revenues. This model will provide baseline forecasts of Clark County gaming revenues in order to assess changes in gaming related economic activity resulting from future events like the siting of a permanent high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain

  8. 27 CFR 9.113 - North Fork of Long Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false North Fork of Long Island... North Fork of Long Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “North Fork of Long Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries...

  9. Step up Ken Clarke, pragmatist, cigar smoker, and prison reformer

    OpenAIRE

    Bastow, Simon

    2010-01-01

    In his inimitable style, Ken Clarke gave indication last week of the coalition’s approach to reform of the prison system. There are reasons to be optimistic, and reasons to be sceptical. Simon Bastow discusses the reasons.

  10. Ramsey Clark to give peace talk at Virginia Tech

    OpenAIRE

    Brunais, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Ramsey Clark, former U.S. attorney general and prominent figure on the modern international stage, will give his perspectives on peace in a speech at Virginia Tech on Oct. 28. The speech is free and open to the public.

  11. Development of the Pintle Release Fork Mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved method of attachment of the pintle to the piston in the universal sampler is being developed. The mechanism utilizes a forked release disk which captures two balls in a cavity formed by a hole in the piston and a groove in the pintle rod

  12. Development of the Pintle Release Fork Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOGER, R.M.; DALE, R.

    1999-08-27

    An improved method of attachment of the pintle to the piston in the universal sampler is being developed. The mechanism utilizes a forked release disk which captures two balls in a cavity formed by a hole in the piston and a groove in the pintle rod.

  13. Forks impacts and motivations in free and open source projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Viseur

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Forking is a mechanism of splitting in a community and is typically found in the free and open source software field. As a failure of cooperation in a context of open innovation, forking is a practical and informative subject of study. In-depth researches concerning the fork phenomenon are uncommon. We therefore conducted a detailed study of 26 forks from popular free and open source projects. We created fact sheets, highlighting the impact and motivations to fork. We particularly point to the fact that the desire for greater technical differentiation and problems of project governance are major sources of conflict.

  14. Homologous Recombination as a Replication Fork Escort: Fork-Protection and Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Costes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Homologous recombination is a universal mechanism that allows DNA repair and ensures the efficiency of DNA replication. The substrate initiating the process of homologous recombination is a single-stranded DNA that promotes a strand exchange reaction resulting in a genetic exchange that promotes genetic diversity and DNA repair. The molecular mechanisms by which homologous recombination repairs a double-strand break have been extensively studied and are now well characterized. However, the mechanisms by which homologous recombination contribute to DNA replication in eukaryotes remains poorly understood. Studies in bacteria have identified multiple roles for the machinery of homologous recombination at replication forks. Here, we review our understanding of the molecular pathways involving the homologous recombination machinery to support the robustness of DNA replication. In addition to its role in fork-recovery and in rebuilding a functional replication fork apparatus, homologous recombination may also act as a fork-protection mechanism. We discuss that some of the fork-escort functions of homologous recombination might be achieved by loading of the recombination machinery at inactivated forks without a need for a strand exchange step; as well as the consequence of such a model for the stability of eukaryotic genomes.

  15. An extension of clarke's model with stochastic amplitude flip processes

    KAUST Repository

    Hoel, Hakon

    2014-07-01

    Stochastic modeling is an essential tool for studying statistical properties of wireless channels. In multipath fading channel (MFC) models, the signal reception is modeled by a sum of wave path contributions, and Clarke\\'s model is an important example of such which has been widely accepted in many wireless applications. However, since Clarke\\'s model is temporally deterministic, Feng and Field noted that it does not model real wireless channels with time-varying randomness well. Here, we extend Clarke\\'s model to a novel time-varying stochastic MFC model with scatterers randomly flipping on and off. Statistical properties of the MFC model are analyzed and shown to fit well with real signal measurements, and a limit Gaussian process is derived from the model when the number of active wave paths tends to infinity. A second focus of this work is a comparison study of the error and computational cost of generating signal realizations from the MFC model and from its limit Gaussian process. By rigorous analysis and numerical studies, we show that in many settings, signal realizations are generated more efficiently by Gaussian process algorithms than by the MFC model\\'s algorithm. Numerical examples that strengthen these observations are also presented. © 2014 IEEE.

  16. Malheur River Basin cooperative bull trout/redband trout research project, annual report FY 1999; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to document the seasonal distribution of adult/sub-adult bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Malheur River basin. Due to the decline of bull trout in the Columbia Basin, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service listed bull trout as a threatened species in June 1998. Past land management activities; construction of dams; and fish eradication projects in the North Fork and Middle Fork Malheur River by poisoning have worked in concert to cumulatively impact native species in the Malheur Basin (Bowers et. al. 1993). Survival of the remaining bull trout populations is severely threatened (Buchanan 1997). 1999 Research Objects are: (1) Document the migratory patterns of adult/sub-adult bull trout in the North Fork Malheur River; (2) Determine the seasonal bull trout use of Beulah Reservoir and bull trout entrainment; and (3) Timing and location of bull trout spawning in the North Fork Malheur River basin. The study area includes the Malheur basin from the mouth of the Malheur River located near Ontario, Oregon to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur River (Map 1). All fish collected and most of the telemetry effort was done on the North Fork Malheur River subbasin (Map 2). Fish collection was conducted on the North Fork Malheur River at the tailwaters of Beulah Reservoir (RK 29), Beulah Reservoir (RK 29-RK 33), and in the North Fork Malheur River at Crane Crossing (RK 69) to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur. Radio telemetry was done from the mouth of the Malheur River in Ontario, Oregon to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur. This report will reflect all migration data collected from 3/1/99 to 12/31/99

  17. Code Forking, Governance, and Sustainability in Open Source Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juho Lindman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The right to fork open source code is at the core of open source licensing. All open source licenses grant the right to fork their code, that is to start a new development effort using an existing code as its base. Thus, code forking represents the single greatest tool available for guaranteeing sustainability in open source software. In addition to bolstering program sustainability, code forking directly affects the governance of open source initiatives. Forking, and even the mere possibility of forking code, affects the governance and sustainability of open source initiatives on three distinct levels: software, community, and ecosystem. On the software level, the right to fork makes planned obsolescence, versioning, vendor lock-in, end-of-support issues, and similar initiatives all but impossible to implement. On the community level, forking impacts both sustainability and governance through the power it grants the community to safeguard against unfavourable actions by corporations or project leaders. On the business-ecosystem level forking can serve as a catalyst for innovation while simultaneously promoting better quality software through natural selection. Thus, forking helps keep open source initiatives relevant and presents opportunities for the development and commercialization of current and abandoned programs.

  18. Effect of incubation temperature on post-embryonic survival and growth of steelhead in a natural stream and a hatchery (Study sites: Dworshak Hatchery and North Fork Palouse River; Stocks: Dworshak hatchery; Year classes: 1994 and 1995): Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Stenberg, Karl D.; Baker, Bruce M.

    2012-01-01

    We tested whether varying incubation temperatures to match development between embryos from different spawning dates affected survival and growth of unfed steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss fry released in a stream and in hatchery ponds. Hatchery steelhead returning to the Clearwater River, Idaho were artificially spawned on two dates separated by a four week interval. Progeny from the early date (ExE, from early males and early females) were incubated in chilled (7°C) water and those from the late date (LxL) in ambient (12°C) water until developmental stage matched. A third group, created by fertilizing eggs from late females with cryopreserved milt from early males (ExL), was included to control for any genetic differences between early and late returning adults. Survival in the stream to 3 and 15 months after release was similar among crosses. Survival in the hatchery to near the end of the standard one year rearing period was similar among crosses for one of two year - classes but different for the other; however, it was difficult to ascribe the differences (ExL>ExE; LxL intermediate but closer to ExE) to incubation temperature differences. We conclude that there was little if any effect of incubation temperature on survival. Length of juveniles of one year - class differed among crosses in the stream and in the hatchery. Length of the other year - class differed among crosses in one pond at the hatchery but not in the other pond or in the stream. When length differed the pattern was always the same: ExE>LxL; ExL intermediate but closer to LxL. We speculate that incubation temperature may have affected growth of juveniles, and in particular that a longer period of incubation in chilled water may have caused fast juvenile growth relative to a shorter incubation period in ambient water.

  19. Quartz tuning fork based microwave impedance microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yong-Tao; Ma, Eric Yue; Shen, Zhi-Xun

    2016-06-01

    Microwave impedance microscopy (MIM), a near-field microwave scanning probe technique, has become a powerful tool to characterize local electrical responses in solid state samples. We present the design of a new type of MIM sensor based on quartz tuning fork and electrochemically etched thin metal wires. Due to a higher aspect ratio tip and integration with tuning fork, such design achieves comparable MIM performance and enables easy self-sensing topography feedback in situations where the conventional optical feedback mechanism is not available, thus is complementary to microfabricated shielded stripline-type probes. The new design also enables stable differential mode MIM detection and multiple-frequency MIM measurements with a single sensor.

  20. Socioeconomic profile of Clark County, Nevada: Community services inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project is preparing socioeconomic profiles of Clark County, Nevada, and communities in Clark County that could be affected by siting, construction, operation, and decommissioning of a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, located in Nye County. These profiles serve as a data base for evaluating local community service impacts; store existing socioeconomic data in a uniform, readily accessible format; identify the need for additional data; and assist in developing a plan for monitoring and mitigating any significant adverse impacts that may be associated with site characterization and potential repository development. This element of the socioeconomic profiles contains an inventory of community services provided by local, county, and state agencies and volunteer organizations to residents of Las Vegas, North Las Vegas, Henderson, Boulder City, Indian Springs, and unincorporated areas of the county. Services inventoried include housing, growth management, general government, education, police protection, transportation networks, public clinics, private health personnel, parks and recreation, social services, libraries, ambulances, electric power, natural gas, water, sewers and wastewater treatment, solid waste, and fire protection. The report includes a summary overview of service providers in Clark County, discussions of the services provided to residents of communities in Clark County that may be affected by Project activities, and a description of service providers whose service areas are not limited to the incorporated areas of Clark County. Data presented in this profile were collected through March of 1985. Data collection efforts are ongoing and this profile will be updated periodically

  1. Structural design of a composite bicycle fork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Case study about composite bicycle fork design. • Special requirements for a Student Team project. • FE model to evaluate stiffness, strength and potential failure modes. • Comparison of two manufacturing approaches. • FE model stiffness validation on the manufactured fork. - Abstract: Despite the wide literature on the mechanical behaviour of carbon/epoxy composites, it is rare to find practical methodological approaches in finite element design of structural components made by laminate layup. Through the case study of a special bicycle fork needed in a Student Team prototype, this paper proposes a simplified methodology as starting point for educational and manufacturing purposes. In order to compare two manufacturing solutions in terms of stiffness, strength and failure mode, a numerical model was implemented. Since the project requirements imposed to avoid standard destructive testing, the model validation was based on a posteriori linear stiffness comparison with the manufactured component. The slight discrepancies between experimental and numerical results were discussed in order to check their origin and to assess the reliability of the model. The overall methodology, even if complain with only a part of the safety standard requirements, shows to be reliable enough and can be the basis for further extension and refinement

  2. The forked flap repair for hypospadias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Chadha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Despite the abundance of techniques for the repair of Hypospadias, its problems still persist and a satisfactory design to correct the penile curvature with the formation of neourethra from the native urethral tissue or genital or extragenital tissues, with minimal postoperative complications has yet to evolve. Aim: Persisting with such an endeavor, a new technique for the repair of distal and midpenile hypospadias is described. Materials and Methods: The study has been done in 70 cases over the past 11 years. The "Forked-Flap" repair is a single stage method for the repair of such Hypospadias with chordee. It takes advantage of the rich vascular communication at the corona and capitalizes on the established reliability of the meatal based flip-flap. The repair achieves straightening of the curvature of the penis by complete excision of chordee tissue from the ventral surface of the penis beneath the urethral plate. The urethra is reconstructed using the native plate with forked flap extensions and genital tissue relying on the concept of meatal based flaps. Water proofing by dartos tissue and reinforcement by Nesbit′s prepucial tissue transfer completes the one stage procedure. Statistical Analysis: An analysis of 70 cases of this single stage technique of repair of penile hypospadias with chordee, operated at 3 to 5 years of age over the past 11 years is presented. Results and Conclusion: The Forked Flap gives comparable and replicable results; except for a urethrocutaneous fistula rate of 4% no other complications were observed.

  3. Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 1999 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassemer, Peter F.

    2001-04-01

    During 1999, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued developing techniques for the captive rearing of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Techniques under development included protocols for rearing juveniles in freshwater and saltwater hatchery environments, and fieldwork to collect brood year 1998 and 1999 juveniles and eggs and to investigate the ability of these fish to spawn naturally. Fish collected as juveniles were held for a short time at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and later transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery for rearing. Eyed-eggs were transferred immediately to the Eagle Fish Hatchery where they were disinfected and reared by family groups. When fish from either collection method reached approximately 60 mm, they were PIT tagged and reared separately by brood year and source stream. Sixteen different groups were in culture at IDFG facilities in 1999. Hatchery spawning activities of captive-reared chinook salmon produced eyed-eggs for outplanting in streamside incubation chambers in the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=2,297) and the East Fork Salmon River (N=1,038). Additionally, a number of these eggs were maintained at the Eagle Fish Hatchery to ensure adequate brood year 1999 representation from these systems, and produced 279 and 87 juveniles from the West Fork Yankee Fork and East Fork Salmon River, respectively. Eyed-eggs were not collected from the West Fork Yankee Fork due to low adult escapement. Brood year 1998 juveniles were collected from the Lemhi River (N=191), West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=229), and East Fork Salmon River (N=185). Additionally, brood year 1999 eyed-eggs were collected from the Lemhi River (N=264) and East Fork Salmon River (N=143). Sixty-two and seven maturing adults were released into Bear Valley Creek (Lemhi River system) and the East Fork Salmon River, respectively, for spawning evaluation in 1999. Nine female carcasses from Bear Valley Creek were examined for egg retention, and of

  4. Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 1998-1999 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassemer, Peter F.

    2001-04-01

    During 1999, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued developing techniques for the captive rearing of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Techniques under development included protocols for rearing juveniles in freshwater and saltwater hatchery environments, and fieldwork to collect brood year 1998 and 1999 juveniles and eggs and to investigate the ability of these fish to spawn naturally. Fish collected as juveniles were held for a short time at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and later transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery for rearing. Eyed-eggs were transferred immediately to the Eagle Fish Hatchery where they were disinfected and reared by family groups. When fish from either collection method reached approximately 60 mm, they were PIT tagged and reared separately by brood year and source stream. Sixteen different groups were in culture at IDFG facilities in 1999. Hatchery spawning activities of captive-reared chinook salmon produced eyed-eggs for outplanting in streamside incubation chambers in the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=2,297) and the East Fork Salmon River (N=1,038). Additionally, a number of these eggs were maintained at the Eagle Fish Hatchery to ensure adequate brood year 1999 representation from these systems, and produced 279 and 87 juveniles from the West Fork Yankee Fork and East Fork Salmon River, respectively. Eyed-eggs were not collected from the West Fork Yankee Fork due to low adult escapement. Brood year 1998 juveniles were collected from the Lemhi River (N=191), West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=229), and East Fork Salmon River (N=185). Additionally, brood year 1999 eyed-eggs were collected from the Lemhi River (N=264) and East Fork Salmon River (N=143). Sixty-two and seven maturing adults were released into Bear Valley Creek (Lemhi River system) and the East Fork Salmon River, respectively, for spawning evaluation in 1999. Nine female carcasses from Bear Valley Creek were examined for egg retention, and of

  5. Exact Monte Carlo simulation for fork-join networks

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Hongsheng

    2011-01-01

    In a fork-join network each incoming job is split into K tasks and the K tasks are simultaneously assigned to $K$ parallel service stations for processing. For the distributions of response times and queue lengths of fork-join networks, no explicit formulae are available. Existing methods provide only analytic approximations for the response time and the queue length distributions. The accuracy of such approximations may be difficult to justify for some complicated fork-join...

  6. Exact Simulation for Fork-Join Networks with Heterogeneous Service

    OpenAIRE

    Hongsheng Dai

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers a fork-join network with a group of heterogeneous servers in each service station, e.g. servers having different service rate. The main research interests are the properties of such fork-join networks in equilibrium, such as distributions of response times, maximum queue lengths and load carried by servers. This paper uses exact Monte-Carlo simulation methods to estimate the characteristics ofheterogeneous fork-join networks in equilibrium, for which no explicit formulas ...

  7. Code forking in open-source software: a requirements perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ernst, Neil A.; Easterbrook, Steve; Mylopoulos, John

    2010-01-01

    To fork a project is to copy the existing code base and move in a direction different than that of the erstwhile project leadership. Forking provides a rapid way to address new requirements by adapting an existing solution. However, it can also create a plethora of similar tools, and fragment the developer community. Hence, it is not always clear whether forking is the right strategy. In this paper, we describe a mixed-methods exploratory case study that investigated the process of forking a ...

  8. Evolution of tail fork depth in genus Hirundo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Masaru; Arai, Emi; Kutsukake, Nobuyuki

    2016-02-01

    A classic example of a sexually selected trait, the deep fork tail of the barn swallow Hirundo rustica is now claimed to have evolved and be maintained mainly via aerodynamic advantage rather than sexually selected advantage. However, this aerodynamic advantage hypothesis does not clarify which flight habits select for/against deep fork tails, causing diversity of tail fork depth in hirundines. Here, by focusing on the genus Hirundo, we investigated whether the large variation in tail fork depth could be explained by the differential flight habits. Using a phylogenetic comparative approach, we found that migrant species had deeper fork tails, but less colorful plumage, than the other species, indicating that migration favors a specific trait, deep fork tails. At the same time, tail fork depth but not plumage coloration decreased with increasing bill size - a proxy of prey size, suggesting that foraging on larger prey items favors shallower fork tails. Variation of tail fork depth in the genus Hirundo may be explained by differential flight habits, even without assuming sexual selection. PMID:26865972

  9. Regulation of replication fork progression through histone supply and demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Anja; Corpet, Armelle; Cook, Adam J L;

    2007-01-01

    DNA replication in eukaryotes requires nucleosome disruption ahead of the replication fork and reassembly behind. An unresolved issue concerns how histone dynamics are coordinated with fork progression to maintain chromosomal stability. Here, we characterize a complex in which the human histone c...... progression and histone supply and demand.......1 chaperone function, histone supply, and replicative unwinding of DNA in chromatin. We propose that Asf1, as a histone acceptor and donor, handles parental and new histones at the replication fork via an Asf1-(H3-H4)-MCM2-7 intermediate and thus provides a means to fine-tune replication fork...

  10. Code forking in open-source software: a requirements perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Ernst, Neil A; Mylopoulos, John

    2010-01-01

    To fork a project is to copy the existing code base and move in a direction different than that of the erstwhile project leadership. Forking provides a rapid way to address new requirements by adapting an existing solution. However, it can also create a plethora of similar tools, and fragment the developer community. Hence, it is not always clear whether forking is the right strategy. In this paper, we describe a mixed-methods exploratory case study that investigated the process of forking a project. The study concerned the forking of an open-source tool for managing software projects, Trac. Trac was forked to address differing requirements in an academic setting. The paper makes two contributions to our understanding of code forking. First, our exploratory study generated several theories about code forking in open source projects, for further research. Second, we investigated one of these theories in depth, via a quantitative study. We conjectured that the features of the OSS forking process would allow new...

  11. Lowell Observatory's 24-inch Clark Refractor: Its History and Renovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Kevin; Nye, Ralph; Rosenthal, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In 1895, Percival Lowell hired eminent telescope maker Alvan G. Clark to build a 24-inch refractor. Lowell intended the telescope intitally for observing Mars in support of his controversial theories about life on that planet. Clark finished the telescope within a year and at a cost of $20,000. Lowell and his staff of assistants and astronomers began observing through it on July 23, 1896, setting off a long and productive career for the telescope.While Lowell's Mars studies dominated early work with the Clark, V.M. Slipher by the 1910s was using it to observe planetary rotations and atmospheric compositions. He soon revolutionized spectroscopic studies, gathering excruciatingly long spectra - some in excess of 40 hours - of the so-called white nebula and determining startling radial velocities, evidence of an expanding universe. In the 1960s, scientists and artists teamed up on the Clark and created detailed lunar maps in support of the Apollo program.In recent decades, the Clark has played a central role in the education programs at Lowell, with general public audiences, students, and private groups all taking advantage of this unique resource.With this nearly 120 years of contant use, the Clark had been wearing down in recent years. The telescope was becoming more difficult to move, old electrical wiring in the dome was a fire hazard, and many of the telescope's parts needed to be repaired or replaced.In 2013, Lowell Observatory began a fundraising campaign, collecting $291,000 to cover the cost of dome and telescope renovation. Workers removed the entire telescope mount and tube assembly from the dome, examining every part from tube sections to individuals screws. They also stabilized the dome, adding a water vapor barrier and new outer wall while reinforcing the upper dome. The project lasted from January, 2014 through August, 2015. The facility reopened for daytime tours in September, 2015 and evening viewing the following month.

  12. Replication Termination: Containing Fork Fusion-Mediated Pathologies in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Juachi U. Dimude; Midgley-Smith, Sarah L.; Monja Stein; Rudolph, Christian J.

    2016-01-01

    Duplication of bacterial chromosomes is initiated via the assembly of two replication forks at a single defined origin. Forks proceed bi-directionally until they fuse in a specialised termination area opposite the origin. This area is flanked by polar replication fork pause sites that allow forks to enter but not to leave. The precise function of this replication fork trap has remained enigmatic, as no obvious phenotypes have been associated with its inactivation. However, the fork trap becom...

  13. Wesley Clark pooldab NATO harta tugevdamist / Evi Evart

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Evart, Evi

    2003-01-01

    Endine NATO vägede ülemjuhataja Euroopas Wesley Clark pidas USA välispoliitikanõukogus kõne, milles tegi ettepaneku sõlmida uus Atlandi harta ning võrdles USA suhteid Euroopa riikidega raudeesriide-aegse olukorraga

  14. Automatic differentiation of melanoma and clark nevus skin lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeAnder, R. W.; Kasture, A.; Pandey, A.; Umbaugh, S. E.

    2007-03-01

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. Although melanoma accounts for just 11% of all types of skin cancer, it is responsible for most of the deaths, claiming more than 7910 lives annually. Melanoma is visually difficult for clinicians to differentiate from Clark nevus lesions which are benign. The application of pattern recognition techniques to these lesions may be useful as an educational tool for teaching physicians to differentiate lesions, as well as for contributing information about the essential optical characteristics that identify them. Purpose: This study sought to find the most effective features to extract from melanoma, melanoma in situ and Clark nevus lesions, and to find the most effective pattern-classification criteria and algorithms for differentiating those lesions, using the Computer Vision and Image Processing Tools (CVIPtools) software package. Methods: Due to changes in ambient lighting during the photographic process, color differences between images can occur. These differences were minimized by capturing dermoscopic images instead of photographic images. Differences in skin color between patients were minimized via image color normalization, by converting original color images to relative-color images. Relative-color images also helped minimize changes in color that occur due to changes in the photographic and digitization processes. Tumors in the relative-color images were segmented and morphologically filtered. Filtered, relative-color, tumor features were then extracted and various pattern-classification schemes were applied. Results: Experimentation resulted in four useful pattern classification methods, the best of which was an overall classification rate of 100% for melanoma and melanoma in situ (grouped) and 60% for Clark nevus. Conclusion: Melanoma and melanoma in situ have feature parameters and feature values that are similar enough to be considered one class of tumor that significantly differs from

  15. Design of a tuning-fork gyro made of quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yubin; Sun, Yunan; Qin, BingKun; Cui, Fang; Chen, Gang

    1998-08-01

    Based on piezoelectric effect of quartz, a design of tuning- fork gyroscopes made of quartz was presented in this paper. The gyroscope is a kind of micro-machined quartz angular rate sensor. Its structure is similar to a tuning fork in quartz watch. In the gyroscope, the piezoelectric effect in quartz is used both to excite a reference vibration in the plane of tuning fork and to detect a vibration normal to this plane due to an externally applied rotation. The amplitude of the second vibration is directly proportional to the angular velocity of the applied rotation. In contrast to ordinary types of tuning fork gyroscopes, this gyroscope uses a single piece of quartz, the sensor element is of a design in which the only vibrationally, active areas are the tines of the tuning fork.

  16. The Fork+ burnup measurement system: Design and first measurement campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous work with the original Fork detector showed that burnup as determined by reactor records could be accurately allocated to spent nuclear fuel assemblies. The original Fork detector, designed by Los Alamos National Laboratory, used an ion chamber to measure gross gamma count and a fission chamber to measure neutrons from an activation source, 244Cm. In its review of the draft Topical Report on Burnup Credit, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission indicated it felt uncomfortable with a measurement system that depended on reactor records for calibration. The Fork+ system was developed at Sandia National Laboratories under the sponsorship of the Electric Power Research Institute with the aim of providing this independent measurement capability. The initial Fork+ prototype was used in a measurement campaign at the Maine Yankee reactor. The campaign confirmed the applicability of the sensor approach in the Fork+ system and the efficiency of the hand-portable Fork+ prototype in making fuel assembly measurements. It also indicated potential design modifications that will be necessary before the Fork+ can be used effectively on high-burnup spent fuel

  17. Evaluation of the Life History of Native Salmonids in the Malheur River Basin; Cooperative Bull Trout/Redband Trout Research Project, 1999-2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwabe, Lawrence; Tiley, Mark (Burns Paiute Tribe, Department of Fish and Wildlife, Burns, OR); Perkins, Raymond R. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Ontario, OR)

    2000-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to document the seasonal distribution of adult/sub-adult bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Malheur River basin. Due to the decline of bull trout in the Columbia Basin, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service listed bull trout as a threatened species in June 1998. Past land management activities; construction of dams; and fish eradication projects in the North Fork and Middle Fork Malheur River by poisoning have worked in concert to cumulatively impact native species in the Malheur Basin (Bowers et. al. 1993). Survival of the remaining bull trout populations is severely threatened (Buchanan 1997). 1999 Research Objects are: (1) Document the migratory patterns of adult/sub-adult bull trout in the North Fork Malheur River; (2) Determine the seasonal bull trout use of Beulah Reservoir and bull trout entrainment; and (3) Timing and location of bull trout spawning in the North Fork Malheur River basin. The study area includes the Malheur basin from the mouth of the Malheur River located near Ontario, Oregon to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur River (Map 1). All fish collected and most of the telemetry effort was done on the North Fork Malheur River subbasin (Map 2). Fish collection was conducted on the North Fork Malheur River at the tailwaters of Beulah Reservoir (RK 29), Beulah Reservoir (RK 29-RK 33), and in the North Fork Malheur River at Crane Crossing (RK 69) to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur. Radio telemetry was done from the mouth of the Malheur River in Ontario, Oregon to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur. This report will reflect all migration data collected from 3/1/99 to 12/31/99.

  18. Fork gratings based on ferroelectric liquid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y; Wei, B Y; Shi, L Y; Srivastava, A K; Chigrinov, V G; Kwok, H-S; Hu, W; Lu, Y Q

    2016-03-21

    In this article, we disclose a fork grating (FG) based on the photo-aligned ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC). The Digital Micro-mirror Device based system is used as a dynamic photomask to generated different holograms. Because of controlled anchoring energy, the photo alignment process offers optimal conditions for the multi-domain FLC alignment. Two different electro-optical modes namely DIFF/TRANS and DIFF/OFF switchable modes have been proposed where the diffraction can be switched either to no diffraction or to a completely black state, respectively. The FLC FG shows high diffraction efficiency and fast response time of 50µs that is relatively faster than existing technologies. Thus, the FLC FG may pave a good foundation toward optical vertices generation and manipulation that could find applications in a variety of devices. PMID:27136779

  19. Chemical and biological sensing using tuning forks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Nongjian; Boussaad, Salah

    2012-07-10

    A device for sensing a chemical analyte is disclosed. The device is comprised of a vibrating structure having first and second surfaces and having an associated resonant frequency and a wire coupled between the first and second surfaces of the vibrating structure, wherein the analyte interacts with the wire and causes a change in the resonant frequency of the vibrating structure. The vibrating structure can include a tuning fork. The vibrating structure can be comprised of quartz. The wire can be comprised of polymer. A plurality of vibrating structures are arranged in an array to increase confidence by promoting a redundancy of measurement or to detect a plurality of chemical analytes. A method of making a device for sensing a chemical analyte is also disclosed.

  20. Kindral Clark: tehke NATOs kõva häält! / Wesley K Clark ; interv. Kaarel Kaas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Clark, Wesley K

    2005-01-01

    NATO Euroopa liitlasvägede endine juhataja, USA erukindral 2004. aasta presidendivalimistest USA-s, võimalikust kandideerimisest presidendiks 2008. aasta valimistel, demokraatide võimalustest järgmised presidendivalimised võita, oma seisukohtadest Iraagi sõja küsimuses, diplomaatiliste vahendite kasutamisest sõjaliste konfliktide lahendamisel, NATO laienemisest ja organisatsiooni sõjalisest suutlikkusest ning intsidendist Vene hävitajaga. Lisa: Wesley K. Clark

  1. Deep Fork National Wildlife Refuge [Land Status Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Deep Fork National Wildlife Refuge. It was generated from rectified aerial photography,...

  2. Inventory and Monitoring Plan for Deep Fork National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Inventory and Monitoring Plan (IMP) is prepared to document the inventory and monitoring surveys that will, or could be conducted at Deep Fork National...

  3. Spent-fuel verification with the Los Alamos fork detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Los Alamos fork detector for the verification of spent-fuel assemblies has generated precise, reproducible data. The data analyses have now evolved to the point of placing tight restrictions on a diverter's actions

  4. MUS81-EME2 Promotes Replication Fork Restart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Pepe

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Replication forks frequently stall at regions of the genome that are difficult to replicate or contain lesions that cause replication blockage. An important mechanism for the restart of a stalled fork involves endonucleolytic cleavage that can lead to fork restoration and replication progression. Here, we show that the structure-selective endonuclease MUS81-EME2 is responsible for fork cleavage and restart in human cells. The MUS81-EME2 protein, whose actions are restricted to S phase, is also responsible for telomere maintenance in telomerase-negative ALT (Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres cells. In contrast, the G2/M functions of MUS81, such as the cleavage of recombination intermediates and fragile site expression, are promoted by MUS81-EME1. These results define distinct and temporal roles for MUS81-EME1 and MUS81-EME2 in the maintenance of genome stability.

  5. Chromatin Immunoprecipitation of Replication Factors Moving with the Replication Fork

    OpenAIRE

    Rapp, Jordan B.; Ansbach, Alison B.; Noguchi, Chiaki; Noguchi, Eishi

    2009-01-01

    Replication of chromosomes involves a variety of replication proteins including DNA polymerases, DNA helicases, and other accessory factors. Many of these proteins are known to localize at replication forks and travel with them as components of the replisome complex. Other proteins do not move with replication forks but still play an essential role in DNA replication. Therefore, in order to understand the mechanisms of DNA replication and its controls, it is important to examine localization ...

  6. Growth Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. The fork length to the nearest mm and weight to the nearest gram of a...

  7. Yucca Mountain: How Do Global and Federal Initiatives Impact Clark County's Nuclear Waste Program?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1987, Clark County has been designated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as an 'Affected Unit of Local Government' (AULG). The AULG designation is an acknowledgement by the federal government that activities associated with the Yucca Mountain proposal could result in considerable impacts on Clark County residents and the community as a whole. As an AULG, Clark County is authorized to identify 'any potential economic, social, public health and safety, and environmental impacts of a repository', 42 U.S.C. Section 10135(c)(1)(B)(i) under provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act Amendments (NWPAA). Clark County's oversight program contains key elements of (1) technical and scientific analysis (2) transportation analysis (3) impact assessment and monitoring (4) policy and legislative analysis and monitoring, and (5) public outreach. Clark County has conducted numerous studies of potential impacts, many of which are summarized in Clark County's Impact Assessment Report that was submitted DOE and the President of the United States in February 2002. Given the unprecedented magnitude and duration of DOE's proposal, as well as the many unanswered questions about the transportation routes, number of shipments, and the modal mix that will ultimately be used, impacts to public health and safety and security, as well as socioeconomic impacts, can only be estimated. In order to refine these estimates, Clark County Comprehensive Planning Department's Nuclear Waste Division updates, assesses, and monitors impacts on a regular basis. Clark County's Impact Assessment program covers not only unincorporated Clark County but all five jurisdictions of Las Vegas, North Las Vegas, Henderson, Mesquite, and Boulder City as well as tribal jurisdictions that fall within Clark County's geographic boundary. National and global focus on nuclear power and nuclear waste could have significant impact on the Yucca Mountain Program, and therefore, Clark County's oversight of that program

  8. Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S.M.; Christensen, S.W.; Greeley, M.S.jr; Hill, W.R.; Kszos, L.A.; McCarthy, J.F.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

    1998-10-15

    ) access. The sampling sites include upper EFPC at kilometers (EFKs) 24.4 and 23.4 [upstream and downstream of Lake Reality (LR) respectively]; EFK 18.7 (also EFK 18 and 19), iocated off the ORR and below an area of intensive commercial and limited light industrial development; EFK 13.8 (also EFK 14), located upstream from the Oak Ridge Wastewater Treatment Facility (ORWTF); and EFK 6.3 located approximately 1.4 km below the ORR boundary (Fig. 1.1 ). Other sampling sites on EFPC are utilized as appropriate for individual tasks. Brushy Fork (BF) at kilometer (BFK) 7.6 is used as a reference stream in most tasks of the BMAP. Additional sites off the ORR are also occasional 1 y used for reference, including Beaver Creek, Bull Run, Hinds Creek, Paint Rock Creek, and the Einory River in Watts Bar Reservoir (Fig. 1.2).

  9. Bull Trout Population Assessment in the White Salmon and Klickitat Rivers, Columbia River Gorge, Washington, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiesfeld, Steven L.; McPeak, Ronald H.; McNamara, Brian S. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife); Honanie, Isadore (Confederated Tribes and Bands, Yakama Nation)

    2002-01-01

    We utilized night snorkeling and single pass electroshocking to determine the presence or absence of bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in 26 stream reaches (3,415 m) in the White Salmon basin and in 71 stream reaches (9,005 m) in the Klickitat River basin during summer and fall 2001. We did not find any bull trout in the White Salmon River basin. In the Klickitat River basin, bull trout were found only in the West Fork Klickitat River drainage. We found bull trout in two streams not previously reported: Two Lakes Stream and an unnamed tributary to Fish Lake Stream (WRIA code number 30-0550). We attempted to capture downstream migrant bull trout in the West Fork Klickitat River by fishing a 1.5-m rotary screw trap at RM 4.3 from July 23 through October 17. Although we caught other salmonids, no bull trout were captured. The greatest limiting factor for bull trout in the West Fork Klickitat River is likely the small amount of available habitat resulting in a low total abundance, and the isolation of the population. Many of the streams are fragmented by natural falls, which are partial or complete barriers to upstream fish movement. To date, we have not been able to confirm that the occasional bull trout observed in the mainstem Klickitat River are migrating upstream into the West Fork Klickitat River.

  10. More forks on the road to replication stress recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chris Allen; Amanda K. Ashley; Robert Hromas; Jac A. Nickoloff

    2011-01-01

    High-fidelity replication of DNA, and its accurate segregation to daughter cells, is critical for maintaining genome stability and suppressing cancer. DNA replication forks are stalled by many DNA lesions, activating checkpoint proteins that stabilize stalled forks.Stalled forks may eventually collapse, producing a broken DNA end. Fork restart is typically mediated by proteins initially identified by their rotes in homologous recombination repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). In recent years, several proteins involved in DSB repair by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) have been implicated in the replication stress response, including DNA-PKcs, Ku,DNA Ligase IV-XRCC4, Artemis, XLF and Metnase. It is currently unclear whether NHEJ proteins are involved in the replication stress response through indirect (signaling) roles, and/or direct roles involving DNA end joining. Additional complexity in the replication stress response centers around RPA, which undergoes significant post-translational modification after stress, and RAD52, a conserved HR protein whose role in DSB repair may have shifted to another protein in higher eukaryotes, such as BRCA2, but retained its rote in fork restart. Most cancer therapeutic strategies create DNA reputation stress. Thus, it is imperative to gain a better understanding of replication stress response proteins and pathways to improve cancer therapy.

  11. Biblioteca W. Dale Clark Omaha - Nebraska - EE. UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellmuth, George

    1979-12-01

    Full Text Available The W. Dale Clark Library, a very popular institution since it was opened, has become a landmark in the urban renewal plan of the City of Omaha. The building, in a square plan and totally symetric, projects its functionality to the outside. Hence, the two large solid walls on opposite façades express the non-public uses while the other two glazed façades express the public areas. A central interior court creates a vast space visually connecting the four upper floors while affords natural lighting through a skylight in the roof.

    La Biblioteca W. Dale Clark, por la aceptación pública que ha tenido desde su apertura, marca un hito importante en el plan de revitalización de la ciudad de Omaha. El edificio, de planta cuadrada y de total simetría, muestra su funcionalidad al exterior, y así, los dos grandes paños ciegos en fachadas opuestas, delimitan los usos cerrados, mientras que las otras dos fachadas, con sus muros totalmente acristalados, manifiestan e iluminan las zonas de uso público. En el interior, un espacio central que cruza los cuatro niveles superiores, enlaza visualmente a, todas las plantas entre sí, al tiempo que permite su iluminación natural por el lucernario de la cubierta.

  12. Giving Children Security: Mamie Phipps Clark and the Racialization of Child Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Shafali

    2002-01-01

    Examines the individual and social contexts of the life of Mamie Clark (wife of African American psychologist Kenneth Clark), whose work at the Harlem Northside Center for Child Development helped define an increasing interest in the psychology of children of color. Urges greater attention to the dynamics of race and gender in history of…

  13. 75 FR 42460 - Minor Boundary Revision at Lewis and Clark National Historical Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... National Park Service Minor Boundary Revision at Lewis and Clark National Historical Park AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Announcement of boundary revision. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that, pursuant to 16 U.S.C. 460l- (9)(c)(1), the boundary of Lewis and Clark National Historical Park is...

  14. Tianjin,Full of Fork Art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Tianjin is one of the four municipalities in China.Its name means"the place where the emperor crossed the river".Its urban area is the third largest in China,after Shanghai and Beijing.Tianjin's urban area is located along the Hai He River.Its ports,some distance away,are located on Bohai Gulf in the Pacific Ocean.Tianjin Municipality borders Hebei province to the north,south,and west;the municipality of Beijing is to the northwest,and Bohai Gulf to the east.

  15. 77 FR 55796 - Sand Lick Fork Watershed Restoration Project; Daniel Boone National Forest, KY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... Forest Service Sand Lick Fork Watershed Restoration Project; Daniel Boone National Forest, KY AGENCY... Sand Lick Fork Watershed Restoration Project involves activities to improve water quality and reduce... watersheds to ensure water quality supports designated beneficial uses. Residential and community...

  16. Assessment of endocrine disruption in Smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) in the Potomac River Watershed

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Intersex, specifically testicular oocytes, has been observed in male smallmouth bass (SMB) and other centrarchids in the South Branch of the Potomac River and forks...

  17. New histone supply regulates replication fork speed and PCNA unloading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlvang, Jakob; Feng, Yunpeng; Alabert, Constance;

    2014-01-01

    Correct duplication of DNA sequence and its organization into chromatin is central to genome function and stability. However, it remains unclear how cells coordinate DNA synthesis with provision of new histones for chromatin assembly to ensure chromosomal stability. In this paper, we show that...... conventional checkpoints, although prolonged histone deficiency generated DNA damage. PCNA accumulated on newly synthesized DNA in cells lacking new histones, possibly to maintain opportunity for CAF-1 recruitment and nucleosome assembly. Consistent with this, in vitro and in vivo analysis showed that PCNA...... replication fork speed is dependent on new histone supply and efficient nucleosome assembly. Inhibition of canonical histone biosynthesis impaired replication fork progression and reduced nucleosome occupancy on newly synthesized DNA. Replication forks initially remained stable without activation of...

  18. Geometric Metasurface Fork Gratings for Vortex Beam Generation and Manipulation

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Shumei; Li, Guixin; Zhang, Shuang; Cheah, Kok Wai

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, optical vortex beams possessing orbital angular momentum have caught much attention due to their potential for high capacity optical communications. This capability arises from the unbounded topological charges of orbital angular momentum (OAM) that provides infinite freedoms for encoding information. The two most common approaches for generating vortex beams are through fork diffraction gratings and spiral phase plates. While realization of conventional spiral phase plate requires complicated 3D fabrication, the emerging field of metasurfaces has provided a planar and facile solution for generating vortex beams of arbitrary orbit angular momentum. Here we realize a novel type of geometric metasurface fork grating that seamlessly combine the functionality of a metasurface phase plate for vortex beam generation, and that of a linear phase gradient metasurface for controlling the wave propagation direction. The metasurface fork grating is therefore capable of simultaneously controlling both the...

  19. A Multi-Fork Z-Axis Quartz Micromachined Gyroscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiying Yang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel multi-fork z-axis gyroscope is presented in this paper. Different from traditional quartz gyroscopes, the lateral electrodes of the sense beam can be arranged in simple patterns; as a result, the fabrication is simplified. High sensitivity is achieved by the multi-fork design. The working principles are introduced, while the finite element method (FEM is used to simulate the modal and sensitivity. A quartz fork is fabricated, and a prototype is assembled. Impedance testing shows that the drive frequency and sense frequency are similar to the simulations, and the quality factor is approximately 10,000 in air. The scale factor is measured to be 18.134 mV/(°/s and the nonlinearity is 0.40% in a full-scale input range of ±250 °/s.

  20. On the Control of Fork-Join Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Özkan, Erhun; Ward, Amy R.

    2015-01-01

    In a fork-join processing network, jobs arrive, and then "fork" into tasks, some of which can be processed sequentially and some of which can be done in parallel, according to a set of deterministic precedence constraints. Before a job can depart the network, the tasks must be "joined" together, which gives rise to synchronization constraints in the network. When there are multiple job types that share resources, the control decisions occur at any server that can process more than one job typ...

  1. The fork-join real-time task model

    OpenAIRE

    Stigge, Martin; Ekberg, Pontus; Yi, Wang

    2013-01-01

    Hard real-time task models have evolved from periodic models to more sophisticated graph-based ones like the Digraph Real-Time Task Model (DRT) [1]. These models have in common that tasks are sequential in nature and do not allow for forking structures, modeling job releases that occur in parallel within the same task. To capture these, we present a task model that extends the DRT model with the possibility of forking and joining release paths. We are developing an exact schedulability test f...

  2. Forked and Integrated Variants In An Open-Source Firmware Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanciulescu, Stefan; Schulze, Sandro; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    and interactive source management platforms such as Github. We study advantages and disadvantages of forking using the case of Marlin, an open source firmware for 3D printers. We find that many problems and advantages of cloning do translate to forking. Interestingly, the Marlin community uses both forking...

  3. 76 FR 35909 - Temporary Concession Contract for Big South Fork National Recreation Area, TN/KY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... contract for Big South Fork National Recreation Area, TN/KY. SUMMARY: Pursuant to 36 CFR 51.24, public... National Park Service Temporary Concession Contract for Big South Fork National Recreation Area, TN/KY... contract for the conduct of certain visitor services within Big South Fork National Recreation...

  4. Re-Reconsidering Research on Learning from Media: Comments on Richard E. Clark's "Point of View" Column on Serious Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J. R.; Becker, Katrin; Sawyer, Ben

    2008-01-01

    Everything old is new again. In a recent "Point of View" editorial commentary in "Educational Technology," Richard E. Clark revisits the now-famous media-effects debate with a focus on serious games. Clark argues that serious games have little to offer that improves upon traditional methods. This article responds to those claims. While Clark's…

  5. Influence of remediation in a mine-impacted river: Metal trends over large spatial and temporal scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberger, M.I.; Luoma, S.N.; Johnson, M.L.; Holyoak, M.

    2009-01-01

    The effectiveness of mine-waste remediation at the Clark Fork River Superfund site in western Montana, USA, was examined by monitoring metal concentrations in resident biota (caddisfly, Hydropsyche spp.) and bed sediment over a 19-year period. Remediation activities began in 1990 and are ongoing. In the upper 45 km, reduced Cu and Cd concentrations at some sites were coincident with remediation events. However, for a period of three years, the decline in Cu and Cd directly below the treatment ponds was offset by high arsenic concentrations, suggesting that remediation for cations (e.g., Cu and Cd) mobilized anions such as arsenic. The impact of remediation in the middle and lower reaches was confounded by a significant positive relationship between metal bioaccumulation and stream discharge. High flows did not dilute metals but redistributed contaminants throughout the river. The majority of clean-up efforts were focused on reducing metal-rich sediments in the most contaminated upstream reach, implicitly assuming that improvements upstream will positively impact the downstream stations. We tested this assumption by correlating temporal metal trends in sediment between and among stations. The strength of that association (r value) was our indicator of spatial connectivity. Connectivity for both Cu and Cd was strong at small spatial scales. Large-scale connectivity was strongest with Cu since similar temporal reductions were observed at most monitoring stations. The most upstream station, closest to remediation, had the lowest connectivity, but the next three downstream sites were strongly correlated to trends downstream. Targeted remediation in this reach would be an effective approach to positively influencing the downstream stations. ?? 2009 by the Ecological Society ot America.

  6. Reconsidering DNA Polymerases at the Replication Fork in Eukaryotes

    OpenAIRE

    Stillman, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of DNA polymerase activities at the eukaryotic DNA replication fork was “established,” but recent genetic studies in this issue of Molecular Cell raise questions about which polymerases are copying the leading and lagging strand templates (Johnson et al, 2015).

  7. Micro-Temperature Sensor Based on Quartz Tuning Fork Resonator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Ma

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a low cost quartz tuning fork temperature sensor adopting H-shaped tuning fork resonator to address miniaturization, high resolution and high stability has been designed, developed and tested. The quartz tuning temperature sensor is designed using flexural vibrating mode with a new thermo-sensitive cut. The quartz tuning fork temperature sensor consists of two prongs connected at one end of crystalline quartz plate with thin-film metal electrodes deposited on the faces, which is used to produce vibration in response to alternating voltages and detecting the resonance frequency in the meantime. When an external temperature is change, there is a shift in its natural frequency. Finite Element Method (FEM is used to analyze the vibratory modes and optimize the structure of the sensor. The resonance frequency of tuning fork is about 37 kHz with a sensitivity of rough 80 ppm/°C. The experimental results shown that a temperature accuracy of 0.01°C and a resolution of 0.005°C within temperature range from 0 to 100°C, respectively.

  8. Ten Things You Should Do with a Tuning Fork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, James

    2013-01-01

    Tuning forks are wonderful tools for teaching physics. Every physics classroom should have several and every physics student should be taught how to use them. In this article, I highlight 10 enriching demonstrations that most teachers might not know, as well as provide tips to enhance the demonstrations teachers might already be doing. Some of…

  9. Performance Analysis and Scheduling of Stochastic Fork-Join Jobs in a Multicomputer System

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Anurag; Shorey, Rajeev

    1993-01-01

    We model a parallel processing system comprising several homogeneous computers interconnected by a communication network. Jobs arriving to this system have a linear fork-join structure. Each fork of the job gives rise to a random number of tasks that can be processed independently on any of the computers. Since exact analysis of fork-join models is known to be intractable, we resort to obtaining analytical bounds to the mean job response time of the fork-join job. For jobs with a single fork-...

  10. Bull Trout (Salvelinus Confluentus) Population and Habitat Surveys in the McKenzie and Middle Fork Willamette Basins, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Greg

    2003-02-01

    Prior to 1978, bull trout were commonly known as dolly varden (Salvelinus malma) and were classified into an anadromous and interior form. Cavender (1978) described the interior form as a distinct species, classifying it as Salvelinus confluentus, the bull trout. Bull trout are large char weighing up to 18 kg and growing to over one meter in length (Goetz 1994). They are distinguished by a broad flat head, large downward curving maxillaries that extend beyond the eye, a fleshy knob and a notch in the lower terminus of the snout, and light colored spots normally smaller than the pupil of the eye (Cavender 1978). Bull trout are found throughout northwestern North America from latitude 41{sup o}N to 60{sup o}N. In Oregon, bull trout were once distributed throughout 12 basins in the Klamath and Columbia River systems including the Clackamas, Santiam, McKenzie and Middle Fork Willamette subbasins west of the Cascades (Buchanan et al. 1997). However, it is likely that bull trout have been extirpated from west of the Cascades with the exception of the McKenzie sub-basin. McKenzie River bull trout were a contiguous population from the mouth to Tamolitch Falls prior to 1963. Three populations were isolated following the construction of Cougar and Trail Bridge Reservoirs which include the mainstem McKenzie and tributaries from the mouth to Trail Bridge Reservoir, mainstem McKenzie and tributaries above Trail Bridge Reservoir to Tamolitch Falls, and the South Fork McKenzie and tributaries above Cougar Reservoir. On June 10, 1998 the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) listed the Columbia River bull trout population segment as Threatened under the federal Endangered Species Act and Buchanan et al. (1997) listed the bull trout population in the mainstem McKenzie as ''of special concern'', the South Fork McKenzie population as ''high risk of extinction,'' and the population above Trail Bridge Reservoir as ''high risk of

  11. DS 827, Vegetation Database for Land-Cover Mapping in Clark and Lincoln Counties, Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This geodatabase consists of a point feature class and related tables representing sample sites where vegetation data were collected from 2007 to 2013 in Clark and...

  12. J. Clark Salyer Wetland Management District : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for J. Clark Salyer Wetland Management District outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1980 calendar year. The report begins with an...

  13. J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1979

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1979 calendar year. The report begins with an...

  14. J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge Complex Integrated Pest Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the Integrated Pest Management Plan is to provide a comprehensive, environmentally sensitive approach to managing pests on the J. Clark Salyer NWRC....

  15. J. Clark Salyer Wetland Management District : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1977

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for J. Clark Salyer Wetland Management District outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1977 calendar year. The report begins with an...

  16. J. Clark Salyer Wetland Management District : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1979

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for J. Clark Salyer Wetland Management District outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1979 calendar year. The report begins with an...

  17. J. Clark Salyer Wetland Management District : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for J. Clark Salyer Wetland Management District outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1987 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  18. J. Clark Salyer Wetland Management District : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for J. Clark Salyer Wetland Management District outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1985 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  19. J. Clark Salyer Wetland Management District : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for J. Clark Salyer Wetland Management District outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1986 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  20. J. Clark Salyer Wetland Management District : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for J. Clark Salyer Wetland Management District outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1984 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  1. Narrative report: J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge for calendar year 1967

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for J. Clark Salyer NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1967 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  2. Narrative report: J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge for calendar year 1970

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for J. Clark Salyer NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1970 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  3. [Description of the last instar larva and pupa of Cryptophlebia cortesi Clarke (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Héctor A

    2006-01-01

    A description of the last instar larva and pupa of Cryptophlebia cortesi Clarke, based on specimens collected on yaro, Acacia macracantha Bonpl & Humb ex Willd. (Fabaceae), in the Chaca valley, Primera Región, Chile, is presented. PMID:18575693

  4. Narrative report: J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge for calendar year 1969

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for J. Clark Salyer NWR and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1969 calendar year. The report begins by...

  5. J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1984 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  6. J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1986 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  7. J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1977

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for J. Clark Salyer NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1977 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  8. J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1987 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  9. The Economic Impact of the Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute

    OpenAIRE

    Stanley McMillen; Kathryn Parr; Xiumei Song

    2005-01-01

    This analysis of the Clark contributes to the collective effort to understand the economic impact of the arts in the Berkshires, and raises national consciousness about the economic contribution that arts organizations make to their communities.

  10. Lewis and Clark NWR: Initial Survey Instructions for Resident Dark Goose Nest Survey Protocol

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In the 1960s the USFWS and WDFW attempted to translocate Dusky Canada geese to the lower islands of the Lewis and Clark NWR. The attempt formed a Western Canada...

  11. Lewis and Clark NWR: Initial Survey Instructions for Resident Dark Goose (RDG) Banding Protocol

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In the 1960s the USFWS and WDFW attempted to translocate Dusky Canada geese to the lower islands of the Lewis and Clark NWR. The birds hybridized with Western...

  12. J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2001 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  13. J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1998 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  14. J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1997 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  15. J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1999 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  16. J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2000 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  17. J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1985 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  18. J. Clark Salyer Wetland Management District : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for J. Clark Salyer Wetland Management District outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1982 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  19. J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1981 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  20. J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1982 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  1. J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1983 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  2. Geospatial Database of Hydroclimate Variables, Spring Mountains and Sheep Range, Clark County, Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This point feature class contains 81,481 points arranged in a 270-meter spaced grid that covers the Spring Mountains and Sheep Range in Clark County, Nevada. Points...

  3. J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1994 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  4. J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1995 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  5. J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1993 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  6. Narrative report: J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge for calendar year 1971

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for J. Clark Salyer NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1971 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  7. Bull Trout (Salvelinus Confluentus) Population and Habitat Surveys in the McKenzie and Middle Fork Willamette Basins, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Greg

    2000-11-28

    Prior to 1978, Dolly Varden Salvelinus malma were classified into an anadromous and interior form. Cavender (1978) classified the interior form as a distinct species, Salvelinus confluentus, the bull trout. Bull trout are large char weighing up to 18 kg and growing to over one meter in length (Goetz 1989). They are distinguished by a broad flat head, large downward curving maxillaries that extend beyond the eye, a well developed fleshy knob and a notch in the lower terminus of the snout, and light colored spots normally smaller than the pupil of the eye (Cavender 1978). Bull trout are found throughout northwestern North America from lat. 41{sup o}N to lat. 60{sup o}N. In Oregon, bull trout were once distributed throughout 12 basins in the Klamath and Columbia River systems including the Clackamas, Santiam, McKenzie and Middle Fork Willamette sub-basins west of the Cascades (Buchanan et al. 1997). However, it is believed bull trout have been extirpated from west of the Cascades with the exception of the McKenzie sub-basin. Before 1963, bull trout in the McKenzie sub-basin were a contiguous population from the mouth to Tamolitch Falls. Following the construction of Cougar and Trail Bridge Reservoirs there are three isolated populations: (1) mainstem McKenzie and tributaries from the mouth to Trail Bridge Reservoir. (2) mainstem McKenzie and tributaries above Trail Bridge Reservoir to Tamolitch Falls. (3) South Fork McKenzie and tributaries above Cougar Reservoir. The study area includes the three aforementioned McKenzie populations, and the Middle Fork Willamette and tributaries above Hills Creek Reservoir. We monitored bull trout populations in the McKenzie and Middle Fork Willamette basins using a combination of sampling techniques including: spawning surveys, standard pool counts, juvenile trapping, radio tracking, electronic fish counters, and a modified Hankin and Reeves protocol to estimate juvenile abundance and density. In addition, we continued to

  8. Why is SMOS Drier than the South Fork In-situ Soil Moisture Network?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, V. A.; Hornbuckle, B. K.; Cosh, M. H.

    2014-12-01

    Global maps of near-surface soil moisture are currently being produced by the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite mission at 40 km. Within the next few months NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite mission will begin producing observations of near-surface soil moisture at 10 km. Near-surface soil moisture is the water content of the first 3 to 5 cm of the soil. Observations of near-surface soil moisture are expected to improve weather and climate forecasts. These satellite observations must be validated. We define validation as determining the space/time statistical characteristics of the uncertainty. A standard that has been used for satellite validation is in-situ measurements of near-surface soil moisture made with a network of sensors spanning the extent of a satellite footprint. Such a network of sensors has been established in the South Fork of the Iowa River in Central Iowa by the USDA ARS. Our analysis of data in 2013 indicates that SMOS has a dry bias: SMOS near-surface soil moisture is between 0.05 to 0.10 m^3m^{-3} lower than what is observed by the South Fork network. A dry bias in SMOS observations has also been observed in other regions of North America. There are many possible explanations for this difference: underestimation of vegetation, or soil surface roughness; undetected radio frequency interference (RFI); a retrieval model that is not appropriate for agricultural areas; or the use of an incorrect surface temperature in the retrieval process. We will begin our investigation by testing this last possibility: that SMOS is using a surface temperature that is too low which results in a drier soil moisture that compensates for this error. We will present a comparison of surface temperatures from the European Center for Medium-range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) used to retrieve near-surface soil moisture from SMOS measurements of brightness temperature, and surface temperatures in the South Fork

  9. Book review: Hard times: inequality, recession, aftermath by Tom Clark with Anthony Heath

    OpenAIRE

    Bon, Florian

    2015-01-01

    In Hard Times: Inequality, Recession, Aftermath, Tom Clark offers a potent exploration of growing inequalities in US and British societies, contributing to the work of other leading intellectuals such as Thomas Piketty, Tyler Cowen and Robert Reich. Florian Bon argues that Clark looks beyond seemingly glowing statistics testifying to economic growth to examine the ‘social recession’ and resultant ‘hard times’ experienced in the aftermath of the financial crisis.

  10. Evidence of natural reproduction by Muskellunge in middle Tennessee rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Lila H.; Bettoli, Phillip William

    2014-01-01

    Native Esox masquinongy (Muskellunge) in the Cumberland River drainage, TN, were nearly extirpated in the 1970s due to decades of over-fishing and habitat degradation from coal mining, logging, and other land-use practices. In an effort to preserve the species in that drainage, a stocking program began in 1976 in the upper Caney Fork River system in middle Tennessee where Muskellunge were not native. A trophy Muskellunge fishery eventually developed, but it was unknown whether Muskellunge were reproducing in the upper Caney Fork River system or whether the fishery was wholly dependent on the stocking program. To establish evidence of natural reproduction, we used seines, backpack electrofishing, and boat electrofishing gear in 2012 to find age-0 Muskellunge in the upper Caney Fork River system. Natural reproduction of Muskellunge was documented in the mainstem Caney Fork River above Great Falls Dam and in 3 of its 4 major tributaries. Seventeen age-0 Muskellunge were collected and one other was observed, but not handled. Age-0 Muskellunge grew rapidly (1.80–2.34 mm/day), and the largest fish collected during the study reached a total length of 399 mm by 9 October 2012. A cessation of stocking for several years coupled with routine monitoring could reveal whether natural recruitment is sufficient to sustain the fishery.

  11. Optimal information provision for maximizing flow in a forked lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Takeaki; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2015-06-01

    In a forked road, the provision of inappropriate information to car drivers sometimes leads to undesirable situations such as one-sided congestion, which is called the hunting phenomenon in real traffic. To address such problems, we propose a forked exclusion model and investigate the behavior of traffic flow in two routes, providing various types of information to a limited number of traveling particles according to the share rate of information. To analytically understand the phenomena, we develop a coarse-grained representation of the model. By analyzing the model, we find the most effective types of information to minimize particles' travel time and the existence of an optimal share rate according to route conditions.

  12. Optimal information provision for maximizing flow in a forked lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Takeaki; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2015-06-01

    In a forked road, the provision of inappropriate information to car drivers sometimes leads to undesirable situations such as one-sided congestion, which is called the hunting phenomenon in real traffic. To address such problems, we propose a forked exclusion model and investigate the behavior of traffic flow in two routes, providing various types of information to a limited number of traveling particles according to the share rate of information. To analytically understand the phenomena, we develop a coarse-grained representation of the model. By analyzing the model, we find the most effective types of information to minimize particles' travel time and the existence of an optimal share rate according to route conditions. PMID:26172765

  13. Arrays of optical vortices formed by "fork" holograms

    CERN Document Server

    Bekshaev, A Ya; Mohammed, K A

    2014-01-01

    Singular light beams with optical vortices (OV) are often generated by means of thin binary gratings with groove bifurcation ("fork holograms") that produce a set of diffracted beams with different OV charges. Usually, only single separate beams are used and investigated; here we consider the whole set of diffracted OV beams that, at certain conditions, are involved in efficient mutual interference to form a characteristic pattern where the ring-like structure of separate OV beams is replaced by series of bright and dark lines between adjacent diffraction orders. This pattern, well developed for high diffraction orders, reflects the main spatial properties of the diffracted beams as well as of the fork grating used for their generation. In particular, it confirms the theoretical model for the diffracted beams (Kummer beam model) and enables to determine the sign and the absolute value of the phase singularity embedded in the hologram.

  14. Geometric Metasurface Fork Gratings for Vortex Beam Generation and Manipulation

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Shumei; Cai, Yuan; Li, Guixin; Shuang ZHANG; Cheah, Kok Wai

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, optical vortex beams possessing orbital angular momentum have caught much attention due to their potential for high capacity optical communications. This capability arises from the unbounded topological charges of orbital angular momentum (OAM) that provides infinite freedoms for encoding information. The two most common approaches for generating vortex beams are through fork diffraction gratings and spiral phase plates. While realization of conventional spiral phase plate re...

  15. Failure analysis of axle shaft of a fork lift

    OpenAIRE

    Souvik Das; Goutam Mukhopadhyay; Sandip Bhattacharyya

    2015-01-01

    An axle shaft of fork lift failed at operation within 296 h of service. The shaft transmits torque from discrepancy to wheel through planetary gear arrangement. A section of fractured axle shaft made of induction-hardened steel was analyzed to determine the root cause of the failure. Optical microscopies as well as field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM) along with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were carried out to characterize the microstructure. Hardness profile thro...

  16. Genome instability induced by structured DNA and replication fork restart

    OpenAIRE

    Schalbetter, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    DNA replication is a central mechanism to all forms of life. Errors occurring during DNA replication can result in mutagenesis and genome rearrangements, which can cause various diseases. In this work I have investigated the stability of direct tandem repeats (TRs) in the context of replication and replication-associated repair mechanisms. During DNA replication the replication fork encounters many obstacles, such as DNA-protein barriers, secondary DNA structures and DNA lesions. How and if r...

  17. Synthetic lethality of cohesins with PARPs and replication fork mediators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L McLellan

    Full Text Available Synthetic lethality has been proposed as a way to leverage the genetic differences found in tumor cells to affect their selective killing. Cohesins, which tether sister chromatids together until anaphase onset, are mutated in a variety of tumor types. The elucidation of synthetic lethal interactions with cohesin mutants therefore identifies potential therapeutic targets. We used a cross-species approach to identify robust negative genetic interactions with cohesin mutants. Utilizing essential and non-essential mutant synthetic genetic arrays in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we screened genome-wide for genetic interactions with hypomorphic mutations in cohesin genes. A somatic cell proliferation assay in Caenorhabditis elegans demonstrated that the majority of interactions were conserved. Analysis of the interactions found that cohesin mutants require the function of genes that mediate replication fork progression. Conservation of these interactions between replication fork mediators and cohesin in both yeast and C. elegans prompted us to test whether other replication fork mediators not found in the yeast were required for viability in cohesin mutants. PARP1 has roles in the DNA damage response but also in the restart of stalled replication forks. We found that a hypomorphic allele of the C. elegans SMC1 orthologue, him-1(e879, genetically interacted with mutations in the orthologues of PAR metabolism genes resulting in a reduced brood size and somatic cell defects. We then demonstrated that this interaction is conserved in human cells by showing that PARP inhibitors reduce the viability of cultured human cells depleted for cohesin components. This work demonstrates that large-scale genetic interaction screening in yeast can identify clinically relevant genetic interactions and suggests that PARP inhibitors, which are currently undergoing clinical trials as a treatment of homologous recombination-deficient cancers, may be effective in treating

  18. Finite Element and Failure Analysis of Cracked Fork Lift Tynes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tyne's or forks of fork lift trucks are subject to repeated loading as well as wear so that catastrophic failures are sometimes experienced in the form of fatigue induced brittle fractures. It used extensively in carrying the safety related items used in nuclear industry as well as the hazard items within the waste nuclear fuel facility. Design standards for Tyne's are written in terms of permissible deflection and the ratio of load to permanent set load rather than resistance to fatigue and fracture so that the possibility of failure is not widely appreciated. In the present work finite element analysis have been made of the stress distribution developed in a typical Tyne at the specified truck stability load. The critical factors in the design and manufacture of Tyne's are those of the radius formed at the bend between the horizontal and vertical arms together with the thickness of the fork at this radius. This aspect is examined in the finite element analyses. Using a J-integral fracture mechanics module, the stress intensity factor Kl has been determined for simulated fatigue induced cracks at the point of maximum stress in the internal bend. Material fracture toughness KIC data have been applied to make a prediction of critical flaw size.

  19. Timing, coordination, and rhythm: Acrobatics at the DNA replication fork

    KAUST Repository

    Hamdan, Samir

    2010-04-09

    In DNA replication, the antiparallel nature of the parental duplex imposes certain constraints on the activity of the DNA polymerases that synthesize new DNA. The leading-strand polymerase advances in a continuous fashion, but the lagging-strand polymerase is forced to restart at short intervals. In several prokaryotic systems studied so far, this problem is solved by the formation of a loop in the lagging strand of the replication fork to reorient the lagging-strand DNA polymerase so that it advances in parallel with the leading-strand polymerase. The replication loop grows and shrinks during each cycle of Okazaki fragment synthesis. The timing of Okazaki fragment synthesis and loop formation is determined by a subtle interplay of enzymatic activities at the fork. Recent developments in single-molecule techniques have enabled the direct observation of these processes and have greatly contributed to a better understanding of the dynamic nature of the replication fork. Here, we will review recent experimental advances, present the current models, and discuss some of the exciting developments in the field. 2010 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. El argumento de la simplicidad y los conceptos de espacio y tiempo en Samule Clarke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Benítez Grobert

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La autora de este estudio se propone poner de relieve la importancia del argumento de la simplicidad en el desarrollo de las ideas de espacio y tiempo en Samuel Clarke y su incidencia en el newtonianismo. Así, en primer lugar intenta poner al descubierto la importancia que la noción de simplicidad tiene para el dualismo de Samuel Clarke, en donde se ponen en conexión la extensión y la simplicidad cuando se considera que la inmensidad de Dios es extensión indivisa. Por otra parte, recorre las vicisitudes del argumento de la simplicidad en función de las nociones físicas de espacio y de tiempo, para concluir que los simples de Clarke (espacio y tiempo son muy cercanos a los conceptos de espacio y tiempo absolutos en Newton. Finalmente se explica cómo en opinión de Clarke el alma humana, siendo una sustancia simple y, por tanto, indivisible, es sin embargo una sustancia extensa; en este caso las partes, como las concibe Clarke, no son burdas y diferenciadas, sino semejantes e inseparables, algo que Leibniz habría reducido a una única entidad, en vista de su argumento de la identidad de los indiscernibles.The author of this study intends to point out the importance of the argument of simplicity in the development of the ideas of space and time in Samuel Clarke and their incidence in newtonianism. Thus, she first intends to uncover the importance that the notion of simplicity possesses for Samuel Clark's dualism, in which extension and simplicity connect with one another, when we consider that God's immensity is indivisible extension. On the other hand, she goes through the vicissitudes of the argument of simplicity with regard to the physical notions of space and time, to conclude that Clarke's simples (space and time stand very near the concepts of absolute space and time in Newton. Finally, an explanation comes of how, in Clarke's opinion, the human soul, being a simple substance, and therefore indivisible, is nevertheless an extensive

  1. Evaluate Status of Pacific Lamprey in the Clearwater River and Salmon River Drainages, Idaho, 2009 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochnauer, Tim; Claire, Christopher [Idaho Department of Fish and Game

    2009-05-07

    Pacific lamprey Lampetra tridentata have received little attention in fishery science until recently, even though abundance has declined significantly along with other anadromous fish species in Idaho. Pacific lamprey in Idaho have to navigate over eight lower Snake River and Columbia River hydroelectric facilities for migration downstream as juveniles to the Pacific Ocean and again as adults migrating upstream to their freshwater spawning grounds in Idaho. The number of adult Pacific lamprey annually entering the Snake River basin at Ice Harbor Dam has declined from an average of over 18,000 during 1962-1969 to fewer than 600 during 1998-2006. Based on potential accessible streams and adult escapement over Lower Granite Dam on the lower Snake River, we estimate that no more than 200 Pacific lamprey adult spawners annually utilize the Clearwater River drainage in Idaho for spawning. We utilized electrofishing in 2000-2006 to capture, enumerate, and obtain biological information regarding rearing Pacific lamprey ammocoetes and macropthalmia to determine the distribution and status of the species in the Clearwater River drainage, Idaho. Present distribution in the Clearwater River drainage is limited to the lower sections of the Lochsa and Selway rivers, the Middle Fork Clearwater River, the mainstem Clearwater River, the South Fork Clearwater River, and the lower 7.5 km of the Red River. In 2006, younger age classes were absent from the Red River.

  2. Approximations for fork/join systems with inputs from multi-server stations.

    OpenAIRE

    Goossens, Nico; Krishnamurthy, Ananth; VANDAELE, Nico

    2007-01-01

    Fork/join stations are commonly used to model synchronization constraints in queuing network models of computer and manufacturing systems. This paper presents an exact analysis of a fork/join station in a closed queuing network with inputs from multi-server stations with two-phase Coxian service distributions. The underlying queue length process is analyzed exactly to determine performance measures such as through put, and distributions of the queue length at the fork/join station. By choosin...

  3. Reproductive biology of Tinantia anomala (Torr. C.B. Clarke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Gębura

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Tinantia anomala (Torr. C.B. Clarke (Commelinaceae is an annual plant endemic to central Texas in the United States and Durango in northern Mexico. T. anomala has zygomorphic flowers with three different petals, androecium consists of six various stamens and gynoecium consists of three carpels. Furthermore in T. anomala’s flowers there are many staminal hairs (Faden 2006. Its semi-succulent, grass-like leaves emerge in late fall and remain green throughout the cold months. It grows rapidly in early spring and blooms mid-spring (from March to May. A few weeks later the fruits (capsules with four seeds usually appear. This entire cycle is usually completed by summer, when the plant has often turned yellow and limp. We studied T. anomala due to the occurrence of two types of strikingly different stamens occur in one flower. According to available literature, one type of the stamens (the upper one with smaller anthers produces sterile pollen grains which do not participate in fertilization but only attract insects. The other type, i.e. the lower stamens with bigger anthers can form abundant pollen grains used for pollination (Simpson et al. 1986. Our aim was to investigate type of pollination of T. anomala. Using many microscopic methods we were able to analyze and compare the morphology of two types of anthers and staminal hairs in T. anomala’s flowers. We also investigated this species in terms of development of its gametophytes. An embryo sac develops according to the type of Polygonum. Pollen grains develop during different ways depending on the chemical composition of each anther. We identified that the insects of Thysanoptera which preys on the withered flowers T. anomala could be responsible for pollination of this species under greenhouse condition.

  4. Clark's Nutcracker Seed Harvest Patterns in Glacier National Park and a Novel Method for Monitoring Whitebark Pine Cones

    OpenAIRE

    Maier, Monika E.

    2012-01-01

    Clark's Nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana) is the primary seed disperser of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), which is in decline throughout its range. There is concern that a decline in whitebark pine will lead to a subsequent decline in local populations of Clark's Nutcracker. Because natural regeneration depends on the presence of Clark's Nutcracker, the process of harvesting whitebark pine seeds needs to be fully understood. In addition, resource managers need a cost-effective method for ...

  5. Multi-class Fork-Join queues & The stochastic knapsack problem

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Sihan

    2011-01-01

    Multi-class Fork-Join queues are extension of single-class Fork-Join queues. In a multi-class Fork-Join queuing system, different types of jobs arrive, and then split into several sub-jobs. Those sub-jobs go to parallel processing queues. Then, the synchronization is required before the departure of a job. We found very few scientific efforts in analyzing the multi-class Fork-Join queues. In this thesis, we analyzed the expected sojourn time and the expected synchronization time. Since it is ...

  6. Take It Slow: can feedback from a smart fork reduce eating speed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander Hermsen

    2015-09-01

    The present study examines the efficacy of a smart fork that helps people to eat more slowly. This adapted fork records eating speed and delivers vibrotactile feedback if users eat too quickly. In two studies, we tested the acceptability and user experience of the fork (Study 1, and its effect on eating rate and satiety levels in a controlled lab-setting (Study 2. Method: In study 1, 11 participants (all self-reported fast eaters ate a meal using the fork in our laboratory and used the fork for three consecutive days in their home setting. Participants took part in semi-structured interviews after the first meal and upon returning the fork, covering perceived effect on eating rate, comfort of use, accuracy, and motivational and social aspects of fork use. Interviews were coded and a thematic classification analysis was performed. In study 2, 128 participants (all self-reported fast eaters ate a standardized meal using the fork in our laboratory. We used a between-participants design with 2 conditions; participants ate their meal either with vibrotactile feedback from the fork (experimental condition or ate their meal without vibrotactile feedback (control condition. Eating rate, meal duration, error rate (number of bites taken faster than 10 seconds after previous bite, total food intake, and satiety were recorded for every participant. Results: Study 1: All participants felt that the feedback was generally accurate and consistent. Fork size, weight, and intensity of the feedback were seen as comfortable and acceptable. All participants reported a heightened awareness of eating rate and all but one participant reported eating more slowly with the fork. Study 2: Participants in the experimental condition ate significantly slower, and with a lower error rate than those in the control condition. Feedback did not significantly affect the amount of food eaten. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that this smart fork is an acceptable and effective tool to disrupt and

  7. 75 FR 1010 - CSX Transportation, Inc.-Discontinuance of Service Exemption-in Clark, Floyd, Lawrence, Orange...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-07

    ..., Floyd, Lawrence, Orange, and Washington Counties, IN On December 18, 2009, CSX Transportation, Inc... Albany, in Clark, Floyd, Lawrence, Orange, and Washington Counties, IN.\\1\\ The line traverses...

  8. Interaction force microscopy based on quartz tuning fork force sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yexian

    The ability to sense small changes in the interaction force between a scanning probe microscope (SPM) tip and a substrate requires cantilevers with a sharp mechanical resonance. A typical commercially available cantilever in air is characterized by a resonance with a Q factor of 100 ˜ 300. The low Q factor can be attributed to imperfections in the cantilever itself as well as damping effects of the surrounding air. To substantially increase the Q factor, novel concepts are required. For this reason, we have performed a systematic study of quartz tuning fork resonators for possible use with SPMs. We find that tuning fork resonators operating in air are characterized by Q factors in the order of 104, thereby greatly improving the SPM's ability to measure small shifts in the interaction force. By carefully attaching commercially available SPM tips to the tuning fork, it is possible to obtain SPM images using non-contact imaging techniques and analyze the tip-sample interactions. The assembly of uniform molecular monolayers on atomically flat substrates for molecular electronics applications has received widespread attention during the past ten years. Scanning probe techniques are often used to assess substrate topography, molecular ordering and electronic properties, yet little is known about the fundamental tip-molecule interaction. To address this issue we have built an Interaction Force Microscope using a quartz tuning fork to probe tip-molecular monolayer interactions using scanning probe microscopy. The high quality factor and stable resonant frequency of a quartz tuning fork allows accurate measurement of small shifts in the resonant frequency as the tip interacts with the substrate. To permit an accurate measure of surface interaction forces, the electrical and piezomechanical properties of a tuning fork have been calibrated using a fiber optical interferometer. In prior work [1], we have studied molecular layers formed from either 4-Trifluoro

  9. Research at Clark in the early '60s and at LLNL in the late '80s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tom Sugihara's scientific leadership over a period of almost four decades covered many areas. His early research at Clark dealt with fission yields measurements and radiochemical separations of fallout species in the marine environment. Tom pioneered many of the methods for detecting soft beta emitters and low levels of radioactivity. Studies of the behavior of radioactivity in the marine ecosystem were important adjuncts to Tom's nuclear science research at Clark University which emphasized investigations of nuclear reaction mechanisms. Among Tom's most important contributions while at Clark was his work with Matsuo and Dudey on the interpretation of isomeric yield ratios and fission studies with Noshkin and Baba. Tom's scientific career oscillated between research and administration. During the latter part of his career his great breadth of interests and his scientific open-quotes tasteclose quotes had a profound influence at LLNL in areas that were new to him, materials science and solid state physics

  10. Assessment of Environmental Contaminants in Muddy River Fishes, Clark County, Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 2002 the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) Southern Nevada Field Office initiated a study to identify environmental contaminant impacts to native fish of...

  11. 78 FR 13692 - Clarks River National Wildlife Refuge, KY; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan/Land Protection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... the Federal Register on August 29, 2008 (73 FR 50981). For more about the process, see that notice... on February 15, 2012 (77 FR 8890). More than 270 people attended and many submitted comments at three... refuge is beneficial to local ecotourism trade and residents searching for natural landscapes and...

  12. Glue-free tuning fork shear-force microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlschlegel, P.; Toquant, J.; Pohl, D. W.; Hecht, B.

    2006-01-01

    A scanning near-field optical microscope without any glued parts is described. Key elements are the optical fiber probe/tuning fork junction and the piezotube scanner assembly. In both cases, fixation is achieved by means of controlled pressure and elastic deformation. The avoidance of glued connections was found to improve the Q factor of the shear-force sensor as well as to facilitate the replacement of the fiber probe and other parts of the scanner head. We present approach curves and shear-force images that demonstrate the performance and stability of the system.

  13. Ideal synchronizer for marked pairs in fork-join network

    CERN Document Server

    Vyshenski, S V; Dubenskaya, Yu Yu

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a new functional element (synchronizer for marked pairs) meant to join results of parallel processing in two-branch fork-join queueing network. Approximations for distribution of sojourn time at the synchronizer are derived along with a validity domain. Calculations are performed assuming that: arrivals to the network form a Poisson process, each branch operates like an M/M/N queueing system. It is shown that a mean quantity of jobs in the synchronizer is bounded below by the value, defined by parameters of the network (which contains the synchronizer) and does not depend upon performance and particular properties of the synchronizer.

  14. Congruences of fork extensions of slim semimodular lattices

    OpenAIRE

    Grätzer, George

    2013-01-01

    For a slim, planar, semimodular lattice $L$ and covering square~$S$, G.~Cz\\'edli and E.\\,T.~Schmidt introduced the fork extension, $L[S]$, which is also a slim, planar, semimodular lattice. We investigate when a congruence of $L$ extends to $L[S]$. We introduce a join-irreducible congruence $\\boldsymbol{\\gamma}(S)$ of $L[S]$. We determine when it is new, in the sense that it is not generated by a join-irreducible congruence of $L$. When it is new, we describe the congruence $\\boldsymbol{\\gamm...

  15. Ideal synchronizer for marked pairs in fork-join network

    OpenAIRE

    Vyshenski, S. V.; Grigoriev, P. V.; Dubenskaya, Yu. Yu.

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a new functional element (synchronizer for marked pairs) meant to join results of parallel processing in two-branch fork-join queueing network. Approximations for distribution of sojourn time at the synchronizer are derived along with a validity domain. Calculations are performed assuming that: arrivals to the network form a Poisson process, each branch operates like an M/M/N queueing system. It is shown that mean sojourn time at a real synchronizer node is bounded below by the v...

  16. Burnup measurements with the Los Alamos fork detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fork detector system can determine the burnup of spent-fuel assemblies. It is a transportable instrument that can be mounted permanently in a spent-fuel pond near a loading area for shipping casks, or be attached to the storage pond bridge for measurements on partially raised spent-fuel assemblies. The accuracy of the predicted burnup has been demonstrated to be as good as 2% from measurements on assemblies in the United States and other countries. Instruments have also been developed at other facilities throughout the world using the same or different techniques, but with similar accuracies. 14 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  17. 16 CFR 1512.14 - Requirements for fork and frame assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for fork and frame assembly. 1512.14 Section 1512.14 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS... assembly. The fork and frame assembly shall be tested for strength by application of a load of 890 N...

  18. Assessment of possible sources of microbiological contamination and water-quality characteristics of the Jacks Fork, Ozark National Scenic Riverways, Missouri; phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jerri V.; Richards, Joseph M.

    2002-01-01

    In 1998, an 8-mile reach of the Jacks Fork was included on Missouri?s list of impaired waters as required by Section 303(d) of the Federal Clean Water Act. The identified pollutant on the Jacks Fork was fecal coliform bacteria. Potential sources of fecal contamination to the Jacks Fork include a wastewater treatment plant; campground pit-toilet or septic-system effluent; a large commercial, cross-country horseback trail riding facility; canoeists, boaters, and tubers; and cows.The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, conducted a study to better understand the extent and sources of microbiological contamination within the Jacks Fork from Alley Spring to the mouth, which includes the 8-mile 303(d) reach. Identification of the sources would provide the National Park Service and the State of Missouri with the information needed to craft a solution of abatement, regulation, prevention, and mitigation with the end result being the removal of the Jacks Fork from the 303(d) list. Fifteen sites were sampled from November 1999 through December 2000. An additional site was sampled one time. Samples were collected mostly during base-flow conditions during a variety of nonrecreational and recreational season river uses. Samples were analyzed for selected fecal indicator bacteria, physical properties, nutrients, and wastewater organic compounds. During the sampling period, the whole-body-contact recreation standard for fecal coliform (200 colonies per 100 milliliters of sample) was exceeded at three sites on August 10, 2000, and also at one site on May 11, June 7, and October 3, 2000. Fecal coliform densities and instantaneous loads generally increased from background concentrations at the Eminence site, peaked about 2 river miles downstream, and then decreased until the most downstream site sampled. Generally, the largest densities and loads at sites downstream from Eminence not related to wet-weather flow were observed during a trail ride held

  19. 75 FR 49516 - Lewis and Clark National Wildlife Refuge and the Julia Butler Hansen Refuge for the Columbian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... the refuges. We started this process through a notice in the Federal Register (71 FR 55214; September... notice of availability in the Federal Register (75 FR 6694; February 10, 2010). The Lewis and Clark... Fish and Wildlife Service Lewis and Clark National Wildlife Refuge and the Julia Butler Hansen...

  20. South Fork Flathead Watershed Westslope Cutthroat Trout Conservation Program, Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grisak, Grant; Marotz, Brian

    2003-06-01

    In 1999, Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks (MFWP) began a program aimed at conserving the genetically pure populations of westslope cutthroat trout in the South Fork Flathead River drainage. The objective of this program is to eliminate all of the exotic and hybrid trout that threaten the genetically pure westslope cutthroat populations in the South Fork Flathead. The exotic and hybrid trout populations occur in several headwater lakes and their outflow streams. In 2001 MFWP released a draft environmental assessment, pursuant to the Montana Environmental Policy Act (MEPA), that addressed the use of motorized equipment to deliver personnel and materials to some of these lakes in the Bob Marshall and Great Bear Wildernesses (Grisak 2001). After a 30-day public comment period, MFWP determined that the complexity of issues was too great and warranted a more detailed analysis. These issues included transportation options for personnel, equipment and materials, the use of motorized equipment in wilderness, fish removal methods, fish stocking, and the status and distribution of amphibian populations in the project area. Because the program also involves the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the environmental analysis needs to comply with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). In October 2001, pursuant to NEPA, MFWP, along with the USFS and BPA initiated an environmental assessment to address these issues. In June 2002, the three agencies determined that the scope of these issues warranted an Environmental Impact Statement. This specialist report describes the logistical, technical and biological issues associated with this project and provides an analysis of options for fish removal, transportation and fish stocking. It further analyzes issues and concerns associated with amphibian populations and creating new domesticated stocks of westslope cutthroat trout. Finally, this document provides a description of each lake, the best

  1. Groundwater and climate change: a sensitivity analysis for the Grand Forks aquifer, southern British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, D. M.; Mackie, D. C.; Wei, M.

    The Grand Forks aquifer, located in south-central British Columbia, Canada was used as a case study area for modeling the sensitivity of an aquifer to changes in recharge and river stage consistent with projected climate-change scenarios for the region. Results suggest that variations in recharge to the aquifer under the different climate-change scenarios, modeled under steady-state conditions, have a much smaller impact on the groundwater system than changes in river-stage elevation of the Kettle and Granby Rivers, which flow through the valley. All simulations showed relatively small changes in the overall configuration of the water table and general direction of groundwater flow. High-recharge and low-recharge simulations resulted in approximately a +0.05 m increase and a -0.025 m decrease, respectively, in water-table elevations throughout the aquifer. Simulated changes in river-stage elevation, to reflect higher-than-peak-flow levels (by 20 and 50%), resulted in average changes in the water-table elevation of 2.72 and 3.45 m, respectively. Simulated changes in river-stage elevation, to reflect lower-than-baseflow levels (by 20 and 50%), resulted in average changes in the water-table elevation of -0.48 and -2.10 m, respectively. Current observed water-table elevations in the valley are consistent with an average river-stage elevation (between current baseflow and peak-flow stages). L'aquifère de Grand Forks, situé en Colombie britannique (Canada), a été utilisé comme zone d'étude pour modéliser la sensibilité d'un aquifère à des modifications de la recharge et du niveau de la rivière, correspondant à des scénarios envisagés de changement climatique dans cette région. Les résultats font apparaître que les variations de recharge de l'aquifère pour différents scénarios de changement climatique, modélisées pour des conditions de régime permanent, ont un impact sur le système aquifère beaucoup plus faible que les changements du niveau des

  2. Fred Clarke's Ideals of Liberal Democracy: State and Community in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Hsiao-Yuh

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the continuity and changes in Clarke's ideas about the State and community in education, especially in relation to a rapidly changing political situation in England in the 1930s and 1940s. His ideas evolved in the intellectual context of British idealism. Moreover, in response to the threat to democracy arising from…

  3. 75 FR 14625 - Notice of Realty Action: Recreation and Public Purposes Act Classification, Clark County, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... to do so. Any adverse comments on the proposed classification, lease or conveyance will be reviewed...] Notice of Realty Action: Recreation and Public Purposes Act Classification, Clark County, NV AGENCY... filed a Recreation and Public Purposes (R&PP) Act application for lease or conveyance of approximately...

  4. 75 FR 14626 - Notice of Realty Action: Recreation and Public Purposes Act Classification, Clark County, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... proposed classification, lease or conveyance will be reviewed by the BLM Nevada State Director, who may...] Notice of Realty Action: Recreation and Public Purposes Act Classification, Clark County, NV AGENCY... filed a Recreation and Public Purposes (R&PP) Act application for lease or conveyance of approximately...

  5. Clark Kerr's Multiversity and Technology Transfer in the Modern American Research University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdson, Kristjan T.

    2013-01-01

    In the early 1960s, Clark Kerr, the famed American educationalist and architect of the California public higher education system, took up the task of describing the emergent model of the contemporary American university. Multiversities, as he called them, were the large powerful American universities that packaged the provision of undergraduate,…

  6. Assessing summer and fall chinook salmon restoration in the Upper Clearwater River and principal tributaries. Annual report 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the first annual report of a five year study to assess summer and fall chinook salmon restoration potential in the upper Clearwater River and principal tributaries, Salmon, Grande Ronde, and Imnaha Rivers. During 1994, the authors focused primarily on assessing water temperatures and spawning habitat in the upper Clearwater River and principal tributaries. Water temperature analysis indicated a colder temperature regime in the upper Clearwater River above the North Fork Clearwater River confluence during the winter as compared to the lower Clearwater. This was due to warm water releases from Dworshak Reservoir on the North Fork moderating temperatures in the lower Clearwater River. Thermal temperature unit analysis and available literature suggest a 75% survival threshold level may be anticipated for chinook salmon egg incubation if spawning would occur by November 1 in the upper Clearwater River. Warm water upwelling in historic summer and fall chinook spawning areas may result in increased incubation survivals and will be tested in the future. The authors observed a total of 37 fall chinook salmon redds in the Clearwater River subbasin. They observed 30 redds in the mainstem Clearwater below the North Fork Clearwater River confluence and seven redds in the North Fork Clearwater River. No redds were observed in the South Fork Clearwater, Middle Fork Clearwater, or Selway Rivers. They observed one fall chinook salmon redd in the Salmon River. They recovered 10 fall chinook salmon carcasses in the Clearwater River to obtain biological measurements and to document hatchery contribution to spawning. Unseasonably high and cold Dworshak Dam releases coinciding with early juvenile fall chinook salmon rearing in the lower Clearwater River may be influencing selective life history traits including growth, smolt development, outmigration timing, behavior, and could be directly affecting survival. During July 1994, discharges from Dworshak Dam increased from a

  7. Assessing Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon Restoration in the Upper Clearwater River and Principal Tributaries, 1994 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnsberg, Billy D.; Statler, David P.

    1995-08-01

    This is the first annual report of a five year study to assess summer and fall chinook salmon restoration potential in the upper Clearwater River and principal tributaries, Salmon, Grande Ronde, and Imnaha Rivers. During 1994, the authors focused primarily on assessing water temperatures and spawning habitat in the upper Clearwater River and principal tributaries. Water temperature analysis indicated a colder temperature regime in the upper Clearwater River above the North Fork Clearwater River confluence during the winter as compared to the lower Clearwater. This was due to warm water releases from Dworshak Reservoir on the North Fork moderating temperatures in the lower Clearwater River. Thermal temperature unit analysis and available literature suggest a 75% survival threshold level may be anticipated for chinook salmon egg incubation if spawning would occur by November 1 in the upper Clearwater River. Warm water upwelling in historic summer and fall chinook spawning areas may result in increased incubation survivals and will be tested in the future. The authors observed a total of 37 fall chinook salmon redds in the Clearwater River subbasin. They observed 30 redds in the mainstem Clearwater below the North Fork Clearwater River confluence and seven redds in the North Fork Clearwater River. No redds were observed in the South Fork Clearwater, Middle Fork Clearwater, or Selway Rivers. They observed one fall chinook salmon redd in the Salmon River. They recovered 10 fall chinook salmon carcasses in the Clearwater River to obtain biological measurements and to document hatchery contribution to spawning. Unseasonably high and cold Dworshak Dam releases coinciding with early juvenile fall chinook salmon rearing in the lower Clearwater River may be influencing selective life history traits including growth, smolt development, outmigration timing, behavior, and could be directly affecting survival. During July 1994, discharges from Dworshak Dam increased from a

  8. Improved Tuning Fork for Terahertz Quartz-Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaolo, Angelo; Patimisco, Pietro; Giglio, Marilena; Vitiello, Miriam S; Beere, Harvey E; Ritchie, David A; Scamarcio, Gaetano; Tittel, Frank K; Spagnolo, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    We report on a quartz-enhanced photoacoustic (QEPAS) sensor for methanol (CH₃OH) detection employing a novel quartz tuning fork (QTF), specifically designed to enhance the QEPAS sensing performance in the terahertz (THz) spectral range. A discussion of the QTF properties in terms of resonance frequency, quality factor and acousto-electric transduction efficiency as a function of prong sizes and spacing between the QTF prongs is presented. The QTF was employed in a QEPAS sensor system using a 3.93 THz quantum cascade laser as the excitation source in resonance with a CH₃OH rotational absorption line located at 131.054 cm(-1). A minimum detection limit of 160 ppb in 30 s integration time, corresponding to a normalized noise equivalent absorption NNEA = 3.75 × 10(-11) cm(-1)W/Hz(½), was achieved, representing a nearly one-order-of-magnitude improvement with respect to previous reports. PMID:27023552

  9. Improved Tuning Fork for Terahertz Quartz-Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaolo, Angelo; Patimisco, Pietro; Giglio, Marilena; Vitiello, Miriam S.; Beere, Harvey E.; Ritchie, David A.; Scamarcio, Gaetano; Tittel, Frank K.; Spagnolo, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    We report on a quartz-enhanced photoacoustic (QEPAS) sensor for methanol (CH3OH) detection employing a novel quartz tuning fork (QTF), specifically designed to enhance the QEPAS sensing performance in the terahertz (THz) spectral range. A discussion of the QTF properties in terms of resonance frequency, quality factor and acousto-electric transduction efficiency as a function of prong sizes and spacing between the QTF prongs is presented. The QTF was employed in a QEPAS sensor system using a 3.93 THz quantum cascade laser as the excitation source in resonance with a CH3OH rotational absorption line located at 131.054 cm−1. A minimum detection limit of 160 ppb in 30 s integration time, corresponding to a normalized noise equivalent absorption NNEA = 3.75 × 10−11 cm−1W/Hz½, was achieved, representing a nearly one-order-of-magnitude improvement with respect to previous reports. PMID:27023552

  10. UvrD controls the access of recombination proteins to blocked replication forks

    OpenAIRE

    Lestini, Roxane; Michel, Bénédicte

    2007-01-01

    Blocked replication forks often need to be processed by recombination proteins prior to replication restart. In Escherichia coli, the UvrD repair helicase was recently shown to act at inactivated replication forks, where it counteracts a deleterious action of RecA. Using two mutants affected for different subunits of the polymerase III holoenzyme (Pol IIIh), we show here that the anti-RecA action of UvrD at blocked forks reflects two different activities of this enzyme. A defective UvrD mutan...

  11. Salmon River Habitat Enhancement, 1984 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konopacky, Richard C.

    1986-04-01

    This report has four volumes: a Tribal project annual report (Part 1) and three reports (Parts 2, 3, and 4) prepared for the Tribes by their engineering subcontractor. The Tribal project annual report contains reports for four subprojects within Project 83-359. Subproject I involved habitat and fish inventories in Bear Valley Creek, Valley County, Idaho that will be used to evaluate responses to ongoing habitat enhancement. Subproject II is the coordination/planning activities of the Project Leader in relation to other BPA-funded habitat enhancement projects that have or will occur within the traditional Treaty (Fort Bridger Treaty of 1868) fishing areas of the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall Reservation, Idaho. Subproject III involved habitat and fish inventories (pretreatment) and habitat problem identification on the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River (including Jordan Creek). Subproject IV during 1985 involved habitat problem identification in the East Fork of the Salmon River and habitat and fish inventories (pretreatment) in Herd Creek, a tributary to the East Fork.

  12. Assessment of contaminant loads at the Deep Fork National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Fish, sediment, and benthic macroinvertebrate communities were sampled on and near the Deep Fork National Wildlife Refuge, Okmulgee County, Oklahoma. Collections...

  13. The Replication Checkpoint Prevents Two Types of Fork Collapse without Regulating Replisome Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dungrawala, Huzefa; Rose, Kristie L; Bhat, Kamakoti P; Mohni, Kareem N; Glick, Gloria G; Couch, Frank B; Cortez, David

    2015-09-17

    The ATR replication checkpoint ensures that stalled forks remain stable when replisome movement is impeded. Using an improved iPOND protocol combined with SILAC mass spectrometry, we characterized human replisome dynamics in response to fork stalling. Our data provide a quantitative picture of the replisome and replication stress response proteomes in 32 experimental conditions. Importantly, rather than stabilize the replisome, the checkpoint prevents two distinct types of fork collapse. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of protein abundance on nascent DNA is sufficient to identify protein complexes and place newly identified replisome-associated proteins into functional pathways. As an example, we demonstrate that ZNF644 complexes with the G9a/GLP methyltransferase at replication forks and is needed to prevent replication-associated DNA damage. Our data reveal how the replication checkpoint preserves genome integrity, provide insights into the mechanism of action of ATR inhibitors, and will be a useful resource for replication, DNA repair, and chromatin investigators. PMID:26365379

  14. 75 FR 25197 - Shasta Trinity National Forest, South Fork Management Unit, California Salt Timber Harvest and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Shasta Trinity National Forest, South Fork Management Unit, California Salt Timber Harvest... statement for the Salt Timber Harvest and Fuels Reduction Project (Salt Project). A...

  15. Deep Fork National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan 1999-2009 and Environmental Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan CCP was written to guide management on Deep Fork NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose...

  16. Take It Slow: can feedback from a smart fork reduce eating speed?

    OpenAIRE

    Sander Hermsen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Reductions in eating rate have been recommended as potential behavioural strategies to prevent and treat overweight [1–4]. Unfortunately, eating rate is difficult to modify, due to its highly automatic nature [5]. Training people to eat more slowly in everyday eating contexts, therefore, requires creative and engaging solutions. Aim: The present study examines the efficacy of a smart fork that helps people to eat more slowly. This adapted fork records eating speed ...

  17. The Use of a Tuning Fork and Stethoscope Versus Clinical Fracture Testing in Assessing Possible Fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Michael Bryan

    2005-01-01

    Traditional fracture testing in the field of athletic training relies heavily on subjective responses of the athlete. Percussion and compression type tests rely on the athlete stating an increase in pain which represents a positive symptom of a possible fracture. The tuning fork and stethoscope method relied purely on a subjective assessment from the examiner. The purpose of the study was to determine if the use of a 128Hz tuning fork and stethoscope were effective evaluation tools in the ...

  18. Waterfowl Production Areas - Bottineau County (J.Clark Salyer N. W. Refuge): Narrative report: January-December 1967

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for J. Clark Salyer WPA outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1967 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  19. Waterfowl Production Areas - Bottineau County (J.Clark Salyer N. W. Refuge): Narrative report: January-December 1969

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for J. Clark Salyer WPA outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1969 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  20. Petroleum geology of the Devonian Three Forks Formation, Sinclair Field and surrounding area, southwestern Manitoba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolas, M. [Manitoba Industry, Economic Development and Mines, Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Petroleum Branch

    2006-07-01

    The proven and probable reserves of Manitoba's most recent oil field, the Sinclair Field, are estimated at 3.8 million m{sup 3}. There are 9 designated oil pools within the Sinclair Field which produce from the Bakken and Three Forks Formations, with the most productive interval being the Qu'Appelle Group in the Three Forks Formation. In 2005, the Sinclair Field represented nearly 20 per cent of Manitoba's total oil production. This paper described the geological setting of southwestern Manitoba and the northeastern flank of the Williston Basin, with reference to the Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic strata that form a basinward thickening, southwestern sloping wedge. An erosion unconformity that marked the end of the Devonian represents a period of uplift that continued until early Mississippian time and affected the deposition, reworking and erosion of the Three Forks Formation. During Three Forks time, there was a shift in the depositional environment that produced the carbonates and evaporites of the Devonian, to a more transitional clastics-dominated environment. The regional isopach of the Three Forks was reviewed along with its structural features and tectonic interpretation. The shaley, silty dolarites, interbedded with shale and brecciated rocks of the Three Forks Formation have been highly affected by weathering and subsequent diagenesis and block faulting. It was suggested that future potential for another Sinclair-type oil play may exist east of Range 24W1. 8 refs., 12 figs., 2 appendices.

  1. RNF4 and PLK1 are required for replication fork collapse in ATR-deficient cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragland, Ryan L; Patel, Sima; Rivard, Rebecca S; Smith, Kevin; Peters, Ashley A; Bielinsky, Anja-Katrin; Brown, Eric J

    2013-10-15

    The ATR-CHK1 axis stabilizes stalled replication forks and prevents their collapse into DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Here, we show that fork collapse in Atr-deleted cells is mediated through the combined effects the sumo targeted E3-ubiquitin ligase RNF4 and activation of the AURKA-PLK1 pathway. As indicated previously, Atr-deleted cells exhibited a decreased ability to restart DNA replication following fork stalling in comparison with control cells. However, suppression of RNF4, AURKA, or PLK1 returned the reinitiation of replication in Atr-deleted cells to near wild-type levels. In RNF4-depleted cells, this rescue directly correlated with the persistence of sumoylation of chromatin-bound factors. Notably, RNF4 repression substantially suppressed the accumulation of DSBs in ATR-deficient cells, and this decrease in breaks was enhanced by concomitant inhibition of PLK1. DSBs resulting from ATR inhibition were also observed to be dependent on the endonuclease scaffold protein SLX4, suggesting that RNF4 and PLK1 either help activate the SLX4 complex or make DNA replication fork structures accessible for subsequent SLX4-dependent cleavage. Thus, replication fork collapse following ATR inhibition is a multistep process that disrupts replisome function and permits cleavage of the replication fork. PMID:24142876

  2. Rose L. Clark: award for distinguished early career contributions to psychology in the public interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    Presents a citation for Rose L. Clark, who received the Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest "for her leadership and contributions to the field of psychology in the awareness and advancement of research, practice, and policy on behalf of American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) children, families, and communities." A brief profile and a selected bibliography accompany the citation. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:17115824

  3. Population-Wide Failure to Breed in the Clark's Nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taza D Schaming

    Full Text Available In highly variable environments, conditions can be so stressful in some years that entire populations forgo reproduction in favor of higher likelihood of surviving to breed in future years. In two out of five years, Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga Columbiana in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem exhibited population-wide failure to breed. Clark's nutcrackers at the study site experienced substantial interannual differences in food availability and weather conditions, and the two nonbreeding years corresponded with low whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis cone crops the previous autumn (≤ an average of 8 ± 2 cones per tree versus ≥ an average of 20 ± 2 cones per tree during breeding years and high snowpack in early spring (≥ 61.2 ± 5.5 cm versus ≤ 51.9 ± 4.4 cm during breeding years. The average adult body condition index during the breeding season was significantly lower in 2011 (-1.5 ± 1.1, a nonbreeding year, as compared to 2012 (6.2 ± 2.0, a breeding year. The environmental cues available to the birds prior to breeding, specifically availability of cached whitebark pine seeds, may have allowed them to predict that breeding conditions would be poor, leading to the decision to skip breeding. Alternatively, the Clark's nutcrackers may have had such low body energy stores that they chose not to or were unable to breed. Breeding plasticity would allow Clark's nutcrackers to exploit an unpredictable environment. However, if large-scale mortality of whitebark pines is leading to an increase in the number of nonbreeding years, there could be serious population-level and ecosystem-wide consequences.

  4. Vegetation database for land-cover mapping, Clark and Lincoln Counties, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlet, David A.; Damar, Nancy A.; Leary, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    Floristic and other vegetation data were collected at 3,175 sample sites to support land-cover mapping projects in Clark and Lincoln Counties, Nevada, from 2007 to 2013. Data were collected at sample sites that were selected to fulfill mapping priorities by one of two different plot sampling approaches. Samples were described at the stand level and classified into the National Vegetation Classification hierarchy at the alliance level and above. The vegetation database is presented in geospatial and tabular formats.

  5. Management accounting, engineering and the management of company growth : Clarke Chapman, 1864-1914.

    OpenAIRE

    McLean, T.; McGovern, T.; Davie, S.

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the relationship between management accounting and engineering in the processes of strategic decision-making and managerial control underlying the management of growth in Clarke Chapman, 1864 – 1914. The research finds that strategic decisions to invest in new technologies were grounded in the engineering ethos of the firm, market awareness and information derived from the firm's extensive business networks. Decisions regarding the (dis)continuance of existing strategic...

  6. Pyramid Coarse Sun Sensing for NASA SSTI "Clark" Safe-Hold Mode

    OpenAIRE

    Benton, Jeff

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes an innovative approach to solving the Sun-pointing problem using a pyramid configuration of Coarse Sun Sensor (CSS) cells. In safe-hold mode, the Small Spacecraft Technology Initiative (SSTI) Clark spacecraft must keep its solar arrays towards the Sun using only CSS cells to sense the Sun. Unfortunately, Earth albedo degrades the accuracy of the Sun vector from these cells. Two CSS configurations are considered. A traditional configuration has cells mounted flat on each s...

  7. Creating Tomorrow’s Global Entrepreneurs: A Case Study of the Stu Clark Centre for Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavis McRae

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a case study of the University of Manitoba’s Stu Clark Centre for Entrepreneurship. The Centre provides experiential entrepreneurial training for youth as well as undergraduate and MBA students. The article describes the various programs the Centre is involved with both locally and internationally. These include preparing students for investment competitions, entrepreneurship day camps for at-risk youth, undergraduate entrepreneurship student exchange, and national and international training of entrepreneurship teachers.

  8. Recovery of thermophilic Campylobacter by three sampling methods from classified river sites in Northeast Georgia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is not clear how best to sample streams for the detection of Campylobacter which may be introduced from agricultural or community land use. Fifteen sites in the watershed of the South Fork of the Broad River (SFBR) in Northeastern Georgia, USA, were sampled in three seasons. Seven sites were cl...

  9. Failure analysis of axle shaft of a fork lift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souvik Das

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An axle shaft of fork lift failed at operation within 296 h of service. The shaft transmits torque from discrepancy to wheel through planetary gear arrangement. A section of fractured axle shaft made of induction-hardened steel was analyzed to determine the root cause of the failure. Optical microscopies as well as field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM along with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS were carried out to characterize the microstructure. Hardness profile throughout the cross-section was evaluated by micro-hardness measurements. Chemical analysis indicated that the shaft was made of 42CrMo4 steel grade as per specification. Microstructural analysis and micro-hardness profile revealed that the shaft was improperly heat treated resulting in a brittle case, where crack was found to initiate from the case in a brittle mode in contrast to ductile mode within the core. This behaviour was related to differences in microstructure, which was observed to be martensitic within the case with a micro-hardness equivalent to 735 HV, and a mixture of non-homogeneous structure of pearlite and ferrite within the core with a hardness of 210 HV. The analysis suggests that the fracture initiated from the martensitic case as brittle mode due to improper heat treatment process (high hardness. Moreover the inclusions along the hot working direction i.e. in the longitudinal axis made the component more susceptible to failure.

  10. Bioavailability of mercury in East Fork Poplar Creek soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The initial risk assessment for the East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) floodplain in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, a superfund site heavily contaminated with mercury, was based upon a reference dose for mercuric chloride, a soluble mercury compound not expected to be present in the floodplain, which is frequently saturated with water. Previous investigations had suggested mercury in the EFPC floodplain was less soluble and therefore less bioavailable than mercuric chloride, possibly making the results of the risk assessment unduly conservative. A bioavailability study, designed to measure the amount of mercury available for absorption in a child's digestive tract, the most critical risk endpoint and pathway, was performed on twenty soils from the EFPC floodplain. The average percentage of mercury released during the study for the twenty soils was 5.3%, compared to 100% of the compound mercuric chloride subjected to the same conditions. Alteration of the procedure to test additional conditions possible during soil digestion did not appreciably alter the results. Therefore, use of a reference dose for mercuric chloride in the EFPC risk assessment without inclusion of a corresponding bioavailability factor may be unduly conservative

  11. BIOLOGICAL MONITORING PROGRAM FOR EAST FORK POPLAR CREEK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ADAMS, S.M.; ASHWOOD, T.L.; BEATY, T.W.; BRANDT, C.C.

    1997-10-24

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y- 12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Lear et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities.

  12. A Tuning Fork with a Short Fibre Probe Sensor for a Near-FieldScanning Optical Microscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王沛; 鲁拥华; 章江英; 明海; 谢建平; 黄建文; 高宗圣; 蔡定平

    2002-01-01

    We report on a tapping-mode tuning fork with a short fibre probe sensor for a near-field scanning optical microscope. The method demonstrates how to fabricate the short fibre probe. This tapping-mode tuning fork with a short fibre probe can provide stable and high Q at the tapping frequency of the tuning fork, and can give high-quality near-field scanning optical microscope and atomic force microscope images of samples. We present the results of using the tapping-mode tuning fork with a short fibre probe sensor for a near-field scanning optical microscope performed on an eight-channel silica waveguide.

  13. River restoration, discharge uncertainties and floods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendiondo, E.M. [Kassel Univ. (Germany). Hydraulic Structures and Water-Resources Engineering]|[Univ. Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Pesquisas Hidraulicas; Clarke, R.T. [Univ. Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Pesquisas Hidraulicas; Toensmann, F. [Kassel Univ. (Germany). Hydraulic Structures and Water-Resources Engineering

    2000-07-01

    Although ecological river restoration is updated continuously, discharge uncertainties are not being addressed to practical purposes, i.e. flood mitigation. So, uncertainty-based strategies need to be addressed with resilient river habitats. Not only the flood-defence and river-restoration framework of Toensmann (1996), but also the uncertainties in rating curves pointed by Clarke et al (2000), are used as starting points to propose an alternative flood mitigation scheme, managing hydraulics, ecology and statistics for restoring watercourses. Our working hypothesis considers the likelihood and the resiliency of riparian habitats in order to encompass the routing effects caused by this alternative flood mitigation scheme. Herein we depict the strategy and assessment for the appraisal of flood mitigation due to discharge reduction in rating curves, with application examples. (orig.)

  14. Physical Habitat Characteristics on the South Fork Shenandoah River, VA in 2006-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Data collected with the GeoXT Trimble GPS unit using ArcPad 6.1. (summer 2006-2007). Files were created within a geodatabase to create a data dictionary for use in...

  15. DNA Copy-Number Control through Inhibition of Replication Fork Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared T. Nordman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Proper control of DNA replication is essential to ensure faithful transmission of genetic material and prevent chromosomal aberrations that can drive cancer progression and developmental disorders. DNA replication is regulated primarily at the level of initiation and is under strict cell-cycle regulation. Importantly, DNA replication is highly influenced by developmental cues. In Drosophila, specific regions of the genome are repressed for DNA replication during differentiation by the SNF2 domain-containing protein SUUR through an unknown mechanism. We demonstrate that SUUR is recruited to active replication forks and mediates the repression of DNA replication by directly inhibiting replication fork progression instead of functioning as a replication fork barrier. Mass spectrometry identification of SUUR-associated proteins identified the replicative helicase member CDC45 as a SUUR-associated protein, supporting a role for SUUR directly at replication forks. Our results reveal that control of eukaryotic DNA copy number can occur through the inhibition of replication fork progression.

  16. BWR spent-fuel measurements with the ION-1/fork detector and a calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma-ray and neutron measurements were made on about 50 irradiated boiling-water reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies using the Los Alamos National Laboratory ION-1/fork detector. The assemblies were placed in a dry storage cask (DOE's REA-2023) at the General Electric Morris Operation (GE-MO) as part of a program to evaluate the cask performance. Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted the program. PNL compared axial radiation profiles developed from ION-1/fork measurements with calculated profiles to interpret the temperature distributions within the cask. The gamma-ray profiles correlated with heat-emission rates measured with a calorimeter, which suggests that the ION-1/fork detector is much faster than the more direct calorimeter. In addition, the radiation profiles from the ION-1/fork detector can prevent cask loadings with undesirable heat source distributions. The detector also provides safeguards information by verifying the declared exposures and cooling times. The genuineness of the assemblies is thus confirmed just before the filling and sealing of a cask. The ION-1/fork detector was permanently installed in the GE-MO fuel storage pond for 1 year without any breakdowns or significant maintenance required. Data were gathered for 9 months and analyzed using techniques developed during previous measurement campaigns. A few anomalies were found in generally satisfactory results. The detector's ease of use, reliability, and reproducibility were excellent

  17. Vibratory Gyro-Sensor Using Vertically Set Quartz Crystal Trident-Type Tuning Fork Resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiratori, Norihiko; YoshiroTomikawa, YoshiroTomikawa; Ohnishi, Kazumasa

    1999-05-01

    In this study we deal with a new type of vibratory gyro-sensor using a vertically set quartz crystal trident-type tuning fork resonator. The sensor is made of X-cut quartz crystal wafer formed by rotating 2° about the X-axis, applying the wire saw cutting method. The slits that form three arms are cut along the Y-axis direction. In such a trident-type tuning fork resonator, two resonance vibration modes are used: one has vibrational displacement in the vertical direction (X-axis) of the tuning fork plane and the other has that in the horizontal direction (Z‧-axis). When an angular rate (ΩY‧) around the Y‧-axis is applied to the trident-type tuning fork gyro-sensor vibrating in the V-MODE, Coriolis forces, due to the ΩY‧, are applied on the three arms in the X‧-axis direction and the H-MODE vibration is induced. Therefore, the angular rate (ΩY‧) can be determined by detecting the signals of H-MODE vibration. The experimental results have proved that the vibratory gyro-sensor that uses such a quartz crystal tuning fork resonator has good characteristics.

  18. The Analysis of the Relationship between Communication Skills and the Establishment of Clark's Management Network among Sport Managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasool NAZARI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between communication skills and the establishment of Clark's Management Network among sport managers. This applied research is a kind of correlational – survey study. Statistical population consist ed of 140 sport managers working for sport organizations in Isfahan Province, which have been selected by stratified random sampling. Measurement tools included two questionnaires of Communication Skill (91% and Establishment of Clark's Management Network (87%. Descriptive and inferential statistical methods applied for statistical analysis using SPSS software. Results show that there is a relationship between communication skills and the establishment of Clark's Management Network among sport managers. I n addition, the feedback component has greater contribution to prediction of Clark's management network (p 0.05. In general, it can acknowledge that the communication skills are effective in the establishment of Clark's management network and cause to i mprove the management process of sport organizations' managers and to achieve to the organizational goals with high level of productivity.

  19. Lower Red River Meadow Stream Restoration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of a continuing effort to restore anadromous fish populations in the South Fork Clearwater River basin of Idaho, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund the Lower Red River Meadow Restoration Project (Project). The Project is a cooperative effort with the Idaho Soil and Water Conservation District, Nez Perce National Forest, Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), and the Nez Perce Tribe of Idaho. The proposed action would allow the sponsors to perform stream bank stabilization, aquatic and riparian habitat improvement activities on IDFG's Red River Management Area and to secure long-term conservation contracts or agreements for conducting streambank and habitat improvement activities with participating private landowners located in the Idaho County, Idaho, study area. This preliminary Environmental Assessment (EA) examines the potential environmental effects of stabilizing the stream channel, restoring juvenile fish rearing habitat and reestablishing a riparian shrub community along the stream

  20. [Artemia sp. (Crustacea, Anostracea) as intermediate host of Eurycestus avoceti Clark, 1954 (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea) (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrion, C; MacDonald, G

    1980-01-01

    Examination of Artemia sp. (Crustacé, Anostracé) for natural infection by cysticercoids of Flamingolepis liguloides, Cestode of the Flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber) shows the presence of three other cysticercoids of cestode parasites of the Flamingo in the hemocoele of the Branchiopode. A fourth one is reported as the cysticercoid of Eurycestus avoceti, Clark, 1954, which parasitizes the Avocet (Recurvirostra avosetta). The systematic position of this Cestode is always unknown. This report shows the importance of Artemia in the life cycle of Cestodes of Anseriforms and Charadriiforms birds in saline lagoons. PMID:7406422

  1. Ken Burn's 1997 Lewis and Clark television documentary : American History in Detox

    OpenAIRE

    Tschachler, Heinz

    2000-01-01

    Recientemente se ha venido prestando una gran atención al papel del cine y la televisión en la elaboración de la historia americana. El documental de 1997 de Ken Bums sobre la expedición de Lewis y Clark tampoco escapó la atención de la crítica y estudiosos. Mientras que algunos se centraron en temas de exactitud y responsabilidad, otros lo hicieron en como experimentamos, recordamos y participamos en la construcción del pasado. La puntualización de Patricia Limerick sobre lo que conduce el d...

  2. White noise generalizations of the Clark-Haussmann-Ocone theorem with application to mathematical finance

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Ubøe; Bernt Øksendal; Knut Aase; Nicolas Privault

    2000-01-01

    We use a white noise approach to Malliavin calculus to prove the following white noise generalization of the Clark-Haussmann-Ocone formula \\[F(\\omega)=E[F]+\\int_0^TE[D_tF|\\F_t]\\diamond W(t)dt\\] Here E[F] denotes the generalized expectation, $D_tF(\\omega)={{dF}\\over{d\\omega}}$ is the (generalized) Malliavin derivative, $\\diamond$ is the Wick product and W(t) is 1-dimensional Gaussian white noise. The formula holds for all $f\\in{\\cal G}^*\\supset L^2(\\mu)$, where ${\\cal G}^*$ is a space of stoch...

  3. Burnup verification at Arkansas Nuclear One-unit 1 using the Fork measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fork measurement system, designed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards program, has been used for several years to examine spent fuel assemblies at nuclear reactors around the world. The objective of the test program described here is to demonstrate the ability of the Fork system to verify the records for assembly burnup at U.S. nuclear utilities. The measurements described here were performed at Arkansas Nuclear One, operated by Energy Operations, Inc. The Fork system was used to examine 34 assemblies in the storage pool of Arkansas Nuclear One-Unit 1. The correlation between the neutron measurements and the reactor records produced an average random deviation in burnup of 3.0% from the calibration, which translates into an average variation of 2.2% in the reactor records for burnup. The system proved to be compatible with utility operations

  4. Design of a new portable fork detector for research reactor spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are many situations in nonproliferation and international safeguards when one needs to verify spent research-reactor fuel. Special inspections, a reactor coming under safeguards for the first time, and failed surveillance are prime examples. Several years ago, Los Alamos developed the FORK detector for the IAEA and EURATOM. This detector, together with the GRAND electronics package, is used routinely by inspectors to verify light-water-reactor spent fuels. Both the FORK detector and the GRAND electronics technologies have been transferred and are now commercially available. Recent incidents in the world indicate that research-reactor fuel is potentially a greater concern for proliferation than light-water-reactor fuels. A device similar to the FORK/GRAND should be developed to verify research-reactor spent fuels because the signals from light-water-reactor spent fuel are quite different than those from research-reactor fuels

  5. Lsd1 and Lsd2 Control Programmed Replication Fork Pauses and Imprinting in Fission Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allyson Holmes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, a chromosomal imprinting event controls the asymmetric pattern of mating-type switching. The orientation of DNA replication at the mating-type locus is instrumental in this process. However, the factors leading to imprinting are not fully identified and the mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we show that the replication fork pause at the mat1 locus (MPS1, essential for imprint formation, depends on the lysine-specific demethylase Lsd1. We demonstrate that either Lsd1 or Lsd2 amine oxidase activity is required for these processes, working upstream of the imprinting factors Swi1 and Swi3 (homologs of mammalian Timeless and Tipin, respectively. We also show that the Lsd1/2 complex controls the replication fork terminators, within the rDNA repeats. These findings reveal a role for the Lsd1/2 demethylases in controlling polar replication fork progression, imprint formation, and subsequent asymmetric cell divisions.

  6. Concentrations of metals in water, sediment, biofilm, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish in the boulder river watershed, Montana, and the role of colloids in metal uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, A.M.; Nimick, D.A.; Kimball, B.A.; Church, S.E.; Harper, D.D.; Brumbaugh, W.G.

    2007-01-01

    To characterize the partitioning of metals in a stream ecosystem, concentrations of trace metals including As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn were measured in water, colloids, sediment, biofilm (also referred to as aufwuchs), macroinvertebrates, and fish collected from the Boulder River watershed, Montana. Median concentrations of Cd, Cu, and Zn in water throughout the watershed exceeded the U.S. EPA acute and chronic criteria for protection of aquatic life. Concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in sediment were sufficient in the tributaries to cause invertebrate toxicity. The concentrations of As, Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn in invertebrates from lower Cataract Creek (63, 339, 59, 34, and 2,410 ??g/g dry wt, respectively) were greater than the concentrations in invertebrates from the Clark Fork River watershed, Montana (19, 174, 2.3, 15, and 648 ??g/g, respectively), that were associated with reduced survival, growth, and health of cutthroat trout fed diets composed of those invertebrates. Colloids and biofilm seem to play a critical role in the pathway of metals into the food chain and concentrations of As, Cu, Pb, and Zn in these two components are significantly correlated. We suggest that transfer of metals associated with Fe colloids to biological components of biofilm is an important pathway where metals associated with abiotic components are first available to biotic components. The significant correlations suggest that Cd, Cu, and Zn may move independently to biota (biofilm, invertebrates, or fish tissues) from water and sediment. The possibility exists that Cd, Cu, and Zn concentrations increase in fish tissues as a result of direct contact with water and sediment and indirect exposure through the food chain. However, uptake through the food chain to fish may be more important for As. Although As concentrations in colloids and biofilm were significantly correlated with As water concentrations, As concentrations in fish tissues were not correlated with water. The pathway for

  7. Regulating telomere length from the inside out: the replication fork model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Telomere length is regulated around an equilibrium set point. Telomeres shorten during replication and are lengthened by telomerase. Disruption of the length equilibrium leads to disease; thus, it is important to understand the mechanisms that regulate length at the molecular level. The prevailing protein-counting model for regulating telomerase access to elongate the telomere does not explain accumulating evidence of a role of DNA replication in telomere length regulation. Here I present an alternative model: the replication fork model that can explain how passage of a replication fork and regulation of origin firing affect telomere length. PMID:27401551

  8. 浅析JSR-166y中Fork/Join框架的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁黎明

    2011-01-01

    多线程开发技术可以有效利用计算资源,而Fork/Join框架是一种经典的多线程开发框,能够帮助开发人员处理线程调度问题.文章从JDK各个版本对并行编程的支持着手,介绍了未来JSR-166y中引入的Fork/Join框架及其应用方法,并给出Java实现代码.

  9. Measurements of Vortex Line Density Generated by a Quartz Tuning Fork in Superfluid 4He

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, M. J.; Kolosov, O.; Schmoranzer, D.; Skrbek, L.; Tsepelin, V.; Woods, A. J.

    2016-05-01

    We present proof-of-concept measurements of the vortex line density generated by a quartz tuning fork resonator probed by the attenuation of second sound in superfluid ^4He at 1.6 K. The force-velocity response of a quartz tuning fork operating at a frequency of 31 kHz exhibited the onset of extra damping at a velocity of 0.5 ms^{-1}. Attenuation of the 5th resonant mode of second sound was observed at the same velocity, indicating the production of vortex lines. Our measurements demonstrate that an increase of the drag coefficient corresponds to the development of quantum turbulence.

  10. Replication fork assembly at recombination intermediates is required for bacterial growth

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Joing; Xu, Liewei; Sandler, Steven J.; Marians, Kenneth J.

    1999-01-01

    PriA, a 3′ → 5′ DNA helicase, directs assembly of a primosome on some bacteriophage and plasmid DNAs. Primosomes are multienzyme replication machines that contribute both the DNA-unwinding and Okazaki fragment-priming functions at the replication fork. The role of PriA in chromosomal replication is unclear. The phenotypes of priA null mutations suggest that the protein participates in replication restart at recombination intermediates. We show here that PriA promotes replication fork assembly...

  11. The DNA repair helicase UvrD is essential for replication fork reversal in replication mutants

    OpenAIRE

    Flores, Maria Jose; Bidnenko, Vladimir; Michel, Bénédicte

    2004-01-01

    Replication forks arrested by inactivation of the main Escherichia coli DNA polymerase (polymerase III) are reversed by the annealing of newly synthesized leading- and lagging-strand ends. Reversed forks are reset by the action of RecBC on the DNA double-strand end, and in the absence of RecBC chromosomes are linearized by the Holliday junction resolvase RuvABC. We report here that the UvrD helicase is essential for RuvABC-dependent chromosome linearization in E. coli polymerase III mutants, ...

  12. PARP-1 ensures regulation of replication fork progression by homologous recombination on damaged DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Sugimura, Kazuto; Takebayashi, Shin-ichiro; Taguchi, Hiroshi; Takeda, Shunichi; Okumura, Katsuzumi

    2008-01-01

    Poly-ADP ribose polymerase 1 (PARP-1) is activated by DNA damage and has been implicated in the repair of single-strand breaks (SSBs). Involvement of PARP-1 in other DNA damage responses remains controversial. In this study, we show that PARP-1 is required for replication fork slowing on damaged DNA. Fork progression in PARP-1 −/− DT40 cells is not slowed down even in the presence of DNA damage induced by the topoisomerase I inhibitor camptothecin (CPT). Mammalian cells treated with a PARP in...

  13. The distribution of time for Clark's flow and risk assessment for the activities of pert network structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letić Duško

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the ways of quantification of flow time qualifications that can be used for planning or other stochastic processes by employing Clark's methods, central limit theorem and Monte Carlo simulation. The results of theoretical researches on superponed flow time quantification for complex activities and events flow in PERT network for project management are also presented. By extending Clark's research we have made a generalization of flow models for parallel and ordinal activities and events and specifically for their critical and subcritical paths. This can prevent planning errors and decrease the project realization risk. The software solution is based on Clark's equations and Monte Carlo simulation. The numerical experiment is conducted using Mathcad Professional.

  14. EEPD1 Rescues Stressed Replication Forks and Maintains Genome Stability by Promoting End Resection and Homologous Recombination Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuehan; Lee, Suk-Hee; Williamson, Elizabeth A.; Reinert, Brian L.; Cho, Ju Hwan; Xia, Fen; Jaiswal, Aruna Shanker; Srinivasan, Gayathri; Patel, Bhavita; Brantley, Alexis; Zhou, Daohong; Shao, Lijian; Pathak, Rupak; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Singh, Sudha; Kong, Kimi; Wu, Xaiohua; Kim, Hyun-Suk; Beissbarth, Timothy; Gaedcke, Jochen; Burma, Sandeep; Nickoloff, Jac A.; Hromas, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Replication fork stalling and collapse is a major source of genome instability leading to neoplastic transformation or cell death. Such stressed replication forks can be conservatively repaired and restarted using homologous recombination (HR) or non-conservatively repaired using micro-homology mediated end joining (MMEJ). HR repair of stressed forks is initiated by 5’ end resection near the fork junction, which permits 3’ single strand invasion of a homologous template for fork restart. This 5’ end resection also prevents classical non-homologous end-joining (cNHEJ), a competing pathway for DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. Unopposed NHEJ can cause genome instability during replication stress by abnormally fusing free double strand ends that occur as unstable replication fork repair intermediates. We show here that the previously uncharacterized Exonuclease/Endonuclease/Phosphatase Domain-1 (EEPD1) protein is required for initiating repair and restart of stalled forks. EEPD1 is recruited to stalled forks, enhances 5’ DNA end resection, and promotes restart of stalled forks. Interestingly, EEPD1 directs DSB repair away from cNHEJ, and also away from MMEJ, which requires limited end resection for initiation. EEPD1 is also required for proper ATR and CHK1 phosphorylation, and formation of gamma-H2AX, RAD51 and phospho-RPA32 foci. Consistent with a direct role in stalled replication fork cleavage, EEPD1 is a 5’ overhang nuclease in an obligate complex with the end resection nuclease Exo1 and BLM. EEPD1 depletion causes nuclear and cytogenetic defects, which are made worse by replication stress. Depleting 53BP1, which slows cNHEJ, fully rescues the nuclear and cytogenetic abnormalities seen with EEPD1 depletion. These data demonstrate that genome stability during replication stress is maintained by EEPD1, which initiates HR and inhibits cNHEJ and MMEJ. PMID:26684013

  15. Salmon River Habitat Enhancement, Part 1 of 2, 1986 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, Carl

    1987-03-01

    The tribal project annual report contains reports for four subprojects within Project 83-359. Subproject I involved fish inventories in Bear Valley Creek, Idaho, that will be used in conjunction with 1984 and 1985 fish and habitat pre-treatment (baseline) data to evaluate effects of habitat enhancement on the habitat and fish community in Bear Valley Creek overtime. Subproject II is the coordination/planning activities of the Project Leader in relation to other BPA-funded habitat enhancement projects that have or will occur in the upper-Salmon River basin. Subproject III involved fish inventories (pre-treatment) in the Yankee Fork drainage of the Salmon River, and habitat problem identification on Fivemile and Ramey Creek. Subproject IV involved baseline habitat and fish inventories on the East Fork of the Salmon River, Herd Creek and Big-Boulder Creek. Individual abstracts have been prepared for the four subproject reports. 20 refs., 37 figs., 22 tabs.

  16. Natureza do espaço em Leibniz e a correspondência Leibniz-Clarke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony M. M. Polito

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We study the Leibnizian conception of space based upon a critical analysis of the arguments developed throughout the Leibniz–Clarke correspondence. This study is done upon the content of the correspondence originally published by Clarke in 1717 and wholly republished by H. G. Alexander in 1956. Our main goal is to show how it is possible to unfold the Leibnizian concept of space in three distinct ontological structures, each one interconnected and strongly based in the principle of preestablished harmony. These three structures anticipate ideas that were partially, at least, retaken inside some modern perspectives in physics and its philosophy. The main points discussed are: (i the contention against the newtonian atomism and absolute space; (ii the ontological and physical implications of the Leibnizian metaphysical principles; (iii the problem of the symmetry; (iv the identification of a real property of spatial extension; (v the conception of relative space as ideal structure and (vi the emergency of a structure of relational space founded in the real structure of spatial extension.

  17. Non-Asymptotic Delay Bounds for (k,l) Fork-Join Systems and Multi-Stage Fork-Join Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Fidler, Markus; JIANG, Yuming

    2015-01-01

    Parallel systems have received increasing attention with numerous recent applications such as fork-join systems, load-balancing, and l-out-of-k redundancy. Common to these systems is a join or resequencing stage, where tasks that have finished service may have to wait for the completion of other tasks so that they leave the system in a predefined order. These synchronization constraints make the analysis of parallel systems challenging and few explicit results are known. In this work, we mode...

  18. FROM THE LEWIS AND CLARK EXPEDITION TO IBM, DELL, AND SOUTHWEST AIRLINES: TEACHING HISTORY AND LEADERSHIP TO BUSINESS STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey J. Matthews

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available History is not a tomb of dead facts but a resource that can inform and improve everyday decision making. Experience as an analytical tool is invaluable for solving problems in changing and competitive environments. “From the Lewis and Clark Expedition,” which coincides with the National Lewis & Clark Bicentennial Commemoration (2003—2006, demonstrates how contemporary business concepts of visionary leadership, systematic planning, and organizational climate were instrumental to the success of Thomas Jefferson's “Corps of Discovery” and shows how a mastery of these concepts contributed to the successes of the pioneering US corporations IBM, Southwest Airlines, and Dell.

  19. Summary of biological investigations relating to surface-water quality in the Kentucky River basin, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradfield, A.D.; Porter, S.D.

    1990-01-01

    The Kentucky River basin, an area of approximately 7,000 sq mi, is divided into five hydrologic units that drain parts of three physiographic regions. Data on aquatic biological resources were collected and reviewed to assess conditions in the major streams for which data were available. The North, Middle, and South Forks of the Kentucky River are in the Eastern Coal Field physiographic region. Streams in this region are affected by drainage from coal mines and oil and gas operations, and many support only tolerant biotic stream forms. The Kentucky River from the confluence of the three forks to the Red River, is in the Knobs physiographic region. Oil and gas production operations and point discharges from municipalities have affected many streams in this region. The Red River, a Kentucky Wild River, supported a unique flora and fauna but accelerated sedimentation has eliminated many species of mussels. The Millers Creek drainage is affected by brines discharged from oil and gas operations, and some reaches support only halophilic algae and a few fish. The Kentucky River from the Red River to the Ohio River is in the Bluegrass physiographic region. Heavy sediment loads and sewage effluent from urban centers have limited the aquatic biota in this region. Silver Creek and South Elkhorn Creek have been particularly affected and aquatic communities in these streams are dominated by organisms tolerant of low dissolved oxygen concentrations. Biological data for other streams indicate that habitat and water quality conditions are favorable for most commonly occurring aquatic organisms. (USGS)

  20. Biogeochemistry of mercury in a river-reservoir system: impact of an inactive chloralkali plant on the Holston River-Cherokee Reservoir, Virginia and Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrand, S. G.; Lindberg, S. E.; Turner, R. R.; Huckabee, J. W.; Strand, R. H.; Lund, J. R.; Andren, A. W.

    1980-08-01

    Elevated mercury concentrations in fish species from the North Fork of the Holston River were observed in the early 1970's. The source of the mercury was a chloralkali plant which had ceased operation in 1972. Mercury continues to be released to the river from two large (approx. 40-ha) waste disposal ponds at the plant site. This report presents results of a study of the emission of mercury to the environment from the abandoned waste ponds and of the distribution of mercury in water, sediment, and biota of the Holston River-Cherokee Reservoir System in Virginia and eastern Tennessee.

  1. Diagnostic nutrient mass balance on J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge, North Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Souris River, an international river originating in Canada’s Saskatchewan Province, flows south into the State of North Dakota and then back north into Canada’s...

  2. 76 FR 6114 - Lincoln National Forest, New Mexico, North Fork Eagle Creek Wells Special Use Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ...The Lincoln National Forest will prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) to document and publicly disclose environmental effects of issuing a new special use permit to the Village of Ruidoso (the applicant) for continued operation of their municipal water supply wells on the North Fork of Eagle Creek, located on National Forest System land. The new permit would include additional terms......

  3. Storm water control plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the erosion and sediment control, storm water management, maintenance, and reporting and record keeping practices to be employed during Phase II of the remediation project for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) Operable Unit

  4. Multiple Rad5 activities mediate sister chromatid recombination to bypass DNA damage at stalled replication forks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minca, Eugen C; Kowalski, David

    2010-06-11

    DNA damage that blocks replication is bypassed in order to complete chromosome duplication and preserve cell viability and genome stability. Rad5, a PCNA polyubiquitin ligase and DNA-dependent ATPase in yeast, is orthologous to putative tumor suppressors and controls error-free damage bypass by an unknown mechanism. To identify the mechanism in vivo, we investigated the roles of Rad5 and analyzed the DNA structures that form during damage bypass at site-specific stalled forks present at replication origins. Rad5 mediated the formation of recombination-dependent, X-shaped DNA structures containing Holliday junctions between sister chromatids. Mutants lacking these damage-induced chromatid junctions were defective in resolving stalled forks, restarting replication, and completing chromosome duplication. Rad5 polyubiquitin ligase and ATPase domains both contributed to replication fork recombination. Our results indicate that multiple activities of Rad5 function coordinately with homologous recombination factors to enable replication template switch events that join sister chromatids at stalled forks and bypass DNA damage. PMID:20541998

  5. Algebraic modelling and performance evaluation of acyclic fork-join queueing networks

    OpenAIRE

    Krivulin, Nikolai K.

    2012-01-01

    Simple lower and upper bounds on mean cycle time in stochastic acyclic fork-join queueing networks are derived using a (max,+)-algebra based representation of network dynamics. The behaviour of the bounds under various assumptions concerning the service times in the networks is discussed, and related numerical examples are presented.

  6. Bounds on mean cycle time in acyclic fork-join queueing networks

    OpenAIRE

    Krivulin, Nikolai K.

    2012-01-01

    Simple lower and upper bounds on mean cycle time in stochastic acyclic fork-join networks are derived using the $(\\max,+)$-algebra approach. The behaviour of the bounds under various assumptions concerning the service times in the networks is discussed, and related numerical examples are presented.

  7. Casimir force experiments with quartz tuning forks and an atomic force microscope (AFM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, T [Binnotec, Bouchestr. 12, 12435 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: DrLudwig@thorstenludwig.de

    2008-04-25

    The aim of the measurement series is to study the Casimir force, specifically the effects of different materials and geometries. The art of measuring sub-nano Newton forces has been engineered to a great extent in the material sciences, especially for the atomic force microscope. In today's scanning microscope technologies there are several common methods used to measure sub-nano Newton forces. While the commercial atomic force microscopes (AFM) mostly work with soft silicon cantilevers, there are a large number of reports from university groups on the use of quartz tuning forks to get high resolution AFM pictures, to measure shear forces or to create new force sensors. The quartz tuning fork based force sensor has a number of advantages over the silicon cantilever, but also has some disadvantages. In this report the method based on quartz tuning forks is described with respect to their usability for Casimir force measurements and compared with other successful techniques. Furthermore, a design for Casimir force measurements that was set up in Berlin will be described and practical experimental aspects will be discussed. A status report on the Casimir experiments in Berlin will be given, including the experimental setup. In order to study the details of the Casimir effect the apparatus and active surfaces have to be improved further. The surfaces have to be flatter and cleaner. For better resolution, cantilevers and tuning forks with a low spring constant have to be employed.

  8. Casimir force experiments with quartz tuning forks and an atomic force microscope (AFM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the measurement series is to study the Casimir force, specifically the effects of different materials and geometries. The art of measuring sub-nano Newton forces has been engineered to a great extent in the material sciences, especially for the atomic force microscope. In today's scanning microscope technologies there are several common methods used to measure sub-nano Newton forces. While the commercial atomic force microscopes (AFM) mostly work with soft silicon cantilevers, there are a large number of reports from university groups on the use of quartz tuning forks to get high resolution AFM pictures, to measure shear forces or to create new force sensors. The quartz tuning fork based force sensor has a number of advantages over the silicon cantilever, but also has some disadvantages. In this report the method based on quartz tuning forks is described with respect to their usability for Casimir force measurements and compared with other successful techniques. Furthermore, a design for Casimir force measurements that was set up in Berlin will be described and practical experimental aspects will be discussed. A status report on the Casimir experiments in Berlin will be given, including the experimental setup. In order to study the details of the Casimir effect the apparatus and active surfaces have to be improved further. The surfaces have to be flatter and cleaner. For better resolution, cantilevers and tuning forks with a low spring constant have to be employed

  9. BENZO(A)PYRENE DIOL EPOXIDE I BINDS TO DNA AT REPLICATION FORKS (JOURNAL VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The distribution in replication forks of DNA lesions caused by the treatment of S phase calls with benzo(a)pyrene-diol-epoxide-1 (BPDE-1) was studied in synchronized C3H10T1/2 cells. Sites of carcinogen modification of DNA were identified by polyclonal rabbit antibodies that were...

  10. Linking Climate, Hydrology and Groundwater in High-Resolution Transient Groundwater Flow Models: a Case Study For a Climate Change Impacts Assessment in Grand Forks, BC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scibek, J.; Allen, D. M.; Whitfield, P.; Wei, M.

    2004-05-01

    A case study of an unconfined aquifer in the Grand Forks valley in south-central BC was used to develop methodology for linking climate models, hydrologic models, and groundwater models to investigate future impacts of climate change on groundwater resources. A three dimensional groundwater flow model of variable spatial resolution (constrained by borehole spacing) was implemented in MODFLOW, and calibrated to observation well data. Multiple scenarios of the hydraulic conductivity fields were used in a sensitivity analysis. A new methodology was developed for generating spatially-distributed and temporally-varying recharge zonation for the surficial aquifer, using GIS linked to the one-dimensional HELP (USEPA) hydrologic model that estimates aquifer recharge. The recharge model accounts for soil distribution, vadose zone depth and hydraulic conductivity, extent of impermeable areas, surficial geology, and vadose zone thickness. Production well pumping and irrigation return flow during the summer season were included in recharge computations. Although recharge was computed as monthly averages per climate scenario, it is driven by physically-based daily weather inputs generated by a stochastic weather generator and calibrated to local observed climate. Four year long climate scenarios were run, each representing one typical year in the present and future (2020s, 2050s, and 2080s), by perturbing the historical weather according to the downscaled CGCM1 general circulation model results (Environment Canada). CGCM1 model outputs were calibrated for local conditions during the downscaling procedure. These include absolute and relative changes in precipitation; including indirect measures of precipitation intensity, dry and wet spell lengths, temperature, and solar radiation for the evapotranspiration model. CGCM1 downscaling was also used to predict basin-scale runoff for the Kettle River upstream of Grand Forks. This river exerts strong control on the groundwater levels

  11. Robert Clarke Named as the National Cancer Institute - Sigma Xi Distinguished Lecturer for 2012-2013 — Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Clarke is an expert on the effects of hormones and growth factors on breast cancer. He and his laboratory are actively pursuing the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the emergence of resistance in breast cancer cells to endocrine and cytotoxic therapies.

  12. 77 FR 20413 - Notice of Realty Action: Modified Competitive, Sealed-Bid Sale of Public Land in Clark County, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ...: 14X5232] Notice of Realty Action: Modified Competitive, Sealed-Bid Sale of Public Land in Clark County, NV... Management (BLM) proposes to offer by modified competitive, sealed-bid sale, one parcel of public land... device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 1-800-877-8339...

  13. 75 FR 33295 - Clark-Wiltz Mining; Notice of Declaration of Intention and Petition for Relief Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Clark-Wiltz Mining; Notice of Declaration of Intention and Petition for... Mining. e. Name of Project: Ganes Creek Hydrokinetic Pilot Project. f. Location: The project would be... CFR 385.2001(a)(1)(iii) and the instructions on the Commission's Web site (...

  14. 78 FR 17718 - Notice of Availability of a Record of Decision for the Searchlight Wind Energy Project, Clark...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ...: 14X5017] Notice of Availability of a Record of Decision for the Searchlight Wind Energy Project, Clark... Searchlight Wind Energy Project. The Department of the Interior Secretary signed the ROD on March 13, 2013.../lvfo/blm_programs/energy/searchlight_wind_energy.html . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  15. Clark County, Nevada's Assessment of Land Use Conflicts Resulting from Shipments to Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper should help the reader understand the impact that the proposed Yucca Mountain spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste shipping campaign by rail and truck may have on the 'present and future uses of the land' that are impacted by these shipments in the Las Vegas Metropolitan area. In the FEIS, DOE states that, 'information useful for an evaluation of land-use and ownership impacts should identify the current ownership of the land that its activities could disturb, and the present and anticipated future uses of the land' (emphasis added). As stated, any information that helps evaluate the land use and ownership impacts needs to look at the present and anticipated uses of the land. This paper looks at the change occurring in Clark County, specifically in the Las Vegas Metropolitan area, in regards to the anticipated use of the land. (authors)

  16. Sinapyl Alcohol Derivatives from the Lipo-soluble Part of Dichrocephala benthamii C. B. Clarke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhui Tian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Four new sinapyl alcohol derivatives dichrocephols A–D (compounds 1–4 were isolated from the lipo-soluble part of the whole herb of Dichrocephala benthamii C. B. Clarke, together with the known compound syringenin isovalerate (5. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. Their absolute configurations were established by the method of alkaline hydrohysis. Compounds 1–3 showed moderate cytotoxity against HeLa cells, with IC50 values of 14.8 μM, 51.6 μM and 81.6 μM, respectively. This is the first time that sinapyl alcohol derivatives were isolated from the genus Dichrocephala.

  17. Whitebark pine stand condition, tree abundance, and cone production as predictors of visitation by Clark's nutcracker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren E Barringer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Accurately quantifying key interactions between species is important for developing effective recovery strategies for threatened and endangered species. Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis, a candidate species for listing under the Endangered Species Act, depends on Clark's nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana for seed dispersal. As whitebark pine succumbs to exotic disease and mountain pine beetles (Dendroctonus ponderosae, cone production declines, and nutcrackers visit stands less frequently, reducing the probability of seed dispersal. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We quantified whitebark pine forest structure, health metrics, and the frequency of nutcracker occurrence in national parks within the Northern and Central Rocky Mountains in 2008 and 2009. Forest health characteristics varied between the two regions, with the northern region in overall poorer health. Using these data, we show that a previously published model consistently under-predicts the proportion of survey hours resulting in nutcracker observations at all cone density levels. We present a new statistical model of the relationship between whitebark pine cone production and the probability of Clark's nutcracker occurrence based on combining data from this study and the previous study. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our model clarified earlier findings and suggested a lower cone production threshold value for predicting likely visitation by nutcrackers: Although nutcrackers do visit whitebark pine stands with few cones, the probability of visitation increases with increased cone production. We use information theoretics to show that beta regression is a more appropriate statistical framework for modeling the relationship between cone density and proportion of survey time resulting in nutcracker observations. We illustrate how resource managers may apply this model in the process of prioritizing areas for whitebark pine restoration.

  18. Window of Opportunity: The Climatic Conditions of the Lewis and Clark Expedition of 1804 1806.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Paul A.

    2004-09-01

    Lewis and Clark's entry into to the American West in search of an inland Northwest Passage is considered among the greatest expeditions in American history. The Corps of Discovery were also lucky as their travels west of the 100th meridian occurred during a “window” of generally favorable climatic conditions. Use of reconstructed summer Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) values from 1700 1978 indicate that drought frequency at locations along the Lewis and Clark trail ranged from 4 to 12 yr and that the probability of encountering a drought either on the outbound or return trip approached 50% at some locations. Exact date comparisons of meteorological conditions during periods of extended encampment (i.e., 1 5 months) between 1804 06 with long-term records of nearby weather stations indicate that the Corps of Discovery avoided drought and traveled during a cooler and/or substantially wetter period than historical averages. Examination of reconstructed Southern Oscillation index (SOI) and Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) values suggest wetter conditions prevailed in 1804 06 because of the co-occurrence of La Niña conditions during a cold PDO phase. Although the Corps of Discovery suffered hardships because of the wetter conditions, they avoided the more serious consequences of severe droughts that occurred in 1800 and 1808. Drought conditions along the semiarid and arid portions of the trail would have reduced forage yield for the game that were their principal source of food and increased their chances for starvation. Additionally, lower streamflow conditions along their principal navigation routes would have required greater effort and time to haul their supplies to the Continental Divide, perhaps delaying their expedition by a year.

  19. Radio diary follows geochemist as he tracks the movement of heavy metals

    OpenAIRE

    Trulove, Susan

    2007-01-01

    This summer, people worldwide have been able to join Virginia Tech Geochemist Michael Hochella as he traced heavy metals in the headwaters of Montana's Clark Fork River to learn how nanoparticles speed the movement of pollution downstream from a contaminated mine site.

  20. Concordance of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers in detecting a founder event in Lake Clark sockeye salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramstad, Kristina M.; Woody, Carol Ann; Habicht, Chris; Sage, G. Kevin; Seeb, James E.; Allendorf, Fred W.

    2007-01-01

    Genetic bottleneck effects can reduce genetic variation, persistence probability, and evolutionary potential of populations. Previous microsatellite analysis suggested a bottleneck associated with a common founding of sock-eye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka populations of Lake Clark, Alaska, about 100 to 400 generations ago. The common foundingevent occurred after the last glacial recession and resulted in reduced allelic diversity and strong divergence of Lake Clarksockeye salmon relative to neighboring Six Mile Lake and LakeIliamna populations. Here we used two additional genetic marker types (allozymes and mtDNA) to examine these patterns further. Allozyme and mtDNA results were congruent with the microsatellite data in suggesting a common founder event in LakeClark sockeye salmon and confirmed the divergence of Lake Clarkpopulations from neighboring Six Mile Lake and Lake Iliamna populations. The use of multiple marker types provided better understanding of the bottleneck in Lake Clark. For example, the Sucker Bay Lake population had an exceptionally severe reduction in allelic diversity at microsatellite loci, but not at mtDNA. This suggests that the reduced microsatellite variation in Sucker Bay Lake fish is due to consistently smaller effective population size than other Lake Clark populations, rather than a more acute or additional bottleneck since founding. Caution is urged in using reduced heterozygosity as a measure of genetic bottleneck effects because stochastic variance among loci resulted in an overall increase in allozyme heterozygosity within bottlenecked Lake Clark populations. However, heterozygosity excess, which assesses heterozygosity relative to allelic variation, detected genetic bottleneck effects in both allozyme and microsatellite loci. 

  1. River engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, M.

    1993-01-01

    One dimension models - basic eauations, analytical models, numberical models. One dimensional models -suspended load, roughness and resistance of river beds. Solving river problems - tools, flood mitigation, bank protection.

  2. Evaluation of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Mercury Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, David B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brooks, Scott C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mathews, Teresa J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bevelhimer, Mark S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); DeRolph, Chris [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brandt, Craig C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peterson, Mark J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ketelle, Richard [East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-06-01

    This report summarizes a 3-year research project undertaken to better understand the nature and magnitude of mercury (Hg) fluxes in East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). This project addresses the requirements of Action Plan 1 in the 2011 Oak Ridge Reservation-wide Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Five Year Review (FYR). The Action Plan is designed to address a twofold 2011 FYR issue: (1) new information suggests mobilization of mercury from the upper and lower EFPC streambeds and stream banks is the primary source of mercury export during high-flow conditions, and (2) the current Record of Decision did not address the entire hydrologic system and creek bank or creek bed sediments. To obtain a more robust watershed-scale understanding of mercury sources and processes in lower EFPC (LEFPC), new field and laboratory studies were coupled with existing data from multiple US Department of Energy programs to develop a dynamic watershed and bioaccumulation model. LEFPC field studies for the project focused primarily on quantification of streambank erosion and an evaluation of mercury dynamics in shallow groundwater adjacent to LEFPC and potential connection to the surface water. The approach to the stream bank study was innovative in using imagery from kayak floats’ surveys from the headwaters to the mouth of EFPC to estimate erosion, coupled with detailed bank soil mercury analyses. The goal of new field assessments and modeling was to generate a more holistic and quantitative understanding of the watershed and the sources, flux, concentration, transformation, and bioaccumulation of inorganic mercury (IHg) and methylmercury (MeHg). Model development used a hybrid approach that dynamically linked a spreadsheet-based physical and chemical watershed model to a systems dynamics, mercury bioaccumulation model for key fish species. The watershed model tracks total Hg and MeHg fluxes and concentrations by examining upstream inputs, floodplain

  3. Understanding Code Forking in Open Source Software: An examination of code forking, its effect on open source software, and how it is viewed and practiced by developers

    OpenAIRE

    Nyman, Linus

    2015-01-01

    Open source software is everywhere. From phones, tablets, TVs, and game consoles to less self-evident examples like cars, washing machines, and the International Space Station. However, what makes open source software remarkable is not where it can be found, but rather what can be done with it. One of the most astounding rights guaranteed by all open source software licenses is the right to fork the source code. In other words, the right to copy any program, either in part or in its entirety,...

  4. Calibration of piezoelectric positioning actuators using a reference voltage-to-displacement transducer based on quartz tuning forks

    CERN Document Server

    Castellanos-Gomez, Andres; Agraït, Nicolás; Rubio-Bollinger, Gabino; 10.1017/S1431927611012839

    2012-01-01

    We use a piezoelectric quartz tuning fork to calibrate the displacement of ceramic piezoelectric scanners which are widely employed in scanning probe microscopy. We measure the static piezoelectric response of a quartz tuning fork and find it to be highly linear, non-hysteretic and with negligible creep. These performance characteristics, close to those of an ideal transducer, make quartz transducers superior to ceramic piezoelectric actuators. Furthermore, quartz actuators in the form of a tuning fork have the advantage of yielding static displacements comparable to those of local probe microscope scanners. We use the static displacement of a quartz tuning fork as a reference to calibrate the three axis displacement of a ceramic piezoelectric scanner. Although this calibration technique is a non-traceable method, it can be more versatile than using calibration grids because it enables to characterize the linear and non-linear response of a piezoelectric scanner in a broad range of displacements, spanning fro...

  5. FANCD2-Controlled Chromatin Access of the Fanconi-Associated Nuclease FAN1 Is Crucial for the Recovery of Stalled Replication Forks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, Indrajit; Stroik, Daniel R.

    2014-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a cancer predisposition syndrome characterized by cellular hypersensitivity to DNA interstrand cross-links (ICLs). Within the FA pathway, an upstream core complex monoubiquitinates and recruits the FANCD2 protein to ICLs on chromatin. Ensuing DNA repair involves the Fanconi-associated nuclease 1 (FAN1), which interacts selectively with monoubiquitinated FANCD2 (FANCD2Ub) at ICLs. Importantly, FANCD2 has additional independent functions: it binds chromatin and coordinates the restart of aphidicolin (APH)-stalled replication forks in concert with the BLM helicase, while protecting forks from nucleolytic degradation by MRE11. We identified FAN1 as a new crucial replication fork recovery factor. FAN1 joins the BLM-FANCD2 complex following APH-mediated fork stalling in a manner dependent on MRE11 and FANCD2, followed by FAN1 nuclease-mediated fork restart. Surprisingly, APH-induced activation and chromatin recruitment of FAN1 occur independently of the FA core complex or the FAN1 UBZ domain, indicating that the FANCD2Ub isoform is dispensable for functional FANCD2-FAN1 cross talk during stalled fork recovery. In the absence of FANCD2, MRE11 exonuclease-promoted access of FAN1 to stalled forks results in severe FAN1-mediated nucleolytic degradation of nascent DNA strands. Thus, FAN1 nuclease activity at stalled replication forks requires tight regulation: too little inhibits fork restart, whereas too much causes fork degradation. PMID:25135477

  6. PEMODELAN ALJABAR MAX-PLUS DAN EVALUASI KINERJA JARINGAN ANTRIAN FORK-JOIN TAKSIKLIK DENGAN KAPASITAS PENYANGGA TAKHINGGA

    OpenAIRE

    M. Andy Rudhito; SRI WAHYUNI; ARI SUPARWANTO; F. SUSILO

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to model and determine the service cycle completion time of noncyclic fork-joinqueueing networks with infinite buffer capacity, using max-plus algebra. The finding show that thedynamics of the noncyclic fork-join queuing networks with infinite buffer capacity can be modeledinto a matrix equation over max-plus algebra. We can also show that the service cycle completion timeof queuing networks is a max-plus eigenvalues of the matrix in the equation.slklsklslsllslllllllllllllllll...

  7. Mrc1 is a replication fork component whose phosphorylation in response to DNA replication stress activates Rad53

    OpenAIRE

    Osborn, Alexander J.; Elledge, Stephen J.

    2003-01-01

    When DNA replication is stalled, a signal transduction pathway is activated that promotes the stability of stalled forks and resumption of DNA synthesis. In budding yeast, this pathway includes the kinases Mec1 and Rad53. Here we report that the Mediator protein Mrc1, which is required for normal DNA replication and for activation of Rad53, is present at replication forks. Mrc1 initially binds early-replicating sequences and moves along chromatin with the replication f...

  8. Noncontact scanning force microscopy based on a modified tuning fork sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göttlich, Hagen; Stark, Robert W.; Pedarnig, Johannes D.; Heckl, Wolfgang M.

    2000-08-01

    Distance control using a tuning fork setup for the detection of shear forces is a standard configuration in scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM). Based on this concept, a modified sensor was developed, where a standard silicon tip for atomic force microscopy (AFM) is attached to the front end of one prong of a 100 kHz quartz tuning fork oscillator. Comparison of force curves of a standard tapping-mode AFM cantilever, a conventional fiber tip SNOM sensor and the novel AFM tip shear force sensor demonstrate an enhanced stability and sensitivity of the new sensor. Due to the rigid sensor design the force curves of the AFM tip shear force sensor indicate a perfect noncontact behavior under normal conditions in air. Noncontact images show a comparable resolution to conventional force microscopy.

  9. Model for synchronizer of marked pairs in fork-join network

    CERN Document Server

    Vyshenski, S V; Dubenskaya, Yu Yu

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a model for synchronizer of marked pairs, which is a node for joining results of parallel processing in two-branch fork-join queueing network. A distribution for number of jobs in the synchronizer is obtained. Calculations are performed assuming that: arrivals to the network form a Poisson process, each branch operates like an M/M/N queueing system. It is shown that a mean quantity of jobs in the synchronizer is bounded below by the value, defined by parameters of the network (which contains the synchronizer) and does not depend upon performance and particular properties of the synchronizer. A domain of network parameters is found, where the flow of jobs departing from the synchronizer does not manifest a statistically significant difference from the Poisson type, despite the correlation between job flows from both branches of the fork-join network.

  10. Task Scheduling in Multiprocessor System using Fork-Join Method (TSFJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjit Rajak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of the multiprocessor system depends on how the tasks are scheduled in multiprocessors. If we allocate tasks wisely then we can get good performance of the system. The primary goal of task scheduling in multiprocessor system is to minimize the total execution time, so that we can achieve maximum speed-up and efficiency. The application program is represented by directed acyclic graph (DAG in scheduling problem. In this paper, we have proposed an algorithm for task scheduling in multiprocessor system based on fork- join method. Tasks are allocated to the processors follows fork-join structure. The performance of the TSFJ algorithm is measured based on scheduling length, speedup and efficiency. Further, we have shown the comparative study between TSFJ algorithm and heuristic algorithms.

  11. Experimental Study of Gyro Sensor Using Double-Ended Tuning Fork Quartz Resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kenji; Ono, Atsushi; Tomikawa, Yoshiro

    2004-05-01

    In this study, we focus on a flatly supported gyro sensor using a double-ended tuning fork quartz resonator set in parallel with the rotating plane. The resonator has the advantages of flat form, high precision and strong shock resistance; moreover, fundamentally, the resonator is able to detect two-axial angular velocities. We clarified the features of the resonator by discussing the advantages and disadvantages of the resonator as a gyro sensor. The resonator was designed to have high detection efficiency, applying the vibration theory and using the finite element method. The resonator was finely fabricated by photolithography and wet etching. As a result, the resonators, without any problem as a gyro sensor, have been fabricated; we also confirmed experimentally that the practical angular velocity could be detected by the prototype gyro sensor. Consequently, we can conclude that the double-ended tuning fork quartz resonator could be used as the flatly supported gyro sensor.

  12. Acute MUS81 depletion leads to replication fork slowing and a constitutive DNA damage response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xing, Meichun; Wang, Xiaohui; Palmai-Pallag, Timea;

    2015-01-01

    The MUS81 protein belongs to a conserved family of DNA structure-specific nucleases that play important roles in DNA replication and repair. Inactivation of the Mus81 gene in mice has no major deleterious consequences for embryonic development, although cancer susceptibility has been reported. We...... have investigated the role of MUS81 in human cells by acutely depleting the protein using shRNAs. We found that MUS81 depletion from human fibroblasts leads to accumulation of ssDNA and a constitutive DNA damage response that ultimately activates cellular senescence. Moreover, we show that MUS81 is...... required for efficient replication fork progression during an unperturbed S-phase, and for recovery of productive replication following replication stalling. These results demonstrate essential roles for the MUS81 nuclease in maintenance of replication fork integrity....

  13. Orbital angular momentum entanglement via fork-poling nonlinear photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, L L; Xu, P; Zhong, M L; Bai, Y F; Zhu, S N

    2015-01-26

    We report a compact scheme for the generation and manipulation of photon pairs entangled in the orbital angular momentum (OAM) from the fork-poling quadratic nonlinear crystal. The χ(2)-modulation in this crystal is designed for fulfilling a tilted quasi-phase-matching geometry to ensure the efficient generation of entangled photons as well as for transferring of topological charge of the crystal to the photon pairs. Numerical results show that the OAM of photon pair is anti-correlated and the degree of OAM entanglement can be enhanced by modulating the topological charge of crystal, which indicates a feasible extension to high-dimensional OAM entanglement. These studies suggest that the fork-poling nonlinear photonic crystal a unique platform for compact generation and manipulation of high-dimensional and high-order OAM entanglement, which may have potential applications in quantum communication, quantum cryptography and quantum remote sensing. PMID:25835879

  14. Applications of the quartz tuning fork in classical and superfluid hydrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Mantia Marco

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a short review of the multitude of applications of the commercially produced quartz tuning fork in cryogenic fluid dynamics, using cold gaseous, normal liquid and superfluid 4He as working fluids with extraordinary, but well-known and tunable physical properties. While the central focus of this work is the use of the tuning fork as a detector of classical and quantum turbulence, we also report other studies and applications, mainly on cavitation, pressure-, thermo- and viscosimetry. Finally, we mention briefly our recent studies of the acoustic emission due to these high-Q oscillators and its effect on the characteristics of their resonance.

  15. Break-induced replication repair of damaged forks induces genomic duplications in human cells

    OpenAIRE

    Costantino, L.; Sotiriou, S. K.; Rantala, J. K.; Magin, S.; Mladenov, E.; Helleday, T.; Haber, J E; Iliakis, G.; Kallioniemi, O P; Halazonetis, T D

    2013-01-01

    In budding yeast, one-ended DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and damaged replication forks are repaired by break-induced replication (BIR), a homologous recombination pathway that requires the Pol32 subunit of DNA polymerase delta. DNA replication stress is prevalent in cancer, but BIR has not been characterized in mammals. In a cyclin E overexpression model of DNA replication stress, POLD3, the human ortholog of POL32, was required for cell cycle progression and processive DNA synthesis. Segm...

  16. Influence of tectonic folding on rockfall susceptibility, American Fork Canyon, Utah, USA

    OpenAIRE

    J. A. Coe; Harp, E. L.

    2007-01-01

    International audience We examine rockfall susceptibility of folded strata in the Sevier fold-thrust belt exposed in American Fork Canyon in north-central Utah. Large-scale geologic mapping, talus production data, rock-mass-quality measurements, and historical rockfall data indicate that rockfall susceptibility is correlated with limb dip and curvature of the folded, cliff-forming Mississippian limestones. On fold limbs, rockfall susceptibility increases as dip increases. This relation is ...

  17. Slow Replication Fork Velocity of Homologous Recombination-Defective Cells Results from Endogenous Oxidative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdalou, Indiana; Machon, Christelle; Dardillac, Elodie; Técher, Hervé; Guitton, Jérôme; Debatisse, Michelle; Lopez, Bernard S.

    2016-01-01

    Replications forks are routinely hindered by different endogenous stresses. Because homologous recombination plays a pivotal role in the reactivation of arrested replication forks, defects in homologous recombination reveal the initial endogenous stress(es). Homologous recombination-defective cells consistently exhibit a spontaneously reduced replication speed, leading to mitotic extra centrosomes. Here, we identify oxidative stress as a major endogenous source of replication speed deceleration in homologous recombination-defective cells. The treatment of homologous recombination-defective cells with the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine or the maintenance of the cells at low O2 levels (3%) rescues both the replication fork speed, as monitored by single-molecule analysis (molecular combing), and the associated mitotic extra centrosome frequency. Reciprocally, the exposure of wild-type cells to H2O2 reduces the replication fork speed and generates mitotic extra centrosomes. Supplying deoxynucleotide precursors to H2O2-exposed cells rescued the replication speed. Remarkably, treatment with N-acetyl-cysteine strongly expanded the nucleotide pool, accounting for the replication speed rescue. Remarkably, homologous recombination-defective cells exhibit a high level of endogenous reactive oxygen species. Consistently, homologous recombination-defective cells accumulate spontaneous γH2AX or XRCC1 foci that are abolished by treatment with N-acetyl-cysteine or maintenance at 3% O2. Finally, oxidative stress stimulated homologous recombination, which is suppressed by supplying deoxynucleotide precursors. Therefore, the cellular redox status strongly impacts genome duplication and transmission. Oxidative stress should generate replication stress through different mechanisms, including DNA damage and nucleotide pool imbalance. These data highlight the intricacy of endogenous replication and oxidative stresses, which are both evoked during tumorigenesis and senescence initiation

  18. Lsd1 and Lsd2 Control Programmed Replication Fork Pauses and Imprinting in Fission Yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Allyson Holmes; Laura Roseaulin; Catherine Schurra; Herve Waxin; Sarah Lambert; Mikel Zaratiegui; Robert A. Martienssen; Benoit Arcangioli

    2012-01-01

    In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe a chromosomal imprinting event controls the asymmetric pattern of mating-type switching. The orientation of DNA replication at the mating-type locus is instrumental in this process. However, the factors leading to imprinting are not fully identified and the mechanism is poorly understood. Here we show that the replication fork pause at the mat1 locus (MPS1), essential for imprint formation, depends on the lysine specific demethylase, Lsd1. We dem...

  19. Isolation of DNA fragments containing replication forks by two dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escherichia coli is used as a model system to study DNA repair processes that promote survival after damage from alkylating agents and other processes that affect mutation resulting from such damage. In order to test the hypothesis that the induced incision repair process is able to repair this damage, a two-dimensional gel system has been developed that allows resolution of DNA fragments containing replication forks from the rest of the genome

  20. Separation Logic Contracts for a Java-like Language with Fork/Join

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    We adapt a variant of permission-accounting separation logic to a concurrent Java-like language with fork/join. To support both concurrent reads and information hiding, we combine fractional permissions with abstract predicates. As an example, we present a separation logic contract for iterators that prevents data races and concurrent modifications. Our program logic is presented in an algorithmic style: we avoid structural rules for Hoare triples and formalize logical reasoning about typed h...

  1. Automatic Adaptation of Resources to Workload requirements in Nested Fork-join Programming Model

    OpenAIRE

    Varisteas, Georgios; Brorsson, Mats

    2012-01-01

    We provide a work-stealing scheduling method for nested fork/join parallelism that is mathematically proven to self- adapt multiprogrammed applications resource allocation to the current workloads’ individual needs while it takes avail- able resources into account. The scheduling method both scales up the allocated resources when needed and down, when possible.The theoretical model has been implemented in the Bar- relfish distributed multikernel operating system and demon- strated to function ...

  2. Multiple Rad5 activities mediate sister chromatid recombination to bypass DNA damage at stalled replication forks

    OpenAIRE

    Minca, Eugen C; Kowalski, David

    2010-01-01

    DNA damage that blocks replication is bypassed in order to complete chromosome duplication and preserve cell viability and genome stability. Rad5, a PCNA polyubiquitin ligase and DNA-dependent ATPase in yeast, is orthologous to putative tumor suppressors and controls error-free damage bypass by an unknown mechanism. To identify the mechanism in vivo, we investigated the roles of Rad5 and analyzed the DNA structures that form during damage bypass at site-specific stalled forks present at repli...

  3. Testování knihovny fork/join v jazyce Java 7

    OpenAIRE

    MAXA, Karel

    2012-01-01

    In release Java 7 comes new library fork/join from package java.util.concurrent, which help to better usage of parralel architecture and thus bring more time effective applications. The bachelor is aimed at describe and make recommendation for usage of this library. Main part of bachelor is aimed at implementation tests and their evalution for showing time efficiency. For the test was written program in Java, which was executed on different system platforms and different hardware architectures.

  4. Reducing response time in fork-join systems under heavy traffic via imbalance control

    OpenAIRE

    Leite, Saul C.; Fragoso, Marcelo D.

    2013-01-01

    We consider the problem of reducing the response time of fork-join systems by maintaining the workload balanced among the processing stations. The general problem of modeling and finding an optimal policy that reduces imbalance is quite difficult. In order to circumvent this difficulty, the heavy traffic approach is taken, and the system dynamics are approximated by a reflected diffusion process. This way, the problem of finding an optimal balancing policy that reduces workl...

  5. The Trouble with Diversity: Fork-Join Networks with Heterogeneous Customer Population

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Vien

    1994-01-01

    Consider a feedforward network of single-server stations populated by multiple job types. Each job requires the completion of a number of tasks whose order of execution is determined by a set of deterministic precedence constraints. The precedence requirements allow some tasks to be done in parallel (in which case tasks would "fork") and require that others be processed sequentially (where tasks may "join"). Jobs of a given type share the same precedence constraints, interarrival time distrib...

  6. The Drosophila fork head domain protein crocodile is required for the establishment of head structures.

    OpenAIRE

    Haecker, U.; Kaufmann, E.; Hartmann, C.; Jurgens, G; Knoechel, W.; Jaeckle, H.

    1995-01-01

    The fork head (fkh) domain defines the DNA-binding region of a family of transcription factors which has been implicated in regulating cell fate decisions across species lines. We have cloned and molecularly characterized the crocodile (croc) gene which encodes a new family member from Drosophila. croc is expressed in the head anlagen of the blastoderm embryo under the control of the anterior, the dorsoventral and the terminal maternal organizer systems. The croc mutant phenotype indicates th...

  7. Calibrating conservative and dissipative response of electrically-driven quartz tuning forks

    OpenAIRE

    Hao, Lifeng; Wang, Qi; Peng, Ping; Cao, Zhenxing; Jiao, Weicheng; Yang, Fan; Liu, Wenbo; Wang, Rongguo; He, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    Determining sensor parameters is a prerequisite for quantitative force measurement. Here we report a direct, high-precision calibration method for quartz tuning fork(TF) sensors that are popular in the feld of nanomechanical measurement. In the method, conservative and dissipative forces with controlled amplitudes are applied to one prong of TF directly to mimic the tip-sample interaction, and the responses of the sensor are measured at the same time to extract sensor parameters. The method, ...

  8. On Bandwidth Characteristics of Tuning Fork Micro-Gyroscope with Mechanically Coupled Sense Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfang Ni

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The bandwidth characteristics of a tuning fork micro-gyroscope with mechanically coupled sense mode were investigated in this paper to provide some references for mechanical bandwidth design. The concept of sense mode mechanical coupling is introduced first. Theoretical frequency response analyses were then carried out on the mechanical part of the gyroscope. Equations representing the relationships between the differential output signal and the frequency of the input angular rate were deduced in full frequency range and further simplified in low frequency range. Based on these equations, bandwidth characteristics under ideal and non-ideal conditions are discussed. Analytical results show that under ideal conditions, the bandwidth characteristics of a tuning fork micro-gyroscope are similar to those of a single mass micro-gyroscope, but under non-ideal conditions, especially when sense mass and/or stiffness are asymmetric, the bandwidth characteristics would be quite different because the in-phase mode would participate in the anti-phase vibration response. Experimental verifications were carried out on two micro-gyroscope prototypes designed in our laboratory. The deduced equations and analytical results can be used in guiding the mechanical bandwidth design of tuning fork micro-gyroscopes with mechanically coupled sense mode.

  9. Induced excision repair is required for repair of lesions in the vicinity of DNA replication forks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique for resolving DNA fragments containing replication forks from linear DNA fragments by two-dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis is described. The technique is based on the altered mobility in agarose of branched structures relative to linear double-stranded molecules as a function of gel concentration and voltage. When pulse-labeled DNA is isolated, purified, fragmented by digestion with restriction nucleases, and run in the two-dimensional gel system, the bulk of the DNA migrates in a single arc visible by staining with ethidium bromide. However, when autoradiograms are prepared from the gels, it can be seen that the nascent DNA, represented by the radioactive pulse label, is contained in a second distinct arc. We have shown by a variety of criteria that the nascent DNA migrating in this minor arc has properties consistent with replication fork structures. We have now applied this technique to testing the hypothesis that long patch repair occurs at lesions in the vicinity of DNA replication forks. 2 figs

  10. Validation of a Monte Carlo Model of the Fork Detector with a Calibrated Neutron Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borella, Alessandro; Mihailescu, Liviu-Cristian

    2014-02-01

    The investigation of experimental methods for safeguarding spent fuel elements is one of the research areas at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK•CEN. A version of the so-called Fork Detector has been designed at SCK•CEN and is in use at the Belgian Nuclear Power Plant of Doel for burnup determination purposes. The Fork Detector relies on passive neutron and gamma measurements for the assessment of the burnup and safeguards verification activities. In order to better evaluate and understand the method and in view to extend its capabilities, an effort to model the Fork detector was made with the code MCNPX. A validation of the model was done in the past using spent fuel measurement data. This paper reports about the measurements carried out at the Laboratory for Nuclear Calibrations (LNK) of SCK•CEN with a 252Cf source calibrated according to ISO 8529 standards. The experimental data are presented and compared with simulations. In the simulations, not only was the detector modeled but also the measurement room was taken into account based on the available design information. The results of this comparison exercise are also presented in this paper.

  11. Far-travelled Permian chert of the North Fork terrane, Klamath Mountains, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankinen, Edward A.; Irwin, William P.; Blome, Charles D.

    1996-04-01

    Permian chert in the North Fork terrane and correlative rocks of the Klamath Mountains province has a remanent magnetization that is prefolding and presumably primary. Paleomagnetic results indicate that the chert formed at a paleolatitude of 8.6° ± 2.5° but in which hemisphere remains uncertain. This finding requires that these rocks have undergone at least 8.6° ± 4.4° of northward transport relative to Permian North America since their deposition. Paleontological evidence suggests that the Permian limestone of the Eastern Klamath terrane originated thousands of kilometers distant from North America. The limestone of the North Fork terrane may have formed at a similar or even greater distance as suggested by its faunal affinity to the Eastern Klamath terrane and more westerly position. Available evidence indicates that convergence of the North Fork and composite Central Metamorphic-Eastern Klamath terranes occurred during Triassic or Early Jurassic time and that their joining together was a Middle Jurassic event. Primary and secondary magnetizations indicate that the new composite terrane containing these and other rocks of the Western Paleozoic and Triassic belt behaved as a single rigid block that has been latitudinally concordant with the North American craton since Middle Jurassic time.

  12. Replication-fork stalling and processing at a single psoralen interstrand crosslink in Xenopus egg extracts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrille Le Breton

    Full Text Available Interstrand crosslink (ICL-inducing agents block the separation of the two DNA strands. They prevent transcription and replication and are used in clinics for the treatment of cancer and skin diseases. Here, we have introduced a single psoralen ICL at a specific site in plasmid DNA using a triplex-forming-oligonucleotide (TFO-psoralen conjugate and studied its repair in Xenopus egg extracts that support nuclear assembly and replication of plasmid DNA. Replication forks arriving from either side stalled at the psoralen ICL. In contrast to previous observations with other ICL-inducing agents, the leading strands advanced up to the lesion without any prior pausing. Subsequently, incisions were introduced on one parental strand on both sides of the ICL. These incisions could be detected whether one or both forks reached the ICL. Using small molecule inhibitors, we found that the ATR-Chk1 pathway, but not the ATM-Chk2 pathway, stimulated both the incision step and the subsequent processing of the broken replication intermediates. Our results highlight both similarities and differences in fork stalling and repair induced by psoralen and by other ICL-forming agents.

  13. Strand invasion by HLTF as a mechanism for template switch in fork rescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkovics, Peter; Sebesta, Marek; Balogh, David; Haracska, Lajos; Krejci, Lumir

    2014-01-01

    Stalling of replication forks at unrepaired DNA lesions can result in discontinuities opposite the damage in the newly synthesized DNA strand. Translesion synthesis or facilitating the copy from the newly synthesized strand of the sister duplex by template switching can overcome such discontinuities. During template switch, a new primer–template junction has to be formed and two mechanisms, including replication fork reversal and D-loop formation have been suggested. Genetic evidence indicates a major role for yeast Rad5 in template switch and that both Rad5 and its human orthologue, Helicase-like transcription factor (HLTF), a potential tumour suppressor can facilitate replication fork reversal. This study demonstrates the ability of HLTF and Rad5 to form a D-loop without requiring ATP binding and/or hydrolysis. We also show that this strand-pairing activity is independent of RAD51 in vitro and is not mechanistically related to that of another member of the SWI/SNF family, RAD54. In addition, the 3′-end of the invading strand in the D-loop can serve as a primer and is extended by DNA polymerase. Our data indicate that HLTF is involved in a RAD51-independent D-loop branch of template switch pathway that can promote repair of gaps formed during replication of damaged DNA. PMID:24198246

  14. Leroy Clarke entre poésie et peinture, Chantre de la spiritualité et de la liberté Leroy Clarke: The double ritual of poetic and plastic creation, a way to freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Donatien-Yssa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Trinidadian painter Leroy Clarke is hungry for art, and every piece of paper becomes under his fingers a field of experimentation for his excessive and impressive style. This anti-colonialist activist is also a Shango Baptist priest and, in his conception of writing and painting, art cannot be an individualist exercise but is a space for communication with his people.This famous Caribbean painter practices an art whose strong symbolism finds its origin in the Shango Baptist faith which is one the bases of his work. But Leroy Clarke hates limits and cannot conceive being restricted to only one form of art; for painting, poetry and dance are all only the vectors of messages from the spirits. Painting and writing are, for Clarke, ritual acts of sublimation of the original and historical suffering of the Caribbean peoples, which transform the unspeakable and the unbearable into aesthetic realizations.So, in Clarke’s works, signs, words, traces and colours are organised in an identical dynamic of accumulation, correspondence and swarming which place the observer in an interstice outside time and space where he can be immersed in an embracing plenitude.

  15. Leroy Clarke entre poésie et peinture, Chantre de la spiritualité et de la liberté Leroy Clarke: The double ritual of poetic and plastic creation, a way to freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Donatien-Yssa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Trinidadian painter Leroy Clarke is hungry for art, and every piece of paper becomes under his fingers a field of experimentation for his excessive and impressive style. This anti-colonialist activist is also a Shango Baptist priest and in his conception of writing and painting, art cannot be an individualist exercise but is a space for communication with his people.This famous Caribbean painter practices an art whose strong symbolism finds its origin in the Shango Baptist faith which is one the bases of his work. But Leroy Clarke hates limits and cannot conceive being restricted to only one form of art; for painting, poetry or dance are all only the vectors of messages from the spirits. Painting and writing are, for Clarke, ritual acts of sublimation of the original and historical suffering of the Caribbean peoples, which transform the unspeakable and the unbearable into aesthetic realizations.So, in Clarke’s works, signs, words, traces and colours are organised in an identical dynamic of accumulation, correspondence and swarming which place the observer in an interstice outside time and space where he can be immersed in an embracing plenitude.

  16. Lewis and Clark National Wildlife Refuge and Julia Butler Hansen Refuge for the Columbian White-tailed Deer: Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Environmental Impact Statement

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Lewis and Clark NWR and Julia Butler Hansen Refuge for the Columbian White-tailed Deer...

  17. J. Clark Salyer Wetlands Management District (Bottineau, McHenry, Pierce, Renville and Rolette Counties): Narrative report: January-December 1970

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for J. Clark Salyer WMD outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1970 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  18. J. Clark Salyer Wetlands Management District (Bottineau, McHenry, Pierce, Renville and Rolette Counties): Narrative report: January-December 1971

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for J. Clark Salyer WMD outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1971 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  19. Temperature profile data collected using CTD casts from the JAMES CLARK ROSS in the South Atlantic Ocean from 15 November 1996 to 20 November 1996 (NODC Accession 0000874)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using CTD casts in the South Atlantic Ocean from JAMES CLARK ROSS. Data were collected from 15 November 1996 to 20 November...

  20. Temperature profile data collected using CTD casts from the JAMES CLARK ROSS in the South Atlantic Ocean from 15 November 1994 to 21 November 1994 (NODC Accession 0000873)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using CTD casts in the South Atlantic Ocean from JAMES CLARK ROSS. Data were collected from 15 November 1994 to 21 November...

  1. Vacuum properties of high quality value tuning fork in high magnetic field up to 8 Tesla and at mK temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Clovecko, M.; Kupka, M.; Skyba, P.; Vavrek, F.

    2014-01-01

    Tuning forks are very popular experimental tools widely applied in low and ultra low temperature physics as mechanical resonators and cantilevers in the study of quantum liquids, STM and AFM techniques, etc. As an added benefit, these forks being cooled, have very high Q-value, typically $10^6$ and their properties seems to be magnetic field independent. We present preliminary vacuum measurements of a commercial tuning fork oscillating at frequency 32~kHz conducted in magnetic fields up to 8~...

  2. Replication Stress-Induced Chromosome Breakage Is Correlated with Replication Fork Progression and Is Preceded by Single-Stranded DNA Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Wenyi; Di Rienzi, Sara C.; Raghuraman, M. K.; Brewer, Bonita J.

    2011-01-01

    Chromosome breakage as a result of replication stress has been hypothesized to be the direct consequence of defective replication fork progression, or “collapsed” replication forks. However, direct and genome-wide evidence that collapsed replication forks give rise to chromosome breakage is still lacking. Previously we showed that a yeast replication checkpoint mutant mec1-1, after transient exposure to replication impediment imposed by hydroxyurea (HU), failed to complete DNA replication, ac...

  3. A Clark-type oxygen chip for in situ estimation of the respiratory activity of adhering cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ching-Chou; Luk, Hsiang-Ning; Lin, Yen-Ting Tsai; Yuan, Chia-Yin

    2010-04-15

    A Clark-type oxygen chip consisting of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) reservoir containing an amino group-modified PDMS oxygen-permeable membrane (OPM) and a glass substrate containing a three-electrode detector has been constructed by using microfabrication techniques, and it is utilized for in situ measurement of the respiration activity of adhering cells. Use of the alginate sol electrolyte and the electroplating Ag/AgCl pseudo-reference electrode can effectively diminish the crosstalk between the electrochemical electrodes and supply a stable potential for the detection of dissolved oxygen, respectively. The Clark-type oxygen chips possess only 1.00% residual current, response time of 13.4s and good linearity with a correlation coefficient of 0.9933. The modification of amino groups for the OPM obviously facilitates the adhesion of HeLa cells onto the PDMS OPM surface and allows the cells to spread after 2h of incubation. The oxygen consumption of the cells in the cell-adhesion process increases with the adhesion time, and the increment of cellular oxygen consumption per minute reaches a maximum after 30 min of incubation. Moreover, the change in the respiration activity of adhering HeLa cells stimulated by the high concentration of glucose or propofol anaesthetic can be monitored in real time with the Clark-type oxygen chip. PMID:20188913

  4. Inhibition in Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana): results of a detour-reaching test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernouillet, A; Anderson, J; Clary, D; Kelly, D M

    2016-05-01

    Inhibition (i.e. the ability to restrain ineffective responses to a given stimulus) is a good indicator of complex cognitive abilities in animals. Inhibition has been demonstrated in a broad range of mammals with foraging style and social group size identified as potential influences of this ability. Whether these ecological factors also apply to birds has not been well studied. Corvids, a family of birds well known for being able to accomplish difficult cognitive tasks often requiring inhibition, are a good model for studying inhibitory control. During this study, we measured the ability of Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana), a relatively non-social, food specialist corvid to exercise inhibitory control during a detour-reaching test. Individuals had to retrieve a pine nut inserted into a transparent tube through one of the side openings without pecking directly at the nut from the front of the tube. Overall, nutcrackers were able to inhibit pecking directly at the food (i.e. prepotent response), instead detouring to the side to retrieve the reward. However, the nutcrackers first required a learning period before showing inhibitory control. The nutcrackers' ability to inhibit was lower than other corvids studied to date, and we discuss the implications of this result for the role of sociality and dietary breadth for the evolution of inhibitory control. PMID:26801495

  5. Non-obvious Problems in Clark Electrode Application at Elevated Temperature and Ways of Their Elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Miniaev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Well-known cause of frequent failures of closed oxygen sensors is the appearance of gas bubbles in the electrolyte. The problem is traditionally associated with insufficient sealing of the sensor that is not always true. Study of a typical temperature regime of measurement system based on Clark sensor showed that spontaneous release of the gas phase is a natural effect caused by periodic warming of the sensor to a temperature of the test liquid. The warming of the sensor together with the incubation medium causes oversaturation of electrolyte by dissolved gases and the allocation of gas bubbles. The lower rate of sensor heating in comparison with the medium reduces but does not eliminate the manifestation of this effect. It is experimentally established, that with each cycle of heating of measuring system up to 37°C followed by cooling the volume of gas phase in the electrolyte (KCl; 60 g/L; 400 μL increased by 0.6 μL approximately. Thus, during just several cycles it can dramatically degrade the characteristics of the sensor. A method was developed in which the oxygen sensor is heated in contact with the liquid, (depleted of dissolved gases, allowing complete exclusion of the above-mentioned effect.

  6. Discipline and credibility in the post-war australopithecine controversy: Le Gros Clark versus Zuckerman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Jesse

    2012-01-01

    Paleoanthropologists and outside commentators have often remarked upon the apparent difficulty of securing shared belief among experts in the science of human evolution. The field has been and continues to be particularly prone to disagreement and even controversy among its practitioners to a degree that sets it apart from other areas of scientific inquiry. The fact that the field lies at the intersection of a number of disciplines may help to explain this predicament. Displays of discipline serve as an important resource for scientists as they work to secure credibility. Where a field of inquiry spans a host of disciplinary approaches, there can be disagreement about the kind of disciplined behavior appropriate to making credible claims about that field's subject matter. A conflict of this sort emerged after WW II over the claim that the australopithecines of South Africa represented a likely ancestral link in the evolution of human beings. W. E. Le Gros Clark, working in the established disciplinary tradition of comparative anatomy, endorsed the claim of ancestry, while Solly Zuckerman, reflecting his recent immersion in war-time operations research, criticized that claim on the grounds that it came without the rigorous quantitative demonstration that he felt was the hallmark of a properly disciplined science. PMID:23272594

  7. DNA-PKcs and PARP1 Bind to Unresected Stalled DNA Replication Forks Where They Recruit XRCC1 to Mediate Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Songmin; Chen, Zhihui; Medhurst, Annette L; Neal, Jessica A; Bao, Zhengqiang; Mortusewicz, Oliver; McGouran, Joanna; Song, Xinming; Shen, Huahao; Hamdy, Freddie C; Kessler, Benedikt M; Meek, Katheryn; Helleday, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    A series of critical pathways are responsible for the detection, signaling, and restart of replication forks that encounter blocks during S-phase progression. Small base lesions may obstruct replication fork progression and processing, but the link between repair of small lesions and replication forks is unclear. In this study, we investigated a hypothesized role for DNA-PK, an important enzyme in DNA repair, in cellular responses to DNA replication stress. The enzyme catalytic subunit DNA-PKcs was phosphorylated on S2056 at sites of stalled replication forks in response to short hydroxyurea treatment. Using DNA fiber experiments, we found that catalytically active DNA-PK was required for efficient replication restart of stalled forks. Furthermore, enzymatically active DNA-PK was also required for PARP-dependent recruitment of XRCC1 to stalled replication forks. This activity was enhanced by preventing Mre11-dependent DNA end resection, suggesting that XRCC1 must be recruited early to an unresected stalled fork. We also found that XRCC1 was required for effective restart of a subset of stalled replication forks. Overall, our work suggested that DNA-PK and PARP-dependent recruitment of XRCC1 is necessary to effectively protect, repair, and restart stalled replication forks, providing new insight into how genomic stability is preserved. Cancer Res; 76(5); 1078-88. ©2015 AACR. PMID:26603896

  8. Streamflow and stream quality in the coal-mining region, Patoka River basin, southwestern Indiana, 1983-85

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renn, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    Streamflow and stream quality data were collected in the coal mining region of the Patoka River basin, Indiana. Data were collected on the Patoka River, tributaries to the Patoka River, the South Fork Patoka River (the largest tributary to the Patoka River), and tributaries to the South Fork Patoka River. Data were collected 4 times at 29 sites from August 1983 through March 1985 during different seasons and conditions of streamflow. Data obtained at the sites included instantaneous streamflow, pH, specific conductance, dissolved-oxygen concentration, water temperature, and concentrations of alkalinity and hot acidity. Water samples were collected and analyzed to determine the concentrations of dissolved sulfate; dissolved, suspended, and total recoverable iron and manganese; dissolved solids suspended sediment; and suspended sediment finer than 0.0625-mm diameter. Streamflow in the Patoka river has been regulated since 1978 by Patoka Lake. Flow-duration analysis indicate that flow regulation by Patoka Lake generally has increased low streamflows and decreased high streamflows in the Patoka Lake. When compared to sites on the tributaries, sites on the Patoka River generally had smaller values for specific conductance and concentrations of chemical constituents. Sites on the tributaries had larger values due to the physical and chemical weathering of coal-mined material in their basins. For the tributary sites, pH was near neutral at 11 sites, pH was low at 8 sites, and pH was variable at 3 sites depending on streamflow.

  9. Kinbasket Reservoir and Upper Columbia River Kokanee spawner index 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of an escapement survey for tributaries to the Kinbasket Reservoir and the Upper Columbia River were provided. Two aerial surveys were conducted during October, 2005. The Kokanee were grouped in schools and summed in order to provide independent estimates. Otoliths of the fish were also extracted in order to determine their age. Results of the survey showed that an estimated 236,760 Kokanee fish were spawning within 11 index streams and rivers within the Kinbasket Reservoir drainage area. Mean fork length was estimated at 24.7 cm. While the Columbia River continues to be the most important Kokanee spawning location in the Kinbasket Reservoir drainage area, the 2005 Kokanee escapement index was the third lowest recorded since 1996. It was concluded that declining fish size and declining abundance may indicate reduced reservoir productivity. 5 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  10. Lewis and Clark NWR: Initial Survey Instructions for Rice Island Gull Colony Nest Survey Protocol

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The dredging of the lower Columbia River for shipping has created flat sand islands that attract nesting seabirds. These seabird colonies are situated in prime...

  11. Generating acceptability of PNRI environmental radioactivity monitoring studies at the former ammunition dump area in Clark special economic zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rejection of the 1991 Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation, which sought to extend the military bases agreement (MBA), paved the way for the Americans to abandon Clark Air Base in Angeles, Pampanga, which had served as an American military base since 1947. The total and immediate pullout of the Americans left the base in an ''as is'' condition and without the benefits of restoration efforts. Various studies and reports have been conducted to determine the presence of hazardous wastes in the former Clark Air Base. The issue of hazardous wastes purportedly left there by the Americans is a continuing and a growing concern particularly of citizens living within its area. The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) In November of 1997 and in April of 1998, the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute PNRI, upon the request of Clark Development Corporation, conducted a thorough radiological monitoring in CSEZ in order to determine the presence of radioactive contamination. Radioactive materials such as cesium-137 and tritium are considered hazardous wastes. Results of monitoring showed that radiation levels in CSEZ were within allowable standards. This means that the workers and residents at the Clark Air Base (the base) are free from dangers of exposure to radiation. Despite the findings, however, reports by the media and environmental NGOs on the presence of hazardous wastes, including radioactive wastes, in Clark have proliferated. This action plan and project (APP) intends to address the issue of environmental radioactivity contamination (if any) within the CSEZ. The APP results are geared towards dispelling the persistent fear of the public in general, and the base stakeholders especially its residents, in particular, regarding the presence of radioactive contamination which results in untoward health effects to those exposed to such contaminants. Thus, the sectoral concern of this APP is to heighten the level of social acceptability by the base stakeholders

  12. Replication fork progression is paused in two large chromosomal zones flanking the DNA replication origin in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Masahiro Tatsumi; Oshima, Taku; Chumsakul, Onuma; Ishikawa, Shu; Maki, Hisaji

    2016-08-01

    Although the speed of nascent DNA synthesis at individual replication forks is relatively uniform in bacterial cells, the dynamics of replication fork progression on the chromosome are hampered by a variety of natural impediments. Genome replication dynamics can be directly measured from an exponentially growing cell population by sequencing newly synthesized DNA strands that were specifically pulse-labeled with the thymidine analogue 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU). However, a short pulse labeling with BrdU is impracticable for bacteria because of poor incorporation of BrdU into the cells, and thus, the genomewide dynamics of bacterial DNA replication remain undetermined. Using a new thymidine-requiring Escherichia coli strain, eCOMB, and high-throughput sequencing, we succeeded in determining the genomewide replication profile in bacterial cells. We also found that fork progression is paused in two ~200-kb chromosomal zones that flank the replication origin in the growing cells. This origin-proximal obstruction to fork progression was overcome by an increased thymidine concentration in the culture medium and enhanced by inhibition of transcription. These indicate that DNA replication near the origin is sensitive to the impediments to fork progression, namely a scarcity of the DNA precursor deoxythymidine triphosphate and probable conflicts between replication and transcription machineries. PMID:27353572

  13. Poly(ADP-ribose) binding to Chk1 at stalled replication forks is required for S-phase checkpoint activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Wookee; Bruhn, Christopher; Grigaravicius, Paulius; Zhou, Zhong-Wei; Li, Fu; Krüger, Anja; Siddeek, Bénazir; Greulich, Karl-Otto; Popp, Oliver; Meisezahl, Chris; Calkhoven, Cornelis F.; Bürkle, Alexander; Xu, Xingzhi; Wang, Zhao-Qi

    2013-12-01

    Damaged replication forks activate poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), which catalyses poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) formation; however, how PARP1 or poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is involved in the S-phase checkpoint is unknown. Here we show that PAR, supplied by PARP1, interacts with Chk1 via a novel PAR-binding regulatory (PbR) motif in Chk1, independent of ATR and its activity. iPOND studies reveal that Chk1 associates readily with the unperturbed replication fork and that PAR is required for efficient retention of Chk1 and phosphorylated Chk1 at the fork. A PbR mutation, which disrupts PAR binding, but not the interaction with its partners Claspin or BRCA1, impairs Chk1 and the S-phase checkpoint activation, and mirrors Chk1 knockdown-induced hypersensitivity to fork poisoning. We find that long chains, but not short chains, of PAR stimulate Chk1 kinase activity. Collectively, we disclose a previously unrecognized mechanism of the S-phase checkpoint by PAR metabolism that modulates Chk1 activity at the replication fork.

  14. Mineral evaluation of part of the Gold Butte district, Clark County, Nevada. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mineral potential of part of the Gold Butte district, Clark County, Nevada, was investigated to supplement the evaluation of granitic rocks in the area as a probable geologic environment for uranium mineralization. This project is a part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program conducted by Bendix Field Engineering Corporation for the US Department of Energy. A total of 41 stream-sediment samples and 149 rock samples were collected; the stream-sediment samples were analyzed chemically, and most f the rock samples were analyzed chemically and petrographically. The project area was restricted to Precambrian rocks, which comprise a metamorphic complex of early Proterozoic age, charnockitic rocks of early or middle Proterozoic age and ultramafic rocks and the Gold Butte Granite of middle Proterozoic age. Although the project area is not favorable for uranium deposits according to NURE criteria, an area of low resource potential for uranium, thorium, rare-earth elements and yttrium, and niobium-tantalum was assigned to the contact zone of the Gold Butte Granite. Pegmatites and aplites in the zone contain high concentrations of these elements. Two areas of moderate potential for gold and silver in quartz veins are within the project area; small-scale operations may recover these elements profitably. Titanium has a low-to-moderate resource potential, although the deposits are currently subeconomic. The titanium concentrations occur as titaniferous magnetite- and ilmenite-bearing placer sands. One small area has been assigned a low-to-moderate resource potential for vermiculite in altered ultramafic rocks. Tungsten has been assigned a low resource potential in two places within the project area; scheelite-bearing ultramafic bodies are small and scattered. Platinum-group metals and copper have no resource potential in the project area

  15. Unsteady Lift and Drag Characteristics of Cavitating Clark Y-11.7% Hydrofoil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unsteady cavitating flow and lift/drag characteristics of a two-dimensional Clark Y- 11.7% hydrofoil are experimentally investigated in order to clarify the relation between the lift drop mechanism and the unsteady cavity behavior. Unsteady lift and drag forces are measured by strain gauges attached on the cantilever supporting the hydrofoil, assuming the negligible bending moment. In combination with the above force measurements, the cavitating flow is filmed from both top and side simultaneously using two high speed video cameras. It is clearly observed that, in larger attack angle conditions (4-10 degrees), the time-averaged lift coefficient slightly increases from that in the non-cavitating condition. After the slight increase, the lift gradually decreases then its steep decrease starts to occur. On the other hand, in a small attack angle case (2 degrees), little increase of the lift is observed, and just after that the sudden lift drop occurs. From the instantaneous frequency spectra of the lift, the followings are found; during the slight increase of the lift, the cavity is being a partial cavity in almost steady state, but during the subsequent gradual lift decrease, the partial cavity oscillates with cloud cavity shedding, in other word, the partial cavity oscillation occurs, whose frequency decreases with the growth of the cavity. During the sudden lift drop, the low frequency transitional cavity oscillation occurs, in which the cavity dramatically changes between partial and super cavities. The typical events of cavity behavior during the cavitation instabilities are found to be able to be related with the behavior of instantaneous lift force and pressure

  16. Dynamic behavior of tuning fork shear-force structures in a SNOM system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piezoelectric tuning fork shear-force structures are widely used as a distance control unit in a scanning near-field optical microscopy. However, the complex dynamic behavior among the micro-tuning forks (TFs), optical fiber probes, and the probe–surface interactions is still a crucial issue to achieve high-resolution imaging or near-field interaction inspections. Based on nonlinear beam tension-bending vibration theory, vibration equations in both longitudinal and lateral directions have been established when the TF structure and the optical fiber are treated as deformable structures. The relationship of the probe–surface interaction induced by Van der Waals force has been analyzed and the corresponding numerical results used to describe the vibrational behavior of the probe approaching the sample surface are obtained. Meanwhile, the viscous resistance of the liquid film on the sample surface has also been investigated using linear beam-bending vibration theory. Experiments testing the interaction between the probe and the water film on a single crystal silicon wafer have been carried out and the viscous resistance of the water film was estimated using the established equations. Finally, to use the TF-probe structure as a force sensor, the relation between the dynamic response of the TF-probe system and an external force on the probe tip was obtained. - Highlights: • Nonlinear vibration equation is established for a deformable tuning fork probe assembly. • Probe–sample interactions induced by Van der Waals force and viscous resistance are investigated. • The viscous resistance between the probe and the water film is estimated using testing results

  17. In-Field Performance Testing of the Fork Detector for Quantitative Spent Fuel Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauld, Ian C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hu, Jianwei [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); De Baere, P. [European Commission (Luxembourg). DG Energy, Directorate Nuclear Safeguards; Vaccaro, S. [European Commission (Luxembourg). DG Energy, Directorate Nuclear Safeguards; Schwalbach, P. [European Commission (Luxembourg). DG Energy, Directorate Nuclear Safeguards; Liljenfeldt, Henrik [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (Sweden); Tobin, Stephen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Expanding spent fuel dry storage activities worldwide are increasing demands on safeguards authorities that perform inspections. The European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) require measurements to verify declarations when spent fuel is transferred to difficult-to-access locations, such as dry storage casks and the repositories planned in Finland and Sweden. EURATOM makes routine use of the Fork detector to obtain gross gamma and total neutron measurements during spent fuel inspections. Data analysis is performed by modules in the integrated Review and Analysis Program (iRAP) software, developed jointly by EURATOM and the IAEA. Under the framework of the US Department of Energy–EURATOM cooperation agreement, a module for automated Fork detector data analysis has been developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) using the ORIGEN code from the SCALE code system and implemented in iRAP. EURATOM and ORNL recently performed measurements on 30 spent fuel assemblies at the Swedish Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel (Clab), operated by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB). The measured assemblies represent a broad range of fuel characteristics. Neutron count rates for 15 measured pressurized water reactor assemblies are predicted with an average relative standard deviation of 4.6%, and gamma signals are predicted on average within 2.6% of the measurement. The 15 measured boiling water reactor assemblies exhibit slightly larger deviations of 5.2% for the gamma signals and 5.7% for the neutron count rates, compared to measurements. These findings suggest that with improved analysis of the measurement data, existing instruments can provide increased verification of operator declarations of the spent fuel and thereby also provide greater ability to confirm integrity of an assembly. These results support the application of the Fork detector as a fully quantitative spent fuel

  18. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Genetics Predicts Candidate Therapeutic Genetic Interactions at the Mammalian Replication Fork

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Pel, Derek M.; Stirling, Peter C.; Minaker, Sean W.; Sipahimalani, Payal; Hieter, Philip

    2013-01-01

    The concept of synthetic lethality has gained popularity as a rational guide for predicting chemotherapeutic targets based on negative genetic interactions between tumor-specific somatic mutations and a second-site target gene. One hallmark of most cancers that can be exploited by chemotherapies is chromosome instability (CIN). Because chromosome replication, maintenance, and segregation represent conserved and cell-essential processes, they can be modeled effectively in simpler eukaryotes such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here we analyze and extend genetic networks of CIN cancer gene orthologs in yeast, focusing on essential genes. This identifies hub genes and processes that are candidate targets for synthetic lethal killing of cancer cells with defined somatic mutations. One hub process in these networks is DNA replication. A nonessential, fork-associated scaffold, CTF4, is among the most highly connected genes. As Ctf4 lacks enzymatic activity, potentially limiting its development as a therapeutic target, we exploited its function as a physical interaction hub to rationally predict synthetic lethal interactions between essential Ctf4-binding proteins and CIN cancer gene orthologs. We then validated a subset of predicted genetic interactions in a human colorectal cancer cell line, showing that siRNA-mediated knockdown of MRE11A sensitizes cells to depletion of various replication fork-associated proteins. Overall, this work describes methods to identify, predict, and validate in cancer cells candidate therapeutic targets for tumors with known somatic mutations in CIN genes using data from yeast. We affirm not only replication stress but also the targeting of DNA replication fork proteins themselves as potential targets for anticancer therapeutic development. PMID:23390603

  19. Dynamic behavior of tuning fork shear-force structures in a SNOM system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Fengli [Department of Engineering Mechanics, AML, CNMM, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Li, Xide, E-mail: lixide@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Engineering Mechanics, AML, CNMM, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Jia [State Key Laboratory of Precision Measurement Technology and Instruments, Department of Precision Instruments, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Fu, Yu [Temasek Laboratories, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Drive, 637553 (Singapore)

    2014-07-01

    Piezoelectric tuning fork shear-force structures are widely used as a distance control unit in a scanning near-field optical microscopy. However, the complex dynamic behavior among the micro-tuning forks (TFs), optical fiber probes, and the probe–surface interactions is still a crucial issue to achieve high-resolution imaging or near-field interaction inspections. Based on nonlinear beam tension-bending vibration theory, vibration equations in both longitudinal and lateral directions have been established when the TF structure and the optical fiber are treated as deformable structures. The relationship of the probe–surface interaction induced by Van der Waals force has been analyzed and the corresponding numerical results used to describe the vibrational behavior of the probe approaching the sample surface are obtained. Meanwhile, the viscous resistance of the liquid film on the sample surface has also been investigated using linear beam-bending vibration theory. Experiments testing the interaction between the probe and the water film on a single crystal silicon wafer have been carried out and the viscous resistance of the water film was estimated using the established equations. Finally, to use the TF-probe structure as a force sensor, the relation between the dynamic response of the TF-probe system and an external force on the probe tip was obtained. - Highlights: • Nonlinear vibration equation is established for a deformable tuning fork probe assembly. • Probe–sample interactions induced by Van der Waals force and viscous resistance are investigated. • The viscous resistance between the probe and the water film is estimated using testing results.

  20. Best management practices plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This plan was prepared in support of the Phase II Remedial Design Report (DOE/OR/01-1449 ampersand D1) and in accordance with requirements under CERCLA to present the plan for best management practices to be followed during the remediation. This document provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about spill prevention and control, water quality monitoring, good housekeeping practices, sediment and erosion control measures, and inspections and environmental compliance practices to be used during Phase II of the remediation project for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit

  1. Freedom and forking in open source software: the MariaDB story

    OpenAIRE

    Nyman, Linus Morten

    2013-01-01

    While significant factors that affect the open source community’s interest to participate in a development project have been studied, there has been little focus on the motivating factors that can cause a contributor to become a competitor by utilizing the right to fork a program i.e., to copy an existing program’s code base and use it to begin a separate development. The right to copy an existing program’s code base and use it to begin a separate development is guaranteed by all open s...

  2. Model for synchronizer of marked pairs in fork-join network

    OpenAIRE

    Vyshenski, S. V.; Grigoriev, P. V.; Dubenskaya, Yu. Yu.

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a model for synchronizer of marked pairs, which is a node for joining results of parallel processing in two-branch fork-join queueing network. A distribution for number of jobs in the synchronizer is obtained. Calculations are performed assuming that: arrivals to the network form a Poisson process, each branch operates like an M/M/N queueing system. It is shown that a mean quantity of jobs in the synchronizer is bounded below by the value, defined by parameters of the network (wh...

  3. Mean sojourn time in two-queue fork-join systems: bounds and approximations

    OpenAIRE

    Kemper, B; Mandjes, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers a fork-join system (or: parallel queue), which is a two-queue network in which any arrival generates jobs at both queues and the jobs synchronize before they leave the system. The focus is on methods to quantify the mean value of the ‘system’s sojourn time’ S: with S i denoting a job’s sojourn time in queue i, S is defined as max{S 1, S 2}. Earlier work has revealed that this class of models is notoriously hard to analyze. In this paper, we focus on the homogeneous case, ...

  4. Response times in M/M/s fork-join networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ko, Sung-Seok; Serfozo, Richard F.

    2004-01-01

    We study a fork-join processing network in which jobs arrive according to a Poisson process and each job splits into m tasks, which are simultaneously assigned to m nodes that operate like M/M/s queueing systems. When all of its tasks are finished, the job is completed. The main result is a closed-form formula for approximating the distribution of the network's response time (the time to complete a job) in equilibrium. We also present an analogous approximation for the ...

  5. Equivalence, reversibility and symmetry properties in fork/join queueing networks with blocking

    OpenAIRE

    Dallery, Yves; Liu, Zhen; Towsley, Don

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we study quantitative as well as qualitative properties of Fork/Join queueing networks with blocking (FJQN/B's). Specifically, we prove theorems regarding the equivalence of the behavior of a FJQN/B and that of its duals of a circuit-free FJQN/B, and a strongly connected marked graph. In addition, we obtain general conditions that must be satisfied by the service times to guarantee the existence of a long term throughput and its independence on the initial configuration. We also...

  6. dnaC-dependent reconstitution of replication forks in Escherichia coli lysates.

    OpenAIRE

    Nüsslein-Crystalla, V; Niedenhof, I; Rein, R.

    1982-01-01

    Lysates of Escherichia coli exhibit a DNA-synthesizing activity that depends on the presence of replication forks and of replication proteins. Replicative activity was reconstituted in vitro by mixing lysates prepared from temperature-sensitive dnaB mutants with wild-type dnaB protein. Lysates of double mutants deficient in both dnaB and dnaC genes could only be complemented by the addition of both dnaB and dnaC proteins, whereas lysates deficient in dnaC protein did not require the addition ...

  7. A reduction in ribonucleotide reductase activity slows down the chromosome replication fork but does not change its localization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingvild Odsbu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been proposed that the enzymes of nucleotide biosynthesis may be compartmentalized or concentrated in a structure affecting the organization of newly replicated DNA. Here we have investigated the effect of changes in ribonucleotide reductase (RNR activity on chromosome replication and organization of replication forks in Escherichia coli. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Reduced concentrations of deoxyribonucleotides (dNTPs obtained by reducing the activity of wild type RNR by treatment with hydroxyurea or by mutation, resulted in a lengthening of the replication period. The replication fork speed was found to be gradually reduced proportionately to moderate reductions in nucleotide availability. Cells with highly extended C periods showed a "delay" in cell division i.e. had a higher cell mass. Visualization of SeqA structures by immunofluorescence indicated no change in organization of the new DNA upon moderate limitation of RNR activity. Severe nucleotide limitation led to replication fork stalling and reversal. Well defined SeqA structures were not found in situations of extensive replication fork repair. In cells with stalled forks obtained by UV irradiation, considerable DNA compaction was observed, possibly indicating a reorganization of the DNA into a "repair structure" during the initial phase of the SOS response. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The results indicate that the replication fork is slowed down in a controlled manner during moderate nucleotide depletion and that a change in the activity of RNR does not lead to a change in the organization of newly replicated DNA. Control of cell division but not control of initiation was affected by the changes in replication elongation.

  8. THE INFLUENCE OF HUMIDITY ON THE SHEAR FORCE BETWEEN TIP AND SAMPLE IN NSOM USING PIEZOELECTRIC FORK

    OpenAIRE

    TIANHAO ZHANG; ZHEYU FANG; JIANYA ZHENG; LIMO GAO; HAIDONG YANG; MEIRONG YIN; JIA YANG; YANZHEN LU; HUIZHEN KANG; DAPENG YANG; HUIZHAN YANG

    2005-01-01

    The distance between tip and sample can be regulated using piezoelectric quartz fork glued with micro optic fiber probe. A biquadrate vibration equation for the fork–probe–sample system is established to theoretically analyze the relations of the electric current flow through fork versus tip–sample (T–S) distance (I–d). The I–d curve and the action distance for shear force are influenced by environmental humidity. The results reinforce the opinions in the earlier works by other researches tha...

  9. Shear Force Detection Using Single-Tine Oscillating Tuning Fork for Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭晓靖; 孙家林; 刘晟; 郭继华; 孙红三

    2003-01-01

    We propose a new method to detect near-field by using a single-tine oscillating tuning fork with mechanically asymmetric excitation that exhibits the sensitivity and stability better than that by using a double-tine oscillating one. Comparison of shear forces for the two methods demonstrate that the single-tine oscillating tuning fork provides a simpler and more sensitive method for near-field measurements. A theoretical analysis is presented for explanation to the greater sensitivity. The method is demonstrated by imaging a sparse-packed layer of micro-spheres in size of 200 nm.

  10. PEMODELAN ALJABAR MAX-PLUS DAN EVALUASI KINERJA JARINGAN ANTRIAN FORK-JOIN TAKSIKLIK DENGAN KAPASITAS PENYANGGA TAKHINGGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. ANDY RUDHITO

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to model and determine the service cycle completion time of noncyclic fork-joinqueueing networks with infinite buffer capacity, using max-plus algebra. The finding show that thedynamics of the noncyclic fork-join queuing networks with infinite buffer capacity can be modeledinto a matrix equation over max-plus algebra. We can also show that the service cycle completion timeof queuing networks is a max-plus eigenvalues of the matrix in the equation.slklsklslsllsllllllllllllllllllllll

  11. First recognition of the genus Verneuilia Hall and Clarke (Brachiopoda, Spiriferida) from North America (west-central Alaska)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodgett, R.B.; Johnson, J.G.

    1994-01-01

    The brachiopod genus Verneuilia Hall and Clarke, 1893, is recognized for the first time in North America, where it is represented by a new species described here. V. langenstrasseni. This occurrence extends not only the geographic range of the genus, but also the lower age and stratigraphic limit into the Eifelian (early Middle Devonian). Previously, the oldest known species was the type, V. cheiropteryx d'Archiac and de Verneuil, 1842, from the Givetian (late Middle Devonian) of Germany. Internal structures of V. langenstrasseni n.sp. are similar to those of genera in the ambocoeliid subfamily Rhynchospiriferinae, providing the first good evidence of a systematic relationship. -Authors

  12. Preliminary feasibility study of a grid-connected Integrated Community Energy System at Clark University. Volume II. Report and appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-08-01

    The information evaluated the results of a 4-month feasibility study of an Integrated Community Energy System (ICES) at Clark University, Worchester, Mass. The study concluded that a demonstration ICES installation would save money and fuel; there are no university regulations restricting this installation; sites are available which would permit linking the ICES to the existing heat distribution system and the New England Electric System; and having this facility at the university would provide a full scale laboratory for persons experienced in monitoring and evaluating energy systems. Recommendations are made for funding and for equiment selection. (LCL)

  13. Musical outgroups and the paradox of social bonding. Comment on "Music, empathy and cultural understanding" by E. Clark et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overy, Katie

    2015-12-01

    Clarke, DeNora and Vuoskoski's valuable review paper [2] raises the proposition that passive musical listening experiences can increase 'dispositional empathy' in individuals and consequently lead to increased positive feeling towards other cultural groups. The challenge of integrating relevant ideas and evidence from neuroscience, philosophy, psychology, sociology and community music is met convincingly, alongside the presentation of empirical data and a new model of empathic music listening. The resulting discussion brings social, motor and emotional aspects of musical behavior to the forefront and sparks a number of ideas and questions.

  14. Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction of a Gaussian laser beam by fork-shaped gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicijevic, Ljiljana; Topuzoski, Suzana

    2008-11-01

    Expressions describing the vortex beams that are generated by the process of Fresnel diffraction of a Gaussian beam incident out of waist on fork-shaped gratings of arbitrary integer charge p, and vortex spots in the case of Fraunhofer diffraction by these gratings, are deduced. The common general transmission function of the gratings is defined and specialized for the cases of amplitude holograms, binary amplitude gratings, and their phase versions. Optical vortex beams, or carriers of phase singularity with charges mp and -mp, are the higher negative and positive diffraction-order beams. The radial part of their wave amplitudes is described by the product of the mpth-order Gauss-doughnut function and a Kummer function, or by the first-order Gauss-doughnut function and the difference of two modified Bessel functions whose orders do not match the singularity charge value. The wave amplitude and the intensity distributions are discussed for the near and far fields in the focal plane of a convergent lens, as well as the specialization of the results when the grating charge p=0; i.e., the grating turns from forked into rectilinear. The analytical expressions for the vortex radii are also discussed. PMID:18978843

  15. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant biological monitoring and abatement program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Giddings, J.M.; McCarthy, J.F.; Southworth, G.R.; Smith, J.G.; Stewart, A.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA); Springborn Bionomics, Inc., Wareham, MA (USA); Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1989-10-01

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, a nuclear weapons components production facility located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for the US Department of Energy. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek), in particular, the growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life, as designated by the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment. A second purpose for the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from implementation of a water pollution control program that will include construction of nine new wastewater treatment facilities over the next 4 years. Because of the complex nature of the effluent discharged to East Fork Poplar Creek and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the effluent (i.e., temporal variability related to various pollution abatement measures that will be implemented over the next several years and spatial variability caused by pollutant inputs downstream of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant), a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed for the BMAP. 39 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  16. Mode locking effects on the playing frequency for fork fingerings on the clarinet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nederveen, C J; Dalmont, J-P

    2012-01-01

    The non-linear excitation of wind instruments generates higher harmonics of the playing frequency. These higher harmonics are coupled to resonances in the pipe. This is called mode locking. When the pipe modes are not harmonic, the playing frequency shifts away from the fundamental in order to maximize the output. It may go up or down, depending on the position of the modes and the amplitude. The effect is especially manifest for fork fingerings. Three fork fingerings on a clarinet were investigated. They were artificially blown between the threshold and extinction pressure. A time domain simulation was carried out based on a lumped model of the excitation coupled to an input impedance calculated from the instrument dimensions. At low amplitudes the fundamental frequency dominates and the playing frequency is governed by the position of the first peak in the input impedance spectra. At higher blowing pressures the playing frequency shifts. For both blowing and simulation this follows the same pattern. The frequencies predicted by the calculations are higher than the values found by blowing, which may be due to inadequacies in the model description, to uncertainties of the various parameters, as reed stiffness, moving reed area, and the properties of the slit flow. PMID:22280690

  17. Stalled replication fork repair and misrepair during thymineless death in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuong, Kawai J; Kuzminov, Andrei

    2010-06-01

    Starvation for DNA precursor dTTP, known as 'thymineless death' (TLD), kills bacterial and eukaryotic cells alike. Despite numerous investigations, toxic mechanisms behind TLD remain unknown, although wrong nucleotide incorporation with subsequent excision dominates the explanations. We show that kinetics of TLD in Escherichia coli is not affected by mutations in DNA repair, ruling out excision after massive misincorporation as the cause of TLD. We found that the rate of DNA synthesis in thymine-starved cells decreases exponentially, indicating replication fork stalling. Processing of stalled replication forks by recombinational repair is known to fragment the chromosome, and we detect significant chromosomal fragmentation during TLD. Moreover, we report that, out of major recombinational repair functions, only inactivation of recF and recO relieves TLD, identifying the poisoning mechanism. Inactivation of recJ and rep has slight effect, while the recA, recBC, ruvABC, recG and uvrD mutations all accelerate TLD, identifying the protection mechanisms. Our epistatic analysis argues for two distinct pathways protecting against TLD: RecABCD/Ruv repairs the double-strand breaks, whereas UvrD counteracts RecAFO-catalyzed toxic single-strand gap processing. PMID:20465561

  18. Lentiform fork sign: a magnetic resonance finding in a case of acute metabolic acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Daniela; Borreggine, Carmela; Perfetto, Francesco; Bertozzi, Vincenzo; Trivisano, Marina; Specchio, Luigi Maria; Grilli, Gianpaolo; Macarini, Luca

    2014-06-01

    We report a 33 year-old woman addicted to chronic unspecified solvents abuse with stupor, respiratory disorders, tetraplegia and severe metabolic acidosis. On admission an unenhanced cranial CT scan showed symmetrical hypodensities of both lentiform nuclei. MR imaging performed 12 hours after stupor demonstrates bilateral putaminal hemorrhagic necrosis, bilateral external capsule, corona radiata and deep cerebellar hyperintensities with right cingulate cortex involvement. DWI reflected bilateral putaminal hyperintensities with restricted water diffusion as to citotoxic edema and development of vasogenic edema in the external capsule recalling a fork. On day twenty, after specific treatments MRI demonstrated a bilateral putaminal marginal enhancement. Bilateral putaminal necrosis is a characteristic but non-specific radiological finding of methanol poisoning. Lentiform Fork sign is a rare MRI finding reported in literature in 22 patients with various conditions characterized by metabolic acidosis. Vasogenic edema may be due to the differences in metabolic vulnerability between neurons and astrocytes. We postulate that metabolic acidosis could have an important role to generate this sign. PMID:24976195

  19. Lentiform Fork Sign: a Magnetic Resonance Finding in a Case of Acute Metabolic Acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Daniela; Borreggine, Carmela; Perfetto, Francesco; Bertozzi, Vincenzo; Trivisano, Marina; Specchio, Luigi Maria; Grilli, Gianpaolo; Macarini, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Summary We report a 33 year-old woman addicted to chronic unspecified solvents abuse with stupor, respiratory disorders, tetraplegia and severe metabolic acidosis. On admission an unenhanced cranial CT scan showed symmetrical hypodensities of both lentiform nuclei. MR imaging performed 12 hours after stupor demonstrates bilateral putaminal hemorrhagic necrosis, bilateral external capsule, corona radiata and deep cerebellar hyperintensities with right cingulate cortex involvement. DWI reflected bilateral putaminal hyperintensities with restricted water diffusion as to citotoxic edema and development of vasogenic edema in the external capsule recalling a fork. On day twenty, after specific treatments MRI demonstrated a bilateral putaminal marginal enhancement. Bilateral putaminal necrosis is a characteristic but non-specific radiological finding of methanol poisoning. Lentiform Fork sign is a rare MRI finding reported in literature in 22 patients with various conditions characterized by metabolic acidosis. Vasogenic edema may be due to the differences in metabolic vulnerability between neurons and astrocytes. We postulate that metabolic acidosis could have an important role to generate this sign. PMID:24976195

  20. Summary of biological investigations relating to surface-water quality in the Kentucky River Basin, Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kentucky River basin, an area of approximately 7,000 sq mi, is divided into five hydrologic units that drain parts of three physiographic regions. Data on aquatic biological resources were collected and reviewed to assess conditions in the major streams for which data were available. The North, Middle, and south Forks of the Kentucky River are in the Eastern Coal Field physiographic region. Streams in this region are affected by drainage from coal mines and oil and gas operations, and many support only tolerant biotic stream forms. The Kentucky River from the confluence of the three forks to the Red River, is in the Knobs physiographic region. Oil and gas production operations and point discharges from municipalities have affected many streams in this region. The Red River, a Kentucky Wild River, supported a unique flora and fauna but accelerated sedimentation has eliminated many species of mussels. The Millers Creek drainage is affected by brines discharged from oil and gas operations, and some reaches support only halophilic algae and a few fish. The Kentucky River from the Red River to the Ohio River is in the Bluegrass physiographic region. Heavy sediment loads and sewage effluent from urban centers have limited the aquatic biota in this region. Silver Creek and South Elkhorn Creek have been particularly affected and aquatic communities in these streams are dominated by organisms tolerant of low dissolved oxygen concentrations. Biological data for other streams indicate that habitat and water quality conditions are favorable for most commonly occurring aquatic organisms. 205 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  1. Differentiating sex and species of Western Grebes (Aechmophorus occidentalis) and Clark's Grebes (Aechmophorus clarkii) and their eggs using external morphometrics and discriminant function analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, C. Alex; Ackerman, Josh; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark

    2016-01-01

    In birds where males and females are similar in size and plumage, sex determination by alternative means is necessary. Discriminant function analysis based on external morphometrics was used to distinguish males from females in two closely related species: Western Grebe (Aechmophorus occidentalis) and Clark's Grebe (A. clarkii). Additionally, discriminant function analysis was used to evaluate morphometric divergence between Western and Clark's grebe adults and eggs. Aechmophorus grebe adults (n = 576) and eggs (n = 130) were sampled across 29 lakes and reservoirs throughout California, USA, and adult sex was determined using molecular analysis. Both Western and Clark's grebes exhibited considerable sexual size dimorphism. Males averaged 6–26% larger than females among seven morphological measurements, with the greatest sexual size dimorphism occurring for bill morphometrics. Discriminant functions based on bill length, bill depth, and short tarsus length correctly assigned sex to 98% of Western Grebes, and a function based on bill length and bill depth correctly assigned sex to 99% of Clark's Grebes. Further, a simplified discriminant function based only on bill depth correctly assigned sex to 96% of Western Grebes and 98% of Clark's Grebes. In contrast, external morphometrics were not suitable for differentiating between Western and Clark's grebe adults or their eggs, with correct classification rates of discriminant functions of only 60%, 63%, and 61% for adult males, adult females, and eggs, respectively. Our results indicate little divergence in external morphology between species of Aechmophorus grebes, and instead separation is much greater between males and females.

  2. Salmonid Gamete Preservation in the Snake River Basin, Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, William; Kucera, Paul

    2003-07-01

    In spite of an intensive management effort, chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations in the Northwest have not recovered and are currently listed as threatened species under the Endangered Species Act. In addition to the loss of diversity from stocks that have already gone extinct, decreased genetic diversity resulting from genetic drift and inbreeding is a major concern. Reduced population and genetic variability diminishes the environmental adaptability of individual species and entire ecological communities. The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), in cooperation with Washington State University and the University of Idaho, established a germplasm repository in 1992 in order to preserve the remaining salmonid diversity in the region. The germplasm repository provides long-term storage for cryopreserved gametes. Although only male gametes can be cryopreserved, conserving the male component of genetic diversity will maintain future management options for species recovery. NPT efforts have focused on preserving salmon and steelhead gametes from the major river subbasins in the Snake River basin. However, the repository is available for all management agencies to contribute gamete samples from other regions and species. In 2002 a total of 570 viable semen samples were added to the germplasm repository. This included the gametes of 287 chinook salmon from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River, Imnaha River (Lookingglass Hatchery), Lake Creek, South Fork Salmon River, Johnson Creek, Big Creek, Capehorn Creek, Marsh Creek, Pahsimeroi River (Pahsimeroi Hatchery), and upper Salmon River (Sawtooth Hatchery) and the gametes of 280 steelhead from the North Fork Clearwater River (Dworshak Hatchery), Fish Creek, Little Sheep Creek, Pahsimeroi River (Pahsimeroi Hatchery) and Snake River (Oxbow Hatchery). In addition, gametes from 60 Yakima River spring chinook and 34 Wenatchee River coho salmon were added to the

  3. Barriers to HIV Testing Among Young Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM): Experiences from Clark County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharr, Jennifer R.; Lough, Nancy L.; Ezeanolue, Echezona E.

    2016-01-01

    Clark County, Nevada had a 52% increase in newly diagnosed HIV infections in young people age 13-24 with 83% of the new diagnoses in this age group being men who have sex with men (MSM). HIV testing and counseling is critical for HIV prevention, care and treatment, yet young people are the least likely to seek HIV testing. The purpose of this study was to identify barriers and facilitators to HIV testing experienced by young MSM in Clark County, Nevada. We conducted a qualitative focus group discussion to identify barriers and facilitators to HIV testing among eleven young MSM in March, 2015. The primary barrier to HIV testing identified by the group was a lack of awareness or knowledge about testing for HIV. Other barriers within the person included: fear of results, fear of rejection, and fear of disclosure. Barriers identified within the environment included: access issues, stigma, and unfriendly test environments for young people. In addition to increasing awareness, intervention to increase HIV testing among MSM young people should incorporate access to testing in environments where the adolescents are comfortable and which reduces stigma. HIV testing sites should be convenient, accessible and young person/gay friendly.

  4. Vocational Psychology at the Fork in the Road: Staying the Course or Taking the Road Less Traveled

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blustein, David L.

    2011-01-01

    In response to the question posed in this special issue of the "Journal of Career Assessment" regarding the next big question in vocational psychology, this article poses that the field is at a critical fork in the road. The choice point for vocational psychology is to continue to create knowledge and services for middle-class populations with…

  5. Finite Element Method Simulation of Double-Ended Tuning-Fork Quartz Resonator for Application to Vibratory Gyro-Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kenji; Ono, Atsushi; Tomikawa, Yoshiro

    2003-05-01

    In the present paper, we propose a double-ended tuning-fork quartz resonator for a flatly supported vibratory gyro-sensor in parallel with its rotating plane. The resonator has the advantages of ease of miniaturization and high resistance to external shock, because the height of the proposed resonator is less than that of the conventional vertical-type tuning-fork. In addition, the proposed resonator has two end-support parts. The resonator also has the following features: (1) the vibration energy of the resonator is trapped in the driving part, therefore the resonator is only slightly affected by the support parts and (2) unwanted output signals can be removed by differential connection of the output signals from two symmetric detection electrodes. The resonator was designed using the finite element method (FEM), and its characteristics were also simulated by FEM. The obtained results show that the double-ended tuning-fork quartz resonator is applicable as a vibratory gyro-sensor, and the I/O voltage ratio of the gyro-sensor was found to be proportional to the applied angular velocity. That is, we clarified that the double-ended tuning-fork quartz resonator could be used as a gyro-sensor.

  6. Reactive Transport Modeling Of Remedial Scenarios To Predict Cadmium, Copper, And Zinc In North Fork of Clear Creek, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    The North Fork of Clear Creek (NFCC), Colorado is an acid-mine-drainage-impacted stream typical of many mountain surface waters affected by historic metal mining in the western United States. The stream is devoid of fish primarily because of high metal concentrations in the wate...

  7. FANCD2 Maintains Fork Stability in BRCA1/2-Deficient Tumors and Promotes Alternative End-Joining DNA Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kais, Zeina; Rondinelli, Beatrice; Holmes, Amie; O'Leary, Colin; Kozono, David; D'Andrea, Alan D; Ceccaldi, Raphael

    2016-06-14

    BRCA1/2 proteins function in homologous recombination (HR)-mediated DNA repair and cooperate with Fanconi anemia (FA) proteins to maintain genomic integrity through replication fork stabilization. Loss of BRCA1/2 proteins results in DNA repair deficiency and replicative stress, leading to genomic instability and enhanced sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents. Recent studies have shown that BRCA1/2-deficient tumors upregulate Polθ-mediated alternative end-joining (alt-EJ) repair as a survival mechanism. Whether other mechanisms maintain genomic integrity upon loss of BRCA1/2 proteins is currently unknown. Here we show that BRCA1/2-deficient tumors also upregulate FANCD2 activity. FANCD2 is required for fork protection and fork restart in BRCA1/2-deficient tumors. Moreover, FANCD2 promotes Polθ recruitment at sites of damage and alt-EJ repair. Finally, loss of FANCD2 in BRCA1/2-deficient tumors enhances cell death. These results reveal a synthetic lethal relationship between FANCD2 and BRCA1/2, and they identify FANCD2 as a central player orchestrating DNA repair pathway choice at the replication fork. PMID:27264184

  8. Gas Phase Photoacoustic Spectroscopy in the long-wave IR using Quartz Tuning Forks and Amplitude Modulated Quantum Cascade Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojcik, Michael D.; Phillips, Mark C.; Cannon, Bret D.

    2006-12-31

    A paper to accompany a 20 minute talk about the progress of a DARPA funded project called LPAS. ABSTRACT: We demonstrate the performance of a novel long-wave infrared photoacoustic laser absorbance spectrometer for gas-phase species using an amplitude modulated (AM) quantum cascade (QC) laser and a quartz tuning fork microphone. Photoacoustic signal was generated by focusing the output of a Fabry-Perot QC laser operating at 8.41 micron between the legs of a quartz tuning fork which served as a transducer for the transient acoustic pressure wave. The QC laser was modulated at the resonant frequency of the tuning fork (32.8 kHz). This sensor was calibrated using the infrared absorber Freon-134a by performing a simultanious absorption measurement using a 35 cm absorption cell. The NEAS of this instrument was determined to be 2 x 10^-8 W cm^-1 /Hz^1/2 and the fundamental sensitivity of this technique is limited by the noise floor of the tuning fork itself.

  9. ‘Looking for Civilisation, Discovering Clark’: ‘Kenneth Clark – Looking for Civilisation’, An Exhibition at Tate Britain, 20 May – 10 August 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C Potter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses upon the art historiographical lessons to be learned from the ‘Kenneth Clark – Looking for Civilisation’ exhibition at Tate Britain. It considers the challenges represented by art galleries choosing to present displays centred on art historians generally and Clark in particular. The political contexts that existed during Clark’s career and the recent exhibition are mapped in order to explore both how the actions of this democratic patriarch were motivated by his understanding of the shortcomings of humanist and Marxist ideologies, and how an opportunity for reassessment has presented itself since the declining dominance of the New Art History.

  10. Sector-Targeting for Controlling Nutrient Loadings: A Case Study of the North Fork of the Shenandoah River Watershed

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Bibek B

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDL) is to achieve a water quality standard. The economic costs of reducing nutrient loadings are often not taken into account during development. In this study, sector targeting is used to minimize the total cost of nutrient reduction by targeting sectors with lower costs per unit of pollution reduction. This study focuses on targeting nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loading reductions from three sectors: agricultural, point source, and urban n...

  11. Assessing Geomorphic and Vegetative Responses to Environmental Flows in the Willamette River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangano, J.; Jones, K.; Wallick, R.; Bach, L.; Olson, M.; Bervid, H.

    2015-12-01

    On regulated rivers, restoring flow regimes is a process-based restoration approach that may strongly affect downstream ecosystems. Developing realistic flow targets with meaningful geomorphic and ecological benefits, however, is challenging. For instance, hydraulic, geomorphic and biological processes are affected by more than manipulating water release—sediment supply and transport conditions also require consideration. Also, funding and programmatic directives rarely require the monitoring necessary to adaptively manage environmental flow programs. Recent research in the Willamette River basin in support of the Sustainable Rivers Project (SRP) demonstrates how such a monitoring program can be implemented. At the reach scale, initial efforts have assessed geomorphic and vegetative changes in alluvial sections of the Middle Fork Willamette and McKenzie Rivers using repeat mapping from aerial photographs and flow analyses. Overall, both rivers are largely stable because of reduced discharge, bed-material supply and local revetments, but some reaches of the McKenzie River are more dynamic, perhaps reflecting greater inputs of sediment from unregulated tributaries and higher magnitude peak flows. Repeat, reach-scale mapping on the Middle Fork Willamette River shows that frequent bankfull flows are able to scour minimally vegetated gravel bars and sustain a patchwork of actively shifting bed-material sediment. Repeat mapping on the McKenzie River in summer 2015 will reveal insights about the geomorphic effectiveness of bankfull flows. At the site scale, monitoring at two bars in summer 2015 is linking streamflow with the establishment of black cottonwood. Lastly, a review of hydrographs from 2000-2015 and retrospectively applying stakeholder-defined flow targets showed substantial variability in meeting objectives for the timing and types of flows under traditional regulated conditions and the SRP. Altogether, these related efforts help link streamflow, geomorphic

  12. Mercury Remediation Technology Development for Lower East Fork Poplar Creek - FY 2015 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Mark J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Brooks, Scott C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Mathews, Teresa J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Mayes, Melanie [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Johs, Alexander [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Watson, David B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Poteat, Monica D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Smith, John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Mehlhorn, Tonia [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Lester, Brian [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Morris, Jesse [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Lowe, Kenneth [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Dickson, Johnbull O. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Eller, Virginia [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); DeRolph, Christopher R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division

    2016-04-01

    Mercury remediation is a high priority for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management (OREM) because of large historical losses of mercury within buildings and to soils and surface waters at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12). Because of the extent of mercury losses and the complexities of mercury transport and fate in the downstream environment, the success of conventional options for mercury remediation in lower East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) is uncertain. A phased, adaptive management approach to remediation of surface water includes mercury treatment actions at Y-12 in the short-term and research and technology development (TD) to evaluate longer-term solutions in the downstream environment (US Department of Energy 2014b).

  13. Optimizing Data Locality for Fork/Join Programs Using Constrained Work Stealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lifflander, Jonathan; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Kale, Laxmikant

    2014-11-16

    We present an approach to improving data locality across different phases of fork/join programs scheduled using work stealing. The approach consists of: (1) user-specified and automated approaches to constructing a steal tree, the schedule of steal operations and (2) constrained work stealing algorithms that constrain the actions of the scheduler to mirror a given steal tree. These are combined to construct work stealing schedules that maximize data locality across computation phases while ensuring load balance within each phase. These algorithms are also used to demonstrate dynamic coarsening, an optimization to improve spatial locality and sequential overheads by combining many finer-grained tasks into coarser tasks while ensuring sufficient concurrency for locality-optimized load balance. Implementation and evaluation in Cilk demonstrate performance improvements of up to 2.5x on 80 cores. We also demonstrate that dynamic coarsening can combine the performance benefits of coarse task specification with the adaptability of finer tasks.

  14. Piezoelectric tuning fork biosensors for the quantitative measurement of biomolecular interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Laura; Rodrigues, Mafalda; Benito, Angel Maria; Pérez-García, Lluïsa; Puig-Vidal, Manel; Otero, Jorge

    2015-12-01

    The quantitative measurement of biomolecular interactions is of great interest in molecular biology. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has proved its capacity to act as a biosensor and determine the affinity between biomolecules of interest. Nevertheless, the detection scheme presents certain limitations when it comes to developing a compact biosensor. Recently, piezoelectric quartz tuning forks (QTFs) have been used as laser-free detection sensors for AFM. However, only a few studies along these lines have considered soft biological samples, and even fewer constitute quantified molecular recognition experiments. Here, we demonstrate the capacity of QTF probes to perform specific interaction measurements between biotin-streptavidin complexes in buffer solution. We propose in this paper a variant of dynamic force spectroscopy based on representing adhesion energies E (aJ) against pulling rates v (nm s-1). Our results are compared with conventional AFM measurements and show the great potential of these sensors in molecular interaction studies.

  15. Mechanical switching of adsorbed porphyrins investigated with a tuning fork sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Knowledge about the forces needed to lift up, pull or push a nano-objects is as primordial as the development of efficient manipulation technics for future functional devices. Recently, advances in non contact atomic force microscopy (nc-AFM) have demonstrated the detection of the force needed to move an atom or inner structure within molecules. Tuning fork based nc-AFM is thus perfectly suited for the detailed investigation of molecules and their elastic properties at the nanoscale. In this contribution, we show a combined low temperature STM/nc-AFM study of porphyrins equipped with two dicyanophenyl and two tert-butylphenyl side groups and adsorbed on Cu(111). After adsorption, a saddle conformation is observed by STM. Systematic 3D-spectroscopic force measurements performed above single molecules proved this conformation and revealed local elastic properties of this molecule. We demonstrate that a tip/molecule link can be created allowing controlled manipulations. (author)

  16. DNA repair and replication fork helicases are differentially affected by alkyl phosphotriester lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhasini, Avvaru N; Sommers, Joshua A; Yu, Stephen; Wu, Yuliang; Xu, Ting; Kelman, Zvi; Kaplan, Daniel L; Brosh, Robert M

    2012-06-01

    DNA helicases are directly responsible for catalytically unwinding duplex DNA in an ATP-dependent and directionally specific manner and play essential roles in cellular nucleic acid metabolism. It has been conventionally thought that DNA helicases are inhibited by bulky covalent DNA adducts in a strand-specific manner. However, the effects of highly stable alkyl phosphotriester (PTE) lesions that are induced by chemical mutagens and refractory to DNA repair have not been previously studied for their effects on helicases. In this study, DNA repair and replication helicases were examined for unwinding a forked duplex DNA substrate harboring a single isopropyl PTE specifically positioned in the helicase-translocating or -nontranslocating strand within the double-stranded region. A comparison of SF2 helicases (RecQ, RECQ1, WRN, BLM, FANCJ, and ChlR1) with a SF1 DNA repair helicase (UvrD) and two replicative helicases (MCM and DnaB) demonstrates unique differences in the effect of the PTE on the DNA unwinding reactions catalyzed by these enzymes. All of the SF2 helicases tested were inhibited by the PTE lesion, whereas UvrD and the replication fork helicases were fully tolerant of the isopropyl backbone modification, irrespective of strand. Sequestration studies demonstrated that RECQ1 helicase was trapped by the PTE lesion only when it resided in the helicase-translocating strand. Our results are discussed in light of the current models for DNA unwinding by helicases that are likely to encounter sugar phosphate backbone damage during biological DNA transactions. PMID:22500020

  17. Tennessee's East Fork Poplar Creek: A biological monitoring and abatement program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On May 1985, a Biological Monitoring Program was developed for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in eastern Tennessee, United States. This stream originates within the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant that produces nuclear weapons components for the Department of Energy. Water and sediment in the stream contain metals, organic chemicals, and radionuclides from releases that have occurred over the past 45 years. The creek also receives urban and some agricultural runoff and effluent from the City of Oak Ridge's Wastewater Treatment Facility (WTF). The biological monitoring program includes four major tasks: (1) ambient toxicity testing: (2) bioaccumulation studies; (3) biological indicator studies; and (4) ecological monitoring of stream communities, including periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish. Biological conditions are monitored at six sites on EFPC ranging from kilometer 24.4 near the headwaters to kilometer 6.3 near the month. A site on Brushy Fork, A stream just north of Oak Ridge, is used as reference. Ambient (instream) toxicity was monitored through the use of 7-day static-renewal tests that measured the survival and growth of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) larvae and the survival and reproduction of a microstrustacean (Ceriodaphnia dubia). Full-strength water from EFPC within the Y-12 Plant boundary was frequently toxic to Ceriodaphnia, but less frequently toxic to the minnow larvae. Chlorine has been identified as an important toxicant in upper EFPC. Water samples from six sites in EFPC downstream from the Y-12 Plant boundary were tested eight times with both species during a 2-year period (October, 1986 through October, 1988). These sites were ranked by the number of times they were ''best'' or ''worst'' for each species. Water samples collected for use in the ambient toxicity tests were routinely analyzed for conductivity, pH, alkalinity, hardness, total residual and free chlorine, and temperature

  18. Standing on a Strong Foundation of Servitude: The 1960's Civil Rights Movement, Septima Clark and Other South Carolina African American Women Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Iris Renell

    2012-01-01

    This research study examines nine African American women educators during the 1960s Civil Rights Movement in South Carolina. Additionally, the study conducts an analogous study of the lifeworks and contributions of Septima Clark, an African American woman educator who made significant community activist contributions during this period. For its…

  19. Ecologic and geographic distributions of the vascular plants of southern Nye County, and adjacent parts of Clark, Lincoln, and Esmeralda Counties, Nevada. [Based on collections made in 1970

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beatley, J. C.

    1971-01-01

    A catalog is compiled of the vascular plants indiginous to Nye, Clark, Lincoln, and Esmeralda Counties of Nevada based on collections made in 1970. This compilation is an update of previous collections in these areas and is a supplement to report, UCLA--12-705. (ERB)

  20. How the Shining Star Project Improved Mathematics and Science Learning with the Inclusion of Data-Loggers and Teacher Professional Development in Greater Clark Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenbeck, James E.; Fisher, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Greater Clark Schools in Indiana enrolled with a STEM education program, Shining Star with Indiana University, integrated Nova 5000 data-loggers in their curriculum reported success improving students' standardized exam scores and interest in science and mathematics courses after a three year period. The success of the data-loggers, determined by…

  1. iPhone, Android, or Kindle: The Emma S. Clark Memorial Library Has an App for That and So Can You

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bob; Gutmann, Ted

    2013-01-01

    If you are like the millions of people buying the latest smartphone, iPhone 5, or Samsung Galaxy S III, your local library should have something to offer you. The Emma S. Clark Memorial Library, for one, has an app for that! Dubbed "Emma Mobile," the library's application works with iOS (Apple), Android (Google), and Amazon Kindle Fire devices.…

  2. On Rivers

    OpenAIRE

    Gleason, Colin Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Despite the importance of rivers to industry, agriculture, the climate system, and global ecosystems, our current knowledge of river discharge (volume of available water per unit time) is surprisingly poor for many regions of the world as political cloistering, aging infrastructure, and rapid human changes limit our ability to understand global surface waters holistically. Closing this knowledge gap is critical for better management of surface water in light of drought and increasing human de...

  3. Steelhead Supplementation in Idaho Rivers, 1993-1999 Summary Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne, Alan

    2001-02-01

    The Steelhead Supplementation Study has conducted field experiments since 1993 that assess the ability of hatchery stocks to reestablish natural populations. We have stocked hatchery adult steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss trapped at Sawtooth Fish Hatchery in Beaver Creek yearly and Frenchman creeks when enough fish were available. We stocked Dworshak Hatchery stock fingerlings in the South Fork Red River from 1993 to 1996 and smolts in Red River from 1996 to 1999. Although results from all experiments are not complete, preliminary findings indicate that these hatchery stocks will not reestablish natural steelhead populations. We focused most of our effort on monitoring and evaluating wild steelhead stocks. We operated a temporary weir to estimate the wild steelhead escapement in Fish Creek, a tributary of the Lochsa River. We snorkeled streams to monitor juvenile steelhead abundance, captured and tagged steelhead with Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags, and recorded stream temperatures in the Clearwater and Salmon River drainages. We operated screw traps in five to ten streams each year. We have documented growth rates in Fish and Gedney creeks, age of parr in Fish Creek, Gedney Creek, Lick Creek, and Rapid River, and documented parr and smolt migration characteristics. This report summarizes our effort during the years 1993 to 1999.

  4. Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 2000 Project Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venditti, David A.

    2002-04-01

    During 2000, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued to develop techniques to rear chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were collected to establish captive cohorts from three study streams and included 503 eyed-eggs from East Fork Salmon River (EFSR), 250 from the Yankee Fork Salmon River, and 304 from the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF). After collection, the eyed-eggs were immediately transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery, where they were incubated and reared by family group. Juveniles collected the previous summer were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease before the majority (approximately 75%) were transferred to the National Marine Fisheries Service, Manchester Marine Experimental Station for saltwater rearing through sexual maturity. Smolt transfers included 158 individuals from the Lemhi River (LEM), 193 from the WFYF, and 372 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from the Manchester facility to the Eagle Fish Hatchery included 77 individuals from the LEM, 45 from the WFYF, and 11 from the EFSR. Two mature females from the WFYF were spawned in captivity with four males in 2000. Only one of the females produced viable eggs (N = 1,266), which were placed in in-stream incubators by personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe. Mature adults (N = 70) from the Lemhi River were released into Big Springs Creek to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish distributed themselves throughout the study section and displayed a progression of habitat associations and behavior consistent with progressing maturation and the onset of spawning. Fifteen of the 17 suspected redds spawned by captive-reared parents in Big Springs Creek were hydraulically sampled to assess survival to the eyed stage of development. Eyed-eggs were collected from 13 of these, and

  5. Effects of gamma radiation, growth hormones and modulation of radiation responses by phyto hormones in Solanum khasianum Clarke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of radiation (gamma rays 0-800 k rad) on pollen germination and pollen tube elongation in Solanum Clarke were investigated. Pollen germination was stimulated by 200 k rad and inhibited by 500-800 k rad. Pollen tube elongation was inhibited by 500-800 k rad. LDsub(100) dose for pollen germination was 800 k rad while LDsub(50) dose ranged between 600-700 k rad. High concentrations of growth hormones (5-25 ppm kinetin and IAA, and 25 ppm GA3) inhibited both pollen germination and pollen tube growth. Amongst the phytohormones (kinetin, IAA and GA3) only GA3 gave partial protection against the radiation caused injury to pollen germination. (author). 21 refs

  6. CLARKE AND WRIGHT SAVING ALGORITHM AS A MEANS OF DISTRIBUTION STREAMLINING IN THE ENVIRONMENT OF A CONCRETE COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Straka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Reducing costs forces of companies to look for reserves also in field of management, support and implementation of material flow. This is connected with the optimization of costs for product distribution, which forms a significant part of the total cost of the company. In practice, it happens that making plans for distribution of materials within a distribution space is left solely to the implementers of distribution and it drivers of vehicles. As a result is uneconomic material distribution and unnecessary cost increases to his distribution. The objective of the paper is to propose a methodology for optimization of transport planning from DC Prešov to the individual Tesco units within the region that comes under this distribution centre. The methodology is based on the Clarke and Wright saving algorithm.

  7. Music as a way of knowing. Comment on "Music, empathy, and cultural understanding" by E. Clarke et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibben, Nicola

    2015-12-01

    In their critical review, Clarke, DeNora and Vuoskoski [3, this issue] integrate and make sense of a diverse range of theory and evidence to argue that music has the capacity to facilitate empathy and aid cultural understanding. The invitation to comment on this paper arrived in my email in-box at a time when Europe was witnessing one of the largest movements of people in modern times and when thousands of refugees were dying in the attempt to cross the Mediterranean. For a short while at least, empathy, or the lack thereof, became a socio-political lever, galvanizing European citizens to demonstrate their willingness to give asylum to refugees (#refugeeswelcome), and shaping domestic and European immigration policies. In this context, it would be hard to refute the importance of understanding empathy, albeit through its musical incarnation.

  8. Analysis of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) camera survey data on Deep Fork National Wildlife Refuge, 2012-2103 final report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes justification, methods, and results for white-tailed deer camera surveys conducted on Deep Fork National Wildlife Refuge during late summer...

  9. Vacuum properties of high quality value tuning fork in high magnetic field up to 8 Tesla and at mK temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuning forks are very popular experimental tools widely applied in low and ultra low temperature physics as mechanical resonators and cantilevers in the study of quantum liquids, STM and AFM techniques, etc. As an added benefit, these forks being cooled, have very high Q-value, typically 106 and their properties seems to be magnetic field independent. We present preliminary vacuum measurements of a commercial tuning fork oscillating at frequency 32 kHz conducted in magnetic fields up to 8 T and at temperature ∼ 10 mK. We found an additional weak damping of the tuning fork motion depending on magnetic field magnitude and we discuss physical nature of the observed phenomena

  10. Final report from VFL technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils: LEFPC appendices, volume 1, appendix I-IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains Appendix I-IV for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils. Included are calibration records; quality assurance; soils characterization; pilot scale trial runs

  11. Final report from VFL Technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils. LEFPC appendices, Volume 4, Appendix V-C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    This is the the final verification run data package for pilot scale thermal treatment of lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils. Included are data on volatiles, semivolatiles, and TCLP volatiles.

  12. The Clark Phase-able Sample Size Problem: Long-Range Phasing and Loss of Heterozygosity in GWAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halldórsson, Bjarni V.; Aguiar, Derek; Tarpine, Ryan; Istrail, Sorin

    A phase transition is taking place today. The amount of data generated by genome resequencing technologies is so large that in some cases it is now less expensive to repeat the experiment than to store the information generated by the experiment. In the next few years it is quite possible that millions of Americans will have been genotyped. The question then arises of how to make the best use of this information and jointly estimate the haplotypes of all these individuals. The premise of the paper is that long shared genomic regions (or tracts) are unlikely unless the haplotypes are identical by descent (IBD), in contrast to short shared tracts which may be identical by state (IBS). Here we estimate for populations, using the US as a model, what sample size of genotyped individuals would be necessary to have sufficiently long shared haplotype regions (tracts) that are identical by descent (IBD), at a statistically significant level. These tracts can then be used as input for a Clark-like phasing method to obtain a complete phasing solution of the sample. We estimate in this paper that for a population like the US and about 1% of the people genotyped (approximately 2 million), tracts of about 200 SNPs long are shared between pairs of individuals IBD with high probability which assures the Clark method phasing success. We show on simulated data that the algorithm will get an almost perfect solution if the number of individuals being SNP arrayed is large enough and the correctness of the algorithm grows with the number of individuals being genotyped.

  13. Analysis of a fork/join station with inputs from a finite population. Sub-network with multi-server stations

    OpenAIRE

    Goossens, N; A Krishnamurthy; VANDAELE, Nico

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an exact analysis of a fork/join station with inputs from stations composed of multiple exponential servers. The queue length process at the input buffers is analyzed exactly in terms of the underlying Markov process. The semi-Markov kernel characterizing the departure process is analyzed to derive expressions for the marginal and joint distributions of inter-departure times from the fork/join station. These analyses are used to study the effect of inputs from multiple ser...

  14. Geochemistry of the Obey River Basin, north-central Tennessee: a case of acid mine water in the Karst drainage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The East Fork of the Obey River, a tributary of the Cumberland River, drains a 523 km2 basin along the western margin of the Cumberland Plateau. The upper basin lies on clastic rocks that include coals that were mined earlier in this century. The lower basin is drained through a deep gorge where the East Fork has cut downward into the Mississippian carbonate rocks. The lower basin is karstic, with a 9 km length of the river and most of its tributaries underdrained by conduit systems. Many of the upper basin tributaries of the East Fork are contaminated by acid mine drainage and have high levels of acidity, sulfate, iron and aluminium. As the acid mine waters sink in the limestone portions of the basin, they are buffered but acidity is not rapidly reduced and acid water appears at a large spring deep in the karst having survived 5 km of transport. Sulfate waters gradually convert to bicarbonate waters as more tributaries from carbonate rocks enter the system. Aluminium in solution decreases with increasing pH, and precipitates as colloidal sized particles. Although alkalinity increases in the lower reaches of the basin, most of the waters remain highly undersaturated with respect to calcite

  15. Single-molecule FRET and linear dichroism studies of DNA breathing and helicase binding at replication fork junctions

    OpenAIRE

    Phelps, Carey; Lee, Wonbae; Jose, Davis; von Hippel, Peter H.; Marcus, Andrew H.

    2013-01-01

    Unique single-molecule fluorescence techniques were used to monitor DNA “breathing” at and near the junctions of model DNA replication forks on biologically relevant microsecond-to-millisecond time scales. Experiments performed in the absence and presence of helicase complexes addressed the role of these fluctuations in helicase function during DNA replication. These studies simultaneously monitored single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer and single-molecule fluorescence linear dich...

  16. Yeast Rad5 Protein Required for Postreplication Repair Has a DNA Helicase Activity Specific for Replication Fork Regression

    OpenAIRE

    Blastyák, András; Pintér, Lajos; Unk, Ildiko; Prakash, Louise; Prakash, Satya; Haracska, Lajos

    2007-01-01

    Summary Lesions in the template DNA strand block the progression of the replication fork. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, replication through DNA lesions is mediated by different Rad6-Rad18-dependent means, which include translesion synthesis and a Rad5-dependent postreplicational repair pathway that repairs the discontinuities that form in the DNA synthesized from damaged templates. Although translesion synthesis is well characterized, little is known about the mechanisms that modulat...

  17. Confirmatory Sampling and Analysis Plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the organization, strategy, and procedures to be used to confirm that mercury concentrations in soils in the remediated areas are statistically less than, or equal to, the cleanup standard of 400 ppm. It focuses on confirming the cleanup of the stretch of the Lower East Fork Popular Creed flowing from Lake Reality at the Y-12 Plant, through the City of Oak Ridge, to Poplar Creek on the Oak Ridge Reservation and its associated flood plain

  18. Efek ekstrak etanol kangkung air (Ipomoea Aquatica Forks) terhadap lamanya tidur (Sleeping Time) Mencit Jantan Dibandingkan Dengan Fenobarbital

    OpenAIRE

    Harurikson Lumbantobing

    2008-01-01

    The aquatic plant called "kangkung" (Ipomoea aquatica Forks) of the family of Convolvulaceae has been traditionally recognized by the community as having a fairly powerful effect in inducing a sleep. Stem and leaves of plant are boiled and consumed as vegetables or as salad. As there has been no scientific research on the effect ofthis plant on human, there should be a research conducted to develop traditional medication that can to the discovery of new biologically active compounds for the b...

  19. Escapement and Productivity of Spring Chinook and Summer Steelhead in the John Day River Basin, Technical Report 2004-2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Wayne

    2007-04-01

    The objectives are: (1) Estimate number and distribution of spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha redds and spawners in the John Day River subbasin; and (2) Estimate smolt-to-adult survival rates (SAR) and out-migrant abundance for spring Chinook and summer steelhead O. mykiss and life history characteristics of summer steelhead. Spawning ground surveys for spring (stream-type) Chinook salmon were conducted in four main spawning areas (Mainstem, Middle Fork, North Fork, and Granite Creek System) and seven minor spawning areas (South Fork, Camas Creek, Desolation Creek, Trail Creek, Deardorff Creek, Clear Creek, and Big Creek) in the John Day River basin during August and September of 2005. Census surveys included 298.2 river kilometers (88.2 rkm within index, 192.4 rkm additional within census, and 17.6 rkm within random survey areas) of spawning habitat. We observed 902 redds and 701 carcasses including 227 redds in the Mainstem, 178 redds in the Middle Fork, 420 redds in the North Fork, 62 redds in the Granite Creek System, and 15 redds in Desolation Creek. Age composition of carcasses sampled for the entire basin was 1.6% age 3, 91.2% age 4, and 7.1% age 5. The sex ratio was 57.4% female and 42.6% male. Significantly more females than males were observed in the Granite Creek System. During 2005, 82.3% of female carcasses sampled had released all of their eggs. Significantly more pre-spawn mortalities were observed in Granite Creek. Nine (1.3%) of 701 carcasses were of hatchery origin. Of 298 carcasses examined, 4.0% were positive for the presence of lesions. A significantly higher incidence of gill lesions was found in the Granite Creek System when compared to the rest of the basin. Of 114 kidney samples tested, two (1.8%) had clinical BKD levels. Both infected fish were age-4 females in the Middle Fork. All samples tested for IHNV were negative. To estimate spring Chinook and summer steelhead smolt-to-adult survival (SAR) we PIT tagged 5,138 juvenile

  20. Characterize and Quantify Residual Steelhead in the Clearwater River, Idaho, 1999-2000 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brostrom, Jody K. (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Fishery Resource Office, Ahsahka, ID)

    2006-08-01

    During 1999-2002 we determined whether size at release and release site influenced emigration success and survival of hatchery steelhead smolts raised at Dworshak National Fish Hatchery and released into the Clearwater River drainage. We marked 4,500 smolts each year with Passive Integrated Transponder Tags (PIT-tags) which enabled us to track emigration and estimate survival through mainstem Snake and Columbia river dams. Hatchery steelhead raised in System I freshwater were significantly smaller than those raised in warmer System II re-use water (196 mm, 206 mm, 198 mm and 201 mm System I; 215 mm, 213 mm, 206 mm and 209 mm System II). However, there was no significant difference in detection rates to mainstem observation sites between the two groups (65%, 58%, 78% and 55% System I; 69%, 59%, 74% and 53% System II). Survival estimates to Lower Granite Dam were also not significant between the two groups (72%, 81%, 80% and 77% System I; 77%, 79%, 77%, and 72% System II). Smolts less than 180 mm FL were less likely to be detected than larger smolts. Hatchery steelhead smolts released into Clear Creek, the South Fork Clearwater River and the Clearwater River at Dworshak National Fish Hatchery had significantly different lengths each year, but there was no discernible pattern due to random egg takes and rearing systems. Detection rates to mainstem observation sites for smolts released into Clear Creek were significantly less than the other two groups in all years except 2002 (62%, 57%, 71%, and 57% Clear Creek; 68%, 63%, 73% and 61% South Fork Clearwater River; 70%, 59%, 78% and 55% Clearwater River). However, survival rates to Lower Granite Dam were not significantly different (73%, 65%, 78%, and 77% Clear Creek; 79%, 72%, 79% and 76% South Fork Clearwater River; 81%, 76%, 80% and 83% Clearwater River). Similar to the size at release group, smolts less than 180 mm FL were less likely to get detected than larger smolts. Smolts from both size at release and release

  1. A tuning fork based wide range mechanical characterization tool with nanorobotic manipulators inside a scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study proposes a tuning fork probe based nanomanipulation robotic system for mechanical characterization of ultraflexible nanostructures under scanning electron microscope. The force gradient is measured via the frequency modulation of a quartz tuning fork and two nanomanipulators are used for manipulation of the nanostructures. Two techniques are proposed for attaching the nanostructure to the tip of the tuning fork probe. The first technique involves gluing the nanostructure for full range characterization whereas the second technique uses van der Waals and electrostatic forces in order to avoid destroying the nanostructure. Helical nanobelts (HNB) are proposed for the demonstration of the setup. The nonlinear stiffness behavior of HNBs during their full range tensile studies is clearly revealed for the first time. Using the first technique, this was between 0.009 N/m for rest position and 0.297 N/m before breaking of the HNB with a resolution of 0.0031 N/m. For the second experiment, this was between 0.014 N/m for rest position and 0.378 N/m before detaching of the HNB with a resolution of 0.0006 N/m. This shows the wide range sensing of the system for potential applications in mechanical property characterization of ultraflexible nanostructures.

  2. Integrated tuning fork nanocavity optomechanical transducers with high $f_{M}Q_{M}$ product and stress-engineered frequency tuning

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, R; Davanco, M I; Ren, Y; Aksyuk, V; Liu, Y; Srinivasan, K

    2015-01-01

    Cavity optomechanical systems are being widely developed for precision force and displacement measurements. For nanomechanical transducers, there is usually a trade-off between the frequency ($f_{M}$) and quality factor ($Q_{M}$), which limits temporal resolution and sensitivity. Here, we present a monolithic cavity optomechanical transducer supporting both high $f_{M}$ and high $Q_{M}$. By replacing the common doubly-clamped, Si$_3$N$_4$ nanobeam with a tuning fork geometry, we demonstrate devices with the fundamental $f_{M}\\approx29$ MHz and $Q_{M}\\approx2.2$$\\times10^5$, corresponding to an $f_{M}Q_{M}$ product of 6.35$\\times10^{12}$ Hz, comparable to the highest values previously demonstrated for room temperature operation. This high $f_{M}Q_{M}$ product is partly achieved by engineering the stress of the tuning fork to be 3 times the residual film stress through clamp design, which results in an increase of $f_{M}$ up to 1.5 times. Simulations reveal that the tuning fork design simultaneously reduces the...

  3. Fork-join and data-driven execution models on multi-core architectures: Case study of the FMM

    KAUST Repository

    Amer, Abdelhalim

    2013-01-01

    Extracting maximum performance of multi-core architectures is a difficult task primarily due to bandwidth limitations of the memory subsystem and its complex hierarchy. In this work, we study the implications of fork-join and data-driven execution models on this type of architecture at the level of task parallelism. For this purpose, we use a highly optimized fork-join based implementation of the FMM and extend it to a data-driven implementation using a distributed task scheduling approach. This study exposes some limitations of the conventional fork-join implementation in terms of synchronization overheads. We find that these are not negligible and their elimination by the data-driven method, with a careful data locality strategy, was beneficial. Experimental evaluation of both methods on state-of-the-art multi-socket multi-core architectures showed up to 22% speed-ups of the data-driven approach compared to the original method. We demonstrate that a data-driven execution of FMM not only improves performance by avoiding global synchronization overheads but also reduces the memory-bandwidth pressure caused by memory-intensive computations. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.

  4. Integrated tuning fork nanocavity optomechanical transducers with high f M Q M product and stress-engineered frequency tuning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R.; Ti, C.; Davanço, M. I.; Ren, Y.; Aksyuk, V.; Liu, Y.; Srinivasan, K.

    2015-09-01

    Cavity optomechanical systems are being widely developed for precision force and displacement measurements. For nanomechanical transducers, there is usually a trade-off between the frequency (fM) and quality factor (QM), which limits temporal resolution and sensitivity. Here, we present a monolithic cavity optomechanical transducer supporting both high fM and high QM. By replacing the common doubly clamped, Si3N4 nanobeam with a tuning fork geometry, we demonstrate devices with the fundamental f M ≈ 29 MHz and Q M ≈ 2.2 × 10 5 , corresponding to an fMQM product of 6.35 × 10 12 Hz , comparable to the highest values previously demonstrated for room temperature operation. This high fMQM product is partly achieved by engineering the stress of the tuning fork to be 3 times the residual film stress through clamp design, which results in an increase of fM up to 1.5 times. Simulations reveal that the tuning fork design simultaneously reduces the clamping, thermoelastic dissipation, and intrinsic material damping contributions to mechanical loss. This work may find application when both high temporal and force resolution are important, such as in compact sensors for atomic force microscopy.

  5. A tuning fork based wide range mechanical characterization tool with nanorobotic manipulators inside a scanning electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta, Juan Camilo; Hwang, Gilgueng; Regnier, Stephane [Institut des Systemes Intelligents et de Robotique Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, CNRS UMR 7222 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex (France); Polesel-Maris, Jerome [CEA, IRAMIS, Service de Physique et Chimie des Surfaces et Interfaces, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2011-03-15

    This study proposes a tuning fork probe based nanomanipulation robotic system for mechanical characterization of ultraflexible nanostructures under scanning electron microscope. The force gradient is measured via the frequency modulation of a quartz tuning fork and two nanomanipulators are used for manipulation of the nanostructures. Two techniques are proposed for attaching the nanostructure to the tip of the tuning fork probe. The first technique involves gluing the nanostructure for full range characterization whereas the second technique uses van der Waals and electrostatic forces in order to avoid destroying the nanostructure. Helical nanobelts (HNB) are proposed for the demonstration of the setup. The nonlinear stiffness behavior of HNBs during their full range tensile studies is clearly revealed for the first time. Using the first technique, this was between 0.009 N/m for rest position and 0.297 N/m before breaking of the HNB with a resolution of 0.0031 N/m. For the second experiment, this was between 0.014 N/m for rest position and 0.378 N/m before detaching of the HNB with a resolution of 0.0006 N/m. This shows the wide range sensing of the system for potential applications in mechanical property characterization of ultraflexible nanostructures.

  6. Stream flow and stream quality in the coal-mining region, Patoka River Basin, Southwestern Indiana, 1983-85. Water-resources investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renn, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    The report describes the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey to determine the stream flow and stream quality in the Patoka River and its tributaries, including the South Fork Patoka River and its tributaries. The South Fork Patoka River is the largest tributary to the Patoka River. Because the flow in the Patoka River is regulated by Patoka Lake, data collection was designed to represent four different flow conditions in the Patoka River: Dry-weather steady-state low flows with large releases of water from Patoka Lake; dry-weather steady-state high flows with small releases of water from Patoka Lake; wet-weather nonsteady-state high flows with small releases of water from Patoka Lake; and wet-weather nonsteady-state high flows with large releases of water from Patoka Lake. The tributaries were sampled four times at two different flow conditions--twice during dry-weather steady-state low flows and twice during wet-weather nonsteady-state high flows.

  7. A single active nanoelectromechanical tuning fork front-end radio-frequency receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) offer the potential to revolutionize fundamental methods employed for signal processing in today’s telecommunication systems, owing to their spectral purity and the prospect of integration with existing technology. In this work we present a novel, front-end receiver topology based on a single device silicon nanoelectromechanical mixer-filter. The operation is demonstrated by using the signal amplification in a field effect transistor (FET) merged into a tuning fork resonator. The combination of both a transistor and a mechanical element into a hybrid unit enables on-chip functionality and performance previously unachievable in silicon. Signal mixing, filtering and demodulation are experimentally demonstrated at very high frequencies ( > 100 MHz), maintaining a high quality factor of Q = 800 and stable operation at near ambient pressure (0.1 atm) and room temperature (T = 300 K). The results show that, ultimately miniaturized, silicon NEMS can be utilized to realize multi-band, single-chip receiver systems based on NEMS mixer-filter arrays with reduced system complexity and power consumption. (paper)

  8. The Drosophila fork head domain protein crocodile is required for the establishment of head structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häcker, U; Kaufmann, E; Hartmann, C; Jürgens, G; Knöchel, W; Jäckle, H

    1995-01-01

    The fork head (fkh) domain defines the DNA-binding region of a family of transcription factors which has been implicated in regulating cell fate decisions across species lines. We have cloned and molecularly characterized the crocodile (croc) gene which encodes a new family member from Drosophila. croc is expressed in the head anlagen of the blastoderm embryo under the control of the anterior, the dorsoventral and the terminal maternal organizer systems. The croc mutant phenotype indicates that the croc wild-type gene is required to function as an early patterning gene in the anterior-most blastoderm head segment anlage and for the establishment of a specific head skeletal structure that derives from the non-adjacent intercalary segment at a later stage of embryogenesis. As an early patterning gene, croc exerts unusual properties which do not allow it to be grouped among the established segmentation genes. A single-site mutation within the croc fkh domain, which causes a replacement of the first out of four conserved amino acid residues thought to be involved in the coordinate binding of Mg2+, abolishes the DNA binding of the protein in vitro. In view of the resulting lack-of-function mutant phenotype, it appears likely that metal binding by the affected region of the fkh domain is crucial for proper folding of the DNA-binding structure. Images PMID:7489720

  9. Research on the Sensing Performance of the Tuning Fork-Probe as a Micro Interaction Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengli Gao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The shear force position system has been widely used in scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM and recently extended into the force sensing area. The dynamic properties of a tuning fork (TF, the core component of this system, directly determine the sensing performance of the shear positioning system. Here, we combine experimental results and finite element method (FEM analysis to investigate the dynamic behavior of the TF probe assembled structure (TF-probe. Results from experiments under varying atmospheric pressures illustrate that the oscillation amplitude of the TF-probe is linearly related to the quality factor, suggesting that decreasing the pressure will dramatically increase the quality factor. The results from FEM analysis reveal the influences of various parameters on the resonant performance of the TF-probe. We compared numerical results of the frequency spectrum with the experimental data collected by our recently developed laser Doppler vibrometer system. Then, we investigated the parameters affecting spatial resolution of the SNOM and the dynamic response of the TF-probe under longitudinal and transverse interactions. It is found that the interactions in transverse direction is much more sensitive than that in the longitudinal direction. Finally, the TF-probe was used to measure the friction coefficient of a silica–silica interface.

  10. Research on the Sensing Performance of the Tuning Fork-Probe as a Micro Interaction Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fengli; Li, Xide

    2015-01-01

    The shear force position system has been widely used in scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) and recently extended into the force sensing area. The dynamic properties of a tuning fork (TF), the core component of this system, directly determine the sensing performance of the shear positioning system. Here, we combine experimental results and finite element method (FEM) analysis to investigate the dynamic behavior of the TF probe assembled structure (TF-probe). Results from experiments under varying atmospheric pressures illustrate that the oscillation amplitude of the TF-probe is linearly related to the quality factor, suggesting that decreasing the pressure will dramatically increase the quality factor. The results from FEM analysis reveal the influences of various parameters on the resonant performance of the TF-probe. We compared numerical results of the frequency spectrum with the experimental data collected by our recently developed laser Doppler vibrometer system. Then, we investigated the parameters affecting spatial resolution of the SNOM and the dynamic response of the TF-probe under longitudinal and transverse interactions. It is found that the interactions in transverse direction is much more sensitive than that in the longitudinal direction. Finally, the TF-probe was used to measure the friction coefficient of a silica-silica interface. PMID:26404310

  11. A Network of Multi-Tasking Proteins at the DNA Replication Fork Preserves Genome Stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available To elucidate the network that maintains high fidelity genome replication, we have introduced two conditional mutant alleles of DNA2, an essential DNA replication gene, into each of the approximately 4,700 viable yeast deletion mutants and determined the fitness of the double mutants. Fifty-six DNA2-interacting genes were identified. Clustering analysis of genomic synthetic lethality profiles of each of 43 of the DNA2-interacting genes defines a network (consisting of 322 genes and 876 interactions whose topology provides clues as to how replication proteins coordinate regulation and repair to protect genome integrity. The results also shed new light on the functions of the query gene DNA2, which, despite many years of study, remain controversial, especially its proposed role in Okazaki fragment processing and the nature of its in vivo substrates. Because of the multifunctional nature of virtually all proteins at the replication fork, the meaning of any single genetic interaction is inherently ambiguous. The multiplexing nature of the current studies, however, combined with follow-up supporting experiments, reveals most if not all of the unique pathways requiring Dna2p. These include not only Okazaki fragment processing and DNA repair but also chromatin dynamics.

  12. Cyclin E Is Stabilized in Response to Replication Fork Barriers Leading to Prolonged S Phase Arrest*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Jia; Legerski, Randy J.

    2009-01-01

    Cyclin E is a regulator of cyclin-dependent protein kinases (Cdks) and is involved in mediating the cell cycle transition from G1 to S phase. Here, we describe a novel function for cyclin E in the long term maintenance of checkpoint arrest in response to replication barriers. Exposure of cells to mitomycin C or UV irradiation, but not ionizing radiation, induces stabilization of cyclin E. Stabilization of cyclin E reduces the activity of Cdk2-cyclin A, resulting in a slowing of S phase progression and arrest. In addition, cyclin E is shown to be required for stabilization of Cdc6, which is required for activation of Chk1 and the replication checkpoint pathway. Furthermore, the stabilization of cyclin E in response to replication fork barriers depends on ATR, but not Nbs1 or Chk1. These results indicate that in addition to its well studied role in promoting cell cycle progression, cyclin E also has a role in regulating cell cycle arrest in response to DNA damage. PMID:19812034

  13. Design of a compact tuning fork-shaped notched ultrawideband antenna for wireless communication application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakib, M N; Moghavvemi, M; Mahadi, W N L

    2014-01-01

    A new compact planar notched ultrawideband (UWB) antenna is designed for wireless communication application. The proposed antenna has a compact size of 0.182λ × 0.228λ × 0.018λ where λ is the wavelength of the lowest operating frequency. The antenna is comprised of rectangular radiating patch, ground plane, and an arc-shaped strip in between radiating patch and feed line. By introducing a new Tuning Fork-shaped notch in the radiating plane, a stopband is obtained. The antenna is tested and measured. The measured result indicated that fabricated antenna has achieved a wide bandwidth of 4.33-13.8 GHz (at -10 dB return loss) with a rejection frequency band of 5.28-6.97 GHz (WiMAX, WLAN, and C-band). The effects of the parameters of the antenna are discussed. The experiment results demonstrate that the proposed antenna can well meet the requirement for the UWB communication in spite of its compactness and small size. PMID:24723835

  14. An inventory of wetlands in the East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain, Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-01

    An inventory of wetlands within the floodplain of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee was conducted during October, 1991 through May, 1992 for the US Department of Energy (DOE) by the US Army Corps of Engineers, Nashville District. About 15 miles of EFPC channel and 500 acres of its floodplain are contaminated with mercury and other contaminants released from the Y-12 Plant on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation. The wetland inventory will serve as baseline information for DOE`s remedial action planning and National Environmental Policy Act compliance efforts related to the contamination. In order to provide broad wetland determinations beyond which future wetland definitions are unlikely to expand, the 1989 Federal Manual for Identifying And Delineating Jurisdictional Wetlands was utilized. Using the manual`s methodology in a contaminated system under the approved health and safety plan presented some unique problems, resulting in intrusive sampling for field indicators of hydric soils being accomplished separately from observation of other criteria. Beginning with wetland areas identified on National Wetland Inventory Maps, the entire floodplain was examined for presence of wetland criteria, and 17 wetlands were identified ranging from 0.01 to 2.81 acres in size. The majority of wetlands identified were sized under 1 acre. Some of the wetlands identified were not delineated on the National Wetland Inventory Maps, and much of the wetland area delineated on the maps did not meet the criteria under the 1989 manual.

  15. Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction of a laser Gaussian beam by fork-shaped gratings

    CERN Document Server

    Janicijevic, Ljiljana

    2008-01-01

    Expressions describing the vortex beams, which are generated in a process of Fresnel diffraction of a Gaussian beam, incident out of waist on a fork-shaped gratings of arbitrary integer charge p, and vortex spots in the case of Fraunhofer diffraction by these gratings are deduced. The common general transmission function of the gratings is defined and specialized for the cases of amplitude holograms, binary amplitude gratings, and their phase versions. Optical vortex beams, or carriers of phase singularity with charges mp and -mp, are the higher negative and positive diffraction order beams. The radial part of their wave amplitudes is described by the product of mp-th order Gauss-doughnut function and a Kummer function, or by the first order Gauss-doughnut function and a difference of two modified Bessel functions, whose orders do not match the singularity charge value. The wave amplitude and the intensity distributions are discussed for the near and far field, in the focal plane of a convergent lens, as well...

  16. Kinetic energy dissipation of a tuning fork immersed in superfluid helium at different frequencies of oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental study is made of the drag coefficient, which is the characteristics of energy dissipation during oscillations of the tuning forks, immersed in liquid helium. The experiments were performed in the temperature range from 0.1 to 3.5 K covering both the range of a hydrodynamic flow, and the ballistic regime of transfer of thermal excitations of superfluid helium below 0.6 K. It is found that there is the frequency dependence of the drag coefficient in the hydrodynamic limit, when the main dissipation mechanism is the viscous friction of the fluid against the walls of the oscillating body at temperatures above 0.7 K. In this case, the drag coefficient is proportional to the square root of the frequency of oscillation, and its temperature dependence in He II is determined by the respective dependence of the normal component density of the normal component and the viscosity of the fluid. At lower temperatures, the dependence of drag coefficient on the frequency is not available, and the magnitude of the dissipative losses is determined only by the temperature dependence of the density of the normal component. At the same time in the entire range of temperatures value of dissipative losses depends on the geometry of the oscillating body.

  17. Ethical dilemmas in choosing a healthful diet: vote with your fork!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestle, M

    2000-11-01

    Dietary guidelines for health promotion and disease prevention in the USA recommend a consumption pattern based largely on grains, fruit and vegetables, with smaller amounts of meat and dairy foods, and even smaller amounts of foods high in fat and sugar. Such diets are demonstrably health promoting, but following them raises ethical issues related to the role of nutritionists in advising the public about healthful dietary choices, as well as to the role of the food industry in food production and marketing. In the USA a shift towards a more plant-based diet would affect the economic interests of producers of food commodities, food products and meals prepared outside the home; it would also affect the environment, food prices, trade with other countries (developing as well as industrialized) and relationships among the food industry, government agencies (domestic and international) and food and nutrition professionals. In a free-market economy any dietary choice has consequences for food producers. Thus, considerations of ethical dilemmas in choosing healthful diets suggest that food choices are political acts that offer opportunities for all parties concerned to examine the consequences of such choices and 'vote with forks'. PMID:11115798

  18. Waste Management Plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Remedial Action Project Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) Remedial Action project will remove mercury-contaminated soils from the floodplain of LEFPC, dispose of these soils at the Y-12 Landfill V, and restore the affected floodplain upon completion of remediation activities. This effort will be conducted in accordance with the Record of Decision (ROD) for LEFPC as a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) action. The Waste Management Plan addresses management and disposition of all wastes generated during the remedial action for the LEFPC Project Most of the solid wastes will be considered to be sanitary or construction/demolition wastes and will be disposed of at existing Y-12 facilities for those types of waste. Some small amounts of hazardous waste are anticipated, and the possibility of low- level or mixed waste exists (greater than 35 pCi/g), although these are not expected. Liquid wastes will be generated which will be sanitary in nature and which will be capable of being disposed 0214 of at the Oak Ridge Sewage Treatment Plant

  19. Final Environmental Impact Statement Cabinet Gorge (No. 2058-014) and Noxon Rapids (No. 2075-014) Hydroelectric Projects Idaho and Montana

    OpenAIRE

    United States Department of Energy Federal Energy Regulatory Commission

    2000-01-01

    On February 17, 1999, Avista Corporation filed an application for relicense of the existing 231-megawatt Cabinet Gorge and 466-megawatt Noxon Rapids projects located on the Clark Fork River in Idaho and Montana. Avista Corporation's proposed relicensing alternative for these two projects includes a comprehensive settlement agreement that was developed through the use of the Commission's Alternative Licensing Procedures and a collaborative approach during prefiling consultation. As part of t...

  20. U.S. Geological Survey 2013 assessment of undiscovered resources in the Bakken and Three Forks Formations of the U.S. Williston Basin Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.

    2014-01-01

    The Upper Devonian Three Forks and Upper Devonian to Lower Mississippian Bakken Formations comprise a major United States continuous oil resource. Current exploitation of oil is from horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing of the Middle Member of the Bakken and upper Three Forks, with ongoing exploration of the lower Three Forks, and the Upper, Lower, and Pronghorn Members of the Bakken Formation. In 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) estimated a mean of 3.65 billion bbl of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil resource within the Bakken Formation. The USGS recently reassessed the Bakken Formation, which included an assessment of the underlying Three Forks Formation. The Pronghorn Member of the Bakken Formation, where present, was included as part of the Three Forks assessment due to probable fluid communication between reservoirs. For the Bakken Formation, five continuous and one conventional assessment units (AUs) were defined. These AUs are modified from the 2008 AU boundaries to incorporate expanded geologic and production information. The Three Forks Formation was defined with one continuous and one conventional AU. Within the continuous AUs, optimal regions of hydrocarbon recovery, or “sweet spots,” were delineated and estimated ultimate recoveries were calculated for each continuous AU. Resulting undiscovered, technically recoverable resource estimates were 3.65 billion bbl for the five Bakken continuous oil AUs and 3.73 billion bbl for the Three Forks Continuous Oil AU, generating a total mean resource estimate of 7.38 billion bbl. The two conventional AUs are hypothetical and represent a negligible component of the total estimated resource (8 million barrels of oil).