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Sample records for clarias gariepinus burchell

  1. A dynamic simulation model for growth of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822).

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    Machiels, M.A.M.

    1987-01-01

    In the early '70 it was tried to identify new fish species for aquaculture in Africa. Amongst the most promising candidates was the African catfish. Clariasgariepinus (Burchell 1822). It is an omnivorous fish. which means a wide feeding spectrum. The fish is a partial air breather, so

  2. Presence of the walking catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell (Siluriformes, Clariidae in Minas Gerais state hydrographie basins, Brazil

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    Carlos Bernardo Mascarenhas Alves

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The first official occurrence of the exotic species Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 in the Rio Paraopeba (São Francisco river basin, the Rio Grande (Paraná river basin, and the Rio Doce (Doce river basin, is reported, with comments on the possible ecological consequences and on the conservation of freshwater fish biodiversity due to non-native species introductions.

  3. Presence of the walking catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell) (Siluriformes, Clariidae) in Minas Gerais state hydrographie basins, Brazil

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    Carlos Bernardo Mascarenhas Alves; Volney Vono; Fábio Vieira

    1999-01-01

    The first official occurrence of the exotic species Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) in the Rio Paraopeba (São Francisco river basin), the Rio Grande (Paraná river basin), and the Rio Doce (Doce river basin), is reported, with comments on the possible ecological consequences and on the conservation of freshwater fish biodiversity due to non-native species introductions.

  4. Pathology of Edwardsiella tarda infection in African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822, fingerlings

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    Abraham Thangapalam Jawahar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Edwardsiella tarda is one of the serious fish pathogens infecting both cultured and wild fish species. This study aimed to assess the phenotypic characterization and pathogenicity of E. tarda isolated from Clarias gariepinus (Burchell with dropsy and histopathological alterations. The causative agent was identified with Vitek 2, and its pathogenicity was determined by intramuscular injection. The challenged catfish exhibited vertical hanging, frothing, excess mucus production, listing, swollen abdomen, anorexia, fin and tail rot, and reddish operculum. The LD50 of E. tarda PBB and PBP strains was found to be 8.52 × 106 and 1.68 × 107 cells fish-1, respectively. Histopathological observations on catfish infected naturally revealed lymphocyte infiltration in muscle and focal necrosis, hyperplasia, edema, and swelling of the gill lamellar epithelium. The kidney of diseased fish exhibited ischemic type tubulopathy, necrosis of nephritic tubules, hyperplastic hematopoietic tissue, rupture of the tubular basement membrane, hydropic dystrophy of nephritic cells, neutrophil infiltration, fibrinoid necrosis of nephretic tubules, hemosiderin deposition, and edema. The liver sections revealed lymphocyte infiltration, dilation of hepatic sinusoids, expansion of space between hepatic sinusoids, and focal necrosis. The inflammatory responses observed in kidney and liver in the present study were presumably suppuration and were attributed to the potential virulence factors of E. tarda.

  5. Comparative Reproductive and Growth Performance of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) and Its Hybrid Induced with Synthetic Hormone and Pituitary Gland of Clarias gariepinus

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    Ndimele, Prince Emeka; Owodeinde, Fatai Gbolahan

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the comparative reproductive, growth performances and nutrient utilization of Clarias gariepinus and its hybrid "heteroclarias" using ovaprim and pituitary extract of male and female C. gariepinus. The experimental broodstocks consisted of 6 female C. gariepinus (2 each were induced separately with ovaprim, male pituitary of C. gariepinus and female pituitary of C. gariepinus), 3 male C. gariepinus and 3 male Heterobranchus bidorsalis. 2 female C. ...

  6. Physiological effects of paraquat in juvenile African catifsh Clarias gariepinus (Burchel 1822)

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    Christopher Didigwu Nwani; Henry Ifeanyichukwu Ekwueme; Vincent Chikwendu Ejere; Christopher Chikaodili Onyeke; Christian Onyeka Chukwuka; Onas Somdare Peace; Alfreda Ogochukwu Nwadinigwe

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the physiological effects of paraquat in African freshwater catfish Clarias gariepinus. Methods:Two sublethal test concentrations of paraquat (1.37 and 2.75 mg/L) were chosen based on the 96 h LC50 value (27.46 mg/L). Some experimental fish were exposed to these concentrations and control group for 15 d. Peripheral blood samplings were taken at intervals for assessment of haematological and biochemical parameters. Results:Exposure to paraquat affected behaviour and morphology of Clarias gariepinus. There were significant decreases (P Conclusions: The results of the present study indicate that paraquat is toxic and has the potential to impair on the physiological activities in African catfish Clarias gariepinus. The use of paraquat should be strongly controlled and carefully monitored to avoid the possible damage done to the environment.

  7. Physiological effects of paraquat in juvenile African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchel 1822

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    Christopher Didigwu Nwani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the physiological effects of paraquat in African freshwater catfish Clarias gariepinus. Methods: Two sublethal test concentrations of paraquat (1.37 and 2.75 mg/L were chosen based on the 96 h LC50 value (27.46 mg/L. Some experimental fish were exposed to these concentrations and control group for 15 d. Peripheral blood samplings were taken at intervals for assessment of haematological and biochemical parameters. Results: Exposure to paraquat affected behaviour and morphology of Clarias gariepinus. There were significant decreases (P<0.05 in the mean values of hemoglobin, red blood cells, packed cell volume, cellular hemoglobin, and cellular hemoglobin concentration. The levels of white blood cells, glucose, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase significantly increased (P<0.05 while protein levels declined. However, no definite pattern of changes was observed in the number and type of leucocytes. Conclusions: The results of the present study indicate that paraquat is toxic and has the potential to impair on the physiological activities in African catfish Clarias gariepinus. The use of paraquat should be strongly controlled and carefully monitored to avoid the possible damage done to the environment.

  8. Occurrence of Tetracampos ciliotheca and Proteocephalus glanduligerus in Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) collected from the Vaal Dam, South Africa.

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    Madanire-Moyo, Grace; Avenant-Oldewage, Annemariè

    2013-03-07

    Cestodes are parasitic flatworms that live in the digestive tract of vertebrates as adults and often in the liver, muscle, haemocoel, mesentery and brain of various animals as larval stages. To identify the cestodes infecting Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822 (sharptooth catfish) in the Vaal Dam, a total of 45 host specimens were collected with the aid of gill nets between October 2011, January and April 2012. The fish were sacrificed and examined for cestode parasites. Two adult cestodes, Tetracampos ciliotheca Wedl, 1861 (prevalence 86.7%, mean intensity = 15, n = 45) and Proteocephalus glanduligerus (Janicki, 1928) (prevalence 51.1%, mean intensity = 5, n = 45) were found in the intestines of the catfish. Both T. ciliotheca and P. glanduligerus are new locality records. There were statistically insignificant differences in the infection of the male and female C. gariepinu. Fish with standard length ranging from 40 cm - 54 cm (≥ 3 years) had the highest prevalence and mean intensity while those ranging from 10 cm - 24 cm (gariepinus with age on the prevalence and mean intensity of the two gastrointestinal cestode parasites.

  9. Selected haematological changes in Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 infected with a Trypansosoma sp. from the Vaal Dam, South Africa

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    Maryke L. Ferreira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of haematological techniques to assess fish health is generally accepted. The aim of the current study was to determine selected haematological changes that occur in Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822. infected with trypanosomes. Blood films were prepared according to standard techniques to confirm trypanosome infections and whole blood was collected, the serum and plasma separated, and prepared for albumin and total protein concentration analysis. Plasma albumin levels were significantly higher in infected wild caught fish than in uninfected wild caught fish and uninfected breeding stock. Serum albumin levels were significantly lower in infected wild caught fish when compared to uninfected breeding stock. The total plasma and serum protein levels were within the normal range for C. gariepinus, that is, 3 g – 6 g/100 mL. The total plasma protein levels varied significantly between the three groups. However, the total serum protein levels were only significantly different between uninfected breeding stock and uninfected wild caught fish, as well as uninfected breeding stock and infected wild caught fish. The total protein levels were significantly higher in infected wild caught fish than in the other groups, a possible indication of an infection or inflammatory host response.

  10. Occurrence of Tetracampos ciliotheca and Proteocephalus glanduligerus in Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 collected from the Vaal Dam, South Africa

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    Grace Madanire-Moyo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cestodes are parasitic flatworms that live in the digestive tract of vertebrates as adults and often in the liver, muscle, haemocoel, mesentery and brain of various animals as larval stages. To identify the cestodes infecting Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822 (sharptooth catfish in the Vaal Dam, a total of 45 host specimens were collected with the aid of gill nets between October 2011, January and April 2012. The fish were sacrificed and examined for cestode parasites. Two adult cestodes, Tetracampos ciliotheca Wedl, 1861 (prevalence 86.7%, mean intensity = 15, n = 45 and Proteocephalus glanduligerus (Janicki, 1928 (prevalence 51.1%, mean intensity = 5, n = 45 were found in the intestines of the catfish. Both T. ciliotheca and P. glanduligerus are new locality records. There were statistically insignificant differences in the infection of the male and female C. gariepinu. Fish with standard length ranging from 40 cm – 54 cm (≥ 3 years had the highest prevalence and mean intensity while those ranging from 10 cm – 24 cm (< 1 year had the lowest prevalence and mean intensity for both cestodes. The study highlights the importance of changing feeding habits of C. gariepinus with age on the prevalence and mean intensity of the two gastrointestinal cestode parasites.

  11. Selected haematological changes in Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) infected with a Trypansosoma sp. from the Vaal Dam, South Africa.

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    Ferreira, Maryke L; Avenant-Oldewage, Annemariè

    2013-01-01

    The use of haematological techniques to assess fish health is generally accepted. The aim of the current study was to determine selected haematological changes that occur in Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822). infected with trypanosomes. Blood films were prepared according to standard techniques to confirm trypanosome infections and whole blood was collected, the serum and plasma separated, and prepared for albumin and total protein concentration analysis. Plasma albumin levels were significantly higher in infected wild caught fish than in uninfected wild caught fish and uninfected breeding stock. Serum albumin levels were significantly lower in infected wild caught fish when compared to uninfected breeding stock. The total plasma and serum protein levels were within the normal range for C. gariepinus, that is, 3 g-6 g/100 mL. The total plasma protein levels varied significantly between the three groups. However, the total serum protein levels were only significantly different between uninfected breeding stock and uninfected wild caught fish, as well as uninfected breeding stock and infected wild caught fish. The total protein levels were significantly higher in infected wild caught fish than in the other groups, a possible indication of an infection or inflammatory host response.

  12. On cestode and digenean parasites of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 from the Rietvlei Dam, South Africa

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    M. Barson

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus, from the Rietvlei Dam near Pretoria, South Africa were examined for internal platyhelminth parasites. Two adult cestodes, Polyonchobothrium clarias (stomach (prev alence 71 %, mean intensity = 5, n = 7 and Proteocephalus glanduliger (anterior intestine (prevalence 14 %, mean intensity = 2, n = 7, were found in the gut while metacercariae of one larval digenean, Ornithodiplostomum sp. (prevalence 14 %, mean intensity = 140, n = 7, were found encysted in the muscles. The morphology of these species, based on light and scanning electron microscopy as well as histological analysis, and how they differ from previously described specimens, are discussed. Ornithodiplostomum is a new record in southern Africa. Infection levels of the host fish were mild compared to records from previous surveys.

  13. Lower than expected mercury concentration in piscivorous African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell)

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    Desta, Zerihun [Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432, As (Norway) and Awassa University, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Department of Applied Biology, P.O. Box 5, Awassa (Ethiopia)]. E-mail: zerihun.desta@gmail.com; Borgstrom, Reidar [Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432, As (Norway); Rosseland, Bjorn Olav [Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432, As (Norway); Dadebo, Elias [Awassa University, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Department of Applied Biology, P.O. Box 5, Awassa (Ethiopia)

    2007-04-15

    The concentrations of total mercury (THg), stable isotopes of nitrogen ({delta}{sup 15}N) and carbon ({delta}{sup 13}C), and the diet of the African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus in Lake Awassa, Ethiopia, were studied from January 2003 to February 2004. Values of the {delta}{sup 15}N were used as an index of trophic position in four length groups and compared to actual stomach contents. The diet of C. gariepinus within the length range of 201-600 mm L {sub T} mainly consisted of the small barb Barbus paludinosus, aquatic insects, and mollusks. The proportion of fish prey in the diet was 60% by volume, irrespective of fish size. The differences in {delta}{sup 15}N values of individuals within and between length classes were less than 3 per mille , and were not significantly related to total length, showing the similarity in trophic niche of the different sizes, which corresponded to recorded stomach contents. Mercury concentrations were in the range of 0.002-0.154 mg kg{sup -1} ww, and had no significant relationship to total length. Hence, even large specimens of C. gariepinus have Hg values below the WHO threshold of 0.2 mg kg{sup -1} ww. The slope of the regression line between log [Hg] and {delta}{sup 15}N was small, 0.06, indicating the absence of trophic shifts and biomagnification of Hg in larger specimens in our samples. The low Hg concentrations in C. gariepinus compared to the Hg concentrations in other piscivorous fish species in Lake Awassa, such as Barbus intermedius and B. paludinosus, may be due to its dependence on invertebrate preys at small size, diet switching towards low Hg prey fish at larger size, and growth biodilution owing to higher growth rate.

  14. Oxidative stress biomarkers in Clarias gariepinus (Burchel, 1822 exposed to Microcystin-LR

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    Patrick Omoregie Isibor

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Stress levels inflicted by microcystin-LR extracted from Microcystis aeruginosa were assessed by estimating the effects on the oxidative stress biomarkers in the liver, muscle and gill tissues of Clarias gariepinus. Microcystin-LR was administered to the fish by injection into their intra-peritoneal cavity. Microcystin-LR induced the activities of mainly Glutathione-S-Transferase (GST, Catalase (CAT and Superoxide dismutase (SOD in the liver on dose and temporal basis, while it inhibited the activities of Cytochrome P450 on temporal basis in the liver and gill. Results show that MC-LR significantly induced oxidative stress in the C. gariepinus. Findings show that 400 μg MC-LR/kg b.w. disrupted the antioxidant status of the fish without any external physical manifestation on the body. Microcystin-LR induced the activities of mainly GST, CAT and SOD in the liver on dose and temporal basis while it inhibited the activities of CYP450 on temporal basis in the liver and gill. The adopted MC-LR doses; particularly 400 μgMC-LR/kg b.w. inflicted stress on the fish without any external/physical manifestation. MC-LR impacted on the antioxidant enzymes in the fish; in the order of liver > gill > muscle. This research has provided empirical evidences that 400 μg MC-LR/kg b.w induced oxidative stress in C. gariepinus in less than a month of exposure. This adopted level of MC-LR can be used as a warning signal in natural water bodies and commercial C. gariepinus ponds.

  15. (Clarias gariepinus

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    Lawrence Ezemonye

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Clarias gariepinus fingerlings exposed to lethal and sublethal concentrations of Gammalin 20 were investigated in a renewal static bioassay with particular reference to behaviour, survival, and histopathological changes. Early symptoms of gammalin 20 lethal poisoning were, respiratory distress, increased physical activity, convulsions, erratic swimming, loss of equilibrium, and increased breathing activity. Behavioural response was dose dependent and decreased with decreased concentration. The 96-hour lethal concentration (LC50 value was 30 ppb. Histopathological changes of the gill, liver, and intestinal tissues of fish treated with sublethal concentration of gammalin 20 for twelve weeks showed gill distortion and fusion of adjacent secondary lamella as a result of hyperplasia and excessive mucus accumulation. The liver showed swelling of hepatocytes with mild necrosis, pyknosis, and vacuolation, while the intestine showed yellow bodies of the lamina propria at the tip of the mucosal fold.

  16. Effects of illegal cyanide fishing on vitellogenin in the freshwater African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822).

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    Authman, Mohammad M N; Abbas, Wafaa T; Abumourad, Iman M K; Kenawy, Amany M

    2013-05-01

    The effects of cyanide, used in illegal fishing, on one of the most economically important Nile fishes, the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus), were studied. Cyanide impacts were evaluated in terms of biochemical, molecular and histopathological characteristics. After exposure to sublethal concentration (0.05mg/l) of potassium cyanide (KCN) for two and four weeks, GOT (glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase) was significantly increased in both male and female, while GPT (glutamate pyruvate transaminase), total plasma protein, phosphoprotein phosphorus (Vgt) in serum, vitellogenin gene expression (Vtg mRNA) and estrogen receptors (ER mRNA) were significantly decreased in female. On the other hand, male C. gariepinus showed a significant increase in Vtg and Vtg mRNA. Liver, testis and ovaries showed distinct histopathological changes. It was concluded that, cyanide caused damaging effects to fish and can cause serious disturbance in the natural reproduction and a drastic decline in fish population. Therefore, it is recommended that, the use of cyanide compounds must be prohibited to conserve the fisheries resources.

  17. MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF A RED STRAIN OF THE EGYPTIAN AFRICAN CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus BURCHELL 1822

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    Bambang Iswanto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of the Egyptian African catfish (Clarias gariepinus strain introduced to Indonesia has not been extensively explored yet, especially the red strain. Previous studies suggested that at the same body length, body weight of the red strain was higher and it was more rotund than that of the normal (black ones. These differences need to be further investigated to find out which parts of the body mainly contributed to shape the differences. The present study was carried out to explore morphological differences of the red strain of Egyptian African catfish compared to the black strain through morphometric and meristic characterizations. Meristic and morphometric characterizations in the present study were carried out following standard method for morphological characterization of Clarias catfish. The fish samples consisted of each 35 red and black table-sized fish samples resulted from inbred and outbred spawnings. Results of the morphometric and meristic analysis in the present study revealed that the red strain of Egyptian African catfish resulted from inbred spawning of red strain brooders was morphologically different from that of either parental fishes or the black strains. At the same body length, head of the red strain was bigger (wider and longer than other strains, and its body was stumpy (more rotund and shorter than other strains, deviated from those normal characteristics of the Egyptian African catfish. Its meristic characters were also differed from those of other strains, assigned by reduced dorsal and anal fin rays number.

  18. Lethal copper concentration levels for Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 @ a preliminary study

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    Marinda Van der Merwe

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available Lethal copper concentrations were determined for both adult and juvenile Clarias gariepinus at representative mean summer and winter temperatures. Fish were exposed to copper for 96 hours in an experimental system and mortalities monitored. Toxicity curves of percentage mortality versus actual copper concentration were drawn, and the LC50 calculated for winter and summer temperatures. The lethal copper concentrations, expressed as LC50, found in laboratory exposures, ranged for adults from 1,29 mg/1 during summer to 1,38 mg/1 in winter. These values are considerably higher than the levels of copper in the water of the Olifants River in the Kruger National Park during summer (0,055 @ 0,016 mg/1 and winter (0,085 @ 0,032 mg/1. The derived LC50 values predict the level of copper which should be prevented at all cost. The fish in the Olifants River are already exposed to sublethal concentrations (40 of LC50 of copper. The results can be used as an indication of what the safe concentrations of copper should be.

  19. Cytogenotoxicity of Abattoir Effluent in Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 Using Micronucleus Test

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    Chibuisi G. Alimba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cytogenotoxic potential of abattoir effluent from Bodija, Nigeria, was investigated using micronucleus test in Clarias gariepinus. Fish was exposed to five different concentrations: 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6, and 3.1% of the effluent for 7, 14, and 28 days. Tap water and 0.02 mL/L of benzene were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. Physicochemical parameters and heavy metals were analyzed in the effluent in accordance with standard methods. After exposure, blood was collected from the treated and control fish and slides were prepared for micronuclei (MN and nuclear abnormality evaluation in the peripheral erythrocytes. The effluent induced significant (p<0.05 increase in the frequency of MN in a time dependent manner. Similarly, the frequency of total nuclear abnormalities (blebbing, notch, bud, binucleation, and vacuolation was higher in the exposed fish than the negative control. Electrical conductivity, nitrate, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, arsenic, and copper analyzed in the effluent may have provoked the observed cytogenetic damage. The findings herein suggest the presence of clastogens and cytotoxins in Bodija abattoir wastewater which are capable of increasing genomic instability in aquatic biota.

  20. Mortality and pathology of hybrid catfish, Clarias macrocephalus (Günther) × Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), associated with Edwardsiella ictaluri infection in southern Thailand.

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    Suanyuk, N; Rogge, M; Thune, R; Watthanaphiromsakul, M; Champhat, N; Wiangkum, W

    2014-04-01

    Enteric septicaemia of catfish (ESC) caused by Edwardsiella ictaluri is becoming an increasing problem in aquaculture and has been reported worldwide in a variety of fish species. This study reports ESC in hybrid catfish, Clarias macrocephalus (Günther) × Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), cultured in southern Thailand. The bacteria were identified as E. ictaluri by conventional and rapid identification systems, as well as by genetic and phylogenetic characterization. Analysis of 16S rRNA indicated 100% homology to the 16S rRNA sequence of several E. ictaluri strains in GenBank. Plasmid profiles demonstrated 4.0- and 5.6-kb plasmids, compared with the 4.8- and 5.6-kb plasmids in the US isolates, and representative genes of three of the four known pathogenicity islands of US isolates were present. Serologically, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) purified from the Thai isolates was not recognized by a monoclonal antibody against the LPS of US isolates. Fish experimentally infected with E. ictaluri showed 23-100% mortality within 14 days with a 168-h LD50 of 6.92 × 10(7)  CFU mL(-1) by immersion and a 96-h LD50 of 1.58 × 10(6)  CFU fish(-1) by intraperitoneal injection. Examination of tissue sections obtained from both naturally and experimentally infected fish indicated that infection of hybrid catfish with E. ictaluri produced lesions in several organs including liver, kidney, spleen, heart and brain. Histopathology findings included cellular necrosis, focal haemorrhage, infiltration of lymphocytes and multifocal granulomatous inflammation in the infected organs.

  1. Sublethal toxicity of carbofuran pesticide on the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822): hematological, biochemical and cytogenetic response.

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    Harabawy, Ahmed S A; Ibrahim, Ahmed Th A

    2014-05-01

    The present work aimed to evaluate the toxic effects of two sublethal concentrations of carbofuran pesticide (0.16 and 0.49mg/L, for 35 days) on hematological and blood biochemical parameters of catfish, Clarias gariepinus, and to evaluate the genotoxic potential of carbofuran on the erythrocytes of C. gariepinus for the first time by micronucleus and erythrocyte alteration assays. The results revealed a significant (pgariepinus to carbofuran and allow us to consider that C. gariepinus as a good bioindicator to reflect the toxicity and the genotoxic potential of carbofuran that might be released into the aquatic ecosystems.

  2. The introduction of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 into Brazilian inland waters: a growing threat

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    Gecely Rodrigues Alves Rocha

    Full Text Available The biology of the introduced species Clarias gariepinus in lagoa Encantada (Ilhéus, Bahia State was studied. Samples were obtained with gillnets between May 2002 and February 2004. All individuals caught exceeded the average length at first maturity cited in literature. Males and females in maturation stages indicate that the species is already established in the lake.

  3. Early development of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822), focusing on the ontogeny of selected organs

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    Osman, A.G.M.; Wuertz, S.; Mekkawy, Imam A.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Kirschbaum, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Embryonic development of Clarias gariepinus was studied from oocyte activation to the end of endogenous feeding (164 h post-fertilization, 164 h-PF). The ontogeny of the eyes, the ear, the heart, the digestive tract and the notochord were described histologically: (i) eyes were not pigmented at hatc

  4. Prevalence of pansteatitis in African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), in the Kruger National Park, South Africa.

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    Huchzermeyer, K David A

    2012-11-09

    Pansteatitis was confirmed in sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), from three main locations within the Kruger National Park (KNP); the Olifants River Gorge, Engelhard Dam on the Letaba River and from the Sabie River in the Sabiepoort. An increasing prevalence of pansteatitis was observed in catfish during repeated samplings from the Olifants Gorge from 2009 to 2011 and co-existence of old and recent lesions indicated on-going incitement of pansteatitis. Only a low prevalence of pansteatitis was observed in catfish sampled from the Olifants River upstream of the Gorge in the KNP and no pansteatitis was observed in catfish sampled from a rain-filled dam not connected to the Olifants River. Common to both the Olifants Gorge and the Sabiepoort is the damming of the rivers in Mozambique to form lakes Massingir and Corumana respectively. Anthropogenic activities resulting in potential pollution of the rivers differ greatly between these two catchments, providing argument against a primary pollution-related aetiology of the pansteatitis found at these two sites. Compared with other sites, analysis of stomach contents of catfish from the Olifants Gorge and the Sabiepoort strongly suggested that consumption of a predominantly fish diet was associated with the development of pansteatitis in these fish. In a farmed population of catfish used as positive control, development of pansteatitis could be ascribed to consumption of rancid fish waste from a trout slaughterhouse. In the Olifants Gorge, alien invasive silver carp, Hypophthalmychthys molitrix (Valenciennes), seasonally migrate upstream out of Lake Massingir to spawn. This schooling species is an obligate phytoplankton feeder with consequent high levels of adipose tissue n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. In the Olifants Gorge, at least, this may explain seasonal exposure to levels of polyunsaturated fats in the diets of catfish and crocodiles to which these animals are not adapted. The possible roles of

  5. Prevalence of pansteatitis in African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, in the Kruger National Park, South Africa

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    K. David A. Huchzermeyer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Pansteatitis was confirmed in sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, from three main locations within the Kruger National Park (KNP; the Olifants River Gorge, Engelhard Dam on the Letaba River and from the Sabie River in the Sabiepoort. An increasing prevalence of pansteatitis was observed in catfish during repeated samplings from the Olifants Gorge from 2009 to 2011 and co-existence of old and recent lesions indicated on-going incitement of pansteatitis. Only a low prevalence of pansteatitis was observed in catfish sampled from the Olifants River upstream of the Gorge in the KNP and no pansteatitis was observed in catfish sampled from a rain-filled dam not connected to the Olifants River. Common to both the Olifants Gorge and the Sabiepoort is the damming of the rivers in Mozambique to form lakes Massingir and Corumana respectively. Anthropogenic activities resulting in potential pollution of the rivers differ greatly between these two catchments, providing argument against a primary pollution-related aetiology of the pansteatitis found at these two sites. Compared with other sites, analysis of stomach contents of catfish from the Olifants Gorge and the Sabiepoort strongly suggested that consumption of a predominantly fish diet was associated with the development of pansteatitis in these fish. In a farmed population of catfish used as positive control, development of pansteatitis could be ascribed to consumption of rancid fish waste from a trout slaughterhouse. In the Olifants Gorge, alien invasive silver carp, Hypophthalmychthys molitrix (Valenciennes, seasonally migrate upstream out of Lake Massingir to spawn. This schooling species is an obligate phytoplankton feeder with consequent high levels of adipose tissue n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. In the Olifants Gorge, at least, this may explain seasonal exposure to levels of polyunsaturated fats in the diets of catfish and crocodiles to which these animals are not adapted. The

  6. Changes in behavior and hematological parameters of freshwater African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822) following sublethal exposure to chloramphenicol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwani, Christopher Didigwu; Mkpadobi, Blessing Nonye; Onyishi, Grace; Echi, Paul Chinedu; Chukwuka, Christian Onyeka; Oluah, Stanley Ndubuisi; Ivoke, Njoku

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed at evaluating the effects of different concentrations of the most commonly used fish antimicrobial drug, chloramphenicol (CAP), on the behavior and hematological parameters of Clarias gariepinus. Fish specimens were exposed to three (2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 mg L(-1)) sublethal concentrations of CAP and a control. Abnormal behavioral changes were observed in fish exposed to higher concentration of CAP. Blood erythrocytes were sampled on days 1, 5, 10 and 15 postexposure to evaluate hematological parameters. Results showed concentration- and time-dependent significant increase in packed cell volume after day 5 of exposure (p gariepinus in aquaculture.

  7. Evaluación del ensilado químico de pescado en la alimentación de Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 - Fish chemical silage evaluation in Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toledo Pérez, J

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available ResumenCon el objetivo de evaluar el efecto biológico y económico del ensilado químico de pescado, como única fuente de proteína animal en la alimentación de alevines de Clarias gariepinus, se ensilo manchuelo entero (Opisthonema oglinum, con tres combinaciones de ácidos orgánicos e inorgánicos: 3% de ácido fórmico; 2% ácido sulfúrico 98% y 2% de ácido fórmico y un tercer ensilado con 2,6% de ácido fosfórico y 2,6% de ácido cítrico. Con cada ensilado se confecciono una dieta húmeda, las cuales fueron comparadas con un Alimento Comercial en la alimentación de alevines de Clarias gariepinus durante 60 días. En los resultados obtenidos no hubo diferencias significativas (P>0.05 en los indicadores de crecimiento, utilización del alimento y supervivencia al sustituir totalmente la harina de pescado por los ensilados químicos de pescado. El análisis económico mostró un ahorro de 20 a 30% de los costos de producción por concepto de alimentaciónAbstractThe objetive of this work was to evaluate the biologic and economic effects of chemical fish silage as a unique animal protein source in Clarias gariepinus feeding. Ensiled Opisthonema oglinum with three combinations of organic and inorganic acids: 3% of formic acid; 2% sulfuric acid 98% and 2% formic acid and other with 2,6% phosphoric acid and 2,6% of citric acid. From each silage moist diets was prepared and were compared with comercial foods in Clarias gariepinus feeding during 60 days. There were not significant differences (P>0.05, in growth, feed utilization and survival indicators. The economic analysis showed a cost production sabe between 20 and 30%.

  8. Steatitis in wild sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), in the Olifants and lower Letaba Rivers in the Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huchzermeyer, K D A; Govender, D; Pienaar, D J; Deacon, A R

    2011-07-01

    Large numbers of adult Nile crocodiles, Crocodylus niloticus (Laurenti), died from pansteatitis during autumn and winter 2008 in the lower Letaba and Olifants River gorge in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Consequently, the health status of fish from these waters was investigated. The study presents the pathological findings in fish inhabiting these rivers within the boundaries of the Park. Changes typical of steatitis were diagnosed in many of the larger specimens of sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), caught within the Olifants River gorge. These fish carried large amounts of mesenteric fat with characteristic small brown granulomata within the adipose tissue. Necrosis and inflammation of the adipose tissues, with characteristic ceroid accumulation within the resultant granulomata and the associated aggregation of ceroid-containing macrophages, were demonstrated histologically and were typical of steatitis. Other changes included mild thickening and pallor of the gill tissues and swollen, orange, fatty livers. Focal hepatic lipidosis was demonstrated histologically, and special stains revealed storage of large amounts of iron in the livers. Blood smears revealed chromatin clumping in erythrocyte nuclei and nuclear and cell membrane irregularities. This is the first record of steatitis in wild-caught C. gariepinus.

  9. Effects of Acute Exposure to Endosulfan (Organochlorine Pesticides) on Hematology of African Mud Catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndimele, P E; Jenyo-Oni, A; Kumolu-Johnson, C A; Chukwuka, K S; Onuoha, S

    2015-08-01

    Changes in the blood parameters of fingerlings of Clarias gariepinus were investigated after 24 and 96-h of exposures to endosulfan. 180 fingerlings of C. gariepinus [mean weight (10.5±1.3 g); total length (11.2±1.2 cm)] were exposed to five different concentrations (1.00, 2.20, 4.80, 11.00, 23.00 µg/L) of endosulfan and a control for 96 h after being acclimatized for 21 days. After 24 h of exposure, microcytic hypochromic anemia was observed and all erythrocyte profiles tested showed significant variation (pgariepinus fingerlings. Therefore, awareness on the hazards associated with the use of endosulfan should be intensified and sound sustainable alternatives to endosulfan should be developed.

  10. Máximo porcentaje de ensilado químico de pescado en la dieta de clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 - Maximum percent of chemical fish silage in Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822, diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llanes Iglesias, José

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar cinco dietas húmedas con diferentes porcentajes de inclusión (40, 50, 60, 70 y 80 de ensilado químico de pescado, preparado con 2% de ácido sulfúrico 98% (peso/volumen, como única fuente de proteína animal, las que fueron comparadas con un Alimento Comercial (20% de harina de pescado en la alimentación de alevines de Clarias gariepinus. Se utilizó un diseño experimental completamente aleatorizado durante 60 días. Los resultados mostraron que los indicadores de crecimiento, utilización del alimento y supervivencia no presentaron diferencias significativas (P>0,05 hasta 80% de inclusión de esta materia prima, representando un ahorro de 302,00 USD/ tonelada de pescado producidoAbstractThe objetive of this study was to evaluate five moist diets with graded levels (40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 of chemical fish silage prepared with 2% sulfuric acid 98% (weigth/volumen, as a unique animal protein source. They were compared with comercial foods (20% of fish meal, Clarias gariepinus feeding. A completely randomised experimental design was development during 60 days. The results of the indicators such as: growth, feed utilization and suvival rate did not differ significantly (P> 0,05, until 80% chemical fish silage, representing a $ 302,00/ ton saving fish produced

  11. Experimental exposure of African catfish Clarias Gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 to phenol: Clinical evaluation, tissue alterations and residue assessment

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    Mai D. Ibrahem

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available There is lack of information regarding; the toxicological and pathological consequences of phenol stressed Clarias gariepinus; as well as; the susceptibility of the stressed fish to disease occurrence. Static renewal bioassay was experimentally conducted to evaluate the toxic effects of phenol on the African catfish C. gariepinus. Ninety-six-hour acute toxicity tests revealed that the median lethal concentration of phenol (LC50 is 35 mg/L by immersion. Four experimental fish groups were assigned for 3 weeks exposure test; three were exposed 20%, 50% and 70% LC50, the fourth control fish group received a vehicle of dechlorinated water. Abnormal signs including cessation of feeding, nervous manifestations; skin expressed perfuses mucous, black patches with skin erosion and ulcerations in the later stages. All observations were correlated to the time and dose of exposure. Post mortem examination revealed adhesion of the internal organs. For tissue alterations; Skin, gills, brain, liver and kidney showed variable degrees of degenerative changes and necrosis. Muscle residues shown in mean ± SE were 4.3 ± 0.05 and 6.65 ± 0.05 ppm in groups that received 20 and 50% LD50, respectively. Infection with Aeromonas hydrophila resulted in high percent of mortalities with a non significant difference between the challenged fish groups. The study cleared that phenol is toxic to C. gariepinus under experimental conditions.

  12. The protective role of quince leaf extract against the adverse impacts of ultraviolet--a radiation on some tissues of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, A H; Abdel-Tawab, Hanem S; Abdel Hakeem, Sara S; Mekkawy, Imam A

    2013-02-05

    In the present study the protective role of quince leaf extract against the adverse impacts of ultraviolet radiation-A (UVA) on some tissues of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) was considered. Fishes were classified into four groups: control, UVR-treated group (for 3days/for 3h/day), UVR-treated group (for 3days/for 3h/day) with adding 10ml of quince extract, and UVR-treated group (for 3days/for 3h/day) with adding 20ml of quince leaf extract. Blood smears and sections of the liver, and skin were processed routinely for H & E paraffin embedding technique. Some UVA-induced malformations were recorded in the red blood cells including crenated cells (Cr), Acanthocytes (Ac), tear drop-like cells (Tr) and sickle cells (Sk). Also, UVA-induced disorganization of the normal architecture of hepatic tissues with lipidosis was evident. Hypertrophy and vacuolated club cells were recorded in skin exposed to UVA. In conclusion, quince leaf extract has a valuable antioxidant protective role to prevent and/or repair the histopathological changes induced by UVA.

  13. Growth, Feed Utilization and Haematology of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell,1822 Fingerlings Fed Diets Containing Different Levels of Vitamin C

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    M. A. Adewolu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In an effort to increase growth, improve feed utilization, reduce stress and prevent certain diseases, a 14 week feeding trial was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of dietary vitamin C (ascorbic acid on growth, feed utilization and hematological changes in Clarias gariepinus fingerlings. Approach: Diets were formulated to contain 0, 50, 100, 150, 500, 1000 and 1500 mg L-ascorbic acid kg-1 of feed contributing 0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% to the formulated diets respectively. Fish of mean weight 10.12±0.7 g were fed on experimental diets in triplicate groups. Weight gain of fish fed diet with 0% of vitamin C were significantly (p0.05 differences in weight gain among the fish fed diets containing 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15% of vitamin C. Generally, fish fed vitamin C supplemented diets showed better growth rate, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency compared with those without vitamin C supplementation. Results: The results of hematological analyses of fish showed that red blood cell, white blood cell, haemoglobin concentration and packed cell volume were not significantly (p>0.05 affected by vitamin C supplemented diets. Fish fed the vitamin C-free diet begin to show deficiency signs such as erratic swimming, flashing, skin darkening and reduced growth at 12 weeks of feeding trial. Conclusion: This study indicated that 50 mg kg-1 of ascorbic acid is sufficient to prevent C. gariepinus fingerlings from developing clinical symptoms relating to vitamin C deficiency. A mega dose of 1500 mg kg-1 of ascorbic acid gave maximum growth performance and feed utilization efficiency.

  14. Mutagenic and physiological responses in the juveniles of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822) following short term exposure to praziquantel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwani, Christopher Dididgwu; Nnaji, Macniel Chijioke; Oluah, Stanley Ndubuisi; Echi, Paul Chinedu; Nwamba, Helen Ogochukwu; Ikwuagwu, Ogbonnaya Egbe; Ajima, Malachy Nwigwe Okechukwu

    2014-08-01

    Praziquantel (PZQ) is an acylated quinoline-pyrazine originally developed for veterinary application but now one of the most used anti-helminthic drugs for treatment of certain trematodes and cestodes in both human and other animals. The present study investigated the mutagenic and physiological responses in the juveniles of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus following short term exposure to praziquantel. Based on the 53.52 mg/l 96 h LC50 of PZQ obtained, two sublethal concentrations of 5.35 and 10.70 mg/l of the drug were selected and fish were exposed to these concentrations and control for 15 days. Micronuclei induction in the peripheral blood of PZQ-exposed fish was highest on day 10 but the fish morphological parameters were not affected. The packed cell volume (PCV) was significantly reduced (p0.05) from the control. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and glucose levels significantly increased while protein reduced (p<0.05) throughout the exposure period but a mixed trend was observed in the leukocyte differentials. PZQ should be used with caution as sublethal exposure elicited micronucleus induction and alterations of hematological and biochemical parameters in the fish.

  15. Mortality, oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity in juvenile African catfish, Clarias gariepinus Burchell, exposed to lead and cypermethrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, Joseph A; Adewale, Omowumi O; Oguma, Andrew Y

    2014-05-01

    In this study, juvenile catfish (Clarias gariepinus) were exposed to 2 mg/L Pb, 0.5 μg/L cypermethrin, or both for 96 h. Survival ranged from 100% in both treatments without cypermethrin, to 50% in fish exposed to cypermethrin only or the mixture. There were significant decreases in liver lysozyme, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, and alanine aminotransferase activities in fish exposed to cypermethrin or the mixture. Liver aspartate aminotransferase activity (AST) showed a significant reduction after exposure to Pb or cypermethrin alone, and the effect of the mixture on AST was additive or potentially synergistic. Liver lipid peroxidation (LPO) was increased in fish exposed to the mixture compared to those exposed to cypermethrin only, indicating that Pb presence enhanced LPO caused by cypermethrin. Our study demonstrates the potential for toxic interaction between Pb and cypermethrin in fish and suggests that due to the varying responses to contaminant mixtures in our study, researchers should consider using a variety of biomarkers.

  16. LETHAL EFFECTS OF 2,2-DICHLOROVINYL DIMETHYL PHOSPHATE (DDVP ON FINGERLING AND JUVENILE Clarias gariepinus (BURCHELL, 1822

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    Isaac Tunde Omoniyi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the lethal toxicity of 2,2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate (DDVP on African mud catfish, Clarias gariepinus fingerlings (mean weight 7.02 ± 2.56 g and juveniles (mean weight 13.54 ± 1.46 g in a static renewable bioassay. DDVP, also known as Dichlorvos is an organophosphate pesticide. Each treatment in the lethal test was in triplicates with bioassay media concentrations (fingerlings: 0, 250, 275, 300, 325 µgL-1 and (juveniles: 0, 400, 450, 500, 600 µgL-1. Data on fish mortality as well as the physico-chemical parameters (temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen and electrical conductivity, EC of water were collected and subsequently subjected to a one way analysis of variance (ANOVA at 5% probability level. Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT was used to separate differences between means. The median lethal concentration (LC50 and median lethal time (LT50 were determined by probit analysis. The water quality parameters of the treatment tanks showed no significant difference with those of the control except for conductivity and pH. Behavioural responses in the fishes included erratic and uncoordinated swimming which were observed to be more pronounced in the juveniles. Bleached body was the only external change observed and this was more pronounced in the fingerlings. The 96-hr LC50 for fingerlings and juveniles were 275.2 and 492.0 µgL-1 respectively. The LT50 values for fingerlings were 48.10 and 7.77 hrs for concentrations 250 and 325 µgL-1 respectively; while those of juveniles were 25.54 and 5.34 hrs for 400 and 600 µgL-1 respectively. The results indicated that DDVP was 1.79 times more toxic to the fingerlings than the juveniles.

  17. FEEDING INTERACTION OF THE NON-NATIVE AFRICAN CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus BURCHELL, 1822 IN ITANHÉM RIVER ESTUARY, BAHIA, BRAZIL

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    Leandro Bonesi Rabelo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 214 stomachs of Clarias gariepinus, Centropomus undecimalis and C. parallelus from the Itanhém and Caravelas Rivers, northeastern Brazil, were analyzed to investigate the impact of the non-native species Clarias gariepinus on the Itanhém River food web as compared to that of the adjacent Caravelas River, where this species has not been registered. In Itanhém River, shrimp was the most important food for C. gariepinus, and Teleostei for C. parallelus. In the Caravelas River, Brachyura was the main food item for C. parallelus, and Teleostei for C. undecimalis. There was no food overlap between the species within or between rivers. There is no evidence, in the results of this study, of changes in the diet of the Centropomus parallelus due to the presence of the non-native species.

  18. Estimation of Length-Weight Relationship and Proximate Composition of Catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822 from Two Different Culture Facilities

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    Olaniyi Alaba Olopade

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine and compare the proximate composition and length weight relationship of C. gariepinus from two culture systems (earthen and concrete ponds. The fish samples were collected from three fish farms with same cultural condition in different areas of Obio-akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria. Result on the length- weight relationship revealed that C.gariepinus reared in concrete tank had a total length of 15.50- 49.00cm with a mean of 32.71cm and weight of 150-625g, while total length of C. gariepinus reared in the earthen pond ranged from 19.90-58.0cm with a mean of 39.8cm and weight of 195-825g. The T- test shows that the total length of earthen pond were significantly higher than the concrete tank and the weight in the earthen pond was significantly higher than the concrete tank. Parameters of proximate composition analysed were moisture, protein, lipid, carbohydrate, ash and fiber from the fish flesh. Protein content showed a significantly higher in the earthen ponds than the concrete tanks. Ash contents varied from 1.5±1.66-7.4±0.67% in the concrete tanks and were significantly higher than the earthen ponds which ranged from 3.1±0.94-4.5±2.11%. Lipid was significantly higher in earthen ponds than concrete tanks. Generally, the two culture systems have a significant influence on length–weight relationship and nutritional value of C. gariepinus. However, C. gariepinus reared in concrete tank had a heavier body weight than earthen pond and also C. gariepinus reared in earthen pond had highest nutritive values than the concrete tank.

  19. Fecundity studies of the African catifshClarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) fed Coppens feed and Unical aqua feed in circular concrete tanks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Victor Oscar Eyo; Albert Philip Ekanem; Vincent Ajom Ajom

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To determine and compare the fecundity ofClarias gariepinus (C. gariepinus) fed with Unical aqua feed and Coppens feeds in concrete tanks, including the nature of relationship that exist between fecundity and morphometric indices of fish such as total length and total weight. Methods:An experiment was conducted for 6 months in the fish farm of University of Calabar with two triplicate groups of 50C. gariepinus post-fingerlings. The experimental fish weighing (0.50 ± 0.02) kg were stocked in concrete tanks (circular) of 16.63 m2area. The tanks were labelled A1, A2, A3, B1, B2 and B3. Fish in tank A1, A2 and A3 were fed with Coppens feed and fish in tanks B1, B2 and B3 were fed with Unical aqua feed. Feeding was done twice daily (9:00 and 16:00) at 3% of their body weight. Results: Mean fecundity ofC. gariepinus fed with Unical aqua feed (68 366.67 ± 15 966. 29) eggs varied significantly (P 0.05) thanC. gariepinus fed with Unical aqua feed (50.37% ± 1.29 %). Water quality parameters including ammonia (mg/L), pH, water temperature (°C) and dissolved oxygen (mg/L) fell within the recommended range for the culture of fresh water fish. Conclusions: Fecundity ofC. gariepinus reared in concrete tank was significantly influenced by the experimental feed. Therefore, on the bases of affordability and availability to farmers, Unical aqua feed is more economical and is recommended as a cost-effective cultivation of femaleC. gariepinus broodstock.

  20. Evaluación de diferentes proporciones de proteína animal en la dieta de Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822

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    Llanes Iglesias, José

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar tres dietas experimentales usando diferentes porcentajes de harina de pescado (0, 10 y 20% de inclusión que representan tres proporciones de proteína animal (0, 25 y 45% respectivamente en relación a la proteína total de la dieta. Las dietas se emplearon en la alimentación de alevines de Clarias gariepinus de 11+0.05 g de peso promedio inicial distribuidos en un diseño completamente aleatorizado durante 60 días. Los resultados mostraron que los peces alimentados con la dieta D3 (45% de proteína animal, Pa obtuvieron los mejores crecimientos, conversión y eficiencia alimentaría, significativamente diferente (P 0,05. Se concluye que 45% debe ser la fracción de proteína de origen animal y es imprescindible para alevines de Clarias gariepinus.

  1. Reproductive biology of female Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus) reared in monoculture and polyculture with African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoko, A P; Limbu, S M; Mrosso, H D J; Mgaya, Y D

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the reproductive biology and early breeding behaviour of female Oreochromis niloticus reared in monoculture and polyculture with Clarias gariepinus in earthen ponds for 8 months. Results revealed no significant difference in length at first maturity (L50) between females reared in monoculture and polyculture systems. Similarly, no significant differences were detected in absolute fecundity, relative fecundity, gonado-somatic index and condition factor between the two culture systems. The absolute fecundity was more strongly correlated with total length and body weight than with ovary weight. The study concluded that early breeding of O. niloticus in captivity is not affected by the culture systems used. Therefore, O. niloticus production in either system can be improved only through proper pond management techniques.

  2. Comparison of the lipid properties of healthy and pansteatitis-affected African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), and the role of diet in pansteatitis outbreaks in the Olifants River in the Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huchzermeyer, K D A; Osthoff, G; Hugo, A; Govender, D

    2013-11-01

    Pansteatitis has been identified in wild populations of sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), and Nile crocodiles, Crocodylus niloticus Laurenti, inhabiting the same waters in the Olifants River Gorge in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Mesenteric and pectoral fat tissue was investigated microscopically and by fatty acid analysis in healthy and pansteatitis-affected catfish from both captive and wild populations. Variation in fatty acid composition between pectoral and mesenteric fat was noted. Composition of mesenteric fat differed between fish from various localities as a result of differences in diet. Pansteatitis in the captive population, resulting from ingestion of high amounts of dietary oxidized fat, reflected higher levels of unsaturated fatty acids within the mesenteric fat. Mesenteric fat of pansteatitis-affected wild catfish was characterized by an increase in moisture content, a decrease in fat content and a decrease in stearic and linoleic acids. The n-3 to n-6 fatty acid ratio of mesenteric fat was higher in pansteatitis-affected wild catfish than in healthy catfish from the same locality, reflecting higher polyunsaturated fat intake by pansteatitis-affected fish. The possible role of alien, invasive, phytoplankton-feeding silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Valenciennes), in the aetiology of pansteatitis in both catfish and crocodiles in the Olifants Gorge is discussed.

  3. Pesticides used in cotton production affect reproductive development, endocrine regulation, liver status and offspring fitness in African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbohessi, Prudencio T; Toko, Ibrahim I; Atchou, Vincent; Tonato, Roland; Mandiki, S N M; Kestemont, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    We exposed African catfish Clarias gariepinus from embryo-larvae stage to adult stage (13 months old, BW) to chronic doses of Tihan 175 O-TEQ and endosulfan (Thionex) and assessed the impact of this exposure on endocrine regulation, liver status and offspring fitness. Endosulfan exposure caused a significant increase in plasma estradiol-17β (E2) and decreased plasma testosterone (T) but not 11 ketotestosterone (11-KT). Tihan decreased significantly plasma E2 and 11-KT, but not T. Endosulfan doses altered gonad histology and induced high proportions (18–30% of males) of ovotestis in males and follicular atretic oocytes in females, indicating occurrence of feminization in fish. Tihan also altered gonad histology but only one case of ovotestis was observed at the highest dose. Presence of foam cells in lobular lumen, fibrosis, necrosis, and immature cells released in lobular lumen were found in male gonads and melano-macrophage centers (MMCs), necrosis, fibrosis and vacuolation were observed in female gonads. Fish livers also suffered injuries such as MMCs, necrosis, fibrosis, vacuolation, dilatation of sinusoids, and nuclear pleomorphism. Chronic Tihan and Thionex exposures decreased fertilization rate, hatching rate, ova and larval weight, as well as larval resistance to osmotic choc. They also delayed hatching and increased abnormalities in the F1 generation, all these indicators suggesting transgenerational effects of these compounds.

  4. Monitoring of DNA breakage in embryonic stages of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) after exposure to lead nitrate using alkaline comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Alaa G M; Mekkawy, Imam A; Verreth, Johan; Wuertz, Sven; Kloas, Werner; Kirschbaum, Frank

    2008-12-01

    Increasing lead contamination in Egyptian ecosystems and high lead concentrations in food items have raised concern for human health and stimulated studies on monitoring ecotoxicological impact of lead-caused genotoxicity. In this work, the alkaline comet assay was modified for monitoring DNA strand breakage in sensitive early life stages of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Following exposure to 100, 300, and 500 microg/L lead nitrate, DNA strand breakage was quantified in embryos at 30, 48, 96, 144, and 168 h post-fertilization (PFS). For quantitative analysis, four commonly used parameters (tail % DNA, %TDNA; head % DNA, %HDNA; tail length, TL; tail moment, TM) were analyzed in 96 nuclei (in triplicates) at each sampling point. The parameter %TDNA revealed highest resolution and lowest variation. A strong correlation between lead concentration, time of exposure, and DNA strand breakage was observed. Here, genotoxicity detected by comet assay preceded the manifested malformations assessed with conventional histology. Qualitative evaluation was carried out using five categories are as follows: undamaged (%TDNA 75%) nuclei confirming a dose and time-dependent shift towards increased frequencies of highly and extremely damaged nuclei. A protective capacity provided by a hardened chorion is a an interesting finding in this study as DNA damage in the prehatching stages 30 h-PFS and 48 h-PFS was low in all treatments (qualitative and quantitative analyses). These results clearly show that the comet assay is a sensitive tool for the detection of genotoxicity in vulnerable early life stages of the African catfish and is a method more sensitive than histological parameters for monitoring genotoxic effects.

  5. Growth response and feed utilization of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 juveniles fed graded levels of boiled Senna obtusifolia l. seed meal as a replacement for soybean meal

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    Abdullateef Yusuf

    2016-12-01

    Materials and methods: Five isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets were formulated. The diest were- control diet (with 0% inclusion level boiled S. obtusifolia seed meal i.e., 100% soybean meal, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% inclusion level (total replacement of soya bean meal. The feeds were fed to C. gariepinus juveniles at 5% of their body weight for 84 days in an indoor partial flow through system. Weight and standard length of C. gariepinus juveniles were taken every fortnight and water quality parameters were monitored weekly. Results: Experimental fish fed diets with 0 and 25% inclusion level of boiled S. obtusifolia seed meal gave the best results in terms of Mean Weight Gain (MWG (20.22 and 19.79 g, respectively, Specific Growth Rate (1.82 and 1.83 respectively, Protein Efficiency Ratio (2.75 and 2.00, respectively and the Lowest Feed Conversion Ratio (1.29 and 1.39 respectively. The lowest growth and feed utilization were observed in fish fed 100% inclusion level. The weight gain of fish decreased with increase in replacement level above 25%. There was no significant difference between control diet 0 and 25% inclusion level (P and #8805;0.05. Conclusion: Boiled S. obtusifolia seed meal is a nutritive source of plant protein and a good replacement for soybean meal at 25% inclusion level of boiled S. obtusifolia seed meal in formulating catfish feed for C. gariepinus juveniles without any deleterious effect. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(4.000: 345-352

  6. Portable canvas tanks for culture of hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus x Clarias macrocephalus) by small-scale farmers in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Yaakob, W.A.A.; Ali, A. B.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the trials made with a simple portable canvas-tarpaulin tank system developed at the University Sains Malaysia for culture of hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus x Clarias macrocephalus) by Malaysia small scale farmers.

  7. Stages in the early and larval development of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Teleostei, Clariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaniyi, Wasiu Adekunle; Omitogun, Ofelia Galman

    2014-08-01

    The African catfish Clarias gariepinus Burchell 1822 is a favourite aquaculture fish in many parts of Africa and Asia because of its hardiness and fast growth rate. In this study, early, post-embryonic and larval developmental stages of C. gariepinus were examined chronologically and described. Photomicrographs of unfertilized matured oocytes from 0 min of fertilization through all cell stages to alevin, to complete yolk absorption, to free swimming larval stages are shown and documented live from lateral and top views, with the aid of a light microscope. Extruded oocytes had a mean diameter of 1 ± 0.1 mm, and possessed a thin perivitelline membrane whose space was filled with a protoplasmic layer. Heartbeat was in the range of 115-160/min prior to hatching. Hatchability rate was 85% and hatching occurred at 17 h at a controlled temperature of 28.5 ± 0.5°C, while ontogeny of the eyes and other organs were discernible. At day 4, larvae mean length was 9.3 ± 0.5 mm, exogenous feeding had commenced fully and melanophores spread cephalocaudally but were concentrated significantly on the head parts. This paper, for the first time, presents the significant chronological developmental stages of C. gariepinus embryology that will have significant implications for genetic manipulation and catfish seed production for aquaculture.

  8. Age structure and growth characteristics of exotic fish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) in south China%华南地区外来鱼类革胡子鲶的年龄与生长

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱赟杰; 顾党恩; 韦慧; 牟希东; 罗渡; 徐猛; 罗建仁; 胡隐昌

    2016-01-01

    以2011年8月-2015年6月在华南地区主要水系采集的223尾革胡子鲶(Clarias gariepinus)为研究对象,以矢耳石磨片为主要年龄鉴定材料,对华南地区革胡子鲶种群的年龄结构和生长特征进行研究.结果表明:采集样本由1~3龄3个龄组组成,以1龄鱼为主,占样本总量的60.19%;雌、雄鱼体长与体重关系式分别为:W♀=5.763× 10-5 L2.737(n=87,R2=0.989)、W♂=9.239× 10-5 L2.631(n=122,R2 =0.942),均为等速生长类型.选用Von Bertalanffy生长方程描述其生长,雌、雄鱼体长生长方程分别为:Lt=455.566(1-1877.112e-8.036t)、Lt=475.187(1-1.48e-0.908t).体重生长方程分别为:Wt=1089.19(1-1877.112e-8.036t)2.737、Wt=1019.66(1-1.48e-0.908t)2.631.雌、雄鱼生长拐点年龄分别为1.07和1.64龄,拐点年龄处雌、雄鱼的体长分别为297.75和316.79 mm,体重分别为340.08和350.88 g;革胡子鲶野生种群的生长速度随着年龄增长而逐年降低,且性成熟年龄较低的个体生长速度大于性成熟年龄较高的个体,种群年龄结构简单,生产量大,种群数量呈上升趋势.

  9. ABNORMALITAS MORFOLOGIS BENIH IKAN LELE AFRIKA (Clarias gariepinus) STRAIN MUTIARA

    OpenAIRE

    Bambang Iswanto; Rommy Suprapto

    2015-01-01

    Ikan lele Mutiara merupakan strain baru ikan lele Afrika (Clarias gariepinus) hasil pemuliaan yang memiliki keunggulan-keunggulan karakteristik budidaya, terutama pertumbuhan. Selain karakteristik budidayanya, karakteristik morfologis ikan lele Mutiara juga perlu dieksplorasi. Salah satu aspek morfologi yang perlu dieksplorasi tersebut adalah abnormalitas morfologis benihnya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui abnormalitas morfologis benih ikan lele Mutiara dibandingkan dengan benih st...

  10. PERFORMA REPRODUKSI IKAN LELE MUTIARA (Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Iswanto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ikan lele Mutiara merupakan salah satu strain ikan lele Afrika (Clarias gariepinus yang memiliki keunggulan performa pertumbuhan, efisiensi pakan, keseragaman ukuran, serta ketahanan terhadap penyakit dan lingkungan. Pengggunaan benih ikan lele Mutiara dalam kegiatan budidaya dapat menghasilkan produktivitas yang lebih tinggi, sehingga permintaan benihnya semakin meningkat. Jumlah dan kualitas benih yang dihasilkan ditentukan oleh karakteristik reproduksi induknya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi performa reproduksi ikan lele Mutiara, antara lain umur awal matang gonad, indeks gonadosomatik dan ovisomatik, fekunditas, derajat fertilisasi, derajat penetasan, dan waktu rematurasi. Penentuan umur awal matang gonad dilakukan melalui pembedahan calon induk ikan lele Mutiara sejak berumur empat bulan. Pengamatan indeks gonadosomatik dan ovisomatik, fekunditas, derajat fertilisasi, derajat penetasan, dan waktu rematurasi dilakukan terhadap induk ikan lele Mutiara berumur 10 bulan yang digunakan dalam proses pemijahan alami dan buatan. Calon induk dan induk ikan lele Mutiara yang digunakan pada penelitian ini dipelihara dalam kolam tanah dan diberi pakan buatan komersial dengan kadar protein 30% untuk calon induk dan 35% untuk induk. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa ikan lele Mutiara mulai matang gonad pada umur lima bulan. Induk jantan ikan lele Mutiara yang matang gonad memiliki indeks gonadosomatik sebesar 0,22%-1,47%; sedangkan indeks ovisomatik induk betina berkisar 10,30%-21,33%; dengan fekunditas berkisar 72.700-165.900 butir/kg bobot induk (rata-rata 102.400 ± 25.000 butir/kg bobot induk. Pemijahan buatan induk ikan lele Mutiara menghasilkan derajat fertilisasi berkisar 76,53%-99,22% (rata-rata 91,48 ± 5,38% dan derajat penetasan berkisar 64,93%-91,96% (rata-rata 80,45 ± 6,28%. Waktu rematurasi induk jantan ikan lele Mutiara sekitar dua minggu, sedangkan pada induk betina selama 1,5 bulan. Mutiara is one of several strains

  11. High rates of substitution of the native catfish Clarias batrachus by Clarias gariepinus in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khedkar, Gulab D; Tiknaik, Anita D; Shinde, Rushidkumar N; Kalyankar, Amol D; Ron, Tetsuzan Benny; Haymer, David

    2016-01-01

    The clariid catfish, Clarias batrachus commonly known as Magur, has declined drastically from natural habitats in India during the last decade. This fish is highly preferred fish by Indian consumers and has high market demand. As a result traders often substitute C. batrachus with a morphologically similar but supposedly banned exotic catfish, C. gariepinus, in India. This study uses rigorous morphological comparisons confirmed by DNA barcode analysis to examine the level of substitution of C. batracus by C. gariepinus in India. Our results indicate that up to 99% (in many cases) of the market samples sold as Magur or C. batrachus were in fact C. gariepinus.

  12. In vitro effects of steroid hormones on arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) activity in the pineal of fish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) during different phases of breeding cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanthan, L; Gupta, B B P

    2007-08-01

    In vitro effects of gonadal hormones (testosterone, 17beta-estradiol estriol and estrone) and corticosteroid hormones (corticosterone and cortisol) were studied on arylalklyamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) activity in the pineal organ of the fish, C. gariepinus during quiescent, progressive, breeding and regressive phases of its annual breeding cycle. The pineals were collected under dim red light, maintained in organ culture for 7 hr and incubated with three concentrations (10(-6), 10(-5) and 10(-4) M) of hormones for 6 hr. The treatments with gonadal hormones and corticosteroid hormones inhibited pineal AA-NAT activity in a dose-dependent manner during all the phases of the breeding cycle. AA-NAT activity was comparatively more sensitive to the inhibitory effects of the gonadal hormones during the regressive phase and less sensitive during the quiescent phase. Further, the enzyme activity was more sensitive to the inhibitory effects of corticosteroid hormones (corticosterone and cortisol) during the breeding phase and less sensitive during the quiescent phase. These findings seem to suggest that gonadal hormones and corticosteroid hormones have direct inhibitory influence on AA-NAT activity and, hence melatonin synthesis in the photoreceptive pineal organ of C. gariepinus.

  13. Reproductive biomarkers to identify endocrine disruption in Clarias gariepinus exposed to 4-nonylphenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Alaa El-Din H; Mahmoud, Usama M; Mekkawy, Imam A

    2012-04-01

    The present study investigated the hormones concentrations and gonads alterations of Clarias gariepinus caused by sublethel concentrations of 4-nonylphenol (0, 0.05, 0.08 and 0.1 mg/l). The changes in the activities of the hormones after exposure to these sublethel doses of 4-nonylpenol referred to endocrine disruption in Clarias gariepinus in association with histopathological changes in reproductive tissues. The levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3), total thyroxine (T4), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone concentrations significantly decreased (PClarias gariepinus reflecting their sensitivity to NP-estrogenic like effects.

  14. Microbial Transformation of Clarias gariepinus Oil by Psuedomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nor Omar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bio transformation of fatty acid from Malaysian catfish, Clarias gariepinus oil was carried out using Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The lipid from freeze-dried catfish flesh was extracted using a modified Folch method with chloroform-methanol mixture as an extracting solvent. The crude lipid substrate was added to P. aeruginosa culture and incubated for 4 days. After conversion, the products were analyzed by using GC-MS instrument. The result showed that 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E-octadecenoic acid (DHOD were abundantly found in the product. The hydroxyl derivative increased while fatty acid contents decreased after bio transformation process. It can be concluded that the bacterial cells had transformed the fatty acids to yield hydroxyl metabolite which can be utilized as

  15. Essais d'adaptation de production massive de juvéniles de Clarias gariepinus en conditions rurales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micha, JC.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive Trials for Intensive Clarias gariepinus fingerling to Rural Conditions. Artificial reproduction and fingerling production of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822 have been tested under less controlled conditions to adapt the intensive technology used by Aquafarm (Tihange, Belgium to rural conditions present in developing countries. The main aim was to compare the efficiency of ovaprim a synthesised hormone with catfish pituitary extracts. Fecundity and quality of eggs (egg weight were not significantly different. Incubation results on water hyacinth and on mosquito mesh frames were compared to those obtained in Zoug jars; the latter showed a higher hatching rate (67% than water hyacinth (39% and mosquito mesh frames (44%. Larvae were stocked at different stocking rates in ponds (T1: 800 larvae.m-3 and T2: 1600 larvae. m-3 and in tanks (T3: 3200 larvae.m-3 et T4: 6400 larvae.m-3. After a 50-day nursing period, no significant difference (P> 0.05 was observed for specific growth rate (SGR and survival rate, but better SGR were observed in ponds (18.34%.d-1 than in tanks (16.81%.d-1. In general, production was slightly higher in tanks than in ponds being related to a higher stocking density. Significantly higher harvests were obtained from tanks with higher stocking densities but the sizes of the larvae were very heterogeneous. In such case, it is recommended to grade the larvae at 6 or 7 days intervals using different mesh sizes (from 3 to 5 mm. These less intensive rearing conditions gave nevertheless good fingerling productions.

  16. Effect of Diazinon on Acid and Alkaline Phosphatase Activities in Plasma and Organs of Clarias gariepinus

    OpenAIRE

    I.R. Inyang; E.R. Daka and E.N. Ogamba

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the pesticide, diazinon, on phosphatases in the plasma and organs on Clarias gariepinus. Adult Clarias gariepinus were exposed in four replicates to varying sublethal concentrations diazinon (ranging from 1.00 to 10.0 mg/L) in 30-day semi-static bioassays. Alkaline phoshatase (ALP) and acid phosphate (ACP) were determined in plasma and other organs (gastrointestinal tract - GIT, kidney, muscle, gill and liver) of the fish after the experime...

  17. Altered Reproduction in Clarias gariepinus Exposed to Industrial Effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeogun A. Olubukola

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Reproductive success is a key factor in determining species survival and the unregulated discharge of industrial effluents into rivers and streams in a developing country like Nigeria, can impair reproductive ability in non-target organisms like fish. Fish, generally accumulate contaminants from their environment in their tissues and these can be transmitted through the yolk lipids to the eggs. Approach: Prespawning Clarias gariepinus female brooders were exposed to composite effluent mixtures from a food and beverage industry (discharged into Ona river for a period of thirty days to determine its effect on growth and fertility/reproductive success (viability of eggs and survival of the F1 generation fries. Physico-chemical parameters of effluent samples and exposure concentrations were analyzed and effluent sample was further analyzed for heavy metals (Fe, Pb, Cd, Ni, Zn, Cu, Mn. Results: Exposure to the effluents caused decreased weight (-7.33% and egg production (198 eggs in the highest exposure concentration. Significant decreases (p1 generation fries (68.68, 46.42 and 22.33% with increasing effluent concentration was also observed in the order 0.00%> 4.40%> 6.60% and there were no viable eggs and fingerlings in the highest exposure concentration(13.20%. Effluent sample and exposure concentrations had acidic pH and low DO values while effluent sample contained Fe and Pb in concentrations above the specified standard by the National Environment Standards and Regulation Agency (NESREA for food and beverage industry effluent discharged into surface waters. Conclusion: The toxic nature of these effluents on the reproductive success of C. gariepinus (a commercially important freshwater fish in Nigeria is of great concern to sustainable fisheries if stringent measures to monitor effluent quality discharge into this river are not implemented.

  18. ABNORMALITAS MORFOLOGIS BENIH IKAN LELE AFRIKA (Clarias gariepinus STRAIN MUTIARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Iswanto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ikan lele Mutiara merupakan strain baru ikan lele Afrika (Clarias gariepinus hasil pemuliaan yang memiliki keunggulan-keunggulan karakteristik budidaya, terutama pertumbuhan. Selain karakteristik budidayanya, karakteristik morfologis ikan lele Mutiara juga perlu dieksplorasi. Salah satu aspek morfologi yang perlu dieksplorasi tersebut adalah abnormalitas morfologis benihnya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui abnormalitas morfologis benih ikan lele Mutiara dibandingkan dengan benih strain-strain ikan lele Afrika lain yang digunakan dalam kegiatan budidaya di Indonesia, yakni ikan lele Sangkuriang, Dumbo, Sukhoi, Burma, Paiton, Phyton dan Masamo. Karakteristik yang diamati adalah abnormalitas bentuk morfologis (deformitas dan fluktuasi asimetri sirip dada dan sirip perut. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa tingkat deformitas (4,00% dan fluktuasi asimetri (sirip dada 0,14 dan sirip perut 0,02 benih ikan lele Mutiara lebih rendah daripada benih-benih ikan lele Sangkuriang, Dumbo, Sukhoi, Burma, Paiton, Phyton dan Masamo (deformitas berkisar 6,00-42,00%, fluktuasi asimetri sirip dada berkisar 0,30-0,68 dan sirip perut berkisar 0,12-0,62. Hasil tersebut menunjukkan bahwa bentuk morfologis benih ikan lele Mutiara lebih normal daripada benih-benih ikan lele Sangkuriang, Dumbo, Sukhoi, Burma, Paiton, Phyton dan Masamo. Hal tersebut mengindikasikan bahwa mutu dan keragaman genetis ikan lele Mutiara lebih tinggi daripada strain-strain ikan lele Afrika lain yang digunakan dalam kegiatan budidaya di Indonesia tersebut.

  19. The African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, a model for the study of reproductive endocrinology in teleosts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oordt, P.G.W.J. van; Goos, H.J.Th.

    1987-01-01

    In their natural habitat African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, show a discontinuous reproductive cycle. This cycle follows changes in the gonadotropic activity of the pituitary. Gonadotropin release has been shown to be under dual hypothalamic control, i.e. a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and

  20. Toxicity of Copper (11 Tetraoxo Sulphate to African Catfish (Clarias Gariepinus Fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agbebi, F. O.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the toxicity of copper sulphate to African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus. The range–finding test was conducted twice in order to get reliable values that could be used for the definitive test. The toxicant (copper sulphate was introduced at varying concentrations of 10g/l, 20g/l, 30g/l and 40g/l in the first range-finding test, while it was introduced at concentrations of 2g/l, 4g/l, 6g/l and 8g/l in the second range-finding test. However, in the definitive test, the toxicant was introduced at varying concentrations of 0.1g/l, 0.125g/l, 0.15g/l, and 0.175g/l. From the definitive test, the Median Lethal Concentration of copper sulphate to Clarias gariepinus was found to be 0.175g/l. The study showed that Clarias gariepinus fingerling exhibited initial erratic movement, rapid opercular movement, skin discoloration and loss of reflex. Also, histopathological alterations such as the degeneration of gill and liver tissues were observed in the fish that were exposed to the toxicant. The water quality data were analyzed by subjecting them to one–way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA. Thus, the study indicates that copper sulphate is toxic to Clarias gariepinus fingerlings.

  1. Toxicity of Copper (11 Tetraoxo Sulphate to African Catfish (Clarias Gariepinus Fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agbebi, F. O.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the toxicity of copper sulphate to African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus. The range – finding test was conducted twice in order to get reliable values that could be used for the definitive test. The toxicant (copper sulphate was introduced at varying concentrations of 10g/l, 20g/l, 30g/l and 40g/l in the first range- finding test, while it was introduced at concentrations of 2g/l, 4g/l, 6g/l and 8g/l in the second range- finding test. However, in the definitive test, the toxicant was introduced at varying concentrations of 0.1g/l, 0.125g/l, 0.15g/l, and 0.175g/l. From the definitive test, the Median Lethal Concentration of copper sulphate to Clarias gariepinus was found to be 0.175g/l. The study showed that Clarias gariepinus fingerling exhibited initial erratic movement, rapid opercular movement, skin discoloration and loss of reflex. Also, histopathological alterations such as the degeneration of gill and liver tissues were observed in the fish that were exposed to the toxicant. The water quality data were analyzed by subjecting them to one – way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA.Thus, the study indicates that copper sulphate is toxic to Clarias gariepinus fingerlings.

  2. Steroidogenesis in pre- and postspawned ovaries of feral African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonen, W.G.E.J.; Bennekum, A.M.; Lambert, J.G.D.; Viveen, W.J.A.R.; Oordt, P.G.W.J. van

    1987-01-01

    Steroidogenesis in pre- and postspawned ovaries of Clarias gariepinus, collected in the Hula Nature Reserve in Israel, was studied following in vitro incubation with [3H] -pregnenolone or [3H] -androstenedione as precursors. In both experimental groups the ovaries synthesized progesterone, 17α-hydr

  3. A comparison of biomarker responses in juvenile diploid and triploid African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, exposed to the pesticide butachlor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Influence of waterborne butachlor (BUC), a commonly used pesticide, on morphometric, biochemical, and molecular biomarkers was evaluated in juvenile, full sibling, diploid and triploid African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Fish were exposed for 21 days to one of three concentrati...

  4. Stress in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) following overland transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Remy; Boerrigter, Jeroen; Roques, Jonathan; van der Heul, Jan; van den Bos, Ruud; Flik, Gert; van de Vis, Hans

    2014-02-01

    Of the many stressors in aquaculture, transportation of fish has remained poorly studied. The objective of this study was therefore to assess the effects of a (simulated) commercial transportation on stress physiology of market-size African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Catfish weighing approximately 1.25 kg were returned to the farm after 3 h of truck-transportation, and stress-related parameters were measured for up to 72 h following return. Recovery from transportation was assessed through blood samples measuring plasma cortisol, glucose and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and gill histology. Also, the number of skin lesions was compared before and after transport. Pre-transport handling and sorting elevated plasma cortisol levels compared to unhandled animals (before fasting). Plasma cortisol levels were further increased due to transportation. In control fish, plasma cortisol levels returned to baseline values within 6 h, whereas it took 48 h to reach baseline values in transported catfish. Plasma glucose and NEFA levels remained stable and were similar across all groups. Transported catfish did not, on average, have more skin lesions than the handling group, but the number of skin lesions had increased compared to unhandled animals. The macroscopic condition of the gills was similar in control, transported and unhandled catfish; however, light microscopy and immunohistochemistry revealed atypical morphology and chloride cell migration normally associated with adverse water conditions. From our data, we conclude that transportation may be considered a strong stressor to catfish that may add to other stressors and thus inflict upon the welfare of the fish.

  5. 饵料中添加维生素C对非洲鲶鱼幼鱼生长和营养利用效率的影响%Growth performance and nutritional utilization efficiency of vitamin C in the diets of African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822) fingerlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    O.K.GBADAMOSI; J.A.DARAMOLA; N.R.OSUNGBEMIRO

    2007-01-01

    通过研究非洲鲶鱼(Clarias gariepinus)的生长和营养利用来探讨其维生素C的需求量.平均体重为6.02 g±0.4 g的鲶鱼幼鱼被放置在60 cm×45 cm×45 cm的玻璃缸中,每缸10条鱼,每个处理设3个重复.5组饵料中粗蛋白的含量均为40%,并测定且其基础饲料中维生素C 的含量.在第1、2、3、4和5组中,其饵料中维生素C多聚磷酸酯的添加量依次为0(对照)、50、100,150和200 mg/kg.每天用这些饵料喂鱼两次,分别在格林尼治时间的9:00和16:00喂食.鲶鱼幼鱼每周称重一次,以便进行统计分析.通过其生长和营养利用效率进行生物学评估.结果表明,特定生长率、食物转换率、蛋白质效率和食物效率在所有组中彼此间都有显著差异.综合所有实验结果看,添加维生素C多聚磷酸酯150 mg/kg 的第4组,幼鱼的生长和营养利用效率最好.

  6. Reproductive performance of partial gonadectomized male African catfish, Clarias gariepinus broodstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebayo, O T; Fasakin, E A; Adewumi, J A

    2012-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of partial gonadectomy on reproductive performance of male Clarias gariepinus broodstock. Testes from C. gariepinus broodstock were surgically removed; 25% of the testes (Treatment 1), 50% of the testes (Treatment 2), 75% of the testes (Treatment 3), and removal of the sperm from the testes sac using syringe after the abdominal cavity had been cut open (Treatment 4) {control}. The incisions were sutured and the fish kept inside separate concrete tanks for 4 mo. The incisions closed up within 8 to 9 wk of surgery. The postsurgical survival of C. gariepinus was 100%, indicating the efficiency of the surgical procedure. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in sperm production, percentage fertilization, hatchability and survival of the larvae using sperm derived from regenerated testes of the partially gonadectomized C. gariepinus and nongonadectomized C. gariepinus. It also reveals that partial gonadectomy could not alter the quality of sperm production of C. gariepinus. Sperm derived from regenerated testes performed effectively for fertilization of eggs. Based on the results of this study, the removal of 75% of testes during partial gonadectomy proved to be the best as the total number of spermatozoa was more than that of other methods and the sperm was able to fertilize more eggs. Hence the removal of 75% of testis during partial gonadectomy of C. gariepinus is recommended based on the results of this study.

  7. Growth Performance of Clarias Gariepinus Fed Soaked Moringa Oleifera Leaf Meal

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluates the nutritional potential of soaked-dried Moringa oleifera leaf meal in the diet of Clarias gariepinus. Four isonitrogenous (35% crude protein) diets were formulated with Moringa leaf replacing soybean meal at 0%, 10%, 20% and 30%. Result obtained revealed declined in weight gain, specific growth rate, feed conversion efficiency, protein efficiency ratio and apparent net protein utilization as dietary replacement of Moringa leaf meal increased beyond 10%. It is con...

  8. KARAKTERISASI BAKTERI ANTI QUORUM SENSING (AQS) SEBAGAI PENGHAMBAT VIRULENSI PENYAKIT PADA IKAN LELE DUMBO (Clarias gariepinus)

    OpenAIRE

    Hessy Novita; Iman Rusmana; Munti Yuhana; Fachriyan Hasmi Pasaribu

    2015-01-01

    Penyakit bakterial adalah salah satu penyebab kerugian besar di bidang akuakultur. Faktor virulensi bakteri penyakit umumnya diekspresikan oleh gen-gen virulen yang diregulasi dengan sistem Quorum Sensing. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mendapatkan isolat bakteri yang memiliki potensi sebagai Anti Quorum Sensing (AQS) yang dapat menghambat faktor virulensi bakteri patogen penyebab penyakit pada ikan lele dumbo (Clarias gariepinus). Isolasi bakteri dilakukan dari sedimen, organ pencer...

  9. PROBIOTIK Bacillus firmus UNTUK PENGENDALIAN PENYAKIT Aeromonas hydrophila PADA BUDIDAYA IKAN LELE DUMBO, Clarias gariepinus

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Mariana Lusiastuti; Tuti Sumiati; Wartono Hadie

    2013-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efektivitas pemberian bakteri probiotik Bacillus firmus terhadap ketahanan benih ikan lele dumbo (Clarias gariepinus) yang diinfeksi Aeromonas hydrophila. Probiotik diberikan melalui media budidaya dengan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL) menggunakan lima perlakuan dan tiga ulangan yang diaplikasikan untuk pengendalian penyakit motile aromonas septicemia (MAS). Perlakuan tersebut adalah A (tanpa penambahan bakteri probiotik B. firmus (sebagai control), B (...

  10. Vitellogenin in African sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus): purification, characterization, and ELISA development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braathen, Marte; Mdegela, Robinson H; Correia, Dacia; Rundberget, Thomas; Myburgh, Jan; Botha, Christo; Skaare, Janneche Utne; Sandvik, Morten

    2009-01-01

    Vitellogenin (Vtg) induction in African sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus) was assessed in order to develop a method for monitoring estrogenic pollution in African freshwater systems. Clarias gariepinus Vtg (Cg-Vtg) was purified from serum obtained from 17alpha-ethynylestradiol (EE2)-exposed fish and polyclonal antibodies against Cg-Vtg were raised. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed and the induction and kinetics of Vtg were assessed in male fish in three different exposure trials using both natural estrogen (17alpha-estradiol [E2]) and synthetic EE2. Concentrations of EE2 in water and levels of EE2 conjugates in bile were quantified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). In addition, co-administration of E2 and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) were studied. Vtg was induced in all exposure trials and the maximum induction was observed 1 wk after exposure. Exposure of male C. gariepinus to 1.4, 2.7, and 13.9 microg/ml EE2 induced Vtg synthesis at all concentrations. BaP did not influence the Vtg kinetics. However, an increased rate of biliary excretion of EE2 was observed when BaP was additionally administered. In conclusion, Vtg is induced in male C. gariepinus after exposure to both E2 and EE2, rendering it a suitable biomarker for endocrine-disrupting chemicals in African freshwater systems.

  11. Effect of Diazinon on Acid and Alkaline Phosphatase Activities in Plasma and Organs of Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.R. Inyang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the pesticide, diazinon, on phosphatases in the plasma and organs on Clarias gariepinus. Adult Clarias gariepinus were exposed in four replicates to varying sublethal concentrations diazinon (ranging from 1.00 to 10.0 mg/L in 30-day semi-static bioassays. Alkaline phoshatase (ALP and acid phosphate (ACP were determined in plasma and other organs (gastrointestinal tract - GIT, kidney, muscle, gill and liver of the fish after the experimental exposures. Dizinon did not cause any statistically significant difference on plasma ALP over the concentrations tested (p>0.05, but ACP showed significantly higher mean value at 10 mg/L compared to the control. ALP and ACP values in all the organs (GIT, intestinal tract, kidney, muscle, gill, liver decreased with increasing concentration of diazion. This indicates an evidence of inhibition of these enzymes in the organs by the toxicant, and therefore alteration of biochemical processes in C. gariepinus which can be used as bio-indicators of the effects of diazinon in the Niger Delta environment.

  12. Semen collection and preservation in African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viveiros, A.T.M.

    2002-01-01

    Stock improvement using quantitative and molecular genetics is an essential part of nowadays production of farm animals and fish. To achieve this in aquaculture, germplasm of both parental sexes should be obtained in a life-saving manner. In captivity, male African catfish, Clariasgariepin

  13. Morphological and histomorphological structure of testes of the catfish "Clarias gariepinus" from Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Yasser A; Samei, Nada A Abdel; Zayed, Ahmed Z

    2013-07-01

    Knowledge of the normal reproductive biology of catfish is of a great importance not only for better understanding of the theory of fish development, but also to be used as a baseline for understanding the pathological changes results form exposure to harmful toxicants. Thus, the aim of the current study was to elucidate the gross anatomical and light microscopic features of the testes of the catfish "Clarias gariepinus" from Egypt. The present study was carried out on 36 mature male catfish (Clarias gariepinus) collected monthly during the spawning period (April-September) throughout the Nile River, crossing Sohag city in Egypt, in the year 2011. Samples were processed for light and electron microscopy. Each testis consisted of two regions, a fringed outer lateral region and a smooth sagittal-medial region. Histological examination revealed that the testis was covered with a highly vascular connective tissue capsule sending septa dividing the testis into seminiferous lobules separated by interstitial connective tissue containing steroid secreting Leydig cells. Seminiferous lobules were made up of spermatogenic cells and Sertoli cells; the spermatogenic cells located within cysts formed by the cytoplasmic projections of the Sertoli cells. According to the maturation stages, the seminiferous lobules were classified into three types. Spermatogenic seminiferous lobules were lined with different spermatogenic cells but had few or no spermatozoa. Pubertal seminiferous lobules were packed with spermatozoa with few spermatogenic cells. Spent seminiferous lobules contained remnants of spermatozoa and spermatogenic cells. In conclusion, the testis of catfish Clarias gariepinus from Egypt was similar in structure to other catfish and teleost species.

  14. Immunological, hematological and biochemical changes induced by short term exposure to cadmium in catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed El-Said El-Boshy; Hossam Ali Gadalla; Fatma Mostafa Abd El-Hamied

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the hematological, biochemical and immunological changes in catfish (Clarias gariepinus) (C. gariepinus) experimental exposed to cadmium. Methods: C. gariepinus were exposed to different concentrations of cadmium (Cd) (0, 2, 5, and 10 mg/L) for 3 weeks. Blood samples were collected for assessing some hematological, biochemical and immunological studies at the end of experiment. Results:neutrophilia and lymphopenia in 5, 10 mg/L in cadmium exposed fish. Also the blood level activities of ALT and AST significantly increased, as well as glucose, creatinine, urea, potassium and uric acid. Meanwhile total protein, albumin and sodium were significantly decreased at 5, 10 mg/L of cadmium exposed fish. The immunological parameters in cadmium exposed experimental dose groups decreased serum bactericidal activity, lysozyme, neutrophils adhesion test as well as decreased resistance to Aeromonas hydrophilla with increasing exposure dose seemed to correspond with suppressive of non-specific immune functions. Conclusions: The treatment of C. gariepinus with cadmium under the same conditions had immunosuppressive and decrease diseases resistance in a dose-dependent effect.

  15. Immunological, hematological and biochemical changes induced by short term exposure to cadmium in catfish (Clarias gariepinus

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    Mohamed El-Said El-Boshy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the hematological, biochemical and immunological changes in catfish (Clarias gariepinus (C. gariepinus experimental exposed to cadmium. Methods: C. gariepinus were exposed to different concentrations of cadmium (Cd (0, 2, 5, and 10 mg/L for 3 weeks. Blood samples were collected for assessing some hematological, biochemical and immunological studies at the end of experiment. Results: The results showed marked normocytic normochromic anemia, leukocytosis, neutrophilia and lymphopenia in 5, 10 mg/L in cadmium exposed fish. Also the blood level activities of ALT and AST significantly increased, as well as glucose, creatinine, urea, potassium and uric acid. Meanwhile total protein, albumin and sodium were significantly decreased at 5, 10 mg/L of cadmium exposed fish. The immunological parameters in cadmium exposed experimental dose groups decreased serum bactericidal activity, lysozyme, neutrophils adhesion test as well as decreased resistance to Aeromonas hydrophilla with increasing exposure dose seemed to correspond with suppressive of non-specific immune functions. Conclusions: The treatment of C. gariepinus with cadmium under the same conditions had immunosuppressive and decrease diseases resistance in a dose-dependent effect

  16. Effect of water contaminated with phthalate, benzene and cyclohexane on Clarias gariepinus' cellular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, O; Oginni, O; Osubor, C C; Adeyemi, O; Oloyede, O B; Oladiji, A T; Adebayo, E A

    2009-08-01

    This study evaluates the effect of water contaminated with phthalate, benzene and cyclohexane (major components of municipal waste in Nigeria) on the cellular system of Clarias gariepinus. Standard enzyme assays were conducted for alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase of selected tissues of C. gariepinus cultivated in contaminated water over a period of 56 days. Generally, a significant decrease in the activity of the enzymes of the tissues of C. gariepinus cultivated in contaminated water was observed relative to the control (pgariepinus cultivated in phthalate contaminated water was found to be 8.26+/-1.42 while that of control was 14.42+/-1.09. The activity of serum gamma glutamyl transpeptidase of serum of the same group of fish was found to be twice that of control. It could be inferred that membrane integrity of the tissues studied are compromised and that tissue dysfunction may result. Consumption of C. gariepinus cultivated in water contaminated with phthalate, benzene and cyclohexane could pose threats to public health.

  17. Growth Performance of Clarias Gariepinus Fed Soaked Moringa Oleifera Leaf Meal

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    Ayegba, E. O

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the nutritional potential of soaked-dried Moringa oleifera leaf meal in the diet of Clarias gariepinus. Four isonitrogenous (35% crude protein diets were formulated with Moringa leaf replacing soybean meal at 0%, 10%, 20% and 30%. Result obtained revealed declined in weight gain, specific growth rate, feed conversion efficiency, protein efficiency ratio and apparent net protein utilization as dietary replacement of Moringa leaf meal increased beyond 10%. It is concluded that Moringa oleifera leaf meal can replace soybeans meal up to 10% without affecting the growth performance of African catfish.

  18. CARBON TO NITROGEN RATIO AND NITROGENOUS WASTE ACCUMULATION IN THE INTENSIVE CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus) CULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Bambang Gunadi; Enang Harris; Eddy Supriyono; Sukenda Sukenda; Tatag Budiardi

    2011-01-01

    This experiment was carried out to determine the optimum C/N ratio for heterotrophic bacteria (biofloc) growth in order to control nitrogenous waste accumulation in the catfish (Clarias gariepinus) culture. Twenty fish with an initial individual size of about 50 g were stocked in fiberglass tanks which were filled with 200 L of water. Fish were fed with commercial floating fish feed with a protein level of 31%-33% (manufacturer label). The daily feeding rate was 2.5% of the fish biomass. The ...

  19. The effect of indigenous probiotics on egg hatchability and larval viability of Clarias gariepinus

    OpenAIRE

    Gideon Chijioke Okpokwasill; Caroline Nchedo Ariole

    2012-01-01

    The effect of a mixture of four indigenous bacterial genera composed of Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter and Flavobacterium on egg hatchability and larval viability of Clarias gariepinus was investigated. The fertilized eggs were distributed into glass Petri dishes (100 mm diameter) containing 50 ml of water at graded level of mixed indigenous probiotics ranging from 0-10(8) cells/ml. The incubation time increased from 17 hours at 0 cfu/ml to 22 hours at 10(8) cfu/ml. The mean hatching ra...

  20. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy of the histopathological impact of Macrogyrodactylus clarii (Monogenea: Gyrodactylidae) on the gills of catfish, Clarias gariepinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Naggar, Mohammed Mohammed; Cable, Joanne; Zaky Arafa, Safaa; El-Abbassy, Samir Ahmed; Kearn, Graham C

    2016-06-02

    Scanning and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to study the histopathological effects of the monogenean Macrogyrodactylus clarii Gussev, 1961 on the gills of the catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell). Suction generated during attachment created 'footprints' on host surfaces in which the host tissues were elevated above the general gill surface. 'Footprints' were bordered by four clefts caused by the muscular flaps on the anterior, lateral and posterior margins of the haptor. The hamuli points penetrate the gill tissue but no evidence was found for the insertion of the marginal hooklets. At the site of attachment, host cells adjacent to the lateral flaps often appeared compressed and widely spaced with large intercellular spaces. Desquamation of these surface epithelia was also apparent and some of the widely spaced epithelial cells had pseudopodium-like processes. Cells within the upper surface epithelial layer of the host were vacuolated and necrotic. Ruptured blood capillaries (blood spaces) in the secondary gill lamellae contained atypical compressed erythrocytes, agranular and granular leucocytes and evidence of haemorrhaging. Cells with fibrotic cytoplasm, putative phagocytes and host mucous cells were evidence of a host response at the site of parasite attachment. The possible role of these cells is discussed in relation to host resistance against infection.

  1. Effects of 17a-methyltestosterone on seminal vesicle, development and semen release response in the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viveiros, A.T.M.; Eding, E.H.; Komen, J.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of 17alpha-methyltestosterone on seminal vesicle development in the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, were investigated in an attempt to improve semen collection from this species. Treatment of larvae with dietary 17alpha-methyltestosterone at 50 mg kg(-1) for days 12-33 or days 12-40

  2. Partial and total fish meal replacement by agricultural products in the diets improve sperm quality in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyina-wamwiza, L.; Milla, S.; Pierrard, M.A.; Rurangwa, E.; Mandiki, S.N.M.; Look, van K.J.W.; Kestemont, P.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the long-term effects of total and partial replacement of dietary fish meal (FM) by a mixture of agricultural products on sperm quality of African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated containing graded levels of either 50% FM

  3. ISOLASI DAN ANALISIS GEN HORMON PERTUMBUHAN LELE (Clarias gariepinus Burch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibnu Dwi Buwono

    2012-12-01

    CAGGGTGCAGTTGGAATCC-3’ dapat mengkopi sekuen gen GH lele dengan ukuran fragmen PCR sekitar 1.400 bp. Sementara amplikon gen GH American catfish (Rhamdia quelen menggunakan primer Amc-GH-F dan Amc-GH-R sebesar 1.465 bp. Hasil analisis sekuensing gen penyandi GH menggunakan program BlastP dan Genetyx versi 7.0, menunjukkan bahwa sekuen gen penyandi GH lele dumbo memiliki homologi 80% dengan sekuen GH C. gariepinus pada bank gen (no. aksesi AF 416488.1, sehingga sebagian besar sekuen gen penyandi hormon pertumbuhan ikan tersebut dapat diamplifikasi secara in vitro.

  4. Assessment of water quality in Asa River (Nigeria) and its indigenous Clarias gariepinus fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolawole, Olatunji M; Ajayi, Kolawole T; Olayemi, Albert B; Okoh, Anthony I

    2011-11-01

    Water is a valued natural resource for the existence of all living organisms. Management of the quality of this precious resource is, therefore, of special importance. In this study river water samples were collected and analysed for physicochemical and bacteriological evaluation of pollution in the Unity Road stream segment of Asa River in Ilorin, Nigeria. Juvenile samples of Clarias gariepinus fish were also collected from the experimental Asa River and from the control Asa Dam water and were analysed for comparative histological investigations and bacterial density in the liver and intestine in order to evaluate the impact of pollution on the aquatic biota. The water pH was found to range from 6.32 to 6.43 with a mean temperature range of 24.3 to 25.8 °C. Other physicochemical parameters monitored including total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand values exceeded the recommended level for surface water quality. Results of bacteriological analyses including total heterotrophic count, total coliform and thermotolerant coliform counts revealed a high level of faecal pollution of the river. Histological investigations revealed no significant alterations in tissue structure, but a notable comparative distinction of higher bacterial density in the intestine and liver tissues of Clarias gariepinus from Asa River than in those collected from the control. It was inferred that the downstream Asa River is polluted and its aquatic biota is bacteriologically contaminated and unsafe for human and animal consumption.

  5. The effect of indigenous probiotics on egg hatchability and larval viability of Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon Chijioke Okpokwasill

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a mixture of four indigenous bacterial genera composed of Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter and Flavobacterium on egg hatchability and larval viability of Clarias gariepinus was investigated. The fertilized eggs were distributed into glass Petri dishes (100 mm diameter containing 50 ml of water at graded level of mixed indigenous probiotics ranging from 0-108 cells/ml. The incubation time increased from 17 hours at 0 cfu/ml to 22 hours at 108 cfu/ml. The mean hatching rate increased from 8.70% at 0 cfu/ml to 53.85% at 108 cfu/ml. The highest larval survival of 71.43% recorded at 108 cfu/ml where the highest hatching rate was observed, was significantly higher than the larval survival rate observed at the other concentrations. All yolk sac larvae at 0 and 101 cfu/ml died before the end of yolk sac period. These results imply that the incubation time, hatching rate and larval survival of Clarias gariepinus increased with increase in bacterial load of water up to 108 cells/ml, the highest dose employed. Further investigations are needed to establish the optimal and threshold doses.

  6. Atrazine-Mediated Oxidative Stress Responses and Lipid Peroxidation in the Tissues of Clarias gariepinus

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    Olufemi David Owolabi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fish have been at high risk of atrazine toxicity. Comparative atrazine toxicity on the tissues of Clarias gariepinus is scanty. Therefore, acute and chronic effects of atrazine on some biochemical parameters in Clarias gariepinus were investigated in this study. Methods: Atrazine toxicity was determined by assessing the responses of glucose, protein, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, acetylcholinestarase (AChE and malondialdehyde (MDA in blood, gill and liver of fish exposed to both acute (0.00, 28.00, 30.00, 32.00 and 34.00 µg/l and chronic (0.00, 7.00, 7.50, 8.00 and 8.50 µg/l concentrations for 96 h and 28 d, respectively. Results: In acute exposure, glucose and MDA levels showed significant (P<0.05 variations in all tissues. Protein and LDH decreased in all tissues except the latter slightly increased at 32.00µg/l in blood and liver compared to control. ALT and AChE were induced in blood but inhibited in gill and liver. SOD significantly decreased in blood but increased in gill and liver. AST was activated in blood and liver but reduced in gill. In chronic exposure, glucose, protein, SOD and AChE were inhibited in all tissues, while MDA level was induced. ALT, AST, and LDH activities were induced in blood but inhibited in gill and liver except 22.90% induction noted in liver at 8.00 µg/l atrazine. Conclusion: Exposure to varying concentrations of atrazine induced enzymatic/metabolic alterations in C. gariepinus. These alterations can be used as biomarkers of atrazine toxicity in fish.

  7. Performance of Clarias gariepinus Fed Dried Brewer's Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Slurry in Replacement for Soybean Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Shola Gabriel; Itodo, Gabriel Enemona

    2017-01-01

    Following disparity of earlier results, this study tested the performance of African catfish Clarias gariepinus fed dried brewer's yeast slurry meal (DBYM) based diets. Fingerlings of C. gariepinus with pooled mean initial weight of 1.58 ± 0.01 g were stocked in hapas (1 m × 1 m × 1 m) immersed in an earthen pond at a density of 15 fish per cage. Five diets with increasing substitution of soybean meal with 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of dried brewer's yeast and a control without dried brewer's yeast (0% substitution) were evaluated for 8 weeks. Palatability of diets reduced with increasing levels of DBYM. Growth and utilization parameters such as weight gain, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, and specific growth rate differed significantly (p < 0.05) among treated groups. Specific growth rate decreased with increasing substitution while the best feed conversion ratio was obtained in the diet devoid of DBYM. Protein efficiency and utilization decreased with increasing levels of DBYM. Body composition was also affected by inclusion of DBYM with significant differences (p < 0.05) being observed across the diets. The trend in body composition follows the utilization of the diets. We conclude that the optimal range of inclusion and substitution of soybean meal with DBYM in C. gariepinus feed is between 1% and 14% of dry matter. PMID:28239492

  8. Histopathological effect of sub-lethal concentration of aluminum phosphide (phostoxin on Clarias gariepinus juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayode B. Olurin

    Full Text Available Abtsract: The study evaluated the effect of sub-lethal concentration of phostoxin on Clarias gariepinus juveniles. C. gariepinus juveniles belonging to the same cohort (40.1±1.2g; 18.1±1.1cm from a commercial fish farm were randomly placed ten in each of 15 plastic tanks containing 15 liters of water. They were exposed for 96 hrs to three sub-lethal concentrations (treatments of phostoxin (0.125, 0.250, 0.5mg L-1 and a phostoxin free control. At the end of 96 hrs exposure, they were dissected and the tissues need for histopathology removed and fixed in Bouin's fluid. The gill filament exhibited fusion at the secondary lamella that was progressive with concentration. At the highest concentration of exposure, the secondary lamellae showed marked pyknotic and necrotic changes characterized by epithelia detachment. The hepatic tissue showed mild inflammatory changes at lower concentrations while at the highest concentration of exposure there was marked inflammation with observed hydropic degeneration. In the kidney, an inflammatory change was only observed in the interstices at the highest dose of exposure with the convoluted tubules showing partial shrinkage. Phostoxin showed to have significantly caused alterations in cyto-architecture of the gills and to a considerable extent liver and kidney of C. gariepinus.

  9. Textile effluent induced genotoxic effects and oxidative stress in Clarias gariepinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoola, S O; Bassey, B O; Alimba, C G; Ajani, E K

    2012-09-01

    Human and ecological disorder experienced in industrial settlements as a result of improper disposal of chemicals such as textile effluent calls for careful surveillance on the state of the environment. This study investigated the toxicity of textile effluent discharge using biochemical and cytogenetic responses to ascertain the acute and sub lethal effects on Clarias gariepinus. The 96 h LC50 of C. gariepinus exposed to the textile effluent was 8.203 ml L(-1). Fourteen day exposures to 1, 2, 4 and 6 ml L(-1) doses were conducted and several toxicological endpoints were evaluated. Sub lethal genotoxicity and biochemical study was also carried out for fourteen days. The genotoxicity studies utilized micronucleus test while the biochemical studies quantified serum anti-oxidant status Total Protein (TP), Catalase (CAT), Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) of the exposed fish. Toxicity factor indicates that the 96 h LC50 was significantly more toxic than the 24 h LC50 (p 0.05). The results obtained from this study showed that textile effluent increase cytogenetic damage and altered anti-oxidant status in C. gariepinus. Chemicals in the effluent can be bioaccumulated and biomagnified in the aquatic organism hence affecting man.

  10. Chronic diclofenac (DCF) exposure alters both enzymatic and haematological profile of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajima, Malachy N O; Ogo, Ogo A; Audu, Bala S; Ugwoegbu, Kyrian C

    2015-10-01

    Pharmaceuticals are used extensively in human and veterinary medicine to eradicate or prevent diseases. The residues of these drugs have been detected in aquatic ecosystem; nevertheless, their toxicological effects on Clarias gariepinus have not been critically investigated. In this study, the toxic effects of diclofenac (DCF), a non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug, were studied in C. gariepinus by acute and chronic static renewable bioassay. The 96 h LC50 of DCF to C. gariepinus was 25.12 mg/L. Exposure to acute toxicity resulted in abnormal behavior and mortality of some fish. Compared with the control, chronic exposure of the fish to concentration (1.57, 3.14 and 6.28 mg/L) showed significantly higher mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and white blood cell (WBC), with significantly lower haemoglobin (Hb), haematocrit, red blood cell (RBC) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) with increase in the concentration of the drug. Furthermore, the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and glucose values significantly increased while protein levels were reduced (p < 0.05) in serum and gills throughout the 42-day exposure period. The study reports that DCF-induced enzymatic and haematological changes in the fish and recommends that these parameters be used as potential biomarkers for assessing residual pharmaceuticals available in aquatic ecosystem.

  11. Ammonia toxicity and tolerance in the brain of the African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Nicklaus L J; Tng, Yvonne Y M; Cheng, Hin T; Lee, Serene M L; Chew, Shit F; Ip, Yuen K

    2007-05-15

    The African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus lives in freshwater, is an obligatory air-breather, and can survive on land during drought. The objective of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of acute ammonia toxicity in C. gariepinus, and to examine whether methionine sulfoximine [MSO; an inhibitor of glutamine synthetase (GS)] or MK801 [an antagonist of N-methyl d-aspartate type glutamate (NMDA) receptors] had protective effects against acute ammonia toxicity in this fish. After 48 h of exposure to a sublethal concentration (75 mmoll(-1)) of environmental ammonia, the brain glutamine and ammonia contents in C. gariepinus increased to 15 micromol g(-1) and 4 micromol g(-1), respectively. Thus, C. gariepinus detoxified ammonia to glutamine and could tolerate high levels of glutamine in its brain. After C. gariepinus was injected intraperitoneally with a sublethal dose of ammonium acetate (CH(3)COONH(4); 8 micromol g(-1) fish) followed with emersion, brain ammonia and glutamine contents increased continuously during the subsequent 24-h period, reaching 7 and 18 micromol g(-1), respectively, at hour 24. These results suggest that when confronted with acute ammonia toxicity, the survival of C. gariepinus was crucially determined by its high tolerance of ammonia and high capacity to detoxify ammonia to glutamine in the brain. For fish injected with a sublethal dose of CH(3)COONH(4) (10 micromol g(-1) fish) followed with immersion, there were transient but significant increases in brain ammonia and glutamine contents, which peaked at hour 2 (4 micromol g(-1)) and hour 6 (6 micromol g(-1)), respectively. From these results, it can be deduced that C. gariepinus accumulated glutamine in preference to ammonia in its brain. By contrast, for fish injected with a lethal dose (20 micromol g(-1) fish) of CH(3)COONH(4) followed with immersion, the brain ammonia content increased drastically to 10 micromol g(-1) after 30 min, while the brain glutamine content remained

  12. Histological Changes in the Liver and Kidney of Clarias gariepinus Fed Chrysophyllum albidum Seedmeal as Maize Replacer

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    W.A. Jimoh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the histological changes of kidney and liver of Clarias gariepinus fed diets containing Chrysophyllum albidum as maize replacer. Five isonitrogenous diets containing maize which was replaced by Chrysophyllum albidum at a rate of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% were made. The diets without Chrysophyllum albidum seedmeal served as the control. The diets were isonitrogenous and isolipidic. Experimental diets were assigned randomly to the tanks and each group of fish was fed 5% body weight in equal proportion per day. The results of this study showed that there was a marked vacuolation of hepatocytes among the treatments after the experiment which is not dietary treatment related. The experiment showed that it is technically feasible to replace maize with Chrysophyllum albidum seedmeal in the diet of Clarias gariepinus without adverse effect on the histology of kidney and liver.

  13. Stimulation of gonadal development by sexual interaction of pubertal African catfish, Clarias gariepinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Weerd, J H; Sukkel, M; Bongers, A B; van der Does, H M; Steynis, E; Richter, C J

    1991-02-01

    Stimulation and inhibition of gonadal development by intersexual contact was studied in pubertal African catfish, Clarias gariepinus. The effect of a possible interaction was studied by evaluation after a 98-day experimental period of gonadal development in combinations of intact and anosmic males and females. In addition, separate groups of males and females, respectively, were exposed to holding water from these combinations. A tentative model of stimulation of gonadal development by intersexual contact in pubertal fish was developed. Males stimulate ovarian development of females by both olfactory and tactile cues. In addition, males seem to enhance gonadal development of other males through olfactory stimulation via holding water. In contrast, females tended to inhibit male gonadal development, especially through tactile cues. It seems that although males are hampered by female tactile stimuli in their gonadal development and ability to stimulate male gonadal development, their ability to stimulate female gonadal development is not affected.

  14. Toxicological assessment of fish (Clarias gariepinus) from bitumen-polluted River Oluwa, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayandiran, T A; Dahunsi, S O

    2016-02-01

    Toxicological evaluation of Clarias gariepinus from bitumen-polluted River Oluwa, Nigeria, was carried out in furtherance of studies on the environmental impacts of the bitumen exploration in Ondo State, Nigeria. Samples were taken from three different (two polluted and one as control) sites. The effect of changes in monthly seasonal flow rate was assessed for the sites of study. Blood plasma clinical-chemical parameters (BCCPs) and histological changes/lesions in various organs were evaluated as markers of pollution in the fish blood using standard methods. The result of the physicochemical properties of water from the sampling points revealed some of the values conforming to approved standards while others showed deviation. Significant differences were found in the blood and histological endpoints between the control and the polluted sites as well as between the two seasons evaluated across the sites. The public health implications of consuming this fish are fully discussed.

  15. Monogenean parasites of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus from two fish farms in Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyo Victor Oscar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence, mean intensity, and abundance of monogenean parasites in Clarias gariepinus (C. gariepinus from two selected fish farms in Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria. Methods: Eighty specimens of C. gariepinus from the two farms (40 each were necropsied for parasitological analysis. Skin, gill and fin biopsies were prepared from each specimen following standard methods for microscopic analysis. Parasitological indices including dominance (D, prevalence, mean intensity and abundance were calculated according to standard formulae. Data were analyzed using the Fisher's exact test. Results: C. gariepinus from the two farms were infested with a total of ninety individuals of monogenean parasites belonging to three species including Macrogyrodactylus clarii (M. clarii, Gyrodactylus sp. and Dactylogyrus sp. D index showed that the three monogenean species were eudominant (D-value > 10%. Gyrodactylus sp. was more abundant (46 followed by Dactylogyrus sp. (23 while M. clarii was the lowest (21. Prevalence, meaning intensity and abundance of monogenean parasites in the two farms, varied insignificantly higher (P > 0.05. Prevalence in both farms were higher in female C. gariepinus than that in male. Monogenean parasites exhibited organ specificity as M. clarii and Dactylogyrus sp. were recovered from the gills while Gyrodactylus sp. colonized the skin and fin. Conclusions: High abundance of these parasites may lead to poor growth performance and high mortality in C. gariepinus, leading to huge monetary loss and low profit margin by increasing production cost due to the cost of treatments.

  16. Monogenean parasites of the African catifsh Clarias gariepinus from two ifsh farms in Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eyo Victor Oscar; Edet Theresa Arit; Ekanem Albert Philip

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence, mean intensity, and abundance of monogenean parasites in Clarias gariepinus (C. gariepinus) from two selected fish farms in Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria. Methods:Eighty specimens of C. gariepinus from the two farms (40 each) were necropsied for parasitological analysis. Skin, gill and fin biopsies were prepared from each specimen following standard methods for microscopic analysis. Parasitological indices including dominance (D), prevalence, mean intensity and abundance were calculated according to standard formulae. Data were analyzed using the Fisher's exact test. Results:C. gariepinus from the two farms were infested with a total of ninety individuals of monogenean parasites belonging to three species including Macrogyrodactylus clarii (M. clarii), Gyrodactylus sp. and Dactylogyrus sp. D index showed that the three monogenean species were eudominant (D-value>10%). Gyrodactylus sp. was more abundant (46) followed by Dactylogyrus sp. (23) while M. clarii was the lowest (21). Prevalence, meaning intensity and abundance of monogenean parasites in the two farms, varied insignificantly higher (P>0.05). Prevalence in both farms were higher in female C. gariepinus than that in male. Monogenean parasites exhibited organ specificity as M. clarii and Dactylogyrus sp. were recovered from the gills while Gyrodactylus sp. colonized the skin and fin. Conclusions:High abundance of these parasites may lead to poor growth performance and high mortality in C. gariepinus, leading to huge monetary loss and low profit margin by increasing production cost due to the cost of treatments.

  17. Negative impacts of ultraviolet-A radiation on antioxidant and oxidative stress biomarkers of African catfish Clarias gariepinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed Th A

    2015-07-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the ultraviolet-A (UVA) effects on biochemical, oxidative stress and antioxidant changes using aquatic species. The destructive effects of ultraviolet-A radiation on the African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus was revealed in terms of the carbonyl protein (CP), lipid peroxidation (LPO), DNA damage, super oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (Gpx), glutathione reductase (GR), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glutathione (GSH) and total antioxidant (TAO) in the gills, kidney, liver, muscles and skin. Also, glucose, total lipid, total protein and cortisol content of fish serums was detected. These parameters can be used as biomarkers to identify the negative effects of UVA radiation (20, 60 and 180 min per day) for 3 days in different tissues of Clarias gariepinus. There was a significant decrease in the activity of SOD, CAT, Gpx, GSH, G6PDH, LDH, and TAO in all of the examined tissues. The pattern of GR activity in UVA exposed groups showed no significant differences compared with the control group. However, CP, LPO and DNA damage were increased significantly with exposure periods in all of the examined tissues. The exposure to different doses of UVA caused hypoglycaemia, hypolipidimia and hypoproteinimia. Cortisol levels showed a significant increase after UV exposure when compared with the control group. In conclusion, UVA exposure with different time periods has been shown to have negative effects on the blood biochemistry, hormonal and antioxidant capacity of Clarias gariepinus tissues.

  18. Liver histopathology of the sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus as a biomarker of aquatic pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dyk, J C; Cochrane, M J; Wagenaar, G M

    2012-04-01

    This paper reports on a comparative perspective of liver histopathological data of the sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus. The data was collected from a spectrum of relatively un-impacted and isolated, to polluted, eutrophic freshwater ecosystems. Results were compared between regional areas, by combining data from freshwater systems which has a similar pollution status and/or is located within the same geographical region. Measurements included necropsy observations, semi-quantitative liver histopathology (Liver Index), and selected biometrical indices. The aim was to establish whether the results of these measurements would differ between, and/or reflect the pollution status of, the different freshwater aquatic ecosystems. The histopathological analysis showed a higher prevalence of toxicopathic non-neoplastic, and pre-neoplastic alterations in C. gariepinus from the polluted sites. We also found a significant difference between the Liver Index, hepatosomatic index, and condition factor values of fish inhabiting impoundments known to be polluted, compared to the same species from the selected reference sites. Fish from polluted sites also had more macroscopic liver abnormalities. The results suggest that the liver histopathology of this bio-indicator fish species could be a useful biomarker of freshwater aquatic pollution.

  19. A review of Clarias gariepinus invasions in Brazil and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyl, O L F; Daga, V S; Ellender, B R; Vitule, J R S

    2016-07-01

    African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus is native to most of Africa and small parts of Asia, but has been introduced to 37 countries mainly for aquaculture. This review of introductions, establishment, spread and impact of C. gariepinus in Brazil and outside of its native range in South Africa provides evidence that the species has been able to overcome all barriers to invasion in both countries. Following initial introductions across geographical barriers, containment seems to have been impossible and escape from aquaculture facilities and spread by illegal introductions is an invasion pathway in both countries. There is evidence of individuals dispersing rapidly following escape, and surviving and reproducing at multiple sites in a wide spectrum of habitats in both countries. There is a severe paucity of research on impacts, many of which are inferred from field and laboratory observations, but have not been demonstrated at population or community level. Such impact studies are urgently required to better understand the consequences of these invasions and to develop appropriate strategies to mitigate impacts and spread.

  20. Responses of laboratory exposed catfish (Clarias gariepinus) to environmentally relevant concentrations of p,p'-DDT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Kerry; van Vuren, Johan; Bornman, Riana

    2012-11-01

    Technical grade DDT is annually sprayed for malaria control in many under developed countries world wide. Despite the controversy surrounding the use of DDT, minimal research concerning the effects on indigenous fish species in these areas has been conducted. In this study, the objectives were to identify some of the effects of sprayed p,p'-DDT on the common African sharptooth catfish species (Clarias gariepinus) under laboratory conditions. The effects were assessed by exposing specimens to three environmentally relevant concentrations of p,p'-DDT (0.66, 1.36 and 2.72 μg/l) for 21 days and analysing a suite of biomarkers in the plasma, gonads and body morphometrics. The biomarkers were specifically selected based on their practicality in developing countries, which could potentially be utilised for continued monitoring, and included alkali-labile phosphate (ALP), calcium, magnesium and zinc as the indirect measures of vitellogenin, gonadosomatic index, gonad mass manipulated using analysis of covariance, and condition factor. The results showed no significant (pgariepinus, indicating that these species were not responsive to the p,p'-DDT concentrations when exposed sub-chronically. This lack of a response suggested that mature C. gariepinus are tolerant to 21 days exposure of low levels of p,p'-DDT.

  1. Influence of Mining Pollution on Metal Bioaccumulation and Biomarker Responses in Cave Dwelling Fish, Clarias gariepinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Preez, Gerhard; Wepener, Victor

    2016-07-01

    Cave ecosystems remain largely unstudied and risk being severely degraded as a result of anthropogenic activities. The Wonderfontein Cave, situated in the extensive gold mining region of the Witwatersrand Basin, is one such system that hosts a population of Clarias gariepinus, which is exposed to the influx of polluted mine water from the Wonderfontein Spruit River. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioaccumulation of metals, as well as relevant biomarkers, in C. gariepinus specimens sampled from the Wonderfontein Cave during high (April 2013) and low (September 2013) flow surveys. Results were also compared to a surface population associated with the Wonderfontein Spruit River. There were temporal differences in metal bioaccumulation patterns and this was attributed to the lack of dilution during the low flow period. Metals associated with acid mine drainage, i.e. Co, Mn and Zn were significantly higher in the Wonderfontein Cave population and were reflected in an increase in oxidative stress biomarkers (catalase, protein carbonyls and superoxide dismutase) and the induction of metallothionein, a biomarker of metal exposure. The surface population was exposed to metals associated with geological weathering processes, i.e. Fe and Al.

  2. Parasite fauna of farmed Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoll, Peter; Konecny, Robert; Mwanja, Wilson W; Nattabi, Juliet K; Agoe, Catherine; Schiemer, Fritz

    2012-01-01

    An intensive parasite survey was conducted in 2008 to better understand the parasite fauna occurrence, distribution and diversity in the commercial aquaculture fish species in Uganda. A total of 265 fish collected from hatcheries and grow-out systems were examined for parasites using routine parasitological techniques. The survey yielded 17 parasite species: 11 from Oreochromis niloticus and ten from Clarias gariepinus. Four parasites-Amirthalingamia macracantha, Monobothrioides sp., Zoogonoides sp. and a member of the family Amphilinidae-were recorded for the first time in the country. The parasite diversity was similar between hosts; however, O. niloticus was dominated by free-living stage-transmitted parasites in lower numbers, whereas both trophically and free-living stage-transmitted parasites were equally represented in C. gariepinus in relatively high intensities. The patterns in parasite numbers and composition in the two hosts reflect differences in fish habitat use and diet. A shift in parasite composition from monoxenous species-dominated communities in small-sized fish to heteroxenous in large fishes was recorded in both hosts. This was linked to ontogenetic feeding changes and prolonged exposure to parasites. Polyculture systems showed no effect on parasite intensity and composition. The gills were highly parasitized, mainly by protozoans and monogeneans. Generally, the occurrence and diversity of parasites in these fish species highlight the likelihood of disease outbreak in the proposed intensive aquaculture systems. This calls for raising awareness in fish health management among potential farmers, service providers and researchers.

  3. PREY SELECTIVITY IN WELS (Silurus glanis AND AFRICAN CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenek Adamek

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The experiments aimed at prey selectivity in two Siluriformes predators. African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, and wels, Silurus glanis, were performed under laboratory conditions. Prey fish (12-22% TL of predator were submitted to one.year.old African catfish (~220 g and wels (~150 g originating from intensive culture, ie with no previous experience with live fish food. In African catfish, negative selectivity (avoidance was shown for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva whilst rudd(Scardinius erythrophthalmus and sunbleak (Leucaspius delineatus were preferred (positive selectivity. The intensity and efficiency of African catfish predation were quite low because its feeding strategy is based rather on prey searching than hunting. Prey fish, wounded and/or dead from its clumsy attacks, were sonsumed preferably overnight. Not one successful attack of African catfish on healthy prey fish was registered. The SGR and FCR of clarias fed live fish were 0.39%. day-1 and 4.73 respectively. In wels, strong negative selectivity (avoidance was proved for roach (Rutilus rutilus and topmouth gungeon, and lower avoidance for Prussian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio and chub (Leuciscus cephalus. Asp (Aspius aspius were found to be low preferred but high preference was shown for sunbleak, rudd and bitterling (Rhodeus sericeus. Both catfishes preferred smaller prey fish during the 10.day experimental period whilst those which remained non-consumed belonged to the mean or above-mean size categories.

  4. Dietary effects of African walnut (Tetracarpidium conophorum) on the reproductive indices in male African catifsh (Clarias gariepinus) broodstock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adekunle Dada; Oluwafunmilayo Aguda

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of Tetracarpidium conophorum (T. conophorum) seed powder as dietary supplementation on the reproductive indices in male Clarias gariepinus (C. gariepinus) broodstocks. Methods:Fifteen outdoor concrete tanks consisting of triplicates for each treatment group were used. Triplicate groups of male C. gariepinus [(303.22 ± 1.89) g body weight] were fed with four diets supplemented T. conophorum seed powder respectively, a control diet without T. conophorum seed powder 2 times a day at 3%of body weight for 70 days. Male C. gariepinus broodstocks [average individual weight, (303.22 ± 1.89) g] were randomly distributed with density of 10 fish into 15 outdoor concrete tanks. At the end of the 70-day experiment, gonado-somatic index and reproductive indices were determined. Results:Fish fed experimental diets showed significantly improved gonado-somatic index and reproductive indices over the control treatment. Higher gonado-somatic index and reproductive indices were recorded for the fish fed diet of 200 mg/kg T. conophorum seed powder compared to other experimental diets. The results indicated that supplement diets with medicinal plant (T. conophorum) enhanced growth and improved gonadosomatic index, and reproductive indices of male C. gariepinus broodstocks. Conclusions:T. conophorum have a potential pro-fertility property which can be exploited in fish seed production by hatchery operators.

  5. Evaluation of red seaweed Gracilaria arcuata as dietary ingredient in African catfish, Clarias gariepinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Asgah, Nasser A; Younis, El-Sayed M; Abdel-Warith, Abdel-Wahab A; Shamlol, Faozi S

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of dried marine seaweed, Gracilaria arcuata for the first time as dietary ingredient in partial substitution of fishmeal on the growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus. Four experimental diets were formulated: D1 as a control group; D2; D3 and D4 which included 10%, 20% and 30% G. arcuata meal respectively. One hundred and eighty African catfish weighing 9.62 ± 0.42 g, (mean ± SE) was divided into four groups corresponding to the different feeding regimes. The final body weight of the fishes showed significant differences (P  0.05) were observed between the control group and fishes fed D2 for all previous parameters. Protein productive value, protein efficiency ratio, daily dry feed intake and total feed intake were also significantly lower in fish fed with a diet containing G. arcuata than in the control group and D2 which contains 10% of G. arcuata. Overall, the results of the experiment revealed that African catfish fed a diet with G. arcuata included in 20% and 30% levels showed poorer growth and feed utilization than the control group and D2. However, the study recommended that C. gariepinus can accept this ingredient up to 10% in their diets. More defined experiments therefore seem to be necessary in order to determine the maximum level of this marine seaweed in diets with amino acid supplementation for African catfish.

  6. Immunostimulatory effect of artificial feed supplemented with indigenous plants on Clarias gariepinus against Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Vipin Kumar; Rani, Kumari Vandana; Sehgal, Neeta; Prakash, Om

    2013-12-01

    The antibacterial activity of methanol extracts of Ficus benghalensis (prop-root) and Leucaena leucocephala (pod seed) was evaluated by measurement of zone of inhibition against pathogenic bacteria, Escherichia coli and Aeromonas hydrophila. Control artificial feed and artificial feed supplemented with 5% powder of F. benghalensis and L. leucocephala were prepared. Juvenile Clarias gariepinus were divided into four groups, acclimatized to laboratory conditions and fed with respective feeds for 20 days prior to the experiment. Immunomodulatory response of supplementary feed was studied by challenging the fish intraperitoneally at weekly intervals, with A. hydrophila. One set of fish, not challenged with A. hydrophila was used as a negative control, to analyze any detrimental effect of supplementary feed, while positive control, comprised of challenged fish fed with non-supplemented feed. Other two groups of fish were challenged with A. hydrophila and fed with respective supplementary feeds. Blood was collected on weekly intervals for four weeks and serum samples were analyzed to evaluate the damage of fish by A. hydrophila through liver function tests. The increase in the levels of Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and Serum Glutamic pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) in positive control group indicated the damage of liver & kidney. However the levels did not change significantly in fish fed with supplementary feeds when compared to negative control group. Nitric oxide, SOD, ALP and lipid peroxidase indicated lower stress levels in these fish compared to positive control. Fish fed with supplementary feed showed increased lysozyme activity and phagocytic index indicating an increase in non-specific immune response. The immunoglobulin levels of in serum were analyzed by homologous sandwich ELISA, which showed higher antibody production in fish fed with supplementary feed. The current study suggests conclusively, immunostimulatory role of F. benghalensis (prop

  7. The lack of endocrine disrupting effects in catfish (Clarias gariepinus) from a DDT sprayed area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Kerry; van Vuren, Johan Jansen; Bornman, Riana

    2012-05-01

    The exposure and response of the catfish, Clarias gariepinus, was studied in male specimens collected in the vicinity of a DDT spraying programme to control malaria. Two sites were situated in the DDT sprayed areas and one site upstream from exposed areas, used as a reference site. The collected specimens were analysed for DDT bioaccumulation and the extent of associated effects. The concentration of all DDT metabolites including p,p'-and o,p'-forms of DDT, DDE and DDD, were measured in the adipose tissue, whilst the effects were measured using a range of biomarkers. This included assessing the effectiveness of plasma calcium, magnesium, zinc and alkali-labile phosphates (ALPs) as indirect measures of vitellogenin (VTG). Gonad condition was determined by calculating the gonadosomatic index (GSI) for each individual and comparing it with the gonad mass that were adjusted with Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). The presence of intersex in gonads was identified and the overall body condition determined using the condition factor (CF). Overall, none of the biomarkers showed significant change in the presence of high levels of DDT nor lindane, dieldrin and endosulfan II. Subtle responses in the plasma concentrations of calcium, ALP and gonad condition were evident in the catfish where DDT concentrations were highest, whilst no effects related to intersex and body condition were evident. Overall this study highlighted the tolerance of C. gariepinus to DDT contamination, the practical implications of using biomarkers in developing countries, and the need for further research into developing biomarkers for much needed biomonitoring programmes in areas where malarial control programmes continue to use DDT.

  8. Autonomic control of post-air-breathing tachycardia in Clarias gariepinus (Teleostei: Clariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Mariana Teodoro; Armelin, Vinicius Araújo; Abe, Augusto Shinya; Rantin, Francisco Tadeu; Florindo, Luiz Henrique

    2015-08-01

    The African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) is a teleost with bimodal respiration that utilizes a paired suprabranchial chamber located in the gill cavity as an air-breathing organ. Like all air-breathing fishes studied to date, the African catfish exhibits pronounced changes in heart rate (f H) that are associated with air-breathing events. We acquired f H, gill-breathing frequency (f G) and air-breathing frequency (f AB) in situations that require or do not require air breathing (during normoxia and hypoxia), and we assessed the autonomic control of post-air-breathing tachycardia using an infusion of the β-adrenergic antagonist propranolol and the muscarinic cholinergic antagonist atropine. During normoxia, C. gariepinus presented low f AB (1.85 ± 0.73 AB h(-1)) and a constant f G (43.16 ± 1.74 breaths min(-1)). During non-critical hypoxia (PO2 = 60 mmHg), f AB in the African catfish increased to 5.42 ± 1.19 AB h(-1) and f G decreased to 39.12 ± 1.58 breaths min(-1). During critical hypoxia (PO2 = 20 mmHg), f AB increased to 7.4 ± 1.39 AB h(-1) and f G decreased to 34.97 ± 1.78 breaths min(-1). These results were expected for a facultative air breather. Each air breath (AB) was followed by a brief but significant tachycardia, which in the critical hypoxia trials, reached a maximum of 143 % of the pre-AB f H values of untreated animals. Pharmacological blockade allowed the calculation of cardiac autonomic tones, which showed that post-AB tachycardia is predominantly regulated by the parasympathetic subdivision of the autonomic nervous system.

  9. Diploid and triploid African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) differ in biomarker responses to the pesticide chlorpyrifos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Ali; Goh, Yong-Meng; Jahromi, Mohammad Faseleh; Lazorchak, James M; Abdullah, Maha; Courtenay, Simon C

    2016-07-01

    The impacts of environmental stressors on polyploid organisms are largely unknown. This study investigated changes in morphometric, molecular, and biochemical parameters in full-sibling diploid and triploid African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in response to chlorpyrifos (CPF) exposures. Juvenile fish were exposed to three concentrations of CPF (mean measured μg/L (SD): 9.71 (2.27), 15.7 (3.69), 31.21 (5.04)) under a static-renewal condition for 21days. Diploid control groups had higher hepatosomatic index (HSI), plasma testosterone (T), and brain GnRH and cyp19a2 expression levels than triploids. In CPF-exposed groups, changes in HSI, total weight and length were different between the diploid and triploid fish. In contrast, condition factor did not alter in any of the treatments, while visceral-somatic index (VSI) changed only in diploids. In diploid fish, exposure to CPF did not change brain 11β-hsd2, ftz-f1, foxl2, GnRH or cyp19a2 mRNA levels, while reduced tph2 transcript levels compared to the control group. In contrast, 11β-hsd2 and foxl2 expression levels were changed in triploids following CPF exposures. In diploids, plasma T levels showed a linear dose-response reduction across CPF treatments correlating with liver weight and plasma total cholesterol concentrations. In contrast, no changes in plasma cholesterol and T concentrations were observed in triploids. Plasma cortisol and 17-β estradiol (E2) showed no response to CPF exposure in either ploidy. Results of this first comparison of biomarker responses to pesticide exposure in diploid and polyploid animals showed substantial differences between diploid and triploid C. gariepinus.

  10. Preliminary study on the natural extenders for artificial breeding of African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nor Siti-Azizah

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the most suitable extender and theirrespective dilution ratios for African catfish sperm for artificial induced breeding and cryopreservationpurposes. Three natural extenders were tested i.e. coconut water, sugarcane water and soybeansolutions, at three different levels of sperm to extender dilutions of 1:20, 1:30 and 1:40. While Ringersolution was used as a control Diluted sperm were fertilized with ready isolated eggs to assess thefertility and hatching rate at 0, 6 and 12 hour intervals. The results showed that the eggs hatchedapproximately 19 to 27 hours after fertilization. In general, the fertilization and hatching rates decreasedwith increasing dilution ratio. With respect to natural extenders, the coconut water showed the highestfertility and hatching rates at 1:20 dilution ratio. Therefore, coconut water at 1:20 dilution ratio was theoptimal condition for African catfish spermatozoa among the natural extenders investigated.

  11. Pharmacokinetics of streptomycin sulfate in Staphylococcus aureus-infected Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822

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    O.O. Oladele

    2014-01-01

    Possible systemic therapeutic value is suggested, depending on increased distribution of streptomycin and levels of streptomycin in kidneys of diseased fish at corresponding times being higher than in sera.

  12. Inherent variation in growth efficiency of African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) juveniles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matos Martins, de C.I.; Schrama, J.W.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the major causes of growth variation is crucial for the success of fish farming since its reduction contributes to maximize production efficiency, reduce food waste and improve water quality. The growth variation observed in aquaculture has been associated with the establishment of soc

  13. Follow up of Treatment of Cadmium and Copper Toxicity in Clarias Gariepinus Using Laser Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghloul, Khalid H.; Ali, Maha F.; El-Bary, Manal G. Abd; Abd El-Harith, Mohamed

    2010-04-01

    Two purified diets were formulated and fed to seven groups of the Nile catfish; Clarias gariepinus for 12 weeks. The formulated diets contained 50 or 500 mg/kg diet of an ascorbic acid equivalent, supplied by L-ascorbyl-2-monophosphate (Mg salt). Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIDS) technique has been used to characterize the bioaccumulation of cadmium, copper and iron in some selected organs (Gills, liver, kidney and muscles) and disturbance in the distribution of sodium, calcium and magnesium in gills and muscles of fish fed the minimum requirement of vitamin C (50 mg/kg diet) and exposed to cadmium (0.165 mg/l) and copper (0.35 mg/l) individually or in combination. Heavy metals bioaccumulation affect histological structure of gills, liver and kidney and consequently, fish exhibited the lowest growth rate and meat quality with a progressive fall in RBCs count, Hb content and haematocrite value. These effects were concomitant with significant increase in the WBCs count, serum glucose, total protein, AST, ALT, creatinine and uric acid. On the contrary, serum total lipids and liver glycogen revealed a significant decrease. However, fish fed 500 mg vitamin C/kg diet and exposed to the same concentrations of cadmium and copper either individually or in mixture showed an improvement in the growth rate and meat quality and a tendency to exhibit close to the control values for most of the other studied physiological, biochemical and histopathological investigations.

  14. Sublethal Effects of Methanolic Extract of Raphia hookeri on the Reproductive Capacity of Clarias gariepinus

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    Adedotun O. Afolayan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Raphia hookeri fruits are used for fishing in Nigeria due to their ichthyotoxic properties. This study investigated the toxic effects of R. hookeri on the reproductive capacity of Clarias gariepinus. The results from both short-term (96-hour test and long-term (3-month sublethal test bioassays revealed a linear relationship between R. hookeri extract dose and negative effects on the catfish. The percentage survival of both sexes of the catfish decreased with increasing extract concentration at short-term exposure, with LC50 values of 600 mg/L and 800 mg/L for male and female, respectively. At long-term exposure, the reproductive capacity of 10–12-month-old male and female brood-stocks diminished at relatively higher concentrations of R. hookeri fruit extract, with the gravid females producing fewer and mostly unviable eggs. The fruit extract also affected the eggs’ hatchability and fry survival when the exposed gravid females were treated with pituitary hormone and sperms from unexposed males, while the exposed males were unable to sexually stimulate female brooders. Sperms and pituitary hormone from exposed males were infertile, leading to low percentage of hatched eggs and mortality of the few hatched fries within 24 hours. These results confirmed the ethnobotanical use of this fruit extract for fishing in Nigeria.

  15. Sublethal toxicity of carbofuran on the African catfish Clarias gariepinus: Hormonal, enzymatic and antioxidant responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed Th A; Harabawy, Ahmed S A

    2014-08-01

    The present study examined the impacts of carbofuran on endocrinology of the catfish, Clarias gariepinus, for the first time and evaluated cortisol (CRT), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxin (T4), 17β-estradiol (E2) and testosterone (TST) and the oxidative stress markers including SOD, CAT, GSTs, GSH. The toxic effects on the metabolic enzymes, G6PDH and LDH, in addition to lipid peroxidation (LPO) and DNA damage as biomarkers in Nile catfish, to sublethal exposures of carbofuran (0.16 and 0.49mg/L, for 35 days) were studied. Statistically significant differences between selected parameters between control and carbofuran-treated fish were recorded. Carbofuran caused a significant (p0.05) in gonads of treated fish. The two metabolic enzymes G6PDH and LDH in all tissues exhibited significant decreases (pgariepinus to sublethal doses of carbofuran and allow us to consider catfish as a good bioindicator to reflect the endocrine disrupting impacts of carbofuran, and reflect the potential of this pesticide to cause disturbance in antioxidant defense system as well as metabolism and induction of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and DNA damage in contaminated ecosystems.

  16. Estrogen-2-hydroxylase in the brain of the male African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timmers, R.J.; Granneman, J.C.; Lambert, J.G.; van Oordt, P.G.

    1988-11-01

    Estrogen-2-hydroxylase activity, involved in the biosynthesis of catecholestrogens, was localized in the brain of the male African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, by means of a radiometric assay using (2-TH)estradiol as substrate. Fore- and midbrain were divided in 18, 500-microns thick, transverse sections from which small defined areas were punched out and assayed. The estrogen-2-hydroxylase activity was calculated from the release of tritium during hydroxylation, and expressed in femtomole catecholestradiol.milligram-1 tissue.hour-1. The enzyme could be demonstrated throughout the brain. A high activity (greater than 350 fmol) was observed in the telencephalon, in particularly the rostral part and the area ventralis pars dorsalis; in the diencephalon in the preoptic region, including the magnocellular part of the preoptic nucleus and the rostral part of the anterior periventricular nucleus; and in the area tuberalis, including the nucleus lateralis tuberis, the rostral part of the nucleus anterior tuberis, the caudal part of the nucleus posterior periventricularis, and in the nucleus recessus posterioris. Also a high activity was detected in the mesencephalic tectum opticum and the dorsolateral part of the torus semicircularis. The ventral mesencephalon showed a moderate (200-350 fmol) to low (less than 200 fmol) activity, whereas the lowest activity was found in the hindbrain (118 fmol). The significance of the biosynthesis of catecholestrogens in the brain is discussed in light of the negative feedback mechanism of gonadal steroids on gonadotropin release.

  17. Effect of different pretreatments on functional properties of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) skin gelatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, S F; Ghassem, M; Mamot, S; Babji, A S

    2015-02-01

    Pretreatments with different types of alkali and acid were compared to determine their effects on gelatin extraction from African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) skin. The study was divided into three parts. In the first part, the skins were only treated with alkaline (Ca(OH)2 or NaOH) solution or pretreated with acetic acid solution. For second part, combination of alkali and acid pretreatment was carried out. For the third part, the skins were first treated with NaOH solution, followed by the treatment with acetic acid, citric acid or sulfuric acid solution. Functional properties including the yield of protein recovery, gel strength, viscosity, pH and viscoelastic properties were determined on gelatins obtained with different pretreatment conditions. Pretreatment with alkali removed noncollagenous proteins effectively, whilst acid pretreatment induced some loss of collagenous proteins. Combination of alkali and acid pretreatment not only removed the noncollagenous proteins and caused a significant amount of swelling, but also provided the proper pH condition for extraction, during which some cross-linkages could be further destroyed but with less breakage of intramolecular peptide chains. Pretreatment of catfish skins with 0.2 N NaOH followed by 0.05 M acetic acid improved yield of protein recovery, gel strength, viscosity, melting temperature and gelling temperature of gelatin extract.

  18. Characterization of dopamine D2 receptors in the pituitary of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Asselt, L.A.; Goos, H.J.; De Leeuw, R.; Peter, R.E.; Hol, E.M.; Wassenberg, F.P.; Van Oordt, P.G. (Univ. of Utrecht (Netherlands))

    1990-10-01

    Dopamine receptors in the pituitary of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, were characterized using ({sup 3}H)spiperone as radioligand. Specific binding of ({sup 3}H)spiperone to pituitary membranes reached equilibrium within 60 min of incubation. The binding of the radioligand was tissue specific since the amount of binding was linear with pituitary membrane content in the incubations. In addition, pituitary membranes were observed to bind considerably more ({sup 3}H)spiperone, compared to membrane preparation of various other tissues. Saturation experiments revealed the presence of a single class of high affinity/low capacity binding sites. The binding characteristics, estimated by Scatchard analysis, were: Kd = 3.2 +/- 0.5 x 10(-9) M and Bmax = 105 +/- 5 fmol/mg protein. Specific binding was displaceable with dopamine and with various specific D2 agonists and antagonists. The nature of displacement curves resembles those observed in studies on mammalian dopamine receptors. Binding experiments with cell fractions, obtained after centrifugation of dispersed pituitary cells over a Percoll density gradient, showed that most ({sup 3}H)spiperone binding was obtained in an enriched gonadotropic cell fraction. This observation indicates that the receptor characteristics, estimated with the ({sup 3}H)spiperone assay, are representative for dopamine receptors on the gonadotropic cells.

  19. Depuration Technique of Xenobiotics with Reference to Accumulation and Elimination of Paraquat Dichloride in Clarias Gariepinus

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    Thomas Ikpesu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Paraquat dichloride is a highly toxic herbicide which is still used in many developing countries. African cat fish (Clarias gariepinus is a commercially important species in many countries and was selected assess accumulation and elimination of paraquat dichloride in its tissues.Methods: Groups of ten fish with equal lengths and weights were exposed to varying concentrations of Paraquat dichloride for 28 days. After the exposure, the fish were transferred to uncontaminated water. Two fish were sampled for pesticide residue at the end of exposure period (28days and 1, 7 and 14 days post exposure. Results: In pesticide treated fish, the accumulation of paraquat increased with increases in the concentration of the toxicant and varied significantly between the treatments (p < 0.05. The herbicide depurated gradually with cessation of exposure and no pesticide was observed after 14 days. Conclusion: Xenobiotics could be eliminated from aquatic organisms especially fishes and could be put into practice in areas at risk of pollutants. This novel approach can reduce the risks of biomagnification of poisons in sea food.

  20. Toxicity of buprofezin on the survival of embryo and larvae of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Bloch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marimuthu, Kasi; Muthu, Narmataa; Xavier, Rathinam; Arockiaraj, Jesu; Rahman, M Aminur; Subramaniam, Sreeramanan

    2013-01-01

    Buprofezin is an insect growth regulator and widely used insecticide in Malaysia. The present study evaluated the toxic effects of buprofezin on the embryo and larvae of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) as a model organism. The embryos and larvae were exposed to 7 different concentrations (0, 0.05, 0.5, 5, 25, 50 and 100 mg/L) of buprofezin. Each concentration was assessed in five replicates. Eggs were artificially fertilized and 200 eggs and larvae were subjected to a static bath treatment for all the concentrations. The mortality of embryos was significantly increased with increasing buprofezin concentrations from 5 to 100 mg/L (p0.05) in the LC50 values obtained at 24 and 48 h exposure times. Malformations were observed when the embryos and larvae exposed to more than 5 mg/L. The results emerged from the study suggest that even the low concentration (5 mg/L) of buprofezin in the aquatic environment may have adverse effect on the early embryonic and larval development of African catfish.

  1. Preliminary studies on the renaturation of denatured catfish (Clarias gariepinus) glutathione transferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojopagogo, Yetunde Adedolapo; Adewale, Isaac Olusanjo; Afolayan, Adeyinka

    2013-12-01

    Purified juvenile catfish (Clarias gariepinus) glutathione transferase (cgGST) was denatured in vitro and renatured in the absence and presence of different concentrations of endogenous or xenobiotic model substrates. Protein transitions during unfolding and refolding were monitored by activity measurement as well as changes in protein conformation using UV difference spectra at 230 nm. Gdn-HCl at 0.22 M caused 50 % inactivation of the enzyme and at 1.1 M, the enzyme was completely unfolded. Refolding of cgGST main isozyme was not completely reversible at higher concentrations of Gdn-HCl and is dependent on protein concentration. An enzyme concentration of 30 μg/ml yielded 40 % percentage residual activity in the presence of glutathione (GSH), regardless of the concentration that was present as opposed to 30 % obtained in its absence. The xenobiotic model substrate, lindane, appears to have no effect on the refolding of the enzyme. In summary, our results show that GSH assists in the refolding of cgGST in a concentration-independent manner and may be involved in the same function in vivo whereas the xenobiotic model substrate does not.

  2. Acute toxicity of agricultural pesticides to embryo-larval and juvenile African catfish Clarias gariepinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbohessi, P T; Imorou Toko, I; Houndji, A; Gillardin, V; Mandiki, S N M; Kestemont, P

    2013-05-01

    Acute toxicities of Tihan 175 O-TEQ, as well as its active ingredients flubendiamide and spirotetramat, and of Thionex 350 EC (active compound endosulfan) were measured for embryo-larval and juvenile stages of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus to assess risks of pesticide use in the cotton basin in Benin (West Africa). For embryo-larval stages, Tihan was more toxic (LC5048h 20 ppm) than Thionex (LC5048h 56 ppm), and flubendiamide was more toxic (LC5048h 2.0 ppm) than spirotetramat (LC5048h 8.44 ppm). All decreased hatching rates. Tihan and spirotetramat disturbed larval swimming coordination; flubendiamide induced tail cleavage. For juvenile fish, Thionex was more toxic (LC5096h 0.22 ppm) than Tihan (LC5096h 8.8 ppm), and flubendiamide (LC5096h 4.7 ppm) was more toxic than spirotetramat (LC5096h 6.0 ppm). Eggs were more resistant than juvenile fish to all tested pesticides except flubendiamide. Although Thionex was more toxic to juvenile fish, replacing Thionex with Tihan may be undesirable for survival of eggs and larvae.

  3. Survival strategies of sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus in desiccating pans in the northern Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.C.W. Van der Waal

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Observations in drying out pans showed that small (26-37 cm sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus can hide at the bottom of small pools filled with sticky mud whereas larger fish stay afloat at the surface in larger pools with sloppy mud, where they easily become prey or succumb to heat stress. The inability of larger fish to keep down in the sloppy mud of up to 40 cm depth is the result of their large bulk and high density of the mud. This may indicate a survival advantage for smaller fish in the final dry-out phase of pools and is supported by the presence of only small fish remains in the last drying up pools of dry pans. Another adaptation of smaller fish includes the temporary congregation outside the water enabling concealment under dense vegetation as a means to escape adverse environmental conditions, including high water temperatures and avian predation. The advantage small fish have over larger catfish under these extreme conditions may explain why catfish are known to show a wide variation in growth rate under natural and aquaculture conditions.

  4. Bacterial Flora from Healthy Clarias gariepinus and their Antimicrobial Resistance Pattern

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    M.O. Efuntoye

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The antibiotic resistance of bacteria isolated from Clarias gariepinus from 3 farms in Ago-Iwoye, Nigeria was investigated. Morphological and biochemical characteristics of isolates revealed that majority of the bacteria belonged to the family Enterobacteriaceae. Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were also recovered. E. coli strains were highly resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol and oxytetracycline (82.4%. Majority of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa were resistant to ampicillin (63.6%, amoxycillin (54.5%, nalidixic acid (63.6% and oxytetracycline (72.7%, whereas most of the Salmonella spp. were resistant to erythromycin (85.7%, gentamycin (71.4%, amoxicillin (57.1%, chloramphenicol (57.1% and sulphamethoxazole (57.1%. All isolates were highly sensitive to ciprofloxacin, novobiocin and ofloxacin. While the presence of potentially pathogenic bacterial species as observed in the study may not present a serious human health hazard because of heat treatment accorded fish before consumption, the presence of antibiotic resistant strains should not be ignored because of the potential for horizontal gene transfer in the food chain.

  5. Investigation on the Genotoxicity of Mercuric Chloride to Freshwater Clarias gariepinus

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    Shahid Mahboob, Hmoud Fares Alkkahem Al-Balwai, Fahad Al-Misned and Zubair Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The cytogenetic effect of heavy metal was studied in Clarias gariepinus using the micronucleus test, chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchange. The fish were kept separately and treated with four different concentrations of mercuric chloride for a period of 7 days. For the micronucleus test blood samples were obtained from the caudal vein. The mean micronuclei frequencies were recorded as 0.20, 0.25, 0.50, 0.65 and 0.79 in controls and 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 and 6.0 ppm in groups treated with mercuric chloride, respectively. Kidney tissues were used for in vivo chromosome preparation. The mean frequencies of cells with chromosomal aberrations were 0.21, 0.32, 0.49, 0.70 and 0.97 in the control and 1, 3, 5 and 7 ppm in groups treated with mercuric chloride, respectively. Similarly, the mean frequencies of sister chromatid exchange were recorded as 0.10, 0.28, 0.47, 0.58 and 0.64 in controls and 1, 3, 5 and 7 ppm in groups treated with mercuric chloride, respectively. The findings of present experiment suggest that HgCl2 caused genotoxic effects in fish.

  6. CARBON TO NITROGEN RATIO AND NITROGENOUS WASTE ACCUMULATION IN THE INTENSIVE CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus CULTURE

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    Bambang Gunadi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to determine the optimum C/N ratio for heterotrophic bacteria (biofloc growth in order to control nitrogenous waste accumulation in the catfish (Clarias gariepinus culture. Twenty fish with an initial individual size of about 50 g were stocked in fiberglass tanks which were filled with 200 L of water. Fish were fed with commercial floating fish feed with a protein level of 31%-33% (manufacturer label. The daily feeding rate was 2.5% of the fish biomass. The inoculation of commercial Bacillus sp. isolates was applied in the first day of the experiment after fish stocking in order to obtain a bacterial density in water of 106 cfu/L. Molases was suplemented daily to the tanks to adjust C/N ratio in water. Four C/N ratios, i.e. 0, 7, 14, and 21, were applied as treatments in this experiment. The results showed that molasses suplementation up to C/N ratio 14 to 21 were able to support the growth of heterotrophic bacteria and to inhibit the accumulation of total ammonia nitrogen (TAN and nitrite in water therefore increase water quality for better growth of cultured catfish.

  7. KARAKTERISASI BAKTERI ANTI QUORUM SENSING (AQS SEBAGAI PENGHAMBAT VIRULENSI PENYAKIT PADA IKAN LELE DUMBO (Clarias gariepinus

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    Hessy Novita

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Penyakit bakterial adalah salah satu penyebab kerugian besar di bidang akuakultur. Faktor virulensi bakteri penyakit umumnya diekspresikan oleh gen-gen virulen yang diregulasi dengan sistem Quorum Sensing. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mendapatkan isolat bakteri yang memiliki potensi sebagai Anti Quorum Sensing (AQS yang dapat menghambat faktor virulensi bakteri patogen penyebab penyakit pada ikan lele dumbo (Clarias gariepinus. Isolasi bakteri dilakukan dari sedimen, organ pencernaan dan air kolam ikan lele dumbo dari Parung, Ciampea, dan Gunung Sindur, Bogor, Jawa Barat. Sebanyak 347 isolat bakteri berhasil diisolasi, dan sebanyak 68 (19% isolat di antaranya mempunyai aktivitas AQS dengan empat isolat yang berpotensi sebagai bakteri AQS yaitu: TS 1 dan TS 2, TA 23, dan TY 33. Empat isolat tersebut teridentifikasi berdasarkan sekuen 16S rRNA sebagai Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Lysinnibacillus sphaericus, Lysinnibacillus fusiformis, dan Bacillus cereus dengan persentase kemiripan masing-masing 93%, 99%, dan 100%. Berdasarkan analisa gen AHL (Acyl Homoserine Lactone laktonase (aiiA, keempat isolat tersebut menghasilkan enzim AHL. Hasil studi ini menunjukkan bahwa isolat bakteri hasil isolasi dari kolam ikan lele dumbo dapat menghambat mekanisme Quorum Sensing bakteri patogen ikan dengan mendegradasi autoinduser-nya yang berupa AHL.

  8. PROBIOTIK Bacillus firmus UNTUK PENGENDALIAN PENYAKIT Aeromonas hydrophila PADA BUDIDAYA IKAN LELE DUMBO, Clarias gariepinus

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    Angela Mariana Lusiastuti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efektivitas pemberian bakteri probiotik Bacillus firmus terhadap ketahanan benih ikan lele dumbo (Clarias gariepinus yang diinfeksi Aeromonas hydrophila. Probiotik diberikan melalui media budidaya dengan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL menggunakan lima perlakuan dan tiga ulangan yang diaplikasikan untuk pengendalian penyakit motile aromonas septicemia (MAS. Perlakuan tersebut adalah A (tanpa penambahan bakteri probiotik B. firmus (sebagai control, B (penambahan bakteri probiotik B. firmus 105 cfu/mL, C (penambahan bakteri probiotik B. firmus 107 cfu/mL, D (penambahan bakteri probiotik B. firmus 109 cfu/mL, dan E (penambahan bakteri probiotik B. firmus 1011 cfu/mL. Pengamatan meliputi tingkat sintasan ikan uji setelah diuji tantang dengan A. hydrophila, indeks fagositik, diferensial leukosit dan kualitas air. Analisis data tingkat sintasan dilakukan dengan menggunakan uji F dengan taraf signifikansi 5%. Indeks fagositik, differensial leukosit dan kualitas air dianalisis secara deskriptif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sintasan tertinggi setelah diinfeksi A. hydrophila terdapat pada perlakuan D (109 cfu/mL yaitu 53,33% dan adanya peningkatan kadar limfosit sebesar 81% serta aktivitas fagosit sebesar 60% setelah penambahan bakteri probiotik B. firmus. Sementara hasil terendah terdapat pada perlakuan A (kontrol (tanpa penambahan bakteri probiotik sebesar 8,33%, aktivitas fagosit sebesar 60% setelah pemeliharaan ikan uji selama 14 hari.

  9. Effects of Sub-Lethal Concentrations of Diazinon on Total Protein and Transaminase Activities in Clarias gariepinus

    OpenAIRE

    Erema Ransome Daka; I.R. Inyang; E.N. Ogamba

    2010-01-01

    Diazinon-induced changes in the total protein and transaminase activities of Clarias gariepinus, a common Niger Delta wetland fish were assessed. Adult fish (mean length 35.24±2.80 cm) were acclimatized to laboratory conditions for 7 days and then exposed to varying sub-lethal concentrations of diazinon (1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 mg/L) in semi-static bioassays for 30 days. Total protein and the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were determined...

  10. Sublethal Effects of Paraquat on Some Plasma Organic Constituents (Metabolic Parameters of African Catfish: Clarias gariepinus (Osteichthys-Clariidae

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    Okenabirhie Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The plasma levels of glucose, protein, cholesterol and triglyceride were determined in Clarias gariepinus exposed to sublethal concentrations of paraquat (0.30 and 0.15 mg L-1. There were significant decrease (p<0.05 in plasma glucose (showing hypoglycemia situation, plasma protein and triglyceride with a significant increase (p<0.050 in plasma cholesterol when compared with the control. These changes were directly proportional to the toxicant concentration and the exposure periods thus it is dose dependent and time-dependent.

  11. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of steroids and steroid glucuronides in the seminal vesicle fluid of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonen, W.G.E.J.; Lambert, J.G.D.

    1987-01-01

    Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis was carried out to identify steroids and steroid glucuronides in the seminal vesicle fluid of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, collected in the Hula nature reserve (Israel) during the breeding season. Full mass spectra of 5β-pregnane-3α,17α-diol-20

  12. Response of some antioxidant parameters in post juveniles of Clarias gariepinus after exposure to Nigerian crude oil (Forcados, Bonny Light and Qua-Iboe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayode, Saliu Joseph; Chidimma, Ugorji Ijeoma; Alwell, Ekpendu Emeka

    2014-12-01

    The adverse effect of crude oil on aquatic ecosystem is a modern day peril. This study investigated the acute toxicities of some Nigerian crude oil (Forcados, Bonnylight and Qua-Iboe) against Clarias gariepinus and the antioxidant enzyme response of the fish to the pollutants. The toxicity assessment was based on LC50 at 96 h. Static renewal bioassays were used to determine the toxicological effects of the 3 crude oils on the antioxidant enzymes of post juveniles Clarias gariepinus using the liver. The 96 h LC50 value for Qua Iboe was 18.966 mL L(-1), Forcados, 2.776 mL L(-1) and Bonny light, 3.948 mL L(-1), indicating that Forcados is the most toxic of the crude oils. Induction of the Glutathione-S-transferase (GST), Glutathione (GSH), Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Catalase (CAT) in the liver of Clarias gariepinus exposed to Forcados and Bonny light for a period of 28 days was inhibited while it was enhanced in Qua-Iboe crude oil. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels increased with increasing toxicity and exposure time. SOD, CAT, GSH, GST and MDA are reliable environmental biomarkers for crude oil induced oxidative stress in Clarias gariepinus and therefore useful biological indicators of environmental contamination in the aquatic ecosystem.

  13. Effects of exercise on l-carnitine and lipid metabolism in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fed different dietary l-carnitine and lipid levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozorio, R.O.A.; Ginneken, van V.J.T.; Bessa, R.J.B.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Huisman, E.A.

    2010-01-01

    African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) were fed four isonitrogenous diets (34 % crude protein), each containing one of two lipid (100 or 180 g/kg) and two l-carnitine (15 or 1000 mg/kg) levels. After 81 d of feeding, thirty-two fish (body weight 32 g) from each dietary group were randomly selected, si

  14. Effects of a low-radiotoxicity uranium salt (uranyl acetate) on biochemical and hematological parameters of the catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghanim, Khalid A.; Ahmad, Zubair; Al-Kahem Al-Balawi, Hmoud F.; Al-Misned, Fahad; Maboob, Shahid; Suliman, El-Amin M.

    2016-01-01

    Specimens of Clarias gariepinus were treated with lethal (70, 75, 80, 85, 90, and 95 mg/L) and sub-lethal concentrations (8, 12 and 16 mg/L) of uranyl acetate, a low-radiotoxicity uranium salt. The LC 50 value was registered as 81.45 mg/L. The protein and glycogen concentrations in liver and muscles were decreased in the fish exposed to sub-lethal concentrations. The red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) counts, haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and haematocrit (Hct) values were decreased. Different blood indices like mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were negatively affected. Level of plasma glucose was elevated whereas protein was decreased. The level of calcium concentration (Ca) was declined in the blood of exposed fish whereas magnesium (Mg) remains unchanged. The activity level of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) was elevated in exposed fish. These effects were more pronounced in the last period of exposure and in higher concentrations. Results of the present study indicate that uranyl acetate has adverse effects on Clarias gariepinus and causes changes in the biochemical and hematological parameters of the fish.

  15. TOXICITY OF COPPER SULPHATE AND BEHAVIORAL LOCOMOTOR RESPONSE OF TILAPIA (Oreochromis Niloticus AND CATFISH (Clarias Gariepinus SPECIES

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    C.D. EZEONYEJIAKU

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Acute toxicity of copper sulphate (CuSO4.5H2O to tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and catfish (Clarias gariepinus species was investigated using toxicity index of 96 hours LC50 and the quantal response determined by the statistical probit analysis method. In response to the lethality of the copper toxicant, behavioral anomalies (locomotor response of the exposed fish species were studied as indication of toxic effects of the heavy metal. Fish species shows different mortality responses to the varying concentrations of copper studied (50, 60, 70, 80, 100, and 120 mg/l due to toxicity. Copper was significantly (no overlap in 95% C.L of 96 hrs LC50 values more toxic to Oreochromis niloticus than the catfish. 96 hrs LC50 values for Oreochromis niloticus and Clarias gariepinus were revealed to be 58.837 and 70.135 mg/l, respectively. Behavioral changes, mostly locomotor responses (avoidance were observed among the test animals on exposure to the different concentrations of copper sulphate. There is need to control the use of copper because of its observed toxicity and fish avoidance test shows to be an important predictive and sensitive biomarker in aquatic monitoring and pollution management.

  16. Effect of peanut powder (Arachis hypogeae L., 1753) on zootechnic parameters and sex inversion in catfish Clarias gariepinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Dougnon T; Elie, Montchowui; Messanvi, Gbeassor

    2015-01-01

    Benin is currently experiencing an overexploitation of piscatorial resources; this requires the research of endogenous means to increase the biomass of fish produced thanks to fish farming activities. The present study intends to improve the zootechnic performances and inverse the sex in catfish Clarias gariepinus. Therefore, 240 larvae obtained from artificial reproduction were used for this study. Three different feed were tested. The control feed (TO) was without peanut powder; contrary, the two experimental feeds were containing the powder at the rates of 10% (T1) and 20% (T2). The best growth of 94.51±27.14 g was recorded with the treatment T2 and 71.32±25.58 g from treatment T1 and finally 54.83±22.19 g from the control group. The sex inversion rate varied from 50% in the control group to 66.13% in lot 1 then 80.13% in lot 2. However, survival rates were low and varied from 26.25% for T2, to 30% in TO then 42.5% in T1. This study permitted to get better results about the zootechnic parameters and the sex inversion in Clarias gariepinus at incorporation rates of 10% and 20% of peanut powder "Arachis hypogeae."

  17. Effects of Sub-Lethal Concentrations of Diazinon on Total Protein and Transaminase Activities in Clarias gariepinus

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    Erema Ransome Daka

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Diazinon-induced changes in the total protein and transaminase activities of Clarias gariepinus, a common Niger Delta wetland fish were assessed. Adult fish (mean length 35.24±2.80 cm were acclimatized to laboratory conditions for 7 days and then exposed to varying sub-lethal concentrations of diazinon (1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 mg/L in semi-static bioassays for 30 days. Total protein and the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT were determined in plasma, muscle, liver, gills and kidney. The levels of total protein in plasma and muscle were significantly lower (p<0.05 in all test concentrations in comparison with the control; but no concentration-dependent in depletions were observed. On the other hand, protein concentrations in liver, kidney and gills decreased with increased concentration of diazinon. In addition to significant differences in ALT and AST in liver, kidney, gills and muscle when compared with the control, concentration dependent activities in ALT was observed to in the liver and gills. It is concluded that protein concentration as well as ALT activities in gills and liver of Clarias gariepinus are more useful biomarkers of sub-lethal effects of diazinon than total protein, ALT and A ST activities in plasma.

  18. Formulasi bubur bayi MPASI yang diperkaya hidrolisat protein ikan lele dumbo (Clarias gariepinus

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    Veriani Aprilia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Malnutrition become the problem in Indonesia. Complementary feeding has the role in solving it. Most of commercial complementary feeding are enriched by vegetable protein, whereas animal protein has more complete amino acid and better digestibility. Unfortunately, consuming animal proteinoften raises concern because of its allergenicity. Catfish (Clarias gariepinus can be used as a source of high animal protein in the diet that may solve the nutritional problem after reduction of its allergen.Objectives: To develope formulate of complementary feeding porridge enriched with hydrolized protein from catfish muscle.Methods: This was experimental study. HPIL and HPIK was enzymatic hydrolized products of catfish using crude and commercial papain, respectively. Overall and partial hedonic test used 23 mothers as panelists, then selected formula were tested its acceptance by 9 babies using face scale. Nutrient content of porridge were analyzed for protein, carbohydrate, fat, protein, and water.Results: Hydrolysis of catfish using papain made the changes in color, taste, and aroma. The bitter taste limited the uses, maximum amount was 25%. Porridge with the addition of HPIK were chosen by mothers and babies panelists, whereas HPIL did not. Protein content of formulated product were lower than commercial product, but carbohydrate and fat content were higher.Conclusions: Porridge formula with addition of 25% HPIK my be developed as alternative product of complementary feeding.KEYWORDS: protein, papain, catfish, protein hydrolisate, complementary feedingABSTRAKLatar belakang: Kekurangan gizi masih menjadi masalah di Indonesia. MPASI memiliki peran penting dalam mengatasi masalah tersebut. MPASI pada umumnya diperkaya oleh protein nabati, padahal protein hewani mengandung asam amino dan daya cerna yang lebih baik. Namun demikian, protein hewanimeningkatkan risiko alergi pada bayi. Lele (Clarias gariepinus dapat dijadikan

  19. Bacterial infection of mudfish Clarias gariepinus (Siluriformes: Clariidae) fingerlings in tropical nursery ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikpi, Gabriel; Offem, Benedict

    2011-06-01

    Bacterial infection among the most common cultured mudfish Clarias gariepinus in Africa, has become a cause of concern, because it constitutes the largest economic loss in fish farms. In order to provide useful biological data of the pathogens for good management practices, samples were collected monthly between January 2008 and December 2009 in three monoculture nursery ponds, located in three different positions: upriver (A, grassland), mid-river (B, mixed forest and grassland) and downriver (C, rainforest) along 200 km length of Cross River floodplains, Nigeria. A total of 720 fingerlings between 15.1 and 20.7 g were analyzed to determine the degree of infection. The bacterial pathogens were taken from their external surfaces, and were isolated and identified by standard methods. The caudal fins of fingerlings from pond A had the highest bacterial load (5.8 x 10(3) cfu/g), while the least counts (1.2 x 103 cfu/g) were identified on the head of fish from pond C, with Flexibacter columnaris as the major etiological agent. Pseudomonas fluorescens, Aeromonas hydrophila, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus were identified as co-isolates with P. fluorescens as dominant (0.7 x 10(2) cfu/mL) co-isolates in pond water. Clinical signs of five white spots with red periphery appeared on the external surface of infected fish. All the fish sampled, died after 4 to 9 days. There was no significant difference in the bacterial counts between different ponds, but the difference between fish organs/parts examined was significant. Fish from these ponds are therefore potentially dangerous to consumers and highly devalued, with the economic impact to producers. Preventive methods to avoid these infections are recommended.

  20. THE ABILITY OF FAST-GROWING TRANSGENIC AFRICAN CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus ON PREDATOR AVOIDANCE

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    Huria Marnis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Research Institute for Fish Breeding has produced transgenic African catfish (Clarias gariepinus containing stripped catfish growth hormone gene (PccBA-PhGH with growth 19.86% faster than that of non-transgenic fish. This fish has high potential to be released and utilized for fish farming sector to increase national production. However, there is not yet information about environmental risk of this fish. One of the major fitness traits determining potential environmental risk is predator avoidance. This study aimed to determine the predator avoidance ability of transgenic African catfish in an experimental laboratory condition. In this study, thirty five individuals each of transgenic and non-transgenic with body weight of about 0.1 ± 0.019 g were communally stocked in 60 cm x 40 cm x 40 cm aquarium with limited feeding frequency (ad libitum twice a day. One day after the fish were stocked, the predators were added to each aquarium. The non-transgenic and transgenic with body weight of 1.0 ± 0.024 g were stocked as predators as many as five individual in each aquarium. After approximately two weeks of predation, all remaining fish were collected for transgenic verification by PCR method. Genomic DNA was isolated from fin tissue of individually survivors. The results of this study showed that the transgenic fish had worse predator avoidance and lower cannibal than non-transgenic (P0.05 in limited food. The transgenic fish may have lower fitness than non-transgenic.

  1. Skin of the male African catfish, Clarias gariepinus: a source of steroid glucuronides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, S.A.; Schoonen, W.G.; Lambert, J.G.; Van den Hurk, R.; Van Oordt, P.G.

    1987-06-01

    Steroid metabolism in the skin of mature male African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, reared in the laboratory, was studied in vitro by tissue incubations with (/sup 3/H)pregnenolone, (/sup 3/H)dehydroepiandrosterone, (/sup 3/H)17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, (/sup 3/H)androstenedione, (/sup 14/C)11 beta-hydroxyandrostenedione, and (/sup 3/H)testosterone as precursors. While pregnenolone was not converted to any other steroid, dehydroepiandrosterone was transformed mainly to 5-androstene-3 beta, 17 beta-diol. The products of 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone incubations were 5 beta-pregnane-3 alpha,17 alpha-diol-20-one, 5 beta-pregnane-3 alpha,17 alpha, 20 beta-triol, and 5 beta-pregnan-17 alpha-o1-3,20-dione. The major steroids of androstenedione incubations were etiocholanolone, testosterone, and androsterone. Testosterone was converted mainly to etiocholanolone and androstenedione, and only small quantities of 11 beta-hydroxytestosterone, 11-ketotestosterone, and 11-ketoandrostenedione were the metabolites found in 11 beta-hydroxyandrostenedione incubation. These results demonstrated the presence of the enzymes 5 alpha- and 5 beta-reductases and 3 alpha-, 11 beta-, 17 beta-, and 20 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases in the skin. From enzymehistochemical results it appeared that the steroid conversions take place in the epithelial cells. Moreover, the presence of UDP-glucose dehydrogenase, an enzyme involved in the synthesis of glucuronic acid, in these cells indicates the possibility of steroid glucuronide formation. Indeed significant amounts of water-soluble steroid conjugates, particularly 5 beta-dihydrotestosterone- and testosterone-glucuronide, were found in the incubations with androstenedione and testosterone, indicating the presence of the UDP-glucuronosyl transferase in the catfish skin.

  2. Performance of Clarias gariepinus Fed Dried Brewer’s Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae Slurry in Replacement for Soybean Meal

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    Shola Gabriel Solomon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Following disparity of earlier results, this study tested the performance of African catfish Clarias gariepinus fed dried brewer’s yeast slurry meal (DBYM based diets. Fingerlings of C. gariepinus with pooled mean initial weight of 1.58±0.01 g were stocked in hapas (1 m × 1 m × 1 m immersed in an earthen pond at a density of 15 fish per cage. Five diets with increasing substitution of soybean meal with 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of dried brewer’s yeast and a control without dried brewer’s yeast (0% substitution were evaluated for 8 weeks. Palatability of diets reduced with increasing levels of DBYM. Growth and utilization parameters such as weight gain, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, and specific growth rate differed significantly (p<0.05 among treated groups. Specific growth rate decreased with increasing substitution while the best feed conversion ratio was obtained in the diet devoid of DBYM. Protein efficiency and utilization decreased with increasing levels of DBYM. Body composition was also affected by inclusion of DBYM with significant differences (p<0.05 being observed across the diets. The trend in body composition follows the utilization of the diets. We conclude that the optimal range of inclusion and substitution of soybean meal with DBYM in C. gariepinus feed is between 1% and 14% of dry matter.

  3. Studies on phytoremediation of copper using Pteridium aquilinum (bracken fern) in the presence of biostimulants and bioassay using Clarias gariepinus juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaifa, Flora Eyibio; Omekam, Anamese Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    A study was carried out to evaluate the uptake of copper from water containing 10 mg/L copper by Pteridium aquilinum (bracken fern) and Clarias gariepinus in the presence of five plant growth stimulants: Nitrogen: phosphorus: potassium (15-15-15: an inorganic fertilizer), pig, cattle, poultry, and a mixture of pig/cattle manures. A plant growth stimulant differentiated each treatment. A 96-hour bioassay using C. gariepinus was carried out at the end of the experiment to test the efficacy of the clean up by P. aquilinum. The control experiment contained no copper or plant growth stimulant. Fish survival, uptake of copper by P. aquilinum, C. gariepinus, concentration of copper in water, hematology and histopathology of the fish were assessed. Higher concentrations of copper were reported in P. aquilinum than in water or C. gariepinus. Low fish mortality was reported with the highest being 20% in the cattle manure-containing treatment.

  4. Use of viscera extract from hybrid catfish (Clarias macrocephalus × Clarias gariepinus) for the production of protein hydrolysate from toothed ponyfish (Gazza minuta) muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klomklao, Sappasith; Kishimura, Hideki; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2013-01-15

    Proteolytic activity of viscera extract from hybrid catfish (Clarias macrocephalus × Clarias gariepinus) was studied. The optimal pH and temperature were 9.0 and 50°C, respectively, when toothed ponyfish (Gazza minuta) muscle was used as a substrate. When viscera extract from hybrid catfish was used for the production of protein hydrolysate from toothed ponyfish muscle, extract concentration, reaction time, and fish muscle/buffer ratio affected the hydrolysis and nitrogen recovery (NR) (p<0.05). Optimum conditions for toothed ponyfish muscle hydrolysis were 3.5% hybrid catfish viscera extract, 15 min reaction time and fish muscle/buffer ratio of 1:3 (w/v). High correlation between the degree of hydrolysis (DH) and NR (R(2)=0.974) was observed. Freeze-dried hydrolysate had a high protein content (89.02%, dry weight basis) and it was brownish yellow in colour (L(∗)=63.67, a(∗)=6.33, b(∗)=22.41). The protein hydrolysate contained a high amount of essential amino acids (48.22%) and had arginine and lysine as the dominant amino acids.

  5. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium species in catfish (Clarias gariepinus) Harvested from two lakes and artificial ponds in Zaria, Northern Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joy Cecilia Atawodi; Armayau Hamisu Bichi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the occurrence of Cryptosporidium species in catfish (Clarias gariepinus) harvested from two lakes and ponds in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria.Methods:Catfish samples (n=200) from two lakes and (n=200) from two private fish ponds were collected and their gills and gastrointestinal tract samples were analysed for Cryptosporidium oocysts using modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique was used, followed by microscopy. Results: Oocysts of Cryptosporidium species were found in all the sampling sites with an overall positivity rate of 49.75%. A comparison between the lakes and ponds as sampling sites revealed a statistically significant (P<0.05) higher percentage of occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocyst from the lakes (39.25%) than from the ponds (10.50%). Conclusions: These findings document for the first time the natural occurrence ofCryptosporidium sp. in catfish intended for human consumption and therefore, underlines the need for public enlightenment to guard against any possible zoonotic transmission.

  6. Effect of aqueous extract of Polygonum minus leaf on the immunity and survival of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ravichandran Veerasamy; Lim Shu Min; Mohanraj; Rita Pauline; Shalini Sivadasan; Christapher Varghese; Harish Rajak; Kasi Marimuthu

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To establish immunomodulatory potential of aqueous extract of Polygonum minus (P. minus) leaves, the haematological effects and lysozyme activity of aqueous extract of P. minus leaf on Clarias gariepinus was studied. Methods:The fish were grouped and administered with the P. minus aqueous leaf extract intraperitoneally. Blood and serum samples were collected from each group and examined for various blood parameters. The turbidimetric assay for lysozyme activity using M. luteus and the survival rate of fish against A. hydrophila was carried out. Results:There was no significant impact (P>0.05) on white blood cell count, red blood cell count, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration and lysozyme activity was significantly (P Conclusions: From this study, it is considered that the aqueous extract of P. minus can be used as an immunostimulant in African catfish, but continuous administration may require maintaining the protection.

  7. Sublethal Effects of Cadmium on Some Selected Haematological Parameters of Heteroclarias (A Hybrid of Heterobranchus bidorsalis and Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.E.G. Ake

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were conducted to ascertain the sublethal effects of waterborne cadmium at 0.5 and 1.0 mg L-1 on a freshwater fish Heteroclarias (a hybrid of Heterobranchus bidorsalis and Clarias gariepinus following a 15 days exposure in a renewal static bioassay system. The effects were assessed by examining the haematological profile. Exposure to cadmium caused a dose-dependent decrease in haemoglobin, haematocrit and erythrocyte counts. These changes are obvious indication of anaemia of the normochromic type. The erythrocytic indices of MCHC, MCH and MCV were similarly decreased apart from one case. Differential leucocyte count and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were also affected. Plasma levels of protein were lowered and glucose levels were elevated in the exposed fish when compared to the control. The results of this study highlight the stress to which freshwater fish are exposed through the uncontrolled discharge of heavy metals in the aquatic environment.

  8. Bio-accumulation of selected metals in African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus from the lower Olifants River, Mpumalanga, South Africa

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    H.H. Du Preez

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The level of metal (Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn bio- accumulation in tissues (muscle, gill, kidney, liver and gonads and bile of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus, from the lower Olifants River was investigated. These metals were detected in all the tissues as well as in the bile, with the highest concentration found in either the gills, liver or gonadal tissue. The lowest concentration was usually detected in the muscle tissue. Although statistic comparisons revealed no significant differences between the localities, fish from the Selati River (Locality 1 generally had higher metal levels than fish from the localities along the Olifants River inside the Kruger National Park. The higher levels in the fish from the Selati River may be attributed to anthropogenic activities resulting in point and/or diffuse sources of metal pollution. These sources should be identified and reduced.

  9. Gills and skin histopathological evaluation in African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus exposed to ethanol extract of Adenium obesum stem bark

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    Samson Eneojo Abalaka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Histopathological effects of ethanol extract of Adenium obesum stem bark was investigated in the gills and skin of African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus over a 96-h exposure period as an endpoint of toxicity. There was a significant (p  0.05 differences between gills DTC of the exposed and unexposed fish. However, lesions in the skin did not affect the normal functioning of the tissue but significant (p < 0.05 differences were recorded in the DTC between the skin of the exposed and the unexposed fish. The extract was toxic to the exposed fish and therefore, A. obesum can be used as a potent organic piscicide for effective fish pond management.

  10. Effect of butachlor on antioxidant enzyme status and lipid peroxidation in fresh water African catfish, (Clarias gariepinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farombi, E O; Ajimoko, Y R; Adelowo, O A

    2008-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of butachlor, a widely used herbicide, on antioxidant enzyme system and lipid peroxidation formation in African cat fish (Clarias gariepinus). Fish were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of butachlor 1, 2, 2.5 ppm and sacrificed 24hrs after treatment. A significant increase in malondialdehyde formation was observed in the liver, kidney, gills and heart of the fish following exposure to different concentrations of butachlor. Superoxide dismutase and catalase activities increased in the liver and kidney but decreased in the gills and heart in a concentration-dependent pattern. Glutathione level and glutathione-Stransferase activities increased (Pbutachlor. The results suggest that butachlor induced oxidative stress in the various tissues of the fish particularly in the kidney and as such the organ may be subjected to severe oxidative toxicity due to depressed glutathione detoxification system.

  11. Oxidative stress, heats shock protein and histopathological effects in the gills of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus induced by bridge runoffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaeze, Nnamdi H; Adeyemi, Rosemary O; Adebesin, Adeshina O

    2015-04-01

    This study assessed the level of oxidative stress and heat shock proteins (Hsp) induced in gills and liver as well as the histopathological effects in the gills of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, exposed to runoff water from the Third Mainland Bridge, the busiest bridge in the City of Lagos, Nigeria. The runoff was sampled off the bridge drainage, and the assessment of its physicochemical characteristics in both dry and rainy season indicated a high level of chemical and biological oxygen demand, oil and grease as well as manganese. After a preliminary acute toxicity evaluation, the juveniles of C. gariepinus were exposed to 5, 10, 15, 25, 50 and 100% runoff samples for 30 days. The level of the lipid peroxidation product, malondialdehyde, was significantly different from the control and increased serially with higher concentrations of effluent exposure. There was also an inhibition in the activities of enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase as well as significantly lower levels of reduced glutathione after 30 days. Heat shock proteins induced in the catfishes over this period included proteases, sHsps, Hsp 40s, Hsp 60s (for all the fishes-control and exposed) and Hsp 70s (in the exposed fishes only). Histopathological assessments of the gills indicated that the major effects of the runoff exposures were mild to severe thickening and fusion of the gill lamellae, stunting of lamellae, erosion of outer epithelium, epithelial lifting, hyperplasia, oedema and aneurism. The implications of the findings in the Lagos lagoon fishes were discussed.

  12. Dietary effects of spaghetti waste as maize replacement in the diet of juvenile African catfish, Clarias gariepinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal, M O; Aderolu, A Z; Seriki, B M; Aarode, O O

    2014-01-01

    A 56-day experiment was conducted with Clarias gariepinus juvenile to evaluate the effects of replacing maize with Spaghetti Waste (SW). Four isonitrogenous experimental diets were formulated by substituting maize with spaghetti waste at different graded levels of 50, 75 and 100%, respectively with a control (100% maize). The experiment was run in triplicate and fish distributed into 21 plastic tanks. The fish were fed to satiation twice daily and water changed every two days to maintain good water quality. The weight of the fish was determined weekly by bulk weighing. The highest mean weight gain (106.40 +/- 4.59 g) and specific growth rate (2.96 +/- 0.07) were recorded in fish fed 100% SW, though no significant difference (p > 0.05) was recorded between the control and other test diets. There was significant increase (p 0.05). The highest crude protein (59.33 +/- 0.50) was however recorded in 75% SW inclusion. This study showed that maize can totally be replaced with spaghetti waste without any adverse effect on the growth and health status of C. gariepinus.

  13. Histopathological and ultrastructural studies of a Henneguya species (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) infesting the intestine of Clarias gariepinus from Benin (West Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tossavi, Nounagnon Darius; Gbankoto, Adam; Yessoufou, Akadiri; Escande, Marie-Line; Dimitri, Gorand; Ribou, Anne-Cécile; Moutaïrou, Kabirou; Sakiti, Gilbert Nestor

    2015-03-01

    Fish culture is the best alternative to fill the gap between natural fish catches and estimated needs of populations in animal protein consumption. In West Africa, this goal required to have suitable fishes for aquaculture which are Clariidae and Tilapia. Clarias gariepinus (Clariidae) fetches a higher price than tilapias as it can be sold alive at the market but a high infestation by Henneguya leads to decrease this commercial value. Those reasons lead us to perform studies on seasonal variations, histopathological aspects and life cycle of Henneguya sp. infecting the intestine of C. gariepinus using light and electron microscope. From November 2011 to December 2012, 339 specimens were collected from Ouémé River (Benin) and examined. An overall prevalence of 7.37 % was recorded for plasmodia of Henneguya sp. Parasite occurrence did not vary significantly between seasons (χ(2) = 12.235; df = 3; p > 0.05), nor sexes (χ(2) = 2.992; df = 7; p > 0.05) while differences were significant between classes of weight (χ(2) = 39.929; df = 5; p < 0.05). The highest prevalence was recorded in host ranging from 300 to 374 g. Histopathological analysis showed that the mass continuous development of the plasmodium produced thickening of the intestine wall and compressed neighboring tissues and destroyed villi and smooth muscle layers. The stages of the parasite development including sporogenesis, capsulogenesis, and valvogenesis were asynchronous. Investigations are still running by molecular approaches in order to identify accurately this species.

  14. Histopathological alterations, biochemical responses and acetylcholinesterase levels in Clarias gariepinus as biomarkers of exposure to organophosphates pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, V F; Ladipo, M K; Aneyo, I A; Adeola, A; Odulele, W Y

    2016-05-01

    Organophosphate pesticides, commonly used in large scale farming, have been found to be major contaminants in aquatic environment. Clarias gariepinus was exposed to acute and sublethal concentrations of phostoxin and DD Force to evaluate single and joint action toxicity of the organophosphates. Effects of phostoxin and DD force on antioxidant enzymes, fish organs and acetylcholinesterase levels in fingerlings and juveniles of C. gariepinus were also investigated. The lethal concentrations (96 h LC50) for phostoxin and DD Force were 0.631 and 1.759 mg/l, respectively. The results obtained from the bioassay showed that phostoxin was 2.8× more toxic than DD Force after exposure of C. gariepinus. Joint action toxicity evaluations of phostoxin and DD Force showed that the interaction between the chemicals was synergistic (RTU >1). The biochemical responses in the exposed fish differed significantly (P < 0.05) from the control fish. The result of acetylcholinesterase study revealed significant difference between acetylcholinesterase levels in the exposed fish and control, with reduction in the acetylcholineterase level in fish exposed to sublethal concentrations of phostoxin and DD Force. Haematological studies revealed an increase in WBC, RBC, PCV and platelets in the exposed fish. Histopathology of the gills showed shortened primary lamellae, loss of secondary lamellae and loss of ceratobrachial bones. In the acute toxicity studies, respiratory stress, erratic swimming and instant death of fish were observed in the exposed fish. This study reveals that changes in histopathology and acetylcholinesterase level are good biomarkers and can be successfully used to detect exposure to organophosphates pesticides in fish.

  15. Histopathological Alterations of Hybrid Walking Catfish (Clarias macrocephalus x Clarias gariepinus in Acute and Subacute Cadmium Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuntiya Pantung

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Histopathological alterations occur in the gills, livers and kidneys of 3-month old hybrid walking catsfich (Clarias macrocephalus x Clarias gariepinos after acute and subacute cadmium exposure in water, and after intraperitoneal injection.The 96-h LC50 for cadmium in recirculation open systems was 13.6 mg/l, and the 96-h LD50 1.6 mg/kg of fish. Light microscopic studies were carried out in gills, livers and kidneys. Gill alterations included an increased number of chloride cells, breakdown of the pillar cells and edema of the epithelial cells. In the liver there was blood conjestion in sinusoids and swelling of hepatocytes. The kidneys showed vacuolation and necrosis of proximal tubular cells.

  16. Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress and Heavy Metal Levels as Indicators of Environmental Pollution in African Cat Fish (Clarias gariepinus from Nigeria Ogun River

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    Y. R. Ajimoko

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Levels of Zn, Cu, Cd, As, and Pb in the kidney, Liver, Gills and Heart of African cat fish (Clarias gariepinus from the Ogun River in Ogun State located close to six major industries in the South Western part of Nigeria, were determined using Bulk Scientific Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Fishes were also collected from Government owned fish farm in Agodi, Ibadan which was considered a reference site. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione S-transferase (GST, glutathione (GSH concentration and malondialdehyde (MDA formation were also determined. The trend of accumulation of the metals in the organs is as follows: Heart - Zn > Cu > Pb > As > Cd; Gills - Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd > As; Kidney - Zn > Cu > Pb > As > Cd; Liver -Zn > Cu > Pb > As > Cd. The order of concentration of the metals in the organs is as follows: Arsenite - Kidney > Liver > Gills > Heart; Zinc - Gills > Liver > Kidney > Heart; Lead- Liver > Kidney > Gills > Heart; Copper- Kidney > Liver > Gills > Heart; Cadmium > Liver > Gills > Kidney > Heart. The levels of heavy metals ranged between 0.25-8.96 ppm in the heart, 0.69- 19.05 ppm in the kidneys, 2.10-19.75 ppm in the liver and 1.95-20.35 ppm in the gills. SOD activity increased by 61% in the liver, 50% in the kidney and in the heart by 28 % while a significant decrease (44% was observed in the gill of Clarias gariepinus from Ogun river compared to that Agodi fish farm (P<0.001. On the contrary there was 46%, 41%, 50% and 19% decrease in CAT activity in the liver, kidney, gills and heart respectively. The levels of GST activities in the liver, kidney and heart of Clarias gariepinus from Ogun river increased by 62%, 72% and 37% respectively (P<0.001 whereas there was a significant decrease (41% in the gills (P<0.05 compared to that from the Agodi fish farm. GSH concentration increased by 81%, 83% and 53% in the liver, kidney and heart respectively but decreased by 44% in the gills. MDA levels of

  17. Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress and Heavy Metal Levels as Indicators of Environmental Pollution in African Cat Fish (Clarias gariepinus) from Nigeria Ogun River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farombi, E. O.; Adelowo, O. A.; Ajimoko, Y. R.

    2007-01-01

    Levels of Zn, Cu, Cd, As, and Pb in the kidney, Liver, Gills and Heart of African cat fish (Clarias gariepinus) from the Ogun River in Ogun State located close to six major industries in the South Western part of Nigeria, were determined using Bulk Scientific Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Fishes were also collected from Government owned fish farm in Agodi, Ibadan which was considered a reference site. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione (GSH) concentration and malondialdehyde (MDA) formation were also determined. The trend of accumulation of the metals in the organs is as follows: Heart - Zn > Cu > Pb > As > Cd; Gills - Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd > As; Kidney - Zn > Cu > Pb > As > Cd; Liver -Zn > Cu > Pb > As > Cd. The order of concentration of the metals in the organs is as follows: Arsenite - Kidney > Liver > Gills > Heart; Zinc - Gills > Liver > Kidney > Heart; Lead- Liver > Kidney > Gills > Heart; Copper- Kidney > Liver > Gills > Heart; Cadmium > Liver > Gills > Kidney > Heart. The levels of heavy metals ranged between 0.25–8.96 ppm in the heart, 0.69– 19.05 ppm in the kidneys, 2.10–19.75 ppm in the liver and 1.95–20.35 ppm in the gills. SOD activity increased by 61% in the liver, 50% in the kidney and in the heart by 28 % while a significant decrease (44%) was observed in the gill of Clarias gariepinus from Ogun river compared to that Agodi fish farm (P<0.001). On the contrary there was 46%, 41%, 50% and 19% decrease in CAT activity in the liver, kidney, gills and heart respectively. The levels of GST activities in the liver, kidney and heart of Clarias gariepinus from Ogun river increased by 62%, 72% and 37% respectively (P<0.001) whereas there was a significant decrease (41%) in the gills (P<0.05) compared to that from the Agodi fish farm. GSH concentration increased by 81%, 83% and 53% in the liver, kidney and heart respectively but decreased by 44% in the gills. MDA levels of

  18. Biomarkers of oxidative stress and heavy metal levels as indicators of environmental pollution in African cat fish (Clarias gariepinus) from Nigeria Ogun River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farombi, E O; Adelowo, O A; Ajimoko, Y R

    2007-06-01

    Levels of Zn, Cu, Cd, As, and Pb in the kidney, Liver, Gills and Heart of African cat fish (Clarias gariepinus) from the Ogun River in Ogun State located close to six major industries in the South Western part of Nigeria, were determined using Bulk Scientific Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Fishes were also collected from Government owned fish farm in Agodi, Ibadan which was considered a reference site. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione (GSH) concentration and malondialdehyde (MDA) formation were also determined. The trend of accumulation of the metals in the organs is as follows: Heart - Zn > Cu > Pb > As > Cd; Gills - Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd > As; Kidney - Zn > Cu > Pb > As > Cd; Liver - Zn > Cu > Pb > As > Cd. The order of concentration of the metals in the organs is as follows: Arsenite - Kidney > Liver > Gills > Heart; Zinc - Gills > Liver > Kidney > Heart; Lead- Liver > Kidney > Gills > Heart; Copper- Kidney > Liver > Gills > Heart; Cadmium > Liver > Gills > Kidney > Heart. The levels of heavy metals ranged between 0.25- 8.96 ppm in the heart, 0.69- 19.05 ppm in the kidneys, 2.10-19.75 ppm in the liver and 1.95-20.35 ppm in the gills. SOD activity increased by 61% in the liver, 50% in the kidney and in the heart by 28 % while a significant decrease (44%) was observed in the gill of Clarias gariepinus from Ogun river compared to that Agodi fish farm (PClarias gariepinus from Ogun river increased by 62%, 72% and 37% respectively (PClarias gariepinus were significantly (PClarias gariepinus from Ogun River. The study therefore provides a rational use of biomarkers of oxidative stress in biomonitoring of aquatic pollution.

  19. Pemanfaatan ekstrak daun inai (Lawsonia inermis l. sebagai bakterisida terhadap Aeromonas hydrophila yang menginfeksi ikan lele sangkuriang (Clarias gariepinus

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    Sofyatuddin Karina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The objective of this research was to find out the effectiveness of henna leaf extract (Lawsonia inermis L. on A. hydrophila in vitro and its effect on the survival rate of Clarias gariepinus that infected by those bacterias in vivo. The research was conducted at chemistry laboratory of Teacher Training and Education Faculty, Syiah Kuala University and at Microbiology laboratory, Brackishwater aquaculture Department Center, Ujong Batee on Avril to September, 2015. The research involved in vitro test with the inhibition zone as measured parameter and in vivo test with the survival rate value as measured parameter. The treated concentrations were 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% of extract. The result of in vitro test showed that henna leaf extract was effective against A. hydrophila with the inhibition zone for 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5% extract were 5.45; 5.7; 6.5; 7.5; and 9.6 mm, respectively. The result of ANOVA test showed that henna leaf extract has a significant effect on the survival rate of catfish (P<0.05. The best survival rate was obtained at 4% of extract  concentration.   Keywords: Aeromonas hydrophila; henna leaf extract; catfish Abstrak. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efektivitas ekstrak daun inai (Lawsonia inermis L. terhadap A. hydrophila secara in vitro dan pengaruhnya secara in vivo terhadap kelangsungan hidup ikan lele sangkuriang (Clarias gariepinus yang terinfeksi bakteri ini dengan cara perendaman. Penelitian ini dilakukan di Laboratorium kimia, FKIP Unsyiah dan Laboratorium Mikrobiologi Balai Budidaya Perikanan Air Payau (BBAP Ujong Batee pada dari bulan April hingga bulan September 2015. Penelitian ini meliputi uji in vitro dengan parameter uji berupa zona hambat ekstrak terhadap bakteri dan uji in vivo dengan parameter uji berupa nilai kelangsungan hidup ikan lele sangkuriang pasca perlakuan dengan ekstrak. Konsentrasi perlakuan yang dilakukan adalah 1, 2, 3, 4, dan 5%. Hasil uji in vitro menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak daun

  20. FORMULASI FLAKES PATI GARUT DAN TEPUNG IKAN LELE DUMBO (Clarias gariepinus SEBAGAI PANGAN KAYA ENERGI PROTEIN DAN MINERAL UNTUK LANSIA

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    Firda Amalia

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this study was to produce arrowroot starch flakes with dumbo catfish (Clarias gariepinus flour, as a rich energy, protein, and mineral food for elderly. Design of this study was complete randomized design with four formulas and each combination was replicated two times. A selected formula was determined based on semi trained panelists preference. Acceptance of selected flakes formula was examined by elderly using hedonic test. Flakes by addition of 33.00% of dumbo catfish flour was the selected formula. The chemical properties for selected flakes were as follows 4.00% of water, 4.84% ash, 16.90% protein, 5.21% fat, 69.06% carbohydrate, 14.48% calcium, and 8.61% phosphor. The selected flakes contain 391 kcals energy per 100 g. The selected flakes had contributed more than 20.00% of energy, protein, calcium, and phosphor for elderly people so it can be claimed as a food product rich in energy, protein and minerals.Keywords: arrowroot starch, dumbo catfish flour, flakes, mineral, proteinABSTRAKTujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menghasilkan flakes pati garut dan tepung ikan lele dumbo (Clarias gariepinus sebagai pangan kaya energi, protein, dan mineral untuk lansia. Desain penelitian menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap dengan empat formula dan setiap kombinasi diulang dua kali. Formula terpilih ditentukan berdasarkan preferensi panelis agak terlatih. Penerimaan flakes terpilih oleh lansia dilakukan dengan menggunakan uji hedonik. Flakes dengan penambahan tepung ikan lele dumbo sebanyak 33.00% merupakan formula terpilih. Sifat kimia flakes terpilih yaitu 4.00% kadar air, 4.84% abu, 16.90% protein, 5.21% lemak, 69.06% karbohidrat, 14.48% kalsium, dan 8.61% fosfor. Flakes terpilih mengandung 391 kkal energi per 100 g. Flakes terpilih memiliki kontribusi lebih dari 20.00% untuk energi, protein, mineral kalsium, dan fosfor untuk lansia sehingga dapat diklaim sebagai produk makanan yang kaya energi, protein, dan mineral.Kata kunci

  1. Evaluation of Response Patterns in Somatic and Otolith Features of Laboratory- Reared and Wild Clarias gariepinus Exposed to Industrial Effluent

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    Aina O. Adeogun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at comparing the responses of somatic and otolith features in Clarias gariepinus under chronic exposure conditions to industrial effluents in the laboratory for 60 days and in the wild for 6 months. Fish were collected upstream and downstream bi-monthly from a river receiving composite mixtures of industrial effluent while laboratory-rearedC. gariepinus were exposed to the same effluent mixtures in 60 days static renewal/bioassay using concentrations of 6.11, 3.05 and 2.23%, respectively and control series. A total of 21 variables representing saggital otolith and somatic data from both wild and laboratory fish were subjected to factor analysis. For laboratory reared fish, PC 1 indexed as ‘otolith factor’, PC 2 indexed as ‘condition factor’ and PC 3 indexed as ‘paired fin factor’ accounted for 26.15, 19.01 and 12.55% of the total variance, respectively. For wild fish, otolith factor (PC 1 and condition factor (PC 2 accounted for 38.24 and 22.69% of the variance respectively. The first 3 components and the first 2 components for laboratory and wild fish accounted for more than 50% of total variance in data. Reliability index (Cronbach’s alpha (&alpha>0.70 showed that the ‘otolith factor’ had strong internal consistency and is reliable as a primary and viable index of stress for both laboratory and wild fish. The complementary role of condition factor in stress detection was also highlighted. The emergence of paired features (otolith, pectoral and pelvic fins as sensitive parameters in toxicity responses may be an indication of the onset of asymmetry in these structures.

  2. A first insight into the barcodes for African diplostomids (Digenea: Diplostomidae): brain parasites in Clarias gariepinus (Siluriformes: Clariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibwana, Fred D; Blasco-Costa, Isabel; Georgieva, Simona; Hosea, Kenneth M; Nkwengulila, Gamba; Scholz, Tomáš; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2013-07-01

    Diplostomid trematodes comprise a large and diverse group of widespread digeneans whose larval stages are important parasitic pathogens that may exert serious impacts in wild and cultured freshwater fish. However, our understanding of their diversity remains incomplete especially in the tropics. Our study is the first application of a DNA-based approach to diplostomid diversity in the African continent by generating a database linking sequences for the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) barcode region and ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rRNA gene cluster for brain-infecting diplostomid metacercariae from the catfish Clarias gariepinus. Analyses of newly-generated partial cox1 sequences for 34 larval isolates of Tylodelphys spp. from Tanzania and Diplostomum spp. from Tanzania and Nigeria revealed three strongly supported reciprocally monophyletic lineages of Tylodelphys spp. and one of an unknown species of Diplostomum. The average intraspecific divergence for the cox1 sequences for each recognised novel lineage was distinctly lower compared with interspecific divergence (0.46-0.75% vs 11.7-14.8%). The phylogenetic hypotheses estimated from Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood analyses of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 data exhibited congruent strong support for the cox1-derived lineages. Our study thus provides molecular-based evidence for the existence of three distinct brain-infecting species co-occurring in natural populations of C. gariepinus. Based on phylogenetic analyses, we re-allocated Diplostomum mashonenseBeverley-Burton (1963) to the genus Tylodelphys as a new combination. We also generated cox1 and ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 sequences for an unknown species of Diplostomum from another African fish host, Synodontis nigrita.

  3. Effect of Butachlor on Antioxidant Enzyme Status and Lipid Peroxidation in Fresh Water African Catfish, (Clarias gariepinus

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    E. O. Farombi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of butachlor, a widely used herbicide, on antioxidant enzyme system and lipid peroxidation formation in African cat fish (Clarias gariepinus. Fish were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of butachlor 1, 2, 2.5 ppm and sacrificed 24hrs after treatment. A significant increase in malondialdehyde formation was observed in the liver, kidney, gills and heart of the fish following exposure to different concentrations of butachlor. Superoxide dismutase and catalase activities increased in the liver and kidney but decreased in the gills and heart in a concentration-dependent pattern. Glutathione level and glutathione-Stransferase activities increased (P<0.05 in the liver but decreased in the kidneys, gills and heart when fishes were exposed to the three concentrations of butachlor. The results suggest that butachlor induced oxidative stress in the various tissues of the fish particularly in the kidney and as such the organ may be subjected to severe oxidative toxicity due to depressed glutathione detoxification system.

  4. White Mulberry (Morus alba Foliage Methanolic Extract Can Alleviate Aeromonas hydrophila Infection in African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus

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    Atefeh Sheikhlar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were simultaneously conducted with Morus alba (white mulberry foliage extract (MFE as a growth promoter and treatment of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in separate 60 and 30 days trail (Experiments 1 and 2, resp. in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus. In Experiment 1, four diets, control and control supplemented with 2, 5, or 7 g MFE/kg dry matter (DM of diet, were used. In Experiment 2, fish were intraperitoneally infected with Aeromonas hydrophila and fed the same diets as experiment 1 plus additional two diets with or without antibiotic. Results of experiment 1 showed that growth was unaffected by dietary levels of MFE. Treatments with the inclusion of MFE at the levels of 5 and 7 g/Kg DM had no mortality. Red blood cells (RBC, albumin, and total protein were all higher for the treatments fed MFE (5 and 7 g/Kg DM. Results of experiment 2 showed RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, globulin, albumin, and total protein improved with the increase in MFE in the infected fish. The dietary MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM reduced mortality rate. In conclusion, MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM could be a valuable dietary supplement to cure the infected fish.

  5. Organochlorine pesticide levels in Clarias gariepinus from polluted freshwater impoundments in South Africa and associated human health risks.

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    Barnhoorn, I E J; van Dyk, J C; Genthe, B; Harding, W R; Wagenaar, G M; Bornman, M S

    2015-02-01

    There are increasing concerns regarding the safe human consumption of fish from polluted, freshwater impoundments. The aim of this study was to analyse the muscle tissue of the sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus for selected organo-chlorine pesticides (OCPs) and to perform a human health risk assessment using a standard protocol described by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Fish were collected from the polluted Roodeplaat-(RDPD), Rietvlei-(RVD) and Hartbeespoort (HBPD) Dam impoundments located in the north-eastern regions of South Africa. GC-MS analyses showed levels of various OCPs in fish muscle samples from all three impoundments. For fish collected from the RDPD, p,p'-DDE, endosulfan, lindane and β- and δ-HCH were the most prevalent OCPs detected, while p,p'-DDE and endosulfan were the most predominant in fish from the RVD. Lindane and β- and δ-HCH were the main OCPs detected in fish from the HBPD. Dieldrin was the only OCP detected at concentrations for which a cancer risk and a hazard index above the acceptable risk levels were estimated. This was the case for fish from both the RDPD and RVD impoundments. No toxic risk was estimated should fish from the HBPD be consumed.

  6. Acute phenanthrene toxicity to juvenile diploid and triploid African catfish (Clarias gariepinus): Molecular, biochemical, and histopathological alterations.

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    Karami, Ali; Romano, Nicholas; Hamzah, Hazilawati; Simpson, Stuart L; Yap, Chee Kong

    2016-05-01

    Information on the biological responses of polyploid animals towards environmental contaminants is scarce. This study aimed to compare reproductive axis-related gene expressions in the brain, plasma biochemical responses, and the liver and gill histopathological alterations in diploid and triploid full-sibling juvenile African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Fish were exposed for 96 h to one of the two waterborne phenanthrene (Phe) concentrations [mean measured (SD): 6.2 (2.4) and 76 (4.2) μg/L]. In triploids, exposure to 76 μg/L Phe increased mRNA level of fushi tarazu-factor 1 (ftz-f1). Expression of tryptophan hydroxylase2 (tph2) was also elevated in both ploidies following the exposure to 76 μg/L Phe compared to the solvent control. In triploids, 76 μg/L Phe increased plasma alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels compared to the other Phe-exposed group. It also elevated lactate and glucose contents relative to the other groups. In diploids, however, biochemical biomarkers did not change. Phenanthrene exposures elevated glycogen contents and the prevalence of histopathological lesions in the liver and gills of both ploidies. This study showed substantial differences between diploids and triploids on biochemical and molecular biomarker responses, but similar histopathological alterations following acute Phe exposures.

  7. Oxidative stress and biochemical responses in the tissues of African catfish Clarias gariepinus juvenile following exposure to primextra herbicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwani, Christopher Didigwu; Ifo, Charles Tobechukwu; Nwamba, Helen Ogochukwu; Ejere, Vincent Chikwendu; Onyishi, Grace Chinenye; Oluah, Stanley Ndubuisi; Ikwuagwu, Ogbonnaya Egbe; Odo, Gregory Ejike

    2015-01-01

    Primextra is a commercial herbicide formulation generally used in agriculture for weed control. The present study was designed to investigate the oxidative stress biomarkers and biochemical responses in the tissues of Clarias gariepinus juvenile exposed to primextra. Fish were exposed to 0.24 and 0.47 mgL(-1) corresponding to 1/20 and 1/10th of 96 h LC50 of the herbicide. The liver and muscle tissues were sampled on day 1, 5, 10 and 15 and results showed concentration and time dependent significant increase (p < 0.05) in the values of lipid peroxidation, glutathione peroxidase, catalase and alkaline phosphatase in both tissues. A marked significant increase (p < 0.05) was observed in the values of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and glucose in the liver while a mixed trend in their values were observed in the muscle. The values of superoxide dismutase and protein in both tissues were comparable to the control except on day 15 in the liver where the values significantly declined. The condition factor was not directly affected but values of hepatosomatic index were significantly reduced. The present findings revealed that primextra induced toxic stress even at sublethal concentrations resulting in alterations of the studied parameters which were more evident in the fish liver than in the muscle tissue.

  8. White mulberry (Morus alba) foliage methanolic extract can alleviate Aeromonas hydrophila infection in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhlar, Atefeh; Alimon, Abd Razk; Daud, Hassan; Saad, Chee R; Webster, Carl D; Meng, Goh Yong; Ebrahimi, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments were simultaneously conducted with Morus alba (white mulberry) foliage extract (MFE) as a growth promoter and treatment of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in separate 60 and 30 days trail (Experiments 1 and 2, resp.) in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). In Experiment 1, four diets, control and control supplemented with 2, 5, or 7 g MFE/kg dry matter (DM) of diet, were used. In Experiment 2, fish were intraperitoneally infected with Aeromonas hydrophila and fed the same diets as experiment 1 plus additional two diets with or without antibiotic. Results of experiment 1 showed that growth was unaffected by dietary levels of MFE. Treatments with the inclusion of MFE at the levels of 5 and 7 g/Kg DM had no mortality. Red blood cells (RBC), albumin, and total protein were all higher for the treatments fed MFE (5 and 7 g/Kg DM). Results of experiment 2 showed RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, globulin, albumin, and total protein improved with the increase in MFE in the infected fish. The dietary MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM reduced mortality rate. In conclusion, MFE at the level of 7 g/kg DM could be a valuable dietary supplement to cure the infected fish.

  9. DNA barcoding of Clarias gariepinus, Coptodon zillii and Sarotherodon melanotheron from Southwestern Nigeria [version 1; referees: 2 approved

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    Mofolusho O. Falade

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available DNA barcoding has been adopted as a gold standard rapid, precise and unifying identification system for animal species and provides a database of genetic sequences that can be used as a tool for universal species identification. In this study, we employed mitochondrial genes 16S rRNA (16S and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI for the identification of some Nigerian freshwater catfish and Tilapia species. Approximately 655 bp were amplified from the 5′ region of the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (COI gene whereas 570 bp were amplified for the 16S rRNA gene. Nucleotide divergences among sequences were estimated based on Kimura 2-parameter distances and the genetic relationships were assessed by constructing phylogenetic trees using the neighbour-joining (NJ and maximum likelihood (ML methods. Analyses of consensus barcode sequences for each species, and alignment of individual sequences from within a given species revealed highly consistent barcodes (99% similarity on average, which could be compared with deposited sequences in public databases. The nucleotide distance between species belonging to different genera based on COI ranged from 0.17% between Sarotherodon melanotheron and Coptodon zillii to 0.49% between Clarias gariepinus and C. zillii, indicating that S. melanotheron and C. zillii are closely related. Based on the data obtained, the utility of COI gene was confirmed in accurate identification of three fish species from Southwest Nigeria.

  10. Some novel features of glutathione transferase from juvenile catfish (Clarias gariepinus exposed to lindane-contaminated water

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    Yetunde Adedolapo Ojopagogo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Catfish are hardy in nature and it is not known whether the presence of efficient detoxication enzymes is partly responsible for this trait. To investigate this, we have assessed induction of glutathione transferase (GST in 10-week-old juvenile catfish (Clarias gariepinus exposed to graded concentrations of lindane, an organochlorine insecticide, and characterised the purified enzyme from groups having the highest and statistically significant induction. Some of the unique properties observed for the purified enzyme are a high Km (1.72±0.21 mM for the electrophilic model substrate, 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB and a very low catalytic rate (Vmax=0.130±0.010 units/mg protein. The kcat/Km being 55.4±0.2 M−1 s−1. The enzyme is present in high concentration in the organism, the main isoform accounts for about 5.6% of the total soluble protein, probably to compensate for the observed kinetic imperfection. Since these properties are generally not known for a detoxication enzyme, we suggest that they may form part of the organism׳s own adaptation to its polluted environment.

  11. Control of microbiological quality and shelf-life of catfish (Clarias gariepinus) by chemical preservatives and smoking.

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    Efiuvwevwere, B J; Ajiboye, M O

    1996-05-01

    Fresh catfish (Clarias gariepinus) were subjected to different concentrations of sodium benzoate or potasium sorbate and smoked traditionally before evaluation for microbiological, chemical and organoleptic characteristics during ambient tropical storage. Unsmoked fish samples showed diverse microflora (Enterobacter, Escherichia, Serratia, Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Penicillium, Aspergillus and Achlya genera) while smoked samples were dominated by Gram-positive bacterial flora (Bacillus, Staphylococcus and Streptococcus) and spoilage moulds (Penicillium verrucosum, Aspergillus flavus and Achlya spp.). Significant reduction in microbial population occurred in most samples following smoking with samples subjected to 0.4% (w/v) potassium sorbate showing the lowest microbial load and maximum shelf-stability. However, marked microbial increase occurred after day 4 of storage in control and benzoate-treated samples. Changes in pH were marginal but decreased after day 12 of storage. Moisture content decreased sharply after smoking and remained low after day 4 of storage. Overall, potassium sorbate treatment (0.4% w/v) was most effective in controlling microbial quality and extended the shelf-life of the samples by 8 d.

  12. Effects of sub-lethal exposure of lead acetate on histopathology of gills, liver, kidney and muscle and its accumulation in these organs of Clarias gariepinus

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    Hmoud Fares Alkahem Al-Balawi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the effects of sub-lethal exposure of lead acetate on the histopathology of the gills, liver, kidney and muscle and its accumulation in these organs of Clarias gariepinus. Results showed that lead accumulation in the tissues of C. gariepinus was dependent on the exposure period and lead concentration. Gills and liver were the predominant storage tissue and the order of accumulation in tissues was gill > liver > kidney > muscle. Some structural changes were observed in different organs, especially in the gills of the fishes exposed to lead acetate. Epithelial hypertrophy and epithelial lifting were apparent in the gills of exposed fishes. The degeneration of cytoplasm and secondary lamellae was also observed. Necrosis of hepatocytes was apparent. Glomerular expansion and gaps between the muscular bundles were found in the fishes exposed to lead acetate.

  13. Screening of selenium containing proteins in the Tris-buffer soluble fraction of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fillets by laser ablation-ICP-MS after SDS-PAGE and electroblotting onto membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedrero, Z.; Madrid, Y.; Camara, C.; Schram, E.; Luten, J.B.; Feldmann, I.; Waentig, L.; Hayen, H.; Jakubowski, N.

    2009-01-01

    The anti-carcinogenic properties of selenium against certain types of cancer when present in organic forms justify the increasing interest in development of selenium fortified food. In this particular study, African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) were fed with a Se-enriched diet in order to enhance th

  14. Age, growth and mortality of Clarias gariepinus (Siluriformes: Clariidae) in the Mid-Cross River-Floodplain ecosystem, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okogwu, Okechukwu Idumah

    2011-12-01

    Clarias gariepinus is a threatened highly prized species used for some elite ceremonies by the local communities. Artisanal fishers take advantage of this species annual breeding migration from the lower Cross River to the floodplain lakes in Mid-Cross River during the rainy season, and some migrant stocks are not able to spawn. Since there is a lack of information on this species population dynamics in the Mid-Cross area, this study aimed to evaluate the age, growth and mortality to support the development of effective management plans. For this, monthly overnight gill net catches (from 6 to 72mm mesh sizes) were developed between March 2005 and February 2007. Growth parameters were determined using the FiSAT II length-frequency distribution. A total of 1 421 fish were collected during the survey. The asymptotic growth (L(infinity)) was 80.24cm, growth rate (K) was 0.49/year while the longevity was 6.12 years. The annual instantaneous rate of total mortality (Z) was 2.54/year and the natural mortality (M) was 0.88. Fishing mortality (1.66/year) was higher than the biological reference points (F(opt) = 0.83 and F(limit) = 1.11) and the exploitation rate (0.66) was higher than the predicted value (E(max) = 0.64) indicating that C. gariepinus was over exploited in the Mid-Cross River-Floodplain ecosystem. Some recommended immediate management actions are to strengthen the ban of ichthyocide fishing, closure of the floodplain lakes for most of the year, restricted access to the migratory path of the fish during the flood period and vocational training to the fishers. In order to recover and maintain a sustainable harvest, I suggest that a multi-sector stakeholder group should be formed with governmental agents, community leaders, fishers, fisheries scientists and non-governmental organizations. These short and long term measures, if carefully applied, will facilitate recovery of the fishery.

  15. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of fushi tarazu factor 1 in the brain of air-breathing catfish, Clarias gariepinus.

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    Parikipandla Sridevi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fushi tarazu factor 1 (FTZ-F1 encodes an orphan nuclear receptor belonging to the nuclear receptor family 5A (NR5A which includes adrenal 4-binding protein or steroidogenic factor-1 (Ad4BP/SF-1 and liver receptor homologue 1 (LRH-1 and plays a pivotal role in the regulation of aromatases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Present study was aimed to understand the importance of FTZ-F1 in relation to brain aromatase (cyp19a1b during development, recrudescence and after human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG induction. Initially, we cloned FTZ-F1 from the brain of air-breathing catfish, Clarias gariepinus through degenerate primer RT-PCR and RACE. Its sequence analysis revealed high homology with other NR5A1 group members Ad4BP/SF-1 and LRH-1, and also analogous to the spatial expression pattern of the latter. In order to draw functional correlation of cyp19a1b and FTZ-F1, we analyzed the expression pattern of the latter in brain during gonadal ontogeny, which revealed early expression during gonadal differentiation. The tissue distribution both at transcript and protein levels revealed its prominent expression in brain along with liver, kidney and testis. The expression pattern of brain FTZ-F1 during reproductive cycle and after hCG induction, in vivo was analogous to that of cyp19a1b shown in our earlier study indicating its involvement in recrudescence. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Based on our previous results on cyp19a1b and the present data, it is plausible to implicate potential roles for brain FTZ-F1 in ovarian differentiation and recrudescence process probably through regulation of cyp19a1b in teleosts. Nevertheless, these interactions would require primary coordinated response from ovarian aromatase and its related transcription factors.

  16. Ploidy-, gender-, and dose-dependent alteration of selected biomarkers in Clarias gariepinus treated with benzo[a]pyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Ali; Teh, Swee J; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Courtenay, Simon C

    2015-12-01

    Naturally-occurring and artificially-induced polyploids have been documented in various fish species but to date no comparison has been reported of the impacts of ploidy on fish biomarker responses to organic pollutants. This study describes effects of ploidy, gender, and dose on biliary fluorescent aromatic compound (FAC) concentrations, hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities in one of the most commonly cultured warm-water species, the African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Recently matured male and female diploid and triploid fish were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with 0, 5 or 25mg/kg benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and liver and gallbladder were sampled 48hr later. No significant differences were found between ploidies in bile concentrations of 7,8 dihydrodiolbenzo[a]pyrene (7,8D BaP), 1-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene (1-OH BaP) or 3-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene (3-OH BaP). However, concentrations of the biliary FACs did differ between males and females at different dose of injection with generally higher concentrations in females at the low dose of BaP and higher concentrations in males at the higher BaP concentration. Hepatic EROD activity did not exhibit gender-dependent difference, whereas it was significantly higher in triploids than diploids. GST activities were not significantly influenced by any of the tested factors. This work advanced our understanding of the role of ploidy, gender, and dose in biotransformation of pollutants in fish.

  17. Neurotransmitters and neuronal apoptotic cell death of chronically aluminum intoxicated Nile catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in response to ascorbic acid supplementation.

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    Khalil, Samah R; Hussein, Mohamed M A

    2015-12-01

    Few studies have been carried out to assess the neurotoxic effect of aluminum (Al) on the aquatic creatures. This study aims to evaluate the neurotoxic effects of long term Al exposure on the Nile catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and the potential ameliorative influence of ascorbic acid (ASA) over a 180 days exposure period. Forty eight Nile catfish were divided into four groups: control group, placed in clean water, ASA exposed group (5mg/l), AlCl3 received group (28.96 μg/l; 1/20 LC50), and group received AlCl3 concomitantly with ASA. Brain tissue was examined by using flow cytometry to monitor the apoptotic cell population, HPLC analysis for the quantitative estimation of brain monoamine neurotransmitters [serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE)]. The amino acid neurotransmitters [serum taurine, glycine, aspartate and glutamine and brain gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)] levels were assessed, plus changes in brain tissue structure using light microscopy. The concentration of Al in both brain tissue and serum was determined by using atomic absorption spectrophotometery. The Al content in serum and brain tissue were both elevated and Al exposure induced an increase in the number of apoptotic cells, a marked reduction of the monoamine and amino acids neurotransmitters levels and changes in tissue morphology. ASA supplementation partially abolished the effects of AL on the reduced neurotransmitter, the degree of apoptosis and restored the morphological changes to the brain. Overall, our results indicate that, ASA is a promising neuroprotective agent against for Al-induced neurotoxicity in the Nile catfish.

  18. Therapeutic potential of Garcinia kola with reference to the restoration of inhibited acetylcholinesterase activities in induced Clarias gariepinus

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    T.O. Ikpesu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the antidotal prospect of Garcinia kola seeds extract in restoring the activity of inhibited Acetylcholinesterase. This was done by inducing Clarias gariepinus with the enzyme inhibitor (glyphosate pesticide formulation. The fish divided into six groups were exposed different treatments; the pesticide alone, the G. kola seed extract alone and different mixture of the pesticide and G. kola seeds extract. AChE activities in the brain, liver and serum of the fish were measured in the experimental and control fish on day −7, 14, 21 and 28th by the colorimetric method. The enzyme was significantly (p < 0.05 inhibited in the glyphosate formulation test alone and in group IV treatment (0.16 mg/L glyphosate formulation with 150 mg/L of extract. The inhibition percentages of AChE ranged for the brain, liver and serum between 40.7–59.4%, 50–57% and 27.5–51.3%, respectively. The AChE activities were however, recovered in G. kola seeds extract treated aquaria, and were dose, time dependent and organ specific. Modifications of this enzyme may leads to increased perspiration, increased salivation, tearing, blurred vision, abdominal cramping, diarrhea, and if severe enough, death from respiratory depression. This investigation had revealed the therapeutic significance of G. kola seeds extract, by stabilizing the enzyme activity in the investigated fish. Further investigation is required to measure the concentrations of acetylcholine at cholinergic synaptic junction in fish and mammals induced with ant-cholinesterase agent and the possibility of its restoration using G. kola seeds.

  19. Assessment of some heavy metals in the tissues (gills, liver and muscle) of Clarias gariepinus from Calabar River, Cross River State, South-eastern Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akaninyene Paul Joseph; Victor Oscar Eyo; Andem BasseyAndem; Joseph Udo Idung

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the pollution status of Calabar River in relation to the levels of heavy metal in the tissue of the African catfish [Clarias gariepinus (C. gariepinus)]. Methods: A total of 45 samples of C. gariepinus were purchased from fishermen on landing at Nsidung beach along Calabar River within three months (15 samples monthly) from June to August, 2014. The samples were then put into a cold box containing ice blocks immediately after buying from the fishermen. The fish samples were transported immediately to the Chemistry Laboratory, University of Calabar for digestion and heavy metal analysis. Portions of the muscle, gills and liver were removed from the fresh samples and oven dried at temperature of 120 °C to constant weight and digested using standard methods. The digested tissue portions were analyzed for lead, iron, manganese, cobalt, chromium and cadmium concentrations using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results: Mercury was not detected at all in the muscle, liver and gills of C. gariepinus. The mean ± SD of metals in liver of C. gariepinus were: (0.080 ± 0.014), (0.110 ± 0.014), (6.480 ± 1.279) and (0.295 ± 0.021) mg/kg for Cd, Cr, Fe and Mn, respectively. In the gills, heavy metals values were: (0.065 ± 0.021), (0.115 ± 0.035), (5.843 ± 0.558), and (0.345 ± 0.007) mg/kg for Cd, Cr, Fe and Mn, respectively. In the muscles, heavy metals values were (0.045 ± 0.021), (0.115 ± 0.353), (5.150 ± 1.075), and (0.187 ± 0.045) mg/kg for Cd, Cr, Fe and Mn, respectively. The general trend of metals accumulation in tissues of C. gariepinus showed a decreasing trend of Fe > Mn > Cr > Cd. Also, the metal accumulation in the three tissues showed a decreasing trend of liver > gills > muscle. Conclusions: The metal concentrations in the muscle, gills and liver of C. gariepinus were all below the World Health Organization acceptable range, and as such fishery resources from Calabar River are safe for consumption.

  20. Assessment of some heavy metals in the tissues (gills, liver and muscle of Clarias gariepinus from Calabar River, Cross River State, South-eastern Nigeria

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    Akaninyene Paul Joseph

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the pollution status of Calabar River in relation to the levels of heavy metal in the tissue of the African catfish [Clarias gariepinus (C. gariepinus]. Methods: A total of 45 samples of C. gariepinus were purchased from fishermen on landing at Nsidung beach along Calabar River within three months (15 samples monthly from June to August, 2014. The samples were then put into a cold box containing ice blocks immediately after buying from the fishermen. The fish samples were transported immediately to the Chemistry Laboratory, University of Calabar for digestion and heavy metal analysis. Portions of the muscle, gills and liver were removed from the fresh samples and oven dried at temperature of 120 °C to constant weight and digested using standard methods. The digested tissue portions were analyzed for lead, iron, manganese, cobalt, chromium and cadmium concentrations using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results: Mercury was not detected at all in the muscle, liver and gills of C. gariepinus. The mean ± SD of metals in liver of C. gariepinus were: (0.080 ± 0.014, (0.110 ± 0.014, (6.480 ± 1.279 and (0.295 ± 0.021 mg/kg for Cd, Cr, Fe and Mn, respectively. In the gills, heavy metals values were: (0.065 ± 0.021, (0.115 ± 0.035, (5.843 ± 0.558, and (0.345 ± 0.007 mg/kg for Cd, Cr, Fe and Mn, respectively. In the muscles, heavy metals values were (0.045 ± 0.021, (0.115 ± 0.353, (5.150 ± 1.075, and (0.187 ± 0.045 mg/kg for Cd, Cr, Fe and Mn, respectively. The general trend of metals accumulation in tissues of C. gariepinus showed a decreasing trend of Fe > Mn > Cr > Cd. Also, the metal accumulation in the three tissues showed a decreasing trend of liver > gills > muscle. Conclusions: The metal concentrations in the muscle, gills and liver of C. gariepinus were all below the World Health Organization acceptable range, and as such fishery resources from Calabar River are safe for consumption.

  1. Dietary fucoidan enhance the non-specific immune response and disease resistance in African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, immunosuppressed by cadmium chloride.

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    El-Boshy, Mohamed; El-Ashram, Ahmed; Risha, Engy; Abdelhamid, Fatma; Zahran, Eman; Gab-Alla, Ali

    2014-12-15

    Fucoidan is sulfated polysaccharide extracted from seaweed brown algae. This study was designed to evaluate the immunomodulatory effects and disease resistance of dietary fucoidan on catfish, Clarias gariepinus, immunosuppressed by cadmium. Three hundred and sixty African catfish, C. gariepinus, was allocated into six equal groups. The first group served as a control. Groups (F1 and F2) were fed on fucoidan supplemented ration at concentrations of 4 and 6g/kg diet respectively for 21 days. Groups (Cd, CdF1 and CdF2) were subjected throughout the experiment to a sub-lethal concentration of 5ppm cadmium chloride solution and groups (CdF1 and CdF2) were fed on a ration supplemented with fucoidan. Macrophages oxidative burst, phagocytic activity percentages and lymphocytes transformation index were a significant increase in the fucoidan-treated groups (F1 and F2), while serum lysozyme, nitric oxide and bactericidal activity were enhanced only in group (F2) when compared with controls. These parameters as well as absolute lymphocyte count and survival rate were significantly increased in group (CdF2) when compared with cadmium chloride immunosuppressed group (Cd). It could be concluded that the fucoidan can be used as immunostimulant for the farmed African catfish, C. gariepinus as it can improve its resistance to immunosuppressive stressful conditions.

  2. Influence ofLactobacillus plantarum supplemented diet on growth response, gut morphometry and microbial proifle in gut ofClarias gariepinus ifngerlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Augustine Falaye; Benjamin Emikpe; Esther Ogundipe

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the influence of dietary inclusions of Lactobacillus plantarum(L. plantarum)on growth response, gut morphometry and intestinal microbial profile ofClarias gariepinus (C. gariepinus) fingerlings was carried out using a total of 150C. gariepinus fingerlings (2.35 ± 0.48 g/fish) by selecting at random into five treatments groups of 10 fish in 3 three replicates each. Methods:L. plantarum isolated from corn slurry was cultured using standard measures. Five isonitrogenous diets were prepared at 35% crude protein (T0, T1, T2, T3 and T4) withL. plantarum at inclusion rate of 0.0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0% respectively. The fish were fed at 5% body weight per day for 12 weeks twice daily. Results: T4 recorded the highest mean weight gain and specific growth rate while the lowest was obtained in T1. T4 (1.97) when compared with other treatments had marginally lower feed conversion ratio. Absorptive area was most significantly higher in T3 and T4 group when compared to the control (T0) and other lower dietary probiotic inclusion groups. Cryptal depth was highest in T4 with significant difference which also gave the maximum enterobacteriaceae count while T0 recorded the least count. Conclusions: From these indications,L. plantarum fortified diets may enhance the growth of culturedC. gariepinus fingerlings at 2.0% inclusion rate as it was observed to improve body weight gain, feed conversion ratio with increment in the absorptive area and the microbial count in the gut.

  3. Control of cardiorespiratory function in response to hypoxia in an air-breathing fish, the African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus.

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    Belão, T C; Zeraik, V M; Florindo, L H; Kalinin, A L; Leite, C A C; Rantin, F T

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated the role of the first pair of gill arches in the control of cardiorespiratory responses to normoxia and hypoxia in the air-breathing catfish, Clarias gariepinus. An intact group (IG) and an experimental group (EG, bilateral excision of first gill arch) were submitted to graded hypoxia, with and without access to air. The first pair of gill arches ablations reduced respiratory surface area and removed innervation by cranial nerve IX. In graded hypoxia without access to air, both groups displayed bradycardia and increased ventilatory stroke volume (VT), and the IG showed a significant increase in breathing frequency (fR). The EG exhibited very high fR in normoxia that did not increase further in hypoxia, this was linked to reduced O2 extraction from the ventilatory current (EO2) and a significantly higher critical O2 tension (PcO2) than the IG. In hypoxia with access to air, only the IG showed increased air-breathing, indicating that the first pair of gill arches excision severely attenuated air-breathing responses. Both groups exhibited bradycardia before and tachycardia after air-breaths. The fH and gill ventilation amplitude (VAMP) in the EG were overall higher than the IG. External and internal NaCN injections revealed that O2 chemoreceptors mediating ventilatory hypoxic responses (fR and VT) are internally oriented. The NaCN injections indicated that fR responses were mediated by receptors predominantly in the first pair of gill arches but VT responses by receptors on all gill arches. Receptors eliciting cardiac responses were both internally and externally oriented and distributed on all gill arches or extra-branchially. Air-breathing responses were predominantly mediated by receptors in the first pair of gill arches. In conclusion, the role of the first pair of gill arches is related to: (a) an elevated EO2 providing an adequate O2 uptake to maintain the aerobic metabolism during normoxia; (b) a significant bradycardia and increased fAB elicited

  4. Inducible headkidney cytochrome P450 contributes to endosulfan immunotoxicity in walking catfish Clarias gariepinus.

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    Kumari, Usha; Srivastava, Nidhi; Shelly, Asha; Khatri, Preeti; N, Sarat; Singh, Dileep Kumar; Mazumder, Shibnath

    2016-10-01

    The effect of endosulfan metabolites on fish immune system is not well known. It is also not clear whether endosulfan accumulates in fish immune organs and undergoes metabolic biotransformation in situ. In the present study we investigated the role of headkidney (HK), an important fish immune organ on endosulfan metabolism and the long term effects of endosulfan metabolites on the fish immune system. C. gariepinus (walking catfish) were exposed to 2.884ppb of endosulfan (1/10th LC50) for 30d followed by their maintenance in endosulfan-free water for 30d for recovery. Endosulfan induced time-dependent reduction in the HK somatic index and histo-pathological changes in renal and hemopoietic components of the organ. At cellular level, exposure to endosulfan led to death of HK leucocytes. Gas-liquid-chromatography documented the presence of both α- and β-isomers of endosulfan along with the toxic metabolite endosulfan sulfate (ESS) in the HK of exposed fishes. We report that β-endosulfan accumulates more readily in the HK. Depuration studies suggested the persistence of ESS in the HK. Enzyme-immunoassay and qPCR results demonstrated direct relationship between cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) expression and ESS levels in the HK. Pre-treatment of HKL with CYP1A specific inhibitor α-Naphthoflavone (ANF) led to reduction in CYP1A mRNA, protein levels, and inhibited ESS formation together implicating the role of CYP1A on endosulfan metabolism. When the exposed fish were transferred to endosulfan-free water ('recovered fish') it was observed that after 30d of recovery period the concentration of endosulfan and its metabolite in the HK were significantly reduced, compared to 30-d exposed fish. We also observed improvement in HK histo-architecture but no significant recovery in HKL number and viability. Collectively, our findings suggest that HK plays an important role in endosulfan metabolism. We propose that endosulfan induces the activation of CYP1A in HK which led to the

  5. Effects of phytase on enhancement of phosphorus utilization from plant materials in bybrid catfish [Clarias macrocephalus (Gunther x Clarias gariepinus (Burchell

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    Phromkunthong,W.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid catfish of initial weight 5.57-5.72g were studied in 235-1 glass tanks filled with 1801 water and closed-recirculation system with 0.8 l/m flow rate was attached. Complete randomized design was employed in which there were three replications (20 fingerlings each in each of nine treatments. The experimental period was 10 weeks. Formula 1 feed was the control in which fishmeal and soybean meal were used as protein source and was nutritionally suitable for catfish. In formulae 2-6 Feeds, only plant materials were used as feed components and sprayed phytase was aplied at 0,250,500,750 and 1,000 unit/kg feed. For formula 7-9 feeds, phosphorus from dicalcium phosphate (DCP at 0.1,0.2 and 0.3% was supplemented. The results showed that the supplementation of 500 unit/kg feed as well as of 0.2% phosphorus were the most effective in improving the weight gain, specific growth rate and feed efficiency (FCR, PER and ANPU. The supplementation of phytase as well as of DCP elevated the bone as well as in the whole body while the blood parameters were not markedly affected.

  6. Effect of photoperiod on some biological parameters of Clarias gariepinus juvenile

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    Solomon S. G.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Photoperiod effect on Growth parameters and cannibalism of Clarias gariepinushave been well documented in resent past, but little is known about the response of other biological parameters such as, Condition factor, Shooters composition, Body colouration and Blood glucose of this important tropical fish species to different photoperiods, therefore the present study was designed to evaluate these responses of the African catfish to 24 hours of light (00D:24L, 24 hours of darkness (24D: 00L and 12 hour light / 12 hours darkness (12D: 12L. The six weeks experiment observed significant differences (P0.05 at the end of the experiment and were Significantly lower than value obtained at the start of the experiment, Shooters composition was highest in 00D:24L (41.5% i.e. 27 of 65 leading to high mortality (13.33% due to cannibalism compared to 12D: 12L (Shooters =15.27% i.e. 11 of 72, Mortality= 4% and 24D: 00L (Shooters=5.33% i.e. 4 of 75, Mortality= 0% photoperiod. More so, 93.33% (70 of 75 of fish in the dark phase (24D: 00Lexhibited Deep shiny black body colouration, while 6.67% (5 of 75 was observed of Normal fish colouration. However the fishes in the 00D: 24L photoperiod were observed to be predominantly Lighter skin colouration, (80% i.e. 52 of 65= lighter colouration, 18.46% i.e. 12 of 65= Normal skin coloration and 1.53 i.e. 1 of 65= Deep black body colouration while 12D: 12L were of Normal skin colouration (100% Normal skin colouration, also blood glucose was observed to increase as the light hours increased (P<0.05 with 24D: 00L photoperiod having the highest blood glucose level of 5.7+0.5, while those in 12D: 12L had 4.4+0.3 and 24D: 00L had the least value of 3.9+0.1. This study therefore establishes the fact that photoperiod may have no effect on the condition factor of African catfish, while higher shooters composition is highlighted as one of the causes of increased mortality and could be reduced to a large extent with reduced light

  7. Effects of glucocorticoids on plasma levels of thyroid hormones (T4 and T3) and testicular activity in catfish, Clarias gariepinus during different phases of annual breeding cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchiang, P; Varkey, S; Gupta, B B P

    2012-06-01

    Effects of short-term administration of corticosterone and cortisol on plasma levels of thyroid hormones, gonado-somatic index and testicular histology have been reported in catfish, Clarias gariepinus during different phases of its breeding cycle. Corticosterone administration had no significant effect on plasma levels of T4, T3 and T3/T4 ratio, irrespective of doses and phases of breeding cycle. However, 5 microg dose of cortisol significantly increased plasma levels of T3 and the T3/T4 ratio during quiescent and regressive phases, while it significantly decreased plasma levels of T4 during progressive phase. During breeding phase, 2 microg and 5 microg doses of cortisol significantly decreased plasma levels of T4 and T3, respectively, while 5 microg dose of cortisol alone reduced T3/T4 ratio. Irrespective of phases of annual breeding cycle and doses, short-term administration of corticosterone and cortisol had no significant effect either on GSI or testicular histology. These findings suggest that corticosterone is ineffective in stimulating plasma levels of thyroid hormones, while cortisol, depending on dose and phase/season, may differentially increase, decrease or have no effect on plasma levels of thyroid hormones in C. gariepinus.

  8. Effect of starving and feeding on some haematological and physiological responses of the Nile catfish, Clarias gariepinus exposed to copper at extreme seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Hameid, Nassr-Allah H

    2011-12-01

    The lethal concentration for 50% of fish for 96h (96h LC(50)) of copper (Cu(2+)) was estimated for the Nile catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in extreme seasons, winter and summer, 4.31 and 4.79 mg/l, respectively. The Nile catfish was exposed to 96h LC(50) of copper for 7 days in extreme winter and summer. The body indices, haematological parameters as well as some plasma and liver enzyme activities and metabolite level were significantly differed in fish exposed to copper over than those of the control fish. Most of the tested parameters were not significantly different between the control fish of winter and summer (winter, water temperature 18 ± 2°C and summer, 27 ± 2°C). The effect of two ration sizes on copper toxicity in two different seasons on C. gariepinus was justified. It was found that the haematological parameters and the tested plasma activities of enzymes were significantly valid due to season differences. The blood parameters as well as plasma activities of enzymes were significantly differed in fishes fed elevated ration (3%) and exposed to copper challenge. On the other hand, the exploit of low feeding ration (0.5%) along with copper exposure during the examined seasons induced non-significant differences of the tested parameters, from those of the corresponding control. Therefore, the low feeding ration provides some tolerance against the possible water-borne copper exposure.

  9. Effects of acute stress on aggression and the cortisol response in the African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus: differences between day and night.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, R; Boerrigter, J G J; Cloosterman, M; Gorissen, M; Flik, G; van den Bos, R; van de Vis, H

    2016-06-01

    African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus were housed under continuous dim light (1 lx) or 12L:12D (350-0 lx) cycles. The number of skin lesions, as indicator of aggressive acts, and plasma cortisol levels, as indicator of stress-axis activity, were measured at baseline as well as following a stressor (given in the light or dark phase). Results showed that (1) baseline plasma cortisol levels were not different between photoperiods, (2) the number of baseline skin lesions was highest for C. gariepinus housed under continuous dim light, (3) stressor-induced peak levels of plasma cortisol were highest in the light phase and (4) the number of skin lesions following a stressor was highest in the dark phase. The higher number of stressor-related skin lesions in the dark (active) phase suggests increased stressor-induced aggression while in the active phase. In addition, the data suggest that housing under continuous dim light does not result in higher stress-axis activity, as measured by baseline levels of cortisol, but does result in more stressor-induced aggression, as measured by the higher number of skin lesions. The latter may be related to the fact that the continuous dim light photoperiod has twice the number of dark-phase (active) hours in which stressor-induced aggression is stronger compared to the 12L:12D photoperiod, which has a light phase in which stressor-induced aggression is lower.

  10. A Comparative Study of the Common Protozoan Parasites of Clarias gariepinus from the Wild and Cultured Environments in Benue State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omeji, S; Solomon, S G; Idoga, E S

    2011-01-01

    A total of one hundred and twenty Clarias gariepinus comprising 30 dead and 30 live fishes were examined for protozoan parasites infestation, sixty each from the wild and a pond (cultured environment) over a period of six months. Ichthyophthirius multifiliis was the most common protozoan parasites found in C. gariepinus from the wild (River Benue) and cultured (pond) environments. These protozoan parasites constitute 37.08% of the total parasites encountered for fishes in the pond and 42.51% of fishes in the wild. Among the body parts of the sampled fishes from the pond, the gills had the highest parasite load (38.86%). Also, the gills had the highest parasite load (40.54%) among the body parts of the fishes sampled from the wild. Fishes not infested with any protozoan parasites from the pond constituted 36.70% of the total fish sampled. On the other hand, fishes not infested with any protozoan parasites from the wild constituted 31.65% of the total fish sampled. Female fishes had more protozoan parasites than the male fishes. Bigger fishes of total length (25-48 cm) had more parasite load than the smaller ones (19-24 cm). Also, fishes between 150-750 g had more parasite load than the smaller ones of less than 150 g. Protozoan parasite load of fish from the cultured environment (pond) did not differ significantly (P < 0.05) from those from River Benue (wild).

  11. Effect of garlic peel on growth, hematological parameters and disease resistance againstAeromonas hydrophila in African catfishClarias gariepinus(Bloch) fingerlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karthik Thanikachalam; Marimuthu Kasi; Xavier Rathinam

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the efficacy of dietary doses of garlic (Allium sativum L.) peel on the hematological and disease resistance of African catfish [Clarias gariepinus(C. gariepinus) ] fingerlings against the infections caused by opportunistic bacterial pathogenAeromonas hydrophila.Methods:Powdered garlic peel was incorporated into the diets at (0%, 0.5%, 1.0% and1.5%) and fed to catfish fingerlings for20 days. After the feeding trial, biochemical (serum total protein, albumin and globulin), hematological parameters (white blood cells and red blood cells) of the fish were examined. Fish were challenged withAeromona hydrophila (A. hydrophila) after20days of post feeding and percentage mortalities were recorded up to10 days after post challenge.Results: Enhanced serum protein, albumin and globulin in fish fed with all the dosages of garlic peel when compared to control group. Significantly highest red blood cell and white blood cell counts were recorded in garlic peel incorporated diet fed groups compared to control group. The results also demonstrate that low survival rate (55.5±11.0)% in control groups and significantly higher survival rates were recorded in all the garlic peel fed groups after challenging withA. hydrophila. However no significant impact was noticed with regard to body weight gain, specific growth rate and food conversion ratio of fish fed with different levels of garlic peel inclusion and control group.Conclusions:These results indicate that garlic peel enhances the hematological parameters even at a low level(0.5%) incorporation and makesC. gariepinus highly immunopotent and more resistant to infection byA. hydrophila.

  12. Evaluación de los desechos de pescado frescos y ensilados en la alimentación de híbridos de Clarias gariepinus X C. macrocephalus (Fresh fishing offals and silage evaluation for hybrid of Clarias gariepinus X C. macrocephalus feeding

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    Llanes Iglesias, José E

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available ResumenSe evaluó el uso de los desechos frescos de pescado y sus respectivos ensilados por vías biológica y bioquímica, como única fuente de proteína animal en dietas húmedas para alevines de híbridos de Clarias gariepinus X C. macrocephalus (4,53+ 0,05g, las que fueron comparadas con un Alimento Comercial (20% de harina de desechos de pescado durante 60 días. Los resultados mostraron que los mejores indicadores de crecimiento y utilización de la proteína fueron obtenidos con los desechos frescos, los que difirieron significativamente (P85%, fue similar entre las dietas. Los ensilados y la harina de pescado no difirieron significativamente en los indicadores evaluados, siendo una alternativa para la producción de alimentos acuícola para países en vía de desarrollo. AbstractThis study evaluated the use of fresh fishes wastes and their respectives silages by biologic and quimic methodogies like only one source of animal protein in moist diets for hybrid of Clarias gariepinus X C. macrocephalus (4,53+ 0,05g. These were compared with a comercial foods (20% of fish wastes meal, during 60 days. The results showed that better growth and use of protein were obtened with fresh waste, what were differed significatively (P<0.05, to silage and fish meal. Beside, the use of food conversión was similar between the diets. The silage and fish meal did not differ significatively in the indicators evaluated.

  13. Concentration of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in the muscle of Clarias gariepinus and sediment from inland rivers of southwestern Nigeria and estimated potential human health consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeogun, Aina O; Chukwuka, Azubuike V; Okoli, Chukwunonso P; Arukwe, Augustine

    2016-01-01

    The distributions of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in sediment and muscle of the African sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus) from the Ogun and Ona rivers, southwest Nigeria. In addition, the effect of PCB congeners on condition factor (CF) and associated human health risk was assessed using muscle levels for a noncarcinogenic hazard quotient (HQ) calculation. Elevated concentrations of high-molecular-weight (HMW) PCB congeners were detected in sediment and fish downstream of discharge points of both rivers. A significant reduction in fish body weight and CF was observed to correlate with high PCB congener concentrations in the Ona River. A principal component (PC) biplot revealed significant site-related PCB congener distribution patterns for HMW PCB in samples from the Ogun River (71.3%), while the Ona River (42.6%) showed significant PCB congener patterns for low-molecular-weight (LMW) congeners. Biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) was higher downstream for both rivers, presenting PCB congener-specific accumulation patterns in the Ona River. Significant decreases in fish body weight, length and CF were observed downstream compared to upstream in the Ona River. The non-carcinogenic HQ of dioxin-like congener 189 downstream in both rivers exceeded the HQ = 1 threshold for children and adults for both the Ogun and Ona rivers. Overall, our results suggest that industrial discharges contribute significantly to PCB inputs into these rivers, with potential for significant health implications for neighboring communities that utilize these rivers for fishing and other domestic purposes.

  14. Aplikasi Effective Microorganism 10 (Em10 untuk Pertumbuhan Ikan Lele Sangkuriang (Clarias gariepinus var. Sangkuriang di Kolam Budidaya Lele Jombang, Tangerang

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    Elpawati Elpawati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The catfish is a fish that is widely cultivated and consumed in Indonesia. The Catfish growth depand on by the availability of food and water quality. EM4 and EM10 are an example of liquid biofertilizer. The addition of EM4 in the fish pond can help the growth of the fish and maintain of the water quality. While the test of EM10 has not been done on fishery fields. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of EM10 fertilizers on of sangkuriang catfish (Clarias gariepinus Var. sangkuriang growth and water quality. This research was conducted in February-March 2014. Research using completely randomized design with 7 treatments and 3 replications. The treatments tested were control (A, EM4 10 ml (B, EM4 20 ml (C, EM4 30 ml (D, EM10 10 ml (E, EM10 20 ml (F, and EM10 30 ml (G . Analysis of data were using ANOVA followed by Duncan test if there is a real effect (ᾱ = 0.05. EM10 fertilizers at concentration of 20 ml could affect to the specific growth rate on catfish in 7 days maintenance, the concentration of 10 ml at 14 days of maintenance and the concentration of 30 ml at 28 days of maintenance. EM10 fertilizers can affect the weight growth of catfish. Fertilizer EM10 can maintain the temperature of the water.

  15. DISTRIBUTION AND EXPRESSION OF STRIPED CATFISH (Pangasionodon hypophtalmus GROWTH HORMONE GENE (PhGH IN THE ORGAN OF AFRICAN CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus TRANSGENIC FOUNDER

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    Huria Marnis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Faster growing African catfish can be produced by transgenesis. This study was conducted to investigate the distribution and expression of growth hormone gene (PhGH in various organs of the transgenic African catfish (Clarias gariepinus founder (F0. Transgene was detected using the PCR method in various organs, namely pituitary, brain, liver, heart, spleen, kidney, intestine, stomach, muscle, caudal fin, gill and eye. Transgene expression levels were analyzed using the method of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, -actin gene used as internal controls. The results showed that the PhGH was detected and expressed in all organs of the transgenic African catfish founder. The high level of PhGH expression was found in the liver, pituitary, intestine and brain; smaller amounts were detectable in muscle, spleen, kidneys, heart, and stomach, caudal fin, gill and eyes, range from 0.02-0.75 PhGH/-actin mRNA. The expression levels of PhGH had positive correlation with tissue and body size (P<0.05.

  16. Accumulation of Copper in Gill, Liver, Spleen, Kidney and Muscle Tissues of Clarias gariepinus Exposed to the Metal Singly and in Mixture with Chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunçsoy, Mustafa; Duran, Servet; Ay, Özcan; Cicik, Bedii; Erdem, Cahit

    2016-10-01

    Accumulation of copper (Cu), applied singly and in mixture with chitosan (CT), in gill, liver, spleen, kidney and muscle tissues of Clarias gariepinus was studied after exposing the fish to no Cu (control), 5 ppm Cu, 5 ppm Cu + 75 ppm CT mixture over 1, 7 and 15 days. Metal levels in tissues were determined using an ICP-AES spectrophotometer. No mortality was observed during the experiments. Highest accumulation of Cu was observed in liver while lowest accumulation was observed in muscle tissue. Exposure to Cu-CT mixture decreased Cu accumulation in liver at all exposure periods and in kidney on the 15th day compared to Cu alone. Exposure to Cu alone and Cu-CT mixture had no effect on Cu accumulation in spleen or muscle tissue. Copper accumulation increased in gill tissue compared to control when exposed to Cu alone at all exposure periods, and exposure to the Cu-CT mixture significantly increased Cu accumulation in this tissue at all exposure periods compared to Cu alone.

  17. Manganese, nickel and strontium bioaccumulation in the tissues of the African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus from the Olifants River, Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie Avenant-Oldewage

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available The gills, liver, muscle and skin were collected from Clarias gariepinus, during four surveys (February, May, June and November in 1994 from two sites on the Olifants River in the Kruger National Park. With the use of atomic absorption spectrophotometry, metal concentrations of manganese, nickel and strontium bioaccumulated in these tissues were determined. This information was then used to differentiate between the concentrations found at the two locations and between the four survey periods. The con- centration of the metals were found to be highest in the gills, followed by the liver. This suggests the gills to be the primary uptake tissue for these metals following their intimate blood-water contact. The concentration of manganese and strontium, with particular reference to the gills, showed highest bioaccumulation at Mamba. Very little differences in the nickel concentrations were found at both Mamba and Balule. Water bioconcentration factors for manganese and nickel were much higher than that noted for sediment, suggesting a much lower bioavailability of these metals from the sediment. On the other hand, sediment bioconcentration factors for strontium were generally higher than that for water, which could imply higher bioavailability and concentration from the sediment.

  18. Protective potency of clove oil and its transcriptional down-regulation of Aeromonas sobria virulence genes in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Hamid, M I; Abd El-Aziz, N K; Ali, H A

    2016-08-31

    Disease episodes of fish caused by Aeromonas species are moved to the top list of limiting problems worldwide. The present study was planned to verify the in vitro antibacterial activities as well as the in vivo potential values of clove oil and ciprofloxacin against Aeromonas sobria in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). The in vitro phenotypic virulence activities and the successful amplification of aerolysin and hemolysin genes in the precisely identified A. sobria strain were predictive for its virulence. In the in vivo assay, virulence of A. sobria strain was fully demonstrated based on constituent mRNA expression profile of tested virulence genes and typical septicemia associated with high mortalities of infected fish. Apparent lower mortality rates were correlated well with both decrescent bacterial burden and significant down-regulated transcripts of representative genes in the treated groups with clove oil, followed by ciprofloxacin as a prophylactic use for 15 days (P < 0.0001); however, the essential oil apart from ciprofloxacin significantly enhanced different hematological parameters (P < 0.05). In addition, administration of antibiotic may be considered as a pronounced stress factor in the fish even when it used in the prophylactic dose. In conclusion, medicinal plants-derived essential oils provide a virtually safer alternative to chemotherapeutics on fish, consumers and ecosystems.

  19. Early exposure of 17α-ethynylestradiol and diethylstilbestrol induces morphological changes and alters ovarian steroidogenic pathway enzyme gene expression in catfish, Clarias gariepinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridevi, P; Chaitanya, R K; Prathibha, Y; Balakrishna, S L; Dutta-Gupta, A; Senthilkumaran, B

    2015-04-01

    Environmental estrogens are major cause of endocrine disruption in vertebrates, including aquatic organisms. Teleosts are valuable and popular models for studying the effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the environment. In the present study, we investigated the changes caused by exposure to the synthetic estrogens 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2 ) and diethylstilbesterol (DES) during early stages of growth and sex differentiation of air-breathing catfish, Clarias gariepinus, at the morphological, histological, and molecular levels. Catfish hatchlings, 0 day post hatch (dph) were exposed continuously to sublethal doses of EE2 (50 ng/L) and DES (10 ng/L) until 50 dph and subsequently monitored for ovarian structural changes and alteration in the gene expression of steroidogenic enzymes till adulthood. Treated fish exhibited morphological deformities such as spinal curvature, stunted growth, and yolk-sac fluid retention. In addition to ovarian atrophy, DES-treated fish showed either rudimentary or malformed ovaries. Detailed histological studies revealed precocious oocyte development as well as follicular atresia. Further, transcript levels of various steroidogenic enzyme and transcription factor genes were altered in response to EE2 and DES. Activity of the rate-limiting enzyme of estrogen biosynthesis, aromatase, in the ovary as well as the brain of treated fish was in accordance with transcript level changes. These developmental and molecular effects imparted by EE2 and DES during early life stages of catfish could demonstrate the deleterious effects of estrogen exposure and provide reliable markers for estrogenic EDCs exposure in the environment.

  20. Genetic Relatedness of Salmonella Serovars Isolated from Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and Tilapia (Tilapia mossambica) Obtained from Wet Markets and Ponds in Penang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiati, Titik; Rusul, Gulam; Wan-Abdullah, Wan Nadiah; Chuah, Li-Oon; Ahmad, Rosma; Thong, Kwai Lin

    2016-04-01

    A total of 43 Salmonella enterica isolates belonging to different serovars (Salmonella Albany, Salmonella Agona, Salmonella Corvallis, Salmonella Stanley, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Mikawasima, and Salmonella Bovismorbificans) were isolated from catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and tilapia (Tilapia mossambica) obtained from nine wet markets and eight ponds in Penang, Malaysia. Thirteen, 19, and 11 isolates were isolated from 9 of 32 catfish, 14 of 32 tilapia, and 11 of 44 water samples, respectively. Fish reared in ponds were fed chicken offal, spoiled eggs, and commercial fish feed. The genetic relatedness of these Salmonella isolates was determined by random amplified polymorphic DNA PCR (RAPD-PCR) using primer OPC2, repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (REP-PCR), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Composite analysis of the RAPD-PCR, REP-PCR, and PFGE results showed that the Salmonella serovars could be differentiated into six clusters and 15 singletons. RAPD-PCR differentiated the Salmonella isolates into 11 clusters and 10 singletons, while REP-PCR differentiated them into 4 clusters and 1 singleton. PFGE differentiated the Salmonella isolates into seven clusters and seven singletons. The close genetic relationship of Salmonella isolates from catfish or tilapia obtained from different ponds, irrespective of the type of feed given, may be caused by several factors, such as the quality of the water, density of fish, and size of ponds.

  1. Sewage impact on metal accumulation in sediments and fish (Clarias gariepinus from the University of Cape Coast community and its environs

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    Sarfo D.K

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study was to measure the concentration levels of the heavy metals As, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe and Hg upon samples of mudfish(Clarias gariepinus and sediments in wastewater discharge from the University of Cape Coast community and environs. This measurement was done using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The average concentration of elements (in mg/kg in the fish samples, in decreasing order of magnitude were: Fe (130.63 > Cu (3.77 > Cr(0.16 > Co(0.04 and Fe(209.67 > Cu(2.74 > Cr(0.57 > Co(0.09 from piont A and point B respectively. Arsenic and Hg concentrations were below detection limits of INAA in samples from both point A and point B. The chronic daily intake (CDI obtained for each of the metals in the fish sample shows that the population is not prone to adverse health effects (i.e CDI>>1 due to the concentrations of the metals. From the sediments, Fe recorded the highest concentration of 9808 mg/kg whilst Hg was below the detection limits of INAA. The metals As, Cu, Cr and Co recorded concentrations in mg/kg of 2.04, 4.82, 0.21 and 3.73 respectively in the sediments.

  2. Isolation and Identification of Aeromonas hydrophila and Saprolegnia sp. on Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in Floating cages in Bozem Moro Krembangan Surabaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusdarwati, Rahayu; Kismiyati; Sudarno; Kurniawan, Hendi; Teguh Prayogi, Yudha

    2017-02-01

    Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) is one of the familiar freshwater fish cultured in Indonesia farmer. One of the reason is the high mortality of the catfish infected by Aeromonas hydrophila and Saprolegnia sp. Motile Aeromonas septicemia (MAS) is a common bacterial disease, caused by Aeromonas hydrophila, which affects freshwater fish. In Southeast Asia, the outbreak of this disease was firstly reported from West Java in 1980, when a total of 82.5 tons a month of catfish were lost, while in Central Java in 1984, the total loss was 1.6 tons. Saprolegniosis can cause economic loss due to high mortality from its case reaching 10% to 50%. This research aimed to identify and determine the percentage of A. hydrophila and Saprolegnia sp. the catfish farmed in bozem Moro Krembangan, Surabaya, East Java. Meanwhile, a supporting parameter in this research is the value of water quality parameter including pH, temperature, ammonia and dissolved oxygen that were measured during sampling. The results showed that of the 20 samples taken from the two cages, 19 fish were positively infected by A. drophila. percentage of infections of A. hydrophila that infect umbo catfish in Moro Krembangan, was 95%, while the percentage Saprolegnia sp. was 90%.

  3. Determination of quarantine period in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fed with pig (Sus sp.) offal to assure compliance with halal standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Norhana, M N; Dykes, G A; Padilah, B; Ahmad Hazizi, A A; Masazurah, A R

    2012-12-01

    Pig (Sus sp.) and pig by-products are considered as najasa (impurities) in Islam and forbidden in Muslim consumer products. Animals fed on najasa are categorised as al-jallālah (contaminated animals) which are allowed to be consumed as long as they have been quarantined for a certain period of time. During this quarantine period the animals will have undergone a natural purification process or istihālah. African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) are commonly consumed in Malaysia and may be fed on najasa. This study was carried out to estimate the istihālah period for catfish after feeding with pig offal, based on the absence of pig DNA in catfish gut and to suggest the quarantine period in catfish fed with pig offal. The results indicated that the maximum istihālah period could reach 36h in the stomach, 6h in the midgut and less than 2h in the hindgut although in many cases shorter periods were observed. Based on these results it is estimated that the minimum quarantine period for catfish fed with pig offal is 1.5days.

  4. Some pathophysiological insights into ovarian infestation by Myxobolus sp. (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) in Clarias gariepinus (Clariids: Silurids) from Bénin (West Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbankoto, Adam; Tossavi, Nounagnon Darius; Sindété, Mariette; Sakiti, Gilbert Nestor; Moutaïrou, Kabirou; Ribou, Anne-Cécile

    2015-08-01

    Mature female specimens of the catfish Clarias gariepinus originating from Ouémé River (Benin) were investigated into ovarian myxozoan parasites. Spores of Myxobolus sp. (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) were found encrusted in the whitish color oocytes which present fat dot aspect in the gonads. The pathological investigation by electron microscopy revealed that maturation and multiplication of spores induced lytic action, deformation and dysfunction of the oocyte internal structures. No host inflammatory reaction was observed, while yolk, lipid, mitochondria, and other oocyte components were degenerated inducing empty area in the oocyte and could lead to castration in case of wide infestation. The mean prevalence was 19.79%. No significant difference was observed within seasonal prevalence (χ(2) = 1.771; df = 3; p > 0.05). Though the host length classes ranging from 35 to 39 cm and 40 to 45 cm were more infected, difference was not significant (χ(2) = 2.273; df = 4; p > 0.05) within them. The spores are ovoid in shape with two polar capsules which are equal in size, pyriform, and converging in anterior part of spore with four to five polar filament turns. Spore body are (11.47 ± 0.67) × (8.19 ± 0.52) μm length by width while polar capsule size are (4.24 ± 0.25) × (3.07 ± 0.28) μm and located in the first third portion of the spore. The molecular approaches are still running for accurate identification of this parasite.

  5. Potential use of green macroalgae Ulva lactuca as a feed supplement in diets on growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Warith, Abdel-Wahab A; Younis, El-Sayed M I; Al-Asgah, Nasser A

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of diet containing the green macroalgae, Ulva lactuca, on the growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Four experimental diets were formulated: D1 as a control group and D2, D3 and D4 which included 10%, 20% and 30% U. lactuca meal, respectively. 180 African catfish, weighing 9.59 ± 0.43 g, and with an average length of 11.26 ± 0.21, (mean ± SE) were divided into four groups corresponding to the different feeding regimes. The final body weight of the fish showed insignificant differences (P > 0.05) between the control and fish fed D2, whereas, there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) between these two diets compared with D3 and D4, with weights of 70.52, 60.92, 40.57 and 35.66 g recorded for D1, D2, D3 and D4, respectively. In the same trend significant differences were also evident in weight gain, specific growth rate and feed utilization. Fish fed with a diet containing 20% or 30% U. lactuca meal had poorer growth performance and feed utilization. Protein productive value, protein efficiency ratio, daily dry feed intake and total feed intake were also significantly lower in fish fed with D3 and D4 than in the control D1 and D2. Overall, the results of the experiment revealed that African catfish fed a diet with U. lactuca included at 20% and 30% levels showed poorer growth and feed utilization than the control group and fish fed diets containing 10% of U. lactuca.

  6. Deltamethrin-induced oxidative stress and biochemical changes in tissues and blood of catfish (Clarias gariepinus: antioxidant defense and role of alpha-tocopherol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Kamal A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pyrethroid class of insecticides, including deltamethrin, is being used as substitutes for organochlorines and organophosphates in pest-control programs because of their low environmental persistence and toxicity. This study was aimed to investigate the impact of commonly used pesticides (deltamethrin on the blood and tissue oxidative stress level in catfish (Clarias gariepinus; in addition to the protective effect of α-tocopherol on deltamethrin induced oxidative stress. Catfish were divided into three groups, 1st control group include 20 fish divided into two tanks each one contain 10 fish, 2nd deltamethrin group, where Fish exposed to deltamethrin in a concentration (0.75 μg/l and 3rd Vitamin E group, Fish exposed to deltamethrin and vitamin E at a dose of 12 μg/l for successive 4 days. Serum, liver, kidney and Gills were collected for biochemical assays. Tissue oxidative stress biomarkers malondialdhyde (MDA and catalase activity in liver, kidney and gills tissues, serum liver enzymes (ALT and AST, serum albumin, total protein, urea and creatinine were analysed. Results Our results showed that 48 h. exposure to 0.75 μg/l deltamethrin significantly (p  Conclusions It could be concluded that deltamethrin is highly toxic to catfish even in very low concentration (0.75 μg/l. Moreover the effect of deltamethrin was pronounced in the liver of catfish in comparison with kidneys and gills. Moreover fish antioxidants and oxidative stress could be used as biomarkers for aquatic pollution, thus helping in the diagnosis of pollution. Adminstration of 12 μg/l α-tocopherol restored the quantified tissue and serum parameters, so supplementation of α-tocopherol consider an effective way to counter the toxicity of deltamethrin in the catfish.

  7. Serum carbohydrate-binding IgM are present in Vietnamese striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) but not in North African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giang, Duong Thi Huong; Van Driessche, Edilbert; Beeckmans, Sonia

    2012-02-01

    Pangasianodon hypophthalmus serum was fractionated by affinity chromatography on 12 different Sepharose-carbohydrate columns and proteins eluted by the corresponding sugar. Binding to the affinity matrices is dependent on Ca(2+) ions. Upon gel filtration using Superose-12, essentially one fraction was obtained, eluting as a protein with a molecular mass of about 900 kDa. SDS-PAGE in reducing conditions revealed the presence of large (72 kDa) subunits (H-chains) and one up to three small (24, 26 and/or 28-29 kDa) subunits (L-chains). The isolated proteins were shown to be IgM since they bind monoclonal anti-P. hypophthalmus IgM antibodies. Rabbit polyclonal anti-galactose-binding IgM only cross-react with some sugar-binding IgM. The H-chains of the anti-carbohydrate IgM are glycosylated. Circular dichroism studies revealed that the IgMs have an "all-β" type of structure, and that Ca(2+) ions, though essential for carbohydrate-binding activity, are not required for the structural integrity of the molecules. In non-reducing SDS-PAGE, only monomers and halfmers were obtained, showing that there are no disulfide bonds linking the monomers, and that a disulfide bond connecting both H-chains within one monomer is only present in 45% of the molecules. Both the monomers and the halfmers display molecular mass heterogeneity which is indicative for redox forms at the level of the intradomain disulfide bonds. The native carbohydrate-binding IgMs agglutinate erythrocytes from different animals, as well as fish pathogenic bacteria. Similar proteins could not be isolated from another catfish, Clarias gariepinus.

  8. Effects of exercise on L-carnitine and lipid metabolism in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fed different dietary L-carnitine and lipid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozorio, Rodrigo O A; Van Ginneken, Vincent J T; Bessa, Rui J B; Verstegen, Martin W A; Verreth, Johan A J; Huisman, Elbertus A

    2010-04-01

    African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) were fed four isonitrogenous diets (34 % crude protein), each containing one of two lipid (100 or 180 g/kg) and two L-carnitine (15 or 1000 mg/kg) levels. After 81 d of feeding, thirty-two fish (body weight 32 g) from each dietary group were randomly selected, sixteen fish were induced to a 3-h swim (speed of 1.5 body length (BL)/s), while the other sixteen fish were kept under resting condition. Fish fed 1000 mg L-carnitine accumulated 3.5 and 5 times more L-carnitine in plasma and muscle, respectively, than fish fed the 15 mg L-carnitine. Muscle L-carnitine content was significantly lower in exercised fish than in rested fish. High dietary lipid level (fish oil) led to an increase in muscle n-3 PUFA content and a decrease in SFA and MUFA content. In liver, the increase in dietary lipid level resulted in an increased levels of both n-6 and n-3 PUFA. L-carnitine supplementation significantly decreased n-3 PUFA content. Exercise decreased n-3 PUFA in both muscle and liver. Plasma lactate and lactate dehydrogenase, normally associated with increased glycolytic processes, were positively correlated with exercise and inversely correlated with dietary L-carnitine level. L-carnitine supplementation reduced significantly the RQ from 0.72 to 0.63, and an interaction between dietary L-carnitine and lipid was observed (P influence the regulation of FA oxidation selectivity.

  9. 华南地区外来鱼类革胡子鲶的建群状况%The study on population establishment of alien Clarias gariepinus in main rivers of South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱赟杰; 顾党恩; 韦慧; 牟希东; 罗渡; 徐猛; 罗建仁; 胡隐昌

    2016-01-01

    为摸清革胡子鲶( Clarias gariepinus)在我国华南地区的入侵现状及种群现状,对华南地区珠江(西江、北江、东江)、鉴江、潭江和南渡江等主要河流的多个样点进行调查,并对各种群年龄结构、性比和性腺发育期等生物学特征进行研究。结果显示:华南地区各主要河流均有革胡子鲶分布,各群体均存在二龄以上个体和性成熟个体,样本性比为(♀∶♂)=1∶1.18,在调查中同时发现大量仔、幼鱼,表明革胡子鲶在华南地区各自然水域能够实现正常越冬和自然繁殖,已建立自然种群。%To study the status quo of invasive populations of Clarias gariepinus in South China, we surveyed C.gariepinus in the main rivers of South China, including the Pearl River tributary, Jianjiang River and Tanjiang River, and collected data on the age structure, gonad development.The results showed that C.gariepinus distributed in all the major rivers of South China, all populations had individuals at the age of more than two years and sexual maturity individuals.Sex ratio(♀∶♂)was 1∶1.18.It suggested that it can overwinter and reproduction in natural waters, and had established natural popu-lations in the main rivers of South China.

  10. Effects of storage conditions on quality characteristics of commercial aquafeeds and growth of African catfish Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Shola Gabriel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of storage conditions on the quality of feed and the aftermath effect of feeding fish with such feeds. Three commercial diets used for this study included Coppens®, Multifeed® and Vital feed®. Feed was stored either by opening the bag to the atmosphere (WO, the bag opened with neck tied using a rubber ring to prevent exposure to the atmosphere (OT or sealed (SC until the start of the feeding trials. The feed was stored under these conditions for six months. Nutrient analyses revealed significant changes in feeds held under the WO condition when compared with other storage conditions. Nutritive changes also varied with commercial feed type. Mould infestation of the feed was noticeable more in the WO condition of storage compared to the SC condition. After feeding C. gariepinus for fifty-six days, lesions were observed on fish fed mouldy feed held under the WO condition, which led to mass mortalities. Growth performance was higher in all fish fed SC stored feed, and for those fed Coppens® and Multifeed® under OT storage conditions. It is advised that storage of fish feeds up to six months should be undertaken with considerable care and attention.

  11. Bioaccumulation of cadmium in an experimental aquatic food chain involving phytoplankton (Chlorella vulgaris), zooplankton (Moina macrocopa), and the predatory catfish Clarias macrocephalus x C. gariepinus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruangsomboon, Suneerat [Faculty of Agricultural Technology, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Chalongkrung Road, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand)]. E-mail: krsuneer@kmitl.ac.th; Wongrat, Ladda [Faculty of Fishery, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand)

    2006-06-10

    The accumulation of cadmium (Cd) was studied in an experimental aquatic food chain involving the phytoplankton Chlorella vulgaris as the primary producer, the zooplankton Moina macrocopa as the primary consumer, and the catfish Clarias macrocephalus x Clarias gariepinus as the secondary consumer. C. vulgaris was first exposed to Cd solutions at 0.00, 0.35, and 3.50 mg l{sup -1}, referred to as control group and experimental groups 1 and 2, respectively. Subsequently, each group was fed to three corresponding groups of M. macrocopa. Finally, three groups of catfish were fed these corresponding groups of M. macrocopa. After C. vulgaris was exposed to 3.50 mg l{sup -1} Cd (experimental group 2), the residual Cd in solution was only 4.01 {mu}g l{sup -1}, lower than the maximum allowable limit of Cd in natural water sources (5 {mu}g l{sup -1}). Cd concentrations in C. vulgaris were 0.01 {+-} 0.00 {mu}g g{sup -1} (dry wt) in the control group, 194 {+-} 1.80 {mu}g g{sup -1} (dry wt) in experimental group 1, and 1140 {+-} 20.06 {mu}g g{sup -1} (dry wt) in experimental group 2. The Cd concentrations in M. macrocopa were 0.01 {+-} 0.00 {mu}g g{sup -1} (dry wt) in the control group, 16.48 {+-} 2.23 {mu}g g{sup -1} (dry wt) in experimental group 1, and 56.6 {+-} 3.23 {mu}g g{sup -1} (dry wt) in experimental group 2. The Cd concentrations in catfish muscle increased with increasing Cd concentrations in the food. After 60 days of fish culture, the mean concentrations of Cd in fish muscle were 0.01 {+-} 0.00 {mu}g g{sup -1} (dry wt) in the control group, 0.61 {+-} 0.02 {mu}g g{sup -1} (dry wt) in experimental group 1 and 1.04 {+-} 0.06 {mu}g g{sup -1} (dry wt) in experimental group 2. Cd concentration in fish muscle of experimental group 2 was equal to the permissible limit. Cd accumulation affected fish growth: at the end of the study, the mean fresh weight (12.81 g) of catfish in the control group, was significantly higher than those experimental group 1 (10.43 g) and

  12. Monitoring of DNA breakage in embryonic stages of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) after exposure to lead nitrate using alkaline comet assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osman, A.G.M.; Mekkawy, Imam A.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Wuertz, S.; Kloas, W.; Kirschbaum, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Increasing lead contamination in Egyptian ecosystems and high lead concentrations in food items have raised concern for human health and stimulated studies on monitoring ecotoxicological impact of lead-caused genotoxicity. In this work, the alkaline comet assay was modified for monitoring DNA strand

  13. Impact of water temperature and sodium chloride (NaCl on stress indicators of hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell x C. macrocephalus Gunther

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weena Koeypudsa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This research was composed of 2 experiments. Short-term (1 day and long-term (30 days exposure were conductedin the laboratory. Each experiment had 2 temperature levels, high (Ht, 29.5 ± 0.5C and low temperature (Lt, 19.5 ± 0.5C.Initial weight and length of catfish were 7.54±1.82 g and 9.90±0.96 cm respectively. Experimental catfish were subjected to 4conditions as follows: high temperature with 0.1% sodium chloride (HtWs, high temperature without 0.1% sodium chloride(HtW/s, low temperature with 0.1% sodium chloride (LtWs, and low temperature without 0.1% sodium chloride (LtW/s.Blood was taken from caudal vessel of anaesthetized fish to investigate blood clotting time, cortisol, glucose, osmolarity,Na+, K+ and Cl-. Ratios of Na+/K+, Na+/Cl- and Na+ + K+ / Cl- were also analyzed. In the short-term (1 day experiment, values ofall catfish blood parameters varied. These imply that catfish attempt to maintain internal balance, homeostasis. Osmolarityexhibited complete homeostasis in 2 h. From long-term (30 days exposure, non-significant means of Na+/Cl- ratio (HtWsand decreasing trend lines direction of blood clotting time (HtWs, LtW/s, LtWs indicated that 0.1% sodium chloride and/orLt helped stress reduction in catfish. Sum of Na+ and K+ to Cl- ratio among 4 groups (HtW/s, HtWs, LtW/s, LtWs revealedthat catfish spent 10 days for adjustment themselves under stress circumstance (HtWs, LtW/s, LtWs to natural situation(HtW/s. This information could be useful to improve the survival rate and health condition during rearing, handling andtransporting aquatic animals.

  14. Enrichment of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell) with functional selenium originating from garlic: effect of enrichment period and depuration on total selenium level and sensory properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, E.; Schelvis-Smit, A.A.M.; Heul, van der J.W.; Luten, J.B.

    2010-01-01

    We wanted to optimize the procedure for the selenium enrichment of farmed African catfish, using garlic as dietary selenium source. In the first experiment we established the relation between the length of the selenium enrichment period and the resulting total selenium level in the fillet of the fis

  15. Effects of lead nitrate on the activity of metabolic enzymes during early developmental stages of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osman, A.G.M.; Mekkawy, Imam A.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Kirschbaum, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and pyruvate kinase (PK) are key metabolic enzymes. G6PDH has been used as a biomarker of pollution-induced carcinogenesis in fish. LDH has been used as marker of lesions in toxicology and clinical chemistry, and PK catalyses the

  16. Economic values of growth and feed efficiency for fish farming in recirculating aquaculture system with density and nitrogen output limitations: a case study with African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, M; Komen, H; Aubin, J; de Boer, I J M; Poelman, M; Quillet, E; Vancoillie, C; Vandeputte, M; van Arendonk, J A M

    2014-12-01

    In fish farming, economic values (EV) of breeding goal traits are lacking, even though they are key parameters when defining selection objectives. The aim of this study was to develop a bioeconomic model to estimate EV of 2 traits representing production performances in fish farming: the thermal growth coefficient (TGC) and the feed conversion ratio (FCR). This approach was applied to a farm producing African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS). In the RAS, 2 factors could limit production level: the nitrogen treatment capacity of the biofilter or the fish density in rearing tanks at harvest. Profit calculation includes revenue from fish sales, cost of juveniles, cost of feed, cost of waste water treatment, and fixed costs. In the reference scenario, profit was modeled to zero. EV were calculated as the difference in profit per kilogram of fish between the current population mean for both traits (µt) and the next generation of selective breeding (µt+Δt) for either TGC or FCR. EV of TGC and FCR were calculated for three generations of hypothetical selection on either TGC or FCR (respectively 6.8% and 7.6% improvement per generation). The results show that changes in TGC and FCR can affect both the number of fish that can be stocked (number of batches per year and number of fish per batch) and the factor limiting production. The EV of TGC and FCR vary and depend on the limiting factors. When dissolved NH3-N is the limiting factor for both µt and µt+Δt, increasing TGC decreases the number of fish that can be stocked but increases the number of batches that can be grown. As a result, profit remains constant and EVTGC is zero. Increasing FCR, however, increases the number of fish stocked and the ratio of fish produced per kilogram of feed consumed ("economic efficiency"). The EVFCR is 0.14 €/kg of fish, and profit per kilogram of fish increases by about 10%. When density is the limiting factor for both µt and µt+Δt, the

  17. Shesher and Welala Floodplain Wetlands (Lake Tana, Ethiopia: Are They Important Breeding Habitats for Clarias gariepinus and the Migratory Labeobarbus Fish Species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wassie Anteneh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at investigating the spawning migration of the endemic Labeobarbus species and C. gariepinus from Lake Tana, through Ribb River, to Welala and Shesher wetlands. The study was conducted during peak spawning months (July to October, 2010. Fish were collected through overnight gillnet settings. A total of 1725 specimens of the genus Labeobarbus (13 species and 506 specimens of C. gariepinus were collected. Six species of Labeobarbus formed prespawning aggregation at Ribb River mouth. However, no Labeobarbus species was found to spawn in the two wetlands. More than 90% of the catch in Welala and Shesher wetlands was contributed by C. gariepinus. This implies that these wetlands are ideal spawning and nursery habitats for C. gariepinus but not for the endemic Labeobarbus species. Except L. intermedius, all the six Labeobarbus species (aggregated at Ribb River mouth and C. gariepinus (spawning at Shesher and Welala wetlands were temporally segregated.

  18. Shesher and Welala floodplain wetlands (Lake Tana, Ethiopia): are they important breeding habitats for Clarias gariepinus and the migratory Labeobarbus fish species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anteneh, Wassie; Dejen, Eshete; Getahun, Abebe

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the spawning migration of the endemic Labeobarbus species and C. gariepinus from Lake Tana, through Ribb River, to Welala and Shesher wetlands. The study was conducted during peak spawning months (July to October, 2010). Fish were collected through overnight gillnet settings. A total of 1725 specimens of the genus Labeobarbus (13 species) and 506 specimens of C. gariepinus were collected. Six species of Labeobarbus formed prespawning aggregation at Ribb River mouth. However, no Labeobarbus species was found to spawn in the two wetlands. More than 90% of the catch in Welala and Shesher wetlands was contributed by C. gariepinus. This implies that these wetlands are ideal spawning and nursery habitats for C. gariepinus but not for the endemic Labeobarbus species. Except L. intermedius, all the six Labeobarbus species (aggregated at Ribb River mouth) and C. gariepinus (spawning at Shesher and Welala wetlands) were temporally segregated.

  19. Scanning electron microscope observations on the monogenean parasite Paraquadriacanthus nasalis from the nasal cavities of the freshwater fish Clarias gariepinus in Egypt with a note on some surface features of its microhabitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafa, Safaa Zaky

    2012-05-01

    Surface features of the monogenean Paraquadriacanthus nasalis Ergens, 1988 (quoted by Kritsky, 1990) inhabiting the nasal cavities of the freshwater fish Clarias gariepinus were studied for the first time using scanning electron microscopy. The anterior adhesive areas possess two slit-like openings. Many small openings were detected on the tegument covering the anterior-most region of the head. Some considerably large openings were also found in the median region between the two slit-like openings of the adhesive sacs. A transverse slit-like mouth opening with two lip-like structures was detected on the ventral surface of the body. Three types of presumed sensory structures were found associated with the tegument of the anterior adhesive area and anterior region of the body. These are surface ciliary sensilla, dome-shaped structures, and many spherical structures. The possible functions of these presumed sensory structures were discussed. The tegument covering the anterior adhesive area lacks microvilli, while the tegument covering the haptor is associated with microvilli. The haptoral sclerites were found in two different positions. Some surface features of the nasal cavities of C. gariepinus (microhabitat of P. nasalis) were also studied using scanning electron microscopy. Many lamellae-like and spine-like structures were recognized. The epithelium lining in some regions of the nasal cavities has small and large openings and covered with mucus. The possible roles of some haptoral sclerites in the attachment of the parasite to the host tissues were discussed.

  20. 革胡子鲶出血性败血症病原菌的分离鉴定%Isolation and identification of a bacterium associated with haemorrhagic septicaemia in walking catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉娟; 王秀华; 曲宪成; 朱岩松; 黄倢

    2012-01-01

    从暴发性死亡的革胡子鲶(Clarias gariepinus)中分离出可疑病原菌株2010111403(简称1403),分别采用细菌全细胞脂肪酸鉴定系统、Biolog微生物自动鉴定系统及细菌16 S rDNA序列分析三种方法对其鉴定,结果表明菌株1403为嗜水气单胞菌(Aeromonas hydrophila).分离菌株对健康革胡子鲶致病性测试表明其对革胡子鲶的半数致死剂量(LD50)为6.32× 106菌落形成单位(CFU);实验感染革胡子鲶出现与自然发病相似症状,表明菌株1403是引起革胡子鲶发生暴发性死亡的主要致病病原.药敏试验表明,庆大霉素、四环素、阿奇霉素、氟哌酸、先锋霉素等9种抗生素对分离菌株有较强的抑制作用,但分离菌株对复方新诺明、克林霉素、罗红霉素等4种药物表现出耐药性.%An outbreak of haemorrhagic septicaemia thai caused mass mortality was occurred in cultured Clarias gariepinus in Weifang, Shandong province in November 2010. In order to clarify the cause of the disease, streak plate method was used to isolate the bacteria from moribund fish. Three methods including gas chromatography of cellular fatty acids, biolog microbial identification system and 16 S rDNA sequence analysis were used to identify the isolated pathogen bacteria. Idg, value was used to evaluate the virulence of pathogen by challenge tests on C. Gariepinus. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by disc diffusion method. A bacterial strain recovered from diseased C. Gariepinus numbered 2010111403(hereinafter referred to as 1403)was dominant. Identification results by three methods all showed that bacterium 1403 was Aeronwnas hydrophila. Challenge tests demonstrated bacterium 1403 was a virulent strain to C. Gariepinus with Ldjo approximate 6.32 x 10° CFU, with the similar symptoms as the naturally infected fish with haemorrhagic septicaemia. Antimicrobial susceptibility showed that bacterium 1403 were sensitive to 9 kinds of antibiotics

  1. Distribution of metals in organs of Clarias gariepinus, Heterobranchus bidorsalis, and Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus from the Offin River at Dunkwa-on-Offin, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfo, Jemima T; Akoto, Osei; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Baidoo, Elvis; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2013-02-01

    All heavy metals are potentially harmful to most organisms at some level of exposure and absorption. Concentrations of Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, Hg, Cd, As, and Pb were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) in three fish species (C. gariepinus, C. nigrodigitatus, and H. bidorsalis) from the Offin River in Dunkwa township, Ghana. In the fish species, gills, livers, and muscles were analyzed. The metal that recorded the highest concentration was Zn, which was highly accumulated in the liver of C. gariepinus, but had the lowest concentration in the muscles of C. nigrodigitatus.

  2. ‘n Vergelykende histomorfologiese assessering van die testis van twee Clarias spesies van die Okavango Delta, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Mokae

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Die testis van twee Clarias species wat in die Okavango Delta voorkom, is histomorfologiesgeassesseer om die verskil in struktuur te beskryf, omdat die twee spesies se testiskleur verskilmet die Clarias ngamensis ‘n swart testis en die Clarias gariepinus ‘n roomkleurige testis.

  3. Early ontogeny of Clarias gariepinus (Siluriformes, Clariidae and aspects of its invasion potential in natural freshwater environments - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i3.12471

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Baumgartner

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe the early development of Clarias gariepinus, a species that has been introduced into various watersheds worldwide, in order to help the identification of its eggs, larvae and juveniles in natural environments. The material used was obtained via induced spawning during 1999. After spawning, the periodicity of sampling varied according to ontogenic development. We analyzed 12 eggs, 146 larvae and 6 juveniles. Newly fertilized eggs are spherical, with a double membrane, the density of which varies. Initially the larvae have little pigmentation but this intensifies during development. They have four pairs of well-developed barbels, an elongated body, long dorsal and anal fins, no adipose fin and vesicles surrounding the finfold and barbels. The sequence of formation of the fins is: caudal, dorsal, anal, pectoral and pelvic. Growth pattern analysis revealed that metamorphosis usually occurs during the flexion stage. The reproductive performance of the species and its rapid early development favor aquaculture; however, they may also favor its invasion of natural environments, representing a threat for native populations.  

  4. Changes in fatty acid concentrations in tissues of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, as a consequence of dietary carnitine, lysine and lipid supplements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozorio, E.O.A.; Uktolseja, J.L.A.; Huisman, E.A.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2001-01-01

    A study was undertaken to examine the effect of different dietary carnitine (200 and 1000 mg/kg diet) and fat (90 and 190 g/kg diet) supplementation on growth and fatty acid concentrations of fish fed either with a low- (13 g/kg) or a high-lysine (21 g/kg) diet. African catfish (22?7 g/fish), Claria

  5. Pertumbuhan dan kelangsungan hidup larva ikan lele dumbo (Clarias gariepinus pada konsentrasi tepung daun jaloh (Salix tetrasperma Roxb yang berbeda dalam pakan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cut Dara Dewi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi kemungkinan pemanfaatan tepung daun jaloh (S. tetrasperma sebagai bahan baku alternatif untuk pakan ikan lele(C. gariepinus. Dalam penelitian ini telah diuji beberapa tingkat proporsi tepung daun jaloh yaitu (0%, 5%, 10%, dan 15% .Pemberian pakan dilakukan tiga kali sehari, yaitu pada pukul 08.00, 12.00 dan 17.00 WIB,sebanyak5%dari berat bobot tubuhnyaselama 35 hari. Hasil uji ANOVA menunjukkan bahwa pemberian tepung daun jaloh memberikan pengaruh nyata (P0,05. Uji lanjut Duncan’s menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan kontrol (tanpa daun jaloh dalam pakan memberikan hasil terbaik dari segi pertumbuhan mutlak, pertumbuhan harian dan kelangsungan hidup. Oleh karena itu dapat disimpulkan tepung daun jaloh kurang sesuai sebagai bahan baku alternatif dalam pakan ikan lele dumbo.

  6. Quantitative Histoloy Studies of the Mature Testis of the Teleost Clarias Gariepinus Burcheu%革胡子鲶精巢的定量组织学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王咏星; 刘辉; 王健; 钱龙

    1999-01-01

    @@ 革胡子鲶(Clarias gariepinuc burchen)1981年引入我国,1994年引入新疆,通过4年的饲养观察,已基本适应了新疆的自然条件,暖季生长发育良好.为了探明革胡子鲶在非繁殖期精巢的组织学变化,我们利用生物体积学(Biological Stereology)技术对革胡子鲶的精巢进行了测定研究.革胡子鲶精巢的定量组织学指标的测定结果分别见表1、表2.

  7. Quantitative Histology Study on the Stomach and Intestines of Clarias gariepinus at Different Culture Densities%不同养殖密度下革胡子鲶胃肠道的定量组织学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季延滨; 张明月; 王妍; 王晓梅; 戴伟; 王存; 孙学亮

    2013-01-01

    [目的]为革胡子鲶科学的高密度养殖和可持续发展提供参考依据.[方法]研究4种养殖密度(35、65、95、125 kg/m3)下革胡子鲶胃和肠道纹状缘厚度、柱状细胞高、壁厚、肌肉层厚以及肠道杯状细胞大小,分析不同养殖密度对革胡子鲶消化道的组织结构变化的影响.[结果]养殖30 d时,养殖密度仅影响胃和肠道中段的纹状缘厚度.35 kg/m3密度组的胃纹状缘厚度显著低于65、95和125kg/m3密度组.肠中段的纹状缘高在35、65和95 kg/m3密度组间无显著差异,但显著低于125 kg/m3密度组.养殖60d时,35 kg/m3密度组的肠中段纹状缘显著厚于65、95和125 kg/m3密度组,但粘液细胞则显著小于65、95和125 kg/m3密度组,而65、95和125 kg/m3密度组间纹状缘高度和粘液细胞大小差异不显著.35 kg/m3密度组与65 kg/m3密度组、95 kg/m3密度组与125 kg/m3密度组肠中段和肠后段的肠壁厚和肌肉层厚无显著差异,但35和65 kg/m3密度组显著高于95和125 kg/m3密度组.[结论]养殖密度仅对革胡子鲶胃、肠道组织结构的少量测量指标有影响,与革胡子鲶的高耐受性和适宜高密度养殖的特点相一致.%[Objective] The research aimed to provide reference basis for scientific high-density culture and sustainable development of Clarias gariepinus.[Method] The thickness of striated border,height of columnar cells,thickness of wall and muscle layer in stomach and intestine,as well as the size of mucous cell in the intestines of C.gariepinus at four densities of 35,65,95 and 125 kg/m3 were studied.And the effects of different culture density on the organization structure changes of digestive intestines of C.gariepinus were analyzed.[Result] After culture 30 days,the culture density only affected the thickness of striated border in stomach and middle segment of intestine.The striated border thickness of stomach in the density group of 35 kg/m3 was significantly lower than that in the

  8. Evaluation of sodium chloride (NaCl) for potential prophylactic treatment and its short-term toxicity to African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822) yolk-sac and swim-up fry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magondu, E.W.; Rasowo, J.; Oyoo-Okoth, E.; Charo-Karisa, H.

    2011-01-01

    Disease and parasite outbreaks cause mortality of fish, affecting mostly early stages of fish cycle. The outbreaks are usually prevented using a number of chemicals including salt (NaCl) for which protocols are lacking. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of NaCl as a potential p

  9. Effects of Different Feeding Way on Part of the Growth Performance of Clarias gariepinus%不同投喂方式对革胡子鲶生长性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季延滨; 程民杰; 孙学亮; 孙朦朦; 陈成勋

    2014-01-01

    研究了不同投喂方式对革胡子鲶(Clarias gariepinus)生长指标、健康状况的影响.按投喂方式分为不间断投喂(A组)、隔3d停喂1d(B组)与隔7d停喂1d(C组),在室内养殖条件下,饵料用茨粉与鲜杂饲料1:6(m/m)比例进行配比,连续50d试验后采样,测定血清及组织指标.结果表明,试验鱼增重率(GR)、特定生长率(SGR)为:B组最高,其次是A组,C组最低.各组织和血清中超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性B组显著高于其他组(P<0.05).头肾、脾脏中B组丙二醛(MDA)含量显著高于其他组(P<0.05),血清C组MDA含量显著低于其他组(P<0.05).脾脏、头肾、肌肉中B组酸性磷酸酶(ACP)活力都显著高于其他组(P<0.05).肝脏中溶菌酶(LZM)活力、碱性磷酸酶(AKP)活力B组显著低于其他组(P<0.05).脾脏中B组SOD、ACP、AKP显著高于其他组(P<0.05).脾脏、头肾中A组LZM活力显著低于其他组(P<0.05).肌肉、血清中B组LZM活力显著高于其他组(P<0.05).血清中肝功能指标丙氨酸转氨酶(ALT)B、C组显著高于A组,天门冬氨酸氨基转氨酶(AST)B组显著高于A、C组,总胆固醇(CHO)、甘油三酯(TG)、直接胆红素(DBIL)、总胆红素(TBIL)各组之间差异不显著(P>0.05).隔3d停喂1d的革胡子鲶鱼体生长速度最快,健康指标最好.隔3d停喂1d的喂养方式试验效果较理想.

  10. 泥鳅β-actin启动子介导的革胡子鲶GH重组基因的构建及启动活性研究%Recombinant Construction and Activity Analysis of Loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatusβ-actin Promoter and North Africa Catfish Clarias gariepinus GH Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金铁根; 李相赫; 陈阳; 薛松磊; 徐琪; 陈国宏

    2014-01-01

    为获得快速生长的泥鳅(Misgurnus anguillicaudatus),研究了泥鳅β-actin基因启动子介导的革胡子鲶(Clarias gariepinus)生长激素(growth hormone,GH)重组基因。采用PCR和RT-PCR技术克隆泥鳅β-actin基因近端启动子、3′-UTR及革胡子鲶GH基因编码区,构建一个长为2418bp的GH重组基因DPRK。首先,构建了以增强型绿色荧光蛋白(EGFP)基因作为报告基因的重组表达载体pAF(pβ-actin promoter-EGFP),然后转染DF1真核细胞,同时经酶切线性化后显微注射到斑马鱼(Danio rerio)和泥鳅的受精卵中,以评价泥鳅β-actin启动子的启动活性。其次,将重组基因DPRK显微注射到泥鳅受精卵中。结果显示:泥鳅β-actin启动子能在DF1细胞、斑马鱼和泥鳅的受精卵中启动绿色荧光蛋白的表达;泥鳅的荧光表达率(78.44%)显著高于斑马鱼(29.62%);泥鳅受精卵显微注射DPRK 20d后,在mRNA水平检测到GH基因的表达。这表明泥鳅β-actin基因近端启动子具有显著的启动活性,且重组基因DPRK能在泥鳅体内表达,为下一步泥鳅的基因工程育种奠定了理论基础。%β-actin gene proximal promoter fragment and 3'-UTR fragment of Misgurnus anguillicaudatus were obtained by homology cloning strategy, and north Africa Clarias gariepinus growth hormone gene CDS fragments were amplified using RT-PCR technology for producing fast-growing transgenic loach. Through the reactions of cutting by restriction enzyme and linking, the"all fish"growth hormone gene recombinant DPRK with a length of 2418 bp was constructed. And then the recombinant DPRK was inserted into non-CMV promoter pEGFP-N1 for cloning. Meanwhile, in order to assess M. anguillicaudatusβ-actin gene promoter function and the level of expression of DPRK, the recombinant vectors pAF, with EGFP as a report gene, were constructed. Strong green fluorescence was observed in DF1 cell. And the fertilized

  11. Dietary canitine maintains energy reserves and delays fatigue of exercised african catfish (Clarias gariepinus fed high fat diets Carnitina dietética mantem reservas energéticas e evita a fatiga de bagre-africano durante exercício

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ozório

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipids, together with proteins, are traditionally considered as primary fuels during aerobic swimming. The effects of dietary fat and carnitine supplements and exercise on the energy metabolism of juvenile fish were investigated. One hundred African catfish (Clarias gariepinus were fed four isonitrogenous diets containing a fat level of 100 or 190 g kg-1 diet and one of the two levels of carnitine (15 and 1000 mg kg-1. Fish grew from 61 to 162 g in 10 wk. Thereafter, 6 fish per group swam vigorously for 3 h and the results were compared with unexercised groups. Fish receiving 1,000 mg carnitine accumulated 2- to 3-fold more carnitine than fish receiving 15 mg carnitine. Plasma acyl-carnitine level was affected by an interaction between dietary treatment and exercise (P Lipídios e proteínas são tradicionalmente considerados combustíveis primários durante natação aeróbica. Nesse ensaio foi investigado o efeito da suplementação de vários níveis de gordura e carnitina no metabolismo de 100 bagres africanos juvenis (Clarias gariepinus. Os peixes foram arraçoados com quatro dietas isoprotéicas, cada uma contendo 100 ou 190 g gordura kg-1 dieta, e um dos dois níveis de carnitina (15 e 1000 mg kg-1. Os peixes cresceram de 61 a 162 g em 10 semanas. No final do ensaio de alimentação, grupos de seis peixes por tratamento foram induzidos a nadar vigorosamente por 3 h e em seguida vários parâmetros foram determinados no tecido muscular e plasma, e os resultados observados nos grupos exercitados foram comparados com grupos controles (não exercitados. Os peixes arraçoados com 1,000 mg carnitina acumularam de duas a três vezes mais carnitina que os peixes arraçoados com 15 mg carnitina. O nível de acyl-carnitina no plasma foi influenciado pela interação entre os tratamentos dietéticos e exercício físico (P < 0.05. As concentrações de adenosina trifosfato (ATP e fosfocreatina no tecido muscular branco (WM foram mais elevadas em

  12. Sixteen EST-linked microsatellite markers in Günther's walking catfish, Clarias macrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukkorntong, Chantapim; Panprommin, Dutrudi; Poompuang, Supawadee

    2008-11-01

    Twenty-seven new microsatellite sequences were identified by screening 2029 expressed sequence tags from Günther's walking catfish, Clarias macrocephalus. Sixteen loci were polymorphic with the number of alleles ranging from two to 16 per locus and the observed and expected heterozygosities ranging from 0.4667 to 0.9333 and from 0.427 to 0.8819 per locus, respectively. Cross-species amplifications of all 16 primer pairs were tested in four other species of catfish including Clarias gariepinus, Pangasius hypophthalmus, Pangasius larnaudii and Pangasianodon gigas. Eleven loci were found to amplify in other species, with the number of polymorphic loci ranging from one in P. larnaudii to nine in C. gariepinus.

  13. 高密度养殖下革胡子鲶生长激素mRNA表达的半定量分析%Semi-quantitative Analysis of Growth Hormone(GH) mRNA Expression of Clarias gariepinus in High Density Pond Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓梅; 戴伟; 郭永军; 陈承勋; 李娜; 张茂群

    2011-01-01

    以β-肌动蛋白(β-actin)mRNA的表达量作为内标,应用半定量RT-PCR法,对高密度养殖条件下不同月龄革胡子鲶垂体生长激素(Growth hormone,GH)mRNA的相对表达量进行分析.结果显示:3.5,5,6.5月龄试验鱼的GH mRNA的相对表达量分别为3.612~5.965,2.929~4.556和1.360~1.821;平均相对表达量分别为4.346±0.656 0,3.649±0.568 4和1.575±0.135 5.上述数据经方差分析得出,革胡子鲶任意两个不同月龄之间GH mRNA相对表达量的差异达到1%的显著水平.Duncan氏多重比较结果显示,3.5,5月龄试验鱼垂体GH mRNA的平均相对表达量差异不显著,但均极显著高于6.5月龄.%Using β-actin mRNA expression quantity as an internal reference,the differences of growth hormone (GH) mRNA expression in pituitary of Clarias gariepinus in high density pond culture at different months old were analyzed with the employment of semi-quantitative RT-PCR method. The relative expression quantity of GH mRNA of individuals at 3.5,5 and 6.5 months old were 3. 612 - 5. 965,2. 929 - 4. 556 and 1. 360 - 1. 821 ,respectively, while the mean relative expressions were 4.346 ±0.656 0,3. 649 ±0.568 4 and 1. 575 ± 0. 135 5 separately for 3.5,5 and 6.5 months old. The variance analysis indicated that the significant differences reached 1% in the relative expression level of the GH mRNA between any two months old. The Duncan's multiple comparison showed that the differences of GH mRNA expression between that at 3.5 and 6.5 months old as well as that at 5 and 6.5 months old were extremely significant,but there was no difference of GH mRNA expression between that at 3.5 and 5 months old.

  14. Microbial evaluation and occurrence of antidrug multi-resistant organisms among the indigenous Clarias species in River Oluwa, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    T.A. Ayandiran; Dahunsi, S O

    2017-01-01

    Fish may harbor pathogens on or inside its body when in contaminated environment. Clarias gariepinus and Clarias buthopogon were analyzed to evaluate the likely impact of pollution on the antidrug resistance pattern of their microbial isolates. Different bacterial and fungal counts were observed on the fish organs (skin, muscles and gills). The highest bacterial count was 1,040,000 Cfu/mL while the lowest was 101 Cfu/mL. The highest fungal count obtained was 344,000 Cfu/mL while the lowest wa...

  15. Pheromones and ovarian growth in African catfish Clarias gariepinus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerd, van J.H.

    1990-01-01

    Pheromones are defined as 'substances which are secreted to the outside by an individual and received by a second individual of the same species, in which they release a specific reaction'. In teleost fish, pheromones play a role in a variety of social interactions. Sex pheromones are involved in re

  16. Simulation of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus niloticus L.) culture in ponds, through individual-based modelling, using a population dynamic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, de G.J.; Dekker, P.J.; Huisman, E.A.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2005-01-01

    A simulation model for the production of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus niloticus L.) for mixed- or mono-sex culture and for poly-culture with the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell 1822) or African snakehead (Parachanna obscura Günther 1861) is presented. The model is based on an

  17. Trypanosomiasis in hybrid catfish (Clarias macrocephalus x Clarias gariepinus and other freshwater fishes

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    Promkhunthong, W.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The infestation of Trypanosoma sp. (Kinetoplastida in the hybrid catfish and some fresh water fish was studied showing such parasitic infestation was specific only in catfish. The virulence as determined by LD50 for 5 days was 2.28x1010 cell in a fish sample. The parasitic infestation caused hematological changes by the reduction of red as well as white blood cells. The reductions were highly significant as compared to the healthy sample (p<0.05 as noted by the red and white blood cell count which dropped from 2.14±0.48x106 to 1.62±0.27x106 cells/ml and from 1.45±3.76x105 to 2.42±0.78x104 cells/ml blood in the infested samples, respectively. Similar trend was noted for hemoglobin and hematocrit which dropped significantly (p<0.05. The hemoglobin in healthy fish is 7.075±0.929g/100g, which dropped to 6.268±0.697g/100g in the samples with infestation. The percentage of hematocrit in healthy sample is 25.275±3.318%, which dropped to 21.722±3.068% in the samples with infestation. The reverse trend was recognized for serum protein andleukocrit which increased in the samples with Trypanosoma sp. infestation. The density gradient centrifugation technique was employed in the isolation of parasites in which 50% Percoll solution in 0.85% final preparation of saline solution was capable of removing Trypanosoma sp. from the blood. The study of antibody levels in serum showed that the infested hybrid catfish could develop the antibody which reached a peak 14 days after the infestation. Trypanosoma sp. was unable to cause histological changes in the tissues of gill, liver, kidney, spleen, stomach and intestine. Minor inflammations were observed, even the cases that large number of parasites were found in the tissues, blood streams and sinuses. Marked reductions were recorded for mature red blood cells while there were the formation of immature red blood and phagocytotic cells at higher rates as compared to the healthy individual.

  18. Effect of Stocking Density on the Growth Performance and Levels of Complement C3 and C4 in Clarias gariepinus%养殖密度对革胡子鲶生长性能及补体C3·C4的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐敏; 王晓梅; 季延滨; 王存; 戴伟; 潘宝平

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究养殖密度对革胡子鲶生长性能及血清补体C3、C4的影响.[方法]以体重(30.71±0.89)g革胡子鲶为试验对象,测定4种养殖密度((35、65、95、125kg/m3)下革胡子鲶生长性能及血清补体C3、C4的变化.[结果]养殖60d后,随着养殖密度升高,革胡子鲶终末重、日增重均呈下降趋势,其中35 kg/m3与65 kg/m3密度组间差异不显著(P>0.05).各密度处理组间饵料系数均无显著差异(P>0.05).低密度处理组(35kg/m3与65kg/m3)与高密度处理组(95kg/m3与125kg/m3)间死亡率差异显著(P0.05).[结论]65kg/m3可推荐为革胡子鲶的最佳养殖生产密度.%[Objective ] The effects of stocking density on the growth performance and the levels of complement C3, C4 in C. Gariepinus were, investigated. [Method] C. Gariepinus weighing (30.71 ±0. 89) g were taken as test objects and the changes of growth performance and complement C3, C4 in the serum of C. Gariepinus at four culture densities (35 , 65, 95, 125 kg/m3) were measured. [ Result ] After 60 days, the final body weight (BWf) and daily weight gain (DWG) decreased with the increasing of stocking density. There was no significant difference between 35 kg/m3 and 65 kg/m3 treatments (P>0.05). Stocking density did not affect the feed conversion rate (FCR) significantly (P >0.05). Significant difference of the death rate was observed between low density treatments (35 kg/m3 and 65 kg/m3) and high density treatments (95 kg/m3 and 125 kg/m3) (P 0.05). [Conclusion] 65 kg/m3 could be recommended as the best culture density in practical aquaculture.

  19. Microbial evaluation and occurrence of antidrug multi-resistant organisms among the indigenous Clarias species in River Oluwa, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.A. Ayandiran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish may harbor pathogens on or inside its body when in contaminated environment. Clarias gariepinus and Clarias buthopogon were analyzed to evaluate the likely impact of pollution on the antidrug resistance pattern of their microbial isolates. Different bacterial and fungal counts were observed on the fish organs (skin, muscles and gills. The highest bacterial count was 1,040,000 Cfu/mL while the lowest was 101 Cfu/mL. The highest fungal count obtained was 344,000 Cfu/mL while the lowest was 65 Cfu/mL. Bacterial isolates belonging to genera Bacillus, Clostridium, Alcaligenes, Flavobacterium, Enterobacter and Corynebacterium were obtained from the organs. Also, fungal isolates belonging to the genera Penicillium, Aspergillus, Rhizopus, Monila and Fusarium were isolated. The resistance of isolates from C. gariepinus to drugs was between 50% and 90% with Bacillus species showing the highest resistance. For isolates from C. buthopogon, 40–90% resistance was observed with Alcaligenes faecalis showing highest resistance. Five patterns of multiple drug resistance were observed among the bacterial isolates with antibiotics ranging from 4 to 9. Also, result of fungal isolates showed susceptibility to ketoconazole and resistant to fluconazole and griseofulvin. The public health implications of consuming these fishes are discussed.

  20. Monoclonal antibody to serum immunoglobulins of Clarias batrachus and its application in immunoassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Neeraj; Chaudhary, Dharmendra K; Singh, Akhilesh; Rathore, Gaurav

    2012-12-15

    Serum immunoglobulins of Clarias batrachus (Cb-Ig) were purified by affinity chromatography using bovine serum albumin as capture ligand. Under reducing conditions in SDS-PAGE, Cb-Ig was composed of a heavy (H) chain (68.7 kDa) and two light (L) chains (27.4 and 26.3 kDa). Purified Cb-Ig was used to produce a monoclonal antibody (MAb) designated E4 MAb that belonged to IgG1 subclass. In Western blotting, this MAb showed binding to H chain of purified Cb-Ig and putative H chains in reduced sera of C. batrachus, Clarias gariepinus and Heteropneustes fossilis. However, no binding was observed with serum protein of Labeo rohita and Channa striata. Cross-reactivity of anti-Cb-Ig MAb was observed with serum of C. batrachus, C. gariepinus and H. fossilis in competitive ELISA. In immunoblotting of non-reduced Cb-Ig with E4 MAb, four bands assumed to be tetrameric, trimeric, dimeric and monomeric form were observed. In flow cytometric analysis of the gated lymphocytes, the number of surface Ig-positive (Ig+) cells in blood, spleen, kidney and thymus of C. batrachus was determined to be 50.1 ± 3.1, 55.1 ± 3.36, 42.4 ± 4.81 and 5.1 ± 0.89%, respectively, using E4 MAb. Ig+ cells were also demonstrated in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue sections of spleen, kidney, thymus and smears of blood mononuclear cells in indirect immunoperoxidase test. The developed MAb was employed to detect pathogen-specific immunoglobulins in the sera of C. batrachus immunized with killed Edwardsiella tarda, by an indirect ELISA. This monoclonal antibody can be useful tool in immunological research and assays.

  1. A new genus and species of proteocephalidean (Cestoda) from Clarias catfishes (Siluriformes: Clariidae) in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chambrier, Alain; Scholz, Tomás; Beletew, Moges; Mariaux, Jean

    2009-02-01

    A new proteocephalidean cestode is described from 2 catfishes, Clarias gariepinus (type host) and C. cf. anguillaris (Siluriformes: Clariidae), from Ethiopia (type locality), Sudan, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe, and a new genus, Barsonella, is proposed to accommodate it. The genus belongs to the Proteocephalinae because its genital organs (testes, ovary, vitellarium, and uterus) are situated in the medulla. Barsonella lafoni, the type and only species of the new genus, is characterized mainly by the possession of an additional opening of each sucker; circular musculature on the anterior margin of suckers, serving as a sphincter; a small thin-walled glandular apical organ; absence of well-developed osmoregulatory canals in mature, pregravid, and gravid proglottids; and a large strobila, up to 173 mm long and 3.2 mm wide. Species of Marsypocephalus Wedl, 1861 (Marsypocephalinae), other large-sized proteocephalidean tapeworms occurring sympatrically in African catfishes (Clarias and Heterobranchus) and also possessing a sphincter-like, circular musculature on the anterior part of suckers, differ from B. lafoni in the absence of an additional sucker opening and glandular apical organ, the cortical position of the testes, well-developed osmoregulatory canals throughout the strobila, and a large cirrus sac. Proteocephalus glanduligerus (Janicki, 1928), another cestode parasitic in Clarias spp. in Africa, is much smaller than B. lafoni (maximum length 15 mm), has suckers without additional opening and circular musculature on the suckers, a large-sized glandular organ, much larger than suckers, and well-developed osmoregulatory canals. Comparison of partial sequences of the 28S rRNA gene for 7 samples of B. lafoni from 2 different hosts and 4 localities in Ethiopia, Sudan, and Tanzania has shown a very low genetic variability. In a limited phylogenetic analysis, B. lafoni formed a clade with Corallobothrium solidum Fritsch, 1886 (Proteocephalidae: Corallobothriinae), an African

  2. Morpho-histochemistry of the distal intestines and rectum of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus

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    Ikpegbu Ekele

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of the farmed African catfish distal intestines and rectum was investigated. The samples were dissected out and the tissue slices were passed through graded ethanol, cleared in xylene, embedded in paraffin wax, sectioned and stained for light microscopy. Grossly, the intestine was subdivided into proximal, middle, distal and rectal regions based on palpable thickness and diameter of the regions. No intestino-rectal valve was observed; hence the rectum was not well defined. The histology revealed the presence of tunica mucosa of simple columnar cells, lamina propria of collagen fibres and muscularis mucosae of smooth muscle fibres; submucosa of loose connective tissues and blood vessels; tunica muscularis of smooth muscles in an inner circular and outer longitudinal arrangement; and a serosa in all regions except the rectum and anus that presented tunica adventitia. The mucosal folds were fingerlike to orange leaf shaped ingrowths into the lumen on a transverse section. They decreased in complexity and height but increased in width towards the rectum. The lining epithelium of the intestinal tract was comprised of the absorptive simple columnar cells containing goblet cells and intraepithelial lymphocytes. Some rectal simple columnar epithelium contained supranuclear vacuoles while others contained non-vacuolated cytoplasm. The goblet cells contained neutral and acid mucins, and increased in number progressively towards the rectum. The anal tunica muscularis contained mostly skeletal muscles.

  3. TRANSMISI GEN PhGH DAN PERFORMA PERTUMBUHAN IKAN LELE AFRIKA (Clarias gariepinus TRANSGENIK GENERASI KETIGA

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    Huria Marnis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi transmisi transgen PhGH dan performa ikan lele Afrika transgenik generasi ketiga (F3 yang meliputi pertumbuhan, rasio efisiensi konversi pakan, konsentrasi hormon pertumbuhan dan hormon IGF-I. Ikan lele transgenik F3 telah diproduksi dengan meyilangkan ikan lele transgenik F2 dengan non-transgenik. Deteksi transgen (PhGH dilakukan menggunakan metode PCR. Analisis hormon pertumbuhan dan hormon insuline-like growth factor (IGF-I menggunakan sampel serum darah dan metode enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ikan lele transgenik F3 yang digunakan pada pengujian ini terdeteksi positif membawa transgen dengan ukuran fragmen gen sebesar 1.500 bp. Transmisi transgen dari induk F2 ke F3 berkisar 0-75%. Pertumbuhan bobot populasi ikan lele transgenik F3 lebih tinggi 51,26% dibandingkan dengan ikan lele non-transgenik (P<0,05. Pertumbuhan bobot populasi ikan transgenik mencapai 484±60,3 g, sedangkan pertumbuhan bobot ikan non-transgenik 319,98±65,3 g. Nilai rasio konversi pakan ikan lele transgenik F3 sebesar 0,89 sedangkan non-transgenik 1,30. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa efisiensi pakan ikan lele transgenik F3 lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan ikan non-transgenik (P<0,05. Ikan lele transgenik mempunyai konsentrasi hormon pertumbuhan (5,67±2,65 ng/mL yang lebih tinggi (P<0,05 jika dibandingkan dengan ikan lele non-transgenik (3,00±1,41 ng/mL. Ikan lele transgenik juga memiliki kandungan hormon IGF-I (6,63±0,11 ng/mL lebih tinggi (P<0,05 dibandingkan dengan ikan lele non-transgenik (5,38±0,63 ng/mL. Tingginya konsentrasi hormon pertumbuhan dan hormon IGF-I dapat mewakili performa pertumbuhan dan efisiensi penggunaan pakan pada ikan lele transgenik. The aim of this study was to determine the transmission of a transgene (PhGH and to evaluate the performance of F3 transgenic African catfish, such as body weight, feed conversion ratio (FCR, growth hormone and IGF-I hormone profile. F3 transgenic were produced by mating F2 transgenic with non-transgenic fish. Detection of transgene was performed using PCR method. Analysis of the growth hormone and the insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I hormone were conducted by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA method using serum samples. The results showed that the transgenic catfish F3 was positive carrying the transgene 1.500 bp. Transgene transmission from F2 to F3 ranged zero to 75%. The performance of F3 transgenic African catfish was significantly better 51.26% than that the non-transgenic (P<0.05. The body weight of transgenic population (484±255.25 g was higher than that non-transgenic (319.98±165.27 g. FCR of transgenic fish (0.89 was lower than that non-transgenic (1.30. The growth hormone level of transgenic (5.67±2.65 ng/mL was higher than that non-transgenic (3.00±1.41 ng/mL, IGF-I hormone level of F3 transgenic (6.63±0.11 ng/mL was also higher than that non-transgenic (5.38±0.63 ng/mL. High level of growth hormone and IGF-I hormone represented both growth performance and efficiency of feed utilization of transgenic African catfish.

  4. Individual variation in growth of African catfish Clarias gariepinus: a search for explanatory factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matos Martins, de C.I.

    2005-01-01

    Among farmed animals, fish exhibit the largest individual variation in growth, yet most of the studies reporting data on growth do not take individual variation into account. Usually a mean value is considered and although the variation around the mean is also mentioned, it is generally viewed as a

  5. Capability of Catfish (Clarias gariepinus to Accumulate Hg2+ From Water

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    Heny Suseno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is hazardous contaminant that can be accumulated by aquatic organisms such as fishes, mussels etc. Catfish is one of source of animal protein but it also can accumulate Hg2+ from water that used in aquaculture. Due to less information about capability of catfish to accumulate Hg2+, therefore we studied bioaccumulation of Hg2+ that used biokinetic approach (aqueous uptake-rate, and elimination-rate.  Nuclear application technique was applied in this study by using radiotracer of 203Hg.  A simple kinetic model was then constructed to predict the bioaccumulation capability of   by catfish. The result of experiments were shown that the uptake rate of difference Hg2+ concentration were 79.90 to 101.22 ml.g-1.d-1. Strong correlation between uptake rates with increasing Hg2+concentration. In addition, the elimination rates were range 0.080 – 0.081 day-1. The biology half time (t1/2b of Hg2+ in whole body catfish were 8.50 – 8.63 days.  However, no clear correlation  between elimination rate with increasing concentration of Hg2+. The calculation of Bio Concentration Factor (BCF shown catfish have capability to accumulated Hg maximum 1242.69 time than its concentration in water

  6. Optimization of Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Fish Oil from Viscera of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus

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    Mohamed Zaidul Islam Sarker

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Fish oil was extracted from the viscera of African Catfish using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2. A Central Composite Design of Response Surface methodology (RSM was employed to optimize the SC-CO2 extraction parameters. The oil yield (Y as response variable was executed against the four independent variables, namely pressure, temperature, flow rate and soaking time. The oil yield varied with the linear, quadratic and interaction of pressure, temperature, flow rate and soaking time. Optimum points were observed within the variables of temperature from 35 °C to 80 °C, pressure from 10 MPa to 40 MPa, flow rate from 1 mL/min to 3 mL/min and soaking time from 1 h to 4 h. However, the extraction parameters were found to be optimized at temperature 57.5 °C, pressure 40 MPa, flow rate 2.0 mL/min and soaking time 2.5 h. At this optimized condition, the highest oil yields were found to be 67.0% (g oil/100 g sample on dry basis in the viscera of catfish which was reasonable to the yields of 78.0% extracted using the Soxhlet method.

  7. Reduced cannibalistic behavior of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, larvae under dark and dim conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Yukinori; Sanudin, Noorsyarinah; Firdaus, Rian Freddie; Saad, Shahbudin

    2013-06-01

    In general, African catfish shows higher survival rates in the dark conditions than in the light conditions. In this study, larval behavior of African catfish was observed under 0, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 lx using a CCD camera to investigate the reason why African catfish larvae show higher survival rates in dark conditions. The larvae showed significantly higher swimming activity under 0, 0.01, and 0.1 lx than that under 10 and 100 lx. The larvae also showed significantly increased aggressive behavior under 10 and 100 lx; the swimming larvae attacked resting individuals more frequently under 10 and 100 lx than under 0, 0.01, and 0.1 lx. The aggressive behavior and sharp teeth of the attacking larvae appeared to induce skin surface lesions on injured larvae. Chemical substances were then generated from the injured skin surface, and these chemical stimuli triggered cannibalistic behavior in other fish near the injured fish. The results of this study demonstrate that the higher survival rates of African catfish larvae under dark conditions are a result of inactivity and subsequent increase in chemical releasing stimuli concentrations around inactive individuals that triggers feeding behavior in nearby active catfish. Therefore, we recommend larval rearing of African catfish in dark or dim conditions, as it improves catfish survival rates.

  8. cDNA sequence and protein bioinformatics analyses of MSTN in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanjanaworakul, Poonmanee; Sawatdichaikul, Orathai; Poompuang, Supawadee

    2016-04-01

    Myostatin, also known as growth differentiation factor 8, has been identified as a potent negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth. The purpose of this study was to characterize and predict function of the myostatin gene of the African catfish (Cg-MSTN). Expression of Cg-MSTN was determined at three growth stages to establish the relationship between the levels of MSTN transcript and skeletal muscle growth. The partial cDNA sequence of Cg-MSTN was cloned by using published information from its congener walking catfish (Cm-MSTN). The Cg-MSTN was 1194 bp in length encoding a protein of 397 amino acids. The deduced MSTN sequence exhibited key functional sites similar to those of other members of the TGF-β superfamily, especially, the proteolytic processing site (RXXR motif) and nine conserved cysteines at the C-terminal. Expression of MSTN appeared to be correlated with muscle development and growth of African catfish. Protein bioinformatics revealed that the primary sequence of Cg-MSTN shared 98 % sequence identity with that of walking catfish Cm-MSTN with only two different residues, [Formula: see text]. and [Formula: see text]. The proposed model of Cg-MSTN revealed the key point mutation [Formula: see text] causing a 7.35 Å shorter distance between the N- and C-lobes and an approximately 11° narrow angle than those of Cm-MSTN. The substitution of a proline residue near the proteolytic processing site which altered the structure of myostatin may play a critical role in reducing proteolytic activity of this protein in African catfish.

  9. Effects of Photoperiod on the Haematological Parameters of Clarias Gariepinus Fingerlings Reared in Water Recirculatory System

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    Solomon S.G.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Haematological analyses has been routinely used in determining the physiological state of animals and known to be affected by different environmental factors, the present study was therefore designed to assess the effect of 24 hours of light (00D: 24L, 24 hours of darkness (24D: 00L and 12 hour light / 12 hours darkness (12D: 12L photoperiod on the haematological parameters of the African Catfish. At the end of the six weeks experiment, it was observed that some haematological parameters such as Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC, the Mean White Blood Cells (WBC, Mean Red Blood Cells (RBC, Haemoglobin content (HGB, Platelet count (PLT showed significant difference (P0.05. However MCHC and MCH were noticed to increase as the light period increased while the other parameters reduced as the light period increased. The findings indicate that exposure of the African Catfish to continuous light for six weeks duration elicits response in the haematological profile of the fish.

  10. Nutrition and related ontogenetic aspects in larvae of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verreth, J.

    1994-01-01

    The absence of adequate techniques for rearing fish larvae constitutes a bottleneck for sustainable aquacultural growth. Important constraints are the tiny size of the larvae, the dependance on live food organisms and the developmental stage of the fish larvae. The development of dependable rearing

  11. The effect of group composition on the welfare of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins, C.I.; Schrama, J.W.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2006-01-01

    Within fish farming grading, i.e. the process of sorting to approximate size, changes the group composition from heterogeneous to homogeneous. Although this procedure is considered an acute stressor, the long-term consequences of grading on aggression and stress levels have not yet been investigated

  12. Dietary L-carnitine and energy and lipid metabolism in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) juveniles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozorio, R.

    2001-01-01

    As the lipid content of the diet increases so does the requirement for certain components involved in lipid metabolism. Carnitine is a normal constituent of animal tissues and plasma, which is required for the transport of long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) to the site of oxidation. To avoid accu

  13. Seasonal changes in steroid metabolism in the male reproductive organ-system of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Resink, J.W.; Schoonen, W.G.E.J.; Hurk, R. van den; Viveen, W.J.A.R.; Lambert, J.G.D.

    1987-01-01

    Steroid and steroid glucuronide synthesis in feral male African catfish was investigated in vitro by incubating testes with [3H]-pregnenolone and seminal vesicles with [3H]-androstenedione. In testes, the capacity to form progestins, androgens, especially 11-oxygenated ones, and steroid glucuronides

  14. SHORT COMMUNICATION: THE EFFECT OF TANNIN SOLUTION IN PERFORMING SUCCESFULL EGG MICROINJECTION ON AFRICAN CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus

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    Muhammad Hunaina Fariduddin Ath-thar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to successfully perform a gene transfer activity using microinjection, an individual egg is needed. The common standard operating procedure to collect the individual egg is by applying chemical solution to remove the sticky layer covering the egg surface. Among several available solutions, tannin is one of alternative substances that can be used in performing egg microinjection on African catfish. In this study, the effect of different dosages of tannin solution to remove the sticky layer of eggs was observed. The study was conducted at the Laboratory of Fish Breeding and Genetics, Bogor Agricultural University. Prior to microinjection, the eggs were treated with different dosages of tannin solution right after fertilization. There were four different levels of dosage used as the treatments i.e.: 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, and 0.9 ppm. After the treatments, each individual egg was injected using DNA pmâactin-hrGFP plasmid with a concentration of 20 μg/mL. The results showed that the dosage of 0.5 ppm of tannin was the most effective treatment compared to the other dosages. This dosage produced 71.4% hatching rate and 57.1% transgenic embryos respectively.

  15. EFFECT OF MORINGA OLEIFERA MARINADE ON PROXIMATE COMPOSITION AND SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF SMOKE-DRIED AFRICAN CATFISH (CLARIAS GARIEPINUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazeem Dauda Adeyemi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the effect of Moringa oleifera marinade on chemical composition and organoleptic properties of smoke-dried catfish in a 6x8 factorial experiment. The experimental treatments are the control, 1, 2 and 3% (w/v Moringa oleifera Marinade (MOM, 5% brine and 0.2% Butylated Hydroxyl Anisole (BHA (w/v solutions. Ninety fishes of average weight of 230±8 g were gutted, washed and randomly assigned to the treatments. Thereafter, the fishes were soaked in the treatments for 2 hours and later hot smoked for 12 hours. After smoking, the fishes were stored in air-free netted boxes and placed on laboratory shelves at room temperature (37±20C for 8 weeks. Samples were taken every seven days for chemical and sensory analysis. The proximate analysis showed that Moringa oleifera marinade (MOM reduced the moisture content of smoke-dried fish samples throughout the storage period. The dehydrating property of MOM was concentration dependent with 3% MOM samples having the lowest moisture content, which was significantly different from other treatments. There was no significant difference in the dehydrating properties of 1% MOM, 2% MOM and salt treated samples. All levels of MOM enhanced and maintained the protein, ash and fat content of smoke-dried fish samples. Sensory scores showed no significant difference among the treatments in terms of color, flavor, juiciness and overall acceptability of fish samples. Moringa oleifera marinade could be used to maintain the quality attributes of smoke-dried African catfish stored for 2 months.

  16. Natural occurrence of Diplostomum spp. in farm-raised African catfish (Clarias gariepinus from Oyo state, Nigeria

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    Adeshina Ibrahim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Diplostomum species are the parasites responsible for diplostomiasis in fish which may cause blindness, eyefluke, severe ocular disease, opacity of the lens and many other affections. The parasites use many organisms including fish as a host. African catfish is one of the widely distributed fish species in tropical Africa and has become one of the most important culturable fish species in Africa especially in Nigeria. This study examined the occurrence of Diplostomum species in farm raised African catfish in Oyo state. A total of two hundred and sixteen eye samples were collected from 108 fishes in 36 farms. The eye lens and vitreous body were examined for the presence of Diplostomum species. The data obtained were analysed using descriptive statistics and regression analysis to the relationship between the eye size and parasite occurrence. The result shows that 33.18% of the samples had Diplostomum species. Males had higher occurrence (23.53% than the females (9.65%. There were statistically significant differences in the percentage, intensity and index of infection between males and females (p = 0.010, p = 0.003, and p = 0.012 respectively while the density of infection between both sexes was not statistically significant (p = 0.063. The relationship between eye diameter and occurrence of the parasites shows positive relationship Pearson correlation (R2 = 0.125. In conclusion, Diplostomum species are present in farm raised African catfish in Oyo state-Nigeria with a positive relationship between the eye diameter and occurrence of the parasites.

  17. Treatment of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus wastewater utilizing phytoremediation of microalgae, Chlorella sp. with Aspergillus niger bio-harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Nurfarahana Mohd; Bakar, Nur Syuhada Abu; Lananan, Fathurrahman; Abdul Hamid, Siti Hajar; Lam, Su Shiung; Jusoh, Ahmad

    2015-08-01

    This study focuses on the evaluation of the performance of Chlorella sp. in removing nutrient in aquaculture wastewater and its correlation with the kinetic growth of Chlorella sp. The treatment was applied with various Chlorella sp. inoculation dosage ranging from 0% to 60% (v/v) of wastewater. The optimum inoculation dosage was recorded at 30% (v/v) with effluent concentration of ammonia and orthophosphate recording at 0.012mgL(-1) and 0.647mgL(-1), respectively on Day 11. The optimum dosage for bio-flocculation process was obtained at 30mgL(-1) of Aspergillus niger with a harvesting efficiency of 97%. This type of development of phytoremediation with continuous bio-harvesting could promote the use of sustainable green technology for effective wastewater treatment.

  18. Retention of health-related beneficial components during household preparation of selenium-enriched African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fillets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mierke-Klemeyer, S.; Larsen, R.; Oehlenschlaeger, J.; Nunes, M.L.; Schram, E.; Luten, J.B.

    2008-01-01

    Industrial processing and heat treatment of fish muscle generally lead to losses of water-soluble components, some of which may have beneficial health effects. The aim of this work was to determine the retention of taurine, selenium and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids when preparing African catfish

  19. Antioxidant and antiapoptotic activities of Calotropis procera latex on Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) exposed to toxic 4-nonylphenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Alaa El-Din H; Mohamed, Nadia H; Ismail, Mady A; Abdel-Mageed, Wael M; Shoreit, Ahmed A M

    2016-06-01

    Calotropis procera L. is known as medicinal plant. The Phytochemical analyzes of its latex revealed that it possessed antioxidants, namely terpenes, phenolic compounds and cardenolides, flavonoids and saponins, while tannins, alkaloids and resin were absent in moderate to high concentration. In the present study, the role of latex of Calotropis procera as antioxidant and antiapoptotic was reported. To carry out this aim, fishes were exposed to 100 µg l(-1) 4-nonylphenol as chemical pollutant. The enzymes, superoxidase dismutase, catalase, acetlycholinstrase (AchE), glutathione s-transferase, cortisol, G6PDH) and apoptotic cells increased significantly (pcatfish after 4-nonylphenol exposure. Our study confirms that crude latex of Calotropis procera possessed antioxidant and antiapoptotic activities against the toxicity of 4-Nonylphenol.

  20. Steroidogenesis in the testes and seminal vesicles of spawning and non-spawning African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonen, W.G.E.J.; Granneman, J.C.M.; Lambert, J.G.D.; Oordt, P.G.W.J. van

    1987-01-01

    The in vitro biosynthesis of steroids was studied in testes as well as seminal vesicles of non-spawning pond and spawning feral African catfish, collected during the breeding season. In testes of non-spawners the conversion of [3H]-pregnenolone was directed towards 11-oxygenated androgens and 5β-pre

  1. Histological observations on the dendretic organ of the farmed adult African catfish (Clarias Gariepinus from eastern Nigeria

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    Ikpegbu Ekele

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The histology of the accessory respiratory organ of the African catfish - dendretic organ was investigated to reveal its microanatomy. The data obtained will provide baseline data for further investigative research and assist fish pathologists. The histology showed that the tubular shaped dendretic organ was covered by stratified squamous epithelium containing periodic acid-Schiff (PAS and alcian blue (AB positive mucous cells. On most surfaces, the epithelial cells were organized into columns with mucous cells placed in-between the epithelial cell columns. At the tip of the surface, capillaries were lined by endothelium at the surface epithelium/air contact area. The subepithelial layer was of loose connective tissue containing adipose tissue and occasional blood vessels. The core of the dendretic organ contained elastic cartilage surrounded by a dense layer of perichondrium. Elastic fibres were observed the territorial and inter-territorial spaces.

  2. Post-prandial protease activity in the digestive tract of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, larvae fed decapsulated cysts of Artemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García Ortega, A.; Verreth, J.; Segner, H.

    2000-01-01

    The alkaline proteolytic activity in the gut of African catfish larvae was studied during short time ranges from 30 min to 4 h after ingestion of decapsulated Artemia cysts. The variation in total protease and trypsin activities during the day was monitored during starvation, after one single meal i

  3. Laboratory investigation of daily food intake and gut evacuation in larvae of African catfish Clarias gariepinus under different feeding conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García-Ortega, A.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Vermis, K.; Nelis, H.J.; Sorgeloos, P.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Temporary accumulation of ascorbic acid 2-sulfate (AAS) was measured to estimate food intake and gut evacuation in larvae of African catfish. Fish larvae were fed decapsulated cysts of Artemia containing AAS. In a first experiment it was found that no biosynthesis of AAS occurs in the larva

  4. TRANSMISI, EKSPRESI, DAN DISTRIBUSI GEN HORMON PERTUMBUHAN IKAN PATIN SIAM PADA IKAN LELE AFRIKA (Clarias gariepinus TRANSGENIK F-2

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    Huria Marnis

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu keberhasilan pembentukan ikan transgenik ditandai dengan kemampuan dari individu transgenik tersebut untuk mewariskan transgen pada keturunannya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi transmisi dan ekspresi transgen (PhGh dari generasi F-1 ke F-2 serta mengetahui distribusi transgen pada berbagai organ. Deteksi transgen dilakukan pada larva, benih, dan berbagai organ ikan lele generasi F-2 (pituitari, otak, timus, jantung, limfa, hati, ginjal, lambung, usus, gonad, otot, kulit insang, dan sirip ekor menggunakan metode PCR. Ekspresi transgen pada larva dan organ ikan lele transgenik F-2 dideteksi menggunakan metode reverse transcriptasepolymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Level ekspresi pada organ dianalisis menggunakan metode qPCR, gen β-aktin digunakan sebagai kontrol internal. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa sebanyak 65 ekor induk betina transgenik F-1 positif membawa transgen di sirip ekor, hanya 18 ekor (27,69% induk betina yang positif membawa transgen di telur. Sedangkan pada induk jantan hanya 19 ekor (46,34% yang positif membawa transgen di sperma, dari 41 ekor yang positif membawa transgen di sirip. Transgen dapat terdeteksi pada larva dan sirip ekor ikan lele transgenik F-2 dengan persentase transmisinya adalah 8,11%-50% dengan rata-rata transmisi transgen sebesar 18,85%. Deteksi dan distribusi transgen ditemukan pada larva dan organ pituitari, hati, ginjal, gonad, otot, otak, timus, jantung, limfa, lambung, usus, insang, dan sirip ekor, tetapi transgen tidak ditemukan pada kulit ikan. Level ekspresi transgen tertinggi ditemukan pada hati sebesar 7,3±2,2 pg/μg cDNA – 9,2±2,7 pg/μg cDNA; sedangkan ekspresi terendah ditemukan pada ginjal berkisar 0,19±0,01 pg/μg cDNA – 0,2±0,03 pg/μg cDNA; dan insang sebesar 0,2±0,01 pg/μg cDNA.

  5. Effects of density, PVC-tubes and feeding time on growth, stress and aggression in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerrigter, J.G.J.; Bos, van den R.; Vis, van de J.W.; Spanings, T.; Flik, G.

    2016-01-01

    Successive exposure to aquaculture-related stressors may compromise the allostatic capacity of African catfish and lead to allostatic overload and poor welfare. Therefore, we tested the effect of (i) feeding during the light or dark phase, (ii) density (51 fish per 140 L versus 51 fish per 43 L) and

  6. Comparative acute toxicity of local detergents (Omo and Ariel on fingerlings of the Clarias gariepinus♀ x Heterobranchus longifilis♂ hybrid

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    Christopher B. Ndome

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The acute toxicity of local detergents - Omo detergent (Unilever Nigeria Plc. and Arieldetergent (Procter & Gamble Nigeria Limited - were compared using fingerlings of Clarias gariepinus ♀ xHeterobranchus longifilis ♂ hybrid (Heteroclarias, in a 96 hour bioassay. After a series of range findingtests, the fishes were exposed to concentrations of 0.00 ppm, 20 ppm, 30ppm, 40 ppm, 45 ppm and 50ppm of each detergent for 96 hours. The Median Lethal Concentrations (LC50 values for the detergentsranged between 33.03–35.19 ppm and 37.43–39.79 ppm for Omo and Ariel, respectively. Manifestationtimes decreased from 62–14 and 70–14 hours; overturning times decreased from 80–16 and 92–20hours, while survival times decreased from 96–17 and 96–23 hours for Omo and Ariel, respectively, withincreasing concentrations of the toxicants. Respiratory disturbances, loss of righting balance, lethargyand sudden fish death were observed in the exposed fishes. There was a strong concentration-mortalityrelationship for toxicants, yielding a strong positive correlation co-efficient, r2, of 0.9925 and 0.9882,respectively for Omo and Ariel detergents. The t-test analysis showed significant difference (p 0.05 recorded in other concentrations. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05in overturning and survival times of Omo and Ariel detergents in all the concentrations. The presentstudy shows that Omo detergent with a lesser mean LC50 value of 34.11 ± 1.08 could be more toxic thanAriel with a mean LC50 value of 36.66 ± 1.1. Although there was no statistically significant deferencebetween their LC50s (p > 0.05, it was concluded that effluents containing these detergents must not bedischarged indiscriminately into water bodies in order to avoid harm to fish and other aquatic life.

  7. Blood flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) of walking catfishes (Siluriformes: Clariidae): new genus and species from the Mekong River (Vietnam) with comments on related catfish aporocotylids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Triet Nhat; Bullard, Stephen A

    2013-07-01

    Nomasanguinicola canthoensis gen. et sp. n. infects the branchial vessels of bighead catfish, Clarias macrocephalus Günther (Siluriformes: Clariidae), in the Mekong River near Can Tho, southern Vietnam. Nomasanguinicola differs from all other genera of fish blood flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) by the combination of lacking body spines and by having an anterior sucker with two flanking columns of large denticles, an intestine comprising several short papilla-like caeca, an inverse U-shaped uterus, and an ootype located near the separate genital pores. The new species has an ootype that is posterior to the level of the female genital pore. That feature most easily differentiates it from the only other putative aporocotylid species having an anterior sucker with two flanking columns of large denticles, Plehniella dentata Paperna, 1964 and Sanguinicola clarias Imam, Marzouk, Hassan et Itman, 1984, which have an ootype that is lateral (P. dentata) or anterior (S. clarias) to the level of the female genital pore. These two species apparently lack extant type materials, infect North African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), and herein are considered incertae sedis, but likely comprise species of Nomasanguinicola. An updated list of hosts, sites of infection and geographic localities for the six species and three genera of blood flukes that mature in catfishes is provided. The new species is the first fish blood fluke recorded from Vietnam and only the third reported from a walking catfish (Clariidae).

  8. Production of enzymatic protein hydrolysates from freshwater catfish (Clarias batrachus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seniman, Maizatul Sarah Md; Yusop, Salma Mohamad; Babji, Abdul Salam

    2014-09-01

    Fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) was prepared from freshwater catfish (Clarias batrachus) by using Alcalase® 2.4L and Papain. The effect of hydrolysis time (30, 60, 120, 180 min) with enzyme concentration of 1% (v/w substrate); pH = 8.0, 7.0 was studied to determine the degree of hydrolysis (DH), peptide content, proximate composition and amino acid profile. Results showed that the highest DH of Alcalase and Papain FPH were 58.79% and 53.48% after 180 min at 55°C incubation respectively. The peptide content of both FPH increased as hydrolysis time increases. FPH showed higher crude protein content and lower fat, moisture and ash content compared to raw catfish. The major amino acids of both hydrolysates were Glu, Lys and Asp. Content of essential amino acids of Alcalase and Papain hydrolysates were 44.05% and 43.31% respectively.

  9. KONSTRUKSI VEKTOR EKSPRESI GEN HORMON PERTUMBUHAN LELE DUMBO (Clarias sp. UNTUK PRODUKSI IKAN LELE LOKAL (Clarias batrachus TRANSGENIK

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    Ibnu Dwi Buwono

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memperoleh konstruksi vektor ekspresi (pTarget rekombinan yang mengandung sisipan gen hormon pertumbuhan ikan lele dumbo (Clarias sp. dan promoter β-aktin ikan lele lokal (C. batrachus dalam upaya pembuatan ikan lele lokal transgenik. Promoter β-aktin lele lokal (pCbBA telah berhasil diisolasi dari hipofisa ikan tersebut dengan ukuran sekitar 1,7 kbp; dan memiliki elemen transkripsi CAAT box, TATA box, GC box, motif CarG, dan TGACG berdasar analisis program TF Bind. Penggantian promoter CMV (cytomegalovirus yang terkandung dalam vektor ekspresi pTarget menggunakan dua enzim restriksi SgfI dan I-PpoI, menghasilkan fragmen DNA berukuran 6.083 bp (pTarget-GH lele dumbo sebagai produk digesti. Fragmen pTarget-GH lele dumbo yang diligasi dengan promoter β-aktin lele lokal membentuk konstruksi By: Ibnu Dwi Buwono, Nono Carsono, Yuniar Mulyani, and M. Untung Kurnia This study aims to obtain an expression vector construct (pTarget containing recombinant growth hormone gene insertion of African catfish (Clarias sp. and β-actin promoter derived from walking catfish (Clarias batrachus in order to produce transgenic local catfish. β-actin promoter of walking catfish (pCbBA have been isolated from the pituitary of the fish with a size of about 1.7 kbp, and has a transcription element: CAAT box, TATA box, GC box, CarG, and TGACG motif based on analysis result of TF Bind program. Replacement of CMV (cytomegalovirus promoter contained in the expression vector pTarget using restriction enzymes SgfI and I-PpoI, obtained a product of digestion with the fragment size of 6,083 bp (pTarget-GH African catfish. pTarget-GH fragments were ligated with the African catfish β-actin promoter to arrange a construct of pTarget-pCbBA-African catfish GH (7,783 bp as transgenic walking catfish expression vector.

  10. 革胡子鲶幼鱼对本地胡子鲶幼鱼残杀行为研究%Observations and studies on the cannibalism of Clarias gariepinus to Clarias fuscus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王明磊; 罗建仁; 胡隐昌; 牟希东; 宋红梅; 夏敏; 杨惠云

    2011-01-01

    在不同条件下,对革胡子鲶幼鱼对本地胡子鲶残杀行为进行了研究.结果表明:(1)体重比例不同的两种幼鱼,本地胡子鲶的死亡率会随着比例的增大而增大,但是当两种胡子鲶的幼鱼大小达到一定比例时,死亡率就会随比例的增大而变小.(2)放养密度高低、是否有充足饵料对日死亡率影响显著.(3)温度和光照对革胡子鲶的残杀行为有影响,但差异不显著.(4)有无遮蔽物对革胡子鲶的残杀行为影响很小.说明高密度养殖、是否有充分的饵料、温度和个体大小的差异是导致胡子鲶幼鱼发生残杀行为的主要原因,光照会诱发和促进残杀行为的发生.

  11. IDENTIFIKASI ZIGOSITAS IKAN LELE (Clarias gariepinus TRANSGENIK F-2 YANG MEMBAWA GEN HORMON (PhGH DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN METODE REALTIME-qPCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huria Marnis

    2016-11-01

    Fish farming productivity can be increased by transgenesis technology. On the previous study, transgenic African catfish population fast growing has been produced and its biological characters has been known. However information of transgenic zygosity of catfish should be examined. The aim of this study was to identify the zygosity of F-2 transgenic African catfish. The zygosity of F-2 transgenic was identified by real time-qPCR (RT-qPCR method and progeny test. Further, identification of zygosity F-2 transgenic African catfish was confirmed by progeny test, while F-2 transgenic African catfish was mated with non-transgenic. Identification of zygosity F-2 transgenic was conducted by detection PhGH gene (transgene in F-3 transgenic African catfish population. Transgene transmission was evaluated by PCR method. The result showed that the zygosity F-2 transgenic African catfish could be identified by RT-qPCR method. All F-2 transgenic African catfish were heterozygous, where as the 2-Ct value was almost same for all individual, which ranges from 0.80 to 0.99. The result of zygosity identification using RT-qPCR method was as same as that of progeny test. In the progeny test, transgene transmission in this study was non-Mendelian segregation, with ranges of 5%-40%.

  12. Super-chilling (-0.7°C) with high-CO2 packaging inhibits biochemical changes of microbial origin in catfish (Clarias gariepinus) muscle during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yingchun; Ma, Lizhen; Yang, Hua; Xiao, Yan; Xiong, Youling L

    2016-09-01

    Controlled freezing-point storage (CFPS) is an emerging preservative technique desirable for fish. In the present study, catfish fillets were stored at -0.7°C under different packaging atmospheres: air (AP), vacuum (VP), and 60% CO2/40% N2 (MAP). Chemical, microbiological, and sensory analyses were performed during storage. Results showed the following descending order of chemical changes (degradation of nucleotides, conversion of protein to volatile-based nitrogen and biogenic amines, and production of trimethylamine nitrogen), as well as loss of sensory properties: 4°C AP>-0.7°C AP≈4°C VP>-0.7°C VP≈4°C MAP>-0.7°C MAP. The chemical changes were well-correlated with microbial growth suggesting the microbiological pathways. Hence, CFPS at -0.7°C in combination with high-CO2 MAP can effectively maintain the quality of fresh catfish meat compared to traditional preservation methods.

  13. Grafting of gallic acid onto chitosan nano particles enhances antioxidant activities in vitro and protects against ochratoxin A toxicity in catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Wahhab, Mosaad A; Aljawish, Abdulhadi; Kenawy, Amany M; El-Nekeety, Aziza A; Hamed, Heba S; Abdel-Aziem, Sekena H

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to prepare and characterize enzymatic modified chitosan nanoparticles (CSNPs) with gallic acid (GA) or octyl gallate (OG) to optimize its potential in human application and to evaluate their protective role against ochrtoxin A (OTA) toxicity in catfish. The modified CSNPs have average size around 90 nm with positive charge and high scavenging activity especially GA-CSNPs. In the in vivo study, catfish were divided into 8 groups and treated for 3 weeks as follow: the control group, OTA-treated group (1 mg/kg b.w.), the groups treated with CSNPs, GA-CSNPs or OG-CSNPs (280 mg/kg b.w.) anole or in combination with OTA. Blood, liver and kidney samples were collected for different analyses. OTA induced a significant biochemical disturbances accompanied with oxidative stress in liver and kidney, histological changes and increase DNA fragmentation in the kidney. Co-treatment with OTA plus the different CSNPs resulted in a significant improvement in all tested parameters and histological picture of the kidney. This improvement was more pronounced in the group treated with GA-CSNPs. It could be concluded that grafting of GA or its ester improved the properties of CSNPs. Moreover, GA-CSNPs showed strong scavenging properties than OG-CSNPs due to the blocking of carboxyl groups responsible of the scavenging activity in OG.

  14. The effect of dietary cricket meal (Gryllus bimaculatus) on growth performance, antioxidant enzyme activities, and haematological response of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taufek, Norhidayah Mohd; Aspani, Firdaus; Muin, Hasniyati; Raji, Ameenat Abiodun; Razak, Shaharudin Abdul; Alias, Zazali

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the growth performance, biomarkers of oxidative stress, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) as well as the haematological response of African catfish after being fed with fish feed containing different levels of cricket meal. The juvenile fish were assigned to three different treatments with isonitrogenous (35 %) and isoenergetic (19 kJ g(-1)) diets containing 100 % cricket meal (100 % CM), 75 % cricket meal (75 % CM), and 100 % fishmeal (100 % FM) as control groups for 7 weeks. The results indicated that a diet containing 100 % CM and 75 % CM improved growth performance in terms of body weight gain and specific growth rate, when compared to 100 % FM. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) did not differ significantly between all diets, but reduced FCR and increased PER were observed with a higher inclusion of cricket meal. A haematological examination of fish demonstrated no significant difference of red blood cells in all diets and white blood cells showed a significantly higher value in fishmeal-fed fish. On the other hand, haemoglobin and haematocrit significantly increased with increasing amounts of cricket meal in the diet. Antioxidant activity of CAT was higher in the 100 % CM group compared to fish fed other diets, whereas GST and SOD showed increasing trends with a higher incorporation of cricket, although insignificant differences were observed between all diets. These results suggest that cricket meal could be an alternative to fishmeal as a protein source in the African catfish diet.

  15. The effect of nearly closed RAS on the feed intake and growth of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and European eel (Anguilla anguilla)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mota, V.C.; Limbu, P.; Martins, C.I.; Eding, E.H.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2015-01-01

    One of the challenges that Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS) are still facing is the risk that in RAS fish grow less than in flow-through systems due to the accumulation of substances originating from feed, fish or bacteria associated with the water re-use. The present study investigated wheth

  16. Digesta viscosity, nutrient digestibility and organ weights in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fed diets supplemented with different levels of a soluble non-starch polysaccharide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenhouwers, J.I.; Adjei-Boateng, D.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Schrama, J.W.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate if dietary soluble non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) increase digesta viscosity, reduce nutrient digestibility and increase organ weights in African catfish. The fish (mean weight 80 g) were fed diets supplemented with the soluble NSP guar gum at

  17. Effects of sublethal concentrations of tobacco (Nicotiana tobaccum leaf dust on some biochemical parameters of Hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus and Heterobranchus bidorsalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabir Mohammed Adamu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the effect of tobacco (Nicotiana tobaccum leaf dust at sublethal concentrations (375.6, 187.8, 93.9 0.0mg/L on biochemical parameters of Hybrid catfish in a static semi-renewable bioassay system with the aim to ascertain its effect on the test fish after 14 days exposure period. The effects of the plant dust on the test fish was dose-dependent, revealing significant difference in albumin, glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, urea, and uric acid of the serum, liver and kidney; total protein and globulin of serum and kidney and creatinine and calcium of the serum while insignificant difference were observed for calcium and creatinine in liver and kidney and total protein and globulin in liver compared to the control. The effect of the plant dust was most pronounced in the serum, less in the kidney and least in the liver. However, the monitored water quality parameters revealed that the plant dust had effects on primary productivity, thus the biodiversity of organisms.

  18. On some ultrastructural features of the reproductive system of the monogenean parasite Macrogyrodactylus congolensis from Clarias gariepinus inhabiting the River Nile in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafa, Safaa Z; El-Naggar, Mohammed M; Kearn, Graham C

    2014-06-01

    Some organs of the reproductive system of the protogynous monogenean skin parasite Macrogyrodactylus congolensis (Prudhoe, 1957) Yamaguti, 1963 have been studied using transmission electron microscopy. The vesicula seminalis is enclosed by a prominent layer of circular muscle fibres and has inner syncytial protrusions. The penis bulb is a highly muscular organ with prominent radial and circular muscle fibres, a gutter-shaped large spine and 16 small spines. Two syncytial male accessory glands, and a single reservoir for male accessory secretion were identified. The secretory bodies in the male accessory glands and male accessory reservoir have a unique structure. A large oocyte is situated in a chamber, previously referred to as the "ootype" or "egg-cell-forming region" (ECFR), which also contains one or two small undifferentiated cells and vacuolated tissue. Mature spermatozoa were abundant in the receptaculum seminis and dispersed in the vacuolated tissue in the ECFR and appeared to be attached to the membrane of the large oocyte. Mature spermatozoa were also seen in the parenchymal tissue near the chamber containing embryos and even in the tissues of the embryo.

  19. Economic values of growth and feed efficiency for fish farming in recirculating aquaculture system with density and nitrogen output limitations: a case study with African catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besson, M.; Komen, H.; Aubin, J.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Poelman, M.; Quillet, E.; Vancoillie, C.; Vandeputte, M.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    In fish farming, economic values (EV) of breeding goal traits are lacking, even though they are key parameters when defining selection objectives. The aim of this study was to develop a bioeconomic model to estimate EV of 2 traits representing production performances in fish farming: the thermal gro

  20. Dynamics in immunocytochemical labelling of granules in the gonadotrops of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus, as a function of induced release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peute, J.; Konings, P.; Terlou, M.

    1985-01-01

    The gonadotropic hormone (GTH) plays a regulative role in the reproductive cycle of teleosts. GTH-cell activity is under dual hypothalamic control i.e. stimulation by the peptide gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and inhibition by dopamine. Immunolabelling gives a specific localization of GTH in

  1. PERTUMBUHAN DAN SIGOSITAS IKAN LELE AFRIKA (Clarias gariepinus TRANSGENIK F-2 YANG MEMBAWA GEN HORMON PERTUMBUHAN IKAN PATIN SIAM (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huria Marnis

    2015-06-01

    ikan lele transgenik F-2. Ikan lele transgenik F-2 dihasilkan dari persilangan antar ikan lele transgenik F-1. Sigositas ikan F-2 dievaluasi menggunakan uji progeni dengan menyilangkan antara ikan transgenik F-2 dan non-transgenik. Parameter digunakan untuk mengevaluasi performa ikan lele transgenik F-2 meliputi:derajat pembuahan, derajat penetasan, sintasan larva, pertumbuhan, dan efisiensi pakan. Analisis sigositas ikan lele transgenik F-2 dilakukan dengan menggunakan uji progeni. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa transgen (PhGH yang ada pada ikan transgenik tidak memengaruhi derajat pembuahan dan derajat penetasan embrio, serta sintasan larva. Populasi ikan lele transgenik F-2 memiliki laju pertumbuhan 75,3% lebih tinggi dibandingkan populasi ikan non-transgenik (P<0,05. Efisiensi pakan ikan transgenik adalah 51,95% lebih tinggi dari ikan non-transgenik (P<0,05. Hasil analisis sigositas ikan lele transgenik F-2 dari 56 ekor yang diuji, hanya 16 ekor ikan lele membawa gen PhGH, emuanya heterozigot.

  2. EVALUASI PEMBERIAN PROBIOTIK BACILLUS PADA MEDIA PEMELIHARAAN TERHADAP LAJU PERTUMBUHAN DAN PERUBAHAN HISTOPATOLOGI IKAN LELE DUMBO (Clarias gariepinus YANG DIINFEKSI Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Mariana Lusiastuti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the addition of a probiotic Bacillus on culture medium through growth rate and histopathological change in African Catfish who was infected by Aeromonas hydrophila. The study consisted of five treatments such as the addition of probiotic Bacillus ND2, Bacillus P4I2, Bacillus ND2 + Bacillus P4I2 (Kom, positive control (K+ and negative control (K- (without probiotic addition. African Catfish (13.354±2.8 g was maintained in 15 aquariums (40 L in volume with 30 fishes each for 30 days. Probiotic bacteria was applied in water once a day, whereas pathogenic bacteria A. hydrophila  (103 CFU/mL were added once in earlier treatment (except for the negative control as assumption that A. hydrophila will shape up quorum sensing in unfortunate condition. The result showed that the highest spesific growth rate in the treatment of Bacillus ND2 probiotics (1,708 ± 0.114%. Histopathology showed that damaged of liver dan kidney in probiotics treatment were lightner than positive control (K+.  The addition of Bacillus P4I1 (104 CFU/mL efective to increased the spesific growth rate of African Catfish and prevent the damage of liver and kidney of African Catfish was infected by Aeromoniasis.

  3. EVALUASI PEMBERIAN PROBIOTIK BACILLUS PADA MEDIA PEMELIHARAAN TERHADAP LAJU PERTUMBUHAN DAN PERUBAHAN HISTOPATOLOGI IKAN LELE DUMBO (Clarias gariepinus) YANG DIINFEKSI Aeromonas hydrophila

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Mariana Lusiastuti; Mohammad Faizal Ulkhaq; Widanarni Widanarni; Tri Heru Prihadi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the addition of a probiotic Bacillus on culture medium through growth rate and histopathological change in African Catfish who was infected by Aeromonas hydrophila. The study consisted of five treatments such as the addition of probiotic Bacillus ND2, Bacillus P4I2, Bacillus ND2 + Bacillus P4I2 (Kom), positive control (K+) and negative control (K-) (without probiotic addition). African Catfish (13.354±2.8 g) was maintained in 15 aquariums (40 L in volume)...

  4. Avian thermoregulation in the heat: evaporative cooling capacity in an archetypal desert specialist, Burchell's sandgrouse (Pterocles burchelli).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKechnie, Andrew E; Smit, Ben; Whitfield, Maxine C; Noakes, Matthew J; Talbot, William A; Garcia, Mateo; Gerson, Alexander R; Wolf, Blair O

    2016-07-15

    Sandgrouse (Pterocliformes) are quintessential examples of avian adaptation to desert environments, but relatively little is known about the limits to their heat tolerance and evaporative cooling capacity. We predicted that evaporative cooling in Burchell's sandgrouse (Pterocles burchelli) is highly efficient and provides the basis for tolerance of very high air temperature (Ta). We measured body temperature (Tb), resting metabolic rate (RMR) and evaporative water loss (EWL) at Ta between 25°C and ∼58°C in birds exposed to successive increments in Ta Normothermic Tb averaged 39.0°C, lower than typical avian values. At Ta>34.5°C, Tb increased linearly to a maximum of 43.6°C at Ta=56°C. The upper critical limit of thermoneutrality (Tuc) was Ta=43.8°C, closely coinciding with the onset of panting and gular flutter. Above the Tuc, RMR increased 2.5-fold to 2.89 W at Ta=56°C, a fractional increase far exceeding that of many other species under comparable conditions. Rates of EWL increased rapidly at Ta>42.9°C to 7.84±0.90 g h(-1) at Ta=56°C, an 11-fold increase above minimal levels. Maximum evaporative cooling efficiency (ratio of evaporative heat loss to metabolic heat production) was 2.03, but could be as high as 2.70 if our assumption that the birds were metabolising lipids is incorrect. Thermoregulation at very high Ta in P. burchelli was characterised by large increases in RMR and EWL, and is much less efficient than in taxa such as columbids and caprimulgids.

  5. Frecuencia de presentación e impacto de columnariosis en Clarias gariepinus en la granja “La Paila “, San Cristóbal Artemisa (Frequency of presentation and impact of columnariosis in Claria gariepinus at the Fish Farm “La Paila”, San Cristóbal, Artemisa province.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Efrain Pérez Estrada MVZ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa columnariosis es una enfermedad altamente contagiosa que afecta a muchas especies de peces con escamas o sin ellas de aguas cálidas, templadas y frías, tanto salada como agua dulce, producida por la bacteria Flexibacter columnaris.AbstractThe columnariosis is a highly contagious disease that affects many species of scaled and non-scaled fishes of warm, mild and cold waters, salted and fresh, produced by the bacteria Flexibacter columnaris.

  6. Notes on the occurrence of Trypanosoma sp. (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae in freshwater fishes from South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryke L. Ferreira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 257 fishes from four families, Clariidae, Cichlidae, Cyprinidae and Schilbeidae were collected from three localities: the Sand River Dam, Swaziland; the Nylsvlei Nature Reserve, South Africa and the Vaal Dam and Vaal River Barrage, South Africa. Only fishes (n= 154 from Clariidae and Cichlidae were found to be infected with trypanosomes. A total of 221 Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822 were collected from the Vaal Dam and Vaal Barrage area, South Africa. Of these, 74%(89/121 were infected with trypanosomes from the Vaal Dam and 63%(63/100 from the Vaal River Barrage, with no seasonal infection pattern. A prevalence of 25%(1/4 was found in C. gariepinus from the Sand River Dam, Swaziland, and a 50% (1/2 prevalence was found in Tilapia sparrmanii from the Nylsvlei Nature Reserve, South Africa. Standard measurements conformed closely to the morphometric and morphological descriptions of Trypanosoma mukasai. This article provides new locality records for T. mukasai from the Vaal Dam, Vaal River Barrage and Nylsvlei Nature Reserve (South Africa and the Sand River Dam (Swaziland. Tilapia sparrmanii collected in the Sand River Dam in Swaziland is also noted as a new host record.

  7. 胡子鲇脑型芳香化酶基因全长cDNA克隆及表达%Molecular cloning and expression of Cyp19a1b cDNA in Clarias fuscus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晶; 李广丽; 朱春华; 吴天利; 邓思平

    2012-01-01

    A cDNA encoding Cypl9alb was derived from Clarius fuscus using RT-PCR and RACE. The cDNA was 2 347 bp with a 219 bp 51JTR, a 596 bp 3UTR (excluding poly (A)), and a 1 503 bp ORF, which encoded 500 amino acids and had a predicted mol wt of 56.388 kD. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses indicated that the C. fuscus Cypl9alb shared 95.6% sequence identity with clarias gariepinus and >75% identity with Silurus merid-ionalis, Pelteobagrus fulvidraco, Danio rerio, Ictalurus punctatus, Cyprtnus carpio, Carassius auratus, Gobio-cypris rarus, and Epinephelus akaara. In contrast, there was low sequence identity (<62%) with Cypl9ala for these species. Therefore, the gene was classified into the Cypl9alb subfamily. This is consistent with the classification based on traditional morphology and biochemistry. Cypl9alb mRNA was expressed primarily in the fore-brain, hypothalamus, and pituitary, and to a lesser extent in the liver, testis and ovary. We observed differences in the level of expression in brain between males and females (P<0.05). Cypl9alb was expressed prior to sex differentiation in C. Juscus, but there was no difference in the level of expression between prior and post to sex differentiation (12-30 d after hatching). Our results suggest that Cypl9alb is not directly involved in mediating sex differentiation in C. fuscus, but may play an indirect role by acting on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.%采用RT-PCR和RACE法,克隆了胡子鲇(Clarias fuscus)脑型芳香化酶基因Cyp19a1b,应用荧光实时定量PCR检测其在前脑、下丘脑、脑垂体、肝、精巢和卵巢6种组织,以及性腺分化前后(出膜后12~30d)全鱼中的mRNA表达.结果表明,Cyp19a1b cDNA全长2 347 bp,5’端非编码区219 bp,3’端[不包括poly(A)]596 bp,开放阅读框(ORF)1 503 bp,编码500个氨基酸,推测其编码蛋白质分子量为56.388 kD.序列分析及分子系统进化树结果表明,胡子鲇Cyp19a1b氨基酸序列与非洲鲇(Clarias gariepinus)Cyp19

  8. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 June 2012-31 July 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barat, Ashoktaru; Bravo, S P; Chandra, Suresh; Corrêa, A S; Giombini, M I; Guedes, R N C; Huailei, Ma; Lal, Kuldeep K; Liang, Lu; Matura, Rakesh; Mohindra, Vindhya; Oliveira, L O; Patangia, Ruchi; Qiyong, Liu; Sah, Rama Shankar; Singh, Akanksha; Singh, Birender Kumar; Singh, Rajeev K; Tosto, D S; Tripathi, Ratnesh K; Vinson, C C

    2012-11-01

    This article documents the addition of 96 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Clarias batrachus, Marmota himalayana, Schizothorax richardsonii, Sitophilus zeamais and Syagrus romanzoffiana. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Clarias dussumeri, Clarias gariepinus, Heteropneustus fossilis, Sitophilus granarius and Sitophilus oryzae.

  9. MICRONUCLEI PROFILE: AN INDEX OF CHROMOSOMAL ABERRATIONS IN FRESHWATER FISHES (SYNODONTIS CLARIAS AND TILAPIA NILOTICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. OKONKWO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Incidence of chromosomal aberrations in Synodontis clarias and Tilapia nilotica (Linnaeus 1757 were measured using the conventional micronucleus assay in fish erythrocytes. The species showed varying degree of micronuclei frequencies in their respective genomes of sampled gill and kidney blood. Cytological examinations showed bi-nucleated cells, deformed nuclei including the main aberrations, micronucleus formations in various genomes of the fish from different locations considered in this study. Comparison of the micronucleus rates in peripheral and kidney blood of the two species revealed no statistical difference (P> 0.05. On species occurrence of the measured chromosomal aberrations, averages of micronucleus frequencies recorded in Synodontis clarias showed visible variation and to be 2.2 folds higher than the values obtained in the corresponding Tilapia sp. but there was no statistical difference (P>0.01 among the two breeds. The work recommends that micronuclei tests in fish erythrocytes be carried out at various times, thus making it possible to follow-up the changing micronuclei frequencies and concludes that gills and kidney erythrocytes can be used in studies concerning chromosomal aberrations since the sampling of the peripheral blood is appropriate as it allows collecting several samples from the same individuals, without having to sacrifice it.

  10. Effect of quinalphos, organophosphorus insecticide, on testicular steroidogenesis in fish, Clarias batrachus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagchi, P.; Chatterjee, S.; Ray, A.; Deb, C. (Univ. College of Science and Technology, Calcutta (India))

    1990-06-01

    The presence of insecticides in the environment, due to extensive use in agriculture and their low degradation capacity, are of potential toxicological concern for fish. Insecticides have also been found to be highly toxic not only to fish, but also to organisms which constitute the food of fish. Catfish, particularly the airbreathing species, are attracting attention of the pisciculturists owing to their high production potential from paddy fields and stagnant shallow ponds. In an earlier study the authors have shown that quinalphos, a widely used insecticide of organophosphorus group in the field of agriculture, has inhibitory effects on the steroidogenic status of testes in rats. Keeping this in view, an experiment has been conducted with the insecticide quinalphos to study the effects on steroidogenic activity of testes of a dietary catfish, Magur (Clarias batrachus).

  11. EFEKTIVITAS PROMOTER b-ACTIN IKAN MEDAKA (Oryzias latipes DENGAN PENANDA GEN hrGFP (HUMANIZED Renilla reniformis GREEN FLUORESCENT PROTEIN PADA IKAN LELE (Clarias gariepinus KETURUNAN F0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hunaina Fariduddin Ath-thar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Promoter merupakan salah satu faktor penentu dalam teknologi transgenesis. Pada penelitian ini efektivitas promoter b-actin ikan medaka diuji pada telur ikan lele fase 1 sel dan 2 sel. Penelitian dilakukan di Laboratorium Pengembangbiakan dan Genetika Ikan, Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan, Institut Pertanian Bogor. Penelitian ini berlangsung selama 3 bulan. Insersi promoter dilakukan dengan cara menginjeksi telur hasil pemijahan buatan dengan plasmid DNA pmb-actin–hrGFP pada fase telur 1 sel dan 2 sel. Konsentrasi DNA yang digunakan adalah 20 µg/mL. Perkembangan embrio diamati pada 8, 12, 16, 20, 24 jam setelah gen disuntikkan serta 4 dan 8 jam setelah telur menetas. Derajat sintasan embrio (DKH, derajat penetasan (DP, dan persentase embrio mengekspresikan transgen (PEMT dicatat selama pengamatan. Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan bahwa promoter b-actin ikan medaka aktif pada ikan lele, dengan adanya ekspresi gen hrGFP pada embrio setelah 8, 12, 16, 20, 24 jam setelah penyuntikan serta 4 dan 8 jam setelah telur menetas. Nilai DKHkontrol pada jam ke-24 adalah 97,1% dan untuk DKHinjeksi pada jam ke-24 adalah 85,7%. Untuk PEMT pada telur yang disuntik pada fase 1 sel mempunyai persentase yang lebih tinggi (66,7% dibanding telur yang disuntik pada fase 2 sel (50,0%. Derajat penetasan memperlihatkan bahwa jumlah telur untuk penyuntikan pada fase 1 sel lebih tinggi (93,3% dibanding dengan yang disuntik pada fase 2 sel (55,0%. Total jumlah telur yang berhasil disuntik adalah 35 butir dan yang terekspresi sebanyak 20 butir (57,1%. Promoter is one of the most important factors in transgenic. In this study, effectiveness of b-actine of medaka (Oryzias latipes was examined in the eggs of walking catfish at the first cleavage and two cell stage. The experiment was carried out in the Laboratory of Fish Genetic, Fac. of Fisheries, Bogor Agricultural University for three months. Promoter was inserted by injecting artificial fertilization eggs with DNA pmb-actin–hrGFP plasmid. DNA concentration was 20 µg/mL. Eggs development were observed at 8, 12, 16, 20, 24 hours after injection, 4 and 8 hours after hatching. The result showed that b-actin promoter was active on embryo targets indicated by expression of hrGFP gene after 8, 12, 16, 20, 24 hours after injection as well as 4 and 8 hours after hatching. Survival rate within 24 hours were 97.1% for control and 85.7% for injected eggs. Successful of injection was higher on the first cleavage stage (66.7% than that of on the two stage cell (50.0%. Hatching rate was also higher on the first cleavage (93.3% than that of on the two cell stage (55.0%. Total number of eggs injected succesfully was 35 eggs with 57.1% of them containing foreign genes.

  12. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Full-length Growth Hormone cDNA from Clarias gariepinus%革胡子鲶生长激素全长cDNA 的克隆与序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张茂群; 陈承勋; 郭永军; 郭菁; 王晓梅

    2009-01-01

    通过RT-PCR和RACE-PCR的方法,克隆了革胡子鲶生长激素基因全长cDNA,其长度为973 bp,包含一个603 bp的开放阅读框架(Open reading frame,ORF),59 bp的5′非编码区和311 bp的3′非编码区(含PolyA 尾25 bp).将革胡子鲶GH cDNA的ORF、5′非编码区和3′非编码区的序列分别与同为鲶形目印度囊鳃鲶、巨鲶鱼、南方鲶和鲶的上述序列进行比对分析,结果表明:革胡子鲶与上述鱼类生长激素ORF的核苷酸与氨基酸序列同源性较高,平均值分别为91.2%和96.4%,ORF区核苷酸的碱基替代类型表现出T/C转换的偏向性,平均值为44.5%,同时表现出转换/颠换偏差,平均值为2.381.5′和3′非编码区序列同源性平均值分别为75.4%和77.0%,保守性低于编码区.

  13. Fatty acid profiles in marine and freshwater fish from fish markets in northeastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łuczyńska Joanna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acid compositions were studied in eight commercially important fish from fish markets: salmon, Salmo salar L.; cod, Gadus morhua L.; common sole, Solea solea (L.; European flounder, Platichthys flesus (L.; catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell; rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walb.; Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.; and pangasius, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus (Sauvage. The freshwater fish contained 25.69-42.18% saturated, 34.90-43.79% monounsaturated, 8.46-16.32% n-6 polyunsaturated, and 5.01-20.43% n-3 polyunsaturated acid, while marine fish contained 18.53-32.77% saturated, 17.95-49.89% monounsaturated, 3.40-11.51% n-6 polyunsaturated, and 18.74-45.42% n-3 polyunsaturated acid. Marine fish contained significantly more Ʃn-3 PUFA (29.79%, EPA (12.26%, DHA (13.20%, and a higher n-3/n-6 (6.95 ratio than freshwater fish (13.13, 2.47, 7.14, 1.29% (P≤ 0.05. There were statistically significant differences in the n-3/n-6 ratio among fish species (cod (13.40 > sole (8.47 > flounder (4.30 > rainbow trout (2.41 > catfish (1.83 ≈ salmon (1.63 > tilapia (0.57 ≈ pangasius (0.36 (P ≤0.05.

  14. Effect of artificial photoperiod on the blood cell indices of the catfish, Clarias batrachus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Srivastava

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study is aimed to assess the influence of artificial photoperiod on the blood cell indices of an Indian catfish, Clarias batrachus(Linn.. Blood samples taken from adult fishes exposed to artificial photoperiod of 24L:0D and 0L:24D for a short period of 24 hrs, were analyzed for total RBC, total WBC, differential leukocyte count (DLC and some physiological variables – glucose and chloride. The total RBC and WBC counts were unaffected by both the artificial photoperiod regimes. However, lymphopenia (p<.05 and neutrophilia (p<.05 were observed under 24L:0D photoperiod. Blood chloride levels were significantly higher (p<.05 in 24L:0D whereas blood glucose levels remained unchanged in both the photoperiod treatments. The 0L:24D photoperiod did not produce any significant change in the blood cell indices neither in the physiological variables. The findings indicate that exposure to continuous light for as short a duration as of 24 hrs elicits stress responses in the leukocyte profile of this nocturnal fish and highlights the role of leukocyte profile as potential stress biomarkers in vertebrates.

  15. Genetic structure of populations and conservation issues relating to an endangered catfish, Clarias batrachus, in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khedkar, Gulab D; Tiknaik, Anita; Kalyankar, Amol D; A, Chandra Sekhar Reddy; Khedkar, Chandraprakash D; Ron, Tetsuzan Benny; Haymer, David

    2016-01-01

    The Asian catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus, 1758), is a highly valued species endemic to India that is currently in drastic decline in most of its natural habitat. The present study was undertaken to document the genetic structure of populations of this species using mitochondrial DNA markers, specifically from the cytochrome B and D-loop regions. Specimens from eight wild populations were collected and analyzed from different regions in India. The genetic variation within and among populations was evaluated using a range of descriptive statistics. The analysis described here provides a broad and consistent view of population structure and demographic history of populations of C. batrachus. Although there was some genetic structuring consistent with regional differences, all eight populations examined here showed relatively low levels of genetic variation in terms of both haplotype and nucleotide diversities in the different analyses used. However, a number of private haplotypes were discovered, and this may provide valuable information for future selective breeding program and conservation management. The results may aid in the design and implementation of strategies for the future management of this endangered catfish C. batrachus in India.

  16. Gene expression analysis in gonads and brain of catfish Clarias batrachus after the exposure of malathion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prathibha, Y; Murugananthkumar, R; Rajakumar, A; Laldinsangi, C; Sudhakumari, C C; Mamta, S K; Dutta-Gupta, A; Senthilkumaran, B

    2014-04-01

    Pesticides like malathion have the potential to disrupt development and reproduction of aquatic organisms including fishes. To investigate the likely consequences of malathion exposure at low doses in juvenile catfish, Clarias batrachus, we studied the expression pattern of genes encoding certain transcription factors, activin A, sex steroid or orphan nuclear receptors and steroidogenic enzymes which are known to be involved in gonadal development along with histological changes. To compare further, we also analyzed certain brain specific genes related to gonadal axis. Fifty days post hatch catfish fingerlings were exposed continuously to 1 and 10 µg/L of malathion for 21 days. Results from these experiments indicated that transcript levels of various genes were altered by the treatments, which may further affect the gonadal development either directly or indirectly through brain. Histological analysis revealed slow progression of spermatogenesis in testis, while in ovary, the oil droplet oocytes were found to be higher after treatment (10 µg/L). Our findings revealed that the exposure of malathion, even at low doses, hinder or modulate early gonadal development differentially by targeting gene expression pattern of transcription factors, activin A, sex steroid or orphan nuclear receptors and steroidogenic enzymes with an evidence on histological changes. Further, some of the genes showed differential expression at the level of brain in male and female sex after the exposure of malathion.

  17. Copper nanoparticles differentially target testis of the catfish, Clarias batrachus: in vivo and in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raju Murugananthkumar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Present study examined the impact of copper (Cu as nanoparticle (Cu-NPs and soluble form (CuSO4 in adult male catfish Clarias batrachus. Following treatment, upregulation of transcripts of several testis-related genes and increased androgen levels were evident. Though profound promotional effect was seen at gene and androgen levels, structural analysis revealed completely different scenario. Histological observations of testis showed disruption of basal lamina, distinct spermatogonium and enlarged spermatocytes in the treated groups. Quite alarmingly, transmission electron microscopic analysis showed damage of testicular lumen with irregular basal lamina and distinctive spermatocytes. In addition, Sertoli cells and erythrocytes exhibited damage after Cu treatments. Cytotoxic effects of Cu in catfish primary testis and TM3 Leydig cells showed cytotoxicity which is correlated well with morphological and flow cytometric analysis. Taken together, the results demonstrated that low dose of Cu/Cu-NPs can be detrimental to catfish testicular recrudescence vis-à-vis reproduction and the toxic effect manifest drastically in in vitro cultures.

  18. Development and characterization of genic SSR markers from low depth genome sequence of Clarias batrachus (magur)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SHREYA SRIVASTAVA; BASDEO KUSHWAHA; JYOTI PRAKASH; RAVINDRA KUMAR; N. S. NAGPURE; SUYASH AGARWAL; MANMOHAN PANDEY; P. DAS; C.G. JOSHI; J. K. JENA

    2016-09-01

    Indian magur (Clarias batrachus) is an important freshwater catfish, which is listed as endangered under A3cde+ 4acde ver. 3.1 categories by the IUCN (2015) due to decreasing population trend. Microsatellites or short sequence repeats (SSRs) tagged to genes have been utilized as gene marker. In the present study, 31,814 SSRs of C. batrachus (magur) were identified using microsatellite identification tool programme from the next generation sequencing data generated on Roche 454 and Ion Torrent platforms. A bioinformatics pipeline, with stringent criteria resulted in selection of 1672 microsatellite loci falling in the genic region. Initially, a total of 30 loci were selected for primer development; and of these 14 were successfully amplified and five were found to be polymorphic in 30 individuals of C. batrachus(magur). The observed as well as expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.038 to 0.526 and 0.434 to 0.784, respectively, and the number of observed alleles ranged from three to five. The study reported the application of next generation sequencing technologies for rapid development of microsatellite loci in Indian catfish species,C. batrachus (magur)

  19. Cell volume changes affect gluconeogenesis in the perfused liver of the catfish Clarias batrachus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Carina Goswami; Shritapa Datta; Kuheli Biswas; Nirmalendu Saha

    2004-09-01

    In addition to lactate and pyruvate, some amino acids were found to serve as potential gluconeogenic substrates in the perfused liver of Clarias batrachus. Glutamate was found to be the most effective substrate, followed by lactate, pyruvate, serine, ornithine, proline, glutamine, glycine, and aspartate. Four gluconeogenic enzymes, namely phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), pyruvate carboxylase (PC), fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) and glucose 6-phosphatase (G6Pase) could be detected mainly in liver and kidney, suggesting that the latter are the two major organs responsible for gluconeogenic activity in this fish. Hypo-osmotically induced cell swelling caused a significant decrease of gluconeogenic efflux accompanied with significant decrease of activities of PEPCK, FBPase and G6Pase enzymes in the perfused liver. Opposing effects were seen in response to hyper-osmotically induced cell shrinkage. These changes were partly blocked in the presence of cycloheximide, suggesting that the aniso-osmotic regulations of gluconeogenesis possibly occurs through an inverse regulation of enzyme proteins and/or a regulatory protein synthesis in this catfish. In conclusion, gluconeogenesis appears to play a vital role in C. batrachus in maintaining glucose homeostasis, which is influenced by cell volume changes possibly for proper energy supply under osmotic stress.

  20. Development of 'Serunding' from African catfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhari, Nurul Hanisah Binti; MK, Zainol; MM, Masduki

    This research was conducted to develop serunding from African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Proximate analysis, physical analysis, ascorbic acid analysis, mineral analysis and sensory evaluation were carried out to determine the nutrient compositions and consumer acceptance towards the products. ...

  1. cDNA CLONING AND EXPRESSION ANALYSIS OF Dmrt1 IN CLARIAS FUSCUS%胡子鲇Dmrt1基因全长cDNA克隆及其表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓思平; 王静杰; 吴天利; 朱春华; 李广丽

    2012-01-01

    Sex of fish is determined by both genetic substance and environment. The studies on the relationship between the sex and sex-related genes expression can not only reveal the mechanisms of sex determination, but also provide the theoretical basis to control the sex differentiation in artificial propagation in the fish. Catfish (Clarias fuscus) is a common freshwater fish in China. The Dmrtl cDNA sequences were isolated from the testes of C. fuscus by RT-PCR and SMART RACE. Structure and function of the predicted DMRT1 protein were analyzed by bioinformatics. Expressions of Dmrtl were examined using semi-quantitative RT-PCR in ten tissues (testes, ovaries, muscles, intestine, livers, heart, head kidney, gills, brains and eyes) and the testes from stage Ⅱ to stage Ⅴ. Results showed that the Dmrtl complete cDNA was 1417 bp in length, and the 5' un-translated region (5'-UTR) and the 3' un-translated region (3'-UTR) were 35 bp and 516 bp, respectively. The open reading frame (ORF) was 864 bp, and a sequence of predicted 287 amino acids residues was encoded. The C. fuscus DMRT1 shared a higher amino acid identity of 83.3% to 96.1% with three Siluri-formes fishes such as C. gariepinus, C. batrachus and Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. DMRT1 protein coded by Dmrtl gene located mainly in nucleus, and worked as an unstable hydrophobic protein. A highly conserved DM domain was found in the DMRT1 protein, which was a common characteristic in DMRT clusters. The C. fuscus shared a higher DM domain identity of 100% with the above-mentioned Siluriformes fishes, 91.9% to 97.3% with Danio rerio, Oryzias latipes and Oncorhynchus mykiss, and over 80% with chicken, rat, pig and human. In addition, the DM domain of C. fuscus had a typical "C2H2C4" zinc finger structure, which bound with the downstream DNA and control the gene transcription. Expression of Dmrtl was found only in the testes, but not in ovaries, muscles, intestine, liver, heart, head kidney, gills, brain and eyes, which

  2. Biological properties of Indian walking catfish (Clarias batrachus) (L.) gonadotropins in female reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Shrabanti; Bhattacharya, Debapriya; Juin, Subir Kumar; Nath, Panchanan

    2014-12-01

    The biological activities of catfish LH-like (semi-purified: s200a and purified Qa) and FSH-like (semi-purified: s200b and purified: Qb) were compared in intact and hypophysectomized female catfish, Clarias batrachus, during preparatory and the pre-spawning periods on vitellogenesis and ovarian maintenance, as well as in vitro final maturation of oocytes, germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD). During preparatory period, in intact catfish, semi-purified FSH-like induced complete vitellogenesis through the production of estradiol-17β (E2) and vitellogenin (Vg) accompanied by the formation of SIII yolky oocytes. On the other hand, semi-purified LH-like had induced the formation of only SII (characterized by the appearance of cortical alveoli in cytoplasm) oocytes, which indicates the initiation of vitellogenesis. In hypophysectomized female catfish, purified LH-like but not FSH-like induced the formation of SII oocytes in the ovaries. Treatment with semi-purified LH- and FSH-like at the dose level of 5 µg/fish/day for 7 days significantly maintained the yolky oocytes in gravid catfish after hypophysectomy with a significant reduction in plasma Vg, but not E2 levels, indicating some unknown GtH-induced factor doing the job. In in vitro oocytes culture, both LH- and FSH-like induced GVBD, but the response was significantly more with LH-like than FSH-like. All these findings revealed that both LH-like and FSH-like have overlapping physiological functions, but their responses differ depending on the physiological status of the catfish.

  3. Sub-acute Toxicity of Carbofuran on Acetylcholinesterase Activity in the Freshwater Catfish, Clarias batrachus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (ACHE) activity has been widely used as a biomarker in an animal exposed to the pesticides. However, the interaction of extensively used organocarbamate insecticide, carbofuran, with the nervous system of the aquatic organisms is not properly studied. AChE is a key enzyme which catalyses the hydrolysis of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter at the neuromuscular junctions, and thus regulates the neurotransmission system. In the present study, we have evaluated the impact of sub-acute concentrations (0.01 and 0.02 mg/L i.e. 1/20th and 1/10th of LC50) of carbofuran on the activity of acetylcholinesterase,from different tissues of Clarias batrachus, a fresh water teleost, after 96 hr and 15 days exposure periods in vivo. The carbofuran significantly reduced the activity of AChE in different tissues of C. batrachus at both concentrations and periods of exposure. The greater inhibition of AChE activities were recorded in fish tissues at higher carbofuran concentration (0.02 mg/L) after longer (15days) treatment period. The inhibition of AChE activity in all fish tissues tested was dependent on pesticide concentration and the duration of treatment. AChE from the tissues of C. batrachus was found to be a true cholinesterase as it was completely inhibited by the small concentration (nM) of eserine as tested in vitro. It was found that carbofuran at very low concentration exerted significant inhibitory effect on AChE activity in fish tissues.

  4. Analysis of daily weight gain and GH mRNA exPression in juvenile Clarias gariepinu reared at different stocking densities%不同养殖密度下革胡子鲶幼鱼的生长和垂体 GH 基因 mRNA 表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓梅; 陈成勋; 邢克智; 王妍; 戴伟; 薛素青

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile Clarias gariepinus were reared at densities of 35 kg·m -3 ,65 kg·m -3 ,95 kg·m -3 and 125 kg·m -3 for 60 d. On 30th and 60th day,we measured the daily weight gain(DWG)and assayed the mRNA level of GH in pituitary by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. During 0 ~30 d breeding,the DWGs showed no significant difference between 35 kg·m -3 and 65 kg m -3 treatments as well as between 95 kg·m -3 and 125 kg m -3 treatments,but the DWGs were significantly higher at 35 kg·m -3 and 65 kg·m -3 treatments than those at 95 kg· m -3 and 125 kg·m -3 treatments. While on 30th day,significant difference was not found in the GH mRNA level of pituitary between any two stocking densities. During 30 ~60 d breeding,the DWGs of 35 kg·m -3 and 65 kg·m -3 treatments were significantly higher than that of 125 kg·m -3 treatment,there was no significant difference in DWG between the other two treatments. On 60th day,the expressions of GH gene were significantly higher in 35 kg·m -3 and 65 kg·m -3 treatments than those in 95 kg·m -3 and 125 kg·m -3 treatments. The results indicate that there was no close correlation between DWG and mRNA level of GH in pituitary of juvenile C. gariepinus.%革胡子鲶(Clarias gariepinus)幼鱼在35 kg·m -3、65 kg·m -3、95 kg·m -3和125 kg·m -3的密度下养殖60 d,第30和第60天时分析鱼的日增质量并应用半定量 RT-PCR 法分析垂体生长激素(GH)基因 mRNA 的相对表达量。0~30 d 养殖期内,35 kg·m -3和65 kg·m -3密度组间及95 kg·m -3和125 kg·m -3密度组间的鱼日增质量差异不显著,但前2个密度组的鱼日增质量显著高于后2个密度组;而养殖第30天时各养殖密度组间 GH 基因 mRNA 相对表达量差异均不显著。30~60 d 养殖期内,35 kg·m -3和65 kg·m -3密度组的日增质量显著高于125 kg·m -3密度组,但其余各密度组间差异不显著;养殖第60天时,35 kg·m -3和65 kg·m -3密度组 GH 基因 mRNA

  5. A SEROLOGIC AND POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION SURVEY OF EQUINE HERPESVIRUS IN BURCHELL'S ZEBRAS (EQUUS QUAGGA), HARTMANN'S MOUNTAIN ZEBRAS (EQUUS ZEBRA HARTMANNAE), AND THOMSON'S GAZELLES (EUDORCAS THOMSONII) IN A MIXED SPECIES SAVANNAH EXHIBIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Karen M; Fleming, Gregory J; Mylniczenko, Natalie D

    2016-12-01

    Reports of equine herpesvirus (EHV) 1 and EHV-9 causing clinical disease in a wide range of species have been well documented in the literature. It is thought that zebras are the natural hosts of EHV-9 both in the wild and in captive collections. Concerns about potential interspecies transmission of EHV-1 and EHV-9 in a mixed species savannah exhibit prompted serologic and polymerase chain reaction surveys. Eighteen Burchell's zebras ( Equus quagga ), 11 Hartmann's mountain zebras ( Equus zebra hartmannae), and 14 Thomson's gazelles ( Eudorcas thomsonii ) cohabitating the same exhibit were examined for EHV-1 virus neutralization titers, and evidence of virus via EHV 1-5 polymerase chain reactions. None of the animals had previous exposure to vaccination with EHV-1 or EHV-4. All tested zebras had positive EHV-1 titers, ranging from 4 to 384. All zebras and Thomson's gazelles had negative polymerase chain reaction results for all targeted equine herpesviruses. EHV-9-specific assays are not available but EHV-1, EHV-4, and EHV-9 cross-react serologically. Positive serology results indicate a potential latent equine herpesvirus in the zebra population, which prompted initiation of an equine herpesvirus vaccine protocol, changes in pregnant zebra mare management, and equine herpesvirus polymerase chain reaction screening prior to shipment to or from the study site.

  6. Genetic identification and structure of Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus, 1758) from Southeast Asia using a mitochondrial DNA marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Paolin; Sulaiman, Zohrah

    2015-05-22

    A phylogenetic tree and median-joining network based on cytochrome b sequence data revealed clades consistent with morphological differences and geographical distribution of Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus, 1758) in Southeast Asia. AMOVA analysis for variation was significant among populations (PJava and Brunei/Borneo, Brunei/Borneo and west Malaysia, and Java and west Malaysia samples (P Java, and between west Malaysia and Laos-Sumatra. Nine haplotypes were unique to geographical regions. The Java species had high haplotype (1.000 ± 0.126) but low nucleotide (0.017) diversities, suggesting a population bottleneck followed by expansion. However, SSD and Hri (P=0.5) did not support demographic expansion. Instead, purifying selection where mutations occur and accumulate at silent sites is a more acceptable explanation.

  7. Endosulfan-mediated Biochemical Changes in the Freshwater Fish Clarias batrachus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G. TRIPATHI AND PRIYANKA VERMA

    2004-01-01

    Objective Endosulfan is an extremely toxic organochlorine pesticide to aquatic organisms which might be hampering fish health through impairment of metabolism sometimes leading to death.So an experimental protocol was designed to look at endosulfan effects on a number of selected biochemical endpoints as well as to develop a mechanistic understanding of biochemical effects of endosulfan in freshwater fish. Methods The adult freshwater catfish Clarias batrachus were collected and acclimatized to laboratory condition for two weeks prior to experimentation. The toxicity bioassay test of commercial grade endosulfan (35% EC) was conducted for 21 days to determine its initial lethal concentration. The fish were exposed to sublethal concentration of endosulfan (0.06 mg/L) for 21 days. Pesticide - withdrawal experiments were also performed to study recovery. Protein synthesis inhibitors were injected to know the possible mechanism of recovery. The specimens of C. batrachus were sacrificed and brain, liver and caudal white skeletal muscle were removed. Tissues were homogenized and fractions were obtained by differential centrifugation. The activities of citrate synthase (CS), glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6-PDH) and lactate dehydrogease (LDH) were assayed spectrophotometrically. Similarly, DNA, RNA and protein content were measured as per standard procedure. Results The exposure of sublethal concentration of endosulfan decreased the activity of citrate synthase (CS) and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6-PDH) in the brain, liver and skeletal muscle of the freshwater catfish, C. batrachus. The brain lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity was also reduced in response to endosulfan toxicity. The maximum reduction in activities of these enzyme was 34%-43%. Withdrawal of endosulfan restored the enzyme activity to control level in all the three tissues. The recovery in enzyme activity appears to be due to dissociation of endosulfan or its metabolite(s) from the enzyme

  8. Endosulfan and flutamide impair testicular development in the juvenile Asian catfish, Clarias batrachus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajakumar, A.; Singh, R.; Chakrabarty, S.; Murugananthkumar, R.; Laldinsangi, C.; Prathibha, Y.; Sudhakumari, C.C.; Dutta-Gupta, A. [Department of Animal Sciences, School of Life Sciences-Centre for Advanced Studies, University of Hyderabad, P. O. Central University, Hyderabad 500046, Andhra Pradesh (India); Senthilkumaran, B., E-mail: bsksl@uohyd.ernet.in [Department of Animal Sciences, School of Life Sciences-Centre for Advanced Studies, University of Hyderabad, P. O. Central University, Hyderabad 500046, Andhra Pradesh (India)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Endosulfan and/or flutamide retard(s) testicular differentiation in juvenile fish. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Endosulfan and/or flutamide target(s) cfGnRH-Tph2 axis, either directly or indirectly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effects of endosulfan and/or flutamide on plasma androgen levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compared changes in testis-related transcripts with testis germ cell distribution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our study on endosulfan endorse its prompt and complete phase-out/ban. - Abstract: Endosulfan and flutamide, a widely used pesticide and a prostate cancer/infertility drug, respectively, have an increased risk of causing endocrine disruption if they reach water bodies. Though many studies are available on neurotoxicity/bioaccumulation of endosulfan and receptor antagonism of flutamide, only little is known about their impact on testicular steroidogenesis at molecular level. Sex steroids play an important role in sex differentiation of lower vertebrates including fishes. Hence, a small change in their levels caused by endocrine disruptors affects the gonadal development of aquatic vertebrates significantly. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of endosulfan and flutamide on testis-related transcription factor and steroidogenic enzyme genes with a comparison on the levels of androgens during critical period of catfish testicular development. We also analyzed the correlation between the above-mentioned genes and catfish gonadotropin-releasing hormone (cfGnRH)-tryptophan hydroxylase2 (tph2). The Asian catfish, Clarias batrachus males at 50 days post hatch (dph) were exposed to very low dose of endosulfan (2.5 {mu}g/L) and flutamide (33 {mu}g/L), alone and in combination for 50 days. The doses used in this study were far less than those used in the previous studies of flutamide and reported levels of endosulfan in surface water and sediments. Sampling was done at end of the treatments (100

  9. RECOVERY OF DAMAGES IN THE SKIN OF ARSENIC EXPOSED CLARIAS BATRACHUS (LINN. FOLLOWING WITHDRAWAL OF THE STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Singh ، T. K. Banerjee

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The bottom dwelling air-breathing catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linn. also respires via its skin (an accessory water-breathing organ. Prolonged (90 days exposure to disodium arsenate heptahydrate has caused massive damage (e.g. wear and tear of various cellular components including club cells, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the goblet mucous cells, altered staining and the slimy secretion to the epidermis of its skin. The present study investigated the recovery in architecture of the damaged epidermis following return of the 90 days disodium arsenate heptahydrate exposed fish to clean water. The significant regeneration of its different cellular components (epithelial cells, Club cells, Mucous cells took place after 24 h of withdrawal when sloughing; wear and tear and other damages of the epidermis of the skin got substantially reduced. The histopathological alterations which still continued included squeezing out of contents of the Club cells that formed a thin layer on the body surface. Regeneration of the Club cells continued throughout the epidermis even though the newly formed Club cells still showed massive sign of degeneration. Altered staining behaviour and hyperactivity of the Mucous cells continues even after prolonged withdrawal of the stress of the arsenic salt. Similarly the glycoproteins of the slime secreted by the mucous cells retained their sulphate moieties. This indicates that disodium arsenate heptahydrate induces certain permanent non-reversible damages including altered mucogenic activity in the epidermis of the skin of C. batrachus.

  10. Single and cartel effect of pesticides on biochemical and haematological status of Clarias batrachus: A long-term monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narra, Madhusudan Reddy

    2016-02-01

    Pesticide mixtures are common in the streams of agricultural or urban catchments. Individual and cartel toxicity of four different pesticides, namely Endosulfan, Carbofuran, Methyl parathion and Cypermethrin were studied. Sub acute exposure (1/10th of LC50) for 1, 7, 15, 30 and 60 days in Clarias batrachus active tissues such as brain, gills, blood and liver were evaluated. Growth, hepatosomatic index and survival performance were decreased, inhibition of brain acetylcholinesterase, gills Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activities, and abnormal behavior are noticed. The characteristics of the blood respiratory burst activity, erythrocyte count, contents of hematocrit and hemoglobin are dwindled. Plasma total proteins and liver glycogen decreased whereas blood glucose and serum creatinine, triglycerides are elevated. The immunological attributes such as white blood cell count was elevated, whereas albumin, globulins and lysozyme activity significantly decreased. Hepatic superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione S-transferase activities and lipid peroxidation levels are elevated, whereas glutathione peroxidase and glutathione are reduced. Toxicity effect of pesticides reached to a crest on 30th day and showed a descent thereafter except in endosulfan which mounted its detrimental effect throughout the experimental period. Toxicity trends of the present study are determined to be highest in Mix group followed by cypermethrin, methyl parathion and carbofuran. Indiscriminate application of these chemicals pose a toxic threat to non-target organisms, damage the ecosystems and jeopardizes human health.

  11. Transcriptome generation and analysis from spleen of Indian catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus, 1758) through normalized cDNA library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Akanksha; Barman, A S; Sood, Neeraj; Mohindra, Vindhya

    2013-12-01

    Catfishes are commercially important fish for both the fisheries and aquaculture industry. Clarias batrachus, an Indian catfish species is economically important owing to its high demand. A normalized cDNA library was constructed from spleen of the Indian catfish to identify genes associated with immune function. One thousand nine hundred thirty seven ESTs were submitted to the GenBank with an average read length of approximately 700 bp. Clustering analysis of ESTs yielded 1,698 unique sequences, including 184 contigs and 1,514 singletons. Significant homology to known genes was found by homology searches against data in GenBank in 576 (34 %) ESTs, including similarity to functionally annotated unigenes for 158 ESTs. Additionally, 433 ESTs revealed similarity to unigenes and ESTs in the dbEST but the remaining 658 EST sequences (39 %) did not match any sequence in GenBank. Of a total of 1,698 ESTs generated, 65 ESTs were found to be associated with immune functions. Gene Ontology and KEGG pathway analyses of C. batrachus ESTs collectively revealed a preponderance of immune relevant pathways apart from the presence of pathways involved in protein processing, localization, folding and protein degradation. This study constitutes first EST analysis of lymphoid organ in aquaculturally important Indian catfish species and could pave the way for further research of immune-related genes and functional genomics in this catfish.

  12. Physiological responses to acute experimental hypoxia in the air-breathing Indian catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus, 1758)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ratnesh Kumar Tripathi; Vindhya Mohindra; Akanksha Singh; Rajesh Kumar; Rahasya Mani Mishra; Joy Krushna Jena

    2013-06-01

    With an aim to study the mechanism of adaptation to acute hypoxic periods by hypoxia-tolerant catfish, Clarias batrachus, the mass-specific metabolic rate (VO2) along with its hematological parameters, metabolic response and antioxidant enzyme activities were studied. During progressive hypoxia, C. batrachus was found to be an oxyconformer and showed a steady decline in its aquatic oxygen consumption rate. When C. batrachus was exposed for different periods at experimental hypoxia level (0.98±0.1 mg/L, DO), hemoglobin and hematocrit concentrations were increased, along with decrease in mean cellular hemoglobin concentration, which reflected a physiological adaptation to enhance oxygen transport capacity. Significant increase in serum glucose and lactate concentration as well as lactate dehydrogenase activity was observed. Antioxidant enzymes were found to operate independently of one another, while total glutathione concentration was unaffected in any of the tissues across treatments. These observations suggested that hypoxia resulted in the development of oxidative stress and C. batrachus was able to respond through increase in the oxygen carrying capacity, metabolic depression and efficient antioxidant defense system to survive periods of acute hypoxia.

  13. Induction of micronuclei and erythrocyte alterations in the catfish Clarias batrachus by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and butachlor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateeq, Bushra; Abul farah, M; Niamat Ali, M; Ahmad, Waseem

    2002-07-25

    The micronucleus test (MNT) in fish erythrocytes has increasingly been used to detect the genotoxic effects of environmental mutagens and its frequency is considered to reflect the genotoxic damage to cells, mainly the chromosomes. Besides, morphologically altered erythrocyte is taken as an index of cytotoxicity. Both parameters were used in the present study by two herbicides, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D, in 25, 50 and 75ppm concentrations) and 2-chloro-2,6-diethyl-N-(butoxymethyl) acetanilide (butachlor, in 1, 2 and 2.5ppm concentrations) for genotoxic and cytotoxic endpoints. The study was carried out by an in vivo method on peripheral erythrocytes of catfish Clarias batrachus using multiple sampling times (48, 72 and 96h). Cytogenetic preparations were made by haematoxylin-eosin staining technique. Pycnotic and granular micronuclei (MN) were consistently observed irrespective of chemical tested. A wide range of altered cells was also observed. Echinocytes accompanied by altered nuclei and vacuoles were prominent feature of 2,4-D, whereas, anisochromasia and anisocytosis of erythrocytes were characteristic of butachlor. Increase in MN as well as altered cells frequencies were significant. A positive dose-response relationship in all exposures and sampling times was observed. Herbicides used were found to be genotoxic as well as cytotoxic in this fish. The suitability of the adopted parameters for the screening of the aquatic genotoxicants is discussed.

  14. Long-term exposure to arsenic affects head kidney and impairs humoral immune responses of Clarias batrachus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Debabrata [Immunobiology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731235 (India); Datta, Soma [Immunobiology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731235 (India); Bhattacharya, Shelley [Environmental Toxicology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731235 (India); Mazumder, Shibnath [Immunobiology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731235 (India)]. E-mail: shibnath1@yahoo.co.in

    2007-02-15

    The present study was aimed at determining the effects of long-term arsenic exposure on the head kidney (HK) and ensuing humoral immune responses in Clarias batrachus L. Long-term exposure (150 days) to non-lethal concentrations of arsenic (42.42 {mu}M) resulted in significant time-dependent alterations in HK cell number eventually affecting the HK somatic index. Prolonged exposure to arsenic also suppressed HK-B cell proliferation and led to significant reduction in serum immunoglobulin levels and antigen-specific serum bacterial agglutinin titers. A decline in the number of antigen-specific plaque-forming cells with duration of arsenic exposure was noted in the HK. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assays further revealed that arsenic exposure inhibited the release of 'IL-4 like factors' from HK-T cells. Histological studies documented time-dependent changes in the structure and cellular composition of HK characterized by extensive lymphocytopenia, decrease in melano-macrophage population and hemosiderin accumulation. From exposure-challenge studies with Aeromonas hydrophila it was evident that pathogens could efficiently disseminate and colonize distant host tissues in the exposed fish. Moreover, the ability to decrease the pathogen load was also significantly reduced in the arsenic-exposed fish. Thus long-term exposure to non-lethal concentrations of arsenic affects HK and interferes with the humoral immune system of C. batrachus rendering them immunocompromised and susceptible to pathogenic challenge.

  15. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE BODY WEIGHT CHARACTERISTICS AND EFFECT OF DRYING ON CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THREE NILE FISH SPECIES (Oreochromis Niloticus, Labeo Niloticus AND Clarias Spp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan M. YAGOUB ADAM; Ahmed Mohamed MUSA AHMED; Abdelwahab M ADAM IBRAHIM; Fathi MIRGHANI YOUSIF

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to compare the body weights of three different Nile fish species (Oreochromis niloticus, Labeo niloticus and Clarias spp.), and the impact of direct sun drying on their chemical composition.36 samples were collected (12 samples/ species). Averages of total length, standard length (cm) and gross body weight (gm) were determined and the findings were as follows: 36.5, 29.75 and 930 for Oreochromis niloticus, 49, 39.5 and 1210 for Labeo niloticus and 49, 45 and 977.5 f...

  16. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of a novel cystatin-like gene in a hypoxia-tolerant Indian catfish, Clarias batrachus [Linnaeus, 1758].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohindra, Vindhya; Tripathi, Ratnesh K; Singh, Akanksha; Singh, Balvinder

    2013-02-01

    A novel member of Cystatin superfamily was identified from Indian catfish, Clarias batrachus, in response to oxidation stress induced by environmental hypoxia. Integrated genomic approaches, expression profiling and computational techniques showed that CbCystatin had putative cystatin/monelin like domain and might be a transmembrane and/or intermediate protein in signaling pathways. CbCystatin was found to be clustered into family 2 Cystatins. At transcriptional level, its expression was significantly up-regulated in response to short as well as long periods (more than 20 fold) of hypoxia, suggesting its positive association with oxygen concentrations lower than physiological concentrations.

  17. Haematological and immune upshots in Clarias batrachus exposed to dimethoate and defying response of dietary ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narra, Madhusudan Reddy

    2017-02-01

    Dimethoate (DM) is an organophosphate insecticide used worldwide in agriculture, household practices. It has resulted in a series of environmental and toxicological impacts on non-target aquatic organisms. The present study investigated the potential ameliorative effects of dietary ascorbic acid (AA) against dimethoate toxicity in the haematological and immune parameters in Clarias batrachus. The experiment included group A (basal diet), group B (basal diet with 1.245 mg L(-1) DM) and group C (200 mg kg(-1) AA with 1.245 mg L(-1) DM) were fed for 8 weeks. Samples were collected at the end of every week in each group and estimated haematological profile (red blood cell count, haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit %, albumin and globulin levels), erythrocyte indices (mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration), biochemical parameters (AA levels in blood and liver, total proteins, glucose, serum triglycerides, creatinine levels and glutamic oxaloacetate, glutamic pyruvate transaminase (GOT, GPT)) and immune responses (white blood cell count, serum IgM levels and activities of nitroblue tetrazolium, lysozyme and peroxidase) of the fish. Fish fed with ascorbic acid, showed red blood cell, haemoglobin, haematocrit, erythrocyte indices, albumin, globulin and serum triglycerides, creatinine, plasma total proteins, glucose levels are not differed (≤10%) from control. Likewise, ascorbic acid maintains optimal levels in activities of GOT, GPT, nitroblue tetrazolium, lysozyme and peroxidase, white blood cells and serum IgM levels. Further studies are needed to ascertain how ascorbic acid improves the innate and humoral immune system of the fish and the mechanisms involved.

  18. Ascorbic acid, garlic extract and taurine alleviate cadmium-induced oxidative stress in freshwater catfish (Clarias batrachus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Puneet, E-mail: puneetbiochem@gmail.com [Aquatic Biotechnology and Fish Pathology Laboratory, Department of Animal Science, M.J.P. Rohilkhand University, Bareilly-243 006 (India); Prasad, Y. [Aquatic Biotechnology and Fish Pathology Laboratory, Department of Animal Science, M.J.P. Rohilkhand University, Bareilly-243 006 (India); Patra, A.K. [West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, Kolkata-700037 (India); Ranjan, R.; Swarup, D.; Patra, R.C. [Division of Medicine, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243122 (India); Pal, Satya [Env. Eng. Lab., Deptt. of Civil Engineering, I.I.T., Roorkee-247667 (India)

    2009-09-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate bioaccumulation potential of cadmium (Cd) and changes in oxidative stress indices in liver and kidney tissues from Cd-exposed catfish (Clarias batrachus) with or without simultaneous treatment of water with ascorbic acid, garlic extract or taurine. C. batrachus (n = 324) with average length of 20 {+-} 4 cm and weight of 86 {+-} 5 g were used for the present investigation. Fishes were divided into nine groups (I to IX) each comprising 36 fishes. The fishes of groups II, III, IV and V were challenged with 5 ppm of cadmium chloride monohydrate (CdCl{sub 2}.H{sub 2}O), whereas groups VI, VII, VIII and IX were exposed to 10 ppm CdCl{sub 2}.H{sub 2}O solution for a period of 45 days. Group I was kept as negative control and the fishes of this group were maintained in water containing no added Cadmium. Group II and VI were maintained as Cd exposed non treated control to serve as positive controls. Fishes of III and VII, IV and VIII, V and IX received ascorbic acid (5 ppm), extract of dried garlic (5 ppm) or taurine (5 ppm), respectively during the entire experiment period. The concentrations of Cd in liver and kidney increased significantly following exposure to Cd and the level continued to rise with the increase in exposure duration. Treatment of tank water with ascorbic acid, garlic or taurine significantly reduced the Cd concentrations in tissues compared to the positive control group, but the level in Cd exposed groups was greater than the negative control group. Fishes exposed to Cd and treated with ascorbic acid, garlic or taurine had reduced oxidative stress as evidenced from lower concentration of lipid peroxides and higher activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in liver, kidney and erythrocytes compared to fishes exposed to Cd. The reduction in Cd induced oxidative stress was highest in ascorbic acid treated group followed by garlic and taurine treatment. The results suggest that ascorbic acid, garlic and

  19. 木瓜蛋白酶水解胡子鲶的研究%Study on the Condition of Hydrolysis of Clarias fuscus By Papain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周燕芳

    2013-01-01

      Adore the papain to hydrolyze the protein of Clarias fuscus and study the process condition of enzymolysis. Analyse the influence of dosage of papain, concentration of substrate, temperature of enzymolysis, pH value etc. On the protein hydrolysis of Clarias fuscus Experimental results show that the best condition of the enzymolysis as follow: the concentration of papain at 1.8 %, the concentration of substrate at 3.5 %, the temperature of enzymolysis at 55℃, pH 7.0, time of hydrolysis at 6 h, in which the hydrolysis will be 30.65%achieved.%  采用木瓜蛋白酶水解胡子鲶鱼蛋白,并对酶水解的工艺条件进行研究,分析了酶用量、底物浓度、酶水解温度、酶水解时间、pH等因素对胡子鲶蛋白水解的影响。实验结果表明,木瓜蛋白酶水解胡子鲶的最佳条件为:酶浓度1.8%,底物浓度3.5%,酶水解温度55℃, pH 7.0,反应时间6 h ,在此条件下胡子鲶水解程度可达到30.65%。

  20. 磷酸盐缓冲液的浓度和pH对革胡子鲶肠道抗菌蛋白/肽分级盐析的影响%Effect of Concentration and pH Value of Phosphate Buffer on Gradient Ammonium Sulphate Fractionation of Antibacterial Protein/peptide from Intestine of African Catfish ( Clarias gariepinus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王存; 王晓梅; 季延滨; 徐敏; 戴伟; 潘宝平

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探讨磷酸盐缓冲液的pH和浓度在分级盐析时,对革胡子鲶肠道各组分蛋白/肽的影响.[方法]以不同浓度和pH的磷酸盐缓冲液作为组织匀浆缓冲液,在硫酸铵饱和度为20% 、40%、60%、80%和100%的条件下,对革胡子鲶肠道抗菌蛋白/肽进行分级盐析,并对盐析产物进行称重、电泳检测和抑菌活性分析.[结果]磷酸盐缓冲液的pH为6.0或7.4时,其浓度对盐析产物产量、蛋白沉淀和抑菌效果无显著影响.而pH为8.0、浓度为0.05 mol/L时,硫酸铵饱和度为60%和100%的粗蛋白/肽的产量显著高于浓度为0.02 mol/L的磷酸盐缓冲液粗蛋白含量;大分子蛋白能更好地在硫酸铵饱和度为20%和40%时沉淀下来,而在饱和度为60%、80%和100%能获得分子量相对较小的抗菌蛋白/肽.磷酸盐缓冲液的pH和浓度对抑菌效果无显著影响.[结论]pH 8.0,浓度为0.05 mol/L的磷酸盐缓冲液更适于革胡子鲶肠道抗菌蛋白/肽的提取.%[Objective] The effects of the concentration and pH value of phosphate buffer on the proteins/peptides in each fraction of African catfish in testine were studied. [ Method] The antibacterial proteins/peptides from intestine of African catfish were fractionation by a graded ammonium sulfale (AS) precipitation technique and the fractions were oblained at 20%,40%,60%,80% and 100% saturation with ammo nium sulfale. Each fraction was weight and detected by SDS-PAGE and its antibacterial activity was analyzed. [Result] The concentration of phosphate buffer al pH 6.0 and 7.4 didn't show significant effect on these indexes. At the pH 8.0, concentration of phosphate buffer also didn't show significant effect on antibacterial activity of each fraction. However, the yields of the crude extracts oblained at 60% and 100 % saturated AS were higher in phosphate buffer concentration of 0.05 mol/L than that in 0.02 mol/L phosphate buffer. And the relatively high molecular-weight proteins were removed al 20% and 40 % saturation with AS, so the relatively low molecular-weight antibacterial proteins/ peptides could be obtained at 60% , 80% and 100 % saturated AS. pH and concentration of phosphate buffer have no significant effects, on baclerioetat. [ Conclusion ] Phosphate buffer of pH 8.0 and the 0. 05 mol/L was more suitable for extraction of the antibacterial proteins/pep tides from African catfish intestine.

  1. 水产养殖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    951987 两种胡子鲶(胡子鲶Clariasgariepinus)和蟾胡子鲶(Clarias batrachus)仔鱼的饲养,生长和营养生理学评述=A re-view of feeding practices,growth and nutri-tional physiology in larvae of the catfishClarias gariepinus and Claria batrachus[刊,英]/Verreth J,Eding E H,Rao G R M//Nutr,Abst.Rev.(Series B).-1994,64(2)-1033 该文评述了胡子鲶同属种和地区间的饲

  2. Autochthonous Gut Bacteria in Two Indian Air-breathing Fish, Climbing Perch (Anabas testudineus) and Walking Catfish (Clarias batrachus): Mode of Association, Identification and Enzyme Producing Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Goutam; Dan, Suhas K; Nandi, Ankita; Ghosh, Pinki; Ray, Arun K

    2015-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to define the location of epithelium-associated bacteria in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of two Indian air-breathing fish, the climbing perch (Anabas testudineus) and walking catfish (Clarias batrachus). The SEM examination revealed substantial numbers of rod shaped bacterial cells associated with the microvillus brush borders of enterocytes in proximal (PI) and distal regions (DI) of the GI tract of both the fish species. Ten (two each from the PI and DI of climbing perch and three each from the PI and DI of walking catfish) isolated bacterial strains were evaluated for extracellular protease, amylase and cellulase production quantitatively. All the bacterial strains exhibited high cellulolytic activity compared to amylolytic and proteolytic activites. Only two strains, CBH6 and CBH7, isolated from the DI of walking catfish exhibited high proteolytic activity. Maximum cellulase activity was exhibited by the strain, CBF2, isolated from the PI of climbing perch. Six most promising enzyme-producing adherent bacterial strains were identified by 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. The strain ATH1 (isolated from climbing perch) showed high similarity fo Bacillus amyloliquefaciens whereas, the remaining five strains (isolated from walking catfish) were most closely related to Bacillus licheniformis.

  3. Detection of DNA damage by alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis in 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic-acid- and butachlor-exposed erythrocytes of Clarias batrachus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateeq, Bushra; Abul Farah, M; Ahmad, Waseem

    2005-11-01

    The alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis, also known as comet assay, is a rapid, simple and sensitive technique for measuring DNA strand breaks in individual cells. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the genotoxic potential of two widely used herbicides; 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2-chloro-2,6-diethyl-N-(butoxymethyl) acetanilide (butachlor) in erythrocytes of freshwater catfish, Clarias batrachus. Fish were exposed by medium treatment with three sub-lethal concentrations of 2,4-D (25, 50, and 75ppm) and butachlor (1, 2, and 2.5ppm) and alkaline comet assay was performed on nucleated erythrocytes after 48, 72, and 96h. The amount of DNA damage in cells was estimated from comet tail length as the extent of migration of the genetic material. A significant increase in comet tail length indicating DNA damage was observed at all concentrations of both the herbicides compared with control (Pbutachlor (9.28microm). This study confirmed that the comet assay applied on the fish erythrocyte is a useful tool in determining potential genotoxicity of water pollutants and might be appropriate as a part of a monitoring program.

  4. Role of ureogenesis in tackling problems of ammonia toxicity during exposure to higher ambient ammonia in the air-breathing walking catfish Clarias batrachus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nirmalendu Saha; Shritapa Datta; Kuheli Biswas; Zaiba Y Kharbuli

    2003-12-01

    In the present study, the possible role of ureogenesis to avoid the accumulation of toxic ammonia to a lethal level under hyper-ammonia stress was tested in the air-breathing walking catfish Clarias batrachus by exposing the fish at 25 mM NH4Cl for 7 days. Excretion of ammonia by the NH4Cl-exposed fish was totally suppressed, which was accompanied by significant accumulation of ammonia in different body tissues. The walking catfish, which is otherwise predominantly ammoniotelic, turned totally towards ureotelism from ammoniotelism with a 5- to 6-fold increase of urea-N excretion during exposure to higher ambient ammonia. Stimulation of ureogenesis was accompanied with significant increase of some of the key urea cycle enzymes such as carbamyl phosphate synthetase (urea cycle-related), argininosuccinate synthetase and argininosuccinate lyase both in hepatic and non-hepatic tissues. Due to this unique physiological strategy of turning towards ureotelism from ammoniotelism via the induced urea cycle, this air-breathing catfish is able to survive in very high ambient ammonia, which they face in certain seasons of the year in the natural habitat.

  5. Description of three new species of Quadriacanthus (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalidae gill parasites of Clarias submarginatus (Siluriformes: Clariidae from Lake Ossa (Littoral region, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieu ne dort Bahanak

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Clariidae is a group that includes many species that have great economic importance in both fisheries and fish culture. Monogenean parasites of fishes assigned to this family have been studied in Cameroon, but there have been no studies on Clarias submarginatus Peter, 1882, a fish that is traditionally consumed by the local people. The examination of 43 specimens identified as C. submarginatus from Lake Ossa (first record of this fish species in the Sanaga basin, revealed that some of them belong to Quadriacanthus and are new. Their identification was made based on the morphology and the size of sclerotized parts of the haptor and the male and female copulatory complexes. Quadriacanthus macruncus Bahanak, Nack & Pariselle sp. nov. and Quadriacanthus submarginati Bahanak, Nack & Pariselle sp. nov. are characterized by the morphology of their accessory piece, pointed, slightly curved and wider at medium level, equipped with two subterminal, symmetrical and similar spines for Q. macruncus sp. nov. and made up of one long tip flanked by a short spine and a bulb for Q . submarginati sp. nov., while Quadriacanthus ossaensis Bahanak, Nack & Pariselle sp. nov. is distinguished by the unique morphology of the penis, ending in a fork. The new species of Quadriacanthus are herein described and their host specificity is discussed.

  6. 二、渔业生物学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    960579 胡子鲶中嗜水气单胞菌的某些毒性特性=Some viruIence characteristics ofAeromonas hydrophila in walking catfish (Clarias gariepinus)[刊,英]/Angka S L,Lam T J,Sin Y M//Aquac..—1995,130(2/3).—103~112

  7. Effects of Endosulfan on Predator–Prey Interactions Between Catfish and Schistosoma Host Snails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monde, Concillia; Syampungani, Stephen; Brink, van den Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of the pesticide endosulfan on predator–prey interactions between catfish and Schistosoma host snails was assessed in static tank experiments. Hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus × C. ngamensis) and Bulinus globosus were subjected to various endosulfan concentrations including an untrea

  8. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16167-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _1( AY660880 |pid:none) Clarias gariepinus fatty acid elon... 51 6e-05 AY660881_1( AY660881 |pid:none) Gadus...ene for ... 52 4e-05 AF268031_1( AF268031 |pid:none) Mortierella alpina long chain fatt... 52 4e-05 AY660880

  9. Dynamic expression of 11β-hydroxylase during testicular development, recrudescence and after hCG induction, in vivo and in vitro in catfish, Clarias batrachus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajakumar, Anbazhagan; Senthilkumaran, Balasubramanian

    2015-01-15

    Cytochrome P450 11β-hydroxylase (11β-h), is involved in the production of 11-hydroxytestosterone, an immediate precursor for 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), a potent androgen in teleosts. To understand the role of 11β-h in gonadal development, maturation, function and recrudescence in an annually reproducing teleost, the present study was conducted using Clarias batrachus. Four forms of 11β-h cDNA, regular type (2.253 kb), variant 1 (1.290 kb), variant 2 (1.223 kb) and variant 3 (1.978 kb) were identified from the testis of catfish which expressed ubiquitously with high levels in testis. 11β-h transcripts were detected as early as 0 days post hatch further, stage- and sex-dependent increase in the 11β-h transcripts were seen during gonadal differentiation/development. In addition, high expression of 11β-h (regular type) in pre-spawning phase was detected. Corroboratively, levels of 11-KT in serum and testicular tissue was high during pre-spawning and spawning phases, which might facilitate initiation and normal progression of spermatogenesis. The expression of 11β-h was high after human chorionic gonadotropin induction in vivo (all forms), and in vitro (regular type). Immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence localization showed the presence of 11β-h in Sertoli and interstitial/Leydig cells of the testis. These results suggest that 11β-h is involved in late stages of testicular development, together with the regulation of seasonal reproductive cycle in catfish.

  10. Evidence of apoptotic effects of 2,4-D and butachlor on walking catfish, Clarias batrachus, by transmission electron microscopy and DNA degradation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateeq, Bushra; Farah, M Abul; Ahmad, Waseem

    2006-01-25

    Apoptosis or programmed cell death is characterized morphologically by chromatin condensation, cell shrinkage, fragmentation of the nucleus and cytoplasm, and consequently formation of apoptotic bodies. It has also been best characterized by the cleavage of DNA into nucleosomal size fragments of 180-200 bp or multiples of the same. Contrary to this, under extreme conditions, the cells were found to show adaptive response to apoptosis and unable to regulate their own death; necrosis is therefore predominantly observed. In the present study, we showed induction of apoptosis in Clarias batrachus due to sublethal concentration of 2,4-D and butachlor at multiple exposure time. The first phase of the study involved light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for ultrastructural abnormalities of the germinal tissues. While, in the second phase of the study, DNA degradation of blood and hepatic tissue was resolved on agarose gel electrophoresis. In histopathological studies, large numbers of stage II oocytes were noted for nuclear blebbing irrespective of the test chemical. Some of the butachlor-exposed oocytes showed vacuolation and electron dense cytoplasm along with thickened nuclear envelope, having close association with the lysosomes on the cytoplasmic side. Some oocytes undergo nuclear blebbing having inner dense core and translucent cytoplasm. Leydig cells were slightly hypertrophied and few appeared pycnotic, a process involving necrotic changes in which the cell nuclei were characterized by rounding up and condensation resulting in hyperchromatic staining or pycnosis. In testicular tissue, spermatogonial nuclei had irregular large clumps of heterochromatin adjoining the nuclear membrane indicating initial stage of apoptotic cell death. Electrophoretic separation resulted in a ladder pattern of blood DNA and smear like pattern of hepatic DNA. These results indicate that the above herbicides are able to induce apoptosis both at molecular as

  11. Cell volume regulation in the perfused liver of a freshwater air-breathing catfish Clarias batrachus under aniso-osmotic conditions: Roles of inorganic ions and taurine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Carina Goswami; Nirmalendu Saha

    2006-12-01

    The roles of various inorganic ions and taurine, an organic osmolyte, in cell volume regulation were investigated in the perfused liver of a freshwater air-breathing catfish Clarias batrachus under aniso-osmotic conditions. There was a transient increase and decrease of liver cell volume following hypotonic (–80 mOsmol/l) and hypertonic (+80 mOsmol/l) exposures, respectively, which gradually decreased/increased near to the control level due to release/uptake of water within a period of 25–30 min. Liver volume decrease was accompanied by enhanced efflux of K+ (9.45 ± 0.54 mol/g liver) due to activation of Ba2+- and quinidine-sensitive K+ channel, and to a lesser extent due to enhanced efflux of Cl¯ (4.35 ± 0.25 mol/g liver) and Na+ (3.68 ± 0.37 mol/g liver). Conversely, upon hypertonic exposure, there was amiloride- and ouabain-sensitive uptake of K+ (9.78 ± 0.65 mol/g liver), and also Cl¯ (3.72 ± 0.25 mol/g liver). The alkalization/acidification of the liver effluents under hypo-/hypertonicity was mainly due to movement of various ions during volume regulatory processes. Taurine, an important organic osmolyte, appears also to play a very important role in hepatocyte cell volume regulation in the walking catfish as evidenced by the fact that hypo- and hyper-osmolarity caused transient efflux (5.68 ± 0.38 mol/g liver) and uptake (6.38 ± 0.45 mol/g liver) of taurine, respectively. The taurine efflux was sensitive to 4,4′-di-isothiocyanatostilbene-2,2′-disulphonic acid (DIDS, an anion channel blocker), but the uptake was insensitive to DIDS, thus indicating that the release and uptake of taurine during volume regulatory processes are unidirectional. Although the liver of walking catfish possesses the RVD and RVI mechanisms, it is to be noted that liver cells remain partly swollen and shrunken during anisotonic exposures, thereby possibly causing various volume-sensitive metabolic changes in the liver as reported earlier.

  12. Effects of Main Soybean Antigens on Nutritional Components of Muscle in Clarias leather%大豆主要抗原蛋白对埃及胡子鲇肌肉营养成分的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴莉芳; 邹瑞兴; 王申; 王洪鹤; 孙泽威; 秦贵信

    2009-01-01

    A 6-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of main soybean antigens on nutritional components of muscle in Clarias leather with the initial weight of(15.14±0.05) g at controlled temperature in single recirculating system. One control diet and two treatment diets containing purified (3-conglycinin (40 mg/g) or glycinin (60 mg/g) were formulated by fish oil, corn oil, Alsace gum (as three energy sources), fish meal (as animal protein source) and cellulose (as plant packing material) on the base of isonitrogenous (40%) and isoenergetic (15.8 MJ/kg) . The results showed that the crude protein content in muscle of Clarias leather fed with β-conglycinin or glycinin significantly declined( P 0.05 ) . Contents of total amino acids, total essential amino acids and total flavor amino acids decreased in muscles of the fish, but there was no significant difference between the treated groups and the control group( P > 0.05) . Soybean antigens had significant effects on the nutritional components in muscle of Clarias leather, when the content of β-conglycinin or glycinin was over 40 mg/g or 60 mg/g in the juvenile fish diets, respectively.%在室内单循环控温养殖系统中,给初始体质量为(15.14±0.05)g的健康埃及胡子鲇(Clarias lazera)投喂以鱼粉为动物蛋白源,鱼油、玉米油、糊精为能源,纤维素为填充物配制的3种等氮(粗蛋白质量分数为40%)、等能(15.8MJ/kg)的半精制饲料(其中β-伴大豆球蛋白的添加量为40 mg/g,大豆球蛋白的添加量为60 mg/g),研究了大豆中主要抗原蛋白对埃及胡子鲇肌肉营养成分的影响.饲喂6周后的调查数据表明:在本试验条件下,β伴大豆球蛋白和大豆球蛋白使埃及胡子鲇肌肉中粗蛋白含量极显著下降(P005);使肌肉中氨基酸总量、必需氨基酸总量和鲜味氨基酸总量下降,但与对照组差异不显著(P>005).因此,在埃及胡子鲇幼鱼的配合饲料中,β伴大豆球蛋白的含量超过40 mg

  13. Monogènes de Clarias (Siluriformes, Clariidae au Cameroun : II. description de trois nouvelles espèces du genre Birgiellus n. gen. (Dactylogyridea, Ancyrocephalidae dans le Bassin du Nyong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilong Bilong C.F.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available L’étude des monogènes parasites branchiaux de trois espèces de poissons du genre Clarias Scopoli, 1777 (Clariidae : C. pachynema, C. jaensis et C. camerunensis, pêchés dans le bassin du Nyong (Cameroun a permis de récolter trois nouvelles espèces placées dans le nouveau genre Birgiellus, respectivement Birgiellus mutatus n. sp. chez Clarias pachynema, B. calaris n. sp. chez C. jaensis et B. kellensis n. sp. chez C. camerunensis. Le genre Birgiellus, voisin du genre Quadriacanthus, s’en distingue par la morphologie de la barre transversale ventrale formée d’une pièce unique (deux bras distincts chez Quadriacanthus et par les uncinuli IV peu différents des autres (plus grands chez les Quadriacanthus. Birgiellus calaris diffère de B. mutatus par les anchors ventraux plus longs et plus épais, la morphologie de la barre transversale ventrale, la taille des pièces sclérifiées des appareils copulateurs mâle et femelle, avec la pièce accessoire mâle munie d’un talon, un manche trapézoïdal plus long et un crochet plus épais. Birgiellus kellensis, proche de B. calaris, s’en écarte par la taille plus faible des anchors dorsaux et ventraux, des barres transversales, du pénis, et de la pièce accessoire male, sans talon, mais avec une lame mince supplémentaire. En référence à l’article 8.5.2 du Code international de nomenclature zoologique (1999, le genre Birgiellus et les espèces B. mutatus et B. calaris remplacent respectivement le genre Claridectes et les espèces C. clarisa et C. alacris, initialement décrits par Birgi (1987, mais dont les spécimens n’ont jamais été déposés dans un musée. L’étude de la spécificité parasitaire de ces trois espèces montre qu’elle est du type oïoxène.

  14. Expression analysis and localization of wt1, ad4bp/sf-1 and gata4 in the testis of catfish, Clarias batrachus: Impact of wt1-esiRNA silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugananthkumar, Raju; Senthilkumaran, Balasubramanian

    2016-08-15

    In teleosts, a comprehensive role or interaction of wt1, ad4bp/sf-1 and gata4 genes in relation to gonadal development and/or recrudescence was never attempted. Present study aimed to identify the involvement of these genes during testicular development of catfish, Clarias batrachus. Dominant expression of wt1 and gata4 was observed in developing and adult testis, while ad4bp/sf-1 showed steady expression. Localization of these genes in adult testis revealed their presence in spermatogonia, spermatocytes and interstitial/Leydig cells. Significant high expression during pre-spawning and spawning phases, and upregulated levels of these genes after hCG induction authenticated gonadotropic regulation. Transient silencing of wt1-esiRNA displayed decrease in wt1 expression, which further downregulated the expression of ad4bp/sf-1 and gata4, and certain steroidogenic enzyme genes related to androgen production. These results suggest that wt1 might target ad4bp/sf-1 and gata4 expression, and also have regulatory influence either indirectly or directly on the steroidogenic enzyme genes of catfish.

  15. INDIRECT SAFETY ASSESSMENT OF ECTODERMAL MERCURY EXPOSURE BY TRADITIONAL MEDICAL FORMULATIONS ON FRESHWATER CAT FISH CLARIAS BATRACHUS USING MICRONUCLEUS ASSAY AND ALKALINE SINGLE-CELL GEL ELECTROPHORESIS (COMET ASSAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Prem Rajan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mercury and its salts are the major constituents of Ayurvedic, Chinese and Tibetan traditional formulations. The mercury is extensively reported to accumulate in food chain and cause many neurological disorders in environment. The safety assessment of mercury on the ectodermal application on animal model is rarely reported. The void in the scientific study on external exposure of mercury and its genotoxic inside the body lead to the necessity for the present study. The freshwater cat fish Clarias batrachus was used for broad specificity genotoxic indicators micronucleus assay and alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assays. The fish was exposed to 0.03 ppm of mercuric chloride for a period of 7, 14, 28 and 35 days ectodermally. The blood sample was assayed for the genotoxicity. The results revealed undoubted DNA damage through the micronuclei and alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assays. Hence it is concluded the usage of traditional medicines containing the mercury may be toxic at genetic level in prolonged usage.

  16. Hypoxia influences expression profile of Pleckstrin homology-like domain, family A, member 2 in Indian catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus, 1758): A new candidate gene for hypoxia tolerance in fish

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vindhya Mohindra; Ratnesh K Tripathi; Prabhaker Yadav; Rajeev K Singh; Kuldeep K Lal

    2014-06-01

    Several physiologically important genes were found to be regulated by hypoxia at the transcriptional level. The Pleckstrin homology-like domain, family A, member 2 (PHLDA2) gene was previously identified as an imprinted gene. The present study was aimed to determine the structure of complete cDNA and the deduced protein of PHLDA2 along with analysing the changes in its mRNA expression in Clarias batrachus tissues under hypoxic conditions. The complete cDNA of CbPHLDA2 gene consisted of 1009 nucleotides with an open reading frame of 417 nucleotides. The deduced CbPHLDA2 protein of 139 amino acids shared high homology with PHLD2A of other fishes as well as that of vertebrates. Importantly, a single amino acid (asparagine/lysine) insertion was identified in the PH domain of CbPHLDA2 and other fishes, which was absent in other vertebrates studied. Furthermore, under normoxic conditions, CbPHLDA2 was constitutively expressed with varying levels in analysed tissues. Short- and long-term hypoxia exposure resulted in significant changes in the expression of CbPHLDA2 in liver, spleen, head kidney, brain and muscle in a time-dependent manner. The results suggested that CbPHLDA2 might play an important role for adaptive significance under hypoxia.

  17. Catfish culture in Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Adan, R. I. Y.

    2000-01-01

    Catfish rank fifth in the world in terms of fresh and brackishwater fish culture. In Asia and the Pacific, the Clariidae family dominates production, representing nearly 80% of the total catfish production. Among the most cultured species are Clarias batrachus, C. macrocephalus, C. gariepinus. The domestic market generally absorbs catfish produce in Asia, although high-producing countries like Thailand and Vietnam engage in export. There are two basic markets for catfish: live fish and proces...

  18. On Rhinoceros simus, Burchell in the Leiden Museum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentink, F.A.

    1890-01-01

    According to Dr. P. L. Sclater (Nature, September 25, 1890, p. 520) Mr. F. Selous says in the Field of August 16 as follows: — »it was within a mile of this spot that, two years previously (i. e. in 1888), I shot two white Rhinoceroses Rhinoceros simus), the last of their kind that have been killed

  19. Effects of anisotonicity on pentose-phosphate pathway, oxidized glutathione release and t-butylhydroperoxide-induced oxidative stress in the perfused liver of air-breathing catfish, Clarias batrachus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nirmalendu Saha; Carina Goswami

    2004-06-01

    Both hypotonic exposure (185 mOsmol/l) and infusion of glutamine plus glycine (2 mmol/l each) along with the isotonic medium caused a significant increase of 14CO2 production from [1-14C]glucose by 110 and 70%, respectively, from the basal level of 18.4 ± 1.2 nmol/g liver/min from the perfused liver of Clarias batrachus. Conversely, hypertonic exposure (345 mOsmol/l) caused significant decrease of 14CO2 production from [1-14C]glucose by 34%. 14CO2 production from [6-14C]glucose was largely unaffected by anisotonicity. The steady-state release of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) into bile was 1.18 ± 0.09 nmol/g liver/min, which was reduced significantly by 36% and 34%, respectively, during hypotonic exposure and amino acid-induced cell swelling, and increased by 34% during hypertonic exposure. The effects of anisotonicity on 14CO2 production from [1-14C]glucose and biliary GSSG release were also observed in the presence of t-butylhydroperoxide (50 mol/l). The oxidative stress-induced cell injury, caused due to infusion of t-butylhydroperoxide, was measured as the amount of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage into the effluent from the perfused liver; this was found to be affected by anisotonicity. Hypotonic exposure caused significant decrease of LDH release and hypertonic exposure caused significant increase of LDH release from the perfused liver. The data suggest that hypotonically-induced as well as amino acid-induced cell swelling stimulates flux through the pentose-phosphate pathway and decreases loss of GSSG under condition of mild oxidative stress; hypotonically swollen cells are less prone to hydroperoxide-induced LDH release than hypertonically shrunken cells, thus suggesting that cell swelling may exert beneficial effects during early stages of oxidative cell injury probably due to swelling-induced alterations in hepatic metabolism.

  20. Fecundity of two dominant fish species in Ado reservoir, Southwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Oso

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study determined the fecundity and sex ratio of Oreochromis niloticus and Clarias gariepinus as the dominant species in Ado Reservoir, in Ekiti State, South West Nigeria between November 2011 and March 2012. The major fishing methods employed for collecting the fish specimens were cast netting and set netting. Biometric data such as total length, standard length and body weight measurements were recorded in the laboratory. Out of 40 C. gariepinus analyzed, 18 were males while 22 were females showing male to female sex ratio of 5:6. O. niloticus showed male to female sex ratio of 3:2 from 36 males and 24 females analyzed. Both C. gariepinus and O. niloticus showed high significant correlation between fecundity and gonad weight for C. gariepinus and for O. niloticus. Fecundity of O. niloticus ranged from 600eggs to 800eggs with a mean of 700eggs while C. gariepinus ranged from 4,000eggs to 7,200eggs with a mean of 5,588eggs. Most species of O. niloticus were not carrying eggs at the time of study. The study concluded that fecundity in the two species examined was low. This calls for an investigation into some prevailing conditions in the reservoir vis-à-vis availability and quality of food, the physical and chemical constituents of the water as well as the activities of fishermen operating in reservoir area.

  1. MENELUSURI IDENTITAS IKAN LELE DUMBO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Iswanto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lele dumbo merupakan salah satu ikan lele unggul yang budidayanya pernah mengalami perkembangan pesat di Indonesia. Secara umum, ikan lele dumbo dipercaya sebagai ikan lele hibrida hasil hibridisasi antara spesies ikan lele Afrika Clarias gariepinus dengan spesies ikan lele Taiwan C. fuscus. Tetapi, secara morfologis tampaknya ikan lele dumbo tidak berbeda dari strain-strain ikan lele Afrika C. gariepinus yang berikutnya diintroduksi ke Indonesia, sehingga para praktisi perikanan juga menduga bahwa ikan lele dumbo sebenarnya merupakan spesies ikan lele Afrika C. gariepinus. Dengan demikian, identitas ikan lele dumbo tetaplah belum jelas. Hal tersebut dikarenakan belum adanya penelitian yang mengeksplorasi karakteristik ikan lele dumbo secara ilmiah. Makalah ini merupakan ulasan penelusuran identitas ikan lele dumbo berdasarkan publikasi-publikasi yang relevan. Berdasarkan tinjauan terhadap beberapa bukti publikasi dalam ulasan ini, terindikasi bahwa ikan lele dumbo bukanlah ikan lele hibrida hasil hibridisasi antara ikan lele C. gariepinus dengan C. fuscus, tetapi tampaknya lebih merupakan spesies ikan lele Afrika C. gariepinus. Namun demikian, hal tersebut masih merupakan suatu indikasi, sehingga diperlukan penelitian-penelitian lebih lanjut untuk memastikan hal tersebut.

  2. Electric Organ Discharges of Mormyrid Fish as a Possible Cue for Predatory Catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanika, S.; Kramer, B.

    During reproductive migration the electroreceptive African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Siluriformes), preys mainly on a weakly electric fish, the bulldog Marcusenius macrolepidotus (Mormyridae; Merron 1993). This is puzzling because the electric organ discharges of known Marcusenius species are pulses of a duration (catfishes' low-frequency electroreceptive system (optimum sensitivity, 10-30Hz Peters and Bretschneider 1981). On the recent discovery that M. macrolepidotus males emit discharges lasting approximately ten times longer than those of females (Kramer 1997a) we determined behavioral thresholds for discharges of both sexes, using synthetic playbacks of field-recorded discharges. C. gariepinus detected M. macrolepidotus male discharges down to a field gradient of 103μVpeak-peak/cm and up to a distance of 1.5m at natural field conditions. In contrast, thresholds for female discharges were not reached with our setup, and we presume the bulldogs eaten by catfish are predominantly male.

  3. ODABRANI JETRENI I BUBREŽNI BIOKEMIJSKI PROFILI HIBRIDNOG SOMA IZLOŽENOG LISNOM PRAHU JATROPHA CURCAS

    OpenAIRE

    Adamu, Kabir M.; Isah, M. C.; T. A. Baba; Idris, T. M.

    2013-01-01

    Ova studija istražuje učinak subletalnih koncentracija (7,50, 5,00, 2,50 i 0,00 gL (kontrola)) lisnog praha Jatropha curcas na neke jetrene i bubrežne biokemijske profile, kao što su ukupni protein, ukupni bilirubin, ukupni albumin i ukupni globulin hibridnog soma (Clarias gariepinus (♀) i Heterobranchus bidorsalis (♂)), nakon četrnaestodnevnog eksperimentalnog razdoblja. Rezultat se značajno razlikovao u srednjoj vrijednosti određenog jetrenog ukupnog bilirubina, dok se ukupni protein, a...

  4. Comparing the levels of trace metal from two fish species harvested from treated waste water in Pretoria, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olowoyo, J O; Mdakane, S T R; Okedeyi, O O

    2011-06-15

    The persistent problem of water scarcity with the ever increasing demand of water has necessitated the reuse of effluent in agriculture. The present study evaluated the reuse of treated waste water and bioaccumulation properties of two fish species from a manmade lake. Trace metals content of two fish species: Clarias gariepinus and Cyprinus carpio and levels of trace metals from waste water in the lake where the fish species were harvested were determined by Inductive Couple Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES). The trace metal values from fish samples ranged between 0.45-4.41 microg g(-1) for Cu, 16.45-72.23 microg g(-1) for Zn, 1.92-4.71 microg g(-1) for Cr, 2.45-5.65 microg g(-1) for Ni, 10.23-44.31 microg g(-1) for Mn, 9.67-46.59 microg g(-1) for Fe and 0.12-0.56 microg g(-1) for Pb. The carp exhibited a significantly higher concentration for the trace metals for all the parts analyzed (pgill>muscle>bone and metal accumulation was in the order Zn>Fe>Mn>Cr>Ni >Cu>Pb. The concentration of trace metals such as zinc, iron, chromium and nickel were higher than the recommended legal limits for human consumption. The result revealed that properly treated waste water could be used for the purpose of aquaculture. Clarias gariepinus bio accumulated more trace metals from the lake when compared with Cyprinus carpio.

  5. Descriptions of diplostomid metacercariae (Digenea: Diplostomidae from freshwater fishes in the Tshwane area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmey B.E. Moema

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The metacercarial (larval stages of diplostomid digeneans are known to inhabit freshwater fish, causing tissue damage in the process. Due to their widespread diversity, little is known about their life cycle. The classification of these parasitic stages to the species level using only the morphology is very challenging due to the lack of genitalia; they are regarded to be the most important structures in the identification of these organisms. In this study, additional morphological information through light and scanning electron microscopy is given for two different diplostomids found in the cranial cavity of Clarias gariepinus and the vitreous chambers of Tilapia sparrmanii and Pseudocrenilabrus philander. The diplostomid metacercaria inhabiting the cranial cavity of Clarias gariepinus was morphologically identified as Diplostomulum (Tylodelphys mashonenseand an unknown metacercaria of the genus Diplostomumwas found in the vitreous chambers of Pseudocrenilabrus philander and Tilapia sparrmanii. Both parasitic species’ 28S recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid genomic regions were successfully amplified using Dig 125/1500R primer pairs. The assay yielded a product of approximately 1300 base pairs as seen on the gel images. There were 14 nucleotide differences over the entire analysed sequences resulting in a 1.1% (14/1273 nucleotide difference. In line with the morphological characteristics of these parasites, there seemed to be a slight difference in their genetic makeup. The application of molecular techniques on digenetic trematodes seems very promising and may yield great potential in future descriptions of morphologically similar parasitic species.

  6. Reproductive, Growth Performance and Nutrient Utilization of Heterobranchus bidorsalis (Geoffroy, 1809 and its Hybrid Clariabranchus Induced with Synthetic Hormone and Pituitary Gland of Heterobranchus bidorsalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Anetekhai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the reproductive performance, growth rate and nutrient utilization capacities of pure breed Heterobranchus bidorsalis (H. bidorsalis ? x H. bidorsalis ? and its hybrid (H. bidorsalis ? x C. gariepinus ? (Clariabranchus induced with synthetic hormone (ovaprim and pituitary of male and female Heterobranchus bidorsalis. In this study, 3 female Heterobranchus bidorsalis, 3 male Heterobranchus bidorsalis and 3 male Clarias gariepinus were used for the experiment. One female H. bidorsalis induced with ovaprim produced eggs which were divided into two equal halves. Each half was fertilized separately by milt from H. bidorsalis and C. gariepinus to produce pure breed and hybrid, respectively. A similar crossing was done for the female H. bidorsalis induced with Male Pituitary Extract (MPE and Female Pituitary Extract (FPE. Percentage fertilization and hatching rate of pure breed induced with ovaprim were significantly (p<0.05 higher than the other genetic crosses. The highest values for weight gain (5.461.58 g, average daily growth (0.390.11 g and specific growth rate (1.040.16%/day occurred in pure breed induced with MPE. The lowest values for these growth parameters were obtained in the hybrid induced with FPE. Feed intake, protein intake, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio varied significantly (p<0.05 among the treatments. This study has shown that the pure breeds and hybrids induced with ovaprim and MPE performed better than those induced with FPE. Therefore, they are recommended for commercial aquaculture.

  7. Putative clinical piroplasmosis in a Burchell's zebra (Equus quagga burchelli : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Lampen

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A 10-year-old tame zebra gelding was presented after suffering from lethargy, nervousness, reported anaemia and icterus as well as a decreased appetite. These symptoms were seen over some months, with changing severity. The animal was immobilised, treated, and blood specimens were submitted for haematology and biochemistry. This report describes molecular characterisation of Theileria equi recovered from this animal, as well as the clinical findings, treatment and historical relevance of piroplasmosis in zebra in southern Africa.

  8. Pre- and postnatal growth phenomena of Burchell's Zebra Equus Burchelli Antiquorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.L. Smuts

    1975-07-01

    Full Text Available Between 1969 and 1972 growth data were collected from 175 zebra Equus burchelli antiquorum and 138 zebra embryos and foetuses from the Central District of the Kruger National Park, Republic of South Africa. Statistical analysis of data indicated no significant difference between body mass of adult stallions (range == 267,3 to 373,3 kg; mean = 318,5 kg; n = 57 and adult non-pregnant mares (range = 272,6 to 386,9 kg; mean = 321,6 kg; n = 51 (t = 0,587. The heaviest zebra had a body mass of 429,4 kilogram. This was a pregnant mare carrying a 35,2 kg foetus. Von Bertalanffy growth curves indicated that shoulder heights in young zebra may reach the adult range by one year of age, the adult body mass range is, however, only attained after three years of age. These curves also showed that age classification of free roaming zebra is only reliable up to the age of about two years, after which individual variation is too great. Stallions were significantly taller at the shoulder than mares (mean = 1,8 cm (t = 2,032 and neck thickness was the only body dimension showing visible sexual dimorphism in adults. Here the stallion had a neck girth on average 8,1 cm greater than the mare. Regression equations for estimating body mass from body dimensions were calculated by using a standard logarithmic transformation and fitting a linear regression by the method of least squares and also by undertaking standard straight line linear regression analyses. Exponential curves obtained by the first method indicated that growth was not isometric (not linear and that the ratios of any of the dimensions of length to body mass were con- stantly changing, i.e. growth is allometric. Marked allometric growth differences existed between the two sexes except in the case of the heart girth-body mass relationship. Comparison of growth data from E. b. antiquorum with that of E. b. boehmi from Tanzania (Sachs 1967, indicates that E. b. antiquorum is considerably larger. Body masses differ by an average of 70 kg and 102 kg for stallions and mares respectively. Average birth mass for zebra was 33,7 kg. The largest foetus had a body mass of 39,0 kilogram. Foetal growth curves are provided. The first signs of body stripes occur at between 250 and 270 days of pregnancy (gestation period = 375 days.

  9. Home range sizes for burchell's zebra equus burchelli antiquorum from the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.L. Smuts

    1975-07-01

    Full Text Available Annual home range sizes were determined for 49 marked zebra family groups in the Kruger National Park. Sizes varied from 49 to 566 sq. km, the mean for the Park being 164 square kilometre. Mean home range sizes for different zebra sub-populations and biotic areas were found to differ considerably. Present herbivore densities have not influenced intra- and inter-specific tolerance levels to the extent that home range sizes have increased. Local habitat conditions, and particularly seasonal vegetational changes, were found to have the most profound influence on the shape and mean size of home ranges. The large home range sizes obtained in the Kruger Park, when compared to an area such as the Ngorongoro Crater, can be ascribed to a lower carrying capacity with respect to zebra, large portions of the habitat being sub-optimal, either seasonally or annually.

  10. Histopathological changes induced by environmental stress in common carp, Japanese coloured carp, European eel, and African catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szakolczai, J

    1997-01-01

    Histopathological changes caused by stress during catching and transport were examined in four fish species, the common carp (Cyprinus carpio), the Japanese coloured carp (koi, the coloured variant of the Asian carp, Cyprinus carpio haematopterus), the European eel (Anguilla anguilla), and the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). In all species, the goblet cells of the gills and skin were decreased in number and slight detachment of the epithelium of the secondary gill lamellae was seen. Loss of goblet cells and detachment of the columnar epithelial cells were found in the intestinal mucosa of common carp and coloured carp. It is supposed that these lesions may affect ion transport and respiration in the gills and disturb normal intestinal function, thus serving as a starting point for different diseases.

  11. Thermodynamics of partitioning of a series of chlorobenzenes to fish storage lipids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wezel, A.P. van; Opperhuizen, A. [National Inst. for Coastal and Marine Management, The Hague (Netherlands)]|[Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    Lipid/water partition coefficients for storage lipids from the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) (K{sub d,sl}) were determined for a series of chlorobenzenes at three different temperatures. k{sub d,sl} values were higher than lipid/water partition coefficients for phospholipids, that were measured previously for the same compounds. Based on results of the present study and studies reported in the literature, it is concluded that fish lipids cannot be considered as a uniform compartment. The distinct properties of the various-lipids result in different lipid/water partition coefficients. The partitioning of chlorobenzenes between storage lipid and water is enthalpy-driven. The entropy of the transfer from water to lipids is unfavorable for the tested compounds. The thermodynamics of partitioning of chlorobenzenes to storage lipids is compared with literature data on the thermodynamics of partitioning to phospholipids, n-octanol and biota.

  12. Mucosal response in African catfish after administration of Vibrio anguillarum O2 antigens via different routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervarcke, Stefaan; Ollevier, Frans; Kinget, Renaat; Michoel, Armand

    2005-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of mucosal vaccination in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) with Vibrio anguillarum O2 bacterins. The antigen was administered via different routes: anal intubation, oral administration, intraperitoneal injection and immersion. To monitor the antigen uptake, a competitive ELISA was used. The antibody response was measured using an indirect ELISA. Increased antibody levels were found in bile and mucus upon anal intubation, which was not the case after intraperitoneal injection. The data indicate that oral vaccination of fish may be possible when antigens can reach the second gut segment in sufficient quantities and in the right form as confirmed by the recorded substantial induction of systemic and mucosal immunity. The results obtained are a strong indication for mucosal immune response and the two compartmental models for immune response in fish.

  13. SELECTED LIVER AND KIDNEY BIOCHEMICAL PROFILES OF HYBRID CATFISH EXPOSED TO JATROPHA CURCAS LEAF DUST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabir M. Adamu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of sublethal concentrations (7.50, 5.00, 2.50 and 0.00 gL (control of Jatropha curcas leaf dust on some liver and kidney biochemical profiles such as total protein, total bilirubin, total albumin and total globulin of hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus (♀ and Heterobranchus bidorsalis (♂ after a 14-day experimental period. The result was significantly different in the mean value of determined liver total bilirubin, while total protein, albumin and globulin were insignificantly different in the exposed fish compared with the control. The kidney revealed varying levels of insignificant difference in its level of total protein, total albumin, total bilirubin and total globulin. Therefore, this investigation has revealed that sublethal concentration of Jatropha curcas has no effect on the basic function of the determined biochemical profiles of hybrid catfish and that the changes were directly proportional to J. curcas concentration.

  14. Freshwater fishes of Bontebok National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Russell

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Fish assemblages were sampled at six sites in the Breede River in the Bontebok National Park during 1999 and 2000. A total of 380 fish from 12 species was recorded. Indigenous fish collected included one freshwater species (Barbus andrewi, two catodromous species (Anguilla mossambica, Myxus capensis. and three estuarine species (Gilchris- tella aestuaria, Monodactylusfalciformis, Mugil cephalus. Four of the species recorded were aliens (Tinea tinea, Lepomis macrochirus, Micropterus salmoides, Micropterus dolomieu and two species translocated from other South African rivers (Tilapia sparrmanii, Clarias gariepinus. A further two indigenous species (Sandelia capensis, Pseudobarbus biirchelli could potentially occur within the park, though the high abundance of alien predators means that there is little chance for recolonisation from tributaries higher in the Breede River system. There is little opportunity to meaningfully conserve most indigenous freshwater fish in Bontebok National Park.

  15. Effects of Endosulfan on Predator-Prey Interactions Between Catfish and Schistosoma Host Snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monde, Concillia; Syampungani, Stephen; Van den Brink, Paul J

    2016-08-01

    The effect of the pesticide endosulfan on predator-prey interactions between catfish and Schistosoma host snails was assessed in static tank experiments. Hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus × C. ngamensis) and Bulinus globosus were subjected to various endosulfan concentrations including an untreated control. The 48- and 96-h LC50 values for catfish were 1.0 and snails were 1137 and 810 µg/L. To assess sublethal effects on the feeding of the catfish on B. globosus, endosulfan concentrations between 0.03 and 1.0 µg/L were used. Predation was significantly greater (p snails using fish may be affected in endosulfan-polluted aquatic systems of Southern Africa because it has been found present at concentrations that are indicated to cause lethal effects on the evaluated hybrid catfish and to inhibit the predation of snails by this hybrid catfish.

  16. Accumulation Profile of Heavy Metals in Fish Samples from Nsawam, Along the Densu River, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Anim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate the accumulation profile of heavy metals in five fish species namely; Heterotis niloticus, Channa obscura, Hepsetus odoe, Tilapia zilli and Clarias gariepinus. Concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Ca, Cd, and Pb were measured in all the sam ples analysed. Ni, Co and Cr however, recorded 80, 60 and 20% incidence respectively in the fish samples. The highest mean concentration, 110.56±0.86 mg/kg was recorded for Cu in Hepsetus odoe. Ni, Co, and Cr measured relatively lower concentrations from as low as <0.01 mg/kg, <0.005 mg/kg and <0.001 mg/kg respectively been their respective detection limits. The least detectable concentration, 0.08±0.01 mg/kg was measured for Pb in Clarias gariepinus. Most of the heavy metals were within the recommended maximum guidelines. The concentration of Cu measured in all the samples however, exceeded the FAO maximum limit of 30 mg/kg. Similarly, the concentration of Mn measured in all the fish samples exceeded the WHO limit of 0.5 mg/L in drinking water. All the concentrations measured for Pb, were below the FAO limit of 0.5 mg/kg except 0.94±0.30 mg/kg, measured in Hepsetus odoe which exceeded the limit. The mean of the total concentration of each metal in all the samples indicate that the concentrations of the heavy metals in the samples are generally well below and or within the respective recommended guidelines. Thus fish species from the Densu river, harvested at Nsawam are safe for human consumption.

  17. Spatial and temporal distributions and some biological aspects of commercially important fish species of Lake Tana, Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dereje Tewabe Kokebe

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To know spatial, temporal distributions and some biological aspects of commercially important fish species of Lake Tana. Methods:Distribution of fish species in Lake Tana was studied from November 2009 to October 2012 based on samples collected every other month using gillnets of 60, 80, 100, 120 and 140 mm stretched mesh sizes. Labeobarbus species, Clarias gariepinus, Oreochromis niloticus, and Varicorhinus beso are commercially important fish species and form 68%, 18%, 14%and 0.5%of the pooled experimental fish catch. There was significant variability among years and sampling sites of both temporal and spatial aspects;Mann-Whitney U tests were used for pair wise comparisons of sites and years. Results:The composition of Labeobarbus spp. and Varicorhinus beso shows significant decline. On the other hand, the composition of Oreochromis niloticus did not change, but Clarias gariepinus increased by 100%by catch composition. The most likely explanations for the total decline in abundance of fish species are the increase of the illegal commercial gillnet fishery targeting their spawning aggregations in the wetlands and river mouths, and the increasing trend of the degradation of spawning and nursery habitats both in the lake and major tributary rivers of the catchment area. Conclusions:There should be a need for urgent development of a management plan focusing on ensuring sustainable utilization of a resource by fishing effort, gear mesh size and gear type restrictions, and controlling the spawning grounds from different types of human encroachment and designing closing seasons and spawning grounds during the breeding seasons of different fish species of Lake Tana.

  18. Effects of Dopaminergic Drugs on Gonadotropin Release of Feral Catfish(Silurus asotus)%多巴胺能药物对鲇鱼促性腺激素(GtH)分泌活动的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温海深; 林浩然

    2001-01-01

    以珠江流域鲇鱼(Silurus asotus)为实验材料,研究了多巴胺(DA)能药物(DA及其D-2型受体拮抗物domperidone,DOM)对鲇鱼促性腺激素(GtH)释放的影响。结果表明:在性腺发育的各个时期,单独注射DOM(5 μg/g)均不能显著提高鲇鱼血液基础GtH水平,当DOM与LHRH-A联合注射时能显著增强LHRH-A刺激GtH释放的作用;DA只能抑制GnRH诱导的GtH释放,对基础GtH释放无抑制作用。这种生殖内分泌调节方式与鲇形目的革胡子鲇(Clarias gariepinus)和大鳍(Mystus macropterus) 相似,而与鲤形目的鲤科(Cyprinidae)鱼类不同。%The effects of dopamine (DA) and domperidone (DOM), a dopamine D-2 receptor antagonist, on gonadotropin (GtH) release in catfish (Silurus asotus) were investigated. DOM failed to stimulate an increase in basal level of serum GtH in different stages of ovarian development, injection of DOM plus LHRH-A resulted in significantly higher serum GtH level than control groups.DA failed to inhibit the basal level of serum GtH, but blocked GtH release induced by GnRH. These results suggested that the neuroendocrine regulation of GtH release in catfish is different from goldfish (Carassius auratu) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio), but similar to that of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and bagrid catfish (Mystus macropterus).

  19. Spatial and temporal distributions and some biological aspects of commercially important fish species of Lake Tana, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dereje Tewabe Kokebe

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To know spatial, temporal distributions and some biological aspects of commercially important fish species of Lake Tana. Methods: Distribution of fish species in Lake Tana was studied from November 2009 to October 2012 based on samples collected every other month using gillnets of 60, 80, 100, 120 and 140 mm stretched mesh sizes. Labeobarbus species, Clarias gariepinus, Oreochromis niloticus, and Varicorhinus beso are commercially important fish species and form 68%, 18%, 14% and 0.5% of the pooled experimental fish catch. There was significant variability among years and sampling sites of both temporal and spatial aspects; Mann-Whitney U tests were used for pair wise comparisons of sites and years. Results: The composition of Labeobarbus spp. and Varicorhinus beso shows significant decline. On the other hand, the composition of Oreochromis niloticus did not change, but Clarias gariepinus increased by 100% by catch composition. The most likely explanations for the total decline in abundance of fish species are the increase of the illegal commercial gillnet fishery targeting their spawning aggregations in the wetlands and river mouths, and the increasing trend of the degradation of spawning and nursery habitats both in the lake and major tributary rivers of the catchment area. Conclusions: There should be a need for urgent development of a management plan focusing on ensuring sustainable utilization of a resource by fishing effort, gear mesh size and gear type restrictions, and controlling the spawning grounds from different types of human encroachment and designing closing seasons and spawning grounds during the breeding seasons of different fish species of Lake Tana.

  20. In Vivo Cytogenotoxicity and Oxidative Stress Induced by Electronic Waste Leachate and Contaminated Well Water

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    Adeyinka M. Gbadebo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental, plant and animal exposure to hazardous substances from electronic wastes (e-wastes in Nigeria is increasing. In this study, the potential cytogenotoxicity of e-wastes leachate and contaminated well water samples obtained from Alaba International Electronic Market in Lagos, Nigeria, using induction of chromosome and root growth anomalies in Allium cepa, and micronucleus (MN in peripheral erythrocytes of Clarias gariepinus, was evaluated. The possible cause of DNA damage via the assessments of liver malondialdehyde (MDA, catalase (CAT, reduced glutathione (GSH and superoxide dismutase (SOD as indicators of oxidative stress in mice was also investigated. There was significant (p < 0.05 inhibition of root growth and mitosis in A. cepa. Cytological aberrations such as spindle disturbance, C-mitosis and binucleated cells, and morphological alterations like tumor and twisting roots were also induced. There was concentration-dependent, significant (p < 0.05 induction of micronucleated erythrocytes and nuclear abnormalities such as blebbed nuclei and binucleated erythrocytes in C. gariepinus. A significant increase (p < 0.001 in CAT, GSH and MDA with concomitant decrease in SOD concentrations were observed in the treated mice. Pb, As, Cu, Cr, and Cd analyzed in the tested samples contributed significantly to these observations. This shows that the well water samples and leachate contained substances capable of inducing somatic mutation and oxidative stress in living cells; and this is of health importance in countries with risk of e-wastes exposure.

  1. Alterations in juvenile diploid and triploid African catfish skin gelatin yield and amino acid composition: Effects of chlorpyrifos and butachlor exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Ali; Karbalaei, Samaneh; Zad Bagher, Fariba; Ismail, Amin; Simpson, Stuart L; Courtenay, Simon C

    2016-08-01

    Skin is a major by-product of the fisheries and aquaculture industries and is a valuable source of gelatin. This study examined the effect of triploidization on gelatin yield and proximate composition of the skin of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). We further investigated the effects of two commonly used pesticides, chlorpyrifos (CPF) and butachlor (BUC), on the skin gelatin yield and amino acid composition in juvenile full-sibling diploid and triploid African catfish. In two separate experiments, diploid and triploid C. gariepinus were exposed for 21 days to graded CPF [mean measured: 10, 16, or 31 μg/L] or BUC concentrations [Mean measured: 22, 44, or 60 μg/L]. No differences in skin gelatin yield, amino acid or proximate compositions were observed between diploid and triploid control groups. None of the pesticide treatments affected the measured parameters in diploid fish. In triploids, however, gelatin yield was affected by CPF treatments while amino acid composition remained unchanged. Butachlor treatments did not alter any of the measured variables in triploid fish. To our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate changes in the skin gelatin yield and amino acid composition in any animal as a response to polyploidization and/or contaminant exposure.

  2. Biometric indices and size at first sexual maturity of eight alien fish species from Bangladesh

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    Md. Yeamin Hossain

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The biometric indices and size at first sexual maturity of eight alien fish species from several water bodies in Bangladesh were studied for the first time. A total of 273 individuals of eight alien fish species (Barbonymus gonionotus, Clarias gariepinus, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Cyprinus carpio, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, H. nobilis, Oreochromis niloticus and Pangasianodon hypophthalmus were collected using traditional fishing gears from June 2014 to May 2015. Among the four condition factors (Allometric condition factor, Fulton’s condition factor, Relative condition factor, and Relative weight studied, Fulton’s condition factor was the best for assessing the well-being of these alien species in their natural habitat, based on the relationships of condition factors with body weight and total length. The calculated form factor was 0.0270 for B. gonionotus, 0.0077 for C. gariepinus, 0.0119 for C. idella, 0.0194 for C. carpio, 0.0101 for H. molitrix, 0.0092 for H. nobilis, 0.0158 for O. niloticus and 0.0105 for P. hypophthalmus. The size at first sexual maturity was estimated in TL as 12.30 cm for B. gonionotus, 25.53 cm for C. gariepinus, 32.80 cm for C. idella, 18.22 cm for C. carpio, 23.92 cm for H. molitrix, 30.18 cm for H. nobilis, 21.78 cm for O. niloticus, and 21.32 cm for P. hypophthalmus. The present study also calculates form factor and first sexual maturity of these alien species from different water-bodies world over. The findings of this study can be very helpful for sustainable management of these alien species in Bangladesh and similar ecosystems.

  3. Effect of Lactobacillus plantarum C014 on Innate Immune Response and Disease Resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila in Hybrid Catfish

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    Sureerat Butprom

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A bacterial strain isolated from intestines of hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus Male × Clarias macrocephalus Female exhibited an in vitro inhibitory effect on a fish pathogen, Aeromonas hydrophila TISTR 1321. By using the 16S rDNA sequence analysis, it was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum C014. To examine whether L. plantarum C014 had potential for use as an immunostimulant and biocontrol agent in hybrid catfish, the fish diet supplemented with L. plantarum C014 (107 CFU/g diet was prepared and used for the in vivo investigation of its effect on innate immune response and disease resistance of hybrid catfish. Two innate immune response parameters, phagocytic activity of blood leukocytes and plasma lysozyme activity, were significantly enhanced in the treated fish after 45 days of feeding. Feeding the fish with the L. plantarum C014 supplemented diet for 45 days before challenging them with A. hydrophila at the dose of LD50 could reduce the mortality rate of the fish from 50% (in control group to 0% (in treated group. Based on its origin and beneficial effect on innate immune response and disease resistance, L. plantarum C014 may be a potential candidate for use as a natural and safe immunostimulant and biocontrol agent in hybrid catfish.

  4. Stock assessment of fishery target species in Lake Koka, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfaye, Gashaw; Wolff, Matthias

    2015-09-01

    Effective management is essential for small-scale fisheries to continue providing food and livelihoods for households, particularly in developing countries where other options are often limited. Studies on the population dynamics and stock assessment on fishery target species are thus imperative to sustain their fisheries and the benefits for the society. In Lake Koka (Ethiopia), very little is known about the vital population parameters and exploitation status of the fishery target species: tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, common carp Cyprinus carpio and catfish Clarias gariepinus. Our study, therefore, aimed at determining the vital population parameters and assessing the status of these target species in Lake Koka using length frequency data collected quarterly from commercial catches from 2007-2012. A total of 20,097 fish specimens (distributed as 7,933 tilapia, 6,025 catfish and 6,139 common carp) were measured for the analysis. Von Bertalarffy growth parameters and their confidence intervals were determined from modal progression analysis using ELEFAN I and applying the jackknife technique. Mortality parameters were determined from length-converted catch curves and empirical models. The exploitation status of these target species were then assessed by computing exploitation rates (E) from mortality parameters as well as from size indicators i.e., assessing the size distribution of fish catches relative to the size at maturity (Lm), the size that provides maximum cohort biomass (Lopt) and the abundance of mega-spawners. The mean value of growth parameters L∞, K and the growth performance index ø' were 44.5 cm, 0.41/year and 2.90 for O. niloticus, 74.1 cm, 0.28/year and 3.19 for C. carpio and 121.9 cm, 0.16/year and 3.36 for C. gariepinus, respectively. The 95 % confidence intervals of the estimates were also computed. Total mortality (Z) estimates were 1.47, 0.83 and 0.72/year for O. niloticus, C. carpio and C. gariepinus, respectively. Our study suggest that

  5. Biomagnification of DDT and its metabolites in four fish species of a tropical lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deribe, Ermias; Rosseland, Bjørn Olav; Borgstrøm, Reidar; Salbu, Brit; Gebremariam, Zinabu; Dadebo, Elias; Skipperud, Lindis; Eklo, Ole Martin

    2013-09-01

    The concentrations and biomagnifications of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites were examined in four fish species (Clarias gariepinus, Oreochromis niloticus, Tilapia zillii, and Carassius auratus) from Lake Ziway, Rift Valley, Ethiopia. Paired stomach content analysis, and stable isotope ratio of nitrogen (δ(15)N, ‰) and carbon (δ(13)C, ‰) were used to study the trophic position of the fish species in the lake. 4,4'-DDE, 4,4'-DDT and 4,4'-DDD were the main DDTs identified in the fish samples, with 4,4'-DDE as the most predominant metabolite, with mean concentration ranging from 1.4 to 17.8 ng g(-1) wet weight (ww). The concentrations of DDTs found in fish from Lake Ziway were, in general lower than those found in most studies carried out in other African Lakes. However, the presence of DDT in all tissue samples collected from all fish species in the lake indicates the magnitude of the incidence. Moreover, the observed mean 4,4'-DDE to 4,4'-DDT ratio below 1 in C. auratus from Lake Ziway may suggest a recent exposure of these species to DDT, indicating that a contamination source is still present. 4,4'-DDE was found to biomagnify in the fish species of the lake, and increases with trophic level, however, the biomagnification rate was generally lower than what has been reported from other areas. Significantly higher concentrations of 4,4'-DDE were found in the top consumer fish in Lake Ziway, C. gariepinus than in O. niloticus (t=2.6, P<0.01), T. zillii (t=2.5, P<0.02) and C. auratus (t=2.2, P<0.03).

  6. Risk assessment of agricultural pesticides in water, sediment, and fish from Owan River, Edo State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbeide, Ozekeke; Tongo, Isioma; Ezemonye, Lawrence

    2015-10-01

    The distribution of pesticides in water, sediments, Clarias gariepinus, and Tilapia zilli from the Owan River was investigated to evaluate the pollution status and potential hazard in the river system. A total of 16 pesticides were analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) equipped with electron capture detector (ECD). The concentration of pesticide residues ranged from ND to 0.43 μg/l for water samples, 0.82 to 2.14 μg/kg/dw for sediment, 0.04 to 2.34 μg/kg/ww for C. gariepinus, and 0.02 to 1.73 μg/kg/ww for T. zilli. High concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, specifically benzenehexachloride (α-BHC, γ-BHC, and β-BHC) observed in all environmental media, are an indication of the current illegal use of banned pesticides for agricultural activities in the region. Analysis of data showed a strong correlation (r (2) = 0.7) between total organic carbon (TOC) and total pesticide residues in sediment samples. Meanwhile, risk quotient estimates for heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin, endrin, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (4,4'-DDT), endosulfan I, endosulfan II, endosulfan aldehyde, and phosphomethylglycine showed potential risk to aquatic organism under observed mean concentrations (risk quotient (RQ) ≥ 1). Estimated average daily intake (EADI) for organochlorine pesticides (γ-BHC, heptachlor epoxide, aldrin, dieldrin, and endrin) was above their respective acceptable average daily intake (ADI), while hazard quotient for each of these pesticides was above the unity value (1). This indicates that there is a potential cancer risk for the local residents with life time consumption of pesticide-contaminated fish.

  7. Supplemental effects of mixed ingredients and rice bran on the growth performance, survival and yield of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus reared in fertilized earthen ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbu, S M; Shoko, A P; Lamtane, H A; Kishe-Machumu, M A; Joram, M C; Mbonde, A S; Mgana, H F; Mgaya, Y D

    2016-01-01

    Unaffordability of commercial feeds to semi-intensive Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus farmers has led to reliance on supplemental feeding and fertilization for nutrition of their fish without a scientific basis. This study compared the growth, survival, condition factor and yield performance of O. niloticus fed on mixed ingredients (MI) and rice bran alone (RB) diets reared in fertilized earthen ponds in small scale farmers' ponds. The study also determined phytoplankton composition, biomass and abundance in the experimental ponds. Quadruplicate ponds were stocked with O. niloticus and African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus at a stocking ratio of 1:3. The initial mean weights of O. niloticus and C. gariepinus were 14.62 ± 0.61 and 20.34 ± 1.44 g respectively. The fish were fed on MI and RB diets with protein content of 184.74 and 126.06 g kg(-1) respectively for 270 days. The results showed that growth performance, survival rate and condition factor of O. niloticus were not affected by either feeding with MI or RB diet (p > 0.05). Moreover, there were no significant differences obtained in phytoplankton biomass and abundance in O. niloticus ponds fed on the two diets (p > 0.05). Furthermore, feeding O. niloticus either on MI or RB diet did not affect the net and gross fish yields (p > 0.05). The study revealed that the use of either MI or RB diet does not significantly affect the performance of O. niloticus cultured in semi-intensive earthen ponds where natural food organisms are an integral part of the culture system. Rice bran could be used for semi-intensive culture of O. niloticus in fertilized ponds to boost the production based on its availability and low cost.

  8. Sensory and physicochemical analyses of roasted marama beans [Tylosema esculentum (Burchell) A. Schreiber] with specific focus on compounds that may contribute to bitterness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyembwe, Patricia; Minnaar, Amanda; Duodu, Kwaku G; de Kock, Henriëtte L

    2015-07-01

    The role of phenolics and saponins in contributing to bitterness in marama beans, an underutilized legume, especially when roasted, was investigated. Marama beans were roasted at 150°C for 20, 25 or 30 min, then dehulled to separate cotyledons, and pastes were prepared from these. Water extracts were prepared from full fat and defatted flours from roasted and unroasted marama cotyledons. A sensory panel evaluated the sensory attributes of marama pastes and water extracts. Marama water extracts were analysed for total phenolic content, phenolic composition and saponin content. Roasting of marama beans for more than 20 min resulted in negative properties, such as bitterness. The major extractable phenolic acids present in marama water extracts were gallic and protocatechuic acids which increased as a function of roasting time. Saponin content of the water extracts was in the range of 55-63 mg/l. The identified phenolic acids, saponins and other as yet unidentified compounds may contribute to the perceived bitterness.

  9. Adaptation of photosynthesis in marama bean Tylosema esculentum (Burchell A. Schreiber) to a high temperature, high radiation, drought-prone environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, R A C; Keys, A J; Madgwick, P J; Parry, M A J; Lawlor, D W

    2005-01-01

    Marama bean, Tylosema esculentum, is a tuberous legume native to the Kalahari region of Southern Africa where it grows under high temperatures (typical daily max 37 degrees C during growing season) and radiation (frequently in excess of 2000 micromol m(-2) s(-1)) in sandy soils with low rainfall. These conditions might be expected to select for increased water-use efficiency of photosynthesis. However, marama was found to give similar leaf photosynthetic rates to other C3 plants for a given internal leaf CO2 concentration and Rubisco content. Under conditions of increasing drought, no increase in water-use efficiency of photosynthesis was observed, but stomata closed early and preceded any change in leaf water potential. The possibility of subtle adaptations of photosynthetic characteristics to its natural environment were investigated at the level of Rubisco kinetics. The specificity factor of marama Rubisco was slightly lower than that of wheat, but the apparent Km for CO2 in air (Km') was about 20% lower than that of wheat. This is consistent with better adaptation for efficient photosynthesis at high temperatures in marama compared to wheat, although the net benefit is predicted to be very small (marama rbcL gene shows 27 deduced amino acid residue differences from that for wheat, and the possibility that one or more of these cause the difference in Rubisco Km' is discussed.

  10. MANAJEMEN KUALITAS AIR DENGAN TEKNOLOGI BIOFLOK: STUDI KASUS PEMELIHARAN IKAN LELE (CLARIAS SP.

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    Nadya Adharani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Biofloc technology is one of the alternative to overcome the problem of water quality of cultivation environment which was adapted from conventional waste management techniques. The purpose of this study was to assess the young catfish culture by applying bioflocs of some consortium products, such as Bacillus megaterium (BM, Supernit (SP, Depok 165 (DP165, Kayajaga (KJ compared to non biofloc application for improving the water quality. The results of this study and statistical test showed that the lowest concentration of TAN by probiotic KJ was about 2.56 mg L-1, while the control was about 5.47 mg L-1, and the consortium of bacteria gave effect to TAN value (p0.05. The lowest concentration of nitrite by probiotic BM was about 0.065 mg L-1, while the control was about 0.124 mg L-1, and the consortium of bacteria gave effect to the nitrite value (p<0.05. The lowest concentration of nitrate by probiotic BM was about 1.203 mg L-1, while the control was about 3.437 mg L-1, and the consortium of bacteria gave effect to the nitrate value (p<0.05. Consortium of bacteria gave effect to the COD value (p<0.05, but all bioflocs treatments had an average value of COD higher than the control. The conclusion that the bioflocs aplication was able to improve the water quality shown by decreasing parameter values of TAN concentrations, ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate.

  11. Biological performance of Asian catfish (Clarias batrachus (Teleostei, Clariidae cultured in recirculating aquaculture system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmat Fadhil

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to assess the biological performance of Asian catfish in RAS by using4 tanks (3 culture tanks and 1 sedimentation tank measuring 2 m x 1 m x 0.60 m with a volume of 900liters and bio-filter as water purification unit. The numbers of catfish cultured in each tank were as manyas 300 fish i each tank, with a size of 5-8 cm (Tank 1, 8-12 cm (Tank 2 and 12-15 cm (Tank 3,respectively. This study was conducted for 30 days (August-September 2010 by considering the waterquality during experiment, indicates that the RAS are able to provide proper conditions for growth andsurvival of catfish with a survival rate more than 92% on all tank experiments with specific growth ratefrom 0.64 to 0.89% per day and feed conversion rate of about 0.18-0.27. The existence of the impuritiesfrom the fish waste directly influences water quality, but the decline of water quality still at a decent levelfor the culture of catfish. The ANOVA test to the biological performance and water quality showed thatthe difference in the size of fish in each tank has no significant influence between each other.

  12. Threatened fishes of the world: Clarias dussumieri dussumieri (Valenciennes, 1840) (Clariidae)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Padmakumar, K.G.; Bindu, L.; Basheer, V.S.; Gopalakrishnan, A.

    coinciding with the south west monsoon. Threats: The natural breeding area is reduced due to land reclamation and use of pesticides and chemical fertilizers. Conservation action: Scien- tists from the Kerala Agricultural University studied the life history...

  13. Partial Inhibitory Effect of Ethanol Extract of Lepidagathis alopecuroides (Vahl on Spermatogenesis in Sprague-Dawley Rats

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    Orlu, Eme Efioanwan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of ethanol extract of Lepidagathis alopecuroides on spermatogenesis in mammalian system. Thirty-six adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were used for this investigation and were divided into six groups of six rats each (A-F. Groups B-F were administered ethanol extracts of L. alopecuroides orally at a daily dose of 50-250 mg/kg body weight respectively, for 35 days. Testicular sections 5 μ thickwere embedded with paraffin and stained according to standard Hematoxylineosin protocol. Computer-assisted histometric analysis was carried out on testicular seminiferous epithelium. Morphometric evaluation of the reproductive organs showed that there was significant (p0.05 to those of the control rats. From analysis of the volumetric proportions of spermatogenic cells, extract interfered with the spermatogenic process in the treated rats inducing over 50% reduction in the number of preleptotene/leptotene primary spermatocytes, 57% decline in the number of advance primary spermatocytes at pachytene, about 60% reduction of secondary spermatocytes and 80% decrease in the expected number of spermatids against the number of spermatogonia. The progressive decline in the number of the various spermatogenic elements on critical examination of the seminiferous epithelium especially at concentrations 200-250 mg/kg bodyweight and the reduction of the spermatogenic efficiency to 20% shows that Lepidagathis alopecuroides possesses anti-spermatogenic properties in rats without the accompanying systemic toxicity reported in the catfish Clarias gariepinus.

  14. Spectrum of Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Fish Samples from the Densu Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Afful

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the levels of organochlorine pesticide residues in the Densu basin have been investigated using fish sam ples as a case study. Six fish species namely Heterotis niloticus, Channa obscura, Hepsetus odoe, Tilapia zilli, Clarias gariepinus and Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus were collected from the sampling towns, Weija and Nsawam along the Densu river basin in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. Composite samples w ere homogenized, freeze dried and ground to obtain powdered samples. The powdered samples were extracted by soxhlet extraction procedure using (3:1 hexane: acetone mixture. The extracts were cleaned-up using florisil adsorbent and characterized for organochlorine content using Gas Chromatography (GC equipped with Electron Capture Detector (ECD. The GC recoveries of spiked samples were between 80 to 96%. Fourteen organochlorines (OCs namely gamma-HCH, delta-HCH, heptachlor, aldrin, gammachlordane, p,p’-DDE, alpha-endosulfan, dieldrin, endrin, endrin-aldehyde, endosulfan-sufate, p,p’-DDT, endrinketone and methoxychlor were identified and quantified. A 100% incidence was recorded for gamma-HCH, delta-HCH, heptachlor, aldrin, gamma-chlordane, alpha-endosulfan, dieldrin and p,p’-DDT, while 75% incidence was recorded for the metabolites, p,p’-DDE and endosulfan-sulfate. The concentrations of OCs ranged from 0.3 to 71.3 :g/kg and were however, below the Australian Maximum Residue Limits (MRL of 50 to 1000 :g/kg for fresh w ater fish.

  15. Modulation of lipocalin-type prostaglandin D2 synthase expression in catfish seminal vesicles by thyroid disrupting agents and hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasulu, Gunti; Pavani, Ayinampudi; Sudhakumari, Cheni-Chery; Dutta-Gupta, Aparna; Senthilkumaran, Balasubramanian

    2013-11-01

    Thyroid hormones play crucial role in several biological processes including reproduction. Disruption of normal thyroid status by environmental contaminants can cause severe impairment in reproductive functions. In our previous study, we reported down-regulation of a protein in seminal vesicular fluid of air-breathing catfish, Clarias gariepinus during experimentally induced hyperthyroidism. N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis followed by search in sequence database denoted it to be lipocalin-type prostaglandin D2 synthase (ptgds-b). In the present study, we cloned full-length cDNA of ptgds-b based on the N-terminal amino acid sequence. Surprisingly, Northern blot as well as RT-PCR analysis demonstrated the presence of ptgds-b transcript predominantly in seminal vesicles and developing testis. Further, ptgds-b mRNA significantly decreased in seminal vesicles following L-thyroxine overdose while there was an increased expression of ptgds-b after depletion of thyroid hormone by thiourea and withdrawal of the treatments reverted this effect. Treatment of catfish with human chorionic gonadotropin and estradiol significantly reduced ptgds-b expression. Taken together, we report ptgds-b as a thyroid hormone regulated protein in the seminal vesicles in addition to gonadotropin and estradiol. Further studies might explain the exclusive presence of ptgds-b in seminal vesicles and developing testis yet present data evaluated it as a putative biomarker for thyroid hormone disruption.

  16. Kinematics of benthic suction feeding in Callichthyidae and Mochokidae, with functional implications for the evolution of food scraping in catfishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wassenbergh, Sam; Lieben, Tim; Herrel, Anthony; Huysentruyt, Frank; Geerinckx, Tom; Adriaens, Dominique; Aerts, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Food scraping has independently evolved twice from suction feeding in the evolution of catfishes: within neotropical Loricarioidea and paleotropical Mochokidae. To gain insight in the evolutionary transitions associated with the evolution towards scraping, we analyzed prey capture kinematics in two species of benthic suction feeders which belong to taxa that are closely related to the scraper lineages (respectively, Corydoras splendens and Synodontis multipunctatus), and compared it to prey capture in a more distantly related, generalist suction feeder (Clarias gariepinus). Simultaneous ventral and lateral view high-speed videos were recorded to quantify the movements of the lower jaw, hyoid, pectoral girdle and neurocranium. Additionally, ellipse modeling was applied to relate head shape differences to buccal expansion kinematics. Similarly to what has been observed in scrapers, rotations of the neurocranium are minimal in the benthic suction feeders, and may consequently have facilitated the evolution of a scraping feeding mechanism. The hypothesis that fish with a more laterally compressed head rely more heavily on lateral expansion of the buccal cavity to generate suction, was confirmed in our sample of catfish species. Since an important contribution of lateral expansion of the head to suction may avoid the need for a strong, ventral depression of the mouth floor during feeding, we hypothesized that this may have allowed a closer association with the substrate in the ancestors of scrapers. However, our hypothesis was not supported by an ancestral state reconstruction, which suggests that scraping probably evolved from sub-terminal mouthed ancestors with dorsoventrally flattened heads.

  17. Evaluation de la contamination de la chaîne trophique par les éléments traces (Cu, Co, Zn, Pb, Cd, U, V et As dans le bassin de la Lufira supérieure (Katanga/RD Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katemo Manda, B.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of Contamination of the Food Chain by Trace Elements (Cu, Co, Zn, Pb, Cd, U, V and As in the Basin of the Upper Lufira (Katanga/DR Congo. Seven trace elements (Cu, Co, Zn, Cd, Pb, U, V and As were analyzed using a HR ICP-MS in samples of water, plankton, leaves of Phragmites australis, muscle and gills of three fish species (Oreochromis macrochir, Tilapia rendalli, Clarias gariepinus collected in the basin of the upper Lufira. The results indicate a high copper (70.9 ppm and cobalt (32.3 ppm content in the effluent of complex hydrometallurgical Shituru. If contamination of rivers decreases with distance from the pollution source, the values are very high in lake Tshangalele for plankton and leaves of P. australis. For fish, the results indicate that Pb, U, V, Cu, Co and Cd accumulates preferentially in the gills but Zn accumulates more in the muscles. As accumulates in the same order of magnitude in both organs. These results confirm the pollution of the basin by the effluents from Lufira complex hydrometallurgical Shituru.

  18. Sediment toxicity screening with cost-effective microbiotests and conventional assays: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanciheluwe, M.L.; Janssen, C.R.; Persoone, G. [Univ. of Ghent (Belgium). Lab. for Biological Research in Aquatic Pollution

    1995-12-31

    A large monitoring study of freshwater sediments, using the TRIAD approach, was conducted in Flanders (Belgium). This paper reports on the results of the toxicity assessment of 80 sediment samples evaluated with a battery of microbiotests and conventional assays. Sediment pore waters, extracted by squeezing, were tested with the Microtox{reg_sign} (Vibrio fischerii) and Thamnotoxkit{trademark} F (Thamnocephalus platyurus) microbiotests and the conventional (acute) assays with algae (Selenastrum capricornutum) and daphnids (Daphnia magna). A newly developed 5 day ELS test with the catfish Clarias gariepinus was also applied to the pore waters. Solid-phase testing was performed with the Microtox Sp{reg_sign} assay and the 10 day tests with Chironomus riparius and Hyalella azteca. Uni- and multivariate statistical techniques were applied to the data matrix to select a minimal test battery from the water phase and solid phase assays and from all tests combined. The influence of sediment associated confounding factors on the validity of the test results obtained with the various assays will be discussed. Finally a comparison of the predictive power of the selected battery of signal tests and that of the complete battery will be made and the potential use of the minimal battery for the initial hazard assessment of contaminated sediments will be reviewed.

  19. Preliminary study on serum transferrin polymorphisms of three claris catfish%革胡子鲶、本地胡子鲶及其杂交种血清转铁蛋白的遗传多态性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏敏; 牟希东; 罗渡; 胡隐昌; 宋红梅; 杨叶欣; 罗建仁

    2012-01-01

    用聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳测定了革胡子鲶(Clarias gariepinus)、本地胡子鲶(Claris fuscus Lacepede)及其杂交个体F1的血清转铁蛋白(Tf)的多态性.结果表明,3种鲶鱼均出现2个Tf区域,即Tf一区和Tf二区,革胡子鲶在一区的表达量最高,且没有缺失现象;3种胡子鲶受3个等位基因控制,本地胡子鲶出现4种表现型,革胡子鲶与杂交个体只有2种表现型,Tf杂合体基因型均大于纯合体基因型;血清铁浓度:革胡子鲶>杂交个体>本地胡子鲶,铁饱和度:革胡子鲶>本地胡子鲶>杂交个体.说明革胡子鲶具有更强的耐低氧能力,更能适应恶劣环境.

  20. 南方鲶生殖周期中脑垂体和血清促性腺激素水平的含量变化%The Changes of Pituitary and Serum GTH Levels in the Reproductive Cycle in the Southern Catfish (Silurus meridionalis Chen)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓思平; 王德寿; 张耀光; 焦保卫

    2004-01-01

    采用测定胡鲶科非洲鲶(Clarias gariepinus)GTH的放射免疫测定法,用标记鲤(Cyprinus carpio)GTH的方法进行标记,测定了鲶科南方鲶(Silurusmeridionalis Chen)生殖周期中的血清GTH水平和脑垂体GTH含量变化,以揭示其性腺发育、成熟过程中的内分泌调节机理.南方鲶血清中GTH水平的季节变化表现出与成熟系数相一致的变化趋势,周年中雌鱼血清GTH水平都高于雄鱼,雌雄鱼血清GTH水平在繁殖期间差异尤为显著.脑垂体中GTH含量也在生殖周期中具明显周期变化.在性腺发育晚期和成熟期雌鱼脑垂体的GTH含量明显高于雄鱼,而在其它性腺期雌鱼脑垂体的GTH含量仅略高于雄鱼,但雌雄鱼之间并无显著差异.

  1. Vitellogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Taeleb

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Vitellogenesis in Orientocreadium batrachoides, an intestinal parasite of the catfish, Clarias gariepinus was investigated by transmission electron microscope. Four stages of vitellocyte development have been distinguished during vitellogenesis: (I stem cell stage of the gonial type (immature vitellocyte, (II early and (III advanced stages of maturing vitellocytes. Both early and advanced stages of maturing vitellocytes involved the initiation of protein synthetic activity, onset of shell globule formation and progressive fusion of single shell globules into large shell globule cluster in their cytoplasm and (IV mature vitellocyte. Vitellocyte maturation is characterized by: (1 an increase in cell volume, (2 extensive development of parallel cisternae of granular endoplasmic reticulum, (3 development of Golgi complexes and (4 a continuous development of shell globules that fused into shell globule clusters. Mature vitelline cells are characterized by shell globule clusters, which play an important role in egg shell formation, lipid droplets and β-glycogen that accumulated in large amounts in their cytoplasm. Single “lamellar” granules are present in the cytoplasm of the mature vitellocytes.

  2. 水产养殖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    040557 革胡子鲶的投饵次数和摄食= Feeding frequency and feed intake in the Af- rican catfish Clarias gariepinus[刊, 英]/Pantazis P A,Neofitou C N∥Isr.J. Aquac..-2003,55(3).-160-168 为测定革胡子鲶的适宜投饵次数进行了投饵试验。试验用鱼平均个体重(102.18±30.48)g,日饱食投喂饲料2-3次,每种投饵次数设3个重复,试验26 d。测出日投饵2次,革胡子鲶的日摄食量为其体重的(1.42±0.49)%,日投喂3次,鱼的日摄食量为其体重的(1.27±0.2)%。日投喂2次

  3. Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed N. El-Hawarry

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was made to investigate the effects of using carp pituitary extract (CPE, human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG, luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogues (LHRHa and gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues (GnRHa, with or without dopamine antagonist; domperidone (Dom. The results obtained demonstrated that the use of CPE, HCG, LHRHa or GnRHa together with dopamine antagonist (Dom successfully induced ovulation in 100% of the experimental Clarias gariepinus broodfish. The highest ovulation index (70.76% was observed in GnRHa plus Dom treated group. Broodfish of LHRHa treated group showed the lowest ovulation index (12.64%. The application of Dom plus GnRHa (T10 resulted in synchronization of ovulation (Latency period; 15.21 h because the variation in this group was very low compared with other groups. Results of the fertilization percentage indicated that addition of dopamine antagonist (Dom successfully increased fertilization rate on the GnRHa, HCG, and CPE-treated broodfish. Overall superiority of GnRHa plus Dom in spawning induction was proved by significant high hatchability, low deformed larvae and high survival rate percentages (81.9%, 2.1% and 89.9% respectively.

  4. A techno-economic analysis of aquaculture business in Ogun State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kareem, R. O.; Williams, S. B.

    2009-05-01

    Fish supplies 25% of the total protein source in developing countries. A techno-economic analysis was performed for developing a good business proposal for aquaculture loans to enhance aquaculture development in Nigeria. A case study of catfish Clarias gariepinus framing was conducted in Abeokuta North Local Government of Ogun State, Nigeria. The results show that the fixed cost is N18 338 per year, and the variable cost is N459 700 per year, accounting for the largest amount of the total; therefore, a profit of N43 289 per month can be made. Sensitivity analysis was performed to assess any risk(s) that associated with unfavorable changes in government policy with particular reference to monetary policy. Positive net present value shows that the investment in fish farm is economically feasible and the net investment ratio is 3.52. Also, the benefit-cost ratio is 2.17. The internal rate of return (IRR) is 21% showing that the enterprise is able to offset the interest being charged on the loan. It is therefore worthwhile to invest into fish farm business in the study area. The study suggests that to better sustain the local aquaculture business, the government should create a good conducive environment to foster development of the fish farming. Government intervention is urgently needed to solve problems such as in traditional land tenure, grant credit facilities and subsidies, to enhance the aquacultural development in the country.

  5. Bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in fish species from Lake Koka, Ethiopia: The influence of lipid content and trophic position

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deribe, Ermias, E-mail: ermias.weldemariam@umb.no [Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432, As (Norway); Hawassa University, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Department of Applied Biology, P.O. Box 5, Awassa (Ethiopia); Rosseland, Bjorn Olav; Borgstrom, Reidar [Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432, As (Norway); Salbu, Brit [Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432, As (Norway); Gebremariam, Zinabu [Higher Education Strategy Center (HESC) P.O. Box 32742, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia); Hawassa University, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Department of Applied Biology, P.O. Box 5, Awassa (Ethiopia); Dadebo, Elias [Hawassa University, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Department of Applied Biology, P.O. Box 5, Awassa (Ethiopia); Norli, Hans Ragnar [Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Plant Health and Plant Protection Division, Pesticide Chemistry Section, Hogskoleveien 7, N-1432 As (Norway); Eklo, Ole Martin [Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432, As (Norway); Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Plant Health and Plant Protection Division, Pesticide Chemistry Section, Hogskoleveien 7, N-1432 As (Norway)

    2011-12-01

    The concentrations and bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were determined in four fish species from Lake Koka, Ethiopia, representing 2-3 levels in the food chain of the lake. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), endosulfans, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlorpyrifos were identified, with DDTs as the most predominant pesticide, with concentration ranging from 0.05 to 72.53 ng g{sup -1} wet weight (ww). All fish tissue samples collected from different species of the lake contained residues of DDTs. The maximum level of DDTs was found in the fattiest, African sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus) sampled from the lake, with a mean concentration of 15.15 ng g{sup -1}ww. The significant (P < 0.05) relationship between concentrations of DDTs and {delta}{sup 15}N indicates that DDTs biomagnified in the food web of the lake. The 4,4 Prime -DDE to 4,4 Prime -DDT ratio in Oreochromis niloticus (0.6) and Cyprinus carpio (0.5) were below 1, indicating ongoing use of DDTs in the study area and recent exposure of these fish species.

  6. In vivo micronucleus test in the assessment of cytogenotoxicity of landfill leachates in three animal models from various ecological habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimba, Chibuisi G; Bakare, Adekunle A

    2016-03-01

    The in vivo micronucleus (MN) test, a standard test for the genotoxicity screening of xenobiotics, was used to evaluate the cytotoxic and genotoxic activities of landfill leachates in Clarias gariepinus, Coturnix coturnix japonica and Rattus norvegicus. These organisms were exposed to various sub-lethal concentrations (1-50%) of Olusosun and Aba Eku landfill leachates. At post exposure, peripheral erythrocytes from catfish and quail, and bone marrow cells of quail and rat were subjected to MN analysis following standard protocols. The leachates induced significant increase in MN formation and total nuclear abnormalities (NAs) in the peripheral erythrocytes of catfish and quail. NAs occurred in the order; BN > BL > LB > NT in the catfish and BN > BudN > TLN > TN in quail. There was significant increase in MN formation in the bone marrow cells of quail, and micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes and micronucleated normochromatic erythrocytes formation in the bone marrow of rats. The concentration dependent significant (p test organisms; and it increased with exposure duration in the catfish. Indiscriminate disposal of solid waste generates leachates containing multiple xenobiotics that are capable of increasing genomic instability among vertebrates inhabiting various ecological habitats.

  7. A techno-economic analysis of aquaculture business in Ogun State, Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. O. KAREEM; S. B. WILLIAMS

    2009-01-01

    Fish supplies 25% of the total protein source in developing countries. A techno-economic analysis was performed for developing a good business proposal for aquaculture loans to enhance aquaculture development in Nigeria. A case study of catfish Clarias gariepinus framing was conducted in Abeokuta North Local Government of Ogun State, Nigeria. The results show that the fixed cost is N18 338 per year, and the variable cost is N459700 per year, accounting for the largest amount of the total; therefore, a profit of N43 289 per month can be made. Sensitivity analysis was performed to assess any risk(s) that associated with unfavorable changes in government policy with particular reference to monetary policy. Positive net present value shows that the investment in fish farm is economically feasible and the net investment ratio is 3.52. Also, the benefit-cost ratio is 2.17. The internal rate of return (IRR) is 21% showing that the enterprise is able to offset the interest being charged on the loan. It is therefore worthwhile to invest into fish farm business in the study area. The study suggests that to better sustain the local aquaculture business, the government should create a good conducive environment to fost er development of the fish farming. Government intervention is urgently needed to solve problems such as in traditional land tenure, grant credit facilities and subsidies, to enhance the aquacultural development in the country.

  8. Chemical and Microbiology Characteristic of Smoked and Seasoned African Catfish Fillet Affected by Canning Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Kalingga Murda

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available African catfish (Clarias gariepinus many cultivated by the farmers, however if not treated quicklydamaged. One treatment that can maintain quality product african catfish is by smoked and canning. Theaim of this study was to determine the chemical and microbiological characteristics of smoked Africancatfish fillet with seasoning packaged cans during storage. Preparation of research carried out by soakingthe African catfish fillet into seasonings and liquid smoke concentration of 10% by immersion for 1minute, and then next process of curing and drying. Products that are ripe weighed 110 g and signedinto cans sized Ø 301x205. Added medium brine concentration 5% and vegetable oil as much as 100ml, a process exhausting and seaming. The last stage is performed a sterilization process (126oC for 20minutes, cooling and incubation (24oC for 2 weeks. Observations deterioration of product quality ofsmoked African catfish fillet with seasoning performed at weeks 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8. Tests conducted includechemical test which includes test TVB, pH and peroxide value and microbiological testing in the formof TPC. The results showed that the combined treatment of the fumigation and the addition of medium(saline 5% and solution of vegetable oil combined with treatment canning able to maintain productquality of smoked African catfish fillet with seasoning, based TVB, pH, peroxide value and TPC duringstorage.

  9. First report of the pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) in crustaceans: conservation of its functions as growth promoting factor and immunomodulator in the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo, Juana María; Carpio, Yamila; Morales, Reynold; Rodríguez-Ramos, Tania; Ramos, Laida; Estrada, Mario Pablo

    2013-12-01

    The high conservation of the pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) sequence indicates that this peptide fulfills important biological functions in a broad spectrum of organisms. However, in invertebrates, little is known about its presence and its functions remain unclear. Up to now, in non-mammalian vertebrates, the majority of studies on PACAP have focused mainly on the localization, cloning and structural evolution of this peptide. As yet, little is known about its biological functions as growth factor and immunomodulator in lower vertebrates. Recently, we have shown that PACAP, apart from its neuroendocrine role, influences immune functions in larval and juvenile fish. In this work, we isolated for the first time the cDNA encoding the mature PACAP from a crustacean species, the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, corroborating its high degree of sequence conservation, when compared to sequences reported from tunicates to mammalian vertebrates. Based on this, we have evaluated the effects of purified recombinant Clarias gariepinus PACAP administrated by immersion baths on white shrimp growth and immunity. We demonstrated that PACAP improves hemocyte count, superoxide dismutase, lectins and nitric oxide synthase derived metabolites in treated shrimp related with an increase in total protein concentration and growth performance. From our results, PACAP acts as a regulator of shrimp growth and immunity, suggesting that in crustaceans, as in vertebrate organisms, PACAP is an important molecule shared by both the endocrine and the immune systems.

  10. Assessment of microcystis bloom toxicity associated with wildlife mortality in the Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masango, Mxolisi G; Myburgh, Jan G; Labuschagne, Leonie; Govender, Danny; Bengis, Roy G; Naicker, Dharmarai

    2010-01-01

    Based on previous necropsy results, Microcystis blooms in constructed water impoundments in the Kruger National Park (KNP) have been identified as a cause of wildlife mortality. In response to wildlife mortality during 2007, water samples, containing algal bloom material, were collected during February 2007 and July 2007 from four dams (Nhlanganzwani, Mpanamana, Makhohlola, and Sunset) in the southeastern part of the KNP as part of the follow-up investigation. The toxicity of the Microcystis blooms was determined using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), protein phosphatase inhibition (PPI) assay, mouse bioassay, and African sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus) primary hepatocytes. Both the ELISA and PPI assays indicated that the water sample collected during February 2007 from the Nhlanganzwani Dam, and samples collected from the Nhlanganzwani and Sunset dams in June 2007, were toxic. These dams, exhibiting the toxic Microcystis blooms, were also associated with the wildlife mortality. Mice injected intraperitoneally with water samples from Nhlanganzwani Dam (February 2007) induced hepatotoxicity and mortality within 1 hr. Primary hepatocytes from the sharptooth catfish exposed to samples from these dams gave similar results. This laboratory investigation and results strongly incriminate the toxic Microcystis blooms as the cause of the wildlife mortality. Eutrophication and bloom formation appear to have been the consequence of the high numbers of hippopotami (Hippopotamus amphibius) in specific dams.

  11. Selection of commercial biofilters for rearing aquatic animals in closed system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuayrodmod, J.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study was made to select the most suitable biofilter from 7 types of commercial water filters by rearing hybrid catfish (Clarias macrocephalus x C. gariepinus in aquaria for 64 days. It was found that diminishing concentrations of ammonia and nitrite were attributed mainly to nitrifying bacteria that convert ammonia into nitrite and nitrate which required a minimum period of 16-28 days for the process to function. Low absorption of ammonia was achieved through using activated carbon, coconut shell charcoal, zeolite and ceramic. Durability and filtering efficiency of the filters depended upon porosity and amount of biofilm on the filter surface. The filter using one coarse meshed plastic sheet and 37 bioballs was the most suitable, though it caused a problem with low total alkalinity resulting in mortality of the biofilm which peeled off, thus increasing the concentrations of ammonia, nitrite and suspended solids toward the end of the experimental period. The catfish growth rate, survival and FCR in all treatments were in the ranges of 7.39-8.91 g/d, 84.44-95.56% and 0.21-0.25, respectively.

  12. Diversity and distribution of fishes of Gaji River, Bauchi State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad J. Nayaya

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Fish sampling was conducted along the Gaji River with a view to assessing the Diversity andDistribution of the fishes. The river which is the major source of water for the diverse wild fauna in andaround the Yankari National Park, is located on Latitude 9o 45’ 16” and Longitude 10o 30’ 37” andcovers an area of about 2,244 km² (870 mi² and is home to several natural warm water springs, aswell as a wide variety of flora and fauna (Wikipedia 2011. A total of twenty sampling locations wereestablished on the river and throughout the period of the work, different fishing gears which includedcast nets, gill nets, entrance traps, hooks and line and in some cases seines were used. Furthermore,Mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b sequencing was employed to study the genetic diversity of Clariasgariepinus sampled from the study area due to its economic importance. Amplification of thecytochrome b (cyt b gene was done using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR. A portion of mtDNAcontaining the gene was amplified using primers L15267, 5’-AAT GAC TTG AAG AAC CAC CGT-3’ andH15891, 5’-GTT TGA TCC CGT TTC GTG TA-3’ described by Briolay et al (1998. A total of 13 specieswere identified from the 4,218 individuals collected, representing 12 families and 13 genera. Theirpercentage distribution showed that Oreochromis niloticus had the highest percentage occurrence ofabout 31% followed by Parachanna obscura with 27%. This was followed by Clarias gariepinus whichhad about 20% distribution of occurrence. On the distribution of the identified species in the varioussampling locations, Ruwan Bangiya had the highest occurrence of the different species with 11 out ofthe total 13 species found in this location. Ruwan Dinya, Ruwan Sarki and Ruwan Gajin Gwaza also hadrelatively high occurrence of the identified fish species. The lowest occurrence was found in RuwanDalamiri, Ruwan Kunkuru and Ruwan Kankwana. Ruwan Gada and Ruwan Kakkida had moderatedistribution of the

  13. Solar drying and organoleptic characteristics of two tropical African fish species using improved low-cost solar driers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Moshood K; Ajibola, Taiye B; Salako, Abdulbashir F; Ademola, Sunmola K

    2014-05-01

    This study was done to evaluate the drying performance, efficiency, and effectiveness of five different types of improved low-cost solar driers in terms of moisture loss from two tropical African fish species Clarias gariepinus (African sharp tooth catfish) and Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia) and testing the organoleptic characteristics of the dried samples. The driers used were made from plastic, aluminum, glass, glass with black igneous stone, and mosquito net, with traditional direct open-sun drying as a control. A significant (P drying with black stone-inserted glass drier showing the fastest drying rate with a constant weight in C. gariepinus attained on the 11th day and in O. niloticus on the eighth day. The slowest drier was plastic where a constant weight of the species were recorded on and 13th day and 11th day, respectively. Volunteers were used to assess the organoleptic characteristics of the dried samples and they showed lowest acceptability for the open-sun drying, while samples from the glass drier containing black stone had the highest acceptability in terms of the taste, flavor, appearance, texture, odor, palatability, and shelf-life. The low-cost solar driers were effective found in removing water from the fish resulting in significant loss of weight and moisture. The highest drying time, efficient performance, drying effectiveness, and high acceptability of the organoleptic parameters of the dried products from the black stone-inserted glass drier were due to the ability of the glass and the black stone to retain, transmit, and radiate heat to the fish sample all the time (day and night). These low-cost driers are simple to construct, materials for its construction readily available, easy to maintain and operate, hygienic in use, reliable, effective, occupies less area, dry products faster with increased shelf-life, save man-hour, user-friendly, use renewable energy, protect the drying samples from filthiness, wetness, and invasion by pests

  14. Mitochondrial citrulline synthesis from ammonia and glutamine in the liver of ureogenic air-breathing catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharbuli, Zaiba Y; Biswas, Kuheli; Saha, Nirmalendu

    2007-12-01

    The possible synthesis of citrulline, a rate limiting step for urea synthesis via the ornithine-urea cycle (OUC) in teleosts was tested both in the presence of ammonia and glutamine as nitrogen-donating substrates by the isolated liver mitochondria of ureogenic air-breathing walking catfish, C. batrachus. Both ammonia and glutamine could be used as nitrogen-donating substrates for the synthesis of citrulline by the isolated liver mitochondria, since the rate of citrulline synthesis was almost equal in presence of both the substrates. The citrulline synthesis by the isolated liver mitochondria requires succinate at a concentration of 0.1 mM as an energy source, and also requires the involvement of intramitochondrial carbonic anhydrase activity for supplying HCO3 as another substrate for citrulline synthesis. The rate of citrulline synthesis was further stimulated significantly by the isolated liver mitochondria of the fish after pre-exposure to 25 mM NH4Cl for 7 days. Due to possessing this biochemical adaptational strategy leading to the amelioration of ammonia toxicity mainly by channeling ammonia directly and/or via the formation of glutamine to the OUC, this air-breathing catfish could succeed in surviving in high external ammonia, which it faces in its natural habitat in certain seasons of the year.

  15. Effects of antibiotic on the bacterial microflora in two commercially important catfish species, Clarias batrachus and Heteropneustes fossilis in Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md Shahdat Hossain; Md Rajib Sharker; Syed Ariful Haque; Md Shaheed Reza; Md Anwar Hossain Mondal

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effects of a widely used antibiotic, oxytetracycline (OTC) on the bacterial microflora in two catfish species under artificial culture conditions in the laboratory. Methods:The experiment was conducted in the Faculty of Fisheries, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202. The fish were reared in six aquaria (size 37 cmí30 cmí60 cm) where three aquaria served as replicates of the antibiotic treatment groups and the remaining three aquaria served as an untreated control group. Each aquarium was stocked with 25 fish on an average body weight 15 g. OTC was administered to the fish in the treatment groups at the rate of 2 g/kg in-feed twice daily upto ad libitum, whereas fish in the untreated control groups were given the same feed without antibiotics for 20 d. During the experiment, bacterial loads were estimated as colony forming unit (CFU/g) by every alternate day in the aquarium water, gills, skin and intestine of fish. Results:The administration of OTC in feed resulted in gradual decrease of bacterial loads in the gills, intestine and skin of the two catfish species tested. In contrast, the bacterial loads remain unchanged or slightly increased in the control groups not fed with OTC. Water quality parameters such as dissolved oxygen, pH and total hardness were found to be within suitable range in the test aquaria but not in control aquarium throughout the experimental period. Conclusions:The results of this experiment showed that in-feed antibiotic OTC for a period of 20d reduced the bacterial loads in the gills, intestines and skin of treated fish.

  16. Biological performance of Asian catfish (Clarias batrachus) (Teleostei, Clariidae) cultured in recirculating aquaculture system

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmat Fadhil; Johari Endan; Farah S. Taip; Muhammad S. b. Hj. Ja’afar

    2011-01-01

    The study was conducted to assess the biological performance of Asian catfish in RAS by using4 tanks (3 culture tanks and 1 sedimentation tank) measuring 2 m x 1 m x 0.60 m with a volume of 900liters and bio-filter as water purification unit. The numbers of catfish cultured in each tank were as manyas 300 fish i each tank, with a size of 5-8 cm (Tank 1), 8-12 cm (Tank 2) and 12-15 cm (Tank 3),respectively. This study was conducted for 30 days (August-September 2010) by considering the waterqu...

  17. Effects of in vivo and in vitro zinc and cadmium treatment on sperm steroidogenesis of the African catfish Clarias gairepinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, M

    2007-09-01

    The aim of present research to study the effects of in vitro and in vivo exposure of catfish to heavy metals to determine whether the steroidogenic activity in sperm would be affected by two heavy metals contaminants, zinc and cadmium. Three groups of six male African catfish were fed from the sexually immature juvenile stage, with diet containing 1000 ppm zinc, cadmium or zinc + cadmium for 110 days and 20alphaHSD activity in milt of these fish were compared with six other control fish fed with normal diet. The 20alphaHSD enzyme activity was also measured in in vitro incubation of milt from six control fish with different concentrations (0, 0.1, 1,3, 10, 30, 100, 1000 and 3000 ppm) of zinc, cadmium or zinc + cadmium. A very high 20alphahydroxy steroid dehydrogenase enzyme activity was found in all sperm incubations of African catfish. This enzyme converts 17-hydroxy progesterone (17P) substrate to 17,20alpha-dihydroxy progesterone (17, 20alphaP) product and the rate of enzyme activity is related to substrate (17P) concentrations. Significant differences (p sperm with different concentrations of zinc, cadmium or zinc + cadmium and control group (0 ppm). Significant differences (p zinc or cadmium and the group fed with diet containing 1000 ppm zinc + cadmium and control groups. The results showed that 20alphaHSD enzyme activities in fish sperm may be used as indicator of water contamination with heavy metals and their bioaccumulations in testis of aquatic animals.

  18. Effects of antibiotic on the bacterial microflora in two commercially important catfish species, Clarias batrachus and Heteropneustes fossilis in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Shahdat Hossain

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the effects of a widely used antibiotic, oxytetracycline (OTC on the bacterial microflora in two catfish species under artificial culture conditions in the laboratory. Methods: The experiment was conducted in the Faculty of Fisheries, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202. The fish were reared in six aquaria (size 37 cm×30 cm×60 cm where three aquaria served as replicates of the antibiotic treatment groups and the remaining three aquaria served as an untreated control group. Each aquarium was stocked with 25 fish on an average body weight 15 g. OTC was administered to the fish in the treatment groups at the rate of 2 g/kg in-feed twice daily upto ad libitum, whereas fish in the untreated control groups were given the same feed without antibiotics for 20 d. During the experiment, bacterial loads were estimated as colony forming unit (CFU/g by every alternate day in the aquarium water, gills, skin and intestine of fish. Results: The administration of OTC in feed resulted in gradual decrease of bacterial loads in the gills, intestine and skin of the two catfish species tested. In contrast, the bacterial loads remain unchanged or slightly increased in the control groups not fed with OTC. Water quality parameters such as dissolved oxygen, pH and total hardness were found to be within suitable range in the test aquaria but not in control aquarium throughout the experimental period. Conclusions: The results of this experiment showed that in-feed antibiotic OTC for a period of 20 d reduced the bacterial loads in the gills, intestines and skin of treated fish.

  19. PENGENDALIAN LIMBAH AMONIA BUDIDAYA IKAN LELE DENGAN SISTEM HETEROTROFIK MENUJU SISTEM AKUAKULTUR NIR-LIMBAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Gunadi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Limbah amonia dari budidaya ikan yang dibuang langsung ke perairan sekitarnya merupakan sumber pencemaran yang perlu mendapat perhatian. Potensi pasokan amonia ke dalam air budidaya ikan adalah sebesar 75% dari kadar nitrogen dalam pakan. Pengubahan nitrogen dalam sistem akuakultur yang berperan dalam pengurangan kandungan amonia terdiri atas tiga proses yakni proses fotoautotrofik oleh alga, proses bakterial autotrofik yang mengubah amonia menjadi nitrat, dan proses bakterial heterotrofik yang mengubah amonia langsung menjadi biomassa mikroba. Proses mikrobial seperti tersebut dapat dimanfaatkan untuk meningkatkan kualitas air dan mengurangi beban cemaran limbah budidaya ikan ke perairan sekitarnya. Pada prinsipnya kandungan amonia di dalam air kolam dirangsang untuk berubah menjadi alga atau bakteri. Penelitian penerapan sistem heterotrofik untuk mengurangi beban limbah budidaya ikan lele (Clarias gariepinus telah dilaksanakan di Loka Riset Pemuliaan dan Teknologi Budidaya Perikanan Air Tawar, Sukamandi. Air pemeliharaan ikan lele dialirkan ke ruang pemeliharaan ikan nila. Pemberian pakan hanya diberikan kepada ikan lele. Kandungan amonia yang ada dipacu untuk diubah menjadi biomassa bakteri dengan memberikan pasokan karbon berupa molases yang merupakan hasil samping pabrik gula. Hasil yang diperoleh setelah pengamatan selama 7 minggu menunjukkan bahwa kadar amonia dapat dipertahankan di bawah 0,1 mg/L NH3/L, produksi biomassa bakteri dalam bentuk padatan volatil total (total volatile solids, TVS mencapai 85,5 mg/L dan pertumbuhan ikan nila mencapai 30,53%. Sistem heterotrofik mempunyai peluang untuk diterapkan dalam pemanfaatan limbah amonia pada pemeliharaan ikan lele. Namun demikian, masih diperlukan kajian lebih lanjut dalam rangka optimalisasi keragaan sistem heterotrofik dalam mendukung sistem akuakultur nir-limbah (zero-waste aquaculture. Waste from fish farm which is directly discharged to the sorounding water is a potential source of

  20. Impact of urbanization on the ecology of Mukuvisi River, Harare, Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, N. A. G.; Rapatsa, M. M.

    2016-04-01

    The main objective in this study was to compare the physico-chemical characteristics and biota of a river (Mukuvisi) passing through an urban area to that of a non-urbanised river (Gwebi). Five sites in the Mukuvisi River and five sites in the Gwebi River were sampled for water physico-chemical parameters (pH, conductivity, DO, BOD, TDS, ammonia, Cl, SO42-, PO42-, NO33-, F-, Pb, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cr) once every month between August, 2012-August, 2013. Cluster analysis based on the physico-chemical parameters grouped the sites into two groups. Mukuvisi River sites formed their own grouping except for one site which was grouped with Gwebi River sites. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to extract the physico-chemical parameters that account for most variations in water quality in the Mukuvisi and Gwebi Rivers. PCA identified sulphate, chloride, fluoride, iron, manganese and zinc as the major factors contributing to the variability of Mukuvisi River water quality. In the Gwebi river, sulphate, nitrate, fluoride and copper accounted for most of the variation in water quality. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) was used to explore the relationship between physico-chemical parameters and macroinvertebrate communities. CCA plots in both Mukuvisi and Gwebi Rivers showed significant relationships between macroinvertebrate communities and water quality variables. Phosphate, ammonia and nitrates were correlated with Chironomidae and Simulidae. Gwebi River had higher (P Clarias gariepinus from the Mukuvisi River had high liver histological lesions and low AChE activity and this led to lower growth rates in this river.

  1. Artisanal Fisheries in the Ndumo Area of the Lower Phongolo River Floodplain, South Africa

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    Hendri C. Coetzee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the status of artisanal fisheries in the lower Phongolo River floodplain in northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. A cross-sectional quantitative survey design was used that included the development of a questionnaire and a systematic survey among the five villages bordering the Ndumo Game Reserve. Data were collected over a 5-day period by a group of 16 fieldworkers and analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 21. The results revealed that fish was the third most consumed protein in the area, that people consumed fish on average twice a week, that at least six fish species (and one recently introduced crayfish species were consumed regularly, and that most fish were obtained from local vendors, who in turn bought it from local fishermen and -women. Fishing activities also appeared to occur predominantly along the river system and targeted mainly red-breasted tilapia (Tilapia rendalli and Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus and, to a slightly lesser extent, African sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus and brown squeaker (Synodontis zambezensis.Conservation implications: Given that Ndumo residents predominantly catch fish by means of non-commercial methods, that they do so for reasons of personal consumption and subsistence, and that they mostly target rivers and dams rather than the ecologically sensitive pans in the region, it would seem likely that fishing in the region might be sustainable for the moment. However, it is recommended that studies on the local fish populations and their reproductive rates be conducted so that the actual impact on local fish populations can be determined more accurately. This study serves to provide the necessary baseline data on fish utilisation in the region, which would enable the impact of artisanal fishing on fish reserves in the Ndumo region to be determined once population studies have been completed.

  2. La pêcherie du lac Ihema (Rwanda : production commerciale et rentabilité socio-économique (1981-1987

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    Mughanda, M.

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Lake Ihema fishery (Rwanda. Commercial production and socio-economical profitability (1981-1987. Among the small lakes in the flooded area of the river Akagera, in eastern Rwanda, lake Ihema (area : 90 km2, mean depth : 4 m is the most important. The density of phytoplankton in the water is high but dissolved salts concentration is low. Ichtyofauna of the lake consists of 34 species which were occasionally exploited by tanzanian fishermen. That is why, since 1980, the government of Rwanda with the aid of the Belgian Cooperation Agency for Development have initiated an official fishery. Total yield, fishing effort and financial investments are analysed over a 7 years period (1981 to 1987 in order to precise the socio-economical efficiency of this cooperation project. Total fishery effort and total yield have increased regularly until 1983, reaching 186 tons with a fishing effort of 9.231 outings. Since that year, the production has stabilized at a level of 156-199 t/year with only two taxa exploited : Tilapia spp and Clarias gariepinus. The analysis of book-keeping and annual accountant balance of the Ihema fishery shows that the annual exploitation ratio fluctuates between 81 and 142, 5 % ; this indicates a difficult control of the expenditures at least during some years (1984, 1985 and 1986. The profit ratio shows a positive return (± 10 % since 1981 to 1983, then a depression during 1984 and a continual increase during the next years to become positive again in 1987. Continuous evaluations of these simple parameters allowed to take some actions in order to maintain the efficiency of the fishery. This new activity will be maintained if there is a good fish stock management and rigorous accounts.

  3. Effet positif de la fertilisation phosphatée sur les composantes du rendement du niébé (Vigna unguiculata L. en Tunisie

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    Ben Naceur, M.

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Positive effect of phosphate fertilization on component's yield of cowpea in Tunisia. Among the small lakes in the flooded area of the river Akagera, in eastern Rwanda, lake Ihema (area : 90 km2, mean depth : 4 m is the most important. The density of phytoplankton in the water is high but dissolved salts concentration is low. Ichtyofauna of the lake consists of 34 species which were occasionally exploited by tanzanian fishermen. That is why, since 1980, the government of Rwanda with the aid of the Belgian Cooperation Agency for Development have initiated an official fishery. Total yield, fishing effort and financial investments are analysed over a 7 years period (1981 to 1987 in order to precise the socio-economical efficiency of this cooperation project. Total fishery effort and total yield have increased regularly until 1983, reaching 186 tons with a fishing effort of 9.231 outings. Since that year, the production has stabilized at a level of 156-199 t/year with only two taxa exploited : Tilapia spp and Clarias gariepinus. The analysis of book-keeping and annual accountant balance of the Ihema fishery shows that the annual exploitation ratio fluctuates between 81 and 142, 5 % ; this indicates a difficult control of the expenditures at least during some years (1984, 1985 and 1986. The profit ratio shows a positive return (± 10 % since 1981 to 1983, then a depression during 1984 and a continual increase during the next years to become positive again in 1987. Continuous evaluations of these simple parameters allowed to take some actions in order to maintain the efficiency of the fishery. This new activity will be maintained if there is a good fish stock management and rigorous accounts.

  4. Laser Science and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nadi, Lotfia M.; Mansour, Mohy S.

    2010-04-01

    .] -- Molecular mechanisms and apoptosis in PDT / B. Krammer and T. Verwanger -- Follow up of treatment of cadmium and copper toxicity in Clarias Gariepinus using laser techniques / K. H. Zaghloul ... [et al.].

  5. Physicochemical and Functional Characteristics Changes of Catfish Sarcoplasmic Proteins Subjected to pH-Shift Method%pH变化对鲶鱼肌浆蛋白理化和功能特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鹏; 李沛然; 郭耀华; 岳兰昕; 张乃琳; 刘彩虹; 马俪珍

    2014-01-01

    This paper used the sarcoplasmic protein of washing water from catfish (Clarias gariepinus), and subjected to pH-shift method (pH=3.0→7.0, pH=5.0→7.0, pH=7.1→7.0, pH=9.0→7.0, pH=11.0→7.0) as the research object. Each treatment group was analyzed by protein solubility, surface hydrophobicity, total sulfhydryl content, SDS-PAGE, rheological property and the change of thermal denaturation. Results showed, as the environment of pH to the direction of the acidic or alkaline, sarcoplasm protein solubility, surface hydrophobicity and total sulfydryl content had decreased, protein oxiution increased, meanwhile, rheological properties (viscosity) and thermal denaturation temperature improved.%提取鲶鱼肉漂洗液中的肌浆蛋白,用酸或碱以5种方式(①pH=3.0→7.0;②pH=5.0→7.0;③pH=7.1→7.0;④pH=9.0→7.0;⑤pH=11.0→7.0)调节其pH后,研究经过这种pH变化后的肌浆蛋白的蛋白溶解度、表面疏水性、总巯基含量、SDS-PAGE、流变性和热变性等指标的变化,以期为漂洗液中肌浆蛋白的综合利用奠定理论基础。研究结果表明:随着pH向酸性或者碱性的方向逐渐变化,肌浆蛋白溶解度、表面疏水性和总巯基含量不断下降,蛋白氧化加剧,流变学特性(黏度值)和热变性温度不断增加。

  6. PRELIMINARY STUDY OF FISH CULTURE IN ABANDONED SAND MINING POOL

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    Bambang Gunadi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available One of main problems in freshwater aquaculture development in Indonesia, especially in Java, is unavailability of developing zone. It is important to find an underutilized area that meets for industrial scale freshwater aquaculture, i.e. sufficient water supply, wide area, and located in one area or zone. The abandoned mining (sand, tin, etc. pools distributed along the country might be the potential area for freshwater aquaculture business. For example, there are at least 13 water pools with total surface area of 250 ha at 15 km side of Citarum River in Karawang District (West Java Province. This study was conducted to obtain preliminary data about the prospect and potency of fish culture (tilapia, clariid catfish, and ‘patin’ catfish in abandoned sand-mining pools in Karawang District. Mini floating net cages of 1 x 1 x 1.5 m3 size were used for culturing fish, i.e. patin catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, and clariid catfish (Clarias gariepinus, separately. Patin catfish were stocked at a size of 2 g with a density of 300 fish per cage, tilapia were stocked at a size of 6 g with a density of 400 fish per cage, while  the clariid catfish were stocked at a size of 1.4 g with a density of 980 fish per cage. A floating commercial feed (30%—32% protein, 3%—5% fat was used at a daily rate of 9% biomass weight at the beginning and reduced gradually to 3% at the final culture period. Observed data showed that patin catfish grew from the initial size of 2.08 g to the final size 299.59 g in 5 months, nile tilapia grew from individual initial size of 5.92 g to the final size of 247.12 g in 14 weeks, and clariid catfish grew from initial size of 1.39 g to the final size of 73.10 g in 8 weeks. These three species were technically prospective for aquaculture development in the abandoned sand-mining pools.

  7. Fulbright-Hayes Seminars Abroad Program, 1993. Morocco and Tunisia. Final Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    America-Mideast Educational and Training Services, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This collection of Fulbright seminar projects focuses on Morocco and Tunisia. The first project (Ruth Brent) gives a descriptive analysis of images from the perspective of an interior design educator. The second project (Eileen Burchell) explores the theme of continuity and change as it is reflected in the contemporary French literature of the…

  8. Human Contact in the Classroom: Exploring How Teachers Talk about and Negotiate Touching Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrzejewski, Carey E.; Davis, Heather A.

    2008-01-01

    In a "risk society," as defined by Beck [(1992). "Risk society, towards a new modernity" (M. Ritter, Trans.) Newbury Park, CA: Sage, see also Castel, R. (1991). "From dangerousness to risk." In G. Burchell, C. Gordon & P. Miller (Eds.), "The Foucault effect: Studies in governmentality" (pp. 281-298). Chicago: The University of Chicago Press],…

  9. 诱导大鳍齚和长吻 排卵过程中血清GTH水平的变化%CHANGES IN SERUM GTH LEVELS DURING THE INDUCED OVULATION OF THE LARGE FIN LONG BARBEL CATFISH,MYSTUS MACROPTERUS AND LEIOCASSIS LONGIROSTRIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德寿; 林浩然

    2001-01-01

    繁殖期从嘉陵江收集性成熟的大鳍齚和长吻野生亲鱼,用Linpe方法(即LHRH-A加多巴胺D2受体拮抗剂地欧酮)或传统的LHRH-A加脑垂体的方法进行催产,定时取血样,用放射免疫方法测定催产过程中血清GTH水平的变化,进一步证实鲇形目鱼类GTH的分泌受到下丘脑分泌的促性腺激素释放激素GnRH和多巴胺的双重调节;排卵和产卵也是以血清GTH的急剧升高为先导的,而最终能否排卵还有赖于血清GTH峰是否超过“排卵阈值”。尽管催产后的大鳍齚和长吻?雄鱼血清GTH水平也有一个高峰出现,但血清GTH水平升高幅度都大大低于雌鱼,这种现象在硬骨鱼类可能具有普遍性。%Mystus macropterus (Bleeker) and Leiocassis longirostris Guntherwere collected from the Jialing River, a tributary of the Yangtze River, during their spawning season. The homologous radioimmunoassay (RIA) for African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, gonadotropin was used to determine the serum GTH levels of these two fishes during the induced ovulation by injecting luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogue (LHRH-A) plus domperidone (DOM), D2 receptor antagonist of dopamine (DA) for M. macropterus and by injecting LHRH-A plus silver carp pituitary suspension (SCPS) for L. longirostris. Like most teleosts, the gonadotropin release of these two fishes was under the dual regulation of gonadotropin-releasing-hormone (GnRH) and DA from the hypothalamus. In M. macropterus, LHRH-A alone stimulated GTH secretion, and DOM potentiated this effect of LHRH-A. Whereas DOM alone had no effect on basal GTH secretion of the fish. A preovulatory GTH surge was found prior to the ovulation of these two fishes. Ovulation cannot be successfully induced unless the preovulatory serum GTH peak could surpass a threshold. The induced serum GTH peak for males were much lower than that for females, although male’s serum GTH level also elevated rapidly before spermiation

  10. 黄颡鱼DMRT1基因cDNA全长克隆及其表达分析%Cloning and expression analysis of DMRT1 gene in Pelteobagrus fulvidraco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李林; 梁宏伟; 李忠; 罗相忠; 张志伟; 朱媛媛; 邹桂伟

    2012-01-01

    利用RT-PCR和cDNA末端快速扩增技术(rapid amplification of cDNA ends,RACE)克隆了黄颡鱼DMRT1基因cDNA全长序列,并利用实时荧光定量RT-PCR技术对该基因在黄颡鱼成体不同组织及不同发育阶段的表达情况进行研究.结果表明,黄颡鱼DMRT1基因cDNA序列全长1 381 bp,其中5'端非翻译区30bp,3'端非翻译区454 bp[不包括poly(A)],开放阅读框885 bp,编码295个氨基酸.氨基酸序列同源性分析表明,黄颡鱼DMRT1基因与革胡子鲶同源性最高(为81%),与黑鲷、虹鳟、斑马鱼、青鳉的同源性分别为60%、59%、64%和52%,与小鼠、人的同源性较低,分别为42%和44%.实时荧光定量RT-PCR分析表明:DMRT1基因在黄颡鱼胚胎发育阶段及胚后发育的1~51 d仔鱼均有表达,且在胚后发育的第31天表达量最高;在成体,只在雄性精巢中特异性表达,其他组织均无表达,且性腺发育阶段的Ⅳ期精巢表达量最高,表明该基因可能在黄颡鱼雄性性腺的形成或功能维持上具有重要作用.%The DMRT1 gene was cloned by RT-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends(RACE) methods in yellow catfish {Pelteobagrus fulvidraco). The expression of the gene was analyzed in adult tissues and different developmental stages by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Sequence analysis revealed that the fall-length of cDNA was 1 381 bp,containing 30 bp 5'-untranslated region,454 bp 3'-untranslated region [excluding pply(A)] and 885 bp open reading frame(ORF), which encode 295 amino acids. A-lignment analysis showed that the amino acid sequences of DMRT1 gene in yellow catfish {Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) were 81%,60%,59%,64%,52%,42% and 44% identical to that from clarias lazera(C/ar-ias gariepinus), black porgy (Acanthopagrus schlegelii), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss ), ze-brafish(Danio rerio) , medaka(Oryzias latipes) ,mouse(Mus musculus) and human (Homo sapiens),respectively. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis indicated that the

  11. 利用18S和ITS序列揭示8种鲇形目鱼类的系统发育%Phylogenetic Relationship among 8 Common Species of Catfish Based on Ribosome 18S and ITS Sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光; 俞菊华; 徐跑; 唐永凯; 李建林; 李红霞; 卢中华; 阮瑞霞

    2010-01-01

    为了探讨鲇形目(Siluriformes)鱼类系统发育关系,本研究克隆了黄颡鱼(Pelteobagrus fulvidraco)、长吻(鱼危)(Leiocassis longirostris)、斑鳠(Mystus guttatus)、革胡子鲇(Clarias gariepinus)、鲇鱼(Silurus asotus)和斑点叉尾鮰(Ictalurus punctatus)6种鱼类的18S和两个内转录间隔区(包括全长ITS1-5.8S-ITS2)基因,结合GenBank中双须缺鳍鲇(Kryptopterus bicirrhis)和脂鳍胡鲇(Dinotopterus cunningtoni)的同源序列进行比较分析,结果表明,(1)8种鱼18S的长度为1814~1842 bp,同源性达97%以上,5.8S均为157bp,同源性也高达99.36%~100%;(2)8种鱼ITS1长度为335~620bp,其中,黄颡鱼的最长,为618~620bp,斑点叉尾鮰的最短,为335~336bp;ITS2长度为265~459 bp,其中,脂鳍胡鲇最长,为459bp,斑点叉尾鮰的最短,约为270bp.ITS1序列的同源性为29.45%~88.21%,其中,革胡子鲇和脂鳍胡鲇同源性最高,鲇鱼和革胡子鲇同源性最低.ITS2序列的同源性为41.59%~94.07%,其中,革胡子鲇和脂鳍胡鲇间源性最高,鲇鱼和革胡子鲇同源性最低;(3)分别以鲤鱼(Cyprinus carpio)18S和ITS为外群,采用NJ法构建18S、ITS系统发育树,结果显示,鲇科与胡鲇科的关系最近,鲿科与这两科关系较远,鮰科与另外3科关系最远.鲿科中(鱼危)属和黄颡鱼属的关系较鳠属更近;胡鲇科的胡鲇属和脂鳍胡鲇属是关系很近的两个属;鲇科的鲇属和缺鳍鲇属是关系较远的两属.

  12. The black-necked grebe Podiceps nigricollis. A new bird record for the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. van Bruggen

    1976-08-01

    Full Text Available The avifauna of the Kruger National Park (KNP was described in detail by Kemp (1974. However, species new to the list are bound to turn up occasionally. Joubert and English (1973, who discovered the occurrence of the crimson-breasted shrike Laniarius atroccoccincus Burchell, write: "Many of these species include migrants and vagrants entering the Park during rather abnormal times such as cyclones or periods of heavy rainfall."

  13. Group Dynamics of Zebra and Wildebeest in a Woodland Savanna: Effects of Predation Risk and Habitat Density

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Thaker; Vanak, Abi T.; Cailey R. Owen; Monika B. Ogden; Rob Slotow

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Group dynamics of gregarious ungulates in the grasslands of the African savanna have been well studied, but the trade-offs that affect grouping of these ungulates in woodland habitats or dense vegetation are less well understood. We examined the landscape-level distribution of groups of blue wildebeest, Connochaetes taurinus, and Burchell's zebra, Equus burchelli, in a predominantly woodland area (Karongwe Game Reserve, South Africa; KGR) to test the hypothesis that group dynamics...

  14. A sylvatic lifecycle of Echinococcus equinus in the Etosha National Park, Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Wassermann

    2015-04-01

    Echinococcus equinus was found in lions (4 of 6, black-backed jackals (2 of 7 and Burchell's zebras (11 of 12. The frequency of this parasite in the absence of domestic dogs, horses and donkeys strongly indicates its transmission in a wildlife cycle. Further, a variety of sequences were obtained from eggs and cysticerci from lions, cheetahs, caracals, spotted hyenas and oryx, which most closely clustered with species of Taenia. Only 3 of them, 2 of lion and 1 of hyena origin, could be allocated to Hydatigera (=Taenia taeniaeformis (lion, Taenia regis (lions and oryx and Taenia cf. crocutae (spotted hyena and oryx.

  15. Reproduction in the zebra mare Equus burchelli antiquorum from the Kruger National Park

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    G. L. Smuts

    1976-08-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive characteristics of Burchell's zebra mares are described using data collected from captive and free ranging animals and the reproductive tracts of 310 mares shot during a game cropping campaign. The pubertal interval in zebra mares ranges from age 16 to 22 months, succesful mating occurring for the first time at 23 months of age. Full reproductive capacity is attained at three years. Zebra mares are seasonally polyoestrous, with an average of 85 of all mating and foaling occurring during the wet summer months (October to March.

  16. Study on food intaking seduction function of amino acids and their correlative compound as the attractant to clarias lazera%氨基酸及其相关化合物作为摄食引诱剂对革胡子鲶摄食引诱作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何福林; 黄兴国

    2002-01-01

    通过机械-电换能器、二道生理记录仪、调频记录转换仪、CS-1022示波器、GF-777磁带记录器来记录革胡子鲶对食物袋啄咬次数的方法,观察食物袋中含有不同氨基酸或其相关化合物的两两混合物对革胡子鲶的引诱作用.

  17. Cloning and bioinformatics analysis of aromatization gene P450c17 in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka)%仿刺参性别相关基因P450c17的克隆与序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田燚; 张丙龙; 常亚青

    2012-01-01

    .%本研究克隆了仿刺参(Apostichopus japonicus)P450c17基因的全长cDNA,结果表明其cDNA的5′端UTR为256 bp,3′端UTR为250 bp,ORF为l 530 bp.在3′端有特殊序列ATTTA、终止密码子TAA和polyA加尾.其全长cDNA编码509个氨基酸的前体蛋白,预测蛋白分子量57.6 kD,理论等电点5.5.P450c17的氨基酸序列存在长度为25个氨基酸的信号肽,1个长度为22个氨基酸的跨膜区,1个糖基结合位点NHS,1个P450特有的结构域,其氨基酸序列具有明显的细胞色素P450基因家族的特征.结构域中亚铁血红素结合域中的精氨酸R和发挥活性所必须的半胱氨酸C都是保守的.这些结构组成了血红素结合环、质子传递槽和K螺旋及绝对保守EXXR基序.蛋白前体二级结构中无规则卷曲占41.22%,延伸链占12.77%,α-螺旋占46.01%,不含B-折叠.氨基酸序列与其他物种氨基酸序列的同源性在35%~41%之间.系统进化树表明仿刺参与长牡蛎(Crassostrea gigas)及文昌鱼(Branchiostoma belcheri)聚为一支,黄颡鱼(Pelteobagrus fulvidraco)、鲇(Clarias gariepinus)、日本鳗鲡(Anguilla japonica)及白斑角鲨(Squalus acanthias)聚为一支,三刺鱼(Gasterosteus aculeatus)、金眼门齿鲷(Stenotomus chrysops)、斑马鱼(Danio rerio)、鲤(Cyprinus carpio)、虹鳟(Oncorhynchus mykiss)、牙鲆及青鳉(Fundulus heteroclitus) 聚为一支.研究结果为进一步探讨仿刺参P450c17在性激素调控性别分化方面的功能提供参考.

  18. To repent or to rationalize: three physicians exchange letters on the ethics of experimentation in postwar medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wispelwey, Bram P; Jotkowitz, Alan B

    2013-01-01

    In the late 1990s, three prominent figures of 20th-century medicine-Paul Beeson, Howard Burchell, and Shimon Glick-exchanged private letters on the ethics of experimentation in the years following World War II. What began as a brief published back-and-forth blossomed into a long correspondence filled with humor and wisdom even in the face of continued disagreement. The history of postwar investigation unfolds memorably in their letters, starting with the whistleblowing of Beecher and Pappworth and moving into the 21st century. The heart of the discussion focuses on the ethics of consent and legitimate risk in clinical investigation, and on the prevalence of violations of patients' rights. Glick openly discusses his views about the widespread practice of their subjection to experiments without benefit or unrelated to their conditions. In opposition, Burchell claims that accusations of ethical misconduct during this period were exaggerated, and that most of these studies would pass review boards today. Just when things seem to reach an immutable impasse, Beeson weighs in with keen insight and personal experience. The debate provides not only an intimate perspective on some of the most influential physician investigators of the last half-century, but also a context for productively approaching ethical questions of today.

  19. Effect of packaging and storage temperature on water holding capacity of catfish fillets during storage based on low field NMR%基于 LF-NMR 研究包装方式和温度对鲶鱼片保水性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱迎春; 马俪珍; 党晓燕; 王洋

    2016-01-01

    The effect of packaging and storage temperature on the water holding capacity (WHC) of catfish fillet (Clarias gariepinus) was investigated using the low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR). The catfish fillets were stored at 4°C or -0.7°C with air-packaging (AP), vacuum-packaging (VP) or modified atmosphere-packaging (MAP, 60% CO2 and 40% N2). The fillets were sampled on the 0, 1, 4, 7, 10, 15, 20, 30 day since storage to analyze the pH value, cooking loss and water loss after centrifugation. The WHC changes of catfish fillets were illustrated by relaxation time, relaxation area and proton density in LF-NMR, and muscle fiber structure changes were visualized by the scanning electronic microscopy. The present study aimed to give a comprehensive judgment on the process of WHC changes of the catfish fillet during the storage at different temperatures and with different packaging styles, and aimed to reveal the underlying mechanism. The results demonstrated that the WHC of the catfish fillet decreased during the storage period. The pH value significantly declined in each treatment group during the first 4 days; later, the pH value of the AP and VP groups stored at both 4 ℃ and -0.7 ℃ rose significantly (P<0.05), while that of MAP groups (4 ℃ and -0.7 ℃) was maintained at low levels of 6.51-6.88. The highest cooking loss occurred in the 4 ℃ VP group which increased from 11.54% (the initial day) to 23.70% (the 4th day). Water loss after centrifugation significantly rose from 15.98% (the initial day) to 31.35% (the 15th day) in the 4 ℃ VP group. Therefore it can be concluded that the VP is not an effective package style to maintain the WHC. The relaxation time showed a downward tendency from 63.67 (the initial day) to 54.82 (4 ℃ AP group, the 10th day) and 57.10 ms (0.7 ℃ AP group, the 15th day), which was because the binding force of water increased, and the degree of freedom and the mobility of water decreased. The relaxation area increased from

  20. A useful marking method for free living mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Young

    1971-05-01

    Full Text Available A paint-spraying device was employed for marking wild African mammals without capture. This relatively inexpensive marking technique, which had originally been used for the marking of American desert bighorn sheep at drinking places, was also successfully applied in the marking of impala, Aepyceros melampus, blue wildebeest, Connochaetes taurinus, Burchell's zebra, Equus burchellii antiquorum aud the African elephant, Loxodonta africana. The apparatus used differs in some respects from that originally described by Hanson (1964. It was also used for the marking of animals from a mobile unit and away from fixed drinking places. This paper is based on a part of a thesis, submitted to the University of Pretoria in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of D.Sc. (Wildlife Management.

  1. The Experimental Role of Accounting in Shaping Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mark; Skærbæk, Peter; Tryggestad, Kjell

    2016-01-01

    to the literature on accounting as programmes by showing that programme stability is an ongoing accomplishment that cannot be taken for granted. It is a fragile construction that requires substantive investment in calculative equipment as it gives rise to projects that submit the programme to economic experiments......Our study draws upon Actor-Network-Theory (ANT) and takes inspiration from Callon’s (2007) more recent call to consider projects as sites for economic experiments with programs. The paper contributes to the literature on the roles of accounting (Burchell et al., 1980; Mouritsen, Hansen and Hansen......, 2009) and the literature on accounting as programs (Miller, 1991, Miller and Power, 2013) by showing how accounting plays an experimental role in shaping the dynamics between a New Public Management programme of outsourcing and its projects. The study illuminates decisionmaking about programs...

  2. Tear production in three captive wild herbivores in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofri, R; Horowitz, I; Kass, P H

    1999-01-01

    The Schirmer tear test (STT) I was performed to evaluate tear production in 12 captive Nubian ibex (Capra ibex nubiana), 10 captive Burchell's zebras (Equus burchelli) and five Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) at the Tel-Aviv Ramat-Gan Zoological Center (Israel). Mean (+/- standard deviation) STT values were 13.2 +/- 5.1 mm/min in the ibex, 23.4 +/- 3.4 mm/min in the zebra and 12.7 +/- 4.8 mm/min in the oryx. There were no significant effects of gender, age, weight, or side of the eye. There were no significant differences in STT values between ibex and oryx, but tear production in both species was significantly lower than in zebras. Knowledge of normal tear production values is important for the differential diagnosis of conjunctivitis and keratitis in these species.

  3. Ektopisk pancreasvæv er en sjælden årsag til blødningog tarminvagination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mette Winther; Østergaard, John R; Tøtterup, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    A young female had neurofibromatosis, annular pancreas and heterotopic pancreas, a combination not previously described. The tumour caused bleeding and intussusception of the distal part of the small intestine. An extensive range of examinations was initiated; however, the diagnosis was not clari......A young female had neurofibromatosis, annular pancreas and heterotopic pancreas, a combination not previously described. The tumour caused bleeding and intussusception of the distal part of the small intestine. An extensive range of examinations was initiated; however, the diagnosis...

  4. A New Analysis in the Field of the Open Cluster Collinder 223

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. L. Tadross

    2004-01-01

    The present study of the open cluster Collinder 223 (Cr 223) depended greatly on the photoelectric data of Claria and Lapasset. We use the data in conjunction with the AAO/DSS1 image of the cluster in a re-investigation to improve the main parameters of Cr 223, including the stellar density, the position of the cluster's center, the cluster's diameter. Its luminosity function, mass function, and total mass are also estimated.

  5. Toxic effects of mercuric chloride, methylmercuric chloride, and Emisan 6 (an organic mercurial fungicide) on ovarian recrudescence in the catfish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirubagaran, R.; Joy, K.P.

    1988-12-01

    Mercurial toxicity in fishes has been focused mainly on tissue uptake and subcellular distribution, nephrotoxicity, development, hatching and survivability of young ones and teratology. Very few studies have been attempted to investigate Hg toxicity on gonadal activity of fishes throughout the breeding season. In a previous investigation the authors have studied the toxic effects of mercuric chloride (HgCl/sub 2/), methylmercuric chloride (CH/sub 3/HgCl) and emisan 6 (an alkoxyalkyl fungicide) on the survival and histology of the kidney of the catfish, Clarias batrachus. The present report deals with toxic effects of these mercurials on ovarian recrudescence in the catfish, an economically important species in the subcontinent.

  6. Redescription of Prosthenhystera obesa (Diesing, 1850 (Callodistomidae, Digenea with New Host Records and Data on Morphological Variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kohn

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Prosthenhystera obesa (Diesing,1850 Travassos, 1922 from the gall bladder of Astyanax bimaculatus, Caranx gibbosus, Galeocharax humeralis, Leporinus copelandii, Pimelodus fur, Pseudopimelodus roosevelti, Salminus brevidens, Salminus maxillosus and from the new hosts, Cynopotamus amazonum and Triurobrycon lundii is redescribed, demonstrating a large morphological variation, mainly in body and testes size and shape. New hosts harbouring immature specimens of P. obesa are presented: Brycon sp., Leporellus vittatus, Pachyurus squamipinnis, Pimelodus clarias, Pseudoplatystoma corruscans and Salminus hilarii. Scanning electron microscopy micrographies, original figures and measurements of adult and immature specimens from different Brazilian hosts and localities are presented

  7. Monogènes parasites de Clariidae (Teleostei, Siluriformes au Cameroun : I. Description de deux nouvelles espèces du genre Gyrodactylus dans le bassin du Nyong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nack J.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available L’étude des parasites branchiaux et cutanés de trois espèces de Poissons du genre Clarias : C. camerunensis, C. jaensis et C. pachynema pêchés dans le bassin du Nyong (Cameroun a révélé la présence de deux espèces nouvelles de Monogènes du genre Gyrodactylus Nordmann : G. camerunensis n. sp. et G. nyongensis n. sp parasites de Clarias camerunensis, C. jaensis et C. pachynema. Gyrodactylus camerunensis n. sp. se sépare aisément de G. nyongensis n. sp. par la taille plus faible des pièces sclérifiées du hapteur. Ces deux nouvelles espèces se distinguent aussi des Gyrodactylus africains les plus proches, G. rysavyi, G. clarii et G. alberti par la morphologie et la taille des sclérites du hapteur. L’étude de leur spécificité montre qu’elle est du type stenoxène (mesosténoxène.

  8. Dietary shifts: do grazers become browsers in the Thicket Biome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Landman

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The diet of buffalo (Syncerus coffer and Burchell's zebra (Equus burchelli was investigated in the Addo Elephant National Park to test the hypothesis that the shortage of grass associated with thicket vegetation results in grazers increasing the proportion of dicotyledonous plant species in their diet. Diet composition, estimated from faecal analysis, indicated that 19 and 21 plant species were identified in the faeces of zebra and buffalo, respectively. Buffalo proved to have a higher percentage dicotyledonous (28.1 vs. 8.5 and lower percentage monocotyledonous (71.9 vs. 91.5 species in their diet than zebra. The grass Eragrostis curvula was found to be the dominant food item for both buffalo (18 of diet and zebra (39 of diet during the period of study. The present study indicated that a great proportion of the buffalo diet does in fact consist of grass, thereby refuting the perception that the Addo buffalo are primarily browsers. Both buffalo and zebra are specialised grazers and unsuited to a diet of browse. The probability of dietary shift by these grazers in the grass limited thicket vegetation is therefore challenged.

  9. A sylvatic lifecycle of Echinococcus equinus in the Etosha National Park, Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassermann, Marion; Aschenborn, Ortwin; Aschenborn, Julia; Mackenstedt, Ute; Romig, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Various species of Echinococcus have been described in the past from wild mammals of sub-Saharan Africa. However, it is only recently, that a few isolates have become available for molecular identification; therefore, the involvement of wildlife in the lifecycles of the various cryptic species within Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato is still only partially known. A preliminary survey was undertaken in Etosha National Park, Namibia, from August to October 2012. Faecal samples were obtained from 34 individual wild carnivores, and metacestodes were collected from carcasses of 18 culled herbivores. Single eggs and metacestode tissue were lysed and identified from sequences of the mitochondrial nad1 gene. In case of metacestodes, the cox1 gene was additionally sequenced and haplotype networks were constructed. Echinococcus equinus was found in lions (4 of 6), black-backed jackals (2 of 7) and Burchell's zebras (11 of 12). The frequency of this parasite in the absence of domestic dogs, horses and donkeys strongly indicates its transmission in a wildlife cycle. Further, a variety of sequences were obtained from eggs and cysticerci from lions, cheetahs, caracals, spotted hyenas and oryx, which most closely clustered with species of Taenia. Only 3 of them, 2 of lion and 1 of hyena origin, could be allocated to Hydatigera (=Taenia) taeniaeformis (lion), Taenia regis (lions and oryx) and Taenia cf. crocutae (spotted hyena and oryx). PMID:25830103

  10. Modeling polarization properties of comet 1P/Halley using a mixture of compact and aggregate particles

    CERN Document Server

    Das, H S; Suklabaidya, A; Sen, A K

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the result obtained from `Stardust' mission suggests that the overall ratio of compact to aggregate particles is 65:35 (or 13:7) for Comet 81P/Wild 2 (Burchell et al. 2008). In the present work, we propose a model which considers cometary dust as a mixture of compact and aggregate particles, with composition of silicate and organic. We consider compact particles as spheroidal particles and aggregates as BCCA and BAM2 aggregate with some size distribution. For modeling Comet 1P/ Halley, the power-law size distribution n(a)= a^{-2.6}, for both compact and aggregate particles is taken. We take a mixture of BAM2 and BCCA aggregates with a lower and upper cutoff size around 0.20$\\mu m$ and 1$\\mu m$. We also take a mixture of prolate, spherical and oblate compact particles with axial ratio (E) from 0.8 to 1.2 where a lower and upper cutoff size around 0.1$\\mu m$ and 10$\\mu m$ are taken. Using T-matrix code, the average simulated polarization curves are generated which can best fit the observed polarizatio...

  11. Procedure for Process Management in supply chain of fisheries products. Application in the "Empresa Pesquera Sancti Spíritus".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenisel Machín León

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The general procedure for managing supply chains by processes of fishery products in steak chain of Claria, increases levels of reliability of its component processes and its effectiveness, and impacts on the level of customer service. With the diagnosis, is defined and identified logistics processes and maturity profiles of these, with the use of Quality Function Deployment, Analysis and Failure Mode Effects and principles of the SCOR model. Surveys were used, brainstorming and interviews to gather information. The research gives a priority for process management of supply chain and logistics management, according to the reliability and criticality of the processes associated with certain level of maturity, quality customer service and decision making, depending on the nature process of being analyzed. The paper shows the feasibility of implementing the first phase of the general procedure to manage supply chains by processes of flow production, and the gradual deterioration of technology. It is made an improvement proposal.

  12. Wet season range fidelity in a tropical migratory ungulate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Thomas A; Bolger, Douglas T

    2012-05-01

    1. In migratory populations, the degree of fidelity and dispersal among seasonal ranges is an important population process with consequences for demography, management, sensitivity to habitat change and adaptation to local environmental conditions. 2. Characterizing patterns of range fidelity in ungulates, however, has remained challenging because of the difficulties of following large numbers of marked individuals across multiple migratory cycles and of identifying the appropriate scale of analysis. 3. We examined fidelity to wet season (i.e. breeding) ranges in a recently declining population of wildebeest Connochaetes taurinus Burchell in northern Tanzania across 3 years. We used computer-assisted photographic identification and capture-recapture to characterize return patterns to three wet season ranges that were ecologically discrete and topographically isolated from one another. 4. Among 2557 uniquely identified adult wildebeest, we observed 150 recaptures across consecutive wet seasons. Between the two migratory subpopulations, the probability of remaining faithful to wet season areas ranged between 0·82 and 1·00. Animals from a non-migratory segment of the population (near Lake Manyara National Park) were rarely observed in other wet season ranges, despite proximity to one of the migratory pathways. 5. We found no effect of sex on an individuals' probability of switching wet season ranges. However, the breeding status of females in year i had a strong influence on patterns of range selection in year i + 1, with surviving breeders over three times as likely to switch ranges as non-breeders. 6. Social-group associations between pairs of recaptured animals were random with respect to an individual's wet season range during the previous or forthcoming wet seasons, suggesting that an individual's herd identity during the dry season does not predict wet season range selection. 7. Examining fidelity and dispersal in terrestrial migrations improves

  13. Group dynamics of zebra and wildebeest in a woodland savanna: effects of predation risk and habitat density.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Thaker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Group dynamics of gregarious ungulates in the grasslands of the African savanna have been well studied, but the trade-offs that affect grouping of these ungulates in woodland habitats or dense vegetation are less well understood. We examined the landscape-level distribution of groups of blue wildebeest, Connochaetes taurinus, and Burchell's zebra, Equus burchelli, in a predominantly woodland area (Karongwe Game Reserve, South Africa; KGR to test the hypothesis that group dynamics are a function of minimizing predation risk from their primary predator, lion, Panthera leo. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using generalized linear models, we examined the relative importance of habitat type (differing in vegetation density, probability of encountering lion (based on utilization distribution of all individual lions in the reserve, and season in predicting group size and composition. We found that only in open scrub habitat, group size for both ungulate species increased with the probability of encountering lion. Group composition differed between the two species and was driven by habitat selection as well as predation risk. For both species, composition of groups was, however, dominated by males in open scrub habitats, irrespective of the probability of encountering lion. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Distribution patterns of wildebeest and zebra groups at the landscape level directly support the theoretical and empirical evidence from a range of taxa predicting that grouping is favored in open habitats and when predation risk is high. Group composition reflected species-specific social, physiological and foraging constraints, as well as the importance of predation risk. Avoidance of high resource open scrub habitat by females can lead to loss of foraging opportunities, which can be particularly costly in areas such as KGR, where this resource is limited. Thus, landscape-level grouping dynamics are species specific and particular to the

  14. Prion diseases: immunotargets and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burchell JT

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer T Burchell, Peter K Panegyres Neurodegenerative Disorders Research Pty Ltd, West Perth, Western Australia, Australia Abstract: Transmissible spongiform encephathalopathies or prion diseases are a group of neurological disorders characterized by neuronal loss, spongiform degeneration, and activation of astrocytes or microglia. These diseases affect humans and animals with an extremely high prevalence in some species such as deer and elk in North America. Although rare in humans, they result in a devastatingly swift neurological progression with dementia and ataxia. Patients usually die within a year of diagnosis. Prion diseases are familial, sporadic, iatrogenic, or transmissible. Human prion diseases include Kuru, sporadic, iatrogenic, and familial forms of Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, Gerstmann–Sträussler–Scheinker disease, and fatal familial insomnia. The causative agent is a misfolded version of the physiological prion protein called PrPSc in the brain. There are a number of therapeutic options currently under investigation. A number of small molecules have had some success in delaying disease progression in animal models and mixed results in clinical trials, including pentosan polysulfate, quinacrine, and amphotericin B. More promisingly, immunotherapy has reported success in vitro and in vivo in animal studies and clinical trials. The three main branches of immunotherapy research are focus on antibody vaccines, dendritic cell vaccines, and adoptive transfer of physiological prion protein-specific CD4+ T-lymphocytes. Vaccines utilizing antibodies generally target disease-specific epitopes that are only exposed in the misfolded PrPSc conformation. Vaccines utilizing antigen-loaded dendritic cell have the ability to bypass immune tolerance and prime CD4+ cells to initiate an immune response. Adoptive transfer of CD4+ T-cells is another promising target as this cell type can orchestrate the

  15. Analytical model of impact disruption of satellites and asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leliwa-Kopystyński, J.; Włodarczyk, I.; Burchell, M. J.

    2016-04-01

    A model of impact disruption of the bodies with sizes from the laboratory scale to that of an order of 100 km is developed. On the lowermost end of the target size the model is based on the numerous laboratory data related to the mass-velocity distribution of the impact produced fragments. On the minor-planets scale the model is supported by the data related to the largest observed craters on small icy satellites and on some asteroids (Leliwa-Kopystynski, J., Burchell, M.J., Lowen, D. [2008]. Icarus 195, 817-826). The model takes into account the target disruption and the dispersion of the impact produced fragments against the intermolecular forces acting on the surfaces of the contacts of the fragments and against self-gravitation of the target. The head-on collisions of non-rotating and non-porous targets and impactors are considered. The impactor delivers kinetic energy but its mass is neglected in comparison to mass of the target. For this simple case the analytical formulae for specific disruption energy as well as for specific energy of formation of the largest craters are found. They depend on a set of parameters. Of these the most important (i.e. with the greatest influence on the final result) are three rather weakly known parameters. They are: (i) The exponent γ in the distribution function of the fragments. (ii) The characteristic velocity v0 that appears in the velocity distribution of the ejected fragments. (iii) The exponent β in the mass-velocity distribution. The influence of the choice of the numerical values of these parameters on the final results has been studied. Another group of parameters contains the relevant material data. They are: (a) The energy σ of breaking of the intermolecular bonds of the target material per unit of the fragment surface and (b) the density ρ of the target. According to our calculations the transition between the strength regime and the gravitational regime is in the range of the target radius from ∼0.4 km to

  16. Environmental Variables and Ecological Distribution of Ichthyofauna Assemblages in the Calabar River, Nigeria: Present and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andem Andem Bassey

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on environmental variables and ecological distribution of ichthyofauna assemblages were conducted in the Calabar River. Surface water and ichthyofauna were sampled in order to provide baseline or reference data on the Calabar River at present as regard its future prospects. Seasonal variation shows significant differences in surface water temperature, pH, DO, BOD, conductivity, TDS and TSS between sampling stations and insignificant differences in heavy metals such as cadmium, chromium, iron and copper between sampling stations. Twenty six species of fish fauna were identified belonging to twenty two families. Mugilidae, Clariidae, Cichlidae, Gobiidae and Sciaenidae were the most abundant for both wet and dry season, while Clupeidae, Bathyclupeidae, Carangidae and Sphyraenidae were low in the wet season but high in the dry season. Chromium, copper, surface water temperature, DO correlate significantly with the presence of E. fimbriata, B. soporator, M. sebae, C. gariepinus, M. loennbergii, C. guentheri and P. babarus. The overall values of biotic diversity indices ranged from 0.0504-0.0745 for Simpson’s Index, 2.770-3.095 for Shannon Index, 2.821-3.105 for Margalef’s Index and 0.8606-0.9498 for equitability. However, the presence of certain fish fauna in polluted and non-polluted parts of the river indicates that they could be used as potential bioindicators in assessment and biomonitoring of the river. The methods used in identifying fish diversity proved their applicability for future studies.

  17. Regulation of prolactin secretion by hypothalamus in some cold blooded vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S P; Singh, T P

    1980-07-01

    Effect of homoplastic hypothalamic extract (HHE) on the release of prolactin from the pituitary gland of three aquatic animals -- the fish, Clarias batrachus, the amphibian, Rana tigrina and the reptile, Natrix piscator was studied. Release of prolactin from the pituitary gland in the above animals was blocked within 4 hours by CG 603 (100 microgram/g body wt.) injection. Administration of HHE and perphenazine (15 microgram/g body wt.) in such animals resulted in significantly increased level of prolactin in the blood serum within one hour of treatment indicating an accelerated release of prolactin from the pituitary gland. Injection of cerebral cortical extract failed to induce such response in any of the specimens. From the findings of the present experimentation it is evident that the hypothalamus in C. batrachus, R. tigrina and N. piscator contained predominantly prolactin-release stimulatory factor (PRF) at the time of assessment. Probably in the aquatic poikilotherms where prolactin is not essential for their survival in hypophysectomized condition, hypothalamus contains PRF at least for some period in a year.

  18. Isolation of heat-tolerant myoglobin from Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotichayapong, Chatrachatchaya; Wiengsamut, Kittipong; Chanthai, Saksit; Sattayasai, Nison; Tamiya, Toru; Kanzawa, Nobuyuki; Tsuchiya, Takahide

    2012-10-01

    Myoglobin from Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus was purified from fish muscle using salt fractionation followed by column chromatography and molecular filtration. The purified Mb of 0.68 mg/g wet weight of muscle was determined for its molecular mass by MALDI-TOF-MS to be 15,525.18 Da. Using isoelectric focusing technique, the purified Mb showed two derivatives with pI of 6.40 and 7.12. Six peptide fragments of this protein identified by LC-MS/MS were homologous to Mbs of sea raven Hemitripterus americanus, yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacores, blue marlin Makaira nigicans, common carp Cyprinus carpio, and goldfish Carassius auratus. According to the Mb denaturation, the swamp eel Mb had thermal stability higher than walking catfish Clarias batrachus Mb and striped catfish Pangasius hypophthalmus Mb, between 30 and 60 (°)C. For the thermal stability of Mb, the swamp eel Mb showed a biphasic behavior due to the O(2) dissociation and the heme orientation disorder, with the lowest increase in both Kd(f) and Kd(s). The thermal sensitivity of swamp eel Mb was lower than those of the other Mbs for both of fast and slow reaction stages. These results suggest that the swamp eel Mb globin structure is thermally stable, which is consistent with heat-tolerant behavior of the swamp eel particularly in drought habitat.

  19. 越南养殖(鱼芒)鲶的营养与投饲

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽

    2004-01-01

    (鱼芒)鲶为亚洲特别是东南亚的本地种,属于鲶形目。该目也包括其它主要的养殖鲶鱼如斑点叉尾鮰(Ictalurus punctatus)、胡鲶(Clarias spp.)和欧鲶(Silurus glanis)。FAO估计1996年世界鲶鱼产量约为8 000 t。这一总产量为估计不足,因为越南该年的鲶鱼产量就达27 000 t。其他生产(鱼芒)鲶的国家主要有柬埔寨和泰国,越南现今已成为生产(鱼芒) 鲶的先行国家,估计其2001年的产量为120 000- 150 000 t。主要产地在越南湄公河三角洲一带,特别是阮朱江省,湄公河就是从柬埔寨流入该省。

  20. 越南养殖(鱼芒)鲶的营养与投饲

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽

    2004-01-01

    @@ (鱼芒)鲶为亚洲特别是东南亚的本地种,属于鲶形目.该目也包括其它主要的养殖鲶鱼如斑点叉尾(鱼芒)(Ictalurus punctatus)、胡鲶(Clarias spp.)和欧鲶(Silurus glanis).FAO估计1996年世界鲶鱼产量约为8 000 t.这一总产量为估计不足,因为越南该年的鲶鱼产量就达27 000 t.其他生产(鱼芒)鲶的国家主要有柬埔寨和泰国,越南现今已成为生产(鱼芒)鲶的先行国家,估计其2001年的产量为120 000~150 000 t.主要产地在越南湄公河三角洲一带,特别是阮朱江省,湄公河就是从柬埔寨流入该省. 在越南广泛养殖2种(鱼芒)鲶:巴氏(鱼芒)鲶Pangasius bocourti主要与其它种类在网箱中养殖,而P.hypopthalamus则养于网箱和池塘中.

  1. Integrated vermi-pisciculture - an alternative option for recycling of solid municipal waste in rural India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chirashree Ghosh [University of Delhi, New Delhi (India). School of Environmental Studies

    2004-05-01

    Vermicomposts as a biofertilizer can be a great option for pond manuring as they never cause any long term harm to the soil like chemical fertilizer. In this study vegetable and horticulture waste was used as an important media for vermiculture. Three separate cemented tanks (6 m{sup 3} each) were used in the system as control tank, vermicompost fertilized tank and inorganic fertilizer manured tank. Monoculture of fish was carried out with cat fish, Clarias batrachus. The produced earthworms were used as fish feed. Regular monitoring of water parameter was conducted in three different ponds. Specifically, the algal biomass variation was quite helpful in analysing the behavior of the ponds. NPK value of soil samples was analyzed intermittently to know the eutrophication level. Despite the hot summer temperature in northern part of India, which is not ideal for fish growth, we have recorded an encouraging growth performance in organic manured pond along with inorganic fertilizer treated and control pond. Among eutrophicated pond, the fish biomass from vermicompost fed pond showed an increasing trend compared to inorganic fertilizer treated pond. Water retention capacity of vermicompost pond soil was better in comparison to other ponds. Result shows that the low cost model by integrating two production system vermiculture and pisciculture could be a commercially and environmentally viable option. (author)

  2. Integrated vermi-pisciculture--an alternative option for recycling of solid municipal waste in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Chirashree

    2004-05-01

    Vermicomposts as a biofertilizer can be a great option for pond manuring as they never cause any long term harm to the soil like chemical fertilizer. In this study vegetable and horticulture waste was used as an important media for vermiculture. Three separate cemented tanks (6 m(3) each) were used in the system as control tank, vermicompost fertilized tank and inorganic fertilizer manured tank. Monoculture of fish was carried out with cat fish, Clarias batrachus. The produced earthworms were used as fish feed. Regular monitoring of water parameter was conducted in three different ponds. Specifically, the algal biomass variation was quite helpful in analyzing the behavior of the ponds. NPK value of soil samples were analyzed intermittently to know the eutrophication level. Despite the hot summer temperature in northern part of India, which is not ideal for fish growth, we have recorded an encouraging growth performance in organic manured pond along with inorganic fertilizer treated and control pond. Among eutrophicated pond, the fish biomass from vermicompost fed pond showed an increasing trend compared to inorganic fertilizer treated pond. Water retention capacity of vermicompost pond soil was better in comparison to other ponds. Result shows that the low cost model by integrating two production system vermiculture and pisciculture could be a commercially and environmentally viable option.

  3. Nitrogen transformations in intensive aquaculture system and its implication to climate change through nitrous oxide emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhen; Lee, Jae Woo; Chandran, Kartik; Kim, Sungpyo; Sharma, Keshab; Brotto, Ariane Coelho; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2013-02-01

    The rapid development of aquaculture could result in significant environmental concerns such as eutrophication and climate change. However, to date, very few studies have been conducted to investigate nitrogen transformations in aquaculture systems; and specifically the emission of nitrous oxide (N(2)O), which is an important greenhouse gas and ozone-depleting substance. In this study, nitrogen transformations in intensive laboratory-scale Chinese catfish (Clarias fuscus) aquaculture systems were investigated by identifying and quantifying N(2)O emissions. Results indicated that about 1.3% of the nitrogen input was emitted as N(2)O gas. Dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations and feeding rates had significant effects on N(2)O emissions. Higher N(2)O emissions were obtained in aquaculture systems with lower DO concentrations and higher feeding rates. Both nitrification and denitrification appeared to be responsible for the emissions of N(2)O. Key factors which correlated with the N(2)O emission rate in aquaculture systems were NO(2)(-), DO and total ammonia nitrogen concentrations.

  4. PERUBAHAN ASAM AMINO SURIMI IKAN LELE DENGAN FREKUENSI PENCUCIAN YANG BERBEDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ima - wijayanti

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Pencucian (leaching merupakan faktor penting dalam proses pembuatan surimi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melihat pengaruh frekuensi pencucian terhadap kandungan asam amino, komposisi proksimat dan karakteristik gel surimi lele (Clarias sp.. Metode yang digunakan adalah eksperimen di laboratorium dengan satu faktor, yaitu perlakuan pencucian dengan 4 taraf berbeda yaitu 1, 2, 3 dan 4 kali dengan menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL. . Jenis uji yang digunakan adalah Kruskall wallis (non parametrik dan dilanjutkan dengan uji Dun’s Multiple Comparison jika perlakuan berpengaruh nyata. Frekuensi pencucian berpengaruh nyata terhadap komposisi proksimat surimi lele (p<0,05, yaitu menurunkan kandungan protein, lemak dan meningkatkan kadar air, namun tidak nyata terhadap kandungan mineral. Bertambahnya frekuensi pencucian tidak berpengaruh nyata pada kadar asam amino esensial maupun non esensial kecuali pada asam glutamat. Frekuensi pencucian berpengaruh nyata pada gel surimi lele (p<0,05. Pada pencucian 3 dan 4 kali kali meningkatkan nilai hardness, deformasi, uji lipat dan uji gigit. Nilai EMC menurun seiring dengan bertambahnya frekuensi pencucian yang menunjukkan kemampuan menahan air pada gel meningkat. Pencucian 3 kali dianggap sudah cukup baik untuk membuat surimi lele karena mampu mempertahankan asam amino surimi lele dan meningkatkan kekuatan gelnya.Kata kunci: asam amino, frekuensi pencucian, surimi lele

  5. Assessment of heavy metals/metalloid (As, Pb, Cd, Ni, Zn, Cr, Cu, Mn) concentrations in edible fish species tissue in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, H M; Leung, A O W; Wang, H S; Ma, K K; Liang, Y; Ho, K C; Cheung, K C; Tohidi, F; Yung, K K L

    2014-01-15

    The major aim of this study was to investigate heavy metal content of edible fish in the PRD. Eleven species of fish (consisting of 711 individuals) [catfish (Clarias fuscus), tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis), mandarin fish (Siniperca kneri), snakehead (Channa asiatiea), black bass (Micropterus salmoides), mangrove snapper (Lutjanus griseus), star snapper (Lutjanu stellatus), snubnose pompano (Trachinotus blochii) and orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides)] were collected for the analyses of heavy metals. Overall concentrations (mg/kg, ww) in the fish muscles were: As (0.03-1.53), Pb (0.03-8.62), Cd (0.02-0.06), Ni (0.44-9.75), Zn (15.7-29.5), Cr (0.22-0.65), Cu (0.79-2.26), Mn (0.82-6.91). Significant level of Pb were found in tilapia at all locations. It is recommended that heavy metal concentrations in different fish species must be determined on a regular basis in the future so as to reduce human health risks from acute and chronic food intoxication.

  6. PENINGKATAN PRODUKTIVITAS BUDIDAYA IKAN DI LAHAN GAMBUT Gleni Hasan Huwoyon dan Rudhy Gustiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleni Hasan Huwoyon

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia merupakan negara dengan kawasan gambut tropika terluas di dunia, berkisar antara 13,5-26,5 juta ha (rata-rata 20 juta ha. Luas area gambut tersebut merupakan 50% gambut tropika dunia. Untuk mengoptimalkan potensi lahan gambut melalui perikanan diperlukan suatu strategi untuk menanggulangi masalah pH rendah. Pilihan strategi yang dapat diterapkan melalui pendekatan biologis adalah dengan memanfaatkan secara optimal ikan lokal yang telah beradaptasi dengan lingkungan tersebut selain itu, strategi pendekatan secara biologis lainnya adalah dengan melakukan introduksi ikan-ikan dari luar dan hasil rekayasa yang tahan terhadap perairan gambut. Beberapa jenis ikan yang telah diintroduksi dan mulai dikembangkan di perairan gambut adalah ikan patin siam (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, lele dumbo (Clarias gariepienus, dan ikan nila (Oreochromis niloticus strain BEST (Bogor Enhanched Strain Tilapia. Untuk mendukung pengembangan budidaya yang berkelanjutan diperlukan adanya pemahaman pengelolaan lingkungan yang benar di perairan gambut. Untuk mengoptimalkan potensi yang ada perlu adanya transfer teknologi dalam pengembangan ikan-ikan yang berpotensi untuk dibudidayakan di perairan gambut agar kesejahteraan dan pembangunan daerah khususnya berbasis perikanan dapat tercapai.

  7. Monoclonal antibodies to snakehead, Channa striata immunoglobulins: detection and quantification of immunoglobulin-positive cells in blood and lymphoid organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Neeraj; Chaudhary, Dharmendra K; Rathore, Gaurav; Singh, Akhilesh; Lakra, W S

    2011-02-01

    Snakehead Channa striata is an important freshwater food fish in many Southeast Asian countries. Three monoclonal antibodies (C9, C10 and D10) were developed against purified serum immunoglobulins of Channa striata (Cs-Ig) and characterized. C9 and D10 MAbs were specific to heavy chain, while C10 MAb detected only unreduced Cs-Ig in western blotting. In competitive ELISA, C9 and C10 MAbs were specific to C. striata Ig and showed no cross reactivity with serum Ig of other fish species i.e. Channa punctatus, Channa marulius, Clarias batrachus and Labeo rohita. D10 MAb showed reactivity to serum Ig of C. striata and C. marulius. In FACS analysis of gated lymphocytes, the percentage of Ig+ cells detected by C9 MAb was 18.2%, 27.7% and 10.3% in blood, spleen and kidney, respectively (n=3, body weight 500-600 g). However, only a few cells (0.5%) were found to be Ig+ in thymus (n=5). C9 MAb was also successfully employed to demonstrate Ig+ cells in blood smears and formalin fixed sections of spleen and kidney. These findings suggest that the spleen plays an important role in humoral immunity as compared to head kidney. Further, these MAbs can be useful immunological tool in monitoring health status of cultured C. striata.

  8. A Comparative Study of the Influence of Energy Level in the Fillet and Food Intake of Economically Important Marine-and-Freshwater Fish Species from Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Javed Kamal Shamsi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy content interms of calories/ gram dry weight in the fillet as well as in the food as the dietary ratio of some economically important fishes from different habitat (Marine and freshwater were determined by two methods; The Organic Carbon and The Karzinkin Tarkovaskaya. The energy value of the nutrients in the fillet/food was determined by these two methods which were highly significant (p<0.001 and in order [Rastrillegar kanagurta(988.50/8251.66 and 12088.28/8694.46 Joules gm-1; Lethrinus lentjan (7274.80/ 5544.50 and 9237.30/ 5978.26 Joules gm-1; Aphareus rutilans (6891.56/ 4813.56 and 9092 58/ 5136.78 Joules gm-1 and Chanos chanos (6681.50/ 5120.56 and 8841.48/ 5520.54 Joules gm-1] in Marine water fishes. As compare to other environment of freshwater, the order was as such, Clarius gariepinus (7888.61/6613.83 and 8779.25/7290.40 Joules gm-1 Oreochromis niloticus (6103.00/4778.69 and 6896.20/5584.16 Joules gm-1; Cyprinus carpio (5639.38/4276.49 and 6370.41/4942.18 Joules gm-1 and Gara tibanica (4353. 22/3300.45 and 3882.73/2680.53 Joules gm-1 respectively. The moisture content and the ratio of energetic values of fillet/food were also determined and tabulated. Consistency of the results obtained indicate the reliability of the method used and to explain the validity of conversion factor from weight to energy which will be useful for general estimation of energy contents and energy flow in aquatic ecosystem.

  9. Impact of deltamethrin on cockroaches (Periplaneta americana and its residue on environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Puji Astuti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Penggunaan insektisida secara intensif tidak hanya memberikan dampak pada spesies target, namun juga pada spesies non-target dan lingkungan. Pada penelitian ini dilakukan penilaian pengaruh residu deltametrin terhadap kecoa (Periplanetaamericana, ikan lele (Clarias batrachus, dan nila (Oreochromis niloticus. Selain itu laju infiltrasi residu pada tipe tanah dengan komposisi tanah yang berbeda juga diukur. Metode: Percobaan dilakukan terhadap kecoa yang dikembangbiakan  di laboratorium di Institut Pertanian Bogor. Perlakuan dengan tiga ulangan dan lima taraf konsentrasi deltamethrin: 0.8%, 0.4%, 0.2%, 0.1% and 0.05% (v/v dilakukan untuk mengukur pengaruh residu terhadap kecoa selama 24 dan 48 jam. Penentuan LC  dilakukan dengan analisis Probit. Konsentrasi letal yang didapatkan kemudiandiujikan kepada ikan lele dan nila dengan metode semprot. Untuk perbandingan, uji efek organofosfat dengan konsentrasi 1 ppm dan 10 ppm dilakukan melalui metode soaking kepada dua jenis ikan tersebut. Laju infiltrasi residu pada tiga tipe komposisi tanah diukur menggunakan lysimeter. Hasil: Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa LC50 residu deltamethrin terhadap kecoa tercapai pada konsentrasi 0,2% pada 24-jam perlakuan. Lima puluh persen ikan nila mati pada perlakuan deltamethrin0,2% selama 24 jam. Laju infiltrasi residu lebih tinggi pada jenis tanah berpasir (5 ml/menit dibandingkan jenis tanah yang didominasi tanah liat. Kesimpulan: Selain memiliki efek mematikan pada kecoa, Deltamethrin 0,2% mencemari tanah dan air, serta membunuh ikan nila (O. niloticus. (Health Science Indones 2014;2:94-9Kata kunci: deltamethrin, efek residu, P. americana, O. niloticus, tanahAbstractBackground: Intensive use of chemical insecticides not only affect the targetspecies, but also non-target species and environment. In this study, we examined residual effect of deltamethrin on cockroaches (Periplaneta americana, catfishes (Clarias batrachus and nile

  10. ESA SMART-1 mission: review of results and legacy 10 years after launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    future missions, 6) identifying and characterising sites for exploration and exploitation. This legacy is relevant to the preparation for future orbiters, landers, sample return, a global robotic village, human missions and international lunar bases (consistent with ILEWG, COSPAR and Global Space Exploration roadmaps). Link: http://sci.esa.int/smart-1/ References and citations: http://scholar.google.nl/scholar?&q=smart-1+moon **We acknowledge ESA, member states, industry and institutes for their contribution, and the members of SMART-1 Teams: G.Racca and SMART-1 Project Team, O. Camino and SMART-1 Operations Team, D. Frew and SMART-1 STOC, B.H. Foing and STWT, B. Grieger, D. Koschny, J.-L. Josset, S. Beauvivre, M. Ellouzi, S. Peters, A. Borst, E. Martellato, M. Almeida, J.Volp, D. Heather, M. Grande, J. Huovelin, H.U. Keller, U. Mall, A. Nathues, A. Malkki, W. Schmidt, G. Noci, Z. Sodnik, B. Kellett, P. Pinet, S. Chevrel, P. Cerroni, M.C. de Sanctis, M.A. Barucci, S. Erard, D. Despan, K. Muinonen, V. Shevchenko, Y. Shkuratov, P. McMannamon, P. Ehrenfreund, C. Veillet, M. Burchell, other Co-Investigators, associated scientists, collaborators, students and colleagues.

  11. ESA SMART-1 mission: results and lessons for future lunar exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, Bernard H.

    illumination, 4) observations and science from the Moon, 5) support to future missions, 6) identifying and characterising sites for exploration and exploitation. These results and legacy are relevant to the preparation for future missions, in particular in the frame of collaboration between Russia and ESA on upcoming landers and on a polar sample return. Also the results contribute to the preparation for a global robotic village and international lunar bases (consistent with ILEWG, COSPAR and Global Space Exploration roadmaps). Link: http://sci.esa.int/smart-1/ References and citations: http://scholar.google.nl/scholar?&q=smart-1+moon *We acknowledge ESA, member states, industry and institutes for their contribution, and the members of SMART-1 Teams: G.Racca and SMART-1 Project Team, O. Camino and SMART-1 Operations Team, D. Frew and SMART-1 STOC, B.H. Foing and STWT, B. Grieger, D. Koschny, J.-L. Josset, S. Beauvivre, M. Ellouzi, S. Peters, A. Borst, E. Martellato, M. Almeida, J.Volp, D. Heather, M. Grande, J. Huovelin, H.U. Keller, U. Mall, A. Nathues, A. Malkki, W. Schmidt, G. Noci, Z. Sodnik, B. Kellett, P. Pinet, S. Chevrel, P. Cerroni, M.C. de Sanctis, M.A. Barucci, S. Erard, D. Despan, K. Muinonen, V. Shevchenko, Y. Shkuratov, P. McMannamon, P. Ehrenfreund, C. Veillet, M. Burchell, other Co-Investigators, associated scientists, collaborators, students and colleagues

  12. Wildlife Population Dynamics in Human-Dominated Landscapes under Community-Based Conservation: The Example of Nakuru Wildlife Conservancy, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogutu, Joseph O; Kuloba, Bernard; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Kanga, Erustus

    2017-01-01

    Wildlife conservation is facing numerous and mounting challenges on private and communal lands in Africa, including in Kenya. We analyze the population dynamics of 44 common wildlife species in relation to rainfall variation in the Nakuru Wildlife Conservancy (NWC), located in the Nakuru-Naivasha region of Kenya, based on ground total counts carried out twice each year from March 1996 to May 2015. Rainfall in the region was quasi-periodic with cycle periods dependent on the rainfall component and varying from 2.8 years for the dry season to 10.9 years for the wet season. These oscillations are associated with frequent severe droughts and food scarcity for herbivores. The trends for the 44 wildlife species showed five general patterns during 1996-2015. 1) Steinbuck, bushbuck, hartebeest and greater kudu numbers declined persistently and significantly throughout 1996-2015 and thus merit the greatest conservation attention. 2) Klipspringer, mongoose, oribi, porcupine, cheetah, leopard, ostrich and Sykes monkey numbers also decreased noticeably but not significantly between 1996 and 2015. 3) Dik dik, eland, African hare, Jackal, duiker, hippo and Thomson's gazelle numbers first increased and then declined between 1996 and 2015 but only significantly for duiker and hippo. 4) Aardvark, serval cat, colobus monkey, bat-eared fox, reedbuck, hyena and baboon numbers first declined and then increased but only the increases in reedbuck and baboon numbers were significant. 5) Grant's gazelle, Grevy's zebra, lion, spring hare, Burchell's zebra, bushpig, white rhino, rock hyrax, topi, oryx, vervet monkey, guinea fowl, giraffe, and wildebeest numbers increased consistently between 1996 and 2015. The increase was significant only for rock hyrax, topi, vervet monkey, guinea fowl, giraffe and wildebeest. 6) Impala, buffalo, warthog, and waterbuck, numbers increased significantly and then seemed to level off between 1996 and 2015. The aggregate biomass of primates and carnivores

  13. Experimental infection of Aphanomyces invadans and susceptibility in seven species of tropical fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzali, Seyedeh F.; Mohd Daud, Hassan Hj.; Sharifpour, Issa; Afsharnasab, Mohammad; Shankar, Shiv

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) causes by aquatic oomycete fungus, Aphanomyces invadans is a dangerous fish disease of a wide range of fresh and brackish water, wild and farmed fish throughout the world. The objective of the present study was to determine the susceptibility of a number of tropical fish species to the EUS and compare the severity of infection between experimental groups. Materials and Methods: Snakehead, Channa striata (Bloch, 1793); snakeskin gourami, Trichopodus pectoralis (Regan, 1910); koi carp, Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758); broadhead catfish, Clarias macrocephalus (Günther, 1864); goldfish, Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758); climbing perch, Anabas testudineus (Bloch, 1792); and Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) were challenged by intramuscular injection using zoospores of Aphanomyces invadans (NJM9701). The infected fish skins and muscles were examined for EUS histopathological characteristics, and the results on the severity of lesions and mortality were analyzed using SPSS program. Results: All zoospore-injected fish were shown to be susceptible to the EUS infection except Nile tilapia. Although, the general histopathological pattern was similar in the zoospore-injected group, but there were some variation in granulomatous reaction, that is the presence or absence of giant cells, and time of mortality were detected. The result of statistical analysis showed that there was a significant difference between species, (c2=145.11 and p<0.01). Conclusion: Gourami, koi carp, and catfish were demonstrated to be highly susceptible while goldfish and climbing perch were found to be moderately susceptible to the EUS infection. These findings suggested that the cellular response of fish to mycotic infection and granulomatous reaction varied in different fish species, which could not be an indicator of susceptibility or resistant to the EUS itself, although it was shown that the granulation rate and the level of maturity

  14. The Effectivity of Marine Bio-activator and Surimi Liquid Waste Addition of Characteristics Liquid Organic Fertilizer from Sargassum sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putri Wening Ratrinia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Organic fertilizer is highly recommended for soil and plant because it can improve the productivity and repair physical, chemical, and biological of soil. Sargassum sp. and surimi liquid wastes contain organic matter and nutrient needed by plants and soils. The addition of marine bio-activator which contains bacterial isolates from litter mangrove serves to accelerate the composting time and increases the activity of microorganisms in the decomposition process. The purpose of this study was to determine optimum time and the best formulation of decomposition process organic fertilizer. Raw materials used a waste of seaweed Sargassum sp., marine bio-activator and surimi liquid waste from catfish (Clarias sp.. The research was conducted six treatments control, Sargassum sp. + marine bio-activator, surimi liquid waste , Sargassum sp. + marine bio-activator + surimi liquid waste 80%, 90%, 100%. All treatments were fermented for 9 days and analysed the C-organic, total N, C/N ratio, P2 O5 , K2 O on days 0, 3, 6 and 9. The results showed the optimum fermentation period was on the 6th day. The most optimum concentration of surimi liquid waste added was at a concentration of 90%, with characteristics of the products was C-organic 0.803 ± 0.0115 %, total N 740.063 ± 0.0862 ppm, C/N ratio 10.855 ± 0.1562, P2 O5 425.603 ± 0.2329 ppm, K2 O 2738.627 ± 0.2836 ppm.

  15. The Effectivity of Marine Bio-activator and Surimi Liquid Waste Addition of Characteristics Liquid Organic Fertilizer from Sargassum sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putri Wening Ratrinia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractOrganic fertilizer is highly recommended for soil and plant because it can improve the productivity and repair physical, chemical, and biological of soil. Sargassum sp. and surimi liquid wastes contain organic matter and nutrient needed by plants and soils. The addition of marine bio-activator which contains bacterial isolates from litter mangrove serves to accelerate the composting time and increases the activity of microorganisms in the decomposition process. The purpose of this study was to determine optimum time and the best formulation of decomposition process organic fertilizer. Raw materials used a waste of seaweed Sargassum sp., marine bio-activator and surimi liquid waste from catfish (Clarias sp.. The research was conducted six treatments control, Sargassum sp. + marine bio-activator, surimi liquid waste , Sargassum sp. + marine bio-activator + surimi liquid waste 80%, 90%, 100%. All treatments were fermented for 9 days and analysed the C-organic, total N, C/N ratio, P2O5, K2O on days 0, 3, 6 and 9. The results showed the optimum fermentation period was on the 6th day. The most optimum concentration of surimi liquid waste added was at a concentration of 90%, with characteristics of the products was C-organic 0.803±0.0115%, total N 740.063±0.0862 ppm, C/N ratio 10.855±0.1562, P2O5 425.603±0.2329 ppm, K2O 2738.627±0.2836 ppm.

  16. The toxicity of carbofuran to the freshwater rotifer, Philodina roseola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Raquel Aparecida; da Silva Mansano, Adrislaine; Rocha, Odete

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the effects of exposing the rotifer Philodina roseola to the pesticide carbofuran were investigated. Its range of sensitivity to potassium dichromate, the acute toxicity of active ingredient carbofuran and of carbofuran dosed as its commercial form, Furadan(®) 350 SC were determined. Chronic toxicity of carbofuran dosed as Furadan(®) 350 SC on P. roseola survival and fecundity were also studied. The sensitivity of P. roseola to K2Cr2O7 ranged from 29.52 to 64.67 mg L(-1), averaging 47.10 mg L(-1). The 48-h EC50 were 13.36 ± 2.63 mg L(-1) for carbofuran and 89.32 ± 6.52 mg L(-1) for commercial form. Chronic toxicity tests showed that the survival of this rotifer was not affected by the carbofuran dosed as Furadan(®) 350 SC at the concentrations tested and that at 1.56 and 3.12 mg L(-1) their fecundity was higher than in the absence of this commercial product, characterizing the hormesis phenomenon. The sensitivity profile of several species to carbofuran indicated that P. roseola is more susceptible to this pesticide than the fish Clarias batrachus, the bacterium Vibrio fischeri, the protozoan Paramecium caudatum and the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus, although the acute toxicity of carbofuran dosed as Furadan(®) 350 SC to P. roseola is much lower than that of active ingredient carbofuran. The results also imply that the exacerbated use of pesticides and the constant, accelerated expansion of agricultural activity will make aquatic non-target species even more vulnerable. Furthermore, the relevant role of benthic organisms in aquatic environments justifies the inclusion of P. roseola and other benthic species in toxicity screening for risk assessment, regarding this environmental compartment.

  17. Identification and partial characterization of Olyra longicaudata (McClelland, 1842 vitellogenins: Seasonal variation in plasma, relative to estradiol-17β and ovarian growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pritha Ghosh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at immunochemical characterization of plasma vitellogenin (VTG, development of an heterlogous VTG ELISA and to relate seasonal variation in plasma VTG and estradiol-17β (E2 levels with ovarian growth (gonadosomatic index, GSI in Olyra longicaudata (McClelland, 1842, a rare hill-stream catfish endemic to North East India. On native PAGE, plasma from E2-injected male, vitellogenic as well as gravid females, but not untreated male, resolved into two major protein bands. These two proteins stained positive for carbohydrate, lipid and phosphorous, albeit with differential intensity and cross-reacted well with catfish VTG antiserum (a-VTG suggesting them as putative VTGs in circulation. Ammonium sulphate (50% fractionation followed by SDS-PAGE analysis of E2-treated male plasma resolved into four protein bands (150–15 kDa, of which two, with molecular mass of 150 and 130 kDa cross-reacted with a-VTG indicating them as VTG monomers. Immunoprecipitation of E2-induced plasma and immunoblot analysis of crude yolk proteins with a-VTG revealed two proteins in each case indicating two forms of VTG, present in circulation, possibly act as yolk precursors. Competitive antigen-capture ELISA developed earlier for catfish, Clarias batrachus VTG (CF-VTG1, revealed parallel binding slopes between dilution curves of plasma from vitellogenic female, E2-treated male and CF-VTG1 standard. Congruent with gradual increase in plasma E2, ovarian weight and appearance of vitellogenic and yolky oocytes, VTG level in circulation increased sharply in May–June, reaching the peak value in July, dropped sharply during August–September and was undetected or negligible in amount during December allowing identification of the ripening, the pre-spawning, the spawning and the quiescent phases respectively.

  18. Species compositions and ecology of the riverine ichthyofaunas in two Sulawesian islands in the biodiversity hotspot of Wallacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweedley, J R; Bird, D J; Potter, I C; Gill, H S; Miller, P J; O'Donovan, G; Tjakrawidjaja, A H

    2013-06-01

    This account of the riverine ichthyofaunas from the islands of Buton and Kabaena, off south-eastern mainland Sulawesi, represents the first detailed quantitative checklist and ecological study of the riverine fish faunas in the biological hotspot of Wallacea. The results are based on analysis of samples collected by electrofishing at a wide range of sites from July to September in both 2001 and 2002. While the fauna was diverse, with the 2179 fishes caught comprising 64 species representing 43 genera and 22 families, the catches were dominated by the Gobiidae (26 species and 25% by numbers), Eleotridae (seven species and 27% by numbers), Zenarchopteridae (three species and 22% by numbers) and Anguillidae (two species and 12% by numbers). The most abundant species were the eleotrids Eleotris aff. fusca-melanosoma and Ophieleotris aff. aporos, the anguillid Anguilla celebesensis, the zenarchopterids Nomorhamphus sp. and Nomorhamphus ebrardtii and the gobiids Sicyopterus sp. and Glossogobius aff. celebius-kokius. The introduced catfish Clarias batrachus was moderately abundant at a few sites. Cluster analysis, allied with the similarity profiles routine SIMPROF, identified seven discrete groups, which represented samples from sites entirely or predominantly in either Buton (five clusters) or Kabaena (two clusters). Species composition was related to geographical location, distance from river mouth, per cent contribution of sand and silt, altitude and water temperature. The samples from the two islands contained only one species definitively endemic to Sulawesi, i.e. N. ebrardtii and another presumably so, i.e. Nomorhamphus sp., contrasting starkly with the 57 species that are endemic to Sulawesi and, most notably, its large central and deep lake systems on the mainland. This accounts for the ichthyofaunas of these two islands, as well as those of rivers in northern mainland Sulawesi and Flores, being more similar to each other than to those of the central mainland

  19. Characterization and toxicological evaluation of leachate from closed sanitary landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emenike, Chijioke U; Fauziah, Shahul H; Agamuthu, P

    2012-09-01

    Landfilling is a major option in waste management hierarchy in developing nations. It generates leachate, which has the potential of polluting watercourses. This study analysed the physico-chemical components of leachate from a closed sanitary landfill in Malaysia, in relation to evaluating the toxicological impact on fish species namely Pangasius sutchi S., 1878 and Clarias batrachus L., 1758. The leachate samples were taken from Air Hitam Sanitary Landfill (AHSL) and the static method of acute toxicity testing was experimented on both fish species at different leachate concentrations. Each fish had an average of 1.3 ± 0.2 g wet weight and length of 5.0 ± 0.1 cm. Histology of the fishes was examined by analysing the gills of the response (dead) group, using the Harris haemtoxylin and eosin (H&E) method. Finneys' Probit method was utilized as a statistical tool to evaluate the data from the fish test. The physico-chemical analysis of the leachate recorded pH 8.2 ± 0.3, biochemical oxygen demand 3500 ± 125 mg L(-1), COD 10 234 ± 175 mg L(-1), ammonical nitrogen of 880 ± 74 mg L(-1), benzene 0.22 ± 0.1 mg L(-1) and toluene 1.2 ± 0.4 mg L(-1). The 50% lethality concentration (LC(50)) values calculated after 96 h exposure were 3.2% (v/v) and 5.9% (v/v) of raw leachate on P. sutchi and C. batrachus, respectively. The H&E staining showed denaturation of the nucleus and cytoplasm of the gills of the response groups. Leachate from the sanitary landfill was toxic to both fish species. The P. sutchi and C. batrachus may be used as indicator organisms for leachate pollution in water.

  20. DNA barcoding of commercially important catfishes in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilang, Jonas P; Yu, Shiny Cathlynne S

    2015-06-01

    Many species of catfish are important resources for human consumption, for sport fishing and for use in aquarium industry. In the Philippines, some species are cultivated and some are caught in the wild for food and a few introduced species have become invasive. In this study, DNA barcoding using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene was done on commercially and economically important Philippine catfishes. A total of 75 specimens belonging to 11 species and 5 families were DNA barcoded. The genetic distances were computed and Neighbor-Joining (NJ) trees were constructed based on the Kimura 2-Parameter (K2P) method. The average K2P distances within species, genus, family and order were 0.2, 8.2, 12.7 and 21.9%, respectively. COI sequences clustered according to their species designation for 7 of the 11 catfishes. DNA barcoding was not able to discriminate between Arius dispar and A. manillensis and between Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus and P. pardalis. The morphological characters that are used to distinguish between these species do not complement molecular identification through DNA barcoding. DNA barcoding also showed that Clarias batrachus from the Philippines is different from the species found in India and Thailand, which supports earlier suggestions based on morphology that those found in India should be designated as C. magur and those in mainland Southeast Asia as C. aff. batrachus "Indochina". This study has shown that DNA barcoding can be used for species delineation and for tagging some species for further taxonomic investigation, which has implications on proper management and conservation strategies.

  1. Characterization of gamma-crystallin from a catfish: structural characterization of one major isoform with high methionine by cDNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, F M; Chang, W C; Lin, C H; Hsu, A L; Chiou, S H

    1995-04-01

    gamma-Crystallin is the major and most abundant lens protein present in the eye lens of most teleostean fishes. To facilitate structural characterization of gamma-crystallins isolated from the lens of the catfishes (Clarias fuscus), a cDNA mixture was synthesized from the poly(A)+mRNA isolated from fresh eye lenses, and amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was adopted to obtain cDNAs encoding various gamma-crystallins. Plasmids of transformed E. coli strain JM109 containing amplified gamma-crystallin cDNAs were purified and prepared for nucleotide sequencing by the dideoxynucleotide chain-termination method. Sequencing more than five clones containing DNA inserts of 0.52 kb revealed the presence of one major isoform with a complete reading frame of 534 base pairs, covering a gamma-crystallin (gamma M1) with a deduced protein sequence of 177 amino acids excluding the initiating methionine. It was of interest to find that this crystallin of pI 9.1 contains a high-methionine content of 15.3% in contrast to those gamma-crystallins of low-methionine content from most mammalian lenses. Sequence comparisons of catfish gamma M1-crystallin with those published sequences of gamma-crystallins from carp, bovine and mouse lenses indicate that there is approx. an 82% sequence homology between the catfish and the carp species of piscine class whereas only 51-58% homology is found between mammals and the catfish. Moreover the differences in the hydropathy profiles for these two groups of gamma-crystallins, i.e. one with a high-methionine content from teleostean fishes and the other with a low-methionine content from mammalian species, reflect a distinct variance in the polarity distributions of surface amino acids in these crystallins.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Mercury in fish from three rift valley lakes (Turkana, Naivasha and Baringo), Kenya, East Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, L.M.; Osano, O.; Hecky, R.E.; Dixon, D.G

    2003-09-01

    Mercury concentrations in Kenyan fish vary with tropic position but, in general, do not pose an unacceptable risk to human consumers of wildlife. -Total mercury (THg) concentrations were measured for various fish species from Lakes Turkana, Naivasha and Baringo in the rift valley of Kenya. The highest THg concentration (636 ng g{sup -1} wet weight) was measured for a piscivorous tigerfish Hydrocynus forskahlii from Lake Turkana. THg concentrations for the Perciformes species, the Nile perch Lates niloticus from Lake Turkana and the largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides from Lake Naivasha ranged between 4 and 95 ng g{sup -1}. The tilapiine species in all lakes, including the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, had consistently low THg concentrations ranging between 2 and 25 ng g{sup -1}. In Lake Naivasha, the crayfish species, Procambrus clarkii, had THg concentrations similar to those for the tilapiine species from the same lake, which is consistent with their shared detritivore diet. THg concentrations in all fish species were usually consistent with their known trophic position, with highest concentrations in piscivores and declining in omnivores, insectivores and detritivores. One exception is the detritivore Labeo cylindricus from Lake Baringo, which had surprisingly elevated THg concentrations (mean=75 ng g{sup -1}), which was similar to those for the top trophic species (Clarias and Protopterus) in the same lake. Except for two Hydrocynus forskahlii individuals from Lake Turkana, which had THg concentrations near or above the international marketing limit of 500 ng g{sup -1}, THg concentrations in the fish were generally below those of World Health Organization's recommended limit of 200 ng g{sup -1} for at-risk groups.

  3. Experimental infection of Aphanomyces invadans and susceptibility in seven species of tropical fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh F. Afzali

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS causes by aquatic oomycete fungus, Aphanomyces invadans is a dangerous fish disease of a wide range of fresh and brackish water, wild and farmed fish throughout the world. The objective of the present study was to determine the susceptibility of a number of tropical fish species to the EUS and compare the severity of infection between experimental groups. Materials and Methods: Snakehead, Channa striata (Bloch, 1793; snakeskin gourami, Trichopodus pectoralis (Regan, 1910; koi carp, Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758; broadhead catfish, Clarias macrocephalus (Günther, 1864; goldfish, Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758; climbing perch, Anabas testudineus (Bloch, 1792; and Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 were challenged by intramuscular injection using zoospores of Aphanomyces invadans (NJM9701. The infected fish skins and muscles were examined for EUS histopathological characteristics, and the results on the severity of lesions and mortality were analyzed using SPSS program. Results: All zoospore-injected fish were shown to be susceptible to the EUS infection except Nile tilapia. Although, the general histopathological pattern was similar in the zoospore-injected group, but there were some variation in granulomatous reaction, that is the presence or absence of giant cells, and time of mortality were detected. The result of statistical analysis showed that there was a significant difference between species, (c2=145.11 and p<0.01. Conclusion: Gourami, koi carp, and catfish were demonstrated to be highly susceptible while goldfish and climbing perch were found to be moderately susceptible to the EUS infection. These findings suggested that the cellular response of fish to mycotic infection and granulomatous reaction varied in different fish species, which could not be an indicator of susceptibility or resistant to the EUS itself, although it was shown that the granulation rate and the level of

  4. Molecular cloning, sequencing and tissue expression of vasotocin and isotocin precursor genes from Ostariophysian catfishes: Phylogeny and evolutionary considerations in teleosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putul eBanerjee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Basic and neutral neurohypophyseal (NH nonapeptides have evolved from vasotocin (VT by a gene duplication at the base of the gnathostome lineage. In teleosts, VT and IT are the basic and neutral peptides, respectively. In the present study, VT and IT precursor genes of Heteropneustes fossilis and Clarias batrachus (Siluriformes, Ostariophysi were cloned and sequenced. The channel catfish Icatalurus punctatus NH precursor sequences were obtained from EST database. The catfish NH sequences were used along with the available Acanthopterygii and other vertebrate NH precursor sequences to draw phylogenetic inference on the evolutionary history of the teleost NH peptides. Synteny analysis of the NH gene loci in various teleost species was done to complement the phylogenetic analysis. In H. fossilis, the NH transcripts were also sequenced from the ovary. The cloned genes and the deduced precursor proteins showed conserved characteristics of the NH nonapeptide precursors. The genes are expressed in brain and ovary (follicular envelope of H. fossilis with higher transcript abundance in the brain. The addition of the catfish sequences in the phylogenetic analysis revealed that the VT and IT precursors of the species-rich superorders of teleosts have a distinct phylogenetic history with the Acanthopterygii VT and IT precursors sharing a less evolutionary distance and the Ostariophysi VT and IT having a greater evolutionary distance. The genomic location of VT and IT precursors, and synteny analysis of the NH loci lend support to the phylogenetic inference and suggest a footprint of fish- specific whole genome duplication (3R and subsequent diploidization in the NH loci. The VT and IT precursor genes are most likely lineage-specific paralogs resulting from differential losses of the 3R NH paralogs in the two superorders. The independent yet consistent retention of VT and IT in the two superorders might be directed by a stringent ligand-receptor selectivity.

  5. Sustained periodic terrestrial locomotion in air-breathing fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, C M; Gibb, A C

    2014-03-01

    While emergent behaviours have long been reported for air-breathing osteichthyians, only recently have researchers undertaken quantitative analyses of terrestrial locomotion. This review summarizes studies of sustained periodic terrestrial movements by air-breathing fishes and quantifies the contributions of the paired appendages and the axial body to forward propulsion. Elongate fishes with axial-based locomotion, e.g. the ropefish Erpetoichthys calabaricus, generate an anterior-to-posterior wave of undulation that travels down the axial musculoskeletal system and pushes the body against the substratum at multiple points. In contrast, appendage-based locomotors, e.g. the barred mudskipper Periophthalmus argentilineatus, produce no axial bending during sustained locomotion, but instead use repeated protraction-retraction cycles of the pectoral fins to elevate the centre of mass and propel the entire body anteriorly. Fishes that use an axial-appendage-based mechanism, e.g. walking catfishes Clarias spp., produce side-to-side, whole-body bending in co-ordination with protraction-retraction cycles of the pectoral fins. Once the body is maximally bent to one side, the tail is pressed against the substratum and drawn back through the mid-sagittal plane, which elevates the centre of mass and rotates it about a fulcrum formed by the pectoral fin and the ground. Although appendage-based terrestrial locomotion appears to be rare in osteichthyians, many different species appear to have converged upon functionally similar axial-based and axial-appendage-based movements. Based on common forms observed across divergent taxa, it appears that dorsoventral compression of the body, elongation of the axial skeleton or the presence of robust pectoral fins can facilitate effective terrestrial movement by air-breathing fishes.

  6. 日本鳗鲡脂肪酸去饱和酶和延长酶基因的克隆与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郁颖; 梁旭方; 李观贵; 何珊; 谢骏; 白俊杰

    2009-01-01

    利用RT—PCR和RACE方法克隆得到日本鳗鲡(Anguilla japonica)肝脏中控制高不饱和脂肪酸(highly unsaturated fatty acids,HUFA)合成的脂肪酸去饱和酶(fatty acid desaturase,FAD)和脂肪酸延长酶(fatty acid elongase,ELO)全长cDNA序列。结果表明,2456bp的FAD全长cDNA序列含长达1046bp的3’-UTR、75bp的5’-UTR和编码444个氨基酸的长1335bp的阅读框。编码的蛋白序列含有FAD全部的特征结构区,包括3个组氨酸簇、2个跨膜区和1个细胞色素h5结构域,与其他具有不同生活史鱼类的FAD氨基酸序列具有70.5%~77.5%的同源性;分析显示其在系统树中与溯河洄游鱼类的亲缘关系最近。克隆得到的ELO全长cDNA序列长1239bp,含有885bp的开放阅读框,编码294个氨基酸,该蛋白序列含有单一的氧化还原中心组氨酸簇、内质网停留信号和多个跨膜区等ELO特征结构,与其他鱼类ELO氨基酸具有87.1%~88.8%的同源性;其在系统树中与北非鲶鱼(Clarias gariepinus)和斑马鱼亲缘关系较近。日本鳗鲡FAD和ELOcDNA全序列的获得为今后进一步研究其体内高不饱和脂肪酸合成途径及阐明该途径在不同鱼类中的分子进化机理奠定基础。

  7. 不同养殖密度下革胡子鲶幼鱼的生长和垂体GH基因mRNA表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓梅; 陈成勋; 邢克智; 王妍; 戴伟; 薛素青

    2015-01-01

    革胡子鲶(Clarias gariepinus)幼鱼在35 kg·m-3、65 kg·m-3、95 kg·m-3和125 kg·m-3的密度下养殖60 d,第30和第60天时分析鱼的日增质量并应用半定量RT-PCR法分析垂体生长激素(GH)基因mRNA的相对表达量。0~30 d养殖期内,35 kg·m-3和65 kg·m-3密度组间及95 kg·m-3和125 kg·m-3密度组间的鱼日增质量差异不显著,但前2个密度组的鱼日增质量显著高于后2个密度组;而养殖第30天时各养殖密度组间GH基因mRNA相对表达量差异均不显著。30~60 d养殖期内,35 kg·m-3和65 kg·m-3密度组的日增质量显著高于125 kg·m-3密度组,但其余各密度组间差异不显著;养殖第60天时,35 kg·m-3和65 kg·m-3密度组GH基因mRNA相对表达量显著高于95 kg·m-3和125 kg·m-3密度组。结果表明革胡子鲶幼鱼的日增质量与垂体GH基因mRNA相对表达量不存在紧密的相关性。

  8. Plankton and Macrobiota Composition and Diversity of Three Tropical Freshwaters Rivers in Ogun and Ondo States, Southwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taofikat Abosede ADESALU

    2016-06-01

    , accounted for 42.2%. A total of seventeen (17 finfish and shellfish species comprised of thirteen (13 finfish and four (4 shellfish species were recorded, being representative of freshwater and brackish water species; Clarias anguillaris (Clariidae, Tilapia zilli (Cichlidae, Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (Bagridae, Alestes spp. and Macrobrachium vollenhovenii (Palaemonidae were the most common species observed.

  9. RÉGIMEN ALIMENTARIO DE SIETE ESPECIES ÍCTICAS EN EL EMBALSE DE LA HIDROELÉCTRICA URRÁ (CÓRDOBA, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.J. Atencio-García

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El objeto del estudio fue evaluar el régimen alimentario de siete especies de peces que se han establecidoen el embalse de la Hidroeléctrica Urrá (HU. Se analizaron 453 estómagos, distribuidos así: 115 deperico (Tracheolypterus badeli cf, 111 de cacucho (Panaque gibbosus, 108 de yalúa (Cyphocharaxmagdalenae, 89 de mojarra amarilla (Caquetaia kraussii , 11 de moncholo (Hoplias malabaricus, 10 debarbul ( Pimelodus clarias y 9 de doncella ( Ageneoisus pardales . Los contenidos estomacales se evaluaronmediante frecuencia de ocurrencia (FO, frecuencia numérica (FN y el método gravimétrico (G. Sedeterminó la importancia de cada presa mediante el índice de categorización de presa (ICP y lasuperposición de dietas se analizó mediante el Índice de Morosita (IM. La distribución porcentual de loscontenidos estomacales de la yalúa mostró que el 95.5% correspondió al ítem detritus y el restante 4.5%a microlagas (Clorofitas y Bacillariofitas y protozoarios/rotíferos. La dieta del cacucho la conformaron enun 70.9% microalgas (Cianofitas, Clorofitas y Bacilariofitas y protozoarios/rotíferos y el restante 29.1%correspondieron al ítem detritus. Barbul (FO = 50%, FN = 46.2% y perico se alimentaron principalmentede insectos (FO = 73.9%, FN = 86.4%. La mojarra amarilla (FO = 87.1%, FN = 83.3%, doncella(FO = 92.3%, FN = 92.0% y moncholo (FO = 90.9%, FN = 90.9% prefieren peces como cachanita(Roeboides dayi y sardinas ( Astianax sp. Los resultados sugieren que yalúa es detritívoro iliófago, cacuchoes detritívoro, perico y barbul son carnívoros insectívoros y doncella, moncholo y mojarra amarilla soncarnívoros piscívoros.

  10. Phosphorus-nitrogen loading and trend of fish catch as index of lake Mariut eutrophication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, G H; el-Karyony, I A; Hassan, A H

    1993-01-01

    Lake Mariut was considered in the past to represent an important source of fish production in Alexandria especially during the periods which were characterized by low catch from its marine fisheries. The growing population in Alexandria and the expanding industries around the lake were accompanied with increased quantities of domestic and industrial wastes discharged annually into the lake proper. These quantities were increased from 192 million cubic meters in 1974 to about 300 million cubic meters in 1992. Consequently, the water quality in this basin was highly deteriorated and changed to become markedly eutrophic. High input of nutrients through sewage and industrial wastes has considerably increased the phosphorus and nitrogen load in the lake proper. Phosphorus and nitrogen loading in this basin were estimated in 1992 to be 60.2 gm/m3 P/y and 79.8 gm/m3 N/y. According to the nutrient concept given by Vollenweider (1974), these two figures have provided an evidence that the lake proper was strongly changed from oligotrophic to polytrophic phase. The trend of its total fish catch as well as the trend of different fish categories catch during the period 1970-1992 also confirms its eutrophication. This is in addition to bad changes that took place with respect to environmental conditions due to the continuous inflow of domestic and industrial wastes from different sources into this part of Mariut lake. Marginal increments of the lake proper total catch were decreased from 20.6% in 1970 to -28.8% in 1992, while the marginal increments of Tilapia sp., Clarias sp, Anguilla sp. and Mugil sp. were decreased from 21.4%, 14.3%, 29.8%, and 28.9% respectively in 1970 to -29.1%, -25.3%, -43.0%, and -36.8% in 1992. Based on these two indices of the lake proper eutrophication, the expected improvement of its environmental conditions will take several years after treating all inland discharges flowing into the lake and/or diverting all relevant outfalls away from this basin.

  11. 广东省恩平市锦江河上游野生鱼类资源群落生态特征调查%A preliminary study on the structure of wild fish community in the upstream of Jinjiang River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭乾开; 黎华寿; 崔科; 贺鸿志

    2012-01-01

    2009年6月至9月连续16次对广东省恩平市锦江河上游主要鱼类群落调查。调查共捕获鱼类3 894尾隶属6目18科39属49种。其中未知种3种,Margalef指数D(I)为4.023 9,D(B)为7.601 4,Shannon-Wiener指数H(I′)为3.952 3,H(B′)为2.401 9;Simpson指数C(I)为0.705 1,C(B)为0.914 3;Pielou指数J(I)为0.331 3,J(B)为0.201 4。其中名特优经济鱼类15种,占种类数的30.61%,包括刺鳅、黄颡鱼、月鳢、胡子鲶、翘嘴红鱼白、黄鳝、鲶鱼、乌鳢、翘嘴鳜、斑鳜、加洲鲈、泥鳅等普通经济鱼类8种,占种类数的16.32%,包括鲫鱼、罗非鱼、银鲴、鲤、草鱼、鲢、鳙、青鱼、鲮等;其他非经济鱼类种26种,不知品种3种,占种类数的53.06%。鲤形目中的鲤、银飘鱼为优势种(IRI≥500),鲫、、寡鳞飘鱼、赤眼鳟、油餐、彩石等为常见种;鲈形目中的罗非鱼属鱼类、子陵吻虾虎鱼为优势种(IRI≥500),月鳢、乌鳢、加洲鲈、斗鱼、溪吻虾虎鱼、粘皮鲻虾虎鱼、侧扁黄(鱼幼)等为常见种;鱼将形目中的食蚊鱼和鲶形目的胡子鲶为优势种(IRI≥500),合鳃目的黄鳝以及外来种观赏鱼(吸盘鱼)、鲶鱼为常见种,鱼类品种调查结果可为恩平市锦江河鱼类资源保护和利用提供参考。%We carried 16 surveys of the wild fish community in the upstream of Jinjiang River in Enping from June to September, 2009. The 3 894 fish we captured belong to 49 species, 39 genus, 18 familia, 6 order, including 3 unknown species. The indexes of Margalef D(1) and D(B), Shannon- WienerH(1) and H(B), Simpson C(1) and C(B), and Pielou J(1) and J(B) are 4.023 9 and 7. 601 4, 3.952 3 and 2. 401 9, 0. 705 1 and 0. 914 3 and 0. 331 3 and 0. 201 4 respectively. 15 species including Mastacembelus aculeatus, Pelteobagrus fulvidraco, Channa asiatica, Clarias batrachus, Culter alburnus , Symbranchi formes Monopterusalba

  12. Organochlorine insecticide residues in African Fauna: 1971-1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiktelius, S; Edwards, C A

    1997-01-01

    maximum and mean residues in the various groups of terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates and vertebrates. Overall, residues in the fauna were the greatest for DDT, followed in turn by those of dieldrin, HCH, endosulfan, and endrin, with small amounts of aldrin and toxaphene being found in some animals. There were relatively few reports of OCL residues in terrestrial invertebrates and virtually none in aquatic invertebrates. Only a few reports demonstrated OCL residues in terrestrial vertebrates, although high levels of DDT, dieldrin, and HCH were found in crocodile eggs and large residues of dieldrin occurred in bats, squirrels, and monkeys. Considerable OCL residues were reported in a few species of fish, especially Barbus, Clarias, Hydrocynus, Labeo, Sarotherodon, Epiplatys, and Synodontis. These residues were at levels that could have caused chronic toxicity or behavioral changes. The calculated maximum and mean OCL residues in the various elements of the African fauna until 1995 were compared with those calculated for corresponding faunal groups in Europe and the U.S. from their development and introduction up to 1973. The OCL residues reported in African fauna between 1971 and 1975 tended to be significantly higher overall than those published for Europe and the U.S. In particular, residues of DDT and dieldrin in African birds and their eggs were greater than those that had been incriminated as causing significant eggshell thinning and reproductive failure in European and U.S. aquatic and terrestrial birds up to 1973. Additionally, high DDT and dieldrin residues were reported from some species of African fish at levels that could potentially affect their reproduction, have chronic toxic and behavioral effects, and even drastically affect populations. Holistic case studies on the use of OCLs to control tsetse flies and desert locusts were discussed. OCL levels in trophic levels of fauna associated with Lake Kariba (between Zambia and Zimbabwe) were summarized. (AB