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Sample records for claire road annapolis

  1. Claire Fontaine: Foreigners Everywhere

    OpenAIRE

    Dumont, Fabienne

    2012-01-01

    L’introduction de Letizia Ragaglia pose clairement le cadre de réflexion critique du collectif Claire Fontaine. Ce dernier s’attache à penser l’art comme une possibilité de survie et comme un élément apte à provoquer des changements de perception du monde, sans nier les difficultés inhérentes à un tel projet à l’œuvre dans le monde restreint de l’art contemporain. A contrario, l’entretien qui suit, mené par Bernard Blistène et Nicolas Liucci-Goutnikov, fait preuve d’une surenchère de référenc...

  2. The Annapolis Accords on the use of toxicology in decision-making. Annapolis Center Workshop Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, G.M.; Baskin, S.I.; Charnley, G.; Cohen, J.T.; Gold, L.S.; Kerkvliet, N.I.; Koenig, H.M.; Lewis, S.C.; McClain, R.M.; Rhomberg, L.R.; Snyder, J.W.; Weekley, L.B.

    2000-12-01

    The science of toxicology plays an important role in identifying safe conditions of use or exposure for many different kinds of environmental agents. The use of toxicologic information in risk assessment requires careful analysis, evaluation of data, and scientific judgment. These Annapolis Accords are intended to guide appropriate use in risk assessment of the scientific information from toxicology. We believe that application of these principles will improve the scientific credibility of risk assessment and the quality of decisions aimed at reducing and eliminating risks to human health and the environment.

  3. Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This dataset shows the roads within and near Delaware Water Gap NRA taken from 1:4800 scale mapping that was done for the original land acquisition period (1967)...

  4. Bacteria and Emerging Chemical Contaminants in the St. Clair River/Lake St. Clair Basin, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Lisa R.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Since the enactment of the Clean Water Act in 1972, awareness of the quality of the Nation's water has continued to improve. Despite improvements to wastewater-treatment systems and increased regulation on waste discharge, bacterial and chemical contamination is still a problem for many rivers and lakes throughout the United States. Pathogenic microorganism and newly recognized chemical contaminants have been found in waters that are used for drinking water and recreation (Rose and Grimes, 2001; Kolpin and others, 2002). This summary of bacteria and emerging-chemical-contaminant monitoring in the St. Clair River/Lake St. Clair Basin (fig. 1) was initiated by the Lake St. Clair Regional Monitoring Project (LSCRMP) in 2003, in cooperation with the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ), the Counties of Macomb, Oakland, St. Clair, and Wayne, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

  5. 76 FR 49697 - Television Broadcasting Services; Eau Claire, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Eau Claire, WI AGENCY: Federal Communications... Television Licensee, LLC (``Gray''), licensee of WEAU-TV, channel 13, Eau Claire, Wisconsin, requesting the... the Congressional review Act, see 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73...

  6. 76 FR 35831 - Television Broadcasting Services; Eau Claire, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ...The Commission has before it a petition for rulemaking filed by Gray Television Licensee, LLC (``Gray''), the licensee of station WEAU-TV, channel 13, Eau Claire, Wisconsin, requesting the substitution of channel 38 for channel 13 at Eau Claire. The tower holding WEAU-TV's main antenna collapsed, destroying the station's transmission equipment, on March 22, 2011. Gray requests this channel......

  7. Mortality factors in whistling swans at Lake St. Clair, Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irwin, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    Post mortem examinations of 31 whistling swans (Olor columbianus) collected from the Lake St. Clair marshes in the spring of 1972 indicated that lead toxicosis and filariasis (Sarconema eurycerca) were the main causes of mortality. 13 references, 2 tables.

  8. Bathymetry of Lake Erie and Lake Saint Clair

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Erie and Lake Saint Clair has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and...

  9. CLAIRE, an event-driven simulation tool for testing software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CLAIRE is a software tool created to perform validations on executable codes or on specifications of distributed real-time applications for nuclear safety. CLAIRE can be used both to verify the safety properties by modelling the specifications, and also to validate the final code by simulating the behaviour of its equipment and software interfaces. It can be used to observe and provide dynamic control of the simulation process, and also to record changes to the simulated data for off-line analysis. (R.P.)

  10. EAU CLAIRE COUNTY STUDY, PHASE II 1964-65.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FELDHUSEN, JOHN F.; AND OTHERS

    THE EAU CLAIRE COUNTY YOUTH STUDY INVOLVED 384 STUDENTS CLASSIFIED ON THE BASES OF DOMICILE (RURAL OR URBAN), AND BEHAVIOR IN THE CLASSROOM (SOCIALLY APPROVED OR DISAPPROVED). A BATTERY OF TESTS, INTERVIEWS, AND OBSERVATIONS FOCUSED ON THE DELINQUENCY PRONENESS, PSYCHOLOGICAL ADJUSTMENT, AND FAMILY BACKGROUND OF THE CHILDREN. THE FINDINGS OF THIS…

  11. Linking β-methylamino-L-alanine exposure to sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Annapolis, MD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Nicholas C; Metcalf, James S; Caller, Tracie A; Banack, Sandra A; Cox, Paul A; Stommel, Elijah W

    2013-08-01

    Most amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) cases occur sporadically. Some environmental triggers have been implicated, including beta-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), a cyanobacteria produced neurotoxin. This study aimed to identify environmental risk factors common to three sporadic ALS patients who lived in Annapolis, Maryland, USA and developed the disease within a relatively short time and within close proximity to each other. A questionnaire was used to identify potential risk factors for ALS among the cohort of patients. One common factor among the ALS patients was the frequent consumption of blue crab. Samples of blue crab from the patients' local fish market were tested for BMAA using LC-MS/MS. BMAA was identified in these Chesapeake Bay blue crabs. We conclude that the presence of BMAA in the Chesapeake Bay food web and the lifetime consumption of blue crab contaminated with BMAA may be a common risk factor for sporadic ALS in all three patients. PMID:23660330

  12. Feasibility study for the computerized automation of the Annapolis Field Office of EPA region III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes a feasibility study for computerized automation of the Annapolis Field Office (AFO) of EPA's Region III. The AFO laboratory provides analytical support for a number of EPA divisions; its primary function at present is analysis of water samples from rivers, estuaries, and the ocean in the Chesapeake Bay area. Automation of the AFO laboratory is found to be not only feasible but also highly desirable. An automation system is proposed which will give major improvements in analytical capacity, quality control, sample management, and reporting capabilities. This system is similar to the LLL-developed automation systems already installed at other EPA laboratories, with modifications specific to the needs of the AFO laboratory and the addition of sample file control. It is estimated that the initial cost of the system, nearly $300,000, would be recouped in about three years by virtue of the increased capacity and efficiency of operation

  13. Geovisualization of Mercury Contamination in Lake St. Clair Sediments

    OpenAIRE

    K. Wayne Forsythe; Marvin, Chris H.; Christine J. Valancius; Watt, James P.; Joseph M. Aversa; Stephen J. Swales; Daniel J. Jakubek; Richard R. Shaker

    2016-01-01

    The Laurentian Great Lakes of North America contain approximately 20% of the earth’s fresh water. Smaller lakes, rivers and channels connect the lakes to the St. Lawrence Seaway, creating an interconnected freshwater and marine ecosystem. The largest delta system in the Great Lakes is located in the northeastern portion of Lake St. Clair. This article focuses on the geovisualization of total mercury pollution from sediment samples that were collected in 1970, 1974 and 2001. To assess contamin...

  14. Geovisualization of Mercury Contamination in Lake St. Clair Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Wayne Forsythe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Laurentian Great Lakes of North America contain approximately 20% of the earth’s fresh water. Smaller lakes, rivers and channels connect the lakes to the St. Lawrence Seaway, creating an interconnected freshwater and marine ecosystem. The largest delta system in the Great Lakes is located in the northeastern portion of Lake St. Clair. This article focuses on the geovisualization of total mercury pollution from sediment samples that were collected in 1970, 1974 and 2001. To assess contamination patterns, dot maps were created and compared with surfaces that were generated using the kriging spatial interpolation technique. Bathymetry data were utilized in geovisualization procedures to develop three-dimensional representations of the contaminant surfaces. Lake St. Clair generally has higher levels of contamination in deeper parts of the lake, in the dredged shipping route through the lake and in proximity to the main outflow channels through the St. Clair delta. Mercury pollution levels were well above the Probable Effect Level in large portions of the lake in both 1970 and 1974. Lower contaminant concentrations were observed in the 2001 data. Lake-wide spatial distributions are discernable using the kriging technique; however, they are much more apparent when they are geovisualized using bathymetry data.

  15. Summary of PERF air program review - August 22-23, 2007, Annapolis, Maryland.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Schmalzer, D. K.; Leath, P. P.

    2007-10-24

    For many years, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has supported and sponsored various types of environmental research related to the oil and gas industry through its Office of Fossil Energy and its National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). In November 2005, Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) organized and coordinated a review of DOE's water research program in conjunction with the fall 2005 meeting of the Petroleum Environmental Research Forum (PERF). PERF is a nonprofit organization created in 1986 to provide a stimulus and forum for collecting, exchanging, and analyzing research information related to the development of technology for the petroleum industry and also to provide a mechanism for establishing joint research projects in that field. Additional information on PERF can be accessed at http://www.perf.org. The water program review was so successful that both DOE and PERF agreed that a second program review would be useful -- this time on air research and issues. Argonne coordinated the air program review, which was held in Annapolis, Maryland, on August 22 and 23, 2007. This report summarizes the presentations and related discussions that were part of the air program review. The full agenda for the program review is included as Appendix A.

  16. Existing Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Bay Ridge Gardens - Mixed Humid Affordable Multifamily Housing Deep Energy Retrofit, Annapolis, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-10-01

    Under this project, the BA-PIRC research team evaluated the installation, measured performance, and cost-effectiveness of efficiency upgrade measures for a tenant-in-place deep energy retrofit at the Bay Ridge multifamily development in Annapolis, Maryland. The design and construction phase of the Bay Ridge project was completed in August 2012. This case study summarizes system commissioning, short-term test results, utility bill data analysis, and analysis of real-time data collected over a one-year period after the retrofit was complete.

  17. Lake St. Clair zooplankton: Evidence for post-dreissena changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, K.A.; Davis, B.M.; Hunter, R.D.

    2009-01-01

    We surveyed the zooplankton of Lake St. Clair at 12 sites over ten dates from May to October 2000. Mean zooplankton density by site and date was 168.6 individuals/L, with Dreissena spp. veligers the most abundant taxon at 122.7 individuals/L. Rotifers, copepods, and cladocerans were far lower in mean abundance than in the early 1970s (rotifers, 20.9/L; copepods, 18.1/L; and cladocerans, 6.8/L). Species richness of zooplankton taxa in 2000 was 147, which was virtually unchanged from that of the first reported survey in 1894. Overall, the decline in abundance was greatest for rotifers (-90%) and about equal for cladocerans (-69%) and copepods (-66%). The decrease in abundance of Daphnia spp. was especially dramatic in Canadian waters. The decline in the southeastern region was significant for all three major groups of zooplankton, whereas in the northwestern region the decline was significant only for rotifers. From June to August 2000, Lake St. Clair open waters were numerically dominated by Dreissena spp. veligers, with a reduced abundance of rotifers and crustaceans compared to pre-Dreissena spp. surveys. Mean nutrient concentrations were not different from the 1970s, but Secchi depth (greater) and chlorophyll a concentration (lower) were. Disproportionate reduction in rotifer abundance is consistent with hypotheses implicating direct consumption by settled Dreissena spp. Reduction of crustaceans is likely due to more complex interactions including removal of nauplii as well as resource competition for phytoplankton.

  18. Flood Risk Mapping Using LiDAR for Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim L. Webster

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A significant portion of the Canadian Maritime coastline has been surveyed with airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR. The purpose of these surveys has been to map the risk of flooding from storm surges and projected long-term sea‑level rise from climate change and to include projects in all three Maritime Provinces: Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. LiDAR provides the required details in order to map the flood inundation from 1 to 2 m storm surge events, which cause coastal flooding in many locations in this region when they occur at high tide levels. The community of Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia, adjacent to the Bay of Fundy, has been surveyed with LiDAR and a 1 m DEM (Digital Elevation Model was constructed for the flood inundation mapping. Validation of the LiDAR using survey grade GPS indicates a vertical accuracy better than 30 cm. A benchmark storm, known as the Groundhog Day storm (February 1–3, 1976, was used to assess the flood maps and to illustrate the effects of different sea-level rise projections based on climate change scenarios if it were to re-occur in 100 years time. Near shore bathymetry has been merged with the LiDAR and local wind observations used to model the impact of significant waves during this benchmark storm. Long-term (ca. greater than 30 years time series of water level observations from across the Bay of Fundy in Saint John, New Brunswick, have been used to estimate return periods of water levels under present and future sea-level rise conditions. Results indicate that under current sea-level rise conditions this storm has a 66 year return period. With a modest relative sea-level (RSL rise of 80 cm/century this decreases to 44 years and, with a possible upper limit rise of 220 cm/century, this decreases further to 22 years. Due to the uncertainty of climate change scenarios and sea-level rise, flood inundation maps have been constructed at 10 cm increments up to the 9 m contour

  19. Claire, a simulation and testing tool for critical softwares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CEA and IPSN (Institute of Nuclear Protection and Safety) needs concerning the testing of critical softwares, have led to the development of the CLAIRE tool which is able to test the softwares without modification. This tool allows to graphically model the system and its environment and to include components into the model which observe and do not modify the behaviour of the system to be tested. The executable codes are integrated in the model. The tool uses target machine simulators (microprocessors). The technique used (the event simulation) allows to associate actions with events such as the execution of an instruction, the access to a variable etc.. The simulation results are exploited using graphic, states research and test cover measurement tools. In particular, this tool can give help to the evaluation of critical softwares with pre-existing components. (J.S.)

  20. Miscellaneous Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for miscellanous roads, a catch-all category for all road types not present in the other DNR derived products. These road...

  1. Claire: first light of a gamma-ray lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the high energy boundary of the observed electromagnetic spectrum, γ-ray astrophysics provides a unique probe to study the most energetic phenomena in the Universe. New γ-rays instruments have to be developed in order to reach the sensitivity and the angular resolution needed to compare theoretical predictions with observational data. γ-rays focusing appears now to be a promising way to overcome the actual issue. The CLAIRE project is dedicated to demonstrating the interest of a γ-ray lens for nuclear astrophysics, as well as measuring the performance of such an instrument and compare them to the theoretical predictions. According to the laws of γ-rays diffraction in crystal, the first lens for nuclear astrophysics has been developed. Due to mechanical and observational constraints, the energy bandwidth is a few keV broad and centered at 170 keV. The lens itself is made of about 560 germanium crystals, mounted on 8 concentric rings. The tuning of this lens in the laboratory has required the development of specific system and procedures. Besides, the data collected during this tuning has allowed the determination of various crystal characteristics, which have been used for numerical simulations of the γ-ray lens. Then, the gamma ray lens principle has also been tested by ground based measurements and by an observation of the Crab Nebula during a stratospheric flight. Ground based measurements, in the laboratory and with a source at a long distance, has allowed the determination of the diffraction efficiency as well as the angular response. These results, in agreement with the numerical expectations, demonstrate the validity of the γ-ray lens principles. Moreover, the CLAIRE gondola was launched in June 2001 and was recovered after about 5 hours and a half at an altitude of 41 km. Data analysis has led to a 3σ detection of the diffracted signal, corresponding to about 33 collected photons during an effective observation time of 1 h and 12 mn. The results

  2. Pollination, seed set and fruit quality in apple: studies with Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in the Annapolis Valley, Nova Scotia, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Cory Silas Sheffield

    2014-01-01

    The orchard crop pollinator Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) was evaluated for apple pollination in the Annapolis Valley, Nova Scotia, Canada during 2000-2001. Resulting pollination levels (measured as pollen grains on floral stigmas), percent fruit set, mature fruit weight and seed yield were evaluated against an attempted gradient of Osmia bee density. In addition, fruit quality was assessed using two symmetry indices, one based on fruit diameter, the second on fruit height. Polli...

  3. Road density

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Road density is generally highly correlated with amount of developed land cover. High road densities usually indicate high levels of ecological disturbance. More...

  4. Road Safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Every day we all use roads. We walk on them. We walk eitheralong the pavement (人行道)or across the road. If we are careless, wecan cause accidents.Accidents often happen when people arecrossing the road. Here is some advice.

  5. 78 FR 27960 - Charles Hotchkin and Claire Fay; Notice of Application for Amendment of Exemption, Soliciting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... of the two units at any given time. The proposed amendment would not change the project's hydraulic... inspection: a. Type of Application: Amendment of Exemption. b. Project No.: 13565-001. c. Date Filed: February 4, 2013. d. Applicant: Charles Hotchkin and Claire Fay. e. Name of Project: Alder...

  6. STEM Leader from the Roeper School: An Interview with Nuclear Engineer Clair J. Sullivan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Don

    2016-01-01

    Clair J. Sullivan is an assistant professor in the Department of Nuclear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC). Her research interests include radiation detection and measurements; gamma-ray spectroscopy; automated isotope identification algorithms; nuclear forensics; nuclear security;…

  7. Experiential Learning in the University of Wisconsin--Eau Claire's Program in Wittenberg, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahlbusch, Jefford

    2003-01-01

    Describes a study abroad program at the University of Wisconsin--Eau Claire that places students in Wittenberg, Germany. The program offers project-based learning in topics ranging from Martin Luther to the ecology of the Elbe; service learning with "guided reflection" (a requirement of the university); and a short-term business or professional…

  8. 77 FR 49351 - Safety Zone; Port Huron Float-Down, St. Clair River, Port Huron, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ... Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A. Regulatory History... enforced a ] safety on August 21st (76 FR 52269). Consequently, not only is it impracticable and contrary... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Port Huron Float-Down, St. Clair...

  9. Claire, a tool used for the simulation of events in software tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CLAIRE provides a purely software system which makes it possible to validate the on line applications dealt out to the specifications domain or the code. This tool offers easy graphic design of the application and of its environment. It caries out quite efficiently the simulation of any logged in model and runs the control of the evolution either dynamically or with prerecorded time. (TEC)

  10. Im Gesprach: An Interview with Claire Kramsch on the "Multilingual Subject"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramsch, Claire; Gerhards, Sascha

    2012-01-01

    In her recently published book "The Multilingual Subject: What foreign language learners say about their experience and why it matters", UC Berkeley applied-linguist Claire Kramsch approaches language learning from a new, visionary perspective. Foregrounding the interplay of cultural aspects in language learning, Kramsch understands…

  11. Bimetallists and Monometallists on European Monetary Unification (1865-1892). A comment on Claire Silvant

    OpenAIRE

    Morys, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    In the previous issue of this journal Claire Silvant argued that late 19th century bimetallists identified themselves more closely with the endeavour of European monetary unification than their gold monometallic counterparts. I will argue that, if anything, the reverse was true. French gold monometallists were more supportive of European monetary unification.

  12. Stripe rust resistance genes in the UK winter wheat cultivar Claire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, N M; Lewis, C M; Berry, S T; Maccormack, R; Boyd, L A

    2013-06-01

    Stripe rust resistance in the winter wheat cultivar Claire had remained effective in the UK and Europe since its release in 1999 and consequently has been used extensively in wheat breeding programs. However, in 2012, reports indicated that this valuable resistance may now have been compromised. To characterise stripe rust resistance in Claire and determine which genes may still confer effective resistance a cross was made between Claire and the stripe rust susceptible cultivar Lemhi. A genetic linkage map, constructed using SSR, AFLP, DArT and NBS-AFLP markers had a total map length of 1,730 cM. To improve the definition of two quantitative trait loci (QTL) identified on the long arm of chromosome 2D further markers were developed from wheat EST. Stripe rust resistance was evaluated on adult plants under field and glasshouse conditions by measuring the extent of fungal growth and sporulation, percentage infection (Pi) and the necrotic/chlorotic responses of the plant to infection, infection type (IT). Four QTL contributing to stripe rust adult plant resistance (APR) were identified in Claire, QYr.niab-2D.1, QYr.niab-2D.2, QYr.niab-2B and QYr.niab-7B. For Pi QYr.niab-2D.1 explained up to 25.4 % of the phenotypic variation, QYr.niab-2D.2 up to 28.7 %, QYr.niab-2B up to 21.7 % and QYr.niab-7B up to 13.0 %. For IT the percentages of phenotypic variation explained were 23.4, 31.8, 17.2 and 12.6 %, respectively. In addition to the four QTL conferring APR in Claire, a race-specific, seedling expressed resistance gene was identified on chromosome 3B. PMID:23536048

  13. Evolution of developments and applications of advanced thermal-hydraulics and neutronic codes. Conclusions from Annapolis Workshop and Ankara Seminar, Objectives of the Present Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the nuclear reactor safety area, during the last 30-40 years, thermal-hydraulics has been one of the key disciplines for simulation and analysis of transient and accident scenarios and also for the definition of preventive and mitigative measures in relation to these scenarios. A workshop was organised by OECD/NEA-CSNI at Annapolis (1996) where codes, physical models, numeric and new computer architecture were examined. In parallel a Specialist meeting on instrumentation in two phase flows was held in Santa Barbara beginning of 1997 in order to investigate new techniques for getting measurements of new physical parameters necessary for assessing the new physical models. Among the different applications of thermal-hydraulic codes, the use of Best Estimate methods in safety evaluation is certainly one of the major challenges for which the safety and economic issues are quite important. For these reasons OECD/NEA-CSNI organised a seminar in Ankara in 1998 entirely devoted to the use of Best Estimate methods in thermal-hydraulics analysis. This seminar allowed to get a better view of where we were in such applications and which were the remaining problems and issues. The present workshop held in Barcelona beginning of year 2000 will be a good opportunity for providing an updated review of the gained progresses and for analysing if the objectives and programs are still progressing in the right direction. In order to do such exercise, we will first recall the questions which were raised in Annapolis and the main conclusions which were drawn from these questions. The conclusions of Ankara Meeting will be reviewed in a second step. Finally we will list the objectives of this workshop in Barcelona which is held in the continuity of Annapolis Workshop and Ankara Seminar. (authors)

  14. Major Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for major roads (interstates and trunk highways) found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. These roadways are current...

  15. Low-flow Characteristics of Eau Claire River Basin near Antigo, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmstrom, B.K.

    1975-01-01

    This report presents low-flow characteristics at six sites on streams in the Eau Claire River basin near Antigo, Wis., where applications for irrigation permits were made. The low-flow characteristics presented are the annual minimum 7-day mean flows at the 2-year recurrence interval and 10-year recurrence interval. A seepage run made October 10, 1974, showed a substantial gain in discharge from site 2 (3.75 ft3/s [cubic feet per second] or 0.11 m3/s (cubic metres per second) to site 6 (30.6 ft3/s or 0.87 m3/s) on the East Branch Eau Claire River and from site 12 (3.98 ft3/s or 0.11 m3/s) to site 16 (18.1 ft3/s or 0.51 m3/s) on the West Branch Eau Claire River; a fairly constant discharge between sites 6 (30.6 ft3/s or 0.87 m3/s) and 11 (32.3 ft3/s or 0.91 m3/s) on the East Branch and sites 16 (18.1 ft3/s or 0.51 m3/s) and 20 (18.8 ft3/s or 0.53 m3/s) on the West Branch; and a substantial gain in discharge from site 23 (57.3 ft3/s or 1.62 m3/s) to site 24 (63.4 ft3/s or 1.80 m3/s) on the Eau Claire River. A gaging station was established at the downstream potential irrigation site to collect continuous stage and discharge data on streamflow to assist the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources in the regulation of irrigation withdrawals.

  16. CLAIRE: a Canadian Small Satellite Mission for Measurement of Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, James; Grant, Cordell; Germain, Stephane; Durak, Berke; McKeever, Jason; Latendresse, Vincent

    2016-07-01

    CLAIRE, a Canadian mission operated by GHGSat Inc. of Montreal, is the world's first satellite designed to measure greenhouse gas emissions from single targeted industrial facilities. Claire was launched earlier this year into a 500 km polar sun-synchronous orbit selected to provide an acceptable balance between return frequency and spatial resolution. Extensive simulations of oil & gas facilities, power plants, hydro reservoirs and even animal feedlots were used to predict the mission performance. The principal goal is to measure the emission rates of carbon dioxide and methane from selected targets with greater precision and lower cost than ground-based alternatives. CLAIRE will measure sources having surface areas less than 10 x 10 km2 with a spatial resolution better than 50 m, thereby providing industrial site operators and government regulators with the information they need to understand, manage and ultimately to reduce greenhouse gas emissions more economically. The sensor is based on a Fabry-Perot interferometer, coupled with a 2D InGaAs focal plane array operating in the short-wave infrared with a spectral resolution of about 0.1 nm. The patented, high étendue, instrument design provides signal to noise ratios that permit quantification of emission rates with accuracies adequate for most regulatory reporting thresholds. The very high spatial resolution of the density maps produced by the CLAIRE mission resolves plume shapes and emitter locations so that advanced dispersion models can derive accurate emission rates of multiple sources within the field of view. The satellite bus, provided by the University of Toronto's Space Flight Laboratory, is based on the well-characterized NEMO architecture, including hardware that has significant spaceflight heritage. The mission is currently undergoing initial test and validation measurements in preparation for commercial operation later this year.

  17. Ambient levels and dry deposition fluxes of mercury to Lakes Huron, Erie and St. Clair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambient concentrations and dry deposition fluxes of Hg in the gas and particle phase to Lakes St. Clair, Erie and Huron were estimated with a hybrid receptor-deposition model (HRD). The ambient gas and particulate phase Hg concentrations were predicted to vary by a factor of 12 to 18 during the transport of air masses traversing the lakes. The ensemble average deposition fluxes of fine particle Hg ranged from 7 pg/m2-h to 15.3 pg/m2-h over Lake St. Clair, 0.5 to 4.2 pg/m2-h over Lake Huron and 5.1 to 20.6 pg/m2-h over Lake Huron and 5.1 to 20.6 pg/m2-h over Lake Erie. Gaseous Hg volatilized at a rate of 0.21 to 0.52 ng/m2-h and/or volatilized at a rate of 0.5 ng/m2-h from Lake St. Clair depending upon the location of the sampling site used in the HRD model. The effect of meteorological conditions, particle size distributions and type and location of the sampling sites played an important role in the transfer of atmospheric Hg to and/or from the lakes. 17 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Louisiana ESI: ROADS (Road Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the state maintained primary and secondary road network of Louisiana. Vector lines in the data set represent Interstates, U.S. Highways, and...

  19. Distributed road assessment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, N. Reginald; Paglieroni, David W

    2014-03-25

    A system that detects damage on or below the surface of a paved structure or pavement is provided. A distributed road assessment system includes road assessment pods and a road assessment server. Each road assessment pod includes a ground-penetrating radar antenna array and a detection system that detects road damage from the return signals as the vehicle on which the pod is mounted travels down a road. Each road assessment pod transmits to the road assessment server occurrence information describing each occurrence of road damage that is newly detected on a current scan of a road. The road assessment server maintains a road damage database of occurrence information describing the previously detected occurrences of road damage. After the road assessment server receives occurrence information for newly detected occurrences of road damage for a portion of a road, the road assessment server determines which newly detected occurrences correspond to which previously detected occurrences of road damage.

  20. Road works

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    From Monday 11 October until Friday 29 October 2010, the flow of traffic will be disrupted by road works at the roundabout in front of Restaurant No. 2; The number of spaces available in the car park in front of Rest. No. 2 will be reduced. Thank you for your understanding during this period. GS/SEM Group

  1. Celtic Roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Building upon lessons learned is relevant to art and life. As an art teacher dealing with teens, the author tries to give her students an understanding of art as a window to the "big picture" as well as a practical, relevant skill. She developed this lesson plan, "Celtic Roads," with that objective in mind. The success rate is high, the product is…

  2. Characteristics of a refuge for native freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae) in Lake St. Clair

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGoldrick, D.J.; Metcalfe-Smith, J. L.; Arts, M.T.; Schloesser, D.W.; Newton, T.J.; Mackie, G.L.; Monroe, E.M.; Biberhofer, J.; Johnson, K.

    2009-01-01

    The Lake St. Clair delta (??? 100??km2) provides an important refuge for native freshwater mussels (Unionidae) wherein 22 of the ??? 35 historical species co-occur with invasive dreissenids. A total of 1875 live unionids representing 22 species were found during snorkeling surveys of 32 shallow (??? 1??m) sites throughout the delta. Richness and density of unionids and zebra mussel infestation rates varied among sites from 3 to 13 unionid species, 0.02 to 0.12 unionids/m2, and refuge for the conservation of native unionids. Crown Copyright ?? 2009.

  3. Claire Bracken et Emma Radley, Viewpoints, Theoretical Perspectives on Irish Visual Texts

    OpenAIRE

    Morisson, Valérie

    2015-01-01

    Claire Bracken, spécialiste de la culture irlandaise et du post-féminisme, et Emma Radley, spécialiste de cinéma irlandais, codirigent cet ouvrage collectif proposant des analyses interdisciplinaires de la culture visuelle irlandaise contemporaine. L’ouvrage, dans son ensemble, démontre que les productions visuelles interprètent la société irlandaise contemporaine et son histoire de manières diverses et problématiques, participant ainsi à la réévaluation ...

  4. 78 FR 36566 - Notice of Availability of the Assessment Plan for the Sauget Industrial Corridor Sites, St. Clair...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Notice of Availability of the Assessment Plan for the Sauget Industrial Corridor Sites, St. Clair County, Illinois AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), on behalf of the Department of Interior,...

  5. Early Identification of Delinquency Prone Youth. The Eau Claire County Youth Study, Phase IV, 1969-1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldhusen, John F.; And Others

    Procedures for early identification of delinquency-prone youth in Eau Claire County, Wisconsin, are described in this report of a 1961-1972 study designed to delineate the problems of aggressive and disruptive classroom behavior as related to delinquency. Data collection began in 1961, when each 3rd-, 6th-, and 9th-grade teacher in Eau Claire…

  6. 77 FR 47522 - Special Local Regulation; Port Huron Offshore Gran Prix, St. Clair River; Port Huron, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking ] A. Regulatory... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Port Huron Offshore Gran Prix, St. Clair River; Port Huron, MI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY:...

  7. TransRoad_RDS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Road Centerline data layer (TransRoad_RDS) contains all town and state highways, as well as many private roads. The centerlines were originally developed under...

  8. Armenia - Rural Road Rehabilitation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millenium Challenge Corporation — The key research questions guiding our design of the RRRP evaluation are: • Did rehabilitating roads affect the quality of roads? • Did rehabilitating roads improve...

  9. Bed morphology, flow structure, and sediment transport at the outlet of Lake Huron and in the upper St. Clair River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czuba, J.A.; Best, J.L.; Oberg, K.A.; Parsons, D.R.; Jackson, P.R.; Garcia, M.H.; Ashmore, P.

    2011-01-01

    An integrated multibeam echo sounder and acoustic Doppler current profiler field survey was conducted in July 2008 to investigate the morphodynamics of the St. Clair River at the outlet of Lake Huron. The principal morphological features of the upper St. Clair River included flow-transverse bedforms that appear weakly mobile, erosive bedforms in cohesive muds, thin non-cohesive veneers of weakly mobile sediment that cover an underlying cohesive (till or glacio-lacustrine) surface, and vegetation that covers the bed. The flow was characterized by acceleration as the banks constrict from Lake Huron into the St. Clair River, an approximately 1500-m long region of flow separation downstream from the Blue Water Bridge, and secondary flow connected to: i) channel curvature; ii) forcing of the flow by local bed topography, and iii) flow wakes in the lee side of ship wrecks. Nearshore, sand-sized, sediment from Lake Huron was capable of being transported into, and principally along, the banks of the upper St. Clair River by the measured flow. A comparison of bathymetric surveys conducted in 2007 and 2008 identifies that the gravel bed does undergo slow downstream movement, but that this movement does not appear to be generated by the mean flow, and could possibly be caused by ship-propeller-induced turbulence. The study results suggest that the measured mean flow and dredging within the channel have not produced major scour of the upper St. Clair River and that the recent fall in the level of Lake Huron is unlikely to have been caused by these mechanisms. ?? 2011.

  10. Anthropogenic Pb accumulation in forest soils from Lake Clair watershed: Duchesnay experimental forest (Quebec, Canada)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineral soil horizons (Ae, Bhf1, Bhf2, Bf, BC and C) were carefully collected from two podzolic soil profiles in the Lake Clair watershed (Quebec) in order to assess anthropogenic trace metal accumulation. Petrographic and selective analyses were performed to establish the soil mineralogy and properties. Furthermore, a complete sequential extraction procedure has been applied to help understanding the complex chemical speciation of Pb in forest soils. Chemical speciation of Pb showed a strong vertical gradient: 85% of this metal is mainly partitioned in refractory minerals in the C-horizon whereas in the upper Bhf1 and Ae-horizons, less than 50% of Pb is associated with this fraction. In the Ae-horizon, for example, 35%, 30% and 12% of total Pb, respectively, is associated with the exchangeable, labile organic matter and amorphous Fe-Mn oxides fractions. The distribution of Pb and Cr in the studied forest soils mainly reflects progressive contamination of the watershed by anthropogenic atmospheric sources. The anthropogenic source is indicated by elevated Cr and Pb concentrations in the topsoil (Bhf and Ae) horizons and by strong negative correlation between 206Pb/207Pb ratios and total Pb concentrations. According to these isotopic values, penetration of anthropogenic Pb does not exceed 10 cm in both soil profiles. Below this depth, both Pb concentrations and isotopic ratios remain nearly constant and similar to values observed in pre-anthropogenic sediments from Lake Clair. These values are interpreted as the natural geochemical backgrounds of the watershed. Based on that behaviour, calculated anthropogenic Pb net inputs amounted to between 1.24 and 1.8 g/m2

  11. Pollination, seed set and fruit quality in apple: studies with Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae in the Annapolis Valley, Nova Scotia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory Silas Sheffield

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The orchard crop pollinator Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae was evaluated for apple pollination in the Annapolis Valley, Nova Scotia, Canada during 2000-2001. Resulting pollination levels (measured as pollen grains on floral stigmas, percent fruit set, mature fruit weight and seed yield were evaluated against an attempted gradient of Osmia bee density. In addition, fruit quality was assessed using two symmetry indices, one based on fruit diameter, the second on fruit height. Pollination levels, percent fruit set and mature fruit quality were much higher than minimums required for adequate crop production, and all but pollination levels showed weak but significant decreases at increased distance from the established nests, suggesting that even at low numbers these bees may have been making significant contributions to apple production. Fruit were typically of better quality in areas of the orchard adjacent to Osmia nests, having fewer empty carpels and greater symmetry; fruit quality (i.e., symmetry is typically most reduced when two or more adjacent carpels are empty. Empty carpels reduce growth in fruit height rather than diameter, suggesting that symmetry indices using fruit diameter are not sensitive enough to evaluate fruit quality. Evidencing this, fruit without mature seeds observed in this study showed high symmetry based on diameter, but were greatly asymmetric with respect to fruit height. Further discussion on Osmia bees as apple pollinators and on methods of evaluating apple fruit quality with respect to seed distribution within the apple fruit are provided.

  12. Bay Ridge Gardens - Mixed Humid Affordable Multifamily Housing Deep Energy Retrofit: Annapolis, Maryland. Building America Case Study: Whole-House Solutions for Existing Homes (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-10-01

    Under this project, Newport Partners (as part of the BA-PIRC research team) evaluated the installation, measured performance, and cost-effectiveness of efficiency upgrade measures for a tenant-in-place DER at the Bay Ridge multifamily (MF) development in Annapolis, Maryland. The design and construction phase of the Bay Ridge project was completed in August 2012. This report summarizes system commissioning, short-term test results, utility bill data analysis, and analysis of real-time data collected over a one-year period after the retrofit was complete. The Bay Ridge project is comprised of a "base scope" retrofit which was estimated to achieve a 30%+ savings (relative to pre-retrofit) on 186 apartments, and a "DER scope" which was estimated to achieve 50% savings (relative to pre-retrofit) on a 12-unit building. The base scope was applied to the entire apartment complex, except for one 12-unit building which underwent the DER scope. A wide range of efficiency measures was applied to pursue this savings target for the DER building, including improvements/replacements of mechanical equipment and distribution systems, appliances, lighting and lighting controls, the building envelope, hot water conservation measures, and resident education. The results of this research build upon the current body of knowledge of multifamily retrofits. Towards this end, the research team has collected and generated data on the selection of measures, their estimated performance, their measured performance, and risk factors and their impact on potential measures.

  13. Geophysical data collected from the St. Clair River between Michigan and Ontario, Canada (2008-016-FA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Jane F.; Foster, D.S.; Worley, C.R.; Irwin, Barry J.

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center (WHCMSC), in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers conducted a geophysical and sampling survey of the riverbed of the Upper St. Clair River between Port Huron, Mich., and Sarnia, Ontario, Canada. The objectives were to define the Quaternary geologic framework of the riverbed of the St. Clair River to evaluate the relationship between morphologic change of the riverbed and underlying stratigraphy. This report presents the geophysical and sample data collected from the St. Clair River, May 29-June 6, 2008, as part of the International Upper Great Lakes Study, a 5-year project funded by the International Joint Commission of the United States and Canada to examine whether physical changes in the St. Clair River are affecting water levels within upper Great Lakes, to assess regulation plans for outflows from Lake Superior, and to examine the potential effect of climate change on the Great Lakes water levels (http://www.iugls.org). This document makes available the data that were used in a separate report, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2009-1137, which detailed the interpretations of the Quaternary geologic framework of the region. This report includes a description of the high-resolution acoustic and sediment-sampling systems that were used to map the morphology, surficial sediment distribution, and underlying geology of the Upper St. Clair River during USGS field activity 2008-016-FA (http://quashnet.er.usgs.gov/cgi-bin/datasource/public_ds_info.pl?fa=2008-016-FA). Video and photographs of the riverbed were also collected and are included in this data release. Future analyses will be focused on substrate erosion and its effects on river-channel morphology and geometry. Ultimately, the International Upper Great Lakes Study will attempt to determine where physical changes in the St. Clair River affect water flow and, subsequently, water levels in the Upper Great

  14. Road pricing: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    M. Rouhani, Omid

    2014-01-01

    This paper offers a general overview of the road pricing concept. It first examines the common objectives used in road pricing, namely (a) congestion reduction; (b) raising profits; (c) social welfare maximization; etc. Then, it explores various types of road pricing, including two major ones: (1) road tolls and (2) congestion pricing charges. Next, general modeling approaches used for estimating the impacts of road pricing are discussed. Finally, the paper concludes with a checklist explaini...

  15. Habitat used by juvenile lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) in the North Channel of the St. Clair River (Michigan, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boase, James C.; Manny, Bruce A.; Donald, Katherine A.L.; Kennedy, Gregory W.; Diana, James S.; Thomas, Michael V.; Chiotti, Justin A.

    2014-01-01

    Lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) occupy the St. Clair River, part of a channel connecting lakes Huron and Erie in the Laurentian Great Lakes. In the North Channel of the St. Clair River, juvenile lake sturgeon (3–7 years old and 582–793 mm in length) were studied to determine movement patterns and habitat usage. Fourteen juveniles were implanted with ultrasonic transmitters and tracked June–August of 2004, 2005 and 2006. Telemetry data, Geographic Information System software, side-scan sonar, video images of the river bottom, scuba diving, and benthic substrate samples were used to determine the extent and composition of habitats they occupied. Juvenile lake sturgeon habitat selection was strongly related to water depth. No fish were found in 700 mm in length selected sand and gravel areas mixed with zebra mussels and areas dominated by zebra mussels, while fish < 700 mm used these habitat types in proportion to their availability.

  16. Le consentement libre et éclairé aux soins en psychiatrie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, Grainne; Chaimowitz, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Le patient a le droit d’être informé sur les soins de santé qui lui sont proposés et de participer activement à la prise de décisions relativement à ces soins. Le respect de la dignité et de l’autonomie de la personne passe par le respect de son droit de prendre des décisions à propos de ses soins psychiatriques, notamment de refuser un traitement, pour autant qu’elle soit apte à prendre des décisions. Il importe que le psychiatre connaisse les fondements éthiques du consentement libre et éclairé et les exigences prévues par le droit en cette matière, y compris la jurisprudence. Le consentement n’est pas immuable, pouvant changer avec le temps, au fil de l’évolution des conditions et des circonstances. Par conséquent, le consentement doit être un processus continu.

  17. Future Road Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Road density is generally highly correlated with amount of developed land cover. High road densities usually indicate high levels of ecological disturbance. More...

  18. Roads (Johnson City)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is a vector line file showing the location of existing NPS roads including access roads for which the park has an easement at Lyndon B. Johnson National...

  19. Future Roads Near Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Roads are a source of auto related pollutants (e.g. gasoline, oil and other engine fluids). When roads are near streams, rain can wash these pollutants directly...

  20. Roads Near Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Roads are a source of auto related pollutants (e.g. gasoline, oil and other engine fluids). When roads are near streams, rain can wash these pollutants directly...

  1. Mount Davis Road Extension

    OpenAIRE

    Kumaraswamy, Mohan

    2002-01-01

    One element of the CIVCAL project Web-based resources containing images, tables, texts and associated data on the construction of Mt Davis Road Extension. The Mount Davis Road Extension was part of the Smithfield Extension and Associated Roadworks which was completed by the Highways Department (Hong Kong S.A.R. ) in December 1997. The considerable increase in traffic volume necessitated the construction of a road link between Smithfield and Pokfulam Road. The construction of an elevate...

  2. Automatic Road Centerline Extraction from Imagery Using Road GPS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuqing Cao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Road centerline extraction from imagery constitutes a key element in numerous geospatial applications, which has been addressed through a variety of approaches. However, most of the existing methods are not capable of dealing with challenges such as different road shapes, complex scenes, and variable resolutions. This paper presents a novel method for road centerline extraction from imagery in a fully automatic approach that addresses the aforementioned challenges by exploiting road GPS data. The proposed method combines road color feature with road GPS data to detect road centerline seed points. After global alignment of road GPS data, a novel road centerline extraction algorithm is developed to extract each individual road centerline in local regions. Through road connection, road centerline network is generated as the final output. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our proposed method can rapidly and accurately extract road centerline from remotely sensed imagery.

  3. Bicycle facilities on road segments and intersections of distributor roads.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    A sustainably safe road environment requires bicycle facilities that separate motorized traffic from relatively vulnerable road users like cyclists. Research indicates that on distributor roads the road sections with adjoining or separate bicycle tracks are safer than the road sections without any b

  4. Road Repair Deficit Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Astrīda Rijkure

    2012-01-01

    Dissertation Annotation. The aim of the dissertation is to explore resource allocation problems for motor roads, reveal positive aspects and drawbacks in road maintenance and resource allocation scheme, as well as elaborate proposals for decreasing the deficit of motor road repairs in Latvia. The paper is composed in three large sections, according to the tasks. In the first section the Author considers number of basic issues related to the meaning of the motor transport ...

  5. Fei Tsui Road Landslide

    OpenAIRE

    Kumaraswamy, Mohan

    2002-01-01

    One element of the CIVCAL project Web-based resources containing images, tables, texts and associated data of the Fei Tsui Road Landslide. In the early morning of 13 August 1995, a landslide occurred on the slope opposite the Chai Wan Baptist Church, Fei Tsui Road, Chai Wan. A 90m long section of Fei Tsui Road was buried by approximately 14,000 m3 of rock/soil materials from the landslide.

  6. Measuring road congestion

    OpenAIRE

    Panayotis CHRISTIDIS; IBANEZ RIVAS Juan Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    The methodology presented here allows to measure and monitor road congestion across Europe using data from TomTom in-vehicle navigation systems. The approach is based on the analysis of a large number of real vehicle speeds that have been measured on each road link and the application of algorithms that allow the estimation of congestion indicators for specific types of roads during selected time periods. The results include the detailed mapping of recurrent congestion both geographically and...

  7. Tire Road Friction Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    DELANNE, Y; DO, MT; M'SIRDI, NK

    2005-01-01

    Two main approaches for tire road friction estimation : the "cause based" and the "effect based" are generally dealt with in the literature. The slip-based method seems to be the most promising and is, consequently, a very popular current subject. LCPC, a french research body in civil engineering has been working for several years on the relationship between road texture parameters and road surface condition (dry, damp, wet) and tire friction performance. In this framework, the two methods ha...

  8. Celje road network development

    OpenAIRE

    Uranjek, Aleš

    2010-01-01

    In my graduation thesis I deal with development of road network of town Celje. In the first part of my graduation thesis I introduce a few studies and projects that dealt with problems in road traffic network in the past and a complete road traffic network study of town Celje that foresaw individual measures and group of measures for the next 20 years. In the second part of the dissertation I check, if the suggested measures of road traffic study from 1995 where made. I also check if the meas...

  9. Roads In and Surrounding Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah (roads)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This coverage contains those transportation routes from the Dixie's d2_travel_rte coverage that were calculated road = 'Road'. The Dixie National Forest Road...

  10. Optimal Environmental Road pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson-Stenman, Olof

    2005-01-01

    An optimal first-best road charge should not only be differentiated with respect to factors that affect the direct external environmental and time costs from the road-user himself. Indirect effects, such as the fact that other cars will be more polluting when congestion increases, should also be taken into account.

  11. The Role of the University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire in the Consortium Effort to Implement, Maintain and Institutionalize Individually Guided Education and the Multiunit Elementary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin Univ., Eau Claire.

    This case study focuses on the role of the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire (UW-EC) in a consortium effort to implement, maintain, and institutionalize individually guided education and the multi-unit elementary school (IGE/MUS-E). The framework for the study is based on the chronological academic involvement of UW-EC with the various facets of…

  12. Should the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire Seek NCATE Reaccreditation in 1983? Report of the Ad Hoc NCATE Study Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whooley, John; And Others

    A study by the School of Education at the University of Wisconsin at Eau Claire (UWEC) was designed to provide information on whether UWEC should seek NCATE (National Council of Accreditation for Teacher Education) reaccreditation for its graduate and undergraduate teacher education programs in 1983. The essential question in the study was whether…

  13. An Assessment of the Computer Literacy and Computer Attitudes of Incoming First-Year Students at the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Jan; Smith, Marian A.

    To learn more about students' computer-literacy levels and attitudes about computer use, a pilot study was performed in the summer of 1993 to evaluate the computer literacy of first-year students entering the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire. A survey was completed by 444 incoming students during their orientation programs. The majority had some…

  14. Forum: House of Cards--or--Trojan Horse?: A Response to Ralf St. Clair's House of Cards: Analyzing "Making Skills Everyone's Business"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully-Russ, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    In this article, Ellen Scully-Russ responds to St. Clair's analysis (EJ1072357) of the recent policy report from the Office of Career, Technical and Adult Education, "Making Skills Everyone's Business: A Call to Transform Adult Learning in the United States" (MSEB) (United States Department of Education [USDoE], 2015). While Scully-Russ…

  15. Corrugation of roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both, Joseph A.; Hong, Daniel C.; Kurtze, Douglas A.

    2001-12-01

    We present a one dimensional model for the development of corrugations in roads subjected to compressive forces from a flux of cars. The cars are modeled as damped harmonic oscillators translating with constant horizontal velocity across the surface, and the road surface is subject to diffusive relaxation. We derive dimensionless coupled equations of motion for the positions of the cars and the road surface H( x, t), which contain two phenomenological variables: an effective diffusion constant Δ( H) that characterizes the relaxation of the road surface, and a function a( H) that characterizes the plasticity or erodibility of the road bed. Linear stability analysis shows that corrugations grow if the speed of the cars exceeds a critical value, which decreases if the flux of cars is increased. Modifying the model to enforce the simple fact that the normal force exerted by the road can never be negative seems to lead to restabilized, quasi-steady road shapes, in which the corrugation amplitude and phase velocity remain fixed.

  16. Application de l'apprentissage artificiel à la prévision des crues éclair

    OpenAIRE

    Toukourou, Mohamed Samir

    2009-01-01

    L'objet de cette thèse est d'appliquer l'apprentissage statistique à la prévision des crues éclair cévenoles qui ont occasionné des pertes humaines et des dégâts considérables durant ces 20 dernières années. Les travaux s'inscrivent dans le cadre du projet Bassin Versant Numérique Expérimental Gardons. Dans ce contexte, ce mémoire se propose de présenter les travaux effectués pour réaliser la prévision des crues du Gardon d'Anduze à Anduze, jusqu'à un horizon de prévision de l'ordre de grande...

  17. USING OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUES IN DESIGNING FOREST ROADS AND ROAD NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    AKAY, Abdullah E.; Aruga, Kazuhiro; Bettinger, Pete; Sessions, John

    2013-01-01

    There has been an increasing interest in using modern optimization techniques in forest road design due to advancements in computer hardware, optimization algorithms, and remote sensing technologies. These techniques allow one to automate many of the time consuming tasks involved in road design process and improve the efficiency of road design managers in identifying road alignment alternatives. This paper presents the main road design stages to indicate the possibilities of using optimizatio...

  18. Taos County Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Vector line shapefile under the stewardship of the Taos County Planning Department depicting roads in Taos County, New Mexico. Originally under the Emergency...

  19. State Forest Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — ArcView shape file of roads administered by the Commissioner of Natural Resources to provide access to lands administered by the Division of Forestry. Most, but not...

  20. A Holographic Road Show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Larry D.; Rugheimer, Mac

    1979-01-01

    Describes the viewing sessions and the holograms of a holographic road show. The traveling exhibits, believed to stimulate interest in physics, include a wide variety of holograms and demonstrate several physical principles. (GA)

  1. Township Administered Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for township administered roads found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current...

  2. EARTH ROADS ARE EASY

    OpenAIRE

    David O. Whitten (ed.)

    2000-01-01

    The earliest European immigrants in America traveled on waterways and on pathways worn into the earth by animals and Native Americans. Once their communities began to thrive, settlers widened paths and cleared new roads and streets then began experimenting with inexpensive surfacing to reduce dust in dry weather and mud in wet. “Earth Roads Are Easy” investigates materials and techniques used to maintain primitive thoroughfares with a minimum of effort and expense. The options range from the ...

  3. Promoting road safety

    OpenAIRE

    Esbester, Mike Owen

    2015-01-01

    This article is among the first historical considerations of road safety in Africa. It argues that race and class, as colonial dualisms, analytically frame two defining moments in the development of African automobility and its infrastructure—“Africanization” in the first decade of Kenya’s political independence from Britain, 1963–75, and democratization in postapartheid South Africa. We argue that recent road safety interventions in both countries exemplify an “epidemiological turn” influenc...

  4. Road Transportation of Fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Skopalová, Lenka

    2009-01-01

    The thesis is concerned with road transportation of fuel. In theoretical part there are described the legal clauses that are related to this issue. The most detailed regulations can be found in the European Agreement on the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road (so called Agreement ADR). Hence the biggest part of the theoretical section is devoted to these regulations. Instructions for transportation of diesel and petrol have been chosen from this international agreement and expla...

  5. Surveying and Modeling Road Kill

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Shyh-Chyang

    2007-01-01

    Transportation is the backbone of developing regional economies and the evolution of our civilization. Well planned road systems are essential to connect dispersed communities or cities. However, roads are one of the major destructive forces to regional ecosystems and the natural environment. The effects of roads on their adjacent ecosystems may include road kills, habitat fragmentation, barrier effect to animal movement, road edge effects, introduction of exotic species, pollution and noise,...

  6. Sound velocity profiles in the St. Clair and St. Mary's Rivers in the Great Lakes area by the National Ocean Service's Navigation Response Team 4, May 2006 (NODC Accession 0006777)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sound velocity profile data were collected using sound velocimeter in the St. Clair and St. Mary rivers in the Great Lakes area by the NAVIGATION RESPONSE TEAM 4...

  7. Roads at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona 2006 (roads)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of 30 arcs representing the roads in Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. Twenty-five of the road arcs were collected by...

  8. Automatic Road Centerline Extraction from Imagery Using Road GPS Data

    OpenAIRE

    Chuqing Cao; Ying Sun

    2014-01-01

    Road centerline extraction from imagery constitutes a key element in numerous geospatial applications, which has been addressed through a variety of approaches. However, most of the existing methods are not capable of dealing with challenges such as different road shapes, complex scenes, and variable resolutions. This paper presents a novel method for road centerline extraction from imagery in a fully automatic approach that addresses the aforementioned challenges by exploiting road GPS data....

  9. Road crash costs.

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Road crashes result in all kinds of social costs, such as medical costs, production loss, human losses, property damage, settlement costs and costs due to congestion. Studies into road crash costs and their trends are carried out quite regularly. In 2009, the costs amounted to € 12.5 billion, or 2.2% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Insight into these costs is used for policy preparation and evaluation, and makes it possible to compare them with costs in other areas. Another important app...

  10. AN INVESTIGATION ON THE FOREST ROAD PLANNING AND ROAD GROUND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafız Hulusi ACAR

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available It is required that the capital used for construction of road must be technical, economical and used in its location. For this reason, the projects must be prepared for forest roads and all operations belong to roads must be guided according to these projects. In this investigation, available forest road network plan and constructed forest roads were investigated at the point of view technical and forest transportation. After this, it were studied to reach the highest exploitation rate as can as possible. Available forest road density were found as 11.9 m/ha in forest areas for Yesiltepe District. In this condition, exploitation rate was 78 %. After that, optimum forest road network were planned and road density were reached to 22 m/ha and exploitation rate to 86 %. Directed sample method were used from taking soil sample methods and samples were took in mixed system. According to results of the experiments, available forest roads were found in a good degree at the point of view endurance, pressing and transportation capacity. With these results, it is aimed to reach higher exploitation rate with given attention to landslide areas during planning of forest roads on the mountain areas such as Black Sea Region. For this reason, required importance must be given to planning of truck and logging roads. Ground analysis must be done and took care before during planning process of forest road network.

  11. Sierra County E-911 Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains a vector digital representation of all accessible roads including interstate highways, State highways, county roads and some city streets in...

  12. Valencia County E-911 Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains a vector digital representation of all accessible roads in the county including interstate highways, State highways, county roads and some...

  13. Road polishing assessment methodology 'TROWS'

    OpenAIRE

    Gothie, Michel; Do, Minh Tan

    2003-01-01

    Both tire wear and road polishing are complex phenomenon, which are obviously strongly related; the energy that polishes the road is the energy that wears the tire. They both depend non-linearly on numerous parameters, like materials used, vehicle and road usage, environmental conditions (e.g., temperature) and many others. Due to their many economic and ecological implications, including those concerning the road users safety, the possibility to predict them is of major importance to tire ma...

  14. Road Traffic Accidents in Kazakhstan

    OpenAIRE

    Alma Aubakirova; Alibek Kossumov; Nurbek Igissinov

    2013-01-01

    Background: The article provides the analysis of death rates in road traffic accidents in Kazakhstan from 2004 to 2010 and explores the use of sanitary aviation. Methods: Data of fatalities caused by road traffic accidents were collected and analysed. Descriptive and analytical methods of epidemiology and biomedical statistics were applied. Results: Totaly 27,003 people died as a result of road traffic accidents in this period. The death rate for the total population due to road traffic accid...

  15. Road-Cleaning Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    Roadways are literally soaked with petrochemical byproducts, oils, gasoline, and other volatile substances that eventually run off into sewers and end up in rivers, waterways, and other undesirable places. Can the roads be cleaned of these wastes, with their proper disposal? Can vehicles, robots, or other devices be designed that could be driven…

  16. On the Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Mary Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Veteran development officers say the experience of visiting and traveling to different places or countries often feels like an endless cycle of getting lost, missing flights, and eating midnight dinners from hotel vending machines. Despite ongoing travel challenges, experienced road warriors have learned how to maximize their effectiveness,…

  17. The great West Road

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    From right to centre the 'Nationale 84' relying Meyrin to Saint-Genis. The fence limits Lab I on that side. From bottom the road leading to the double inclined tunnel linking Lab I and Lab II. On the foreground the ISR building (left) and the West Hall (centre).

  18. Mayan Forest Road Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conde, Dalia Amor

    2008-01-01

    Road-building projects in the Mayan Biosphere Reserve to connect Mexico and Guatemala were subjected to a cost-benefit evaluation. Up to an estimated 311,000 hectares of jaguar habitat were found to be at risk of deforestation due to these projects. Some of the projects were shown to have negative...

  19. A road to trust

    OpenAIRE

    Labonne, Julien; Chase, Robert S.

    2008-01-01

    The authors explore the relationship between transaction costs and generalized trust. Using panel data from 2,100 households in 135 rural communities of the Philippines, the paper shows that where transaction costs are reduced (proxied by road construction), there is an increase in generalized trust. Consistent with the argument that generalized trust is built through repeated interactions...

  20. Fine-Scale Road Stretch Forecasting along Main Danish Roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahura, A.; Petersen, C.; Sattler, K.; Sass, B.

    2009-09-01

    The DMI has in collaboration with the Danish Road Directorate (DRD) for almost two decades used a Road Condition Model (RCM) system (based on a dense road observations network and the numerical weather prediction model - HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model, HIRLAM) to provide operational forecasts of main road conditions at selected road stations of the Danish road network. As of Jan 2009, there are 357 road stations (equipped in total with 456 sensors), where measurements and forecasts of road surface temperature, air and dew point temperatures are conducted. Forecasts of other important meteorological parameters such as cloud cover and precipitations as well as radar and satellite images are also distributed to the users through the web-based interface vejvejr.dk and through DMI and DRD web-pages. For icing conditions, new technology has made it easy to vary the dose of spreaded salt, making it possible to use salt only on the parts of the road network where it is really needed. In our study measurements of road surface temperature from road stations and salt spreaders have additionally been used to examine both road stations and road stretches forecasts along the main roads of the Danish Road Network (accounting almost 23 thousand points located at distances of 250 m). These results showed critical importance of availability of detailed characteristics of the roads surroundings. To make local forecasts in a specific point all possible local detailed information is needed. Since high resolution models running at faster supercomputers as well as detailed physiographic datasets now are available, it is possible to improve the modelling and parameterization of significant physical processes influencing the formation of the slippery road conditions. First of all, it is based on a new dataset available from Kort og Matrikel styrelsen, the so-called Danish Height Model (Danmarks Højdemodel) which is a very detailed set of data with horizontal resolution of a few meters

  1. Bioaccumulation of the pharmaceutical 17α-ethinylestradiol in shorthead redhorse suckers (Moxostoma macrolepidotum) from the St. Clair River, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2), a synthetic estrogen prescribed as a contraceptive, was measured in Shorthead Redhorse Suckers (ShRHSs) (Moxostoma macrolepidotum) collected near a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in the St. Clair River (Ontario, Canada). We detected EE2 in 50% of the fish samples caught near the WWTP (Stag Island), which averaged 1.6 ± 0.6 ng/g (wet weight) in males and 1.43 ± 0.96 ng/g in females. No EE2 was detected in the samples from the reference site (Port Lambton) which was 26 km further downstream of the Stag Island site. Only males from Stag Island had VTG induction, suggesting the Corunna WWTP effluent as a likely source of environmental estrogen. EE2 concentrations were correlated with total body lipid content (R2 = 0.512, p 15N (R2 = 0.436, p < 0.05, n = 10), suggesting higher EE2 exposures in carnivores. Our data support the hypothesis of EE2 bioaccumulation in wild fish. - Ethinylestradiol accumulation in wild fish.

  2. Coupling socioeconomic and lake systems for sustainability: a conceptual analysis using Lake St. Clair region as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrommati, Georgia; Baustian, Melissa M; Dreelin, Erin A

    2014-04-01

    Applying sustainability at an operational level requires understanding the linkages between socioeconomic and natural systems. We identified linkages in a case study of the Lake St. Clair (LSC) region, part of the Laurentian Great Lakes system. Our research phases included: (1) investigating and revising existing coupled human and natural systems frameworks to develop a framework for this case study; (2) testing and refining the framework by hosting a 1-day stakeholder workshop and (3) creating a causal loop diagram (CLD) to illustrate the relationships among the systems' key components. With stakeholder assistance, we identified four interrelated pathways that include water use and discharge, land use, tourism and shipping that impact the ecological condition of LSC. The interrelationships between the pathways of water use and tourism are further illustrated by a CLD with several feedback loops. We suggest that this holistic approach can be applied to other case studies and inspire the development of dynamic models capable of informing decision making for sustainability. PMID:23949895

  3. Bioaccumulation of the pharmaceutical 17{alpha}-ethinylestradiol in shorthead redhorse suckers (Moxostoma macrolepidotum) from the St. Clair River, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ansari, Ahmed M.; Saleem, Ammar; Kimpe, Linda E. [University of Ottawa, Department of Biology, Chemical and Environmental Toxicology, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); Sherry, Jim P.; McMaster, Mark E. [Environment Canada, Water Science and Technology Directorate, Canada Centre for Inland Waters, Burlington, Ontario (Canada); Trudeau, Vance L. [University of Ottawa, Department of Biology, Chemical and Environmental Toxicology, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); Blais, Jules M., E-mail: jules.blais@uottawa.c [University of Ottawa, Department of Biology, Chemical and Environmental Toxicology, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2010-08-15

    17{alpha}-ethynylestradiol (EE2), a synthetic estrogen prescribed as a contraceptive, was measured in Shorthead Redhorse Suckers (ShRHSs) (Moxostoma macrolepidotum) collected near a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in the St. Clair River (Ontario, Canada). We detected EE2 in 50% of the fish samples caught near the WWTP (Stag Island), which averaged 1.6 {+-} 0.6 ng/g (wet weight) in males and 1.43 {+-} 0.96 ng/g in females. No EE2 was detected in the samples from the reference site (Port Lambton) which was 26 km further downstream of the Stag Island site. Only males from Stag Island had VTG induction, suggesting the Corunna WWTP effluent as a likely source of environmental estrogen. EE2 concentrations were correlated with total body lipid content (R{sup 2} = 0.512, p < 0.01, n = 10). Lipid normalized EE2 concentrations were correlated with {delta}{sup 15}N (R{sup 2} = 0.436, p < 0.05, n = 10), suggesting higher EE2 exposures in carnivores. Our data support the hypothesis of EE2 bioaccumulation in wild fish. - Ethinylestradiol accumulation in wild fish.

  4. Is road safety management linked to road safety performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Yannis, George

    2013-10-01

    This research aims to explore the relationship between road safety management and road safety performance at country level. For that purpose, an appropriate theoretical framework is selected, namely the 'SUNflower' pyramid, which describes road safety management systems in terms of a five-level hierarchy: (i) structure and culture, (ii) programmes and measures, (iii) 'intermediate' outcomes'--safety performance indicators (SPIs), (iv) final outcomes--fatalities and injuries, and (v) social costs. For each layer of the pyramid, a composite indicator is implemented, on the basis of data for 30 European countries. Especially as regards road safety management indicators, these are estimated on the basis of Categorical Principal Component Analysis upon the responses of a dedicated road safety management questionnaire, jointly created and dispatched by the ETSC/PIN group and the 'DaCoTA' research project. Then, quasi-Poisson models and Beta regression models are developed for linking road safety management indicators and other indicators (i.e. background characteristics, SPIs) with road safety performance. In this context, different indicators of road safety performance are explored: mortality and fatality rates, percentage reduction in fatalities over a given period, a composite indicator of road safety final outcomes, and a composite indicator of 'intermediate' outcomes (SPIs). The results of the analyses suggest that road safety management can be described on the basis of three composite indicators: "vision and strategy", "budget, evaluation and reporting", and "measurement of road user attitudes and behaviours". Moreover, no direct statistical relationship could be established between road safety management indicators and final outcomes. However, a statistical relationship was found between road safety management and 'intermediate' outcomes, which were in turn found to affect 'final' outcomes, confirming the SUNflower approach on the consecutive effect of each layer

  5. Tweets on the road

    CERN Document Server

    Lenormand, Maxime; Colet, Pere; Ramasco, José J

    2014-01-01

    The pervasiveness of mobile devices, which is increasing daily, is generating a vast amount of geo-located data allowing us to gain further insights into human behaviors. In particular, this new technology enables users to communicate through mobile social media applications, such as Twitter, anytime and anywhere. Thus, geo-located tweets offer the possibility to carry out in-depth studies on human mobility. In this paper, we study the use of Twitter in transportation by identifying tweets posted from roads and rails in Europe between September 2012 and November 2013. We compute the percentage of highway and railway segments covered by tweets in 39 countries. The coverages are very different from country to country and their variability can be partially explained by differences in Twitter penetration rates. Still, some of these differences might be related to cultural factors regarding mobility habits and interacting socially online. Analyzing particular road sectors, our results show a positive correlation b...

  6. Assessing road traffic expression

    OpenAIRE

    Fábio Silva; Cesar Analide; Paulo Novais

    2014-01-01

    Road traffic is a problem which is increasing in cities with large population. Unrelated to this fact the number of portable and wearable devices has also been increasing throughout the population of most countries. With this advent, the capacity to monitor and register data about people habits and locations as well as more complex data such as intensity and strength of movements has created an opportunity to contribute to the general wealth and comfort within these environments. Ambient Inte...

  7. The road coloring problem

    OpenAIRE

    Trahtman, A. N.

    2007-01-01

    The synchronizing word of deterministic automaton is a word in the alphabet of colors (considered as letters) of its edges that maps the automaton to a single state. A coloring of edges of a directed graph is synchronizing if the coloring turns the graph into deterministic finite automaton possessing a synchronizing word. The road coloring problem is a problem of synchronizing coloring of directed finite strongly connected graph with constant outdegree of all its vertices if the greatest comm...

  8. August: Road Movies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Eldorado France, 2008 85' Road movie Directed by: Bouly Lanners Cast: Bouly Lanners, Fabrice Adde Philippe Nahon Yvan is an auto salesman who makes a good living dealing in American luxury cars. One evening, Yvan comes home to discover a burglar has made his way into his home, and a quick search reveals the criminal, Elie is hiding under his bed, and when the thief finally emerges he turns out to be a junkie who is feeling the first stages of withdrawal.

  9. Assessing Road Traffic Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic is a problem which is increasing in cities with large population. Unrelated to this fact the number of portable and wearable devices has also been increasing throughout the population of most countries. With this advent, the capacity to monitor and register data about people habits and locations as well as more complex data such as intensity and strength of movements has created an opportunity to contribute to the general wealth and comfort within these environments. Ambient Intelligence and Intelligent Decision Making processes can benefit from the knowledge gathered by these devices to improve decisions on everyday tasks such as deciding navigation routes by car, bicycle or other means of transportation and avoiding route perils. The concept of computational sustainability may also be applied to this problem. Current applications in this area demonstrate the usefulness of real time system that inform the user of certain conditions in the surrounding area. On the other hand, the approach presented in this work aims to describe models and approaches to automatically identify current states of traffic inside cities and use methods from computer science to improve overall comfort and the sustainability of road traffic both with the user and the environment in mind. Such objective is delivered by analyzing real time contributions from those mobile ubiquitous devices to identifying problematic situations and areas under a defined criteria that have significant influence towards a sustainable use of the road transport infrastructure.

  10. Mobilization of Metals from Eau Claire Siltstone and the Impact of Oxygen under Geological Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Hongbo; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Krogstad, Eirik J.; Newburn, Matthew K.; Cantrell, Kirk J.

    2014-09-01

    Geologic CO2 sequestration (GCS) has been proposed as a viable strategy to reduce anthropogenic CO2 emission; however, the increased cost that will be incurred by fossil energy production facilities is a deterrent to implementation of this technology. Allowing impurities in the effluent CO2 stream could result in significant financial and energy savings for CO2 capture and separation. However, impurities such as O2 have the potential to influence the redox state and alter the geochemical interactions that occur within GCS reservoirs, which increases the concern for CO2 and brine leakage from the storage reservoir as well as the overlying groundwater contamination. In this work, to investigate the impact of O2 co-injected with CO2 on the geochemical interactions, especially the trace metal mobilization from a GCS reservoir rock, batch studies were conducted with Eau Claire siltstone collected from CO2 sequestration sites. The rock was reacted with synthetic brines in contact with either 100% CO2 or a mixture of 95 mole% CO2-5 mole% O2 at 10.1 MPa and 75 °C. Both microscopic and spectroscopic measurements, including 57Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy, Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and chemical extraction were combined in this study to investigate reaction mechanisms. The Eau Claire siltstone contains quartz (52 wt%), fluorapatite (40%), and aluminosilicate (5%) as major components, and dolomite (2%), pyrite (1%), and small-particle-/poorly-crystalline Fe-oxides as minor components. With the introduction of CO2 into the reaction vessel containing rock and brine, the leaching of small amounts of fluorapatite, aluminosilicate, and dolomite occurred. Trace metals of environmental concern, including Pb, As, Cd, and Cu were detected in the leachate with concentrations up to 400 ppb in the CO2-brine-rock reaction system within 30 days. In the presence of O2

  11. Optimal Road Capacity Building : Road Planning by Marginal Cost Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Nemoto, Toshinori; Misui, Yuki; Kajiwara, Akira

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to propose a new road planning and financing scheme based on short-term social marginal cost pricing that facilitates the establishment of optimal road standards in the long term. We conducted a simulation analysis based on the proposed planning scheme and observed that the simulation calculated the optimal road capacity in the future, and thus proved that the new planning scheme is feasible.

  12. From road obsolescence to contemporary European scenic roads

    OpenAIRE

    Cervera Alonso de Medina, Marina; Mercadé Aloy, Josep

    2012-01-01

    Object: European non-motorway roads nearby natural and cultural heritage overlapping cross border regions in the European Union. Subject: Redundant roads as an Opportunity for land- use change, landscape identity disclosure and reducedspeed access network for the promotion of cultural tourism. The paper sustains a methodology to alleviate road redundancy by reconverting them into a reduced-speed access network. The aim would be to recreate historical access and circulation flow...

  13. Auctioning Concessions for Private Roads

    OpenAIRE

    Ubbels, Barry; Verhoef, Erik

    2004-01-01

    Private toll roads are now seriously considered as an alternative to public (free-access) road infrastructure. Nevertheless, complete private provision without governmental control is only rarely considered. A main consideration against private roads would be that operators would be primarily interested in maximizing profits, which ??ven the market power they will have ??ll typically not lead to welfare maximizing tolls and capacities. An important question is whether these discrepancies can ...

  14. Auctioning Concessions for Private Roads

    OpenAIRE

    Ubbels, Barry; Verhoef, Erik

    2004-01-01

    Private toll roads are now seriously considered as an alternative to public (free-access) road infrastructure. Nevertheless, complete private provision without governmental control is only rarely considered. A main consideration against private roads would be that operators would be primarily interested in maximizing profits, which – given the market power they will have – will typically not lead to welfare maximizing tolls and capacities. An important question is whether these discrepancies ...

  15. Improving the road planning process

    OpenAIRE

    Hylmö, Kajsa

    2005-01-01

    Two Swedish road projects were studied to find ways to shorten the time spent in the road planning process. The results indicated that the road projects developed very differently. One planning project developed rather smoothly, while the other received an escalating flood of letters. Concerns about the environment and landscape were present in the majority of these letters, pointing to the importance of involving the expertise of landscape planners or environmentalists in the management of r...

  16. Information technology road map 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book introduces information technology road map 2015 with presentation, process, plan and conclusion of it. It also has introduction of IT road map by field : information technology road map 2015 on the next-generation of semiconductor, display, light emitting diode and light industry, home network and home electronic appliances, digital TV and broadcasting, radio technology, satellite communications, mobile communication for the next-generation, BcN field, software, computer for the next-generation and security of knowledge information.

  17. Road pricing. Discussion; Rekeningrijden. Discussie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gommers, M. [Divisie Transport, Nederlands Economisch Instituut NEI, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Glasius, E.H. [RAI Vereniging, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Verhoef, E. [Afdeling Ruimtelijke Economie, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands); De Ruyter van Steveninck, M.A. [ed.

    1999-02-12

    Each of the authors as mentioned in this record is responsible for one column, discussing road pricing. The first author discusses the use of road pricing in countries other than the Netherlands with special attention for the experiences in Singapore. The second author pays attention to the effects of road pricing on the drivers of cars: no less traffic jams but higher costs. The fourth author discusses the price elasticity of highway use and how levies can be reimbursed. The third author deals with the question whether road pricing works or not. 9 refs.

  18. The Road Ahead

    CERN Document Server

    Willenbrock, S S

    2004-01-01

    I describe the surrounding landscape on the road to the CERN Large Hadron Collider. I revisit the milestones of hadron-collider physics, and from them draw lessons for the future. I recall the primary motivation for the journey - understanding the mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking - and speculate that even greater discoveries may await us. I review the physics that we know beyond the standard model - dark matter, dark energy, and neutrino masses - and discuss the status of grand-unified theories. I list the reasons why the Higgs boson is central to the standard model as well as to physics beyond the standard model.

  19. Road Works Ahead

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gertrude; Majyambere

    2011-01-01

    China to invest $532 million in Rwanda in 2011 CHINA will invest about $532 million in Rwanda this year,mainly targeting critical economic engines such as building roads and vocational schools,said Shu Zhan,Chinese Ambassador to Rwanda,in early February. "We need to have adequate field surveys,wide consultation and detailed ’homework,’ in order to come up with tailor-made solutions that meet local needs," Shu said in an interview with ChinAfrica.

  20. Road Traffic Injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zheng-guo

    2005-01-01

    @@ As everybody knows that automobiles have been greatly changing our life. However, everything has two sides, motor vehicles have also caused a huge number of people's deaths, injuries and property damage. Traffic crashes are perhaps the number one public health problem in developed countries [1]. In the United States, pre-retirement years of life lost in traffic crashes are more than that of the two combined leading diseases: cancer and heart disease [1]. Today road traffic crash (RTC) ranks 11th in leading cause of death and accounts for 2.1% of all deaths globally.

  1. On the road to prevention: road injury and health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Mark; Thompson, Jason

    2014-04-01

    Road traffic injuries are already the leading cause of injury mortality and morbidity globally and by 2030 are predicted to be the fifth leading cause of mortality in the world. Australia has seen a dramatic reduction in road deaths and serious injuries since the 1970s and holds an international reputation for road traffic injury prevention due, in part, to its success in pioneering the multidisciplinary and intersectoral approach needed to address this significant issue and by applying an evidence-led approach to policy development. The paper will discuss Australia's early success in road traffic injury prevention (road safety), particularly the achievements following the implementation of targeted programs that focussed on road user behaviours for which health promotion played a role. The most successful of these programs was the introduction of comprehensive seat belt laws, random breath testing and more recently, strategic speed enforcement programs. Amid an array of significant challenges faced by the transport system in the future, the rapid development in information and communication technologies applied to transport is likely to provide the next generation of road safety benefits. The potential for a semi-autonomous transport system is likely to provide the next significant decline in road fatalities and serious injuries over the next 2 decades and the role of health promotion in relation to raising community engagement and building coalitions to increase uptake of new technologies will be discussed. PMID:24739772

  2. Emissions of road transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information on the emissions and energy consumption of different vehicles per transported amount of goods has up to last years been minimal. The unit emissions mean the amount of harmful compounds in the flue gases of a vehicle per service, time or energy unit. National three-year MOBILE 2-research program, started in 1999, determines the unit emissions of all the traffic sectors in Finland. VTT Building and Transport mainly carry out the research, but the Institute of Transportation Engineering of the Tampere University of Technology (TTKK) is responsible for a part of the research. The objective of the project is to create common rules for the determination of unit emissions values, and to determine the best possible values for Finnish conditions. Unit emission data is mainly needed for evaluation of the environmental impacts of production plants and other activities containing transportation of commodities. At the web sites of VTT Building and Transport there are about 60 pages of text and tables (about 4000 values) on unit emissions. The URL of the pages is http://www.vtt.fi/rte/projects/lipastoe/index.htm. These web pages present data on all the transportation sectors (road, railroad, water and air transportation), most of the materials concerning road transportation. Following compounds and values are included: CO, HC, NOx, particulates, SO2, CO2 and energy consumption. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions values have also been presented

  3. Improving road safety: Experiences from the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Hagenzieker, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Hagenzieker's research and education activities focus on the road safety effects of the transport system, with particular interest in road user behaviour aspects. Her PhD-research was on the effects of rewards on road user behaviour.

  4. Characterization of contaminants in snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) from Canadian Lake Erie Areas of Concern: St. Clair River, Detroit River, and Wheatley Harbour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PCBs, organochlorine pesticides and dioxins/furans in snapping turtle eggs and plasma (Chelydra serpentina) were evaluated at three Areas of Concern (AOCs) on Lake Erie and its connecting channels (St. Clair River, Detroit River, and Wheatley Harbour), as well as two inland reference sites (Algonquin Provincial Park and Tiny Marsh) in 2001-2002. Eggs from the Detroit River and Wheatley Harbour AOCs had the highest levels of p,p'-DDE (24.4 and 57.9 ng/g) and sum PCBs (928.6 and 491.0 ng/g) wet weight, respectively. Contaminant levels in eggs from St. Clair River AOC were generally higher than those from Algonquin Park, but similar to those from Tiny Marsh. Dioxins appeared highest from the Detroit River. The PCB congener pattern in eggs suggested that turtles from the Detroit River and Wheatley Harbour AOCs were exposed to Aroclor 1260. TEQs of sum PCBs in eggs from all AOCs and p,p'-DDE levels in eggs from the Wheatley Harbour and the Detroit River AOCs exceeded the Canadian Environmental Quality Guidelines. Furthermore, sum PCBs in eggs from Detroit River and Wheatley Harbour exceeded partial restriction guidelines for consumption. Although estimated PCB body burdens in muscle tissue of females were well below consumption guidelines, estimated residues in liver and adipose were above guidelines for most sites

  5. Road traffic noise and stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Hvidberg, Martin; Andersen, Zorana J;

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that long-term exposure to road traffic noise increases the risk of cardiovascular disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between exposure to road traffic noise and risk for stroke, which has not been studied before....

  6. Encapsulating Urban Traffic Rhythms into Road Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Junjie; Wei, Dong; He, Kun; Gong, Hang; Wang, Pu

    2014-01-01

    Using road GIS (geographical information systems) data and travel demand data for two U.S. urban areas, the dynamical driver sources of each road segment were located. A method to target road clusters closely related to urban traffic congestion was then developed to improve road network efficiency. The targeted road clusters show different spatial distributions at different times of a day, indicating that our method can encapsulate dynamical travel demand information into the road networks. A...

  7. Road safety performance indicators for the interurban road network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannis, George; Weijermars, Wendy; Gitelman, Victoria; Vis, Martijn; Chaziris, Antonis; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Azevedo, Carlos Lima

    2013-11-01

    Various road safety performance indicators (SPIs) have been proposed for different road safety research areas, mainly as regards driver behaviour (e.g. seat belt use, alcohol, drugs, etc.) and vehicles (e.g. passive safety); however, no SPIs for the road network and design have been developed. The objective of this research is the development of an SPI for the road network, to be used as a benchmark for cross-region comparisons. The developed SPI essentially makes a comparison of the existing road network to the theoretically required one, defined as one which meets some minimum requirements with respect to road safety. This paper presents a theoretical concept for the determination of this SPI as well as a translation of this theory into a practical method. Also, the method is applied in a number of pilot countries namely the Netherlands, Portugal, Greece and Israel. The results show that the SPI could be efficiently calculated in all countries, despite some differences in the data sources. In general, the calculated overall SPI scores were realistic and ranged from 81 to 94%, with the exception of Greece where the SPI was relatively lower (67%). However, the SPI should be considered as a first attempt to determine the safety level of the road network. The proposed method has some limitations and could be further improved. The paper presents directions for further research to further develop the SPI. PMID:23268762

  8. Climate Change and Roads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinowsky, P.; Arndt, Channing

    2012-01-01

    Decision-makers who are responsible for determining when and where infrastructure should be developed and/or enhanced are facing a new challenge with the emerging topic of climate change. The paper introduces a stressor–response methodology where engineering-based models are used as a basis...... to estimate the impact of individual climate stressors on road infrastructure in Mozambique. Through these models, stressor–response functions are introduced that quantify the cost impact of a specific stressor based on the intensity of the stressor and the type of infrastructure it is affecting. Utilizing...... four climate projection scenarios, the paper details how climate change response decisions may cost the Mozambican government in terms of maintenance costs and long-term roadstock inventory reduction. Through this approach the paper details how a 14% reduction in inventory loss can be achieved through...

  9. Road safety in practice

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    On the 23 and 25 September come and test your driving skills and your reflexes on the two days of road safety in practice! To conclude the poster and article campaign on this topic which started last year, CERN now comes to the practical part with demonstrations, like a spectacular overturning test, information stands, where you can meet safety personnel from France, Switzerland and CERN, and discussions & debates. Come to ... ... the Meyrin site on 23 September: - From 8:30 hrs, stands and demonstrations on the parking site Cèdres, behind the Restaurant no. 1. - From 9:30 hrs, discussions and debates in the main auditorium. ... the Prévessin site on 25 September: - From 8:30 hrs, stands and demonstrations on the parking site of the building 866. - From 14:00 hrs, discussions and debates in the AB auditorium, building 864.

  10. Coal transportation road damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy trucks are primarily responsible for pavement damage to the nation's highways. In this paper we evaluate the pavement damage caused by coal trucks. We analyze the chief source of pavement damage (vehicle weight per axle, not total vehicle weight) and the chief cost involved (the periodic overlay that is required when a road's surface becomes worn). This analysis is presented in two stages. In the first section we present a synopsis of current economic theory including simple versions of the formulas that can be: used to calculate costs of pavement wear. In the second section we apply this theory to a specific example proximate to the reference environment for the Fuel Cycle Study in New Mexico in order to provide a numerical measure of the magnitude of the costs

  11. Weather and road capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Christian

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents estimations of the effect of bad weather on the observed speed on a Danish highway section; Køge Bugt Motorvejen. The paper concludes that weather, primarily precipitation and snow, has a clear negative effect on speed when the road is not in hypercongestion mode. Furthermore......, the capacity of the highway seems to be reduced in bad weather and there are indications that travel time variability is also increased, at least in free-flow conditions. Heavy precipitation reduces speed and capacity by around 5-8%, whereas snow primarily reduces capacity. Other weather variables......-parametrically against traffic density and in step 2 the residuals from step 1 are regressed linearly against the weather variables. The choice of a non-parametric method is made to avoid constricting ties from a parametric specification and because the focus here is not on the relationship between traffic flow...

  12. Silk Roads or Steppe Roads? The Silk Roads in World History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, David

    2000-01-01

    Explores the prehistory of the Silk Roads, reexamines their structure and history in the classical era, and explores shifts in their geography in the last one thousand years. Explains that a revised understanding of the Silk Roads demonstrates how the Afro-Eurasian land mass has been linked by networks of exchange since the Bronze Age. (CMK)

  13. Evaluating an Integrated Approach to the Management of Cerebral Palsy. Appendix B: Field Test Report of the Eau Claire Functional Abilities Test and the Wolfe-Bluel Socialization Inventory. Volume III of IV. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heal, Laird W.

    The appendix examined the measurement instruments developed in the course of the Integrated Management of Cerebral Palsy project to measure functional movements and socialization skills of severly handicapped, nonambulatory cerebral palsied children who had limited speech. The field test sample consisted of 51 cases for the Eau Claire Functional…

  14. Road and Street Centerlines - Five Year Road Program (Arcs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Volusia County Adopted 5-year road improvement program. An additional 5-years of planning information is also included; this information is not officially Adopted....

  15. Road and Street Centerlines, roads, Published in 2003, Daggett County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — , was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2003. It is described as 'roads'. Data by this publisher are often provided in UTM coordinate system; in...

  16. Road fatalities in The Netherlands.

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This fact sheet outlines the development of the number of road fatalities in the Netherlands since 1950. After a rise in the 1950s and 1960s, the number of road deaths in the Netherlands has shown a gradual decline since 1973. As was the case in 2013, the Netherlands counted 570 road fatalities in 2014. Nearly a third of the fatalities are car occupants (187), another near third are cyclists (185). Measured by the population size, relatively many fatalities occur among young people and young ...

  17. Effects of road axis parameters on road safety

    OpenAIRE

    Maršič, Uroš

    2007-01-01

    Researches throat the world has shown that two-way rural highways are the most dangerous among the other types of roads. It was identified that the most notable cause for immerging fatal and other crashes are unbalanced and excessive speeds, which occur mainly in the region of the curve. Every combination of horizontal curves has its own unique distribution of real driving speed, which leads in a verity of resulting dynamics effects. To be able to provide adequate safety, road pavement struct...

  18. Surfacing Alternatives for Unsealed Rural Roads

    OpenAIRE

    Henning, Theuns; Kadar, Peter; Christopher R. Bennett

    2006-01-01

    Despite extensive road construction programs over the last century, a substantial proportion of roads remained unsealed especially in developing and emerging economies. As these economies develop, the demand arises to seal previously unsealed roads. The most economical transition point between unsealed and sealed roads depends on many conditions that need to be evaluated. The purpose of th...

  19. 30 CFR 816.151 - Primary roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... road construction. (d) Drainage control. In accordance with the approved plan— (1) Each primary road... this section. (a) Certification. The construction or reconstruction of primary roads shall be certified... State which authorizes land surveyors to certify the construction or reconstruction of primary roads,...

  20. Curry County E-911 Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Line attributes denoting all street centerlines in Curry County. Dataset includes all centerlines for all county maintained roads, all state and federal...

  1. The Dilemma of Mountain Roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountain roads and trails are proliferating throughout developing Southeast Asia with severe but largely unrecognized long-term consequences related to effects of landslides and surface erosion on communities and downstream resources.

  2. Torrance County E-911 Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The Torrance County digital road network wa created as part of the State of New Mexico Enhanced 911 Addressing Grant. The original primary function was to lay the...

  3. DOT Basemap Roads - All Types

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for roads found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. Those roadways that are Interstate, Trunk Highway, or CSAH (county...

  4. Road Weather and Connected Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisano, P.; Boyce, B. C.

    2015-12-01

    On average, there are over 5.8 M vehicle crashes each year of which 23% are weather-related. Weather-related crashes are defined as those crashes that occur in adverse weather or on slick pavement. The vast majority of weather-related crashes happen on wet pavement (74%) and during rainfall (46%). Connected vehicle technologies hold the promise to transform road-weather management by providing improved road weather data in real time with greater temporal and geographic accuracy. This will dramatically expand the amount of data that can be used to assess, forecast, and address the impacts that weather has on roads, vehicles, and travelers. The use of vehicle-based measurements of the road and surrounding atmosphere with other, more traditional weather data sources, and create road and atmospheric hazard products for a variety of users. The broad availability of road weather data from mobile sources will vastly improve the ability to detect and forecast weather and road conditions, and will provide the capability to manage road-weather response on specific roadway links. The RWMP is currently demonstrating how weather, road conditions, and related vehicle data can be used for decision making through an innovative Integrated Mobile Observations project. FHWA is partnering with 3 DOTs (MN, MI, & NV) to pilot these applications. One is a mobile alerts application called the Motorists Advisories and Warnings (MAW) and a maintenance decision support application. These applications blend traditional weather information (e.g., radar, surface stations) with mobile vehicle data (e.g., temperature, brake status, wiper status) to determine current weather conditions. These weather conditions, and other road-travel-relevant information, are provided to users via web and phone applications. The MAW provides nowcasts and short-term forecasts out to 24 hours while the EMDSS application can provide forecasts up to 72 hours in advance. The three DOTs have placed readers and external

  5. 2013 CERN Road Race

    CERN Multimedia

    Klaus Hanke

    2013-01-01

    The 2013 edition of the annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 18 September at 18.15.   The 5.5 km race takes place over 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes, and the race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over 1 lap of 1.8 km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judged on best parent + best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by a registration fee of 10 CHF. Children enter free (each child will receive a medal). More information, and the online entry form, can be found at: htt...

  6. 2013 CERN Road Race

    CERN Multimedia

    Klaus Hanke

    2013-01-01

    The 2013 annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 18 September at 6.15 p.m.   The 5.5 km race takes place over 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes, and the race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over 1 lap of 1.8 km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judged on best parent and best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by a registration fee of 10 CHF. Children enter free (each child will receive a medal). More information, and the online entry form, can be found here.

  7. Estimating Urban Road Congestion Charges

    OpenAIRE

    Newbery, David M G; Santos, Georgina

    2002-01-01

    Economists wishing to analyse road congestion and road pricing have usually relied on link-based speed-flow relationships. These may provide a poor description of urban congestion, which mainly arises from delays at intersections. Using the simulation model SATURN, we investigate the second-best proportional traffic reduction and find that linear speed-flow relations describe network flows quite well in eight English towns, though the predicted congestion costs and charges overstate those app...

  8. Estimating Urban Road Congestion Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Newbery, David M.; Georgina Santos

    2002-01-01

    Economists wishing to analyse road congestion and road pricing have usually relied on link-based speed-flow relationships. These may provide a poor description of urban congestion, which mainly arises from delays at intersections. Using the simulation model SATURN, we investigate the second-best proportional traffic reduction and find that linear speed-flow relations describe network flows quite well in eight English towns, though the predicted congestion costs and charges overstate those app...

  9. Voting on Road Congestion Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Russo, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    We study the political economy of urban traffic policy. We consider a city and its suburbs. The city decides, by majority voting, on a parking charge in the Central Business District (CBD) and restrictions on road space dedicated to cars. City and suburbs vote on road pricing in the CBD. Results include the following. When the majority of city voters prefers cars to public transport sufficiently more than the average voter, car charges and space restrictions are smaller than optimal. If the s...

  10. China takes to the roads.

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, I.

    1995-01-01

    China is undergoing rapid motorisation--motor vehicle registrations are growing at a rate of 10%-20% a year. Road trauma is already a major public health problem, and road deaths, officially estimated to be around 50,000 a year, will almost certainly rise with increasing motorisation. China, with its millions of bicycles, currently has one of the most environmentally friendly transportation systems on the planet. However, as the trend towards car travel continues, the problems of congestion a...

  11. Characterising fracture systems within fractured crystalline reservoirs: the Lewisian Gneiss Complex, Scotland as an onshore analogue for the Clair Field basement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, B.; Martin, J. C.; Holdsworth, R. E.; McCaffrey, K.; Krabbendam, M.; Conway, A.; Jones, R.

    2011-12-01

    Exotic hydrocarbon reservoirs, such as crystalline basement, are increasingly a target for hydrocarbon exploration in the development of new and existing fields. The Clair field lies in the Faroe-Shetland Basin, with reservoirs in Devonian- Carboniferous clastics overlying and onlapping a basement high that was upfaulted in the Mesozoic. This basement is known to control fluid flow and the structural development of the field due to its highly fractured nature. Consequently, it is important to characterise fault networks to assess the connected volume within the basement rocks. Fault-fracture systems in the regional basement complex of NW Scotland, the Leiwsian Gneiss Complex, and in overlying Mesozoic cover sequences have been characterised as an analogue for the Clair Field. Variations in lithology, metamorphic grade and tectonic setting all influence the fault network characteristics in the Scottish mainland and Hebridean islands. This study included analysis of regional NEXTMap° digital elevation models of surface outcrops together with studies of seismic attribute maps of the Clair top basement horizon in the subsurface. The aim here was to characterise and compare the large scale fault patterns, including orientation, density and spacing attributes. Fieldwork has been undertaken onshore in order to characterise fault systems and the tectonic history within Lewisian Gneiss and sedimentary cover sequences at meso- to micro-scales. This involves 1-D line sample analysis, photomosaic analysis and terrestrial laser scanning (LIDAR) to allow analysis of the fault networks in different dimensions. 1-dimensional and 2-dimensional analyses of regional and outcrop scale data show that NE-SW is a predominant fault trend within the Lewisian in both the onshore and offshore datasets. Spacing data onshore show mainly power-law distributions. These distributions allow us to infer that the outcrop data show scale-invariance for spacing and can therefore be used as an

  12. Marie-Claire Patron, The Legacy of the Baby Boomers or the French Social System? Issues of Equality and Brain Drain

    OpenAIRE

    Lorentz, Pascaline

    2013-01-01

    Le dernier ouvrage de Marie-Claire Patron, chercheuse australienne d’origine franco-mauricienne porte sur une question brûlante touchant la société française et son avenir sur la scène internationale. Son livre présente les résultats d’une enquête empirique, menée sur plusieurs années. La chercheuse, spécialiste des questions interculturelles (Patron, 2007 ; 2009), enrichit ici sa réflexion en s’intéressant plus particulièrement aux raisons de la croissance des expatriations des diplômés fran...

  13. Private Toll Roads: A Dynamic Equilibrium Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsey, Robin; De Palma, André

    1997-01-01

    In recent years there has been a surge of interest in private toll roads as an alternative to public free-access road infrastructure. Private toll roads have gained favour for a variety of reasons, including theirpotential to alleviate traffic congestion, shrinking public funds for road construction and maintenance,and growing acceptance of the user-pay principle.This paper takes the profitability of private toll roads as given, and focuses on their allocativeefficiency. The model features on...

  14. Alleviating Traffic Congestion: Alternatives to Road Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Arnott

    1994-01-01

    Economists' favorite remedy for traffic congestion is road pricing. Not only is road pricing based on sound economic principles, but also given current technology it could be implemented at reasonable cost and in a flexible and sophisticated manner. But there are serious obstacles to the widespread adoption of road pricing. There are problems of phase-in: the fixed costs of introducing any system of road pricing, as well as the problems of coordinating road pricing across jurisdictions, inclu...

  15. Road surface texture and skid resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Do, Minh Tan; Cerezo, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the relationship between road surface texture and skid resistance. Mechanisms underlying the tire/wet road friction are first described. Definitions of road surface irregularities scales are given. The rest of the paper is then focused on the macrotexture and microtexture scales and their respective roles in what happens at the tire/road interface. Existing methods to measure and characterize the road surface texture are presented. On the one hand, problems encountered w...

  16. How designing safer roads for HGV?

    OpenAIRE

    Cerezo, Véronique; Gothie, Michel

    2007-01-01

    The design of a road infrastructure must take into account the type of vehicles, which will use it. Indeed, Heavy Goods Vehicles (HGV) represent a significant part of the road vehicles, with specific geometrical and dynamic characteristics, which make them more aggressive to road wear and more sensitive to the road profile for stability and safety. This paper investigates geometrical and surface characteristics of the most critical road sections with respect to rollover and knife-jacking of l...

  17. Planning Forest Opening with Forest Roads

    OpenAIRE

    Krč, Janez; Beguš, Jurij

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the model for determining inaccessible forest areas by density of forest roads. The model is based on the GIS analysis of the distances between the existing network of public and forest roads and inaccessible forest areas, sizes of excluded forest areas, and forest site potentials. In order to increase forest road density, the following must be done: (1) construct connecting roads to the inaccessible forest areas and (2) construct new forest roads with different density i...

  18. Effect of Road Lighting on the Quality of Dual Carriageway Road Service

    OpenAIRE

    Ben-Edigbe Johnnie; Mashros Nordiana; Raha Rahman

    2014-01-01

    The study is exciting because it introduced a new quality of road service assessment approach. The study explored the effect of road lighting on the quality of dual carriageway road service. Based on the hypothesis that road lighting has no significant effect on the level of road service, an impact study was carried out in Skudai town, Malaysia. Twenty four hours continuous traffic volume, vehicle types and speeds data were collected during daylight, road lighting and dry weather conditions f...

  19. Value creation of road infrastructure networks: a structural equation approach

    OpenAIRE

    A. Hartmann; Ling, F. Y. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Although road agencies need to provide road infrastructure that is beneficial for road users, little is known about how the activities of the agencies influence the value creation of road infrastructure. From a service-dominant logic perspective, the importance of road maintenance and traffic management activities for the contribution of road infrastructure to the value-creation process of road users is investigated. Road agencies facilitate the value creation of road users by maintaining, up...

  20. Road Nail: Experimental Solar Powered Intelligent Road Marking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samardžija, Dragan; Teslić, Nikola; Todorović, Branislav M.; Kovač, Erne; Isailović, Đorđe; Miladinović, Bojan

    2012-03-01

    Driving in low visibility conditions (night time, fog or heavy precipitation) is particularly challenging task with an increased probability of traffic accidents and possible injuries. Road Nail is a solar powered intelligent road marking system of wirelessly networked signaling devices that improve driver safety in low visibility conditions along hazardous roadways. Nails or signaling devices are autonomous nodes with capability to accumulate energy, exchange wireless messages, detect approaching vehicles and emit signalization light. We have built an experimental test-bed that consists of 20 nodes and a cellular gateway. Implementation details of the above system, including extensive measurements and performance evaluations in realistic field deployments are presented. A novel distributed network topology discovery scheme is proposed which integrates both sensor and wireless communication aspects, where nodes act autonomously. Finally, integration of the Road Nail system with the cellular network and the Internet is described.

  1. Extracting Road Vector Data from Raster Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yao-Yi; Knoblock, Craig A.

    Raster maps are an important source of road information. Because of the overlapping map features (e.g., roads and text labels) and the varying image quality, extracting road vector data from raster maps usually requires significant user input to achieve accurate results. In this paper, we present an accurate road vectorization technique that minimizes user input by combining our previous work on extracting road pixels and road-intersection templates to extract accurate road vector data from raster maps. Our approach enables GIS applications to exploit the road information in raster maps for the areas where the road vector data are otherwise not easily accessible, such as the countries of the Middle East. We show that our approach requires minimal user input and achieves an average of 93.2% completeness and 95.6% correctness in an experiment using raster maps from various sources.

  2. Encapsulating Urban Traffic Rhythms into Road Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junjie; Wei, Dong; He, Kun; Gong, Hang; Wang, Pu

    2014-02-01

    Using road GIS (geographical information systems) data and travel demand data for two U.S. urban areas, the dynamical driver sources of each road segment were located. A method to target road clusters closely related to urban traffic congestion was then developed to improve road network efficiency. The targeted road clusters show different spatial distributions at different times of a day, indicating that our method can encapsulate dynamical travel demand information into the road networks. As a proof of concept, when we lowered the speed limit or increased the capacity of road segments in the targeted road clusters, we found that both the number of congested roads and extra travel time were effectively reduced. In addition, the proposed modeling framework provided new insights on the optimization of transport efficiency in any infrastructure network with a specific supply and demand distribution.

  3. Encapsulating urban traffic rhythms into road networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junjie; Wei, Dong; He, Kun; Gong, Hang; Wang, Pu

    2014-01-01

    Using road GIS (geographical information systems) data and travel demand data for two U.S. urban areas, the dynamical driver sources of each road segment were located. A method to target road clusters closely related to urban traffic congestion was then developed to improve road network efficiency. The targeted road clusters show different spatial distributions at different times of a day, indicating that our method can encapsulate dynamical travel demand information into the road networks. As a proof of concept, when we lowered the speed limit or increased the capacity of road segments in the targeted road clusters, we found that both the number of congested roads and extra travel time were effectively reduced. In addition, the proposed modeling framework provided new insights on the optimization of transport efficiency in any infrastructure network with a specific supply and demand distribution. PMID:24553203

  4. Carbon Nanomaterials for Road Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaporotskova Irina Vladimirovna

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The requirement of developing and modernizing the roads in Russia and in the Volgograd region in particular, is based on need of expanding the directions of scientific research on road and transport complexes. They have to be aimed at the development of the theory of transport streams, traffic safety increase, and, first of all, at the application of original methods of road development and modernization, introduction of modern technologies and road-building materials.On the basis of the analysis of the plans for transportation sphere development in the Volgograd region assuming the need to apply the new technologies allowing to create qualitative paving, the authors propose the technology of creating a heavy-duty paving with the use of carbon nanomaterial. The knowledge on strengthening the characteristics of carbon nanotubes is a unique material for nanotechnology development which allowed to assume the analysis of general information about asphalt concrete. The analysis showed that carbon nanotubes can be used for improvement of operational characteristics of asphalt concrete, and it is possible to carry out additives of nanotubes in hot as well as in cold bitumen. The article contains the basic principles of creation of the new road material received by means of bitumen reinforcing by carbon nanotubes. The structures received by the offered technique binding on the basis of the bitumens modified by carbon nanomaterial can be used for coverings and bases on highways of all categories in all road and climatic zones of Russia. The technical result consists in increasing the durability and elasticity of the received asphalt covering, and also the increase of water resistance, heat resistance and frost resistance, the expansion of temperature range of its laying in the field of negative temperatures.

  5. Photogrammetric Techniques for Road Surface Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyaz, V. A.; Chibunichev, A. G.

    2016-06-01

    The quality and condition of a road surface is of great importance for convenience and safety of driving. So the investigations of the behaviour of road materials in laboratory conditions and monitoring of existing roads are widely fulfilled for controlling a geometric parameters and detecting defects in the road surface. Photogrammetry as accurate non-contact measuring method provides powerful means for solving different tasks in road surface reconstruction and analysis. The range of dimensions concerned in road surface analysis can have great variation from tenths of millimetre to hundreds meters and more. So a set of techniques is needed to meet all requirements of road parameters estimation. Two photogrammetric techniques for road surface analysis are presented: for accurate measuring of road pavement and for road surface reconstruction based on imagery obtained from unmanned aerial vehicle. The first technique uses photogrammetric system based on structured light for fast and accurate surface 3D reconstruction and it allows analysing the characteristics of road texture and monitoring the pavement behaviour. The second technique provides dense 3D model road suitable for road macro parameters estimation.

  6. MENGES (Jean-Paul), Marie-Claire Mengès. « Mon journal de la Guerre 1914-1918 sur le front d’Alsace »

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, Claude

    2014-01-01

    La publication du manuscrit de Marie-Claire Mengès par son petit-fils Jean-Paul Mengès n’est pas seulement un hommage familial. Elle apporte une pièce supplémentaire à notre connaissance de la Grande Guerre qui s’étoffe de manière substantielle, centenaire oblige. La pièce est intéressante, car rédigée en français, par une femme et, qui plus est, au jour le jour. Marie-Claire Duby, une Welche catholique, née à Lapoutroie en 1870, épouse d’Eugène Mengès, ne fait pas mystère de ses sentiments f...

  7. DNR State Forest Roads - WHEELS Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Roads administered by the Commissioner of Natural Resources to provide access to lands administered by the Division of Forestry. These roads are generally open to...

  8. The angular nature of road networks

    CERN Document Server

    Molinero, Carlos; Arcaute, Elsa

    2015-01-01

    Road networks are characterised by several structural and geometric properties. Their topological structure determines partially its hierarchical arrangement, but since these are networks that are spatially situated and, therefore, spatially constrained, to fully understand the role that each road plays in the system it is fundamental to characterize the influence that geometrical properties have over the network's behaviour. In this work, we percolate the UK's road network using the relative angle between street segments as the occupation probability. We argue that road networks undergo a non-equilibrium first-order phase transition at the moment the main roads start to interconnect forming the spanning percolation cluster. The percolation process uncovers the hierarchical structure of the roads in the network, and as such, its classification. Furthermore, this technique serves to extract the set of most important roads of the network and to create a hierarchical index for each road in the system.

  9. Road surface texture and skid resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Minh-Tan; Cerezo, Veronique

    2015-12-01

    This paper deals with the relationship between road surface texture and skid resistance. Mechanisms underlying the tire/wet road friction are first described. Definitions of road surface irregularities scales are given. The rest of the paper is then focused on the macrotexture and microtexture scales and their respective roles in what happens at the tire/road interface. Existing methods to measure and characterize the road surface texture are presented. On the one hand, problems encountered when using sensors developed for machined surfaces for the measurement of road surface profiles or cartographies are discussed. On the other hand, potential improvements when applying characterization methods developed for machined surfaces to road surfaces are highlighted. The paper presents finally modeling approaches to calculate friction forces from road surface texture. The generalized form of the models is presented from which terms related respectively to the macrotexture and the microtexture are identified. Approaches used to calculate these terms, integrating eventually other variables, are presented.

  10. Information support for road infrastructure and maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Ojsteršek, Aleš

    2008-01-01

    The final thesis deals with the usage of information support models in the process of construction and maintenance of the publicly owned roads. The first part of the thesis is dedicated to the management of the road infrastructure; special attention is paid to the process of construction, renewal, and maintenance of roads, as well as to the pertaining legislation. In the following chapters the current progress in construction, renewal and maintenance of roads, as well as the process of monito...

  11. Trismus: An unusual presentation following road accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakur Jagdeep

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Trismus due to trauma usually follows road accidents leading to massive faciomaxillary injury. In the literature there is no report of a foreign body causing trismus following a road accident, this rare case is an exception. We present a case of isolated presentation of trismus following a road accident. This case report stresses on the thorough evaluation of patients presenting with trismus following a road accident.

  12. Ranking EU progress on road safety : 10th road safety Performance Index (PIN) report.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adminaite, D. Jost, G. Stipdonk, H. & Ward, H.

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, the European Union renewed its commitment to improve road safety by setting a target of reducing road deaths by 50% by 2020, compared to 2010 levels. This target followed an earlier target set in 2001 to halve road deaths by 2010. 2015 was the second consecutive poor year for road safety; 2

  13. Road Map for a Dream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenlon, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    The transition into kindergarten is a challenge for any student, but it can be especially difficult for students with disabilities and their families. In this article, Amanda Fenlon suggests that by planning ahead families and schools can smooth that transition and put students on the right road. She encourages families to work with their child's…

  14. Otero County E-911 Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data represents Otero County roads. The data was collected with the use of GPS equipment during the time period of 7-01-98 thru 6-20-01. Data was verified for...

  15. Rewards for safe road behaviour.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    It is known from psychology that behaviour can be changed more quickly and long lasting by rewarding desirable behaviour than by penalizing undesirable behaviour. Rewarding road safety behaviour can also be effective, as shown by research into, for instance, the use of seatbelts and driving speeds.

  16. Nepal : Public Expenditure Review - Roads

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    The report, Nepal Public Expenditure Review - Roads, was completed June 2011. The report states that the Government of Nepal has achieved several of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), while maintaining macroeconomic stability and prudent fiscal management. Strengthening public expenditure management is an ongoing reform agenda of the government's Three Year Plan, an inclusive devel...

  17. Road safety education for schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thein, M M; Lee, J

    1993-01-01

    In Singapore 6% of mortality of children below the age of 15 years is due to traffic related accidents. Prevention is a function of school educational outreach, modification of driver's behavior, and distancing children from vehicles. Singapore's road safety education program for schoolchildren is described as directed to children aged 7-12 years. Education takes place in al road safety park on a permanent four acre site that models a miniature road setting. The traffic police conduct the sessions among 500 students daily. Lessons involve basic instruction in safety principles and a test of knowledge followed by a traffic game. The objective is use role plays of pedestrians, motorists and cyclists to test skills, to help children identify traffic hazards, and to teach practical safety prevention measures. Secondary school students are trained as marshalls for the road safety park. The traffic police also conduct training among senior citizens and among cyclists. The park is open to the public and private groups on Sundays. During 1981-92 over 600,000 children were trained. Other strategies that indirectly affect the safety of children include drunk driving checks, speed checks, campaigns against drunk driving, education programs for motorists, safety education for cyclists and motorcyclists, and mass media promotion of safety. Since 1991-92 school zones are marked with speed bumps and signs. Pedestrian walkways are improved, and policy are acting against drivers not yielding the right of way to pedestrians. PMID:8185797

  18. Assessment of Road Infrastructures Pertaining to Malaysian Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Samsuddin Norshakina; Mohd Masirin Mohd Idrus

    2016-01-01

    Road Infrastructures contribute towards many severe accidents and it needs supervision as to improve road safety levels. The numbers of fatalities have increased annually and road authority should seriously consider conducting programs or activities to periodically monitor, restore of improve road infrastructure. Implementation of road safety audits may reduce fatalities among road users and maintain road safety at acceptable standards. This paper is aimed to discuss the aspects of road infra...

  19. 30 CFR 817.151 - Primary roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... specifically approved by the regulatory authority as temporary routes during periods of road construction. (d... section. (a) Certification. The construction or reconstruction of primary roads shall be certified in a... authorizes land surveyors to certify the construction or reconstruction of primary roads, a...

  20. Numerical simulation of tyre/road noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutte, Jan Henk

    2011-01-01

    In modern society, traffic noise has become an important issue for mental health. A significant contributor to this noise pollution is exterior tyre/road noise, which is caused by the interaction between tyre and road surface and. In order to reduce tyre/road noise at the source, accurate numerical

  1. Spatial Analysis Methods of Road Traffic Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loo, Becky P. Y.; Anderson, Tessa Kate

    outlines the key issues in identifying hazardous road locations (HRLs), considers current approaches used for reducing and preventing road traffic collisions, and outlines a strategy for improved road safety. The book covers spatial accuracy, validation, and other statistical issues, as well as link......-attribute and event-based approaches, cluster identification, and risk exposure....

  2. Road Traffic Accidents in Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma Aubakirova

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The article provides the analysis of death rates in road traffic accidents in Kazakhstan from 2004 to 2010 and explores the use of sanitary aviation.Methods: Data of fatalities caused by road traffic accidents were collected and analysed. Descriptive and analytical methods of epidemiology and biomedical statistics were applied.Results: Totaly 27,003 people died as a result of road traffic accidents in this period. The death rate for the total population due to road traffic accidents was 25.0±2.10/0000. The death rate for men was (38.3±3.20/0000, which was higher (P<0.05 than that for women (12.6±1.10/0000. High death rates in the entire male population were identified among men of 30-39 years old, whereas the highest rates for women were attributed to the groups of 50-59 years old and 70-79 years old. In time dynamics, death rates tended to decrease: the total population (Тdec=−2.4%, men (Тdec=−2.3% and women (Тdec=−1.4%. When researching territorial relevance, the rates were established as low (to 18.30/0000, average (between18.3 and24.00/0000 and high (from 24.00/0000 and above. Thus, the regions with high rates included Akmola region (24.30/0000, Mangistau region (25.90/0000, Zhambyl region (27.30/0000, Almaty region (29.30/0000 and South Kazakhstan region (32.40/0000.Conclusion: The identified epidemiological characteristics of the population deaths rates from road traffic accidents should be used in integrated and targeted interventions to enhance prevention of injuries in accidents.

  3. The relationship between traffic volume and road safety on the secondary road network : a literature review.

    OpenAIRE

    Duivenvoorden, K.

    2010-01-01

    On motorways, congestion is a well-known traffic problem. On the secondary road network, the same problem arises when traffic volume increases and the driven speed decreases. At certain times of day, roads get congested and the number of interactions between road users increases. In general, higher traffic volumes and congestion affect road safety. But how and to what extent does this happen? This study aims to gain more insight into the relationship between traffic volume and road safety and...

  4. Road Safety Perception Towards Sustainable Transport (A Case of Road Safety Programs in Yogyakarta, Indonesia)

    OpenAIRE

    Nurhidayati, Zuni Asih

    2014-01-01

    The number of fatalities due to traffic accidents to date has reached worrying levels. Thus, various research which concern on road safety programs were actively generated. The aims of this study is suggests a set of scheme on road safety policy improvement in Yogyakarta by firstly understanding the road user perception on current road safety programmes related to road safety problems, then analyse it along with other actor’s role in achieving sustainable transport. “The Five Pillars” as curr...

  5. Road Safety Barriers, the Need and Influence on Road Traffic Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butāns, Ž.; Gross, K. A.; Gridnevs, A.; Karzubova, E.

    2015-11-01

    Constantly increasing intensity of road traffic and the allowed speed limits seem to impose stronger requirements on road infrastructure and use of road safety systems. One of the ways to improve road safety is the use of road restraint systems. Road safety barriers allow not only reducing the number of road traffic accidents, but also lowering the severity of accidents. The paper provides information on the technical requirements of road safety barriers. Various types of road safety barriers and their selection criteria for different types of road sections are discussed. The article views an example of a road traffic accident, which is also modelled by PC-Crash computer program. The given example reflects a road accident mechanism in case of a car-to-barrier collision, and provides information about the typical damage to the car and the barrier. The paper describes an impact of the road safety barrier type and its presence on the road traffic accident mechanism. Implementation and maintenance costs of different barrier types are viewed. The article presents a discussion on the necessity to use road safety barriers, as well as their optimal choice.

  6. Necessary Geomorphologic Information For Roads Safety, With Emphasize Soleghan Road In West Of Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Moghimi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper review some of the aspects of necessary disciplines of geomorphology and roads, with emphasize Soleghan road. For building this road didn’t consider geomorphology process carefully. so the safety rang of the road is low and with consider to increasing traffic, the rang of danger is high. Specific subjects are related to the description of slops phenomena, including rock fall, block slide, rock creep, talus creep, debris flow, rock avalanches and floods. The river process, sloop steep, joint and fault system are the most important geomorphologic information of the Soleghan road. Soleghan road have been studied in this view and thus provide information which take the basis of stability road. Every road in Iran or world can include one or some important process, so some information is needed. More than half of Iran and world roads have built about before 1970, when the geomorphologic education and research was in the early of stage. Therefore many of Iran and world roads such as Soleghan road haven’t built with new geomorphologic and basic information. Too more damages which in order to geomorphologic process exposed to roads, people and cars in Iran and world such as Soleghan road are increased. Many flood and slumps destroyed built roads, many people and cars, damage or crash to ignoring the geomorphologic information, thus if we use geomorphologic information in road building, damage and crashes will be decreased, so safety will be increase.

  7. Using CART to segment road images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Bob; Lienhart, Rainer

    2006-01-01

    The 2005 DARPA Grand Challenge is a 132 mile race through the desert with autonomous robotic vehicles. Lasers mounted on the car roof provide a map of the road up to 20 meters ahead of the car but the car needs to see further in order to go fast enough to win the race. Computer vision can extend that map of the road ahead but desert road is notoriously similar to the surrounding desert. The CART algorithm (Classification and Regression Trees) provided a machine learning boost to find road while at the same time measuring when that road could not be distinguished from surrounding desert.

  8. Urban development and road safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning-Hager, U

    1986-04-01

    There is still not sufficient in-depth knowledge available concerning the type and extent of the interdependencies between the large number of factors that influence, on the one hand, urban and transport planning, and on the other hand, road safety. If such in-depth knowledge did, in fact, exist this information would make it possible to recommend courses of action to urban planning authorities. The present study aims to remove this data deficit so that planning authorities may be able to assess not only the effects expected from individual measures but also to evaluate, with respect to the level of road safety, an entire planning area. The empirical study is based on 21 typical residential areas for which a total of 56 characteristics (variables) relating to the following sectors have been identified as descriptors of the accident situation: transport; local development structure; infrastructure facilities other than those intended for transport; and population structure. The statistical analysis was undertaken in two steps: correlation analysis of all variables; identification of the determinants of significance for road safety; and establishment of a non-linear regression model based on seven variables to express the relationship between transport provisions and traffic volumes as well as the quality of supply and demand in quantitative terms. By means of the regression model the accident load can, in principle, be assessed for any given residential area. The correlation analysis showed that there are still further influential factors which are of importance for road safety. Attempts were therefore made to identify the variables displaying a significant relationship to the model variables and which could thus, owing to their effects on the latter and the resulting linkage with road safety, be considered as "background variables." Whereas the majority of the model variables are to be ascribed to the transport sector, the so-called "background variables" mainly

  9. Postcolonial Trauma Theory in the Contact Zone: The Strategic Representation of Grief in Edwidge Danticat’s Claire of the Sea Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Martínez-Falquina

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article starts by engaging in a dialogue with the most relevant postcolonial emendations to trauma theory, addressed to both its aporetic and its therapeutic trends, and it goes on to reflect on the state of the decolonizing trauma theory project, critically examining the motivations behind it as well as some of the problems it still encounters, like the risk of objectification and revictimization of postcolonial peoples, the blurring of their trauma particularities, and the appropriation of their experience. Then, it proposes an alternative understanding of postcolonial trauma theory as a contact zone where trauma criticism and the postcolony are interrelated and mutually transformed, and where unequal power relations are also attended to. Acknowledging the postcolony as a site of theory production rather than the object of external definition, it proceeds to analyze Edwidge Danticat’s short story cycle Claire of the Sea Light: its strategic representation of grief—which she achieves through the short story cycle structure and overall in-betweenness and ambivalence in symbols and characterization—puts Haitians on the critical map of trauma, fighting invisibility and oblivion, but it simultaneously resists an appropriation of Haitian experience by rejecting any monolithic view on Haiti and refusing to fit into a predetermined template.

  10. Understanding road usage patterns in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pu; Hunter, Timothy; Bayen, Alexandre M; Schechtner, Katja; González, Marta C

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we combine the most complete record of daily mobility, based on large-scale mobile phone data, with detailed Geographic Information System (GIS) data, uncovering previously hidden patterns in urban road usage. We find that the major usage of each road segment can be traced to its own--surprisingly few--driver sources. Based on this finding we propose a network of road usage by defining a bipartite network framework, demonstrating that in contrast to traditional approaches, which define road importance solely by topological measures, the role of a road segment depends on both: its betweeness and its degree in the road usage network. Moreover, our ability to pinpoint the few driver sources contributing to the major traffic flow allows us to create a strategy that achieves a significant reduction of the travel time across the entire road system, compared to a benchmark approach. PMID:23259045

  11. Understanding Road Usage Patterns in Urban Areas

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Pu; Bayen, Alexandre M; Schechtner, Katja; González, Marta C; 10.1038/srep01001

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we combine the most complete record of daily mobility, based on large-scale mobile phone data, with detailed Geographic Information System (GIS) data, uncovering previously hidden patterns in urban road usage. We find that the major usage of each road segment can be traced to its own - surprisingly few - driver sources. Based on this finding we propose a network of road usage by defining a bipartite network framework, demonstrating that in contrast to traditional approaches, which define road importance solely by topological measures, the role of a road segment depends on both: its betweeness and its degree in the road usage network. Moreover, our ability to pinpoint the few driver sources contributing to the major traffic flow allows us to create a strategy that achieves a significant reduction of the travel time across the entire road system, compared to a benchmark approach.

  12. White noise excitation of road vehicle structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Werner Schiehlen

    2006-08-01

    Heave and pitch motions of road vehicle structures affect the comfort and the safety of passengers. Excitation of these vertical vibrations is due to road surface roughness. Road vehicle structures are modelled as mechanical systems characterized by their inertia, damping and stiffness, and represented as state equations. This paper deals with the influence of random road profiles on the vertical dynamics of road vehicles characterized by stochastic processes. Switching from road profile displacement to road profile velocity results in white noise excitation facilitating mathematical analysis. Some fundamentals of power spectral density analysis and covariance analysis are reviewed. A quarter car model is used to show the advantages of the covariance analysis resulting immediately in standard variations characterizing the vehicle’s performance.

  13. Quarry Haul Road Ecological Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This biological survey was performed to document the summer flora and fauna found along the haul road constructed as part of the remedial action for the quarry bulk waste. State and Federal species listed as threatened or endangered were noted if encountered while surveying. Sampling locations were equally spaced along the quarry haul road, and a survey for vegetation and birds conducted at each location. Bird observations were conducted as breeding bird surveys once in June of 1991, and again in June of 1992. Each year's survey includes two observations in the early morning and one late in the evening. Vegetation surveys were conducted in 1991 using quadrants and transects. mammal, reptile, and amphibian sightings were noted as encountered

  14. Effects of a Wildfire on Road-stream Connectivity and Road Surface Erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Perez, Gabriel; MacDonald, Lee

    2016-04-01

    Unpaved roads generate large amounts of sediment per unit area, and the impact of these high erosion rates depends on how much of this sediment is delivered to streams. In the western USA typically around 10-30% of the road length is connected to a stream, and this proportion tends to increase with increasing precipitation. Wildfires can greatly increase surface runoff and erosion rates, but we know of no studies that have evaluated how fires affect road surface erosion and road-stream connectivity. Hence the objective of this study was to quantify how: 1) fire severity affects the amount of road surface rilling, sediment deposition, and road-stream connectivity; and 2) how these effects are modified by road segment characteristics. The study area was 6.8 km of the unpaved Old Flowers Road just west of Fort Collins, Colorado, USA, as the forests along this road had burned in the 2012 High Park fire. Detailed data were collected for 141 hydrologically distinct road segments, including the hillslopes above the road, road segment characteristics, and the drainage features leaving the road. Nearly all of the road segments had a planar design, and mean segment length and active width were 50 m and 2.4 m, respectively. The road segments below areas burned at high and moderate severity had significantly more and larger rills than road segments below areas burned at low severity, and this can be attributed to the greater surface runoff from upslope. Road segment slope was an increasingly important control on the amount of rilling as burn severity increased, while the flatter segments tended to capture the sediment eroded from upslope. Three-quarters of the road segments had only a single drainage feature, indicating that the road generally collected and concentrated all of the dispersed runoff from upslope. All of the road segments in areas burned at high and moderate severity and 78% of the segments in areas burned at low severity were connected to the stream. These

  15. The Impact of Rural Roads

    OpenAIRE

    de Vera Garcia, Elma

    1984-01-01

    This article is a product of a nine-month training and application program implemented by the micro component of the Economic and Social Impact Analysis/Women in Development (ESIA/WID) and the Food Systems Program of the East-West Center Resource Systems Institute (RSI). It compares and analyzes the socioeconomic status of the population within the influence areas of the experimental and control group before and after the rural road construction. In particular, it conducts an impact assessmen...

  16. Road Detection through Supervised Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Alkhorshid, Yasamin; Aryafar, Kamelia; Bauer, Sven; Wanielik, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous driving is a rapidly evolving technology. Autonomous vehicles are capable of sensing their environment and navigating without human input through sensory information such as radar, lidar, GNSS, vehicle odometry, and computer vision. This sensory input provides a rich dataset that can be used in combination with machine learning models to tackle multiple problems in supervised settings. In this paper we focus on road detection through gray-scale images as the sole sensory input. Our...

  17. Economics of Road Network Ownership

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Zhang; David Levinson

    2006-01-01

    This paper seeks to understand the economic impact of centralized and decentralized ownership structures and their corresponding pricing and investment strategies on transportation network performance and social welfare for travelers. In a decentralized network economic system, roads are owned by many agencies or companies that are responsible for pricing and investment strategies. The motivation of this study is two-fold. First, the question of which ownership structure, or industrial organi...

  18. Revival of the Silk Road

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China's Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, bordering eight countries and providing a corridor to the Central Asian region, was once famous for the Silk Road. But now this region is often reported by Western media as having the problems of "political separatism, economic exclusion and religious fundamentalism." Professor David Gosset with the Shanghai-based China Europe International Business School analyzed Xinjiang's development, which he framed as "Xinjiang's experience." According to him, Xinjiang has ...

  19. Road Congestion and Incident Duration

    OpenAIRE

    Adler, Martin W.; van Ommeren, Jos; Rietveld, Piet

    2013-01-01

    Non-recurrent congestion is frequently caused by accidents and other incidents. We estimate the causal effect of incident duration on drivers’ time losses through changes in non-recurrent road congestion on Dutch highways. We demonstrate that incident duration has a strong positive, but concave, effect on non-recurrent congestion. The duration elasticity of non-recurrent congestion is about 0.40 implying that a one minute duration reduction generates a €60 gain per incident. We also show that...

  20. TIre/road friction estimation

    OpenAIRE

    DELANNE, Y; VANDANJON, PO

    2006-01-01

    In board tire/road friction estimation is of current interest in two different framework : - optimization of driver assistance systems efficiency : antilock braking system, electronic stability program, adaptive cruise control, lane departure control, advanced automatic driving, etc., - driver instantaneous warning about the available friction and limits for his possible driving actions. This subject has been the objective of many research programs throughout the world. Four main methods have...

  1. Road safety: take it seriously

    CERN Document Server

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    Around 50 road accidents happen every year at CERN. Cyclists, drivers and pedestrians must pay attention to their behaviour at all times to ensure that this doesn’t become an even more serious problem. Even if the Laboratory’s sites are not exactly downtown Shanghai, all road users need to make a little effort. So let’s do it!   Life at CERN: let’s stick to accumulating scientific data rather than road accidents! (Cartoon by Cian O'Luanaigh) Despite a dedicated Safety Code in force since 1990, “traffic-calming” measures put in place last year, several reminders in the Bulletin and frequent safety campaigns, the number of accidents, particularly those involving cyclists, has remained high since 2008. Luckily, no-one has been seriously injured but it is more and more frequent to experience near misses or actual accidents, whether in a car or on a bike. Incivilities, excessive speeding (also for bikes!) and answering ...

  2. Tire-road noise: an experimental study of tire and road design parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Bekke, Dirk; Wijnant, Ysbrand; Weegerink, Thijs; Boer, de, J.W.

    2013-01-01

    It is widely known that road traffic noise has negative influences on human health. Hence, as tire-road noise is considered to be the most dominant cause of road traffic noise above 30-50 km/h, a lot of research is performed by the two involving industries: road authorities/manufacturers and tire manufacturers. Usually, the parameters influencing exterior tire-road noise are often examined separately, whereas it is the tire-road interaction which obviously causes the actual noise. An integral...

  3. The roads of decentralisation. The history of rural road construction in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Emmenegger, Rony

    2012-01-01

    Roads, in particular rural roads, play a major role in deve- lopment. In Ethiopia, where the vast majority of the popula- tion depends on agricultural production, this is even more so, and the country’s road network has become a major po- licy issue with significant consequences for the population. An extensive network of 114,397 km of different roads has been constructed, maintained, and classified to date. Alt- hough community roads account for nearly two-thirds of the country’s total road ...

  4. Seismic risk assessment for road in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyfur, Mona Foralisa; Pribadi, Krishna S.

    2016-05-01

    Road networks in Indonesia consist of 446,000 km of national, provincial and local roads as well as toll highways. Indonesia is one of countries that exposed to various natural hazards, such as earthquakes, floods, landslides, etc. Within the Indonesian archipelago, several global tectonic plates interact, such as the Indo-Australian, Pacific, Eurasian, resulting in a complex geological setting, characterized by the existence of seismically active faults and subduction zones and a chain of more than one hundred active volcanoes. Roads in Indonesia are vital infrastructure needed for people and goods movement, thus supporting community life and economic activities, including promoting regional economic development. Road damages and losses due to earthquakes have not been studied widely, whereas road disruption caused enormous economic damage. The aim of this research is to develop a method to analyse risk caused by seismic hazard to roads. The seismic risk level of road segment is defined using an earthquake risk index, adopting the method of Earthquake Disaster Risk Index model developed by Davidson (1997). Using this method, road segments' risk level can be defined and compared, and road risk map can be developed as a tool for prioritizing risk mitigation programs for road networks in Indonesia.

  5. Invasive Brown Treesnake movements at road edges indicate road-crossing avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siers, Shane R; Savidge, Julie S; Reed, Robert N.

    2014-01-01

    Roads have significant impacts on the dispersal of wildlife. Although this poses a threat to the abundance and diversity of desirable flora and fauna, it also affords some opportunity for enhancing control of invasive species. Roads are the most common terrain features that may affect the rate of landscape-scale movements of invasive Brown Treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) throughout Guam. We radio tracked 45 free-ranging Brown Treesnakes in close proximity to two roads in Guam and recorded instances where daily relocations of snakes spanned roads. Then we reconstructed observed movement histories with randomized turning angles, which served as a useful null hypothesis for assessing the effect of roads or road edge habitat on Brown Treesnake movement patterns. Random walk simulations demonstrated that Brown Treesnakes crossed these roads at a rate far lower than would be expected if snake movement was random with respect to roads and road edge habitat. We discuss two alternative hypotheses for these results: 1) habitat gaps posed by roads physically or behaviorally restrict snake movement; or 2) road edges provide preferred foraging habitat from which snakes are reluctant to depart. Because roads often form the boundaries of jurisdictional and management units, the effects of roads on the movement of invasive Brown Treesnakes will influence the prospects for success of future landscape-level suppression efforts.

  6. Assessing road effects on bats: the role of landscape, road features, and bat activity on road-kills

    OpenAIRE

    Medinas, Denis; Marques, João Tiago; Mira, António

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that roads can significantly impact bat populations. Though bats are one of the most threatened groups of European vertebrates, studies aiming to quantify bat mortality and determine the main factors driving it remain scarce. Between March 16 and October 31 of 2009, we surveyed road-killed bats daily along a 51-km-long transect that incorporates different types of roads in southern Portugal. We found 154 road-killed bats of 11 species. The two most common species in the...

  7. Dynamics of vehicle-road coupled system

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Shaopu; Li, Shaohua

    2015-01-01

    Vehicle dynamics and road dynamics are usually considered to be two largely independent subjects. In vehicle dynamics, road surface roughness is generally regarded as random excitation of the vehicle, while in road dynamics, the vehicle is generally regarded as a moving load acting on the pavement. This book suggests a new research concept to integrate the vehicle and the road system with the help of a tire model, and establishes a cross-subject research framework dubbed vehicle-pavement coupled system dynamics. In this context, the dynamics of the vehicle, road and the vehicle-road coupled system are investigated by means of theoretical analysis, numerical simulations and field tests. This book will be a valuable resource for university professors, graduate students and engineers majoring in automotive design, mechanical engineering, highway engineering and other related areas. Shaopu Yang is a professor and deputy president of Shijiazhuang Tiedao University, China; Liqun Chen is a professor at Shanghai Univ...

  8. Understanding Road Usage Patterns in Urban Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Pu Wang; Timothy Hunter; Bayen, Alexandre M; Katja Schechtner; González, Marta C.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we combine the most complete record of daily mobility, based on large-scale mobile phone data, with detailed Geographic Information System (GIS) data, uncovering previously hidden patterns in urban road usage. We find that the major usage of each road segment can be traced to its own - surprisingly few - driver sources. Based on this finding we propose a network of road usage by defining a bipartite network framework, demonstrating that in contrast to traditional approaches, wh...

  9. Road safety and trade and industry.

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Trade and industry mostly experience the negative consequences of crashes, but sometimes the consequences are positive. The negative consequences of road traffic crashes include loss of personnel and damage to vehicles. Some other industries, such as damage repair companies, on the other hand, derive income from road crashes. Trade and industry can also be of importance for road safety. Particularly the transport sector, the car industry and insurers take several initiatives which for example...

  10. Real-Time Road Traffic Anomaly Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Jamal Raiyn; Tomer Toledo

    2014-01-01

    Many modeling approaches have been proposed to help forecast and detect incidents. Accident has received the most attention from researchers due to its impacts economically. The traffic congestion costs billions of dollars to economy. The main reasons of major percentage of traffic congestion are the incidents. Road accidents continue to increase in digital age. There are many reasons for road accidents. This paper will discuss and introduce new algorithm for road ac...

  11. The latent demand in road traffic

    OpenAIRE

    Han van der Loop

    2014-01-01

    Use of the main road network increased by 16% from 2000 to 2012. Of this increase, it is estimated that approximately one-eighth (2%) was a consequence of the extra car use that was evoked by the completed road expansions during that same period. At locations where road capacity was expanded due to previous congestion problems, there were during peak hours often sharp increases in traffic volumes. This primarily concerns existing traffic that, due to congestion, had previously opted to travel...

  12. India : Road Transport Service Efficiency Study

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    This study reviews the long-distance road transport industry in India, in order to identify inefficiencies that could reduce the benefits to be derived from the large investments now being made by the Government in the nation's highway infrastructure. It has been undertaken to assess the present policy regime, and identify measures which may be considered to improve the functioning of road transport, in particular long-distance road transport, and, enhance its already enormous contribution (3...

  13. Towards noise classification of road pavements

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas, Elisabete F.; Paulo, Joel; Coelho, J. L. Bento; Pereira, Paulo A. A.

    2008-01-01

    Noise classification of road surfaces has been addressed in many European countries. This paper presents the first approach towards noise classification of Portuguese road pavements. In this early stage, it aims at establishing guidelines for decision makers to support their noise reduction policies and the development of a classification system adapted to the European recommendations. A ranking to provide guidance on tire-road noise emission levels for immediate use by decisio...

  14. Psychiatric consequences of road traffic accidents.

    OpenAIRE

    Mayou, R; Bryant, B.; Duthie, R

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the psychiatric consequences of being a road traffic accident victim. DESIGN--Follow up study of road accident victims for up to one year. SETTING--Emergency department of the John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford. SUBJECTS--188 consecutive road accident victims aged 18-70 with multiple injuries (motorcycle or car) or whiplash neck injury, who had not been unconscious for more than 15 minutes, and who lived in the catchment area. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Present state examinat...

  15. Modelling and control of road traffic networks

    OpenAIRE

    Haut, Bertrand

    2007-01-01

    Road traffic networks offer a particularly challenging research subject to the control community. The traffic congestion around big cities is constantly increasing and is now becoming a major problem. However, the dynamics of a road network exhibit some complex behaviours such as nonlinearities, delays and saturation effects that prevent the use of some classical control algorithms. This thesis presents different models and control algorithms used for road traffic networks. The dynamics ar...

  16. Road Roughness Etimation Using Available Vehicle Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Lundström, Johan

    2009-01-01

    Road conditions affect fuel efficiency and vehicle fatigue when driving heavy trucks. Information about traveled road conditions enable optimization of chassis configuration when driving, and logging of vehicle stress. Previous work on this topic focus mainly on tuning of active suspension parameters in the car industry. One conceivable application for heavy trucks is implementation of active chassis level control based on road conditions, with possible improvements in driving economy as resu...

  17. Public lighting : the effectiveness for road transport.

    OpenAIRE

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    When daylight is absent, the acquisition of normal visual information is not possible. Road traffic of the nature we are accustomed to today is not possible either: some sort of artificial light is indispensable. This artificial light is, therefore, a road traffic requirement: without artificial light of any kind, night- time road traffic is, not possible. When we discuss the requirements for such lighting we will have to look into the task of the traffic participant.

  18. Amphibian road kills: a global perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Puky, Miklós

    2005-01-01

    Transportation infrastructure is a major factor determining land use forms. As global changes in this factor are the most important for biodiversity, roads fundamentally influence wildlife. The effect of roads on wildlife has been categorized in several ways resulting in six to ten categories with road kill as an obvious and important component, and amphibians are greatly affected by this factor. As this animal group has been documented to decline from multiple threats worldwide, the study an...

  19. RATING ESTIMATION OF INFLUENCE OF ROAD TRAFFIC PARAMETERS ON BUS ROAD SPEED

    OpenAIRE

    Davidich, Yu; Sorokopud, O.

    2008-01-01

    There have been presented results ofinvestigation of road traffic parameters of municipal passenger transport on the base ofwhich the significance of factors influencing on road speed means of transportation was determined.

  20. Road Bridges and Culverts, Road Culvert Inventory, Published in 2007, Tippecanoe County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Road Bridges and Culverts dataset, was produced all or in part from Field Observation information as of 2007. It is described as 'Road Culvert Inventory'. Data...

  1. Road pricing, traffic congestion and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Button, K.J. [ed.] [George Mason University, Fairfax, VA (United States). Institute of Public Policy; Verhoef, E.T. [ed.] [Free University of Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Spatial Economics

    1998-12-31

    Various authors` works are drawn together in this book to explore historical and contemporaneous issues related to road pricing, as a means of easing traffic congestion and reducing atmospheric pollution from road transport. The need for energy efficiency as well as political and social pressure have led policy-makers away from road construction to meet all traffic growth towards traffic management. Despite having been suggested eighty years ago by Arthur Pigou, traffic management through road pricing stands up to analysis today, and should be put into practice. (UK)

  2. Dynamic Arc-Flags in Road Networks

    OpenAIRE

    D 'angelo, Gianlorenzo; Frigioni, Daniele; Vitale, Camillo

    2011-01-01

    International audience In this work we introduce a new data structure, named Road-Signs, which allows us to efficiently update the Arc-Flags of a graph in a dynamic scenario. Road-Signs can be used to compute Arc-Flags, can be efficiently updated and do not require large space consumption for many real-world graphs like, e.g., graphs arising from road networks. In detail, we define an algorithm to preprocess Road-Signs and an algorithm to update them each time that a weight increase operat...

  3. THE GREAT SILK ROAD AND TURKISH WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa ÖZDEMİR

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The expression of the great Silk Road first came from the famouse Chinese traveler Çjan Syan before the BC and is now known as Kervan Road. Later, this expression gained a new meaning between Asia, the Mediterranean and the European countries.An estimated of 20 000 km of total length of the Great Silk Road passed the Turkish peoples settled lands. The Silk Road that was considered as the Jugularvein major trade route that was connecting China and Byzantium was in Turks hands.

  4. Roads Belong in the Urban Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2013-01-01

    important elements in the creation of new, ‘green infrastructures’ that can qualify urban landscapes in terms of improving their overall porosity and connectivity. This argument will be unfolded and substantiated in this article through theoretical reflections which conceptually re-locate road networks in...... the urban landscape, supported by relevant reference projects that illustrate the potential of road networks as a platform for ‘green infrastructure’.......Roads are often associated with a fragmentation or splintering of landscapes and their natural connectivity; particularly in relation to ‘green infrastructure’ they are often considered problematic elements that rupture and barricade. Conversely, as part of larger networks, roads can be considered...

  5. Introducing dual suspension system in road vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of suspension system is to reduce the motions of the vehicle body with respect to road disturbances. The conventional suspension systems in road vehicles use passive elements such as springs and dampers to suppress the vibrations induced by the irregularities in the road. But these conventional suspension systems can suppress vibrations to a certain limit. This paper presents a novel idea to improve the ride quality of roads vehicles without compromising vehicles stability. The paper proposes the use of primary and secondary suspension to suppress the vibrations more effectively. (author)

  6. Automatic Construction of Hierarchical Road Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weiping

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes an automated method of constructing a hierarchical road network given a single dataset, without the presence of thematic attributes. The method is based on a pattern graph which maintains nodes and paths as junctions and through-traffic roads. The hierarchy is formed incrementally in a top-down fashion for highways, ramps, and major roads directly connected to ramps; and bottom-up for the rest of major and minor roads. Through reasoning and analysis, ramps are identified as unique characteristics for recognizing and assembling high speed roads. The method makes distinctions on the types of ramps by articulating their connection patterns with highways. Major and minor roads will be identified by both quantitative and qualitative analysis of spatial properties and by discovering neighbourhood patterns revealed in the data. The result of the method would enrich data description and support comprehensive queries on sorted exit or entry points on highways and their related roads. The enrichment on road network data is important to a high successful rate of feature matching for road networks and to geospatial data integration.

  7. Evaluation of Shortest Paths in Road Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrukh Shehzad

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Optimization is a key factor in almost all the topics of operations research / management science and economics.The road networks can be optimized within different constraints like time, distance, cost and traffic running onthe roads.This study is based on optimization of real road network by means of distances. Two main objectives arepursued in this research: 1 road distances among different routes are composed in detail; 2 two standardalgorithms (Dijkstra and Floyd-Warshall algoritms are applied to optimize/minimize these distances for bothsingle-source and all-pairs shortest path problems.

  8. Factors affecting road mortality and the suitability of road verges for butterflies

    OpenAIRE

    Skórka, Piotr; Lenda, Magdalena; Moroń, Dawid; Kalarus, Konrad; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Little is known of the impact of roads on insect mortality. This is a significant gap, because road verges are regarded as an important tool for insect conservation. In this study, we investigated which factors affect the number of roadkills in grassland butterflies and, simultaneously, the species composition and abundance on road verges. We established sixty transects, two hundred metres long, on roads in farmland areas and with differing traffic volume. Each transect consisted ...

  9. Geometric descriptors of road surface texture in relation to tire/road noise

    OpenAIRE

    ANFOSSO, Fabienne; Do, Minh Tan

    2002-01-01

    The paper deals with the determination of geometric parameters in order to study the relationship between the tire/road noise and the texture of road surfaces. The approach was found to be an alternative to the classical spectral analyses and the numerical simulations of the tire/road contact. Texture parameters were derived from previous works in LCPC related to the influence of the microtexture of road surfaces on the skid resistance. Use of these parameters was justified by the considerati...

  10. Road to evolution? Local adaptation to road adjacency in an amphibian (Ambystoma maculatum)

    OpenAIRE

    Steven P. Brady

    2012-01-01

    The network of roads on the landscape is vast, and contributes a suite of negative ecological effects on adjacent habitats, ranging from fragmentation to contamination by runoff. In addition to the immediate consequences faced by biota living in roaded landscapes, road effects may further function as novel agents of selection, setting the stage for contemporary evolutionary changes in local populations. Though the ecological consequences of roads are well described, evolutionary outcomes rema...

  11. Color-Based Road Detection and Its Evaluation on the KITTI Road Benchmark

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Bihao; Fremont, Vincent; Rodriguez Florez, Sergio Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Road detection is one of the key issues of scene understanding for Advanced Driving Assistance Systems (ADAS). Recent approaches has addressed this issue through the use of different kinds of sensors, features and algorithms. KITTI-ROAD benchmark has provided an open-access dataset and standard evaluation mean for road area detection. In this paper, we propose an improved road detection algorithm that provides a pixel-level confidence map. The proposed approach is inspired from our former wor...

  12. Road disasters? Modeling and assessment of Swedish roads within crucial climate conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Nickman, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    An efficient maintenance of roads to ensure high accessibility and durability of the transport capacity requires an understanding of how the hydrological response depends on both the road and the landscape characteristics. New methods and data were used to identify and explain interaction between roads and surrounding environment and their influence on hydrologic responses both in watershed scale and road-section scale. In the watershed scale, flood hazard probability was made with reference ...

  13. Road Network Generalization Based on Float CAR Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cheng; Li, Wenjing; Jia, Hongguo

    2016-06-01

    Road generalization is not only helpful to simplify complicated road networks but can also satisfy the needs of reasonable display of roads under varying scales, thus offering basis for updating and grading urban roads. This paper proposes a selection method for road network generalization by integrating road-associated vehicle trajectory dynamic properties and road features and calculating the importance of urban roads. First of all, the location and motion information of floating vehicles are associated to relevant roads to generate the dynamic properties of roads. Then, the dynamic and static properties of roads are analyzed, and the cluster analysis is conducted to the trajectory points at road intersections to obtain the importance of some road intersections there are vehicles passing by. Afterwards, the weights of roads are calculated using the dominance rough set, the roads are ranked by weight and the practical significance of ranking results is analyzed. Finally, the selection rules for the basic framework of road network are determined to meet with different requirements and guarantee both connectivity and completeness of road networks. The results show that the relative importance of roads is made clear by taking advantage of the rough set and the generalized road network highlights the distribution and connection of urban main roads.

  14. Value creation of road infrastructure networks: a structural equation approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, A.; Ling, F.Y.Y.

    2016-01-01

    Although road agencies need to provide road infrastructure that is beneficial for road users, little is known about how the activities of the agencies influence the value creation of road infrastructure. From a service-dominant logic perspective, the importance of road maintenance and traffic manage

  15. Road map for photovoltaic electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This road map aims at highlighting industrial, technological and social challenges, at elaborating comprehensive visions, at highlighting technological locks, and at outlining research needs for the photovoltaic sector. It considers the following sector components: preparation of photo-sensitive materials, manufacturing of photovoltaic cells, manufacturing of photovoltaic arrays, design and manufacturing of electric equipment to control photovoltaic arrays and to connect them to the grid. It highlights the demand for photovoltaic installations, analyzes the value chain, proposes a vision of the sector by 2050 and defines target for 2020, discusses needs for demonstration and experimentation

  16. Faunapassager : How animals cross roads

    OpenAIRE

    Lundberg, Adina; Gunnarsson, Fredrik

    2008-01-01

    A fauna passage is a way for animals to cross roads separated from the traffic. In Sweden, there are an unknown number of passages with different functions and appearances. These passages would, with the question “Which fauna passages can be found in Sweden, and how well do they work?” as a base, be compiled in a comparable way. This would be done with a number of questions asked to the different regions of Vägverket. The essay was delimited to only include ecoducts, animal bridges, landscape...

  17. Urban Road Traffic Simulation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Nicoleta Mocofan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available For achieving a reliable traffic control system it is necessary to first establish a network parameter evaluation system and also a simulation system for the traffic lights plan. In 40 years of history, the computer aided traffic simulation has developed from a small research group to a large scale technology for traffic systems planning and development. In the following thesis, a presentation of the main modeling and simulation road traffic applications will be provided, along with their utility, as well as the practical application of one of the models in a case study.

  18. 77 FR 15602 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events; Spa Creek and Annapolis Harbor, Annapolis, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... regulations to the Small Business and Agriculture Regulatory Enforcement Ombudsman and the Regional Small... Federal Register (77 FR 11). We received no comments on the proposed rule. No public meeting was requested... impact on a substantial number of small entities. The term ``small entities'' comprises small...

  19. Forest opening with a secondary road network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilović Milorad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an analysis of the position and density of a secondary road network in the group-selection management system. The research was conducted in the economic unit Prosara in the north west of the Republic of Srpska. The network of skid roads in the analyzed sections was recorded using the GPS devices Garmin GPS 60 and Garmin Map 62st, and the analysis software package used was ESRI ArcInfo 10.1. Adhering to the general guidelines, the slope of skid roads was analyzed within six predefined intervals: 0-12 %, 12-16 %, 16-20 %, 20-30 %, 30-40 % and over 40%. Relative openness with a secondary road network was determined for a maximum distance between the skid roads of 130m and it ranged from 82.62 % to 96.37 %. Such openness was classified as very good and excellent. Together with all factors related to stand and terrain characteristics, it appears that in all the compartments, the density of the secondary network of skid roads is adequate for the application of a skidder with a winch, without extending above the maximum length of the winch rope. Out of the total length of analyzed skid roads, 24% is within an appropriate slope interval for a planned conversion to truck roads, whereas 37 % is the maximum slope from the ecological point of view. The average terrain slope for the whole analyzed area is 26.4%. Such moderately sloping terrain is suitable for the construction of skid roads with low investment and small environmental impact. Due to their specific configuration, the main skid roads were designed along the ridge, while the secondary and tertiary skid roads most often separated from them at the maximum slope, forming an irregular fish bone shape.

  20. Biodegradable lubricants for road vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, J. [Denmark Technical Univ., Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2004-07-01

    This presentation outlined the characteristics of biolubricants and their use in vehicles. Experiments with compression ignition (CI) and spark ignition (SI) engines were also presented. Biolubes can be used in 4-stroke and 2-stroke engines, bearing compressors and hydraulic equipment. Studies have shown that biolubes do not cause unusual engine wear. They are produced from biomass, with the base material being vegetable oils and synthetic esters. Conventional lubricants are produced from fossil fuels, with the base material being mineral oils, polyglycol or synthetic ester. This presentation rated the characteristics of various lubricants in terms of viscosity temperature behaviour, low temperature behaviour, liquid range, oxidation stability, thermal stability, volatility, fire resistance, hydrolytic stability, corrosion protection, seal material compatibility, paints compatibility, miscibility with mineral oil, solubility of additives, lubricating properties, toxicity, and biodegradability. The environmental impacts of biolubes regarding emissions of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and particulate matter were discussed along with the impact of combining biolubes with alternative fuels. The future beneficial applications include outboard engines, off road vehicle engines and road vehicle engines. Currently, vegetable oil based biolubricants are 2 to 3 times more expensive than mineral based oils, and synthetic lubricants are even more expensive. It was suggested that future studies should examine the biodegradability of used lubricants, the performance of biodegradable lubricants, alternative fuels and fuel economy. tabs., figs.

  1. All roads lead to Meyrin

    CERN Multimedia

    Communication locale

    2011-01-01

    Tous les chemins mènent à Meyrin - All roads lead to Meyrin From 29 September to 16 October, 2011, come to the Salle Antoine Verchère in Meyrin for Tous les chemins mènent à Meyrin. The celebration will include an exposition as well as a theatrical performance about Meyrin, the first satellite city in Switzerland. With the help of the memories and testimonies from the people of Meyrin, Tous les chemins mènent à Meyrin is putting the collective memories of the commune on display. It is an occasion for everyone, whether you're from near or far, to find out how all the roads lead to Meyrin.  Salle Antoine-Verchère Route de Meyrin 294 – 1217 Meyrin Tram 18 – Stop: Meyrin Village Thursdays / Fridays / Saturdays at 8pm Sundays at 5pm Regular ticket: CHF 15.- Concession ticket (students, chômeurs, AVS, AI): CHF 12.- Children up to 16: CHF 10.- Family ticket: CHF 35.-

  2. Traffic Accidents on Slippery Roads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonnesbech, J. K.; Bolet, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Police registrations from 65 accidents on slippery roads in normally Danish winters have been studied. The study showed: • 1 accident per 100 km when using brine spread with nozzles • 2 accidents per 100 km when using pre wetted salt • 3 accidents per 100 km when using kombi spreaders The results...... of accidents in normally Danish winter seasons are remarkable alike the amount of salt used in praxis in the winter 2011/2012. • 2.7 ton NaCl/km when using brine spread with nozzles • 5 ton NaCl/km when using pre wetted salt. • 5.7 ton NaCl/km when using kombi spreaders The explanation is that spreading...... of brine with nozzles is precision spreading, while spreading of salt with rotation plate are very imprecise; you can measure 80% residual salt when using brine and only 40% when using pre wetted salt. Of course the result would be worse if dry (solid) salt were used on dry roads. A winter route in Denmark...

  3. Determinants of road traffic crash fatalities across Indian States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Grimm (Michael); C. Treibich (Carole)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjective: This paper explores the determinants of road traffic crash fatalities in India. As potential factors, the analysis considers, besides income, the sociodemographic populationstructure, motorization levels, road and health infrastructure and road rule enforcement. Methods: An or

  4. Ranking EU progress on road safety : 10th road safety Performance Index (PIN) report.

    OpenAIRE

    Adminaite, D. Jost, G. Stipdonk, H. & Ward, H.

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, the European Union renewed its commitment to improve road safety by setting a target of reducing road deaths by 50% by 2020, compared to 2010 levels. This target followed an earlier target set in 2001 to halve road deaths by 2010. 2015 was the second consecutive poor year for road safety; 26,300 people lost their lives on EU roads in 2015 compared to 25,970 in 2014, representing an increase of 1%. Out of the 32 countries monitored by the PIN Programme, as many as 22 saw an increase i...

  5. Age-related changes in conventional road versus off-road triathlon performance

    OpenAIRE

    Lepers, Romuald; Stapley, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    International audience The aims of this study were: i) to analyze age-related declines in swimming, cycling, and running performances for road-based and off-road triathlons, and ii) to compare age-related changes in these three disciplines between road-based and off-road triathlons. Swimming, cycling, running and total time performances of the top 5 males between 20 and 70 years of age (in 5 year intervals) were analyzed for short distance road-based (1.5 km swim, 40 km cycle, and 10 km ru...

  6. Road Crash – Analysis and Alleviation Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nirmala

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Now-a – days there has been a quantum jump in number of vehicles; the road length has been barely doubled. The fatalities and injuries due to road accidents have increased three folds. Fatalities due to road accidents are very much higher in India as compared to all other developed countries. The road accidents constitute the highest percentage, around 22 percent. For minimizing the rate of accidents where the resources are limited, attention has to be given to cost effective mitigation methods. Proper accident analysis is necessary to know the real reasons causing accidents. The location chosen for the study was East coast Road (ECR from Thiruvanmiyur to Pannaiyur covering a length of 11.4 km road. After the thorough study of accident statistics, two accident locations were selected to perform road inventory survey, Traffic Volume survey and spot speed survey for further work. The speed frequency curves were drawn to analyse the variation of speeds of vehicles which causes accidents. From the observations, road safety measures were recommended to reduce the rate of accidents.

  7. Learning Road Safety Skills in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Freddy Jackson; Gillard, Duncan

    2009-01-01

    This case study demonstrates the effectiveness of a classroom based learning programme in the acquisition of road safety skills. The participant, a child with severe learning disabilities, was taught road safety behaviours in the classroom with the aid of photograph cards. When he had mastered these skills in the classroom, he returned to the…

  8. 49 CFR 391.31 - Road test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Road test. 391.31 Section 391.31 Transportation... COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER INSTRUCTORS Tests § 391.31 Road test. (a) Except as provided in subpart G, a person shall not drive a commercial motor vehicle unless he/she has first successfully completed a...

  9. Road tunnels safety according to European legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedor KÁLLAY

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with safety of European road tunnels in accordance with actual European legislation. Standards and recommendations of European Commission, PIARC and other professional bodies of the European Union define minimal technological requirements for equipment and operation of the tunnels in scope of Trans-European Road Network.

  10. Drawing Road Networks with Mental Maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Syun; Lin, Chao-Hung; Hu, Yan-Jhang; Lee, Tong-Yee

    2014-09-01

    Tourist and destination maps are thematic maps designed to represent specific themes in maps. The road network topologies in these maps are generally more important than the geometric accuracy of roads. A road network warping method is proposed to facilitate map generation and improve theme representation in maps. The basic idea is deforming a road network to meet a user-specified mental map while an optimization process is performed to propagate distortions originating from road network warping. To generate a map, the proposed method includes algorithms for estimating road significance and for deforming a road network according to various geometric and aesthetic constraints. The proposed method can produce an iconic mark of a theme from a road network and meet a user-specified mental map. Therefore, the resulting map can serve as a tourist or destination map that not only provides visual aids for route planning and navigation tasks, but also visually emphasizes the presentation of a theme in a map for the purpose of advertising. In the experiments, the demonstrations of map generations show that our method enables map generation systems to generate deformed tourist and destination maps efficiently. PMID:26357374

  11. IMPROVEMENT WORKS OF THE SCHRODINGER ROAD

    CERN Multimedia

    Groupe ST-TFM; GSM 164478; ST-TFM Group; Tel. 72296; GSM 164478

    2000-01-01

    Division ST will proceed, as from Monday September 4, with improvement works of the SCHRÖDINGER road with the aim of facilitating the passing conditions of vehicles (see plan). These works will last for two weeks during which traffic will be forbidden on this section of road. Thanking you in advance for your comprehension.

  12. Road traffic noise and incident myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Nordsborg, Rikke B;

    2012-01-01

    Both road traffic noise and ambient air pollution have been associated with risk for ischemic heart disease, but only few inconsistent studies include both exposures.......Both road traffic noise and ambient air pollution have been associated with risk for ischemic heart disease, but only few inconsistent studies include both exposures....

  13. 30 CFR 780.37 - Road systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Road systems. 780.37 Section 780.37 Mineral... MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL EXPLORATION SYSTEMS UNDER REGULATORY PROGRAMS SURFACE MINING PERMIT APPLICATIONS-MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR RECLAMATION AND OPERATION PLAN § 780.37 Road...

  14. Overview of Nanotechnology in Road Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Arpit Singh; Dr. Sangita; Arpan Singh

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology has changed our vision, expectations, and abilities to control the material world. This paper examines and document applicable nanotechnology based product that can be improve the overall competitiveness of the Road engineering industry. In this review, nanotechnology is applying in road sector.

  15. Use of wood ash for road stabilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to warmer winters in Sweden, the bearing capacity of forestry roads has become increasingly problematic in recent years. Road stabilization is needed in order to get timber out from the forests. This usually involves the addition of cement to the road body. However, wood ash is a possible substitute for cement because it has similar properties. Using wood ash has the added advantage of saving landfill space. This paper presented an ongoing laboratory study on leaching and mechanical stability, as well as frost-sensitivity using a 30 per cent ash addition to natural soils for reinforcing a forestry road near Timra in central Sweden. The road was being monitored with regard to environmental impact and mechanical properties. The paper discussed the potential of biofuel ashes and the increasing need to reinforce infrastructure due to climate change. The environmental impact from ash use in road constructions was then addressed. It was concluded that the application of ash in road construction would help to strengthen forest roads, make them more resistant to climatic change and render them accessible year-round. 32 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.

  16. ROAD REPAIR WORKS ON THE MEYRIN SITE

    CERN Multimedia

    ST-TFM Group

    2001-01-01

    ST Division will proceed, as from Monday 23 July, in repairing some parts of roads on the Meyrin site (see drawing). This work will last for one week depending on the weather conditions and will cause some traffic hold ups during this period. Please follow the indications on the temporary road signs. Thanking you in advance for your comprehension.

  17. Challenges of raising road maintenance funds in developing countries: An analysis of road tolling in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. C. Mbara

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The condition of Zimbabwe's roads has been declining due to insufficient maintenance and rehabilitation. Year on year, budget allocations have compared unfavourably with funding considered adequate to maintain highway networks and conduct modest construction work. Road infrastructure shortcomings have manifested themselves in the form of high vehicle operating costs and rampant potholes, leading to a decline in road safety and a deterioration of service levels for those who use roads to deliver goods or connect to international markets. In order to try and stop this vicious cycle of decline, the Government of Zimbabwe, on 8 August 2009, introduced a new policy of road-user charges, which involved the setting-up of 22 toll gates on the trunk road network. The overall objective was to raise revenue in order to close the funding gap, blamed for declining road quality. Although alternative methods of financing road maintenance have been debated for years, a generally accepted understanding is that road users should pay costs for road provisioning. This paper assesses the implementation of a road tolling system in Zimbabwe and describes matters relating to, inter alia, implementation strategy, initial performance outcomes and sustainability.

  18. Private toll roads: Competition under various ownership regimes

    OpenAIRE

    AndrÊ de Palma; Robin Lindsey

    2000-01-01

    Interest is growing in private toll roads as an alternative to public free-access road infrastructure. Private toll roads have gained favour for various reasons, including a dearth of public funds for road construction and maintenance, increasing traffic congestion, and growing acceptance of the user-pay principle in general, and road pricing in particular. This paper focuses on allocative efficiency of private toll roads. The model features one origin and one destination linked by two parall...

  19. Critical Success Factors for Implementing Road Charging Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Oehry, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    Road user charging is used as an 'umbrella' term to describe a wide range of applications of pricing roads and infrastructure. Road user charging includes a number of charging measures that governments and other road owners use to: i) finance new or maintain existing road infrastructure ii) manage traffic (e.g. reduce congestion) iii) minimise environmental impacts of transport iv) internalise the external costs of road transport caused, e.g., by pollution and noise emissions. Historically, t...

  20. Selective Road Hazard Message Dissemination Protocol for VANET

    OpenAIRE

    Berlin, M A; Sheila Anand

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a Selective Road Hazard Message Dissemination Protocol (SRHMDP) for delivering road hazard information to vehicles travelling on highways. Road hazards could include information relating to road blocks, tree fall, boulders on road and other obstacles. This paper proposes the use of Road Side Units (RSUs) and Vehicle-to-Vehicle communication to selectively deliver hazard information to vehicles travelling towards the hazard location. Vehicle encountering the hazard wi...

  1. Contribution of simplified vehicle dynamic models to road safety analysis

    OpenAIRE

    ORFILA, O; VANDANJON, PO; COIRET, A

    2008-01-01

    The skid resistance analysis is one part of the complex process which is involved in road safety analysis for a road project or for road maintenance. As early as the design phase, the road geometry choice is linked to the skid resistance for a given level of service. In the road maintenance case, different conventional measurements are performed on the road and by analyzing them together, risks can be enlightened. Currently, this analysis is done by comparing these data. This is time consumin...

  2. Evaluation of Road Equipment with Emphasis on Condition Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof

    2008-01-01

    This doctoral thesis deals primarily with condition assessment of road equipment. The road equipment concept is defined by five main groups, road lighting, fences and barriers, vertical signs, horizontal signs and traffic signals, respectively. Of these groups, road markings, street lighting and barriers of three-lane roads have been studied more in detail. A state-of-the-art, comprising information obtained by comprehensive literature studies on condition assessment of road equipment is pres...

  3. Use of Plateia software for design of roads and intersections

    OpenAIRE

    Strajnar, Matjaž

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the graduation's thesis is to demonstrate the use of Plateia software for design of roads and road intersections. The thesis is divided into theoretical and practical parts. The theoretical part briefly describes the history and the main influences on the development of road transport. Further is made a general description of the technical and geometrical elements of roads with the description of level road intersections, roundabouts, multilevel road junctions and bus bays. ...

  4. Unofficial Road Building in the Brazilian Amazon: Dilemmas and Models for Road Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perz, Stephen G.; Overdevest, Christine; Caldas, Marcellus M.; Walker, Robert T.; Arima, Eugenio Y.

    2007-01-01

    Unofficial roads form dense networks in landscapes, generating a litany of negative ecological outcomes, but unofficial roads in frontier areas are also instrumental in local livelihoods and community development. This trade-off poses dilemmas for the governance of unofficial roads. Unofficial road building in frontier areas of the Brazilian Amazon illustrates the challenges of 'road governance.' Both state-based and community based governance models exhibit important liabilities for governing unofficial roads. Whereas state-based governance has experienced difficulties in adapting to specific local contexts and interacting effectively with local interest groups, community-based governance has a mixed record owing to social inequalities and conflicts among local interest groups. A state-community hybrid model may offer more effective governance of unofficial road building by combining the oversight capacity of the state with locally grounded community management via participatory decision-making.

  5. Road lighting fundamentals, technology and application

    CERN Document Server

    van Bommel, Wout

    2015-01-01

    This book outlines the underlying principles on which modern road lighting is based, and provides the reader with knowledge of how these principles should be applied in practice. It offers a completely fresh approach to the subject, reflecting how the technology of road lighting has progressed to keep up with the changes in lamp technology, especially in solid state light sources, and the increasing awareness of energy use and environmental issues. The book is divided into three parts. Part One describes lighting of open roads, with chapters discussing visual performance and comfort (including the effects of mesopic vision and age), and international standards and recommendations for road lighting. Lighting equipment is introduced; specifically lamps and luminaires in terms of their practical properties and features, but also the road surface and its characteristics. A chapter on Lighting Design makes the link between theory and practice, providing the reader with the knowledge needed for effective lighting d...

  6. BRICS: opportunities to improve road safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyder, Adnan A; Vecino-Ortiz, Andres I

    2014-06-01

    Brazil, the Russian Federation, India, China and South Africa--the countries known as BRICS--are currently undergoing a deep epidemiological transition that is mainly driven by rapid economic growth and technological change. The changes being observed in the distribution of the burden of diseases and injuries--such as recent increases in the incidence of road traffic injuries--are matters of concern. BRICS may need stronger institutional capacity to address such changes in a timely way. In this paper, we present data on road traffic injuries in BRICS and illustrate the enormous challenge that these countries currently face in reducing the incidence of such injuries. There is an urgent need to improve road safety indicators in every country constituting BRICS. It is imperative for BRICS to invest in system-wide road safety interventions and reduce the mortality and morbidity from road traffic injuries. PMID:24940016

  7. The Rauischholzhausen Agenda for Road Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Klar

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the documented negative effects of roads on wildlife, ecological research on road effects has had comparatively little influence on road planning decisions. We argue that road research would have a larger impact if researchers carefully considered the relevance of the research questions addressed and the inferential strength of the studies undertaken. At a workshop at the German castle of Rauischholzhausen we identified five particularly relevant questions, which we suggest provide the framework for a research agenda for road ecology: (1 Under what circumstances do roads affect population persistence? (2 What is the relative importance of road effects vs. other effects on population persistence? (3 Under what circumstances can road effects be mitigated? (4 What is the relative importance of the different mechanisms by which roads affect population persistence? (5 Under what circumstances do road networks affect population persistence at the landscape scale? We recommend experimental designs that maximize inferential strength, given existing constraints, and we provide hypothetical examples of such experiments for each of the five research questions. In general, manipulative experiments have higher inferential strength than do nonmanipulative experiments, and full before-after-control-impact designs are preferable to before-after or control-impact designs. Finally, we argue that both scientists and planners must be aware of the limits to inferential strength that exist for a given research question in a given situation. In particular, when the maximum inferential strength of any feasible design is low, decision makers must not demand stronger evidence before incorporating research results into the planning process, even though the level of uncertainty may be high.

  8. A statistical model for road surface friction forecasting applying optical road weather measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippi, M.; Juga, I.; Nurmi, P.

    2009-09-01

    Road surface friction is defined as the grip between car tyre and underlying surface. Poor friction often plays a crucial role in wintertime car accidents. Friction can decrease dramatically during snowfall or when wet road surface temperature falls below zero. Even a thin layer of ice or snow can decrease friction substantially increasing the risk of accidents. Many studies have shown that road surface temperature, road conditions and friction can fluctuate dramatically within short distances under specific weather situations. Friction or grip can be improved with road maintenance activities like salting and gritting. Salting will melt the ice or snow layer, whereas gritting will improve the grip. Salting is effective only above -5C temperatures. Light snowfall together with low temperatures can result in very slippery driving conditions. Finnish Road Administration's observing network covers c. 500 road weather stations in Finland. Almost 100 of them are equipped with optical sensors (in winter 2008-2009). The number of optical sensors has increased remarkably during past few years. The optical measuring devices are Vaisala DSC111 sensors which measure the depth of water, snow and ice on the road surface and also produce an estimate of the state of road and prevailing friction. Observation data from road weather stations with optical sensors were collected from winter 2007/08, and a couple of representative (from a weather perspective) stations were selected for detailed statistical analysis. The purpose of the study was to find a statistical relationship between the observed values and, especially, the correlation between friction and other road weather parameters. Consequently, a model based on linear regression was developed. With the model friction being the dependent variable, the independent variables having highest correlations were the composite of ice and snow (water content) on the road, and the road surface temperature. In the case of a wet road

  9. 2008 annual CERN Road Race

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Dear runners, The 2008 annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 24 September at 6.00 p.m. This 5.4 km race consists of 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. Past races have attracted runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes. The race is run on a handicap basis, with starting times staggered to ensure that (in theory) all runners finish together. However, if the popularity of the race continues to grow (95 runners took part last year), its format may be modified to a classic single start. For more information and to complete the online entry form, go to http://club-running.web.cern.ch

  10. Down the road to deregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenet, L; McKee, M

    1998-01-01

    A recent preliminary ruling by the European Court of Justice, that would have ended the Swedish state retail alcohol monopoly on grounds of European law on free movement of goods, highlights the international pressure on countries to deregulate further their alcohol markets. However, those countries that have recently taken the road to deregulation have not been able to prevent the alcohol industry encouraging people to drink more and they are experiencing increased alcohol-related problems. The international debates about tradeable commodities rarely take account of the consequences for public health. Alcohol is one such commodity that is also an important cause of premature death. It is essential that this is not overlooked in the race to promote free trade. PMID:9719390

  11. Moving towards Sustainability: Road Grades and On-Road Emissions of Heavy-Duty Vehicles—A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Wendan Zhang; Jian Lu; Ping Xu; Yi Zhang

    2015-01-01

    On-road vehicle emissions are one of the major sources of transport emissions. As a key design factor, road grades (or road slopes) have significant effects on on-road vehicle emissions, particularly on Heavy-Duty Vehicles (HDVs). However, the research into the relationship between road grades and on-road vehicle emissions is very rare in China. Taking a road network in Taiyuan, China, as a study area, this paper explored the influences of road grades on carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC)...

  12. Bearing Capacity Assessment on low Volume Roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zariņš, A.

    2015-11-01

    A large part of Latvian road network consists of low traffic volume roads and in particular of roads without hard pavement. Unbounded pavements shows serious problems in the form of rutting and other deformations, which finally lead to weak serviceability and damage of the road structure after intensive exploitation periods. Traditionally, these problems have been associated with heavy goods transport, overloaded vehicles and their impact. To find the specific damaging factors causing road pavement deformations and evaluate their prevention possibilities, and establish conditions that will allow doing it, the study was carried out. The tire pressure has been set as the main factor of load. Two different tire pressures have been used in tests and their impacts were compared. The comparison was done using deflection measurements with LWD together with dielectric constant measurements in a road structure using percometer. Measurements were taken in the upper pavement structure layers at different depths during full-scale loading and in different moisture/temperature conditions. Advisable load intensity and load factors for heavy traffic according to road conditions were set based on the study results.

  13. Index and query methods in road networks

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Jun

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the index and query techniques on road network and moving objects which are limited to road network. Here, the road network of non-Euclidean space has its unique characteristics such that two moving objects may be very close in a straight line distance. The index used in two-dimensional Euclidean space is not always appropriate for moving objects on road network. Therefore, the index structure needs to be improved in order to obtain suitable indexing methods, explore the shortest path and acquire nearest neighbor query and aggregation query methods under the new index structures. Chapter 1 of this book introduces the present situation of intelligent traffic and index in road network, Chapter 2 introduces the relevant existing spatial indexing methods. Chapter 3-5 focus on several issues of road network and query, they involves: traffic road network models (see Chapter 3), index structures (see Chapter 4) and aggregate query methods (see Chapter 5). Finally, in Chapter 6, the book briefly de...

  14. Ultra Low Noise Poroelastic Road Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy A. Ejsmont

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Noise is one of the most important environmental problems related to road traffic. During the last decades, the noise emitted by the engines and powertrains of vehicles was greatly reduced and tires became a clearly dominant noise source. The article describes the concept of low noise poroelastic road surfaces that are composed of mineral and rubber aggregate bound by polyurethane resin. Those surfaces have a porous structure and are much more flexible than standard asphalt or cement concrete pavements due to high content of rubber aggregate and elastic binder. Measurements performed in several European countries indicate that such surfaces decrease tire/road noise between 7 dB and 12 dB with respect to reference surfaces such as dense asphalt concrete or stone matrix asphalt. Furthermore, poroelastic road surfaces ascertain the rolling resistance of car tires, which is comparable to classic pavements. One of the unforeseen properties of the poroelastic road surfaces is their ability to decrease the risks related to car fires with fuel spills. The article presents the road and laboratory results of noise, rolling resistance, and fire tests performed on a few types of poroelastic road surfaces.

  15. Factors contributing to amphibian road mortality in a wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijun GU, Qiang DAI, Qian WANG, Yuezhao WANG

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To understand road characteristics and landscape features associated with high road mortality of amphibians in Zoige Wetland National Nature Reserve, we surveyed road mortality along four major roads after rainfall in May and September 2007. Road mortality of three species, Rana kukunoris, Nanorana pleskei and Bufo minshanicus, was surveyed across 225 transects (115 in May and 110 in September. Transects were 100 m long and repeated every two kilometers along the four major roads. We used model averaging to assess factors that might determine amphibian road mortality. We recorded an average of 24.6 amphibian road mortalities per kilometer in May and 19.2 in September. Among road characteristics, road width was positively associated with road morality for R. kukunori and B. minshanicus. Traffic volume also increased the road mortality of B. minshanicus in September. Of the landscape features measured, area proportions of three types of grassland (wet, mesic and dry within 1 km of the roads, particularly that of wet grassland, significantly increased road mortality for R. kukunori and total mortality across all three species. To most effectively reduce road mortality of amphibians in the Zoige wetlands, we suggest better road design such as avoiding wet grasslands, minimizing road width, underground passes and traffic control measures. The implementation of public transit in the area would reduce traffic volume, and hence mortality [Current Zoology 57 (6: 768–774, 2011].

  16. Factors contributing to amphibian road mortality in a wetland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haijun GU; Qiang DAI; Qian WANG; Yuezhao WANG

    2011-01-01

    To understand road characteristics and landscape features associated with high road mortality of amphibians in Zoige Wetland National Nature Reserve,we surveyed road mortality along four major roads after rainfall in May and September 2007.Road mortality of three species,Rana kukunoris,Nanorana pleskei and Bufo minshanicus,was surveyed across 225 transects (115 in May and 110 in September).Transects were 100 m long and repeated every two kilometers along the four major roads.We used model averaging to assess factors that might determine amphibian road mortality.We recorded an average of 24.6 amphibian road mortalities per kilometer in May and 19.2 in September.Among road characteristics,road width was positively associated with road morality for R.kukunori and B.minshanicus.Traffic volume also increased the road mortality of B.minshanicus in September.Of the landscape features measured,area proportions of three types of grassland (wet,mesic and dry) within 1 km of the roads,particularly that of wet grassland,significantly increased road mortality for R.kukunori and total mortality across all three species.To most effectively reduce road mortality of amphibians in the Zoige wetlands,we suggest better road design such as avoiding wet grasslands,minimizing road width,underground passes and traffic control measures.The implementation of public transit in the area would reduce traffic volume,and hence mortality [Current Zoology 57 (6):768-774,2011].

  17. [Roads in the phantasms of psychotic children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauner, F; Brauner, A

    1975-01-01

    The authors have previously analyzed themes such as 'the rails', 'the sun', 'the house' in the drawings and modellings of very regressed, psychotic children. Here we have 'the roads', another anxiogenous subject. The mental condition of the young patients expresses itself clearly in the way the theme is treated in plastic works, and even in the stage play. The colours used, the entanglement, the importance of cross-roads, and the delirious comments are studied. The image of the roads is changing with progressing success of treatment. PMID:776524

  18. Investigating road safety management processes in Europe.

    OpenAIRE

    Jähi, H. Muhlrad, N. Buttler, I. Gitelman, V. Bax, C. Dupont, E. Giustiniani, G. Machata, K. Martensen, H. Papadimitriou, E. Persia, L. Talbot, R. Vallet, G. & Yannis, G.

    2012-01-01

    The work package 1 of the EC FP7 project DaCoTA investigates road safety management processes in Europe. It has drafted a model to investigate the state of the art of road safety policy-making and management at the national level and to define “good practice”. The DaCoTA “good practice” investigation model recommends no “one-best-way” solutions, either for attaining a particular objective or for organizing the road safety sector, as the national context always needs to be taken in account whe...

  19. A quadratic algorithm for road coloring

    CERN Document Server

    Béal, Marie-Pierre

    2008-01-01

    The road coloring theorem states that every aperiodic directed graph with constant out-degree has a synchronized coloring. This theorem had been conjectured during many years as the road coloring problem before being settled by A. Trahtman. Trahtman's proof leads to an algorithm that finds a synchronized labeling with a cubic worst-case time complexity. We show a variant of his construction with a worst-case complexity which is quadratic in time and linear in space. We also extend the road coloring theorem to the periodic case.

  20. Placarding of road vehicles carrying radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Code is to give guidance on the placarding requirements for vehicles carrying radioactive materials by road in Great Britain and on the continent of Europe. Additional placards may be required regarding dangerous properties other than radioactivity. The labelling of packages for transport is dealt with in AECP 1030. This Code deals with two aspects of road vehicle placarding:-(a) placarding on the outside of road vehicles in Great Britain and on the continent of Europe, (b) a fireproof placard fixed in the driver's cab. Responsibility for placarding the vehicle rests with the carrier, but in practice the consignor may need to provide the placards. (U.K.)

  1. Road Pricing in Practice and Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Mcdonald John F.

    2004-01-01

    This introductory article to the special issue discusses briefly both the practice and theory of road pricing. Actual methods of charging for road use are discussed, and the current trend towards greater use of time-of-day congestion tolls is noted. The basic model of traffic congestion and road pricing is presented next, and this is followed by a summary of the extensions to the basic model represented in this issue of the Review of Network Economics. Researchers are now developing models th...

  2. COMPREHENSIVE URBAN ROAD TOLL EVALUATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Klumpp

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Urban road toll systems are increasingly on the political agenda in order to achieve environmental, urban and traffic management as well as financial objectives. Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS as for example Global Positioning System (GPS or Galileo may enhance the usability and also financial soundness of city road pricing and shall be included into the overall concept selection process – in spite of relatively high investment costs. As this contribution shows with a comprehensive evaluation scheme, for example GNSS-related toll systems may contribute to improved telematics and road pricing in cities.

  3. 5 CFR 930.107 - Waiver of road test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Waiver of road test. 930.107 Section 930....107 Waiver of road test. Under the following conditions, OPM or an agency head or his or her designated representative may waive the road test: (a) OPM waives the road test requirement for operators...

  4. Kansas Non-State Road System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset is a single centerline road network representation of 120,000 miles of the Kansas non-state highway system with limited attribution. It includes rural...

  5. US Forest Service National Forest System Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting existing National Forest System Roads (NFSR) that are under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Forest Service. Each feature represents...

  6. Transport of dangerous substances by road

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is a collection of the Finnish acts and regulations concerning transport of dangerous substances by road as of 31st March 1985. Included are: Act and Decree on the Transport of Dangerous Substances by Road (Nos 510/74 and 861/74), both as amended; Decree setting up a related Commission (No. 862/74), as amended; Act on the Contract for Carriage of Goods by Road (No. 345/79); Decree bringing into force the ADR (No. 289/79); and Decision of the Ministry of Communications on the Transport of Dangerous Substances by Road (No. 610/78) as amended by Decisions No. 344/79, 995/79, 218/82 and 935/83. (NEA)

  7. Road Traffic Injuries 2002-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This table contains data on the annual number of fatal and severe road traffic injuries per population and per miles traveled by transport mode, for California, its...

  8. Empirical Bayes methods in road safety research.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelesang, R.A.W.

    1997-01-01

    Road safety research is a wonderful combination of counting fatal accidents and using a toolkit containing prior, posterior, overdispersed Poisson, negative binomial and Gamma distributions, together with positive and negative regression effects, shrinkage estimators and fiercy debates concerning th

  9. Burkina Faso - Primary and Rural Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millenium Challenge Corporation — Impaq worked with the data collection firms NSCE-MCG-AC3E [the Group] to conduct traffic, household, and business surveys as part of the Roads Project evaluation....

  10. Chinese Road Safety and Driver Behavior Research

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Junhua

    2015-01-01

    The seminar will begin with a brief overview of the Chinese road safety situation, including current safety problems, and then move on to discuss safety research including driver behavior, freeway operational safety, and infrastructure development.

  11. HCEI Road Map: 2011 Edition (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braccio, R.; Finch, P.

    2011-08-01

    This road map outlines the 2011 key goals and strategies of the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative, was founded based on a Memorandum of Understanding between the State of Hawaii and the U.S. Department of Energy in 2008.

  12. 30 CFR 817.150 - Roads: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... altering the normal flow of water in streambeds or drainage channels; (6) Prevent or control damage to... part of any road shall be located in the channel of an intermittent or perennial stream...

  13. Allegheny County-Owned Roads Centerlines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset shows the roads owned by Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data portal...

  14. Conceptual design and analysis of roads and road construction machinery for initial lunar base operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sines, Jeffrey L.; Banks, Joel; Efatpenah, Keyanoush

    1990-01-01

    Recent developments have made it possible for scientists and engineers to consider returning to the Moon to build a manned lunar base. The base can be used to conduct scientific research, develop new space technology, and utilize the natural resources of the Moon. Areas of the base will be separated, connected by a system of roads that reduce the power requirements of vehicles traveling on them. Feasible road types for the lunar surface were analyzed and a road construction system was designed for initial lunar base operations. A model was also constructed to show the system configuration and key operating features. The alternate designs for the lunar road construction system were developed in four stages: analyze and select a road type; determine operations and machinery needed to produce the road; develop machinery configurations; and develop alternates for several machine components. A compacted lunar soil road was selected for initial lunar base operations. The only machinery required to produce this road were a grader and a compactor. The road construction system consists of a main drive unit which is used for propulsion, a detachable grader assembly, and a towed compactor.

  15. Road pricing, air pollution and external costs; Road pricing, luftforurening og eksternalitetsomkostninger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solvang Jensen, S.; Ketzel, M. (Aarhus Univ., Danmarks Miljoeundersoegelser, Afd. for Atmosfaerisk Miljoe, Roskilde (Denmark)); Skou Andersen, M. (Aarhus Univ., Danmarks Miljoeundersoegelser, Afd. for Systemanalyse, Roskilde (Denmark))

    2010-06-15

    The objective of this assessment is to improve the foundation for decision-making about introduction of a road pricing system that aims to reduce the health impacts and social costs of traffic-related air pollution. The analysis focuses on how road emissions, air quality, population exposure, and social costs of air pollution depend on geography (different city sizes and rural areas) and time of the day (rush hours versus non-rush hours). A review of Danish studies related to road pricing has also been carried out to assess the expected effect of road pricing on traffic performance (km travelled), vehicle composition and speed that are factors affecting air pollution. (LN)

  16. A Practical Approach to Safety management of County Roads

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Thomas; Tarko, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Rural roads are well-documented as having a greater traffic fatality rate than urban roads. For medium- and high-volume rural roads with a considerable crash history, previous studies have focused on the identification of high-crash locations. The majority of rural roads in Indiana are low-volume county roads. However, the methods for identifying safety problems on medium- and high-volume roads are often not suitable for county roads. Such methods may result in improper allocation of resource...

  17. The Road to Galaxy Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Keel, William C

    2007-01-01

    The formation of galaxies is one of the greatest puzzles in astronomy, the solution is shrouded in the depths of space and time, but has profound implications for the universe we observe today. The book discusses the beginnings of the process from cosmological observations and calculations, considers the broad features of galaxies that we need to explain and what we know of their later history. The author compares the competing theories for galaxy formation and considers the progress expected from new generations of powerful telescopes both on earth and in space. In this second edition the author has retained the observationally-based approach of the first edition, a feature which was particularly well-reviewed: Writing in Nature, Carlton Baugh noted in February 2003 that “It is refreshing, in a market dominated by theorists, to come across a book on galaxy formation written from an observational perspective. The Road to Galaxy Formation should prove to be a handy primer on observations for graduate student...

  18. CERN Road Race | 7 October

    CERN Multimedia

    Klaus Hanke, CERN Running Club

    2015-01-01

    The 2015 edition of the annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday, 7 October at 6.15 p.m.   The 5.5 km race takes place over three laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 minutes to over 34 minutes. The race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all the runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over one lap of 1.8 km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judging best parent + best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by the registration fee of 10 CHF. Children are free (each child will receive a medal). More information, and t...

  19. Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This developmental effort clearly shows that a Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory System is a worthwhile and achievable goal. The RTAL is designed to fully analyze (radioanalytes, and organic and inorganic chemical analytes) 20 samples per day at the highest levels of quality assurance and quality control. It dramatically reduces the turnaround time for environmental sample analysis from 45 days (at a central commercial laboratory) to 1 day. At the same time each RTAL system will save the DOE over $12 million per year in sample analysis costs compared to the costs at a central commercial laboratory. If RTAL systems were used at the eight largest DOE facilities (at Hanford, Savannah River, Fernald, Oak Ridge, Idaho, Rocky Flats, Los Alamos, and the Nevada Test Site), the annual savings would be $96,589,000. The DOE's internal study of sample analysis needs projects 130,000 environmental samples requiring analysis in FY 1994, clearly supporting the need for the RTAL system. The cost and time savings achievable with the RTAL system will accelerate and improve the efficiency of cleanup and remediation operations throughout the DOE complex

  20. CERN Road Race | 1 October

    CERN Multimedia

    Klaus Hanke

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 edition of the annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 1 October at 18:15.   The 5.5 km race takes place over 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes, and the race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over 1 lap of 1.8 km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judged on best parent + best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by a registration fee of 10 CHF. Children enter for free and each child will receive a medal. More information, and the online entry form, can be fo...

  1. A uniform information system of municipal roads

    OpenAIRE

    Zajamšek, Franc

    2013-01-01

    The field of information systems of municipal roads is examined in the master’s thesis. The rules managing this area, existing information systems and databases are presented and analysed. Business processes (planning, management, protection, maintenance, investment, control, execution of works ...) which are taking place in this field, are analysed and specified. Design plan of the uniform information system of municipal roads, consists of diagrams and processes descriptions. The sy...

  2. Predicting road conditions with internet search

    OpenAIRE

    Askitas, Nikos

    2016-01-01

    Traffic jams are an important problem both on an individual and on a societal level and much research has been done on trying to explain their emergence. The mainstream approach to road traffic monitoring is based on crowdsourcing roaming GPS devices such as cars or cell phones. These systems are expectedly able to deliver good results in reflecting the immediate present. To my knowledge there is as yet no system which offers advance notice on road conditions. Google Search intensity for the ...

  3. Traffic Impact Simulation for Road Construction Project

    OpenAIRE

    Yazao Yang; Xiaoni Hao; Junshao Luo

    2012-01-01

    With the increasing traffic contradiction between supply and demand, urban traffic problems have become quite complex. Reasons for traffic congestion have become much more diverse. During the construction of urban road project, the surrounding road network will encounter a huge impact, traffic problems therefore emerged. Simulation is an important means for transport impact assessment, which has an important role for construction traffic impact analysis. Accordingly, traffic simulation i...

  4. Rural Roads: The Challenge of Decentralized Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Simon D. Ellis; Aurelio Menendez

    2014-01-01

    This paper will review the key elements required for effective decentralized implementation of rural roads programs. It will review the range of options available and the evidence for successful implementation where it exists. Section 2 makes the case for the importance of rural roads and sets out the evidence for the socio-economic benefits. Section 3 addresses the responsibilities for implementation and critical importance of having clarity over network ownership. Section 4 highlights the d...

  5. Monocular Road Detection Using Structured Random Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Xiao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Road detection is a key task for autonomous land vehicles. Monocular vision-based road detection algorithms are mostly based on machine learning approaches and are usually cast as classification problems. However, the pixel-wise classifiers are faced with the ambiguity caused by changes in road appearance, illumination and weather. An effective way to reduce the ambiguity is to model the contextual information with structured learning and prediction. Currently, the widely used structured prediction model in road detection is the Markov random field or conditional random field. However, the random field-based methods require additional complex optimization after pixel-wise classification, making them unsuitable for real-time applications. In this paper, we present a structured random forest-based road-detection algorithm which is capable of modelling the contextual information efficiently. By mapping the structured label space to a discrete label space, the test function of each split node can be trained in a similar way to that of the classical random forests. Structured random forests make use of the contextual information of image patches as well as the structural information of the labels to get more consistent results. Besides this benefit, by predicting a batch of pixels in a single classification, the structured random forest-based road detection can be much more efficient than the conventional pixel-wise random forest. Experimental results tested on the KITTI-ROAD dataset and data collected in typical unstructured environments show that structured random forest-based road detection outperforms the classical pixel-wise random forest both in accuracy and efficiency.

  6. Camera calibration from road lane markings

    OpenAIRE

    Fung, GSK; Yung, NHC; Pang, GKH

    2003-01-01

    Three-dimensional computer vision techniques have been actively studied for the purpose of visual traffic surveillance. To determine the 3-D environment, camera calibration is a crucial step to resolve the relationship between the 3-D world coordinates and their corresponding image coordinates. A novel camera calibration using the geometry properties of road lane markings is proposed. A set of equations that computes the camera parameters from the image coordinates of the road lane markings a...

  7. Mathematical principles of road congestion pricing

    OpenAIRE

    WJ Pienaar; JH Nel

    2009-01-01

    This paper briefly considers the objectives of road congestion pricing and identifies prerequisites to the successful application of such a pricing scheme. The paper is divided into two sections. In the first section, a mathematical analysis of the constituents of an optimal road congestion price is offered. The eliminated inefficiency loss achieved by the introduction of a congestion levy is usually evaluated by means of an integral involving marginal trip cost, travel demand and average tri...

  8. Review of road traffic control strategies.

    OpenAIRE

    Papageorgiou, M.; Diakaki, C.; Dinopoulou, V.; Kotsialos, A.; Wang, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Traffic congestion in urban road and freeway networks leads to a strong degradation of the network infrastructure and accordingly reduced throughput, which can be countered via suitable control measures and strategies. After illustrating the main reasons for infrastructure deterioration due to traffic congestion, a comprehensive overview of proposed and implemented control strategies is provided for three areas: urban road networks, freeway networks, and route guidance. Selected application r...

  9. Explaining the road accident risk: weather effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergel-Hayat, Ruth; Debbarh, Mohammed; Antoniou, Constantinos; Yannis, George

    2013-11-01

    This research aims to highlight the link between weather conditions and road accident risk at an aggregate level and on a monthly basis, in order to improve road safety monitoring at a national level. It is based on some case studies carried out in Work Package 7 on "Data analysis and synthesis" of the EU-FP6 project "SafetyNet-Building the European Road Safety Observatory", which illustrate the use of weather variables for analysing changes in the number of road injury accidents. Time series analysis models with explanatory variables that measure the weather quantitatively were used and applied to aggregate datasets of injury accidents for France, the Netherlands and the Athens region, over periods of more than 20 years. The main results reveal significant correlations on a monthly basis between weather variables and the aggregate number of injury accidents, but the magnitude and even the sign of these correlations vary according to the type of road (motorways, rural roads or urban roads). Moreover, in the case of the interurban network in France, it appears that the rainfall effect is mainly direct on motorways--exposure being unchanged, and partly indirect on main roads--as a result of changes in exposure. Additional results obtained on a daily basis for the Athens region indicate that capturing the within-the-month variability of the weather variables and including it in a monthly model highlights the effects of extreme weather. Such findings are consistent with previous results obtained for France using a similar approach, with the exception of the negative correlation between precipitation and the number of injury accidents found for the Athens region, which is further investigated. The outlook for the approach and its added value are discussed in the conclusion. PMID:23928504

  10. Road repair works on the Meyrin site

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    ST Division will proceed, as from Monday 15th of September, in repairing some parts of roads on the Meyrin site (see drawing). This work will last for three weeks depending on the weather conditions and will cause some traffic hold ups during this period. Please follow the indications on the temporary road signs. Thanking you in advance for your comprehension. ST-CE and ST-FM Groups GSM 160224 - 163976

  11. Road network extraction in classified SAR images using genetic algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖志强; 鲍光淑; 蒋晓确

    2004-01-01

    Due to the complicated background of objectives and speckle noise, it is almost impossible to extract roads directly from original synthetic aperture radar(SAR) images. A method is proposed for extraction of road network from high-resolution SAR image. Firstly, fuzzy C means is used to classify the filtered SAR image unsupervisedly, and the road pixels are isolated from the image to simplify the extraction of road network. Secondly, according to the features of roads and the membership of pixels to roads, a road model is constructed, which can reduce the extraction of road network to searching globally optimization continuous curves which pass some seed points. Finally, regarding the curves as individuals and coding a chromosome using integer code of variance relative to coordinates, the genetic operations are used to search global optimization roads. The experimental results show that the algorithm can effectively extract road network from high-resolution SAR images.

  12. Roads Economic Decision Model for the Economic Evaluation of Low Volume Roads : Software User Guide and Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Archondo-Callao, Rodrigo

    2004-01-01

    This manual presents the Roads Economic Decision Model (RED) developed to improve the decision-making process for the development and maintenance of low-volume rural roads. The model performs an economic evaluation of road investments options using the consumer surplus approach and is customized to the characteristics and needs of low-volume roads such as the high uncertainty of the assess...

  13. Analyzing road design risk factors for run-off-road crashes in The Netherlands with crash prediction models.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petegem, J.W.H. van & Wegman, F.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    About 50% of all road traffic fatalities and 30% of all traffic injuries in The Netherlands take place on rural roads with a speed limit of 80 km/h. About 50% of these crashes are run-off-road (ROR) crashes. To reduce the number of crashes on this road type, attention should be put on improving the

  14. FLOW OF FUNDS FOR SUSTAINABLE ROAD MAINTENANCE IN KENYA

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Odongo Oronje; Charles M. Rambo; Paul A. Odundo

    2014-01-01

    Kenya established the Road Maintenance Levy Fund in 1993 to finance road maintenance. The Kenya Roads Board is at the centre of the Fund’s administration and accomplishes this by working in collaboration with various implementing agencies. However, through professional experience, we have learnt that the flow of funds to road agencies is inconsistent, due to various factors, which this study aimed at documenting to justify reforms towards sustainable road maintenance. We applied the crossse...

  15. Computer Vision Systems in Road Vehicles: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kovačić, Kristian; Ivanjko, Edouard; Gold, Hrvoje

    2013-01-01

    The number of road vehicles significantly increased in recent decades. This trend accompanied a build-up of road infrastructure and development of various control systems to increase road traffic safety, road capacity and travel comfort. In traffic safety significant development has been made and today's systems more and more include cameras and computer vision methods. Cameras are used as part of the road infrastructure or in vehicles. In this paper a review on computer vision systems in veh...

  16. Review of Road Extraction Methods from SAR Image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Road extraction methods from SAR Image are important in the field of SAR image recognition and detection. In the past few decades, scholars at home and abroad have done a lot of experiments and researches. Through the analysis of the current situation, it firstly introduces the road characteristics of SAR image and basic strategies of road extraction. Then, the existing road extraction methods from SAR image are summarized. Finally, the prospective road extraction researches from SAR image are put forward

  17. A Model for Automatic Diagnostic of Road Signs Saliency

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Ludovic; TAREL, Jean Philippe; BREMOND, Roland

    2010-01-01

    Road signs, the main communication media towards the drivers, play a significant role in road safety and traffic control through drivers' guidance, warning, and information. However, not all traffic signs are seen by all drivers, which sometimes lead to dangerous situations. In order to manage safer roads, the estimation of the legibility of the road environment is thus of importance for road engineers and authorities who aim at making and keeping traffic signs salient enough to attract atten...

  18. Study on calculation model of road lighting visibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Visibility is an evaluation index for road lighting, which comprehensively influences the vision reliability of drivers and is a key factor for road lighting safety and energy saving. This paper introduces the concept of road lighting visibility and its influencing factors. It also explains the small target visibility calculation model for road lighting design, and describes the significance of establishing urban road lighting visibility standards from a point of view of visual function and visual comfort of drivers.

  19. Reflection properties of road surfaces. Contribution to OECD Scientific Expert Group AC4 on Road Surface Characteristics.

    OpenAIRE

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    Photometric characteristics of road surfaces are dealt with. Representation of reflection properties in public lighting; quality criteria of road lighting installations; classification of road surfaces; the relation between reflection characteristics and other properties of road pavements in public lighting; lighting with vehicle lights, daylight conditions; lighting with vehicle lights; daylight; and road markings are described in part I. Part II presents the measurement of reflection proper...

  20. Road and Street Centerlines - ROADS_TIGER05_IN: Indiana Roads from TIGER 2005 Files (U.S. Census Bureau, 1:100,000, Line Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — ROADS_TIGER05_IN is a line shapefile of Indiana roads. Original data are from the U.S. Department of Commerce, U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2005 (First Edition) Tiger...

  1. Do roads reduce painted turtle (Chrysemys picta populations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Dorland

    Full Text Available Road mortality is thought to be a leading cause of turtle population decline. However, empirical evidence of the direct negative effects of road mortality on turtle population abundance is lacking. The purpose of this study was to provide a strong test of the prediction that roads reduce turtle population abundance. While controlling for potentially confounding variables, we compared relative abundance of painted turtles (Chrysemys picta in 20 ponds in Eastern Ontario, 10 as close as possible to high traffic roads (Road sites and 10 as far as possible from any major roads (No Road sites. There was no significant effect of roads on painted turtle relative abundance. Furthermore, our data do not support other predictions of the road mortality hypothesis; we observed neither a higher relative frequency of males to females at Road sites than at No Road sites, nor a lower average body size of turtles at Road than at No Road sites. We speculate that, although roads can cause substantial adult mortality in turtles, other factors, such as release from predation on adults and/or nests close to roads counter the negative effect of road mortality in some populations. We suggest that road mitigation for painted turtles can be limited to locations where turtles are forced to migrate across high traffic roads due, for example, to destruction of local nesting habitat or seasonal drying of ponds. This conclusion should not be extrapolated to other species of turtles, where road mortality could have a larger population-level effect than on painted turtles.

  2. LOCATION OF PLANNED NEW ROAD CONSTRUCTION AND ROAD WIDENINGS IN DELAWARE, MARYLAND,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose was to create a GIS data set representing future road construction in the EPA MAIA study region. The latest data came from planning departments during 1999. Two types of construction were considered: the first are completely new roads being built on new easements an...

  3. Mass-media information campaigns about road safety. [previously known as: Public information about road safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    In the Netherlands, public information is often used as an instrument to improve road safety. The purpose of each public information campaign is a voluntary and lasting change in traffic behaviour. This requires road users to have sufficient knowledge about a problem and to adapt their behaviour. Go

  4. Estimation de la transparence de l'atmosphère par ciel clair à la Station Scientifique des Hautes-fagnes (SSHF), Mont Rigi, Belgique. Comparaison avec la Station d'Uccle-Bruxelles (IRM)

    OpenAIRE

    Dury, Marie; Ginion, Serge; Erpicum, Michel

    2009-01-01

    Cet article porte sur l’étude de la transparence de l’atmosphère par ciel clair au Mont Rigi (Hautes-Fagnes belges). Il a pour objectif la mise en évidence des particularités de la composition de l’air de cette région et la quantification de son influence sur le rayonnement solaire global. Nous avons utilisé les données suivantes: hauteur du Soleil, teneur en vapeur d’eau de l’air (caractérisée par la hauteur d’eau condensable) et rayonnement solaire reçu à la limite supérieure de l’atmosphèr...

  5. Road Lane Detection by Discriminating Dashed and Solid Road Lanes Using a Visible Light Camera Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Toan Minh; Hong, Hyung Gil; Vokhidov, Husan; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing need for road lane detection used in lane departure warning systems and autonomous vehicles, many studies have been conducted to turn road lane detection into a virtual assistant to improve driving safety and reduce car accidents. Most of the previous research approaches detect the central line of a road lane and not the accurate left and right boundaries of the lane. In addition, they do not discriminate between dashed and solid lanes when detecting the road lanes. However, this discrimination is necessary for the safety of autonomous vehicles and the safety of vehicles driven by human drivers. To overcome these problems, we propose a method for road lane detection that distinguishes between dashed and solid lanes. Experimental results with the Caltech open database showed that our method outperforms conventional methods. PMID:27548176

  6. Road Accidents and Road Fatalities in Denmark from 1968 to 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orozova-Bekkevold, Ivanka; Hels, Tove; Bernhoft, Inger Marie

    2008-01-01

    actions targeted to improve road safety have indeed led to a significant reduction in injury accidents and fatalities. Further research and more detailed data, especially on traffic volume and individual exposure are necessary in order to investigate properly a causal relation between the number of......The purpose of this article is to describe the road accidents and road fatalities in Denmark in the period 1968-2004. Only accidents registered by the police were used. Crude and gender & age specific fatality rates (counts per 1,000,000 inhabitants) were estimated for all road users and for...... bicyclists. The accident and fatality rates have decreased by around 70% from 1968 to 2004, while the motorisation rate has increased by approximately 90%. The sharpest decrease in the fatality rate was observed among the youngest (below 18 years old) and the older (above 64) road users. Gender related...

  7. System for Road Vehicle Energy Optimization Using Real Time Road and Traffic Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Jiménez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, reducing the energy and fuel consumption of road vehicles is a key issue. Different strategies have been proposed. One of them is to promote Eco-driving behaviour among drivers. Most Eco-driving tips take into account only the road stretch where the vehicle is located. However, larger improvements could be achieved if information from subsequent stretches is used. The main objective of this work is to develop a system to warn the driver in real time of the optimal speed that should be maintained on every road segment in order to optimize the energy used and the fuel consumed while observing a time schedule. The system takes into account the road vertical profile, the fixed and variable speed limits and the traffic information retrieved using V2V and V2I communications. The system has been tested on real road sections with satisfactory results in fuel savings.

  8. Road Accidents and Road Fatalities in Denmark from 1968 to 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orozova-Bekkevold, Ivanka; Hels, Tove; Bernhoft, Inger Marie

    actions targeted to improve road safety have indeed led to a significant reduction in injury accidents and fatalities. Further research and more detailed data, especially on traffic volume and individual exposure are necessary in order to investigate properly a causal relation between the number of......The purpose of this article is to describe the road accidents and road fatalities in Denmark in the period 1968-2004. Only accidents registered by the police were used. Crude and gender & age specific fatality rates (counts per 1,000,000 inhabitants) were estimated for all road users and for...... bicyclists. The accident and fatality rates have decreased by around 70% from 1968 to 2004, while the motorisation rate has increased by approximately 90%. The sharpest decrease in the fatality rate was observed among the youngest (below 18 years old) and the older (above 64) road users. Gender related...

  9. eRoads: A comparison between oil, battery electric vehicles, and electric roads for Danish road transport in terms of energy, emissions, and costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David

    2016-01-01

    This study compares electric roads with oil (petrol and diesel) and battery electric vehicles, using Denmark as a case study. Electric roads can reduce the cost of electric vehicles by supplying them with electricity directly from the road rather than via a battery for long-distance journeys. In...

  10. Modeling accident frequency in Denmark for improving road safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyckegaard, Allan; Hels, Tove; Kaplan, Sigal;

    Traffic accidents result in huge costs to society in terms of death, injury, lost productivity, and property damage. The main objective of the current study is the development of an accident frequency model that predicts the expected number of accidents on a given road segment, provided the...... infrastructure characteristics and the traffic conditions of the road. The model can be used to point out high risk road segments and support road authorities in planning interventions for the improvement of road safety on Danish roads. The number of accidents on a road link was modeled using a count model after...... concerning police recorded accidents, link characteristics of the road network, traffic volumes from the national transport models are merged to estimate the model. Spatial correlation between road sections is taken into account for correcting for unobserved correlation between contiguous locations....

  11. Multispectral Image Road Extraction Based Upon Automated Map Conflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin

    Road network extraction from remotely sensed imagery enables many important and diverse applications such as vehicle tracking, drone navigation, and intelligent transportation studies. There are, however, a number of challenges to road detection from an image. Road pavement material, width, direction, and topology vary across a scene. Complete or partial occlusions caused by nearby buildings, trees, and the shadows cast by them, make maintaining road connectivity difficult. The problems posed by occlusions are exacerbated with the increasing use of oblique imagery from aerial and satellite platforms. Further, common objects such as rooftops and parking lots are made of materials similar or identical to road pavements. This problem of common materials is a classic case of a single land cover material existing for different land use scenarios. This work addresses these problems in road extraction from geo-referenced imagery by leveraging the OpenStreetMap digital road map to guide image-based road extraction. The crowd-sourced cartography has the advantages of worldwide coverage that is constantly updated. The derived road vectors follow only roads and so can serve to guide image-based road extraction with minimal confusion from occlusions and changes in road material. On the other hand, the vector road map has no information on road widths and misalignments between the vector map and the geo-referenced image are small but nonsystematic. Properly correcting misalignment between two geospatial datasets, also known as map conflation, is an essential step. A generic framework requiring minimal human intervention is described for multispectral image road extraction and automatic road map conflation. The approach relies on the road feature generation of a binary mask and a corresponding curvilinear image. A method for generating the binary road mask from the image by applying a spectral measure is presented. The spectral measure, called anisotropy-tunable distance (ATD

  12. Road manslaughter-or just the cost of progress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooren, L; Grzebieta, R

    2010-01-01

    Much to the frustration of road safety researchers, practitioners, and advocates, road deaths and injuries have not been widely accepted as a major public health threat. Currently, road trauma is one of the biggest killers and causes of serious and disabling injuries in the world. Although there has been considerable research on the causes of road injury and ways of mitigating the problem, there is still reluctance to systematically and sufficiently do what can be done to reduce this problem globally. This paper takes a historical review of the road trauma problem and responses to it. In examining developments in road transport and road injury, it is clear that the main impediment to reducing road deaths and injury has been a misguided preference of economic advancement over public health risk management. It is misguided because road trauma has impeded and does still impede the capacity of economies to develop. The challenge for societies now is to look at this false dichotomy-that of road development and motorisation versus road safety-and begin to make the right choices in favour of human society advancement through the development and management of safe road-traffic systems. A new 'Safe Systems' approach is emerging in Australia and spreading globally as a guiding principle for road safety. The evolution of this approach is traced and illustrated in this article. The need for finding ways to engender a stronger global political commitment to road safety is demonstrated. PMID:22460394

  13. A review of road extraction from remote sensing images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weixing Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As a significant role for traffic management, city planning, road monitoring, GPS navigation and map updating, the technology of road extraction from a remote sensing (RS image has been a hot research topic in recent years. In this paper, after analyzing different road features and road models, the road extraction methods were classified into the classification-based methods, knowledge-based methods, mathematical morphology, active contour model, and dynamic programming. Firstly, the road features, road model, existing difficulties and interference factors for road extraction were analyzed. Secondly, the principle of road extraction, the advantages and disadvantages of various methods and research achievements were briefly highlighted. Then, the comparisons of the different road extraction algorithms were performed, including road features, test samples and shortcomings. Finally, the research results in recent years were summarized emphatically. It is obvious that only using one kind of road features is hard to get an excellent extraction effect. Hence, in order to get good results, the road extraction should combine multiple methods according to the real applications. In the future, how to realize the complete road extraction from a RS image is still an essential but challenging and important research topic.

  14. Environmental exposure of road borders to zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The emissions of zinc along roads originating from tyre wear, corrosion of safety fence and other traffic-related sources have been quantified and validated by measured long-term loads in road run-off and airborne solids (drift) for 29 published case studies. The distribution pattern over the road border at various distances from the edge of the paved surface is assessed on the basis of 38 published case studies with measured concentrations in soil. For the impact assessment, the road border is differentiated into a zone that is part of the 'technosphere' and the 'target zone' beyond that technosphere that can be considered as part of the receiving environment. The 'technosphere' of the road includes the central reservation, the hard and the soft shoulder or, if one or both shoulders are not present, the so-called obstacle 'free zone' that is defined by road engineers. Pollution within the technosphere may require appropriate management of solid disposal and isolation from groundwater to prevent further distribution of pollutants to the environment. In the target zone along regional roads, the zinc load is about 4 mg/m2 year and this is of the same order of magnitude as that of atmospheric deposition in areas beyond the influence of roads (background). In the target zone along highways, the zinc load is increased in comparison to the background deposition. The average load of about 38 mg/m2 year is similar to that in fertilised agricultural land. Because most of the emitted zinc stays in the technosphere, the total amount entering this target zone along highways is limited. From the 140 tons of zinc per year that is released from tyre wear in The Netherlands, 64 tons is emitted in the urban area, 6.5 tons reaches to the target zones of all roads and only 1.1 tons of zinc will enter the target zone along highways. This amount will be further decreased by the application of porous asphalt in the near future. The emission from safety fence corrosion does not enter the

  15. Geophysical methods for road construction and maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasul, Hedi; Karlson, Caroline; Jamali, Imran; Earon, Robert; Olofsson, Bo

    2015-04-01

    Infrastructure, such as road transportation, is a vital in civilized societies; which need to be constructed and maintained regularly. A large part of the project cost is attributed to subsurface conditions, where unsatisfactory conditions could increase either the geotechnical stabilization measures needed or the design cost itself. A way to collect information of the subsurface and existing installations which can lead to measures reducing the project cost and damage is to use geophysical methods during planning, construction and maintenance phases. The moisture in road layers is an important factor, which will affect the bearing capacity of the construction as well as the maintenances. Moisture in the road is a key factor for a well-functioning road. On the other hand the excessive moisture is the main reason of road failure and problems. From a hydrological point of view geophysical methods could help road planners identify the water table, geological strata, pollution arising from the road and the movement of the pollution before, during and after construction. Geophysical methods also allow road planners to collect valuable data for a large area without intrusive investigations such as with boreholes, i.e. minimizing the environmental stresses and costs. However, it is important to specify the investigation site and to choose the most appropriate geophysical method based on the site chosen and the objective of the investigation. Currently, numerous construction and rehabilitation projects are taking places around the world. Many of these projects are focused on infrastructural development, comprising both new projects and expansion of the existing infrastructural network. Geophysical methods can benefit these projects greatly during all phases. During the construction phase Ground Penetrating radar (GPR) is very useful in combination with Electrical Resistivity (ER) for detecting soil water content and base course compaction. However, ER and Electromagnetic

  16. Putting road safety awareness into practice

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    To round off the series of articles and posters published as part of its road safety awareness campaign, CERN is organising two information and demonstration open days on 23 and 25 September. Can you brake in time ? Did you know that you are 21 times more at risk of being killed if you are not wearing a seat belt in the event of your car rolling over? All your questions on road safety will be answered at two special days that are being organized on 23 and 25 September. You will also be able to test your reflexes and your knowledge by taking part in demonstrations. The CERN Management attaches high priority to an improvement in safety standards on the Laboratory's roads. These two open days have been arranged to round off the road safety awareness and highway courtesy campaign which was launched last year. They are intended to provide us with an opportunity, through a more "hands-on" approach, of heightening our awareness of the risks associated with road traffic, of the legislation in force, and above all t...

  17. Traffic Impact Simulation for Road Construction Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazao Yang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing traffic contradiction between supply and demand, urban traffic problems have become quite complex. Reasons for traffic congestion have become much more diverse. During the construction of urban road project, the surrounding road network will encounter a huge impact, traffic problems therefore emerged. Simulation is an important means for transport impact assessment, which has an important role for construction traffic impact analysis. Accordingly, traffic simulation is particularly important for policy setting and traffic organization. Taking an improvement project of Changjiang rapid road in Zhongshan city for example, this paper used the professional simulation software Vissim to analysis the impact of Qiwan road during the construction project. The simulation and traffic evaluation results can give some forward-looking and targeted measures about traffic safety, traffic organization, road facilities alteration and so on. The traffic impact analysis results shown that traffic safety and high-efficiency transport system must protected by good traffic re-organization projects and the simulation method is an effective mean to actualize traffic impact assessment.

  18. 2nd Road Vehicle Automation Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Beiker, Sven; Road Vehicle Automation

    2014-01-01

    This contributed volume covers all relevant aspects of road vehicle automation including societal impacts, legal matters, and technology innovation from the perspectives of a multitude of public and private actors. It is based on an expert workshop organized by the Transportation Research Board at Stanford University in July 2013. The target audience primarily comprises academic researchers, but the book may also be of interest to practitioners and professionals. Higher levels of road vehicle automation are considered beneficial for road safety, energy efficiency, productivity, convenience, and social inclusion. The necessary key technologies in the fields of object-recognition systems, data processing, and infrastructure communication have been consistently developed over the recent years and are mostly available on the market today. However, there is still a need for substantial research and development, e.g. with interactive maps, data processing, functional safety, and the fusion of different data sources...

  19. Improving and optimising road pricing in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Otto Anker; Larsen, Marie Karen

    2008-01-01

    though quite a number of proposed charging systems have been examined only a few pricing strategies have been investigated. This paper deals with the optimisation of different designs for a road pricing system in the Greater Copenhagen area with respect to temporal and spatial differentiation of the......The question whether to introduce toll rings or road pricing in Copenhagen has been discussed intensively during the last 10 years. The main results of previous analyses are that none of the systems would make a positive contribution at present, when considered from a socio-economic view. Even...... pricing levels. A detailed transport model was used to describe the demand effects. The model was based on data from a real test of road pricing on 500 car drivers. The paper compares the price systems with regard to traffic effects and generalised costs for users and society. It is shown how important it...

  20. Color vision for road scene interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandt, Frederic; Aubert, Didier; Festas, Laurence

    1993-12-01

    For ten years, unstructured road following has been the subject of many studies. Road following must support the automatic navigation, at reasonable speed, of mobile robots on irregular paths and roads, with heterogeneous surfaces and under variable lighting conditions. Civil and military applications of this technology include transportation, logistics, security and engineering. The definition of our lane following system requires an evaluation of the existing technologies. Although the various operational systems converge on a color perception and a region segmentation optimizing discrimination and stability respectively, the treatments and performances vary. In this paper, the robustness of four operational systems and two connected techniques are compared according to common evaluation criteria. We present the identification of typical situations that have been used to create the image data base, the experimental protocol designs to compare the performances of the techniques and the analysis of the experimental results.

  1. Road safety campaign is a great success

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Rolf Heuer, the next Director-General of CERN, and Sigurd Lettow, the Director of Finance and Human Resources (photo below), completed all the tests of the CERN road safety campaign under the supervision of TCS instructors. The road safety campaign, which took place in the Main Building during the week of 10 November, attracted large numbers of participants. More than 300 CERN personnel and users took part in, and in some cases were literally bowled over by, the activities set up by instructors from the TCS (Touring Club Suisse). The campaign’s aim was to raise driver awareness of several aspects of road safety, including speed, use of mobile phones at the wheel, pedestrian priority, unlawful parking and driving with a valid licence. The campaign was an unqualified success! Even CERN’s directors joined in, testing their own reactions as drivers on the various pieces of apparatus in place.

  2. Assessment of rockfall risk along roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Budetta

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains a method for the analysis of rockfall risk along roads and motorways. The method is derived from the Rockfall Hazard Rating System (RHRS developed by Pierson et al. (1990 at the Oregon State Highway Division. The RHRS provides a rational way to make informed decisions on where and how to spend construction funds. Exponential scoring functions are used to represent the increases, respectively, in hazard and in vulnerability that are reflected in the nine categories forming the classification. The resulting total score contains the essential elements regarding the evaluation of the degree of the exposition to the risk along roads. In the modified method, the ratings for the categories 'ditch effectiveness', 'geologic characteristic', 'volume of rockfall/block size', 'climate and water circulation' and 'rockfall history' have been rendered more easy and objective. The main modifications regard the introduction of Slope Mass Rating by Romana (1985, 1988, 1991 improving the estimate of the geologic characteristics, of the volume of the potentially unstable blocks and the underground water circulation. Other modifications regard the scoring for the categories 'decision sight distance' and 'road geometry'. For these categories, the Italian National Council's standards (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche - CNR have been used (CNR, 1980. The method must be applied in both the traffic directions because the percentage of reduction in the decision sight distance greatly affects the results. An application of the modified method to a 2km long section of the Sorrentine road (no 145 in Southern Italy was developed. A high traffic intensity affects the entire section of the road and rockfalls periodically cause casualties, as well as a large amount of damage and traffic interruptions. The method was applied to seven cross sections of slopes adjacent to the Sorrentine road. For these slopes, the analysis shows that the risk is

  3. Optimal policies for aggregate recycling from decommissioned forest roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Matthew; Sessions, John

    2008-08-01

    To mitigate the adverse environmental impact of forest roads, especially degradation of endangered salmonid habitat, many public and private land managers in the western United States are actively decommissioning roads where practical and affordable. Road decommissioning is associated with reduced long-term environmental impact. When decommissioning a road, it may be possible to recover some aggregate (crushed rock) from the road surface. Aggregate is used on many low volume forest roads to reduce wheel stresses transferred to the subgrade, reduce erosion, reduce maintenance costs, and improve driver comfort. Previous studies have demonstrated the potential for aggregate to be recovered and used elsewhere on the road network, at a reduced cost compared to purchasing aggregate from a quarry. This article investigates the potential for aggregate recycling to provide an economic incentive to decommission additional roads by reducing transport distance and aggregate procurement costs for other actively used roads. Decommissioning additional roads may, in turn, result in improved aquatic habitat. We present real-world examples of aggregate recycling and discuss the advantages of doing so. Further, we present mixed integer formulations to determine optimal levels of aggregate recycling under economic and environmental objectives. Tested on an example road network, incorporation of aggregate recycling demonstrates substantial cost-savings relative to a baseline scenario without recycling, increasing the likelihood of road decommissioning and reduced habitat degradation. We find that aggregate recycling can result in up to 24% in cost savings (economic objective) and up to 890% in additional length of roads decommissioned (environmental objective). PMID:18481140

  4. An approach to accidents modeling based on compounds road environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Ana; Neves, Jose

    2013-04-01

    The most common approach to study the influence of certain road features on accidents has been the consideration of uniform road segments characterized by a unique feature. However, when an accident is related to the road infrastructure, its cause is usually not a single characteristic but rather a complex combination of several characteristics. The main objective of this paper is to describe a methodology developed in order to consider the road as a complete environment by using compound road environments, overcoming the limitations inherented in considering only uniform road segments. The methodology consists of: dividing a sample of roads into segments; grouping them into quite homogeneous road environments using cluster analysis; and identifying the influence of skid resistance and texture depth on road accidents in each environment by using generalized linear models. The application of this methodology is demonstrated for eight roads. Based on real data from accidents and road characteristics, three compound road environments were established where the pavement surface properties significantly influence the occurrence of accidents. Results have showed clearly that road environments where braking maneuvers are more common or those with small radii of curvature and high speeds require higher skid resistance and texture depth as an important contribution to the accident prevention. PMID:23376544

  5. Forest opening with a secondary road network

    OpenAIRE

    Danilović Milorad; Ljubojević Darko

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an analysis of the position and density of a secondary road network in the group-selection management system. The research was conducted in the economic unit Prosara in the north west of the Republic of Srpska. The network of skid roads in the analyzed sections was recorded using the GPS devices Garmin GPS 60 and Garmin Map 62st, and the analysis software package used was ESRI ArcInfo 10.1. Adhering to the general guidelin...

  6. Road Infrastructure and Climate Change in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S. Chinowsky

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is a potential threat to Vietnam’s development as current and future infrastructure will be vulnerable to climate change impacts. This paper focuses on the physical asset of road infrastructure in Vietnam by evaluating the potential impact of changes from stressors, including: sea level rise, precipitation, temperature and flooding. Across 56 climate scenarios, the mean additional cost of maintaining the same road network through 2050 amount to US$10.5 billion. The potential scale of these impacts establishes climate change adaptation as an important component of planning and policy in the current and near future.

  7. Research on Lorry Road User Charging Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Sui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 2011-2015 Business Plan, a lorry road user charging scheme has been planned to implement by the Coalition Government by 2014. This study will describe the possible impacts of such a system on the road haulage sector and the ways in which logistics providers might utilize different operating practices and technology to improve their operational performance under such circumstances in the UK. And this essay will cover the possible uses for Intelligent Transport Systems and new working practices using specific case study examples. Finally, the impacts of LRUC and several feasible countermeasures will be discussed in the following text.

  8. Dust suppressants for Nordic gravel roads

    OpenAIRE

    Oscarsson, Karin

    2007-01-01

    This licentiate thesis is part of a Ph.D. project entitled “CDU:T43 Different methods for dust control and evaluating dust control on Nordic gravel roads”. The Ph.D. project is financially supported by the Swedish Road Administration (SRA) through the Centre ofResearch and Education in Operation and Maintenance of the Infrastructure (CDU)within the Swedish Network of Excellence – Road Technology (RT). Much of the research described in this thesis has been carried out in collaboration with SRA...

  9. Design methods for low volume roads

    OpenAIRE

    Brito, Lelio

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with producing a simple method to design low volume roads (LVR) by means of a rationale which accounts for permanent deformation development in granular layers. Rutting is regarded as the main distress mode in unsealed and thinly sealed pavements. Hence, it is desirable that it be analytically approached rather than empirically, as in most design methods. The overall aim of this PhD thesis was to look into the behaviour of in-service roads and from a newly developed ...

  10. ASPECTS OF ARMY ROAD TRANSPORT MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Japhet

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A basic tenet of transport management must be the efficient operation of all constituent parts of the transport function. In recognition of the growing urgency of the energy problem as a primary goal and of the need to maintain a high level of combat readiness at the same time, this article will look, albeit briefly, at the various aspects of road transport that need to be dealt with in the search for cost-effectiveness. Five major elements of road transport management are: Purchasing policy; maintenance; driver training and control; movements planning and procedures; and Research and Development.

  11. A combined road weather forecast system to prevent road ice formation in the Adige Valley (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Napoli, Claudia; Piazza, Andrea; Antonacci, Gianluca; Todeschini, Ilaria; Apolloni, Roberto; Pretto, Ilaria

    2016-04-01

    Road ice is a dangerous meteorological hazard to a nation's transportation system and economy. By reducing the pavement friction with vehicle tyres, ice formation on pavements increases accident risk and delays travelling times thus posing a serious threat to road users' safety and the running of economic activities. Keeping roads clear and open is therefore essential, especially in mountainous areas where ice is likely to form during the winter period. Winter road maintenance helps to restore road efficiency and security, and its benefits are up to 8 times the costs sustained for anti-icing strategies [1]. However, the optimization of maintenance costs and the reduction of the environmental damage from over-salting demand further improvements. These can be achieved by reliable road weather forecasts, and in particular by the prediction of road surface temperatures (RSTs). RST is one of the most important parameters in determining road surface conditions. It is well known from literature that ice forms on pavements in high-humidity conditions when RSTs are below 0°C. We have therefore implemented an automatic forecast system to predict critical RSTs on a test route along the Adige Valley complex terrain, in the Italian Alps. The system considers two physical models, each computing heat and energy fluxes between the road and the atmosphere. One is Reuter's radiative cooling model, which predicts RSTs at sunrise as a function of surface temperatures at sunset and the time passed since then [2]. One is METRo (Model of the Environment and Temperature of Roads), a road weather forecast software which also considers heat conduction through road material [3]. We have applied the forecast system to a network of road weather stations (road weather information system, RWIS) installed on the test route [4]. Road and atmospheric observations from RWIS have been used as initial conditions for both METRo and Reuter's model. In METRo observations have also been coupled to

  12. [Effects of road construction on regional vegetation types].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shi-Liang; Liu, Qi; Wang, Cong; Yang, Jue-Jie; Deng, Li

    2013-05-01

    As a regional artificial disturbance component, road exerts great effects on vegetation types, and plays a substantial role in defining vegetation distribution to a certain extent. Aiming at the tropical rainforest degradation and artificial forest expansion in Yunnan Province of Southwest China, this paper analyzed the effects of road network extension on regional vegetation types. In the Province, different classes of roads had different effects on the vegetation types, but no obvious regularity was observed in the effects on the patch areas of different vegetation types due to the great variations of road length and affected distance. However, the vegetation patch number was more affected by lower class roads because of their wide distribution. As for different vegetation types, the vegetations on cultivated land were most affected by roads, followed by Castanopsis hystrix and Schima wallichii forests. Road network formation contributed most to the vegetation fragmentation, and there existed significant correlations between the human disturbance factors including village- and road distributions. PMID:24015533

  13. ACCOUNT OF ROAD CONDITIONS WHILE INVESTIGATING TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    D. D. Selioukov; I. I. Leonovich

    2014-01-01

    The paper considers problems on better traffic safety at government, authority, engineering and driver activity levels, account of road conditions while investigating traffic accidents. The paper also provides road defects mentioned in forensic transport examinations of traffic accidents.

  14. Congestion Relief: Assessing the Case for Road Tolls in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Robin Lindsey

    2007-01-01

    Experience with road pricing generally — and congestion pricing specifically — is growing around the world. Research and planning in Canada should begin now on road pricing for heavily congested highways and streets.

  15. Classification of Steps on Road Surface Using Acceleration Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junji Takahashi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce a road monitoring cost, we propose a system to monitor extensively road condition by cyclists with a smartphone. In this paper, we propose two methods towards road monitoring. First is to classify road signals to four road conditions. Second is to extract road signal from a smartphone's accelerometer in three positions: pants' side pocket, chest pocket and a bag in a front basket. In pants' side pocket, road signal is extracted by Independent Component Analysis. In chest pocket and bag in a front basket, road signal is extracted by selecting 1-axis affected from gravitational acceleration. In the experiment of the classification method, overall accuracy was 75%. The experimental results of the extraction methods with correlation coefficient showed the overall accuracy were more than 0.7 in pants' side pocket and chest pocket, the overall accuracy was less than 0.3 in bag in a front basket.

  16. The Relationship between Road Design and Driving Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abele, Liva; Møller, Mette

    2011-01-01

    Speed is a substantial factor contributing to road safety. Currently, speed reduction is mainly achieved through law enforcement and the implementation of traffic calming measures. An alternative speed reducing approach is to encourage drivers to voluntarily choose an appropriate driving speed....... Improving road infrastructure safety can be achieved by making roads forgiving and self-explaining. This could be done by clarifying the road design characteristics for each road category. The effect on driver behavior by varying road-shoulders and presence of roadside trees was tested by means of a fixed-driving...... simulator experiment. Speed and lateral position were used as performance indicators. The results indicated that shoulders might not be applied to decrease the speed on the experimental road stretch, but their presence cause drivers to drive closer to the road edge, hence eliminating the probability of head...

  17. Robust Unstructured Road Detection: The Importance of Contextual Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erke Shang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Unstructured road detection is a key step in an unmanned guided vehicle (UGV system for road following. However, current vision‐based unstructured road detection algorithms are usually affected by continuously changing backgrounds, different road types (shape, colour, variable lighting conditions and weather conditions. Therefore, a confidence map of road distribution, one of contextual information cues, is theoretically analysed and experimentally generated to help detect unstructured roads. Two traditional algorithms, support vector machine (SVM and k‐nearest neighbour (KNN, are carried out to verify the helpfulness of the proposed confidence map. Following this, a novel algorithm, which combines SVM, KNN and the confidence map under a Bayesian framework, is proposed to improve the overall performance of the unstructured road detections. The proposed algorithm has been evaluated using different types of unstructured roads and the experimental results show its effectiveness.

  18. A practice case study on green campus road

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Jing

    2014-01-01

    In this article the green campus road practice of Shandong JiaoTong University is taken as an example,and some simple green technical measures in special regional are summarized such as the road net organization,the road pavement way,the road drainage and the road lighting. A campus road model with the cultural and comfort and harmonious using simple local materials, some common technology and in low cost is created. The original campus resource is as far as possible to be protected and utilized. The natural environment is less destroyed. The campus road is convenient and characteristic. The article is aim to provides some thoughts and references to other campus road design.

  19. EnviroAtlas - Phoenix, AZ - Near Road Block Group Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  20. EnviroAtlas - Paterson, NJ - Near Road Block Group Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  1. EnviroAtlas - Woodbine, IA - Near Road Block Group Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  2. EnviroAtlas - Durham, NC - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  3. EnviroAtlas - Memphis, TN - Near Road Block Group Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  4. EnviroAtlas - Pittsburgh, PA - Near Road Block Group Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  5. EnviroAtlas - Durham, NC - Near Road Block Group Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  6. EnviroAtlas - Phoenix, AZ - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  7. EnviroAtlas - Portland, ME - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  8. EnviroAtlas - Des Moines, IA - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  9. EnviroAtlas - Fresno, CA - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  10. EnviroAtlas - Milwaukee, WI - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  11. EnviroAtlas - New York, NY - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  12. EnviroAtlas - Austin, TX - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  13. EnviroAtlas - New Bedford, MA - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  14. EnviroAtlas - Fresno, CA - Near Road Block Group Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  15. EnviroAtlas - Portland, OR - Near Road Block Group Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  16. EnviroAtlas - Pittsburgh, PA - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  17. EnviroAtlas - Milwaukee, WI - Near Road Block Group Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  18. EnviroAtlas - Green Bay, WI - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  19. EnviroAtlas - Portland, ME - Near Road Block Group Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  20. EnviroAtlas - Austin, TX - Near Road Block Group Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  1. EnviroAtlas - Paterson, NJ - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  2. EnviroAtlas - Tampa, FL - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  3. EnviroAtlas - Portland, OR - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  4. EnviroAtlas - Memphis, TN - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  5. EnviroAtlas - Woodbine, IA - Near Road Tree Buffer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  6. EnviroAtlas - Tampa, FL - Near Road Block Group Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset addresses the tree buffer along heavily traveled roads. The roads are interstates, arterials, and collectors within the EnviroAtlas...

  7. How long do the dead survive on the road? Carcass persistence probability and implications for road-kill monitoring surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M Santos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Road mortality is probably the best-known and visible impact of roads upon wildlife. Although several factors influence road-kill counts, carcass persistence time is considered the most important determinant underlying underestimates of road mortality. The present study aims to describe and model carcass persistence variability on the road for different taxonomic groups under different environmental conditions throughout the year; and also to assess the effect of sampling frequency on the relative variation in road-kill estimates registered within a survey. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Daily surveys of road-killed vertebrates were conducted over one year along four road sections with different traffic volumes. Survival analysis was then used to i describe carcass persistence timings for overall and for specific animal groups; ii assess optimal sampling designs according to research objectives; and iii model the influence of road, animal and weather factors on carcass persistence probabilities. Most animal carcasses persisted on the road for the first day only, with some groups disappearing at very high rates. The advisable periodicity of road monitoring that minimizes bias in road mortality estimates is daily monitoring for bats (in the morning and lizards (in the afternoon, daily monitoring for toads, small birds, small mammals, snakes, salamanders, and lagomorphs; 1 day-interval (alternate days for large birds, birds of prey, hedgehogs, and freshwater turtles; and 2 day-interval for carnivores. Multiple factors influenced the persistence probabilities of vertebrate carcasses on the road. Overall, the persistence was much lower for small animals, on roads with lower traffic volumes, for carcasses located on road lanes, and during humid conditions and high temperatures during the wet season and dry seasons, respectively. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The guidance given here on monitoring frequencies is particularly relevant to provide

  8. 25 CFR 170.138 - Can roads be built in roadless and wild areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.138 Can roads be built in roadless and wild areas? Under 25 CFR part 265 no roads can...

  9. Environment and Road Construction in Wind Farm Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Kulju, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This thesis was written for the wind power company PROKON Wind Energy Finland Oy. The aim of this thesis was to create a guide for road construction in wind farm projects and related environmental issues. This thesis deals with relevant legislation as well as possible challenges and solutions regarding the road construction. In this thesis construction of roads refers to construction of those access roads which are required in order to transport components of wind power plant and maintain pow...

  10. Private Toll Roads: Learning from the 19th Century

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel B. Klein; Fielding, Gordon J.

    1992-01-01

    California has authorized four toll roads to be constructed and operated by private groups, and it is considering more. Construction on a similar 14-mile project in Virginia will begin in 1992. Florida, Texas, and Colorado are considering proposals for private toll roads, and there is talk of a 500-mile private connection between Chicago and Kansas City. Outside the United States, private groups are operating toll roads in France and Italy. Indeed, the idea of private toll roads is making a c...

  11. The political ecology of road construction in Ladakh

    OpenAIRE

    Demenge, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    This thesis explores the politics and consequences of road construction for local populations and migrant road workers in Ladakh. Through a political ecology framework, I consider road construction as the transformation of an environment in which different agents act through specific socio-political arrangements and for purposes that are socially and culturally mediated. Based on ethnographic fieldwork conducted in remote villages and among groups of Nepali and Jharkhandi road ...

  12. Network Screening for Smarter Road Sites: A Regional Case

    OpenAIRE

    Attila Grieco; Chiara Montaldo; Sylvie Occelli; Silvia Tarditi

    2014-01-01

    Road safety has been a main societal and policy issue in many European countries since the early years of last decade. After the 2000-2010 Road Safety Programme launched by the European Commission, in 2011 the Commission adopted the new 2020 programme, even more demanding than the previous. As the societal consequences of road casualties are increasingly perceived as a core dimension of smart mobility, road safety system is now facing new challenges. Current mobility shifts to softer and gree...

  13. Relieving road congestion through motorway concessions in Moscow

    OpenAIRE

    Carpintero Lopez, Samuel; Camos Daurella, G.; Barcham, R.

    2010-01-01

    Russia has a well-developed and powerful transportation system. However, the entire transpon infrastructure was designed to meet the needs of a closed and centralized economy. It has become clear that the current road network does not fillfill Russia's social and economic needs. The growth of Russia's road network has fallen far behind motorization rates and the growing demand for road transportation. This gap is a result of the low level of investment in road infrastructure, especially durin...

  14. Road manslaughter—or just the cost of progress?

    OpenAIRE

    Mooren, L; Grzebieta, R

    2009-01-01

    Much to the frustration of road safety researchers, practitioners, and advocates, road deaths and injuries have not been widely accepted as a major public health threat. Currently, road trauma is one of the biggest killers and causes of serious and disabling injuries in the world. Although there has been considerable research on the causes of road injury and ways of mitigating the problem, there is still reluctance to systematically and sufficiently do what can be done to reduce this problem ...

  15. Road manslaughter, or just the cost of progress?

    OpenAIRE

    Moreen, Lori; Grzebieta, Raphael

    2011-01-01

    Much to the frustration of road safety researchers, practitioners and advocates, road deaths and injuries have not been widely accepted as a major public health threat. Currently, road trauma is one of the biggest killers and causes of serious and disabling injuries in the world. While there has been considerable research on the causes of road injury and ways of mitigating the problem, there is still reluctance to systematically and sufficiently do what can be done to reduce this problem glob...

  16. An automatic system for measuring road and tunnel lighting performance

    OpenAIRE

    Greffier, Florian; Charbonnier, Pierre; Tarel, Jean-Philippe; Boucher, Vincent; FOURNELA, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Various problems in different domains are related to the operation of the Human Visual System (HVS). This is notably the case when considering the driver's visual perception, and road safety in general. That is why several standards of road equipments are directly derived from human visual abilities and especially in road and tunnel lighting installations design. This paper introduces an automatic system for measuring road and tunnel lighting performance. The proposed device is based on an em...

  17. Recent Developments in Pavement Management on Irish National Roads

    OpenAIRE

    Feighan, Kieran; McGowan, Ray; Casey, Tom; O’Sullivan, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Irish National pavement network is Ireland’s strategic road network consisting of over 5,300 centreline kilometres of road and is managed by the National Roads Authority (NRA). There is a very significant variation across the network under a variety of headings, including pavement construction, pavement age, carriageway width, lane width, geometric design and traffic volumes carried. A large proportion of the network consists of “legacy” roads that have evolved from historic routes that a...

  18. Road dust from pavement wear and traction sanding

    OpenAIRE

    Kupiainen, Kaarle

    2007-01-01

    Vehicles affect the concentrations of ambient airborne particles through exhaust emissions, but particles are also formed in the mechanical processes in the tire-road interface, brakes, and engine. Particles deposited on or in the vicinity of the road may be re-entrained, or resuspended, into air through vehicle-induced turbulence and shearing stress of the tires. A commonly used term for these particles is road dust . The processes affecting road dust emissions are complex and currently not...

  19. Characterization of road microtexture by means of image analysis

    OpenAIRE

    BEN SLIMANE, Anis; Khoudeir, Majdi; Brochard, Jacques; Do, Minh Tan

    2005-01-01

    Road surface microtexture (sub-millimeter scale) is essential for pavement skid-resistance. However, its measurement is only possible in the laboratory on cores taken from trafficked roads, and is time consuming. For efficient road monitoring, it is necessary to develop faster methods usable on-site. Collaboration has been developed for 2 years between LCPC and the laboratory Signal, Image and Communication (SIC) to develop a measurement and characterization method for road microtexture ba...

  20. Tribological approach to study polishing of road surface under traffic

    OpenAIRE

    Kane, Malal; Do, Minh Tan

    2007-01-01

    The polishing phenomenon of road pavements under the vehicle traffic constitutes the main mechanism inherent to the loss of skid resistance over time. A better understanding of this phenomenon would allow an improvement of road safety. This study comprises a review of laboratory test and a model simulating the polishing of road surfaces. The laboratory test uses a polishing machine so called 'Wehner-Schulze' which can reproduce the evolution of the road texture from specimens taken directly f...

  1. Structural Design of Asphalt Pavement for Low Cost Rural Roads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Goulin; Chen Rongshen

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of the equivalent axle load action frequency, the traffic classifications of rural roads as well as their corresponding types are classified. The asphalt pavement structure, road surface types and thickness of the rural roads are suggested for the various action frequency of the equivalent axle load. Furthermore, the roadbase thickness graphs are provided according to different equivalent axle load action frequency with different roadbed modulus and road surface modulus taken into account.

  2. Customized Digital Road Map Building using Floating Car GPS Data

    OpenAIRE

    Rajendran, G.; M.Arthanari; M. Sivakumar

    2010-01-01

    The vehicle tracking, navigation and road guidance applications are becoming more popular but the presently available digital maps are not suitable for many such applications. Among the drawbacks are the insufficient accuracy of road geometry and the delayed time in loading the unwanted data. Most of the commercial applications in vehicle tracking require digital maps which have only roads and places of interest whereas the currently available maps show all available roads and places. A simpl...

  3. Flagman and Risk Involved in Road Construction Site

    OpenAIRE

    Vigneswara Rao Ganapthy; Siva Kumar Subramaniam; Abu Bakar Mohamad Diah; Mohamad Kadim Suaidi; Abdul Hamid Hamidon

    2011-01-01

    Road construction is a necessary process of development for the comfort and safety of users. Most road construction is a tidies job whereby the duration and safety is always considered very important for the construction management. One of the most crucial factors in a road construction site is the safety of the road users and the construction workers. Proper safety sign and indication system should be utilized to ensure safety to be optimized. The most common practice of safety indication is...

  4. THE INTRODUCTION OF THE METHODOLOGY TO IMPROVE ROAD SAFETY

    OpenAIRE

    D. Kapsky; a Ryabchinsky

    2014-01-01

    Recommendations for improving the road safety and quality of road traffic controlled junctions(crossings) on individual parameters of traffic light control, improvement of traffic light control by optimizing the length of the transition interval in the traffic light cycle, increase awareness and early warning drivers about the upcoming change traffic lights division of transport and pedestrian traffic, road conditions , transportation planning and technical aids of road  traffic, as well as r...

  5. The administration of road user taxes in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Roy W. Bahl

    1992-01-01

    After studying the problems of administering road user taxes in 19 developing countries, the author reports the following, among other things. There is no single, correct structure for road user taxation since the various charges may play different roles in different national revenue systems. All effective tax administration requires a solid, uncomplicated tax structure. The substantial revenue potential of road user taxation rests on a growing tax base. Despite this, road user taxation remai...

  6. Analytic choices in road safety evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune

    2012-01-01

    Conducting rigorous before-and-after studies is essential for improving knowledge regarding the effects of road safety measures. However, state-of-the-art approaches like the empirical Bayes or fully Bayesian techniques cannot always be applied, as the data required by these approaches may be...

  7. Synthesis Road Map Problems in Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Chris P.; Graham, Kate J.; Jones, T. Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Road map problems ask students to integrate their knowledge of organic reactions with pattern recognition skills to "fill in the blanks" in the synthesis of an organic compound. Students are asked to identify familiar organic reactions in unfamiliar contexts. A practical context, such as a medicinally useful target compound, helps…

  8. Light signals for road traffic control.

    OpenAIRE

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    Signals for road traffic control are a major constituent of the modern traffic scene, particularly in built-up areas. A vast amount of research has been executed in the last two decennia, resulting in a fairly generally accepted view on what the requirements for effective traffic lights are. For the French translation see B 19780

  9. Technical manual: Labour-based road construction

    OpenAIRE

    Johannessen, B

    1997-01-01

    "The purpose of this manual is to provide technical staff from supervisors to engineers with a field reference which in detail explains and prescribes the work methods and technical standards applied when constructing rural roads using labour-based methods in Lao PDR.

  10. Towards a political economy of roads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Fiona

    2004-01-01

    the state and the mobility practices of Andean indigenous/rural society. While a location 'off the beaten track' could be a source of autonomy in the past, the article outlines reasons why people in post-conflict, neo-liberal Peru now dedicate much time and effort to road-building, even though this...

  11. Clever Cars Can Read Road Signs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duncan Graham-Rowe; 张高慧

    2004-01-01

    @@ The plaintive① plea to the traffic cop② is the same the world over: "Sorry officer, I didn't know I was speeding." But drivers may soon have to come up with a better excuse. A new electronic driver's assistant will detect road signs and warn drivers not to ignore them.

  12. A Road Map for Improving Geography Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertheim, Jill A.; Edelson, Daniel C.; Hildebrant, Barbara; Hinde, Elizabeth; Kenney, Marianne; Kolvoord, Robert; Lanegran, David; Marcello, Jody Smothers; Morrill, Robert; Ruiz-Primo, Maria; Seixas, Peter; Shavelson, Richard

    2013-01-01

    In late 2012, both the second edition of the "Geography for Life: National Geography Standards" and the National Science Foundation-funded "Road Map for Geography Education Project" reports were released; the former document describes the conceptual goals for K-12 geography education, and the latter, a route to coordinating reform efforts to…

  13. Mathematical principles of road congestion pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WJ Pienaar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper briefly considers the objectives of road congestion pricing and identifies prerequisites to the successful application of such a pricing scheme. The paper is divided into two sections. In the first section, a mathematical analysis of the constituents of an optimal road congestion price is offered. The eliminated inefficiency loss achieved by the introduction of a congestion levy is usually evaluated by means of an integral involving marginal trip cost, travel demand and average trip cost in two-dimensional (travel time, traffic flow-space. In this section we show that this loss may, in fact, be evaluated more easily for a general marginal trip cost function and a linear demand function as the difference between the areas of a rectangle (representing the part of road agency revenue that lies below the original trip cost and a triangle (representing the loss of consumer surplus of the reduced traffic in (travel time, traffic flow-space, eliminating the need to use integration. The next section deals with the application of the illustrated mathematical principles and proofs to a hypothetical case study relating to road congestion pricing in Cape Town.

  14. Toll Roads : Recent Trends in Private Participation

    OpenAIRE

    Gisele F. Silva

    2000-01-01

    During the 1990s developing countries increasingly turned to the private sector for construction, management, and maintenance of toll roads. Between 1990 and 1999, US$61 billion of private investment was committed to 279 projects in 26 developing countries, comprising 34,369 kilometers of toll highways, bridges and tunnels. This Note analyzes the main trends in private participation in toll ...

  15. Women Members of Gyigyia Road Maintenance Team

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEGANG

    2004-01-01

    The Sichuan-Tibet and Qinghai-Tibet Highways were built and open to traffic in1954. Today,the mileage of highways open to traffic reaches over 40,000 km. Thousands of maintenance workers have been working on them over the past 50 years.They include what we call iron-will women with the Gyiagyia road section team.

  16. 30 CFR 784.24 - Road systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Road systems. 784.24 Section 784.24 Mineral... MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL EXPLORATION SYSTEMS UNDER REGULATORY PROGRAMS... systems. (a) Plans and drawings. Each applicant for an underground coal mining and reclamation...

  17. 25 CFR 265.3 - Roads prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Roads prohibited. 265.3 Section 265.3 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HERITAGE PRESERVATION ESTABLISHMENT OF ROADLESS AND WILD AREAS..., unless the requirements of fire protection, commercial use for the Indians' benefit or actual needs...

  18. ‘All That Road Going’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Dale

    2016-01-01

    Conflating past and prospect, experience and belief, the closing lines of Jack Kerouac’s On the Road (1957), which provide the title for this chapter, are at once an expression of faith in movement and an elegiac lament, both for its loss and for what it has not enabled. Much the same might be sa...

  19. Gardening for Bees in Hampton Roads

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Norma; Johnson, Latarsha

    2011-01-01

    Lists plants that will grow well in the Hampton Roads area of Virginia, and will serve as good nectar sources for bees. Also lists a few garden and landscaping plants that bees won't visit for nectar, or could be poisonous to bees.

  20. 30 CFR 816.150 - Roads: general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... values; (3) Control or prevent additional contributions of suspended solids to stream flow or runoff... altering the normal flow of water in streambeds or drainage channels; (6) Prevent or control damage to... part of any road shall be located in the channel of an intermittent or perennial stream...

  1. Lane detection using road planar information

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiang; Chu, Chee-Hung H.

    2011-06-01

    Intelligent vehicles have many applications in the military, aerospace, and other industries, including land-mine detection for the military, patient transportation in hospitals, and many other domains that often require automation to reduce risks to the human operators. One of important tasks of intelligent vehicles is the navigation, whose goal is to extract and determine the appropriate path that leads to a destination based on perceived environmental information. The objective of our work is to develop a simple and effective method to detect and extract road lanes and boundaries. We propose a solution by incorporating the planar information of road surfaces. We first detect all possible edges in the captured images. The straight lanes and boundaries are extracted as straight lines, which generate a vanishing point. The straight lines are described with Hough transform. A cluster analysis in Hough space is used to detect the vanishing point on road. Further, we search lines passing through the vanishing point from 180 degrees to 270 degrees and from 0 degree to negative 90 degrees. The first two strong lines will be extracted as road boundaries.

  2. Updating road databases using change detection techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Platschorre, Y.; Dekker, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    The Traffic and Transport Advisory Service (AW) at RWS supplies information on traffic and infrastructure on land and water. The information which is stored in the National Road Database (NWB) has therefore to be updated regularly. For this purpose remote sensing images are very useful due to their

  3. Keeping Older Drivers Safe on the Road

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-03-15

    In this podcast, Rebecca Naumann, MPH, an epidemiologist from CDC's Injury Center, talks about steps older adults can take to stay safer on the road.  Created: 3/15/2010 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Division of Unintentional Injury Prevention.   Date Released: 3/15/2010.

  4. Nearest Neighbor Queries in Road Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Kolar, Jan; Pedersen, Torben Bach;

    2003-01-01

    in road networks. Such queries may be of use in many services. Specifically, we present an easily implementable data model that serves well as a foundation for such queries. We also present the design of a prototype system that implements the queries based on the data model. The algorithm used...

  5. Cyclists and road safety in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welleman, A.G. & Dijkstra, A.

    1987-01-01

    The bicycle contributes substantially to the mobility of the Dutch people, presumably more so than in any other European country. Nearly every group of the population makes us of the bicycle on a larger scale, both in urban and rural areas. The cyclists have their specific road safety problems. Aft

  6. 49 CFR 391.33 - Equivalent of road test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equivalent of road test. 391.33 Section 391.33... AND LONGER COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER INSTRUCTORS Tests § 391.33 Equivalent of road test. (a) In place of, and as equivalent to, the road test required by § 391.31, a person who seeks to drive...

  7. 77 FR 2242 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Pike Road, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Pike Road, AL AGENCY: Federal Communications... filed by Alatron Corporation, Inc., proposing the allotment of Channel 228A at Pike Road, Alabama, as... Pike Road consistent with the minimum distance separation requirements of the Rules with a...

  8. 36 CFR 223.62 - Timber purchaser road construction credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 223.62 Timber purchaser road construction credit. Appraisal may also establish stumpage value as if... timber is appraised and sold on such basis, purchaser credit for road construction, not to exceed the... deposits for slash disposal and road maintenance. As used in this section estimated construction...

  9. Optimization-based Method for Automated Road Network Extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, D

    2001-09-18

    Automated road information extraction has significant applicability in transportation. It provides a means for creating, maintaining, and updating transportation network databases that are needed for purposes ranging from traffic management to automated vehicle navigation and guidance. This paper is to review literature on the subject of road extraction and to describe a study of an optimization-based method for automated road network extraction.

  10. Evaluation of a Rural Road Rehabilitation Project in Armenia

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth Fortson; Randall Blair; Kathryn Gonzalez

    2015-01-01

    This report presents key findings of an impact evaluation of a rural road rehabilitation project in Armenia. Changes in outcomes for roads that were rehabilitated are compared to changes in outcomes for a comparison group of otherwise similar roads that were not rehabilitated.

  11. Optimization-based Method for Automated Road Network Extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Automated road information extraction has significant applicability in transportation. It provides a means for creating, maintaining, and updating transportation network databases that are needed for purposes ranging from traffic management to automated vehicle navigation and guidance. This paper is to review literature on the subject of road extraction and to describe a study of an optimization-based method for automated road network extraction

  12. Road dust emissions from paved roads measured using different mobile systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirjola, Liisa; Johansson, Christer; Kupiainen, Kaarle; Stojiljkovic, Ana; Karlsson, Hans; Hussein, Tareq

    2010-12-01

    Very few real-world measurements of road dust suspension have been performed to date. This study compares two different techniques (referred to as Sniffer and Emma) to measure road dust emissions. The main differences between the systems are the construction of the inlet, different instruments for recording particulate matter (PM) levels, and different loads on the wheel axes (the weight of Sniffer was much higher than that of Emma). Both systems showed substantial small-scale variations of emission levels along the road, likely depending on-road surface conditions. The variations observed correlated quite well, and the discrepancies are likely a result of variations in dust load on the road surface perpendicular to the driving direction that cause variations in the measurements depending on slightly different paths driven by the two vehicles. Both systems showed a substantial influence on the emission levels depending on the type of tire used. The summer tire showed much lower suspension than the winter tires (one nonstudded and one studded). However, the relative importance of the nonstudded versus studded tire was rather different. For the ratio of studded/nonstudded, Emma shows higher values on all road sections compared with Sniffer. Both techniques showed increased emission levels with increasing vehicle speed. When the speed increased from 50 to 80 km hr(-1), the relative concentrations increased by 30-170% depending on the tire type and dust load. However, for road sections that were very dirty, Sniffer showed a much higher relative increase in the emission level with the nonstudded tire. Sniffer's absolute concentrations were mostly higher than Emma's. Possible reasons for the differences are discussed in the paper. Both systems can be used for studying relative road dust emissions and for designing air quality management strategies. PMID:21243896

  13. Mass-media information campaigns about road safety. [previously known as: Public information about road safety.

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    In the Netherlands, public information is often used as an instrument to improve road safety. The purpose of each public information campaign is a voluntary and lasting change in traffic behaviour. This requires road users to have sufficient knowledge about a problem and to adapt their behaviour. Good preparation is essential for a maximally effective public information campaign. Research plays an important role in determining the content and campaign method, as well as in developing the eval...

  14. Solar Thermal energy strategic road-map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME) manages a fund dedicated to new energy technologies. Since 2008 this fund has funded 'research demonstrators' to implement testing of technologies that are in an experimental stage, between research and industrial deployment. ADEME coordinates a group of experts who are charged with drawing up a strategic road-map prior to each Call for Expressions of Interest. The aims of the solar thermal road-map are: - to highlight the industrial, technological, environmental and societal issues at stake; - to elaborate coherent, consistent and shared visions of the technologies and/or socio-technical systems outlined in the road-map; - to underscore the technological, organisational and socioeconomic barriers and bottlenecks to be overcome in order to achieve these visions; - to link priority research topics to a timetable of goals for technology availability and deployment that is consistent with the stated objectives; - to give priority to research needs and research demonstrators that will serve as the basis for: 1 - calls for expression of interest issued by the Research Demonstrators Fund, 2 - the research programming process at ADEME and more broadly at the Agence nationale de la recherche (ANR) and the Comite strategique national sur la recherche sur l'energie. Research priorities and needs for demonstrators are determined by the intersection of visions and bottlenecks. They also take into account industrial and research capacity in France. The road-maps may also refer to exemplary research demonstrators abroad that are in the forefront of technological progress, and make recommendations regarding industrial policy. These road-maps are the result of collective work by a group of experts appointed by the Steering Committee (Comite de pilotage, COPIL) of the Research Demonstrators Fund for new energy technologies. The members of this group are actors in research, drawn from industry, research bodies and research

  15. Experimental analysis of the structure-borne tyre/road noise due to road discontinuities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindt, P.; Berckmans, D.; De Coninck, F.; Sas, P.; Desmet, W.

    2009-11-01

    Tyre/road noise has become the major source of traffic noise in urban regions. Although tyre/road noise has been studied for decades, little can be found in the literature about the noise resulting from crossing road discontinuities such as expansion joints, railway crossings, and potholes. Both vehicle interior and exterior noise can reach significant peak levels as a result of crossing such a pavement discontinuity. This paper presents an experimental analysis of the generating phenomena of structure borne tyre/road noise due to a road discontinuity. Both exterior and interior tyre/road noise are considered. The influence of driving speed, cleat dimension, inflation pressure, tyre temperature and preload onto the noise generating phenomena is investigated. A novel test setup was designed and built at the K.U. Leuven Noise and Vibration Engineering Laboratory in order to measure the structural and acoustic response of a tyre rolling over a cleat. The vehicle interior noise is analysed by means of a test circuit cleat test.

  16. A suite of tools for monitoring and assessing impacts of road networks and off-road vehicle activity on rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite increasing amounts of transportation related activities on rangelands globally, few tools exist for assessing and monitoring impacts of roads, road networks and off-road vehicle traffic. This is in part due to an historical emphasis on grazing issues in rangelands and the complexity of monit...

  17. IMPROVEMENT OF ROAD TRAFFIC QUALITY IN ACCIDENT CLUSTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Kapsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic with its share from 2/3 to 3/4 of the total volume of transport service represents rather large and complicated social and production system with several subsystems that include roads, transport facilities, road traffic organization, law enforcement, personnel training, road traffic service and others. Road traffic quality can be quantitatively evaluated in accordance with values of losses pertaining to social and economic cost of discretionary (unenforced expenses for road traffic process. Road traffic contains accident, ecological, economic and social risks. Accidence is considered as the most important risk for participants involved in road traffic because it directly concerns their life, health and welfare. So accident response has rather high social significance and it is considered as a matter of national importance. In this connection role of road traffic organization has become very important and it is directed on improvement of its quality including security in the accident clusters.Methodological principles for improvement of road traffic quality have been developed in the paper. These principles presuppose the following: maximization of danger while selecting investigation object; minimization of total losses while evaluating quality and selecting solutions on improvement in road traffic safety; balanced accountability of accidental and ecological losses while selecting solutions on higher road traffic safety in ambiguous situations; minimization of total cost pertaining to object operation while selecting measures on improvement of road traffic safety; obligatory operative control evaluation of accidence on the basis of method for conflict situations while introducing measures of road traffic safety. Such approaches will contribute to higher quality of the decisions taken in the field of road traffic organization.

  18. Detection and analyse of hazardous roads in rural areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Michael

    2003-01-01

    For the last period of 5-10 years the notion "Grey roads" (hazardous roads) has appeared in Danish traffic safety work and improvement of these roads has become a very important part of the traffic safety work in many countries. The problem is, that the notion never has been clearly defined, and ...... therefore there are no unambiguos methods to point out and analyse "Grey roads". In this article based on a ph.D.-project a method to detecting "Grey roads" is introduced....

  19. Selected aspects of road cleansing in the city of Poznan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents issues related to road cleansing in urban areas based on example of the city of Poznan. It describes typical operations in road cleansing and relations with city logistics and green logistics, as well. Road cleansing goals and its influence on transport systems' operations as well as legal framework for functioning of road cleansing in Poland are also presented. The paper includes literature review of decision problems and their solutions leading to improvements of these systems. The author analyses decision problems of similar areas such as road maintenance and transportation, which aims at indicating potential directions of further research.

  20. IMPLEMENTATION OF ASSET MANAGEMENT IN ROAD ADMINISTRATION OF SLOVAK REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomír Pepucha

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents basic principles and solutions for the application of Asset Management as part of road administration in Slovakia. It deals with application of Assets management methods and best practices of global trends in road maintenance, repair and rehabilitation strategies. An effective public Asset Management combines principles and strategies of asset management used in private sector with sound practices and methods proven to be applicable by public road administrator and his digital information systems. The under-funding of road management leads to development of tools and methods, which enable us to define criteria for establishing priorities for investments into road assets.

  1. Trauma on rural roads: the role of a peripheral hospital.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Street, J T

    2012-02-03

    Road accident trauma is a leading cause of death and serious morbidity among healthy young adults in the developed world. The Irish Republic has the third worst road safety record in the EU. In studying the unique demographics of rural road accidents, our aim was to provide information essential to the future development of trauma care in Ireland. Our figures highlight the inadequacies of data received by the National Roads Authority, illustrate the resource impact of road trauma on a peripheral hospital, and demonstrate the need for similar studies in the rationalisation of trauma care as we approach the next millennium.

  2. Roads Investments, Spatial Intensification and Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Alexander; Robalino, Juan; Walker, Robert; Aldrich, Steven; Caldas, Marcellus; Reis, Eustaquio; Perz, Stephen; Bohrer, Claudio; Arima, Eugenio; Laurance, William; Kibry, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the impact of road investments on deforestation is part of a complete evaluation of the expansion of infrastructure for development. We find evidence of spatial spillovers from roads in the Brazilian Amazon: deforestation rises in the census tracts that lack roads but are in the same county as and within 100 km of a tract with a new paved or unpaved road. At greater distances from the new roads the evidence is mixed, including negative coefficients of inconsistent significance between 100 and 300 km, and if anything, higher neighbor deforestation at distances over 300 km.

  3. A Comparative Analysis of the Image of the Road in Jack Kerouac’s On the Road and Comac McCarthy’s The Road

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Meng-ying

    2014-01-01

    As in many American classics, the road is a central image in Jack Kerouac’s On the Road(1957) and Comac McCar-thy’s The Road(2006). This paper intends to carry out a comparative analysis of this image in these two postmodern masterpieces. The paper starts with an investigation of the image in the two works separately and ends with a more comprehensive and compar-ative study of this topic.

  4. Quantitative risk assessment modeling for nonhomogeneous urban road tunnels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qiang; Qu, Xiaobo; Wang, Xinchang; Yuanita, Vivi; Wong, Siew Chee

    2011-03-01

    Urban road tunnels provide an increasingly cost-effective engineering solution, especially in compact cities like Singapore. For some urban road tunnels, tunnel characteristics such as tunnel configurations, geometries, provisions of tunnel electrical and mechanical systems, traffic volumes, etc. may vary from one section to another. These urban road tunnels that have characterized nonuniform parameters are referred to as nonhomogeneous urban road tunnels. In this study, a novel quantitative risk assessment (QRA) model is proposed for nonhomogeneous urban road tunnels because the existing QRA models for road tunnels are inapplicable to assess the risks in these road tunnels. This model uses a tunnel segmentation principle whereby a nonhomogeneous urban road tunnel is divided into various homogenous sections. Individual risk for road tunnel sections as well as the integrated risk indices for the entire road tunnel is defined. The article then proceeds to develop a new QRA model for each of the homogeneous sections. Compared to the existing QRA models for road tunnels, this section-based model incorporates one additional top event-toxic gases due to traffic congestion-and employs the Poisson regression method to estimate the vehicle accident frequencies of tunnel sections. This article further illustrates an aggregated QRA model for nonhomogeneous urban tunnels by integrating the section-based QRA models. Finally, a case study in Singapore is carried out. PMID:21029142

  5. Machine Learning Based Road Detection from High Resolution Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Ye; Wang, Guofeng; Hu, Xiangyun

    2016-06-01

    At present, remote sensing technology is the best weapon to get information from the earth surface, and it is very useful in geo- information updating and related applications. Extracting road from remote sensing images is one of the biggest demand of rapid city development, therefore, it becomes a hot issue. Roads in high-resolution images are more complex, patterns of roads vary a lot, which becomes obstacles for road extraction. In this paper, a machine learning based strategy is presented. The strategy overall uses the geometry features, radiation features, topology features and texture features. In high resolution remote sensing images, the images cover a great scale of landscape, thus, the speed of extracting roads is slow. So, roads' ROIs are firstly detected by using Houghline detection and buffering method to narrow down the detecting area. As roads in high resolution images are normally in ribbon shape, mean-shift and watershed segmentation methods are used to extract road segments. Then, Real Adaboost supervised machine learning algorithm is used to pick out segments that contain roads' pattern. At last, geometric shape analysis and morphology methods are used to prune and restore the whole roads' area and to detect the centerline of roads.

  6. Unofficial Road Building in the Amazon: Socioeconomic and Biophysical Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perz, Stephen G.; Caldas, Marcellus M.; Arima, Eugenio; Walker, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Roads have manifold social and environmental impacts, including regional development, social conflicts and habitat fragmentation. 'Road ecology' has emerged as an approach to evaluate the various ecological and hydrological impacts of roads. This article aims to complement road ecology by examining the socio-spatial processes of road building itself. Focusing on the Brazilian Amazon, a heavily-studied context due to forest fragmentation by roads, the authors consider non-state social actors who build 'unofficial roads' for the purpose of gaining access to natural resources to support livelihoods and community development. They examine four case studies of roads with distinct histories in order to explain the socio-spatial processes behind road building in terms of profit maximization, land tenure claims, co-operative and conflictive political ecologies, and constraints as well as opportunities afforded by the biophysical environment. The study cases illustrate the need for a multi-pronged theoretical approach to understanding road building, and call for more attention to the role of non-state actors in unofficial road construction.

  7. Scaling laws in the spatial structure of urban road networks

    CERN Document Server

    Lämmer, S; Helbing, D; L\\"ammer, Stefan; Gehlsen, Bj\\"orn; Helbing, Dirk

    2006-01-01

    The urban road networks of the 20 largest German cities have been analysed, based on a detailed database providing the geographical positions as well as the travel-times for network sizes up to 37,000 nodes and 87,000 links. As the human driver recognises travel-times rather than distances, faster roads appear to be 'shorter' than slower ones. The resulting metric space has an effective dimension d>2, which is a significant measure of the heterogeneity of road speeds. We found that traffic strongly concentrates on only a small fraction of the roads. The distribution of vehicular flows over the roads obeys a power law, indicating a clear hierarchical order of the roads. Studying the cellular structure of the areas enclosed by the roads, the distribution of cell sizes is scale invariant as well.

  8. Road Network Vulnerability Analysis Based on Improved Ant Colony Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunpeng Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an improved ant colony algorithm-based approach to assess the vulnerability of a road network and identify the critical infrastructures. This approach improves computational efficiency and allows for its applications in large-scale road networks. This research involves defining the vulnerability conception, modeling the traffic utility index and the vulnerability of the road network, and identifying the critical infrastructures of the road network. We apply the approach to a simple test road network and a real road network to verify the methodology. The results show that vulnerability is directly related to traffic demand and increases significantly when the demand approaches capacity. The proposed approach reduces the computational burden and may be applied in large-scale road network analysis. It can be used as a decision-supporting tool for identifying critical infrastructures in transportation planning and management.

  9. Road Zone Effects in Small-Mammal Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia A. Rosa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Our study focused on the putative effects of roads on small-mammal communities in a high desert region of southern Utah. Specifically, we tested whether or not roads create adjacent zones characterized by lower small- mammal densities, abundance, and diversity. We sampled abundance of small mammals at increasing distances from Interstate 15 during two summers. We recorded 11 genera and 13 species. We detected no clear abundance, density, or diversity effects relative to distance from the road. Only two of 13 species were never captured near roads. The abundance of the remaining 11 small mammal species was either similar at different distances from the road or higher closer to the road. We conclude that although roads may act as barriers and possible sources of mortality, adjacent zones of vegetation often provide favorable microhabitat in the desert landscape for many small mammals.

  10. Dynamic evaluation of traffic flows on city roads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Quan Yongshen; Guo Jifu; Wen Huimin; Sun Jianping

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the random fluctuations, deferred conduction effect and periodicity of road traffic based on the basic features of road networks. It also discusses the limitations of road network evaluation theories based on road "V/C". In addition, it proposes a set of theoretical and technical methods for the real-time evaluation of traffic flows for entire road networks, and for solving key technical issues, such as real-time data collection and process- ing in areas with no blind zones, the spatial-temporal dynamic analysis of road network traffic, and the calibration of key performance index thresholds. It also provides new technical tools for the strategic transportation planning and real-time diagnosis of road traffic. The new tools and methodology presented in this paper are validated using a case study in Beijing.

  11. Road zone effects in small-mammal communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissonette, J.A.; Rosa, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    Our study focused on the putative effects of roads on small-mammal communities in a high desert region of southern Utah. Specifically, we tested whether or not roads create adjacent zones characterized by lower small- mammal densities, abundance, and diversity. We sampled abundance of small mammals at increasing distances from Interstate 15 during two summers. We recorded 11 genera and 13 species. We detected no clear abundance, density, or diversity effects relative to distance from the road. Only two of 13 species were never captured near roads. The abundance of the remaining 11 small mammal species was either similar at different distances from the road or higher closer to the road. We conclude that although roads may act as barriers and possible sources of mortality, adjacent zones of vegetation often provide favorable microhabitat in the desert landscape for many small mammals. ?? 2009 by the author(s).

  12. Network Screening for Smarter Road Sites: A Regional Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Grieco

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Road safety has been a main societal and policy issue in many European countries since the early years of last decade. After the 2000-2010 Road Safety Programme launched by the European Commission, in 2011 the Commission adopted the new 2020 programme, even more demanding than the previous. As the societal consequences of road casualties are increasingly perceived as a core dimension of smart mobility, road safety system is now facing new challenges. Current mobility shifts to softer and greener transportation means raise new safety concerns for an increasingly larger share of vulnerable road users. The need to integrate road safety requirements with other residential, mobility, and environmental policies calls for a more detailed understanding of the phenomenon at different spatial levels and with different observation lenses. The pilot study described in this paper is a contribution to this end. It aims at identifying the accident prone sites of the regional road network to help prioritizing safety interventions, by the regional administration having road planning responsibilities. The study develops a screening approach to select hazardous road locations, outside urban premises, from the Piedmont provincial and state roads. The most recent data for the 2010-2012 years were considered, drawn from the ISTAT road accident database, managed by the CMRSS. The procedure consists of the following steps: identification of the elementary road sections to be screened, through a GIS analysis; definition of the screening groups (road sections have been subdivided in 4 length classes; definition of the selection criteria, with two severity thresholds based on the crash density; classification of the elementary road sections by severity thresholds.

  13. Investigation of road network features and safety performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuesong; Wu, Xingwei; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Tremont, Paul J

    2013-07-01

    The analysis of road network designs can provide useful information to transportation planners as they seek to improve the safety of road networks. The objectives of this study were to compare and define the effective road network indices and to analyze the relationship between road network structure and traffic safety at the level of the Traffic Analysis Zone (TAZ). One problem in comparing different road networks is establishing criteria that can be used to scale networks in terms of their structures. Based on data from Orange and Hillsborough Counties in Florida, road network structural properties within TAZs were scaled using 3 indices: Closeness Centrality, Betweenness Centrality, and Meshedness Coefficient. The Meshedness Coefficient performed best in capturing the structural features of the road network. Bayesian Conditional Autoregressive (CAR) models were developed to assess the safety of various network configurations as measured by total crashes, crashes on state roads, and crashes on local roads. The models' results showed that crash frequencies on local roads were closely related to factors within the TAZs (e.g., zonal network structure, TAZ population), while crash frequencies on state roads were closely related to the road and traffic features of state roads. For the safety effects of different networks, the Grid type was associated with the highest frequency of crashes, followed by the Mixed type, the Loops & Lollipops type, and the Sparse type. This study shows that it is possible to develop a quantitative scale for structural properties of a road network, and to use that scale to calculate the relationships between network structural properties and safety. PMID:23584537

  14. The Road Transport world exhibition in Paris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the agreement between French and German professionals of automobile and industrial vehicle, the Road Transport world exhibition will take place alternatively in Paris and Hanover. The 1995 meeting has taken place in Paris (September 15-21) and about 20 countries were represented. Road transport is the principal way of goods transportation in France and represent 88% of the traffic explained in tons gross and 70% in tons km. The petroleum dependence of the transportation sector is becoming a worrying problem as the gasoline and diesel fuels taxes will be discussed in the 1996 financial laws project. According to the last ''Worldwide energetic perspectives'' report published by the IEA, in 2010 the transportation sector could absorb more than 60% of the worldwide petroleum consumption. This increase represents a challenge to the petroleum industry to increase the energetic efficiency of the vehicle fuels and the production of diesel fuels, and conversely to reduce the pollution effluents. (J.S.). 4 tabs

  15. Field trips along the Geological Transpyrenean Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgio, Marion; Dekeyser, Dominique; Richert, Jean Paul; Gruneisen, Pierre; Vazquez-Prada, Diego; Lacazedieu, Annie

    2015-04-01

    GeolVal association, www.geolval.fr , in collaboration with Geoambiente association, created a serie of pedagogical explanations about Pyrenees landscapes along the road from France to Spain, linking the towns of Pau, Oloron,Jaca and Mallos de Riglos. It was a ten years work that lasted in 2008. http://www.routetranspyreneenne.com/home_f.php We can now use this "treasure" with tourists, students and mix some landscapes explanations from a road site with a little field trip along mountain in order to "touch" the rocks. We are working about the importance of field in the way the students understand geosciences and try to organize field trips that aim to simplify and make concrete some key concepts. We also began an interactive software version of this work, presented through a pilot application, made in collaboration with Total petroleum firm.

  16. Emissions of noxious supstances in road tunnel

    OpenAIRE

    Kenda, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    Construction of tunnels, galleries, bridging objects and other underground engineers constructions is the most exacting work at low buildings. Tunnel seems to be very simple building but there must be interdisciplinary interweaving of entire civil engineering knowledge of geology, mining, architectures, ecology and of other in all phases of planning, building and maintenance of underground constructions. Tunnel is only one of the objects on a road. Careful planning of traffic only throu...

  17. Rural Roads and Agricultural Development in Swaziland

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsay A. K.; Mukole Kongolo

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the importance of managing and maintaining the quality of rural roads to support agricultural and rural development in the Kingdom of Swaziland, to facilitate the distribution of agricultural products and its accessibility to the population. A structured questionnaire survey was used to collect both secondary and primary data sources, to fill the key information gaps through random sampling method. The data collected were tabulated and analysed throu...

  18. Predicting Road Conditions with Internet Search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askitas, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    Traffic congestion is an important problem both on an individual and on a societal level and much research has been done to explain and prevent their emergence. There are currently many systems which provide a reasonably good picture of actual road traffic by employing either fixed measurement points on highways or so called "floating car data" i.e. by using velocity and location data from roaming, networked, GPS enabled members of traffic. Some of these systems also offer forecasting of road conditions based on such historical data. To my knowledge there is as yet no system which offers advance notice on road conditions based on a signal which is guaranteed to occur in advance of these conditions and this is the novelty of this paper. Google Search intensity for the German word stau (i.e. traffic jam) peaks 2 hours ahead of the number of traffic jam reports as reported by the ADAC, a well known German automobile club and the largest of its kind in Europe. This is true both in the morning (7 am to 9 am) and in the evening (4 pm to 6 pm). The main result of this paper is then that after controlling for time-of-day and day-of-week effects we can still explain a significant additional portion of the variation of the number of traffic jam reports with Google Trends and we can thus explain well over 80% of the variation of road conditions using Google search activity. A one percent increase in Google stau searches implies a .4 percent increase of traffic jams. Our paper is a proof of concept that aggregate, timely delivered behavioural data can help fine tune modern societies and prompts for more research with better, more disaggregated data in order to also achieve practical solutions. PMID:27571518

  19. Predicting Road Conditions with Internet Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Traffic congestion is an important problem both on an individual and on a societal level and much research has been done to explain and prevent their emergence. There are currently many systems which provide a reasonably good picture of actual road traffic by employing either fixed measurement points on highways or so called “floating car data” i.e. by using velocity and location data from roaming, networked, GPS enabled members of traffic. Some of these systems also offer forecasting of road conditions based on such historical data. To my knowledge there is as yet no system which offers advance notice on road conditions based on a signal which is guaranteed to occur in advance of these conditions and this is the novelty of this paper. Google Search intensity for the German word stau (i.e. traffic jam) peaks 2 hours ahead of the number of traffic jam reports as reported by the ADAC, a well known German automobile club and the largest of its kind in Europe. This is true both in the morning (7 am to 9 am) and in the evening (4 pm to 6 pm). The main result of this paper is then that after controlling for time-of-day and day-of-week effects we can still explain a significant additional portion of the variation of the number of traffic jam reports with Google Trends and we can thus explain well over 80% of the variation of road conditions using Google search activity. A one percent increase in Google stau searches implies a .4 percent increase of traffic jams. Our paper is a proof of concept that aggregate, timely delivered behavioural data can help fine tune modern societies and prompts for more research with better, more disaggregated data in order to also achieve practical solutions. PMID:27571518

  20. Enforcement of road pricing under weak institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Carl

    2012-01-01

    Congestion pricing has been successfully implemented in several cities in the industrialised world, including Singapore, London, Stockholm, and Milan. Those systems are reliant on an extensive institutional framework, including databases of vehicles and personal identities, electronic payment channels, and perhaps most importantly, a cost effective method for ex post debt collection. In a context where such institutional support is weak, e.g. a developing nation or a road network with a large...

  1. Norway's hydrogen road - HyNor Grenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plan for a hydrogen road, HyNor, crossing the south of Norway from Oslo to Stavanger, is presented. Hydrogen filling stations will be developed, and Toyota Prius hybrid cars, rebuilt in Los Angeles (USA), will be introduced to the market. Facts about HyNor and HyNor Grenland are presented as some of the most innovative, environmental ongoing projects in Europe

  2. Older female road users : A review

    OpenAIRE

    Siren, Anu; Heikkinen, Satu; Hakamies-Blomqvist, Liisa

    2001-01-01

    The present study reviews and critically discusses existing research on older female road users. A first finding was that research literature on older women in traffic is scarce. In addition, the methods used in the studies reviewed for this report were predominately quantitative and there were few observable attempts to a deeper understanding of the central concepts, or of the main findings. However, the existing research evidence shows that women and men do indeed travel differently. The wo...

  3. Road traffic accidents: more than just whiplash?

    OpenAIRE

    Counsell, Heather; Johnson, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Following a minor road traffic accident (RTA) a 55-year-old woman developed a new onset of whole body tremor and abnormal gait. This was in the context of significant previous depressive episodes and a traumatic background relating to RTAs. After extensive investigation, no organic causes were identified. The patient was subsequently referred to psychiatry and diagnosed with conversion disorder. Subsequently, various treatments including mirtazepine, venlafaxine, clonazepam, diazepam and lith...

  4. Rejoinder to Carnis on Private Roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter E. Block

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Carnis (2009 is a commentary on a debate I (Block and Block, 1976; Block, 1978c have been having with Tullock (1976 on the privatization of roads. The present paper is a rejoinder to Carnis (2009 who is highly critical of Tullock’s share of the debate, and offers some luke-warm support of my side of this issue, plus some criticisms of it.

  5. GNSS-based Road User Charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrhovski, Drazen; Moore, Terry; Bennett, Lloyd

    2004-01-01

    The last few years have seen a rapid growth of applications based on positioning information provided by satellite positioning systems. In transport management and control, satellite positioning has proven to be the most promising means for spatial location data collection. With the GPS modernisation programme well underway, and the recent developments of the Galileo project, even more GNSS-based applications are to be expected in the future. One such GNSS-based application is the use of position and velocity information as the prime input to a road user charging (RUC) scheme. However, navigation in urban environments raises a number of problems. Most important are the difficulties related to signal obstruction by features such as tall buildings, urban canyons, bridges and trees, as well as the effects of multipath caused by signal reflections from buildings and other vehicles. Given the inevitable limitations of road trials, the use of simulation modelling to assess the present and future satellite positioning systems' performance to support urban RUC seems indispensable. The main objective of the research undertaken at the University of Nottingham Institute of Engineering Surveying and Space Geodesy (IESSG), and the Nottingham Centre for Infrastructure (NCI), was to develop a tool to simulate GPS for Satellite Positioning-based Road User Charging (SPRUC). In this regard, an existing GPS simulator was modified to rectify one of its major weaknesses, namely the inability to address properly the change in non-static GPS measurements with respect to changes in built environment. For this purpose, state-of-the-art Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software was used to complement the simulator, and consequently a seamless interface between the two software has been developed. Finally, in order to provide a prime input to the simulator, field tests have been undertaken and significant amounts of GPS data were collected. Statistics were also derived for positioning

  6. Ancient Road For Tea Horse Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    For many, manypeople in theworld,a roadexclusively devot-ed to the tea-horse tradewould be considered some-thing of a tall tale.However,such a road did exist,fromthe Tang Dynasty(618-907)to the opening of the Yun-nan-Tibet and Sichuan-TibetHighways in the 196Os.Insome areas,sections of theroad are still used for trans-port purposes.

  7. Towards a microalgae-based road binder

    OpenAIRE

    AUDO, Mariane; Queffelec, Clémence; LEPINE, Olivier; Legrand, Jack; Chailleux, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Asphalt is a sticky viscoelastic petroleum industry by-product, used in sealing surface but mostly as aggregates binder in road pavement. For about seven years, the worldwide petroleum production didn’t increase anymore. In that context, refining strategies are changing: for example, high molecular fractions can be cracked into lighter fuel fractions and consequently, in the future, it could be difficult to answer to the worldwide needs in asphalt. To avoid this problem, some biomass-ba...

  8. Scheduling of interstate road and railway investments

    OpenAIRE

    Rothengatter, W.

    1986-01-01

    If investment activities are restricted by binding budget constraints, it may be even more important to find a good time schedule for investments rather than to determine the optimal investment program for a future time period. The problem of scheduling investments for interstate road and railway investments can be formulated as a mixed-integer programming model. But this model is so large, that it is hopeless to try to solve problems of practical relevance. For this reason two ways of simpli...

  9. A road safety course with a difference!

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Are you feeling brave? Then why not sign up for a road safety session. 10 to 14 November is road safety week at CERN and the Touring Club Suisse (TCS) will be in the Main Building, 500, with several hair-raising activities to try. If you walk into the foyer of building 500 between 10 and 14 November you might, at first glance, think that you have walked into a fairground. But the machines designed to spin you upside down and slide you also are actually part of CERN’s road safety week. Every day during the week there will six sessions each lasting about an hour where you can try out a series of exhilarating activities. If you are feeling brave enough you could try and get yourself out of the crash simulator. Not as easy as it sounds - after being spun over several times you can experience what it’s like to try and escape from an overturned car - dangling upside down attached only by your seatbelt! During the course instructors from the Touring Club Suisse (TC...

  10. Energy efficiency practices among road freight hauliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) is a highly prevalent public policy goal among European Union member countries. In the new White Paper on transport, the role of road freight transports in this is strongly emphasized. This far, however, the efficiency practices utilised in logistics firms are less studied. Drawing from policy goals and new survey data on 295 road transport firms our results show that hauliers are aware of the possible energy efficiency actions but lack the knowledge and resources to fully utilize them. Energy efficiency seems also to be unimportant for many shippers, so there are no incentives for hauliers to improve it. Examples from various countries show that clear energy efficiency improvements can be achieved with active cooperation between hauliers, shippers and policy makers. Such cooperation can be developed in Finland through the sectoral energy efficiency agreements. The novelty and the utility of these results allow scholars to answer important open questions in the national-level determinants of enhancing energy efficiency practices among road freight hauliers, and contribute to our understanding of how these can be fostered in public policies. - Highlights: ► Hauliers still monitor their fuel consumption with unsophisticated methods. ► Larger hauliers are more active in energy efficiency related issues than smaller ones. ► Hauliers are aware of energy efficiency actions, but lack knowledge of implementation. ► Finnish energy efficiency agreement provides a good framework for public policies. ► Companies that monitor and improve energy efficiency may gain competitive advantage.

  11. Road Signs: Geosemiotics and Human Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamid, Salmiah Binti Abdul

    In order to provide an overview of the state-of-the-art developments, this thesis presents a theoretical lens that is used to anchor the subjects of the studies of ‘people’, ‘road signs’ and ‘built environment’ through the theories of geosemiotics and mobility. The fields of geosemiotics and mobi......In order to provide an overview of the state-of-the-art developments, this thesis presents a theoretical lens that is used to anchor the subjects of the studies of ‘people’, ‘road signs’ and ‘built environment’ through the theories of geosemiotics and mobility. The fields of geosemiotics...... and mobility are important aspects of this research; they provide another theoretical challenge in the form of merging these two disciplines in the analysis in order to enhance a dialogue between the fields of urban design and graphic design practices. Thus, the interrelation between the two theories will help...... to answer the question of whether road signs have significant impact on human behaviour when moving in an urban environment. Selected cities in Denmark and Scotland were used as study areas in this research project. The methods were conducted within urban settings as well as controlled settings...

  12. Speed Adaptation in Urban Road Network Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raiyn Jamal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Various forecasting schemes have been proposed to manage traffic data, which is collected by videos cameras, sensors, and mobile phone services. However, these are not sufficient for collecting data because of their limited coverage and high costs for installation and maintenance. To overcome the limitations of these tools, we introduce a hybrid scheme based on intelligent transportation system (ITS and global navigation satellite system (GNSS. Applying the GNSS to calculate travel time has proven efficient in terms of accuracy. In this case, GNSS data is managed to reduce traffic congestion and road accidents. This paper introduces a short-time forecasting model based on real-time travel time for urban heterogeneous road networks. Travel time forecasting has been achieved by predicting travel speeds using an optimized exponential moving Average (EMA model. Furthermore for speed adaptation in heterogeneous road networks, it is necessary to introduce asuitable control strategy for longitude, based on the GNSS. GNSS products provide worldwide and real-time services using precise timing information and, positioning technologies.

  13. Technology Roadmap: Fuel Economy of Road Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    This roadmap explores the potential improvement of existing technologies to enhance the average fuel economy of motorised vehicles; the roadmap’s vision is to achieve a 30% to 50% reduction in fuel use per kilometre from new road vehicles including 2-wheelers, LDV s and HDV s) around the world in 2030, and from the stock of all vehicles on the road by 2050. This achievement would contribute to significant reductions in GHG emissions and oil use, compared to a baseline projection. Different motorised modes are treated separately, with a focus on LDV s, HDV s and powered two-wheelers. A section on in-use fuel economy also addresses technical and nontechnical parameters that could allow fuel economy to drastically improve over the next decades. Technology cost analysis and payback time show that significant progress can be made with low or negative cost for fuel-efficient vehicles over their lifetime use. Even though the latest data analysed by the IEA for fuel economy between 2005 and 2008 showed that a gap exists in achieving the roadmap’s vision, cutting the average fuel economy of road motorised vehicles by 30% to 50% by 2030 is achievable, and the policies and technologies that could help meet this challenge are already deployed in many places around the world.

  14. OPTIMIZATION OF CONGESTION OF ROAD NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraskevov A. V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Definition of the directions of development of transport system of the city is to ensure objectively justified needs for movement of goods and people on the territory of the city. Transport planning of the city is in direct connection with the planning of territories. The transport planning issues are resolved immediately after the planning of the city. Transport planning is based on the provisions of the General plan of the city. Organization of urban traffic should be considered as a continuous process of forecasting – planning – design – construction. In the organization of road traffic, public passenger transport should be considered as a priority, as an alternative to a car, even with a certain amount of discrimination. Among the possible solutions to the questions of organization of traffic at signalized intersections include the use of multi-program traffic lights regulation (at least three programs that allows you to change the duration of a traffic light cycle, permitting phases at a fixed value of the cycle and intermediate cycles depending on clock download site. Equipment management systems of traffic on the road network, modern technical means of regulation. The definition of "acceptable system of urban road traffic is largely dependent on the degree of customer satisfaction (the movement. And it varies. It is influenced by many factors, such as the size of the urban agglomeration. It is quite clear that it is impossible to achieve the same results in settlements with population more than 1 million people and less than 100 thousand

  15. Technology road mapping to guide development planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the past five years, Westinghouse Electric Company, has made ever increasing use of Technology Road Mapping, to direct company development efforts to achieve maximum benefits for our customers and ourselves. Comprised of business units in Nuclear Fuels, Nuclear Services and Nuclear Power Plants, including domestic and international business segments, Westinghouse must pay particular attention to coordinating development to satisfy the diverse needs of our growing international customer base. We must develop products which both benefit the individual Business Unit customer base, and which create synergy to produce the best possible offerings to the broader marketplace. The knowledge we gain through customer contacts and direct customer participation provides the basis from which we develop the Technology Road Map. This Road Map development process can be compared to painting a picture, where the background colors and features correspond to drivers related to the Customer and the prevailing features of the market environment. The subsequent layers of detail include broad Technical Objectives and then specific Technical Goals which will support achieving those objectives. The process is described in detail, and examples are provided. (authors)

  16. Opportunities of forest roads usage as emergency access road for natural disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Vatandaşlar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to examine the applicability of forest roads as emergency access and evacuation corridor for an alternative to motorways following a prospective earthquake in İstanbul. For this purpose, various disaster scenarios were created in the district of Beykoz and the shortest routes between critical points were determined through network analysis in Geographic Information System (GIS. Results indicated that access was possible between Beykoz city center and shelter, hospital, fire station, disaster management center, and military area via forest roads even if motorways became unusable. However, distance generally got longer and time of arrival increased on the routes of forest road. The increase in time of arrival was attributed to decrease in average cruising speed in addition to the increase in distance. This limitation can be overcome by enhancing the geometric standards of forest roads and completing superstructure operations. Results are important for revealing that forest roads can be used in other fields besides forestry activities, they can strengthen decision support system of managers, and enable first aid crew to reach the scene in the minimal time.

  17. Debussy Piano Prelude La Terrasse des audiences du clair de lune of Music Analysis%德彪西钢琴前奏曲《月色满庭台》的音乐分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘翠翠

    2012-01-01

    "24 Piano Prelude" is the most representative of Debussy's impressionistic style and creative works, is the essence of musical impressionism. Based on the Piano Prelude "La Terrasse des audiences du clair de lune" theme motive, form structure, harmony and mode adjusting and other aspects of research, and strive to Debussy Analysis of the salient features of creative techniques, and revealed the formation of these features of their the importance of the unique musical style.%《24首钢琴前奏曲》是德彪西最具代表性和创造性的印象主义风格的作品,是印象主义音乐的精华。本文通过对钢琴前奏曲《月色满庭台》的主题动机、曲式、和声以及调式调性等方面的研究,力求探析德彪西创作技法的显著特征,并揭示出这些特征对其形成独特音乐风格的重要意义。

  18. Road Safety Data, Collection, Transfer and Analysis DaCoTa. Workpackage 4, Decision Support: Deliverable 4.9: Developing a road safety index.

    OpenAIRE

    Bax, C.A. Wesemann, P. Gitelman, V. Shen, Y. Goldenbeld, C. Hermans, E. Doveh, E. Hakkert, S. Wegman, F.C.M. & Aarts, L.T.

    2015-01-01

    Road safety is a major social aim. The countries that perform best in road safety base their most effective policies on an evidence-based, scientific approach. Countries may learn to improve road safety from their own experiences but also from systematic comparison with other countries. This study aims at providing an instrument that facilitates easy comparisons of the overall road safety situation between countries. Ideally, sets of indicators, describing the road safety outcomes and road sa...

  19. Vision Sensor-Based Road Detection for Field Robot Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyu Lu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Road detection is an essential component of field robot navigation systems. Vision sensors play an important role in road detection for their great potential in environmental perception. In this paper, we propose a hierarchical vision sensor-based method for robust road detection in challenging road scenes. More specifically, for a given road image captured by an on-board vision sensor, we introduce a multiple population genetic algorithm (MPGA-based approach for efficient road vanishing point detection. Superpixel-level seeds are then selected in an unsupervised way using a clustering strategy. Then, according to the GrowCut framework, the seeds proliferate and iteratively try to occupy their neighbors. After convergence, the initial road segment is obtained. Finally, in order to achieve a globally-consistent road segment, the initial road segment is refined using the conditional random field (CRF framework, which integrates high-level information into road detection. We perform several experiments to evaluate the common performance, scale sensitivity and noise sensitivity of the proposed method. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method exhibits high robustness compared to the state of the art.

  20. Vision Sensor-Based Road Detection for Field Robot Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Keyu; Li, Jian; An, Xiangjing; He, Hangen

    2015-01-01

    Road detection is an essential component of field robot navigation systems. Vision sensors play an important role in road detection for their great potential in environmental perception. In this paper, we propose a hierarchical vision sensor-based method for robust road detection in challenging road scenes. More specifically, for a given road image captured by an on-board vision sensor, we introduce a multiple population genetic algorithm (MPGA)-based approach for efficient road vanishing point detection. Superpixel-level seeds are then selected in an unsupervised way using a clustering strategy. Then, according to the GrowCut framework, the seeds proliferate and iteratively try to occupy their neighbors. After convergence, the initial road segment is obtained. Finally, in order to achieve a globally-consistent road segment, the initial road segment is refined using the conditional random field (CRF) framework, which integrates high-level information into road detection. We perform several experiments to evaluate the common performance, scale sensitivity and noise sensitivity of the proposed method. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method exhibits high robustness compared to the state of the art. PMID:26610514

  1. Basic Characteristics of Road Traffic Deaths in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xujun Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study is to report characteristics of people killed in road traffic crashes and to describe major patterns of traffic crashes in China.Methods: Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were conducted. Road traffic death national data, population denominator data and motor vehicles data of 2009 were obtained from the Bureau of Traffic Management at Ministry of Public Security and National Bureau of Statistics. The association between the fatalities from road traffic crashes and selected demographic factors, the time distribution, crash patterns, crash causes, and road user category were assessed in χ2 analyses.Results: Road traffic crashes in China disproportionably affected the following populations: males, persons 21-65 yr of age and adults aged more than 65 yr, persons living in rural areas, pedestrians, passengers, motorcyclists and bicyclists. Approximately 50% of fatalities of road traffic crash occurred in Eastern regions. The number of road traffic deaths was higher in daytime than in nighttime. Road traffic deaths in frontal crashes, side-to-side crash and crashes with an object or a person were more common than in rear-end crashes. In about 92% of road traffic deaths, auto drivers were believed to be responsible for the fatal crash. Major crash causing factors were speeding, careless driving, driving without a license, driving in the wrong lane, and driving after drinking alcohol.Conclusions: Road traffic deaths accounted for about 70,000 premature deaths in China which should be taken into account.

  2. Road network safety evaluation using Bayesian hierarchical joint model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Huang, Helai

    2016-05-01

    Safety and efficiency are commonly regarded as two significant performance indicators of transportation systems. In practice, road network planning has focused on road capacity and transport efficiency whereas the safety level of a road network has received little attention in the planning stage. This study develops a Bayesian hierarchical joint model for road network safety evaluation to help planners take traffic safety into account when planning a road network. The proposed model establishes relationships between road network risk and micro-level variables related to road entities and traffic volume, as well as socioeconomic, trip generation and network density variables at macro level which are generally used for long term transportation plans. In addition, network spatial correlation between intersections and their connected road segments is also considered in the model. A road network is elaborately selected in order to compare the proposed hierarchical joint model with a previous joint model and a negative binomial model. According to the results of the model comparison, the hierarchical joint model outperforms the joint model and negative binomial model in terms of the goodness-of-fit and predictive performance, which indicates the reasonableness of considering the hierarchical data structure in crash prediction and analysis. Moreover, both random effects at the TAZ level and the spatial correlation between intersections and their adjacent segments are found to be significant, supporting the employment of the hierarchical joint model as an alternative in road-network-level safety modeling as well. PMID:26945109

  3. Water flow based geometric active deformable model for road network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leninisha, Shanmugam; Vani, Kaliaperumal

    2015-04-01

    A width and color based geometric active deformable model is proposed for road network extraction from remote sensing images with minimal human interception. Orientation and width of road are computed from a single manual seed point, from which the propagation starts both right and left hand directions of the starting point, which extracts the interconnected road network from the aerial or high spatial resolution satellite image automatically. Here the propagation (like water flow in canal with defined boundary) is restricted with color and width of the road. Road extraction is done for linear, curvilinear (U shape and S shape) roads first, irrespective of width and color. Then, this algorithm is improved to extract road with junctions in a shape of L, T and X along with center line. Roads with small break or disconnected roads are also extracts by a modified version of this same algorithm. This methodology is tested and evaluated with various remote sensing images. The experimental results show that the proposed method is efficient and extracting roads accurately with less computation time. However, in complex urban areas, the identification accuracy declines due to the various sizes of obstacles, over bridges, multilane etc.

  4. Identification of Hedonomic Road Landscape in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina MATIJOŠAITIENĖ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Hedonomics is quite a new branch of science which is closely related to ergonomics - where ergonomic needs, such as safety, functionality, usability, and hedonomic needs such as pleasurable experience and personal perfection just begin. Further analysis of the subject literature, and comparison of the facts about hedonomics allow us perceive hedonomic roadscape as a pleasurable roadscape. Since it is not clear how to identify hedonomic or pleasurable roadscape, the interdisciplinary roadscape evaluation method is proposed in the paper. The method is based on an assumption of a concept of hedonomic road landscape as an aspiration. The proposed method consists of a preparatory field research of roadscape including road landscape research and photo-fixation on the site, a survey method selection, questionnaires formation using Kansei engineering and SD (semantic differential technique and a main research including sociological research and using cluster and contingency analysis. The author also identifies hedonomic and non-hedonomic landscape of main Lithuanian arterial roads which are labeled as European arterial roads and corridors of the network of European roads except for bypasses.

  5. Disentangle the Causes of the Road Barrier Effect in Small Mammals through Genetic Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Ascensão; Cristina Mata; Malo, Juan E.; Pablo Ruiz-Capillas; Catarina Silva; Silva, André P.; Margarida Santos-Reis; Carlos Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    Road barrier effect is among the foremost negative impacts of roads on wildlife. Knowledge of the factors responsible for the road barrier effect is crucial to understand and predict species' responses to roads, and to improve mitigation measures in the context of management and conservation. We built a set of hypothesis aiming to infer the most probable cause of road barrier effect (traffic effect or road surface avoidance), while controlling for the potentially confounding effects road widt...

  6. Engineering and Technology Road-map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Throughout its existence, the Environmental Management (EM) program has required a strong technology component to accomplish its mission, one that is focused on developing technologies to enhance safety, effectiveness, and efficiency. Although the Department of Energy (DOE) has made great progress toward safely disposing of the legacies of the Cold War, much remains to be done. These past accomplishments provide a guide for future success; however, the unique nature of many of the remaining challenges will require a strong and responsive applied research and engineering program. The Engineering and Technology Road-map was developed to address this need and guide the EM Engineering and Technology Program. The Road-map identifies the technical risks and uncertainties that the EM program faces over the next ten years; the strategies EM will use to reduce those risks; and the planned outcomes of implementing those strategies. Input for this Road-map was provided by EM Federal Project Directors, Stakeholders, Site Contractors, National Laboratories and the National Academy of Science. To accomplish this work, EM has designated federal Strategic Initiative Managers who will work with Federal Project Directors to develop, refine and implement a detailed scope and schedule for each initiative, as well as identify the point at which the technologies developed will be inserted into EM cleanup projects. The starting point for the Road-map was technical project risk and uncertainty. Risks are defined as known technical issues that could prevent project success. Uncertainties are indefinite or unpredictable technical aspects of a project. Risks included in the Road-map were identified in three ways: 1) By the Projects - EM's operations are performed within a culture of disciplined project management, based on DOE Order 413.3A, Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets. As such, technical risks and uncertainties affecting each cleanup project are

  7. System for Road Vehicle Energy Optimization Using Real Time Road and Traffic Information

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Jiménez; Wilmar Cabrera-Montiel

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, reducing the energy and fuel consumption of road vehicles is a key issue. Different strategies have been proposed. One of them is to promote Eco-driving behaviour among drivers. Most Eco-driving tips take into account only the road stretch where the vehicle is located. However, larger improvements could be achieved if information from subsequent stretches is used. The main objective of this work is to develop a system to warn the driver in real time of the optimal speed that should ...

  8. Small-scale geodiversity and dirt road management, Ede (NL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Ancker, Hanneke; Jungerius, Pieter Dirk

    2016-04-01

    A large part of the countryside roads on the Pleistocene sands of The Netherlands are dirt roads. Most are footpaths, but a small percentage are relatively heavily used by motorized vehicles. These latter roads are a cause subject of debate. Puddles and potholes develop during periods of wet weather, while dust whirls from the roads form during spells of dry weather as do washboard ripples. They cause problems for people living along these roads and tourists (walkers and bikers. The community of Ede (NL), like many other communities on the sand, wants to keep its 80 km of dirt roads because of the natural values they harbour as well as for their characteristic landscape quality and cultural heritage value. A part of the dirt roads in Ede is heavily used. In 2009, the community of Ede developed a decision model to support management of the dirt roads. Ede acknowledges that each dirt road is unique and asks for a tailor-made solution. Road maintenance measures include grading, making a camber, digging pits, applying loam or sandy loam. If problems become too large, one-way traffic can be an option. In more and more cases the dirt roads are barred for motorized through traffic (Gemeente Ede, 2009). As a reconnaissance we have studied the dirt roads of the Horabos/Horalaan over the last year. Incidentally we looked at other parts of the main Horalaan and the footpaths in the adjacent forest of Hoekelum. All dirt roads lie near the top of a Saalian push-moraine in which the upper course of dry valleys are present. Some results of the reconnaissance: - Most dirt roads sections in the Horabos lie lower than the surrounding terrain; - The problems develop in a short period of time during special weather conditions; - Certain dirt road sections e.g. those sections crossing a slight depression are quickly developing potholes; - Even a small slope of the road (Knowledge of geodiversity of the terrain and study of small-scale erosion processes can help to improve the

  9. 33 CFR 110.159 - Annapolis Harbor, MD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... structures, and mooring and anchorage of vessels in anchorages (a)(3), and (a)(5). These local ordinances... area, lying between the Naval Academy and the Naval Ship Research and Development Laboratory and having... Naval Ship Research and Development Laboratory; northwestern limit, a line bearing 054° from the...

  10. Remediation of lead contaminated soil at Greenbury Point, Annapolis, Md

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Kathryn A.

    1997-01-01

    The remedial investigation is satisfied through compilation of information required to adequately characterize Greenbury Point. Information includes data on lead, applicable regulatory requirements, soils types, contamination, site maps, field investigations, utility drawings, history, archeology, and natural resources. The feasibility study is satisfied through examination of remedial options. Various treatment technologies are screened for effectiveness in reducing the lead contamination or...

  11. Road traffic flow and impact on environment in Hyderabad city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Hyderabad city due to dramatic increase in traffic intensity on the roads, traffic flow have been much beyond the comfortable limits. High values of traffic flow density have been recorded on Court Road (34.05%), Tilak Road (19.87%), Risala Road (22.91%) and Cafe George (23.14%) of Hyderabad city. Above 80% people are found to be annoyed due to traffic congestion, noise and smoke resulting in health ailments. Slow Moving Vehicles (SMVs) comprising of animal and hand drawn vehicles (rehras) cause serious disruption in the traffic stream on city roads, which are ultimately causing traffic-jam condition resulting a serious impact on environment. No definite parking places exist for public vehicles because of encroachment on roads. Proper foot paths are not available for pedestrian, which results in increase in accidents. (author)

  12. Road Network Change Detection Based on Floating Car Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luliang Tang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency and accuracy of road network data in the latest electronic maps cannot satisfy the current demands of their application's needs. The present paper proposes a new method to use floating car data to detect and update changes in the road network. An experiment was carried out with actual data to test and verify the feasibility of the novel method. With the highly accurate map-matching between the floating car data and the current road network, the method not only determines road network changes promptly, but also uses incremental detection to obtain updated information on road networks in real time. Compared with the traditional updating method, the new method proposed in the current work can greatly shorten the update period of road networks and improve update efficiency.

  13. Road Transport Congestion Costs Calculations-Adaptation to Engineering Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Lep

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article represents so called “engineering” approach for computing the total road transport congestion costs. According to economic welfare theory, the total costs of transport congestion are defined as dead weight loss (DWL of infrastructure use. With a set of equations DWL could be formulated in a mathematical way. Because such form of equation is not directly applicable for concrete road network calculations it should be transformed into “engineering” form, which comprises transport engineering related data as classified road links, traffic volumes, passenger unit costs, etc. The equation is well applicable on the interurban road network; adaptations are needed for the urban road network cost calculations, where time losses are not so much related to the link travel time. The final equation was derived for the purposes of national road congestion cost calculation.

  14. Vie Physarale: Evaluation of Roman roads with slime mould

    CERN Document Server

    Strano, Emanuele; Jones, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Roman Empire is renowned for sharp logical design and outstanding building quality of its road system. Many roads built by Romans are still use in continental Europe and UK. The Roman roads were built for military transportations with efficiency in mind, as straight as possible. Thus the roads make an ideal test-bed for developing experimental laboratory techniques for evaluating man-made transport systems using living creatures. We imitate development of road networks in Iron Age Italy using slime mould Physarum polycephalum. We represent ten Roman cities with oat flakes, inoculate the slime mould in Roma, wait till slime mould spans all flakes-cities with its network of protoplasmic tubes, and analyse structures of the protoplasmic networks. We found that most Roman roads, apart of those linking Placentia to Bononia and Genua to Florenzia are represented in development of Physarum polycephalum. Transport networks developed by Romans and by slime mould show strong affinity of planar proximity graphs, and par...

  15. Road marking features extraction using the VIAPIX® system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaddah, W.; Ouerhani, Y.; Alfalou, A.; Desthieux, M.; Brosseau, C.; Gutierrez, C.

    2016-07-01

    Precise extraction of road marking features is a critical task for autonomous urban driving, augmented driver assistance, and robotics technologies. In this study, we consider an autonomous system allowing us lane detection for marked urban roads and analysis of their features. The task is to relate the georeferencing of road markings from images obtained using the VIAPIX® system. Based on inverse perspective mapping and color segmentation to detect all white objects existing on this road, the present algorithm enables us to examine these images automatically and rapidly and also to get information on road marks, their surface conditions, and their georeferencing. This algorithm allows detecting all road markings and identifying some of them by making use of a phase-only correlation filter (POF). We illustrate this algorithm and its robustness by applying it to a variety of relevant scenarios.

  16. Road Performance of Fiber Reinforced Asphalt Concrete Bridge Deck Pavement

    OpenAIRE

    Xiu Liu; Zhaojie Sun; Decheng Feng; Yixiang Cao

    2013-01-01

    As the problem of asphalt concrete bridge deck pavement is becoming more and more serious, how to improve its road performance has become the focus of the study. Considering fiber is widely used in road engineering, wheel tracking test, flexural test, immersion marshall test and freeze-thaw splitting test were carried out to study road performance of asphalt mixture with different fiber contents, analyzing the function mechanism of fiber reinforced asphalt ...

  17. Allergens in Paved Road Dust and Airborne Particles

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel, Ann G.; Cass, Glen R.; Glovsky, M. Michael; Weiss, Jay

    1999-01-01

    Paved road dust present on the surface of streets in Southern California consists of a complex mixture of soil dust, deposited motor vehicle exhaust particles, tire dust, brake lining wear dust, plant fragments, and other biological materials. The research presented here shows that allergens from at least 20 different source materials are found in the paved road dust. These include pollens and pollen fragments, animal dander, and molds. When paved road dust is resuspended into the atmosphere ...

  18. Party Secretary Emerging From a Road Maintenance Family

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DEGYI

    2005-01-01

    During my interview with Zholma, Party Secretary of the Xigaze Prefecture Communications Bureau, she told me the following interesting story: My mother is 85 this year. She has three children who are all road maintenance workers. In 1952, mother took a younger sister from Lhasa to Nyingchi, where she met the PLA and joined a road construction team. The road was being built to Lhasa and then to Xigaze.

  19. Improvement to Village Road Based on Traffic Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    B. Vindhyasri; K. Gopi Shankar

    2014-01-01

    The Improvement of Rural road network is of vital importance for bringing social aminities, education, and health within reasonable reach of villagers for transportation of agricultural products produce from villages to near market centers. There are many habitations in the state of Andhra Pradesh , of which only few habitations are connected by all weather roads. Pavements of roads connecting different villages were initially made up of moorum or other locally available granu...

  20. Differences in management between public and forest roads

    OpenAIRE

    Golob , Uroš

    2013-01-01

    Road planning is dealt by two professions. Forest roads are planned by forestry engineers, only relying on two policies: Pravilnik o gozdnih prometnicah and Pravilnik o gradnji, vzdrževanju in načinu uporabe gozdnih prometnic. Public roads are planned by civil engineers, who use a number of different laws, policies and technical specifications at their work. The thesis focuses on the comparison of the most important fields of managing in planning, designing, construction and maintenance of...