WorldWideScience

Sample records for claims reveal rural

  1. Is Romanian Rural Tourism Sustainable? Revealing Particularities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Ruxandra Andrei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on sustainable tourism involves developing an appropriate framework to highlight the interdependences of economic, social and environmental systems. The interdependence is based on the entropy of the system while respecting the principle of holism and diversity of rural tourism sustainability. In this context, sustainability in general and rural tourism in particular can be considered a complex system of development, which in some ways can be studied by statistical and econometric methods that allow the analysis of the interdependences between the variables of rural tourism at county level and at the level of rural communities. Conducting such studies involves identifying the rural communities where rural tourism has reached significant levels. Based on this consideration, this paper aims to identify the development regions and counties of Romania where the trends of development of rural tourism are significantly above the average recorded at country level, as a first step towards particular studies of sustainability in rural communities.

  2. Is Romanian Rural Tourism Sustainable? Revealing Particularities

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Ruxandra Andrei; Rodica-Manuela Gogonea; Marian Zaharia; Jean-Vasile Andrei

    2014-01-01

    Research on sustainable tourism involves developing an appropriate framework to highlight the interdependences of economic, social and environmental systems. The interdependence is based on the entropy of the system while respecting the principle of holism and diversity of rural tourism sustainability. In this context, sustainability in general and rural tourism in particular can be considered a complex system of development, which in some ways can be studied by statistical and econometric me...

  3. Finding the Middle Ground: Land Tenure Reform and Customary Claims Negotiability in Rural Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. Ampadu (Richard)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractLand (property) rights have returned to the development agenda of national governments and international organizations globally. Central to the debates are issues concerning the interaction between customary and state legal systems. With an example from rural Ghana, this thesis looks at

  4. Gender Issues in Rural Eastern India Revealed by Field Interviews: Tribal and Non-Tribal Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Clement A. Tisdell; Kartik C. Roy

    2009-01-01

    Reports responses to interviews conducted in three rural villages in Eastern India in January 2000 as well as replies to questions asked at a forest meeting in West Bengal of groups/persons interested in rural women and development. The questions were designed to provide information on gender-bias and possible reasons for it, especially any economic reasons. These interviews supplemented detailed questionnaires directed to wives in these villages. Interviews were conducted with Kondhs in a vi...

  5. Consistency of Use and Effectiveness of Household Water Treatment Practices Among Urban and Rural Populations Claiming to Treat Their Drinking Water at Home: A Case Study in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Ghislaine; Kelly, Paul; Clasen, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Household water treatment (HWT) can improve drinking water quality and prevent disease, if used correctly and consistently. While international monitoring suggests that 1.8 billion people practice HWT, these estimates are based on household surveys that may overstate the level of consistent use and do not address microbiological effectiveness. We sought to examine how HWT is practiced among households identified as HWT users according to international monitoring standards. Case studies were conducted in urban and rural Zambia. After a baseline survey (urban: 203 households, rural: 276 households) to identify HWT users, 95 urban and 82 rural households were followed up for 6 weeks. Consistency of HWT reporting was low; only 72.6% of urban and 50.0% of rural households reported to be HWT users in the subsequent visit. Similarly, availability of treated water was low, only 23.3% and 4.2% of urban and rural households, respectively, had treated water on all visits. Drinking water was significantly worse than source water in both settings. Only 19.6% of urban and 2.4% of rural households had drinking water free of thermotolerant coliforms on all visits. Our findings raise questions about the value of the data gathered through the international monitoring of HWT practices as predictors of water quality in the home.

  6. Claiming Community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Bo

    lay claim on the state, as well as how it enters into local power struggles between different political groups within the township. In the third part, the paper explores how the meanings of community and the struggles to realise it have changed as South Africa, nationally and locally, has become...... is termed community work. First, the paper explores how community has become a governmental strategy, employed by the apartheid regime as well, although in different ways, as post-apartheid local government. Secondly, the paper explores the ways in which community becomes the means in which local residents...... increasingly occupied with crime and violence. The paper concludes that this change fundamentally has transformed the political room for manoeuvre among state representatives and township residents alike, and that the onus of blame for the failure to realise a truly non-racial, democratic and developed South...

  7. Competing jurisdictions: settling land claims in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Evers, Sandra; Spierenburg, M.; Wels, H.

    2005-01-01

    The papers included in this volume were earlier presented at a conference on the settlement of land claims in Africa, which was held in Amsterdam in September 2003. The papers are written primarily from an anthropological perspective. Contributions: Introduction: competing jurisdictions: settling land claims in Africa, including Madagascar (Sandra Evers, Marja Spierenburg and Harry Wels); Communal tenure 'from above' and 'from below': land rights, authority and livelihoods in rural South Afri...

  8. Impact of diet in shaping gut microbiota revealed by a comparative study in children from Europe and rural Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippo, Carlotta; Cavalieri, Duccio; Di Paola, Monica; Ramazzotti, Matteo; Poullet, Jean Baptiste; Massart, Sebastien; Collini, Silvia; Pieraccini, Giuseppe; Lionetti, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Gut microbial composition depends on different dietary habits just as health depends on microbial metabolism, but the association of microbiota with different diets in human populations has not yet been shown. In this work, we compared the fecal microbiota of European children (EU) and that of children from a rural African village of Burkina Faso (BF), where the diet, high in fiber content, is similar to that of early human settlements at the time of the birth of agriculture. By using high-throughput 16S rDNA sequencing and biochemical analyses, we found significant differences in gut microbiota between the two groups. BF children showed a significant enrichment in Bacteroidetes and depletion in Firmicutes (P xylan hydrolysis, completely lacking in the EU children. In addition, we found significantly more short-chain fatty acids (P < 0.001) in BF than in EU children. Also, Enterobacteriaceae (Shigella and Escherichia) were significantly underrepresented in BF than in EU children (P < 0.05). We hypothesize that gut microbiota coevolved with the polysaccharide-rich diet of BF individuals, allowing them to maximize energy intake from fibers while also protecting them from inflammations and noninfectious colonic diseases. This study investigates and compares human intestinal microbiota from children characterized by a modern western diet and a rural diet, indicating the importance of preserving this treasure of microbial diversity from ancient rural communities worldwide. PMID:20679230

  9. Impact of diet in shaping gut microbiota revealed by a comparative study in children from Europe and rural Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippo, Carlotta; Cavalieri, Duccio; Di Paola, Monica; Ramazzotti, Matteo; Poullet, Jean Baptiste; Massart, Sebastien; Collini, Silvia; Pieraccini, Giuseppe; Lionetti, Paolo

    2010-08-17

    Gut microbial composition depends on different dietary habits just as health depends on microbial metabolism, but the association of microbiota with different diets in human populations has not yet been shown. In this work, we compared the fecal microbiota of European children (EU) and that of children from a rural African village of Burkina Faso (BF), where the diet, high in fiber content, is similar to that of early human settlements at the time of the birth of agriculture. By using high-throughput 16S rDNA sequencing and biochemical analyses, we found significant differences in gut microbiota between the two groups. BF children showed a significant enrichment in Bacteroidetes and depletion in Firmicutes (P fibers while also protecting them from inflammations and noninfectious colonic diseases. This study investigates and compares human intestinal microbiota from children characterized by a modern western diet and a rural diet, indicating the importance of preserving this treasure of microbial diversity from ancient rural communities worldwide. PMID:20679230

  10. Medicaid Drug Claims Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicaid Drug Claims Statistics CD is a useful tool that conveniently breaks up Medicaid claim counts and separates them by quarter and includes an annual count.

  11. Impact of diet in shaping gut microbiota revealed by a comparative study in children from Europe and rural Africa

    OpenAIRE

    C. De Filippo; Cavalieri, D.; M. Di Paola; M. Ramazzotti; Poullet, J.B.; Massart, Sébastien; Collini, S.; Pieraccini, G; Lionetti, P.

    2010-01-01

    Gut microbial composition depends on different dietary habits just as health depends on microbial metabolism, but the association of microbiota with different diets in human populations has not yet been shown. In this work, we compared the fecal microbiota of European children (EU) and that of children from a rural African village of Burkina Faso (BF), where the diet, high in fiber content, is similar to that of early human settlements at the time of the birth of agriculture. By using high-th...

  12. Miracle Health Claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search form Search Vea esta página en español Miracle Health Claims Related PDF Order Free Copies Related ... a Target for Health Fraudsters? You’ve seen miracle claims for products related to health. It’s no ...

  13. Formalizing Probabilistic Safety Claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herencia-Zapana, Heber; Hagen, George E.; Narkawicz, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    A safety claim for a system is a statement that the system, which is subject to hazardous conditions, satisfies a given set of properties. Following work by John Rushby and Bev Littlewood, this paper presents a mathematical framework that can be used to state and formally prove probabilistic safety claims. It also enables hazardous conditions, their uncertainties, and their interactions to be integrated into the safety claim. This framework provides a formal description of the probabilistic composition of an arbitrary number of hazardous conditions and their effects on system behavior. An example is given of a probabilistic safety claim for a conflict detection algorithm for aircraft in a 2D airspace. The motivation for developing this mathematical framework is that it can be used in an automated theorem prover to formally verify safety claims.

  14. SSA Disability Claim Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The dataset includes fiscal year data for initial claims for SSA disability benefits that were referred to a state agency for a disability determination. Specific...

  15. Unfalsifiability of security claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herley, Cormac

    2016-06-01

    There is an inherent asymmetry in computer security: Things can be declared insecure by observation, but not the reverse. There is no observation that allows us to declare an arbitrary system or technique secure. We show that this implies that claims of necessary conditions for security (and sufficient conditions for insecurity) are unfalsifiable. This in turn implies an asymmetry in self-correction: Whereas the claim that countermeasures are sufficient is always subject to correction, the claim that they are necessary is not. Thus, the response to new information can only be to ratchet upward: Newly observed or speculated attack capabilities can argue a countermeasure in, but no possible observation argues one out. Further, when justifications are unfalsifiable, deciding the relative importance of defensive measures reduces to a subjective comparison of assumptions. Relying on such claims is the source of two problems: once we go wrong we stay wrong and errors accumulate, and we have no systematic way to rank or prioritize measures.

  16. Closed Claim Query File

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This file is used to hold information about disability claims that have been closed and have been selected for sampling.Sampling is the process whereby OQR reviews...

  17. Criteria for substantiating claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggett, Peter J

    2007-01-01

    Claims are used to support public health advocacy and marketing. Their evidence base is variable. Claims are made on (i) nutrient content, (ii) comparative merits, (iii) health benefits, and (iv) medical benefits. Experience with therapeutic agents has aided the development of recommendations for the substantiation of health claims for foods and food components, with which dietary supplements would be included. An EU Concerted Activity, Functional Food Science in Europe, suggested that such claims should be based on the general outcomes of 'enhanced function' and 'reduced risk of disease'. A further EU Concerted Activity, The Process for the Assessment of Scientific Support for Claims on Foods, proposed that the evidence base should provide: a characterization of the food or food component to which the claimed effect is attributed; human data, primarily from intervention studies that represent the target populations for the claim; a dose-response relationship: evidence of allowing for confounders including lifestyle, consumption patterns, background diet and food matrix; an appropriate duration for the study; a measure of compliance; and have adequate statistical power to test the hypothesis. When ideal endpoints are not easily accessible for measurement, validated and quality assured markers of the intermediate or final outcomes could be used, as long as their relationship is well characterized. Overall, the totality and coherence of published and unpublished evidence should be considered. Assessments for substantiation need expert judgement, weighting of the strength of the claim, and intelligent use of the criteria applied on an individual basis with respect both to gaps in knowledge and to any need for new knowledge and data. PMID:17913223

  18. Health Claims Data Warehouse (HCDW)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The Health Claims Data Warehouse (HCDW) will receive and analyze health claims data to support management and administrative purposes. The Federal Employee Health...

  19. 37 CFR 1.75 - Claim(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claim(s). 1.75 Section 1.75... GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Specification § 1.75 Claim(s). (a.... (35 U.S.C. 6; 15 U.S.C. 1113, 1126)...

  20. The claim from adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Thomas Sobirk

    2002-08-01

    In this article several justifications of what I call 'the claim from adoption' are examined. The claim from adoption is that, instead of expending resources on bringing new children into the world using reproductive technology and then caring for these children, we ought to devote these resources to the adoption and care of existing destitute children. Arguments trading on the idea that resources should be directed to adoption instead of assisted reproduction because already existing people can benefit from such a use of resources whereas we cannot benefit individuals by bringing them into existence are rejected. It is then argued that a utilitarian argument proposed by Christian Munthe that supports the claim from adoption in some situations should be rejected because the support it offers does not extend to certain situations in which it seems morally obvious that resources should be expended on adoption rather than assisted reproduction. A version of the Priority View improves upon Munthe's utilitarianism by supporting the claim from adoption in the cases in which Munthe's argument failed. Some allegedly counterintuitive implications of the Priority View are then discussed, and it is concluded that the Priority View is more plausible than utilitarianism. In a concluding section on policy issues it is argued that, even though the claim from adoption can be justified in a variety of situations, it does not follow that, in these situations, governments should direct resources away from assisted reproduction and towards adoption.

  1. Public Claims: A Legal Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer Budak

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In order for a claim to exist, the host there has to be two parties. In case of public claims one of the parties is the state, special provincial administration and municipalities; while the debtor consists of the natural and legal persons. The definition of public claims is provided by The Procedure Law of Collection of Public Claims. One claims, the quality of the public claims not cause any, may be excluded from the scope of Law No. 6183. All the claims of public administration are not public claims. However, any private claim can have the security of a public claim. For this reason the criteria used to define a public claim differ. Arrangements, which can render a public claim a privileged claim, exist in the relevant Code. The aim of this study is to define the concept of public claim expressed in the relevant code and to determine the conditions under which a claim not stated in the Code can be considered a public claim in the light of court decisions.

  2. Teaching and Learning in Rural Contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Tomàs, Roser Boix; Champollion, Pierre; Duarte, António M.

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of a review of the literature on rural and mountain education, this article focuses on the importance of the rural territory to the specificity of learning and teaching in rural schools globally. The analysis revealed that rural education has specificities that differentiate it from urban education and that, besides its limitations, offer potential advantages for the processes of teaching and learning for primary education. Moreover, analysis of rural education revealed that it f...

  3. Unfalsifiability of security claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herley, Cormac

    2016-06-01

    There is an inherent asymmetry in computer security: Things can be declared insecure by observation, but not the reverse. There is no observation that allows us to declare an arbitrary system or technique secure. We show that this implies that claims of necessary conditions for security (and sufficient conditions for insecurity) are unfalsifiable. This in turn implies an asymmetry in self-correction: Whereas the claim that countermeasures are sufficient is always subject to correction, the claim that they are necessary is not. Thus, the response to new information can only be to ratchet upward: Newly observed or speculated attack capabilities can argue a countermeasure in, but no possible observation argues one out. Further, when justifications are unfalsifiable, deciding the relative importance of defensive measures reduces to a subjective comparison of assumptions. Relying on such claims is the source of two problems: once we go wrong we stay wrong and errors accumulate, and we have no systematic way to rank or prioritize measures. PMID:27217574

  4. Language Display: Authenticating Claims to Social Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, Carol M.; Stein, Roberta F.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses "language display," a language use strategy whereby members of one group lay claims to attributes associated with another, conveying messages of social, professional, ethnic identity. Examples from academia, politics, business, and advertising reveal language display functions as artifact of crossing linguistic boundaries without…

  5. Rural Gifted Education: A Comprehensive Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Barbara Kent

    2009-01-01

    This review of literature about gifted rural education reveals not only important information but the need for further work. The concepts presented have applicability that is not exclusively rural, but they derive from studies done with rural students and take rural culture, history, and circumstances into account. Understanding the context of…

  6. 21 CFR 101.71 - Health claims: claims not authorized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Health claims: claims not authorized. 101.71 Section 101.71 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Requirements for Health Claims § 101.71...

  7. Auditing Cost Overrun Claims

    OpenAIRE

    Perez Castrillo, Jesus David; Nicolas RIEDINGER

    1999-01-01

    We consider a cost-reimbursement or a cost-sharing procurement contract between the administration and a firm. The firm privately learns the true cost overrun once the project has started and it can manipulate this information. We characterize the optimal auditing policy of cost overrun claims as a function of the initial contractual payment, the share of the cost overrun paid by the administration, the cost and the accuracy of the auditing technology, and the penalty rate that can be imposed...

  8. Analyzing claims by game theory and claim cost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Cong-wei; TANG Yao-gang; LIU Zhan-hong

    2006-01-01

    In managing an international project, claims are very important. In this paper, a complete information dynamic game model is designed; with the Nash equilibrium values, the huge influence of claim cost on claim strategy is testified and the importance of claims to both sides of a contract especially the contractor is elucidated. Claim chances are also discussed with game theory. At last, from the angle of a repeated game and by comparison with Pareto optimization and Nash equilibrium values, it is concluded that the best payoff can be obtained with a honest attitude and through cooperation between companies.

  9. Claiming health in food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2013-01-01

    -demographic factors have only minor impact and the impact seems to be case-dependent. Familiarity with claims and functional foods increase perceived healthiness and acceptance of these products. Apparently consumers make rather rational interpretations of claims and their benefits when forced to assess...... healthiness, but not necessarily making the product more appealing. The wording of the claim seems to have little impact on claim perception, yet the health image of carrier products is important. From consumer-related factors the relevance and attitudes towards functional foods play a role, whereas socio...... in assessing consumer understanding and use of health claims in purchase decisions....

  10. Competing Claims on Natural Resources: What Role for Science?

    OpenAIRE

    Ruerd Ruben; Maja Slingerland; Niek Koning; van Ittersum, Martin K.; Ignas Heitkönig; Paul Hebinck; Peter Frost; Arie Brouwer; Wim Andriesse; Andersson, Jens A; Cees Leeuwis; Ken E. Giller; Henk Udo; Tom Veldkamp; Claudius van de Vijver

    2008-01-01

    Competing claims on natural resources become increasingly acute, with the poor being most vulnerable to adverse outcomes of such competition. A major challenge for science and policy is to progress from facilitating univocal use to guiding stakeholders in dealing with potentially conflicting uses of natural resources. The development of novel, more equitable, management options that reduce rural poverty is key to achieving sustainable use of natural resources and the resolution of conflicts o...

  11. Controlling large malpractice claims: the unexpected impact of damage caps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronfein, W P; Kinney, E D

    1991-01-01

    Indiana's comprehensive malpractice reforms, inaugurated in 1975, include a cap on damages, a mandated medical review before trial, and a state insurance fund to pay claims equal to or greater than $100,000. We have found that the amount of compensation going to claimants with such large malpractice claims in Indiana is, on average, substantially higher than in Michigan and Ohio. Indiana's mean claim severity between 1977 and 1988 was $404,832, while the means for Michigan and Ohio were $290,022 and $303,220, respectively, with the difference between these three means being highly significant. Although data on claim and claimant characteristics reveal considerable interstate variation, the results of regression analyses show that Indiana claim payment amounts are higher than Michigan or Ohio payments, independent of the effect of factors such as sex, age, severity of injury, allegations of negligence, and year of settlement.

  12. Rural Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rural Health > Topics & States > Topics View more Rural Aging The nation's population is aging, and with that change comes increased healthcare needs. ... Disease Control and Prevention report, The State of Aging and Health in America 2013 , the population 65 ...

  13. Determinants of Choice Regarding Food with Nutrition and Health Claims

    OpenAIRE

    Aschemann, J.; Hamm, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    Health is an increasingly important topic in the food market. The regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 on nutrition and health claims is meant to facilitate healthy food choices of consumers. However, research studies about claim perception and choice behaviour are scarce in Europe up to this point, especially those focusing on revealed preferences or a close-to-realistic study design. This contribution reports findings of realistically designed choice-tests accompanied by video-observation and follo...

  14. Medicare-Certified Home Health Care: Urban-Rural Differences in Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Lacey; Jarosek, Stephanie L.; Virnig, Beth A.; Durham, Sara

    2007-01-01

    Context: Availability of Medicare-certified home health care (HHC) to rural elders can prevent more expensive institutional care. To date, utilization of HHC by rural elders has not been studied in detail. Purpose: To examine urban-rural differences in Medicare HHC utilization. Methods: The 2002 100% Medicare HHC claims and denominator files were…

  15. Consumer appeal of nutrition and health claims in three existing product concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Wim; Scholderer, Joachim; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2009-01-01

    , attitudinal and demographic characteristics. Generally, health claims outperformed nutrition claims, and both of these claim types outperformed reduction of disease risk claims. Comparing consumer reactions across product concepts revealed clear preferences for fibre-enriched cereals as compared to the other...... two concepts. The interaction effects between claim type and product concept indicated that reduction of disease risk claims are perceived very well in omega-3 enriched spreads, particularly in terms of perceived convincingness of the claim, while not appealing to consumers in the other product...... concepts. Positive attitudes towards functional foods and familiarity with the concrete functional product category boosted the claim type and product ratings, whereas perceived control over own health and perceiving functional foods as a marketing scam decreased all product concept's appeal....

  16. Medicare Hospital Spending by Claim

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Also known as Medicare Spending per Beneficiary (MSPB) Spending Breakdowns by Claim Type file. The data displayed here show average spending levels during...

  17. Medicare Part D Claims Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This page contains information on Part D claims data for the purposes of research, analysis, reporting, and public health functions. These data will also be used to...

  18. Medicare and Rural Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this facility type. Rural Referral Center (RRC) Rural tertiary hospitals that receive referrals from surrounding rural acute ... rural beneficiaries. Where can I get data and statistics regarding the Medicare program in rural America? MedPAC ...

  19. Going Rural

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Foreign banks are beginning to invest in China's rural financial system, helping to meet a strong need for capital As Chinese commercial banks retreat from the rural market, foreign banks appear ready to jump into a sector with a strong thirst for capital. In July, Rabobank Group, the International Finance Corp. and the United

  20. Rural Households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Based on a comprehensive survey and subsequent fieldwork, this chapter introduces the socio-economic characteristics and common livelihood strategies of rural households in Quang Nam, Central Vietnam. It demonstrates the basic premise of self-reliance in rural society and the decreasing economic...

  1. (Dr. P. C. Sen Award on rural health practice). Infant and early childhood mortality in some rural ICDS blocks of west Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, A B; Basu, M; Das, K K; Biswas, R

    1993-01-01

    This one year prospective study was carried out to determine the CBR, CDR and different underfive mortality rates in some selected rural ICDS blocks of West Bengal and also to find out the common causes of infant and childhood mortality in these areas. It was revealed that most of the above mentioned indicators in ICDS blocks were considerably lower than that of National figures, but more or less similar to those of rural Bengal as recorded in routine Govt. reports. Compared to the picture of rural West Bengal, both still birth & perinatal mortality rates were found higher in all ICDS blocks. The causes of mortality trends among under fives' were found similar to that of rural India pattern i.e. prematurity, acute respiratory infections and diarrhoea being the leaders. Neonates, who contributed the largest share of infant mortality died mainly due to prematurity. So, observations like high perinatal mortality & still birth rates, huge proportion of neonatal death during infancy, same IMR but low 5MR, and death of neonates due to prematurity etc. claim the necessity of improving maternal component of ICDS services, their nutritional care in particular. PMID:8063374

  2. 38 CFR 3.155 - Informal claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... organization, an attorney, or agent may not be accepted as an informal claim if a power of attorney was not... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Informal claims. 3.155..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Claims § 3.155 Informal claims. (a) Any...

  3. 38 CFR 14.665 - Claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., children, father or mother or both, or brothers or sisters or both. Claims of survivors shall be settled.... Where such claim or potential claim is against a carrier or insurer, evidence that a timely claim has been properly made. Where a recovery from the carrier or his or her insurer has been obtained...

  4. Exaggerated Claims for Interactive Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thue, David; Bulitko, Vadim; Spetch, Marcia; Webb, Michael

    As advertising becomes more crucial to video games' success, developers risk promoting their products beyond the features that they can actually include. For features of interactive storytelling, the effects of making such exaggerations are not well known, as reports from industry have been anecdotal at best. In this paper, we explore the effects of making exaggerated claims for interactive stories, in the context of the theory of advertising. Results from a human user study show that female players find linear and branching stories to be significantly less enjoyable when they are advertised with exaggerated claims.

  5. A typology of rural areas in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanov Natalija

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to present a method to establish the typology of rural areas in Serbia. Initially the OECD rurality criterion was applied to define the rural areas in Serbia. Subsequently, relevant indicators were selected (demographic, geographic, economic, employment-related, human capital, agricultural, tourism and infrastructure and used to define and distinguish relatively homogeneous rural regions, based on correlation analysis, factor analysis (VARIMAX method and cluster analysis. Cluster analysis revealed six regions of different sizes and characteristics. Practical considerations reduced this to four types, resulting in a robust scheme which accurately reflects the heterogeneous nature of rural Serbia.

  6. 32 CFR 536.97 - Scope for claims under the National Guard Claims Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Scope for claims under the National Guard Claims Act. 536.97 Section 536.97 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the National Guard...

  7. 32 CFR 536.98 - Claims payable under the National Guard Claims Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Claims payable under the National Guard Claims Act. 536.98 Section 536.98 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the National Guard...

  8. 32 CFR 536.99 - Claims not payable under the National Guard Claims Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Claims not payable under the National Guard Claims Act. 536.99 Section 536.99 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the National...

  9. Idle School Buildings in Rural Areas: Will they Be Useful ?

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Qiang-ying; Shu, Wen

    2012-01-01

    Taking the case of Enshi City, we survey the supply of public services in rural areas from education, health, culture and social security, reveal the relationship between the use of idle school buildings in rural areas and the improvement of public services in rural areas. On the basis of expounding the status quo of idle school buildings and public services in rural areas of Enshi City, the following recommendations are put forward: using the idle school buildings to develop rural public edu...

  10. Nordic scepticism towards health claims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2008-01-01

    Imagine that you are shopping in a supermarket and find a package of pork chops labelled "omega-3 added" or that the yogurt "contains phosphatidylserine, which can improve your memory"; would you buy these pork chops or this yogurt? Most Nordic consumers would choose products without health claims....

  11. Rural Priority

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    As the Chinese economy soars ahead in the wake of the international financial crisis, more attention is being given to the country’s indus-trial, financial, investment and trade figures. But the Central Rural Work

  12. Dirac's Claim and the Chemists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Ana

    In 1929 Paul A. M. Dirac claimed that ``the underlying physical laws necessary for the mathematical theory of ... the whole of chemistry are thus completely known, and the difficulty is only that the exact application of these laws leads to equations much too complicated to be soluble.'' This sentence of Dirac's is cited frequently by historians and philosophers of chemistry in the context of discussions on the hypothetical reduction of chemistry to physics. But how did chemists themselves react to Dirac's claim? Did they feel threatened by physicists who felt they could do their job better than themselves? Did they feel indifferent, or did they simply not care? Was Dirac's paper often cited by chemists? Why was it cited? In this paper, I provide answers to these questions on the basis of an analysis of citations to Dirac's 1929 paper in the Science Citation Index.

  13. Utility based pricing of contingent claims

    OpenAIRE

    Gamba, A.; P. Pellizzari

    1999-01-01

    In a discrete setting, we develop a model for pricing a contingent claim. Since the presence of hedging opportunities influences the price of a contingent claim, first we introduce the optimal hedging strategy assuming a contingent claim has been issued: a strategy implemented by investing the budget plus the selling price is optimal if it maximizes the expected utility of the agent's revenue, which is the difference between the outcome of the hedging portfolio and the payoff of the claim. Ne...

  14. Competing Claims on Natural Resources: What Role for Science?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruerd Ruben

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Competing claims on natural resources become increasingly acute, with the poor being most vulnerable to adverse outcomes of such competition. A major challenge for science and policy is to progress from facilitating univocal use to guiding stakeholders in dealing with potentially conflicting uses of natural resources. The development of novel, more equitable, management options that reduce rural poverty is key to achieving sustainable use of natural resources and the resolution of conflicts over them. Here, we describe an interdisciplinary and interactive approach for: (i the understanding of competing claims and stakeholder objectives; (ii the identification of alternative resource use options, and (iii the scientific support to negotiation processes between stakeholders. Central to the outlined approach is a shifted perspective on the role of scientific knowledge in society. Understanding scientific knowledge as entering societal arenas and as fundamentally negotiated, the role of the scientist becomes a more modest one, a contributor to ongoing negotiation processes among stakeholders. Scientists can, therefore, not merely describe and explain resource-use dynamics and competing claims, but in doing so, they should actively contribute to negotiation processes between stakeholders operating at different scales (local, national, regional, and global. Together with stakeholders, they explore alternatives that can contribute to more sustainable and equitable use of natural resources and, where possible, design new technical options and institutional arrangements.

  15. 5 CFR 177.103 - Administrative claim; who may file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative claim; who may file. 177... ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT § 177.103 Administrative claim; who may file. (a) A claim... assert a claim under the applicable State law. (d) A claim for loss totally compensated by an...

  16. 12 CFR 650.40 - Creditor claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Creditor claims. 650.40 Section 650.40 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FEDERAL AGRICULTURAL MORTGAGE CORPORATION... or in part any creditor's claim or claim of security, preference, or priority that is not proved...

  17. 5 CFR 180.104 - Allowable claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... mobile homes may be allowed only in cases of collision, theft, or vandalism. (5) Money. Claims for money... claimant's supervisor. (4) Mobile homes. Claims may be allowed for damage to or loss of mobile homes and their contents under the provisions of § 180.104(c)(2). Claims for structural damage to mobile...

  18. 32 CFR 842.31 - Claims payable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... mobile or manufactured homes and contents in shipment. Pay such claims if there is no evidence of... jettisoned baggage, clothing worn at the time of an incident, and reasonable amounts of money, jewelry, and... of the claim. (k) Money losses. Pay claims for loss of money when the losses are due to theft...

  19. 28 CFR 104.5 - Foreign claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foreign claims. 104.5 Section 104.5... General; Eligibility § 104.5 Foreign claims. In the case of claims brought by or on behalf of foreign... such materials are unavailable to such foreign claimants....

  20. 20 CFR 356.3 - False claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false False claims. 356.3 Section 356.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.3 False claims. In the case of penalties assessed under 31...

  1. 48 CFR 1652.204-72 - Filing health benefit claims/court review of disputed claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... inserted in all FEHB Program contracts. Filing Health Benefit Claims/Court Review of Disputed Claims (MAR... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Filing health benefit claims/court review of disputed claims. 1652.204-72 Section 1652.204-72 Federal Acquisition...

  2. Perception of health claims among Nordic consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Boztug, Yasemin;

    2009-01-01

    Health claim perception was investigated by a web-based instrument with a sample of 4612 respondents in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden). Respondents decided which of a pair of claims sounded better, was easier to understand, and was more convincing in their opinion....... Claims were constructed from an underlying universe combining different active ingredients (familiar, unfamiliar), type of claim (combination of information about ingredient, physiological function and health benefit), framing (positive, negative) and use of qualifier (with, without 'may'). Across pairs......, the claims differed in the health benefit addressed (cardiovascular health, dementia, bodyweight). Results showed that respondents could be grouped into two roughly equally sized classes that differed in the type of claim preferred: one class prefers 'long' claims that give the full story consisting...

  3. Skill Development for Volunteering in Rural Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Sue; Stirling, Christine; Orpin, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the skills required of volunteers in the voluntary sector organisations that operate in three rural Tasmanian communities. It reports how volunteers acquire those skills and reveals the challenges faced by voluntary sector organisations in rural communities whose industries and, following from this, community members have a…

  4. Claim Analysis of Construction Projects in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al Mohsin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Claims are one of the problems that  construction project may face. Claims might cause many affects such as payment delay, extension of time and work suspension. This paper aims to highlight claims in construction industry in Oman and factors affecting these claims, as a result of construction boom, claims get bigger attention due to the high effect on the main elements of construction management. Field study has been conducted to collect data required in claim concern. Data were collected through data collecting form designed for this purpose, collected data was for 45 projects with specific criteria. According to the analyzed data, it’s been shown that the average of claims in construction projects is 2.6 claims per project, most of these claims are: extension of time effect, solved in negotiation manner, occurred in lump sum contracts. Owners are the first party "as sources of claims" with 42% of research sample over other sources like consultants, contractor and contract documents.

  5. Rural schools: In the middle of nowhere.The invisible cities in the world of education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Vázquez Recio

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This article includes some reflections about rural schools, coming from the personal and professional experience of the author. The article claims that rural schools should cease to be forgotten or underestimated and that they should be recognized as real schools. This issue is linked to the field of initial teacher training, making some considerations to be taken into account in order to promote a change in the appraisal and recognition of schools in the rural world.

  6. 40 CFR 10.3 - Administrative claims; who may file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative claims; who may file. 10... CLAIMS UNDER FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT Procedures § 10.3 Administrative claims; who may file. (a) A claim... by any other person legally entitled to assert such a claim under applicable State law. (d) A...

  7. Rural electrification to low cost; Eletrificacao rural de baixo custo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Fernando Selles

    1993-07-01

    Rural electrification is a political matter. Sometimes it is discussed as a social matter, sometimes as an economical matter, sometimes as a technical matter. The political aspect of the decisions is remarkable in all three fields.The present work relies on the concept that poorer producers will only be reached by a rural electrification program, if an alternative technology is used aiming to obtain low cost per connection. The ordinary distribution has a cost which doesn't reach those people. The work shows that target is denied in three moments by ideological reason. In a first moment it is denied by state economical politics, always neglecting giving assistance to poorer producers. In a second moment, it is denied by the utility which claims to have more urging problems to solve. Finally, it is denied by the engineer of distribution who, ideologically, turns to an engineering of primacy, and doesn't o think about the use of a more simplified technology. Actions to intended to interrupt these mechanisms are mentioned. One of the actions aims to introduce in the preparatory studies of engineers deeper discussions concerning the social function of energy. The other action is the proposition of a standard of rural electrification with leads to the solution of the problem, since there is political attention. (author)

  8. [Health claims for medical foods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katan, Martijn B

    2013-01-01

    Souvenaid (Nutricia, Zoetermeer, the Netherlands) is a medical food for the dietary management of early Alzheimer's disease. The mix of nutrients in this drink is suggested to have a beneficial effect on cognitive function; such implicit health claims for medical foods are not checked by government agencies. Souvenaid has been investigated in three clinical trials. The first trial showed that Souvenaid produced a significant improvement in delayed verbal recall, but not in other psychological tests. The second and largest trial showed no effect on any outcome. The third trial showed no significant effect at 12 or 24 weeks, but a significant difference in the 24-week time course of the composite memory score. None of these outcomes was clearly specified as a primary outcome at trial registration. In conclusion, there is no convincing proof that Souvenaid benefits cognitive function. Better scrutiny of the efficacy of medical foods is warranted. PMID:23759182

  9. CLAIMS OF SUSTAINABLE FACILITIES MANAGEMENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev

    -creating of new socio-technical services and technologies These SFM understandings are concluded to be coexisting claims of SFM definitions. Practical Implications: Facilities managers will be able to identify the mindset behind different services and technologies that are promoted as SFM. But maybe just......Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to provide an overview of current practices within the emergent management discipline: Sustainable Facilities Management (SFM). Background: To develop a sustainable society, facilities managers must become change agents for sustainability in the built...... environment. Facilities Management (FM) is contributing to the environmental, social and economical problems, but can at the same time also be a part of the solution. However, to integrate sustainability in FM is still an emergent niche within FM, and the examples of SFM so far seems to come out of very...

  10. Estimation of Claim Numbers in Automobile Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Arató, Miklós; Martinek, László

    2012-01-01

    The use of bonus-malus systems in compulsory liability automobile insurance is a worldwide applied method for premium pricing. If certain assumptions hold, like the conditional Poisson distribution of the policyholders claim number, then an interesting task is to evaluate the so called claims frequency of the individuals. Here we introduce 3 techniques, two is based on the bonus-malus class, and the third based on claims history. The article is devoted to choose the method, which fits to the ...

  11. Identity Claims in a Complex Global World

    OpenAIRE

    Casey, Andrea; Byington, Linda

    2012-01-01

    This case study of Nike explored the relationship of an organization’s history and the recollection of critical organizational events in the evolution of its identity claims. Data collection involved interviews, observations, and document review. Six identity claims were found: athlete/sport/performance-driven, competitive, innovative, passionate, relationship-focused, and integrity-based. The claims remained the same over time and featured prominently in the discussion of significant events,...

  12. Determinants of consumer understanding of health claims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Scholderer, Joachim; Rogeaux, Michel

    2011-01-01

    as safe, risky or other. In addition to the open questions on claim understanding, respondents rated a number of statements on claim interpretation for agreement and completed scales on interest in healthy eating, attitude to functional foods, and subjective knowledge on food and health. Results showed...... that respondents with a positive attitude to functional foods are more likely to be classified as riskywith regard to their claim understanding, whereas respondents with negative or neutral attitudes are more likely to be classified into the other category. Implications for testing claim understanding...

  13. Survey of malpractice claims in dermatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A statistical survey of malpractice claims asserted against dermatologists was made. The subject matter of the claims was divided into eight major categories: drug reactions, x-ray burns, poor cosmetic result following surgery, poor cosmetic result following medication, failure to diagnose cancer, improper diagnosis, infection from treatment, and miscellaneous. The study showed that a group of ''serious'' damage cases, which accounted for 34 percent of total claims, generated 94 percent of total dollar losses. The problem areas for malpractice claims appeared to be drug reactions, cosmetic chemosurgery, and failure to diagnose cancer. (U.S.)

  14. 16 CFR 460.22 - Tax claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tax claims. 460.22 Section 460.22 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.22 Tax claims. Do not say or imply that your product qualifies for a tax benefit unless it is true....

  15. Composition properties in the river claims problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ansink, E.J.H.; Weikard, H.P.

    2015-01-01

    In a river claims problem, agents are ordered linearly, and they hve both an initial water endowment as well as a claim to the total water resou8rce. We provide characterizations of two solutions to this problem, using Composition properties which have particularly relevant interpretations for the r

  16. 49 CFR 22.69 - Claim process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Claim process. 22.69 Section 22.69 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation SHORT-TERM LENDING PROGRAM (STLP) Loan Administration § 22.69 Claim process. After reasonable efforts have been exhausted to collect on a delinquent debt,...

  17. 32 CFR 279.4 - Claims process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claims process. 279.4 Section 279.4 National... RETROACTIVE STOP LOSS SPECIAL PAY COMPENSATION § 279.4 Claims process. (a) The last day for submission of... members may not be knowledgeable of the process and will require additional assistance after filing...

  18. CLAIM HEDGING IN AN INCOMPLETE MARKET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Wangui; WANG Chunfeng

    2005-01-01

    In this paper,we compare the performance of the optimal attainable payoffs (of a general claim) derived by the variance-optimal approach and the indifference argument under the mean-variance preference in an incomplete market.Both payoffs are expressed by the signed variance-optimal martingale measure.Our results are applied to the claim hedging under partial information.

  19. 5 CFR 180.107 - Claims procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Claims procedure. 180.107 Section 180.107 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYEES' PERSONAL PROPERTY... General Counsel, Office of Personnel Management, 1900 E Street NW., Washington, DC 20415. Claims shall...

  20. 44 CFR 11.76 - Claims procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... applicable case enumerated in § 11.73(c)(8). (h) Money. Claims for loss of money deposited for safekeeping... person or persons who received money and any others involved; (2) Name and designation of the authority... claimant. (i) Motor vehicles or mobile homes in transit. Claims for damage to motor vehicles or...

  1. Optimal claim behaviour for vehicle damage insurances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.P. Dellaert (Nico); J.B.G. Frenk (Hans); L.P. van Rijsoort

    1993-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we analyse the optimal claim behaviour of a risk sensitive policy holder having a vehicle damage insurance. It is proved that the optimal decision is of the form: to claim for damages only if its amount exceeds a certain limit. Moreover, we also derive the optimal stopping

  2. 40 CFR 35.6600 - Contractor claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Procurement Requirements Under A Cooperative Agreement § 35.6600 Contractor claims. (a) General... against the recipient under a contract, provided: (1) The claim arises from work within the scope of...

  3. 22 CFR 213.5 - Fraud claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of the debtor or any party having an interest in the claim to the USAID Office of Inspector General... the Department of Justice (DOJ), and/or returning it to the CFO for further action. (b) The CFO will... presentation of a false claim or misrepresentation on the part of the debtor or any party having an interest...

  4. A multilevel analysis of intercompany claim counts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Antonio; E.W. Frees; E.A. Valdez

    2010-01-01

    It is common for professional associations and regulators to combine the claims experience of several insurers into a database known as an 'intercompany' experience data set. In this paper, we analyze data on claim counts provided by the General Insurance Association of Singapore, an organization co

  5. Factors influencing mode of claims settlement in workers' compensation cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, D L; Wood, G A; MacDonald, S

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines the variables that influence the means by which 10,192 injured workers settled their compensation claims during 1990. The data on which this study is based come from a state in Australia where there are three means by which workers' compensation claims can be settled by lump sum payment: settlement following a specific injury payment, early settlement payment and settlement following a common law payment. This paper is specifically concerned with identifying the variables that determine whether the claim will be settled by a lump sum payment and whether different modes of claims settlement by lump sum are unique and predictable from a range of variables that include injury characteristics and demographics. The results of logistic regression modelling revealed that those who received a lump sum settlement could be reliably distinguished from those who did not receive such a payment. Each mode of settlement varied in the extent to which it could be predicted. Contrary to expectations, the most difficult form of settlement mode to predict was that of specific injury payments (4% accurate) with the most predictive being early settlement payments (81% accurate). Common law payments were also highly predictable (48% accurate). The form of lump sum payment received by injured workers was found to depend on a range of injury characteristics, indices of severity and for common law payments, gender and potential income loss. It is argued that although injury characteristics play a part in the process of claims settlement, personal circumstances and insurance company policies are influential in dictating the form by which workers compensation cases are finalized. PMID:7797315

  6. Idle School Buildings in Rural Areas: Will they Be Useful?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Taking the case of Enshi City,we survey the supply of public services in rural areas from education,health,culture and social security; reveal the relationship between the use of idle school buildings in rural areas and the improvement of public services in rural areas. On the basis of expounding the status quo of idle school buildings and public services in rural areas of Enshi City,the following recommendations are put forward: using the idle school buildings to develop rural public education; using the idle school buildings to develop rural public health and medical services; using the idle school buildings to develop public cultural undertakings in rural areas; using the idle school buildings to develop social security undertakings in rural areas.

  7. What Is Rural? Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Agriculture, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Many people have definitions for the term rural, but seldom are these rural definitions in agreement. For some, rural is a subjective state of mind. For others, rural is an objective quantitative measure. In this brief report the United States Department of Agriculture presents the following information along with helpful links for the reader: (1)…

  8. 32 CFR 842.110 - Claims not payable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... International Agreements Claims Act. (4) The Air Force Admiralty Claims Act and the Admiralty Extensions Act. (5...) Claims for a maritime occurrence covered under U.S. admiralty laws. (o) Claims for: (1) Any tax or... interference with contract rights. (s) Claims that result wholly from the negligent or wrongful act of...

  9. 32 CFR 536.4 - Designation of claims attorneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Designation of claims attorneys. 536.4 Section... CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES The Army Claims System § 536.4 Designation of claims attorneys. (a) Who... designate a qualified attorney other than a JA as a claims attorney. The head of an ACO may designate...

  10. 34 CFR 35.3 - Administrative claim; who may file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative claim; who may file. 35.3 Section 35.3... § 35.3 Administrative claim; who may file. (a) A claim for injury to or loss of property may be... assert such a claim under applicable state law. (d) A claim for loss wholly compensated by an...

  11. 14 CFR 15.5 - Administrative claim, who may file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative claim, who may file. 15.5... claim, who may file. (a) A claim for injury to, or loss of, property may be presented by the owner of... assert such a claim under applicable State law. (d) A claim for loss wholly compensated by an...

  12. 13 CFR 114.103 - Who may file a claim?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Who may file a claim? 114.103... Tort Claims § 114.103 Who may file a claim? (a) If a claim is based on factors listed in the first... entitled to assert the claim under applicable state law. Loss wholly compensated by an insurer with...

  13. 10 CFR 1014.3 - Administrative claim; who may file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative claim; who may file. 1014.3 Section 1014.3... § 1014.3 Administrative claim; who may file. (a) A claim for injury to or loss of property may be... to assert such a claim under the applicable State law. (d) A claim for a loss that was...

  14. 40 CFR 1620.3 - Administrative claim; who may file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative claim; who may file... ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS ARISING UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT § 1620.3 Administrative claim; who may file. (a..., or by any other person legally entitled to assert a claim under the applicable State law,...

  15. 45 CFR 35.3 - Administrative claim; who may file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administrative claim; who may file. 35.3 Section... AGAINST THE GOVERNMENT Procedures § 35.3 Administrative claim; who may file. (a) A claim for injury to or... person legally entitled to assert such a claim under applicable state law. (d) A claim for loss...

  16. Preinduction activities: a closed malpractice claims perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, M L; Kremer, M J

    2001-12-01

    The American Association of Nurse Anesthetists Foundation conducts an ongoing study of closed malpractice claims that involve nurse anesthetists. A team of 8 CRNA researchers has to date investigated 223 closed claim files from the St Paul Fire and Marine Insurance Company. Research findings have demonstrated that failure to provide appropriate anesthesia care relative to the Scope and Standards for Nurse Anesthesia Practice was significantly associated with adverse anesthetic outcomes. Claims that involved inadequate preinduction activities (n = 22) were analyzed in the context of their compliance with published standards of care. The largest group of claims in this analysis (59%) involved damaging respiratory events, 28% entailed damaging cardiovascular events, and the principal issue in 13% of these claims involved failure to seek available information such as laboratory studies on the medical record. The most prevalent occurrence with damaging respiratory events was undocumented airway assessment in 27% of the claims. In 55% of these claims, the medical history was not completely documented. The surgical procedure categories were general surgical (32%), obstetrical (27%), otolaryngogical (23%), orthopedic (14%), and gynecologic (5%). The involved standards of care are reviewed, and recommendations are made regarding consistent completion of preinduction activities. PMID:11837148

  17. Weighing the Claims in Diet Ads

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... supplements for weight loss. These sites are a marketing ploy created to sell acai berry supplements.  Tainted ... on health claims? Get Email Updates Blog Feed Facebook YouTube Twitter The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is ...

  18. 12 CFR 627.2740 - Creditors' claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... receiver shall allow any claim that is timely received and proved to the receiver's satisfaction. The... priority which is not proved to the receiver's satisfaction or is not timely received and shall notify...

  19. 24 CFR 17.43 - Allowable claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... by the negligent or wrongful act of the claimant, his agent, the members of his family, or his..., superior authority. (6) Clothing and accessories. Claims may be allowed for damage to, or loss of,...

  20. FDA Warns About Stem Cell Claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates FDA Warns About Stem Cell Claims Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... blood-forming system. back to top Regulation of Stem Cells FDA regulates stem cells in the U.S. to ...

  1. Innovative Mechanism of Rural Organization Based on Self-Organization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyzes the basic situation of the formation of innovative rural organizations with the form of self-organization;reveals the features of self-organization,including the four aspects of openness of rural organization,innovation of rural organization far away from equilibrium,the non-linear response mechanism of rural organization innovation and the random rise and fall of rural organization innovation.The evolution mechanism of rural organization innovation is revealed according to the growth stage,the ideal stage,the decline and the fall stage.The paper probes into the basic restriction mechanism of the self-organization evaluation of rural organization from three aspects,including target recognition,path dependence and knowledge sharing.The basic measures on cultivating the innovative mechanism of rural organization are put forward.Firstly,constructing the dissipative structure of rural organization innovation;secondly,cultivating the dynamic study capability of rural organization innovation system;thirdly,selecting the step-by-step evolution strategy of rural organization innovation system.

  2. Consumer understanding of sugars claims on food and drink products

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, N J; Sadler, M J; Cooper, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Consumer understanding of nutrition and health claims is a key aspect of current regulations in the European Union (EU). In view of this, qualitative and quantitative research techniques were used to investigate consumer awareness and understanding of product claims in the UK, focusing particularly on nutrition claims relating to sugars. Both research methods identified a good awareness of product claims. No added sugars claims were generally preferred to reduced sugars claims, and there was ...

  3. Nutrition and health claims as marketing tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Buul, Vincent J; Brouns, Fred J P H

    2015-01-01

    European regulations mandate that only substantiated and approved statements can be used as nutrition- and health-related claims in food marketing. A thorough understanding of consumer perceptions of these approved claims is needed to assess their impact on both the purchase intention of functional foods and the development of innovative functional food concepts. In this paper, a conceptual framework on the European consumers' perception of nutrition and health claims on these functional foods is proposed. Through a literature review, common independent variables are structured, and an analysis of these variables shows that nutrition and health claims are mostly only perceived positive by specific target consumers (who need the product, accept the ingredient, understand the benefit, and trust the brand). These consumers indicate that the products with substantiated and approved claims help them in reaching overall health goals. This increased expectation in functional efficacy may mediate an increase in repurchase intent, overall liking, and the amount consumers are willing to spend. Other consumers, however, may have adverse reactions towards nutrition and health claims on functional foods. Implications for the consumer and the industry are discussed.

  4. Nutrition and health claims as marketing tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Buul, Vincent J; Brouns, Fred J P H

    2015-01-01

    European regulations mandate that only substantiated and approved statements can be used as nutrition- and health-related claims in food marketing. A thorough understanding of consumer perceptions of these approved claims is needed to assess their impact on both the purchase intention of functional foods and the development of innovative functional food concepts. In this paper, a conceptual framework on the European consumers' perception of nutrition and health claims on these functional foods is proposed. Through a literature review, common independent variables are structured, and an analysis of these variables shows that nutrition and health claims are mostly only perceived positive by specific target consumers (who need the product, accept the ingredient, understand the benefit, and trust the brand). These consumers indicate that the products with substantiated and approved claims help them in reaching overall health goals. This increased expectation in functional efficacy may mediate an increase in repurchase intent, overall liking, and the amount consumers are willing to spend. Other consumers, however, may have adverse reactions towards nutrition and health claims on functional foods. Implications for the consumer and the industry are discussed. PMID:24364816

  5. Rural Logistics System Based on Rural Informatization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Current status of rural informatization construction in China,including the relatively weak rural informatization,asymmetric market information,low level of information sharing,dispersedly allocated resources and no cross point among each other are analyzed.The importance of informatization in rural logistic system is introduced:firstly,decision making of logistics system plan is based on information.Secondly,improvement of the overall efficiency of logistics system is based on information.Thirdly,logistics transmission takes the Internet as the carrier.Necessity of rural logistics system is discussed from five aspects of increasing the employment of farmers,enhancing the income of farmers,reducing the blindness of agricultural production and circulation,sharing the risks of agricultural management,and promoting the rural economic restructuring.According to the above five steps,five countermeasures are posed in order to improve the rural logistics system.The countermeasures cover the aspects of deepening the information awareness of government,establishing a rural informatization system suited to the national condition of China,strengthening the information infrastructure in rural areas,promoting the integration of rural information resources and establishing the training system for agricultural information talents.

  6. The effects of natural cigarette claims on adolescents' brand-related beliefs, attitudes, and intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kathleen J; Manning, Kenneth

    2014-09-01

    The marketing of natural cigarettes has been widely criticized by consumer advocates and public policymakers. The present research is designed to inform the ongoing policy debate by examining the effects of natural cigarette claims on adolescents' brand impressions. The authors report the results of an experiment in which high school students viewed images of cigarette packages for three different brands. Findings indicate that including natural claims on cigarette packages can weaken beliefs that the cigarettes cause diseases. Results also reveal that skepticism toward marketing claims may play an important role in undermining brand attitudes and trial intentions toward cigarette brands promoted with natural claims. Policy implications and suggestions for further research are provided. PMID:24628465

  7. Rural People with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Rural Rental Housing Program, which provides direct mortgage loans for the development of congregate housing or ... Copyright@ 2002–2016 Rural Health Information Hub. All rights reserved. About RHIhub | Contact Us Accessibility | Disclaimer | Privacy ...

  8. National Rural Health Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... History of Rural Health Globalization Urban Bias Dependency Theory Political Economy History of Rural Health IV: '60s ... Data Grassroots Action Center Policy Documents Legislative and Regulatory Agenda Medicaid News Response to 2013 OIG CAH ...

  9. SUICIDE IN RURAL COMMUNITY

    OpenAIRE

    Hedge, R. S.

    1980-01-01

    SUMMARY 51 suicides in a rural community of Northern Karnataka were studied for incidence, age and sex distribution, methods adopted for suicides, and causes of suicides. Suicides in rural area did not show any difference from urban suicide pattern.

  10. CLAIMS FOR REIMBURSEMENT OF EDUCATION FEES

    CERN Multimedia

    Personnel Division

    1999-01-01

    REMINDERYou are reminded that, in accordance with Article R A 8.07 of the Staff Regulations 'the relevant bills shall be grouped so that not more than three claims in respect of each child are submitted in an academic year'.For this purpose:the academic year is defined as the period going from 1st September to 31st August, only paid bills can be subject to reimbursement, a claim for reimbursement of education fees may only include bills for expenses incurred during a given academic year for a given child, bills for one child may be grouped on a claim by periods of term, semester or academic year, the months of July and August should be included in the third term, or the second semester, or the academic year, for each dependent child, a maximum of 3 claims can be submitted for the reimbursement of expenses incurred during one academic year, therefore, any bill submitted for reimbursement after the third claim will not be reimbursed.Please make sure that you have received and paid all bills, including those for...

  11. CLAIMS FOR REINBURSEMENT OF EDUCATION FEES

    CERN Multimedia

    PE-ADS

    1999-01-01

    You are reminded that, in accordance with Article R A 8.07 of the Staff Regulations 'the relevant bills shall be grouped so that not more than three claims in respect of each child are submitted in an academic year'.For this purpose:-\tthe academic year is defined as the period going from 1st September to 31st August,-\tonly paid bills can be subject to reimbursement,-\ta claim for reimbursement of education fees may only include bills for expenses incurred during a given academic year for a given child,-\tbills for one child may be grouped on a claim by periods of term, semester or academic year,-\tthe months of July and August should be included in the third term, or the second semester, or the academic year,-\tfor each dependent child, a maximum of 3 claims can be submitted for the reimbursement of expenses incurred during one academic year, therefore, any bill submitted for reimbursement after the third claim will not be reimbursed.Please make sure that you have receive...

  12. Rural Education Issues: Rural Administrators Speak Out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Julia; Nierengarten, Gerry

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the issues that most affect Minnesota's rural public school administrators as they attempt to fulfill the mandates required from state legislation and communities. A second purpose was to identify exemplary practices valued by individual Minnesota rural schools and districts. Electronic surveys were sent…

  13. 76 FR 35086 - Proposed Information Collection (Fully Developed Claim (Fully Developed Claims-Applications for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ... Compensation, Pension, DIC, Death Pension, and/or Accrued Benefits)) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans... to process compensation and pension claims within 90 days after receipt of the claim. DATES: Written... Docket Management System (FDMS) at http://www.Regulations.gov ; or to Nancy J. Kessinger,...

  14. 48 CFR 1604.7101 - Filing health benefit claims/court review of disputed claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Disputed Health Benefit Claims 1604.7101 Filing health benefit claims/court review of... at 5 CFR 890.105 and 890.107, respectively. The contract clause at 1652.204-72 of this chapter... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Filing health...

  15. 76 FR 36176 - Fully Developed Claim (Fully Developed Claims-Applications for Compensation, Pension, DIC, Death...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ..., NW., Washington, DC 20420, at 202-461-7485. Correction In FR Doc. 2011-14760, published on June 15... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Fully Developed Claim (Fully Developed Claims--Applications for Compensation, Pension, DIC,...

  16. America's Rural Information Resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Caille John, Patricia

    The Rural Information Center (RIC), a project of two agencies of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, has served rural information needs since 1988. The targeted audience for the RIC is local officials and citizens, rather than scientists and federal officials, and the thrust of its information is rural development rather than production…

  17. 20 CFR 702.441 - Claims for loss of hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Claims for loss of hearing. 702.441 Section... and Supervision Hearing Loss Claims § 702.441 Claims for loss of hearing. (a) Claims for hearing loss... regulations. (b) An audiogram shall be presumptive evidence of the amount of hearing loss on the...

  18. 5 CFR 180.105 - Claims not allowed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Claims not allowed. 180.105 Section 180.105 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYEES' PERSONAL PROPERTY CLAIMS § 180.105 Claims not allowed. (a) A claim is not allowable if: (1) The damage...

  19. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 282 - Submitting a Claim

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Submitting a Claim C Appendix C to Part 282.... 282, App. C Appendix C to Part 282—Submitting a Claim (a) Who May Submit a Claim. Any person (“claimant”) may submit a claim who has a demand for money or property against the Government under 31...

  20. 20 CFR 211.15 - Verification of compensation claimed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Verification of compensation claimed. 211.15... CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.15 Verification of compensation claimed. Compensation claimed by an... Board before it may be credited. An employee's claim to compensation not credited shall be processed...

  1. 32 CFR 536.19 - Disaster claims planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Disaster claims planning. 536.19 Section 536.19... AGAINST THE UNITED STATES The Army Claims System § 536.19 Disaster claims planning. All ACOs will prepare... requirements related to disaster claims planning....

  2. 42 CFR 424.32 - Basic requirements for all claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... electronic claims—(1) Definitions. For purposes of this paragraph, the following terms have the following meanings: (i) Claim means a transaction defined at 45 CFR 162.1101(a). (ii) Electronic claim means a claim... electronic claim. (iii) Direct data entry is defined at 45 CFR 162.103. (iv) Electronic media is defined...

  3. 39 CFR 912.6 - Administrative claim; who may file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative claim; who may file. 912.6 Section... Administrative claim; who may file. (a) A claim for injury to or loss of property may be presented by the owner... any other person legally entitled to assert such a claim in accordance with applicable State law....

  4. 22 CFR 304.3 - Administrative claim; who may file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Administrative claim; who may file. 304.3... Procedures § 304.3 Administrative claim; who may file. (a) A claim for injury to or loss of property may be... State law. (d) A claim for loss wholly compensated by an insurer with the rights of a subrogee may...

  5. Modeling total expenditure on warranty claims

    CERN Document Server

    Mitra, Abhimanyu

    2010-01-01

    We approximate the distribution of total expenditure of a retail company over warranty claims incurred in a fixed period [0, T], say the following quarter. We consider two kinds of warranty policies, namely, the non-renewing free replacement warranty policy and the non-renewing pro-rata warranty policy. Our approximation holds under modest assumptions on the distribution of the sales process of the warranted item and the nature of arrivals of warranty claims. We propose a method of using historical data to statistically estimate the parameters of the approximate distribution. Our methodology is applied to the warranty claims data from a large car manufacturer for a single car model and model year.

  6. Hedging contingent claims on defaultable assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beumee, Johan G. B.

    2001-02-01

    Following the JLT model (Jarrow, Lando and Turnbull), this paper represents a defaultable asset as a continuous stochastic process plus a Poisson jump modelling the bankruptcy event. It is shown that if the recovery condition is known beforehand, a contingent claim can be hedged by a position in the defaultable asset and a risk-free instrument. In addition, the claim must satisfy a jump-diffusion equation and a risk-neutral representation is obtained using this equation. Examples include the price of a risky zero-coupon bond with a fixed recovery value and the prices of risky Call/Put options on corporate instruments (instrument terminates upon default).

  7. The Management Education of the Rural Entrepreneur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Bruno Ştefan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Bureau of Social Research, within a strategic EU project– Rural Entrepreneur (2011 – coordinated by the National Foundation of Young Managers, analyzed in 2001 the needs of developing management and consultancy programs in order to improve the knowledge, skills, and managerial behaviour of the small and prospective entrepreneurs from the rural area of Romania. This study has revealed that three quarters of the rural entrepreneurs and over 85% of the prospective entrepreneurs have never been trained in management development. Their managerial education is often poor and usually acquired after starting the business up. The majority does not even consider that a prior training is necessary because business opportunities in the rural area are rare and the access of European funding is difficult. Over 90% of the new businesses fail in the first year. The managerial training programs and entrepreneurial consultancy can significantly reduce this percentage.

  8. Health claims substantiation for probiotic and prebiotic products

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, Mary Ellen; Heimbach, James T.; Pot, Bruno; Daniel J. Tancredi; Lenoir-Wijnkoop, Irene; Lähteenmäki-Uutela, Anu; Gueimonde Fernández, Miguel; Bañares, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    The topic of >Health Claims Substantiation for Probiotic and Prebiotic Products> was discussed at the 8th annual International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP) meeting. The topic is especially timely considering that the regulatory review process for health benefit claims on probiotic and prebiotic products in Europe has not resulted in a single claim being approved (120 negative opinions on probiotic claims and 19 negative opinions on prebiotic claims through Febr...

  9. 10 CFR 14.11 - Who may file a claim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Who may file a claim. 14.11 Section 14.11 Energy NUCLEAR... § 14.11 Who may file a claim. (a) A claim for damage to or loss of property may be presented by the... legally entitled to assert the claim under applicable State law. (d) A claim for loss wholly...

  10. 32 CFR 537.15 - Statutory authority for maritime claims and claims involving civil works of a maritime nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... claims involving civil works of a maritime nature. 537.15 Section 537.15 National Defense Department of....15 Statutory authority for maritime claims and claims involving civil works of a maritime nature. (a... affirmative claims involving civil works of a maritime nature is set out at 33 U.S.C. 408....

  11. Metodo y Proceso de la Investigacion Participativa en la Capacitacion Rural (The Method and Process of Participatory Research in Rural Leadership Training). Cuadernos del CREFAL 19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Schutter, Anton

    In participatory research, education and learner participation are directly connected. The document analyzes the role of a participatory research method in the basic education of rural adults. The different phases of the Participant Research method are presented, along with a profound analysis of both research and participation. The claim is that…

  12. Factors Related to Rural School Administrators' Satisfaction with Distance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvin, Matthew J.; Hannum, Wallace H.; de la Varre, Claire; Farmer, Thomas W.; Keane, Julie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine rural school district administrators' satisfaction with distance education in the United States and to identify factors that may contribute to their satisfaction. Telephone interviews were conducted with administrators in randomly selected rural districts across the country. Analyses revealed that students'…

  13. Rural Entrepreneurship or Entrepreneurship in the Rural

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Steffen; Müller, Sabine; Tanvig, Hanne Wittorff

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This article investigates how rural entrepreneurship engages with place and space. It explores the concept of “rural” in rural enterprise, and illustrates the importance of distinguishing between types of rural entrepreneurship. Design/methodology/approach: The constructs of “place” and ...... these processes are enabled and constrained by the immediate context or “place”. The paper weaves space and place in order to show the importance of context for entrepreneurship, which responds to the recent calls for contextualizing entrepreneurship research and theories....

  14. 40 CFR 716.55 - Confidentiality claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Confidentiality claims. 716.55 Section 716.55 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL... for commercial distribution (including for test marketing purposes and for use in research...

  15. Competing jurisdictions : settling land claims in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, Sandra; Spierenburg, M.; Wels, H.

    2005-01-01

    The papers included in this volume were earlier presented at a conference on the settlement of land claims in Africa, which was held in Amsterdam in September 2003. The papers are written primarily from an anthropological perspective. Contributions: Introduction: competing jurisdictions: settling la

  16. Lickona Promotes False Claims about Sex Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennetta, William J.

    1994-01-01

    In articles on sex and character education in the November 1993 "Educational Leadership," Thomas Lickona parrots slogans and fake history and statistics contrived by the Religious Right. Lickona blames Darwin's evolution theory for variable morality and repeats fabricated success claims for Teen-Aid and Sex Respect, right-wing programs funded…

  17. Automating claims management improves revenue cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivison, Matthew

    2008-02-01

    One healthcare organization was able to improve revenue cycle operations by automating its claims management. Using web-based technology enabled the organization to streamline internal workflow processes, redeploy staff, and reduce overhead costs. As a result, cash flow increased 7 percent, and A/R days dropped 16 percent.

  18. Claims of Philosophy, Education and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standish, Paul

    2007-01-01

    This paper is a response to Richard Pring's "Reclaiming Philosophy for Educational Research," which appears in this issue. While it provides broad support for the case for the importance of philosophy in the study of education that Pring advances, it seeks to refine and to extend this. It does this through a consideration of three sets of claims.…

  19. 32 CFR 751.6 - Claims payable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Mobile homes and contents in shipment. Claims for damage to mobile homes and contents in shipment are... in securing the mobile home or packing its contents. (e) Borrowed property (including vehicles). Loss... request of superior authority or by reason of military necessity. (j) Money deposited for...

  20. Status of potassium permanganate label claim - 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brief overview of the Technical Sections completed and being worked on for the New Animal Drug Application (NADA) for potassium permanganate will be presented. Various aspects of these technical sections will be open for discussion. Potassium Permanganate Initial Label Claim (Columnaris on cat...

  1. 36 CFR 222.22 - Ownership claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... claiming ownership under State branding and estray laws of branded or unbranded horses or burros within a wild horse or burro territory or range on the National Forest System where such animals are not... National Forest System after November 15, 1973, which become intermingled with wild horses or burros,...

  2. Claimed walking distance of lower limb amputees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertzen, JHB; Bosmans, JC; Van der Schans, CP; Dijkstra, PU

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Walking ability in general and specifically for lower limb amputees is of major importance for social mobility and ADL independence. Walking determines prosthesis prescription. The aim of this study was to mathematically analyse factors influencing claimed walking distance of lower limb amp

  3. 22 CFR 33.8 - Claim procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... must be supported by documentary evidence. Foreign language documents must be accompanied by an... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Claim procedures. 33.8 Section 33.8 Foreign..., including: (i) The date and cost of acquisition supported by invoices or other acceptable proof of...

  4. A multilevel analysis of intercompany claim counts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Antonio; E.W. Frees; E.A. Valdez

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we use multilevel models to analyze data on claim counts provided by the General Insurance Association of Singapore, an organization consisting of most of the general insurers in Singapore. Our data comes from the financial records of automobile insurance policies followed over a peri

  5. Human Resource Management in Small Rural Districts: The Administrator's Role in Recruitment, Hiring and Staff Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsell, Rhodena

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the rural area administrator's role in the areas of teacher recruitment, hiring and staff development. State and Regional Policies reveal that these areas are chief among the concerns of rural school leaders (Johnson, 2005). The rural school administrator's role often requires him/her to become involved in…

  6. Electrical Connections: Letters to Thomas Edison in Response to His Claim of Solving Incandescent Lighting, 1878.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazerman, Charles

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the way in which letters sent to Thomas Edison following the report that he had solved the problem of incandescent lighting reveal the many discursive worlds that Edison's work touched. Claims these letters indicate how a technological accomplishment is also a multiple, complex social, and communicative accomplishment, creating place and…

  7. La Belle Mort en Milieu Rural: a report of an ethnographic study of the good death for Quebec rural francophones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veillette, Anne-Marie; Fillion, Lise; Wilson, Donna M; Thomas, Roger; Dumont, Serge

    2010-01-01

    An ethnographic study was undertaken in two rural areas of Quebec to conceptualize the good death. The findings reveal that a good quality of life for the dying person and his or her family and friends is essential for a good death. The resulting conceptual model emphasized four dimensions: physical, spiritual, social, and emotiona/psychological. These dimensions were determined to be similar to those discovered through a previous urban study, indicating that there may be considerable overlap between good deaths in rural and urban areas. Some findings of this Quebec French-language rural study were similar to those of an Alberta English-language rural study, indicating that rural people may have some common needs and interests with regard to the good death. As such, there could be some common elements of the good death that transcend culture or ethnicity. Chief among these is the desire of rural people to die at home or in their home communities.

  8. Rural Tourism, Rural Economy Diversification, and Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Štefan Bojnec

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of patterns in farm, agro and rural tourism development in a way of farm, agro and rural economy diversification to achieve economic and environmental sustainability. The importance of rural tourism in the rural economy is increasing by farm, agro and rural economy diversification addressing its multifunctional development. The European Union policies are targeting both, farm and agro diversification as well as rural economy diversification. Farm, agro and rura...

  9. Exploration of Rural Informatization and Urban-rural Information Fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Based on the status quo of rural informatization and information service,this article conducts analysis and discussion of problems in rural informatization and urban-rural information fusion,using statistics. And corresponding countermeasures are put forward as follows: building rural information platform; strengthening information literacy training in rural areas and cultivating new farmers; making information network serve production and operation to increase jobs and income for farmers; developing rural e-commerce; enhancing network information security and prevention.

  10. Equality of Opportunity, Cultural Diversity and Claims for Fairness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitja Sardoč

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper examines some of the tensions, problems and challenges associated with claims for equality of opportunity (the fairness argument. The introductory part identifies three separate forms of justification for public education, including the argument associated with equality of opportunity. Part II examines in detail two questions that reveal part of the anatomy of equality of opportunity: (1 what an opportunity is, and (2 when individuals’ opportunities are equal. This is followed by a presentation of the two basic principles of equality of opportunity: (1 the principle of non-discrimination, and (2 the “levelling the playing field” principle. The next part takes up the multiculturalist hypothesis advanced by minority groups for the accommodation and recognition of cultural diversity. This is followed by the identification of a set of claims comprising the “fairness argument”. The last section focuses on the “currency problem” associated with cultural diversity as a form of “unfair disadvantage”. Part V examines two of the major shortcomings associated with the multicultural conception of equality of opportunity, while the concluding part discusses some of the questions that must be answered by any conception of equal opportunities.

  11. The role of involvement in the choice of foods with nutrition and health claims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica

    Claims are gaining in importance as a tool of communication in the growing sector of health-related foods. In order to target the right consumers, it is crucial to determine their key characteristics. A realistically designed choice experiment aims at analysing the role of various determinants...... of choice for foods with claims. Logistic regression reveals that while product-involvement plays only a minor role, health-related food-involvement appears to be a better explanatory factor than e.g. sociodemographic variables. It is concluded that items measuring the latter type of involvement might...... be helpful for practical market research in the area of health-related foods....

  12. Regulatory environment and claims - limits and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ambroise

    2010-01-01

    During the past decade, the use of claims became more and more important in many countries in relation to the increased awareness of consumer about the link between foods and health, offering to industry a valuable opportunity to differentiate and valorize their products and to promote innovation. However, more and more stringent regulations are developed, all based on the general principles adopted by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. In addition to the different regulatory processes and administrative requirements according to the country, the high level (and cost) of scientific substantiation of claims, the constraints introduced by nutrient profiles and the poor knowledge of the impact on consumer depending on the cultural contexts may limit these opportunities or, at least complicate their use. All these issues are briefly analyzed, highlighting some striking convergences and differences between countries.

  13. Oral Health in Rural Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rural Oral Health Toolkit identifies the resources and best practices to help implement a rural Mobile Dental Services ... Health Information Hub is supported by the Health Resources and ... Human Services (HHS) under Grant Number U56RH05539 (Rural Assistance ...

  14. Are foods bearing health claims medicinal products?

    OpenAIRE

    Coppens, Patrick; Bijlsma, Marlene; Craddock, Neville; Herreman, Inneke; Hurt, Eva; Le Bail-Collet, Yves; Loosen, Peter

    2001-01-01

    European legislation on foods and medicine has failed to keep pace with the developments in nutrition and medical science that now recognise many important contributions that diet and individual foods may make to the promotion and maintenance of health. EU food law prevents the communication of these benefits to consumers, whilst the law on medicinal products is established on a very broad basis that also encompasses foods making preventive, therapeutic or curative claims. This legislation, t...

  15. Survey suggests successful claims for seabream marketing.

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Polanco, José Manuel; Mueller, Simone; Luna Sotorrío, Ladislao

    2010-01-01

    In a market survey that presented claims for safety, health benefits and sustainability in different combinations for wild and farmed seabream, the main conclusions pointed to a strong preference for wild domestic seabream, although price gave farmed fish an edge. The price differential could be offset by greater emphasis on local production, sustainability or health benefits. A local marketing strategy may yield greater returns tan one focused overseas.

  16. Dolphin-Assisted Therapy: Claims versus Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Britta L. Fiksdal; Daniel Houlihan; Barnes, Aaron C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review and critique studies that have been conducted on dolphin-assisted therapy for children with various disorders. Studies have been released claiming swimming with dolphins is therapeutic and beneficial for children with autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, physical disabilities, and other psychological disorders. The majority of the studies conducted supporting the effectiveness of dolphin-assisted therapy have been found to have major methodo...

  17. Claim games for estate division problems

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, H.J.M.; Schröder, M.J.W.; Vermeulen, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the estate division problem from a non-cooperative perspective. The integer claim game initiated by O'Neill (1982) and extended by Atlamaz et al. (2011) is generalized by considering different sharing rules to divide every interval among the claimants. For problems with an estate larger than half of the total entitlements, we show that every sharing rule satisfying four fairly general axioms yields the same set of Nash equilibrium profiles and corresponding payoffs. Every...

  18. Nonparametric pricing of multivariate contingent claims

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua V. Rosenberg

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, I derive and implement a nonparametric, arbitrage-free technique for multivariate contingent claim (MVCC) pricing. Using results from the method of copulas, I show that the multivariate risk-neutral density can be written as a product of marginal risk-neutral densities and a risk-neutral dependence function. I then develop a pricing technique using nonparametrically estimated marginal risk-neutral densities (based on options data) and a nonparametric dependence function (based ...

  19. Case managers reorganize to challenge claims denials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-08-01

    A combination of diminished reimbursement, decreased funding for residency programs, an epidemic of claims denials, and the skilled nursing crisis has imperiled teaching hospitals across the country. Increasingly, these hospitals are looking to case management departments as potential saviors. In the short term, that could mean more staff and a beefier budget, but if your department can't produce, cuts later on could be drastic. The University of Pennsylvania Health System in Philadelphia lost $90 million in FY1998 and responded by cutting 1,100 positions--9% of its work force. The case management department lost eight positions and is trying to take up the slack with a massive reorganization of its care delivery system and a rigorous education program designed to reduce claims denials. At Georgetown University Medical Center in Washington, DC, however, case management staff and resources have been increased for now. The department is using its new-found prosperity to thoroughly screen all incoming patients for appropriateness of admission, upgrade its discharge planning capabilities, and hire a full-time employee to appeal denied claims. PMID:10557727

  20. Rights as entitlements and rights as claims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azevedo, Marco Antônio Oliveira de

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Há pelo menos dois registros diferentes sobre o significado de “direitos”. Segundo um deles, os direitos são relações entre dois termos: uma pessoa e um bem; para o outro, os direitos são relações entre três termos: um indivíduo, uma pessoa e uma ação ou algo. Os registros são diferentes, mas não são totalmente incompatíveis. De acordo com a interpretação de direitos como entitlements, trata-se de direitos morais ou legais, ou seja, as relações de ordem moral ou jurídica das pessoas com bens (de benefícios concedidos a pessoas por uma lei humana, moral ou legal. Como uma espécie de direitos, os direitos humanos são vistos como direitos (entitlements das pessoas ou dos indivíduos a bens essenciais, dos quais podem-se inferir reivindicações (claims contra outras pessoas ou contra governos e representantes. Falamos sobre direitos humanos geralmente desta forma. Mas de acordo com o outro registro, os direitos em sentido próprio têm que ser interpretados como claims. Neste artigo, pretendo apresentar alguns argumentos em favor da vantagem de expor todos os enunciados significativos dos direitos como entitlements em termos explícitos de claims

  1. Center for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) , Medicare Claims data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2003 to 2013. CMS compiles claims data for Medicare and Medicaid patients across a variety of categories and years. This includes Inpatient and Outpatient claims,...

  2. Impact of corporate social responsibility claims on consumer food choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone; Remaud, Hervé

    2013-01-01

    Purpose - The study assesses the impact of two different corporate social responsibility (CSR) claims, relating to social and environmental dimensions, on consumers’ wine choice across international markets. It is analysed how point of purchase CSR claims compete with other food claims and their ......Purpose - The study assesses the impact of two different corporate social responsibility (CSR) claims, relating to social and environmental dimensions, on consumers’ wine choice across international markets. It is analysed how point of purchase CSR claims compete with other food claims...... Eastcoast, the US Midwest, Anglophone and Francophone Canada. Findings - CSR claims relating to social and environmental responsibility have a similar awareness, penetration and consumer trust, but differ in their impact on consumer choice, where environmental corporate responsibility claims benefit from...

  3. Hand Sanitizers Carry Unproven Claims to Prevent MRSA Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Updates Hand Sanitizers Carry Unproven Claims to Prevent MRSA Infections Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... products come with claims that they can prevent MRSA infections. Don't believe them. These statements are ...

  4. 37 CFR 7.12 - Claim of color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... feature of the mark and set forth the same name(s) of the color(s) claimed in the basic application and/or... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claim of color. 7.12 Section... § 7.12 Claim of color. (a) If color is claimed as a feature of the mark in the basic application...

  5. How a housing advocacy coalition adds health: A culture of claims-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Kushan; Lichterman, Paul

    2016-09-01

    Organizations that pursue health advocacy often tackle other issues too. How do these multi-issue organizations articulate and combine health with other issues? We examine how a Los Angeles coalition focused primarily on housing took up health in its 2008-2011 campaign against a residential development. Participant observation and archival data reveal that cultural context influenced how the coalition made claims about health, in two ways. First, advocates shared two major symbolic categories, which oriented the great bulk of their appeals regarding health. Second, advocates crafted rhetorical appeals that reflected their shared sense of social identity and obligation as spokespersons for a distinctive kind of community. These two kinds of cultural context influenced advocates' claims in public, formal settings as well more internal communication. These distinct, cultural influences on claims-making create challenges for socioeconomically diverse coalitions collaborating on health problems. PMID:27139006

  6. 40 CFR 307.21 - Nature of eligible claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nature of eligible claims. 307.21... Nature of eligible claims. (a) Claims may be asserted against the Fund for necessary costs incurred for... nature, differing materially from those ordinarily encountered and generally recognized as inherent...

  7. 20 CFR 362.10 - Principal types of claims allowable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... which the loss or damage occurred: (1) In a common or natural disaster; (2) When the property was... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Principal types of claims allowable. 362.10... PROCEDURES EMPLOYEES' PERSONAL PROPERTY CLAIMS § 362.10 Principal types of claims allowable. (a) In...

  8. 32 CFR 536.30 - Action upon receipt of claim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... office, claims personnel will discover and record in the file the date of original receipt. (b) The ACO... Application (TSCA) database and let the system assign a number to the claim. The claim, whether on an SF 95 or... parallel discussion at DA Pam 27-162, paragraph 2-9....

  9. 19 CFR 191.53 - Restructuring of claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Restructuring of claims. 191.53 Section 191.53... TREASURY (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK Completion of Drawback Claims § 191.53 Restructuring of claims. (a) General... manufacturing drawback ruling. (b) Exemption from restructuring; criteria. In order to be exempt from...

  10. 24 CFR 200.153 - Presentation of claim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Presentation of claim. 200.153 Section 200.153 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... Claims for Losses § 200.153 Presentation of claim. In the event the insured lender is entitled under...

  11. 9 CFR 56.6 - Presentation of claims for indemnity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Presentation of claims for indemnity. 56.6 Section 56.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... LOW PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.6 Presentation of claims for indemnity. Claims for the...

  12. 9 CFR 52.4 - Presentation of claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Presentation of claims. 52.4 Section 52.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... PSEUDORABIES § 52.4 Presentation of claims. (a) When swine have been destroyed under § 52.2(a), any claim...

  13. Mission Indians and Indians of California Land Claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipek, Florence C.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses California Indian Claims Cases, focussing on the Indians of California Case. Presents a background sketch of the major claims and the nature of influences determining the wording of petitions, particularly in the Missions Indian Claims Case in which anthropological misunderstanding of socio-political-territorial organizations created…

  14. 33 CFR 211.22 - Real estate Claims Officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Real estate Claims Officers. 211..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE REAL ESTATE ACTIVITIES OF THE CORPS OF ENGINEERS IN CONNECTION WITH CIVIL WORKS PROJECTS Real Estate Claims § 211.22 Real estate Claims Officers. In each Division Office the...

  15. 77 FR 14686 - Claims for Patent and Copyright Infringement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... and copyright infringement claims in the Federal Register (76 FR 44504). No public comments were... SPACE ADMINISTRATION 14 CFR Part 1245 RIN 2700-AD63 Claims for Patent and Copyright Infringement AGENCY... necessary to file a claim for patent or copyright infringement, and they also provide for...

  16. 48 CFR 227.7003 - Claims for copyright infringement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Claims for copyright... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Infringement Claims, Licenses, and Assignments 227.7003 Claims for copyright infringement. The procedures set...

  17. 12 CFR 627.2755 - Payment of claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment of claims. 627.2755 Section 627.2755 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM TITLE IV CONSERVATORS, RECEIVERS, AND VOLUNTARY LIQUIDATIONS Receivers and Receiverships § 627.2755 Payment of claims. (a) All claims of...

  18. Claiming Europe: Native American Literary Responses to the Old World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweninger, Lee

    2003-01-01

    In Osage writer Carter Revard's short story, "Report to the Nation: Claiming Europe," the narrator claims much of England, France, Spain, Italy, and Greece for the Osage Nation. After asserting his claim, the narrator questions whether or not the French actually understood that their country therefore belonged to the Osage Nation. When he talks of…

  19. 5 CFR 831.1808 - Special processing for fraud claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Department of Justice (Justice) for possible treatment as a fraud claim (4 CFR 101.3), the following special... seeking a judgment on the claim and send a copy of the complaint to OPM; or as provided in 4 CFR 101.3... agency must begin administrative collection action under 4 CFR 102.4 and send a complete debt claim...

  20. 5 CFR 845.408 - Special processing for fraud claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (4 CFR 101.3), the following special procedures apply. (a) Agency processing. If the debtor is... claim and send a copy of the complaint to OPM; or as provided in 4 CFR 101.3, refer the claim to the... administrative collection action under 4 CFR 102.4 and send a complete debt claim to OPM as required in §...

  1. 38 CFR 3.2600 - Review of benefit claims decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Review of benefit claims... Revisions § 3.2600 Review of benefit claims decisions. (a) A claimant who has filed a timely Notice of Disagreement with a decision of an agency of original jurisdiction on a benefit claim has a right to a...

  2. 42 CFR 430.40 - Deferral of claims for FFP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... accordance with 45 CFR part 16. ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Deferral of claims for FFP. 430.40 Section 430.40... Medicaid Payments § 430.40 Deferral of claims for FFP. (a) Requirements for deferral. Payment of a claim...

  3. 32 CFR 751.9 - Presentment of claim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirement is statutory and may only be waived if a claim accrues during armed conflict, or armed conflict... not later than 2 years after the end of the armed conflict. A claim accrues on the day the claimant... in writing to any installation or establishment of the Armed Forces which will forward the claim...

  4. 19 CFR 24.72 - Claims; set-off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Claims; set-off. 24.72 Section 24.72 Customs... CUSTOMS FINANCIAL AND ACCOUNTING PROCEDURE § 24.72 Claims; set-off. When an importer of record or other... undisputed, the port director shall set off so much of the judgment or other claim as will equal the...

  5. 49 CFR 1021.6 - Method of claim payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Method of claim payment. 1021.6 Section 1021.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT... § 1021.6 Method of claim payment. (a) Debtors: Debtors shall be required to settle claims by: (1)...

  6. 20 CFR 321.2 - Filing claims for benefits electronically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT ELECTRONIC FILING OF APPLICATIONS AND CLAIMS FOR BENEFITS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT § 321.2 Filing claims for benefits electronically. (a) Electronic filing. A claim for benefits under the Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act may be filed electronically through...

  7. 44 CFR 11.12 - Administrative claim; who may file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... file. 11.12 Section 11.12 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... Administrative claim; who may file. (a) A claim for injury to or loss of property may be presented by the owner... applicable State law. (d) A claim for loss wholly compensated by an insurer with the rights of a subrogee...

  8. 32 CFR Appendix to Part 281 - Claims Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claims Description Appendix to Part 281 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS... Part 281—Claims Description The Secretary of Defense is authorized to perform the claim settlement...

  9. Rape in Rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowsher Ali

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rape is one of the silent brutal sexual offences in Bangladesh. Despite strong laws against it, the evil of rape continues to rise. Increasing trend of the silent cruel sexual offence (rape represents a major psychopath sexual disorder and public health problem and progress of the country. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the pattern of alleged rape victims in a rural district of Bangladesh with the ultimate aim to create public awareness about the brutal crime. Materials and method: This retrospective study was carried out on 330 sexually assailed alleged rape victims’ report forms, who reported at Faridpur Medical College, Bangladesh from 2007 to 2011 for medical examination. Results: Among the study subjects maximum number (70.0% of alleged rape cases were under the age of 20 years. More than two-thirds (64.60% of the assailants were known to the victims, most of the incidents (64.20% occurred in the victims’ houses and nearby places. The study also revealed that minimum number of victims (14.20% reported within 24 hours for medical examination. Almost one fourth of the alleged rape cases were gang rape and no positive finding in favour of sexual intercourse was found in about three fourth (72.40% of cases. Conclusion: Public awareness about rape would be effective to report in due time with preserving the evidence of crime and modern techniques like DNA diagnosis may be of help to detect the assailant.

  10. Energy for rural India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urban, Frauke; Benders, René M.J.; Moll, Henri C.

    2009-01-01

    About 72 million households in rural India do not have access to electricity and rely primarily on traditional biofuels. This research investigates how rural electrification could be achieved in India using different energy sources and what the effects for climate change mitigation could be We use t

  11. The Rural Information Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Patricia La Caille

    1989-01-01

    Describes the events that led to the creation of the Rural Information Center (RIC), a joint venture between the Extension Service and the National Agricultural Library to provide information to government officials involved in rural development. The databases accessed by RIC are described, and plans for a gateway system and network of all…

  12. Funding Rural Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kim

    This paper provides first-time grant writers with suggestions on how to approach a private funding source. While intended for rural health care advocates, the remarks are equally applicable for educators and others. The rural crisis has produced many heart-rending stories about medically indigent people, but there is a lack of reliable statistics…

  13. Rural Credit in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barslund, Mikkel Christoffer; Tarp, Finn

    This paper uses a survey of 932 rural households to uncover how the rural credit market operates in four provinces of Vietnam. Households obtain credit through formal and informal lenders, but formal loans are almost entirely for production and asset accumulation. Interest rates fell from 1997...

  14. Developing Rural Business Incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Mark L.; Burnier, DeLysa

    1991-01-01

    Offers background on rural entrepreneurship and incubation in the United States, with particular focus on rural incubators at community colleges and regional incubation systems. Explains how incubators, which provide shared services and business/management assistance for tenant companies, differ from other entrepreneurial development strategies.…

  15. Changing Rural Paradigms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2016-01-01

    In this article I will review the historical, cultural and social formation of rural development policies in Denmark and situate these in a Scandinavian context. The review is based on a reading of commission reports, law documents and texts produced by the planners and scholars involved...... in regional development, the latter often reflecting upon and justifying their work. This gives us a retrospect on how ethnologists have interacted with rural policies and rural areas in transition. In the latter part of this article, I will have a particular focus on examining the so-called “new rural...... paradigm” (OECD 2006) and its implications for ethnological scholars and practitioners of today. In the “new rural paradigm”, bottom-up processes, “place-bound” cultural and historical values are highlighted as essential to local development. This of course empowers the ethnologists, but also put us...

  16. RURAL TOURISM IN DOBRUDGEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena, SIMA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The natural and anthropic tourism resources of a certain area generate specific tourism forms, which complete each other within the different destination categories.The rural area in Dobrudja has diversified tourism potential, provided by the contrast of natural environment factors, ranging from the oldest and to the youngest relief units, natural protected areas, spa resources and cultural, historical, religious sites, as well as multicultural local customs and traditions of the rural area. This potential can be used under various kinds in the rural area: cultural tourism, historical tourism, religious tourism, ecotourism, fishing tourism or bird-watching tourism, and other kinds of rural tourism. By linking these tourism resources and tourism forms, tourism routes can result, which together with the local customs, traditions and cuisine may contribute to the social and economic development of Dobrudja's rural area, through sustainable tourism as alternative to seasonal seashore tourism.

  17. Rurality Research and Rural Education: Exploratory and Explanatory Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfour, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents analysed data from the first year of the Rural Teacher Education Project (RTEP 2007-2009) with a view to illustrating how a generative theory of rurality as education research was developed, and for which ends it might be utilised. The article suggests that data from projects in rural communities, which take the rural as…

  18. The Determinants of Rural Poverty in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nsikak-Abasi A. Etim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Most of the population of Nigeria is rural and agriculture isthe mainstay of the impoverished people’s livelihood. Thispaper estimated the determinants of rural poverty in Nigeria usingthe Tobit regression model. Through the multistage samplingtechnique, primary data were obtained from 150 rural farminghouseholds using a questionnaire. The Result of Tobit regressionanalysis shows that increase in farm income, farm size and amountof agricultural loan led to a decrease in the level of poverty by0.9953, 0.1220 and 0.4016 x 10-6 respectively. Membership ofthe cooperative by household heads, ownership of certain assets,access to extension services, and modern farming inputs, increasein educational attainment and male heads of households decreasedthe likelihood of being poor. Findings also reveal that except foraccess to loan that is elastic, the responsiveness of the probabilityand intensity of poverty to dependency ratio, farming experience,farm size and income are inelastic.

  19. Energy for rural India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About 72 million households in rural India do not have access to electricity and rely primarily on traditional biofuels. This research investigates how rural electrification could be achieved in India using different energy sources and what the effects for climate change mitigation could be. We use the Regional Energy Model (REM) to develop scenarios for rural electrification for the period 2005-2030 and to assess the effects on greenhouse gas emissions, primary energy use and costs. We compare the business-as-usual scenario (BAU) with different electrification scenarios based on electricity from renewable energy, diesel and the grid. Our results indicate that diesel systems tend to have the highest CO2 emissions, followed by grid systems. Rural electrification with primarily renewable energy-based end-uses could save up to 99% of total CO2 emissions and 35% of primary energy use in 2030 compared to BAU. Our research indicates that electrification with decentralised diesel systems is likely to be the most expensive option. Rural electrification with renewable energy tends to be the most cost-effective option when end-uses are predominantly based on renewable energy, but turns out to be more costly than grid extensions when electric end-use devices are predominantly used. This research therefore elaborates whether renewable energy is a viable option for rural electrification and climate change mitigation in rural India and gives policy recommendations.

  20. Study on Rural Poverty Reduction Effect of Traffic Infrastructure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junping; GUO; Bin; ZHANG; Xiyan; ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    To systematically comb and explore the rural poverty reduction effect of traffic infrastructure,the author analyzed the mechanism,main channels and actual effect of rural traffic infrastructure on poverty reduction.It revealed that rural traffic infrastructure exerts positive or negative effect on poverty reduction directly or indirectly.The positive channel includes increasing non-agricultural employment opportunities,reducing costs for agricultural production,transportation and labor transfer,increasing availability of social service,and promoting adjustment of agricultural industrial structure and development of rural tourism resources.On the whole,traffic infrastructure has significant positive influence on rural poverty reduction.Finally,it summarized policy recommendations for building pro-poor traffic infrastructure,and came up with vacancy of related research field and future exploration direction.

  1. Updates on nutrition and health claims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Perales-Albert

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There is concern about the influence of social determinants related to advertising, communication and information on the selection of food for healthy eating and safe. From this point of view, Spain created the European Regulation 1924/2006 (ER1924/2006, its aim is to ensure and promote access to safe food that benefit health and prevent information received by consumers is inaccurate, ambiguous or misleading. The aims of regulation are to prevent nutritional and attributed health claims to food without reason or if there is sufficient scientific evidence. In this sense, a group of professionals from the University of Alicante in December 2012 performed the First Day of Food and Nutrition, organized by the Center Alinua of the Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Alicante, related to updates on nutrition and health claims and its implications public health.By the interest and importance of this topic, this is a summary of the position papers from agents involved: consumers, government, food business, the gremial’s dietitian, the Academy and public health.

  2. Agritourism Rural Development Public Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria MORTAN

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available For Romania agritourism development represents the opportunity to differentiate between the rural and urban environment, as well as the best way for the preservation of traditions and customs in the rural areas, supplying a sustainable rural development. This work portrays agritourism as an element of rural development and critically analyzes the way in which the public administration should become involved in sustaining rural development in general and in sustaining agritourism development in particular.

  3. European consumers and health claims: attitudes, understanding and purchasing behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Josephine M; Storcksdieck genannt Bonsmann, Stefan; Kolka, Magdalena; Grunert, Klaus G

    2012-05-01

    Health claims on food products are often used as a means to highlight scientifically proven health benefits associated with consuming those foods. But do consumers understand and trust health claims? This paper provides an overview of recent research on consumers and health claims including attitudes, understanding and purchasing behaviour. A majority of studies investigated selective product-claim combinations, with ambiguous findings apart from consumers' self-reported generic interest in health claims. There are clear indications that consumer responses differ substantially according to the nature of carrier product, the type of health claim, functional ingredient used or a combination of these components. Health claims tend to be perceived more positively when linked to a product with an overall positive health image, whereas some studies demonstrate higher perceived credibility of products with general health claims (e.g. omega-3 and brain development) compared to disease risk reduction claims (e.g. bioactive peptides to reduce risk of heart disease), others report the opposite. Inconsistent evidence also exists on the correlation between having a positive attitude towards products with health claims and purchase intentions. Familiarity with the functional ingredient and/or its claimed health effect seems to result in a more favourable evaluation. Better nutritional knowledge, however, does not automatically lead to a positive attitude towards products carrying health messages. Legislation in the European Union requires that the claim is understood by the average consumer. As most studies on consumers' understanding of health claims are based on subjective understanding, this remains an area for more investigation. PMID:22385589

  4. Rural-urban Migration, Rural Household Income and Sustainable Development in Rural Areas of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Qi; Yang Chunyue; Li Juan

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the rela-tionships among rural-urban migration, rural household income and sustainable development in rural areas of China. The typical case study is done and 288 questionnaires are collected from five villages in Hebei and Guangxi provinces, China. The migration and remittance status, household income and sustainable devel-opment of rural areas are analyzed on the basis of questionnaires. Rural-urban migration is becoming a part of routine life in rural areas. And remittance is an important component in rural house-hold income. Rural-urban migration increases the arable land area per labor, which releases the tight human-land relationship in villages. In total, the migration increases the rural household in-come and accelerates the sustainable development of rural areas.

  5. Rural Veterans by State

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This speadsheet contains data from the 2014 American Community Survey and shows the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of Veterans who live in rural and...

  6. What Is Rural?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... has a high degree of social and economic integration with the core as measured by commuting ties. 3. U.S. Department of Agriculture Economic Research Services Rural Classification Page: http://www.ers.usda.gov/ ...

  7. "Ruralizing" Presidential Job Advertisements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leist, Jay

    2007-01-01

    Rural community college presidential job advertisements that focus on geography, politics, and culture can improve the likelihood of a good fit between the senior leader and the institution. (Contains 2 figures.)

  8. Tourism in Rural Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAI IELENICZ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rural tourism is now determined by limited economic opportunities, poor infrastructure, low motivation to possible offers, lack of proper service guarantees. Nearly 500 Romanian villages are already tourist locations, with certain characteristics determined by a heritage item, or complex ones when multiple components lead to various activities. This paper includes a typology of tourist villages in Romania according to the types of practiced tourist activities, insisting on the use of a more comprehensive terminology: tourism in rural environment, participative and creative tourism in rural areas. Tourism becomes a system accepted in the rural environment as a real opportunity for economic development with multiple social consequences. By multiplying tourism potential to meet tourists’ demands, many villages will get tourism valences with various activities in this filed, including environment protection.

  9. Innovating for Rural Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dorthe

    and management level, respectively. Rural development was chosen as the overall case for the contemporary agricultural challenges. Further, an interactive research approach was applied, comprising four different case studies, extensive qualitative case study evidence and hermeneutic interpretation...... as an analytical strategy. Paper 1 reports on, and critically examines, the entrance of consultants with rural development functions in Danish agricultural extension agencies. Paper 2 seeks to understand how multiple rural actor projects driven by Danish agricultural extension serve to generate new social...... interactions, by exploring the perspective of the participants; and the paper also seeks to understand possible constraining or supportive extension aspects at play. Paper 3 examines how the apparent change effort: ‘rural development service’ is reflected in the management strategies of individual agricultural...

  10. Medicaid and Rural Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... programs. How does Medicaid impact rural healthcare and the economy? In many ways, Medicaid plays a larger role ... supporting the social services infrastructure; and contributing to the economy through revenue and jobs it generates.” Findings in ...

  11. Rural Health Information Hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be the best treatment. Exploring High Infant and Maternal Mortality Rates in the Rural U.S. with Dr. Ali ... reasons behind the United States’ high infant and maternal mortality rates. A Professor of Global Health at the ...

  12. Mozambique - Rural Water Supply

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millenium Challenge Corporation — This report provides the results from (1) an impact evaluation of the MCA's Rural Water Point Implementation Program ('RWPIP') in Nampula and (2) an evaluation of...

  13. Organizing Rural Health Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunkenborg, Mikkel

    2012-01-01

    The liberalization of health care in the course of three decades of ‘reform and opening up’ has given people in rural China access to a diverse range of treatment options, but the health care system has also been marred by accusations of price hikes, fake pharmaceuticals, and medical malpractice....... This chapter offers an ethnographic description of health as an issue in a Hebei township and it focuses on a popular and a statist response to the perceived inadequacy of the rural health care system. The revival of religious practices in rural China is obviously motivated by many factors, but in the township...... roads to healing. The recent introduction of new rural cooperative medicine in the township represents an attempt to bring the state back in and address popular concern with the cost and quality of health care. While superficially reminiscent of the traditional socialist system, this new state attempt...

  14. Degrees of Truthfulness in Accepted Scientific Claims.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Hassan Mabrouk

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-MY X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Abstract: Sciences adopt different methodologies in deriving claims and establishing theories. As a result, two accepted claims or theories belonging to two different sciences may not necessarily carry the same degree of truthfulness. Examining the different methodologies of deriving claims in the sciences of ʿaqīdah (Islamic Creed, fiqh (Islamic Jurisprudence and physics, the study shows that ʿaqīdah provides a holistic understanding of the universe. Physics falls short of interpreting physical phenomena unless these phenomena are looked at through the ʿaqīdah holistic view. Left to itself, error may creep into laws of physics due to the methodology of conducting the physical experiments, misinterpreting the experimental results, or accepting invalid assumptions. As for fiqh, it is found that apart from apparent errors, fiqh views cannot be falsified. It is, therefore, useful to consider ʿaqīdah as a master science which would permit all other sciences to live in harmony.

  15. RURAL TOURISM IN DOBRUDGEA

    OpenAIRE

    Elena, SIMA

    2014-01-01

    The natural and anthropic tourism resources of a certain area generate specific tourism forms, which complete each other within the different destination categories.The rural area in Dobrudja has diversified tourism potential, provided by the contrast of natural environment factors, ranging from the oldest and to the youngest relief units, natural protected areas, spa resources and cultural, historical, religious sites, as well as multicultural local customs and traditions of the rural area. ...

  16. Rural road maintenance management

    OpenAIRE

    Johannessen, B.

    1999-01-01

    This manual summarizes relevant Cambodian government policies regarding rural road maintenance. Chapter 2 defines the various components of road maintenance and describes an effective strategy and organization which addresses the maintenance requirements of rural roads in Cambodia. Chapter 3 is a brief description of the planning, implementation and reporting cycle required in an effective road maintenance management system. Chapter 4 summarizes the contracts management procedures, and finall...

  17. Promotion of Local Economic Development (LED): experiences from rural community tourism Promoción del Desarrollo Económico Local (DEL): experiencias desde el turismo rural comunitario

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Rafael Hernández Navarro; Amílkar Mora Sánchez

    2012-01-01

    This article is a guide for the promotion of local economic development through community-based rural tourism. A methodological perspective for the accompaniment of organized communities interest- ed in the development of community rural tourism projects will be taken into consideration.The claim is to share a methodology applied in rural com- munities of Costa Rica and that it might be useful in similar situations.Este artículo es una guía para la promoción del desarrollo económico local por...

  18. Perceived relevance and foods with health-related claims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dean, M.; Lampila, P.; Shepherd, R.;

    2012-01-01

    consumers’ responses to health claims that either promise to reduce a targeted disease risk or improve well-being in comparison to other types of health-related messages, and how attitudes towards nutritionally healthy eating, functional food and previous experience relating to products with health claims...... affect the consumers’ perceptions of nutrition and health claims. The data (N = 2385) were collected by paper and pencil surveys in Finland, the UK, Germany and Italy on a target group of consumers over 35 year old, solely or jointly responsible for the family’s food shopping. The results showed...... risk reduction with detailed information about function and health outcome. Previous experience with products with health claims and interest in nutritionally healthy eating promoted the utility of all claims, regardless of whether they were health or nutrition claims. However, to be influenced...

  19. Dolphin-Assisted Therapy: Claims versus Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britta L. Fiksdal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to review and critique studies that have been conducted on dolphin-assisted therapy for children with various disorders. Studies have been released claiming swimming with dolphins is therapeutic and beneficial for children with autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, physical disabilities, and other psychological disorders. The majority of the studies conducted supporting the effectiveness of dolphin-assisted therapy have been found to have major methodological concerns making it impossible to draw valid conclusions. Readers will be informed of the history of, theory behind, and variations of dolphin-assisted therapy along with a review and critique of studies published which purportedly support its use.

  20. IMPROVEMENT OF THE FISCAL CLAIMS MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DELIMAN EUGEN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The conduct of the fiscal administration regarding the simplification and modernization of the systems of statements and payment of tax obligations is a necessary task to improve the relationship between the fiscal administration and the taxpayers, and also to induce efficiency regarding the management of fiscal duties in a single system. Regrouping the collecting of taxes under a single administration by taking over the functions of the social security administration has been the cornerstone of establishing a simplified tax administration. Improving the methods of compulsory enforcement of tax claims, the implementation of the management by objectives and the improvement of performance indicators of the fiscal administration activity, are considered to be the commitment of the fiscal body regarding the process of improving the collection of public financial resources.

  1. Prebiotics, Fermentable Dietary Fiber, and Health Claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcour, Jan A; Aman, Per; Courtin, Christophe M; Hamaker, Bruce R; Verbeke, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1970s, the positive effects of dietary fiber on health have increasingly been recognized. The collective term "dietary fiber" groups structures that have different physiologic effects. Since 1995, some dietary fibers have been denoted as prebiotics, implying a beneficial physiologic effect related to increasing numbers or activity of the gastrointestinal microbiota. Given the complex composition of the microbiota, the demonstration of such beneficial effects is difficult. In contrast, an exploration of the metabolites of dietary fiber formed as a result of its fermentation in the colon offers better perspectives for providing mechanistic links between fiber intake and health benefits. Positive outcomes of such studies hold the promise that claims describing specific health benefits can be granted. This would help bridge the "fiber gap"-that is, the considerable difference between recommended and actual fiber intakes by the average consumer.

  2. Proof of payment for all reimbursement claims

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    Members of the personnel are kindly requested to note that only documents proving that a payment has been made are accepted as proof of payment for any claims for reimbursement, including specifically the reimbursement of education fees. In particular, the following will be accepted as proof of payment: bank or post office bank statements indicating the name of the institution to which the payment was made; photocopies of cheques made out to the institution to which the payments were made together with bank statements showing the numbers of the relevant cheques; proof of payment in the form of discharged payment slips; invoices with acknowledgement of settlement, receipts, bank statements detailing operations crediting another account or similar documents. As a result, the following documents in particular will no longer be accepted as proof of payment: photocopies of cheques that are not submitted together with bank or post office bank statements showing the numbers of the relevant cheques; details of ...

  3. Are Claims of Global Warming Being Suppressed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Thomas J.

    2006-02-01

    Over the last few years, I have heard many rumors that climate science relevant to the global warming discussion is being suppressed by the Bush Administration. One cannot do much about third-hand information. However, on 29 January, the New York Times published a front page article on NASA efforts to suppress statements about global warming by James Hansen, director of the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies. A claim by one government scientist, though, no matter how distinguished, still requires examples from other scientists before a general conclusion can be drawn about the overall scope of the problem. But if the charges are more widespread, then some government scientists might be reluctant to make such claims, because they might feel that their positions were jeopardized. Therefore, an alternate way may be needed to determine the scope of the issue, while still safeguarding government workers from possible retaliation. -On 30 January, Rep. Sherwood Boehlert (R-N.Y.), chairman of the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Science, wrote a letter to NASA Administrator Michael Griffin addressing many of the concerns Crowley has raised. Boehlert wrote,``It ought to go without saying that government scientists must be free to describe their scientific conclusions and the implications of those conclusions to their fellow scientists, policymakers and the general public.'' He continued,``Good science cannot long persist in an atmosphere of intimidation. Political figures ought to be reviewing their public statements to make sure they are consistent with the best available science; scientists should not be reviewing their statements to make sure they are consistent with the current political orthodoxy.'' I commend Rep. Boehlert for his quick and clear statement of the importance of unfettered communication of science. -FRED SPILHAUS, Editor

  4. Mining Claim Activity on Federal Land in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causey, J. Douglas

    2007-01-01

    Several statistical compilations of mining claim activity on Federal land derived from the Bureau of Land Management's LR2000 database have previously been published by the U.S Geological Survey (USGS). The work in the 1990s did not include Arkansas or Florida. None of the previous reports included Alaska because it is stored in a separate database (Alaska Land Information System) and is in a different format. This report includes data for all states for which there are Federal mining claim records, beginning in 1976 and continuing to the present. The intent is to update the spatial and statistical data associated with this report on an annual basis, beginning with 2005 data. The statistics compiled from the databases are counts of the number of active mining claims in a section of land each year from 1976 to the present for all states within the United States. Claim statistics are subset by lode and placer types, as well as a dataset summarizing all claims including mill site and tunnel site claims. One table presents data by case type, case status, and number of claims in a section. This report includes a spatial database for each state in which mining claims were recorded, except North Dakota, which only has had two claims. A field is present that allows the statistical data to be joined to the spatial databases so that spatial displays and analysis can be done by using appropriate geographic information system (GIS) software. The data show how mining claim activity has changed in intensity, space, and time. Variations can be examined on a state, as well as a national level. The data are tied to a section of land, approximately 640 acres, which allows it to be used at regional, as well as local scale. The data only pertain to Federal land and mineral estate that was open to mining claim location at the time the claims were staked.

  5. Two families of rules for the adjudication of conflicting claims

    OpenAIRE

    William Thomson

    2007-01-01

    We define two families of rules to adjudicate conflicting claims. The first family contains the constrained equal awards, constrained equal losses, Talmud, and minimal overlap rules. The second family, which also contains the constrained equal awards and constrained equal losses rules, is obtained from the first one by exchanging, for each problem, how well agents with relatively larger claims are treated as compared to agents with relatively smaller claims. In each case, we identify the subf...

  6. Rural to Urban Migration in Pakistan : The Gender Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Shahnaz Hamid

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses gender dimensions in rural to urban migration (age 10 years and above) in Pakistan. The study is based on Labour Force Surveys 1996-2006. The findings of the study show that overtime internal migration (age 10 years and above) remained unchanged. Female migrants dominate in internal migration (age 10 years and above). In case of female migration, marriage plays a vital role. Further the direction of migration reveals that over time in internal migration the share of rural ...

  7. Mathematics revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Elizabeth

    1979-01-01

    Mathematics Revealed focuses on the principles, processes, operations, and exercises in mathematics.The book first offers information on whole numbers, fractions, and decimals and percents. Discussions focus on measuring length, percent, decimals, numbers as products, addition and subtraction of fractions, mixed numbers and ratios, division of fractions, addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The text then examines positive and negative numbers and powers and computation. Topics include division and averages, multiplication, ratios, and measurements, scientific notation and estim

  8. Revealed Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Masatlioglu, Yusufcan; NAKAJIMA, Daisuke; Ozbay, Erkut Y

    2012-01-01

    The standard revealed preference argument relies on an implicit assumption that a decision maker considers all feasible alternatives. The marketing and psychology literatures, however, provide wellestablished evidence that consumers do not consider all brands in a given market before making a purchase (Limited Attention). In this paper, we illustrate how one can deduce both the decision maker's preference and the alternatives to which she pays attention and inattention from the observed behav...

  9. Revealed Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Yusufcan Masatlioglu; Daisuke Nakajima; Ozbay, Erkut Y

    2012-01-01

    The standard revealed preference argument relies on an implicit assumption that a decision maker considers all feasible alternatives. The marketing and psychology literatures, however, provide well-established evidence that consumers do not consider all brands in a given market before making a purchase (Limited Attention). In this paper, we illustrate how one can deduce both the decision maker's preference and the alternatives to which she pays attention and inattention from the observed beha...

  10. FEMA Hazard Mitigation Assistance Repetitive Flood Claims (RFC) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset contains closed and obligated projects funded under the following Hazard Mitigation Assistance (HMA) grant programs: Repetitive Flood Claims (RFC). The...

  11. From Bargaining Solutions to Claims Rules: A Proportional Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Manuel Giménez-Gómez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Agents involved in a conflicting claims problem may be concerned with the proportion of their claims that is satisfied, or with the total amount they get. In order to relate both perspectives, we associate to each conflicting claims problem a bargaining-in-proportions set. Then, we obtain a correspondence between classical bargaining solutions and usual claims rules. In particular, we show that the constrained equal losses, the truncated constrained equal losses and the contested garment (Babylonian Talmud rules can be obtained throughout the Nash bargaining solution.

  12. Joint Asymptotic Distributions of Smallest and Largest Insurance Claims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansjörg Albrecher

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Assume that claims in a portfolio of insurance contracts are described by independent and identically distributed random variables with regularly varying tails and occur according to a near mixed Poisson process. We provide a collection of results pertaining to the joint asymptotic Laplace transforms of the normalised sums of the smallest and largest claims, when the length of the considered time interval tends to infinity. The results crucially depend on the value of the tail index of the claim distribution, as well as on the number of largest claims under consideration.

  13. Overview of Rural Tourism Development in China

    OpenAIRE

    XIE, Tianhui

    2015-01-01

    Rural tourism is a form of tourism relying on rural environment, with rural unique natural scene and cultural characteristics (production pattern, life style, folk customs, and rural culture) as object, and integrating sightseeing, vacation, recreation and shopping. Rural tourism provides recreation products for urban residents, promotes national and local economy, promotes rural employment, keeps traditional culture, improves rural ecological environment, and promotes urban and rural exchang...

  14. Role of rural tourism for development of rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Andrej Udovč; Anton Perpar

    2015-01-01

    The paper analyse the role of rural tourism for the development of rural areas, on the comparison of two regions with different types of rural tourism. One area is of highly diversifi ed rural tourism with wide range of tourist products (rafting, hiking, cycling, farm tourism, skiing …). The tourism offer in the second area is much more uniform (mainly farm tourism and some spa). The study analysed how the two different types of tourist product diversifi cations influence the development poss...

  15. Microbiological Effectiveness of Disinfecting Water by Boiling in Rural Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Ghislaine; Miller, Laura; Clasen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Boiling is the most common means of treating water in the home and the benchmark against which alternative point-of-use water treatment options must be compared. In a 5-week study in rural Guatemala among 45 households who claimed they always or almost always boiled their drinking water, boiling was associated with a 86.2% reduction in geometric mean thermotolerant coliforms (TTC) (N = 206, P < 0.0001). Despite consistent levels of fecal contamination in source water, 71.2% of stored water sa...

  16. RURAL AREA – AN UNTAPPED OPPORTUNITY FOR ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Costin CÎRSTEA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Romanian rural area faces a violent lack of entrepreneurship initiatives, which can generate negative economic and social phenomena, with medium and long-term effects, such as: the decreased living standards of people in rural areas, the migration of young people from rural areas, which generates psychosocial problems among children who have to stay with their grandparents, the sharp decrease of interest for agriculture and, thus, the decrease of GDP ratio from agricultural activities, the lack of education among rural people etc. Under these circumstances, thepaper tries, through documentation, analysis and processing statistical data, to quantify the development level of entrepreneurship in rural areas in Romania, compared with developed EU countries (such as: Germany, Great Britain, France etc., in order to reveal the gaps in this sector. To increase the relevance of the analysis, the paper also analyzes the possible causes that can stimulate or repress the expression of entrepreneurship and its implementation in Romanian and European rural areas, such as: different levels of fiscal pressure, the existence, effectiveness and efficiency of programs implementation for stimulating and supporting entrepreneurship in general and in rural areas, in particular, the different business culture etc. These results generated from the research will finally create a set of premises for adopting international best practices and develop pragmatic solutions and programs to increase entrepreneurship, which can leads to new business initiatives in the Romanian rural area.In conclusion, for a quality of life growth and a decrease of negative social and economic phenomena with medium and long-term impact, it is necessary an increase of the living standards, done by increasing the opportunities for entrepreneurship in agriculture and rural areas. Specifically, there are needed investments in the development of human resources in rural areas and in supporting its

  17. Researching Rural Places: On Social Justice and Rural Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Philip; Green, Bill

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores some of the political and methodological challenges involved in researching rural education. It begins by outlining the situation in Australia regarding the relationship between social justice and rural education. It first describes the disadvantages experienced by many rural communities and presents an analysis of rural…

  18. Turismo rural en Cataluña. Estrategias empresariales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunet, Ignasi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present article we expose the findings of a research that aims to reveal the nature of the strategies of rural business creation. These strategies are situated according to the unequal social position and the connection with the rural world of rural tourism entrepreneurs. In accordance with their social and professional position in the rural habitat, we have identified three types of owner operators: a farmers, b professionals with no agricultural activity and c neo-rurals. These types are explained by the processes of deagriculturalisation and a differentiation between agriculture and tourism. We emphasize that the motive for the development of rural tourism is property ownership and fundamentally originates from those who have been able to take advantage of the deagriculturalisation process and the new distribution of property resulting from the rural exodus that has occurred in the region during the last few decades.

    En este artículo se exponen los resultados de una investigación que trata de analizar la naturaleza de las estrategias de creación de negocios rurales. Estas estrategias las situamos en relación a la desigual posición social y conexión con el mundo rural de los empresarios de turismo rural. De acuerdo con su situación social y profesional en el mundo rural hemos identificado tres tipos de propietarios de establecimientos turísticos: a granjeros-ganaderos; b profesionales sin actividades agrícolas o ganaderas; c neorrurales. Esta tipología de propietarios se explica por el proceso de desagrarización y de diferenciación entre agricultura y turismo. Enfatizamos que el motivo para el desarrollo de establecimientos de turismo rural es la propiedad de patrimonio por parte de aquellos que pueden beneficiarse del proceso de desagrarización y de la nueva distribución de la propiedad rural fruto del exodo rural que ha ocurrido en la región durante las últimas décadas.

  19. Unsafe abortion in rural Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke; Sørensen, Pernille H; Wang, Anna R;

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundThe circumstances under which women obtain unsafe abortion vary and depend on the traditional methods known and the type of providers present. In rural Tanzania women often resort to traditional providers who use plant species as abortion remedies. Little is known about how these plants...... are used and their potential effect.MethodsData were obtained among women admitted with incomplete abortion at Kagera Regional Hospital during the period January - June, 2006. The women underwent an empathetic interview to determine if they had experienced an unsafe abortion prior to their admission....... In all 125/187 women revealed having had an unsafe abortion. The women identified as having had an unsafe abortion underwent a questionnaire interview where information about abortion provider and abortion method used was obtained through open-ended questions. To get more detailed information about...

  20. Office of Rural Health Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources About Us Federal Office of Rural Health Policy  News $16 million in funding to improve health ... and learn more about FORHP programs.   Rural Health Policy FORHP prepares regular policy announcements focusing on the ...

  1. Marriage in Rural Philippine Households

    OpenAIRE

    Evenson, Robert E.

    1994-01-01

    Utilizing intergenerational data from a sample of rural households in Laguna Province, this article tests the proposition that rural families are responsive to economic conditions as choices are made regarding children’s educational needs, their location and occupation choices.

  2. About The Rural Development Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>The Rural Development Foundation ( RDF) ,founded in 1996,is an Indian nonprofit organization with the mission of providing quality education for underprivileged rural children. RDF founded and continues to operate five schools

  3. About The Rural Development Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>The Rural Development Foundation ( RDF) ,founded in 1996,is an Indian nonprofit organization with the mission of providin gquality education for underprivileged rural children. RDF founded and continues to operate five schools and one junior college in

  4. About The Rural Development Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>The Rural Development Foundation ( RDF) ,founded in 1996,is an Indian nonprofit organization with the mission of providing quality education for underprivileged rural children. RDF founded and continues to operate five schools and one junior college in

  5. About The Rural Development Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>The Rural Development Foundation(RDF),founded in1996,is an Indian nonprofit organization with the mission of providingquality education for underprivileged rural children.RDF founded and continues to operate five schools and one junior college in

  6. About The Rural Development Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>The Rural Development Foundation (RDF) ,founded in 1996,is an Indian nonprofit organization with the mission of providing quality education for underprivileged rural children. RDF founded and continues to operate five schools and one junior college in Andhra

  7. 20 CFR 702.225 - Withdrawal of a claim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HARBOR WORKERS' COMPENSATION ACT AND RELATED STATUTES ADMINISTRATION AND PROCEDURE Claims Procedures... request for withdrawal is approved, such withdrawal shall be without prejudice to the filing of another claim, subject to the time limitation provisions of section 13 of the Act and of the regulations in...

  8. Consumer Perceptions of Health Claims in Advertisements and Food Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazis, Michael B.; Raymond, Mary Anne

    1997-01-01

    Of sample of 180 women, 60 received information from ads, 60 from product labels, and 60 from labels with nutrition information. Beliefs about products did not differ whether health claims appeared in ads or on labels. Nutrition information influenced beliefs. Health claims challenged by the Federal Trade Commission or consumer groups were less…

  9. Consumer Responses to Nutrition Claims in Food Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeersch, Joyce A.; Swenerton, Helene

    1979-01-01

    Interviews with two groups of women indicated that attractive packaging was more important than nutrition claims as attention-getting devices in food ads. Authors conclude that the potential to misinterpret nutrition information in food ads exists and that the use of nutrition claims in food ads needs closer controls. (Author/MA)

  10. Does a Claims Diagnosis of Autism Mean a True Case?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, James P.; Jain, Anjali; Yang, Wenya; Kelly, Jonathan P.; Kaiser, Marygrace; Becker, Laura; Lawer, Lindsay; Newschaffer, Craig J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate autism spectrum disorder cases identified through claims-based case identification algorithms against a clinical review of medical charts. Charts were reviewed for 432 children who fell into one of the three following groups: (a) more than or equal to two claims with an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis…

  11. 20 CFR 429.203 - When is a claim allowable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... paragraph (a) of this section and the other provisions of this subpart, any claim you make for damage to, or... excluded under this subpart: (1) Property damage in quarters or other authorized places. Claims are allowable for damage to, or loss of, property arising from fire, flood, hurricane, other natural...

  12. Theoretical Claims and Empirical Evidence in Maori Education Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rata, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Post-Marxist critical sociology of education has influenced the development of indigenous ("kaupapa") Maori educational theory and research. Its effects are examined in four claims made for Maori education by indigenous theorists. The claims are: indigenous kaupapa Maori education is a revolutionary initiative; it is a cultural solution to Maori…

  13. Teaching of Editorial Writing Uses Claims-Based Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, William C.

    1989-01-01

    Urges the use of claims-based analysis in editorial writing instruction. Explains the use of five hierarchical claim types (factual, definitional, causal, value, and policy) to teach students to analyze and formulate arguments, thus teaching editorial writing by focusing more on the process than on the product. (SR)

  14. 21 CFR 101.70 - Petitions for health claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Petitions for health claims. 101.70 Section 101.70 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Requirements for Health Claims § 101.70 Petitions...

  15. Cause and Event: Supporting Causal Claims through Logistic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Ann A.; Gray, DeLeon L.

    2011-01-01

    Efforts to identify and support credible causal claims have received intense interest in the research community, particularly over the past few decades. In this paper, we focus on the use of statistical procedures designed to support causal claims for a treatment or intervention when the response variable of interest is dichotomous. We identify…

  16. 40 CFR 304.21 - Referral of claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CLAIMS Jurisdiction of Arbitrator, Referral of Claims, and Appointment of Arbitrator § 304.21 Referral of... submitted pursuant to the procedures established by this part by an Arbitrator appointed pursuant to § 304... effective, any such modification must be signed by the Arbitrator and all other parties. The joint...

  17. 39 CFR 777.28 - Claims and appeals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... relocation representative should assist eligible displaced persons in the preparation of claims for moving... relocation representative with the displaced person, to preclude technical difficulties in processing the... of the displaced person's claim, the Postal Service will promptly authorize payment of the...

  18. 40 CFR 303.33 - Filing a claim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS CITIZEN AWARDS FOR INFORMATION ON CRIMINAL VIOLATIONS UNDER SUPERFUND... regulation is required to file a claim for such an award with the Deputy Assistant Administrator for Criminal... information was provided. (c) All claim submissions must be submitted to the Office of Criminal...

  19. 26 CFR 509.120 - Double taxation claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Double taxation claims. 509.120 Section 509.120... CONVENTIONS SWITZERLAND General Income Tax § 509.120 Double taxation claims. (a) General. Under Article XVII... United States or Switzerland has resulted, or will result, in double taxation contrary to the...

  20. 28 CFR 79.75 - Procedures for payment of claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures for payment of claims. 79.75 Section 79.75 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE RADIATION... awarded under the Act and to verify the identity of the claimant or, in the case of a deceased...

  1. 7 CFR 273.18 - Claims against households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... overpaid or (ii) Benefits that are trafficked. Trafficking is defined in 7 CFR 271.2. (2) This claim is a... the claim (G) a new collection method or a specific event (such as winning the lottery) substantially...) Accepting cash or any of its generally accepted equivalents. These equivalents include check, money...

  2. 9 CFR 55.5 - Presentation of claims for indemnity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Presentation of claims for indemnity. 55.5 Section 55.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE Chronic Wasting Disease Indemnification Program § 55.5 Presentation of claims...

  3. 42 CFR 60.39 - Death and disability claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Death and disability claims. 60.39 Section 60.39... ASSISTANCE LOAN PROGRAM The Lender and Holder § 60.39 Death and disability claims. (a) Death. The Secretary... death. (b) Disability. (1) The Secretary will discharge a borrower's liability on the loan in...

  4. 48 CFR 1404.804-70 - Release of claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Release of claims. 1404.804-70 Section 1404.804-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Contract Files 1404.804-70 Release of claims. (a) The CO shall insert the clause at...

  5. 46 CFR 326.6 - Settlement of claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MARINE PROTECTION AND INDEMNITY INSURANCE UNDER AGREEMENTS WITH AGENTS § 326.6 Settlement of claims. (a) After ascertaining from MARAD the availability of funds, the Agent is authorized to settle individual claims of a P&I...

  6. 28 CFR 79.4 - Determination of claims and affidavits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Determination of claims and affidavits. 79.4 Section 79.4 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CLAIMS UNDER THE... the claimant's uranium mining employment history for purposes of determining working level months...

  7. 46 CFR 326.5 - Report of claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Report of claims. 326.5 Section 326.5 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MARINE PROTECTION AND INDEMNITY... in behalf of the United States, estimated future costs and an evaluation of the claim of the merits....

  8. 32 CFR 199.7 - Claims submission, review, and payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .../medical documentation. Medical records are of vital importance in the care and treatment of the patient... necessary for the accurate and efficient administration of CHAMPUS benefits. This may include requests for...) Claims filed by providers using CHAMPUS-approved signature-on-file and claims submission procedures....

  9. Altering health-pleasure trade-off via advertising claims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialkova, S.E.; Sasse, L.; Fenko, A.; Verlegh, P.; Voorveld, H.; Pelsmacker, de P.

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated whether and how advertising claims (taste vs. health benefit) influenced consumer taste perception and buying intentions of potato chips. Participants (N=154) were exposed to the front of the product package and were invited to taste the product. Taste benefit claims lead to p

  10. 14 CFR 1261.414 - Compromise of claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the Claims Collection Litigation Report. See § 1261.417(e) or 4 CFR 105.2(b). Claims for which the... potential income; (3) Inheritance prospects; (4) The possibility that assets have been concealed or... which collateral or other property will bring at forced sale may properly be considered in...

  11. 7 CFR 226.14 - Claims against institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Claims against institutions. 226.14 Section 226.14... against institutions. (a) State agencies shall disallow any portion of a claim for reimbursement and recover any payment to an institution not properly payable under this part. State agencies may...

  12. 42 CFR 457.212 - Disallowance of claims for FFP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Reconsideration procedures. The reconsideration procedures are those set forth in 45 CFR part 16. (d... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disallowance of claims for FFP. 457.212 Section 457...; Reduction of Federal Medical Payments § 457.212 Disallowance of claims for FFP. (a) Notice of...

  13. 42 CFR 457.210 - Deferral of claims for FFP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... reconsideration in accordance with 45 CFR part 16. ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Deferral of claims for FFP. 457.210 Section 457.210...; Reduction of Federal Medical Payments § 457.210 Deferral of claims for FFP. (a) Requirements for...

  14. 42 CFR 430.42 - Disallowance of claims for FFP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... reconsideration procedures are those set forth in 45 CFR part 16 for Medicaid and for many other programs... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disallowance of claims for FFP. 430.42 Section 430... Medicaid Payments § 430.42 Disallowance of claims for FFP. (a) Notice of disallowance and of right...

  15. Health claims made on multivitamin and mineral supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Jovičić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Basic purpose of health claims is consumers' benefit by providing information about healthy eating habits. It is necessary for health claims to be scientifically substantiated and truthful. Health claims should not attribute to food the property of preventing, treating or curing a human disease. Use of health claims should be followed by a statement indicating the importance of a varied and balanced diet and a healthy lifestyle. The objective of this research was to examine the compliance of health claims made on multivitamin and mineral dietary supplements' labels on the Serbian market with national regulation concerning health safety of dietary products.Methods: An assessment of labels of MVMs was done in two privately owned pharmacies in Novi Sad, Serbia in August 2010.Results: In total, 48 MVMs were sampled and 22 health claims were detected. Seven out of 22 health claims were in compliance with the national regulation. The main reason for health claims on foreign MVMs not to be compliant with the regulation in Serbia was inadequate or nonexistent translation of original labels.Conclusion: Detected use of terms such as "prevention", "treatment" and "indications" on vitamin and mineral dietary supplements' labels is both forbidden and misleading to consumers. Coupled with inadequate or nonexistent translation of the labels, it leads to a low level of protection of Serbian consumers. It is necessary to establish an effective monitoring system for dietary supplements' labeling on a national scale in order toprotect consumers and their wellbeing.

  16. 28 CFR 104.31 - Procedure for claims evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedure for claims evaluation. 104.31 Section 104.31 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) SEPTEMBER 11TH VICTIM... any required documents. (b) Procedural tracks. Each claim will be placed on a procedural...

  17. 78 FR 65489 - Standard Claims and Appeals Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    .... The Veterans Benefits Management System (VBMS) is an internal VA business application for electronic... benefits sought. An ``incomplete claim'' would generally be a written communication expressing a desire for..., which provides that ``VA may accept as a claim for benefits under 38 U.S.C. 1151 . . . any...

  18. The man who claimed to be a paedophile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, S A

    2000-04-01

    A psychiatrist recounts a case of a man presenting with severe depression who claimed to have abused children and his pet dog. Clinical management of the case hinged on whether this claim was true, a lie or delusional. The uncertainty over this raised complex ethical dilemmas regarding confidentiality and protection of the public (and animals). PMID:10786326

  19. 20 CFR 325.4 - Claim for unemployment benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... INSURANCE ACT REGISTRATION FOR RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS § 325.4 Claim for unemployment benefits. (a... Director of Unemployment and Sickness Insurance may waive such requirement in connection with unemployment... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Claim for unemployment benefits....

  20. 38 CFR 36.4324 - Guaranty claims; subsequent accounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guaranty claims; subsequent accounting. 36.4324 Section 36.4324 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... § 36.4324 Guaranty claims; subsequent accounting. (a) Subject to the limitation that the total...

  1. 37 CFR 1.55 - Claim for foreign priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... certain circumstances claim priority on the basis of one or more applications for an inventor's certificate in a country granting both inventor's certificates and patents. To claim the right of priority on the basis of an application for an inventor's certificate in such a country under 35 U.S.C....

  2. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 282 - Claims Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claims Description B Appendix B to Part 282 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED.... 282, App. B Appendix B to Part 282—Claims Description The Secretary of Defense is authorized...

  3. 38 CFR 3.151 - Claims for disability benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claims for disability... disability benefits. (a) General. A specific claim in the form prescribed by the Secretary must be filed in..., unless the claimant specifically elects the lesser benefit. (b) Retroactive disability pension...

  4. Looking for PeripheRurality

    OpenAIRE

    Camaioni, Beatrice; Esposti, Roberto; Lobianco, Antonello; Pagliacci, Francesco; Franco SOTTE

    2013-01-01

    Rural areas still play a major role within the EU, as Europe is still a fairly rural continent. Moreover, EU rural areas are going through greater challenges and major transformations. After the Eastern enlargements of the EU (in 2004 and 2007), they are getting more and more heterogeneous, in terms of their main socio-economic features as well as of agricultural activities. According to this increasing heterogeneity, the traditional urban-rural divide can be now considered almost outdated (O...

  5. Interdisciplinarity and young rural researchers

    OpenAIRE

    Derkzen, P.H.M.; Mustakangas, E.; Gambino, M.; Kucerova, E.

    2006-01-01

    The European Society for Rural Sociology (ESRS) organised a round table discussion for young rural researchers at the XXI ESRS Congress, 22-26 August, 2005 in Keszthely, Hungary. In the discussion, participants focused on interdisciplinarity in rural research from their own personal points of view by analysing their profession in terms of interdisciplinarity. This paper compiles and summarizes these presentations. The review sheds light on the realities experienced by young rural researchers ...

  6. A Feasible Rural Education System

    OpenAIRE

    Lincy Meera Mathews; Dr Bandaru Rama Krishna Rao

    2012-01-01

    The education system in rural and semi-rural areas of developing and underdeveloped countries are facing many challenges. The limited accessibility and challenges to the education are attributed mainly to political, economic and social issues of these underdeveloped countries. We propose a “Feasible Rural Education System (FRES)” based on Ontology and supported by Cloud to enhance the accessibility to education in rural areas. The system has been proposed incorporating the FOSS approach.

  7. A Feasible Rural Education System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lincy Meera Mathews

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The education system in rural and semi-rural areas of developing and underdeveloped countries are facing many challenges. The limited accessibility and challenges to the education are attributed mainly to political, economic and social issues of these underdeveloped countries. We propose a “Feasible Rural Education System (FRES” based on Ontology and supported by Cloud to enhance the accessibility to education in rural areas. The system has been proposed incorporating the FOSS approach.

  8. INVESTIGATING USER PREFERENCES FOR SERVICES IN RURAL AREAS OF SCOTLAND: A TERRITORIAL APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Clare; Moran, Dominic; McVittie, Alistair

    2009-01-01

    Territorialisation of rural policies requires moving from a sectoral approach to service provision, and policies that focus exclusively on health and education, for example, to an understanding of overall service provision and quality, differentiated by rural area definition, not primarily by sector. An investigation of the expectations of stakeholders in rural Scotland, relating to availability, quality and accessibility of services, revealed that preferences were often different within diff...

  9. A Structural Equation Modelling for Crm Development in Rural Tourism in the Catalan Pyrenees

    OpenAIRE

    José Mª Prat Forga

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the interrelationships between customer relationship management development in rural tourism, information and communication technologies level in the territory, perceived economic impacts and rural tourism development. A total of 76 respondents completed a survey conducted in the Spanish Pyrenees Mountains in order to examine the structural effects of these impact factors. The results reveal that the support for customer relationship management development in rural tou...

  10. A Structural Equation Modelling for CRM Development in rural Tourism in the Catalan Pyrenees

    OpenAIRE

    José Mª Prat Forga

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the interrelationships between customer relationship management development in rural tourism, information and communication technologies level in the territory, perceived economic impacts and rural tourism development. A total of 76 respondents completed a survey conducted in the Spanish Pyrenees Mountains in order to examine the structural effects of these impact factors. The results reveal that the support for customer relationship management development in rural tou...

  11. Petroleum taxation under uncertainty - contingent claims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A workable method for the analysis of incentive effects of petroleum taxes under uncertainty is presented. The main advantage of the method is that it concludes with a single number for the after-tax value of any development plan, and thus allows for a quantification of incentive effects for any given description of production possibilities. It is, however, not possible to describe tax effects under uncertainty by simple magnitudes independent of production possibilities, such as wedges in rates of return. The theoretical basis is the contingent claims analysis from finance theory, which is applicable in particular to companies that are owned by well-diversified shareholders. It is not obvious that the tax authorities of poorly diversified countries should value uncertain income streams by the same method. The Norwegian petroleum taxation is shown to have strongly distortionary effects compared to a no-tax situation or a cash flow tax. These distortions were reduced by the tax changes that followed the 1986 decreases in crude oil prices. A weakness of the model of the Norwegian system is that an exactly optimal financial policy for the company has not been found. 30 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Knowledge Discovery from Massive Healthcare Claims Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandola, Varun [ORNL; Sukumar, Sreenivas R [ORNL; Schryver, Jack C [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    The role of big data in addressing the needs of the present healthcare system in US and rest of the world has been echoed by government, private, and academic sectors. There has been a growing emphasis to explore the promise of big data analytics in tapping the potential of the massive healthcare data emanating from private and government health insurance providers. While the domain implications of such collaboration are well known, this type of data has been explored to a limited extent in the data mining community. The objective of this paper is two fold: first, we introduce the emerging domain of big"healthcare claims data to the KDD community, and second, we describe the success and challenges that we encountered in analyzing this data using state of art analytics for massive data. Specically, we translate the problem of analyzing healthcare data into some of the most well-known analysis problems in the data mining community, social network analysis, text mining, and temporal analysis and higher order feature construction, and describe how advances within each of these areas can be leveraged to understand the domain of healthcare. Each case study illustrates a unique intersection of data mining and healthcare with a common objective of improving the cost-care ratio by mining for opportunities to improve healthcare operations and reducing hat seems to fall under fraud, waste,and abuse.

  13. Politics of rural health in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerji, D

    2005-01-01

    The setting up of the National Rural Health Mission is yet another political move by the present government of India to make yet another promise to the long suffering rural population to improve their health status. As has happened so often in the past, it is based on questionable premises. It adopts a simplistic approach to a highly complex problem. The Union Ministry of Health and Family Welfare and its advisors, either because of ignorance or otherwise, have doggedly refused to learn from the many experiences of the past, both in terms of the efforts to earlier somewhat sincere efforts to develop endogenous mechanisms to offer access to health services as well as from the devastative impact on the painstakingly built rural health services of the imposition of prefabricated, ill-conceived, ill-formulated, techno-centric vertical programmes on the people of India. The also ignore some of the basic postulates of public health practice in a country like India. That did not substantiate the bases of some of their substantive contentions with scientific data obtained from health systems research reveals that they are not serious about their promise to rural population. This is yet another instance of what Romesh Thaper had called 'Baba Log playing government government'.

  14. Worst-Case-Optimal Dynamic Reinsurance for Large Claims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korn, Ralf; Menkens, Olaf; Steffensen, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    the optimal reinsurance strategy in a differential game setting where the insurance company plays against mother nature. We analyze the resulting strategy and illustrate its characteristics numerically. A crucial feature of our result is that the optimal strategy is robust to claim number and size modeling......We control the surplus process of a non-life insurance company by dynamic proportional reinsurance. The objective is to maximize expected (utility of the) surplus under the worst-case claim development. In the large claim case with a worst-case upper limit on claim numbers and claim sizes, we find...... and robust to the choice of utility function. This robustness makes a strong case for our approach. Numerical examples illustrate the characteristics of the new approach. We analyze the optimal strategy, e.g. in terms of the more conventional, in the insurance context, objective of minimizing the probability...

  15. Aging population in change – a crucial challenge for structurally weak rural areas in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Tatjana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Besides population decline, structurally weak rural areas in Austria face a new challenge related to demographic change: the increasing heterogeneity of their aging population. From the example of the so-called ‘best agers’ - comprising people aged 55 to 65 years - this contribution makes visible patterns and consequences of growing individualized spatial behaviour and spatial perception. Furthermore, contradictions between claims, wishes and expectations and actual engagement and commitment to their residential rural municipalities are being pointed out. These empirically-based facts are rounded off by considerations on the best agers’ future migration-behaviour and the challenges for spatial planning at the municipal level.

  16. The Bureaucratization of Social Policies. The Management of Rural Food Programs in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Poblete

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Between 1995 and 1999 the reform of the wine production sector caused significant social changes in Mendoza (Argentina. The restructuring of the paternalistic model which had been the core of the old system of productivity made the rural workers to experience a complete lack of references. They went from a well—known and controlled poverty to a system of social instability in which even the basic resources were missing. The State, unable to satisfy the claims made by the rural workers, created a bureaucratic mechanism for the allocation of social aid.

  17. Rural energy and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, R.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses the worldwide problem and need for rural electrification to support development. He points out that rural areas will pay high rates to receive such services, but cannot afford the capital cost for conventional services. The author looks at this problem from the point of energy choices, subsides, initial costs, financing, investors, local involvement, and governmental actions. In particular he is concerned with ways to make better use of biofuels, to promote sustainable harvesting, and to encourage development of more modern fuels.

  18. Planning Schools for Rural Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Hobart; Howley, Craig; Smith, Charles; Dickens, Ben

    School improvement in rural places cannot succeed without attention to the rural context of learning. Most especially, smaller schools need to be preserved and sustained in rural areas, particularly impoverished communities, for the sake of student achievement and personal development. This school improvement tool suggests the character of a "good…

  19. Juvenile Justice in Rural America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovic, Joanne, Ed.; And Others

    Producing a much-needed organized body of literature about rural juvenile justice, 14 papers (largely from the 1979 National Symposium on Rural Justice) are organized to identify current issues, identify forces causing changes in current systems, review programs responding to rural juvenile justice problems, and provide planning models to aid…

  20. Rurality and Rural Education: Discourses Underpinning Rurality and Rural Education Research in South African Postgraduate Education Research 1994-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkambule, T.; Balfour, R. J.; Pillay, G.; Moletsane, R.

    2011-01-01

    Historically, rurality and rural education have been marginalised bodies of knowledge in South Africa. The post-1994 era has seen an emerging government concern to address the continuing interplay between poverty, HIV/AIDS, underdevelopment, and underachievement in schools categorised as rural. To address these concerns, scholars in South African…

  1. Interdisciplinarity and young rural researchers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derkzen, P.H.M.; Mustakangas, E.; Gambino, M.; Kucerova, E.

    2006-01-01

    The European Society for Rural Sociology (ESRS) organised a round table discussion for young rural researchers at the XXI ESRS Congress, 22-26 August, 2005 in Keszthely, Hungary. In the discussion, participants focused on interdisciplinarity in rural research from their own personal points of view b

  2. Do Insurers Have to Pay for Bad Behaviour in Settling Claims? Legal Aspects of Insurers' Wrongful Claims Handling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H. van Boom (Willem)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: This article presents a comparative legal analysis of wrongful claims handling by insurance companies in indemnity and liability insurance. From the outset, it is clear that it may be difficult to draw the line between legitimate claims denial and refusal to pay, on the one han

  3. Managerial Strategies for the Conservation of Rurality in Rural Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Petroman

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available If we admit that rurality designates small densities, open areas, small settlements below 1,000 inhabitants, and land reserved mainly to agricultural and forestry practices, and as natural area, if we admit that society tends to be traditional and that government al policies tend to conserve rather than to make rapid or radical changes, then we should admit that rural tourism should be an activity generating new incomes in the area. Rurality also means preserving a continuum in the approach of different types of areas with different characteristics, a concept that can also be of use in the identification of activities specific to rural tourism. Be they activities specific to the rural environment or activities common to the rural area, they need to aim at the conservation of rurality as a main tourism resource. Managerial strategies in rural tourism contribute effectively to rural development, provided they are sustainable and that rural tourism be not the only solution for rural development.

  4. Revealing Rembrandt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Parker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The power and significance of artwork in shaping human cognition is self-evident. The starting point for our empirical investigations is the view that the task of neuroscience is to integrate itself with other forms of knowledge, rather than to seek to supplant them. In our recent work, we examined a particular aspect of the appreciation of artwork using present-day functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Our results emphasised the continuity between viewing artwork and other human cognitive activities. We also showed that appreciation of a particular aspect of artwork, namely authenticity, depends upon the co-ordinated activity between the brain regions involved in multiple decision making and those responsible for processing visual information. The findings about brain function probably have no specific consequences for understanding how people respond to the art of Rembrandt in comparison with their response to other artworks. However, the use of images of Rembrandt’s portraits, his most intimate and personal works, clearly had a significant impact upon our viewers, even though they have been spatially confined to the interior of an MRI scanner at the time of viewing. Neuroscientific studies of humans viewing artwork have the capacity to reveal the diversity of human cognitive responses that may be induced by external advice or context as people view artwork in a variety of frameworks and settings.

  5. Factors influencing decisions on delay claims in construction contracts for Indian scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Balkrishna Chaphalkar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available   Construction industry in India is second largest next to agriculture. In current era of infrastructure development construction projects occupy a key position. In any construction project contract time and cost overrun is a common feature, which gives rise to claims leading to disputes. These disputes if not handled properly tend to consume time and money of all parties to the contract. To resolve the dispute in optimum time, it is essential to understand the root cause of disputes as early as possible. Hence there is a need of analyzing the disputes scientifically.  The present study reveals from the study of arbitration awards that the causes for delay claims can be grouped in domains and the probable decisions to the disputes can be traced through the probing questions considered by decision makers. This paper attempts to identify questions related to disputes for Indian scenario through literature, arbitration awards, court cases and discussions with professionals.

  6. Making Claims The Claim as a Knowledge Design, Capture, and Sharing Tool in HCI

    CERN Document Server

    McCrickard, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Human-centered informatics (HCI) is a young discipline that is still defining its core components, with approaches rooted in engineering, science, and creative design. In the spirit of this book series, this book explores HCI as an intersection point for different perspectives of computing and information technology, seeking to understand how groups of designers can communicate with an increasingly diverse set of colleagues on a broadening set of problems. In so doing, this book traces the evolution of claims as a way to capture and share knowledge, particularly in comparison to other approach

  7. Coping with cognitive impairment and dementia: Rural caregivers' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branger, Camille; Burton, Rachel; O'Connell, Megan E; Stewart, Norma; Morgan, Debra

    2016-07-01

    Caregiving in a rural context is unique, but the experience of rural caregivers is understudied. This paper describes how rural caregivers cope with caring for a loved one diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment or dementia using qualitative description to generate a low-inference summary of a response to an open-ended question. This approach allowed these rural caregivers to describe their positive experiences in addition to the more commonly explored caregiver experiences related to stress. Analyses of coping revealed use of social support, engaging in relaxing and physical activity, and cognitive reframing. In addition, caregivers reported strong faith and religiosity, and to a lesser frequency behavioral changes, checking in with the person with dementia via telephone, and joint activity. Predominantly, these methods reflect approach-based strategies. The current data suggest that these caregivers manage well and adopt adaptive coping strategies to meet the demands of the caregiving role. PMID:24951255

  8. Rural Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Protective Orders Effective in Stopping or Reducing Partner Violence , they examine urban and rural differences in the community context of ... The impact of civil protective orders on reducing violence and abuse did not differ ... women. Community-level barriers to enforce civil protective ...

  9. Rural Students Falling Behind

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Access to leading universities more difficult than ever for students from rural areas As a sophomore majoring in English at the Department of Foreign Languages and Literature at Tsinghua University, Zhao Jun has learned the true meaning of "spiritual solitude" over the past year.

  10. Rural Lending Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FIONAWANG

    2005-01-01

    Impended by the lack of a rural financial service network, farmers in China are prone to encounter many difficulties when attempting to secure loans. According to statistics, agriculture accounted for 14.8 percent of China's gross domestic product (GDP) in 2003, but it only used no more than 6 percent of outstanding loans released by all China's financial institutions.

  11. Anomia in Rural Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odokara, E. O.

    1971-01-01

    Describes the results of a study to determine the relationship of various social and personal factors to adjustment and to identify the attitudes, values and motivations which either facilitate or retard adjustment. Provides guidelines for planning adult education programs to revitalize the rural people in war affected areas. (RB)

  12. Rural Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disorders. What are some of the benefits of integration of mental health services into primary care in a rural community? ... benefits both the patient and the provider. The integration, or even the co-location, of mental health services with primary care services can also help ...

  13. Teachers as Rural Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In the article, education is seen as a hierarchical cultural encounter between urban and rural values and ways of life. Good teachers do not only deliver curriculum, they also consider the needs and values of their students, as well as those of the local community. The article discusses how teachers' competence, knowledge and attitudes can affect…

  14. Education as a Gateway to Development: Case of Rural Poor at Thabaneng Village in Lesotho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsepe, Mokone W.

    2015-01-01

    The study explores and unfolds the purpose of education in general, its value and the role it plays in helping development of the people in rural areas especially at Thabaneng Village in Lesotho. It reveals that education is the key to development and functions to equip the rural population in Lesotho with knowledge, training and worthwhile skills…

  15. Circuits of Education, Rural Gentrification, and Family Migration from the Global City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Darren P.; Higley, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Although there is recurring empirical evidence of gentrifier families with young children, the importance of education-related factors in the migration and residential decision-making of rural gentrifiers have yet to be fully examined. Using the case study of Cranbrook, Kent, processes of education-led rural gentrification are revealed that are…

  16. Challenges to Early Childhood Education in Rural China: Lessons from the Hebei Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bi Ying; Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth; Leng Ieong, Sylvia Sao; Guo, Haiying

    2016-01-01

    This research study examined the challenges faced by early childhood education (ECE) in rural China based on a qualitative study of 217 kindergarten classrooms in a large agricultural, rural province. This study utilised onsite teacher surveys, interviews, and observational field notes. This investigation's findings revealed important information…

  17. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNANCE CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitalina TSYBULYAK

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses current approaches to the process of assessing rural development governance, reveals its advantages and disadvantages. The article as well presents performance system indicators of governance process by means of two elements of dynamics assessment, rural development (economic, financial, and social sphere, ecology and population health and management process (assessment of strategic plan (concept of development, program of socioeconomic development of rural areas, current activity of local authorities, in particular. More over, it is suggested to use typology of approaches (objective (evolutionary, command and control, economic (infrastructural, complex, and qualitative to definition of process essence of rural development governance and correlation of traditional functions, performed by the subjects of the governance process of rural development (state authorities institutions, local authorities institutions, economic entities, and community. Adjusting traditional functions, performed by governance subjects of local development, their supplementing with new ones, relevant to the present-to-date model of «shared governance» is an important element of analysis of assessment tools for effectiveness of rural development governance. In addition, the author defines functioning of two forms of rural population involvement into the process of rural development governance: active and passive. Active one suggests that rural population participate in making and implementing governance decisions (public meetings, organization of social discussions, and development of territory community self-governance; passive one suggests that the emphasis is placed only on information distribution among population (meetings with parliament members, direct phone lines with territory governors, publication of normative and legal acts and reports on budget execution

  18. Food as pharma: marketing nutraceuticals to India’s rural poor

    OpenAIRE

    Street, Alice

    2014-01-01

    This commentary sketches out the politics of the expansion of affordable, fast-moving nutraceutical products into rural India, with a focus on fortified foods and beverages. It examines the relationships between industry, government and humanitarian organisations that are being forged alongside the development of markets for nutraceuticals; the production of evidence and the harnessing of science to support nutraceutical companies’ claims; the ways in which nutraceuticals are being marketed a...

  19. Indisputable Sovereignty Opposition to China's ocean claim is poorly supported

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG HAIWEN

    2011-01-01

    In recent years,there has been heated debate on China's claims in the South China Sea in international media.Despite massive support for these claims,suspicions are still being harbored.China's stance,they say,is not in line with the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS).This accusation is groundless.China's claims in the South China Sea,including the sovereignty of the Nansha Islands and the jurisdiction of waters surrounding those islands,are based on historical facts and legal validity,and also have been recognized by many other countries.

  20. A unifying framework for the problem of adjudicating conflicting claims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave; Moreno-Terero, Juan D.

    2012-01-01

    In a recent paper, Thomson and Yeh [Thomson, W., Yeh, C.-H., 2008. Operators for the adjudication of conflicting claims. Journal of Economic Theory 143, 177–198] introduced the concept of operators on the space of rules for the problem of adjudicating conflicting claims. They focused on three...... operators in order to uncover the structure of such a space. In this paper, we generalize their analysis upon presenting and studying a general family of operators inspired by three apparently unrelated approaches to the problem of adjudicating conflicting claims. We study the structural properties...

  1. A Unifying Framework for the Problem of Adjudicating Conflicting Claims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    In a recent paper, Thomson and Yeh [Operators for the adjudication of conflicting claims, Journal of Economic Theory 143 (2008) 177-198] introduced the concept of operators on the space of rules for the problem of adjudicating conflicting claims. They focussed on three operators in order to uncover...... the structure of such a space. In this paper, we generalize their analysis upon presenting and studying a general family of operators inspired by three apparently unrelated approaches to the problem of adjudicating conflicting claims. We study the structural properties of this family and show, in particular...

  2. REMINDER : deadline for submission of reimbursements claims to UNIQA

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    We would like to remind you of the resolution which took effect from 1 June 2010 changing the deadline for submitting a claim from 24 months to 12 months from the invoice date (as opposed to from the time of treatment). As a transitional measure, it is still possible to submit invoices issued prior to 1 June 2010 as long as they do not date back to more than two years (from the invoice date) at the time of submission. The deadline for transitional claims is 31 May 2011. You are advised to check any outstanding submissions that you have since, as from 1 June 2011, no transitional claims will be accepted.  

  3. A Structural Equation Modelling for CRM Development in rural Tourism in the Catalan Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mª Prat Forga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the interrelationships between customer relationship management development in rural tourism, information and communication technologies level in the territory, perceived economic impacts and rural tourism development. A total of 76 respondents completed a survey conducted in the Spanish Pyrenees Mountains in order to examine the structural effects of these impact factors. The results reveal that the support for customer relationship management development in rural tourism shown by rural tourism workers mainly depends on the level of development of information and communication technologies. A confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling procedure were performed, respectively, using the AMOS software. 

  4. A Structural Equation Modelling for Crm Development in Rural Tourism in the Catalan Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mª Prat Forga

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the interrelationships between customer relationship management development in rural tourism, information and communication technologies level in the territory, perceived economic impacts and rural tourism development. A total of 76 respondents completed a survey conducted in the Spanish Pyrenees Mountains in order to examine the structural effects of these impact factors. The results reveal that the support for customer relationship management development in rural tourism shown by rural tourism workers mainly depends on the level of development of information and communication technologies. A confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling procedure were performed, respectively, using the AMOS software.

  5. Rurality, ethnicity and mountain areas:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Laure Amilhat-Szary

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In a Latin American context where indigenous populations have had to wait until the end of the XXth century to recover a certain visibility, the definition of Andean identity is still an issue. In this paper, an analysis of the various steps in a territorially based collective movement provides insights into this identity that was for so long denied or repressed on account of socio-political conditions. The possible re-assertion of “Andeanity” is very complex, as the case study of the “Aymaras Sin Fronteras” (Aymaras without borders movement reveals. In this movement, the territorialisation process is based on the dialectics between its rural, ethnic and mountain (Andean components.Dans un contexte latinoaméricain où les populations autochtones ont dû attendre la fin du XXème siècle pour regagner en visibilité, l’identité andine pose question. Dans cet article, l’analyse des étapes d’une mobilisation collective à base territoriale permet de suivre la  redécouverte d’un ancrage identitaire longtemps nié ou refoulé du fait des conditions socio-politiques. L’affirmation retrouvée de l’ethnicité, voire de l’« andinité » s’avère très  complexe, comme le cas étudié, l’alliance « Aymaras sin Fronteras » (Aymaras sans frontières le révèle. Dans ce cas, le processus de territorialisation se fonde sur une interaction dialectique entre ses composantes rurale, ethnique, et montagnarde (andine.

  6. Institucionalidad y desarrollo rural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laureano Ruiz Camargo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available La institucionalidad entendida como el conjunto de normas y reg las formales e informales que regulan una comunidad determinada puede influir al impulsar y acrecentar el desarrollo rural o también frenarlo, permitiendo o no la participación o también obstaculizando la organización y la expresión de las comunidades rurales; lo cual puede reflejarse en carencias de sentido económico, social y cultural. Estas temáticas han sido exploradas en el presente trabajo, mediante el contacto directo con las comunidades rura les del municipio de Paipa (Boyacá y complementado con la revisión teórica a nivel bibliográfica sobre los temas de la institucionalidad y el desarrollo rural sustentable. Dada la importancia de las familias campesinas asentadas en estos territorios de minifundios y economía campesina, en la reproducción de su propia subsistencia y el aporte a la producción de bienes para la alimentación de la población urbana y suministro de mano de obra necesaria en la prestación de servicios y la industria nacional, se encontró que las carencias de tipo económico y social por parte de la población se reflejan en índices de pobreza elevada, debido a la poca capacidad de consumo y acumulación, pues la propiedad privada sustentada en el minifundio utilizado en actividades agropecuarias no genera ingresos suficientes para financiar la alimentación, la educación, la salud, la vivienda, la recreación y tampoco posibilita el ahorro. Por otra parte, la producción de bienes y servicios de origen rural es vendida o intercambiada en el mercado a precios por debajo de los costos de producción, con lo cual se transfiere la riqueza producida en el campo hacia la ciudad, reproduciéndose el circulo de la pobreza rural donde la institucionalidad practicada y existente no permite la participación de los habitantes rurales en la toma de decisiones; entre otras cosas, porque carecen de organización y liderazgo y porque tradicionalmente la

  7. [Environment and rural development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufumier, M

    1992-01-01

    Management of natural resources and preservation of ecological balance are perceived today as essential elements of rural development. The recently multiplying environmental ministries in developing countries are intended not only to correct the damages resulting from uncontrolled urbanization and industrialization, but to address ecosystemic degradation in the countryside. The aptitude demonstrated by numerous peasant societies for exploiting their environments over the long term while preserving their potential should be recognized and their specific, detailed knowledge incorporated into environmental protection projects. It is a mistake to conclude that peasants do not care about environmental problems; they often lack the resources to take needed action. Active participation of impoverished rural dwellers requires that measures taken do not reduce their incomes or resources in the short term. Rural development projects must assure protection of the environment while taking into account the interests of diverse categories of rural dwellers, such as farmers, herders, or wood cutters. There has been considerable progress in the past 2 decades in understanding the functioning of cultivated and pasture ecosystems and in developing techniques to limit damage to them. A vast effort is now needed to understand the economic, social, and cultural functions of customs and practices of different social groups involved in agricultural development and territorial management in order to prioritize problems and arrive at a consensus of all those affected concerning environmental protection. Social science research is needed into marketing of agricultural products, circulation of cooking fuels, village-town relations, and migration in order to determine the effects of these phenomena on management and conservation of natural resources in rural areas. Experimental research should be directed toward finding practical solutions to problems encountered by rural cultivators

  8. Health claims as communication tools that enhance brand loyalty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krystallis, Athanasios; Chrysochou, Polymeros

    2011-01-01

    During the last decade a strong consumer interest has emerged for food products with health protecting or enhancing properties. In this connection, health claims are used as communication tools conveying the health message of a product and further constituting the means of a brand's differentiation...... strategy. Brands carrying a health claim are thus expected to have an advantage over their counterparts. In this study, we aim to investigate whether health claims, with emphasis on the low-fat claims, can act as a means to improve the performance of brands and further enhance their loyalty levels. Based...... on stated preference data using a purchase intention scale (i.e. Juster Scale), a set of Brand Performance Measures (BPMs) are empirically estimated to describe the market structure of two dairy product categories and their respective sub-categories that were defined according to health-related attributes...

  9. The displaced claiming their rights in fragile states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Mulvey

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available To date, displaced persons in fragile and conflict-affected stateshave had little success in claiming their rights for housing, land andproperty violations. Creative legal thinking and strategic litigation has the potential to change this.

  10. Basic Stand Alone Medicare Claims Public Use Files

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS is committed to increasing access to its Medicare claims data through the release of de-identified data files available for public use. They contain...

  11. Robots Stake Their Claim in The Operating Room

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158650.html Robots Stake Their Claim in the Operating Room Study ... WEDNESDAY, May 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A surgical robot outperformed human surgeons in stitching the small intestines ...

  12. Claims about Cocoa: Can Chocolate Really Be Good for You?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Claims About Cocoa Can Chocolate Really Be Good for You? Many of us ... Ringing in Your Ears? Wise Choices Links Eating Chocolate If you don’t eat chocolate now, the ...

  13. 29 CFR 15.21 - Filing of claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... as war or armed conflict ends, whichever is earlier, if a claim otherwise accrues during war or an armed conflict or has accrued within two years before war or an armed conflict begins, and for...

  14. Mining claim activity on Federal Land in the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Public Land spatial data sets (shapefile) contains Public Land Survey section polygons that had mining claims recorded in the U.S. Bureau of Land Management's...

  15. Consumers’ willingness to pay for sustainable wine claims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, Simone; Remaud, Hervé; Chabin, Yann

    Purpose: The number of wineries and regions engaging in sustainable wine programs is increasing continuously. Sustainable, environmental friendly or organic wine production is now used for strategic profiling and positioning in the competition between old and new wine producing countries. While...... attributes (price, brand, region of origin and appellation system, grape variety, alcohol level, medal, sensory style, bottling, and sustainable claim), considering the majority of attributes, which are known to be important to consumers and preventing an overestimation of the effect of sustainable claims...... supermarket chains. Wines with claims of less glass weight received a significantly lower willingness to pay. In each market, except for the UK, we could identify at least one latent choice class with a significant positive willingness to pay for sustainable claims. The size of these segments differs across...

  16. The displaced claiming their rights in fragile states

    OpenAIRE

    Antonia Mulvey

    2013-01-01

    To date, displaced persons in fragile and conflict-affected stateshave had little success in claiming their rights for housing, land andproperty violations. Creative legal thinking and strategic litigation has the potential to change this.

  17. Health claims on foods: challenge for clinical research companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essi Sarkkinen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background The Nutrition and Health Claim Regulation 1924/2006/EC, together with EFSA guidances on the scientific requirements for different type of health claims, is setting the basis for health claim substantiation in the EU. Aim The aim of this presentation is to bring up the key challenges that the food industry and clinical research organizations are facing when meeting these requirements. Results and discussion Key issues in clinical research planning to meet the requirements set for the health claim substantiation are: (1 Selection of right outcome markers since the selection of outcome marker defines actually the formulation of the health claim to be used on food or food ingredient. (2 Selection of right target population since that determines the target consumer group for the food with a health claim. (3 Selection of dose regime and food matrices used since these largely determine the conditions set for the use of the health claim. One of the major challenges in health claim substantiation is the deviant approach to risk factors or biomarkers. From the regulation point of view, a single risk factor approach is emphasized, but from the clinical and scientific point of view the pattern of different risk markers or biomarkers could, in some cases, be a more relevant choice to reflect the final health outcome. This is especially the case in the nutrition and health area because we are often dealing with weak but multiple health effects of certain food items or ingredients. Also the lack of validated well-established biomarkers potent to be affected by diet is a challenge in health claim substantiation.The selection of right target population is often a compromise between choosing a more potential target group to obtain efficacy (i.e. risk factors elevated vs. patient groups and choosing a rationale to generalize the results to wider population (target consumer group.The selection of optimal dosing regime and matrices for a clinical study is

  18. Contingent Claim Pricing In A Dual Expected Utility Theory Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Massimiliano Corradini; Andrea Gheno

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the price for contingent claims in a dual expected utility theory framework, the dual price, considering complete arbitrage-free nancial markets. In this framework this dual price is obtained, for the rst time in the literature, without any comonotonicity hypothesis and for contingent claims written on n underlying assets following generic Itô processes. An application is also considered assuming geometric brownian motion for the underlying assets and the Wang transfor...

  19. A method to predict breast cancer stage using Medicare claims

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Grace L.; Shih, Ya-Chen T.; Giordano, Sharon H.; Smith, Benjamin D.; Buchholz, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    Background In epidemiologic studies, cancer stage is an important predictor of outcomes. However, cancer stage is typically unavailable in medical insurance claims datasets, thus limiting the usefulness of such data for epidemiologic studies. Therefore, we sought to develop an algorithm to predict cancer stage based on covariates available from claims-based data. Methods We identified a cohort of 77,306 women age ≥ 66 years with stage I-IV breast cancer, using the Surveillence Epidemiology an...

  20. Utilization of evidence-based treatment in elderly patients with chronic heart failure: using Korean Health Insurance claims database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Ju-Young

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic heart failure accounts for a great deal of the morbidity and mortality in the aging population. Evidence-based treatments include angiotensin-2 receptor blockers (ARBs, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I, beta-blockers, and aldosterone antagonists. Underutilization of these treatments in heart failure patients were frequently reported, which could lead to increase morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utilization of evidence-based treatments and their related factors for elderly patients with chronic heart failure. Methods This is retrospective observational study using the Korean National Health Insurance claims database. We identified prescription of evidence based treatment to elderly patients who had been hospitalized for chronic heart failure between January 1, 2005, and June 30, 2006. Results Among the 28,922 elderly patients with chronic heart failure, beta-blockers were prescribed to 31.5%, and ACE-I or ARBs were prescribed to 54.7% of the total population. Multivariable logistic regression analyses revealed that the prescription from outpatient clinic (prevalent ratio, 4.02, 95% CI 3.31–4.72, specialty of the healthcare providers (prevalent ratio, 1.26, 95% CI, 1.12–1.54, residence in urban (prevalent ratio, 1.37, 95% CI, 1.23–1.52 and admission to tertiary hospital (prevalent ratio, 2.07, 95% CI, 1.85–2.31 were important factors associated with treatment underutilization. Patients not given evidence-based treatment were more likely to experience dementia, reside in rural areas, and have less-specialized healthcare providers and were less likely to have coexisting cardiovascular diseases or concomitant medications than patients in the evidence-based treatment group. Conclusions Healthcare system factors, such as hospital type, healthcare provider factors, such as specialty, and patient factors, such as comorbid cardiovascular disease, systemic disease with

  1. RURAL MARKETS IN BANGLADESH AND THE RURAL MAINTENANCE PROGRAMME

    OpenAIRE

    Uddin, M. Mosleh; Kabir, M.; Alam, M. Mostafa; Boss, G. K.

    1989-01-01

    This study describes the Impact of rural maintenance programme on rural markets in Bangladesh. Rural Maintenance programme (RMP) is a year-round programme for maintenance ol 16 miles earthen roads In each selected union. The programme is run by crews consisting of 15 destitute women. The findings suggest that better road maintenance by RMP in the programme areas has resulted in more traffic f low through which the markets in the programme areas have been expanded. Better supply of services su...

  2. Rural health clinics infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, K.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses programs which were directed at the installation of photovoltaic power systems in rural health clinics. The objectives included: vaccine refrigeration; ice pack freezing; lighting; communications; medical appliances; sterilization; water purification; and income generation. The paper discusses two case histories, one in the Dominican Republic and one in Colombia. The author summarizes the results of the programs, both successes and failures, and offers an array of conclusions with regard to the implementation of future programs of this general nature.

  3. Rape in Rural Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Nowsher Ali; Sanjida Akhter; Nur Hossain; Nashid Tabassum Khan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Rape is one of the silent brutal sexual offences in Bangladesh. Despite strong laws against it, the evil of rape continues to rise. Increasing trend of the silent cruel sexual offence (rape) represents a major psychopath sexual disorder and public health problem and progress of the country. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the pattern of alleged rape victims in a rural district of Bangladesh with the ultimate aim to create public awareness about the brutal crim...

  4. Tourism in Rural Environment

    OpenAIRE

    MIHAI IELENICZ; SMARANDA SIMONI

    2013-01-01

    Rural tourism is now determined by limited economic opportunities, poor infrastructure, low motivation to possible offers, lack of proper service guarantees. Nearly 500 Romanian villages are already tourist locations, with certain characteristics determined by a heritage item, or complex ones when multiple components lead to various activities. This paper includes a typology of tourist villages in Romania according to the types of practiced tourist activities, insisting on the use of a more c...

  5. Recovering fraudulent claims for Australian federal expenditure on pharmaceuticals and medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunce, Thomas; Urbas, Gregor; Skillen, Lesley; Smith, Marc

    2010-12-01

    The Australian Federal Government expends increasingly large amounts of money on pharmaceuticals and medical devices. It is likely, given government experience in other jurisdictions, that a significant proportion of this expenditure is paid as a result of fraudulent claims presented by corporations. In the United States, legislation such as the False Claims Act 1986 (US), the Fraud Enforcement and Recovery Act 2009 (US), the Stark (Physician Self-Referral) Statute 1995 (US), the Anti-Kickback Statute 1972 (US), the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act 1938 (US), the Social Security Act 1965 (US), and the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act 2010 (US) has created systematic processes allowing the United States Federal Government to recover billions of dollars in fraudulently made claims in the health and procurement areas. The crucial component involves the creation of financial incentives for information about fraud to be revealed from within the corporate sector to the appropriate state officials. This article explores the opportunities for creating a similar system in Australia in the health care setting.

  6. Social desirability: the role of over-claiming, self-esteem, and emotional intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JESSICA MESMER-MAGNUS

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Socially desirable responding (SDR has been widely studied with regards to personality assessment due to fears it may attenuate the predictive validity of decisions made using such assessments (e.g., in personnel selection. A number of scales have been employed to assess individual differences in response distortion. We expand the nomological net for a popular measure of social desirability – the Marlowe-Crowne scale – by correlating individual differences in SDR to measures of over-claiming, self-esteem, and emotional intelligence. Survey results (n = 198 yielded a significant positive correlation between SDR and both self-esteem and emotional intelligence. Over-claiming was found to be negatively related to self-deceptive enhancement, a form of SDR, but not to SDR overall. Regression analyses revealed emotional intelligence explains significant variance in SDR, over and above that which is explained by self-esteem and over-claiming alone (ΔR2 = .16, p < .01. Implications for personality assessment are discussed.

  7. Influence of Nutrition Claims on Appetite Sensations according to Sex, Weight Status, and Restrained Eating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Painchaud Guérard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition claims may help people to adopt healthier eating habits, but little is known about the potential cognitive effects of such claims on appetite sensations. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of nutrition claims and individual factors on perceived appetite sensations. According to a three (“healthy” versus “diet” (i.e., satiating versus “hedonic” by two (restrained or not restrained by two (normal-weight or overweight/obese by two (men versus women factorial design, 164 males and 188 females aged 18–65 were invited to taste an oatmeal-raisin snack in a blinded and ad libitum context. Visual analog scales (150 mm were used to evaluate appetite sensations before and over 1 h after consumption period. BMI and Restraint Scale were used to categorize participants according to their weight and restraint status. No main condition effect was observed for any of the four appetite sensations. However, subgroups analysis revealed significant differences among specific subgroups. A main effect of sex was also observed for all appetite sensations with men reporting higher levels of desire to eat, hunger and prospective food consumption, and lower levels of fullness than women. These findings highlight the importance of considering individual characteristics in interaction when studying appetite sensations.

  8. Influence of Nutrition Claims on Appetite Sensations according to Sex, Weight Status, and Restrained Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Éric; Pomerleau, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition claims may help people to adopt healthier eating habits, but little is known about the potential cognitive effects of such claims on appetite sensations. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of nutrition claims and individual factors on perceived appetite sensations. According to a three (“healthy” versus “diet” (i.e., satiating) versus “hedonic”) by two (restrained or not restrained) by two (normal-weight or overweight/obese) by two (men versus women) factorial design, 164 males and 188 females aged 18–65 were invited to taste an oatmeal-raisin snack in a blinded and ad libitum context. Visual analog scales (150 mm) were used to evaluate appetite sensations before and over 1 h after consumption period. BMI and Restraint Scale were used to categorize participants according to their weight and restraint status. No main condition effect was observed for any of the four appetite sensations. However, subgroups analysis revealed significant differences among specific subgroups. A main effect of sex was also observed for all appetite sensations with men reporting higher levels of desire to eat, hunger and prospective food consumption, and lower levels of fullness than women. These findings highlight the importance of considering individual characteristics in interaction when studying appetite sensations. PMID:27725885

  9. Access to Arable Land by Rural Women in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fon, DE.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines rural women access to and control of agricultural production resources in arable small-scale sustainable agricultural production in a developing country setting. Specifically, the study addresses the women's level of accessibility and control of arable land in agricultural production in the North West Region of Cameroon. The objectives of the study were: (a to determine the extent to which rural women in the study area gain access to and control small-scale arable land; and (b to assess the degree of association between access to small-scale arable land by rural women and their level of control of the arable land. The study relied on a one-shot case study design. The method of data collection consisted surveying a randomly selected sample of 1,120 rural women involved in small-scale agricultural production in the study area. The data obtained from the survey were analyzed using the following statistical procedures: (1 frequency distribution, (2 correlation analysis, and (3 one way analysis of variance (ANOVA. The results revealed that rural women farmers do have access to arable land through their families, but do not control arable land, and there is no association between access to and control of arable land. The study recommends that developing countries involved in arable small-scale agricultural production, should consider adopting agricultural policies that include rural women in decision-making, implementation, and evaluation of agricultural production inputs and outcomes.

  10. Mining resettlement and rural development in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, H N

    1992-07-01

    The Malaysian government has employed 3 kinds of resettlement schemes: 1) resettlement of farmers under modern agricultural and land development programs to grow cash crops; 2) resettlement of rural population in well-guarded locations to isolate them from communist insurgents; and 3) resettlement and compensation of population displaced thorough resource exploitation such as construction of dams and mining. The Kinta Valley resettlement is examined in the example of 3 villages where tin mining encroached on their agricultural land. 98 households were included in the sample from Batu Bertudung, Tekka, and Jelutung that had been settled in the 1940s. The villagers were eventually evacuated and sustained technological, pecuniary, and psychological losses. The economic loses involved property, land, and crops, and social losses comprised social networks, neighborhood, and stability. 81.7% of the villagers who were left landless successfully insisted on complete relocation of their villagers in new villages in claims to the respective tin mining companies through their newly formed village action committees in the mid-1960s. The compensation consisted of 1) group compensation by planned resettlement, 2) cash payment, and 3) replacement of the former plot with another piece of land. Social needs were not included in the calculation and the compensation received reflected roughly their economic worth at the time. The villagers of Tekka and Jelutung had their houses rebuilt which were comparable to their old homes using new materials and stronger foundations. Those from Batu Bertudung were resettled in another village, and were compensated in cash to rebuild their homes themselves. Basic amenities were insufficient: new wells had to be dug, the public standpipe was overused, and only dirt roads were constructed. The government provided most basic amenities 5-6 years later under the rural development program.

  11. Greenways for rural sustainable development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottomano Palmisano, Giovanni; Govindan, Kannan; Loisi, Rosa V.;

    2016-01-01

    Policy makers have recently begun to agree on environmental, economic and social aspects of rural areas that are enhanced according to the European Union (EU) Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), and in particular in the national Rural Development Programmes (RDPs).Greenways are an acknowledged tool...... within the CAP because they help to protect and manage environmental heritage, promote economic activities and enhance the social assets of rural areas; furthermore, given their natural ability to simultaneously connect these resources, greenways promote Rural Sustainable Development (RSD...

  12. LOCAL INSTITUTIONS’ MICRO CREDIT DELIVERY AND EFFECTS ON RURAL FARM HOUSEHOLDS’ POVERTY IN ABIA STATE, NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Chidozie Onyedikachi ANYIRO; Ezeh, Chima Innocent; John Chinasa IJIOMA; Amagh Ibe UDENSI

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the effect of local institutions’ micro credit delivery on rural farm household poverty status in Abia state, Nigeria. Multistage random sampling technique was employed in collecting data from two hundred and four (204) rural farm households in local institutions using structured interview schedule. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, poverty indices, and paired t-test. The study revealed reveals that the religious association granted the highest amount of ...

  13. Development Model of Rural Industrialization in China

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Weihong; Zhang, Ruide; Liu, Guichuan

    2009-01-01

    With the implementation of the policy of expanding domestic demand, farmers have become the main body of rural economy and rural industrialization. Development of rural industrialization promotes the development of rural economy in China, effectively transfers the surplus labor force in rural areas, continuously optimizes the rural economic structure, improves the living standard of farmers, and has made important contributions to the stability and development of economy and society in China....

  14. Urban-rural migration and cultural transformation of rural areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Helle

    loss but also due to in-migration. This paper addresses how rural communities change due to urban-rural migration by investigating reasons and motivations that influence migration decisions, studying relations between newcomers and local residents and exploring social relations and sense of belonging...

  15. An investigation into the level of empowerment of rural women in the Zululand district of KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.R. Bhengu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the outcome of the empowerment of rural women in relation to gender issues, power, and communication within the Zululand District of KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa after implementation of a four-year Primary Health Care project in partnership with the Provincial Department of Health, and two Schools of Nursing at the University of KwaZulu-Natal and McMaster University in Canada. This project is based on substantial evidence which reveals that rural women are being neglected to the extent that these women have missed out on opportunities for development. The reasons for this disempowerment of women, particularly rural women, are thought to be due to the feminisation of poverty, as well as female submission, educational deprivation, privacy of domestic violence, exploitation, domination by men and cultural oppression (patriarchy.A qualitative research approach was used. Focus group discussion was utilised as the data collection technique, and this was also applied during the collection of baseline data. An interview guide covered issues of concern in the communities and households, including what the women would, or had done about these, how they engaged in decision-making in their families, how they handled situations when there was a difference of opinion, and their awareness of, and ability to claim their rights, including control of their lives. The data was collected from six clinics, from groups of six to ten women in the predominantly rural Zululand District of KwaZulu-Natal.The project has revealed improvement in the women’s realisation of their rights, albeit limited, in communication, self-confidence, and reliance, including partnerships between Primary Health Care Nurses and women’s groups. The formation of women’s groups facilitated community development and participation in their own health, socio-economic and emotional development.The project suggests that such groups be encouraged and

  16. ROLE OF RURAL TOURISM FOR DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Udovč

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyse the role of rural tourism for the development of rural areas, on the comparison of two regions with different types of rural tourism. One area is of highly diversifi ed rural tourism with wide range of tourist products (rafting, hiking, cycling, farm tourism, skiing …. The tourism offer in the second area is much more uniform (mainly farm tourism and some spa. The study analysed how the two different types of tourist product diversifi cations influence the development possibilities of studied rural areas. We analysed how different systems are able to maintain its functions in the context of identifi ed perturbations (socio-economic and geophysical. We analysed the infl uence of different factors on systems stability, its resilience, robustness and integrity. The gained results show that only the higher level of diversifi cation is not a guarantee for systems higher stability, resilience, robustness and integrity, but there also other

  17. Costs of workers' compensation claims for hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleyne, B C; Dufresne, R M; Kanji, N; Reesal, M R

    1989-02-01

    Much has been written about the merits, needs, adequacy, and effectiveness of hearing conservation programs but very little about the cost of noise-induced hearing loss. Using claims for hearing loss submitted to a Canadian compensation board for a 5-years period (1979 to 1983), we estimated the current cost per claim to be $14,106. We observed an annual increase of 20.4% for noise-induced hearing loss claims and project that if 80% of the 450 claims submitted in 1987 are accepted, it will commit the Workers' Compensation Board in Alberta to a cost of $5,373,360--a considerable commitment for a disease that makes up only 0.3% of all claims. As a measure of morbidity we determined the years of potential hearing loss. The 207 workers between the ages of 18 and 70 years who were pensioned had a potential hearing loss value of 2529 years. Some authors have expressed the view that hearing loss is currently inadequately compensated and our review of the literature suggests that a fertile climate is emerging for increasing litigation. This tendency is likely to lead to further escalation of costs if prevention is not taken more seriously.

  18. 农村金融生态环境与新型农村金融机构脆弱性%The Fragility of Rural Financial Ecological Environment and New-type Rural Financial Institutions' Based on SEM Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何颖媛

    2013-01-01

    农村金融生态环境是新型农村金融机构生存和发展的环境基础.为了深入揭示农村金融生态环境对新型农村金融机构脆弱性的影响程度,在分析农村金融生态环境属性构成基础上,构建了农村金融生态环境与新型农村金融机构脆弱性的关系模型,并在问卷调查基础上运用结构方程模型进行实证检验,研究结果表明:除了农村法律环境的影响假设未得到支持外,农村经济环境、农村金融环境、农村政策环境和农村信用环境在降低新型农村金融机构脆弱性方面有显著正向影响.%Rural financial ecological environment provides the basis for the existence and development of new-type rural financial institutions. In order to reveal how much the rural financial ecological environment has influenced the fragility of new-type rural financial institutions this paper, based on an analysis of the components of rural financial ecological environment, constructs a relation model between the rural financial ecological environment and the new-type rural financial Institutions' fragility. SEM is used to analyze the questionnaires. The result proves that rural financial ecological environment consists of five parts: except rural legal environment, rural economic environment, rural financial environment, rural policy environment, rural legal environment and rural credit environment all have a significant positive effect on New-type rural financial Institutions' fragility.

  19. Pharmacotherapy of dementia in Germany: Results from a nationwide claims database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlken, Jens; Schulz, Mandy; Rapp, Michael A; Bätzing-Feigenbaum, Jörg

    2015-12-01

    In 2011, about 1.1-1.4 million patients with dementia were living in Germany, a number expected to rise to three million by 2050. Dementia poses a major challenge to the healthcare system and neuropharmacological service provision. The aim of this study was to determine prescription rates for anti-dementia drugs as well as for neuroleptics, sedative-hypnotics and antidepressants in dementia using the complete nationwide outpatient claims data pertaining to the services of statutory health insurance. We controlled for gender, age, dementia diagnosis, physician specialty (general practitioner GP versus neuropsychiatry specialist physician NPSP), and rural and urban living area. In about one million prevalent dementia patients (N=1,014,710) in 2011, the prescription prevalence rate of anti-dementia drugs was 24.6%; it varied with gender, age, and diagnosis (highest in Alzheimer's disease; 42%), and was higher in patients treated by NPSPs (48% vs. 25% in GPs). At the same time, we found an alarmingly high rate of treatment with neuroleptics in dementia patients (35%), with an only slightly decreased risk in patients treated exclusively by NPSPs (OR=0.86). We found marginal differences between rural and urban areas. Our results show that the majority of anti-dementia drug prescriptions appear guideline-oriented, yet prescription rates are overall comparatively low. On the other hand, neuroleptic drugs, which are associated with excess morbidity and mortality in dementia, were prescribed very frequently, suggesting excess use given current guidelines. We therefore suggest that guideline implementation measures and increasing quality control procedures are needed with respect to the pharmacotherapy of this vulnerable population.

  20. Danish Rural Eye Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Tracy Beth; Ellervik, Christina; Buch, Helena;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine the frequency and causes of visual impairment (VI) in a select population of Danish adults. METHODS: A total of 3843 adults aged 20-94 years from the Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS) were included in the population-based, cross-sectional ophthalmological study......, Danish Rural Eye Study (DRES). All DRES participants received a comprehensive general health examination preceding their eye examination, including measurement of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) for each eye, bilateral 45° retinal fundus photographs and further ophthalmological examination where...... indicated. RESULTS: Overall, 3826 of 3843 participants (99.6%) had bilateral visual acuity measurements. The overall frequency of VI (BCVA

  1. Chile rural electrification cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flowers, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The author describes a joint program to use renewables for rural electrification projects in Chile. The initial focus was in a limited part of the country, involving wind mapping, pilot project planning, training, and development of methodologies for comparative evaluations of resources. To this point three wind hybrid systems have been installed in one region, as a part of the regional private utility, and three additional projects are being designed. Additional resource assessment and training is ongoing. The author points out the difficulties in working with utilities, the importance of signed documentation, and the need to look at these programs as long term because of the time involved in introducing such new technologies.

  2. Instalaciones para hotel rural

    OpenAIRE

    Roig Riera, José Antonio

    2015-01-01

    El presente proyecto cuenta con la información necesaria para el desarrollo de las instalaciones de un hotel rural. Dichas instalaciones son; la eléctrica, la de agua caliente sanitaria, las telecomunicaciones y la climatización. En el apartado de la instalación eléctrica, se han calculado todos los cables necesarios para el correcto funcionamiento del hotel, partiendo de las potencias demandadas en cada punto de consumo. Se ha calculado la línea general de alimentación, acomet...

  3. 32 CFR 536.102 - Actions on appeal under the National Guard Claims Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Actions on appeal under the National Guard Claims Act. 536.102 Section 536.102 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the National Guard...

  4. 32 CFR 536.96 - Statutory authority for the National Guard Claims Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Statutory authority for the National Guard Claims Act. 536.96 Section 536.96 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the National Guard...

  5. 75 FR 56664 - Proposed Information Collection (Claim for One Sum Payment (Government Life Insurance)); Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Claim for One Sum Payment (Government Life Insurance)); Comment.... Claim for One Sum Payment (Government Life Insurance), VA Form 29-4125. b. Claim for Monthly Payments (National Service Life Insurance), VA Form 29-4125a. c. Claim for Monthly Payments (United States...

  6. 78 FR 18424 - Proposed Information Collection (Claim for One Sum Payment (Government Life Insurance)); Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Claim for One Sum Payment (Government Life Insurance)); Comment.... Claim for One Sum Payment (Government Life Insurance), VA Form 29-4125. b. Claim for Monthly Payments (National Service Life Insurance), VA Form 29-4125a. c. Claim for Monthly Payments (United States...

  7. 21 CFR 101.67 - Use of nutrient content claims for butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of nutrient content claims for butter. 101.67....67 Use of nutrient content claims for butter. (a) Claims may be made to characterize the level of nutrients, including fat, in butter if: (1) The claim complies with the requirements of § 101.13 and...

  8. Noise Exposures of Rural Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humann, Michael; Sanderson, Wayne; Flamme, Greg; Kelly, Kevin M.; Moore, Genna; Stromquist, Ann; Merchant, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This project was conducted to characterize the noise exposure of adolescents living in rural and agricultural environments. Methods: From May to October, 25 adolescents ages 13 through 17, living either on a farm or a rural nonfarm, were enrolled in the study. Subjects received training on the correct operation and use of personal noise…

  9. Rural poverty in transition countries

    OpenAIRE

    Macours, K; Swinnen, Jo

    2006-01-01

    This paper uses new poverty data based on household level surveys to analyze changes in rural poverty and rural-urban poverty differences in 23 transition countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the firmer Soviet Union. The paper presents a series of hypotheses to explain differences across countries and changes over time.

  10. About The Rural Development Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>The Rural Development Foundation ( RDF) ,founded in 1996,is an Indian nonprofit organization with the mission of providing quality education for underprivileged rural children. RDF founded and continues to operate five schools and one junior college in Andhra Pradesh State,taking a unique holistic approach to education through innovative programs and methodology. Rather than

  11. About The Rural Development Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>The Rural Development Foundation (RDF) ,founded in 1996,is an Indian nonprofit organization with the mission of providingquality education for underprivileged rural children. RDF founded and continues to operate five schools and one junior college in AndhraPradesh State,taking a unique holistic approach to education through innovative programs and methodology. Rather than using the con-

  12. About The Rural Development Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>The Rural Development Foundation(RDF),founded in 1996,is an Indian nonprofit organization with the mission of providing quality education for underprivileged rural children.RDF founded and continues to operate five schools and one junior college in Andhra

  13. About The Rural Development Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>The Rural Development Foundation ( RDF) ,founded in 1996,is an Indian nonprofit organization with the mission of providingquality education for underprivileged rural children. RDF founded and continues to operate five schools and one junior college inAndhra Pradesh State,

  14. About The Rural Development Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>The Rural Development Foundation(RDF),founded in 1996,is an Indian nonprofit organization with the mission of providing quality education for underprivileged rural children.RDF founded and continues to operate five schools and one junior college in Andhra Pradesh State,taking a unique holistic approach to education through innovative programs and methodology.Rather than using the

  15. About The Rural Development Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>The Rural Development Foundation(RDF),founded in 1996,is an Indian nonprofit organization with the mission of providing quality education for underprivileged rural children.RDF founded and continues to operate five schools and one junior college in Andhra Pradesh State,taking a unique holistic approach to education through innovative programs and methodology.Rather than using the con-

  16. High Achievement in Rural Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Carleen; Hagans, Rex

    Although much that is written about rural schools focuses on economic scarcities, pressures on teachers, and limited materials, there are also distinct advantages offered to those attending school in rural areas. Small schools provide all children--including the gifted--with unique opportunities to develop intellectual, social, and creative…

  17. The effects of behavioral health reform on safety-net institutions: a mixed-method assessment in a rural state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willging, Cathleen E; Sommerfeld, David H; Aarons, Gregory A; Waitzkin, Howard

    2014-03-01

    In July 2005, New Mexico initiated a major reform of publicly-funded behavioral healthcare to reduce cost and bureaucracy. We used a mixed-method approach to examine how this reform impacted the workplaces and employees of service agencies that care for low-income adults in rural and urban areas. Information technology problems and cumbersome processes to enroll patients, procure authorizations, and submit claims led to payment delays that affected the financial status of the agencies, their ability to deliver care, and employee morale. Rural employees experienced lower levels of job satisfaction and organizational commitment and higher levels of turnover intentions under the reform when compared to their urban counterparts.

  18. Sovereign Right Claim on Geo Stationary Orbit (GSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhy Riadhy Arafah

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The potency and unique characteristics of GSO for placing communication satellites located only above equatorial states makes the GSO as part of natural resources. The equatorial states realized that the use of GSO has many advantages and has implications to their national interest. However, basic principle in space law, Outer Space Treaty 1967 (Art.II, states that equatorial states forbidden to claim ownership of any part of outer space, particularly claim in sovereignty. The principle “first come first served” in placing of satellite on GSO, practically only gives the advantage to developed countries which have high satellite technology. Hence, the level of technology of a state plays important role in developing of space law internationally. The equatorial states which are mostly developing states (low and middle level in technology in outer space activities claimed their right to use natural resources for their national interest based on equatorial position principle.

  19. Claims expenses and insurance capacity in third party liability insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident reminded insurers that the potential expenses connected with the handling and settlement of claims following a major nuclear accident can be very significant. These are a direct consequence of the accident and funds must be available to pay for these costs as well as for indemnities to victims. Claims expenses at present have to be borne by the insurers in addition to the sums insured for the compensation of third parties. If governments intend to increase the statutory amounts of liability, this would reduce the insurers' ability to make the maximum possible capacity available for indemnities to victims. Therefore, before increasing further the statutory limits of liability, governments should - in revising the Paris Convention - consider allowing insurers to include claims handling expenses in their total sums insured

  20. The false dichotomy: a refutation of the Neandertal indistinguishability claim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Thomas; Overmann, Karenleigh; Coolidge, Frederick

    2016-06-20

    In the debate about the demise of the Neandertal, several scholars have claimed that humanity's nearest relatives were indistinguishable archaeologically, and thus behaviorally and cognitively, from contemporaneous Homo sapiens. They suggest that to hold otherwise is to characterize Neandertals as inferior to H. sapiens, a false dichotomy that excludes the possibility that the two human types simply differed in ways visible to natural selection, including their cognition. Support of the Neandertal indistinguishability claim requires ignoring the cranial differences between the two human types, which have implications for cognition and behavior. Further, support of the claim requires minimizing asymmetries in the quantity and degree of behavioral differences as attested by the archaeological record. The present paper reviews the evidence for cognitive and archaeological differences between the two human types in support of the excluded middle position. PMID:26708102

  1. How Danes evaluate moral claims related to abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldall, Sigurd Wiingaard

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate how Danish citizens evaluate four moral claims related to abortion issues, regarding the moral status of the fetus, autonomy, harm and possible negative consequences of allowing abortion and to explore the association between moral beliefs and attitudes towards abortion...... to at least one moral claim. Two hundred and fifty-eight responded to all four claims without using the option 'neither agree nor disagree' and were classified as 'morally engaged responders'. A majority of these had a pro-abortion moral. The general relationship between moral beliefs and attitudes towards...... abortion was morally sound. Being 'morally engaged' did not increase the likelihood of reaching moral judgement on whether requests for abortion should be permitted. Education, religion and parenthood were statistically associated with the investigated issues. DISCUSSION: The direction of causality...

  2. Mixed embeddedness and rural entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferguson, Richard; Gaddefors, Johan; Korsgaard, Steffen

    Entrepreneurship is a key driver of development in rural areas. Some studies have shown that in-migrants and returnees are overrepresented among rural entrepreneurs, and that their entrepreneurship might be more important for local development than the efforts of local entrepreneurs, at least......, of the kind that in-migrants and returnees who find a place in a local rurality are likely to embody, may be particularly conducive to entrepreneurial activity. In this paper we explore the nature and function of mixed embeddedness of rural entrepreneurs. We do this through a qualitative multiple case study...... of rural entrepreneurs in the Nordic countries. Preliminary results suggest that mixed embeddedness is in fact important and that this may be the reason for the overrepresentation of in-migrants and returnees....

  3. Diversity Claims-Making in a Transnational Space of Mobilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    2010-01-01

    Various organisations mobilise at the transnational, European level around gender and ethnicity issues, setting forward demands both by and on behalf of ethnic minority and migrant women. The organisations deal with diversity, in terms of gender and ethnicity, in different ways but they all...... influence and are influenced by the EU framework. The intersectional nature of their diversity demands makes it necessary to combine particularistic claims regarding identity and European belonging with universal claims to human rights, citizenship and inclusion. The claimsmaking of the organisations...

  4. Linking Tumor Registry and Medicaid Claims to Evaluate Cancer Care Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Schrag, Deborah; Virnig, Beth A.; Warren, Joan L.

    2009-01-01

    The utility of Medicaid claims for studying cancer care is not known. Our objective was to evaluate how well Medicaid claims capture diagnostic and treatment information recorded by the California Cancer Registry (CCR). We compared cancer treatment from Medicaid claims with CCR data, using 1988-2000 cases matched with 1997-1998 Medicaid enrollment data. Medicaid claims corroborated diagnoses for 73 percent of breast and 68 percent of colorectal cancers in CCR. Medicaid claims confirmed surger...

  5. Univariate time series modeling and an application to future claims amount in SOCSO's invalidity pension scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chek, Mohd Zaki Awang; Ahmad, Abu Bakar; Ridzwan, Ahmad Nur Azam Ahmad; Jelas, Imran Md.; Jamal, Nur Faezah; Ismail, Isma Liana; Zulkifli, Faiz; Noor, Syamsul Ikram Mohd

    2012-09-01

    The main objective of this study is to forecast the future claims amount of Invalidity Pension Scheme (IPS). All data were derived from SOCSO annual reports from year 1972 - 2010. These claims consist of all claims amount from 7 benefits offered by SOCSO such as Invalidity Pension, Invalidity Grant, Survivors Pension, Constant Attendance Allowance, Rehabilitation, Funeral and Education. Prediction of future claims of Invalidity Pension Scheme will be made using Univariate Forecasting Models to predict the future claims among workforce in Malaysia.

  6. A criança rural The rural child

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Aparecida Cecílio

    2002-01-01

    O presente artigo focaliza a falta de condição de vida para o trabalhador precoce brasileiro em atividades penosas1 na zona rural. O objetivo é discutir o cenário rural diante das políticas públicas implantadas no combate ao trabalho precoce no Brasil, diante das contradições sociais e dos conflitos envolvendo o desenvolvimento humano nesse contexto, a partir da década de 1980.The present article focalizes the low life condition for the precocious worker in hard activities at Brazil rural zon...

  7. INVESTIGATION OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN RURAL EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Augustyniak

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of the investigation of organisational culture in rural schools. The pool was organized in fall 2004 among 1000 teachers working at primary schools in rural areas of south-eastern Poland and yielded 922 (92,2% correct answers. The questionnaire contained 13 items of various focus concerning the strenght of the organizational culture-related issues, however only 4 of them are analysed in this paper. The stastical analysis of the answers reveals high importance of organizational liaisons for the teaching staff that is expressed by the peode of the school achievement, orginality of educational approaches (75% and also by the knowledge of the history and fame of the institution (87%. Suprisingly, only 65% of responses indicated children as the most important in the school. The paper contains also details on gender, age and habitation of rural teachers.

  8. The Reported Value of Rural Internal Medicine Residency Electives and Factors That Influence Rural Career Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Christine C.; DeWitt, Dawn E.

    2002-01-01

    A survey of 58 medical residents participating in a 1-2 month rural elective and 51 matched nonparticipants found that participants' interest in rural practice increased significantly after the elective. Respondents suggested means to increase rural career choice, barriers to rural practice, and ways of increasing the rural elective's influence on…

  9. Rural Areas Feel Effects of Macroeconomic Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malley, James R.; Hady, Thomas F.

    1987-01-01

    Diversification of rural economies and changes in financial markets and world trade have broken down many barriers that insulated rural areas in the past. United States rural areas--the rural South and Northeast in particular--now appear to be affected slightly more than urban areas by national monetary and fiscal policies. (JHZ)

  10. The Impact of Agribusiness on Rural Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, Paul

    The dramatic growth of multinational agribusiness corporations has led to all types of rural decline--social, demographic, institutional, and environmental. Historically, rural inhabitants and rural land have been abused and neglected in the name of progress. Rural development efforts often attract small assembly or light manufacturing plants that…

  11. Gender, Class and Rurality: Australian Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Lia; Pini, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The interrelationship between gender and class in rural spaces has received little attention. While rural scholars have focused on the implications for class from processes of gentrification and agricultural and rural restructuring, these analyses have remained largely ungendered. Similarly, feminist rural studies have rarely explored subjectivity…

  12. Rural Values and Concensus(sic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, J. Lynn; And Others

    Sample populations from 15 Intermountain West communities (representative of population, ethnic, and employment variety) were surveyed to test the following hypotheses: (1) there is a greater degree of consensus in rural than in non-rural communities; (2) there are differences between values in rural and non-rural communities; (3) a model…

  13. Delinquent Behavior of Dutch Rural Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenink, D.

    2011-01-01

    This article compares Dutch rural and non-rural adolescents’ delinquent behavior and examines two social correlates of rural delinquency: communal social control and traditional rural culture. The analyses are based on cross-sectional data, containing 3,797 participants aged 13–18 (48.7% females). T

  14. Occupational injuries and diseases in Alberta : lost-time claims, disabling injury claims and claim rates in the upstream oil and gas industries, 2002 to 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Alberta Employment, Immigration and Industry (EII) prepares an annual report of the occupational injuries and diseases in the upstream oil and gas industries operating in the province. The purpose is to determine if the industries meet the demand from industry and safety association, labour organizations, employers and workers to improve workplace health and safety. This report described programs and initiatives undertaken by EII in pursuit of these goals. It analyzed provincial occupational injury and disease information against national statistics and estimated the risk of injury or disease at the provincial, industry sector and sub-sector level. The report also presented an analysis of aggregate injury claim data to allow for the tracking of workplace health and safety performance over time. For comparative purposes, 2006 data was presented beside 2005 data. Additional historical data was presented in some cases. It was noted that approximately 80 per cent of employed persons in Alberta are covered by the Workman's Compensation Board (WCB). Therefore, this report focused on all industry activity in Alberta covered by the WCB and by the provincial legislation of occupational health and safety. General descriptions about the incidents and injured workers were presented along with fatality rates for the major industry sectors as well as the occupational fatalities that the Workers Compensation Board (WCB) accepted for compensation. The number of employers that earned a certificate of recognition was also identified. Injury and disease analysis was discussed in terms of injured worker characteristics; nature of injury or disease; source of injury or disease; type of event or exposure; and, duration of disability. It was shown that the lost-time claim rate for the upstream oil and gas industries in Alberta decreased by 10 per cent in 2006, due to fewer injury claims. The disabling injury rate decreased by 4.9 per cent. The tar sand subsector had the lowest lost

  15. APRECIERI ASUPRA FENOMENULUI TURISTIC RURAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puiu NISTOREANU

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The rural areas are rich in their ecological and cultural diversity. The dimension and complexity of the rural communities make difficult a generalization regarding their problems or values, even if some common characteristics exist. For a long time in their existence, the rural communities have relied on the abundance of natural resources. But, in the 20th century, the great technological, political and economical changes have brought a profound transformation in agriculture, and other renewable industrial resources, fact which led the rural communities to a dependency towards these. Although these changes occurred, many reasons for optimism still exist. Involvement of new households in offering touristic services constitutes a new dimension of the development of the rural areas, and on a secondary plane the touristic activity in the rural environment registers new ways of manifestation. Even more, we are able to appreciate the dimensions and evolution of one of the most spectacular social – economic phenomena; the rural tourism.

  16. ESPECIALLY RURAL DAILY STAVROPOL REGION AFTER LIBERATION FROM OCCUPATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Karapetyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article traced the dynamics of change in the daily life of the population after the occupation of Stavropol. The author focuses not only on matters of everyday production, but also reveals the main types of tax farmers, as well as the most common forms of exploitation of rural labor. Analysis, conducted by the author of the scientific article, shows, first of all, that the war has become a major, although not the one, cause of the dynamic development of the system of duties and rural residents determined the character of the system for the next decade. Only in the mid-1950s, the list of obligations to the state farmers was revised downwards. But this time was enough to reduce the level of welfare of rural residents, which is directly dependent on the state of agrarian policy and the state of agriculture. The installed operating system of the rural labor gave rise to stagnation of agricultural production processes, put farmers on the brink of survival and at the same time allowed the State to maintain the necessary time for the level of economic development of the entire economic complex. At the same time the transformation of everyday farmers, the quality of which is directly related to the economic component of rural life. In this sense, even during the war, the government adopted a series of measures aimed at improving the profitability of agricultural production and assistance to agricultural workers in establishing a life in peace.

  17. 38 CFR 3.1601 - Claims and evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... burial and funeral expenses under § 3.1600(b) and plot or interment allowance under § 3.1600(f) must be... for the plot or interment allowance (except for claims filed by a State or an agency or political... the plot or interment services, or advanced funds to pay for them, and if the entire bill for such...

  18. 77 FR 44155 - Administration of Mining Claims and Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ... tunnel sites on Federal lands. During fiscal year (FY) 2011, claimants recorded 58,775 new claims and..., productivity, competition, jobs, the environment, public health or safety, or State, local, or tribal... Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. A detailed statement...

  19. 33 CFR 136.101 - Time limitations on claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the case of natural resources damages under section 1002(b)(2)(A) of the Act (33 U.S.C. 2702(b)(2)(A... of the natural resources damage assessment under section 1006(e) of the Act (33 U.S.C. 2706(e... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Time limitations on claims....

  20. 38 CFR 6.7 - Claims of creditors, taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of benefits payable to any beneficiary under a United States Government life insurance policy do not... STATES GOVERNMENT LIFE INSURANCE Beneficiary of United States Government Life Insurance § 6.7 Claims of... States Government life insurance policy shall be subject to levy for taxes due the United States by...

  1. 17 CFR 300.501 - Claim for cash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... A to Part 285 RULES OF THE SECURITIES INVESTOR PROTECTION CORPORATION Rules Relating to Satisfaction... (“Debtor”) held securities in an account for a customer, the customer has a “claim for cash” with respect to any authorized securities sale: (1) If the Debtor has sent written confirmation to the...

  2. 17 CFR 300.502 - Claim for securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... A to Part 285 RULES OF THE SECURITIES INVESTOR PROTECTION CORPORATION Rules Relating to Satisfaction... Debtor held cash in an account for a customer, the customer has a “claim for securities” with respect to any authorized securities purchase: (1) If the Debtor has sent written confirmation to the...

  3. 44 CFR 295.34 - Reopening a claim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reopening a claim. 295.34 Section 295.34 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... submitted. The deadline will be published as a notice in the Federal Register and broadly...

  4. 28 CFR 79.71 - Filing of claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to the sender with a statement identifying the reason(s) why the claim does not comply with this part... decedent; (iv) A death certificate or divorce decree for each spouse of the claimant (if applicable); and... applicable); (iv) A death certificate or divorce decree for each spouse of the claimant (if applicable);...

  5. 76 FR 4072 - Registration of Claims of Copyright

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ... under the ``single unit of publication'' rule of Sec. 202.3(b)(4)(i)(A), the group database registration... 1989. See Registration of Claims to Copyright Registration and Deposit of Databases, 54 FR 13177 (March... Procedure Act states that general notice of proposed rulemaking is not required for rules of...

  6. 9 CFR 53.8 - Presentation of claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Presentation of claims. 53.8 Section 53.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF..., PLEUROPNEUMONIA, RINDERPEST, AND CERTAIN OTHER COMMUNICABLE DISEASES OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY § 53.8...

  7. Clarity and causality needed in claims about Big Gods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Joseph; Bulbulia, Joseph; Gray, Russell D; Atkinson, Quentin D

    2016-01-01

    We welcome Norenzayan et al.'s claim that the prosocial effects of beliefs in supernatural agents extend beyond Big Gods. To date, however, supporting evidence has focused on the Abrahamic Big God, making generalisations difficult. We discuss a recent study that highlights the need for clarity about the causal path by which supernatural beliefs affect the evolution of big societies. PMID:26948745

  8. 9 CFR 51.32 - Claims not allowed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... indemnity; or (e) If, at the time of test or condemnation, the animals belonged to or were upon the premises... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Claims not allowed. 51.32 Section 51.32 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  9. 9 CFR 51.9 - Claims not allowed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... search has been made for the brucellosis reactor animal and the brucellosis reactor animal could not be... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Claims not allowed. 51.9 Section 51.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  10. 42 CFR 447.45 - Timely claims payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... requirements. (b) Definitions. Claim means (1) a bill for services, (2) a line item of service, or (3) all... common physical location; (2) The practitioners share common waiting areas, examining rooms, treatment... substantial aspects of the arrangement or operation for the delivery of health or medical services at...

  11. Identifying Interbank Loans, Rates, and Claims Networks from Transactional Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leon Rincon, C.E.; Cely, Jorge; Cadena, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    We identify interbank (i.e. non-collateralized) loans from the Colombian large-value payment system by implementing Furfine’s method. After identifying interbank loans from transactional data we obtain the interbank rates and claims without relying on financial institutions’ reported data. Contrasti

  12. 9 CFR 50.20 - Claims for payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Claims for payment. 50.20 Section 50.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF...

  13. 9 CFR 50.22 - Claims not allowed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Claims not allowed. 50.22 Section 50.22 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF...

  14. 76 FR 34017 - Claims for Credit or Refund

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... employment tax refund claims were published in the Federal Register (73 FR 37371). Those final regulations... 528 (33 FR 5354) (Aug. 4, 1968), revised paragraph (a)(2) of Sec. 301.6402-2 to distinguish between..., 1976-1 CB 384 (41 FR 11019) (Mar. 16, 1976), revised paragraph (c) of Sec. 301.6402-2 to...

  15. 9 CFR 381.413 - Nutrient content claims; general principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... cause consumer confusion when compared), and that the actual modification is at least equal to the... or misleading under section 4(h) of the Act (21 U.S.C. 453(h)(4)). (2) (3) A statement that describes... formulas and medical foods, as described in 21 CFR 101.13(q)(4). (5) (6) Nutrient content claims that...

  16. 48 CFR 552.232-23 - Assignment of Claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... following is substituted therefor: In order to prevent confusion and delay in making payment, the Contractor..., including any Federal lending agency, under the provisions of the Assignment of Claims Act, as amended, 31 U.S.C. 3727, 41 U.S.C. 15 (hereinafter referred to as “the Act”), all amounts due or to become...

  17. 9 CFR 317.313 - Nutrient content claims; general principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... cause consumer confusion when compared), and that the actual modification is at least equal to the... under section 1(n) of the Act (21 U.S.C. 601(n)(1)). (2) (3) A statement that describes the percentage... formulas and medical foods, as described in 21 CFR 101.13(q)(4). (5) (6) Nutrient content claims that...

  18. 50 CFR 296.4 - Claims eligible for compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Claims eligible for compensation. 296.4... compensation. (a) Claimants. Damage or loss eligible for Fund compensation must be suffered by a commercial fisherman. (b) Damage or loss of fishing gear. Damage or loss is eligible for Fund compensation if it...

  19. Functional food health claims must be supported by sound science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kardinaal, A.; Mennen, L.; Hendriks, H.

    2009-01-01

    Alwine Kardinnal, Louise Mennen, and Henk Hendriks share their views on the way scientific evidence for a health claim can be obtained and use weight management to demonstrate different approaches. Weight management products are used to explain the steps that need to be taken to obtain approval for

  20. 7 CFR 249.20 - Claims and penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Claims and penalties. 249.20 Section 249.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (SFMNP) Miscellaneous...

  1. 33 CFR 25.407 - Time limitation on claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... within two years after it accrues, except that if it accrues in time of war or armed conflict, or if war or armed conflict intervenes within two years after it accrues, and if good cause is shown, the claim may be presented not more than two years after the termination of the war or armed conflict. (b)...

  2. 42 CFR 456.722 - Electronic claims management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electronic claims management system. 456.722 Section 456.722 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Drug Use Review (DUR) Program...

  3. General health assessment in refugees claiming to have been tortured

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draminsky Petersen, Hans; Christensen, Maria Elisabeth; Kastrup, Marianne;

    1994-01-01

    General health assessment of refugees claiming to have been previously exposed to torture takes place in a psychological atmosphere affected by the difficult situation of the refugee. Thirty-one refugees, mainly from the Middle East and Africa, were assessed as regards their physical and mental...

  4. 77 FR 51068 - Remedies for Small Copyright Claims: Additional Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... adjudicating small copyright claims. The study will assess whether and, if so, how the current legal system... Office is conducting a study to assess whether and, if so, how the current legal system hinders or... to address concerns about the current system. See the original Notice of Inquiry, 76 FR 66758...

  5. 76 FR 66758 - Remedies for Small Copyright Claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... to assess whether and, if so, how the current legal system hinders or prevents copyright owners from... alternatives to the current legal system that could better accommodate such claims. This is a general inquiry... helpful and viable. A. Challenges of the Current Legal System Currently, copyright owners interested...

  6. Workers' Compensation Claims and Physical Fitness Capacity of Police Officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Robert W.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A study compared police officers' physical fitness levels with workers' compensation (WC) claims. Officers who collected WC were predominantly female, younger, and lower ranking, with better physical fitness than officers not collecting WC. Officers in the second highest fitness level and older officers with greater cardiovascular fitness had…

  7. 16 CFR 260.7 - Environmental marketing claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... soil burial tests to show that the product will decompose in the presence of water and oxygen. The... stream for reuse, or in the manufacture or assembly of another package or product, through an established... significantly limits the ability to recycle a product or package, a claim of recyclability would be deceptive....

  8. 48 CFR 1333.206 - Initiation of a claim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Initiation of a claim. 1333.206 Section 1333.206 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL.... Contracting officers shall promptly notify Procurement Counsel and seek legal advice upon receiving...

  9. 7 CFR 81.10 - Claim for payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Claim for payment. 81.10 Section 81.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND DOMESTIC...

  10. 7 CFR 82.10 - Claim for payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Claim for payment. 82.10 Section 82.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND DOMESTIC...

  11. Deconstructing public artopia: situating public-art claims within practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zebracki, M.M.; Vaart, R.J.F.M. van der; Aalst, I. van

    2010-01-01

    This paper problematises public artopia, in other words the collection of claims in academic literature concerning the allegedly physical-aesthetic, economic, social, and cultural-symbolic roles of art in urban public space. On the basis of interviews with public-art producers (artists, public offic

  12. Overview of Rural Tourism Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tianhui; XIE

    2015-01-01

    Rural tourism is a form of tourism relying on rural environment,with rural unique natural scene and cultural characteristics( production pattern,life style,folk customs,and rural culture) as object,and integrating sightseeing,vacation,recreation and shopping. Rural tourism provides recreation products for urban residents,promotes national and local economy,promotes rural employment,keeps traditional culture,improves rural ecological environment,and promotes urban and rural exchange. From concept and characteristics of rural tourism,this paper made a brief overview of development background,realistic significance,influence factors,development mode,and existing problems,in the hope of providing favorable references for grasping development situation of rural tourism in China.

  13. QUALITY MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN RURAL AND URBAN SMEs – A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Srinivas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The level of awareness on Quality Management Practices (QMP has increased considerably over the last decade, but the literature findings reveal the lack of studies on QMP and its implementation in rural SMEs. The exploratory research focuses on identifying, analysing and comparing the level of QMP implementation in urban and rural Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs in Bangalore. The research hypothesis is that, urban and rural SMEs would differ significantly in implementation of different quality practices. Data was collected through structured questionnaire and analyzed using F-test and chi-square test, as appropriate, to detect the statistical significance of QMP implementation in urban and rural SMEs. The research findings suggest that research, rural firms are performing at a higher level of sophistication and experience in QMP, further, TQM is the major drive for QMP implementation.

  14. Drought, Endurance and Climate Change 'Pioneers': Lived Experience in the Production of Rural Environmental Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deb Anderson

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the politicisation of environmental knowledge on rural Australia, in an analysis of discourse on the lived experience of drought. It draws on research conducted in dryland farm communities in the Mallee wheat-belt of Victoria – where rural histories have presented spirited sagas of community perseverance in ‘battling’ a harsh climate – during a period of marked shift in public awareness of climate change (2004-07. Indeed climate change projections have intensified debate over rural futures in Australia, where droughts have played a powerful role in the mythologizing of rural battlers and landscapes, and where drought discourse has been dominated by the language of war. Cultural engagement with climate is, however, under constant renegotiation, as rural cultural research is apt to reveal.

  15. Interface between urban and rural

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    for new trends in rural landscapes have been related to a model for urban pressure on rural areas in Denmark however without any convincing results. A model for the historical development of a typical Danish village has been made, to see if the socially differentiated process of counterurbanisation can...... be related to the differentiation in the development of different types of village developments. Such a model can elucidate the potentials of a multifunctional landscape as a basis for a varied and and attractive fulfilment of human needs in an urban-rural continuum....

  16. Claves del desarrollo territorial rural

    OpenAIRE

    Molina Ochoa, Juan Patricio

    2012-01-01

    Este artículo recoge las palabras introductorias al Coloquio Internacional sobre Desarrollo Rural con Enfoque Territorial organizado por el Grupo de Investigación en Gestión y Desarrollo Rural de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, celebrado en Bogotá el 4 y 5 de marzo de 2010. Como marco de las sesenta ponencias expuestas durante el evento, se introducen los conceptos de territorio y de desarrollo rural con enfoque territorial y se examinan cinco elementos claves para abordar esta temática....

  17. Danish Rural Eye Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Tracy B; Moldow, Birgitte; Ellervik, Christina;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of amblyopia in Denmark before and after the initiation of the Danish national preschool vision screening programme. METHODS: In a population-based cross-sectional study, 3826 participants of the Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS) aged 20 years...... and older from a Danish rural municipality received a complete general health examination and an ophthalmological interview and examination. This study included a comprehensive ophthalmologic interview, measurement of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in each eye, Hirschberg's test for strabismus and two...... 45-degree retinal fundus photographs of each eye. A complete ophthalmologic examination was performed when indicated. RESULTS: The prevalence of monocular visual impairment (MVI) was 4.26% (95% CI, 3.66-4.95, n = 163). Amblyopia was the most common cause, accounting for 33%. The prevalence...

  18. Agroecologia e desenvolvimento rural.

    OpenAIRE

    Iamamoto, André Toshio Villela

    2006-01-01

    Na cena contemporânea, a questão ambiental tem sido foco de atenção da comunidade científica de diferentes países, subsidiando a formulação de políticas que permitam conciliar a produção com a satisfação de necessidades humanas e a conservação e uso racional dos recursos naturais. No âmbito rural, a agricultura é uma das atividades que mais deterioram o meio ambiente e cujas conseqüências sociais e ambientais adquirem proeminência no debate mundial. Desde a década de 60 do século passado, qua...

  19. Solar PV based rural electrification in Rema rural village

    OpenAIRE

    Admasu, Alemshet Ayele

    2011-01-01

    Energy is a basic need for the overall growth and improvements of people’s living standard.But around 2 to 3 billion people in the world have no access to electric lighting. Like otherdeveloping countries the rural electrification in Ethiopia is very low and government takessome actions to promote the investment in these areas but due to economic constraints andlow level of technological advancement the growth is very low.This study focuses on solar PV based rural electrification, its impact ...

  20. Rural entrepreneurship: Between place and space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Steffen; Müller, Sabine; Tanvig, Hanne Wittorff

    This paper proposes a distinction between rural entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship in the rural. While the latter is incidentally located in a rural area, the former engages with the localised resources of the rural area. We argue that rural entrepreneurship in this form holds promise for a be...... embeddedness, capped growth and the realisation of multiple forms of value. Furthermore, the paper argues for a more central role for spatial qualities in entrepreneurship research...

  1. Rurality and rural education : Discourses underpinning rurality and rural education research in South African postgraduate education research 1994–2004

    OpenAIRE

    Balfour, Robert John; T. Nkambule; Pillay, G; Moletsane, R

    2011-01-01

    Historically, rurality and rural education have been marginalised bodies of knowledge in South Africa. The post-1994 era has seen an emerging government concern to address the continuing interplay between poverty, HIV/AIDS, underdevelopment, and underachievement in schools categorised as rural. To address these concerns, scholars in South African institutions of higher learning have conducted research on various issues on rurality and rural education. However, little is known of the focus of ...

  2. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL TOURISM IN LATGALE

    OpenAIRE

    Dembovska, Iveta; Silicka, Inese

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses theoretical aspects of rural tourism and its sustainable development, as well as focuses on rural tourism development issues and the socio-economic situation. The present article critically reviews the development of rural tourism in Europe, the meaning of various national eco-labels in the development of rural tourism, and the tools of sustainable development of Latvia, their nature and the role in the development of .rural tourism. The authors have also explored the ra...

  3. An Analysis of the Consumer Demand Structure of Rural Residents in Chongqing City in the Context of New Urbanization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaomin; JIA

    2015-01-01

    Using ELES model and econometric methods,in the context of new urbanization,we use the time series data on the consumer spending of rural residents in Chongqing City to perform an empirical analysis of the consumer demand structure of rural residents,reveal the characteristics,differences and changes concerning the consumption structure of rural residents in Chongqing City,and set forth some policy recommendations such as carrying out the new rural construction,optimizing the consumption structure,establishing sound social security system and income growth mechanism,and stabilizing the price level.

  4. Nutrition and related claims used on packaged Australian foods--implications for regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Peter; Yeatman, Heather; Zakrzewski, Sally; Aboozaid, Brooke; Henshaw, Simon; Ingram, Kendall; Rankine, Alex; Walcott, Sara; Ghani, Fatima

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the use of nutrition and related claims on packaged food for sale in Australia and measure the compliance of such claims with regulations governing their use. A survey was conducted of the labelling of 6662 products in 40 different food categories on sale in New South Wales in 2001. Levels of compliance were assessed by comparing the claims on the label and data in the nutrition information panel with requirements of the Foods Standards Code and the Code of Practice on Nutrient Claims. Half of the products (51.3%) carried some type of nutrition related claim and 36.2% made at least one nutrient claim, with an average of 1.2 nutrition related claims on every food product. The foods with the highest use of nutrient claims were sports drinks, breakfast cereals, meat substitutes, pretzels and rice cakes, muesli bars and yoghurt. The most common nutrient claims were for fat, cholesterol, vitamins, minerals, and sugar. More than 20% of products carried claims related to additives. Many nutrient claims (12.9%) did not comply with current regulations, especially those in the voluntary Code of Practice. Adoption of mandatory requirements for all claims within the Food Standards Code may improve the levels of compliance. Implications for the regulation of nutrition and related claims are discussed. The impact of nutrition claims on consumer purchasing and consumption behaviour deserves further study.

  5. Rural Quality Education and the Balance between Urban and Rural Compulsory Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiangfeng; LI

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of analyzing the gap between urban and rural quality education and the existing limiting factors to that in rural areas,a suggestion was proposed to promote the balanced development of rural quality education.

  6. Rural Quality Education and the Balance between Urban and Rural Compulsory Education

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jiangfeng

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of analyzing the gap between urban and rural quality education and the existing limiting factors to that in rural areas, a suggestion was proposed to promote the balanced development of rural quality education.

  7. Functional foods: health claim-food product compatibility and the impact of health claim framing on consumer evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van E.; Trijp, van H.C.M.; Luning, P.A.

    2005-01-01

    Two studies are reported, which aim to strengthen the scientific underpinning of strategic decisions regarding functional food development, as to (1) which health benefits to claim, (2) with which product (category), and (3) in which communication format. The first exploratory study is a secondary a

  8. Welfare service in rural areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Helle

    Many rural municipalities are challenged due to overall population decline and demographic changes and thus need to make adjustment to municipal services. Demographic profiles are central for assessing both needs, place bound resources and development potential of individual localities.......Assessment of development potential for individual localities using a place-based approach is in line with EU policies for rural development thereby setting a competitive framework for local development. This paper addresses place bound approaches in relation to service adjustment and discusses how local resources...... and place bound potentials are identified and how they are addressed in plans for future development. The paper draws on a study on service adjustments in rural municipalities in Denmark examining how service adjustments e.g. closing of local schools are decided, how they are managed by rural communities...

  9. Rural migration and health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Jensen, Marit Vatn

    This literature study focuses on possible links between access to health services and migration in rural areas. Why do people move to or from rural areas or why do they stay? What determines where people settle? And, in this context, do local health care services play an important or minor role......, or no role at all? First, the paper reports on key findings from rural migration studies, in order to shed light on two migration trends: urbanization and counter-urbanization. Then we take a closer look on settlement preferences in rural areas, including the impact of health care facilities. Finally, we end...... up with a more deepgoing review of the relatively small number of studies, which explicitly deal with settlement preferences related to access to health care....

  10. Assessment of rural energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents the methodological guidelines used to assess rural energy resources with an example of its application in three villages each from different physiographic zones of Nepal. Existing energy demand patterns of villages are compared with estimated resource availability, and rural energy planning issues are discussed. Economics and financial supply price of primary energy resources are compared, which provides insight into defective energy planning and policy formulation and implication in the context of rural areas of Nepal. Though aware of the formidable consequences, the rural populace continues to exhaust the forest as they are unable to find financially cheaper alternatives. Appropriate policy measures need to be devised by the government to promote the use of economically cost-effective renewable energy resources so as to change the present energy usage pattern to diminish the environmental impact caused by over exploitation of forest resources beyond their regenerative capacity

  11. Substance Abuse in Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... availability of illicit drugs, the weakening of the traditional family unit, the diminishing rural economy, and the ... that is proven to be successful in treating addiction such as the drug, buprenorphine, which is used ...

  12. Report Reveals Latest Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The year 2001 saw theconvocation of theFourth National Confer-ence on Work in Tibet.From August to October 2001,we conducted an extensiveinvestigation and study in theurban and rural areas Wewere especially impressed bythe urban expansion in Lhasa,Xigaze and Nyingchi Even

  13. Ignorance is bliss. How parents of preschool children make sense of front-of-package visuals and claims on food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Katie M; Evans, Caitlin; Duff, Brittany R L

    2015-04-01

    With growing scrutiny over how the food industry advertises products aimed toward children and fewer consumers using nutrition facts panels and ingredient lists, the fronts of food packages have become an increasingly important marketing tool to understand. Front-of-package (FOP) visual and verbal claims play a critical role in capturing consumers' attention and helping them choose foods that fit their goals. Due to only possessing emergent literacy skills, preschool children are attuned to FOP visuals while parents are able to use the visuals in combination with verbal claims to make food choices for their children. The purpose of this focus group study was to explore how parents of preschool children make sense of FOP visual and verbal claims on packaged food products that are intended for their children. Thematic analysis revealed that parents associated aspects that most appeal to their preschool children - the characters and other playful visuals - with higher sugar content and artificial ingredients. However, parents were also easily led to believe the product was healthier based on visuals of fruit, more realistic pictures, health claims, cross-branding with healthier foods, and visuals suggesting the product is more natural. While parents recognized that the health claims and some visuals may not truly mean the food is healthier, they agreed that they rarely think beyond their initial impression. The food industry needs better regulatory guidance on how to communicate flavors and ingredients on package fronts in a way that helps consumers - particularly parents wanting to encourage healthy eating habits for their young children - better match their nutrition goals. PMID:25510529

  14. [Health and nutrition claims made on food: what future?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laplace, Jean-Paul

    2006-11-01

    The number of foods bearing health and nutrition claims is growing in line with consumers' expectations. This market offers attractive prospects of profit for industry and commerce. The question is whether such foods really have health effects, and whether the general population or specific groups really benefit from their use. Specific regulations are needed to define the conditions of validation, communication and follow-up of such claims. The European Community's internal market is currently governed by a fragmented set of regulations and enforcement systems. Member states' national regulations differ in substance and application. For these reasons, the European Commission is seeking to create and adopt a common regulation. The following article considers the main stakes relating to consumers' health expectations, public health, and industrial and commercial interests, together with the origins of the concept of "functional foods". In contrast to the 'product based' approach in other cultures (Japan, North America, etc.), Europe has chosen a 'science based' approach focusing on physiological functions. In particular, Europe funded the FUFOSE program (Functional Food Science in Europe) coordinated by ILSI (International Life Science Institute). The bases of true functional food science are considered--how to identify beneficial interactions between food components and specific body functions, and to understand the underlying mechanisms in order to construct hypotheses for testing on volunteers. A methodology based on biological markers has been developed Europe then funded the PASSCLAIM program (Process for the assessment of scientific support for claims on foods) aimed at identifying relationships between a functional effect (normal or enhanced function) and a health benefit or a reduced risk of disease. Selected aspects of these 10-year programs illustrate the scientific bases for a European regulation of nutrition claims and so-called health claims (improved

  15. Prospects of Rural Transformation Centre (RTC) of Malaysia from the Perspective of Inclusive Rural Development

    OpenAIRE

    Shawon Muhammad Shahriar; Chamhuri Siwar; Rospidah Ghazali; Norshamliza Chamhuri

    2014-01-01

    In the contemporary discourse, it is argued that the ultimate objective of rural development is to improve the quality of life for rural people. This makes it essential to go beyond the income-related factors of rural development. Inclusive Rural Development, a more specific concept than the concept of conventional rural development, accommodates the variables for the quality of life in rural development. This concept covers three different but interrelated dimensions: economic dimension, soc...

  16. Methodology for Evaluating the Rural Tourism Potentials: A Tool to Ensure Sustainable Development of Rural Settlements

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Trukhachev

    2015-01-01

    The paper analyses potentials, challenges and problems of the rural tourism from the point of view of its impact on sustainable rural development. It explores alternative sources of income for rural people by means of tourism and investigates effects of the rural tourism on agricultural production in local rural communities. The aim is to identify the existing and potential tourist attractions within the rural areas in Southern Russia and to provide solutions to be introduced in particular ru...

  17. About The Rural Development Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>The Rural Development Foundation ( RDF) ,founded in 1996,is an Indian nonprofit organization with the mission of providing quality education for underprivileged rural children. RDF founded and continues to operate five schools and one junior college in Andhra Pradesh State,taking a unique holistic approach to education through innovative programs and methodology. Rather than using the conventional method of rote memorization,RDF focuses on cultivating critical thinking skills and

  18. REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT - RURAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Tamas Forgacs

    2010-01-01

    The way of employment is changing. The primary and secondary sector offers less and less workplaces, shifting employment into the tertiary sector. Nevertheless, we are facing increasing rural unemployment, as the tertiary sector is based mostly around the high populated towns, but the primary and secondary sector generates unemployment in the rural areas. This trend projects a vision of a very centralized Europe, which is opposite with the efforts of regionalization. In this study we evaluate...

  19. Rural Development as Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Philip Kostov; John Lingard

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a new concept of rural development in an uncertain world. The nature of risk and uncertainty is discussed and risk management is defined as a positive model of economic and social behaviour. Some relevant paradigms for rural development are briefly reviewed and evaluated within the general approach of risk management. It is demonstrated that the suggested view of risk management can effectively combine and reconcile different approaches outlining their advantages and short...

  20. About The Rural Development Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>The Rural Development Foundation(RDF),founded in 1996,is an Indian nonprofit organization with the mission of providing quality education for underprivileged rural children.RDF founded and continues to operate five schools and one junior college in Andhra Pradesh State,taking a unique holistic approach to education through innovative programs and methodology.Rather than using the conventional method of rote memorization,RDF focuses on cultivating critical thinking skills and encouraging students to understand and

  1. About The Rural Development Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>The Rural Development Foundation(RDF),founded in 1996,is an Indian nonprofit organization with the mission of providing quality education for underprivileged rural children.RDF founded and continues to operate five schools and one junior college in Andhra Pradesh State,taking a unique holistic approach to education through innovative programs and methodology.Rather than using the conventional method of rote memorization,RDF focuses on cultivating critical thinking skills and encouraging students to understand and

  2. About The Rural Development Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>The Rural Development Foundation ( RDF) ,founded in 1996,is an Indian nonprofit organization with the mission of providing quality education for underprivileged rural children. RDF founded and continues to operate five schools and one junior college in Andhra Pradesh State,taking a unique holistic approach to education through innovative programs and methodology. Rather than using the conventional method of rote memorization,RDF focuses on cultivating critical thinking skills and encouraging students to

  3. INNOVATION TRANSFER AND RURAL SMES

    OpenAIRE

    C CANNARELLA; PICCIONI, V.

    2004-01-01

    The role innovation can play to make enterprises more dynamic and competitive is surely well known. For rural small and medium enterprises (SMEs) this can become a critical issue because they often need financial and technical incentives and support from public and private research institutions in order to make innovation accessible to them. Yet bridging research and productive dimensions is not always an easy task The cooperation between researchers and rural entrepreneurs can become a ra...

  4. RURAL TOURISM: EXPERIENCES OF CROATIA

    OpenAIRE

    Demonja, Damir

    2013-01-01

    Rural tourism is an important factor in the activation and sustainable development of rural areas. Its importance is primarily reflected in the very important interaction between agricultural production, production of traditional products, conservation of cultivated landscape, presentation of traditions and cultural specificities, traditional gastronomy and tourist services, and the use of existing resources. It helps to preserve the local identity, tradition and customs, protecting thus the ...

  5. On the Expected Discounted Penalty Function in a Delayed-claims Risk Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui MENG; Guo-jing WANG

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,we consider a risk model in which each main claim may induce a delayed claim,called a by-claim.We assume that the time for the occurrence of a by-claim is random.We investigate the expected discounted penalty function,and derive the defective renewal equation satisfied by it.We obtain some explicit results when the main claim and the by-claim are both exponentially distributed,respectively.We also present some numerical illustrations.

  6. The role of community self help projects in rural development of Kwara state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogunleye-Adetona, C.I.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study attempt to examine the impact of self-help projects in rural development using Irepodun Local Government Area as a case study, Kwara State, Nigeria. A sample of 200 respondents was interviewed through the use of questionnaire format. In the course of the study, it was revealed that income encouraged the people to embark on self help projects. Community unions / association contributed immensely in the execution of self help projects and the subsequent rural development. The Chi-square and correlation results, concluded that the inhabitants of the area are not equally satisfied with self help projects and amenities and that there is a relationship between population and self help projects and also that self help projects has increased the standard of living of the people in the area. There is an unequal distribution of self help projects in the study area. And since the level and efficiency of self help projects on rural communities normally influence the development of the rural areas, governments should therefore redirect its rural development towards capital and developmental projects in rural areas and make population be the focus for all communities in the rural areas. This will ensure an equitable distribution of self help projects an essential tool for balanced socio-economic development of the rural areas especially in Nigeria.

  7. TOURIST MOTIVATION FOR RURAL DESTINATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela BOTEZATU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available City daily overexertion impels tourists wish to travel. Rural tourism behavior is determined by a set of motivational factors that makes him appreciate favorable tourist destinations. In order to analyze and assess the opinions and attitudes of tourists in rural areas we realized a market survey, the results being presented in the article below. Future trends, the growth rate of market depend largely on the wishes and intentions of goods or services consumers. This study involves the engagement of a number of 658 respondents, which were interviewed to determine the basic motivations in choosing countryside. The working methods used were analysis, synthesis and questionnaire survey as a research method. Results refer to the following: about 59 percent, spend up to 10% of annual income for vacations and travel, for rural tourism this amount is much lower; the association of the term „rural tourism” in the local tourist mind, oscillates among „a villa” in rural areas or „active vacation” (biking, hiking, riding, swimming or hunting; customer loyalty is one of the goals of marketing activities undertaken in hostels or other travel service providers. In conclusion, we mention that the variety of motivational factors in choosing tourist destinations in rural areas drive this type of tourism.

  8. The 'rural pipeline' and retention of rural health professionals in Europe's northern peripheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Dean B; Schoo, Adrian; Berggren, Peter

    2015-12-01

    The major advance in informing rural workforce policy internationally over the past 25 years has been the recognition of the importance of the 'rural pipeline'. The rural pipeline suggests that people with 'rural origin' (who spent some childhood years in rural areas) and/or 'rural exposure' (who do part of their professional training in rural areas) are more likely to select rural work locations. What is not known is whether the rural pipeline also increases the length of time professionals spend in rural practice throughout their careers. This paper analyses data from a survey of rural health professionals in six countries in the northern periphery of Europe in 2013 to examine the relationship between rural origin and rural exposure and the intention to remain in the current rural job or to preference rural jobs in future. Results are compared between countries, between different types of rural areas (based on accessibility to urban centres), different occupations and workers at different stages of their careers. The research concludes that overall the pipeline does impact on retention, and that both rural origin and rural exposure make a contribution. However, the relationship is not strong in all contexts, and health workforce policy should recognise that retention may in some cases be improved by recruiting beyond the pipeline. PMID:26321193

  9. The 'rural pipeline' and retention of rural health professionals in Europe's northern peripheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Dean B; Schoo, Adrian; Berggren, Peter

    2015-12-01

    The major advance in informing rural workforce policy internationally over the past 25 years has been the recognition of the importance of the 'rural pipeline'. The rural pipeline suggests that people with 'rural origin' (who spent some childhood years in rural areas) and/or 'rural exposure' (who do part of their professional training in rural areas) are more likely to select rural work locations. What is not known is whether the rural pipeline also increases the length of time professionals spend in rural practice throughout their careers. This paper analyses data from a survey of rural health professionals in six countries in the northern periphery of Europe in 2013 to examine the relationship between rural origin and rural exposure and the intention to remain in the current rural job or to preference rural jobs in future. Results are compared between countries, between different types of rural areas (based on accessibility to urban centres), different occupations and workers at different stages of their careers. The research concludes that overall the pipeline does impact on retention, and that both rural origin and rural exposure make a contribution. However, the relationship is not strong in all contexts, and health workforce policy should recognise that retention may in some cases be improved by recruiting beyond the pipeline.

  10. Imbalance and Correction of the Rural Credit Cooperatives and Rural Economic Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This article expounds the manifestations of imbalance between the rural credit cooperatives and rural economic relations: the rural credit cooperatives fail to effectively promote economic development in rural areas; the rural economy is also incapable of effectively promoting the development of the rural credit cooperatives. It analyses the reasons for imbalance between the rural credit cooperatives and rural economic relations,including the direct reason (loss of function of the rural credit cooperatives) ,the fundamental reason (restricted economic development of agriculture and countryside and relative pauperization of farmers) ,and the deep-seated reason (sluggish rural economic development) . Corresponding countermeasures and proposals are put forward for promoting balanced development of the rural credit cooperatives and rural economy as follows: first, deepen reform of the rural credit cooperatives,strengthen the function of the rural credit cooperatives in serving the needs of agriculture; second, speed up economic development in rural areas,eliminate the economic constraints for the development of the rural credit cooperatives; third,transform the development pattern and the development strategies,foster the macro-institutional environment for balanced development of rural credit cooperatives and rural economy.

  11. Promotion of Local Economic Development (LED: experiences from rural community tourism Promoción del Desarrollo Económico Local (DEL: experiencias desde el turismo rural comunitario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Rafael Hernández Navarro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a guide for the promotion of local economic development through community-based rural tourism. A methodological perspective for the accompaniment of organized communities interest- ed in the development of community rural tourism projects will be taken into consideration.The claim is to share a methodology applied in rural com- munities of Costa Rica and that it might be useful in similar situations.Este artículo es una guía para la promoción del desarrollo económico local por medio del turismo rural comunitario. Se toma en cuenta una per- spectiva teórico-metodológica para el acompaña- miento a comunidades organizadas interesadas en la gestación de proyectos de turismo rural comuni- tario. La pretensión es compartir una metodología aplicada en comunidades rurales de Costa Rica que podría ser útil en situaciones similares.

  12. Nutrition and health claims on healthy and less-healthy packaged food products in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ani, Haya H; Devi, Anandita; Eyles, Helen; Swinburn, Boyd; Vandevijvere, Stefanie

    2016-09-01

    Nutrition and health claims are displayed to influence consumers' food choices. This study assessed the extent and nature of nutrition and health claims on the front-of-pack of 'healthy' and 'less-healthy' packaged foods in New Zealand. Foods from eight categories, for which consumption may affect the risk of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases, were selected from the 2014 Nutritrack database. The internationally standardised International Network for Food and Obesity/Non-Communicable Diseases Research, Monitoring and Action Support (INFORMAS) taxonomy was used to classify claims on packages. The Nutrient Profiling Scoring Criterion (NPSC) was used to classify products as 'healthy' or 'less healthy'. In total, 7526 products were included, with 47 % (n 3557) classified as 'healthy'. More than one-third of products displayed at least one nutrition claim and 15 % featured at least one health claim on the front-of-pack. Claims were found on one-third of 'less-healthy' products; 26 % of those products displayed nutrition claims and 7 % featured health claims. About 45 % of 'healthy' products displayed nutrition claims and 23 % featured health claims. Out of 7058 individual claims, the majority (69 %) were found on 'healthy' products. Cereals displayed the greatest proportion of nutrition and health claims (1503 claims on 564 products), of which one-third were displayed on 'less-healthy' cereals. Such claims could be misleading consumers' perceptions of nutritional quality of foods. It needs to be explored how current regulations on nutrition and health claims in New Zealand could be further strengthened (e.g. using the NPSC for nutrition claims, including general health claims as per the INFORMAS taxonomy) to ensure consumers are protected and not misled.

  13. THE MITIGATION OF SCIENTIFIC CLAIMS IN RESEARCH PAPERS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Martín Martín

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of academic writing, authors tend to mitigate the force of their scientific claims by means of hedging devices in order to reduce the risk of opposition and minimise the face threatening acts that are involved in the making of claims. This study explores the phenomenon of hedging in the research article (RA from a cross-cultural perspective. To this end, a total of 40 RAs written in English and Spanish in the field of Clinical and Health Psychology were analysed in terms of the frequency of occurrence and distribution of the various strategies and the linguistic devices associated to each strategy which perform a hedging function in the different structural units of the articles. The results of the comparative quantitative analyses revealed that there are similarities between the two languages regarding the distribution of hedges across the structural units of the RAs, although a certain degree of rhetorical variation was also found mainly in terms of the frequency of use of the strategy of indetermination (i.e. modality devices and approximators which occurs to a much greater extent in the English texts. This suggests that the English RAs in the field of Clinical and Health Psychology, as a whole, involve more protection to the author’s face.

  14. Soil quality and sustainable land use in urban rural marginal area: a case study of Kaifeng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    By using the basic theories of physical geography, land resourcesand ecology, this article analyzes the soil quality of the rural-urban marginal area in Kaifeng. Computer techniques, based on soil samples analysis, are used to study soil quality changes in the Kaifeng's rural-urban marginal area. While focusing on nutrient circle key links of input and output in soil, relying on numerous practical survey data, this article reveals clearly the impact of land use change on soil quality.

  15. Self-employment in China: Are rural migrant workers and urban residents alike?

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Yuling; Nahm, Daehoon; Tani, Massimiliano

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies differences in the motivation to be self-employed between rural migrants and urban residents in modern China. Estimates of the wage differential between self-employment and paid-employment obtained through a three-stage methodology using the 2002 China Household Income Project (CHIP), reveal that rural migrants become self-employed to avoid low-pay city jobs, enhancing their odds of economic assimilation. Conversely, urban residents become entrepreneurs to move out of unemp...

  16. Pond Fish Production Through People's Participation in Rural Bangladesh 【Article】

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Masudul Hoq; Maharjan, Keshav Lall

    2001-01-01

    Aquaculture is currently responsible for a significant proportion of total fish production in Bangladesh. Fish is the main animal sources of protein for the rural people of Bangladesh. However,given increasing demand for fish, the per capita production of fish is declining. The present studyhighlights the development of fresh water pond fish culture through grassroots level organization inBangladesh. The study was conducted in rural area of Bangladesh. The result of the study reveals that,man...

  17. Cross-Cultural Age Ascription between Muslim and Santal Communities in Rural Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Uddin, Emaj Ph.D.

    2010-01-01

    This study compares ideal age ascription across family life Muslim and Santal cultures in rural Bangladesh. We hypothesized that age ascription for family life situation occurs earlier in the Santal culture than in the Muslim culture in rural Bangladesh. One hundred couples (70 Muslim and 30 Santal) were selected by cluster random sampling from the Kalna village situated in the Tanore Upazila of Rajshahi district, Bangladesh, and were intensively interviewed by author. Results reveal signific...

  18. Problems and strategic priorities of development of rural (green)tourism in Ukraine: the regional aspect

    OpenAIRE

    Vynogradova Olena V.; Darchuk Veronika G.

    2013-01-01

    The article proves prospectiveness of development of rural green tourism in Ukraine on the basis of its significance for socio-economic development of regions; based on the analysis it reveals and classifies problems of development of this type of tourism in Ukrainian regions; it justifies the process of interaction of regional bodies of executive power by strategic development of the rural green tourism with consideration of international experience; it develops the mechanism of identificati...

  19. Multi-stage methodology to detect health insurance claim fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marina Evrim; Nagarur, Nagen

    2016-09-01

    Healthcare costs in the US, as well as in other countries, increase rapidly due to demographic, economic, social, and legal changes. This increase in healthcare costs impacts both government and private health insurance systems. Fraudulent behaviors of healthcare providers and patients have become a serious burden to insurance systems by bringing unnecessary costs. Insurance companies thus develop methods to identify fraud. This paper proposes a new multistage methodology for insurance companies to detect fraud committed by providers and patients. The first three stages aim at detecting abnormalities among providers, services, and claim amounts. Stage four then integrates the information obtained in the previous three stages into an overall risk measure. Subsequently, a decision tree based method in stage five computes risk threshold values. The final decision stating whether the claim is fraudulent is made by comparing the risk value obtained in stage four with the risk threshold value from stage five. The research methodology performs well on real-world insurance data.

  20. Experimental Evaluation of the Claimed Coulomb Rotation (Electrostatic Torque)

    CERN Document Server

    Bojiloff, D

    2015-01-01

    In the year 2002 publications of A.V.M. Khachatourian and A.O. Wistrom were released, in which the existence of an electrostatic torque has been claimed. This moment of force should act in a three sphere configuration, where one sphere is held at a constant electric potential. This claim was based on an observed rotation and was supported by a mathematical solution derived by Wistrom and Khachatourian. The theoretical work of Wistrom and Khachatourian as well as the interpretation of the observed rotation were criticized by several scientists who offered alternative explanations for the rotation. We therefore designed an experimental setup which enabled us to investigate the phenomenon. By performing numerous measurements, we showed that the rotation is due to asymmetric mass distribution within the sphere, which is dislocated due to electrostatic forces between the spheres. We were able to clear our measurements from this effect and observed a null result more than two orders of magnitude smaller than predic...

  1. VERIFICATION OF SOCIAL IMPACT THEORY CLAIMS IN SOCIAL MEDIA CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Mir

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Social media explosion changed the way of communication. It affected the ways companies used to interact with their consumers. Most important it changed the way consumers used to think. Present study attempts to verify the claims and assumptions of social impact theory in the social media environment. Based on social impact theory present study examines the impa ct of number of users (NUs on the perceived credibility of user generated content (PCUGC. Furthermo re, it examines the impact of PCUGC on the consumer attitude towards the product related content embedded in UGC (ATUGC. Empirical evidence was collected from a random sample of 459 students. Results substantiate the claims and assumptions of the social impact theory in the social media context. Results show positive impact of NUs on PCUGC. Similarly, they show positive relationship between PCUGC and ATUGC

  2. Probiotic Claims for Gastrointestinal Conditions: Stretching the Truth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Larry E

    2014-08-21

    ABSTRACT Probiotics are live micro-organisms that confer a health benefit on the host when administered in adequate dosages and have been extensively studied for treatment of gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. While a growing body of evidence from randomized controlled trials supports the use of probiotics for a variety of GI conditions, the media and internet are saturated with advertisements falsely claiming that specific probiotic strains or strain combinations can improve, or even cure, many GI complaints. These unsubstantiated claims regarding probiotic efficacy are rampant and remain largely unregulated. The probiotic industry is strongly encouraged to close the gap between marketing hype and scientific discovery. Additionally, US regulators are encouraged to improve enforcement efforts in response to misleading probiotic advertising. PMID:25144765

  3. Comparing Measured Fluorocarbon Leader Breaking Strength with Manufacturer Claims

    CERN Document Server

    Haight, Christine; McQueeney, Kathleen; Courtney, Ya'el

    2012-01-01

    The experiment reported in this article addresses manufacturer claims of fluorocarbon leader material strength versus experimental tests of leaders strength. Breaking strength of fishing line is the most common specification when marketing fishing line. In this study, eight leaders rated near 15 pounds by their manufacturers were tested. Each leader was tested with a knot in the line and without a knot in the line. The strongest leader tested without a knot was Cabela's Seaguar fluorocarbon and the weakest leader tested without a knot was Cabela's Premier leader. The highest strength of leaders with a knot was the Ande Monofilament Fluorocarbon and the lowest breaking strength of leaders with a knot was the Seaguar Grand Max Fluorocarbon. Few published studies actually test the breaking strength of a leader to determine the accuracy of manufacturers' claims. Tensile strengths are also reported.

  4. Colorado's Voucher Law:Examining the Claim of Fiscal Neutrality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin G. Welner

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Colorado's voucher law was declared unconstitutional by the Colorado Supreme Court on June 28, 2004. Voucher supporters have begun drafting revised legislation designed to address the legal problem. This article calls into question the key financial claim of revenue neutrality'a claim that was central to the promotion and passage of the departing voucher law. The author concludes that the voucher law was not revenue neutral, even though it attempts to exclude from eligibility those children already enrolled in private schools. In fact, this law, as well as any revised law with similar eligibility provisions, would actually cost taxpayers an additional $10 million per year once fully implemented because the eligibility provision provides little more than a short-term damper on the law's long-term fiscal impact.

  5. Knowledge of breast cancer and its early detection measures among rural women in Akinyele Local Government Area, Ibadan, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladepo Oladimeji

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is the commonest cancer among women in Nigeria and globally. In Nigeria, late presentations of breast cancer cases have also been consistent for three decades. In an environment where there is no established national screening program for breast cancer, it is pertinent to assess the knowledge of breast cancer and its early detection measures. The objective of this study therefore, was to assess rural women's level of knowledge of breast cancer and its early detection measures. Methods The knowledge of various aspects of breast cancer; etiology, early warning signs, treatment modes and early detection measures; was assessed among women in two randomly selected health districts in Akinyele Local Government in Ibadan. The assessment was performed with the use of a self-structured validated questionnaire administered by trained interviewers to 420 women randomly selected from the two health districts. The various aspects of facts about breast cancer were scored and added together to determine respondents' level of knowledge Results The mean score of knowledge of breast cancer was 55.4 SD 5.4 (range of scores obtainable was 26–78, while the mean score for knowledge of early detection of breast cancer was 24.8 SD 2.3 (range of scores obtainable was 12–36. The leading source of information about breast cancer was "elders, neighbors and friends" and 63(15.4% acknowledged this source, while only 18 (4.4% respondents acknowledged health workers as source. Only 54 (13.3% claimed to have heard about breast self- examination (BSE however, and the leading source of information about BSE were health workers. Nine (2.2% of respondents claimed this source. Conclusion This study revealed that respondents lacked knowledge of vital issues about breast cancer and early detection measures. It also revealed that health workers were not forthcoming with information to the public thereby constituting a challenge to community health

  6. MANAGEMENT IN RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danimir Štros

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Croatia has been seeking to achive pre-war results in tourism since its independence. Rural tourism in Croatia based on family farma faces a number of problems legal foundations, the involement of local communities, inadequate entepreneur support etc. The political will for development exists, but there is lack of willingness and the ability to get things started, which results in the closure of family farma who cannot cope with the parallel job of agriculture and tourism. Arriving guests certainly want a new type of tourism: peace, clean environment, cultural intangible and tangible treasures, all without the noise and stress; and Croatia can definitely offer it, either in coastal or inland areas with traditional food and drinks. The destinations connection is not satisfactora. there is also an evident lack of legislation and regional spatial development plans for sustainable tourism which is a prerequisite for successful tourism. With these plans presumptins accepted, Croatian tourism would become distinctive and inland and coastal branches of tourism could complement each other so that the customer can spend his vacation both in the continental ant the maritime part of the country, getting to know our culture and enjoy the traditional cousine.

  7. Crecimiento en escolares rurales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolzán, Andrés Guillermo

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objeto de identificar las curvas de peso y talla y evaluar el efecto del nivel educativo y ocupacional en escolares del distrito rural de General Lavalle (Provincia de Buenos Aires,se llevó a cabo en 1992 un estudio transversal en 366 escolares (80% de la matrícula. Se midieron el peso y la talla, codificando la ocupación y educación institucional de los padres en dos clases: baja y alta. Los datos antropométricos se convirtieron a score z, agrupando -debido al N- las edades. Los resultados mostraron dimorfismo sexual en las curvas de crecimiento, con antelación del empuje puberal femenino hacia los 11 años de edad. Se observó efecto del nivel ocupacional y educativo sólo en el sexo masculino. Se concluyó que el crecimiento sigue un patrón normal, cercano al estándard, y que las diferencias en la talla y el peso debido al efecto ambiental en los varones pueden atribuirse a la menor ecorresistencia masculina.

  8. 48 CFR 6103.302 - Filing claims [Rule 302].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Office of the Clerk of the Board during the Board's working hours. The Board's mailing address is: 1800 F...) 606-0019. The Board's working hours are 8:00 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., Eastern Time, on each day other than a Saturday, Sunday, or federal holiday. (c) Notice of docketing. A claim will be docketed by the Office...

  9. Auditing Litigation and Claims: Conflicts and the Compromise of Privilege

    OpenAIRE

    Harleen Kaur; Sandra van der Laan

    2013-01-01

    Auditing standards require an auditor to make various enquiries about liabilities in general this may entail consideration of potential litigations and claims that the audited entity may be facing. To perform this part of audit, the auditors will generally seek representation letters from lawyers of the company detailing an estimate prepared by management, confirmed by their lawyers through a representation letter, and then sent directly to the auditors. This paper reviews the ...

  10. AUTO CLAIM FRAUD DETECTION USING MULTI CLASSIFIER SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alexandre Rodrigues

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Through a cost matrix and a combination of classifiers, this work identifies the most economical model to perform the detection of suspected cases of fraud in a dataset of automobile claims. The experiments performed by this work show that working more deeply in sampled data in the training phase and test phase of each classifier is possible obtain a more economic model than other model presented in the literature.

  11. Pricing of Claims in Discrete Time with Partial Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rognlien Dahl, Kristina, E-mail: kristrd@math.uio.no [University of Oslo, Department of Mathematics (Norway)

    2013-10-15

    We consider the pricing problem of a seller with delayed price information. By using Lagrange duality, a dual problem is derived, and it is proved that there is no duality gap. This gives a characterization of the seller's price of a contingent claim. Finally, we analyze the dual problem, and compare the prices offered by two sellers with delayed and full information respectively.

  12. Property Claims in GM and Non-GM crops

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    Conceptualising the ongoing conflict over GM versus non-GM crops in the frame of property rights one can see that economic valorisation dynamics and aspirations are working on both sides, within two differently evolving agri-food paradigms, with biotechnology companies propagating intellectual property rights on seeds and crops within a productivist strategy, and with retailer chains, NGOs, farmer associations claiming generic names and labels as public property rights on identity preserved c...

  13. Are the tobacco industry's claims about illicit trade credible?

    OpenAIRE

    van Walbeek, Corne; Shai, Lerato

    2014-01-01

    Background The tobacco industry claims that illicit cigarette trade in South Africa is high and rising. This is often used as an argument not to increase the tobacco excise tax. Objectives To determine how the industry's estimates of the size of the illicit market have changed over time. Methods Published media articles on illicit trade were obtained from South African Press Cuttings, and published and unpublished articles and statements were sourced from the internet. Results 419 relevant ar...

  14. VERIFICATION OF SOCIAL IMPACT THEORY CLAIMS IN SOCIAL MEDIA CONTEXT

    OpenAIRE

    Imran Mir; Arshad Zaheer

    2012-01-01

    Social media explosion changed the way of communication. It affected the ways companies used to interact with their consumers. Most important it changed the way consumers used to think. Present study attempts to verify the claims and assumptions of social impact theory in the social media environment. Based on social impact theory present study examines the impa ct of number of users (NUs) on the perceived credibility of user generated content (PCUGC). Furthermo re, ...

  15. EGALITARIAN RULES IN CLAIMS PROBLEMS WITH INDIVISIBLE GOODS

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Herrero Blanco; Ricardo Martínez

    2004-01-01

    In this work we deal with rationing problems. In particular with claims problems with indivisible goods, that is, problems in which a certain amount of indivisible units (of an homogeneous good), has to be distributed among a group of agents, when this amount is not enough to satisfy agents' demands. We define discrete rules to solve those problems that involve notions of fairness similar to those supporting the constrained-equal awards and the constrained-equal losses rules in the continuous...

  16. Patient reported outcomes: looking beyond the label claim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doward Lynda C

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of patient reported outcome scales in clinical trials conducted by the pharmaceutical industry has become more widespread in recent years. The use of such outcomes is particularly common for products developed to treat chronic, disabling conditions where the intention is not to cure but to ameliorate symptoms, facilitate functioning or, ultimately, to improve quality of life. In such cases, patient reported evidence is increasingly viewed as an essential complement to traditional clinical evidence for establishing a product's competitive advantage in the marketplace. In a commercial setting, the value of patient reported outcomes is viewed largely in terms of their potential for securing a labelling claim in the USA or inclusion in the summary of product characteristics in Europe. Although, the publication of the recent US Food and Drug Administration guidance makes it difficult for companies to make claims in the USA beyond symptom improvements, the value of these outcomes goes beyond satisfying requirements for a label claim. The European regulatory authorities, payers both in the US and Europe, clinicians and patients all play a part in determining both the availability and the pricing of medicinal products and all have an interest in patient-reported data that go beyond just symptoms. The purpose of the current paper is to highlight the potential added value of patient reported outcome data currently collected and held by the industry for these groups.

  17. 76 FR 56504 - Proposed Information Collection (Claim for Disability Insurance Benefits, Government Life...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Claim for Disability Insurance Benefits, Government Life Insurance) Activity: Comment Request. AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration, Department of Veterans... information technology. Title: Claim for Disability Insurance Benefits, Government Life Insurance, VA Form...

  18. 76 FR 16858 - Proposed Information Collection (Supplemental Income Questionnaire (for Philippine Claims Only...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Supplemental Income Questionnaire (for Philippine Claims Only.... Title: Supplemental Income Questionnaire (for Philippine Claims Only), VA Form 21-0784. OMB...

  19. On the Expected Present Value of Total Dividends in a Risk Model with Potentially Delayed Claims

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Jie-hua; Zou Wei

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a risk model in which two types of individual claims, main claims and by-claims, are defined. Every by-claim is induced by the main claim randomly and may be delayed for one time period with a certain probability. The dividend policy that certain amount of dividends will be paid as long as the surplus is greater than a constant dividend barrier is also introduced into this delayed claims risk model. By means of the probability generating functions, formulae for the expected present value of total dividend payments prior to ruin are obtained for discrete-type individual claims. Explicit expressions for the corresponding results are derived for Kn claim amount distributions. Numerical illustrations are also given.

  20. Impact of health-related claims on the perception of other product attributes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Lampila, Piritta; Grunert, Klaus G.;

    2010-01-01

    New EU legislation (EU Regulation 1924/2006) will allow a number of nutrition and health claims in food products. The objective of this research was to study how health claims affect consumers' perception of other product attributes. A survey with a total of 4612 respondents from the Nordic...... of the products, whereas earlier  market presence of the ingredient had a large impact: differences among the Nordic countries reflected the previous exposure to health claims. The findings from this study suggest that consumers do not imply other health benefits from health claims and the health claim per se...... countries explored consumers' perceptions of attractiveness, healthiness, naturalness, tastiness and ability to reduce risk of disease by comparing ratings of products with and without health claims. Used claims varied in their benefit, active ingredient, claim structure and framing. The results showed...